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Multisensory integration in complete unawareness: evidence from audiovisual congruency priming.  


Multisensory integration is thought to require conscious perception. Although previous studies have shown that an invisible stimulus could be integrated with an audible one, none have demonstrated integration of two subliminal stimuli of different modalities. Here, pairs of identical or different audiovisual target letters (the sound /b/ with the written letter "b" or "m," respectively) were preceded by pairs of masked identical or different audiovisual prime digits (the sound /6/ with the written digit "6" or "8," respectively). In three experiments, awareness of the audiovisual digit primes was manipulated, such that participants were either unaware of the visual digit, the auditory digit, or both. Priming of the semantic relations between the auditory and visual digits was found in all experiments. Moreover, a further experiment showed that unconscious multisensory integration was not obtained when participants did not undergo prior conscious training of the task. This suggests that following conscious learning, unconscious processing suffices for multisensory integration. PMID:25269620

Faivre, Nathan; Mudrik, Liad; Schwartz, Naama; Koch, Christof



Musical expertise induces audiovisual integration of abstract congruency rules.  


Perception of everyday life events relies mostly on multisensory integration. Hence, studying the neural correlates of the integration of multiple senses constitutes an important tool in understanding perception within an ecologically valid framework. The present study used magnetoencephalography in human subjects to identify the neural correlates of an audiovisual incongruency response, which is not generated due to incongruency of the unisensory physical characteristics of the stimulation but from the violation of an abstract congruency rule. The chosen rule-"the higher the pitch of the tone, the higher the position of the circle"-was comparable to musical reading. In parallel, plasticity effects due to long-term musical training on this response were investigated by comparing musicians to non-musicians. The applied paradigm was based on an appropriate modification of the multifeatured oddball paradigm incorporating, within one run, deviants based on a multisensory audiovisual incongruent condition and two unisensory mismatch conditions: an auditory and a visual one. Results indicated the presence of an audiovisual incongruency response, generated mainly in frontal regions, an auditory mismatch negativity, and a visual mismatch response. Moreover, results revealed that long-term musical training generates plastic changes in frontal, temporal, and occipital areas that affect this multisensory incongruency response as well as the unisensory auditory and visual mismatch responses. PMID:23238733

Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Kuchenbuch, Anja; Herholz, Sibylle C; Pantev, Christo



Intelligent Semantic Access to Audiovisual Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an integrated information system is presented that offers enhanced search and retrieval capabilities to users of heterogeneous digital audiovisual (a\\/v) archives. This novel system exploits the advances in handling a\\/v content and related metadata, as introduced by MPEG-4 and worked out by MPEG-7, to offer advanced access services characterized by the tri-fold \\

Yannis S. Avrithis; Giorgos B. Stamou; Anastasios Delopoulos; Stefanos D. Kollias




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Congruence Concepts: What exactly is Congruence? (Especially when it refers to triangles?) Congruence Here is some practice with Triangle Congruence. SSS, SAS, ASA Congruent Triangles in Proofs TIPS Triangle Congruence Numerical Practice Review Third Angles Theorem and Properties of Congruent Triangles (Reflexive Property, Symmetric Property, and Transitive Property) Theorems for Congruent Triangles SSS, SAS, AAS, HL Theorems for Congruent Triangles CPCTC means that if two triangles can be shown to be congruent by any method, then ALL ...

Neubert, Mrs.



An ERP study on whether semantic integration exists in processing ecologically unrelated audio–visual information  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether semantic integration occurs for ecologically unrelated audio–visual information. Videos with synchronous audio–visual information were used as stimuli, where the auditory stimuli were sine wave sounds with different sound levels, and the visual stimuli were simple geometric figures with different areas. In the experiment, participants were shown an initial

Baolin Liu; Xianyao Meng; Zhongning Wang; Guangning Wu




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information on a variety of audiovisual materials from government and nongovernment sources. Topics include aerodynamics and conditions of flight, airports, navigation, careers, history, medical factors, weather, films for classroom use, and others. (Author/SA)

Aviation/Space, 1980



An ERP study on whether semantic integration exists in processing ecologically unrelated audio-visual information.  


In the present study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether semantic integration occurs for ecologically unrelated audio-visual information. Videos with synchronous audio-visual information were used as stimuli, where the auditory stimuli were sine wave sounds with different sound levels, and the visual stimuli were simple geometric figures with different areas. In the experiment, participants were shown an initial display containing a single shape (drawn from a set of 6 shapes) with a fixed size (14cm(2)) simultaneously with a 3500Hz tone of a fixed intensity (80dB). Following a short delay, another shape/tone pair was presented and the relationship between the size of the shape and the intensity of the tone varied across trials: in the V+A- condition, a large shape was paired with a soft tone; in the V+A+ condition, a large shape was paired with a loud tone, and so forth. The ERPs results revealed that N400 effect was elicited under the VA- condition (V+A- and V-A+) as compared to the VA+ condition (V+A+ and V-A-). It was shown that semantic integration would occur when simultaneous, ecologically unrelated auditory and visual stimuli enter the human brain. We considered that this semantic integration was based on semantic constraint of audio-visual information, which might come from the long-term learned association stored in the human brain and short-term experience of incoming information. PMID:22005579

Liu, Baolin; Meng, Xianyao; Wang, Zhongning; Wu, Guangning



The Effect of Combined Sensory and Semantic Components on Audio-Visual Speech Perception in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have found that perception in older people benefits from multisensory over unisensory information. As normal speech recognition is affected by both the auditory input and the visual lip movements of the speaker, we investigated the efficiency of audio and visual integration in an older population by manipulating the relative reliability of the auditory and visual information in speech. We also investigated the role of the semantic context of the sentence to assess whether audio–visual integration is affected by top-down semantic processing. We presented participants with audio–visual sentences in which the visual component was either blurred or not blurred. We found that there was a greater cost in recall performance for semantically meaningless speech in the audio–visual ‘blur’ compared to audio–visual ‘no blur’ condition and this effect was specific to the older group. Our findings have implications for understanding how aging affects efficient multisensory integration for the perception of speech and suggests that multisensory inputs may benefit speech perception in older adults when the semantic content of the speech is unpredictable. PMID:22207848

Maguinness, Corrina; Setti, Annalisa; Burke, Kate E.; Kenny, Rose Anne; Newell, Fiona N.



Semantic Facilitation in Category and Action Naming: Testing the Message-Congruency Account  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic-level picture naming is hampered by the presence of a semantically related context word (compared to an unrelated word), whereas picture categorization is facilitated by a semantically related context word. This reversal of the semantic context effect has been explained by assuming that in categorization tasks, basic-level distractor words…

Kuipers, Jan-Rouke; La Heij, Wido



Audiovisual speech integration in autism spectrum disorder: ERP evidence for atypicalities in lexical-semantic processing  

PubMed Central

Lay Abstract Language and communicative impairments are among the primary characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Previous studies have examined auditory language processing in ASD. However, during face-to-face conversation, auditory and visual speech inputs provide complementary information, and little is known about audiovisual (AV) speech processing in ASD. It is possible to elucidate the neural correlates of AV integration by examining the effects of seeing the lip movements accompanying the speech (visual speech) on electrophysiological event-related potentials (ERP) to spoken words. Moreover, electrophysiological techniques have a high temporal resolution and thus enable us to track the time-course of spoken word processing in ASD and typical development (TD). The present study examined the ERP correlates of AV effects in three time windows that are indicative of hierarchical stages of word processing. We studied a group of TD adolescent boys (n=14) and a group of high-functioning boys with ASD (n=14). Significant group differences were found in AV integration of spoken words in the 200–300ms time window when spoken words start to be processed for meaning. These results suggest that the neural facilitation by visual speech of spoken word processing is reduced in individuals with ASD. Scientific Abstract In typically developing (TD) individuals, behavioural and event-related potential (ERP) studies suggest that audiovisual (AV) integration enables faster and more efficient processing of speech. However, little is known about AV speech processing in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study examined ERP responses to spoken words to elucidate the effects of visual speech (the lip movements accompanying a spoken word) on the range of auditory speech processing stages from sound onset detection to semantic integration. The study also included an AV condition which paired spoken words with a dynamic scrambled face in order to highlight AV effects specific to visual speech. Fourteen adolescent boys with ASD (15–17 years old) and 14 age- and verbal IQ-matched TD boys participated. The ERP of the TD group showed a pattern and topography of AV interaction effects consistent with activity within the superior temporal plane, with two dissociable effects over fronto-central and centro-parietal regions. The posterior effect (200–300ms interval) was specifically sensitive to lip movements in TD boys, and no AV modulation was observed in this region for the ASD group. Moreover, the magnitude of the posterior AV effect to visual speech correlated inversely with ASD symptomatology. In addition, the ASD boys showed an unexpected effect (P2 time window) over the frontal-central region (pooled electrodes F3, Fz, F4, FC1, FC2, FC3, FC4) which was sensitive to scrambled face stimuli. These results suggest that the neural networks facilitating processing of spoken words by visual speech are altered in individuals with ASD. PMID:22162387

Megnin, Odette; Flitton, Atlanta; Jones, Catherine; de Haan, Michelle; Baldeweg, Torsten; Charman, Tony



Audio?visual aids  

Microsoft Academic Search

FILMSJUST WHAT IS GENERAL SEMANTICS? NET Film Service, Audio?Visual Center, Indiana University, 1956. go minutes. Sound. Black and white. Sale: $100. Rental: Apply.DO YOU KNOW HOW TO MAKE A STATEMENT OF FACT? NET Film Service, Audio?Visual Center, Indiana University, 1956. 30 minutes. Sound. Black and white. Sale: $100. Rental: Apply.WHY DO PEOPLE MISUNDERSTAND EACH OTHER? NET Film Service, Audio?Visual Center,

Thurston M. Reeves; Kenneth D. Bryson; Thomas R. McManus; Janet G. Smith; Carl A. Dallinger



N1 enhancement in synesthesia during visual and audio–visual perception in semantic cross-modal conflict situations: an ERP study  

PubMed Central

Synesthesia entails a special kind of sensory perception, where stimulation in one sensory modality leads to an internally generated perceptual experience of another, not stimulated sensory modality. This phenomenon can be viewed as an abnormal multisensory integration process as here the synesthetic percept is aberrantly fused with the stimulated modality. Indeed, recent synesthesia research has focused on multimodal processing even outside of the specific synesthesia-inducing context and has revealed changed multimodal integration, thus suggesting perceptual alterations at a global level. Here, we focused on audio–visual processing in synesthesia using a semantic classification task in combination with visually or auditory–visually presented animated and in animated objects in an audio–visual congruent and incongruent manner. Fourteen subjects with auditory-visual and/or grapheme-color synesthesia and 14 control subjects participated in the experiment. During presentation of the stimuli, event-related potentials were recorded from 32 electrodes. The analysis of reaction times and error rates revealed no group differences with best performance for audio-visually congruent stimulation indicating the well-known multimodal facilitation effect. We found enhanced amplitude of the N1 component over occipital electrode sites for synesthetes compared to controls. The differences occurred irrespective of the experimental condition and therefore suggest a global influence on early sensory processing in synesthetes. PMID:24523689

Sinke, Christopher; Neufeld, Janina; Wiswede, Daniel; Emrich, Hinderk M.; Bleich, Stefan; Münte, Thomas F.; Szycik, Gregor R.



Structures and Congruences  

E-print Network

Structures and Congruences Oliver Kullmann Mathematical structures Equivalence relations Subspaces and quotients Isomorphisms theorems Congruences for groups and rings Structures and Congruences Oliver Kullmann Computer Science Department Swansea University MRes Seminar Swansea, November 10, 2008 #12;Structures

Berger, Ulrich


Audiovisual Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists and reviews recent audiovisual materials in areas of medical, dental, nursing and allied health, and veterinary medicine; undergraduate, and high school studies. Each is classified as to level, type of instruction, usefulness, and source of availability. Topics include respiration, renal physiology, muscle mechanics, anatomy, evolution,…

Physiology Teacher, 1976



Existentially Definable Factor Congruences  

E-print Network

A variety V has definable factor congruences if and only if factor congruences can be defined by a first-order formula Phi having central elements as parameters. We prove that if Phi can be chosen to be existential, factor congruences in every algebra of V are compact.

Terraf, Pedro Sánchez



Cortical regions underlying successful encoding of semantically congruent and incongruent associations between common auditory and visual objects.  


Recent studies implicate regions in the frontal, temporal and occipital cortices of the brain in audio-visual (AV) integration of familiar objects. It remains unclear, however, which brain regions contribute to the creation of object-related AV memories, and whether activation of these regions is affected by crossmodal congruency. Here we used event-related functional MRI in a subsequent memory paradigm to investigate the neural substrates of successful encoding of semantically congruent and incongruent AV memories. Creation of both types of memories activated a region in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). In addition, successful encoding of semantically related and unrelated AV pairs was correlated with increased activity in regions within the right lateral occipital cortex and bilateral lateral temporal cortex, respectively. These results may highlight a common role of IFG in retrieval of semantic information during encoding and suggest that the occipital and temporal cortices differentially process perceptual versus conceptual associations of AV memories. PMID:22024505

Naghavi, Hamid Reza; Eriksson, Johan; Larsson, Anne; Nyberg, Lars



Audiovisual Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information about the objects and events in the external world is received via multiple sense organs, especially via eyes and ears. For example, a singing bird can be heard and seen. Typically, audiovisual objects are detected, localized and identified more rapidly and accurately than objects which are perceived via only one sensory system (see, e.g. Welch and Warren, 1986; Stein and Meredith, 1993; de Gelder and Bertelson, 2003; Calvert et al., 2004). The ability of the central nervous system to utilize sensory inputs mediated by different sense organs is called multisensory processing.

Möttönen, Riikka; Sams, Mikko


Electrophysiological evidence for speech-specific audiovisual integration.  


Lip-read speech is integrated with heard speech at various neural levels. Here, we investigated the extent to which lip-read induced modulations of the auditory N1 and P2 (measured with EEG) are indicative of speech-specific audiovisual integration, and we explored to what extent the ERPs were modulated by phonetic audiovisual congruency. In order to disentangle speech-specific (phonetic) integration from non-speech integration, we used Sine-Wave Speech (SWS) that was perceived as speech by half of the participants (they were in speech-mode), while the other half was in non-speech mode. Results showed that the N1 obtained with audiovisual stimuli peaked earlier than the N1 evoked by auditory-only stimuli. This lip-read induced speeding up of the N1 occurred for listeners in speech and non-speech mode. In contrast, if listeners were in speech-mode, lip-read speech also modulated the auditory P2, but not if listeners were in non-speech mode, thus revealing speech-specific audiovisual binding. Comparing ERPs for phonetically congruent audiovisual stimuli with ERPs for incongruent stimuli revealed an effect of phonetic stimulus congruency that started at ~200 ms after (in)congruence became apparent. Critically, akin to the P2 suppression, congruency effects were only observed if listeners were in speech mode, and not if they were in non-speech mode. Using identical stimuli, we thus confirm that audiovisual binding involves (partially) different neural mechanisms for sound processing in speech and non-speech mode. PMID:24291340

Baart, Martijn; Stekelenburg, Jeroen J; Vroomen, Jean



Similarity and Congruence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional unit is an introduction to the common properties of similarity and congruence. Manipulation of objects leads to a recognition of these properties. The ASA, SAS, and SSS theorems are not mentioned. Limited use is made in the application of the properties of size and shape preserved by similarity or congruence. A teacher's guide…

Herman, Daniel L.


A Mid-Level Scene Change Representation Via Audiovisual Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scene is a series of semantic correlated video shots. An effective scene detection depends on domain knowledge more or less. Most existing approaches try to directly detect various scene changes by applying clustering or supervised learning methods to low level audiovisual features. However, robustly detecting diverse scene changes derived from complex semantic meanings is still a challenging problem. In this

Jinqiao Wang; Lingyu Duan; Hanging Lu; Jesse S. Jin; Changsheng Xu



Nonstationary Kerr Congruences  

E-print Network

The Kerr solution is defined by a null congruence which is geodesic and shear free and has a singular line contained in a bounded region of space. A generalization of the Kerr congruence for nonstationary case is obtained. We find a nonstationary shear free geodesic null congruence which is generated by a given analytical complex world line. Solutions of the Einstein equations are analyzed. It is shown that there exists complex radiative solution which is generalization of the Kerr solution and the Kinnersley accelerating solution for "photon rocket".

A. Burinskii; R. P. Kerr



The level of audiovisual print-speech integration deficits in dyslexia.  


The classical phonological deficit account of dyslexia is increasingly linked to impairments in grapho-phonological conversion, and to dysfunctions in superior temporal regions associated with audiovisual integration. The present study investigates mechanisms of audiovisual integration in typical and impaired readers at the critical developmental stage of adolescence. Congruent and incongruent audiovisual as well as unimodal (visual only and auditory only) material was presented. Audiovisual presentations were single letters and three-letter (consonant-vowel-consonant) stimuli accompanied by matching or mismatching speech sounds. Three-letter stimuli exhibited fast phonetic transitions as in real-life language processing and reading. Congruency effects, i.e. different brain responses to congruent and incongruent stimuli were taken as an indicator of audiovisual integration at a phonetic level (grapho-phonological conversion). Comparisons of unimodal and audiovisual stimuli revealed basic, more sensory aspects of audiovisual integration. By means of these two criteria of audiovisual integration, the generalizability of audiovisual deficits in dyslexia was tested. Moreover, it was expected that the more naturalistic three-letter stimuli are superior to single letters in revealing group differences. Electrophysiological and hemodynamic (EEG and fMRI) data were acquired simultaneously in a simple target detection task. Applying the same statistical models to event-related EEG potentials and fMRI responses allowed comparing the effects detected by the two techniques at a descriptive level. Group differences in congruency effects (congruent against incongruent) were observed in regions involved in grapho-phonological processing, including the left inferior frontal and angular gyri and the inferotemporal cortex. Importantly, such differences also emerged in superior temporal key regions. Three-letter stimuli revealed stronger group differences than single letters. No significant differences in basic measures of audiovisual integration emerged. Convergence of hemodynamic and electrophysiological signals appeared to be limited and mainly occurred for highly significant and large effects in visual cortices. The findings suggest efficient superior temporal tuning to audiovisual congruency in controls. In impaired readers, however, grapho-phonological conversion is effortful and inefficient, although basic audiovisual mechanisms seem intact. This unprecedented demonstration of audiovisual deficits in adolescent dyslexics provides critical evidence that the phonological deficit might be explained by impaired audiovisual integration at a phonetic level, especially for naturalistic and word-like stimulation. PMID:25084224

Kronschnabel, Jens; Brem, Silvia; Maurer, Urs; Brandeis, Daniel




E-print Network

RICE UNIVERSITY CONGRUENCY EFFECTS WITH DYNAMIC AUDITORY STIMULI by BRUCE N. WALKER A THESIS of Psychology ____________________________________ David M. Lane, Associate Professor Department of Psychology


Orthogonal Procrustes Rotation Maximizing Congruence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Procedures for assessing the invariance of factors across data sets often use the least squares criterion, which appears to be too restrictive. Tucker's coefficient of congruence is proposed as an alternative. A method that maximizes the sum of the coefficients of congruence between two matrices of loadings is presented. (Author/JKS)

Brokken, Frank B.



Vague congruences and quotient lattice implication algebras.  


The aim of this paper is to further develop the congruence theory on lattice implication algebras. Firstly, we introduce the notions of vague similarity relations based on vague relations and vague congruence relations. Secondly, the equivalent characterizations of vague congruence relations are investigated. Thirdly, the relation between the set of vague filters and the set of vague congruences is studied. Finally, we construct a new lattice implication algebra induced by a vague congruence, and the homomorphism theorem is given. PMID:25133207

Qin, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yi; Xu, Yang



Vague Congruences and Quotient Lattice Implication Algebras  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper is to further develop the congruence theory on lattice implication algebras. Firstly, we introduce the notions of vague similarity relations based on vague relations and vague congruence relations. Secondly, the equivalent characterizations of vague congruence relations are investigated. Thirdly, the relation between the set of vague filters and the set of vague congruences is studied. Finally, we construct a new lattice implication algebra induced by a vague congruence, and the homomorphism theorem is given. PMID:25133207

Qin, Xiaoyan; Xu, Yang




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal-spiritual disconnections of pathological gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT's theoretical…

Lee, Bonnie K.



A Longitudinal Examination of Congruence Hypotheses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After 4-6 months of employment in either "enterprising" or "social" bank branches, 95 bank tellers completed Holland's Self-Directed Search and a satisfaction inventory. Findings supported a positive correlation between congruence and job satisfaction and between congruence and supervisors' evaluations but only when congruence was defined by type…

Meir, Elchanan I.; Navon, Meir



Audiovisual Materials for Teaching Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Audiovisual Materials Evaluation Committee prepared this report to guide elementary and secondary teachers in their selection of supplementary economic education audiovisual materials. It updates a 1969 publication by adding 107 items to the original guide. Materials included in this report: (1) contain elements of economic analysis--facts,…

Kronish, Sidney J.


Attentional Factors in Conceptual Congruency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conceptual congruency effects are biases induced by an irrelevant conceptual dimension of a task (e.g., location in vertical space) on the processing of another, relevant dimension (e.g., judging words' emotional evaluation). Such effects are a central empirical pillar for recent views about how the mind/brain represents concepts. In the present…

Santiago, Julio; Ouellet, Marc; Roman, Antonio; Valenzuela, Javier



An Architecture for Mining Resources Complementary to Audio-Visual Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we attempt to characterize resources of information com- plementary to audio-visual (A\\/V) streams and propose their usage for enriching A\\/V data with semantic concepts in order to bridge the gap between low-level video detectors and high-level analysis. Our aim is to extract cross-media fea- ture descriptors from semantically enriched and aligned resources so as to detect finer-grained

Jan Nemrava; Paul Buitelaar; Thierry Declerck; Vojtech Svátek; Josef Petrak; Andreas Cobet; Herwig Zeiner; David A. Sadlier; Noel E. O'connor; Nikos Simou; Vassilis Tzouvaras



Unconscious semantic activation depends on feature-specific attention allocation.  


We examined whether semantic activation by subliminally presented stimuli is dependent upon the extent to which participants assign attention to specific semantic stimulus features and stimulus dimensions. Participants pronounced visible target words that were preceded by briefly presented, masked prime words. Both affective and non-affective semantic congruence of the prime-target pairs were manipulated under conditions that either promoted selective attention for affective stimulus information or selective attention for non-affective semantic stimulus information. In line with our predictions, results showed that affective congruence had a clear impact on word pronunciation latencies only if participants were encouraged to assign attention to the affective stimulus dimension. In contrast, non-affective semantic relatedness of the prime-target pairs produced no priming at all. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that unconscious activation of (affective) semantic information is modulated by feature-specific attention allocation. PMID:21956000

Spruyt, Adriaan; De Houwer, Jan; Everaert, Tom; Hermans, Dirk




E-print Network

structuring consists in extracting semantic events--e.g., actions in sport videos, violent scenes in movies, like points, games or sets in tennis videos; ii) detection of specific events related to the videoUNSUPERVISED MINING OF MULTIPLE AUDIOVISUALLY CONSISTENT CLUSTERS FOR VIDEO STRUCTURE ANALYSIS Anh

Boyer, Edmond


Audio-visual speech perception: a developmental ERP investigation  

PubMed Central

Being able to see a talking face confers a considerable advantage for speech perception in adulthood. However, behavioural data currently suggest that children fail to make full use of these available visual speech cues until age 8 or 9. This is particularly surprising given the potential utility of multiple informational cues during language learning. We therefore explored this at the neural level. The event-related potential (ERP) technique has been used to assess the mechanisms of audio-visual speech perception in adults, with visual cues reliably modulating auditory ERP responses to speech. Previous work has shown congruence-dependent shortening of auditory N1/P2 latency and congruence-independent attenuation of amplitude in the presence of auditory and visual speech signals, compared to auditory alone. The aim of this study was to chart the development of these well-established modulatory effects over mid-to-late childhood. Experiment 1 employed an adult sample to validate a child-friendly stimulus set and paradigm by replicating previously observed effects of N1/P2 amplitude and latency modulation by visual speech cues; it also revealed greater attenuation of component amplitude given incongruent audio-visual stimuli, pointing to a new interpretation of the amplitude modulation effect. Experiment 2 used the same paradigm to map cross-sectional developmental change in these ERP responses between 6 and 11 years of age. The effect of amplitude modulation by visual cues emerged over development, while the effect of latency modulation was stable over the child sample. These data suggest that auditory ERP modulation by visual speech represents separable underlying cognitive processes, some of which show earlier maturation than others over the course of development. PMID:24176002

Knowland, Victoria CP; Mercure, Evelyne; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dick, Fred; Thomas, Michael SC



Audio-visual speech perception: a developmental ERP investigation.  


Being able to see a talking face confers a considerable advantage for speech perception in adulthood. However, behavioural data currently suggest that children fail to make full use of these available visual speech cues until age 8 or 9. This is particularly surprising given the potential utility of multiple informational cues during language learning. We therefore explored this at the neural level. The event-related potential (ERP) technique has been used to assess the mechanisms of audio-visual speech perception in adults, with visual cues reliably modulating auditory ERP responses to speech. Previous work has shown congruence-dependent shortening of auditory N1/P2 latency and congruence-independent attenuation of amplitude in the presence of auditory and visual speech signals, compared to auditory alone. The aim of this study was to chart the development of these well-established modulatory effects over mid-to-late childhood. Experiment 1 employed an adult sample to validate a child-friendly stimulus set and paradigm by replicating previously observed effects of N1/P2 amplitude and latency modulation by visual speech cues; it also revealed greater attenuation of component amplitude given incongruent audio-visual stimuli, pointing to a new interpretation of the amplitude modulation effect. Experiment 2 used the same paradigm to map cross-sectional developmental change in these ERP responses between 6 and 11 years of age. The effect of amplitude modulation by visual cues emerged over development, while the effect of latency modulation was stable over the child sample. These data suggest that auditory ERP modulation by visual speech represents separable underlying cognitive processes, some of which show earlier maturation than others over the course of development. PMID:24176002

Knowland, Victoria C P; Mercure, Evelyne; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dick, Fred; Thomas, Michael S C



Interactive semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research pursues machine intelligence through better representation of semantics. What is semantics? People in different areas view semantics from different facets although it accompanies interaction through civilization. Some researchers believe that humans have some innate structure in mind for processing semantics. Then, what the structure is like? Some argue that humans evolve a structure for processing semantics through constant

Hai Zhuge



Development of a Congruence Scale Based on the Satir Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Congruence Scale derives from the construct of congruence, the goal of therapeutic change in the Satir model. Congruence is conceptualized as a state of awareness, openness, and connection in three human dimensions: the Intrapsychic, Interpersonal, and Universal-Spiritual. Procedures in developing the Congruence Scale are described. Results provide evidence of concurrent validity with the Satisfaction With Life Scale and the

Bonnie K. Lee



The neural substrates of musical memory revealed by fMRI and two semantic tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognizing a musical excerpt without necessarily retrieving its title typically reflects the existence of a memory system dedicated to the retrieval of musical knowledge. The functional distinction between musical and verbal semantic memory has seldom been investigated. In this fMRI study, we directly compared the musical and verbal memory of 20 nonmusicians, using a congruence task involving automatic semantic retrieval

M. Groussard; G. Rauchs; B. Landeau; F. Viader; B. Desgranges; F. Eustache; H. Platel



Congruence Approximations for Entrophy Endowed Hyperbolic Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Building upon the standard symmetrization theory for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, congruence properties of the symmetrized system are explored. These congruence properties suggest variants of several stabilized numerical discretization procedures for hyperbolic equations (upwind finite-volume, Galerkin least-squares, discontinuous Galerkin) that benefit computationally from congruence approximation. Specifically, it becomes straightforward to construct the spatial discretization and Jacobian linearization for these schemes (given a small amount of derivative information) for possible use in Newton's method, discrete optimization, homotopy algorithms, etc. Some examples will be given for the compressible Euler equations and the nonrelativistic MHD equations using linear and quadratic spatial approximation.

Barth, Timothy J.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)



A Computer Generated Audiovisuals Catalog.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eccles Medical Sciences Library at the University of Utah has developed a computer-generated catalog for its audiovisual health and medical materials. The catalog contains four sections: (1) the main listing of type of media, with descriptions, call numbers, and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) used for each item; (2) a listing by title, with call…

Bogen, Betty


Audio-Visual Materials Catalog.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This catalog lists 27 audiovisual programs produced by the Department of Medical Communications of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute for public distribution. Video tapes, 16 mm. motion pictures and slide/audio series are presented dealing mostly with cancer and related subjects. The programs are intended for…

Anderson (M.D.) Hospital and Tumor Inst., Houston, TX.


Criminal Justice Audiovisual Materials Directory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This source directory of audiovisual materials for the education, training, and orientation of those in the criminal justice field is divided into five parts covering the courts, police techniques and training, prevention, prisons and rehabilitation/correction, and public education. Each entry includes a brief description of the product, the time…

Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.


Criminal Justice Audiovisual Materials Directory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the third edition of a source directory of audiovisual materials for the education, training, and orientation of those in the criminal justice field. It is divided into five parts covering the courts, police techniques and training, prevention, prisons and rehabilitation/correction, and public education. Each entry includes a brief…

Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.


Preventive Maintenance Handbook. Audiovisual Equipment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The preventive maintenance system for audiovisual equipment presented in this handbook is designed by specialists so that it can be used by nonspecialists in school sites. The report offers specific advice on saftey factors and also lists major problems that should not be handled by nonspecialists. Other aspects of a preventive maintenance system…

Educational Products Information Exchange Inst., Stony Brook, NY.


Current Developments in Audiovisual Cataloging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper highlights significant advances in audiovisual cataloging theory and practice: development of "Anglo-American Cataloging Rules" (second edition); revision of the MARC Films Format; and project to provide cataloging-in-publication for microcomputer software. Evolution of rules and practices as an outgrowth of needs of the community is…

Graham, Paul



Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems\\u000a model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal–spiritual disconnections of pathological\\u000a gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT’s theoretical foundations, main constructs, and\\u000a treatment interventions are illustrated in a progression of six clinical phases. Promise of CCT’s systemic conceptualization\\u000a and interventions

Bonnie K. Lee



Suggestion overrides automatic audiovisual integration.  


Cognitive scientists routinely distinguish between controlled and automatic mental processes. Through learning, practice, and exposure, controlled processes can become automatic; however, whether automatic processes can become deautomatized - recuperated under the purview of control - remains unclear. Here we show that a suggestion derails a deeply ingrained process involving involuntary audiovisual integration. We compared the performance of highly versus less hypnotically suggestible individuals (HSIs versus LSIs) in a classic McGurk paradigm - a perceptual illusion task demonstrating the influence of visual facial movements on auditory speech percepts. Following a posthypnotic suggestion to prioritize auditory input, HSIs but not LSIs manifested fewer illusory auditory perceptions and correctly identified more auditory percepts. Our findings demonstrate that a suggestion deautomatized a ballistic audiovisual process in HSIs. In addition to guiding our knowledge regarding theories and mechanisms of automaticity, the present findings pave the road to a more scientific understanding of top-down effects and multisensory integration. PMID:24398260

Déry, Catherine; Campbell, Natasha K J; Lifshitz, Michael; Raz, Amir



Audiovisual speech facilitates voice learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, we investigated the effects of voice and face information on the perceptual learning of talkers and on long-term\\u000a memory for spoken words. In the first phase, listeners were trained over several days to identify voices from words presented\\u000a auditorily or audiovisually. The training data showed that visual information about speakers enhanced voice learning, revealing\\u000a cross-modal connections in

Sonya M. Sheffert; Elizabeth Olson



Bilingualism affects audiovisual phoneme identification  

PubMed Central

We all go through a process of perceptual narrowing for phoneme identification. As we become experts in the languages we hear in our environment we lose the ability to identify phonemes that do not exist in our native phonological inventory. This research examined how linguistic experience—i.e., the exposure to a double phonological code during childhood—affects the visual processes involved in non-native phoneme identification in audiovisual speech perception. We conducted a phoneme identification experiment with bilingual and monolingual adult participants. It was an ABX task involving a Bengali dental-retroflex contrast that does not exist in any of the participants' languages. The phonemes were presented in audiovisual (AV) and audio-only (A) conditions. The results revealed that in the audio-only condition monolinguals and bilinguals had difficulties in discriminating the retroflex non-native phoneme. They were phonologically “deaf” and assimilated it to the dental phoneme that exists in their native languages. In the audiovisual presentation instead, both groups could overcome the phonological deafness for the retroflex non-native phoneme and identify both Bengali phonemes. However, monolinguals were more accurate and responded quicker than bilinguals. This suggests that bilinguals do not use the same processes as monolinguals to decode visual speech. PMID:25374551

Burfin, Sabine; Pascalis, Olivier; Ruiz Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Savariaux, Christophe; Kandel, Sonia




E-print Network

CONGRUENCES VIA MODULAR FORMS ROBERT OSBURN AND BRUNDABAN SAHU Abstract. We prove two congruences AND BRUNDABAN SAHU The first few terms in the sequence {fn}n0 are 1, 2, 6, 26, 142, 876, 5790, 40020, 285582

Osburn, Robert


Audio-visual event detection based on mining of semantic audio-visual labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removing commercials from television programs is a much sought-after feature for a personal video recorder. In this paper, we employ an unsupervised clustering scheme (CM Detect) to detect commercials in television programs. Each program is first divided into Ws-minute chunks, and we extract audio and visual features from each of these chunks. Next, we apply k-means clustering to assign each

King-Shy Goh; Koji Miyahara; Regunathan Radhakrishnan; Ziyou Xiong; Ajay Divakaran



Audio-visual event detection based on mining of semantic audio-visual labels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Removing commercials from television programs is a much sought-after feature for a personal video recorder. In this paper, we employ an unsupervised clustering scheme (CM_Detect) to detect commercials in television programs. Each program is first divided into W8-minute chunks, and we extract audio and visual features from each of these chunks. Next, we apply k-means clustering to assign each chunk with a commercial/program label. In contrast to other methods, we do not make any assumptions regarding the program content. Thus, our method is highly content-adaptive and computationally inexpensive. Through empirical studies on various content, including American news, Japanese news, and sports programs, we demonstrate that our method is able to filter out most of the commercials without falsely removing the regular program.

Goh, King-Shy; Miyahara, Koji; Radhakrishnan, Regunathan; Xiong, Ziyou; Divakaran, Ajay



Audiovisual Instruction: Exceptional Child Bibliography Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Listed in the annotated bibliography, one in a series of over 50 similar bibliographies on exceptional children (both handicapped and gifted), are 98 references on audiovisual instruction, particularly as it relates to the instruction of handicapped and gifted children. Many of the references on audiovisual instruction deal with aurally…

Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.


A Guide for Audiovisual and Newer Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the principal values of audiovisual materials is that they permit the teacher to depart from verbal and printed symbolism, and at the same time to provide a wider real or vicarious experience for pupils. This booklet is designed to aid the teacher in using audiovisual material effectively. It covers visual displays, non-projected materials,…

Carr, William D.


Data congruence, paedomorphosis and salamanders  

PubMed Central

Background The retention of ancestral juvenile characters by adult stages of descendants is called paedomorphosis. However, this process can mislead phylogenetic analyses based on morphological data, even in combination with molecular data, because the assessment if a character is primary absent or secondary lost is difficult. Thus, the detection of incongruence between morphological and molecular data is necessary to investigate the reliability of simultaneous analyses. Different methods have been proposed to detect data congruence or incongruence. Five of them (PABA, PBS, NDI, LILD, DRI) are used herein to assess incongruence between morphological and molecular data in a case study addressing salamander phylogeny, which comprises several supposedly paedomorphic taxa. Therefore, previously published data sets were compiled herein. Furthermore, two strategies ameliorating effects of paedomorphosis on phylogenetic studies were tested herein using a statistical rigor. Additionally, efficiency of the different methods to assess incongruence was analyzed using this empirical data set. Finally, a test statistic is presented for all these methods except DRI. Results The addition of morphological data to molecular data results in both different positions of three of the four paedomorphic taxa and strong incongruence, but treating the morphological data using different strategies ameliorating the negative impact of paedomorphosis revokes these changes and minimizes the conflict. Of these strategies the strategy to just exclude paedomorphic character traits seem to be most beneficial. Of the three molecular partitions analyzed herein the RAG1 partition seems to be the most suitable to resolve deep salamander phylogeny. The rRNA and mtDNA partition are either too conserved or too variable, respectively. Of the different methods to detect incongruence, the NDI and PABA approaches are more conservative in the indication of incongruence than LILD and PBS. Conclusion Paedomorphosis induces strong conflicts and can mislead the phylogenetic analyses even in combined analyses. However, different strategies are efficiently minimizing these problems. Though the exploration of different methods to detect incongruence is preferable NDI and PABA are more conservative than the others and NDI is computational less extensive than PABA. PMID:17974010

Struck, Torsten H



Body Build Satisfaction and the Congruency of Body Build Perceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Females were administered the somatotype rating scale. Satisfied subjects showed greater congruency between their own and wished-for body build, and greater congruency between their own and friend/date body builds, but less congruency between their own body build and the female stereotype. (Author/BEF)

Hankins, Norman E.; Bailey, Roger C.



