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1

Audiovisual interactions depend on context of congruency.  

PubMed

In this study, we addressed how the particular context of stimulus congruency influences audiovisual interactions. We combined an audiovisual congruency task with a proportion-of-congruency manipulation. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated that the perceived duration of a visual stimulus is modulated by the actual duration of a synchronously presented auditory stimulus. In the following experiments, we demonstrated that this crossmodal congruency effect is modulated by the proportion of congruent trials between (Exp. 2) and within (Exp. 4) blocks. In particular, the crossmodal congruency effect was reduced in the context with a high proportion of incongruent trials. This effect was attributed to changes in participants' control set as a function of the congruency context, with greater control applied in the context where the majority of the trials were incongruent. These data contribute to the ongoing debate concerning crossmodal interactions and attentional processes. In sum, context can provide a powerful cue for selective attention to modulate the interaction between stimuli from different sensory modalities. PMID:22160743

Sarmiento, Beatriz R; Shore, David I; Milliken, Bruce; Sanabria, Daniel

2012-04-01

2

ASSESSING SEMANTIC RELEVANCE BY USING AUDIOVISUAL CUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents two complementary approaches for assessing semantic relevance in video retrieval—(1) adaptive video indexing and (2) elemental concept indexing. Both approaches make extensive use of audiovisual cues. In the former, retrieval is performed by using implicit semantic indices through audio and visual features. Audio features are extracted by statistical time-frequency analysis that applies Laplacian mixture models to wavelet

JOSE A. LAY; PAISARN MUNEESAWANG; TAHIR AMIN; LING GUAN

3

Musical expertise induces audiovisual integration of abstract congruency rules.  

PubMed

Perception of everyday life events relies mostly on multisensory integration. Hence, studying the neural correlates of the integration of multiple senses constitutes an important tool in understanding perception within an ecologically valid framework. The present study used magnetoencephalography in human subjects to identify the neural correlates of an audiovisual incongruency response, which is not generated due to incongruency of the unisensory physical characteristics of the stimulation but from the violation of an abstract congruency rule. The chosen rule-"the higher the pitch of the tone, the higher the position of the circle"-was comparable to musical reading. In parallel, plasticity effects due to long-term musical training on this response were investigated by comparing musicians to non-musicians. The applied paradigm was based on an appropriate modification of the multifeatured oddball paradigm incorporating, within one run, deviants based on a multisensory audiovisual incongruent condition and two unisensory mismatch conditions: an auditory and a visual one. Results indicated the presence of an audiovisual incongruency response, generated mainly in frontal regions, an auditory mismatch negativity, and a visual mismatch response. Moreover, results revealed that long-term musical training generates plastic changes in frontal, temporal, and occipital areas that affect this multisensory incongruency response as well as the unisensory auditory and visual mismatch responses. PMID:23238733

Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Kuchenbuch, Anja; Herholz, Sibylle C; Pantev, Christo

2012-12-12

4

Does Audiovisual Congruency in Advertisements Increase Persuasion? The Role of Cultural Music and Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given increasing advertisement clutter, advertisers are increasingly trying unconventional means to attract consumers' attention. One such method involves the use of incongruent ads, which are believed to attract viewers' attention. This research was conducted to ascertain the impact of audiovisual congruency in ads and the moderating role of product involvement on three facets of consumer response: attention to the ad,

Ashok K. Lalwani; May O. Lwin; Pee Beng Ling

2009-01-01

5

Perceptual congruency of audio-visual speech affects ventriloquism with bilateral visual stimuli.  

PubMed

Many studies on multisensory processes have focused on performance in simplified experimental situations, with a single stimulus in each sensory modality. However, these results cannot necessarily be applied to explain our perceptual behavior in natural scenes where various signals exist within one sensory modality. We investigated the role of audio-visual syllable congruency on participants' auditory localization bias or the ventriloquism effect using spoken utterances and two videos of a talking face. Salience of facial movements was also manipulated. Results indicated that more salient visual utterances attracted participants' auditory localization. Congruent pairing of audio-visual utterances elicited greater localization bias than incongruent pairing, while previous studies have reported little dependency on the reality of stimuli in ventriloquism. Moreover, audio-visual illusory congruency, owing to the McGurk effect, caused substantial visual interference on auditory localization. Multisensory performance appears more flexible and adaptive in this complex environment than in previous studies. PMID:21327355

Kanaya, Shoko; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko

2011-02-01

6

SALERO - Semantic Audiovisual Entertainment Reusable Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Integrated Project SALERO aims to advance the state of the art in digital media to the point where it becomes possible to create audiovisual content for cross-platform delivery using intelligent content tools, with greater quality at lower cost, to provide audiences with more engaging entertainment and information at home or on the move. SALERO will build on and extend

Werner Haas; Georg Thallinger; Pedro Cano; Charlie Cullen; Tobias Bürger

2006-01-01

7

Congruence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Congruence Concepts: What exactly is Congruence? (Especially when it refers to triangles?) Congruence Here is some practice with Triangle Congruence. SSS, SAS, ASA Congruent Triangles in Proofs TIPS Triangle Congruence Numerical Practice Review Third Angles Theorem and Properties of Congruent Triangles (Reflexive Property, Symmetric Property, and Transitive Property) Theorems for Congruent Triangles SSS, SAS, AAS, HL Theorems for Congruent Triangles CPCTC means that if two triangles can be shown to be congruent by any method, then ALL ...

Neubert, Mrs.

2010-10-04

8

ERPs and Contextual Semantic Discrimination: Degrees of Congruence in Wakefulness and Sleep  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores whether the brain can discriminate degrees of semantic congruency during wakefulness and sleep. Experiment 1 was conducted during wakefulness to test degrees of congruency by means of N400 amplitude. In Experiment 2, the same paradigm was applied to a different group of participants during natural night sleep. Stimuli were 108…

Ibanez, Agustin; Lopez, Vladimir; Cornejo, Carlos

2006-01-01

9

Semantic Congruence Enhances Memory of Episodic Associations: Role of Theta Oscillations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing evidence suggests that theta oscillations play a crucial role in episodic encoding. The present study evaluates whether changes in electroencephalographic theta source dynamics mediate the positive influence of semantic congruence on incidental associative learning. Here we show that memory for episodic associations (face–location) is more accurate when studied under semantically congruent contexts. However, only participants showing RT priming effect

Mercedes Atienza; Maite Crespo-Garcia; Jose L. Cantero

2010-01-01

10

Ontology-Based Semantic Indexing for MPEG7 and TV-Anytime Audiovisual Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a framework that we have developed for the support of ontology-based semantic indexing and retrieval of audiovisual content following the MPEG-7 and TV-Anytime standard specifications for metadata descriptions. Our work aims to provide a methodology to enhance the retrieval effectiveness of audiovisual content, while maintaining compatibility with the international multimedia standards. In our framework, domain-specific

Chrisa Tsinaraki; Panagiotis Polydoros; Fotis G. Kazasis; Stavros Christodoulakis

2005-01-01

11

Congruence effect in semantic categorization with masked primes with narrow and broad categories  

Microsoft Academic Search

In semantic categorization, masked primes that are category-congruent with the target (e.g., Planets: mars-VENUS) facilitate responses relative to category-incongruent primes (e.g., tree-VENUS). The present study investigated why this category congruence effect is more consistently found with narrow categories (e.g., Numbers larger\\/smaller than 5, Planets) than with broad categories (e.g., Animals). Experiments 1 and 2 used broad and narrow categories, respectively,

Wendy Maree Quinn; Sachiko Kinoshita

2008-01-01

12

Audiovisuals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents information on a variety of audiovisual materials from government and nongovernment sources. Topics include aerodynamics and conditions of flight, airports, navigation, careers, history, medical factors, weather, films for classroom use, and others. (Author/SA)|

Aviation/Space, 1980

1980-01-01

13

Effect of Hearing Loss on Semantic Access by Auditory and Audiovisual Speech in Children.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES:: This research studied whether the mode of input (auditory versus audiovisual) influenced semantic access by speech in children with sensorineural hearing impairment (HI). DESIGN:: Participants, 31 children with HI and 62 children with normal hearing (NH), were tested with the authors' new multimodal picture word task. Children were instructed to name pictures displayed on a monitor and ignore auditory or audiovisual speech distractors. The semantic content of the distractors was varied to be related versus unrelated to the pictures (e.g., picture distractor of dog-bear versus dog-cheese, respectively). In children with NH, picture-naming times were slower in the presence of semantically related distractors. This slowing, called semantic interference, is attributed to the meaning-related picture-distractor entries competing for selection and control of the response (the lexical selection by competition hypothesis). Recently, a modification of the lexical selection by competition hypothesis, called the competition threshold (CT) hypothesis, proposed that (1) the competition between the picture-distractor entries is determined by a threshold, and (2) distractors with experimentally reduced fidelity cannot reach the CT. Thus, semantically related distractors with reduced fidelity do not produce the normal interference effect, but instead no effect or semantic facilitation (faster picture naming times for semantically related versus unrelated distractors). Facilitation occurs because the activation level of the semantically related distractor with reduced fidelity (1) is not sufficient to exceed the CT and produce interference but (2) is sufficient to activate its concept, which then strengthens the activation of the picture and facilitates naming. This research investigated whether the proposals of the CT hypothesis generalize to the auditory domain, to the natural degradation of speech due to HI, and to participants who are children. Our multimodal picture word task allowed us to (1) quantify picture naming results in the presence of auditory speech distractors and (2) probe whether the addition of visual speech enriched the fidelity of the auditory input sufficiently to influence results. RESULTS:: In the HI group, the auditory distractors produced no effect or a facilitative effect, in agreement with proposals of the CT hypothesis. In contrast, the audiovisual distractors produced the normal semantic interference effect. Results in the HI versus NH groups differed significantly for the auditory mode, but not for the audiovisual mode. CONCLUSIONS:: This research indicates that the lower fidelity auditory speech associated with HI affects the normalcy of semantic access by children. Further, adding visual speech enriches the lower fidelity auditory input sufficiently to produce the semantic interference effect typical of children with NH. PMID:23782714

Jerger, Susan; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Damian, Markus F; Abdi, Hervé

2013-06-18

14

Adding Semantics to Audiovisual Content: The FAETHON Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents FAETHON, a distributed information system that offers enhanced search and retrieval capabilities to users interacting with digital audiovisual (a\\/v) archives. Its novelty primarily originates in the unified intelligent access to heterogeneous a\\/v content. The paper emphasizes the fea- tures that provide enhanced search and retrieval capabilities to users, as well as intelligent management of the a\\/v content

Thanos Athanasiadis; Yannis S. Avrithis

2004-01-01

15

Between- and within-Ear Congruency and Laterality Effects in an Auditory Semantic/Emotional Prosody Conflict Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study investigated the influence of within- and between-ear congruency on interference and laterality effects in an auditory semantic/prosodic conflict task. Participants were presented dichotically with words (e.g., mad, sad, glad) pronounced in either congruent or incongruent emotional tones (e.g., angry, happy, or sad) and…

Techentin, Cheryl; Voyer, Daniel; Klein, Raymond M.

2009-01-01

16

Between- and within-Ear Congruency and Laterality Effects in an Auditory Semantic/Emotional Prosody Conflict Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the influence of within- and between-ear congruency on interference and laterality effects in an auditory semantic/prosodic conflict task. Participants were presented dichotically with words (e.g., mad, sad, glad) pronounced in either congruent or incongruent emotional tones (e.g., angry, happy, or sad) and…

Techentin, Cheryl; Voyer, Daniel; Klein, Raymond M.

2009-01-01

17

Attentional differences in driving judgments for country and city scenes: Semantic congruency in inattentional blindness.  

PubMed

'Looked-but-failed-to-see' vehicle collisions occur when a driver gives all indications of having responsibly evaluated the driving situation yet still fails to see a hazard that is clearly in view. The experience maps well onto the psychological phenomenon called inattentional blindness (IB). IB occurs when a viewer fails to see an unexpected object that is clearly visible, particularly if they are concentrating on an additional primary task. In this study, a driving-related IB task was used to explore whether an unexpected stimulus (US) such as a pedestrian or animal, is more likely to be seen in country or city-related driving scenarios if it is congruent or incongruent with the semantic context of the scenes, and thus congruent or incongruent with the attentional set of the viewer. Overall, participants were more likely to see the US in the City scenarios, which also demonstrated a borderline effect of congruency, with incongruent stimuli less likely to be seen than congruent stimuli. Analyses suggested that driver experience was related to detection of the US in City scenarios but not Country scenarios. However, analyses also revealed that participants generally tended to drive in city rather than country environments, thus prompting speculation that the results may reflect attentional requirements for familiar and unfamiliar driving scenarios. Thus we suggest that the analysis of the driving situation, and the attentional set that we develop to filter information, change when the driving situation is more familiar. PMID:22975367

Pammer, Kristen; Blink, Caroline

2012-09-11

18

Semantic Facilitation in Category and Action Naming: Testing the Message-Congruency Account  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic-level picture naming is hampered by the presence of a semantically related context word (compared to an unrelated word), whereas picture categorization is facilitated by a semantically related context word. This reversal of the semantic context effect has been explained by assuming that in categorization tasks, basic-level distractor words…

Kuipers, Jan-Rouke; La Heij, Wido

2008-01-01

19

Semantic Facilitation in Category and Action Naming: Testing the Message-Congruency Account  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Basic-level picture naming is hampered by the presence of a semantically related context word (compared to an unrelated word), whereas picture categorization is facilitated by a semantically related context word. This reversal of the semantic context effect has been explained by assuming that in categorization tasks, basic-level distractor words…

Kuipers, Jan-Rouke; La Heij, Wido

2008-01-01

20

Audiovisual speech integration in autism spectrum disorder: ERP evidence for atypicalities in lexical-semantic processing  

PubMed Central

Lay Abstract Language and communicative impairments are among the primary characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Previous studies have examined auditory language processing in ASD. However, during face-to-face conversation, auditory and visual speech inputs provide complementary information, and little is known about audiovisual (AV) speech processing in ASD. It is possible to elucidate the neural correlates of AV integration by examining the effects of seeing the lip movements accompanying the speech (visual speech) on electrophysiological event-related potentials (ERP) to spoken words. Moreover, electrophysiological techniques have a high temporal resolution and thus enable us to track the time-course of spoken word processing in ASD and typical development (TD). The present study examined the ERP correlates of AV effects in three time windows that are indicative of hierarchical stages of word processing. We studied a group of TD adolescent boys (n=14) and a group of high-functioning boys with ASD (n=14). Significant group differences were found in AV integration of spoken words in the 200–300ms time window when spoken words start to be processed for meaning. These results suggest that the neural facilitation by visual speech of spoken word processing is reduced in individuals with ASD. Scientific Abstract In typically developing (TD) individuals, behavioural and event-related potential (ERP) studies suggest that audiovisual (AV) integration enables faster and more efficient processing of speech. However, little is known about AV speech processing in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study examined ERP responses to spoken words to elucidate the effects of visual speech (the lip movements accompanying a spoken word) on the range of auditory speech processing stages from sound onset detection to semantic integration. The study also included an AV condition which paired spoken words with a dynamic scrambled face in order to highlight AV effects specific to visual speech. Fourteen adolescent boys with ASD (15–17 years old) and 14 age- and verbal IQ-matched TD boys participated. The ERP of the TD group showed a pattern and topography of AV interaction effects consistent with activity within the superior temporal plane, with two dissociable effects over fronto-central and centro-parietal regions. The posterior effect (200–300ms interval) was specifically sensitive to lip movements in TD boys, and no AV modulation was observed in this region for the ASD group. Moreover, the magnitude of the posterior AV effect to visual speech correlated inversely with ASD symptomatology. In addition, the ASD boys showed an unexpected effect (P2 time window) over the frontal-central region (pooled electrodes F3, Fz, F4, FC1, FC2, FC3, FC4) which was sensitive to scrambled face stimuli. These results suggest that the neural networks facilitating processing of spoken words by visual speech are altered in individuals with ASD.

Megnin, Odette; Flitton, Atlanta; Jones, Catherine; de Haan, Michelle; Baldeweg, Torsten; Charman, Tony

2013-01-01

21

Low-level cross-media statistical approach for semantic partitioning of audio-visual content in a home multimedia environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new automatic method is proposed for the segmentation of audio-visual (A\\/V) broadcast content. Semantic scene boundaries are identified by means of a statistical decision model based on the detection of audio silences and visual transitions. The type of content segmentation presented here is performed in real- time and requires low computational resources thus allowing for implementation

J. Nesvadba; N. Louis; J. Benois-Pineau; M. Desainte-Catherine; Marc Klein Middelink

22

Extracting Semantic Information from Basketball Video Based on Audio-Visual Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a mechanism for extracting semantic information from basketball video sequence using audio and video\\u000a features. After we divide the input video into shots by a simple cut detection algorithm using visual information, we analyze\\u000a audio signal data to predict the location of an important event from which a cheering sound happens to start using the

Kyungsu Kim; Junho Choi; Namjung Kim; Pankoo Kim

2002-01-01

23

Congruence Reconsidered.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses Carl Rogers' definitions of congruence, and identifies four specific requirements for the concept and practice of therapeutic congruence. Examines the interface between congruence and the other necessary and sufficient conditions of change, drawing on examples from practice. (JPS)|

Tudor, Keith; Worrall, Mike

1994-01-01

24

Electrophysiological correlates of predictive coding of auditory location in the perception of natural audiovisual events.  

PubMed

In many natural audiovisual events (e.g., a clap of the two hands), the visual signal precedes the sound and thus allows observers to predict when, where, and which sound will occur. Previous studies have reported that there are distinct neural correlates of temporal (when) versus phonetic/semantic (which) content on audiovisual integration. Here we examined the effect of visual prediction of auditory location (where) in audiovisual biological motion stimuli by varying the spatial congruency between the auditory and visual parts. Visual stimuli were presented centrally, whereas auditory stimuli were presented either centrally or at 90° azimuth. Typical sub-additive amplitude reductions (AV - V < A) were found for the auditory N1 and P2 for spatially congruent and incongruent conditions. The new finding is that this N1 suppression was greater for the spatially congruent stimuli. A very early audiovisual interaction was also found at 40-60 ms (P50) in the spatially congruent condition, while no effect of congruency was found on the suppression of the P2. This indicates that visual prediction of auditory location can be coded very early in auditory processing. PMID:22666195

Stekelenburg, Jeroen J; Vroomen, Jean

2012-05-31

25

Audiovisual Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewed is an eight module course in respiratory physiology that utilizes audiovisual cassettes and tapes. The topics include the lung, ventilation, blood flow, and breathing. It is rated excellent in content and quality. (SL)

Physiologist, 1976

1976-01-01

26

Audiovisual Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Lists and reviews recent audiovisual materials in areas of medical, dental, nursing and allied health, and veterinary medicine; undergraduate, and high school studies. Each is classified as to level, type of instruction, usefulness, and source of availability. Topics include respiration, renal physiology, muscle mechanics, anatomy, evolution,…

Physiology Teacher, 1976

1976-01-01

27

Multisensory integration of drumming actions: musical expertise affects perceived audiovisual asynchrony  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of musical expertise on sensitivity to asynchrony for drumming point-light displays, which varied\\u000a in their physical characteristics (Experiment 1) or in their degree of audiovisual congruency (Experiment 2). In Experiment\\u000a 1, 21 repetitions of three tempos × three accents × nine audiovisual delays were presented to four jazz drummers and four\\u000a novices. In Experiment 2, ten repetitions of two audiovisual

Karin Petrini; Sofia Dahl; Davide Rocchesso; Carl Haakon Waadeland; Federico Avanzini; Aina Puce; Frank E. Pollick

2009-01-01

28

Satir and Congruence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This response presents a different understanding of Satir's concept of congruence, and its importance in the therapeutic and human experiences that lead toward health and functionality.Since congruence addresses the primary elements of the human condition-self other, and context-we observe that congruence is relevant across calsses, culture and times.

Bill Davis; Jean McLendon; Miriam Freeman; Nyra Hill; Judi Loberg; Twink Lester; Catherine Huber

1996-01-01

29

[Ventriloquism and audio-visual integration of voice and face].  