Semantic Relevance and Semantic Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic features are of different importance in concept representation. The concept elephant may be more easily identified from the feature than from the feature . We propose a new model of semantic memory to measure the relevance of semantic features for a concept and use this model to investigate the controversial issue of category specificity. Category-specific patients have an impairment

Giuseppe Sartori; Luigi Lombardi



Audio-visual gender recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combining different modalities for pattern recognition task is a very promising field. Basically, human always fuse information from different modalities to recognize object and perform inference, etc. Audio-Visual gender recognition is one of the most common task in human social communication. Human can identify the gender by facial appearance, by speech and also by body gait. Indeed, human gender recognition is a multi-modal data acquisition and processing procedure. However, computational multimodal gender recognition has not been extensively investigated in the literature. In this paper, speech and facial image are fused to perform a mutli-modal gender recognition for exploring the improvement of combining different modalities.

Liu, Ming; Xu, Xun; Huang, Thomas S.



[Audiovisuals and development: a bibliography].  


The authors present a bibliography on audiovisuals and development. The works listed are divided into 4 main topics: 1) The role of communication in development: This section includes works on development policies, research methods and reflections on communication and the use of medias in the Third World. 2) Use of the medias in education: radio, television (in and outside the school), satellites, video and cinema. 3) Towards a new international dimension of communication: listed here are works from UNESCO on communication policies; studies and information documents; means of information; UNESCO mail; international commission for the study of communication problems; other UNESCO publications; and works on UNESCO. 4) Colloquia, conferences and reviews: several reviews published in English or French are listed in this last section. PMID:12261394

Mignot-lefebvre, Y; Benveniste, A; Jouet, J



Speech Cues Contribute to Audiovisual Spatial Integration  

PubMed Central

Speech is the most important form of human communication but ambient sounds and competing talkers often degrade its acoustics. Fortunately the brain can use visual information, especially its highly precise spatial information, to improve speech comprehension in noisy environments. Previous studies have demonstrated that audiovisual integration depends strongly on spatiotemporal factors. However, some integrative phenomena such as McGurk interference persist even with gross spatial disparities, suggesting that spatial alignment is not necessary for robust integration of audiovisual place-of-articulation cues. It is therefore unclear how speech-cues interact with audiovisual spatial integration mechanisms. Here, we combine two well established psychophysical phenomena, the McGurk effect and the ventriloquist's illusion, to explore this dependency. Our results demonstrate that conflicting spatial cues may not interfere with audiovisual integration of speech, but conflicting speech-cues can impede integration in space. This suggests a direct but asymmetrical influence between ventral ‘what’ and dorsal ‘where’ pathways. PMID:21909378

Bishop, Christopher W.; Miller, Lee M.



Emotionally charged earcons reveal affective congruency effects.  


In the present study, the affective impact of earcons on stimulus classification is investigated. We show, using a picture-categorization task, that the affective connotation of earcons in major and minor mode (representing positive and negative valence, respectively) can be congruent or incongruent with response valence. Twenty participants classified pictures of animals and instruments in 256 trials, using positive and negative Yes or No responses. Together with the pictures, either a chord in major mode or minor mode was played. The affective valence of the chords either did or did not match the valence of responses. Response-time latencies show congruency effects of the matching and non matching sound and response valences, indicating that it is important to carefully investigate human-computer interfaces for potential affective congruency effects, as these can either facilitate or inhibit user performance. PMID:18033613

Lemmens, P M C; De Haan, A; Van Galen, G P; Meulenbroek, R G J



Audio-visual integration in multimodal communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review recent research that examines audio-visual integration in multimodal communication. The topics include bimodality in human speech, human and automated lip reading, facial animation, lip synchronization, joint audio-video coding, and bimodal speaker verification. We also study the enabling technologies for these research topics, including automatic facial-feature tracking and audio-to-visual mapping. Recent progress in audio-visual research shows that joint processing

Tsuhan Chen; Ram R. Rao



Gender affects semantic competition: the effect of gender in a non-gender-marking language.  


English speakers tend to produce fewer pronouns when a referential competitor has the same gender as the referent than otherwise. Traditionally, this gender congruence effect has been explained in terms of ambiguity avoidance (e.g., Arnold, Eisenband, Brown-Schmidt, & Trueswell, 2000; Fukumura, Van Gompel, & Pickering, 2010). However, an alternative hypothesis is that the competitor's gender congruence affects semantic competition, making the referent less accessible relative to when the competitor has a different gender (Arnold & Griffin, 2007). Experiment 1 found that even in Finnish, which is a nongendered language, the competitor's gender congruence results in fewer pronouns, supporting the semantic competition account. In Experiment 2, Finnish native speakers took part in an English version of the same experiment. The effect of gender congruence was larger in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1, suggesting that the presence of a same-gender competitor resulted in a larger reduction in pronoun use in English than in Finnish. In contrast, other nonlinguistic similarity had similar effects in both experiments. This indicates that the effect of gender congruence in English is not entirely driven by semantic competition: Speakers also avoid gender-ambiguous pronouns. PMID:23356244

Fukumura, Kumiko; Hyönä, Jukka; Scholfield, Merete



Emotional congruence in sexual offenders against children.  


The tendency of some sexual offenders against children to display an exaggerated cognitive and emotional affiliation with childhood has been labeled "emotional congruence" by Finkelhor (1984) and as overidentification with childhood by others. This study consisted of an evaluation of emotional congruence in 194 men--homosexual and heterosexual pedophiles (N's = 41 and 31), heterosexual nonpedophilic incest offenders (N = 62), sexual offenders against women (N = 27), and nonsexual offender criminals (N = 33). A revised version of the Child Identification Scale (CIS-R) was used in combination with a semistructured interview (SSI) also intended to measure the construct. Maximum-likelihood factor analysis of the CIS-R generated eight factors. All subjects, particularly the nonsexual offenders, scored high on a factor indicating a wish to restart their lives. With respect to emotional congruence, results showed that only the homosexual pedophiles' scores indicated a preference for interacting with children on the child's level, while the incest offenders seemed to prefer to elevate their victims to adult status rather than fixating on the child role themselves. The group of heterosexual pedophiles, however, seemed to be motivated more by sexual gratification than by an emotional or relationship interest in their victims or children. PMID:10214392

Wilson, R J



An ALE meta-analysis on the audiovisual integration of speech signals.  


The brain improves speech processing through the integration of audiovisual (AV) signals. Situations involving AV speech integration may be crudely dichotomized into those where auditory and visual inputs contain (1) equivalent, complementary signals (validating AV speech) or (2) inconsistent, different signals (conflicting AV speech). This simple framework may allow the systematic examination of broad commonalities and differences between AV neural processes engaged by various experimental paradigms frequently used to study AV speech integration. We conducted an activation likelihood estimation metaanalysis of 22 functional imaging studies comprising 33 experiments, 311 subjects, and 347 foci examining "conflicting" versus "validating" AV speech. Experimental paradigms included content congruency, timing synchrony, and perceptual measures, such as the McGurk effect or synchrony judgments, across AV speech stimulus types (sublexical to sentence). Colocalization of conflicting AV speech experiments revealed consistency across at least two contrast types (e.g., synchrony and congruency) in a network of dorsal stream regions in the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. There was consistency across all contrast types (synchrony, congruency, and percept) in the bilateral posterior superior/middle temporal cortex. Although fewer studies were available, validating AV speech experiments were localized to other regions, such as ventral stream visual areas in the occipital and inferior temporal cortex. These results suggest that while equivalent, complementary AV speech signals may evoke activity in regions related to the corroboration of sensory input, conflicting AV speech signals recruit widespread dorsal stream areas likely involved in the resolution of conflicting sensory signals. Hum Brain Mapp 35:5587-5605, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24996043

Erickson, Laura C; Heeg, Elizabeth; Rauschecker, Josef P; Turkeltaub, Peter E



Effect of Perceptual Load on Semantic Access by Speech in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine whether semantic access by speech requires attention in children. Method: Children ("N" = 200) named pictures and ignored distractors on a cross-modal (distractors: auditory-no face) or multimodal (distractors: auditory-static face and audiovisual- dynamic face) picture word task. The cross-modal task had a low load,…

Jerger, Susan; Damian, Markus F.; Mills, Candice; Bartlett, James; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Abdi, Herve



Live, Audio-Visual Communication Systems for Distance Learning  

E-print Network

of the experience of managers, tutors and learners who have used live, audio-visual communication systemsLive, Audio-Visual Communication Systems for Distance Learning: Experience, Heuristics and ISDN, WC1H 0AP, U.K. tel: (44) (0)71 387 7050 ext. 5315 fax: (44) (0)71 580 1100 #12;Submission Live, Audio-Visual

Finkelstein, Anthony


MPEG-7 audio-visual indexing test-bed for video retrieval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the development status of a Multimedia Asset Management (MAM) test-bed for content-based indexing and retrieval of audio-visual documents within the MPEG-7 standard. The project, called "MPEG-7 Audio-Visual Document Indexing System" (MADIS), specifically targets the indexing and retrieval of video shots and key frames from documentary film archives, based on audio-visual content like face recognition, motion activity, speech recognition and semantic clustering. The MPEG-7/XML encoding of the film database is done off-line. The description decomposition is based on a temporal decomposition into visual segments (shots), key frames and audio/speech sub-segments. The visible outcome will be a web site that allows video retrieval using a proprietary XQuery-based search engine and accessible to members at the Canadian National Film Board (NFB) Cineroute site. For example, end-user will be able to ask to point on movie shots in the database that have been produced in a specific year, that contain the face of a specific actor who tells a specific word and in which there is no motion activity. Video streaming is performed over the high bandwidth CA*net network deployed by CANARIE, a public Canadian Internet development organization.

Gagnon, Langis; Foucher, Samuel; Gouaillier, Valerie; Brun, Christelle; Brousseau, Julie; Boulianne, Gilles; Osterrath, Frederic; Chapdelaine, Claude; Dutrisac, Julie; St-Onge, Francis; Champagne, Benoit; Lu, Xiaojian



Critical algebras and the Frattini congruence, II Keith A. Kearnes  

E-print Network

Critical algebras and the Frattini congruence, II Keith A. Kearnes Abstract We prove that any is critical. We also show that if A and B are critical algebras which generate the same congruence modular of A is denoted (HS - 1)A. A is critical if it is finite and does not belong to the subvariety generated by its

Kearnes, Keith A.


Patient-practitioner perceptions: Can chiropractors assume congruence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Advances in mind-body medicine have resulted in the realization that beliefs can modulate pathophysiologic processes. Because symbolic interaction affects health status, perceptions and the congruence between the perceptions of chiropractors and their patients become a relevant clinical consideration. Objective: A case study to explore the congruence of health-relevant perceptions of chiropractors and their patients was undertaken. Method: This Australian

Jennifer R. Jamison



Technological congruence and perceived quality of brand extensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose and test a series of precepts which explain the role of technology and technology congruence in consumers' perceptions of brand extensions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A series of relationships between technological congruence and consumer evaluations of brand extensions is proposed. Regression analysis and a series of planned contrasts are employed to test

John Story; Peggy Sue Loroz



The Influence of Product\\/Nudity Congruence on Advertising Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

While a body of research has examined the effects of nudity appeals in advertising, previous studies examining the question of product\\/nudity congruency have failed to consider product categories of equivalent levels of involvement and towards which respondents had similar purchase intention. In this experimental study, we examine the role which product\\/nudity congruency and levels of nudity have on several measures

Claire Sherman; Pascale Quester



Data Semantics Ken Baclawski  

E-print Network

Data Semantics Ken Baclawski College of Computer and Information Science Northeastern University #12;What is data semantics? #12;What is data semantics? To answer this we will look at software semantics in general. #12;What is data semantics? Software #12;What is data semantics? ProgramProgram Data

Baclawski, Kenneth B.


Audio/Visual Ratios in Commercial Filmstrips.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Video Audio Compressed (VIDAC) is a compressed time, variable rate, still picture television system. This technology made it possible for a centralized library of audiovisual materials to be transmitted over a television channel in very short periods of time. In order to establish specifications…

Gulliford, Nancy L.


Planning and Producing Audiovisual Materials. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A revised edition of this handbook provides illustrated, step-by-step explanations of how to plan and produce audiovisual materials. Included are sections on the fundamental skills--photography, graphics and recording sound--followed by individual sections on photographic print series, slide series, filmstrips, tape recordings, overhead…

Kemp, Jerrold E.


Active Methodology in the Audiovisual Communication Degree  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes the adaptation methods of the active methodologies of the new European higher education area in the new Audiovisual Communication degree under the perspective of subjects related to the area of the interactive communication in Europe. The proposed active methodologies have been experimentally implemented into the new academic…

Gimenez-Lopez, J. L.; Royo, T. Magal; Laborda, Jesus Garcia; Dunai, Larisa



Audiovisual Materials for Teaching Economics. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third edition of this catalog, which expands and revises earlier editions, annotates audiovisual items for economic education in kindergarten through college. The purpose of the catalog is to help teachers select sound economic materials for classroom use. A selective listing, the catalog cites over 700 items out of more than 1200 items…

Harter, Charlotte T.; And Others


An Acquired Deficit of Audiovisual Speech Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report a 53-year-old patient (AWF) who has an acquired deficit of audiovisual speech integration, characterized by a perceived temporal mismatch between speech sounds and the sight of moving lips. AWF was less accurate on an auditory digit span task with vision of a speaker's face as compared to a condition in which no visual information from…

Hamilton, Roy H.; Shenton, Jeffrey T.; Coslett, H. Branch



Attention to touch weakens audiovisual speech integration.  


One of the classic examples of multisensory integration in humans occurs when speech sounds are combined with the sight of corresponding articulatory gestures. Despite the longstanding assumption that this kind of audiovisual binding operates in an attention-free mode, recent findings (Alsius et al. in Curr Biol, 15(9):839-843, 2005) suggest that audiovisual speech integration decreases when visual or auditory attentional resources are depleted. The present study addressed the generalization of this attention constraint by testing whether a similar decrease in multisensory integration is observed when attention demands are imposed on a sensory domain that is not involved in speech perception, such as touch. We measured the McGurk illusion in a dual task paradigm involving a difficult tactile task. The results showed that the percentage of visually influenced responses to audiovisual stimuli was reduced when attention was diverted to a tactile task. This finding is attributed to a modulatory effect on audiovisual integration of speech mediated by supramodal attention limitations. We suggest that the interactions between the attentional system and crossmodal binding mechanisms may be much more extensive and dynamic than it was advanced in previous studies. PMID:17899043

Alsius, Agnès; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador



A Center for Audio-Visual Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This communications center represents a new concept in sharing and spreading information throughout the campus system. The first link of an audiovisual intercampus communication system in California is designed as a prototype that provides spatial flexibility to accommodate yet-to-be developed equipment. (Author/MLF)

Nairn, Janet



Congruence of triangles (grades 6-8)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative enables the student to arrange sides and angles to construct and demonstrate the necessary and sufficient conditions for proving triangles congruent. The student drags line segments and angles to form triangles and can flip formed triangles as needed to show congruence. The student can select from options for constructing triangles given three sides (SSS), two sides and the included angle (SAS), and two angles and an included side (ASA). The applet also allows the student to experiment with the ambiguous case to find two triangles that are not congruent, given two sides and a non-included angle (SSA). Instructions for using the applet and a link to the NCTM standard for geometry are included. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Mathematics, Utah S.



Dynamics of stringy congruence in the early universe  

SciTech Connect

We study twist and shear aspects of the stingy geodesic surface congruence. Under some natural conditions we derive the equations of the twist and shear in terms of the expansion of the Universe. We observe in this higher dimensional cosmology that, as the early universe evolves with expansion rate, the twist of the stringy congruence decreases exponentially and the initial twist value should be large enough to sustain the rotations of the ensuing universe, while the effects of the shear are negligible to produce the isotropic and homogeneous universe. We also investigate the twist and shear of the geodesic surface congruence of the null strings.

Cho, Yong Seung; Hong, Soon-Tae [Department of Mathematics, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Science Education and Research Institute for Basic Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)



A comparison of sentence- and discourse-level semantic processing: an ERP study.  


Eighteen subjects listened to sentences ending with semantically congruent or incongruent words. Each congruent sentence was embedded at the end of a short story so that the final word was semantically acceptable at the sentence level but incongruent in terms of discourse context. The same stories were also presented with congruent endings. Auditory ERPs elicited by the final words in these sentences and stories were compared. Both sentence- and discourse-level semantic integration were associated with N400 and Late Positive Component (LPC) effects in addition to a new component, P550. Local and global semantic processing, although evoking the same components, were characterized by differential effects on ERP amplitudes according to the amount of text integrated and its congruence. These results indicate similar cognitive processes of context build up, underlying sentence- and discourse-semantic processing. PMID:12468394

Salmon, Nirit; Pratt, Hillel



Focusing of geodesic congruences in an accelerated expanding Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the accelerated expansion of the Universe through its consequences on a congruence of geodesics. We make use of the Raychaudhuri equation which describes the evolution of the expansion rate for a congruence of timelike or null geodesics. In particular, we focus on the space-time geometry contribution to this equation. By straightforward calculation from the metric of a Robertson-Walker cosmological model, it follows that in an accelerated expanding Universe the space-time contribution to the Raychaudhuri equation is positive for the fundamental congruence, favoring a non-focusing of the congruence of geodesics. However, the accelerated expansion of the present Universe does not imply a tendency of the fundamental congruence to diverge. It is shown that this is in fact the case for certain congruences of timelike geodesics without vorticity. Therefore, the focusing of geodesics remains feasible in an accelerated expanding Universe. Furthermore, a negative contribution to the Raychaudhuri equation from space-time geometry which is usually interpreted as the manifestation of the attractive character of gravity is restored in an accelerated expanding Robertson-Walker space-time at high speeds.

Albareti, F. D.; Cembranos, J. A. R.; de la Cruz-Dombriz, A.



Audiovisual Processing in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and twenty-one children without ASD completed six perceptual tasks designed\\u000a to characterize the nature of the audiovisual processing difficulties experienced by children with ASD. Children with ASD\\u000a scored significantly lower than children without ASD on audiovisual tasks involving human faces and voices, but scored similarly\\u000a to children without ASD on audiovisual tasks involving

Elizabeth A. Mongillo; Julia R. Irwin; D. H. Whalen; Cheryl Klaiman; Alice S. Carter; Robert T. Schultz



Audiovisual Integration in Patients with Visual Deficit  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we investigated the possibility that bimodal audiovisual stimulation of the affected hemifield can improve perception of the visual events in the blind hemifield of hemianopic patients, as it was previously demonstrated in neglect patients. Moreover, it has been shown that hetero-modal and sensory-specific cortices are involved in cross-modal integration. Thus, the second aim of the present

Francesca Frassinetti; Nadia Bolognini; Davide Bottari; Annalisa Bonora; Elisabetta Làdavas



Attentional capture in serial audiovisual search tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon of attentional capture has typically been studied in spatial search tasks. Dalton and Lavie (2004) recently\\u000a demonstrated that auditory attention can also be captured by a singleton item in a rapidly presented tone sequence. In the\\u000a experiments reported here, we investigated whether these findings extend cross-modally to sequential search tasks using audiovisual\\u000a stimuli. Participants searched a stream of

Polly Dalton; Charles Spence



Attributes of Quality in Audiovisual Materials for Health Professionals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines attributes of quality in content, instructional design, technical production, and packaging of audiovisual materials used in the education of health professionals. Seven references are listed. (FM)

Suter, Emanuel; Waddell, Wendy H.



Categorical congruence facilitates multisensory associative learning.  


Learning about objects often requires making arbitrary associations among multisensory properties, such as the taste and appearance of a food or the face and voice of a person. However, the multisensory properties of individual objects usually are statistically constrained, such that some properties are more likely to co-occur than others, on the basis of their category. For example, male faces are more likely to co-occur with characteristically male voices than with female voices. Here, we report evidence that these natural multisensory statistics play a critical role in the learning of novel, arbitrary associative pairs. In Experiment 1, we found that learning of pairs consisting of human voices and gender-congruent faces was superior to learning of pairs consisting of human voices and gender-incongruent faces or of pairs consisting of human voices and pictures of inanimate objects (plants and rocks). In Experiment 2, we found that this "categorical congruency" advantage extended to nonhuman stimuli, as well-namely, to pairs of class-congruent animal pictures and vocalizations (e.g., dogs and barks) versus class-incongruent pairs (e.g., dogs and bird chirps). These findings suggest that associating multisensory properties that are statistically consistent with the various objects that we encounter in our daily lives is a privileged form of learning. PMID:24671776

Barenholtz, Elan; Lewkowicz, David J; Davidson, Meredith; Mavica, Lauren



p-adic congruences motivated by series  

E-print Network

Let p>3 be a prime. Motivated by the formula $$\\sum_{k=0}^\\infty \\binom{2k}{k}^2/((2k+1)16^k)=4G/\\pi$$ (where $G=\\sum_{k=0}^\\infty(-1)^k/(2k+1)^2$ is the Catalan constant), we show that $$\\sum_{k=0}^{(p-3)/2}\\binom{2k}{k}^2/((2k+1)16^k)=-2q_p(2)-p*q_p(2)^2+5p^2B_{p-3}/12 (mod p^3),$$ where $q_p(2)$ is the Fermat quotient $(2^{p-1}-1)/p$ and $B_0,B_1,...$ are Bernoulli numbers. When $p>5$ we prove that $$\\sum_{k=(p+1)/2}^{p-1}\\binom{2k}{k}^2/((2k+1)16^k)=-7p^2B_{p-3}/4 (mod p^3)$$ is an equivalent form of the conjectural congruence $$\\sum_{k=1}^{(p-1)/2}(-1)^k/(k^3\\binom{2k}{k})=-2B_{p-3} (mod p)$$ motivated by the formula $\\sum_{k=1}^\\infty(-1)^k/(k^3\\binom{2k}{k})=-2\\zeta(3)/5$.

Sun, Zhi-Wei



Proportion congruency effects: instructions may be enough  

PubMed Central

Learning takes time, namely, one needs to be exposed to contingency relations between stimulus dimensions in order to learn, whereas intentional control can be recruited through task demands. Therefore showing that control can be recruited as a function of experimental instructions alone, that is, adapting the processing according to the instructions before the exposure to the task, can be taken as evidence for existence of control recruitment in the absence of learning. This was done by manipulating the information given at the outset of the experiment. In the first experiment, we manipulated list-level congruency proportion. Half of the participants were informed that most of the stimuli would be congruent, whereas the other half were informed that most of the stimuli would be incongruent. This held true for the stimuli in the second part of each experiment. In the first part, however, the proportion of the two stimulus types was equal. A proportion congruent (PC) effect was found in both parts of the experiment, but it was larger in the second part. In our second experiment, we manipulated the proportion of the stimuli within participants by applying an item-specific design. This was done by presenting some color words most often in their congruent color, and other color words in incongruent colors. Participants were informed about the exact word-color pairings in advance. Similar to Experiment 1, this held true only for the second experimental part. In contrast to our first experiment, informing participants in advance did not result in an item-specific proportion effect, which was observed only in the second part. Thus our results support the hypothesis that instructions may be enough to trigger list-level control, yet learning does contribute to the PC effect under such conditions. The item-level proportion effect is apparently caused by learning or at least it is moderated by it. PMID:25339929

Entel, Olga; Tzelgov, Joseph; Bereby-Meyer, Yoella



Logic and semantic networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extended form of semantic network is defined, which can be regarded as a syntactic variant of the clausal form of logic. By virtue of its relationship with logic, the extended semantic network is provided with a precise semantics, inference rules, and a procedural interpretation. On the other hand, by regarding semantic networks as an abstract data structure for the

Amaryllis Deliyanni; Robert A. Kowalski



Trigger Videos on the Web: Impact of Audiovisual Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Audiovisual design might impact emotional responses, as studies from the 1970s and 1980s on movie and television content show. Given today's abundant presence of web-based videos, this study investigates whether audiovisual design will impact web-video content in a similar way. The study is motivated by the potential influence of video-evoked…

Verleur, Ria; Heuvelman, Ard; Verhagen, Plon W.



Issues in cross-cultural studies of advertising audiovisual material  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an approach to cross- cultural studies of advertising audiovisual material that departs from the typical rigid marketing models. It favours a more qualita- tive inductive approach to corpuses in which audiovisual texts are not approached or com- pared through the use of standardised Ameri- can tools. After reviewing the usual marketing tools, the article focuses on the

Fabrice Desmarais


Audiovisual Integration in High Functioning Adults with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism involves various perceptual benefits and deficits, but it is unclear if the disorder also involves anomalous audiovisual integration. To address this issue, we compared the performance of high-functioning adults with autism and matched controls on experiments investigating the audiovisual integration of speech, spatiotemporal relations, and…

Keane, Brian P.; Rosenthal, Orna; Chun, Nicole H.; Shams, Ladan



Knowledge Generated by Audiovisual Narrative Action Research Loops  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present data collected from the research project funded by the Ministry of Education and Science of Spain entitled "Audiovisual Narratives and Intercultural Relations in Education." One of the aims of the research was to determine the nature of thought processes occurring during audiovisual narratives. We studied the possibility of getting to…

Bautista Garcia-Vera, Antonio



Infant Perception of Audio-Visual Speech Synchrony  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments investigated perception of audio-visual (A-V) speech synchrony in 4- to 10-month-old infants. Experiments 1 and 2 used a convergent-operations approach by habituating infants to an audiovisually synchronous syllable (Experiment 1) and then testing for detection of increasing degrees of A-V asynchrony (366, 500, and 666 ms) or by…

Lewkowicz, David J.



Children Using Audiovisual Media for Communication: A New Language?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives an overview of the Schools Council Communication and Social Skills Project at Brighton Polytechnic in which children ages 9-17 have developed and used audiovisual media such as films, tape-slides, or television programs in the classroom. The effects of audiovisual language on education are briefly discussed. (JJD)

Weiss, Michael



Audiovisual Mass Media and Education. TTW 27/28.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 15 articles in this special issue focus on learning about the audiovisual mass media and education, especially television and film, in relation to various pedagogical and didactical questions. Individual articles are: (1) "Audiovisual Mass Media for Education in Pakistan: Problems and Prospects" (Ahmed Noor Kahn); (2) "The Role of the…

van Stapele, Peter, Ed.; Sutton, Clifford C., Ed.



Perception of Intersensory Synchrony in Audiovisual Speech: Not that Special  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perception of intersensory temporal order is particularly difficult for (continuous) audiovisual speech, as perceivers may find it difficult to notice substantial timing differences between speech sounds and lip movements. Here we tested whether this occurs because audiovisual speech is strongly paired ("unity assumption"). Participants made…

Vroomen, Jean; Stekelenburg, Jeroen J.



Learning bimodal structure in audio-visual data.  


A novel model is presented to learn bimodally informative structures from audio-visual signals. The signal is represented as a sparse sum of audio-visual kernels. Each kernel is a bimodal function consisting of synchronous snippets of an audio waveform and a spatio-temporal visual basis function. To represent an audio-visual signal, the kernels can be positioned independently and arbitrarily in space and time. The proposed algorithm uses unsupervised learning to form dictionaries of bimodal kernels from audio-visual material. The basis functions that emerge during learning capture salient audio-visual data structures. In addition, it is demonstrated that the learned dictionary can be used to locate sources of sound in the movie frame. Specifically, in sequences containing two speakers, the algorithm can robustly localize a speaker even in the presence of severe acoustic and visual distracters. PMID:19963447

Monaci, Gianluca; Vandergheynst, Pierre; Sommer, Friedrich T



Audio-visual speech perception is special.  


In face-to-face conversation speech is perceived by ear and eye. We studied the prerequisites of audio-visual speech perception by using perceptually ambiguous sine wave replicas of natural speech as auditory stimuli. When the subjects were not aware that the auditory stimuli were speech, they showed only negligible integration of auditory and visual stimuli. When the same subjects learned to perceive the same auditory stimuli as speech, they integrated the auditory and visual stimuli in a similar manner as natural speech. These results demonstrate the existence of a multisensory speech-specific mode of perception. PMID:15833302

Tuomainen, Jyrki; Andersen, Tobias S; Tiippana, Kaisa; Sams, Mikko



Congruency of gaze metrics in action, imagery and action observation.  


The aim of this paper is to provide a review of eye movements during action execution, action observation, and movement imagery. Furthermore, the paper highlights aspects of congruency in gaze metrics between these states. The implications of the imagery, observation, and action gaze congruency are discussed in terms of motor learning and rehabilitation. Future research directions are outlined in order to further the understanding of shared gaze metrics between overt and covert states. Suggestions are made for how researchers and practitioners can structure action observation and movement imagery interventions to maximize (re)learning. PMID:24068996

Causer, Joe; McCormick, Sheree A; Holmes, Paul S



Subgroups of some Fuchsian groups defined by two linear congruences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we define a new family of subgroups of Fuchsian groups H(?{m}) , for a squarefree positive integer m , and calculate their index in H(?{m}) and their parabolic class number. Moreover, we will show that the index of these subgroups is closely related to the solvability of a quadratic congruence x2? m(mod n) and the number of inequivalent solutions of a quadratic congruence x2? 1(mod n) . Finally, we will show that the results obtained by Yilmaz and Keskin [Acta Math. Sin 25 (2005), 215-222] are immediate corollaries of one of the main theorems of this article.

Yayenie, Omer


Further Insight and Additional Inference Methods for Polynomial Regression Applied to the Analysis of Congruence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In their seminal paper, Edwards and Parry (1993) presented the polynomial regression as a better alternative to applying difference score in the study of congruence. Although this method is increasingly applied in congruence research, its complexity relative to other methods for assessing congruence (e.g., difference score methods) was one of the…

Cohen, Ayala; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Doveh, Etti



On the Equivalence of Two Oblique Congruence Rotation Methods, and Orthogonal Approximations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tucker's method of oblique congruence rotation is shown to be equivalent to a procedure by Meredith. This implies that Monte Carlo studies on congruence by Nesselroade, Baltes, and Labouvie and by Korth and Tucker are highly comparable. The problem of rotating two matrices orthogonally to maximal congruence is considered. (Author/CTM)

ten Berge, Jos M. F.



The impact of congruence in cause marketing campaigns for service firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Several studies have examined sponsor-cause congruence as an influence on consumer response to cause marketing campaigns. This paper aims to assess the relationship between sponsor-cause congruence and consumer responses to cause marketing programs. In addition, it aims to test the possible existence of an interaction of congruence and service type of a cause sponsor (utilitarian vs hedonic) on

Donald P. Roy



Assessing the validity of the semantic differential portion of the Apperceptive Personality Test.  


This study investigated the validity of the semantic differential portion of the Apperceptive Personality Test with 225 undergraduates who completed the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability scale, actual-self and ideal-self semantic differential scales (e.g., Actual-self and ideal-self), and either the Apperceptive Personality Test or a modified version. A projected-self score was calculated using the semantic differential ratings of the hero(ine) character on the test, e.g., Projected self. A strong negative correlation indicated that, as the difference between the Ideal-self and Actual-self dereased, the difference between the Actual-self and Projected-self increased. Discriminant analyses indicated that highly guarded participants, e.g., high Social Desirability scores, showed more congruency between Ideal-self and Actual-self and less congruency between Actual-self ratings and Projected-self on the APT than did less guarded participants. When the difference scores incorporated only those semantic differential items that loaded on an Ealuative factor, the same result of discriminant analysis was found when participants who comleted the modified version were included. These findings support the validity of the test's semantic differential items and suggest that guardedness tends to promote more similarity between Actual-self and Ideal-self and less similarity between Actual-self and Projected-self. PMID:11597081

Palmiter, D J; Silber, D E



Effects of aging on audio-visual speech integration.  


This study investigated the impact of aging on audio-visual speech integration. A syllable identification task was presented in auditory-only, visual-only, and audio-visual congruent and incongruent conditions. Visual cues were either degraded or unmodified. Stimuli were embedded in stationary noise alternating with modulated noise. Fifteen young adults and 15 older adults participated in this study. Results showed that older adults had preserved lipreading abilities when the visual input was clear but not when it was degraded. The impact of aging on audio-visual integration also depended on the quality of the visual cues. In the visual clear condition, the audio-visual gain was similar in both groups and analyses in the framework of the fuzzy-logical model of perception confirmed that older adults did not differ from younger adults in their audio-visual integration abilities. In the visual reduction condition, the audio-visual gain was reduced in the older group, but only when the noise was stationary, suggesting that older participants could compensate for the loss of lipreading abilities by using the auditory information available in the valleys of the noise. The fuzzy-logical model of perception confirmed the significant impact of aging on audio-visual integration by showing an increased weight of audition in the older group. PMID:25324091

Huyse, Aurélie; Leybaert, Jacqueline; Berthommier, Frédéric



The Congruence of Quality Values in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To investigate, in the context of university education, the relationship between the congruence of the quality values held by the students, the teaching staff and the university senior management and the level of student satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach: The research was carried out within a large Business School in a major UK…

Telford, Ronnie; Masson, Ron



MMPI--2 Code-Type Congruence of Injured Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors examined the stability of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--2 (J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989) code types in a sample of 94 injured workers with a mean test-retest interval of 21.3 months (SD = 14.1). Congruence rates for undefined code types were 34% for…

Livingston, Ronald B.; Jennings, Earl; Colotla, Victor A.; Reynolds, Cecil R.; Shercliffe, Regan J.



Congruence from Rotations and Reflections: 4.5  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These 3 activities, part of the Mathematics Developmental Continuum of the State of Victoria, Australia, are intended to introduce learners to demonstrating congruence and line and rotational symmetry through the use of transformations. Hands on activities and computer software are employed. Supporting documents, materials, and progress indicators are included.



Developmental Evaluation: Congruence Analysis Techniques for Diagnosing Classroom Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation methods lack direction to improve efforts of teachers because the methods operate on vague impressions. Congruence analysis techniques offer promise for diagnostic determination of strengths and weaknesses in teaching practices over a variety of specified criteria. The analysis circumvents some of the problems of linking objective data…

Harris, Ben M.


The critical role of congruency in prototypical brand extensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on categorization theory, this empirical study focuses on the critical role of congruency in prototypical brand extensions. A survey, measuring reactions to 18 proposed extensions involving six well?known brands (Xerox, Kleenex, Band?Aid, Scotch Tape, Coke, Sony Walkman), was administered to a sample of graduate students. For each prototypical brand, there were three proposed extensions: congruent, moderately congruent, and incongruent.

Maria Kalamas; Mark Cleveland; Michel Laroche; Robert Laufer



Lexical Semantics: Introduction  

E-print Network

.: police failure (the) police SUBJ fail player selection [SB] selects (the) player OBJ · More tomorrow Semantics: Recognised Sub-tasks · Word sense discrimination/disambiguation · Semantic role labelling

Baldwin, Timothy


Central Audiovisual Library of the European Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from Mediatheque offers a variety of videos, developed by the European Commission, which are available to download free of charge for "EU-related information and education purposes." The Commission "embodies and upholds the general interest of the Union" and the videos address key issues for the political Community and public interest. The videos cover a variety of topics including trade, railways, and responsible fishing. The Research section includes two videos on nanotechnology, which feature interviews with researchers (some of which are translated into English through subtitles), an inside look at nanotechnology laboratories, and simulations to demonstrate the microscopic world of nanotechnology. The videos vary in length and newly added videos are noted. A link at the bottom of the page allows visitors to search for keywords to locate a particular video in the archive. Visitors to the website can also learn about other audiovisual services offered by Mediatheque.


Quantifying temporal ventriloquism in audiovisual synchrony perception.  


The integration of visual and auditory inputs in the human brain works properly only if the components are perceived in close temporal proximity. In the present study, we quantified cross-modal interactions in the human brain for audiovisual stimuli with temporal asynchronies, using a paradigm from rhythm perception. In this method, participants had to align the temporal position of a target in a rhythmic sequence of four markers. In the first experiment, target and markers consisted of a visual flash or an auditory noise burst, and all four combinations of target and marker modalities were tested. In the same-modality conditions, no temporal biases and a high precision of the adjusted temporal position of the target were observed. In the different-modality conditions, we found a systematic temporal bias of 25-30 ms. In the second part of the first and in a second experiment, we tested conditions in which audiovisual markers with different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between the two components and a visual target were used to quantify temporal ventriloquism. The adjusted target positions varied by up to about 50 ms and depended in a systematic way on the SOA and its proximity to the point of subjective synchrony. These data allowed testing different quantitative models. The most satisfying model, based on work by Maij, Brenner, and Smeets (Journal of Neurophysiology 102, 490-495, 2009), linked temporal ventriloquism and the percept of synchrony and was capable of adequately describing the results from the present study, as well as those of some earlier experiments. PMID:23868564

Kuling, Irene A; Kohlrausch, Armin; Juola, James F



Perception of intersensory synchrony in audiovisual speech: not that special.  


Perception of intersensory temporal order is particularly difficult for (continuous) audiovisual speech, as perceivers may find it difficult to notice substantial timing differences between speech sounds and lip movements. Here we tested whether this occurs because audiovisual speech is strongly paired ("unity assumption"). Participants made temporal order judgments (TOJ) and simultaneity judgments (SJ) about sine-wave speech (SWS) replicas of pseudowords and the corresponding video of the face. Listeners in speech and non-speech mode were equally sensitive judging audiovisual temporal order. Yet, using the McGurk effect, we could demonstrate that the sound was more likely integrated with lipread speech if heard as speech than non-speech. Judging temporal order in audiovisual speech is thus unaffected by whether the auditory and visual streams are paired. Conceivably, previously found differences between speech and non-speech stimuli are not due to the putative "special" nature of speech, but rather reflect low-level stimulus differences. PMID:21035795

Vroomen, Jean; Stekelenburg, Jeroen J



Emergent Semantics Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

With new standards like RDF or OWL paving the way for the much anticipated Semantic Web, a new breed of very large scale semantic systems is about to appear. Traditional semantic reconcilia- tion techniques, dependent upon shared vocabularies or global ontolo- gies, cannot be used in such open and dynamic environments. Instead, new heuristics based on emerging properties and local

Karl Aberer; Tiziana Catarci; Philippe Cudré-mauroux; Tharam S. Dillon; Stephan Grimm; Mohand-said Hacid; Arantza Illarramendi; Mustafa Jarrar; Vipul Kashyap; Massimo Mecella; Eduardo Mena; Erich J. Neuhold; Aris M. Ouksel; Thomas Risse; Monica Scannapieco; Fèlix Saltor; Luca De Santis; Stefano Spaccapietra; Steffen Staab; Rudi Studer; Olga De Troyer



semantics for Formality, Flexibility  

E-print Network

Meta B A flexible semantics for Event B Reeves, Streader Overview Formality, Flexibility or Both stacks Comparisons Subset Morphism Divergence Z+B Example Meta B A flexible semantics for Event B S A flexible semantics for Event B Reeves, Streader Overview Formality, Flexibility or Both Testing Horizontal

Streader, David


Text Clustering using Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In traditional document clustering methods, a document is considered a bag of words. The fact that the words may be semantically related- a crucial information for clustering- is not taken into account. In this paper we describe a new method for generating feature vectors, using the semantic relations between the words in a sentence. The semantic relations are captured by

Bhoopesh Choudhary; Pushpak Bhattacharyya



Probabilistic Latent Semantic Indexing  

E-print Network

1 1 Probabilistic Latent Semantic Indexing Thomas Hofmann Proceedings of the Twenty-Second 2 Outline I. Latent Semantic Analysis II. Singular Value Decomposition III. Probabilistic Latent. There is a disconnect between topics and keywords. 4 Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) · LSA attempts to discover

Elkan, Charles


Response of women with primary orgasmic dysfunction to audiovisual education.  


Of 17 women ages 19 to 38 with primary orgasmic dysfunction, 7 achieved orgasm within a week after viewing an audiovisual sex education program, a statistically significant change (p less than .02). No other intervention (educational, behavioral, psychotherapeutic) occurred between the audiovisual session and later inquiry about subsequent sexual response. These results suggest that explicit sex education can help remedy sexual dysfunction in a significant number of women and that further investigation is needed. PMID:82619

Jankovich, R; Miller, P R



Semantically Interoperable XML Data  

PubMed Central

XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups.

Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel



Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web  

PubMed Central

The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial for the life sciences? Is biomedical information too complex to benefit from simple interlinked representations? What are the implications of adopting a new paradigm for knowledge representation? What are the incentives for the adoption of the Semantic Web, and who are the facilitators? Is there going to be a Semantic Web revolution in the life sciences? We report here a few reflections on these questions, following discussions at the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences) workshop series, of which this Journal of Biomedical Semantics special issue presents selected papers from the 2009 edition, held in Amsterdam on November 20th. PMID:21388570



The role of the left prefrontal cortex in sentence-level semantic integration.  


Whether left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) activation during sentence comprehension reflects semantic integration or domain-general cognitive control remains unclear. To address this issue, 26 participants were presented with sentences word by word during fMRI scanning and were asked to perform two semantic tasks, one explicit (semantic congruency judgment) and one implicit (font size judgment). In the two language tasks, semantic integration load was parametrically manipulated with high cloze, low cloze and semantically violated sentences. Participants also performed a classical Stroop task during scanning. Conjunction analysis of the explicit and implicit tasks revealed two regions in left inferior frontal gyrus associated with semantic integration load: one anterior region (aIFG) and one posterior region (pIFG). However, only the pIFG region was also activated during the Stroop task. These results indicate that different regions in the LIFG play different roles in semantic integration, with aIFG more important for domain-specific processing and pIFG more important for domain-general cognitive control. PMID:23507386

Zhu, Zude; Feng, Gangyi; Zhang, John X; Li, Guochao; Li, Hong; Wang, Suiping



MMPI–2 Code-Type Congruence of Injured Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the authors examined the stability of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory—2 (J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989) code types in a sample of 94 injured workers with a mean test–retest interval of 21.3 months (SD = 14.1). Congruence rates for undefined code types were 34% for high-point codes, 22%

Ronald B. Livingston; Earl Jennings; Victor A. Colotla; Cecil R. Reynolds; Regan J. Shercliffe



G-CO, G-SRT Congruence of parallelograms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Rhianna has learned the SSS and SAS congruence tests for triangles and she wonders if these tests might work for parallelograms. Suppose $ABCD$ and $EF...


Maxwell Fields and Shear-Free Null Geodesic Congruences  

E-print Network

We study and report on the class of vacuum Maxwell fields in Minkowski space that possess a non-degenerate, diverging, principle null vector field (null eigenvector field of the Maxwell tensor) that is tangent to a shear-free null geodesics congruence. These congruences can be either surface forming (the tangent vectors proportional to gradients) or not, i.e., the twisting congruences. In the non-twisting case, the associated Maxwell fields are precisely the Lienard-Wiechert fields, i.e., those Maxwell fields arising from an electric monopole moving on an arbitrary worldline. The null geodesic congruence is given by the generators of the light-cones with apex on the world-line. The twisting case is much richer, more interesting and far more complicated. In a twisting subcase, where our main interests lie, it can be given the following strange interpretation. If we allow the real Minkowski space to be complexified so that the real Minkowski coordinates x^a take complex values, i.e., x^a => z^a=x^a+iy^a with complex metric g=eta_abdz^adz^b, the real vacuum Maxwell equations can be extended into the complex and rewritten as curlW =iWdot, divW with W =E+iB. This subcase of Maxwell fields can then be extended into the complex so as to have as source, a complex analytic world-line, i.e., to now become complex Lienard-Wiechart fields. When viewed as real fields on the real Minkowski space, z^a=x^a, they possess a real principle null vector that is shear-free but twisting and diverging. The twist is a measure of how far the complex world-line is from the real 'slice'. Most Maxwell fields in this subcase are asymptotically flat with a time-varying set of electric and magnetic moments, all depending on the complex displacements and the complex velocities.

Ezra Newman



Geodesic Congruences in the Palatini f(R) Theory  

E-print Network

We shall investigate the properties of a congruence of geodesics in the framework of Palatini f(R) theories. We shall evaluate the modified geodesic deviation equation and the Raychaudhuri's equation and show that f(R) Palatini theories do not necessarily lead to attractive forces. Also we shall study energy condition for f(R) Palatini gravity via a perturbative analysis of the Raychaudhuri's equation.

Fatimah Shojai; Ali Shojai



Congruence analysis of point clouds from unstable stereo image sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the correction of exterior orientation parameters of stereo image sequences over deformed free-form surfaces without control points. Such imaging situation can occur, for example, during photogrammetric car crash test recordings where onboard high-speed stereo cameras are used to measure 3D surfaces. As a result of such measurements 3D point clouds of deformed surfaces are generated for a complete stereo sequence. The first objective of this research focusses on the development and investigation of methods for the detection of corresponding spatial and temporal tie points within the stereo image sequences (by stereo image matching and 3D point tracking) that are robust enough for a reliable handling of occlusions and other disturbances that may occur. The second objective of this research is the analysis of object deformations in order to detect stable areas (congruence analysis). For this purpose a RANSAC-based method for congruence analysis has been developed. This process is based on the sequential transformation of randomly selected point groups from one epoch to another by using a 3D similarity transformation. The paper gives a detailed description of the congruence analysis. The approach has been tested successfully on synthetic and real image data.

Jepping, C.; Bethmann, F.; Luhmann, T.



Congruency Sequence Effects without Feature Integration or Contingency Learning Confounds  

PubMed Central

The congruency effect in distracter interference (e.g., Stroop) tasks is often reduced after incongruent trials, relative to congruent trials. It has been proposed that this congruency sequence effect (CSE) results from trial-by-trial adjustments of attention, which are triggered by changes in response conflict, expectancy, or negative affect. Hence, a large literature has developed to investigate the source(s) of attention adaptation in distracter interference tasks. Recent work, however, suggests that CSEs may stem from feature integration and/or contingency learning processes that are confounded with congruency sequence in the vast majority of distracter interference tasks. By combining an established method for measuring CSEs in the absence of these learning and memory confounds with a prime-probe task, we observed robust CSEs in two experiments. These findings provide strong evidence of CSEs independent of learning and memory confounds, which might be explainable by trial-by-trial adjustments of attention. They also reveal a highly effective approach for observing CSEs independent of the typical confounds, which will facilitate future studies of how people adapt to distraction. PMID:25019526

Schmidt, James R.; Weissman, Daniel H.



Our nation's wetlands (video). Audio-Visual  

SciTech Connect

The Department of the Interior is custodian of approximately 500 million acres of federally owned land and has an important role to play in the management of wetlands. To contribute to the President's goal of no net loss of America's remaining wetlands, the Department of the Interior has initiated a 3-point program consisting of wetlands protection, restoration, and research: Wetlands Protection--Reduce wetlands losses on federally owned lands and encourage state and private landholders to practice wetlands conservation; Wetlands Restoration--Increase wetlands gains through the restoration and creation of wetlands on both public and private lands; Wetlands Research--Provide a foundation of scientific knowledge to guide future actions and decisions about wetlands. The audiovisual is a slide/tape-to-video transfer illustrating the various ways Interior bureaus are working to preserve our Nation's wetlands. The tape features an introduction by Secretary Manuel Lujan on the importance of wetlands and recognizing the benefit of such programs as the North American Waterfowl Management Program.

Not Available



Clock synchronization by accelerated observers - Metric construction for arbitrary congruences of world lines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clock synchronization in an arbitrarily accelerated observer congruence is considered. A general solution is obtained that maintains the isotropy and coordinate independence of the one-way speed of light. Attention is also given to various particular cases including, rotating disk congruence or ring congruence. An explicit, congruence-based spacetime metric is constructed according to Einstein's clock synchronization procedure and the equation for the geodesics of the space-time was derived using Hamilton-Jacobi method. The application of interferometric techniques (absolute phase radio interferometry, VLBI) to the detection of the 'global Sagnac effect' is also discussed.

Henriksen, R. N.; Nelson, L. A.



Intensional Logic for Denotational Semantics Denotational Semantics of a  

E-print Network

#12;Intensional Logic for Denotational Semantics Referential Transparency Vs. Referential Opacity We Semantics Referential Opacity in Imperative Languages Suppose we have the program variables x and y which

Carette, Jacques


A Multilayered Audiovisual Streaming System Using the Network Bandwidth Adaptation and the Two-Phase Synchronization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synchronous audiovisual streaming and playout are two of the major issues in the multimedia communication network. However, the past corresponding researches of media synchronization mainly focused on the mono-quality and single-layer (nonscalable) audiovisual data. To overcome challenges of ubiquitous multimedia streaming, a scalable audiovisual coder that can provide flexible scalabilities and adaptive streaming control to adapt to complicated network situations

Chung-Ming Huang; Chung-Wei Lin; Cheng-Yen Chuang



Bimodal perception of audio-visual material properties for virtual environments  

E-print Network

contribute to signicant savings in computation time in an interactive audio-visual rendering system. To our. INTRODUCTION Interactive audio-visual virtual environments are now commonplace, ranging from com- puter games, therapy etc. In such environments, synthetic objects have audio-visual material properties, which

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Multiple constraints on semantic integration in a hierarchical structure: ERP evidence from German.  


A recent ERP study on Chinese demonstrated dissociable neural responses to semantic integration processes at different levels of syntactic hierarchy (Zhou et al., 2010). However, it is unclear whether such findings are restricted to a non-case marked language that relies heavily on word order and semantic information for the construction of sentence representation. This study aimed to further investigate, in a case-marked language, how semantic processes in a hierarchical structure take place during sentence reading. We used German sentences with the structure "subject noun+verb+article/determiner+adjective+object noun+prepositional phrase", in which the object noun was constrained either at the lower level by the adjective or at the higher level by the verb, and manipulated the semantic congruency between the adjective and the object noun and/or between the verb and the object noun. EEGs were recorded while participants read sentences and judged for their semantic acceptability. Compared with correct sentences, a biphasic pattern of an N400 effect followed by a late positivity effect was observed on the object noun for sentences with either lower- or higher-level mismatch or with double mismatches. Both the N400 effect and the late positivity (P600) effect were larger for the double mismatch condition than for either of the single mismatch conditions. These findings demonstrate cross-language mechanisms for processing multiple semantic constraints at different levels of syntactic hierarchy during sentence comprehension. PMID:21803335

Zhang, Yang; Jiang, Xiaoming; Saalbach, Henrik; Zhou, Xiaolin



Frame-Semantic Parsing  

E-print Network

Frame semantics is a linguistic theory that has been instantiated for English in the FrameNet lexicon. We solve the problem of frame-semantic parsing using a two-stage statistical model that takes lexical targets (i.e., ...

Das, Dipanjan


Previewing Semantic Web Pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this demo we present a first implementation of Semantic Web Pipes, a powerful tool to build RDF-based mashups. Semantic Web pipes are defined in XML and when executed they fetch RDF graphs on the Web, operate on them, and produce an RDF output which is itself accessible via a stable URL. Humans can also use pipes directly thanks to

Christian Morbidoni; Danh Le Phuoc; Axel Polleres; Matthias Samwald; Giovanni Tummarello



Semantic Web Pascal Hitzler  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Semantic Web Pascal Hitzler Kno.e.sis Center, Wright State University, Dayton, OH, USA 1.1.1 Languages for Representing Knowledge on the Web ............................. 2 1.1.2 Formal the Semantic Web Vision ................................ 4 1.1.4 Linked Data

Hitzler, Pascal


Logical Foundations Semantic Web  

E-print Network

Logical Foundations for the Semantic Web Ian Horrocks and Ulrike Sattler University of Manchester Manchester, UK {horrocks|sattler} #12;Introduction #12;History of the Semantic Web · Web of the Web was much more ambitious than the reality of the existing (syntactic) Web: · TBL (and others) have

Sattler, Ulrike


Aging and Semantic Activation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies tested the theory that long term memory consists of a semantically organized network of concept nodes interconnected by leveled associations or relations, and that when a stimulus is processed, the corresponding concept node is assumed to be temporarily activated and this activation spreads to nearby semantically related nodes. In…

Howard, Darlene V.


Congruence between Culturally Competent Treatment and Cultural Needs of Older Latinos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated a new 2-factor construct, termed "cultural congruence", which is related to cultural competence in the delivery of mental health services to ethnic minority clients. Cultural congruence was defined as the distance between the cultural competence characteristics of the health care organization and the clients' perception of…

Costantino, Giuseppe; Malgady, Robert G.; Primavera, Louis H.



Dharma and Interest-Occupation Congruence in Asian Indian College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest-occupation congruence and career exploration behaviors were examined in a sample of 107 White and 83 Asian Indian American college students. It was hypothesized that there would be both intergroup differences and intragroup differences. Asian Indians were expected to evidence less congruence and career exploration than Whites. The…

Gupta, Saurabh; Tracey, Terence J. G.



Values Congruence: Its Effect on Perceptions of Montana Elementary School Principal Leadership Practices and Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between principal and teacher values congruence and perceived principal leadership practices. Additionally, this study considered the relationship between values congruence, leadership practices, and student achievement. The perceptions teachers hold regarding their principal's…

Zorn, Daniel Roy



Value Congruence Awareness: Part 1. DNA Testing Sheds Light on Functionalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study examines awareness of the other party's instrumental, terminal, and work values by members of supervisor and employee dyads. Subjective estimates of value congruence, provided by either member of the dyad, correlated with actual value congruence scores determine conscious awareness levels in all cases. Results demonstrate supervisory awareness of employee terminal values, but not work values or instrumental

Robert G. Isaac; L. Kim Wilson; Douglas C. Pitt



Quantifying the Level of Congruence between Two Career Measures: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the level of congruency between scores on the Self-Directed Search--Form R (J. L. Holland, 1994) and scores from an online instrument, both of which measure Holland types (J. L. Holland, 1985, 1997). A reasonably high level of congruence was found. Implications for career counselors are briefly delineated.

Miller, Mark J.



Effects of Interest-Major Congruence, Motivation, and Academic Performance on Timely Degree Attainment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using longitudinal student data from 15 four-year (n = 3,072) and 13 (n = 788) two-year postsecondary institutions, the authors tested the effects of interest-major congruence, motivation, and 1st-year academic performance on timely degree completion. Findings suggest that interest-major congruence has a direct effect on timely degree completion…

Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steve



Self-Concept and Degree of Congruence between Vocational Interests and Academic Major in College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several writers have hypothesized that college students highest in degree of congruence between their college major and their personality type tend to have the highest level of achievement, satisfaction, and stability. This study investigated congruency between college students' vocational interests and their chosen academic major as an…

Wallace, Gaylen R.; Walker, Susan P.



E-print Network

by ranking the candidate video segments in the list so that the segments associated to the event of interest- ments. Each segment in turn contains some sub-segments. For example, in American football, a game

Migliorati, Pierangelo


A Semantic Graph Query Language  

SciTech Connect

Semantic graphs can be used to organize large amounts of information from a number of sources into one unified structure. A semantic query language provides a foundation for extracting information from the semantic graph. The graph query language described here provides a simple, powerful method for querying semantic graphs.

Kaplan, I L



On Spacetimes Admitting Shear-free, Irrotational, Geodesic Timelike Congruences  

E-print Network

A comprehensive analysis of general relativistic spacetimes which admit a shear-free, irrotational and geodesic timelike congruence is presented. The equations governing the models for a general energy-momentum tensor are written down. Coordinates in which the metric of such spacetimes takes on a simplified form are established. The general subcases of `zero anisotropic stress', `zero heat flux vector' and `two component fluids' are investigated. In particular, perfect fluid Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models and spatially homogeneous models are discussed. Models with a variety of physically relevant energy-momentum tensors are considered. Anisotropic fluid models and viscous fluid models with heat conduction are examined. Also, models with a perfect fluid plus a magnetic field or with pure radiation, and models with two non-collinear perfect fluids (satisfying a variety of physical conditions) are investigated. In particular, models with a (single) perfect fluid which is tilting with respect to the shear-free, vorticity-free and acceleration-free timelike congruence are discussed.

Alan A. Coley; Des J. Mc Manus



The heterogeneous world of congruency sequence effects: an update  

PubMed Central

Congruency sequence effects (CSEs) refer to the observation that congruency effects in conflict tasks are typically smaller following incongruent compared to following congruent trials. This measure has long been thought to provide a unique window into top-down attentional adjustments and their underlying brain mechanisms. According to the renowned conflict monitoring theory, CSEs reflect enhanced selective attention following conflict detection. Still, alternative accounts suggested that bottom-up associative learning suffices to explain the pattern of reaction times and error rates. A couple of years ago, a review by Egner (2007) pitted these two rivalry accounts against each other, concluding that both conflict adaptation and feature integration contribute to the CSE. Since then, a wealth of studies has further debated this issue, and two additional accounts have been proposed, offering intriguing alternative explanations. Contingency learning accounts put forward that predictive relationships between stimuli and responses drive the CSE, whereas the repetition expectancy hypothesis suggests that top-down, expectancy-driven control adjustments affect the CSE. In the present paper, we build further on the previous review (Egner, 2007) by summarizing and integrating recent behavioral and neurophysiological studies on the CSE. In doing so, we evaluate the relative contribution and theoretical value of the different attentional and memory-based accounts. Moreover, we review how all of these influences can be experimentally isolated, and discuss designs and procedures that can critically judge between them.

Duthoo, Wout; Abrahamse, Elger L.; Braem, Senne; Boehler, Carsten N.; Notebaert, Wim



Shear-free ray congruences on curved space-times  

E-print Network

A shear-free ray congruence on Minkowski space is a 3-parameter family of null geodesics along which Lie transport of a complementary 2-dimensional spacelike subspace (called the screen space) is conformal. Such congruences are defined by complex analytic surfaces in the associated twistor space $\\CP^3$ and are the basis of the construction of massless fields. On a more general space-time, it is unclear how to couple the massless field with the gravitational field. In this article we do this by considering the following Cauchy-type problem: given a Riemannian 3-manifold $(M^3, g_0)$ endowed with a unit vector field $U_0$ that is tangent to a conformal foliation, we require that the pair extend to a space-time $({\\mathcal M}, {\\mathcal G})$ endowed with a spacelike unit vector field $U_t$ in such a way that $U_t$ simultaneously generates null geodesics and is tangent to a conformal foliation on spacelike slices $t=$ const.

Paul Baird; Mohammad Wehbe



Multilevel analysis of couple congruence on pain, interference, and disability  

PubMed Central

Couple congruence on ratings of pain severity and disability were examined using hierarchical linear modeling. Older community Individuals with Chronic Pain (ICPs) and their spouses completed the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (pain severity, interference, negative spouse responses to pain), Sickness Impact Profile (physical disability, psychosocial disability), and the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (psychological distress). Both spouses reported on ICPs' pain and disability as well as their own psychological distress. Spousal incongruence was observed on interference and physical disability such that ICPs reported greater disability than their spouses reported for them. No significant incongruence was observed in pain severity or psychosocial disability. Predictors of couples' mean ratings of pain and disability were identified. Specifically, couples in which the ICP was female reported higher couples' ratings of pain severity and interference. ICP distress was related to higher couples' ratings of all pain and disability variables whereas spouse distress was related to higher psychosocial disability ratings. ICPs' perceptions of negative spouse responses were also positively associated with couples' ratings of physical and psychosocial disability. In terms of congruence, ICP distress was associated with incongruence on interference, physical disability, and psychosocial disability whereas spouse distress predicted incongruence on pain severity, and interference. This study suggests that understanding couples' pain outcome ratings involves an awareness of factors that might influence their perceptions and behaviors. PMID:16289795

Cano, Annmarie; Johansen, Ayna B.; Franz, Aleda



Media Literacy and Audiovisual Languages: A Case Study from Belgium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the use of media in the construction of a "new" language for children. We studied how children acquire and use media literacy skills through their engagement in an educational art project. This media literacy project is rooted in the realm of audiovisual media, within which children's sound and visual worlds are the focus of…

Van Bauwel, Sofie




Microsoft Academic Search

If the process of translating is not at all simple, the process of translating an audiovisual text is still more complex. Apart from technical problems such as lip synchronisation, there are other factors to be consid- ered such as the use of the language and textual structures deemed appropri- ate to the channel of communication. Bearing in mind that most

Montse Corrius Gimbert


Selected Bibliography and Audiovisual Materials for Environmental Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to resource materials on environmental education is in two sections: 1) Selected Bibliography of Printed Materials, compiled in April, 1970; and, 2) Audio-Visual materials, Films and Filmstrips, compiled in February, 1971. 99 book annotations are given with an indicator of elementary, junior or senior high school levels. Other book…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Instruction.


Summary of Findings and Recommendations on Federal Audiovisual Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the direction of President Carter, a year-long study of government audiovisual programs was conducted out of the Office of Telecommunications Policy in the Executive Office of the President. The programs in 16 departments and independent agencies, and the departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force have been reviewed to identify the scope of…

Lissit, Robert; And Others


Interactive Audiovisual Narrative-Case Study: The Telephone Man  

E-print Network

, Interactive, Narrative, Cinema, Television, Drama, Production CASE STUDY - THE TELEPHONE MAN ­ TV BASED, how they reflect and shape our whole sense of the world and ourselves as human beings, whether of interactive audiovisual narration that may be interactive television, interactive cinema, web or some other

Masthoff, Judith


Today's and Tomorrow's Retrieval Practice in the Audiovisual Archive  

E-print Network

is the audiovisual archive, whose users increasingly require fine-grained access to broadcast television content. We increases for shot retrieval and for retrieving entire television programs. Our experiments also indicate or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided

Smeulders, Arnold


Audiovisual Integration in Noise by Children and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate the development of multisensory facilitation in primary school-age children under conditions of auditory noise. Motor reaction times and accuracy were recorded from 8-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults during auditory, visual, and audiovisual detection tasks. Auditory signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 30-,…

Barutchu, Ayla; Danaher, Jaclyn; Crewther, Sheila G.; Innes-Brown, Hamish; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Paolini, Antonio G.



Multinational Exchange Mechanisms of Educational Audio-Visual Materials. Appendixes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These appendixes contain detailed information about the existing audiovisual material exchanges which served as the basis for the analysis contained in the companion report. Descriptions of the objectives, structure, financing and services of the following national and international organizations are included: (1) Educational Resources Information…

Center of Studies and Realizations for Permanent Education, Paris (France).


The Audiovisual Temporal Binding Window Narrows in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Binding is key in multisensory perception. This study investigated the audio-visual (A-V) temporal binding window in 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children (total N = 120). Children watched a person uttering a syllable whose auditory and visual components were either temporally synchronized or desynchronized by 366, 500, or 666 ms. They were asked…

Lewkowicz, David J.; Flom, Ross



Searching AVLINE for Curriculum-Related Audiovisual Instructional Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ways in which the National Library of Medicine's online data file of audiovisual instructional materials (AVLINE) can be searched are described. The search approaches were developed with the assistance of data analysts at NLM trained in reference services. AVLINE design, search strategies, and acquisition of the materials are reported. (LBH)

Bridgman, Charles F.; Suter, Emanuel



Selected Audio-Visual Materials for Consumer Education. [New Version.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ninety-two films, filmstrips, multi-media kits, slides, and audio cassettes, produced between 1964 and 1974, are listed in this selective annotated bibliography on consumer education. The major portion of the bibliography is devoted to films and filmstrips. The main topics of the audio-visual materials include purchasing, advertising, money…

Johnston, William L.



E-print Network

AUDIO-VISUAL ISOLATED DIGIT RECOGNITION FOR WHISPERED SPEECH Xing Fan, Carlos Busso, and John H. Therefore, performance of speech recognition systems trained with high energy voiced phonemes, degrades digit recognition of whispered speech. A small digit corpus with one subject speaking both whisper

Busso, Carlos


Can Audio-Visual Media Teach Children Mental Skills?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 128 third graders was made to determine whether audiovisual media does facilitate cognitive development by comparing the effects of learning a mental skill from a filmed demonstration of that skill with learning from more active kinds of experience. The mental skill was the ability to mentally transform mental images by rotating them…

Rovet, Joanne F.


Neural Development of Networks for Audiovisual Speech Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Everyday conversation is both an auditory and a visual phenomenon. While visual speech information enhances comprehension for the listener, evidence suggests that the ability to benefit from this information improves with development. A number of brain regions have been implicated in audiovisual speech comprehension, but the extent to which the…

Dick, Anthony Steven; Solodkin, Ana; Small, Steven L.



The Effect of Visual Apparent Motion on Audiovisual Simultaneity  

PubMed Central

Visual motion information from dynamic environments is important in multisensory temporal perception. However, it is unclear how visual motion information influences the integration of multisensory temporal perceptions. We investigated whether visual apparent motion affects audiovisual temporal perception. Visual apparent motion is a phenomenon in which two flashes presented in sequence in different positions are perceived as continuous motion. Across three experiments, participants performed temporal order judgment (TOJ) tasks. Experiment 1 was a TOJ task conducted in order to assess audiovisual simultaneity during perception of apparent motion. The results showed that the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS) was shifted toward a sound-lead stimulus, and the just noticeable difference (JND) was reduced compared with a normal TOJ task with a single flash. This indicates that visual apparent motion affects audiovisual simultaneity and improves temporal discrimination in audiovisual processing. Experiment 2 was a TOJ task conducted in order to remove the influence of the amount of flash stimulation from Experiment 1. The PSS and JND during perception of apparent motion were almost identical to those in Experiment 1, but differed from those for successive perception when long temporal intervals were included between two flashes without motion. This showed that the result obtained under the apparent motion condition was unaffected by the amount of flash stimulation. Because apparent motion was produced by a constant interval between two flashes, the results may be accounted for by specific prediction. In Experiment 3, we eliminated the influence of prediction by randomizing the intervals between the two flashes. However, the PSS and JND did not differ from those in Experiment 1. It became clear that the results obtained for the perception of visual apparent motion were not attributable to prediction. Our findings suggest that visual apparent motion changes temporal simultaneity perception and improves temporal discrimination in audiovisual processing. PMID:25295594

Kwon, Jinhwan; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Miyake, Yoshihiro



Context-specific effects of musical expertise on audiovisual integration  

PubMed Central

Ensemble musicians exchange auditory and visual signals that can facilitate interpersonal synchronization. Musical expertise improves how precisely auditory and visual signals are perceptually integrated and increases sensitivity to asynchrony between them. Whether expertise improves sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony in all instrumental contexts or only in those using sound-producing gestures that are within an observer's own motor repertoire is unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that musicians are more sensitive to audiovisual asynchrony in performances featuring their own instrument than in performances featuring other instruments. Short clips were extracted from audio-video recordings of clarinet, piano, and violin performances and presented to highly-skilled clarinetists, pianists, and violinists. Clips either maintained the audiovisual synchrony present in the original recording or were modified so that the video led or lagged behind the audio. Participants indicated whether the audio and video channels in each clip were synchronized. The range of asynchronies most often endorsed as synchronized was assessed as a measure of participants' sensitivities to audiovisual asynchrony. A positive relationship was observed between musical training and sensitivity, with data pooled across stimuli. While participants across expertise groups detected asynchronies most readily in piano stimuli and least readily in violin stimuli, pianists showed significantly better performance for piano stimuli than for either clarinet or violin. These findings suggest that, to an extent, the effects of expertise on audiovisual integration can be instrument-specific; however, the nature of the sound-producing gestures that are observed has a substantial effect on how readily asynchrony is detected as well.

Bishop, Laura; Goebl, Werner



Context-specific effects of musical expertise on audiovisual integration.  


Ensemble musicians exchange auditory and visual signals that can facilitate interpersonal synchronization. Musical expertise improves how precisely auditory and visual signals are perceptually integrated and increases sensitivity to asynchrony between them. Whether expertise improves sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony in all instrumental contexts or only in those using sound-producing gestures that are within an observer's own motor repertoire is unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that musicians are more sensitive to audiovisual asynchrony in performances featuring their own instrument than in performances featuring other instruments. Short clips were extracted from audio-video recordings of clarinet, piano, and violin performances and presented to highly-skilled clarinetists, pianists, and violinists. Clips either maintained the audiovisual synchrony present in the original recording or were modified so that the video led or lagged behind the audio. Participants indicated whether the audio and video channels in each clip were synchronized. The range of asynchronies most often endorsed as synchronized was assessed as a measure of participants' sensitivities to audiovisual asynchrony. A positive relationship was observed between musical training and sensitivity, with data pooled across stimuli. While participants across expertise groups detected asynchronies most readily in piano stimuli and least readily in violin stimuli, pianists showed significantly better performance for piano stimuli than for either clarinet or violin. These findings suggest that, to an extent, the effects of expertise on audiovisual integration can be instrument-specific; however, the nature of the sound-producing gestures that are observed has a substantial effect on how readily asynchrony is detected as well. PMID:25324819

Bishop, Laura; Goebl, Werner



Introduction Semantic Web  

E-print Network

and Text Mining Machine Reading Relation Extraction Named Entity Recognition and Disambiguation Semantic Extraction and Text Mining Machine Reading Relation Extraction Named Entity Recognition and Disambiguation Information Sources 4 Information Extraction and Text Mining Machine Reading Relation Extraction Named Entity

Nejdl, Wolfgang


Going, going, gone? Proactive control prevents the congruency sequence effect from rapid decay.  


The congruency sequence effect, the finding of a reduced congruency effect following incongruent trials in conflict tasks, has received considerable attention in the research on cognitive control over the last two decades. This effect can reflect either the expectancy-guided, preparatory biasing of attention in anticipation of the upcoming stimulus (i.e. proactive control), or the phasic enhancement of the attentional set in response to conflict on the previous trial (i.e. reactive control). A recent study by Egner et al. in Front Psychol 1 (2010) set out to contrast these two alternatives, by exploring the congruency sequence effect across a wide range of inter-trial intervals. It was found that congruency sequence effects were subject to rapid decay over time. This decay fits well with the notion of reactive control, while at the same time speaking against the involvement of proactive regulation—which should also (and even mainly) be evident at longer intervals. In the present study, we first replicate the reduction of the congruency sequence effect with increasing inter-trial interval in a face-word Stroop task. In a second experiment, we show that congruency sequence effects are observed at longer intervals, too, when the proportion of trials with the longest inter-trial interval is increased. Our findings indicate that proactive control can prevent the congruency sequence effect from decaying rapidly. PMID:24077774

Duthoo, W; Abrahamse, E L; Braem, S; Notebaert, W



Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis is a novel statistical technique for the analysis of two--mode and co-occurrence data, which has applications in information retrieval and filtering, natural language processing, machine learning from text, and in related areas. Compared to standard Latent Semantic Analysis which stems from linear algebra and performs a Singular Value Decomposition of co-occurrence tables, the proposed method is

Thomas Hofmann



High congruence of isotope sewage signals in multiple marine taxa.  