PubMed

Presenting synchronous auditory and visual stimuli in separate locations creates the illusion that the sound originates from the direction of the visual stimulus. Participants' auditory localization bias, called the ventriloquism effect, has revealed factors affecting the perceptual integration of audio-visual stimuli. However, many studies on audio-visual processes have focused on performance in simplified experimental situations, with a single stimulus in each sensory modality. These results cannot necessarily explain our perceptual behavior in natural scenes, where various signals exist within a single sensory modality. In the present study we report the contributions of a cognitive factor, that is, the audio-visual congruency of speech, although this factor has often been underestimated in previous ventriloquism research. Thus, we investigated the contribution of speech congruency on the ventriloquism effect using a spoken utterance and two videos of a talking face. The salience of facial movements was also manipulated. As a result, when bilateral visual stimuli are presented in synchrony with a single voice, cross-modal speech congruency was found to have a significant impact on the ventriloquism effect. This result also indicated that more salient visual utterances attracted participants' auditory localization. The congruent pairing of audio-visual utterances elicited greater localization bias than did incongruent pairing, whereas previous studies have reported little dependency on the reality of stimuli in ventriloquism. Moreover, audio-visual illusory congruency, owing to the McGurk effect, caused substantial visual interference to auditory localization. This suggests that a greater flexibility in responding to multi-sensory environments exists than has been previously considered. PMID:22764349

Yokosawa, Kazuhiko; Kanaya, Shoko

2012-07-01

30

Multisensory integration of drumming actions: musical expertise affects perceived audiovisual asynchrony.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of musical expertise on sensitivity to asynchrony for drumming point-light displays, which varied in their physical characteristics (Experiment 1) or in their degree of audiovisual congruency (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, 21 repetitions of three tempos x three accents x nine audiovisual delays were presented to four jazz drummers and four novices. In Experiment 2, ten repetitions of two audiovisual incongruency conditions x nine audiovisual delays were presented to 13 drummers and 13 novices. Participants gave forced-choice judgments of audiovisual synchrony. The results of Experiment 1 show an enhancement in experts' ability to detect asynchrony, especially for slower drumming tempos. In Experiment 2 an increase in sensitivity to asynchrony was found for incongruent stimuli; this increase, however, is attributable only to the novice group. Altogether the results indicated that through musical practice we learn to ignore variations in stimulus characteristics that otherwise would affect our multisensory integration processes. PMID:19404620

Petrini, Karin; Dahl, Sofia; Rocchesso, Davide; Waadeland, Carl Haakon; Avanzini, Federico; Puce, Aina; Pollick, Frank E

2009-04-30

31

Neural correlates of audiovisual speech processing in a second language.  

PubMed

Neuroimaging studies of audiovisual speech processing have exclusively addressed listeners' native language (L1). Yet, several behavioural studies now show that AV processing plays an important role in non-native (L2) speech perception. The current fMRI study measured brain activity during auditory, visual, audiovisual congruent and audiovisual incongruent utterances in L1 and L2. BOLD responses to congruent AV speech in the pSTS were stronger than in either unimodal condition in both L1 and L2. Yet no differences in AV processing were expressed according to the language background in this area. Instead, the regions in the bilateral occipital lobe had a stronger congruency effect on the BOLD response (congruent higher than incongruent) in L2 as compared to L1. According to these results, language background differences are predominantly expressed in these unimodal regions, whereas the pSTS is similarly involved in AV integration regardless of language dominance. PMID:23872285

Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Visser, Maya; Alsius, Agnès; Pallier, Christophe; Avila Rivera, César; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

2013-07-18

32

Classification and audiovisuals.  

PubMed

The University of Connecticut Health Center Library's substantial investment in audiovisuals has prompted careful examination of its organization of the AV collection and its effectiveness in answering user needs. While an accession number system worked for a small collection, increased size quickly generated access problems, especially because shelves are open to users. With the present collection of over 2,500 audiovisual items, adoption of the NLM classification promises convenient and continued flexibility in the future. PMID:66078

Brantz, M H; Forsman, R

1977-04-01

33

Chow forms of congruences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let V be a 4-dimensional complex space. A congruence Y is an integral surface of the Grassmann variety G = Gr(2, 4) of 2-dimensional subspaces V2 of V (we denote by Vi a subspace of V of dimension i). They have been extensively studied by both classical and modern geometers. We bring to their study the tool of Chow forms, characterizing them by differential equations, following the program of M. Green and I. Morrison [3]. The first results in this direction are due to Cayley ([1], [2]) and are rederived in [3]. Our results share much of the geometrical flavour of Cayley's.

Giraldo, Luis; Sols, Ignacio

1997-01-01

34

Selected Mental Health Audiovisuals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented are approximately 2,300 abstracts on audio-visual Materials--films, filmstrips, audiotapes, and videotapes--related to mental health. Each citation includes material title; name, address, and phone number of film distributor; rental and purchase prices; technical information; and a description of the contents. Abstracts are listed in…

National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

35

Selected Mental Health Audiovisuals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are approximately 2,300 abstracts on audio-visual Materials--films, filmstrips, audiotapes, and videotapes--related to mental health. Each citation includes material title; name, address, and phone number of film distributor; rental and purchase prices; technical information; and a description of the contents. Abstracts are listed in…

National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

36

AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT STANDARDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|SEPARATE LISTINGS ARE MADE OF AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT RECOMMENDED FOR USE IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS (KINGERGARTEN THROUGH GRADE 6) AND IN JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS. STANDARDS FOR EACH PIECE OF EQUIPMENT ARE RECOMMENDED. TO MAKE STANDARDS MORE LOGICAL AND REASONABLE, THE FOLLOWING ASSUMPTIONS WERE MADE--THAT EACH SCHOOL HAVE ADEQUATE STORAGE…

PATTERSON, PIERCE E.; AND OTHERS

37

Computationally Efficient Clustering of Audio-Visual Meeting Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter presents novel computationally efficient algorithms to extract semantically meaningful acoustic and visual events related to each of the participants in a group discussion using the example of business meeting recordings. The recording setup involves relatively few audio-visual sensors, comprising a limited number of cameras and microphones. We first demonstrate computationally efficient algorithms that can identify who spoke and when, a problem in speech processing known as speaker diarization. We also extract visual activity features efficiently from MPEG4 video by taking advantage of the processing that was already done for video compression. Then, we present a method of associating the audio-visual data together so that the content of each participant can be managed individually. The methods presented in this article can be used as a principal component that enables many higher-level semantic analysis tasks needed in search, retrieval, and navigation.

Hung, Hayley; Friedland, Gerald; Yeo, Chuohao

38

Singularities in geodesic surface congruence  

SciTech Connect

In the stringy cosmology, we investigate singularities in geodesic surface congruences for the timelike and null strings to yield the Raychaudhuri type equations possessing correction terms associated with the novel features owing to the strings. Assuming the stringy strong energy condition, we have a Hawking-Penrose type inequality equation. If the initial expansion is negative so that the congruence is converging, we show that the expansion must pass through the singularity within a proper time. We observe that the stringy strong energy conditions of both the timelike and null string congruences produce the same inequality equation.

Cho, Yong Seung; Hong, Soon-Tae [Department of Mathematics, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, Republic of Korea and National Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 385-16 Doryong, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Science Education and Research Institute for Basic Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

2008-09-15

39

Audio?visual aids  

Microsoft Academic Search

REPORT ON DONALD. Audio?Visual Education Service, University of Minnesota, 1949. 20 minutes. Sound. Black and white. Sale: $80.HOW WELL CAN YOU READ LIPS? American Film Company, 1946. 30 minutes. Sound. Partly in color. Sale: $125.; Rental: $4.00.ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA. Produced by Parthian Productions, 1951; Distributed by Young America Films. 33 minutes. Sound. Black and white. Sale: $117.50.CURTAIN TIME. Produced by

Jeanette Allman; Michael Dubetz; John C. Weiser

1955-01-01

40

The value of value congruence.  

PubMed

Research on value congruence has attempted to explain why value congruence leads to positive outcomes, but few of these explanations have been tested empirically. In this article, the authors develop and test a theoretical model that integrates 4 key explanations of value congruence effects, which are framed in terms of communication, predictability, interpersonal attraction, and trust. These constructs are used to explain the process by which value congruence relates to job satisfaction, organizational identification, and intent to stay in the organization, after taking psychological need fulfillment into account. Data from a heterogeneous sample of employees from 4 organizations indicate that the relationships that link individual and organizational values to outcomes are explained primarily by the trust that employees place in the organization and its members, followed by communication, and, to a lesser extent, interpersonal attraction. Polynomial regression analyses reveal that the relationships emanating from individual and organizational values often deviated from the idealized value congruence relationship that underlies previous theory and research. The authors' results also show that individual and organizational values exhibited small but significant relationships with job satisfaction and organizational identification that bypassed the mediators in their model, indicating that additional explanations of value congruence effects should be pursued in future research. PMID:19450005

Edwards, Jeffrey R; Cable, Daniel M

2009-05-01

41

A singleton failures semantics for Communicating Sequential Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper defines a new denotational semantics for the language of Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP). The semantics\\u000a lies between the existing traces and failures models of CSP, providing a treatment of non-determinism in terms of singleton failures. Although the semantics does not represent a congruence upon the full language, it is adequate for sequential tests of non-deterministic\\u000a processes. This semantics

Christie Bolton; Jim Davies

2006-01-01

42

An Architecture for Mining Resources Complementary to Audio-Visual Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we attempt to characterize resources of information com- plementary to audio-visual (A\\/V) streams and propose their usage for enriching A\\/V data with semantic concepts in order to bridge the gap between low-level video detectors and high-level analysis. Our aim is to extract cross-media fea- ture descriptors from semantically enriched and aligned resources so as to detect finer-grained

Jan Nemrava; Paul Buitelaar; Thierry Declerck; Vojtech Svátek; Josef Petrak; Andreas Cobet; Herwig Zeiner; David A. Sadlier; Noel E. O'connor; Nikos Simou; Vassilis Tzouvaras

2007-01-01

43

Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal-spiritual disconnections of pathological gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT's theoretical…

Lee, Bonnie K.

2009-01-01

44

Organizational Goal Congruence and Job Attitudes Revisited.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vancouver and Schmitt (1991) operationalized person-organization fit in terms of goal congruence and reported that goal congruence scores were positively related to favorable job attitudes. The purpose of the present study was to replicate and extend thei...

L. A. Witt L. G. Nye

1992-01-01

45

Papers in Semantics. Working Papers in Linguistics No. 49.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers on semantic theory and research include: "Presupposition, Congruence, and Adverbs of Quantification" (Mike Calcagno); "A Unified Account of '(Ta)myen'-Conditionals in Korean" (Chan Chung); "Spanish 'imperfecto' and 'preterito': Truth Conditions and Aktionsart Effects in a Situation Semantics" (Alicia Cipria, Craige Roberts); "Remarks on…

Yoon, Jae-Hak, Ed.; Kathol, Andreas, Ed.

1996-01-01

46

Rule-Based Operational Semantics for an Imperative Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operational semantics for programming languages usually come in two flavours: big-step and small-step. Both are defined using deduction rules with a congruence rule allowing reduction in certain con- texts. For a description based on rewrite rules, known approaches consist in deriving an abstract machine, which is very close to implementation. In this paper, we describe the operational semantics of an

Florent Kirchner; François-régis Sinot

2007-01-01

47

Congruences for Bernoulli, Euler, and Stirling Numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use properties of p-adic integrals and measures to obtain congruences for higher-order Bernoulli and Euler numbers and polynomials, as well as for certain generalizations and for Stirling numbers of the second kind. These congruences are analogues and generalizations of the usual Kummer congruences for the ordinary Bernoulli numbers.

Paul Thomas Young

1999-01-01

48

Fast Decision Procedures Based on Congruence Closure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of the congruence closure of a relation on a graph is defined and several algorithms for computing it are surveyed. A simple proof is given that the congruence closure algorithm provides a decision procedure for the quantifier-free theory of equality. A decision procedure is then given for the quantifier-free theory of LISP list structure based on the congruence

Greg Nelson; Derek C. Oppen

1980-01-01

49

Attentional Factors in Conceptual Congruency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Conceptual congruency effects are biases induced by an irrelevant conceptual dimension of a task (e.g., location in vertical space) on the processing of another, relevant dimension (e.g., judging words' emotional evaluation). Such effects are a central empirical pillar for recent views about how the mind/brain represents concepts. In the present…

Santiago, Julio; Ouellet, Marc; Roman, Antonio; Valenzuela, Javier

2012-01-01

50

Unconscious semantic activation depends on feature-specific attention allocation.  

PubMed

We examined whether semantic activation by subliminally presented stimuli is dependent upon the extent to which participants assign attention to specific semantic stimulus features and stimulus dimensions. Participants pronounced visible target words that were preceded by briefly presented, masked prime words. Both affective and non-affective semantic congruence of the prime-target pairs were manipulated under conditions that either promoted selective attention for affective stimulus information or selective attention for non-affective semantic stimulus information. In line with our predictions, results showed that affective congruence had a clear impact on word pronunciation latencies only if participants were encouraged to assign attention to the affective stimulus dimension. In contrast, non-affective semantic relatedness of the prime-target pairs produced no priming at all. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that unconscious activation of (affective) semantic information is modulated by feature-specific attention allocation. PMID:21956000

Spruyt, Adriaan; De Houwer, Jan; Everaert, Tom; Hermans, Dirk

2011-09-28

51

Parameters of semantic multisensory integration depend on timing and modality order among people on the autism spectrum: evidence from event-related potentials.  

PubMed

Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) report difficulty integrating simultaneously presented visual and auditory stimuli (Iarocci & McDonald, 2006), albeit showing enhanced perceptual processing of unisensory stimuli, as well as an enhanced role of perception in higher-order cognitive tasks (Enhanced Perceptual Functioning (EPF) model; Mottron, Dawson, Soulières, Hubert, & Burack, 2006). Individuals with an ASD also integrate auditory-visual inputs over longer periods of time than matched typically developing (TD) peers (Kwakye, Foss-Feig, Cascio, Stone & Wallace, 2011). To tease apart the dichotomy of both extended multisensory processing and enhanced perceptual processing, we used behavioral and electrophysiological measurements of audio-visual integration among persons with ASD. 13 TD and 14 autistics matched on IQ completed a forced choice multisensory semantic congruence task requiring speeded responses regarding the congruence or incongruence of animal sounds and pictures. Stimuli were presented simultaneously or sequentially at various stimulus onset asynchronies in both auditory first and visual first presentations. No group differences were noted in reaction time (RT) or accuracy. The latency at which congruent and incongruent waveforms diverged was the component of interest. In simultaneous presentations, congruent and incongruent waveforms diverged earlier (circa 150 ms) among persons with ASD than among TD individuals (around 350 ms). In sequential presentations, asymmetries in the timing of neuronal processing were noted in ASD which depended on stimulus order, but these were consistent with the nature of specific perceptual strengths in this group. These findings extend the Enhanced Perceptual Functioning Model to the multisensory domain, and provide a more nuanced context for interpreting ERP findings of impaired semantic processing in ASD. PMID:22613013

Russo, N; Mottron, L; Burack, J A; Jemel, B

2012-05-18

52

Decreased BOLD responses in audiovisual processing.  

PubMed

Audiovisual processing was studied in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using the McGurk effect. Perceptual responses and the brain activity patterns were measured as a function of audiovisual delay. In several cortical and subcortical brain areas, BOLD responses correlated negatively with the perception of the McGurk effect. No brain areas with positively correlated BOLD responses were found. This was unexpected as most studies of audiovisual integration use additivity and super additivity - that is, increased BOLD responses after audiovisual stimulation compared with auditory-only and visual-only stimulation - as criteria for audiovisual integration. We argue that brain areas that show decreased BOLD responses that correlate with an integrated audiovisual percept should not be neglected from consideration as possibly involved in audiovisual integration. PMID:20966788

Wiersinga-Post, Esther; Tomaskovic, Sonja; Slabu, Lavinia; Renken, Remco; de Smit, Femke; Duifhuis, Hendrikus

2010-12-29

53

A Computer Generated Audiovisuals Catalog.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Eccles Medical Sciences Library at the University of Utah has developed a computer-generated catalog for its audiovisual health and medical materials. The catalog contains four sections: (1) the main listing of type of media, with descriptions, call numbers, and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) used for each item; (2) a listing by title, with call…

Bogen, Betty

54

Criminal Justice Audiovisual Materials Directory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This source directory of audiovisual materials for the education, training, and orientation of those in the criminal justice field is divided into five parts covering the courts, police techniques and training, prevention, prisons and rehabilitation/correction, and public education. Each entry includes a brief description of the product, the time…

Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

55

Criminal Justice Audiovisual Materials Directory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is the third edition of a source directory of audiovisual materials for the education, training, and orientation of those in the criminal justice field. It is divided into five parts covering the courts, police techniques and training, prevention, prisons and rehabilitation/correction, and public education. Each entry includes a brief…

Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

56

Audiovisual Media for Computer Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The result of an international survey, this catalog lists over 450 films dealing with computing methods and automation and is intended for those who wish to use audiovisual displays as a means of instruction of computer education. The catalog gives the film's title, running time, and producer and tells whether the film is color or…

Van Der Aa, H. J., Ed.

57

Audiovisual Speech Recalibration in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to examine whether children adjust their phonetic speech categories, children of two age groups, five-year-olds and eight-year-olds, were exposed to a video of a face saying /aba/ or /ada/ accompanied by an auditory ambiguous speech sound halfway between /b/ and /d/. The effect of exposure to these audiovisual stimuli was measured on…

van Linden, Sabine; Vroomen, Jean

2008-01-01

58

Planning and Producing Audiovisual Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The first few chapters of this book are devoted to an examination of the changing character of audiovisual materials; instructional design and the selection of media to serve specific objectives; and principles of perception, communication, and learning. Relevant research findings in the field are reviewed. The basic techniques of planning…

Kemp, Jerrold E.

59

Audiovisual Speech Recalibration in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In order to examine whether children adjust their phonetic speech categories, children of two age groups, five-year-olds and eight-year-olds, were exposed to a video of a face saying /aba/ or /ada/ accompanied by an auditory ambiguous speech sound halfway between /b/ and /d/. The effect of exposure to these audiovisual stimuli was measured on…

van Linden, Sabine; Vroomen, Jean

2008-01-01

60

Interactive semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research pursues machine intelligence through better representation of semantics. What is semantics? People in different areas view semantics from different facets although it accompanies interaction through civilization. Some researchers believe that humans have some innate structure in mind for processing semantics. Then, what the structure is like? Some argue that humans evolve a structure for processing semantics through constant

Hai Zhuge

2010-01-01

61

Minimum Conditions for Congruence of Quadrilaterals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A complete characterization of minimum conditions for congruence of quadrilaterals is presented. Convex quadrilaterals are treated first, then concave quadrilaterals are considered. A study of such minimum conditions is seen to provide some interesting and important activities for students. Only background in triangle congruence is necessary. (MP)

Vance, Irvin E.

1982-01-01

62

Increasing and Detecting Memory Address Congruence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A static memory reference exhibits a unique property when its dynamic memory addresses are congruent with respect to some non-trivial modulus. Extraction of this congruence information at compile-time enables new classes of program optimization. In this paper, we present methods for forcing congruence among the dynamic addresses of a memory reference. We also introduce a compiler algorithm for detecting this

Samuel Larsen; Emmett Witchel; Saman P. Amarasinghe

2002-01-01

63

Neurofunctional Underpinnings of Audiovisual Emotion Processing in Teens with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Despite successful performance on some audiovisual emotion tasks, hypoactivity has been observed in frontal and temporal integration cortices in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Little is understood about the neurofunctional network underlying this ability in individuals with ASD. Research suggests that there may be processing biases in individuals with ASD, based on their ability to obtain meaningful information from the face and/or the voice. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined brain activity in teens with ASD (n?=?18) and typically developing controls (n?=?16) during audiovisual and unimodal emotion processing. Teens with ASD had a significantly lower accuracy when matching an emotional face to an emotion label. However, no differences in accuracy were observed between groups when matching an emotional voice or face-voice pair to an emotion label. In both groups brain activity during audiovisual emotion matching differed significantly from activity during unimodal emotion matching. Between-group analyses of audiovisual processing revealed significantly greater activation in teens with ASD in a parietofrontal network believed to be implicated in attention, goal-directed behaviors, and semantic processing. In contrast, controls showed greater activity in frontal and temporal association cortices during this task. These results suggest that in the absence of engaging integrative emotional networks during audiovisual emotion matching, teens with ASD may have recruited the parietofrontal network as an alternate compensatory system.

Doyle-Thomas, Krissy A.R.; Goldberg, Jeremy; Szatmari, Peter; Hall, Geoffrey B.C.

2013-01-01

64

Semantic processing of crowded stimuli?  

PubMed

Effects of semantic processing of crowded characters were investigated using numbers as stimuli. In an identification task, typical spacing effects in crowding were replicated. Using the same stimuli in a magnitude comparison task, a smaller effect of spacing was observed as well as an effect of response congruency. These effects were replicated in a second experiment with varying stimulus-onset asynchronies. In addition, decreasing performance with increasing onset-asynchrony (so-called type-B masking) for incongruent flankers indicates semantic processing of target and flankers. The data show that semantic processing takes place even in crowded stimuli. This argues strongly against common accounts of crowding in terms of early stimulus-driven impairments of processing. PMID:18841386

Huckauf, Anke; Knops, Andre; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Willmes, Klaus

2008-10-08

65

A Novel Framework for Semantic Annotation and Personalized Retrieval of Sports Video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sports video annotation is important for sports video semantic analysis such as event detection and personalization. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for sports video semantic annotation and personalized retrieval. Different from the state of the art sports video analysis methods which heavily rely on audio\\/visual features, the proposed approach incorporates web-casting text into sports video analysis. Compared

Changsheng Xu; Jinjun Wang; Hanqing Lu; Yifan Zhang

2008-01-01

66

Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict.  