Assessments of sewage pollution routinely employ stable nitrogen isotope analysis (?(15)N) in biota, but multiple taxa are rarely used. This single species focus leads to underreporting of whether derived spatial N patterns are consistent. Here we test the question of 'reproducibility', incorporating 'taxonomic replication' in the measurement of ?(15)N gradients in algae, seagrasses, crabs and fish with distance from a sewage outfall on the Adelaide coast (southern Australia). Isotopic sewage signals were equally strong in all taxa and declined at the same rate. This congruence amongst taxa has not been reported previously. It implies that sewage-N propagates to fish via a tight spatial coupling between production and consumption processes, resulting from limited animal movement that closely preserves the spatial pollution imprint. In situations such as this where consumers mirror pollution signals of primary producers, analyses of higher trophic levels will capture a broader ambit of ecological effects. PMID:23602260

Connolly, Rod M; Gorman, Daniel; Hindell, Jeremy S; Kildea, Timothy N; Schlacher, Thomas A



Spousal congruence on disability, pain, and spouse responses to pain  

PubMed Central

We examined congruence between chronic pain patients and their spouses on their reports of patient pain severity, patient disability, and spouse responses to pain. Patients reported that they were more physically and psychosocially disabled than their spouses reported them to be. However, spouses reported that the patients’ pain was more severe than patients reported. Depressive disorders in the patient and gender interacted with patient–spouse ratings. For physical and psychosocial disability, depressed patient couples reported significantly larger differences in disability ratings than non-depressed patient couples. In addition, female patients’ disability was rated as more severe by the female patients than by their husbands. Male patient couples did not report differences on physical disability. Findings relating to other forms of disability and to spouse responses are also described. The results are discussed in the context of an interpersonal perspective of chronic pain and have implications for the assessment of pain and disability. PMID:15157686

Cano, Annmarie; Johansen, Ayna B.; Geisser, Michael



In Support of Semantic Atoms. Semantic Studies 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several hypotheses about the nature of word meaning are discussed and discarded in favor of one that treats semantic atoms (distinctive semantic elements) as elemental predicates that can be arranged in any configuration. (Author/KM)

Hofmann, Thomas R.



Neural development of networks for audiovisual speech comprehension  

PubMed Central

Everyday conversation is both an auditory and a visual phenomenon. While visual speech information enhances comprehension for the listener, evidence suggests that the ability to benefit from this information improves with development. A number of brain regions have been implicated in audiovisual speech comprehension, but the extent to which the neurobiological substrate in the child compares to the adult is unknown. In particular, developmental differences in the network for audiovisual speech comprehension could manifest though the incorporation of additional brain regions, or through different patterns of effective connectivity. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and structural equation modeling (SEM) to characterize the developmental changes in network interactions for audiovisual speech comprehension. The brain response was recorded while children 8- to 11-years-old and adults passively listened to stories under audiovisual (AV) and auditory-only (A) conditions. Results showed that in children and adults, AV comprehension activated the same fronto-temporo-parietal network of regions known for their contribution to speech production and perception. However, the SEM network analysis revealed age-related differences in the functional interactions among these regions. In particular, the influence of the posterior inferior frontal gyrus/ventral premotor cortex on supramarginal gyrus differed across age groups during AV, but not A speech. This functional pathway might be important for relating motor and sensory information used by the listener to identify speech sounds. Further, its development might reflect changes in the mechanisms that relate visual speech information to articulatory speech representations through experience producing and perceiving speech. PMID:19781755

Dick, Anthony Steven; Solodkin, Ana; Small, Steven L.



Audiovisual Analysis and Synthesis for Multimodal Human-Computer Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multimodal signal processing techniques are called to play a salient role in the implementation of natural computer-human\\u000a interfaces. In particular, the development of efficient interface front ends that emulate interpersonal communication would\\u000a benefit from the use of techniques capable of processing the visual and auditory modes jointly. This work introduces the application\\u000a of audiovisual analysis and synthesis techniques based on

Xavier Sevillano; Javier Melenchón; Germán Cobo; Joan Claudi Socoró; Francesc Alías


Market potential for interactive audio-visual media  

Microsoft Academic Search

NM2 (New Media for a New Millennium) develops tools for interactive, personalised and non-linear audio-visual content that will be tested in seven pilot productions. This paper looks at the market potential for these productions from a technological, a business and a users' perspective. It shows that digital broadcast networks and broadband Internet are rapidly growing in Europe, but will have

Andra Leurdijk; Sander Limonard



Audiovisual integration in the human perception of materials.  


Interest in the perception of the material of objects has been growing. While material perception is a critical ability for animals to properly regulate behavioral interactions with surrounding objects (e.g., eating), little is known about its underlying processing. Vision and audition provide useful information for material perception; using only its visual appearance or impact sound, we can infer what an object is made from. However, what material is perceived when the visual appearance of one material is combined with the impact sound of another, and what are the rules that govern cross-modal integration of material information? We addressed these questions by asking 16 human participants to rate how likely it was that audiovisual stimuli (48 combinations of visual appearances of six materials and impact sounds of eight materials) along with visual-only stimuli and auditory-only stimuli fell into each of 13 material categories. The results indicated strong interactions between audiovisual material perceptions; for example, the appearance of glass paired with a pepper sound is perceived as transparent plastic. Rating material-category likelihoods follow a multiplicative integration rule in that the categories judged to be likely are consistent with both visual and auditory stimuli. On the other hand, rating-material properties, such as roughness and hardness, follow a weighted average rule. Despite a difference in their integration calculations, both rules can be interpreted as optimal Bayesian integration of independent audiovisual estimations for the two types of material judgment, respectively. PMID:24744448

Fujisaki, Waka; Goda, Naokazu; Motoyoshi, Isamu; Komatsu, Hidehiko; Nishida, Shin'ya



Temporal Structure and Complexity Affect Audio-Visual Correspondence Detection  

PubMed Central

Synchrony between events in different senses has long been considered the critical temporal cue for multisensory integration. Here, using rapid streams of auditory and visual events, we demonstrate how humans can use temporal structure (rather than mere temporal coincidence) to detect multisensory relatedness. We find psychophysically that participants can detect matching auditory and visual streams via shared temporal structure for crossmodal lags of up to 200?ms. Performance on this task reproduced features of past findings based on explicit timing judgments but did not show any special advantage for perfectly synchronous streams. Importantly, the complexity of temporal patterns influences sensitivity to correspondence. Stochastic, irregular streams – with richer temporal pattern information – led to higher audio-visual matching sensitivity than predictable, rhythmic streams. Our results reveal that temporal structure and its complexity are key determinants for human detection of audio-visual correspondence. The distinctive emphasis of our new paradigms on temporal patterning could be useful for studying special populations with suspected abnormalities in audio-visual temporal perception and multisensory integration. PMID:23346067

Denison, Rachel N.; Driver, Jon; Ruff, Christian C.



Audiovisual communication and therapeutic jurisprudence: Cognitive and social psychological dimensions.  


The effects of audiovisual communications on the emotional and psychological well-being of participants in the legal system have not been previously examined. Using as a framework for analysis what Slobogin (1996) calls internal balancing (of therapeutic versus antitherapeutic effects) and external balancing (of therapeutic jurisprudence [TJ] effects versus effects on other legal values), this brief paper discusses three examples that suggest the complexity of evaluating courtroom audiovisuals in TJ terms. In each instance, audiovisual displays that are admissible based on their arguable probative or explanatory value - day-in-the-life movies, victim impact videos, and computer simulations of litigated events - might well reduce stress and thus improve the psychological well-being of personal injury plaintiffs, survivors, and jurors, respectively. In each situation, however, other emotional and cognitive effects may prove antitherapeutic for the target or other participants, and/or may undermine other important values including outcome accuracy, fairness, and even the conception of the legal decision maker as a moral actor. PMID:20920823

Feigenson, Neal



The Semantic SPASE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Semantic SPASE (Space Physics Archive Search and Extract) prototype demonstrates the use of semantic web technologies to capture, document, and manage the SPASE data model, support facet- and text-based search, and provide flexible and intuitive user interfaces. The SPASE data model, under development since late 2003 by a consortium of space physics domain experts, is intended to serve as the basis for interoperability between independent data systems. To develop the Semantic SPASE prototype, the data model was first analyzed to determine the inherit object classes and their attributes. These were entered into Stanford Medical Informatics' Protege ontology tool and annotated using definitions from the SPASE documentation. Further analysis of the data model resulted in the addition of class relationships. Finally attributes and relationships that support broad-scope interoperability were added from research associated with the Object-Oriented Data Technology task. To validate the ontology and produce a knowledge base, example data products were ingested. The capture of the data model as an ontology results in a more formal specification of the model. The Protege software is also a powerful management tool and supports plug-ins that produce several graphical notations as output. The stated purpose of the semantic web is to support machine understanding of web-based information. Protege provides an export capability to RDF/XML and RDFS/XML for this purpose. Several research efforts use RDF/XML knowledge bases to provide semantic search. MIT's Simile/Longwell project provides both facet- and text-based search using a suite of metadata browsers and the text-based search engine Lucene. Using the Protege generated RDF knowledge-base a semantic search application was easily built and deployed to run as a web application. Configuration files specify the object attributes and values to be designated as facets (i.e. search) constraints. Semantic web technologies provide the means to easily implement semantic search for science data archives using space science data models and metadata. It also suggests the means to support correlative search across science disciplines, missions, and instruments since multiple ontologies can be gathered together for processing . Finally broad scope interoperability can be envisioned where semantically aware software agents reason about and process distributed science data repositories.

Hughes, S.; Crichton, D.; Thieman, J.; Ramirez, P.; King, T.; Weiss, M.



Congruence within the Parent-Teacher Relationship: Associations with Children's Functioning1  

E-print Network

1 Congruence within the Parent-Teacher Relationship: Associations with Children's Functioning1 adjustment (Christenson & Sheridan, 2001). Positive relationships between parents and teachers predict, Kasprow, & Fendrich, 1999). Studies of parent-teacher relationships often focus on the association

Farritor, Shane


On space-times admitting shear-free, irrotational, geodesic null congruences  

E-print Network

Space-times admitting a shear-free, irrotational, geodesic null congruence are studied. Attention is focused on those space-times in which the gravitational field is a combination of a perfect fluid and null radiation.

A. M. Sintes; A. A. Coley; D. J. McManus



Fixed bearing knee congruency -- influence on contact mechanics, abrasive wear and kinematics.  


The objective of our study was to evaluate the in vitro wear behavior of fixed bearing designs for total knee arthroplasty in relation to contact mechanics and resultant kinematics for different degrees of congruency. a finite element model was created for three knee articulations with increasing degrees of tibio-femoral congruency (flat, curved, and dished design). For the three different knee design configurations, in vitro wear simulation was performed according to iso 14243-1. Contact areas increased with increasing knee congruency, whereas the peak surface contact stresses decreased. The wear rates for the knee design configurations differed substantially between the three test groups (flat, curved, and dished). our observations demonstrate that increased congruency in conjunction with decreased surface contact stresses significantly contributes to reducing wear in fixed bearing knee articulations. PMID:19569029

Grupp, Thomas M; Stulberg, Dave; Kaddick, Christian; Maas, Allan; Fritz, Bernhard; Schwiesau, Jens; Bloemer, Wilhlm




E-print Network


Kearnes, Keith A.



E-print Network


Szendrei, Ágnes



E-print Network


Kearnes, Keith A.


Supporting Personal Semantic Annotations in P2P Semantic Wikis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose to extend Peer-to-Peer Semantic Wikis with personal semantic annotations. Semantic Wikis are one of the most successful Semantic Web applications. In semantic wikis, wikis pages are annotated with semantic data to facilitate the navigation, information retrieving and ontology emerging. Semantic data represents the shared knowledge base which describes the common understanding of the community. However, in a collaborative knowledge building process the knowledge is basically created by individuals who are involved in a social process. Therefore, it is fundamental to support personal knowledge building in a differentiated way. Currently there are no available semantic wikis that support both personal and shared understandings. In order to overcome this problem, we propose a P2P collaborative knowledge building process and extend semantic wikis with personal annotations facilities to express personal understanding. In this paper, we detail the personal semantic annotation model and show its implementation in P2P semantic wikis. We also detail an evaluation study which shows that personal annotations demand less cognitive efforts than semantic data and are very useful to enrich the shared knowledge base.

Torres, Diego; Skaf-Molli, Hala; Díaz, Alicia; Molli, Pascal


A semantic space for modeling children's semantic memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary model based on a child corpus In contrast to many LSA semantic spaces in the literature which are based on domain - specific corpora, we chose to build a general child corpus intended to model children's semantic memory (Denhière, Lemaire, Bellissens & Jhean - Larose, 2004) and to offer a layer of basic semantic associations on top of

Guy Denhière; Benoît Lemaire; Cédrick Bellissens; Sandra Jhean-larose



A semantic space for modeling children's semantic memory  

E-print Network

1 A semantic space for modeling children's semantic memory Guy Denhière, CNRS (UMR 6146 in the literature which are based on domain- specific corpora, we chose to build a general child corpus intended to model children's semantic memory (Denhière, Lemaire, Bellissens & Jhean- Larose, 2004) and to offer

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Corporate Governance Systems: Effects of Capital and Labor Market Congruency on Corporate Innovation and Global Competitiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Drawing on institutional economics, this article addresses how institutional congruence between capital and labor markets\\u000a influences corporate governance systems, which, in turn, create differences in national corporate innovation and entrepreneurship\\u000a systems and subsequently global competitiveness. We argue that such institutional congruence cultivates two ideal corporate\\u000a governance systems. The first ideal type is the market-based system with transactional capital and external

Robert E. Hoskisson; Daphne Yiu; Hicheon Kim


Relation of congruence in student-faculty interests to achievement in college  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administered to 110 1st-yr military college students and 88% of the faculty (N = 44) the Holland Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI), the EPPS, and the SVIB to explore the relationship between congruency of student-faculty interests to academic achievement. Results indicate gross support for the congruency hypothesis on the EPPS and the personality-type code profiles on the VPI. Although promising, the

Allan B. Posthuma; Leslie Navran



Dispositional Motivations and Message Framing: A Test of the Congruency Hypothesis in College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined the congruency hypothesis that health messages framed to be concordant with dispositional motivations will be most effective in promoting health behaviors. Undergraduate students (N = 63) completed a measure of approach\\/avoidance orientation (behavioral activation\\/inhibition system) and read a gain- or loss-framed message promoting flossing. Results support the congruency hypothesis: When given a loss-framed message, avoidance-oriented people reported

Traci Mann; David Sherman; John Updegraff



Effects of Interest–Major Congruence, Motivation, and Academic Performance on Timely Degree Attainment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using longitudinal student data from 15 four-year (n = 3,072) and 13 (n = 788) two-year postsecondary institutions, the authors tested the effects of interest–major congruence, motivation, and 1st-year academic performance on timely degree completion. Findings suggest that interest–major congruence has a direct effect on timely degree completion at both institutional settings and that motivation has indirect effects (via 1st-year

Jeff Allen; Steve Robbins



Creativity and its relationship to locus of control, field-independence/dependence and congruence-incongruence  

E-print Network


Malatich, James Nicholas



Task rule-congruency and Simon-like effects in switching between spatial tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In task switching, a response indicated as correct by both task rules is executed more quickly than one for which the rules disagree. This rule-congruency, so far demonstrated unequivocally only in nonspatial tasks, shows that the currently irrelevant task set is kept active. However, in spatial task-switching, rule-congruency could potentially reflect a preexperimental tendency that contributes to a Simon-like effect.

Nachshon Meiran



Congruence Between Gender Stereotypes and Activity Preference in Self-Identified Tomboys and Non-Tomboys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major goal was to examine a central tenet of cognitive approaches to gender development, namely, that congruence exists\\u000a between personal gender stereotypes and behaviors. Item-by-item comparisons of girls’ stereotypes about activities and their\\u000a preferences for activities were conducted, for both girls who claimed to be tomboys and those who did not. Congruence was\\u000a expected for all girls, but because

Carol Lynn Martin; Lisa M. Dinella


Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs  

SciTech Connect

A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M



Congruence between gender stereotypes and activity preference in self-identified tomboys and non-tomboys.  


The major goal was to examine a central tenet of cognitive approaches to gender development, namely, that congruence exists between personal gender stereotypes and behaviors. Item-by-item comparisons of girls' stereotypes about activities and their preferences for activities were conducted, for both girls who claimed to be tomboys and those who did not. Congruence was expected for all girls, but because of their gender non-normative interests, tomboys may exhibit less congruence. A secondary goal was to examine factors that might influence congruence, specifically, whether tomboys develop more inclusive stereotypes and develop greater understanding of stereotype variability. Participants included 112 girls (7-12 years old, M age=9). Girls were interviewed about their activity preferences, beliefs about girls' and boys' activity preferences, understanding variability of stereotypes, and identification as tomboys. Tomboys (30% of the sample) and non-tomboys did not differ in their liking of or in the number of liked feminine activities. However, tomboys showed more interest in masculine activities than non-tomboys. Tomboys and non-tomboys did not differ in stereotype inclusiveness, although tomboys showed a trend toward more inclusive stereotypes. Both groups showed high levels of congruence between stereotypes and preferences. Congruence was stronger for nontomboys (14 times more likely to exhibit responses congruent with stereotypes vs. incongruent ones), as compared to tomboys who were four times more likely to exhibit responses congruent with stereotypes versus incongruent ones. Implications of these findings for cognitive approaches to gender development are discussed. PMID:21755383

Martin, Carol Lynn; Dinella, Lisa M



A Semantic Web Services Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The semantic Web services initiative architecture (SWSA) committee has created a set of architectural and protocol abstractions that serve as a foundation for semantic Web service technologies. This article summarizes the committee's findings, emphasizing its review of requirements gathered from several different environments. We also identify the scope and potential requirements for a semantic Web services architecture.

Mark H. Burstein; Christoph Bussler; Michal Zaremba; Timothy W. Finin; Michael N. Huhns; Massimo Paolucci; Amit P. Sheth; Stuart K. Williams



Xiaomeng Su Semantic Enrichment for  

E-print Network

Xiaomeng Su Semantic Enrichment for Ontology Mapping Department of Computer and Information Science for sys- tem interoperability. Initiatives like the Semantic Web strive to allow soft- ware agents to locate and integrate data in a more intelligent way via the use of ontologies. The Semantic Web offers


Semantic Enrichment of Interoperable Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated access to a federated database system, requires a deep knowledge about the semantics of its component databases so that interdatabase semantic relationships can be detected. Unfortunately, very often there is a lack of such a knowledge and the local schemas do not help to acquire it. The solution is to upgrade the semantic level of the local schemas through

Malú Castellanos



Semantic Annotation for Process Models  

E-print Network

- proach to enrich and reconcile semantics of process models -- a kind of semi-structured artifactYun Lin Semantic Annotation for Process Models: Facilitating Process Knowledge Management via Semantic Interoperability Department of Computer and Information Science Norwegian University of Science

Langseth, Helge


Semantic Interpretation in Generative Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author finds Katz and Postal's 1964 generative semantic theories concerning the organization of grammar incorrect and proposes an interpretive approach to semantics in which syntactic structures are given interpretations by an autonomous semantic component. The research reported leads the author to describe a generative grammar consisting of…

Jackendoff, Ray S.


Latent Semantic Kernels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kernel methods like Support Vector Machines have\\u000a successfully been used for text categorization. A standard\\u000a choice of kernel function has been the inner product\\u000a between the vector-space representation of two documents,\\u000a in analogy with classical information retrieval (IR)\\u000a approaches. Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) has been\\u000a successfully used for IR purposes as a technique for\\u000a capturing semantic relations between terms and

Nello Cristianini; John Shawe-Taylor; Huma Lodhi



Latent Semantic Kernels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kernel methods like Support Vector Machines have\\u000a successfully been used for text categorization. A standard\\u000a choice of kernel function has been the inner product\\u000a between the vector-space representation of two documents,\\u000a in analogy with classical information retrieval (IR)\\u000a approaches. Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) has been\\u000a successfully used for IR purposes, as a technique for\\u000a capturing semantic relations between terms and

Nello Cristianini; John Shawe-Taylor; Huma Lodhi



Semantator: semantic annotator for converting biomedical text to linked data.  


More than 80% of biomedical data is embedded in plain text. The unstructured nature of these text-based documents makes it challenging to easily browse and query the data of interest in them. One approach to facilitate browsing and querying biomedical text is to convert the plain text to a linked web of data, i.e., converting data originally in free text to structured formats with defined meta-level semantics. In this paper, we introduce Semantator (Semantic Annotator), a semantic-web-based environment for annotating data of interest in biomedical documents, browsing and querying the annotated data, and interactively refining annotation results if needed. Through Semantator, information of interest can be either annotated manually or semi-automatically using plug-in information extraction tools. The annotated results will be stored in RDF and can be queried using the SPARQL query language. In addition, semantic reasoners can be directly applied to the annotated data for consistency checking and knowledge inference. Semantator has been released online and was used by the biomedical ontology community who provided positive feedbacks. Our evaluation results indicated that (1) Semantator can perform the annotation functionalities as designed; (2) Semantator can be adopted in real applications in clinical and transactional research; and (3) the annotated results using Semantator can be easily used in Semantic-web-based reasoning tools for further inference. PMID:23867104

Tao, Cui; Song, Dezhao; Sharma, Deepak; Chute, Christopher G



A semantic space for modeling children's semantic memory  

E-print Network

The goal of this paper is to present a model of children's semantic memory, which is based on a corpus reproducing the kinds of texts children are exposed to. After presenting the literature in the development of the semantic memory, a preliminary French corpus of 3.2 million words is described. Similarities in the resulting semantic space are compared to human data on four tests: association norms, vocabulary test, semantic judgments and memory tasks. A second corpus is described, which is composed of subcorpora corresponding to various ages. This stratified corpus is intended as a basis for developmental studies. Finally, two applications of these models of semantic memory are presented: the first one aims at tracing the development of semantic similarities paragraph by paragraph; the second one describes an implementation of a model of text comprehension derived from the Construction-integration model (Kintsch, 1988, 1998) and based on such models of semantic memory.

Denhière, Guy; Bellissens, Cédrick; Jhean, Sandra



Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA)[1] Probabilistic LSA (pLSA)  

E-print Network

LSA ( ) 1 semantic semantic Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA)[1] Probabilistic LSA (pLSA) Bag Of Words (BOW) semantic LSA Latent Semantic Kernel PCA [2] Dynamic Time Alignment Kernel (DTA Kernel) [3] Latent Semantic LSA 2 Latent Semantic Analysis LSA Latent Semantic Latent Semantic LSA W = USVT . (1) W

Takiguchi, Tetsuya


Infants' sensitivity to the congruence of others' emotions and actions.  


As humans, we are attuned to the moods and emotions of others. This understanding of emotions enables us to interpret other people's actions on the basis of their emotional displays. However, the development of this capacity is not well understood. Here we show a developmental pattern in 10- and 14-month-old infants' sensitivity to others' emotions and actions. Infants were shown video clips in which happy or angry actors performed a positive action (patting a toy tiger) or a negative action (thumping the toy tiger). Only 14-month-olds, but not 10-month-olds, showed selectively greater sympathetic activity (i.e., pupil dilation) both when an angry actor performed the positive action and when a happy actor performed the negative action, in contrast to the actors performing the actions congruent with their displayed emotions. These results suggest that at the beginning of the second year of life, infants become sensitive to the congruence of other people's emotions and actions, indicating an emerging abstract concept of emotions during infancy. The results are discussed in light of previous research on emotion understanding during infancy. PMID:23454359

Hepach, Robert; Westermann, Gert



Biodiversity Congruence and Conservation Strategies: A National Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding patterns of biodiversity is essential to developing conservation strategies and monitoring conservation goals, and severe data constraints make surrogate indicators necessary. We used a comprehensive data set of 6959 species of amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, and vascular plants in terrestrial ecosystems of China to test the correlations among taxa, the utility of surrogates, and the effectiveness of conservation strategies in China. The results showed that the patterns of species richness between terrestrial vertebrates and vascular plants are concordant, except for those patterns between amphibians and birds; patterns of endemism are concordant at the national level; species richness and endemism are congruent, and each class can represent the four remaining classes. The underlying mechanisms responsible for the decline of species, however, are quite diverse, and conservation of one endangered class will not necessarily save the other classes. These results suggest that the extent of congruence varies according to the taxa and measures of diversity that are compared. There is no correlation between the coverage of nature reserves and overall species richness, endemism, or threat, nor between biodiversity investment and species richness, endemism, or threat.

Haigen Xu (Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences (NIES);)



Environmental Attitudes Semantic Differential.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is an evaluation instrument which utilizes semantic differential data to assess environmental attitudes. Twelve concepts are included: regulated access to beaches, urban planning, dune vegetation, wetlands, future cities, reclaiming wetlands for building development, city parks, commercial development of beaches, existing cities,…

Mehne, Paul R.; Goulard, Cary J.


Semantic and Lexical Coherence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helping students understand coherence in terms of the lexical ties and semantic relations possible between clauses and sentences formalizes an area of writing instruction that has been somewhat vague before and makes the process of creating a coherent paragraph less mysterious. Many students do not have the intuitive knowledge base for absorbing…

Fahnestock, Jeanne


Semantic Web 30Artificial  

E-print Network

312007.11 "" Semantic Web 30Artificial IntelligenceKnowledge Representation Inductive Web datasets ---- Tim Berners-Lee Tim Berners-Lee " "" " Web 2.0---- Web Web 2.0 Frank van Harmelen W3C OWL Web Sesame RDF Aduna 100 Hirsch 35 5 15 ECAI2002 3 ISWC

van Harmelen, Frank


KIM - Semantic Annotation Platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The KIM platform provides a novel Knowledge and Information Management infrastructure and services for automatic semantic annotation, indexing, and retrieval of documents. It provides mature infrastructure for scaleable and customizable information extraction (IE1) as well as annotation and document management, based on GATE2. In order to provide basic level of performance and allow easy bootstrapping of applications, KIM is equipped

Borislav Popov; Atanas Kiryakov; Angel Kirilov; Dimitar Manov; Damyan Ognyanoff; Miroslav Goranov



Semantic file systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semantic file system is an information storage system that provides flexible associative access to the system's contents by automatically extracting attributes from files with file type specific transducers. Associative access is provided by a conservative extension to existing tree-structured file system protocols, and by protocols that are designed specifically for content based access. Compatiblity with existing file system protocols

David K. Gifford; Pierre Jouvelot; Mark A. Sheldon; James W. O'Toole Jr.



Semantics of probabilistic programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two complementary but equivalent semantic interpretations of a high level probabilistic programming language are given. One of these interprets programs as partial measurable functions on a measurable space. The other interprets programs as continuous linear operators on a Banach space of measures. It is shown how the ordered domains of Scott and others are embedded naturally into these spaces. Two

Dexter Kozen; Yorktown Heights



Semantic physical science  

PubMed Central

The articles in this special issue arise from a workshop and symposium held in January 2012 (Semantic Physical Science’). We invited people who shared our vision for the potential of the web to support chemical and related subjects. Other than the initial invitations, we have not exercised any control over the content of the contributed articles. PMID:22856527



Latent Semantic Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA): (1) LSA overview; (2) applications of LSA, including information retrieval (IR), information filtering, cross-language retrieval, and other IR-related LSA applications; (3) modeling human memory, including the relationship of LSA to other…

Dumais, Susan T.



Probabilistic latent semantic indexing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic Latent Semantic Indexing is a novel approach to automated document indexing which is based on a statistical latent class model for factor analysis of count data. Fitted from a training corpus of text documents by a generalization of the Expectation Maximization algorithm, the utilized model is able to deal with domain-specific synonymy as well as with polysemous words. In

Thomas Hofmann



Semantic deviation in Free Verse  

E-print Network

Abstract: The semantic deviation is one of the most effective ways of personification (Prosopopeia) in the language of the poem and defamiliarization in which many poets apply it for highlighting their poetry language. In this article, it is firstly pointed to Nima as the foundation of semantic deviation and the father of free verse, then his semantic deviation has been assessed efficiently. For the reason, it is firstly written an introduction about defamiliarization and its histoty, personification and semantic deviation; then, it is discussed on deviation in Nima free- verse and presented a apparently that he has used different semantic deviations for his verses personification; In continue, different semantic deviations along with Nima's free- verse samples have been evaluated; this study representing that although Nima has used efficiently different elements in semantic deviation, but the most common element is defamiliarization in his poems.

Hamidreza Farzi; Rostam Amani Astmal; Ali Dehghan



ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Exploring Student Perceptions of Audiovisual Feedback via Screencasting in Online Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Moore's (1993) theory of transactional distance as a framework, this action research study explored students' perceptions of audiovisual feedback provided via screencasting as a supplement to text-only feedback. A crossover design was employed to ensure that all students experienced both text-only and text-plus-audiovisual feedback and to…

Mathieson, Kathleen



Children with a History of SLI Show Reduced Sensitivity to Audiovisual Temporal Asynchrony: An ERP Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The authors examined whether school-age children with a history of specific language impairment (H-SLI), their peers with typical development (TD), and adults differ in sensitivity to audiovisual temporal asynchrony and whether such difference stems from the sensory encoding of audiovisual information. Method: Fifteen H-SLI children, 15…

Kaganovich, Natalya; Schumaker, Jennifer; Leonard, Laurence B.; Gustafson, Dana; Macias, Danielle



Audiovisual Speech Perception and Eye Gaze Behavior of Adults with Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Audiovisual speech perception was studied in adults with Asperger syndrome (AS), by utilizing the McGurk effect, in which conflicting visual articulation alters the perception of heard speech. The AS group perceived the audiovisual stimuli differently from age, sex and IQ matched controls. When a voice saying /p/ was presented with a face…

Saalasti, Satu; Katsyri, Jari; Tiippana, Kaisa; Laine-Hernandez, Mari; von Wendt, Lennart; Sams, Mikko



Using Audio-Visual Study Lessons to Teach the Unprepared Student  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes supplementary audio-visual lessons in inorganic chemistry designed to correct for the wide diversity in educational background by giving the poorly-prepared student additional help in mastering subject matter. In ranking various study aids for their effectiveness, 88 percent of the students ranked audio-visual tapes as most effective.…

Suter, Patricia H.



Energetic and informational masking effects in an audio-visual speech recognition system.  

E-print Network

1 Energetic and informational masking effects in an audio-visual speech recognition system. Jon Barker and Xu Shao Abstract The paper presents a robust audio-visual speech recognition technique called on a small vocabulary simultaneous speech recognition task in conditions that promote two contrasting types

Barker, Jon


The Semantic Distance Model of Relevance Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the Semantic Distance Model (SDM) of Relevance Assessment, a cognitive model of the relationship between semantic distance and relevance assessment. Discusses premises of the model such as the subjective nature of information and the metaphor of semantic distance. Empirical results illustrate the effects of semantic distance and semantic…

Brooks, Terrence A.



Latent Semantic Indexing of medical diagnoses using UMLS semantic structures.  

PubMed Central

The relational files within the UMLS Metathesaurus contain rich semantic associations to main concepts. We invoked the technique of Latent Semantic Indexing to generate information matrices based on these relationships and created "semantic vectors" using singular value decomposition. Evaluations were made on the complete set and subsets of Metathesaurus main concepts with the semantic type "Disease or Syndrome." Real number matrices were created with main concepts, lexical variants, synonyms, and associated expressions. Ancestors, children, siblings, and related terms were added to alternative matrices, preserving the hierarchical direction of the relation as the imaginary component of a complex number. Preliminary evaluation suggests that this technique is robust. A major advantage is the exploitation of semantic features which derive from a statistical decomposition of UMLS structures, possibly reducing dependence on the tedious construction of semantic frames by humans. PMID:1807584

Chute, C. G.; Yang, Y.; Evans, D. A.



Live Social Semantics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social interactions are one of the key factors to the success of conferences and similar community gatherings. This paper describes a novel application that integrates data from the semantic web, online social networks, and a real-world contact sensing platform. This application was successfully deployed at ESWC09, and actively used by 139 people. Personal profiles of the participants were automatically generated using several Web 2.0 systems and semantic academic data sources, and integrated in real-time with face-to-face contact networks derived from wearable sensors. Integration of all these heterogeneous data layers made it possible to offer various services to conference attendees to enhance their social experience such as visualisation of contact data, and a site to explore and connect with other participants. This paper describes the architecture of the application, the services we provided, and the results we achieved in this deployment.

Alani, Harith; Szomszor, Martin; Cattuto, Ciro; van den Broeck, Wouter; Correndo, Gianluca; Barrat, Alain


Video genre categorization and representation using audio-visual information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an audio-visual approach to video genre classification using content descriptors that exploit audio, color, temporal, and contour information. Audio information is extracted at block-level, which has the advantage of capturing local temporal information. At the temporal structure level, we consider action content in relation to human perception. Color perception is quantified using statistics of color distribution, elementary hues, color properties, and relationships between colors. Further, we compute statistics of contour geometry and relationships. The main contribution of our work lies in harnessing the descriptive power of the combination of these descriptors in genre classification. Validation was carried out on over 91 h of video footage encompassing 7 common video genres, yielding average precision and recall ratios of 87% to 100% and 77% to 100%, respectively, and an overall average correct classification of up to 97%. Also, experimental comparison as part of the MediaEval 2011 benchmarking campaign demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed audio-visual descriptors over other existing approaches. Finally, we discuss a 3-D video browsing platform that displays movies using feature-based coordinates and thus regroups them according to genre.

Ionescu, Bogdan; Seyerlehner, Klaus; Rasche, Christoph; Vertan, Constantin; Lambert, Patrick



Depth Cues and Perceived Audiovisual Synchrony of Biological Motion  

PubMed Central

Background Due to their different propagation times, visual and auditory signals from external events arrive at the human sensory receptors with a disparate delay. This delay consistently varies with distance, but, despite such variability, most events are perceived as synchronic. There is, however, contradictory data and claims regarding the existence of compensatory mechanisms for distance in simultaneity judgments. Principal Findings In this paper we have used familiar audiovisual events – a visual walker and footstep sounds – and manipulated the number of depth cues. In a simultaneity judgment task we presented a large range of stimulus onset asynchronies corresponding to distances of up to 35 meters. We found an effect of distance over the simultaneity estimates, with greater distances requiring larger stimulus onset asynchronies, and vision always leading. This effect was stronger when both visual and auditory cues were present but was interestingly not found when depth cues were impoverished. Significance These findings reveal that there should be an internal mechanism to compensate for audiovisual delays, which critically depends on the depth information available. PMID:24244617

Silva, Carlos Cesar; Mendonca, Catarina; Mouta, Sandra; Silva, Rosa; Campos, Jose Creissac; Santos, Jorge



[Virtual audiovisual talking heads: articulatory data and models--applications].  


In the framework of experimental phonetics, our approach to the study of speech production is based on the measurement, the analysis and the modeling of orofacial articulators such as the jaw, the face and the lips, the tongue or the velum. Therefore, we present in this article experimental techniques that allow characterising the shape and movement of speech articulators (static and dynamic MRI, computed tomodensitometry, electromagnetic articulography, video recording). We then describe the linear models of the various organs that we can elaborate from speaker-specific articulatory data. We show that these models, that exhibit a good geometrical resolution, can be controlled from articulatory data with a good temporal resolution and can thus permit the reconstruction of high quality animation of the articulators. These models, that we have integrated in a virtual talking head, can produce augmented audiovisual speech. In this framework, we have assessed the natural tongue reading capabilities of human subjects by means of audiovisual perception tests. We conclude by suggesting a number of other applications of talking heads. PMID:20387374

Badin, P; Elisei, F; Bailly, G; Savariaux, C; Serrurier, A; Tarabalka, Y



The semantic priming project.  


Speeded naming and lexical decision data for 1,661 target words following related and unrelated primes were collected from 768 subjects across four different universities. These behavioral measures have been integrated with demographic information for each subject and descriptive characteristics for every item. Subjects also completed portions of the Woodcock-Johnson reading battery, three attentional control tasks, and a circadian rhythm measure. These data are available at a user-friendly Internet-based repository ( ). This Web site includes a search engine designed to generate lists of prime-target pairs with specific characteristics (e.g., length, frequency, associative strength, latent semantic similarity, priming effect in standardized and raw reaction times). We illustrate the types of questions that can be addressed via the Semantic Priming Project. These data represent the largest behavioral database on semantic priming and are available to researchers to aid in selecting stimuli, testing theories, and reducing potential confounds in their studies. PMID:23344737

Hutchison, Keith A; Balota, David A; Neely, James H; Cortese, Michael J; Cohen-Shikora, Emily R; Tse, Chi-Shing; Yap, Melvin J; Bengson, Jesse J; Niemeyer, Dale; Buchanan, Erin



DTA-Kernel PCA Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA)  

E-print Network

DTA-Kernel PCA ( ) 1 semantics semantics Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) Probabilistic LSA (p University) Latent Semantic LSA Latent Semantic LSA Dj Latent Semantic W - Latent Semantic U WWT W Kernel PCA Dj Latent Semantic Dynamic Time Alignment (DTA) Kernel Kij = (Di) · (Dj) = max I ,J 1 L L k=1 d (I (k

Takiguchi, Tetsuya


Congruency between Word Position and Meaning is Caused by Task-Induced Spatial Attention  

PubMed Central

We report an experiment that compared two explanations for the effect of congruency between a word's on screen spatial position and its meaning. On one account, congruency is explained by the match between position and a mental simulation of meaning. Alternatively, congruency is explained by the polarity alignment principle. To distinguish between these accounts we presented the same object names (e.g., shark, helicopter) in a sky decision task or an ocean decision task, such that response polarity and typical location were disentangled. Sky decision responses were faster to words at the top of the screen compared to words at the bottom of the screen, but the reverse was found for ocean decision responses. These results are problematic for the polarity principle, and support the claim that spatial attention is directed by mental simulation of the task-relevant conceptual dimension. PMID:21833200

Pecher, Diane; Van Dantzig, Saskia; Boot, Inge; Zanolie, Kiki; Huber, David E.



Establishment of neurovascular congruency in complex tissue by a novel independent patterning mechanism  

PubMed Central

Summary Nerves and vessels often run parallel to one another, a phenomenon that reflects their functional interdependency. Previous studies have suggested that neurovascular congruency in planar tissues such as skin is established through a “one patterns the other” model in which either the nervous or vascular system precedes developmentally, and then instructs the other system to form using its established architecture as a template. Here we find that in tissues with complex three-dimensional structures such as the mouse whisker system, neurovascular congruency does not follow the previous model, but rather is established via a novel mechanism in which nerves and vessels are patterned independently. Given the diversity of neurovascular structures in different tissues, guidance signals emanating from a central organizer in the specific target tissue may act as an important mechanism to establish neurovascular congruency patterns that facilitate unique target tissue function. PMID:24139045

Oh, Won-Jong; Gu, Chenghua



Effects of interest-major congruence, motivation, and academic performance on timely degree attainment.  


Using longitudinal student data from 15 four-year (n = 3,072) and 13 (n = 788) two-year postsecondary institutions, the authors tested the effects of interest-major congruence, motivation, and 1st-year academic performance on timely degree completion. Findings suggest that interest-major congruence has a direct effect on timely degree completion at both institutional settings and that motivation has indirect effects (via 1st-year academic performance). The total effects of both interest-major congruence and motivation on timely degree completion underscore the importance of both constructs in understanding student adjustment and postsecondary success. Implications for theory and counseling practice are discussed. PMID:21133558

Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steve



Semantic Web Enabled Composition of Web Services  

E-print Network

Semantic Web Enabled Composition of Web Services Brahim Medjahed Dissertation submitted Falls Church, Virginia, USA Keywords: Semantic Web - Web Service - Ontology - Service Composition. Copyright 2004, Brahim Medjahed #12;Semantic Web Enabled Composition of Web Services Brahim Medjahed

Medjahed, Brahim


Temporal Processing of Audiovisual Stimuli Is Enhanced in Musicians: Evidence from Magnetoencephalography (MEG)  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have demonstrated that the structural and functional differences between professional musicians and non-musicians are not only found within a single modality, but also with regard to multisensory integration. In this study we have combined psychophysical with neurophysiological measurements investigating the processing of non-musical, synchronous or various levels of asynchronous audiovisual events. We hypothesize that long-term multisensory experience alters temporal audiovisual processing already at a non-musical stage. Behaviorally, musicians scored significantly better than non-musicians in judging whether the auditory and visual stimuli were synchronous or asynchronous. At the neural level, the statistical analysis for the audiovisual asynchronous response revealed three clusters of activations including the ACC and the SFG and two bilaterally located activations in IFG and STG in both groups. Musicians, in comparison to the non-musicians, responded to synchronous audiovisual events with enhanced neuronal activity in a broad left posterior temporal region that covers the STG, the insula and the Postcentral Gyrus. Musicians also showed significantly greater activation in the left Cerebellum, when confronted with an audiovisual asynchrony. Taken together, our MEG results form a strong indication that long-term musical training alters the basic audiovisual temporal processing already in an early stage (direct after the auditory N1 wave), while the psychophysical results indicate that musical training may also provide behavioral benefits in the accuracy of the estimates regarding the timing of audiovisual events. PMID:24595014

Lu, Yao; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Herholz, Sibylle C.; Kuchenbuch, Anja; Pantev, Christo



Effect of attentional load on audiovisual speech perception: evidence from ERPs  

PubMed Central

Seeing articulatory movements influences perception of auditory speech. This is often reflected in a shortened latency of auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) generated in the auditory cortex. The present study addressed whether this early neural correlate of audiovisual interaction is modulated by attention. We recorded ERPs in 15 subjects while they were presented with auditory, visual, and audiovisual spoken syllables. Audiovisual stimuli consisted of incongruent auditory and visual components known to elicit a McGurk effect, i.e., a visually driven alteration in the auditory speech percept. In a Dual task condition, participants were asked to identify spoken syllables whilst monitoring a rapid visual stream of pictures for targets, i.e., they had to divide their attention. In a Single task condition, participants identified the syllables without any other tasks, i.e., they were asked to ignore the pictures and focus their attention fully on the spoken syllables. The McGurk effect was weaker in the Dual task than in the Single task condition, indicating an effect of attentional load on audiovisual speech perception. Early auditory ERP components, N1 and P2, peaked earlier to audiovisual stimuli than to auditory stimuli when attention was fully focused on syllables, indicating neurophysiological audiovisual interaction. This latency decrement was reduced when attention was loaded, suggesting that attention influences early neural processing of audiovisual speech. We conclude that reduced attention weakens the interaction between vision and audition in speech. PMID:25076922

Alsius, Agnès; Möttönen, Riikka; Sams, Mikko E.; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Tiippana, Kaisa



Congruence or Discrepancy? Comparing Patients' Health Valuations and Physicians' Treatment Goals for Rehabilitation for Patients with Chronic Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to test the congruence of patients' health valuations and physicians' treatment goals for the rehabilitation of chronically ill patients. In addition, patient characteristics associated with greater or less congruence were to be determined. In a questionnaire study, patients' health valuations and physicians' goals were…

Nagl, Michaela; Farin, Erik



Why It Is Too Early to Lose Control in Accounts of Item-Specific Proportion Congruency Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The item-specific proportion congruency (ISPC) effect is the finding of attenuated interference for mostly incongruent as compared to mostly congruent items. A debate in the Stroop literature concerns the mechanisms underlying this effect. Noting a confound between proportion congruency and contingency, Schmidt and Besner (2008) suggested that…

Bugg, Julie M.; Jacoby, Larry L.; Chanani, Swati



An investigation of self-concept: actual and ideal self-congruence compared in the context of service evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes two studies that tested the basic tenet of congruence theory—that there is a relationship between self-concept and evaluation of product concept. The present paper extends the range of previous empirical work by considering the above relationship in a service context, using restaurants and hotels. In the first study, the degree of congruence is assessed by the gap

Yuksel Ekinci; Michael Riley



Moderation of the Relation between Person-Environment Congruence and Academic Success: Environmental Constraint, Personal Flexibility and Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relation of interest-major congruence to indicators of college success was examined as it was moderated by environmental constraint, individual flexibility, and congruence definition in an initial sample of 88,813 undergraduates (38,787 men and 50,026 women) from 42 different colleges and universities in 16 states. College achievement (GPA…

Tracey, Terence J. G.; Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steven B.



LIFTS OF PROJECTIVE CONGRUENCE GROUPS, II Abstract. We continue and complete our previous paper `Lifts of projective  

E-print Network

LIFTS OF PROJECTIVE CONGRUENCE GROUPS, II IAN KIMING Abstract. We continue and complete our previous paper `Lifts of projective congruence groups' [2] concerning the question of whether there exist by the image of in PSL2(Z). For 1 a subgroup of SL2(Z) (of finite index) we say that 1 is a lift of if 1

Kiming, Ian


Measuring Transgender Individuals' Comfort with Gender Identity and Appearance: Development and Validation of the Transgender Congruence Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our study used the construct of congruence to conceptualize the degree to which transgender individuals feel genuine, authentic, and comfortable with their gender identity and external appearance. In Study 1, the Transgender Congruence scale (TCS) was developed, and data from 162 transgender individuals were used to estimate the reliability and…

Kozee, Holly B.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Bauerband, L. Andrew



Engagement in adolescent career preparation: social support, personality and the development of choice decidedness and congruence.  


This longitudinal panel study investigated predictors and outcomes of active engagement in career preparation among 349 Swiss adolescents from the beginning to the end of eighth grade. Latent variable structural equation modeling was applied. The results showed that engagement in terms of self- and environmental-exploration and active career planning related positively to interindividual increases in career decidedness and choice congruence. More perceived social support, early goal decidedness, and particular personality traits predicted more engagement. Support and personality impacted outcomes only mediated through engagement. Early decidedness and congruence were significant predictors of their respective later levels. Implications for practice are presented. PMID:20074789

Hirschi, Andreas; Niles, Spencer G; Akos, Patrick



Exploiting Semantics for e-Science on the Semantic Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we address the problem of exploiting semantics for e-Science [1] in the emerging future e-Science infrastructure-the Semantic Grid [2]. The discussion is taken in the context of Grid enabled optimisation and design search in engineering (\\

L Chen; N. R Shadbolt; F Tao; C Puleston; C Goble; S. J Cox


Semantic Clipboard - Semantically Enriched Data Exchange Between Desktop Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operating system clipboard is used to copy and paste data between applications even if the applications are from dierent ven- dors. Current clipboards only support the transfer of data or formatted data between applications. The semantics of the data, however, is lost in the transfer. The Semantic Web, on the other hand, provides a common framework that allows data

Gerald Reif; Martin Morger; Harald Gall


Semantically Enriching Relational Databases into an Object Oriented Semantic Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to convert relational schemas to an object oriented semantic model is presented. It makes explicit knowledge about the semantic of the database that was implicit in the schemas or in the extension, through a knowledge acquisition phase. The method is general, semiautomatic, and has a number of applications.

Malú Castellanos; Fèlix Saltor; Manuel García-solaco



Generalized Semantic Roles and the Syntax-Semantics Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems of argument selection and the syntax-semantics interface are central to grammatical theory and analysis, and a number of quite disparate theo- retical approaches have posited GENERALIZED SEMANTIC ROLES (GSRs) as a crucial part of their account of these issues: Functional Grammar (FG) (Dik 1989), HPSG (Davis 1996, Davis and Koenig 1977), Role and Reference Grammar (RRG) (Van Valin

Robert D. Van Valin


Semantic Web Development with WSDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, one of the important focal points of the evolution of the World Wide Web is the semantic web: a web in which the semantics of the available content and functionality is made explicit. Web Design Methods, originally aimed at offering the designer a well-structured, systematic approach to web design, now face new opportunities and challenges: on one hand, se-

Peter Plessers; Sven Casteleyn; Olga De Troyer


Semantic annotation, indexing, and retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Semantic Web realization depends on the availability of a critical mass of metadata for the web content, associated with the respective formal knowledge about the world. We claim that the Semantic Web, at its current stage of development, is in a state of a critically need of metadata generation and usage schemata that are specific, well-defined and easy to

Atanas Kiryakov; Borislav Popov; Ivan Terziev; Dimitar Manov; Damyan Ognyanoff



Semantic Search in Tabular Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Semantic Web search aims to overcome the bottleneck of flnding relevant infor- mation using formal knowledge models, e.g. ontologies. The focus of this paper is to extend a typical search engine with semantic search over tabular structures. We cate- gorize HTML documents into topics and genres. Using the TARTAR system, tabular structures in the documents are then automatically transformed

Aleksander Pivk; Matjaz Gams; Mitja Lustrek



Semantic Web Services, Part 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic Web services (SWS) has been a vigorous technology research area for about six years. A great deal of innovative work has been done, and a great deal remains. Several large research initiatives have been producing substantial bodies of technology, which are gradually maturing. SOA vendors are looking seriously at semantic technologies and have made initial commitments to supporting selected

David Martin; John Domingue; Michael L. Brodie; Frank Leymann



Semantic-Enriched Service Discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated techniques and tools are required to effec- tively locate services that fulfil a given user request. To this purpose, the use of semantic descriptions of services has been widely motivated and recommended for auto- mated service discovery under highly dynamic and context- dependent requirements in distributed environments. Our aim in this work is to propose a semantic-enriched frame- work

Devis Bianchini; Valeria De Antonellis; Michele Melchiori; Denise Salvi



Semantically Enriching Folksonomies with FLOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the increasing popularity of folksonomies has lead to a vast quantity of tagged data, resource retrieval in these systems is limited by them being agnostic to the meaning (i.e., semantics) of tags. Our goal is to automatically enrich folksonomy tags (and implicitly the related re- sources) with formal semantics by associating them to relevant concepts dened in online ontologies.

Marta Sabou; Enrico Motta; R. M. Sabou


Resource modalities in game semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The description of resources in game semantics has never achieved the simplicity and precision of linear logic, because of a misleading conception: the belief that linear logic is more primitive than game semantics. We advocate instead the contrary: that game se- mantics is conceptually more primitive than linear logic. Starting from this revised point of view, we design a categorical


Towards a Statistically Semantic Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The envisioned Semantic Web aims to provide richly annotated and explicitly structured Web pages in XML, RDF, or description logics, based upon underlying ontologies and thesauri. Ideally, this should enable a wealth of query processing and semantic reasoning capabilities using XQuery and logical infer- ence engines. However, we believe that the diversity and uncertainty of termi- nologies and schema-like annotations

Gerhard Weikum; Jens Graupmann; Ralf Schenkel; Martin Theobald



Semantic subtyping for the -calculus  

E-print Network

defined structurally t t broccoli(t) broccoli(t ) Semantic subtyping for the -calculus ­ p.3 #12;Subtyping and subsumption Relation on types t t Usually defined structurally t t broccoli(t) broccoli(t ) broccoli(t) zucchini(t) Semantic subtyping for the -calculus ­ p.3 #12;Subtyping and subsumption Relation

Varacca, Daniele - Laboratoire Preuves, Programmes et Systèmes, Université Paris 7


Semantic Processing of Mathematical Gestures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine whether or not university mathematics students semantically process gestures depicting mathematical functions (mathematical gestures) similarly to the way they process action gestures and sentences. Semantic processing was indexed by the N400 effect. Results: The N400 effect elicited by words primed with mathematical gestures…

Lim, Vanessa K.; Wilson, Anna J.; Hamm, Jeff P.; Phillips, Nicola; Iwabuchi, Sarina J.; Corballis, Michael C.; Arzarello, Ferdinando; Thomas, Michael O. J.



Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a new method for automatic indexing and retrieval called latent semantic indexing (LSI). Problems with matching query words with document words in term-based information retrieval systems are discussed, semantic structure is examined, singular value decomposition (SVD) is explained, and the mathematics underlying the SVD model is…

Deerwester, Scott; And Others



Semantic metadata in enterprise integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic metadata involved in information aggregation in component based service, it allows two separate entities coordinate and ultimately decide on the same implicit ground-rules captures the essence of interoperability. Semantic metadata is crucial for enterprise interoperability to integrate the metadata between business, service and information layers, this creates visibility of vertical alignment within enterprise architecture and use metadata configuration to

Raymond Wu



Audiovisual distraction reduces pain perception during aural microsuction  

PubMed Central

Introduction Aural microsuction is a common ear, nose and throat procedure used in the outpatient setting. Some patients, however, find it difficult to tolerate owing to discomfort, pain or noise. This study evaluated the effect of audiovisual distraction on patients’ pain perception and overall satisfaction. Methods A prospective study was conducted for patients attending our aural care clinic requiring aural toileting of bilateral mastoid cavities over a three-month period. All microsuction was performed by a single clinical nurse specialist. Any patients with active infection were excluded. For each patient, during microsuction of one ear, they watched the procedure on a television screen while for the other ear they did not view the procedure. All patients received the same real time explanations during microsuction of both ears. After the procedure, each patient completed a visual analogue scale (VAS) to rate the pain they experienced for each ear, with and without access to the television screen. They also documented their preference and reasons why. Results A total of 37 patients were included in the study. The mean pain score for patients viewing the procedure was 2.43 compared with a mean of 3.48 for patients with no television view. This difference in patients’ pain perception was statistically lower in the group who observed the procedure on the television (p=0.003), consistent with the majority of patients reporting a preference to viewing their procedure (65%). Conclusions Audiovisual distraction significantly lowered patients’ VAS pain scores during aural microsuction. This simple intervention can therefore reduce patients’ perceived pain and help improve acceptance of this procedure. PMID:23317724

Amer, I; Daniels, M; Wareing, MJ



Effects of audio-visual stimulation on the incidence of restraint ulcers on the Wistar rat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of sensory simulation in restrained rats was investigated. Both mixed audio-visual and pure sound stimuli, ineffective in themselves, were found to cause a significant increase in the incidence of restraint ulcers in the Wistar Rat.

Martin, M. S.; Martin, F.; Lambert, R.



The Evolution of Audio-Visual Education in the USA since 1945.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the development of audiovisual instruction in the United States as an outgrowth of the industrial revolution and the development of more sophisticated communications technology in the mid twentieth century. (RAO)

Hitchens, Howard



36 CFR 1237.26 - What materials and processes must agencies use to create audiovisual records?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...audiovisual records? Agencies must: (a) For picture negatives and motion picture preprints (negatives, masters, and all...fix, and wash. (b) Avoid using motion pictures in a final “A & B” format (two precisely...



36 CFR 1237.26 - What materials and processes must agencies use to create audiovisual records?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...audiovisual records? Agencies must: (a) For picture negatives and motion picture preprints (negatives, masters, and all...fix, and wash. (b) Avoid using motion pictures in a final “A & B” format (two precisely...



36 CFR 1237.26 - What materials and processes must agencies use to create audiovisual records?  

...audiovisual records? Agencies must: (a) For picture negatives and motion picture preprints (negatives, masters, and all...fix, and wash. (b) Avoid using motion pictures in a final “A & B” format (two precisely...



36 CFR 1237.26 - What materials and processes must agencies use to create audiovisual records?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...audiovisual records? Agencies must: (a) For picture negatives and motion picture preprints (negatives, masters, and all...fix, and wash. (b) Avoid using motion pictures in a final “A & B” format (two precisely...



36 CFR 1237.26 - What materials and processes must agencies use to create audiovisual records?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...audiovisual records? Agencies must: (a) For picture negatives and motion picture preprints (negatives, masters, and all...fix, and wash. (b) Avoid using motion pictures in a final “A & B” format (two precisely...



Robust audio-visual person verification using Web-camera video  

E-print Network

This thesis examines the challenge of robust audio-visual person verification using data recorded in multiple environments with various lighting conditions, irregular visual backgrounds, and diverse background noise. ...

Schultz, Daniel (Daniel T.)



The Effects of Role Congruence and Role Conflict on Work, Marital, and Life Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of role congruence and role conflict on work, marital, and life satisfaction was studied using Super's life-span, life-space theory. A conceptual model of relationships between these variables was proposed, and gender differences were examined. Participants were 35 male and 60 female college graduates who completed surveys by mail.…

Perrone, Kristin M.; Webb, L. Kay; Blalock, Rachel H.



Congruence between muscle activity and kinematics in a convergently derived prey-processing behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis Quantification of anatomical and physiological characteristics of the function of a musculoskeletal system may yield a detailed understanding of how the organizational levels of morphology, biomechanics, kinematics, and muscle activity patterns (MAPs) influence behavioral diversity. Using separate analyses of these organizational levels in representative study taxa, we sought patterns of congruence in how organizational levels drive behavioral modulation in

Nicolai Konow; Ariel L. Camp; Christopher P. J. Sanford



Applying the "Congruence" Principle of Bloom's Taxonomy to Designing Online Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. A case study is then presented that explains how the use of the taxonomy was instrumental in the development of graduate-level online instruction and how the taxonomy helped to maintain the congruence among the components of online instruction. (MES)

Chyung, Seung-Youn; Stepich, Donald



Achieving Congruence between Macro and Micro Generic Strategies: A Framework to Create International Competitive Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to achieve the strongest international competitive advantage, there must be cooperation between the public and business sectors. That is, there must be congruence between the macro and micro competitive strategies in a country. It is maintained that nations will optimize their competitive advantage when both government and the firm use competitive advantage or comparative advantages simultaneously. This article

A. Coskun Samli; Laurence Jacobs



The Interest-Major Congruence and College Success Relation: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relation of interest-major congruence to indicators of college success was examined in an initial sample of 80, 574 individuals enrolled in 87 colleges. Both college achievement (GPA after 1 year, after 2 years and at graduation) as well as persistence (enrollment status after 1 year, after 2 years and graduation after 5 years) were used as…

Tracey, Terence J. G.; Robbins, Steven B.



The practice orientations of physicians and patients: the effect of doctor–patient congruence on satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the extent to which the individual orientations of physicians and patients and the congruence between them are associated with patient satisfaction. A survey was mailed to 400 physicians and 1020 of their patients. All respondents filled out the Patient–Practitioner Orientation Scale, which measures the roles that doctors and patients believe each should play in the course of

Edward Krupat; Susan L. Rosenkranz; Carter M. Yeager; Karen Barnard; Samuel M. Putnam; Thomas S. Inui



Congruence of Self-Reported Medications with Pharmacy Prescription Records in Low-Income Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined the congruence of self-reported medications with computerized pharmacy records. Design and Methods: Pharmacy records and self-reported medications were obtained for 294 members of a state pharmaceutical assistance program who also participated in ACTIVE, a clinical trial on cognitive training in nondemented elderly…

Caskie, Grace I. L.; Willis, Sherry L.



Congruence between the Democratic Purposes of Schools and School Principal Training in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines and compares the recent emphases in school education and school leadership training in Australia and the state of Tasmania as they relate to the democratic purposes of schools. It finds a strong emphasis on the democratic purposes of schools and congruence between these purposes and the means of achieving them, in respect of…

Mulford, Bill



The Task Rule Congruency Effect in Task Switching Reflects Activated Long-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reaction time task rule congruency effects (RT-TRCEs) reflect faster responses to stimuli for which the competing task rules indicate the same correct response than to stimuli indicating conflicting responses. The authors tested the hypothesis that RT-TRCE reflects activated overlearned response category codes in long-term memory (such as up or…

Meiran, Nachshon; Kessler, Yoav



An Analysis of Congruence Gaps and Their Effect on Distributed Software Development  

E-print Network

structures, there is a hidden coordination cost. Modularity and even agile methods have had mixed success1 An Analysis of Congruence Gaps and Their Effect on Distributed Software Development 1 Clay Williams IBM Research ABSTRACT Software projects are frequently distributed

Valetto, Giuseppe "Peppo"


Congruences for a Class of Alternating Lacunary Sums of Binomial Coefficients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An 1876 theorem of Hermite, later extended by Bachmann, gives congruences modulo primes for lacunary sums over the rows of Pascal's triangle. This paper gives an analogous result for alternating sums over a certain class of rows. The proof makes use of properties of certain linear recurrences.

Dilcher, Karl



A triangulation analysis of value congruency in corporate Spain: American dream or Spanish reality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construct of value congruency has become the centre of scholarly as well as practitioner attention in the past two decades. Theoretical reasoning, however, has mainly originated in an Anglo Saxon context accompanied by scarce and contradictory empirical results. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore further the construct and determine its presence in the relatively unexplored cultural

D. Knoppen; Simon L. Dolan; M. Díez-Piñol; R. Bell



Perceptions of Helpfulness in Conjoint Behavioral Consultation: Congruence and Agreement between Teachers and Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjoint behavioral consultation (CBC) can be considered a help-giving model, wherein consultants work with parents and teachers in an effort to develop constructive partnerships aimed at addressing needs of students for whom both parties share responsibility. The development of strong relationships among systems in a child’s life is related to positive outcomes for children, and congruence among systems is one

Susan M. Sheridan; William P. Erchul; Melissa S. Brown; Shannon E. Dowd; Emily D. Warnes; Diane C. Marti; Ariadne V. Schemm; John W. Eagle



Topic congruence and topic interest: How do they affect second language reading comprehension?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because human memory is largely reconstructive, people tend to reorganize and reevaluate an event in a way that is coherent to the truth values held in their belief system. This study investigated the role of topic congruence (defined as whether the reading content corresponds with readers' prior beliefs towards a contentious topic) in second language (L2) reading comprehension. In addition

Sang-Ki Lee



Choice and Avoidance of Everyday Situations and Affect Congruence: Two Models of Reciprocal Interactionism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies of person-situation interactions have focused nearly exclusively on the statistical rather than reciprocal form of the concept. In an attempt to reverse this trend, two models of reciprocal interactionism are offered: the choice of situations model and the congruence response model. The choice model proposes that individuals select certain situations and avoid others on the basis of certain

Robert A. Emmons; Ed Diener; Randy J. Larsen



The Effect of Congruence of Leadership Behaviors on Motivation, Commitment, and Satisfaction of College Tennis Players  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of congruence of leadership behaviors on motivation, commitment, and satisfaction of college tennis players. Respondents (n = 245) included collegiate tennis players from all NCAA division levels (I, II, and III). The athletes were asked to complete a demographic questionnaire, the preferred and perceived versions of the Revised Leadership Scale

Damon Patrick Sermons Andrew



Life Course Stage in Young Adulthood and Intergenerational Congruence in Family Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated how intergenerational congruence in family-related attitudes depends on life course stage in young adulthood. Recent data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study were used; the present sample included 2,041 dyads of young adults and their parents. Findings are discussed in terms of the elasticity in intergenerational attitude…

Bucx, Freek; Raaijmakers, Quinten; van Wel, Frits



The Congruence between Industry Demand and Professional School Response in Architecture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought insight into the congruence between knowledge, skills and attitudes required by architecture practitioners and the benefits of professional school education. Twenty-four senior architects from Los Angeles architecture firms and 11 professional school deans and faculty members from the Graduate School of Architecture and Urban…

Hansen, Ronald


Topic Congruence and Topic Interest: How Do They Affect Second Language Reading Comprehension?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because human memory is largely reconstructive, people tend to reorganize and reevaluate an event in a way that is coherent to the truth values held in their belief system. This study investigated the role of topic congruence (defined as whether the reading content corresponds with readers' prior beliefs towards a contentious topic) in second…

Lee, Sang-Ki



Sequential modulation of distractor-interference produced by semantic generalization of stimulus features  

PubMed Central

Sequential modulations of distractor-related interference (i.e., reduced congruency effect after incongruent as compared to congruent predecessor trials, a.k.a. Gratton effect) have been taken to reflect conflict-induced attentional focusing. To dismiss an alternative interpretation based on integration and retrieval of low-level features, it is important to exert experimental control of stimulus and response feature sequences. This has been achieved by considering only trials associated with complete feature changes. Furthermore, distractors from two different perceptual dimensions, such as stimulus location and shape, have been combined in the same experiment to investigate the question of specificity vs. generality of conflict adaptation. With this method feature sequence control can be exerted, in principle, without disregarding data from feature repetition trials. However, such control may be insufficient when the distractor dimensions overlap semantically. In two experiments we found evidence consistent with the assumption that semantic generalization of stimulus features, such as between a stimulus presented at a left-sided location and a stimulus shape pointing to the left, may yield a between-dimension Gratton effect. These findings raise doubts about inferring generalized attentional conflict adaptation when semantically related distractor dimensions are used.

Wendt, Mike; Luna-Rodriguez, Aquiles; Jacobsen, Thomas



Interactions between mood and the structure of semantic memory: event-related potentials evidence.  


Recent evidence suggests that affect acts as modulator of cognitive processes and in particular that induced mood has an effect on the way semantic memory is used on-line. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine affective modulation of semantic information processing under three different moods: neutral, positive and negative. Fifteen subjects read 324 pairs of sentences, after mood induction procedure with 30 pictures of neutral, 30 pictures of positive and 30 pictures of neutral valence: 108 sentences were read in each mood induction condition. Sentences ended with three word types: expected words, within-category violations, and between-category violations. N400 amplitude was measured to the three word types under each mood induction condition. Under neutral mood, a congruency (more negative N400 amplitude for unexpected relative to expected endings) and a category effect (more negative N400 amplitude for between- than to within-category violations) were observed. Also, results showed differences in N400 amplitude for both within- and between-category violations as a function of mood: while positive mood tended to facilitate the integration of unexpected but related items, negative mood made their integration as difficult as unexpected and unrelated items. These findings suggest the differential impact of mood on access to long-term semantic memory during sentence comprehension. PMID:22434931

Pinheiro, Ana P; del Re, Elisabetta; Nestor, Paul G; McCarley, Robert W; Gonçalves, Óscar F; Niznikiewicz, Margaret



User experience (UX) patterns for audio-visual networked applications: inspirations for design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes best practices for improving user experience (UX) of audio-visual networked applications such as YouTube, Flickr, or Facebook. Designing for a good UX is becoming increasingly important within the HCI community. However, there is still a lack of empirically based knowledge on how to design audio-visual networked applications for an optimal UX. Based on studies with more than

Marianna Obrist; Daniela Wurhofer; Elke Beck; Amela Karahasanovic; Manfred Tscheligi



Algorithms for multiplex scheduling of object-based audio-visual presentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the emergence of standards such as MPEG-4, systems and applications using object- based audio-visual presentations will become more and more common. The main distinguishing feature of object-based audio-visual presentations is the scene composition at the user terminal. In this paper we discuss the problem of scheduling object-based audio- visual presentations with resource constraints. We explore the similarities with the

Hari Kalva; Alexandros Eleftheriadis



"Pre-Semantic" Cognition Revisited: Critical Differences between Semantic Aphasia and Semantic Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal "pre-semantic" tasks, e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are…

Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.



Semantic Representation and Naming in Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined children's semantic representations and semantic naming errors. Results suggested that functional and physical properties are core aspects of object representations in the semantic lexicon and that the degree of semantic knowledge makes words more or less vulnerable to retrieval failure. Discussion focuses on the dynamic…

McGregor, Karla K.; Friedman, Rena M.; Reilly, Renee M.; Newman, Robyn M.



Semantic Enrichment of Enterprise Modelling NABILA ZOUGGAR  

E-print Network

Semantic Enrichment of Enterprise Modelling NABILA ZOUGGAR LAPS/GRAI, Université Bordeaux 1 the lack of semantic. So, semantic enrichment of these lan- guages is becoming an essential topic currently developed in LAPS/GRAI at Uni- versity Bordeaux 1 about semantic enrichment of enterprise

Boyer, Edmond


Mapping the Structure of Semantic Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aggregating snippets from the semantic memories of many individuals may not yield a good map of an individual's semantic memory. The authors analyze the structure of semantic networks that they sampled from individuals through a new snowball sampling paradigm during approximately 6 weeks of 1-hr daily sessions. The semantic networks of individuals…

Morais, Ana Sofia; Olsson, Henrik; Schooler, Lael J.



Exploiting Recurring Structure in a Semantic Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the growing popularity of the Semantic Web, an increasing amount of information is becoming available in machine interpretable, semantically structured networks. Within these semantic networks are recurring structures that could be mined by existing or novel knowledge discovery methods. The mining of these semantic structures represents an interesting area that focuses on mining both for and from the Semantic Web, with surprising applicability to problems confronting the developers of Semantic Web applications. In this paper, we present representative examples of recurring structures and show how these structures could be used to increase the utility of a semantic repository deployed at NASA.

Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, Richard M.



Semantic enrichment for medical ontologies.  


The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) contains two separate but interconnected knowledge structures, the Semantic Network (upper level) and the Metathesaurus (lower level). In this paper, we have attempted to work out better how the use of such a two-level structure in the medical field has led to notable advances in terminologies and ontologies. However, most ontologies and terminologies do not have such a two-level structure. Therefore, we present a method, called semantic enrichment, which generates a two-level ontology from a given one-level terminology and an auxiliary two-level ontology. During semantic enrichment, concepts of the one-level terminology are assigned to semantic types, which are the building blocks of the upper level of the auxiliary two-level ontology. The result of this process is the desired new two-level ontology. We discuss semantic enrichment of two example terminologies and how we approach the implementation of semantic enrichment in the medical domain. This implementation performs a major part of the semantic enrichment process with the medical terminologies, with difficult cases left to a human expert. PMID:16185937

Lee, Yugyung; Geller, James



Impact of value congruence on work-family conflicts: the mediating role of work-related support.  


Based on past research regarding the relationship between person-environment fit and work-family conflict (WFC), we examined the mediating effects of perceived organization/supervisor support on the relationship between person-organization/supervisor value congruence and WFC. A structural equation model was used to test three hypotheses using data collected from 637 workers in Taiwan. Person-organization value congruence regarding role boundaries was found to be positively correlated with employee perception of organizational support, resulting in reduced WFC. Person-supervisor value congruence regarding role boundaries also increased employee perception of organizational support, mediated by perceived supervisor support. Research and managerial implications are discussed. PMID:22558824

Pan, Su-Ying; Yeh, Ying-Jung Yvonne



A Formal Executable Semantics for Java  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the main features of the Java language are that it is object-oriented and multi-threaded. This article presents a formal semantics of a large subset of Java, including inheritance, dynamic linking and multi-threading. To describe the object-oriented features, we use a big-step semantics. The semantics of the concurrency is dened in a small-step semantics, using a structural operational semantics.

Isabelle Attali; Denis Caromel; Marjorie Russo



Enhancing Web Search with Heterogeneous Semantic Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores four kinds of semantic knowledge to improve keyword-based Web search, including thesauruses, categories,\\u000a ontologies, and social annotations. These heterogeneous semantic knowledge represent meanings of Web information, thus they\\u000a can be used to improve search results in respect of semantic relevance. Currently, different semantic search paradigms have\\u000a been developed for different kind of semantic knowledge respectively. However, how

Rui Huang; Zhongzhi Shi



Semantic perception for ground robotics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semantic perception involves naming objects and features in the scene, understanding the relations between them, and understanding the behaviors of agents, e.g., people, and their intent from sensor data. Semantic perception is a central component of future UGVs to provide representations which 1) can be used for higher-level reasoning and tactical behaviors, beyond the immediate needs of autonomous mobility, and 2) provide an intuitive description of the robot's environment in terms of semantic elements that can shared effectively with a human operator. In this paper, we summarize the main approaches that we are investigating in the RCTA as initial steps toward the development of perception systems for UGVs.

Hebert, M.; Bagnell, J. A.; Bajracharya, M.; Daniilidis, K.; Matthies, L. H.; Mianzo, L.; Navarro-Serment, L.; Shi, J.; Wellfare, M.



Workspaces in the Semantic Web  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Due to the recency and relatively limited adoption of Semantic Web technologies. practical issues related to technology scaling have received less attention than foundational issues. Nonetheless, these issues must be addressed if the Semantic Web is to realize its full potential. In particular, we concentrate on the lack of scoping methods that reduce the size of semantic information spaces so they are more efficient to work with and more relevant to an agent's needs. We provide some intuition to motivate the need for such reduced information spaces, called workspaces, give a formal definition, and suggest possible methods of deriving them.

Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, RIchard M.



On the Semantics of SPARQL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is the standard data model for representing information about World Wide Web resources. In January 2008, it was released the recommendation of the W3C for querying RDF data, a query language called SPARQL. In this chapter, we give a detailed description of the semantics of this language. We start by focusing on the definition of a formal semantics for the core part of SPARQL, and then move to the definition for the entire language, including all the features in the specification of SPARQL by the W3C such as blank nodes in graph patterns and bag semantics for solutions.

Arenas, Marcelo; Gutierrez, Claudio; Pérez, Jorge


High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases  

SciTech Connect

As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.