PubMed

Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study sought to distinguish between conflict monitoring and congruency-based accounts of CSEs. To this end, we determined whether CSEs are driven by previous-trial reaction time (RT)-a putative measure of response conflict-or by previous-trial congruency. In two experiments using a face-word Stroop task (n = 49), we found that current-trial congruency effects did not vary with previous-trial RT independent of previous-trial congruency. In contrast, current-trial congruency effects were influenced by previous-trial congruency independent of previous-trial RT. These findings appear more consistent with theories that attribute CSEs to non-conflict processes whose recruitment varies with previous-trial congruency than with theories that link CSEs to previous-trial response conflict. PMID:24027550

Weissman, Daniel H; Carp, Joshua

2013-09-04

67

Task-demands and audio-visual stimulus configurations modulate neural activity in the human thalamus.  

PubMed

Recent electrophysiological studies have reported short latency modulations in cortical regions for multisensory stimuli, thereby suggesting a subcortical, possibly thalamic origin of these modulations. Concurrently, there is an ongoing debate, whether multisensory interplay reflects automatic, bottom-up driven processes or relies on top-down influences. Here, we dissociated the effects of task set and stimulus configurations on BOLD-signals in the human thalamus with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We orthogonally manipulated temporal and spatial congruency of audio-visual stimulus configurations, while subjects judged either their temporal or spatial congruency. Voxel-based fMRI results revealed increased fMRI-signals for the temporal versus spatial task in posterior and central thalamus, respectively. A more sensitive region of interest (ROI)-analysis confirmed that the posterior thalamic nuclei showed a preference for the temporal task and central thalamic nuclei for the spatial task. Moreover, the ROI-analysis also revealed enhanced fMRI-signals for spatially incongruent stimuli in the central thalamus. Together, our results demonstrate that both audio-visual stimulus configurations and task-related processing of spatial or temporal stimulus features selectively modulate thalamic processing and thus are in a position to influence cortical processing at an early stage. PMID:23085111

Bonath, Björn; Tyll, Sascha; Budinger, Eike; Krauel, Kerstin; Hopf, Jens-Max; Noesselt, Tömme

2012-10-22

68

TIMING OF AUDIOVISUAL INPUTS TO THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX AND MULTISENSORY INTEGRATION  

PubMed Central

A number of studies have demonstrated that the relative timing of audiovisual stimuli is especially important for multisensory integration of speech signals although the neuronal mechanisms underlying this complex behavior are unknown. Temporal coincidence and congruency are thought to underlie the successful merging of two inter-modal stimuli into a coherent perceptual representation. It has been previously shown that single neurons in the non-human primate prefrontal cortex integrate face and vocalization information. However, these multisensory responses and the degree to which they depend on temporal coincidence have yet to be determined. In this study we analyzed the response latency of ventrolateral prefrontal (VLPFC) neurons to face, vocalization and combined face–vocalization stimuli and an offset (asynchronous) version of the face–vocalization stimulus. Our results indicate that for most prefrontal multisensory neurons, the response latency for the vocalization was the shortest, followed by the combined face–vocalization stimuli. The face stimulus had the longest onset response latency. When tested with a dynamic face–vocalization stimulus that had been temporally offset (asynchronous) one-third of multisensory cells in VLPFC demonstrated a change in response compared to the response to the natural, synchronous face–vocalization movie. Our results indicate that prefrontal neurons are sensitive to the temporal properties of audiovisual stimuli. A disruption in the temporal synchrony of an audiovisual signal which results in a change in the firing of communication related prefrontal neurons could underlie the loss in intelligibility which occurs with asynchronous speech stimuli.

ROMANSKI, L. M.; HWANG, J.

2013-01-01

69

Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems\\u000a model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal–spiritual disconnections of pathological\\u000a gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT’s theoretical foundations, main constructs, and\\u000a treatment interventions are illustrated in a progression of six clinical phases. Promise of CCT’s systemic conceptualization\\u000a and interventions

Bonnie K. Lee

2009-01-01

70

Congruence and Career Change in Employed Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holland's theory of congruence was applied to adults changing careers. Forty-two nontraditional students attending college to attain a new occupation were surveyed. The group's average experience in the work force was 14.5 years, and their average age was 34.4 years. Using theCindex (Brown & Gore, 1994) and Kwak and Pulvino's (1982) K-P index to measure congruence, data supported the hypothesis

David Oleski; Linda Mezydlo Subich

1996-01-01

71

In Focus: Alcohol and Alcoholism Audiovisual Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide reviews audiovisual materials currently available on alcohol abuse and alcoholism. An alphabetical index of audiovisual materials is followed by synopses of the indexed materials. Information about the intended audience, price, rental fee, and distributor is included. This guide also provides a list of publications related to media…

National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

72

Catalog of Audiovisual Materials Related to Rehabilitation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An annotated listing of a variety of audiovisual formats on content related to the social-rehabilitation process is provided. The materials in the listing were selected from a collection of over 200 audiovisual catalogs. The major portion of the materials has not been screened. The materials are classified alphabetically by the following subject…

Mann, Joe, Ed.; Henderson, Jim, Ed.

73

AUDIO-VISUAL INSTRUCTION, AN ADMINISTRATIVE HANDBOOK.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS HANDBOOK WAS DESIGNED FOR USE BY SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS IN DEVELOPING A TOTAL AUDIOVISUAL (AV) PROGRAM. ATTENTION IS GIVEN TO THE IMPORTANCE OF AUDIOVISUAL MEDIA TO EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION, ADMINISTRATIVE PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS FOR AN AV PROGRAM, BUDGETING FOR AV INSTRUCTION, PROPER UTILIZATION OF AV MATERIALS, SELECTION OF AV EQUIPMENT AND…

Missouri State Dept. of Education, Jefferson City.

74

Lexical Influences in Audiovisual Speech Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phoneme identification with audiovisually discrepant stimuli is influenced by information in the visual signal (the McGurk effect). Additionally, lexical status affects identification of auditorily presented phonemes. The present study tested for lexical influences on the McGurk effect. Participants identified phonemes in audiovisually discrepant…

Brancazio,Lawrence

2004-01-01

75

Flexibility in Audio-Visual Language Programmes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes alternative procedures to audiovisual methods, which may stifle student participation in second language learning. The pedagogical bases of these exercises are broader than that of patterned sequence drills. Specific exercises are discussed, along with the shortcomings of the audiovisual method that they overcome. (PJM)|

McCarthy, B. N.

1980-01-01

76

Audio-visual event detection based on mining of semantic audio-visual labels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Removing commercials from television programs is a much sought-after feature for a personal video recorder. In this paper, we employ an unsupervised clustering scheme (CM_Detect) to detect commercials in television programs. Each program is first divided into W8-minute chunks, and we extract audio and visual features from each of these chunks. Next, we apply k-means clustering to assign each chunk with a commercial/program label. In contrast to other methods, we do not make any assumptions regarding the program content. Thus, our method is highly content-adaptive and computationally inexpensive. Through empirical studies on various content, including American news, Japanese news, and sports programs, we demonstrate that our method is able to filter out most of the commercials without falsely removing the regular program.

Goh, King-Shy; Miyahara, Koji; Radhakrishnan, Regunathan; Xiong, Ziyou; Divakaran, Ajay

2003-12-01

77

Audio-visual gender recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combining different modalities for pattern recognition task is a very promising field. Basically, human always fuse information from different modalities to recognize object and perform inference, etc. Audio-Visual gender recognition is one of the most common task in human social communication. Human can identify the gender by facial appearance, by speech and also by body gait. Indeed, human gender recognition is a multi-modal data acquisition and processing procedure. However, computational multimodal gender recognition has not been extensively investigated in the literature. In this paper, speech and facial image are fused to perform a mutli-modal gender recognition for exploring the improvement of combining different modalities.

Liu, Ming; Xu, Xun; Huang, Thomas S.

2007-11-01

78

Using Audio-Visuals: A Practical Guide for IDEA Users.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide is concerned with how to use audiovisuals to strengthen the instructor's teaching procedures. The following topics are addressed: concepts and functions of audiovisual materials usage, how to avoid dry and dull presentations, summarizing instruction using audiovisuals, getting to the point using audiovisuals, and relating course…

Potter, Earl L.

79

An audiovisual emotion recognition system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human emotions could be expressed by many bio-symbols. Speech and facial expression are two of them. They are both regarded as emotional information which is playing an important role in human-computer interaction. Based on our previous studies on emotion recognition, an audiovisual emotion recognition system is developed and represented in this paper. The system is designed for real-time practice, and is guaranteed by some integrated modules. These modules include speech enhancement for eliminating noises, rapid face detection for locating face from background image, example based shape learning for facial feature alignment, and optical flow based tracking algorithm for facial feature tracking. It is known that irrelevant features and high dimensionality of the data can hurt the performance of classifier. Rough set-based feature selection is a good method for dimension reduction. So 13 speech features out of 37 ones and 10 facial features out of 33 ones are selected to represent emotional information, and 52 audiovisual features are selected due to the synchronization when speech and video fused together. The experiment results have demonstrated that this system performs well in real-time practice and has high recognition rate. Our results also show that the work in multimodules fused recognition will become the trend of emotion recognition in the future.

Han, Yi; Wang, Guoyin; Yang, Yong; He, Kun

2007-12-01

80

Semantic Categories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to generate coherent sentences, a conceptual semantics must be utilized that limits possible conceptual dependencies to statements about the real world. This is done by the creation of semantic files that serve to spell out the defining character...

R. C. Schank

1968-01-01

81

Semantic Maps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Semantic mapping was used to help English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners at a vocational trade school overcome their writing anxiety and generate ideas on paper. Semantic maps serve as a prewriting framework for brainstorming and organizing ideas. Semantic mapping can be used in many creative ways to help ESL students develop their writing…

Webster, Joan Parker

1998-01-01

82

Semantic Domains and Denotational Semantics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This chapter discusses classes of mathematical structures suitable for use as the semantic domains of programming language constructs. Such structures play a significant role in the foundation of denotational semantics. Many categories of domains have bee...

C. A. Gunter D. S. Scott P. D. Mosses

1989-01-01

83

Contribution of prior semantic knowledge to new episodic learning in amnesia  

PubMed Central

We evaluated whether prior semantic knowledge would enhance episodic learning in amnesia. Subjects studied prices that are either congruent or incongruent with prior price knowledge for grocery and household items and then performed a forced choice recognition test for the studied prices. Consistent with a previous report, healthy controls’ performance was enhanced by price knowledge congruency; however, only a subset of amnesic patients experienced the same benefit. Whereas patients with relatively intact semantic systems, as measured by an anatomical measure (i.e., lesion involvement of anterior and lateral temporal lobes), experienced a significant congruency benefit, patients with compromised semantic systems did not experience a congruency benefit. Our findings suggest that when prior knowledge structures are intact, they can support acquisition of new episodic information by providing frameworks into which such information can be incorporated.

Kan, Irene P.; Alexander, Michael P.; Verfaellie, Mieke

2008-01-01

84

Congruences for the Ramanujan function and generalized class numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ramanujan tau -function satisfies well-known congruences modulo the so-called exceptional prime numbers 2,3,5,7,23,691 . In this paper we prove new congruences related to the irregular primes 131 and 593 , involving generalized class numbers. As an application we obtain distribution results. We obtain a new proof of the famous 691 congruence and congruences of the related Rankin L-funtion.

Heim, Bernhard

2009-03-01

85

Data congruence, paedomorphosis and salamanders  

PubMed Central

Background The retention of ancestral juvenile characters by adult stages of descendants is called paedomorphosis. However, this process can mislead phylogenetic analyses based on morphological data, even in combination with molecular data, because the assessment if a character is primary absent or secondary lost is difficult. Thus, the detection of incongruence between morphological and molecular data is necessary to investigate the reliability of simultaneous analyses. Different methods have been proposed to detect data congruence or incongruence. Five of them (PABA, PBS, NDI, LILD, DRI) are used herein to assess incongruence between morphological and molecular data in a case study addressing salamander phylogeny, which comprises several supposedly paedomorphic taxa. Therefore, previously published data sets were compiled herein. Furthermore, two strategies ameliorating effects of paedomorphosis on phylogenetic studies were tested herein using a statistical rigor. Additionally, efficiency of the different methods to assess incongruence was analyzed using this empirical data set. Finally, a test statistic is presented for all these methods except DRI. Results The addition of morphological data to molecular data results in both different positions of three of the four paedomorphic taxa and strong incongruence, but treating the morphological data using different strategies ameliorating the negative impact of paedomorphosis revokes these changes and minimizes the conflict. Of these strategies the strategy to just exclude paedomorphic character traits seem to be most beneficial. Of the three molecular partitions analyzed herein the RAG1 partition seems to be the most suitable to resolve deep salamander phylogeny. The rRNA and mtDNA partition are either too conserved or too variable, respectively. Of the different methods to detect incongruence, the NDI and PABA approaches are more conservative in the indication of incongruence than LILD and PBS. Conclusion Paedomorphosis induces strong conflicts and can mislead the phylogenetic analyses even in combined analyses. However, different strategies are efficiently minimizing these problems. Though the exploration of different methods to detect incongruence is preferable NDI and PABA are more conservative than the others and NDI is computational less extensive than PABA.

Struck, Torsten H

2007-01-01

86

An Audio-Visual Approach to Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the development of an audiovisual training course in duck husbandry which consists of synchronized tapes and slides. The production of the materials, equipment needs, operations, cost, and advantages of the program are discussed. (BM)|

Hearnshaw, Trevor

1977-01-01

87

Speech cues contribute to audiovisual spatial integration.  

PubMed

Speech is the most important form of human communication but ambient sounds and competing talkers often degrade its acoustics. Fortunately the brain can use visual information, especially its highly precise spatial information, to improve speech comprehension in noisy environments. Previous studies have demonstrated that audiovisual integration depends strongly on spatiotemporal factors. However, some integrative phenomena such as McGurk interference persist even with gross spatial disparities, suggesting that spatial alignment is not necessary for robust integration of audiovisual place-of-articulation cues. It is therefore unclear how speech-cues interact with audiovisual spatial integration mechanisms. Here, we combine two well established psychophysical phenomena, the McGurk effect and the ventriloquist's illusion, to explore this dependency. Our results demonstrate that conflicting spatial cues may not interfere with audiovisual integration of speech, but conflicting speech-cues can impede integration in space. This suggests a direct but asymmetrical influence between ventral 'what' and dorsal 'where' pathways. PMID:21909378

Bishop, Christopher W; Miller, Lee M

2011-08-31

88

An Audio-Visual Approach to Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development of an audiovisual training course in duck husbandry which consists of synchronized tapes and slides. The production of the materials, equipment needs, operations, cost, and advantages of the program are discussed. (BM)

Hearnshaw, Trevor

1977-01-01

89

Processing of audiovisual speech in Broca's area  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated cerebral processing of audiovisual speech stimuli in humans using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten healthy volunteers were scanned with a ‘clustered volume acquisition’ paradigm at 3 T during observation of phonetically matching (e.g., visual and acoustic \\/y\\/) and conflicting (e.g., visual \\/a\\/ and acoustic \\/y\\/) audiovisual vowels. Both stimuli activated the sensory-specific auditory and visual cortices, along

Ville Ojanen; Riikka Möttönen; Johanna Pekkola; Iiro P. Jääskeläinen; Raimo Joensuu; Taina Autti; Mikko Sams

2005-01-01

90

Audiovisual Segregation in Cochlear Implant Users  

PubMed Central

It has traditionally been assumed that cochlear implant users de facto perform atypically in audiovisual tasks. However, a recent study that combined an auditory task with visual distractors suggests that only those cochlear implant users that are not proficient at recognizing speech sounds might show abnormal audiovisual interactions. The present study aims at reinforcing this notion by investigating the audiovisual segregation abilities of cochlear implant users in a visual task with auditory distractors. Speechreading was assessed in two groups of cochlear implant users (proficient and non-proficient at sound recognition), as well as in normal controls. A visual speech recognition task (i.e. speechreading) was administered either in silence or in combination with three types of auditory distractors: i) noise ii) reverse speech sound and iii) non-altered speech sound. Cochlear implant users proficient at speech recognition performed like normal controls in all conditions, whereas non-proficient users showed significantly different audiovisual segregation patterns in both speech conditions. These results confirm that normal-like audiovisual segregation is possible in highly skilled cochlear implant users and, consequently, that proficient and non-proficient CI users cannot be lumped into a single group. This important feature must be taken into account in further studies of audiovisual interactions in cochlear implant users.

Landry, Simon; Bacon, Benoit A.; Leybaert, Jacqueline; Gagne, Jean-Pierre; Champoux, Francois

2012-01-01

91

Status congruence as a cognitive bias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conducted an experiment on the learning of hierarchical structures to examine if status congruence constitutes a cognitive bias. 2 types of material (individual names and nonsense syllables) were compared by 36 male undergraduates to test whether such a bias results from the abstract properties of complete ordering and congruent mapping, or from the individuals' familiarity with status congruent social organizations.

Jean P. Poitou

1970-01-01

92

Congruence, Similarity, and Symmetries of Geometric Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of computing geometric transformations (rotation, translation, reflexion) that map a point setA exactly or approximately into a point setB. We derive efficient algorithms for various cases (Euclidean or maximum metric, translation or rotation, or general congruence).

Helmut Alt; Kurt Mehlhorn; Hubert Wagener; Emo Welzl

1988-01-01

93

An asymmetric characterization of the congruence frame  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functor from regular biframes to frames, taking first parts, is shown to be faithful. This result is used to provide many examples of identical embeddings which are epimorphisms in the category of frames. Then the congruence frame, regarded as a biframe, is characterized as being the unique regular biframe extension. This provides a pointfree analogue to a result of

John Frith; Anneliese Schauerte

2011-01-01

94

Political Agenda, The Individual and Congruency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the congruency between voters' personal agendas and the perceived agendas of candidates, 160 college students interviewed repeatedly during the 1980 presidential campaign were asked to rate both the importance they assigned and the importance they felt each candidate assigned to eight major campaign issues. The influence of the election…

Bowes, John E.; Zandpour, Freidoun

95

Some Extensions of the Iachan Congruence Index.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Extends Iachan's congruence index (1984) to cover situations when ties occur in three-letter codes (as used in Holland's vocational theory) and when only two top letters are recorded and/or used. Suggests methodologies for breaking ties and for measuring agreement between two-letter codes and includes computer algorithm for computing the index.…

Iachan, Ronaldo

1990-01-01

96

Reward Based Congruences: Can We Aggregate More?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we extend a performance measure sensitive Markovian bisimulation congruence based on yield and bonus rewards that has been previously de ned in the literature, in order to aggregate more states and transitions while preserving compositionality and the values of the performance measures. The extension is twofold. First, we show how to define a performance measure sensitive Markovian

Marco Bernardo; Mario Bravetti

2001-01-01

97

BRAND ATTITUDE AND IMAGE CONGRUENCE AMONGST TEENAGERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congruity theory holds that the level of congruence between the self-image of a consumer and their perception of the image of a brand will influence their intention to choose that brand, or their attitude towards the brand. Previous studies, undertaken amongst college students, executives and housewives have concluded that there is evidence to support congruity theory. Furthermore, it has been

Haider Ali

98

Semantic Browsing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We have created software applications that allow users to both author and use Semantic Web metadata. To create and use a layer\\u000a of semantic content on top of the existing Web, we have (1) implemented a user interface that expedites the task of attributing\\u000a metadata to resources on the Web, and (2) augmented a Web browser to leverage this semantic

Alexander Faaborg; Carl Lagoze

99

Audiovisual Library of International Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations' Audiovisual Library of International Law was first proposed in 1997, and in recent years it has grown by leaps and bounds. It is a unique multimedia resource that provides "high quality international law training and research materials to an unlimited number of recipients on a global level." The Library consists of a "Historic Archives" section, along with a "Lecture Series" section, and an online research library with links to treaties, jurisprudence, publications, and research guides. In the "Historic Archives" section, visitors will find a drop-down menu with links to topics such as disarmament, human rights, and the laws of outer space. The "Lecture Series" section includes dozens of lectures organized by subject matter headings ranging from the Arctic to the United Nations. Subject experts deliver the video lectures and it's easy to see how these talks could be used to complement classroom lectures and discussions. Finally, the research library is a great tool for those seeking to explore various facets of United Nations treaties and other aspects of international jurisprudence. As a bonus, the site starts off with Orson Welles reading the Preamble to the Charter of the United Nations. [KMG

100

Semantic email  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates how the vision of the Semantic Web can be carried overto the realm of email. We introduce a general notion of semantice mail, in which an email message consists of an RDF query or update coupled with corresponding explanatory text. Semantic email opens the door to a wide range of automated, email-mediated applications with formally guaranteed properties.

Luke McDowell; Oren Etzioni; Alon Y. Halevy; Henry M. Levy

2004-01-01

101

Computational Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we discuss what constitutes a good choice of semantic rep- resentation, compare dierent approaches to constructing semantic representations for frag- ments of natural language, and give an overview of recent menthods for employing inference engines for natural understanding tasks.

Patrick Blackburn; Johan Bos

102

Cataloging audiovisual materials: a new dimension.  

PubMed

A new more comprehensive system for cataloging audiovisual materials is described. Existing audiovisual cataloging systems contain mostly descriptive information, publishers' or producers' summaries, and order information. This paper discusses the addition of measurable learning objectives to this standard information, thereby enabling the potential user to determine what can be learned from a particular audiovisual unit. The project included media in nursing only. A committee of faculty and students from the University of Alabama in Birmingham School of Nursing reviewed the materials. The system was field-tested at nursing schools throughout Alabama; the schools offered four different types of programs. The system and its sample product, the AVLOC catalog, were also evaluated by medical librarians, media specialists, and other nursing instructors throughout the United States. PMID:50106

Knotts, M A; Mueller, D

1975-07-01

103

Cataloging audiovisual materials: a new dimension.  

PubMed Central

A new more comprehensive system for cataloging audiovisual materials is described. Existing audiovisual cataloging systems contain mostly descriptive information, publishers' or producers' summaries, and order information. This paper discusses the addition of measurable learning objectives to this standard information, thereby enabling the potential user to determine what can be learned from a particular audiovisual unit. The project included media in nursing only. A committee of faculty and students from the University of Alabama in Birmingham School of Nursing reviewed the materials. The system was field-tested at nursing schools throughout Alabama; the schools offered four different types of programs. The system and its sample product, the AVLOC catalog, were also evaluated by medical librarians, media specialists, and other nursing instructors throughout the United States.

Knotts, M A; Mueller, D

1975-01-01

104

Job Congruence, Academic Achievement, and Earnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study combines a widely held view of how earnings are related to education and job tenure (The Mincer model) with the notion that earnings are associated with the quality of an employer-employee job match. The quality of an individual's occupational choice is measured us- ing job congruence, a commonly-used construct in the psychometric literature. Better-matched individuals should be more

George Neumann; Neal H. Olitsky; Steve Robbins

2008-01-01

105

Gender affects semantic competition: the effect of gender in a non-gender-marking language.  

PubMed

English speakers tend to produce fewer pronouns when a referential competitor has the same gender as the referent than otherwise. Traditionally, this gender congruence effect has been explained in terms of ambiguity avoidance (e.g., Arnold, Eisenband, Brown-Schmidt, & Trueswell, 2000; Fukumura, Van Gompel, & Pickering, 2010). However, an alternative hypothesis is that the competitor's gender congruence affects semantic competition, making the referent less accessible relative to when the competitor has a different gender (Arnold & Griffin, 2007). Experiment 1 found that even in Finnish, which is a nongendered language, the competitor's gender congruence results in fewer pronouns, supporting the semantic competition account. In Experiment 2, Finnish native speakers took part in an English version of the same experiment. The effect of gender congruence was larger in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1, suggesting that the presence of a same-gender competitor resulted in a larger reduction in pronoun use in English than in Finnish. In contrast, other nonlinguistic similarity had similar effects in both experiments. This indicates that the effect of gender congruence in English is not entirely driven by semantic competition: Speakers also avoid gender-ambiguous pronouns. PMID:23356244

Fukumura, Kumiko; Hyönä, Jukka; Scholfield, Merete

2013-01-28

106

Altered semantic integration in autism beyond language: a cross-modal event-related potentials study.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by impaired communication, particularly pragmatic and semantic language, resulting in verbal comprehension deficits. Semantic processing in these conditions has been studied extensively, but mostly limited only to linguistic material. Emerging evidence, however, suggests that semantic integration deficits may extend beyond the verbal domain. Here, we explored cross-modal semantic integration using visual targets preceded by musical and linguistic cues. Particularly, we have recorded the event-related potentials to evaluate whether the N400 and late positive potential (LPP) components, two widely studied electrophysiological markers of semantic processing, are differently sensitive to congruence with respect to typically developing children. Seven ASD patients and seven neurotypical participants matched by age, education and intelligence quotient provided usable data. Neuroelectric activity was recorded in response to visual targets that were related or unrelated to a preceding spoken sentence or musical excerpt. The N400 was sensitive to semantic congruence in the controls but not the patients, whereas the LPP showed a complementary pattern. These results suggest that semantic processing in ASD children is also altered in the context of musical and visual stimuli, and point to a functional decoupling between the generators of the N400 and LPP, which may indicate delayed semantic processing. These novel findings underline the importance of exploring semantic integration across multiple modalities in ASDs and provide motivation for further investigation in large clinical samples. PMID:23629689

Ribeiro, Tatiane C; Valasek, Claudia A; Minati, Ludovico; Boggio, Paulo S

2013-05-29

107

Cross-taxon congruence and environmental conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Diversity patterns of different taxa typically covary in space, a phenomenon called cross-taxon congruence. This pattern has been explained by the effect of one taxon diversity on taxon diversity, shared biogeographic histories of different taxa, and/or common responses to environmental conditions. A meta-analysis of the association between environment and diversity patterns found that in 83 out of 85 studies, more than 60% of the spatial variability in species richness was related to variables representing energy, water or their interaction. The role of the environment determining taxa diversity patterns leads us to hypothesize that this would explain the observed cross-taxon congruence. However, recent analyses reported the persistence of cross-taxon congruence when environmental effect was statistically removed. Here we evaluate this hypothesis, analyzing the cross-taxon congruence between birds and mammals in the Brazilian Cerrado, and assess the environmental role on the spatial covariation in diversity patterns. Results We found a positive association between avian and mammal richness and a positive latitudinal trend for both groups in the Brazilian Cerrado. Regression analyses indicated an effect of latitude, PET, and mean temperature over both biological groups. In addition, we show that NDVI was only associated with avian diversity; while the annual relative humidity, was only correlated with mammal diversity. We determined the environmental effects on diversity in a path analysis that accounted for 73% and 76% of the spatial variation in avian and mammal richness. However, an association between avian and mammal diversity remains significant. Indeed, the importance of this link between bird and mammal diversity was also supported by a significant association between birds and mammal spatial autoregressive model residuals. Conclusion Our study corroborates the main role of environmental conditions on diversity patterns, but suggests that other important mechanisms, which have not been properly evaluated, are involved in the observed cross-taxon congruence. The approaches introduced here indicate that the prevalence of a significant association among taxa, after considering the environmental determinant, could indicate both the need to incorporate additional processes (e.g. biogeographic and evolutionary history or trophic interactions) and/or the existence of a shared trend in detection biases among taxa and regions.

2010-01-01

108

The Andrews-Sellers family of partition congruences.  

PubMed

In 1994, James Sellers conjectured an infinite family of Ramanujan type congruences for 2-colored Frobenius partitions introduced by George E. Andrews. These congruences arise modulo powers of 5. In 2002 Dennis Eichhorn and Sellers were able to settle the conjecture for powers up to 4. In this article, we prove Sellers' conjecture for all powers of 5. In addition, we discuss why the Andrews-Sellers family is significantly different from classical congruences modulo powers of primes. PMID:23471147

Paule, Peter; Radu, Cristian-Silviu

2012-06-20

109

Long-Term Semantic Memory Versus Contextual Memory in Unconscious Number Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjects classified visible 2-digit numbers as larger or smaller than 55. Target numbers were preceded by masked 2-digit primes that were either congruent (same relation to 55) or incongruent. Experiments 1 and 2 showed prime congruency effects for stimuli never included in the set of classified visible targets, indicating subliminal priming based on long-term semantic memory. Experiments 2 and 3

Anthony G. Greenwald; Richard L. Abrams; Lionel Naccache; Stanislas Dehaene

2003-01-01

110

Audio-visual interaction in multimodal communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multimedia signal processing is more than simply “putting together” text, audio, images, and video. It is the integration and interaction among these different media that creates new systems and new research challenges and opportunities. In multimodal communication where speech is involved, audio-visual interaction is particularly significant

R. Chellappa; Tsuhan Chen; A. Katsaggelos

1997-01-01

111

Audio-visual interaction in multimedia communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

To many people, the word “multimedia” simply means the combination of various forms of information: text, speech, music, images, graphics and video. What is often overlooked is the interaction among these forms. In this paper, we present our results in exploiting the audio-visual interaction that is very significant in multimedia communication. The applications include lip synchronization, joint audio-video coding, and

Tsuhan Chent; R. R. Rao

1997-01-01

112

Audiovisual Asynchrony Detection in Human Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Combining information from the visual and auditory senses can greatly enhance intelligibility of natural speech. Integration of audiovisual speech signals is robust even when temporal offsets are present between the component signals. In the present study, we characterized the temporal integration window for speech and nonspeech stimuli with…

Maier, Joost X.; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Noppeney, Uta

2011-01-01

113

Active methodology in the Audiovisual communication degree  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the adaptation methods of the active methodologies of the new European higher education area in the new Audiovisual Communication degree under the perspective of subjects related to the area of the interactive communication in Europe. The proposed active methodologies have been experimentally implemented into the new academic curricular development of the subjects, leading to a docent adjustment

J. L. Gimenez-Lopez; T. Magal Royo; Jesus García Laborda; Larisa Dunai

2010-01-01

114

Speech Cues Contribute to Audiovisual Spatial Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech is the most important form of human communication but ambient sounds and competing talkers often degrade its acoustics. Fortunately the brain can use visual information, especially its highly precise spatial information, to improve speech comprehension in noisy environments. Previous studies have demonstrated that audiovisual integration depends strongly on spatiotemporal factors. However, some integrative phenomena such as McGurk interference persist

Christopher W. Bishop; Lee M. Miller

2011-01-01

115

Audiovisual Equipment Self Instruction Manual. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An audiovisual equipment manual provides both the means of learning how to operate equipment and information needed to adjust equipment that is not performing properly. The manual covers the basic principles of operation for filmstrip-slide projectors, motion picture projectors, opaque projectors, overhead projectors, portable screens, record…

Oates, Stanton C.

116

Audio?Visuality Squeezed into the Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article looks at how the Finnish education system is approaching the emergence of audio?visual material as a teaching aid, and the problems faced by the producers of this material in coping with the different types of equipment and the differences in values between the target groups of teachers and pupils. It indicates how teachers must develop and how educationalists

Jaakko Ukkonen

1987-01-01

117

An Acquired Deficit of Audiovisual Speech Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report a 53-year-old patient (AWF) who has an acquired deficit of audiovisual speech integration, characterized by a perceived temporal mismatch between speech sounds and the sight of moving lips. AWF was less accurate on an auditory digit span task with vision of a speaker's face as compared to a condition in which no visual information from…

Hamilton, Roy H.; Shenton, Jeffrey T.; Coslett, H. Branch

2006-01-01

118

Audiovisual Services Sector: Can the Philippines Follow \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is an industry study of the audiovisual services sector, specially the film and television industry in the Philippines. It discusses the importance of the sector in the economy and employment, its strengths and weaknesses, regulations that affect it, and the competitive forces that influence the key participants. The paper also discusses the technological developments such as digital technology

Gloria Pasadilla; Angelina Jr. M. Lantin

2005-01-01

119

Audiovisual Asynchrony Detection in Human Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Combining information from the visual and auditory senses can greatly enhance intelligibility of natural speech. Integration of audiovisual speech signals is robust even when temporal offsets are present between the component signals. In the present study, we characterized the temporal integration window for speech and nonspeech stimuli with…

Maier, Joost X.; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Noppeney, Uta

2011-01-01

120

Active Methodology in the Audiovisual Communication Degree  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper describes the adaptation methods of the active methodologies of the new European higher education area in the new Audiovisual Communication degree under the perspective of subjects related to the area of the interactive communication in Europe. The proposed active methodologies have been experimentally implemented into the new academic…

Gimenez-Lopez, J. L.; Royo, T. Magal; Laborda, Jesus Garcia; Dunai, Larisa

2010-01-01

121

Audio-Visual Spontaneous Emotion Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic multimodal recognition of spontaneous emotional expressions is a largely unexplored and challenging problem. In this paper, we explore audio-visual emotion recognition in a realistic human conversation setting—the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Based on the assumption that facial expression and vocal expression are at the same coarse affective states, positive and negative emotion sequences are labeled according to Facial Action

Zhihong Zeng; Yuxiao Hu; Glenn I. Roisman; Zhen Wen; Yun Fu; Thomas S. Huang

2007-01-01

122

Conceptual legacy of audio-visual communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE CONCEPT that direct or vicarious experience is basic to real meaning and understanding reached maturation remarkably early in the minds of the world's great teachers. Although audio-visual communication was not endowed with a formal appellation, an impressive number of early educators accepted its inherent principles. This paper will trace the development of the conceptual heritage of visual-sensory teaching in

Paul Saettler

1955-01-01

123

Audiovisual Materials for Teaching Economics. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The third edition of this catalog, which expands and revises earlier editions, annotates audiovisual items for economic education in kindergarten through college. The purpose of the catalog is to help teachers select sound economic materials for classroom use. A selective listing, the catalog cites over 700 items out of more than 1200 items…

Harter, Charlotte T.; And Others

124

Environmental Congruence, Group Importance, and Well-Being among Paratroopers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Israeli paratroopers (n=267) completed measures of group importance, role satisfaction, vocational interests, and somatic complaints. Group importance correlated with satisfaction and somatic complaints; congruence with environment did not. Congruence interacted with group importance to enhance satisfaction. (Contains 29 references.) (SK)

Meir, Elchanan I.; Segal-Halevi, Anat

2001-01-01

125

Environmental Congruence, Group Importance, and Well-Being Among Paratroopers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined the relation between variables of environmental congruence (or Person-environment fit; P-E fit) and group importance on the one hand and variables of satisfaction and somatic complaints on the other. Participants were 267 paratroopers who belonged to 35 units (environments). Both the diadic and the census methods were used to assign congruence scores. Findings showed (a) group importance

Elchanan I. Meir; Anat Segal-Halevi

2001-01-01

126

Congruences for Catalan and Motzkin numbers and related sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove various congruences for Catalan and Motzkin numbers as well as related sequences. The common thread is that all these sequences can be expressed in terms of binomial coefficients. Our techniques are combinatorial and algebraic: group actions, induction, and Lucas’ congruence for binomial coefficients come into play. A number of our results settle conjectures of Cloitre and Zumkeller. The

Emeric Deutsch; Bruce E. Sagan

2006-01-01

127

Patient-practitioner perceptions: Can chiropractors assume congruence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Advances in mind-body medicine have resulted in the realization that beliefs can modulate pathophysiologic processes. Because symbolic interaction affects health status, perceptions and the congruence between the perceptions of chiropractors and their patients become a relevant clinical consideration. Objective: A case study to explore the congruence of health-relevant perceptions of chiropractors and their patients was undertaken. Method: This Australian

Jennifer R. Jamison

2000-01-01

128

Congruence and Welsh-English Code-Switching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to contribute to elucidating the notion of congruence in code-switching with particular reference to Welsh-English data. It has been suggested that a sufficient degree of congruence or equivalence between the constituents of one language and another is necessary in order for code-switching to take place. We shall distinguish…

Deuchar, Margaret

2005-01-01

129

Phase congruency assesses hyperspectral image quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blind image quality assessment (QA) is a tough task especially for hyperspectral imagery which is degraded by noise, distortion, defocus, and other complex factors. Subjective hyperspectral imagery QA methods are basically measured the degradation of image from human perceptual visual quality. As the most important image quality measurement features, noise and blur, determined the image quality greatly, are employed to predict the objective hyperspectral imagery quality of each band. We demonstrate a novel no-reference hyperspectral imagery QA model based on phase congruency (PC), which is a dimensionless quantity and provides an absolute measure of the significance of feature point. First, Log Gabor wavelet is used to calculate the phase congruency of frequencies of each band image. The relationship between noise and PC can be derived from above transformation under the assumption that noise is additive. Second, PC focus measure evaluation model is proposed to evaluate blur caused by different amounts of defocus. The ratio and mean factors of edge blur level and noise is defined to assess the quality of each band image. This image QA method obtains excellent correlation with subjective image quality score without any reference. Finally, the PC information is utilized to improve the quality of some bands images.

Shao, Xiaopeng; Zhong, Cheng

2012-10-01

130

7 CFR 3015.200 - Acknowledgement of support on publications and audiovisuals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Acknowledgement of support on publications and audiovisuals. 3015.200 Section...200 Acknowledgement of support on publications and audiovisuals. (a) Definitions...production of an audiovisual,â and âpublication.â (b) Publications....

2013-01-01

131

36 CFR 1237.10 - How must agencies manage their audiovisual, cartographic, and related records?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false How must agencies manage their audiovisual, cartographic, and...MANAGEMENT § 1237.10 How must agencies manage their audiovisual, cartographic, and related records? Each Federal agency must manage its audiovisual, cartographic and...

2010-07-01

132

Are Tutor Behaviors in Problem-Based Learning Stable? A Generalizability Study of Social Congruence, Expertise and Cognitive Congruence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability of three distinct tutor behaviors (1) use of subject-matter expertise, (2) social congruence and (3) cognitive congruence, in a problem-based learning (PBL) environment. The data comprised the input from 16,047 different students to a survey of 762 tutors administered in three consecutive…

Williams, Judith C.; Alwis, W. A. M.; Rotgans, Jerome I.

2011-01-01

133

Audiovisual Processing in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and twenty-one children without ASD completed six perceptual tasks designed\\u000a to characterize the nature of the audiovisual processing difficulties experienced by children with ASD. Children with ASD\\u000a scored significantly lower than children without ASD on audiovisual tasks involving human faces and voices, but scored similarly\\u000a to children without ASD on audiovisual tasks involving

Elizabeth A. Mongillo; Julia R. Irwin; D. H. Whalen; Cheryl Klaiman; Alice S. Carter; Robert T. Schultz

2008-01-01

134

Audio-visual affective expression recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic affective expression recognition has attracted more and more attention of researchers from different disciplines, which will significantly contribute to a new paradigm for human computer interaction (affect-sensitive interfaces, socially intelligent environments) and advance the research in the affect-related fields including psychology, psychiatry, and education. Multimodal information integration is a process that enables human to assess affective states robustly and flexibly. In order to understand the richness and subtleness of human emotion behavior, the computer should be able to integrate information from multiple sensors. We introduce in this paper our efforts toward machine understanding of audio-visual affective behavior, based on both deliberate and spontaneous displays. Some promising methods are presented to integrate information from both audio and visual modalities. Our experiments show the advantage of audio-visual fusion in affective expression recognition over audio-only or visual-only approaches.

Huang, Thomas S.; Zeng, Zhihong

2007-11-01

135

Fast Encryption Methods for Audiovisual Data Confidentiality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methodologies for efiqcient audiovisual data encryption are studied in this research, i.e. selective encryptionand MHT (multiple-Huffman-table). We first discuss benefits and limitations of selective encryption, and propose aselective encryption scheme for ITU G.723.1 speech coding. A review of all cryptanalysis work of selective encryptionalgorithms in the literature is given, our cryptanalysis for the JPEG\\/MPEG sign-bit encryption scheme is presented,and

Chung-ping Wu; C. c Jay Kuo

2000-01-01

136

AVAS: An Audio-Visual Attendance System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biometric identification technology is being applied to physical and information access control in some workplace with the\\u000a improvements in the accuracy of biometric devices and declining price. This paper describes a multimodal biometric identification\\u000a system for time and attendance application called AVAS (Audio-Visual Attendance System). This system takes users’ voice and\\u000a face characteristics as their badge. The motivation behind using

Dongdong Li; Yingchun Yang; Zhenyu Shan; Gang Pan; Zhaohui Wu

2006-01-01

137

Olfactory ERPs in an odor/visual congruency task differentiate ApoE ?4 carriers from non-carriers.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder that impairs memory and semantic processing. AD patients and MCI patients at risk for AD show altered N400 ERP responses to incongruent visual and verbal stimuli. AD patients exhibit neuropathology in olfactory brain areas before cognitive symptoms, suggesting the potential for olfactory processing to reflect early pathology. Despite this, odor congruency has not been examined. We investigated odor-image congruency in older adults at genetic risk for AD. ApoE ?4 carriers and non-carriers were screened for anosmia, severe hyposmia, and dementia. Olfactory ERPs were measured 600-1300 ms following odor-image pairs. Odors were each presented once congruently and once incongruently via an olfactometer. Pz amplitude significantly decreased on incongruent trials in e4 carriers. Pz amplitude differences on congruous and incongruous trials were larger in non carriers. Regression indicated that congruency showed very high sensitivity and specificity for correctly classifying ?4 carriers from non-carriers. PMID:22305338

Kowalewski, Joel; Murphy, Claire

2011-12-20

138

Semantic holism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bivalent valuation is snt iff sound (standard PC inference rules take truths only into truths) and non-trivial (not all wffs are assigned the same truth value). Such a valuation is normal iff classically correct for each connective. Carnap knew that there were non-normal snt valuations of PC, and that the gap they revealed between syntax and semantics could be

Nuel D Belnap; Gerald J. Massey

1990-01-01

139

Taxonomic Congruence versus Total Evidence, and Amniote Phylogeny Inferred from Fossils, Molecules, and Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxonomic congruence and total evidence are competing paradigms in phylogenetic inference. Taxonomic congruence focuses on deriving a consensus from the results obtained from separately analyzed data sets, whereas total evidence uses character congruence in the search for the best-fitting hypothesis for all of the available char- acter evidence. Explicit or implicit use of taxonomic congruence is usually employed when an

Douglas J. Eernisse; Arnold G. Kluge

140

Congruence of triangles (grades 6-8)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative enables the student to arrange sides and angles to construct and demonstrate the necessary and sufficient conditions for proving triangles congruent. The student drags line segments and angles to form triangles and can flip formed triangles as needed to show congruence. The student can select from options for constructing triangles given three sides (SSS), two sides and the included angle (SAS), and two angles and an included side (ASA). The applet also allows the student to experiment with the ambiguous case to find two triangles that are not congruent, given two sides and a non-included angle (SSA). Instructions for using the applet and a link to the NCTM standard for geometry are included. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Mathematics, Utah S.