Semantic Web Grundlagen Birte Glimm  

E-print Network

Technologien in der Pharma Branche Projekte der derivo GmbH #12;3/41 Birte Glimm | Semantic Web Grundlagen | 06 Mikroformate in der Rezeptsuche Semantische Technologien in der Pharma Branche Projekte der derivo GmbH #12

Pfeifer, Holger


Distributed semantic networks and CLIPS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Semantic networks of frames are commonly used as a method of reasoning in many problems. In most of these applications the semantic network exists as a single entity in a single process environment. Advances in workstation hardware provide support for more sophisticated applications involving multiple processes, interacting in a distributed environment. In these applications the semantic network may well be distributed over several concurrently executing tasks. This paper describes the design and implementation of a frame based, distributed semantic network in which frames are accessed both through C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) expert systems and procedural C++ language programs. The application area is a knowledge based, cooperative decision making model utilizing both rule based and procedural experts.

Snyder, James; Rodriguez, Tony



Semantics and phonology in syntax  

E-print Network

In this thesis I argue that morphology should be allowed to interpret not only the information provided by the syntactic component, but also compositional semantic properties. This conception of grammar requires morphology ...

Csirmaz, Aniko



Phylogenetic congruence of lichenised fungi and algae is affected by spatial scale and taxonomic diversity  

PubMed Central

The role of species’ interactions in structuring biological communities remains unclear. Mutualistic symbioses, involving close positive interactions between two distinct organismal lineages, provide an excellent means to explore the roles of both evolutionary and ecological processes in determining how positive interactions affect community structure. In this study, we investigate patterns of co-diversification between fungi and algae for a range of New Zealand lichens at the community, genus, and species levels and explore explanations for possible patterns related to spatial scale and pattern, taxonomic diversity of the lichens considered, and the level sampling replication. We assembled six independent datasets to compare patterns in phylogenetic congruence with varied spatial extent of sampling, taxonomic diversity and level of specimen replication. For each dataset, we used the DNA sequences from the ITS regions of both the fungal and algal genomes from lichen specimens to produce genetic distance matrices. Phylogenetic congruence between fungi and algae was quantified using distance-based redundancy analysis and we used geographic distance matrices in Moran’s eigenvector mapping and variance partitioning to evaluate the effects of spatial variation on the quantification of phylogenetic congruence. Phylogenetic congruence was highly significant for all datasets and a large proportion of variance in both algal and fungal genetic distances was explained by partner genetic variation. Spatial variables, primarily at large and intermediate scales, were also important for explaining genetic diversity patterns in all datasets. Interestingly, spatial structuring was stronger for fungal than algal genetic variation. As the spatial extent of the samples increased, so too did the proportion of explained variation that was shared between the spatial variables and the partners’ genetic variation. Different lichen taxa showed some variation in their phylogenetic congruence and spatial genetic patterns and where greater sample replication was used, the amount of variation explained by partner genetic variation increased. Our results suggest that the phylogenetic congruence pattern, at least at small spatial scales, is likely due to reciprocal co-adaptation or co-dispersal. However, the detection of these patterns varies among different lichen taxa, across spatial scales and with different levels of sample replication. This work provides insight into the complexities faced in determining how evolutionary and ecological processes may interact to generate diversity in symbiotic association patterns at the population and community levels. Further, it highlights the critical importance of considering sample replication, taxonomic diversity and spatial scale in designing studies of co-diversification. PMID:25250218

Rafat, Arash; Ridden, Johnathon D.; Cruickshank, Robert H.; Ridgway, Hayley J.; Paterson, Adrian M.



Automated x-ray/light field congruence using the LINAC EPID panel  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: X-ray/light field alignment is a test described in many guidelines for the routine quality control of clinical linear accelerators (LINAC). Currently, the gold standard method for measuring alignment is through utilization of radiographic film. However, many modern LINACs are equipped with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) that may be used to perform this test and thus subsequently reducing overall cost, processing, and analysis time, removing operator dependency and the requirement to sustain the departmental film processor. Methods: This work describes a novel method of utilizing the EPID together with a custom inhouse designed jig and automatic image processing software allowing measurement of the light field size, x-ray field size, and congruence between them. The authors present results of testing the method for aS1000 and aS500 Varian EPID detectors for six LINACs at a range of energies (6, 10, and 15 MV) in comparison with the results obtained from the use of radiographic film. Results: Reproducibility of the software in fully automatic operation under a range of operating conditions for a single image showed a congruence of 0.01 cm with a coefficient of variation of 0. Slight variation in congruence repeatability was noted through semiautomatic processing by four independent operators due to manual marking of positions on the jig. Testing of the methodology using the automatic method shows a high precision of 0.02 mm compared to a maximum of 0.06 mm determined by film processing. Intraindividual examination of operator measurements of congruence was shown to vary as much as 0.75 mm. Similar congruence measurements of 0.02 mm were also determined for a lower resolution EPID (aS500 model), after rescaling of the image to the aS1000 image size. Conclusions: The designed methodology was proven to be time efficient, cost effective, and at least as accurate as using the gold standard radiographic film. Additionally, congruence testing can be easily performed for all four cardinal gantry angles which can be difficult when using radiographic film. Therefore, the authors propose it can be used as an alternative to the radiographic film method allowing decommissioning of the film processor.

Polak, Wojciech [Department of Medical Physics, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford GU2 7XX (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Physics, Radiotherapy Section, Queen Alexandra Hospital NHS Trust, Portsmouth PO6 3LY (United Kingdom); O'Doherty, Jim [Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, London SE1 7EH, United Kingdom and Department of Medical Physics, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford GU2 7XX (United Kingdom); Jones, Matt [Department of Medical Physics, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford GU2 7XX (United Kingdom)



NASA and The Semantic Web  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We provide an overview of several ongoing NASA endeavors based on concepts, systems, and technology from the Semantic Web arena. Indeed NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic Web Technology and we describe ongoing and completed R&D efforts for several applications ranging from collaborative systems to airspace information management to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and discovery systems at NASA.

Ashish, Naveen



Geodata Interoperation via Semantic Correspondences  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the expansion of the information space and constant increase in the volume of the available data, semantics becomes one\\u000a of the most important aspects for data description and collaborative usage. Semantics is an implementation independent feature\\u000a of data, which requires a clear separation of the conceptual level from other levels of information systems design.\\u000a \\u000a Our work aims at developing

Anastasiya Sotnykova



Semantic Enrichment for Ontology Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, we present a heuristic mapping method and a prototype mapping system that support the process of semi-automatic\\u000a ontology mapping for the purpose of improving semantic interoperability in heterogeneous systems. The approach is based on\\u000a the idea of semantic enrichment, i.e. using instance information of the ontology to enrich the original ontology and calculate\\u000a similarities between concepts in

Xiaomeng Su; Jon Atle Gulla



Semantic Enrichment of Folksonomy Tagspaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usability and the strong social dimension of the Web2.0 applications has encouraged users to create, annotate and share\\u000a their content thus leading to a rich and content-intensive Web. Despite that, the Web2.0 content lacks the explicit semantics\\u000a that would allow it to be used in large-scale intelligent applications. At the same time the advances in Semantic Web technologies\\u000a imply

Sofia Angeletou



A Semantic Lexicon for Medical Language Processing  

PubMed Central

Objective: Construction of a resource that provides semantic information about words and phrases to facilitate the computer processing of medical narrative. Design: Lexemes (words and word phrases) in the Specialist Lexicon were matched against strings in the 1997 Metathesaurus of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) developed by the National Library of Medicine. This yielded a “semantic lexicon,” in which each lexeme is associated with one or more syntactic types, each of which can have one or more semantic types. The semantic lexicon was then used to assign semantic types to lexemes occurring in a corpus of discharge summaries (603,306 sentences). Lexical items with multiple semantic types were examined to determine whether some of the types could be eliminated, on the basis of usage in discharge summaries. A concordance program was used to find contrasting contexts for each lexeme that would reflect different semantic senses. Based on this evidence, semantic preference rules were developed to reduce the number of lexemes with multiple semantic types. Results: Matching the Specialist Lexicon against the Metathesaurus produced a semantic lexicon with 75,711 lexical forms, 22,805 (30.1 percent) of which had two or more semantic types. Matching the Specialist Lexicon against one year's worth of discharge summaries identified 27,633 distinct lexical forms, 13,322 of which had at least one semantic type. This suggests that the Specialist Lexicon has about 79 percent coverage for syntactic information and 38 percent coverage for semantic information for discharge summaries. Of those lexemes in the corpus that had semantic types, 3,474 (12.6 percent) had two or more types. When semantic preference rules were applied to the semantic lexicon, the number of entries with multiple semantic types was reduced to 423 (1.5 percent). In the discharge summaries, occurrences of lexemes with multiple semantic types were reduced from 9.41 to 1.46 percent. Conclusion: Automatic methods can be used to construct a semantic lexicon from existing UMLS sources. This semantic information can aid natural language processing programs that analyze medical narrative, provided that lexemes with multiple semantic types are kept to a minimum. Semantic preference rules can be used to select semantic types that are appropriate to clinical reports. Further work is needed to increase the coverage of the semantic lexicon and to exploit contextual information when selecting semantic senses. PMID:10332654

Johnson, Stephen B.



Congruence Between Implicit and Explicit Motives and Emotional Well-Being: The Moderating Role of Activity Inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current research tested the hypothesis that activity inhibition–conceptualized as the degree of restraint an individual\\u000a exercises over emotional and motivational impulses–moderates the association between congruence of implicit and explicit motives\\u000a and emotional well-being. Congruence of implicit and explicit motives was expected to be related to a more positive well-being\\u000a among individuals low in activity inhibition, but not among individuals

Thomas A. Langens



Predicting Occupational Considerations: A Comparison of Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Outcome Expectations, and Person-Environment Congruence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) and Holland's theory of career choice both make predictions about individuals' occupational considerations. SCCT suggests that occupational considerations are partially a function of self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations whereas Holland's theory suggests that such considerations are a function of person-environment congruence. This study explored the relationships among self-efficacy beliefs, outcome expectations, congruence, and occupational considerations

Paul A. Gore; Wade C. Leuwerke



The relevance of visitors’ nation brand embeddedness and personality congruence for nation brand identification, visit intentions and advocacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification with a brand enhances loyalty and purchase intentions. Little is known, however, if this relationship holds in a nation brand context and which variables drive nation brand identification (NBI). This study investigates the relevance of nation brand embeddedness (i.e., the social integration of the individual) and personality congruence (i.e., the congruence between an individual’s and a country’s personality)

Nicola E. Stokburger-Sauer



Difference between diotic and dichotic presentations on audiovisual synchronization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant differences were found between diotic and dichotic presentations of auditory stimuli on audiovisual synchronization. Two types of moving sphere were used for visual stimuli; (a) a sphere moved straight from left to right at a constant velocity, and (b) it moved up and right and then turned down and right at the midpoint. Auditory stimuli included (1) a continuous pure tone (1000 Hz), (2) a sequence of two short tones of 30 ms (1000 Hz), (3) a sweep tone (500 Hz --> 1500 Hz), and (4) a Frequency-Modulated tone (500 Hz --> 1500 Hz --> 500 Hz). The duration of these stimuli was 240 ms each. Visual stimuli were presented on a Liquid-Crystal Display. Auditory stimuli were presented by headphones. The time difference between auditory and visual stimuli was changed between -360 ms and +360 ms. The sound source linearly moved from left to right in case of dichotic presentation. Subjective tests, using the forced-choice of synchronized or not, clarified the significant differences between diotic and dichotic presentations when the auditory stimulus (1) or (4) was presented with the visual stimulus (b). No significance was obtained for other combinations of auditory and visual stimuli. [Work supported by NTT.

Nakamura, Rie; Aikawa, Kiyoaki



A network analysis of audiovisual affective speech perception.  


In this study we were interested in the neural system supporting the audiovisual (AV) integration of emotional expression and emotional prosody. To this end normal participants were exposed to short videos of a computer-animated face voicing emotionally positive or negative words with the appropriate prosody. Facial expression of the face was either neutral or emotionally appropriate. To reveal the neural network involved in affective AV integration, standard univariate analysis of functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) data was followed by a random-effects Granger causality mapping (RFX-GCM). The regions that distinguished emotional from neutral facial expressions in the univariate analysis were taken as seed regions. In trials showing emotional expressions compared to neutral trials univariate analysis showed activation primarily in bilateral amygdala, fusiform gyrus, middle temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus and inferior occipital gyrus. When employing either the left amygdala or the right amygdala as a seed region in RFX-GCM we found connectivity with the right hemispheric fusiform gyrus, with the indication that the fusiform gyrus sends information to the Amygdala. These results led to a working model for face perception in general and for AV-affective integration in particular which is an elaborated adaptation of existing models. PMID:24184115

Jansma, H; Roebroeck, A; Münte, T F



Audiovisual phonologic-feature-based recognition of dysarthric speech. abstract  

E-print Network

Automatic dictation software with reasonably high word recognition accuracy is now widely available to the general public. Many people with gross motor impairment, including some people with cerebral palsy and closed head injuries, have not enjoyed the benefit of these advances, because their general motor impairment includes a component of dysarthria: reduced speech intelligibility caused by neuromotor impairment. These motor impairments often preclude normal use of a keyboard. For this reason, case studies have shown that some dysarthric users may find it easier, instead of a keyboard, to use a small-vocabulary automatic speech recognition system, with code words representing letters and formatting commands, and with acoustic speech recognition models carefully adapted to the speech of the individual user. Development of each individualized speech recognition system remains extremely labor-intensive, because so little is understood about the general characteristics of dysarthric speech. We propose to study the general audio and visual characteristics of articulation errors in dysarthric speech, and to apply the results of our scientific study to the development of speaker-independent large-vocabulary and small-vocabulary audio and audiovisual dysarthric speech recognition systems. Scientific Merit

Mark Hasegawa-johnson; Jon Gunderson; Thomas Huang; Adrienne Perlman



Audio-visual assistance in co-creating transition knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth system and climate impact research results point to the tremendous ecologic, economic and societal implications of climate change. Specifically people will have to adopt lifestyles that are very different from those they currently strive for in order to mitigate severe changes of our known environment. It will most likely not suffice to transfer the scientific findings into international agreements and appropriate legislation. A transition is rather reliant on pioneers that define new role models, on change agents that mainstream the concept of sufficiency and on narratives that make different futures appealing. In order for the research community to be able to provide sustainable transition pathways that are viable, an integration of the physical constraints and the societal dynamics is needed. Hence the necessary transition knowledge is to be co-created by social and natural science and society. To this end, the Climate Media Factory - in itself a massively transdisciplinary venture - strives to provide an audio-visual connection between the different scientific cultures and a bi-directional link to stake holders and society. Since methodology, particular language and knowledge level of the involved is not the same, we develop new entertaining formats on the basis of a "complexity on demand" approach. They present scientific information in an integrated and entertaining way with different levels of detail that provide entry points to users with different requirements. Two examples shall illustrate the advantages and restrictions of the approach.

Hezel, Bernd; Broschkowski, Ephraim; Kropp, Jürgen P.



Effects of stimulus duration on audio-visual synchrony perception.  


The integration of visual and auditory inputs in the human brain occurs only if the components are perceived in temporal proximity, that is, when the intermodal time difference falls within the so-called subjective synchrony range. We used the midpoint of this range to estimate the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS). We measured the PSS for audio-visual (AV) stimuli in a synchrony judgment task, in which subjects had to judge a given AV stimulus using three response categories (audio first, synchronous, video first). The relevant stimulus manipulation was the duration of the auditory and visual components. Results for unimodal auditory and visual stimuli have shown that the perceived onset shifts to relatively later positions with increasing stimulus duration. These unimodal shifts should be reflected in changing PSS values, when AV stimuli with different durations of the auditory and visual components are used. The results for 17 subjects showed indeed a significant shift of the PSS for different duration combinations of the stimulus components. Because the shifts were approximately equal for duration changes in either of the components, no net shift of the PSS was observed as long as the durations of the two components were equal. This result indicates the need to appropriately account for unimodal timing effects when quantifying intermodal synchrony perception. PMID:22821079

Kuling, I A; van Eijk, R L J; Juola, J F; Kohlrausch, A



Effects of the audiovisual conflict on auditory early processes.  


Auditory alarm misperception is one of the critical events that lead aircraft pilots to an erroneous flying decision. The rarity of these alarms associated with their possible unreliability may play a role in this misperception. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we manipulated both audiovisual conflict and sound rarity in a simplified landing task. Behavioral data and event related potentials (ERPs) of thirteen healthy participants were analyzed. We found that the presentation of a rare auditory signal (i.e., an alarm), incongruent with visual information, led to a smaller amplitude of the auditory N100 (i.e., less negative) compared to the condition in which both signals were congruent. Moreover, the incongruity between the visual information and the rare sound did not significantly affect reaction times, suggesting that the rare sound was neglected. We propose that the lower N100 amplitude reflects an early visual-to-auditory gating that depends on the rarity of the sound. In complex aircraft environments, this early effect might be partly responsible for auditory alarm insensitivity. Our results provide a new basis for future aeronautic studies and the development of countermeasures. PMID:23774001

Scannella, Sébastien; Causse, Mickaël; Chauveau, Nicolas; Pastor, Josette; Dehais, Frédéric



Sensorimotor synchronization with audio-visual stimuli: limited multisensory integration.  


Understanding how we synchronize our actions with stimuli from different sensory modalities plays a central role in helping to establish how we interact with our multisensory environment. Recent research has shown better performance with multisensory over unisensory stimuli; however, the type of stimuli used has mainly been auditory and tactile. The aim of this article was to expand our understanding of sensorimotor synchronization with multisensory audio-visual stimuli and compare these findings to their individual unisensory counterparts. This research also aims to assess the role of spatio-temporal structure for each sensory modality. The visual and/or auditory stimuli had either temporal or spatio-temporal information available and were presented to the participants in unimodal and bimodal conditions. Globally, the performance was significantly better for the bimodal compared to the unimodal conditions; however, this benefit was limited to only one of the bimodal conditions. In terms of the unimodal conditions, the level of synchronization with visual stimuli was better than auditory, and while there was an observed benefit with the spatio-temporal compared to temporal visual stimulus, this was not replicated with the auditory stimulus. PMID:25027792

Armstrong, Alan; Issartel, Johann



Vertical metaphor with motion and judgment: a valenced congruency effect with fluency.  


Following metaphorical theories of affect, several research studies have shown that the spatial cues along a vertical dimension are useful in qualifying emotional experience (HAPPINESS is UP, SADNESS is DOWN). Three experiments were conducted to examine the role of vertical motion in affective judgment. They showed that positive stimuli moving UPWARD were evaluated more positively than those moving DOWNWARD, whereas negative stimuli moving DOWNWARD were evaluated as less negative than those moving UPWARD. They showed a valenced congruency effect, but an alternative hypothesis in terms of MORE is UP and LESS is DOWN was also examined. Finally, fluency mechanisms were investigated to confirm that relationships between affect and verticality were in accordance with a valenced congruency effect. PMID:24077775

Freddi, Sébastien; Cretenet, Joël; Dru, Vincent



Leadership and satisfaction in tennis: examination of congruence, gender, and ability.  


The study investigated: (a) the congruency hypothesis, and (b) the member characteristics hypotheses relating to ability and gender, of Chelladurai's (1978) Multidimensional Model of Leadership. One hundred forty-eight tennis players (77 women) competing at the NCAA Division I and II Tennis Championship level participated in the study. Results indicated athlete satisfaction (Athlete Satisfaction Scale; Riemer & Chelladurai, 1998) was not dependent on the congruence between preferred and perceived leadership behavior. Other results indicated that an athlete's level of ability did affect preferences for leadership behavior. Further, while athlete gender was responsible for some variance in preferences for autocratic behavior and positive feedback behavior, the gender of the athlete's coach had a significant effect on the athlete's preferences for social support behavior. PMID:11561389

Riemer, H A; Toon, K



Vacuum non-expanding horizons and shear-free null geodesic congruences  

E-print Network

We investigate the geometry of a particular class of null surfaces in space-time called vacuum Non-Expanding Horizons (NEHs). Using the spin-coefficient equation, we provide a complete description of the horizon geometry, as well as fixing a canonical choice of null tetrad and coordinates on a NEH. By looking for particular classes of null geodesic congruences which live exterior to NEHs but have the special property that their shear vanishes at the intersection with the horizon, a good cut formalism for NEHs is developed which closely mirrors asymptotic theory. In particular, we show that such null geodesic congruences are generated by arbitrary choice of a complex world-line in a complex four dimensional space, each such choice induces a CR structure on the horizon, and a particular world-line (and hence CR structure) may be chosen by transforming to a privileged tetrad frame.

T. M. Adamo; E. T. Newman



Semantic Enrichment of Text Representation with Wikipedia for Text Classification  

E-print Network

(e.g. the independence among the terms in the document set) [2][3]. Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA are replaced by "latent semantic concepts" that form the basis of latent semantic space. Latent semantic

Feldman, Anna


Event Congruency and Episodic Encoding: A Developmental fMRI Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A known contributor to adults' superior memory performance compared to children is their differential reliance on an existing knowledge base. Compared to those of adults, children's semantic networks are less accessible and less established, a difference that is also thought to contribute to children's relative resistance to semantically related…

Maril, Anat; Avital, Rinat; Reggev, Niv; Zuckerman, Maya; Sadeh, Talya; Sira, Liat Ben; Livneh, Neta



An Audio-Visual Resource Notebook for Adult Consumer Education. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Audio-Visual Aids for Adult Consumer Education, with Special Emphasis on Materials for Elderly, Low-Income and Handicapped Consumers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is an annotated bibliography of audio-visual aids in the field of consumer education, intended especially for use among low-income, elderly, and handicapped consumers. It was developed to aid consumer education program planners in finding audio-visual resources to enhance their presentations. Materials listed include 293 resources…

Virginia State Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Richmond, VA.


Feeling trusted by business leaders in China: Antecedents and the mediating role of value congruence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the antecedents of felt trust, an under-explored area in the trust literature. We hypothesized that subordinates’\\u000a felt trust would relate positively with their leaders’ moral leadership behaviors and negatively with autocratic leadership\\u000a behaviors and demographic differences between leaders and themselves. We also hypothesized the above relationships to be mediated\\u000a by the leader-member value congruence. Results supported our

Dora C. Lau; Jun Liu; Ping Ping Fu



Gender-Role Congruence and Self-Referencing as Determinants of Advertising Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an initial experiment, men and women with varied gender-role orientations evaluated gender-stereotyped and nonstereotyped advertisements for “gendered” products that are actually used by both sexes. Consistent with a gender-role congruence model of advertising effectiveness, traditional participants (masculine men; feminine women) responded more favorably to traditional (i.e., gender-stereotyped) than to nontraditional advertisements, whereas nontraditional participants (androgynous individuals; feminine men; masculine

Maria Michelle Morrison; David R. Shaffer



Congruence classes of 2-adic valuations of Stirling numbers of the second kind  

E-print Network

We analyze congruence classes of $S(n,k)$, the Stirling numbers of the second kind, modulo powers of 2. This analysis provides insight into a conjecture posed by Amdeberhan, Manna and Moll, which those authors established for $k\\le5$. We provide a framework that can be used to justify the conjecture by computational means, which we then complete for $k=5, 6,..., 20$.

Bennett, Curtis



Bidentity: Sexual Behavior\\/Identity Congruence and Women's Sexual, Physical and Mental Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to cognitive dissonance theory, the co-occurrence of inconsistent cognitions may result in psychological distress. This distress may lead to undesirable health outcomes. This study explored the role of sexual behavior\\/identity congruence on women's mental, physical and sexual well-being. A total of 2,578 women who reported sexual attraction, desire, affection, intentions and\\/or behavior involving other women completed a web-based survey

Vanessa Schick; Joshua G. Rosenberger; Debby Herbenick; Sarah K. Calabrese; Michael Reece



Local directional pattern of phase congruency features for illumination invariant face recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An illumination-robust face recognition system using Local Directional Pattern (LDP) descriptors in Phase Congruency (PC) space is proposed in this paper. The proposed Directional Pattern of Phase Congruency (DPPC) is an oriented and multi-scale local descriptor that is able to encode various patterns of face images under different lighting conditions. It is constructed by applying LDP on the oriented PC images. A LDP feature is obtained by computing the edge response values in eight directions at each pixel position and encoding them into an eight bit binary code using the relative strength magnitude of these edge responses. Phase congruency and local directional pattern have been independently used in the field of face and facial expression recognition, since they are robust to illumination changes. When the PC extracts the discontinuities in the image such as edges and corners, the LDP computes the edge response values in different directions and uses these to encode the image texture. The local directional pattern descriptor on the phase congruency image is subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) for dimensionality reduction for fast and effective face recognition application. The performance evaluation of the proposed DPPC algorithm is conducted on several publicly available databases and observed promising recognition rates. Better classification accuracy shows the superiority of the LDP descriptor against other appearance-based feature descriptors such as Local Binary Pattern (LBP). In other words, our result shows that by using the LDP descriptor the Euclidean distance between reference image and testing images in the same class is much less than that between reference image and testing images from the other classes.

Essa, Almabrok E.; Asari, Vijayan K.



Evaluating and interpreting cross-taxon congruence: Potential pitfalls and solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterizing the relationship between different taxonomic groups is critical to identify potential surrogates for biodiversity. Previous studies have shown that cross-taxa relationships are generally weak and/or inconsistent. The difficulties in finding predictive patterns have often been attributed to the spatial and temporal scales of these studies and on the differences in the measure used to evaluate such relationships (species richness versus composition). However, the choice of the analytical approach used to evaluate cross-taxon congruence inevitably represents a major source of variation. Here, we described the use of a range of methods that can be used to comprehensively assess cross-taxa relationships. To do so, we used data for two taxonomic groups, wetland plants and water beetles, collected from 54 farmland ponds in Ireland. Specifically, we used the Pearson correlation and rarefaction curves to analyse patterns in species richness, while Mantel tests, Procrustes analysis, and co-correspondence analysis were used to evaluate congruence in species composition. We compared the results of these analyses and we described some of the potential pitfalls associated with the use of each of these statistical approaches. Cross-taxon congruence was moderate to strong, depending on the choice of the analytical approach, on the nature of the response variable, and on local and environmental conditions. Our findings indicate that multiple approaches and measures of community structure are required for a comprehensive assessment of cross-taxa relationships. In particular, we showed that selection of surrogate taxa in conservation planning should not be based on a single statistic expressing the degree of correlation in species richness or composition. Potential solutions to the analytical issues associated with the assessment of cross-taxon congruence are provided and the implications of our findings in the selection of surrogates for biodiversity are discussed.

Gioria, Margherita; Bacaro, Giovanni; Feehan, John



A comparison of brand personality and brand user-imagery congruence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to compare the brand personality and brand user-imagery constructs in congruity theory to examine their relationship in the image congruence model as a basis of modeling brand attitudes for publicly and privately consumed brands. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 272 surveys measured subjects' self-image perceptions and subjects' perceptions of brand personality and

Brian T. Parker



Gender and Job Role Congruence: A Field Study of Trust in Labor Mediators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which individuals are seen as fulfilling their social roles is related to the extent they are seen as successful\\u000a in that role. Using social role theory, the congruence of job roles and gender roles was examined among labor mediators, a\\u000a profession requiring both agentic and communal characteristics. A total of 362 employees and employers involved in a

Alice F. Stuhlmacher; Jean Poitras



Compensator design for hysteresis of a stacked PZT actuator using a congruency-based hysteresis model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a rate-independent hysteresis compensator for a stacked PZT (lead zirconate titanate) actuator. From a congruency-based hysteresis (CBH) model which is derived from the inherent properties of this actuator, especially the congruency, a feedforward compensator associated with it is developed. The formulation of the proposed compensator is based on an assumption that the inverse operator also possesses the same properties as the CBH model does. This implies that the compensator also possesses properties such as the wiped-out loop closing between the consecutive control points and congruency. Consequently, the expressions for the compensator can be conducted by exploiting the equations for the CBH model in two cases of monotonic increase and monotonic decrease of input excitation. In order to assess the performance of the compensator, several experiments in both open-loop and closed-loop controls are undertaken. In the open-loop control experiment, the performance of the feedforward compensator using the CBH model is compared with the classical Preisach model-based one in three cases of reference waveforms. In the closed-loop control experiment, the proposed compensator is incorporated into a PID (proportional-integral-derivative) control system and the performance of this integrated system is then evaluated and compared to that of the PID with and without compensator.

Nguyen, Phuong-Bac; Choi, Seung-Bok



Omnidirectional Audio-Visual Talker Localization Based on Dynamic Fusion of Audio-Visual Features Using Validity and Reliability Criteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a robust omnidirectional audio-visual (AV) talker localizer for AV applications. The proposed localizer consists of two innovations. One of them is robust omnidirectional audio and visual features. The direction of arrival (DOA) estimation using an equilateral triangular microphone array, and human position estimation using an omnidirectional video camera extract the AV features. The other is a dynamic fusion of the AV features. The validity criterion, called the audioor visual-localization counter, validates each audio- or visual-feature. The reliability criterion, called the speech arriving evaluator, acts as a dynamic weight to eliminate any prior statistical properties from its fusion procedure. The proposed localizer can compatibly achieve talker localization in a speech activity and user localization in a non-speech activity under the identical fusion rule. Talker localization experiments were conducted in an actual room to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed localizer. The results confirmed that the talker localization performance of the proposed AV localizer using the validity and reliability criteria is superior to that of conventional localizers.

Denda, Yuki; Nishiura, Takanobu; Yamashita, Yoichi


Semantic Similarity in Biomedical Ontologies  

PubMed Central

In recent years, ontologies have become a mainstream topic in biomedical research. When biological entities are described using a common schema, such as an ontology, they can be compared by means of their annotations. This type of comparison is called semantic similarity, since it assesses the degree of relatedness between two entities by the similarity in meaning of their annotations. The application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies is recent; nevertheless, several studies have been published in the last few years describing and evaluating diverse approaches. Semantic similarity has become a valuable tool for validating the results drawn from biomedical studies such as gene clustering, gene expression data analysis, prediction and validation of molecular interactions, and disease gene prioritization. We review semantic similarity measures applied to biomedical ontologies and propose their classification according to the strategies they employ: node-based versus edge-based and pairwise versus groupwise. We also present comparative assessment studies and discuss the implications of their results. We survey the existing implementations of semantic similarity measures, and we describe examples of applications to biomedical research. This will clarify how biomedical researchers can benefit from semantic similarity measures and help them choose the approach most suitable for their studies. Biomedical ontologies are evolving toward increased coverage, formality, and integration, and their use for annotation is increasingly becoming a focus of both effort by biomedical experts and application of automated annotation procedures to create corpora of higher quality and completeness than are currently available. Given that semantic similarity measures are directly dependent on these evolutions, we can expect to see them gaining more relevance and even becoming as essential as sequence similarity is today in biomedical research. PMID:19649320

Pesquita, Catia; Faria, Daniel; Falcão, André O.; Lord, Phillip; Couto, Francisco M.



Children's Attention to Television: The Effects of Audio-Visual Attention Factors on Children's Television Viewing Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to examine the relationship of audiovisual factors and reading ability to children's television viewing strategies, the eye movements of 30 boys, aged 8 to 10 years, were recorded while they watched a televised display in which audiovisual factors varied systematically. Selected segments of "The Electric Company" were used to investigate…

Mock, Karen R.


Developing an Audiovisual Notebook as a Self-Learning Tool in Histology: Perceptions of Teachers and Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Videos can be used as didactic tools for self-learning under several circumstances, including those cases in which students are responsible for the development of this resource as an audiovisual notebook. We compared students' and teachers' perceptions regarding the main features that an audiovisual notebook should include. Four…

Campos-Sánchez, Antonio; López-Núñez, Juan-Antonio; Scionti, Giuseppe; Garzón, Ingrid; González-Andrades, Miguel; Alaminos, Miguel; Sola, Tomás



Audiovisuelle Materialien fur den modernen Fremdsprachenunterricht. Stand: August 1969 (Audiovisual Materials for Modern Foreign Language Instruction. August 1969 Edition).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This listing cites commercially available programs for foreign language instruction which have audiovisual components. Supplementary audiovisual aids without accompanying basic text materials are not included. Organization is by language and commercial source. Indications for classroom application and prices (in German currency) are provided. The…

Mohr, Peter, Comp.


Audiovisuelle Materialien fur den modernen Fremdsprachenunterricht. Stand: Juni 1971 (Audiovisual Materials for Modern Foreign Language Instruction. June 1971 Edition).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This listing, updating the 1969 publication, cites commerically available language instruction programs having audiovisual components. Supplementary audiovisual aids are available only as components of total programs noted in this work. Organization is by language and commerical source. Indications for classroom applications and prices (in German…

Informationszentrum fuer Fremdsprachenforschung, Marburg (West Germany).


AV@CAR: A Spanish Multichannel Multimodal Corpus for In-Vehicle Automatic Audio-Visual Speech Recognition  

E-print Network

AV@CAR: A Spanish Multichannel Multimodal Corpus for In-Vehicle Automatic Audio-Visual Speech,fsukno,lleida,afrangi,amiguel,lbuera,zacur} Abstract This paper describes the acquisition of the multichannel multimodal database AV@CAR for automatic audio-visual speech recognition in cars. Automatic speech recognition (ASR) plays an important role

Frangi, Alejandro


A basic study of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) on human audiovisual spatial integration for human-machine interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology of Human Machine Interface (HMI) mainly investigate about how to use machines in a more humanized way so that the communication between human and the machine could become more harmonic and natural. Previous studies indicate that there is an integration area in the human brain for audiovisual information processing. Although machines also possess mechanism for audiovisual processing, there

Yulin Gao; Jingjing Yang; Qi Li; Ryota Morikawa; Jinglong Wu



Audio-Visual Aids for Pre-School and Primary School Children. A Training Document. Aids to Programming UNICEF Assistance to Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion of the importance and scope of audiovisual aids in the educational programs and activities designed for children in developing countries includes the significance of audiovisual aids in pre-school and primary school education, types of audiovisual aids, learning from pictures, creative art materials, play materials, and problems…

Narayan, Shankar


EAVA: A 3D Emotive Audio-Visual Avatar Hao Tang, Yun Fu, Jilin Tu, Thomas S. Huang, and Mark Hasegawa-Johnson  

E-print Network

EAVA: A 3D Emotive Audio-Visual Avatar Hao Tang, Yun Fu, Jilin Tu, Thomas S. Huang, and Mark Abstract Emotive audio-visual avatars have the potential of sig- nificantly improving the quality of Human to a text-driven 3D Emotive Audio-Visual Avatar (EAVA) are proposed. Pri- mary work is focused on 3D face

Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark


Investigating the Congruence of Crowdsourced Information With Official Government Data: The Case of Pediatric Clinics  

PubMed Central

Background Health 2.0 is a benefit to society by helping patients acquire knowledge about health care by harnessing collective intelligence. However, any misleading information can directly affect patients’ choices of hospitals and drugs, and potentially exacerbate their health condition. Objective This study investigates the congruence between crowdsourced information and official government data in the health care domain and identifies the determinants of low congruence where it exists. In-line with infodemiology, we suggest measures to help the patients in the regions vulnerable to inaccurate health information. Methods We text-mined multiple online health communities in South Korea to construct the data for crowdsourced information on public health services (173,748 messages). Kendall tau and Spearman rank order correlation coefficients were used to compute the differences in 2 ranking systems of health care quality: actual government evaluations of 779 hospitals and mining results of geospecific online health communities. Then we estimated the effect of sociodemographic characteristics on the level of congruence by using an ordinary least squares regression. Results The regression results indicated that the standard deviation of married women’s education (P=.046), population density (P=.01), number of doctors per pediatric clinic (P=.048), and birthrate (P=.002) have a significant effect on the congruence of crowdsourced data (adjusted R 2=.33). Specifically, (1) the higher the birthrate in a given region, (2) the larger the variance in educational attainment, (3) the higher the population density, and (4) the greater the number of doctors per clinic, the more likely that crowdsourced information from online communities is congruent with official government data. Conclusions To investigate the cause of the spread of misleading health information in the online world, we adopted a unique approach by associating mining results on hospitals from geospecific online health communities with the sociodemographic characteristics of corresponding regions. We found that the congruence of crowdsourced information on health care services varied across regions and that these variations could be explained by geospecific demographic factors. This finding can be helpful to governments in reducing the potential risk of misleading online information and the accompanying safety issues. PMID:24496094

Jung, Yuchul; Jung, Dain; Hur, Cinyoung



Semdrops: A Social Semantic Tagging Approach for Emerging Semantic Data Diego Torres, Alicia Diaz  

E-print Network

a combination of social web practices with semantic web technologies to enrich existing web resourcesSemdrops: A Social Semantic Tagging Approach for Emerging Semantic Data Diego Torres, Alicia Diaz.Molli} Abstract--This paper proposes a collective intelligence strat- egy for emerging semantic data. It presents

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Running head: INTRODUCTION TO LATENT SEMANTIC ANALYSIS An Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis  

E-print Network

1 Running head: INTRODUCTION TO LATENT SEMANTIC ANALYSIS An Introduction to Latent Semantic of Colorado at Boulder, Landauer, T. K., Foltz, P. W., & Laham, D. (1998). Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis. Discourse Processes, 25, 259-284. #12;Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis 2 Abstract Latent

Poesio, Massimo


Simulating a Semantic Network in LMS  

E-print Network

A semantic network is a collection of nodes and the links between them. The nodes represent concepts, functions and entities, and the links represent relationships between varoius nodes. Any semantic network must be supplied ...

Koton, Phyllis A.



Bringing machine learning and compositional semantics together  

E-print Network

Bringing machine learning and compositional semantics together Percy Liang and Christopher Potts compositional semantic theories from corpora and databases. This paper presents a simple dis- criminative of the same overall framework for understanding meaning and structural complexity. Keywords compositionality

Pratt, Vaughan


Introducing Reference Semantics via Refinement Graeme Smith  

E-print Network

Introducing Reference Semantics via Refinement Graeme Smith Software Verification Research Centre, University of Queensland, Australia Abstract. Two types of semantics have been given

Smith, Graeme


Hypermedia Presentation Adaptation on the Semantic Web  

E-print Network

language designed to support the Semantic Web. 1 Introduction The Web is the most rapidly growing is nowadays augmented to target machines. In the Semantic Web [1] era, Web data will evolve from machine

Houben, Geert-Jan


Modeling Computations in a Semantic Network  

E-print Network

Semantic network research has seen a resurgence from its early history in the cognitive sciences with the inception of the Semantic Web initiative. The Semantic Web effort has brought forth an array of technologies that support the encoding, storage, and querying of the semantic network data structure at the world stage. Currently, the popular conception of the Semantic Web is that of a data modeling medium where real and conceptual entities are related in semantically meaningful ways. However, new models have emerged that explicitly encode procedural information within the semantic network substrate. With these new technologies, the Semantic Web has evolved from a data modeling medium to a computational medium. This article provides a classification of existing computational modeling efforts and the requirements of supporting technologies that will aid in the further growth of this burgeoning domain.

Marko A. Rodriguez; Johan Bollen



Chem# - Semantically Enriched Linked Open Chemical Data  

E-print Network

formats and difficult to discover. Chem# Semantically Enriched Linked Open Chemical Data Sam Adams (, Peter Murray-Rust, Brian Brooks, Jim Downing, Nick Day The Solution: Semantically Enriched Linked Open Chemical Data: browsable...

Adams, Sam; Murray-Rust, Peter; Brooks, Brian; Downing, Jim; Day, Nick



Ski: A Semantics-Knowledgeable Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Semantics-Knowledgeable Interface (Ski) is designed to provide a powerful - but usable - inter- face to databases. To do this, it combines the expres- siveness of semantic models, the broad communica- tions \\

Roger King; Stephen Melville



Audiovisual correspondence between musical timbre and visual shapes.  


This article investigates the cross-modal correspondences between musical timbre and shapes. Previously, such features as pitch, loudness, light intensity, visual size, and color characteristics have mostly been used in studies of audio-visual correspondences. Moreover, in most studies, simple stimuli e.g., simple tones have been utilized. In this experiment, 23 musical sounds varying in fundamental frequency and timbre but fixed in loudness were used. Each sound was presented once against colored shapes and once against grayscale shapes. Subjects had to select the visual equivalent of a given sound i.e., its shape, color (or grayscale) and vertical position. This scenario permitted studying the associations between normalized timbre and visual shapes as well as some of the previous findings for more complex stimuli. One hundred and nineteen subjects (31 females and 88 males) participated in the online experiment. Subjects included 36 claimed professional musicians, 47 claimed amateur musicians, and 36 claimed non-musicians. Thirty-one subjects have also claimed to have synesthesia-like experiences. A strong association between timbre of envelope normalized sounds and visual shapes was observed. Subjects have strongly associated soft timbres with blue, green or light gray rounded shapes, harsh timbres with red, yellow or dark gray sharp angular shapes and timbres having elements of softness and harshness together with a mixture of the two previous shapes. Color or grayscale had no effect on timbre-shape associations. Fundamental frequency was not associated with height, grayscale or color. The significant correspondence between timbre and shape revealed by the present work allows designing substitution systems which might help the blind to perceive shapes through timbre. PMID:24910604

Adeli, Mohammad; Rouat, Jean; Molotchnikoff, Stéphane



Semantic Services for Wikipedia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wikipedia, a killer application in Web 2.0, has embraced the power of collaborative editing to harness collective intelligence. It features many attractive characteristics, like entity-based link graph, abundant categorization and semi-structured layout, and can serve as an ideal data source to extract high quality and well-structured data. In this chapter, we first propose several solutions to extract knowledge from Wikipedia. We do not only consider information from the relational summaries of articles (infoboxes) but also semi-automatically extract it from the article text using the structured content available. Due to differences with information extraction from the Web, it is necessary to tackle new problems, like the lack of redundancy in Wikipedia that is dealt with by extending traditional machine learning algorithms to work with few labeled data. Furthermore, we also exploit the widespread categories as a complementary way to discover additional knowledge. Benefiting from both structured and textural information, we additionally provide a suggestion service for Wikipedia authoring. With the aim to facilitate semantic reuse, our proposal provides users with facilities such as link, categories and infobox content suggestions. The proposed enhancements can be applied to attract more contributors and lighten the burden of professional editors. Finally, we developed an enhanced search system, which can ease the process of exploiting Wikipedia. To provide a user-friendly interface, it extends the faceted search interface with relation navigation and let the user easily express his complex information needs in an interactive way. In order to achieve efficient query answering, it extends scalable IR engines to index and search both the textual and structured information with an integrated ranking support.

Wang, Haofen; Penin, Thomas; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Qiaoling; Xue, Guirong; Yu, Yong


Involvement of right STS in audio-visual integration for affective speech  

E-print Network

The video of each of the words spoken by each actor was individually cut, edited, selected for best depiction of audio-visual expression, and subsequently rendered to make independent video clips of the best audio-visual expression of each word 800ms... in duration (20 frames) using Adobe Premiere. Where video editing was required, the editing was performed on a frame-by-frame basis and mainly consisted of actor centering or frame speeding and slowing to arrive at an 800ms clip capturing the spoken word...

Hagan, Cindy



Ontology Matching with Semantic Verification  

PubMed Central

ASMOV (Automated Semantic Matching of Ontologies with Verification) is a novel algorithm that uses lexical and structural characteristics of two ontologies to iteratively calculate a similarity measure between them, derives an alignment, and then verifies it to ensure that it does not contain semantic inconsistencies. In this paper, we describe the ASMOV algorithm, and then present experimental results that measure its accuracy using the OAEI 2008 tests, and that evaluate its use with two different thesauri: WordNet, and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). These results show the increased accuracy obtained by combining lexical, structural and extensional matchers with semantic verification, and demonstrate the advantage of using a domain-specific thesaurus for the alignment of specialized ontologies. PMID:20186256

Jean-Mary, Yves R.; Shironoshita, E. Patrick; Kabuka, Mansur R.



Geodesic propagation for semantic labeling.  


This paper presents a semantic labeling framework with geodesic propagation (GP). Under the same framework, three algorithms are proposed, including GP, supervised GP (SGP) for image, and hybrid GP (HGP) for video. In these algorithms, we resort to the recognition proposal map and select confident pixels with maximum probability as the initial propagation seeds. From these seeds, the GP algorithm iteratively updates the weights of geodesic distances until the semantic labels are propagated to all pixels. On the contrary, the SGP algorithm further exploits the contextual information to guide the direction of propagation, leading to better performance but higher computational complexity than the GP. For video labeling, we further propose the HGP algorithm, in which the geodesic metric is used in both spatial and temporal spaces. Experiments on four public data sets show that our algorithms outperform several state-of-the-art methods. With the GP framework, convincing results for both image and video semantic labeling can be obtained. PMID:25248182

Li, Qing; Chen, Xiaowu; Song, Yafei; Zhang, Yu; Jin, Xin; Zhao, Qinping



Measuring MT Adequacy Using Latent Semantic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Translation adequacy is defined as the amount of semantic content from the source language document that is con- veyed in the target language document. As such, it is more difficult to measure than intelligibility since semantic content must be measured in two documents and then compared. Latent Semantic Analysis is a content measurement technique used in language learner evaluation that

Florence Reeder



Grounded on Experience: Semantics for intelligence  

E-print Network

Grounded on Experience: Semantics for intelligence Pei Wang Center for Research on Concepts and resources. An experience­grounded semantics is introduced in this paper, using NARS, an intelligent rea to the solution of some important problems in artificial intelligence. 1 Introduction Semantics studies how

Indiana University


Semantic and Visual Memory After Alcohol Abuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the relative performance of 40 patients with a history of alcohol abuse on tasks of short-term semantic and visual memory. Performance on the visual memory tasks was impaired significantly relative to the semantic memory task in a within-subjects analysis of variance. Semantic memory was unimpaired. (Author/ABB)

Donat, Dennis C.



Technologies for the Social Semantic Desktop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vision of the Social Semantic Desktop defines a user’s personal information environment as a source and end-point of the Semantic Web: Knowledge workers comprehensively express their information and data with respect to their own conceptualizations. Semantic Web languages and protocols are used to formalize these conceptualizations and for coordinating local and global information access.

Sintek, Michael; Handschuh, Siegfried; Scerri, Simon; van Elst, Ludger


Semantic Web Research anno 2006: main streams,  

E-print Network

Semantic Web Research anno 2006: main streams, popular fallacies, current status and future. In this topical1 paper we try to give an analysis and overview of the current state of Semantic Web research. We point to different in- terpretations of the Semantic Web as the reason underlying many contro- versies

van Harmelen, Frank


Examining Lateralized Semantic Access Using Pictures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A divided visual field (DVF) experiment examined the semantic processing strategies employed by the cerebral hemispheres to determine if strategies observed with written word stimuli generalize to other media for communicating semantic information. We employed picture stimuli and vary the degree of semantic relatedness between the picture pairs.…

Lovseth, Kyle; Atchley, Ruth Ann



Neuronal Activation for Semantically Reversible Sentences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantically reversible sentences are prone to misinterpretation and take longer for typically developing children and adults to comprehend; they are also particularly problematic for those with language difficulties such as aphasia or Specific Language Impairment. In our study, we used fMRI to compare the processing of semantically reversible and nonreversible sentences in 41 healthy participants to identify how semantic reversibility

Fiona M. Richardson; Michael S. C. Thomas; Cathy J. Price



Neuronal Activation for Semantically Reversible Sentences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantically reversible sentences are prone to misinterpretation and take longer for typically developing children and adults to comprehend; they are also particularly problematic for those with language difficulties such as aphasia or Specific Language Impairment. In our study, we used fMRI to compare the processing of semantically reversible and nonreversible sentences in 41 healthy participants to identify how semantic reversibility

Fiona M. Richardson; Michael S. C. Thomas; Cathy J. Price



Semantic Social Network Ph.D. thesis  

E-print Network

Semantic Social Network Analysis Ph.D. thesis Defended on the 11th of April 2011 by Guillaume, with an original contribution that leverages Social Network Analysis with Semantic Web frameworks. Social Network-based representations, (2) to conduct a social network analysis that takes advantage of the rich semantics

Boyer, Edmond


An Update Semantics for Prima Facie Obligations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deontic logic dus is a deontic update semantics for prescriptive obligations based on the update semantics of Veltman. In dus the denition of logical validity of obligations is not based on static truth values but on dynamic action transitions. In this paper prescriptive prima facie obligations are formalized in update semantics. The logic formalizes the specicity principle, has reinstatement

Leendert W. N. Van Der Torre; Yao-hua Tan



Semantic Social Network Analysis, a concrete case  

E-print Network

with a similar enrichment of the semantics of the meta-data attached to the shared resources, will allow of interactions (messages, comments on resources, etc.). We show that the enriched semantic web frameworkSemantic Social Network Analysis, a concrete case Guillaume Erétéo, Orange Labs, guillaume

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Helping online communities to semantically enrich folksonomies  

E-print Network

Helping online communities to semantically enrich folksonomies Freddy Limpens Edelweiss, INRIA F along the life-cycle of semantically enriched folk- sonomies. 1. INTRODUCTION Our approach aims is to semantically structure folksonomies. This can help navigate within tagged corpora by (1) enriching tag

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Exogenous Semantics Approach to Enriching Logics  

E-print Network

Exogenous Semantics Approach to Enriching Logics Paulo Mateus, Amílcar Sernadas, and Cristina Sernadas Abstract. The exogenous semantics approach to enriching a logic consists in defin- ing each model of the proposed probability logic. 1 Introduction The exogenous semantics approach to enriching a logic consists

Lisboa, Universidade Técnica de


Semantic Web research main streams, popular falacies,  

E-print Network

;10 Which Semantic Web? Version 2: "Enrichment of the current Web" recipe: Annotate, classify, index metaSemantic Web research anno 2006: main streams, popular falacies, current status, future challenges Frank van Harmelen Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam #12;2 This is NOT a Semantic Web evangelization talk (I

van Harmelen, Frank


Semantic Annotation Model Definition for Systems Interoperability  

E-print Network Abstract. Semantic annotation is one of the useful solutions to enrich target's (systems, models, meta-models, etc.) information. There are some papers which use semantic enrichment for different purposes/model structures. Semantic annotation is not only just used for enriching the data/model's information, but also

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Press Release for Semantics Content Enrichment  

E-print Network

Press Release AAAS/ for Semantics Content Enrichment The American Association for the Advancement tools to help them manage today's information glut." TEMIS's solution for Semantic Content Enrichment enrichment , to offer a new, integrated, semantically fueled digital publishing program A global leader

Napp, Nils


A Methodology for Semantically Enriching Interoperable Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated access to a Federated Database System, whatever its architecture is, requires a deep knowledge about the semantics of its component databases so that interdatabase semantic relationships can be detected. Unfortunately, very often there is a lack of such a knowledge and the local schemas, being semantically poor as a consequence of the limited expressiveness of traditional data models, do

Malú Castellanos



Universitat Augsburg Patterns for Semantic Business Process  

E-print Network

Business Process Management (SBPM) ­ with semantically enriched business process models as one of its main. But they all have in common, that semantically enriched business process models are the key to all the futureUniversit¨at Augsburg Patterns for Semantic Business Process Modeling Christian Seitz Report 2008

Bauer, Bernhard


Descriptive Schema: Semantics-based Query Answering  

E-print Network

, enrich the query with semanti- cal information, as well as using the semantical information to rankDescriptive Schema: Semantics-based Query Answering S. D. Lee, Patrick Yee, Thomas Lee, David W description of the structure. When answering keyword queries, DS can be used to improve semantics-based query

Cheung, David Wai-lok


Metasemantics: On the Limits of Semantic Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

METASEMANTICS is a wake-up call for semantic theory: It reveals that some semantic questions have no adequate answer. (This is meant to be the "epistemic" point that certain semantic questions cannot be "settled"--not a metaphysical point about whether there is a fact-of-the-matter.) METASEMANTICS thus checks our default "optimism" that any…

Parent, T.



Operational Semantics for Lazy Functional Logic Programs  

E-print Network

Operational Semantics for Lazy Functional,fhu} __________________________________________________________________________ Abstract In this paper we define an operational semantics for lazy functional logic prog* *rams including- tion of an operational semantics covering all aspects of modern lazy functional logic languages, like

Vidal, Germán


Folksonomies, the Semantic Web, and Movie Recommendation  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the Semantic Web has evolved to support the mean- ingful exchange of heterogeneous data through shared and controlled conceptualisations, Web 2.0 has demonstrated that large-scale commu- nity tagging sites can enrich the semantic web with readily accessible and valuable knowledge. In this paper, we investigate the integration of a movies folksonomy with a semantic knowledge base about user- movie

Martin Szomszor; Ciro Cattuto; Harith Alani; Kieron O'Hara; Andrea Baldassarri; Vittorio Loreto; Vito D. P. Servedio


D-Structures and their semantics  

E-print Network

D-Structures and their semantics Rohit Parikh 1 D-Structures In these notes we shall be concerned by imposing different regularly conditions on the basic object (D-structures) and the semantics can then be di- rectly interpreted into the semantics of D-structures. We shall then give a game-theoretic explanation

Parikh, Rohit


Einsatz von Web Services im Semantic Web  

E-print Network

Einsatz von Web Services im Semantic Web am Beispiel der RACER Engine und OWL-QL Jan Galinski Aufbau der Arbeit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 Grundlagen 5 2.1 Semantic Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1.1 Komponenten des Semantic Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.1.2 Repräsentation

Moeller, Ralf


Social networks and the Semantic Web  

E-print Network

Social networks and the Semantic Web Peter Mika Business Informatics group Dept. of Computer technology for the social sciences Social network mining from the Web Semantics-based data management Browsing and visualization Case study Network Analysis of Semantic Web research 2. Network Analysis

Baeza-Yates, Ricardo


International Journal on Semantic Web and  

E-print Network

ON AIR!!! International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (Discount to SIG members) DON'T MISS: TOM GRUBER INTERVIEW (page 4) BulletinSemantic Web & Information Systems The Official Quarterly Newsletter of AIS Special Interest Group on Semantic Web and Information Systems AIS SIGSEMIS http

Chen-Burger, Yun-Heh (Jessica)


Document representation with Generalized Latent Semantic Analysis  

E-print Network

Document representation with Generalized Latent Semantic Analysis Irina Matveeva Department and text clas- sification. Here, we introduce Generalized Latent Semantic Analysis, a framework which similarities or dissimilarities are available. Latent Semantic Anal- ysis (LSA) [8] is one of the best known


Getting Better Results With Latent Semantic Indexing  

E-print Network

Chapter 15 Getting Better Results With Latent Semantic Indexing Preslav Nakov Department obtained when using Latent Semantic Indexing. The factors are separated in 5 major groups and analyzed both of Latent Semantic Analysis is a classical method for automatic indexing and information retrieval. Although

Hearst, Marti


Latent Semantic Analysis for German literature investigation  

E-print Network

Latent Semantic Analysis for German literature investigation Preslav Nakov Sofia University, Rila Semantic Analysis The Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) is a powerful statistical technique for indexing for automatically discovery of the texts from the same author and to discriminate between prose and poetry. 2 Latent

Hearst, Marti


Latent Semantic Analysis Peter Wiemer-Hastings  

E-print Network

Latent Semantic Analysis Peter Wiemer-Hastings DePaul University School November 10, 2004 Abstract Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) is a technique for comparing texts using a vector, and finishes by presenting a number of current research directions. 1 Introduction Latent Semantic Analysis

Wiemer-Hastings, Peter


Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis Scott Deerwester  

E-print Network

Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis Scott Deerwester Graduate Library School University of Chicago underlying latent semantic structure in the data that is partially obscured by the randomness of word choice of the obscuring "noise". A description of terms and documents based on the latent semantic structure is used

Dumais, Susan


Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis Scott Deerwester  

E-print Network

Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis Scott Deerwester Center for Information and Language Studies based on the latent semantic structure is used for indexing and retrieval.' The particular "latent semantic indexing" (LSI) analysis that we have tried uses singular-value decomposition. We take a large

Tino, Peter


Models of Highdimensional Semantic Spaces Benoit Lemaire  

E-print Network

it explicitely. Latent semantic analysis Latent semantic analysis (LSA) was primarily designed for text retrieval a statistical model of machine learning that is complementary to symbolic methods. It is based on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), a model initially devoted to language. Actually, LSA was first designed as a tool

Lemaire, Benoît


Audio-visual onset differences are used to determine syllable identity for ambiguous audio-visual stimulus pairs  

PubMed Central

Content and temporal cues have been shown to interact during audio-visual (AV) speech identification. Typically, the most reliable unimodal cue is used more strongly to identify specific speech features; however, visual cues are only used if the AV stimuli are presented within a certain temporal window of integration (TWI). This suggests that temporal cues denote whether unimodal stimuli belong together, that is, whether they should be integrated. It is not known whether temporal cues also provide information about the identity of a syllable. Since spoken syllables have naturally varying AV onset asynchronies, we hypothesize that for suboptimal AV cues presented within the TWI, information about the natural AV onset differences can aid in speech identification. To test this, we presented low-intensity auditory syllables concurrently with visual speech signals, and varied the stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) of the AV pair, while participants were instructed to identify the auditory syllables. We revealed that specific speech features (e.g., voicing) were identified by relying primarily on one modality (e.g., auditory). Additionally, we showed a wide window in which visual information influenced auditory perception, that seemed even wider for congruent stimulus pairs. Finally, we found a specific response pattern across the SOA range for syllables that were not reliably identified by the unimodal cues, which we explained as the result of the use of natural onset differences between AV speech signals. This indicates that temporal cues not only provide information about the temporal integration of AV stimuli, but additionally convey information about the identity of AV pairs. These results provide a detailed behavioral basis for further neuro-imaging and stimulation studies to unravel the neurofunctional mechanisms of the audio-visual-temporal interplay within speech perception. PMID:23805110

ten Oever, Sanne; Sack, Alexander T.; Wheat, Katherine L.; Bien, Nina; van Atteveldt, Nienke



Semantic Knowledge and Episodic Memory for Faces in Semantic Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have documented poor recognition memory for faces in patients with semantic dementia. Preserved face recognition memory was found in this study, however, so long as atrophy was confined predominantly to the left temporal lobe. Patients with structural damage to the right temporal lobe were typically impaired, with the status of the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus (including the perirhinal

Jon S. Simons; Kim S. Graham; Clare J. Galton; Karalyn Patterson; John R. Hodges



An Efficient Semantic Web Services Matching Mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bringing semantics to Web Services description and matching remarkably improves the precision and recall performance of service discovery. However, it greatly increases the service matching time by executing semantic reasoning, and makes the real-time service selection and composition harder than before. To shorten service matching time, this paper presents an efficient Semantic Web Services matching mechanism with semantic information pretreatment. It shifts part of the reasoning process from service matching phase to service publishing phase. A prototype of Semantic Web Services matchmaker has been implemented based on this mechanism. The experiments on two service datasets show that our mechanism outperforms existing methods.

Li, Jing; Ma, Dianfu; Zhao, Zhuo; Zhu, Hong; Li, Lusong


Audiovisual biofeedback improves diaphragm motion reproducibility in MRI  

PubMed Central

Purpose: In lung radiotherapy, variations in cycle-to-cycle breathing results in four-dimensional computed tomography imaging artifacts, leading to inaccurate beam coverage and tumor targeting. In previous studies, the effect of audiovisual (AV) biofeedback on the external respiratory signal reproducibility has been investigated but the internal anatomy motion has not been fully studied. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that AV biofeedback improves diaphragm motion reproducibility of internal anatomy using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: To test the hypothesis 15 healthy human subjects were enrolled in an ethics-approved AV biofeedback study consisting of two imaging sessions spaced ?1 week apart. Within each session MR images were acquired under free breathing and AV biofeedback conditions. The respiratory signal to the AV biofeedback system utilized optical monitoring of an external marker placed on the abdomen. Synchronously, serial thoracic 2D MR images were obtained to measure the diaphragm motion using a fast gradient-recalled-echo MR pulse sequence in both coronal and sagittal planes. The improvement in the diaphragm motion reproducibility using the AV biofeedback system was quantified by comparing cycle-to-cycle variability in displacement, respiratory period, and baseline drift. Additionally, the variation in improvement between the two sessions was also quantified. Results: The average root mean square error (RMSE) of diaphragm cycle-to-cycle displacement was reduced from 2.6 mm with free breathing to 1.6 mm (38% reduction) with the implementation of AV biofeedback (p-value < 0.0001). The average RMSE of the respiratory period was reduced from 1.7 s with free breathing to 0.3 s (82% reduction) with AV biofeedback (p-value < 0.0001). Additionally, the average baseline drift obtained using a linear fit was reduced from 1.6 mm/min with free breathing to 0.9 mm/min (44% reduction) with AV biofeedback (p-value = 0.012). The diaphragm motion reproducibility improvements with AV biofeedback were consistent with the abdominal motion reproducibility that was observed from the external marker motion variation. Conclusions: This study was the first to investigate the potential of AV biofeedback to improve the motion reproducibility of internal anatomy using MRI. The study demonstrated the significant improvement in diaphragm motion reproducibility using AV biofeedback combined with MRI. This system can potentially provide clinically beneficial motion management of internal anatomy in MRI and radiotherapy. PMID:23127085

Kim, Taeho; Pollock, Sean; Lee, Danny; O'Brien, Ricky; Keall, Paul



Static Semantics Message Sequence Charts  

E-print Network

Static Semantics of Message Sequence Charts M.A. Reniers Department of Mathematics and Computing of Message Sequence Charts. The description of the syntax requirements as presented in RecommendationZ.12095]. Sequence Charts are a widespread means for the description and specification of selected system

Reniers, Michel


Semantic Interoperability for Big Data  

E-print Network

Semantic Interoperability for Big Data Ken Baclawski College of Computer and Information Science Northeastern University #12;August 11, 2014 2 Emergence of Big Data The phenomenon was studied in the early based on the information scarcity model. #12;August 11, 2014 3 Characteristics of Big Data Large

Baclawski, Kenneth B.


Semantic classification of business images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital cameras are becoming increasingly common for capturing information in business settings. In this paper, we describe a novel method for classifying images into the following semantic classes: document, whiteboard, business card, slide, and regular images. Our method is based on combining low-level image features, such as text color, layout, and handwriting features with high-level OCR output analysis. Several Support

Berna Erol; Jonathan J. Hull


Semantic enrichment for medical ontologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) contains two separate but interconnected knowledge structures, the Semantic Network (upper level) and the Metathesaurus (lower level). In this paper, we have attempted to work out better how the use of such a two-level structure in the medical field has led to notable advances in terminologies and ontologies. However, most ontologies and terminologies do

Yugyung Lee; James Geller



Semantic Systems of Minority Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because socialization in terms of language behavior is the pivot for all other socialization, great emphasis is being placed in the linguistic determinants of cognition, and the influence of parents' language on child language and cognition. The same life conditions that foster dialect differences may be presumed to lead to semantic differences.…

Entwisle, Doris R.


Semantic enrichment of strategic datacubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the information system view, the reference architecture for strategic and decision support is based on the Data Warehouse architecture, that enables flexible and multidimensional analysis of strategic indexes by means of OLAP tools and reports. In this paper we propose a novel model for semantic annotation of Data Warehouse schema that takes into account domain ontologies as well as

Claudia Diamantini; Domenico Potena



Algebraic Semantics of Exception Handling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new semantics for exception handling in algebraic specifications is provided. Our formalism allows all forms of exception and error handling (several error messages, implicit error progagation rule, exception recovery policy), while preserving the existence of initial models. It handles complex examples where various exceptional cases (leading to different processings) can be specified. The main concept of

Gilles Bernot; Michel Bidoit; Christine Choppy



Implementing Operational Semantics (Preliminary Report)  

E-print Network

and pretty printer which are implemented in the (pure) functional programming language Haskell. The syntax of K O R E L is presented via BNF grammars, and the operational semantics is speci#12;ed via structured, interpreter and pretty printer which are implemented in the (pure) functional programming language Haskell

Crole, Roy L.


Knowledge Provenance in Semantic Wikis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collaborative online environments with a technical Wiki infrastructure are becoming more widespread. One of the strengths of a Wiki environment is that it is relatively easy for numerous users to contribute original content and modify existing content (potentially originally generated by others). As more users begin to depend on informational content that is evolving by Wiki communities, it becomes more important to track the provenance of the information. Semantic Wikis expand upon traditional Wiki environments by adding some computationally understandable encodings of some of the terms and relationships in Wikis. We have developed a semantic Wiki environment that expands a semantic Wiki with provenance markup. Provenance of original contributions as well as modifications is encoded using the provenance markup component of the Proof Markup Language. The Wiki environment provides the provenance markup automatically, thus users are not required to make specific encodings of author, contribution date, and modification trail. Further, our Wiki environment includes a search component that understands the provenance primitives and thus can be used to provide a provenance-aware search facility. We will describe the knowledge provenance infrastructure of our Semantic Wiki and show how it is being used as the foundation of our group web site as well as a number of project web sites.

Ding, L.; Bao, J.; McGuinness, D. L.



Semantic Annotation, Indexing, and Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Semantic Web realization depends on the availability of critical mass of metadata for the web content, linked to formal knowledge about the world. This paper presents our vision about a holistic system allowing annotation, indexing, and retrieval of documents with respect to real -world entities. A system (called KIM), partially implementing this concept is shortly presented and used for

Atanas Kiryakov; Borislav Popov; Damyan Ognyanoff; Dimitar Manov; Angel Kirilov; Miroslav Goranov



Semantic Classes and Syntactic Ambiguity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose to define selectional preference and semantic similarity as information-theoretic relationships involving conceptual classes, and we demonstrate the applicability of these definitions to the resolution of syntactic ambiguity. The space of classes is defined using WordNet [8], and conceptual relationships are determined by means of statistical analysis using parsed text in the Penn Treebank.

Philip S. Resnik



Book Reviews Semantic Role Labeling  

E-print Network

Book Reviews Semantic Role Labeling Martha Palmer, Daniel Gildea, and Nianwen Xue¶ ( University on Human Language Technologies, edited by Graeme Hirst, volume 6), 2010, ix+91 pp; paperbound, ISBN 978 the development of a rather large body of work on SRL; its many aspects and research directions make it difficult

Moschitti, Alessandro



E-print Network

SPINNING THE SEMANTIC WEB INTRODUCTION Dieter Fensel, Jim Hendler, Henry Lieberman, and Wolfgang Wahlster The World Wide Web (WWW) has drastically changed the availability of electronically accessible ( expects around a billion Web users and an even higher number of available documents

Wahlster, Wolfgang - Deutsche Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz & FR 6.2


Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) is a theory and method for extracting and representing the contextual?usage meaning of words by statistical computations applied to a large corpus of text (Landauer & Dumais, 1997). The underlying idea is that the aggregate of all the word contexts in which a given word does and does not appear provides a set of mutual constraints

Thomas K Landauer; Peter W. Foltz; Darrell Laham



Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for automatic indexing and retrieval is described. The approach is to take advantage of implicit higher-order structure in the association of terms with documents (“semantic structure”) in order to improve the detection of relevant documents on the basis of terms found in queries. The particular technique used is singular-value decomposition, in which a large term by document

Scott C. Deerwester; Susan T. Dumais; George W. Furnas; Thomas K. Landauer; Richard A. Harshman



Formal Foundations of Operational Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report on the results of a sophisticated and substantial use of PVS to establish a recent result in operational semantics. The result we establish is a context lemma for operational equivalence for very wide class of programming languages, known as the CIU theorem. The proof uses the annotated holes technique to represent contexts and compute with

Jonathan Ford; Ian A. Mason



Programming semantics for multiprogrammed computations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The semantics are defined for a number of meta-instructions which perform operations essential to the writing of programs in multiprogrammed computer systems. These meta-instructions relate to parallel processing, protecting of separate computations, program debugging, and the sharing among users of memory segments and other computing objects, the names of which are hierarchically structured. The language sophistication contemplated is midway between

Jack B. Dennis; Earl C. Van Horn



When Chinese semantics meets failed syntax.  


Previous event-related potential studies in Indo-European languages reported a surprising finding that failed syntactic category processing appears to block lexical-semantic integration, suggesting a functional primacy of syntax over semantics. An event-related potential experiment was conducted to test whether there is such primacy in Chinese sentence reading, using sentences containing either semantic only violations, combined syntactic category and semantic violations, or no violations. Semantic only violations elicited a centro-parietal negativity and combined violations a broadly distributed, but centro-parietally focused negativity, both in the 300-500 ms window and followed by a P600, suggesting that semantic integration proceeds even when syntactic category processing fails. Thus, there is no functional primacy of syntactic category over semantic processes during Chinese sentence reading. PMID:18418250

Yu, Jing; Zhang, Yaxu



An Experiment in Scientific Code Semantic Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper concerns a procedure that analyzes aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. This procedure involves taking a user's existing code, adding semantic declarations for some primitive variables, and parsing this annotated code using multiple, distributed expert parsers. These semantic parser are designed to recognize formulae in different disciplines including physical and mathematical formulae and geometrical position in a numerical scheme. The parsers will automatically recognize and document some static, semantic concepts and locate some program semantic errors. Results are shown for a subroutine test case and a collection of combustion code routines. This ability to locate some semantic errors and document semantic concepts in scientific and engineering code should reduce the time, risk, and effort of developing and using these codes.

Stewart, Mark E. M.



Synchronous reading: learning French orthography by audiovisual training Grard Bailly and Will Barbour  

E-print Network

Synchronous reading: learning French orthography by audiovisual training Gérard Bailly assess here the potential benefit of a karaoke-style reading system for learning sound-to-letter mapping). Synchronous reading consists of using time-aligned text with speech at the phone level to displace a cursor

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


The Efficacy of an Audiovisual Aid in Teaching the Neo-Classical Screenplay Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study interrogated the central theoretical statement that understanding and learning to apply the abstract concept of classical dramatic narrative structure can be addressed effectively through a useful audiovisual teaching method. The purpose of the study was to design an effective DVD teaching and learning aid, to justify the design through…

Uys, P. G.



Music expertise shapes audiovisual temporal integration windows for speech, sinewave speech, and music.  


This psychophysics study used musicians as a model to investigate whether musical expertise shapes the temporal integration window for audiovisual speech, sinewave speech, or music. Musicians and non-musicians judged the audiovisual synchrony of speech, sinewave analogs of speech, and music stimuli at 13 audiovisual stimulus onset asynchronies (±360, ±300 ±240, ±180, ±120, ±60, and 0 ms). Further, we manipulated the duration of the stimuli by presenting sentences/melodies or syllables/tones. Critically, musicians relative to non-musicians exhibited significantly narrower temporal integration windows for both music and sinewave speech. Further, the temporal integration window for music decreased with the amount of music practice, but not with age of acquisition. In other words, the more musicians practiced piano in the past 3 years, the more sensitive they became to the temporal misalignment of visual and auditory signals. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that music practicing fine-tunes the audiovisual temporal integration window to various extents depending on the stimulus class. While the effect of piano practicing was most pronounced for music, it also generalized to other stimulus classes such as sinewave speech and to a marginally significant degree to natural speech. PMID:25147539

Lee, Hweeling; Noppeney, Uta



Comparisons of Audio and Audiovisual Measures of Stuttering Frequency and Severity in Preschool-Age Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To determine whether measures of stuttering frequency and measures of overall stuttering severity in preschoolers differ when made from audio-only recordings compared with audiovisual recordings. Method: Four blinded speech-language pathologists who had extensive experience with preschoolers who stutter measured stuttering frequency and…

Rousseau, Isabelle; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Jones, Mark



Effects of horizontal viewing angle on visual and audiovisual speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the effects of changes in horizontal viewing angle on visual and audiovisual speech recognition in 4 experiments, using a talker's face viewed full face, three quarters, and in profile. When only experimental items were shown (Experiments 1 and 2), identification of unimodal visual speech and visual speech influences on congruent and incongruent auditory speech were unaffected by

Timothy R. Jordan; Sharon M. Thomas



MushyPeek: A Framework for Online Investigation of Audiovisual Dialogue Phenomena  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation of methods and techniques for conversational and multimodal spoken dialogue systems is complex, as is gathering data for the modeling and tuning of such techniques. This article describes MushyPeek, an experiment framework that allows us to manipulate the audiovisual behavior of interlocutors in a setting similar to face-to-face…

Edlund, Jens; Beskow, Jonas



Audiovisual Material as Educational Innovation Strategy to Reduce Anxiety Response in Students of Human Anatomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents the design, effect and utility of using audiovisual material containing real images of dissected human cadavers as an innovative educational strategy (IES) in the teaching of Human Anatomy. The goal is to familiarize students with the practice of dissection and to transmit the importance and necessity of this discipline, while…

Casado, Maria Isabel; Castano, Gloria; Arraez-Aybar, Luis Alfonso



The Impact of Audiovisual Feedback on the Learning Outcomes of a Remote and Virtual Laboratory Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Remote and virtual laboratory classes are an increasingly prevalent alternative to traditional hands-on laboratory experiences. One of the key issues with these modes of access is the provision of adequate audiovisual (AV) feedback to the user, which can be a complicated and resource-intensive challenge. This paper reports on a comparison of two…

Lindsay, E.; Good, M.