2003-01-01

141

Dynamics of stringy congruence in the early universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study twist and shear aspects of the stingy geodesic surface congruence. Under some natural conditions we derive the equations of the twist and shear in terms of the expansion of the Universe. We observe in this higher dimensional cosmology that, as the early universe evolves with expansion rate, the twist of the stringy congruence decreases exponentially and the initial twist value should be large enough to sustain the rotations of the ensuing universe, while the effects of the shear are negligible to produce the isotropic and homogeneous universe. We also investigate the twist and shear of the geodesic surface congruence of the null strings.

Cho, Yong Seung; Hong, Soon-Tae

2011-05-01

142

Dynamics of stringy congruence in the early universe  

SciTech Connect

We study twist and shear aspects of the stingy geodesic surface congruence. Under some natural conditions we derive the equations of the twist and shear in terms of the expansion of the Universe. We observe in this higher dimensional cosmology that, as the early universe evolves with expansion rate, the twist of the stringy congruence decreases exponentially and the initial twist value should be large enough to sustain the rotations of the ensuing universe, while the effects of the shear are negligible to produce the isotropic and homogeneous universe. We also investigate the twist and shear of the geodesic surface congruence of the null strings.

Cho, Yong Seung; Hong, Soon-Tae [Department of Mathematics, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Science Education and Research Institute for Basic Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-05-15

143

Semantic Domains and Denotational Semantics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All of these exercise assume the definitions and results in the paper Semantic Domains by Carl A. Gunter and D.S. Scott. Many exercises require some basic knowledge of category theory; the necessary definitions can all be found in subsections 1-5 of Chapt...

C. A. Gunter D. S. Scott P. D. Mosses

1989-01-01

144

Issues in cross-cultural studies of advertising audiovisual material  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an approach to cross- cultural studies of advertising audiovisual material that departs from the typical rigid marketing models. It favours a more qualita- tive inductive approach to corpuses in which audiovisual texts are not approached or com- pared through the use of standardised Ameri- can tools. After reviewing the usual marketing tools, the article focuses on the

Fabrice Desmarais

145

Children Using Audiovisual Media for Communication: A New Language?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Gives an overview of the Schools Council Communication and Social Skills Project at Brighton Polytechnic in which children ages 9-17 have developed and used audiovisual media such as films, tape-slides, or television programs in the classroom. The effects of audiovisual language on education are briefly discussed. (JJD)|

Weiss, Michael

1982-01-01

146

Knowledge Generated by Audiovisual Narrative Action Research Loops  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We present data collected from the research project funded by the Ministry of Education and Science of Spain entitled "Audiovisual Narratives and Intercultural Relations in Education." One of the aims of the research was to determine the nature of thought processes occurring during audiovisual narratives. We studied the possibility of getting to…

Bautista Garcia-Vera, Antonio

2012-01-01

147

Perception of Intersensory Synchrony in Audiovisual Speech: Not that Special  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Perception of intersensory temporal order is particularly difficult for (continuous) audiovisual speech, as perceivers may find it difficult to notice substantial timing differences between speech sounds and lip movements. Here we tested whether this occurs because audiovisual speech is strongly paired ("unity assumption"). Participants made…

Vroomen, Jean; Stekelenburg, Jeroen J.

2011-01-01

148

Audiovisual Integration in High Functioning Adults with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism involves various perceptual benefits and deficits, but it is unclear if the disorder also involves anomalous audiovisual integration. To address this issue, we compared the performance of high-functioning adults with autism and matched controls on experiments investigating the audiovisual integration of speech, spatiotemporal relations, and…

Keane, Brian P.; Rosenthal, Orna; Chun, Nicole H.; Shams, Ladan

2010-01-01

149

Trigger Videos on the Web: Impact of Audiovisual Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Audiovisual design might impact emotional responses, as studies from the 1970s and 1980s on movie and television content show. Given today's abundant presence of web-based videos, this study investigates whether audiovisual design will impact web-video content in a similar way. The study is motivated by the potential influence of video-evoked…

Verleur, Ria; Heuvelman, Ard; Verhagen, Plon W.

2011-01-01

150

Infant Perception of Audio-Visual Speech Synchrony  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three experiments investigated perception of audio-visual (A-V) speech synchrony in 4- to 10-month-old infants. Experiments 1 and 2 used a convergent-operations approach by habituating infants to an audiovisually synchronous syllable (Experiment 1) and then testing for detection of increasing degrees of A-V asynchrony (366, 500, and 666 ms) or by…

Lewkowicz, David J.

2010-01-01

151

THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUDIO?VISUAL PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that auditory and audio?visual materials will play an increasing part in programmed instruction in the future. In some areas, especially in the teaching of reading and languages, and in the direct teaching of people who cannot read, audiovisual programs are practically a necessity. Work already carried out in these areas is surveyed. But if psychological evidence to

Michael J. Apter

1967-01-01

152

On the subsemilattices of first-order definable and openly first-order definable congruences of the congruence lattice of a universal algebra  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove some representation theorems for lattices and their lower subsemilattices as the lattices of congruences and subsemilattices\\u000a of first-order definable congruences of universal algebras.

A. G. Pinus

2006-01-01

153

Multistage audiovisual integration of speech: dissociating identification and detection.  

PubMed

Speech perception integrates auditory and visual information. This is evidenced by the McGurk illusion where seeing the talking face influences the auditory phonetic percept and by the audiovisual detection advantage where seeing the talking face influences the detectability of the acoustic speech signal. Here, we show that identification of phonetic content and detection can be dissociated as speech-specific and non-specific audiovisual integration effects. To this end, we employed synthetically modified stimuli, sine wave speech (SWS), which is an impoverished speech signal that only observers informed of its speech-like nature recognize as speech. While the McGurk illusion only occurred for informed observers, the audiovisual detection advantage occurred for naïve observers as well. This finding supports a multistage account of audiovisual integration of speech in which the many attributes of the audiovisual speech signal are integrated by separate integration processes. PMID:21188364

Eskelund, Kasper; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Andersen, Tobias S

2010-12-25

154

Texture and Target Orientation Estimation from Phase Congruency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of orientation estimation is basic to many tasks in machine vision and image processing. A new approach for orientation\\u000a estimation is proposed based on the phase congruency in radon domain. Here, the image principal direction is defined as the\\u000a orientation of the image, which has the maximum of phase congruency of variance. The performance of this technique is

Qingbo Yin; Liran Shen; Jong-nam Kim

2008-01-01

155

A comparison of sentence- and discourse-level semantic processing: an ERP study.  

PubMed

Eighteen subjects listened to sentences ending with semantically congruent or incongruent words. Each congruent sentence was embedded at the end of a short story so that the final word was semantically acceptable at the sentence level but incongruent in terms of discourse context. The same stories were also presented with congruent endings. Auditory ERPs elicited by the final words in these sentences and stories were compared. Both sentence- and discourse-level semantic integration were associated with N400 and Late Positive Component (LPC) effects in addition to a new component, P550. Local and global semantic processing, although evoking the same components, were characterized by differential effects on ERP amplitudes according to the amount of text integrated and its congruence. These results indicate similar cognitive processes of context build up, underlying sentence- and discourse-semantic processing. PMID:12468394

Salmon, Nirit; Pratt, Hillel

2002-12-01

156

Attention modulation by proportion congruency: The asymmetrical list shifting effect.  

PubMed

Proportion congruency effects represent hallmark phenomena in current theorizing about cognitive control. This is based on the notion that proportion congruency determines the relative levels of attention to relevant and irrelevant information in conflict tasks. However, little empirical evidence exists that uniquely supports such an attention modulation account; moreover, a rivaling account was recently proposed that attributes the effect of proportion congruency to mere contingency learning. In the present study, the influences of shifts in list-wide (Experiment 1) or item-specific (Experiment 2) proportion congruency were investigated. As predicted by attention modulation but not by contingency learning, strong asymmetries were observed in such shifting: An increase in the proportion of congruent trials had only limited impact on the size of the congruency effect when participants were initially trained with a mostly incongruent list, but the impact was substantial for an equivalent increase of incongruent trials when participants were initially trained with a mostly congruent list. This asymmetrical list shifting effect directly supports attention modulation by proportion congruency manipulations and as such provides a novel tool for exploring cognitive control. Implications of our findings for existing theories of cognitive control are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23565794

Abrahamse, Elger L; Duthoo, Wout; Notebaert, Wim; Risko, Evan F

2013-04-08

157

Are tutor behaviors in problem-based learning stable?: a generalizability study of social congruence, expertise and cognitive congruence.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability of three distinct tutor behaviors (1) use of subject-matter expertise, (2) social congruence and (3) cognitive congruence, in a problem-based learning (PBL) environment. The data comprised the input from 16,047 different students to a survey of 762 tutors administered in three consecutive semesters. Over the three semesters each tutor taught two of the same course and one different course. A generalizability study was conducted to determine whether the tutor behaviors were generalizable across the three measurement occasions. The results indicate that three semesters are sufficient to make generalizations about all three tutor behaviors. In addition the results show that individual differences between tutors account for the greatest differences in levels of expertise, social congruence and cognitive congruence. The study concludes that tutor behaviors are fairly consistent in PBL and somewhat impervious to change. Implications of these findings for tutor training are discussed. PMID:21523614

Williams, Judith C; Alwis, W A M; Rotgans, Jerome I

2011-04-27

158

Congruence of two Kalman filter composite clocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper compares the estimation results of two composite clock algorithms based on Kalman filtering of measured clock differences: the original Jones-Tryon algorithm and Greenhall's covariance-reduction modification. The theory is carried out for a general clock model that includes the model introduced by Davis et al: the sum of the three-state linear model and a set of Markov processes used to approximate flicker-frequency noise. Since measurement noise is allowed, at each measurement time the corrected clock offsets (the difference between the clock offsets and their estimates) do not coincide but form a set of values, different for the two algorithms. The core result is that these two sets are congruent, that is, they differ by a common scalar shift. As a function of time the value of the shift behaves as a random walk. Moreover, the two Kalman filters have the same measurement residuals. Therefore, any detector algorithm that uses the measurement residuals is not impacted by the covariance reduction. The congruency holds for time-varying measurement matrices. Therefore, the result is applicable to the measurement setup of laboratories as well as that of a Global Navigation Satellite System with varying visibilities of satellite clocks at ground stations. These results are illustrated by a simulated ensemble of three caesium clocks and two active hydrogen masers, measured against one of the masers.

Suess, Matthias; Greenhall, Charles A.

2013-10-01

159

Audiovisual time perception is spatially specific.  

PubMed

Our sensory systems face a daily barrage of auditory and visual signals whose arrival times form a wide range of audiovisual asynchronies. These temporal relationships constitute an important metric for the nervous system when surmising which signals originate from common external events. Internal consistency is known to be aided by sensory adaptation: repeated exposure to consistent asynchrony brings perceived arrival times closer to simultaneity. However, given the diverse nature of our audiovisual environment, functionally useful adaptation would need to be constrained to signals that were generated together. In the current study, we investigate the role of two potential constraining factors: spatial and contextual correspondence. By employing an experimental design that allows independent control of both factors, we show that observers are able to simultaneously adapt to two opposing temporal relationships, provided they are segregated in space. No such recalibration was observed when spatial segregation was replaced by contextual stimulus features (in this case, pitch and spatial frequency). These effects provide support for dedicated asynchrony mechanisms that interact with spatially selective mechanisms early in visual and auditory sensory pathways. PMID:22367399

Heron, James; Roach, Neil W; Hanson, James V M; McGraw, Paul V; Whitaker, David

2012-02-25

160

Emotional Speech Processing at the Intersection of Prosody and Semantics  

PubMed Central

The ability to accurately perceive emotions is crucial for effective social interaction. Many questions remain regarding how different sources of emotional cues in speech (e.g., prosody, semantic information) are processed during emotional communication. Using a cross-modal emotional priming paradigm (Facial affect decision task), we compared the relative contributions of processing utterances with single-channel (prosody-only) versus multi-channel (prosody and semantic) cues on the perception of happy, sad, and angry emotional expressions. Our data show that emotional speech cues produce robust congruency effects on decisions about an emotionally related face target, although no processing advantage occurred when prime stimuli contained multi-channel as opposed to single-channel speech cues. Our data suggest that utterances with prosodic cues alone and utterances with combined prosody and semantic cues both activate knowledge that leads to emotional congruency (priming) effects, but that the convergence of these two information sources does not always heighten access to this knowledge during emotional speech processing.

Schwartz, Rachel; Pell, Marc D.

2012-01-01

161

Automatic audiovisual integration in speech perception.  

PubMed

Two experiments aimed to determine whether features of both the visual and acoustical inputs are always merged into the perceived representation of speech and whether this audiovisual integration is based on either cross-modal binding functions or on imitation. In a McGurk paradigm, observers were required to repeat aloud a string of phonemes uttered by an actor (acoustical presentation of phonemic string) whose mouth, in contrast, mimicked pronunciation of a different string (visual presentation). In a control experiment participants read the same printed strings of letters. This condition aimed to analyze the pattern of voice and the lip kinematics controlling for imitation. In the control experiment and in the congruent audiovisual presentation, i.e. when the articulation mouth gestures were congruent with the emission of the string of phones, the voice spectrum and the lip kinematics varied according to the pronounced strings of phonemes. In the McGurk paradigm the participants were unaware of the incongruence between visual and acoustical stimuli. The acoustical analysis of the participants' spoken responses showed three distinct patterns: the fusion of the two stimuli (the McGurk effect), repetition of the acoustically presented string of phonemes, and, less frequently, of the string of phonemes corresponding to the mouth gestures mimicked by the actor. However, the analysis of the latter two responses showed that the formant 2 of the participants' voice spectra always differed from the value recorded in the congruent audiovisual presentation. It approached the value of the formant 2 of the string of phonemes presented in the other modality, which was apparently ignored. The lip kinematics of the participants repeating the string of phonemes acoustically presented were influenced by the observation of the lip movements mimicked by the actor, but only when pronouncing a labial consonant. The data are discussed in favor of the hypothesis that features of both the visual and acoustical inputs always contribute to the representation of a string of phonemes and that cross-modal integration occurs by extracting mouth articulation features peculiar for the pronunciation of that string of phonemes. PMID:16034571

Gentilucci, Maurizio; Cattaneo, Luigi

2005-10-29

162

Central Audiovisual Library of the European Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from Mediatheque offers a variety of videos, developed by the European Commission, which are available to download free of charge for "EU-related information and education purposes." The Commission "embodies and upholds the general interest of the Union" and the videos address key issues for the political Community and public interest. The videos cover a variety of topics including trade, railways, and responsible fishing. The Research section includes two videos on nanotechnology, which feature interviews with researchers (some of which are translated into English through subtitles), an inside look at nanotechnology laboratories, and simulations to demonstrate the microscopic world of nanotechnology. The videos vary in length and newly added videos are noted. A link at the bottom of the page allows visitors to search for keywords to locate a particular video in the archive. Visitors to the website can also learn about other audiovisual services offered by Mediatheque.

163

Games and Audiovisual Aids in Preadolescent Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a nutrition education unit designed for preadolescent children in which the lecture and assignment content of the unit was augmented either with active games or with passive audiovisual aids. Comparative effectiveness of these two approaches in assessed. (CS)|

Cuffaro, Connie; Shymko, Dolores L.

1980-01-01

164

Audiovisual Materials and Programming for Children: A Long Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the use of audiovisual materials in children's programing at the Seattle Public Library prior to 1920. Kinds of materials discussed include pictures, reflectoscopes, films, sound recordings, lantern slides, and stereographs. (17 references) (MES)

Doll, Carol A.

1992-01-01

165

Perception of intersensory synchrony in audiovisual speech: not that special.  

PubMed

Perception of intersensory temporal order is particularly difficult for (continuous) audiovisual speech, as perceivers may find it difficult to notice substantial timing differences between speech sounds and lip movements. Here we tested whether this occurs because audiovisual speech is strongly paired ("unity assumption"). Participants made temporal order judgments (TOJ) and simultaneity judgments (SJ) about sine-wave speech (SWS) replicas of pseudowords and the corresponding video of the face. Listeners in speech and non-speech mode were equally sensitive judging audiovisual temporal order. Yet, using the McGurk effect, we could demonstrate that the sound was more likely integrated with lipread speech if heard as speech than non-speech. Judging temporal order in audiovisual speech is thus unaffected by whether the auditory and visual streams are paired. Conceivably, previously found differences between speech and non-speech stimuli are not due to the putative "special" nature of speech, but rather reflect low-level stimulus differences. PMID:21035795

Vroomen, Jean; Stekelenburg, Jeroen J

2010-10-29

166

Using Audio-Visual Aids to Teach Fitness Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide to audiovisual aids for teaching fitness activities to children with disabilities stresses the value of such aids as motivators and suggests modifications. Specific materials, modification considerations, and addresses of publishers are listed. (DB)|

French, Ron; And Others

1995-01-01

167

Quantifying temporal ventriloquism in audiovisual synchrony perception.  

PubMed

The integration of visual and auditory inputs in the human brain works properly only if the components are perceived in close temporal proximity. In the present study, we quantified cross-modal interactions in the human brain for audiovisual stimuli with temporal asynchronies, using a paradigm from rhythm perception. In this method, participants had to align the temporal position of a target in a rhythmic sequence of four markers. In the first experiment, target and markers consisted of a visual flash or an auditory noise burst, and all four combinations of target and marker modalities were tested. In the same-modality conditions, no temporal biases and a high precision of the adjusted temporal position of the target were observed. In the different-modality conditions, we found a systematic temporal bias of 25-30 ms. In the second part of the first and in a second experiment, we tested conditions in which audiovisual markers with different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between the two components and a visual target were used to quantify temporal ventriloquism. The adjusted target positions varied by up to about 50 ms and depended in a systematic way on the SOA and its proximity to the point of subjective synchrony. These data allowed testing different quantitative models. The most satisfying model, based on work by Maij, Brenner, and Smeets (Journal of Neurophysiology 102, 490-495, 2009), linked temporal ventriloquism and the percept of synchrony and was capable of adequately describing the results from the present study, as well as those of some earlier experiments. PMID:23868564

Kuling, Irene A; Kohlrausch, Armin; Juola, James F

2013-10-01

168

Audio-Visual Automatic Speech Recognition for Connected Digits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Audio-visual automatic speech recognition (ASR) is a hotspot in field of human-computer interaction (HCI). This paper implemented an audio-visual ASR for Chinese connected digits and addressed on the method of speech segmentation. A novel speech segmentation approach combining Otsupsilas method with traditional short-time energy and zero-crossing rate (ZCR) based method was proposed. The experimental results showed its efficiency compared with

Xiaoping Wang; Yufeng Hao; Degang Fu; Chunwei Yuan

2008-01-01

169

Infant Perception of Audio-Visual Speech Synchrony  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments investigated perception of audio-visual (A-V) speech synchrony in 4- to 10-month-old infants. Experiments 1 and 2 used a convergent-operations approach by habituating infants to an audiovisually synchronous syllable (Experiment 1) and then testing for detection of increasing degrees of A-V asynchrony (366, 500, and 666 ms) or by habituating infants to a detectably asynchronous syllable (666 ms; Experiment

David J. Lewkowicz

2010-01-01

170

[Cultural heritage and audiovisual creation in the Arab world].  