A Portable Presentation Package for Audio-Visual Instruction. Technical Documentary Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Portable Presentation Package is a prototype of an audiovisual equipment package designed to facilitate technical training in remote areas, situations in which written communications are difficult, or in situations requiring rapid presentation of instructional material. The major criteria employed in developing the package were (1) that the…

Smith, Edgar A.; And Others


Enhanced descriptions for personalized retrieval and automatic adaptation of audiovisual content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous growth of audiovisual content in digital format available worldwide poses new challenges to content retrieval technologies, calling for new solutions that cope with the current scale and complexity of content corpora, technological infrastructures, and user audiences. Two major problem areas to be addressed in facing such challenges in- volve a) the effective selection of content items when the

Iván Cantador; Fernando López; Jesús Bescós; Pablo Castells; José M. Martínez


Selective attention modulates the direction of audio-visual temporal recalibration.  


Temporal recalibration of cross-modal synchrony has been proposed as a mechanism to compensate for timing differences between sensory modalities. However, far from the rich complexity of everyday life sensory environments, most studies to date have examined recalibration on isolated cross-modal pairings. Here, we hypothesize that selective attention might provide an effective filter to help resolve which stimuli are selected when multiple events compete for recalibration. We addressed this question by testing audio-visual recalibration following an adaptation phase where two opposing audio-visual asynchronies were present. The direction of voluntary visual attention, and therefore to one of the two possible asynchronies (flash leading or flash lagging), was manipulated using colour as a selection criterion. We found a shift in the point of subjective audio-visual simultaneity as a function of whether the observer had focused attention to audio-then-flash or to flash-then-audio groupings during the adaptation phase. A baseline adaptation condition revealed that this effect of endogenous attention was only effective toward the lagging flash. This hints at the role of exogenous capture and/or additional endogenous effects producing an asymmetry toward the leading flash. We conclude that selective attention helps promote selected audio-visual pairings to be combined and subsequently adjusted in time but, stimulus organization exerts a strong impact on recalibration. We tentatively hypothesize that the resolution of recalibration in complex scenarios involves the orchestration of top-down selection mechanisms and stimulus-driven processes. PMID:25004132

Ikumi, Nara; Soto-Faraco, Salvador



Development of Audiovisual Comprehension Skills in Prelingually Deaf Children With Cochlear Implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The present study investigated the devel- opment of audiovisual comprehension skills in pre- lingually deaf children who received cochlear implants. Design: We analyzed results obtained with the Com- mon Phrases (Robbins et al., 1995) test of sentence comprehension from 80 prelingually deaf children with cochlear implants who were enrolled in a longitudinal study, from pre-implantation to 5 years after

Tonya R. Bergeson; David B. Pisoni; Rebecca A. O. Davis



Brief Report: Arrested Development of Audiovisual Speech Perception in Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Atypical communicative abilities are a core marker of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). A number of studies have shown that, in addition to auditory comprehension differences, individuals with autism frequently show atypical responses to audiovisual speech, suggesting a multisensory contribution to these communicative differences from their…

Stevenson, Ryan A.; Siemann, Justin K.; Woynaroski, Tiffany G.; Schneider, Brittany C.; Eberly, Haley E.; Camarata, Stephen M.; Wallace, Mark T.



The Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency: Helping You Grow Your Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA) is a public body created by a Decision of the European Commission and operates under its supervision. It is located in Brussels and has been operational since January 2006. Its role is to manage European funding opportunities and networks in the fields of education and training,…

Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency, European Commission, 2011



Audiovisuals for Nutrition Education. Nutrition Education Resource Series No. 9. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography contains reviews of more than 250 audiovisual materials in eight subject areas related to nutrition: (1) general nutrition; (2) life cycle; (3) diet/health and disease; (4) health and athletics; (5) food - general; (6) food preparation and service; (7) food habits and preferences; and (8) food economics and concerns. Materials…

National Nutrition Education Clearing House, Berkeley, CA.


Audiovisuals for Nutrition Education; Selected Evaluative Reviews from the Journal of Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Audiovisual materials suitable for the teaching of nutrition are listed. Materials include coloring books, flannelboard stories, games, kits, audiotapes, records, charts, posters, study prints, films, videotapes, filmstrips, slides, and transparencies. Each entry contains bibliographic data, educational level, price and evaluation. Mateiral is…

Rowe, Sue Ellen, Comp.


Perception of Dynamic and Static Audiovisual Sequences in 3- and 4-Month-Old Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated perception of audiovisual sequences in 3- and 4-month-old infants. Infants were habituated to sequences consisting of moving/sounding or looming/sounding objects and then tested for their ability to detect changes in the order of the objects, sounds, or both. Results showed that 3-month-olds perceived the order of 3-element…

Lewkowicz, David J.



Guide to Recommended Curriculum and Audio-Visual Materials for Teaching about Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to assist teachers in planning units on Japan, this guide identifies widely available instructional materials that have been found to be effective. The guide is organized in six sections. Sections 1-4 list recommended curriculum and audiovisual materials for elementary and secondary classrooms with purchase and/or rental information…

Wojtan, Linda S.


Audio-Visual Materials in Adult Consumer Education: An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to provide a quick but thorough reference for consumer educators of adults to use when choosing audio-visual materials, this annotated bibliography includes eighty-five titles from the currently available 1,500 films, slidesets, cassettes, records, and transparencies. (Materials were rejected because they were out-of-date; not relevant to…

Forgue, Raymond E.; And Others


Event detection in field sports video using audio-visual features and a support vector Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel audio-visual feature-based framework for event detection in broadcast video of multiple different field sports. Features indicating significant events are selected and robust detectors built. These features are rooted in characteristics common to all genres of field sports. The evidence gathered by the feature detectors is combined by means of a support vector machine,

David A. Sadlier; Noel E. O'connor



Hotel and Restaurant Management; A Bibliography of Books and Audio-Visual Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography represents a collection of 1,300 book volumes and audiovisual materials collected by the Luzerne County Community College Library in support of the college's Hotel and Restaurant Management curriculum. It covers such diverse topics as advertising, business practices, decoration, nutrition, hotel law, insurance landscaping, health…

Malkames, James P.; And Others


Generating Language through Media: Audio-Visual Production by the ESL Student.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes some teaching techniques developed in the author's middle school and high school ESL classes. The techniques described here use audio-visual devices and student production of media as a motivational tool as well as a method of providing for spontaneous language practice and communicative competence. Some of the techniques and…

Levine, Linda New


Audio, Video and Audio-Visual Signatures for Short Video Clip Detection: Experiments on Trecvid2003  

E-print Network

Audio, Video and Audio-Visual Signatures for Short Video Clip Detection: Experiments on Trecvid2003.Senechal,Denis.Pellerin}, ABSTRACT In this paper, we present the association of audio and video signatures for short video clip detection. First, we present an audio signature based on the spectral flatness measure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Hearing impairment and audiovisual speech integration ability: a case study report  

PubMed Central

Research in audiovisual speech perception has demonstrated that sensory factors such as auditory and visual acuity are associated with a listener's ability to extract and combine auditory and visual speech cues. This case study report examined audiovisual integration using a newly developed measure of capacity in a sample of hearing-impaired listeners. Capacity assessments are unique because they examine the contribution of reaction-time (RT) as well as accuracy to determine the extent to which a listener efficiently combines auditory and visual speech cues relative to independent race model predictions. Multisensory speech integration ability was examined in two experiments: an open-set sentence recognition and a closed set speeded-word recognition study that measured capacity. Most germane to our approach, capacity illustrated speed-accuracy tradeoffs that may be predicted by audiometric configuration. Results revealed that some listeners benefit from increased accuracy, but fail to benefit in terms of speed on audiovisual relative to unisensory trials. Conversely, other listeners may not benefit in the accuracy domain but instead show an audiovisual processing time benefit. PMID:25071649

Altieri, Nicholas; Hudock, Daniel



Brief report: Arrested development of audiovisual speech perception in autism spectrum disorders.  


Atypical communicative abilities are a core marker of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). A number of studies have shown that, in addition to auditory comprehension differences, individuals with autism frequently show atypical responses to audiovisual speech, suggesting a multisensory contribution to these communicative differences from their typically developing peers. To shed light on possible differences in the maturation of audiovisual speech integration, we tested younger (ages 6-12) and older (ages 13-18) children with and without ASD on a task indexing such multisensory integration. To do this, we used the McGurk effect, in which the pairing of incongruent auditory and visual speech tokens typically results in the perception of a fused percept distinct from the auditory and visual signals, indicative of active integration of the two channels conveying speech information. Whereas little difference was seen in audiovisual speech processing (i.e., reports of McGurk fusion) between the younger ASD and TD groups, there was a significant difference at the older ages. While TD controls exhibited an increased rate of fusion (i.e., integration) with age, children with ASD failed to show this increase. These data suggest arrested development of audiovisual speech integration in ASD. The results are discussed in light of the extant literature and necessary next steps in research. PMID:24218241

Stevenson, Ryan A; Siemann, Justin K; Woynaroski, Tiffany G; Schneider, Brittany C; Eberly, Haley E; Camarata, Stephen M; Wallace, Mark T



Multinational Exchange Mechanisms of Educational Audio-Visual Materials. Situation and Suggestions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis of existing multinational audiovisual materials exchange organizations, including five nonproducing and three producing national systems and seven nonproducing and five producing international networks, provided the data for an analysis of problems associated with cooperative endeavors, some suggestions for appropriate institutional…

Center of Studies and Realizations for Permanent Education, Paris (France).


Audiovisual arrays for untethered spoken interfaces Kevin Wilson, Vibhav Rangarajan, Neal Checka, Trevor Darrell  

E-print Network

When faced with a distant speaker at a known location in a noisy environment, a microphone array can. 3 Audiovisual array processing To focus a microphone array, the location of the speaker and a ceiling mounted large- aperture microphone array grid. Users can move arbitrarily in the room

Darrell, Trevor


A Study to Formulate Quantitative Guidelines for the Audio-Visual Communications Field. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quantitative guidelines for use in determining the audiovisual (AV) needs of educational institutions were developed by the Octobe r 14-16, 1965 Seminar of the NDEA (National Defense Education Act), Faris-Sherman study. The guidelines that emerged were based in part on a review of past efforts and existing standards but primarily reflected the…

Faris, Gene; Sherman, Mendel



ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Audiovisual Speech Perception in Children with Developmental Language Disorder in Degraded Listening Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The effect of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the perception of audiovisual speech in children with and without developmental language disorder (DLD) was investigated by varying the noise level and the sound intensity of acoustic speech. The main hypotheses were that the McGurk effect (in which incongruent visual speech alters the…

Meronen, Auli; Tiippana, Kaisa; Westerholm, Jari; Ahonen, Timo



Audio-visual summary of passive solar commercial buildings development in the MASEC region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An audio-visual presentation documenting the use of passive solar technologies in commercial buildings within the Mid-American Region is summarized. The presentation consists of 50 35-millimeter slides with accompanying narrative. The slide show gives a brief introduction to the use of direct gain, indirect gain, and isolated gain systems with commercial examples of each.



Musicians have enhanced subcortical auditory and audiovisual processing of speech and music  

E-print Network

­17). Similarly, a musician's face and body move- ments convey cues for time-varying features of music perception of speech and music share some commonalities. For example, viewing lip movements or instru- mentalMusicians have enhanced subcortical auditory and audiovisual processing of speech and music


Nutrition Education Materials and Audiovisuals for Grades Preschool through 6. Special Reference Briefs Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography was prepared for educators interested in nutrition education materials, audiovisuals, and resources for classroom use. Items listed cover a range of topics including general nutrition, food preparation, food science, and dietary management. Teaching materials listed include food models, games, kits, videocassettes, and lesson…

Evans, Shirley King, Comp.


Nutrition Education Materials and Audiovisuals for Grades 7 through 12. Special Reference Briefs Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography lists nutrition education materials, audiovisuals, and resources for classroom use. Items listed cover topics such as general nutrition, food preparation, food science, and dietary management. Each item is listed in one or more of the following categories: (1) curriculum/lesson plans; (2) learning activities; (3)…

Evans, Shirley King, Comp.


Technical Considerations in the Delivery of Audio-Visual Course Content.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to provide students with the benefit of the latest technology, some instructors include multimedia content on their class Web sites. This article introduces the basic terms and concepts needed to understand the multimedia domain. Provides a brief tutorial designed to help instructors create good, consistent audio-visual content. (AEF)

Lightfoot, Jay M.



This is a General University (G.U.) Classroom Audio-Visual assistance & information  

E-print Network

-2111 ext. 82222 Classroom Management Group A/V system guidanceThis is a General University (G.U.) Classroom Audio-Visual assistance & information: 519 661 conditions & Building systems: 519 661-2111 ext. 83304 Facilities Management http

Lennard, William N.



E-print Network

REVERBERANT SPEECH SEPARATION BASED ON AUDIO-VISUAL DICTIONARY LEARNING AND BINAURAL CUES Qingju, University of Surrey, UK ABSTRACT Probabilistic models of binaural cues, such as the interau- ral phase- frequency (TF) domain, for source separation of binaural mixtures. Those models are, however, often degraded

Jackson, Philip JB


The impact of audio-visual stimulation on alpha brain oscillations: An EEG study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies investigated the brain responses as a reaction in auditory or visual stimuli separately. However a few studies have been published so far investigating the interactions of the two aforementioned stimuli. The current study comes to examine the impact of the audio-visual stimulation with binaural beats and flickering light in four different colors on low and upper alpha oscillations.

Christos N. Moridis; Manousos A. Klados; Ioannis A. Kokkinakis; Vasileios Terzis; Anastasios A. Economides; Anna Karlovasitou; Panagiotis D. Bamidis; Vasileios E. Karabatakis



CUAVE: A new audio-visual database for multimodal human-computer interface research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multimodal signal processing has become an important topic of research for overcoming certain problems of audio-only speech processing. Audio-visual speech recognition is one area with great potential. Difficulties due to background noise and multiple speakers are significantly reduced by the additional information provided by extra visual features. Despite a few efforts to create databases in this area, none has emerged

E. K. Patterson; S. Gurbuz; Z. Tufekci; J. N. Gowdy



Selective Review of the Results of Research on the Use of Audiovisual Media to Teach Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this literature review was to summarize results of experimental studies on the instructional effectiveness of audiovisual media in post-secondary education. Studies which met seven major screening criteria were used. A study was generally accepted if it compared performance of experimental and control groups on objective measures of…

Campeau, Peggie L.


Audiovisual Education in Primary Schools: A Curriculum Project in the Netherlands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Audiovisual, or mass media education can play a significant role in children's social, emotional, cognitive, sensory, motor, and creative development. It includes all school activities which teach children to interact with The field includes all school activities which teach children to interact with visualize ideas. Students can be involved in…

Ketzer, Jan W.


Human stability in the erect stance: Alcohol effects and audio-visual perturbations  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimIn this article, we discuss the connection between alcohol and the control strategies carried out by the central nervous system to maintain the erect stance. Audio-visual perturbations were coupled with the consumption of an alcoholic beverage to simulate the possible perturbation affecting people at disco clubs, and the effects measured with a stabilometric platform.

Paolo Bartolomeo Pascolo; Roberto Carniel; Bruno Pinese




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




The Vera am Mittag German audio-visual emotional speech database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of publicly available annotated databases is one of the major barriers to research advances on emotional informa- tion processing. In this contribution we present a recently col- lected database of spontaneous emotional speech in German which is being made available to the research community. The database consists of 12 hours of audio-visual recordings of the German TV talk

Michael Grimm; Kristian Kroschel; Shrikanth Narayanan



Designing Audio-Visual (AV) Media Unit for University Libraries in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the problems of spatial requirements and design as they affect utilization of audio-visual (AV) resources in Nigerian university libraries and presents a new design for an AV media center as an alternative to the current practices. Discusses decision making, consultation and analysis, and storage, access, and display considerations. (AEF)

Omoniyi, Joseph O.



Superior Temporal Activation in Response to Dynamic Audio-Visual Emotional Cues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perception of emotion is critical for successful social interaction, yet the neural mechanisms underlying the perception of dynamic, audio-visual emotional cues are poorly understood. Evidence from language and sensory paradigms suggests that the superior temporal sulcus and gyrus (STS/STG) play a key role in the integration of auditory and visual…

Robins, Diana L.; Hunyadi, Elinora; Schultz, Robert T.



The Congruence of Nurses' Performance with Developmental Care Standards in Neonatal Intensive Care Units  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Many studies support the positive short and long-term developmental care for premature infants. This study aimed to determine the congruence of nurses’ activity in four areas of developmental care in order to obtain basic information for authorities to provide a program to achieve related standards in the future. Methods: The study was performed on 70 nurses working in neonatal intensive care units in Tabriz, Iran. Nurses answered to a questionnaire retrieved from Robison’s developmental program. Content validity and reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) of translated version were evaluated. Data were analysed using SPSS. Results: The mean (standard deviation) of total score was 3.06 (0.44). It was 3.02 (0.50) for individualized care, 3.01 (0.63) for appropriate development environment for the child and family, 3 (0.46) in supporting family relationship and approving the relationship between infant and family and 3.22 (0.56) for collaboration among all care factors. Score 4 was considered as completely meet standards. Therefore, a mean of 3.20 and above was considered as observance higher than 80% and was favorable. The Friedman test showed statistically significant difference among the activities related to the four areas (p = 0.001). The collaboration field had the highest mean score and providing services in this field had more congruence with the related standard of developmental care. Conclusion: The study showed that the congruence of nurses’ performance with standards of developmental care still requires more efforts. Therefore, it is necessary to train the staff in this regard and prepare them for structural and functional facilities.

Valizadeh, Leila; Asadollahi, Malihe; Mostafa Gharebaghi, Manizheh; Gholami, Fatemeh



Lexical Semantics and Irregular Inflection  

PubMed Central

Whether a word has an irregular inflection does not depend on its sound alone: compare lie-lay (recline) and lie-lied (prevaricate). Theories of morphology, particularly connectionist and symbolic models, disagree on which nonphonological factors are responsible. We test four possibilities: (1) Lexical effects, in which two lemmas differ in whether they specify an irregular form; (2) Semantic effects, in which the semantic features of a word become associated with regular or irregular forms; (3) Morphological structure effects, in which a word with a headless structure (e.g., a verb derived from a noun) blocks access to a stored irregular form; (4) Compositionality effects, in which the stored combination of an irregular word’s meaning (e.g., the verb’s inherent aspect) with the meaning of the inflection (e.g., pastness) doesn’t readily transfer to new senses with different combinations of such meanings. In four experiments, speakers were presented with existing and novel verbs and asked to rate their past-tense forms, semantic similarities, grammatical structure, and aspectual similarities. We found (1) an interaction between semantic and phonological similarity, coinciding with reported strategies of analogizing to known verbs and implicating lexical effects; (2) weak and inconsistent effects of semantic similarity; (3) robust effects of morphological structure, and (4) robust effects of aspectual compositionality. Results are consistent with theories of language that invoke lexical entries and morphological structure, and which differentiate the mode of storage of regular and irregular verbs. They also suggest how psycholinguistic processes have shaped vocabulary structure over history. PMID:21151703

Huang, Yi Ting; Pinker, Steven



Congruence between nursing problems in nursing care plans and NANDA nursing diagnoses.  


This study abstracted nursing problems documented in cancer patients' nursing care plans to analyze (1) which nursing problems were documented and (2) the degree of congruence between the abstracted problems and NANDA nursing diagnoses. 236 unique nursing problems were identified and could be mapped to 32 NANDA nursing diagnoses. However, only 4.3% had a precise match with NANDA, Thirty-eight percent were classified as similar and the rest were broader, narrower or no match. Thus NANDA only partially covered problems written by nurses in the care plans for this group of patients. PMID:19592976

Varsi, Cecilie; Ruland, Cornelia M



The value-congruence model of memory for emotional experiences: an explanation for cultural differences in emotional self-reports.  


In 3 studies, the authors found support for the value-congruence model that accounts for cultural variations in memory for emotional experiences. In Study 1, the authors found that in the made-in-the-U.S. scenario condition, European Americans were more accurate than were Asian Americans in their retrospective frequency judgments of emotions. However, in the made-in-Japan scenario condition, European Americans were less accurate than were Asian Americans. In Study 2, the authors demonstrated that value orientation mediates the CulturexType of Event congruence effect. In Study 3 (a daily event sampling study), the authors showed that the congruence effect was explained by the importance of parental approval. In sum, emotional events congruent with personal values remain in memory longer and influence retrospective frequency judgments of emotion more than do incongruent events. PMID:17983307

Oishi, Shigehiro; Schimmack, Ulrich; Diener, Ed; Kim-Prieto, Chu; Scollon, Christie Napa; Choi, Dong-Won



Evolution-Development Congruence in Pattern Formation Dynamics: Bifurcations in Gene Expressions and Regulation of Networks Structures  

E-print Network

Although the phrase "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny'' turned out to be incorrect, the search for possible relationships between development and evolution still gathers much attention. Recently, dynamical-systems analysis has proven to be relevant to both development and evolution, and it may therefore provide a link between the two. Using extensive simulations to evolve gene regulation networks that shape morphogenesis, we observed remarkable congruence between development and evolution: Both consisted of the same successive epochs to shape stripes, and good agreement was observed for the ordering as well as the topology of branching of stripes between the two. This congruence is explained by the agreement of bifurcations in dynamical-systems theory between evolution and development, where slowly varying gene-expression levels work as emergent control parameters. In terms of the gene regulation networks, this congruence is understood as the successive addition of downstream modules, either as feedforward or...

Kohsokabe, Takahiro



The effect of limb crossing and limb congruency on multisensory integration in peripersonal space for the upper and lower extremities.  


The present study investigated how multisensory integration in peripersonal space is modulated by limb posture (i.e. whether the limbs are crossed or uncrossed) and limb congruency (i.e. whether the observed body part matches the actual position of one's limb). This was done separately for the upper limbs (Experiment 1) and the lower limbs (Experiment 2). The crossmodal congruency task was used to measure peripersonal space integration for the hands and the feet. It was found that the peripersonal space representation for the hands but not for the feet is dynamically updated based on both limb posture and limb congruency. Together these findings show how dynamic cues from vision, proprioception, and touch are integrated in peripersonal limb space and highlight fundamental differences in the way in which peripersonal space is represented for the upper and lower extremity. PMID:23579198

van Elk, Michiel; Forget, Joachim; Blanke, Olaf



The Influence of the Congruence Between Brand and Consumer Personality on the Loyalty to Print and Online Issues of Magazine Brands  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important development in the theory of brands has been the concept of a brand personality as part of the brand image. The construct of congruence relates the personality of brands to the self-concept of consumers. It is assumed that congruence between the recipient's perception of his or her own personality and his or her perception of the brand personality

Heinz-Werner Nienstedt; Frank Huber; Carolin Seelmann



Leader-team congruence in power distance values and team effectiveness: the mediating role of procedural justice climate.  


We examine the effect of (in)congruence between leaders' and teams' power distance values on team effectiveness. We hypothesize that the (in)congruence between these values would differentially predict team effectiveness, with procedural justice climate serving as a mediator. Using multisource data and polynomial regression, we found that similarities (and differences) between leaders' and their teams' power distance values can have consequential effects on teams' justice climate and, ultimately, their effectiveness (viz., team performance and team organizational citizenship behavior). We conclude that to fully understand the implications of power distance, one should consider the multiple perspectives of both leaders and team members. PMID:24060159

Cole, Michael S; Carter, Min Z; Zhang, Zhen



Endoscopic image analysis in semantic space.  


A novel approach to the design of a semantic, low-dimensional, encoding for endoscopic imagery is proposed. This encoding is based on recent advances in scene recognition, where semantic modeling of image content has gained considerable attention over the last decade. While the semantics of scenes are mainly comprised of environmental concepts such as vegetation, mountains or sky, the semantics of endoscopic imagery are medically relevant visual elements, such as polyps, special surface patterns, or vascular structures. The proposed semantic encoding differs from the representations commonly used in endoscopic image analysis (for medical decision support) in that it establishes a semantic space, where each coordinate axis has a clear human interpretation. It is also shown to establish a connection to Riemannian geometry, which enables principled solutions to a number of problems that arise in both physician training and clinical practice. This connection is exploited by leveraging results from information geometry to solve problems such as (1) recognition of important semantic concepts, (2) semantically-focused image browsing, and (3) estimation of the average-case semantic encoding for a collection of images that share a medically relevant visual detail. The approach can provide physicians with an easily interpretable, semantic encoding of visual content, upon which further decisions, or operations, can be naturally carried out. This is contrary to the prevalent practice in endoscopic image analysis for medical decision support, where image content is primarily captured by discriminative, high-dimensional, appearance features, which possess discriminative power but lack human interpretability. PMID:22717411

Kwitt, R; Vasconcelos, N; Rasiwasia, N; Uhl, A; Davis, B; Häfner, M; Wrba, F



Modeling Linguistic Facets of Multimedia Content for Semantic Annotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide an integrated ontological framework offering cov- erage for deep semantic content, including ontological representation of multimedia based on the MPEG-7 standard. We link the deep semantic level with the media-specific semantic level to operationalize multime- dia information. Through the link between multimedia representation and the semantics of specific domains we approach the Semantic Gap. The focus of the

Massimo Romanelli; Paul Buitelaar; Michael Sintek



Semantic peer, here are the neighbors you want  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peer Data Management Systems (PDMSs) have been intro- duced as a solution to the problem of large-scale sharing of semantically rich data. A PDMS consists of semantic peers connected through semantic mappings. Querying a PDMS may lead to very poor results, because of the semantic degra- dation due to the approximations given by the traversal of the semantic mappings, thus

Wilma Penzo; Stefano Lodi; Federica Mandreoli; Riccardo Martoglia; Simona Sassatelli



Semantic SLAM for Collaborative Cognitive Workspaces Frank Dellaert  

E-print Network

Semantic SLAM for Collaborative Cognitive Workspaces Frank Dellaert College of Computing Georgia the environment at the semantic level. Instead of traditional SLAM methods, which do not interpret sensor members. Semantic SLAM Semantic mapping, or "SemanticSLAM", is a proposed ex- tension to current state

Dellaert, Frank


Re: Congruence and phylogenetic reanalysis of perching bird cytochrome b sequences.  


In a study of the phylogenetic relationships among perching bird mtDNA sequences, Edwards et al. (1991; Proc. R. Soc. London Ser B. 243: 99-107) sequenced part of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from 13 perching birds (Passeriformes) and a woodpecker outgroup. However, recently the validity of part of the sequence of the hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus) in that study has been questioned. To determine the effect of inclusion of this apparently chimeric sequence on the conclusions of the original analysis, we reanalyzed these sequences using a different published hermit thrush sequence. In addition, we applied tests of congruence to examine the possibility that the aberrant phylogenetic behavior of chimeric mtDNA sequences might be detected. The reanalysis confirms the ability of slow evolving first and second codon positions of cytochrome b sequences to resolve deep branches in the avian tree. The fact that the new data set does not reject the DNA hybridization tree of these species probably indicates poor ability of the cytochrome b sequences to discriminate among alternative trees, rather than consistency among data sets. Statistical testing of trees based on individual amplified segments of mtDNA indicates that congruence tests may be one useful way of identifying chimeric mtDNA sequences when they have not been detected in the laboratory or during standard phylogenetic analysis. PMID:9126569

Edwards, S V; Arctander, P



The Congruency Sequence Effect 3.0: A Critical Test of Conflict Adaptation  

PubMed Central

Over the last two decades, the congruency sequence effect (CSE) –the finding of a reduced congruency effect following incongruent trials in conflict tasks– has played a central role in advancing research on cognitive control. According to the influential conflict-monitoring account, the CSE reflects adjustments in selective attention that enhance task focus when needed, often termed conflict adaptation. However, this dominant interpretation of the CSE has been called into question by several alternative accounts that stress the role of episodic memory processes: feature binding and (stimulus-response) contingency learning. To evaluate the notion of conflict adaptation in accounting for the CSE, we construed versions of three widely used experimental paradigms (the colour-word Stroop, picture-word Stroop and flanker task) that effectively control for feature binding and contingency learning. Results revealed that a CSE can emerge in all three tasks. This strongly suggests a contribution of attentional control to the CSE and highlights the potential of these unprecedentedly clean paradigms for further examining cognitive control. PMID:25340396

Duthoo, Wout; Abrahamse, Elger L.; Braem, Senne; Boehler, C. Nico; Notebaert, Wim



Automatic detection of ridges in lunar images using phase symmetry and phase congruency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar surface exploration is increasing rapidly. These exploring satellites provide a large number of high resolution images containing topographical information. The topographical information in lunar surface are craters, ridges, mountains and grabens. Extracting this topographical information manually is time-consuming. Hence, an automatic feature extraction is favored. This paper presents a novel approach using image processing techniques to automatically detect ridges in lunar images. The approaches adopted for this development includes phase symmetry, phase congruency and morphological operations to automatically detect significant ridges. The phase symmetry extracts symmetry features with discontinuities, phase congruency extracts features lying in low contrast regions and morphological operations such as thinning and pruning are used to obtain significant ridges. The proposed novel approach experiments on a test set of different regions. These different region images are obtained from different sensors (LROC, Selene and Clementine) having different spatial resolution and illumination variation. The results obtained are compared with the plan curvature method; and they are evaluated based on true and false detection of ridge pixels. Irrespective of illumination variation and spatial resolution, the proposed approach provides better results than the plan curvature method and its detection rate is approximately 92%.

Micheal, Anto A.; Vani, K.; Sanjeevi, S.



Memory mood congruency phenomenon in bipolar I disorder and major depression disorder patients  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to evaluate memory performance in tasks with and without affective content (to confirm the mood congruency phenomenon) in acutely admitted patients with bipolar I disorder (BD) and major depression disorder (MDD) and in healthy participants. Seventy-eight participants (24 BD, 29 MDD, and 25 healthy controls) were evaluated. Three word lists were used as the memory task with affective content (positive, negative and indifferent). Psychiatric symptoms were also evaluated with rating scales (Young Mania Rating Scale for mania and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale for depression). Patients were selected during the first week of hospitalization. BD patients showed higher scores in the word span with positive tone than MDD patients and healthy controls (P = 0.002). No other difference was observed for tests with affective tone. MDD patients presented significantly lower scores in the Mini-Mental State Exam, logical memory test, visual recognition span, and digit span, while BD patients presented lower scores in the visual recognition test and digit span. Mood congruency effect was found for word span with positive tone among BD patients but no similar effect was observed among MDD patients for negative items. MDD patients presented more memory impairment than BD patients, but BD patients also showed memory impairment. PMID:22714812

Delgado, V.B.; Kapczinski, F.; Chaves, M.L.F.



When music tempo affects the temporal congruence between physical practice and motor imagery.  


When people listen to music, they hear beat and a metrical structure in the rhythm; these perceived patterns enable coordination with the music. A clear correspondence between the tempo of actual movement (e.g., walking) and that of music has been demonstrated, but whether similar coordination occurs during motor imagery is unknown. Twenty participants walked naturally for 8m, either physically or mentally, while listening to slow and fast music, or not listening to anything at all (control condition). Executed and imagined walking times were recorded to assess the temporal congruence between physical practice (PP) and motor imagery (MI). Results showed a difference when comparing slow and fast time conditions, but each of these durations did not differ from soundless condition times, hence showing that body movement may not necessarily change in order to synchronize with music. However, the main finding revealed that the ability to achieve temporal congruence between PP and MI times was altered when listening to either slow or fast music. These data suggest that when physical movement is modulated with respect to the musical tempo, the MI efficacy of the corresponding movement may be affected by the rhythm of the music. Practical applications in sport are discussed as athletes frequently listen to music before competing while they mentally practice their movements to be performed. PMID:24681309

Debarnot, Ursula; Guillot, Aymeric



The history of health and medicine in contemporary Britain: reflections on the role of audio-visual sources.  


Recent policy discussions about extending the system of legal deposit to material published in formats other than print, for example film, video, and television, offer an opportunity to reflect on the role of audio-visual sources in the contemporary history of health and medicine. In the course of the twentieth century, audio-visual media have become the means of communicating ideas and information about health and medicine to a mass audience. However, health and medical historians rarely draw upon film, television, or video as historical source material. This paper encourages a greater role for these sources by outlining different ways of approaching audio-visual material as historical source, and introducing a selection of research tools and tips for accessing our audio-visual heritage. PMID:11624421

Loughlin, K



The Effect of Intracorporeal Injection Plus Genital and Audiovisual Sexual Stimulation Versus Second Injection on Penile Color Doppler Sonography Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe assessed whether genital and audiovisual sexual stimulation following 1 or 2 intracorporeal injections caused the greatest changes in penile hemodynamics as recorded by color Doppler sonography.

Francesco Montorsi; Giorgio Guazzoni; Luigi Barbieri; Laura Galli; Patrizio Rigatti; Giuliano Pizzini; Alberto Miani



The Formal Semantics of PVS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A specification language is a medium for expressing what is computed rather than how it is computed. Specification languages share some features with programming languages but are also different in several important ways. For our purpose, a specification language is a logic within which the behavior of computational systems can be formalized. Although a specification can be used to simulate the behavior of such systems, we mainly use specifications to state and prove system properties with mechanical assistance. We present the formal semantics of the specification language of SRI's Prototype Verification System (PVS). This specification language is based on the simply typed lambda calculus. The novelty in PVS is that it contains very expressive language features whose static analysis (e.g., typechecking) requires the assistance of a theorem prover. The formal semantics illuminates several of the design considerations underlying PVS, the interaction between theorem proving and typechecking.

Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan



Semantic remote patient monitoring system.  


We propose an automated and personalized remote patient monitoring (RPM) system, which is applied to care homes and is dependent on the manipulation of semantics describing situations during patient monitoring in ontological models. Decision making in RPM is based on reasoning performed upon ontologies, which secures the delivery of appropriate e-health services in care homes. Our working experiment shows an example of preventive e-healthcare, but it can be extended to any situation that requires either urgent action from healthcare professionals or a simple recommendation during RPM. We use Semantic Web technology and OWL/SWRL-enabled ontologies to illustrate the proposal and feasibility of implementing this RPM system as a software solution in pervasive healthcare. It will be of interest to healthcare professionals, who can directly shape and populate the proposed ontological model, and software engineers, who would consider using OWL/SWRL when creating e-health services in general. PMID:23363406

Shojanoori, Reza; Juric, Radmila



Semantic annotation of medical images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diagnosis and treatment planning for patients can be significantly improved by comparing with clinical images of other patients with similar anatomical and pathological characteristics. This requires the images to be annotated using common vocabulary from clinical ontologies. Current approaches to such annotation are typically manual, consuming extensive clinician time, and cannot be scaled to large amounts of imaging data in hospitals. On the other hand, automated image analysis while being very scalable do not leverage standardized semantics and thus cannot be used across specific applications. In our work, we describe an automated and context-sensitive workflow based on an image parsing system complemented by an ontology-based context-sensitive annotation tool. An unique characteristic of our framework is that it brings together the diverse paradigms of machine learning based image analysis and ontology based modeling for accurate and scalable semantic image annotation.

Seifert, Sascha; Kelm, Michael; Moeller, Manuel; Mukherjee, Saikat; Cavallaro, Alexander; Huber, Martin; Comaniciu, Dorin



A Semantics of Multiple Inheritance  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper is to present a clean semantics of multiple inheritance and to show that, in the context of strongly-typed, statically-scoped languages, a sound typechecking algorithm exists. Multiple inheritance is also interpreted in a broad sense: instead of being limited to objects, it is extended in a natural way to union types and to higher-order functional types. This constitutes a

Luca Cardelli