PubMed

Audiovisual creation is facing in Arab countries problems arising from the use of imported techniques in order to reconstitute or transform their own reality. Arab audiovisual producers see this technique as an easy and efficient way to reproduce reality or construct conventionally an artificial universe. Sometimes, audiovisuals have an absolute suggestion power; sometimes, these techniques are faced with total incredulity. From a diffusion point of view, audiovisuals in the Arab world have a very specific status. The effects of television, studied by western researchers in their cultural environment, are not reproduced in the same fashion in the Arab cultural world. In the Arab world, the word very often still competes successfully with the picture, even after the appearance and adoption of mass media. Finally, one must mention a very interesting situation resulting from a linguistic phenomenon which is specific to the Arab world: the existence of 2 communication languages, one noble but little used, the other dialectical but popular. In all Arab countries, the News, the most political program, is broadcasted in the classical language, despite the danger of meaning distortion in the least educated public. The reason is probably that the classical Arab language enjoys a sacred status. Arab audiovisuals are facing several obstacles to their total and autonomous realization. The contribution of the Arab audiovisual producers is relatively modest, compared to some other areas of cultural creation. Arab film-making is looking more and more for the cooperation of contemporary writers. Contemporary literature is a considerable source for the renewal of Arab audiovisual expression. A relationship between film and popular cultural heritage could be very usefully established in both directions. Audiovisuals should treat popular cultural manifestations as a global social fact on several significant levels. PMID:12261391

Aziza, M

171

Today's and tomorrow's retrieval practice in the audiovisual archive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Content-based video retrieval is maturing to the point where it can be used in real-world retrieval practices. One such practice is the audiovisual archive, whose users increasingly require fine-grained access to broadcast television content. We investigate to what extent content-based video retrieval methods can improve search in the audiovisual archive. In particular, we propose an evaluation methodology tailored to the

Bouke Huurnink; Cees G. M. Snoek; Maarten de Rijke; Arnold W. M. Smeulders

2010-01-01

172

Congruency of gaze metrics in action, imagery and action observation  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper is to provide a review of eye movements during action execution, action observation, and movement imagery. Furthermore, the paper highlights aspects of congruency in gaze metrics between these states. The implications of the imagery, observation, and action gaze congruency are discussed in terms of motor learning and rehabilitation. Future research directions are outlined in order to further the understanding of shared gaze metrics between overt and covert states. Suggestions are made for how researchers and practitioners can structure action observation and movement imagery interventions to maximize (re)learning.

Causer, Joe; McCormick, Sheree A.; Holmes, Paul S.

2013-01-01

173

=2 gauge theories: Congruence subgroups, coset graphs, and modular surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We establish a correspondence between generalized quiver gauge theories in four dimensions and congruence subgroups of the modular group, hinging upon the trivalent graphs, which arise in both. The gauge theories and the graphs are enumerated and their numbers are compared. The correspondence is particularly striking for genus zero torsion-free congruence subgroups as exemplified by those which arise in Moonshine. We analyze in detail the case of index 24, where modular elliptic K3 surfaces emerge: here, the elliptic j-invariants can be recast as dessins d'enfant, which dictate the Seiberg-Witten curves.

He, Yang-Hui; McKay, John

2013-01-01

174

Fast Parallel DNA-Based Algorithms for Molecular Computation: Quadratic Congruence and Factoring Integers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assume that $n$ is a positive integer. If there is an integer $0< M < n$ such that $M ^{2}\\\\equiv C~({\\\\rm mod} ~n)$, i.e., the congruence has a solution, then $C$ is said to be a quadratic congruence $({\\\\rm mod}~ n)$. If the congruence does not have a solution, then $C$ is said to be a quadratic noncongruence $({\\\\rm mod}~

2012-01-01

175

Effects of Worker Classification, Crystallization, and Job Autonomy on Congruence-Satisfaction Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A majority of the congruence-satisfaction literature has used interest measures based on Holland's theory, although the measures' accuracy in predicting job satisfaction is questionable. Divergent findings among studies on occupational congruence-job satisfaction may be due to ineffective measures of congruence and job satisfaction and lack of…

Obermesik, John W.; Beehr, Terry A.

176

Identity formation and parent–child value congruence in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine relations between identity formation and parent-child value congruence. A total of 267 adolescents reported their own values and the values they perceive their parents to hold, and parents reported their values for their children. We measured identity formation by location in one of the four Marcia (1966) identity statuses (diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium and achievement). Adolescents in the two

Ariel Knafo; Shalom H. Schwartz

2004-01-01

177

Identity Formation and Parent-Child Value Congruence in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We examine relations between identity formation and parent-child value congruence. A total of 267 adolescents reported their own values and the values they perceive their parents to hold, and parents reported their values for their children. We measured identity formation by location in one of the four Marcia (1966) identity statuses (diffusion,…

Knafo, Ariel; Schwartz, Shalom H.

2004-01-01

178

Checking pi-Calculus Structural Congruence is Graph Isomorphism Complete.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We show that the problems of checking pi-Calculus structural congruence (piSC) and graph isomorphism (GI) are Karp reducible to each other. The reduction from GI to piSC is given explicitly, and the reduction in the opposite direction proceeds by transfor...

R. Meyer V. Khomenko

2008-01-01

179

Congruence between Disabled Elders and Their Primary Caregivers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This study examines the extent and independent correlates of congruence between disabled elders and their caregivers on several aspects of the caregiving experience. Design and Methods: Participants were 117 visually impaired elders and their caregivers. Correlational analyses, kappa statistics, and paired t tests were used to examine…

Horowitz, Amy; Goodman, Caryn R.; Reinhardt, Joann P.

2004-01-01

180

When Fit Matters: Leveraging Destination and Event Image Congruence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops a framework for conceptualizing and managing destination and event image congruence. Building on the foundations of Roth and Romeo's (1992) product–country image fit matrix, a framework for categorizing the interactions between destination and event image is presented that can be applied to leverage positive, relevant associations and rebalance less positive associations of both types of images. The

Magdalena Florek; Andrea Insch

2011-01-01

181

The critical role of congruency in prototypical brand extensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on categorization theory, this empirical study focuses on the critical role of congruency in prototypical brand extensions. A survey, measuring reactions to 18 proposed extensions involving six well?known brands (Xerox, Kleenex, Band?Aid, Scotch Tape, Coke, Sony Walkman), was administered to a sample of graduate students. For each prototypical brand, there were three proposed extensions: congruent, moderately congruent, and incongruent.

Maria Kalamas; Mark Cleveland; Michel Laroche; Robert Laufer

2006-01-01

182

Toward a Theory of Psychological Type Congruence for Advertisers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the impact of advertisers' persuasive selling messages on consumers, this paper discusses topics relating to the theory of psychological type congruence. Based on an examination of persuasion theory and relevant psychological concepts, including recent cognitive stability and personality and needs theory and the older concept of…

McBride, Michael H.; And Others

183

Efficient simulation of nonuniform transmission lines using integrated congruence transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new algorithm based on integrated congruence transform for efficient simulation of nonuniform transmission lines. The proposed algorithm introduces the concept of model-order reduction (MOR) via implicit usage of the Hilbert-space moments in distributed networks. The key idea in the proposed algorithm is the development of an orthogonalization procedure that does not require the explicit computation of

Emad Gad; Michel S. Nakhla

2004-01-01

184

Toward a Theory of Psychological Type Congruence for Advertisers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focusing on the impact of advertisers' persuasive selling messages on consumers, this paper discusses topics relating to the theory of psychological type congruence. Based on an examination of persuasion theory and relevant psychological concepts, including recent cognitive stability and personality and needs theory and the older concept of…

McBride, Michael H.; And Others

185

Predicting Engineering Major Status from Mathematics Achievement and Interest Congruence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study proposed that precollege students' standardized mathematics achievement score and the congruence between their occupational interests and engineering tasks would predict their second-year retention in college and the stability of their major. Binary response models were used to predict second-year major status (i.e., continue, transfer…

Leuwerke, Wade C.; Robbins, Steven; Sawyer, Richard; Hovland, Michael

2004-01-01

186

Simulation of conservative properties of stiffness matrices in congruence transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conservative properties of stiffness matrices via the nonconservative congruence mapping between the joint and Cartesian spaces are investigated with simulation of two fingers manipulating an object. The properties of both constant and configuration dependent stiffness matrices are presented with integration of work when manipulating along a closed path with no self-intersection. A stiffness matrix is conservative if the force

Shih-Feng Cheng; Imin Kao

1998-01-01

187

Congruence between Disabled Elders and Their Primary Caregivers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examines the extent and independent correlates of congruence between disabled elders and their caregivers on several aspects of the caregiving experience. Design and Methods: Participants were 117 visually impaired elders and their caregivers. Correlational analyses, kappa statistics, and paired t tests were used to examine the…

Horowitz, Amy; Goodman, Caryn R.; Reinhardt, Joann P.

2004-01-01

188

Semantical Machine Understanding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Semantical Machine Understanding is the foundation for automatic sense and decision making of multinational, multicultural, and coalition applications. We show an innovative semantical machine understanding system that can be installed on each node of a n...

C. Kotak C. C. Zhou Y. Zhao

2008-01-01

189

Semantic Web for Search  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semantic Web data seems like a promising source of information for improving search. While there is some literature about how semantic data should be used to enhance search, there are no positive conclusions about the best approach. This paper surveys existing approaches to semantic web search, describes adapting a TREC benchmark for evaluation, and proposes a learned representation algorithm for using semantic web data in search.

Gronski, Jessica

190

Neural correlates of semantic ambiguity processing during context verification.  

PubMed

Understanding the relevant meaning of a word with different meanings (homonym) in a given context requires activation of the neural representations of the relevant meaning and inhibition of the irrelevant meaning. The cognitive demand of such disambiguation is highest when the dominant, yet contextually irrelevant meaning of a polar homonym must be suppressed. This central process (semantic inhibition) for lexico-semantic ambiguity resolution was monitored with fMRI during semantic context verifications. Twenty-two healthy volunteers decided whether congruent or incongruent target words fitted into the contexts established by preceding sentences. Half of the sentences ended with a homonym, thereby allowing to cross the factors ambiguity and semantic congruency. BOLD increases related to the inhibitory attentional control over non-selected meanings during ambiguity processing occurred in a brain network including left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), bilateral angular gyrus (AG), bilateral anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG) as well as right ventromedial temporal lobe. In left DLPFC (BA 46/9) and left AG (BA 39) BOLD activity to target words of the incongruent-ambiguous condition correlated with the individual amount of semantic interference experienced by the subjects. BOLD increases of incongruent versus congruent semantic verifications occurred in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus. The results of the present study suggest a specific role of left DLPFC and AG in the resolution of semantic interference from contextually inappropriate homonym meanings. These fronto-parietal areas might exert inhibitory control over temporal regions in service of attentional selection between relevant and irrelevant homonym meanings, by creating a sufficient activation difference between their respective representations. PMID:19167505

Hoenig, Klaus; Scheef, Lukas

2009-01-06

191

Viewpoints on Emergent Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a novel view on how to deal with the problems of semantic interoperability in distributed systems. This view is based on the concept of emergent semantics, which sees both the representation of semantics and the discovery of the proper interpretation of symbols as the result of a self-organizing process performed by distributed agents exchanging symbols and having utilities

Philippe Cudré-mauroux; Karl Aberer; Alia I. Abdelmoty; Tiziana Catarci; Ernesto Damiani; Arantza Illarramendi; Mustafa Jarrar; Robert Meersman; Erich J. Neuhold; Christine Parent; Kai-uwe Sattler; Monica Scannapieco; Stefano Spaccapietra; Peter Spyns; Guy De Tré

2006-01-01

192

Which semantic web?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through scenarios in the popular press and technical papers in the research literature, the promise of the Semantic Web has raised a number of different expectations. These expectations can be traced to three different perspectives on the Semantic Web. The Semantic Web is portrayed as: (1) a universal library, to be readily accessed and used by humans in a variety

Catherine C. Marshall; Frank M. Shipman III

2003-01-01

193

Unconscious Congruency Priming from Unpracticed Words Is Modulated by Prime-Target Semantic Relatedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants performed a 2-choice categorization task on visible word targets that were preceded by novel (unpracticed) prime words. The prime words were presented for 33 ms and followed either immediately (Experiments 1-3) or after a variable delay (Experiments 1 and 4) by a pattern mask. Both subjective and objective measures of prime visibility…

Ortells, Juan J.; Mari-Beffa, Paloma; Plaza-Ayllon, Vanesa

2013-01-01

194

When emotional valence modulates audiovisual integration.  

PubMed

We constantly integrate the information that is available to our various senses. The extent to which the mechanisms of multisensory integration are subject to the influences of attention, emotion, and/or motivation is currently unknown. The "ventriloquist effect" is widely assumed to be an automatic crossmodal phenomenon, shifting the perceived location of an auditory stimulus toward a concurrently presented visual stimulus. In the present study, we examined whether audiovisual binding, as indicated by the magnitude of the ventriloquist effect, is influenced by threatening auditory stimuli presented prior to the ventriloquist experiment. Syllables spoken in a fearful voice were presented from one of eight loudspeakers, while syllables spoken in a neutral voice were presented from the other seven locations. Subsequently, participants had to localize pure tones while trying to ignore concurrent visual stimuli (both the auditory and the visual stimuli here were emotionally neutral). A reliable ventriloquist effect was observed. The emotional stimulus manipulation resulted in a reduction of the magnitude of the subsequently measured ventriloquist effect in both hemifields, as compared to a control group exposed to a similar attention-capturing, but nonemotional, manipulation. These results suggest that the emotional system is capable of influencing multisensory binding processes that have heretofore been considered automatic. PMID:22623217

Maiworm, Mario; Bellantoni, Marina; Spence, Charles; Röder, Brigitte

2012-08-01

195

Our nation's wetlands (video). Audio-Visual  

SciTech Connect

The Department of the Interior is custodian of approximately 500 million acres of federally owned land and has an important role to play in the management of wetlands. To contribute to the President's goal of no net loss of America's remaining wetlands, the Department of the Interior has initiated a 3-point program consisting of wetlands protection, restoration, and research: Wetlands Protection--Reduce wetlands losses on federally owned lands and encourage state and private landholders to practice wetlands conservation; Wetlands Restoration--Increase wetlands gains through the restoration and creation of wetlands on both public and private lands; Wetlands Research--Provide a foundation of scientific knowledge to guide future actions and decisions about wetlands. The audiovisual is a slide/tape-to-video transfer illustrating the various ways Interior bureaus are working to preserve our Nation's wetlands. The tape features an introduction by Secretary Manuel Lujan on the importance of wetlands and recognizing the benefit of such programs as the North American Waterfowl Management Program.

Not Available

1990-01-01

196

The representation of audiovisual regularities in the human brain.  

PubMed

Neural representation of auditory regularities can be probed using the MMN, a component of ERPs generated in the auditory cortex by any violation of that regularity. Although several studies have shown that visual information can influence or even trigger an MMN by altering an acoustic regularity, it is not known whether audiovisual regularities are encoded in the auditory representation supporting MMN generation. We compared the MMNs elicited by the auditory violation of (a) an auditory regularity (a succession of identical standard sounds), (b) an audiovisual regularity (a succession of identical audiovisual stimuli), and (c) an auditory regularity accompanied by variable visual stimuli. In all three conditions, the physical difference between the standard and the deviant sound was identical. We found that the MMN triggered by the same auditory deviance was larger for audiovisual regularities than for auditory-only regularities or for auditory regularities paired with variable visual stimuli, suggesting that the visual regularity influenced the representation of the auditory regularity. This result provides evidence for the encoding of audiovisual regularities in the human brain. PMID:23190327

Besle, Julien; Hussain, Zahra; Giard, Marie-Hélène; Bertrand, Olivier

2012-11-28

197

Young children's recall and reconstruction of audio and audiovisual narratives.  

PubMed

It has been claimed that the visual component of audiovisual media dominates young children's cognitive processing. This experiment examines the effects of input modality while controlling the complexity of the visual and auditory content and while varying the comprehension task (recall vs. reconstruction). 4- and 7-year-olds were presented brief stories through either audio or audiovisual media. The audio version consisted of narrated character actions and character utterances. The narrated actions were matched to the utterances on the basis of length and propositional complexity. The audiovisual version depicted the actions visually by means of stop animation instead of by auditory narrative statements. The character utterances were the same in both versions. Audiovisual input produced superior performance on explicit information in the 4-year-olds and produced more inferences at both ages. Because performance on utterances was superior in the audiovisual condition as compared to the audio condition, there was no evidence that visual input inhibits processing of auditory information. Actions were more likely to be produced by the younger children than utterances, regardless of input medium, indicating that prior findings of visual dominance may have been due to the salience of narrative action. Reconstruction, as compared to recall, produced superior depiction of actions at both ages as well as more constrained relevant inferences and narrative conventions. PMID:3757597

Gibbons, J; Anderson, D R; Smith, R; Field, D E; Fischer, C

1986-08-01

198

Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web  

PubMed Central

The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial for the life sciences? Is biomedical information too complex to benefit from simple interlinked representations? What are the implications of adopting a new paradigm for knowledge representation? What are the incentives for the adoption of the Semantic Web, and who are the facilitators? Is there going to be a Semantic Web revolution in the life sciences? We report here a few reflections on these questions, following discussions at the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences) workshop series, of which this Journal of Biomedical Semantics special issue presents selected papers from the 2009 edition, held in Amsterdam on November 20th.

2011-01-01

199

The role of the left prefrontal cortex in sentence-level semantic integration.  

PubMed

Whether left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) activation during sentence comprehension reflects semantic integration or domain-general cognitive control remains unclear. To address this issue, 26 participants were presented with sentences word by word during fMRI scanning and were asked to perform two semantic tasks, one explicit (semantic congruency judgment) and one implicit (font size judgment). In the two language tasks, semantic integration load was parametrically manipulated with high cloze, low cloze and semantically violated sentences. Participants also performed a classical Stroop task during scanning. Conjunction analysis of the explicit and implicit tasks revealed two regions in left inferior frontal gyrus associated with semantic integration load: one anterior region (aIFG) and one posterior region (pIFG). However, only the pIFG region was also activated during the Stroop task. These results indicate that different regions in the LIFG play different roles in semantic integration, with aIFG more important for domain-specific processing and pIFG more important for domain-general cognitive control. PMID:23507386

Zhu, Zude; Feng, Gangyi; Zhang, John X; Li, Guochao; Li, Hong; Wang, Suiping

2013-03-16

200

Crossmodal Constraints on Human Perceptual Awareness: Auditory Semantic Modulation of Binocular Rivalry  

PubMed Central

We report a series of experiments utilizing the binocular rivalry paradigm designed to investigate whether auditory semantic context modulates visual awareness. Binocular rivalry refers to the phenomenon whereby when two different figures are presented to each eye, observers perceive each figure as being dominant in alternation over time. The results demonstrate that participants report a particular percept as being dominant for less of the time when listening to an auditory soundtrack that happens to be semantically congruent with the other alternative (i.e., the competing) percept, as compared to when listening to an auditory soundtrack that was irrelevant to both visual figures (Experiment 1A). When a visually presented word was provided as a semantic cue, no such semantic modulatory effect was observed (Experiment 1B). We also demonstrate that the crossmodal semantic modulation of binocular rivalry was robustly observed irrespective of participants’ attentional control over the dichoptic figures and the relative luminance contrast between the figures (Experiments 2A and 2B). The pattern of crossmodal semantic effects reported here cannot simply be attributed to the meaning of the soundtrack guiding participants’ attention or biasing their behavioral responses. Hence, these results support the claim that crossmodal perceptual information can serve as a constraint on human visual awareness in terms of their semantic congruency.

Chen, Yi-Chuan; Yeh, Su-Ling; Spence, Charles

2011-01-01

201

Personalizing politics: a congruency model of political preference.  

PubMed

Modern politics become personalized as individual characteristics of voters and candidates assume greater importance in political discourse. Although personalities of candidates capture center stage and become the focus of voters' preferences, individual characteristics of voters, such as their traits and values, become decisive for political choice. The authors' findings reveal that people vote for candidates whose personality traits are in accordance with the ideology of their preferred political party. They also select politicians whose traits match their own traits. Moreover, voters' traits match their own values. The authors outline a congruency model of political preference that highlights the interacting congruencies among voters' self-reported traits and values, voters' perceptions of leaders' personalities, politicians' self-reported traits, and programs of favored political coalitions. PMID:15491254

Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Zimbardo, Philip G

2004-10-01

202

Geodesic congruences in the Palatini f(R) theory  

SciTech Connect

We shall investigate the properties of a congruence of geodesics in the framework of Palatini f(R) theories. We shall evaluate the modified geodesic deviation equation and the Raychaudhuri's equation and show that f(R) Palatini theories do not necessarily lead to attractive forces. Also, we shall study energy condition for f(R) Palatini gravity via a perturbative analysis of the Raychaudhuri's equation.

Shojai, Fatimah; Shojai, Ali [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2008-11-15

203

No effect of synesthetic congruency on temporal ventriloquism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sound presented in temporal proximity to a light can alter the perceived temporal occurrence of that light (temporal ventriloquism).\\u000a Recent studies have suggested that pitch–size synesthetic congruency (i.e., a natural association between the relative pitch of a sound and the relative size of a visual stimulus) might affect\\u000a this phenomenon. To reexamine this, participants made temporal order judgements about

Mirjam Keetels; Jean Vroomen

2011-01-01

204

Total Evidence Or Taxonomic Congruence: Cladistics Or Consensus Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miyamoto and Fitch’s (1995,Syst. Biol.44: 64–76) verificationist arguments for taxonomic congruence are evaluated and found to be unconvincing. In particular, there is no logical connection between the truth of phylogenetic hypotheses and the independence of the sets of characters analysed for their consensus. Further, the character set partitions emphasized by Miyamoto and Fitch must be considered arbitrary, because they are

Arnold G. Kluge

1998-01-01

205

Semantic Networks and Social Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: To illustrate the need for social network metadata within semantic metadata. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys properties of social networks and the semantic web, suggests that social network analysis applies to semantic content, argues that semantic content is more searchable if social network metadata is merged with semantic web…

Downes, Stephen

2005-01-01

206

Audio-visual emotion recognition in adult attachment interview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic multimodal recognition of spontaneous affective expressions is a largely unexplored and challenging problem. In this paper, we explore audio-visual emotion recognition in a realistic human conversation setting - Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Based on the assumption that facial expression and vocal expression be at the same coarse affective states, positive and negative emotion sequences are labeled according to Facial

Zhihong Zeng; Yuxiao Hu; Yun Fu; Thomas S. Huang; Glenn I. Roisman; Zhen Wen

2006-01-01

207

Effective access to large audiovisual assets based on user preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current multimedia databases contain a wealth of information in the form of audiovisual, as well as text data. Even though efficient search algorithms have been developed for either media, there still exists the need for abstract presentation and summarization of the results of database users' queries. Moreover, multimedia retrieval systems should be capable of providing the user with additional information

Spiros Ioannou; George Moschovitis; Klimis S. Ntalianis; Kostas Karpouzis; Stefanos D. Kollias

2000-01-01

208

Experienced quality factors: qualitative evaluation approach to audiovisual quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjective evaluation is used to identify impairment factors of multimedia quality. The final quality is often formulated via quantitative experiments, but this approach has its constraints, as subject's quality interpretations, experiences and quality evaluation criteria are disregarded. To identify these quality evaluation factors, this study examined qualitatively the criteria participants used to evaluate audiovisual video quality. A semi-structured interview was

Satu Jumisko-Pyykkö; Jukka Häkkinen; Göte Nyman

2007-01-01

209

Audiovisual Integration in Noise by Children and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study was to investigate the development of multisensory facilitation in primary school-age children under conditions of auditory noise. Motor reaction times and accuracy were recorded from 8-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults during auditory, visual, and audiovisual detection tasks. Auditory signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 30-,…

Barutchu, Ayla; Danaher, Jaclyn; Crewther, Sheila G.; Innes-Brown, Hamish; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Paolini, Antonio G.

2010-01-01

210

When Knowing Can Replace Seeing in Audiovisual Integration of Actions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The ability to predict the effects of actions is necessary to behave properly in our physical and social world. Here, we describe how the ability to predict the consequence of complex gestures can change the way we integrate sight and sound when relevant visual information is missing. Six drummers and six novices were asked to judge audiovisual

Petrini, Karin; Russell, Melanie; Pollick, Frank

2009-01-01

211

Media literacy and audiovisual languages: a case study from Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the use of media in the construction of a “new” language for children. We studied how children acquire and use media literacy skills through their engagement in an educational art project. This media literacy project is rooted in the realm of audiovisual media, within which children’s sound and visual worlds are the focus of inquiry. Using an

Sofie Van Bauwel

2008-01-01

212

Summary of Findings and Recommendations on Federal Audiovisual Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the direction of President Carter, a year-long study of government audiovisual programs was conducted out of the Office of Telecommunications Policy in the Executive Office of the President. The programs in 16 departments and independent agencies, and the departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force have been reviewed to identify the scope of…

Lissit, Robert; And Others

213

Augmented reality-based audio\\/visual surveillance system  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are immediate needs for audio\\/visual surveillance systems in a large number of areas including law enforcement, military, commercial, and personal security. A series of cameras connected to a local ldquomonitoring centerrdquo via a wireless mesh network can provide instantaneous ad-hoc monitoring of several environments. However, there are several issues that must be resolved particularly when considering a large number

Mouhcine Guennoun; Saad Khattak; Bill Kapralos; Khalil El-Khatib

2008-01-01

214

Automatic summarization of audio-visual soccer feeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a fully automatic system for soccer game summarization. The system takes audio-visual content as an input, and builds on the integration of two independent but complementary contributions (i) to identify crucial periods of the soccer game in a fully automatic way, and (ii) to summarize the soccer game as a function of individual narrative preferences of the

Fan Chen; Christophe De Vleeschouwer; Helenca Duxans Barrobes; J. Gregorio Escalada; David Conejero

2010-01-01

215

Audiovisual Vowel Monitoring and the Word Superiority Effect in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of this study was to explore whether viewing the speaker's articulatory gestures contributes to lexical access in children (ages 5-10) and in adults. We conducted a vowel monitoring task with words and pseudo-words in audio-only (AO) and audiovisual (AV) contexts with white noise masking the acoustic signal. The results indicated that…

Fort, Mathilde; Spinelli, Elsa; Savariaux, Christophe; Kandel, Sonia

2012-01-01

216

Audiovisual Cues and Perceptual Learning of Spectrally Distorted Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two experiments investigate the effectiveness of audiovisual (AV) speech cues (cues derived from both seeing and hearing a talker speak) in facilitating perceptual learning of spectrally distorted speech. Speech was distorted through an eight channel noise-vocoder which shifted the spectral envelope of the speech signal to simulate the properties…

Pilling, Michael; Thomas, Sharon

2011-01-01

217

Learning from Audiovisual Media: assessing students’ thoughts by stimulated recall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimulated recall is a method of evoking an individual's thoughts about a previous episode in his\\/her life. Used in research into audiovisual media it can provide a way of tapping students’ thoughts and reactions to educational material with the minimum of researcher bias. The paper describes a case study in the use of stimulated recall to evaluate a science education

D. McConnell

1985-01-01

218

Neural Development of Networks for Audiovisual Speech Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Everyday conversation is both an auditory and a visual phenomenon. While visual speech information enhances comprehension for the listener, evidence suggests that the ability to benefit from this information improves with development. A number of brain regions have been implicated in audiovisual speech comprehension, but the extent to which the…

Dick, Anthony Steven; Solodkin, Ana; Small, Steven L.

2010-01-01

219

Auditory Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) in Audiovisual Speech Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: It has recently been reported (e.g., V. van Wassenhove, K. W. Grant, & D. Poeppel, 2005) that audiovisual (AV) presented speech is associated with an N1/P2 auditory event-related potential (ERP) response that is lower in peak amplitude compared with the responses associated with auditory only (AO) speech. This effect was replicated.…

Pilling, Michael

2009-01-01

220

Neural development of networks for audiovisual speech comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Everyday conversation is both an auditory and a visual phenomenon. While visual speech information enhances comprehension for the listener, evidence suggests that the ability to benefit from this information improves with development. A number of brain regions have been implicated in audiovisual speech comprehension, but the extent to which the neurobiological substrate in the child compares to the adult is

Anthony Steven Dick; Ana Solodkin; Steven L. Small

2010-01-01

221

Effect of Audiovisual Cancer Programs on Patients and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Four audiovisual programs about cancer and cancer treatment were evaluated. Cancer patients, their families, and friends were asked to complete questionnaires before and after watching a program to determine the effects of the program on their knowledge of cancer, anxiety levels, and perceived ability to communicate with the staff. (Author/MLW)|

Cassileth, Barrie R.; And Others

1982-01-01

222

Neural Development of Networks for Audiovisual Speech Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Everyday conversation is both an auditory and a visual phenomenon. While visual speech information enhances comprehension for the listener, evidence suggests that the ability to benefit from this information improves with development. A number of brain regions have been implicated in audiovisual speech comprehension, but the extent to which the…

Dick, Anthony Steven; Solodkin, Ana; Small, Steven L.

2010-01-01

223

Neural Correlates of Multisensory Integration of Ecologically Valid Audiovisual Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

A question that has emerged over recent years is whether audiovisual (AV) speech perception is a special case of multi- sensory perception. Electrophysiological (ERP) studies have found that auditory neural activity (N1 component of the ERP) induced by speech is suppressed and speeded up when a speech sound is accompanied by concordant lip movements. In Experiment 1, we show that

Jeroen J. Stekelenburg; Jean Vroomen

2007-01-01

224

Media Literacy and Audiovisual Languages: A Case Study from Belgium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the use of media in the construction of a "new" language for children. We studied how children acquire and use media literacy skills through their engagement in an educational art project. This media literacy project is rooted in the realm of audiovisual media, within which children's sound and visual worlds are the focus of…

Van Bauwel, Sofie

2008-01-01

225

Recent advances in the automatic recognition of audiovisual speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual speech information from the speaker's mouth region has been successfully shown to improve noise robustness of automatic speech recognizers, thus promising to extend their usability in the human computer interface. In this paper, we review the main components of audiovisual automatic speech recognition (ASR) and present novel contributions in two main areas: first, the visual front-end design, based on

GERASIMOS POTAMIANOS; CHALAPATHY NETI; GUILLAUME GRAVIER; ASHUTOSH GARG; ANDREW W. SENIOR

2003-01-01

226

Audiovisual Integration in Noise by Children and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate the development of multisensory facilitation in primary school-age children under conditions of auditory noise. Motor reaction times and accuracy were recorded from 8-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults during auditory, visual, and audiovisual detection tasks. Auditory signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 30-,…

Barutchu, Ayla; Danaher, Jaclyn; Crewther, Sheila G.; Innes-Brown, Hamish; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Paolini, Antonio G.

2010-01-01

227

Adaptive streaming of audiovisual content using MPEG DASH  

Microsoft Academic Search

HTTP streaming has become a cost effective means for multimedia delivery nowadays. In this paper, we study the use of MPEG DASH standard to stream audiovisual content. We first describe a novel estimation method for connection throughput. Then, employing the extensibility feature of DASH syntax, we present a systematic method for selecting the best audio and video alternatives given the

Truong Cong Thang; Quang-Dung Ho; Jung Won Kang; Anh T. Pham

2012-01-01

228

School Building Design and Audio-Visual Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The design of new schools should facilitate the use of audiovisual resources by ensuring that the materials used in the construction of the buildings provide adequate sound insulation and acoustical and viewing conditions in all learning spaces. The facilities to be considered are: electrical services; electronic services; light control and…

National Committee for Audio-Visual Aids in Education, London (England).

229

Media Literacy and Audiovisual Languages: A Case Study from Belgium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the use of media in the construction of a "new" language for children. We studied how children acquire and use media literacy skills through their engagement in an educational art project. This media literacy project is rooted in the realm of audiovisual media, within which children's sound and visual worlds are the focus of…

Van Bauwel, Sofie

2008-01-01

230

Factors Associated with Congruence Between Preferred and Actual Place of Death  

PubMed Central

Congruence between preferred and actual place of death may be an essential component in terminal care. Most patients prefer a home death, but many patients do not die in their preferred location. Specialized (physician, hospice and palliative) home care visits may increase home deaths, but factors associated with congruence have not been systematically reviewed. This study sought to review the extent of congruence reported in the literature, and examine factors that may influence congruence. In July 2009, a comprehensive literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Psych Info, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Reference lists, related articles, and the past five years of six palliative care journals were also searched. Overall congruence rates (percentage of met preferences for all locations of death) were calculated for each study using reported data to allow cross-study comparison. Eighteen articles described 30% to 91% congruence. Eight specialized home care studies reported 59% to 91% congruence. A physician-led home care program reported 91% congruence. Of the 10 studies without specialized home care for all patients, seven reported 56% to 71% congruence and most reported unique care programs. Of the remaining three studies without specialized home care for all patients, two reported 43% to 46% congruence among hospital inpatients, and one elicited patient preference “if everything were possible,” with 30% congruence. Physician support, hospice enrollment, and family support improved congruence in multiple studies. Research in this important area must consider potential sources of bias, the method of eliciting patient preference, and the absence of a single ideal place of death.

Bell, Christina L.; Somogyi-Zalud, Emese; Masaki, Kamal H.

2009-01-01

231

The relation between self-aspect congruence, personality and subjective well-being  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between self-aspect congruence, subjective well-being (SWB), and personality was examined in two studies. In Study 1, the congruence between ‘real’ and ‘ought’ Q-sort self-descriptions was found to be positively related to measures of SWB and life satisfaction. Among the five personality factors of Costa and McCrae (1991), congruence was negatively related to neuroticism and positively related to agreeableness.

William Pavot; Frank Fujita; Ed Diener

1997-01-01

232

Audiovisual integration of emotional signals from music improvisation does not depend on temporal correspondence.  

PubMed

In the present study we applied a paradigm often used in face-voice affect perception to solo music improvisation to examine how the emotional valence of sound and gesture are integrated when perceiving an emotion. Three brief excerpts expressing emotion produced by a drummer and three by a saxophonist were selected. From these bimodal congruent displays the audio-only, visual-only, and audiovisually incongruent conditions (obtained by combining the two signals both within and between instruments) were derived. In Experiment 1 twenty musical novices judged the perceived emotion and rated the strength of each emotion. The results indicate that sound dominated the visual signal in the perception of affective expression, though this was more evident for the saxophone. In Experiment 2 a further sixteen musical novices were asked to either pay attention to the musicians' movements or to the sound when judging the perceived emotions. The results showed no effect of visual information when judging the sound. On the contrary, when judging the emotional content of the visual information, a worsening in performance was obtained for the incongruent condition that combined different emotional auditory and visual information for the same instrument. The effect of emotionally discordant information thus became evident only when the auditory and visual signals belonged to the same categorical event despite their temporal mismatch. This suggests that the integration of emotional information may be reinforced by its semantic attributes but might be independent from temporal features. PMID:20153297

Petrini, Karin; McAleer, Phil; Pollick, Frank

2010-02-11

233

Audio-Visual Communications in the Federal Government. Report of the Interagency Audio-Visual Study Group.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fifteen agencies of the U.S. Government were surveyed to determine whether there was excessive in-house production of motion pictures, television, and other audio-visual presentations. An assessment was also made of the extent of duplication in Federal Au...

1974-01-01

234

Miro semantics for security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Miro project comprises designing and implementing a visual language for specifying properties of large software systems. The authors are designing the language in tandem with giving it a formal semantics. They present the semantics of the language as applied to the security domain

M. W. Maimone; J. D. Tygar; J. M. Wing

1988-01-01

235

Aging and Semantic Activation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies tested the theory that long term memory consists of a semantically organized network of concept nodes interconnected by leveled associations or relations, and that when a stimulus is processed, the corresponding concept node is assumed to be temporarily activated and this activation spreads to nearby semantically related nodes. In…

Howard, Darlene V.

236

Ordered Semantic Hyper Tableaux  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family of tableau methods, called ordered semantic hyper (OSH) tableau methods for first-order theories with function symbols, is presented. These methods permit semantic information to guide the search for a proof. They also may make use of orderings on literals, clauses, and interpretations to guide the search. In a typical tableau, the branches represent conjunctions of literals, and the

Adnan Yahya; David A. Plaisted

2002-01-01

237

The Semantic SPASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Semantic SPASE (Space Physics Archive Search and Extract) prototype demonstrates the use of semantic web technologies to capture, document, and manage the SPASE data model, support facet- and text-based search, and provide flexible and intuitive user interfaces. The SPASE data model, under development since late 2003 by a consortium of space physics domain experts, is intended to serve as

S. Hughes; D. Crichton; J. Thieman; P. Ramirez; T. King; M. Weiss

2005-01-01

238

The Semantic Learning Organization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this paper is introducing the concept of a "semantic learning organization" (SLO) as an extension of the concept of "learning organization" in the technological domain. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes existing definitions and conceptualizations of both learning organizations and Semantic Web technology to develop…

Sicilia, Miguel-Angel; Lytras, Miltiadis D.

2005-01-01

239

Quality of semantic standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little scientific literature addresses the issue of quality of semantic standards, albeit a problem with high economic and social impact. Our problem survey, including 34 semantic Standard Setting Organizations (SSOs), gives evidence that quality of standards can be improved, but for improvement a quality measurement instrument is needed. 81% of the survey respondents is interested in using such instrument. It

Erwin Johan Albert Folmer

2012-01-01

240

Audio-visual speech experience with age influences perceived audio-visual asynchrony in speech.  

PubMed

Previous research indicates that perception of audio-visual (AV) synchrony changes in adulthood. Possible explanations for these age differences include a decline in hearing acuity, a decline in cognitive processing speed, and increased experience with AV binding. The current study aims to isolate the effect of AV experience by comparing synchrony judgments from 20 young adults (20 to 30 yrs) and 20 normal-hearing middle-aged adults (50 to 60 yrs), an age range for which a decline of cognitive processing speed is expected to be minimal. When presented with AV stop consonant syllables with asynchronies ranging from 440?ms audio-lead to 440?ms visual-lead, middle-aged adults showed significantly less tolerance for audio-lead than young adults. Middle-aged adults also showed a greater shift in their point of subjective simultaneity than young adults. Natural audio-lead asynchronies are arguably more predictable than natural visual-lead asynchronies, and this predictability may render audio-lead thresholds more prone to experience-related fine-tuning. PMID:24116435

Alm, Magnus; Behne, Dawn

2013-10-01

241

Congruence between Students' and Teachers' Goals: Implications for Social and Academic Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined student-teacher goal congruence and its relation to social and academic motivation. Based on a sample of 97 ninth-graders, high levels of goal congruence for each of the four goals measured (prosocial, responsibility, learning, performance) was positively related to student interest in class and perceived social support from…

Spera, Christopher; Wentzel, Kathryn R.

2003-01-01

242

Seeing the small picture: Ad-self versus ad-culture congruency in international advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participants in a cross-cultural study in the United States and Taiwan indicated no preference for ads depicting values (individualist or collectivist) consistent with those of their culture. Congruency between personal and ad-portrayed values, however, significantly affected responses. The higher the congruency between ad and self, the more participants related personally to the ad. In addition, affective response, ad liking, perceived

Chingching Chang

2006-01-01

243

Quantifying the Level of Congruence between Two Career Measures: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the level of congruency between scores on the Self-Directed Search--Form R (J. L. Holland, 1994) and scores from an online instrument, both of which measure Holland types (J. L. Holland, 1985, 1997). A reasonably high level of congruence was found. Implications for career counselors are briefly delineated.|

Miller, Mark J.

2008-01-01

244

Congruence between Culturally Competent Treatment and Cultural Needs of Older Latinos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated a new 2-factor construct, termed "cultural congruence", which is related to cultural competence in the delivery of mental health services to ethnic minority clients. Cultural congruence was defined as the distance between the cultural competence characteristics of the health care organization and the clients' perception of…

Costantino, Giuseppe; Malgady, Robert G.; Primavera, Louis H.

2009-01-01

245

‘Love is in the air’: congruence between background music and goods in a florist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous experimental studies have shown that background music affects consumer behaviour in a retail environment. Some of these have tested the degree of congruence between the music played in the store and the type of goods sold. An experiment was carried out in a flower shop, where love songs and romantic music (congruence condition), pop music (music usually played in

Céline Jacob; Nicolas Guéguen; Gaëlle Boulbry; Selmi Sami

2009-01-01

246

Corporate governance systems: Effects of capital and labor market congruency on corporate innovation and global competitiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on institutional economics, this article addresses how institutional congruence between capital and labor markets influences corporate governance systems, which, in turn, create differences in national corporate innovation and entrepreneurship systems and subsequently global competitiveness. We argue that such institutional congruence cultivates two ideal corporate governance systems. The first ideal type is the market-based system with transactional capital and external

Robert E Hoskisson; Daphne Yiu; Hicheon Kim

2004-01-01

247

Values Congruence: Its Effect on Perceptions of Montana Elementary School Principal Leadership Practices and Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between principal and teacher values congruence and perceived principal leadership practices. Additionally, this study considered the relationship between values congruence, leadership practices, and student achievement. The perceptions teachers hold regarding their…

Zorn, Daniel Roy

2010-01-01

248

Using Software Repositories to Investigate Socio-technical Congruence in Development Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a quantitative measure of socio-technical congruence as an indicator of the performance of an organization in carrying out a software development project. We show how the information necessary to implement that measure can be mined from commonly used software repositories, and we describe how socio-technical congruence can be computed based on that information.

Giuseppe Valetto; Mary E. Helander; Kate Ehrlich; Sunita Chulani; Mark N. Wegman; Clay Williams

2007-01-01

249

Value Congruence Awareness: Part 1. DNA Testing Sheds Light on Functionalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study examines awareness of the other party's instrumental, terminal, and work values by members of supervisor and employee dyads. Subjective estimates of value congruence, provided by either member of the dyad, correlated with actual value congruence scores determine conscious awareness levels in all cases. Results demonstrate supervisory awareness of employee terminal values, but not work values or instrumental

Robert G. Isaac; L. Kim Wilson; Douglas C. Pitt

2004-01-01

250

Simulation of Conservative Congruence Transformation: Conservative Properties in the Joint and Cartesian Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stiffness characteristics of robot systems via the conservative congruence transformation (CCT) and the conventional congruence transformation (CT) between the joint and Cartesian spaces are investigated. A stiffness matrix is conservative if: 1) the force resulting from the stiffness matrix is conservative, and 2) the work done by such force along a closed path is zero. The criteria result in

Shih-feng Chen; Imin Kao

2000-01-01

251

Convergence and Congruency of Pictorial Destination Images in DMOs' Websites and Brochures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationships between the interactions of web and brochure pictorial destination image and the clarity in the perceived destination image. The interactions between the web pictorial destination image and brochure pictorial destination image were specified as congruency and convergence. A theory is proposed that the congruency and convergence between the web and brochure pictorial marketing image leads

Neha Singh; Myong Jae Lee

2009-01-01

252

Congruence of Real and Ideal Job Characteristics: A Focus on Sex, Parenthood Status, and Extrinsic Characteristics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intrinsic and extrinsic job characteristics were studied in relation to perceived real-ideal job characteristic congruence for a sample of male and female full-time lawyers (N=60). Results indicated that sex differences exist in perceived real-ideal congruence even when variables known to covary with sex in the work setting are controlled.…

Weinberg, Sharon L.; Tittle, Carol Kehr

1987-01-01

253

Exponent of a congruence-subgroup of a finite commutative chain ring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exponent of a congruence-subgroup of the group of invertible matrices and the maximal order of an invertible matrix over\\u000a the finite commutative wildly ramified chain ring are evaluated. This problem was previously considered in [1] where upper\\u000a bounds for the exponent of a congruence-subgroup were derived.

V. L. Kurakin

1997-01-01

254

The Modified Gap Excess Ratio (GER*) and the Stratigraphic Congruence of Dinosaur Phylogenies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palaeontologists routinely map their cladograms onto what is known of the fossil record. Where sister taxa first appear as fossils at different times, a ghost range is inferred to bridge the gap between these dates. Some measure of the total extent of ghost ranges across the tree underlies several indices of cladistic\\/stratigraphic congruence. We investigate this congruence for 19 independent,

MATTHEW A. WILLS; PAUL M. BARRETT; Julia Heathcote

2008-01-01

255

HOLISM, CONCEPTUAL-ROLE SEMANTICS, AND SYNTACTIC SEMANTICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay continues my investigation of 'syntactic semantics': the theory that, pace Searle's Chinese-Room Argument, syntax does suffice for semantics (in particular, for the semantics needed for a computational cognitive theory of natural-language understanding). Here, I argue that syntactic semantics (which is internal and first-person) is what has been called a conceptual-role semantics: The meaning of any expression is the

William J. Rapaport

2001-01-01

256

Holism, Conceptual-Role Semantics, and Syntactic Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay continues my investigation of `syntactic semantics': the theory that, pace Searle's Chinese-Room Argument, syntax does suffice for semantics (in particular, for the semantics needed for a computational cognitive theory of natural-language understanding). Here, I argue that syntactic semantics (which is internal and first-person) is what has been called a conceptual-role semantics: The meaning of any expression is the

William J. Rapaport

2002-01-01

257

The Effects of Image Congruence and Self-Monitoring on Product Evaluations: A Comparison Between Genuine and Counterfeit Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined the effects of image congruence and self-monitoring on product evaluations of counterfeit products. Study results show that image congruence is positively related to both product attitude and purchase intentions. Specifically, they found that ideal self-image congruence is more relevant to genuine products, while actual self-image congruence is more relevant to counterfeit products. The study provides further evidence

Ling Peng; Ada Hiu Kan Wong; Lisa Chun-Ying Wan

2012-01-01

258

Pragmatics of the Semantic Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is to challenge the basic assumptions about 'meaning' in the current technologies for the Semantic Web including RDF(S). The contextual and communicative aspects should not be ignored in the use of language. In this paper, therefore, the intensional semantics of the Semantic Web is examined along with conceptualist semantics as an alternative framework. Categories (Challenge\\/position statements)

Hong-Gee Kim

259

Facilitating congruence between religious beliefs and sexual identity with mindfulness.  

PubMed

With the increasing relevance of sexual minority concerns, including the process of navigating sexual and religious identities, clinical practice has focused on helping sexual minorities address methods of self-expression that are most congruent with the client's values. Sexual Identity Therapy (SIT), (Throckmorton & Yarhouse, 2006) has been developed to assist individuals who are seeking to address potential conflicts between religious and sexual identities by focusing on personal congruence. To facilitate this process, the practice of mindfulness is applied. As an adaptation from its spiritual origins, mindfulness is used to facilitate the treatment of various disorders, such as chronic pain, substance abuse, and depression. It has also been the crux of several different third-wave cognitive and behavioral therapies that consider the "… context and functions of psychological phenomena" (Hayes, 2004, p. 5) for the purpose of helping clients to develop "… broad, flexible and effective repertoires" (p. 6). In this instance, mindfulness is applied to SIT to assist individuals with same-sex attraction to become nonjudgmentally aware of their thoughts and feelings related to same-sex attraction such that they are able to experience their attractions in an open and honest manner without feeling compelled to either dismiss or augment these attractions. Mindful awareness of same-sex attraction facilitates congruence because there is less emphasis on changing behaviors, thoughts or feelings, but rather, changing the relationship the individual has to their experiences of same-sex attraction so that they are experienced as neutral, as opposed to aversive. PMID:21198238

Tan, Erica S N; Yarhouse, Mark A

2010-12-01

260

Brain Electric Microstate and Perception of Simultaneously Audiovisual Presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associations between picture and sound form the basis of reading. Learning the correspondences between them is a crucial step\\u000a in reading acquisition. This study was designed to investigate whether task-related processing of audio and visual features\\u000a was independent or task-related processing in one modality might influence the processing of the other. The present study\\u000a employed simultaneous audio-visual stimulus in the

Wichian Sittiprapaporn; Jun Soo Kwon

2009-01-01

261

Cost-effectiveness of audiovisual media in higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, economists are engaged in optimizing the ratio between benefits and costs. The so-called cost-effectiveness approach is oriented towards producing specified effects at the lowest costs. How this may be done for audiovisual media in higher education is shown in two steps. First, the function-identifying stage, then the cost-analysis stage. The “cost-structures” of seven methods of delivering instructional television

K. D. J. M. VAN DER DRIFT

1980-01-01

262

Audiovisual Temporal Recalibration for Speech in Synchrony Perception and Speech Identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated whether audiovisual synchrony perception for speech could change after observation of the audiovisual temporal mismatch. Previous studies have revealed that audiovisual synchrony perception is re-calibrated after exposure to a constant timing difference between auditory and visual signals in non-speech. In the present study, we examined whether this audiovisual temporal recalibration occurs at the perceptual level even for speech (monosyllables). In Experiment 1, participants performed an audiovisual simultaneity judgment task (i.e., a direct measurement of the audiovisual synchrony perception) in terms of the speech signal after observation of the speech stimuli which had a constant audiovisual lag. The results showed that the “simultaneous” responses (i.e., proportion of responses for which participants judged the auditory and visual stimuli to be synchronous) at least partly depended on exposure lag. In Experiment 2, we adopted the McGurk identification task (i.e., an indirect measurement of the audiovisual synchrony perception) to exclude the possibility that this modulation of synchrony perception was solely attributable to the response strategy using stimuli identical to those of Experiment 1. The characteristics of the McGurk effect reported by participants depended on exposure lag. Thus, it was shown that audiovisual synchrony perception for speech could be modulated following exposure to constant lag both in direct and indirect measurement. Our results suggest that temporal recalibration occurs not only in non-speech signals but also in monosyllabic speech at the perceptual level.

Asakawa, Kaori; Tanaka, Akihiro; Imai, Hisato

263

Multi-pose lipreading and audio-visual speech recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we study the adaptation of visual and audio-visual speech recognition systems to non-ideal visual conditions. We focus on overcoming the effects of a changing pose of the speaker, a problem encountered in natural situations where the speaker moves freely and does not keep a frontal pose with relation to the camera. To handle these situations, we introduce a pose normalization block in a standard system and generate virtual frontal views from non-frontal images. The proposed method is inspired by pose-invariant face recognition and relies on linear regression to find an approximate mapping between images from different poses. We integrate the proposed pose normalization block at different stages of the speech recognition system and quantify the loss of performance related to pose changes and pose normalization techniques. In audio-visual experiments we also analyze the integration of the audio and visual streams. We show that an audio-visual system should account for non-frontal poses and normalization techniques in terms of the weight assigned to the visual stream in the classifier.

Estellers, Virginia; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

2012-12-01

264

Human infants orient to biological motion rather than audiovisual synchrony.  

PubMed

Both orienting to audiovisual synchrony and to biological motion are adaptive responses. The ability to integrate correlated information from multiple senses reduces processing load and underlies the perception of a multimodal and unified world. Perceiving biological motion facilitates filial attachment and detection of predators/prey. In the literature, these mechanisms are discussed in isolation. In this eye-tracking study, we tested their relative strengths in young human infants. We showed five-month-old infants point-light animation pairs of human motion, accompanied by a soundtrack. We found that audiovisual synchrony was a strong determinant of attention when it was embedded in biological motion (two upright animations). However, when biological motion was shown together with distorted biological motion (upright animation and inverted animation, respectively), infants looked at the upright animation and disregarded audiovisual synchrony. Thus, infants oriented to biological motion rather than multimodally unified physical events. These findings have important implications for understanding the developmental trajectory of brain specialization in early human infancy. PMID:21477604

Falck-Ytter, Terje; Bakker, Marta; von Hofsten, Claes

2011-04-06

265

Audiovisual communication and therapeutic jurisprudence: Cognitive and social psychological dimensions.  

PubMed

The effects of audiovisual communications on the emotional and psychological well-being of participants in the legal system have not been previously examined. Using as a framework for analysis what Slobogin (1996) calls internal balancing (of therapeutic versus antitherapeutic effects) and external balancing (of therapeutic jurisprudence [TJ] effects versus effects on other legal values), this brief paper discusses three examples that suggest the complexity of evaluating courtroom audiovisuals in TJ terms. In each instance, audiovisual displays that are admissible based on their arguable probative or explanatory value - day-in-the-life movies, victim impact videos, and computer simulations of litigated events - might well reduce stress and thus improve the psychological well-being of personal injury plaintiffs, survivors, and jurors, respectively. In each situation, however, other emotional and cognitive effects may prove antitherapeutic for the target or other participants, and/or may undermine other important values including outcome accuracy, fairness, and even the conception of the legal decision maker as a moral actor. PMID:20920823

Feigenson, Neal

266

Temporal Adaptation to Audiovisual Asynchrony Generalizes Across Different Sound Frequencies  

PubMed Central

The human brain exhibits a highly adaptive ability to reduce natural asynchronies between visual and auditory signals. Even though this mechanism robustly modulates the subsequent perception of sounds and visual stimuli, it is still unclear how such a temporal realignment is attained. In the present study, we investigated whether or not temporal adaptation generalizes across different auditory frequencies. In a first exposure phase, participants adapted to a fixed 220-ms audiovisual asynchrony or else to synchrony for 3?min. In a second phase, the participants performed simultaneity judgments (SJs) regarding pairs of audiovisual stimuli that were presented at different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and included either the same tone as in the exposure phase (a 250?Hz beep), another low-pitched beep (300?Hz), or a high-pitched beep (2500?Hz). Temporal realignment was always observed (when comparing SJ performance after exposure to asynchrony vs. synchrony), regardless of the frequency of the sound tested. This suggests that temporal recalibration influences the audiovisual perception of sounds in a frequency non-specific manner and may imply the participation of non-primary perceptual areas of the brain that are not constrained by certain physical features such as sound frequency.

Navarra, Jordi; Garcia-Morera, Joel; Spence, Charles

2012-01-01

267

Semantic space configuration  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Representing in a database, a collection of items characterized by features. In a data processing system, determining a semantic space representations of the features across the collection. Each representation characterized by parameters and settings, and differing from each other by only one of: the value of one parameter, and the configuration of one setting. Determining, for each feature pair of a set of feature pairs, the relatedness of the first feature to the second feature in each semantic space representation. And representing the collection by the semantic space that provides the best aggregate relatedness across the set of feature pairs.

Bradford; Roger B. (Great Falls, VA)

2012-11-06

268

"Pre-semantic" cognition revisited: Critical differences between semantic aphasia and semantic dementia  

PubMed Central

Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal “pre-semantic” tasks: e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are atypical of the domain and “regularisation errors” (irregular/atypical items are produced as if they were domain-typical). The emergence of this pattern across diverse tasks in the same patients indicates that semantic memory plays a key role in all of these types of “pre-semantic” processing. However, this claim remains controversial because semantically-impaired patients sometimes fail to show an influence of regularity. This study demonstrates that (a) the location of brain damage and (b) the underlying nature of the semantic deficit affect the likelihood of observing the expected relationship between poor comprehension and regularity effects. We compared the effect of multimodal semantic impairment in the context of semantic dementia and stroke aphasia on the seven “pre-semantic” tasks listed above. In all of these tasks, the semantic aphasia patients were less sensitive to typicality than the semantic dementia patients, even though the two groups obtained comparable scores on semantic tests. The semantic aphasia group also made fewer regularisation errors and many more unrelated and perseverative responses. We propose that these group differences reflect the different locus for the semantic impairment in the two conditions: patients with semantic dementia have degraded semantic representations, whereas semantic aphasia patients show deregulated semantic cognition with concomitant executive deficits. These findings suggest a reinterpretation of single case studies of comprehension-impaired aphasic patients who fail to show the expected effect of regularity on “pre-semantic” tasks. Consequently, such cases do not demonstrate the independence of these tasks from semantic memory.

Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

2009-01-01

269

Training of Manual Actions Improves Language Understanding of Semantically Related Action Sentences  

PubMed Central

Conceptual knowledge accessed by language may involve the reactivation of the associated primary sensory-motor processes. Whether these embodied representations are indeed constitutive to conceptual knowledge is hotly debated, particularly since direct evidence that sensory-motor expertise can improve conceptual processing is scarce. In this study, we sought for this crucial piece of evidence, by training naive healthy subjects to perform complex manual actions and by measuring, before and after training, their performance in a semantic language task. Nineteen participants engaged in 3?weeks of motor training. Each participant was trained in three complex manual actions (e.g., origami). Before and after the training period, each subject underwent a series of manual dexterity tests and a semantic language task. The latter consisted of a sentence-picture semantic congruency judgment task, with 6 target congruent sentence-picture pairs (semantically related to the trained manual actions), 6 non-target congruent pairs (semantically unrelated), and 12 filler incongruent pairs. Manual action training induced a significant improvement in all manual dexterity tests, demonstrating the successful acquisition of sensory-motor expertise. In the semantic language task, the reaction times (RTs) to both target and non-target congruent sentence-picture pairs decreased after action training, indicating a more efficient conceptual-semantic processing. Noteworthy, the RTs for target pairs decreased more than those for non-target pairs, as indicated by the 2?×?2 interaction. These results were confirmed when controlling for the potential bias of increased frequency of use of target lexical items during manual training. The results of the present study suggest that sensory-motor expertise gained by training of specific manual actions can lead to an improvement of cognitive-linguistic skills related to the specific conceptual-semantic domain associated to the trained actions.

Locatelli, Matteo; Gatti, Roberto; Tettamanti, Marco

2012-01-01

270

Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis is a novel statistical technique for the analysis of two--mode and co-occurrence data, which has applications in information retrieval and filtering, natural language processing, machine learning from text, and in related areas. Compared to standard Latent Semantic Analysis which stems from linear algebra and performs a Singular Value Decomposition of co-occurrence tables, the proposed method is

Thomas Hofmann

1999-01-01

271

Part III. Casl Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This part of the Casl Reference Manual defines the formal semantics of the language Casl, as informally presented in the Casl Summary (Part I). Apart from this Introduction, which is partly devoted to defining some basic notation and explaining the\\u000a style of the semantics, the structure of this document is deliberately almost identical to the structure of the Casl Summary

Hubert Baumeister; Maura Cerioli; Anne Haxthausen; Till Mossakowski; Peter Mosses; Donald Sannella; Andrzej Tarlecki

272

Semantics Extraction from Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An overview of the state-of-the-art on semantics extraction from images is presented. In this survey, we present the relevant\\u000a approaches in terms of content representation as well as in terms of knowledge representation. Knowledge can be represented\\u000a in either implicit or explicit fashion while the image is represented in different levels, namely, low-level, intermediate\\u000a and semantic level. For each combination

Ioannis Pratikakis; Anastasia Bolovinou; Bassilios Gatos; Stavros J. Perantonis

2011-01-01

273

High congruence of isotope sewage signals in multiple marine taxa.  

PubMed

Assessments of sewage pollution routinely employ stable nitrogen isotope analysis (?(15)N) in biota, but multiple taxa are rarely used. This single species focus leads to underreporting of whether derived spatial N patterns are consistent. Here we test the question of 'reproducibility', incorporating 'taxonomic replication' in the measurement of ?(15)N gradients in algae, seagrasses, crabs and fish with distance from a sewage outfall on the Adelaide coast (southern Australia). Isotopic sewage signals were equally strong in all taxa and declined at the same rate. This congruence amongst taxa has not been reported previously. It implies that sewage-N propagates to fish via a tight spatial coupling between production and consumption processes, resulting from limited animal movement that closely preserves the spatial pollution imprint. In situations such as this where consumers mirror pollution signals of primary producers, analyses of higher trophic levels will capture a broader ambit of ecological effects. PMID:23602260

Connolly, Rod M; Gorman, Daniel; Hindell, Jeremy S; Kildea, Timothy N; Schlacher, Thomas A

2013-04-18

274

Arthropod fossil data increase congruence of morphological and molecular phylogenies.  

PubMed

The relationships of major arthropod clades have long been contentious, but refinements in molecular phylogenetics underpin an emerging consensus. Nevertheless, molecular phylogenies have recovered topologies that morphological phylogenies have not, including the placement of hexapods within a paraphyletic Crustacea, and an alliance between myriapods and chelicerates. Here we show enhanced congruence between molecular and morphological phylogenies based on 753 morphological characters for 309 fossil and Recent panarthropods. We resolve hexapods within Crustacea, with remipedes as their closest extant relatives, and show that the traditionally close relationship between myriapods and hexapods is an artefact of convergent character acquisition during terrestrialisation. The inclusion of fossil morphology mitigates long-branch artefacts as exemplified by pycnogonids: when fossils are included, they resolve with euchelicerates rather than as a sister taxon to all other euarthropods. PMID:24077329

Legg, David A; Sutton, Mark D; Edgecombe, Gregory D

2013-09-30

275

Congruence Subgroups and Generalized Frobenius-Schur Indicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce generalized Frobenius-Schur indicators for pivotal categories. In a spherical fusion category {mathcal {C}} , an equivariant indicator of an object in {mathcal {C}} is defined as a functional on the Grothendieck algebra of the quantum double {Z(mathcal {C})} via generalized Frobenius-Schur indicators. The set of all equivariant indicators admits a natural action of the modular group. Using the properties of equivariant indicators, we prove a congruence subgroup theorem for modular categories. As a consequence, all modular representations of a modular category have finite images, and they satisfy a conjecture of Eholzer. In addition, we obtain two formulae for the generalized indicators, one of them a generalization of Bantay’s second indicator formula for a rational conformal field theory. This formula implies a conjecture of Pradisi-Sagnotti-Stanev, as well as a conjecture of Borisov-Halpern-Schweigert.

Ng, Siu-Hung; Schauenburg, Peter

2010-11-01

276

Gran Stylissimo: The Audiovisual Elements and Styles in Computer and Video Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

The audiovisual appearance of computer and video games is varied. Still, the interplay of sounds and images in games has not been studied in any rigorous way. In this paper the concept of audiovisual style is introduced to grasp these variations, and categorize existing games into three styles. They are called photorealism, caricaturism, and abstractionism. Moreover, elements that make up

Aki Järvinen

2002-01-01

277

THE IROQUOIS, A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS--WITH SUPPLEMENT. (TITLE SUPPLIED).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|APPROXIMATELY 25 SOURCES OF AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS PERTAINING TO THE IROQUOIS AND OTHER NORTHEASTERN AMERICAN INDIAN TRIBES ARE LISTED ACCORDING TO TYPE OF AUDIOVISUAL MEDIUM. AMONG THE LESS-COMMON MEDIA ARE RECORDINGS OF IROQUOIS MUSIC AND DO-IT-YOURSELF REPRODUCTIONS OF IROQUOIS ARTIFACTS. PRICES ARE GIVEN WHERE APPLICABLE. (BR)|

KELLERHOUSE, KENNETH; AND OTHERS

278

Videogame as Media PracticeAn Exploration of the Intersections Between Play and Audiovisual Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim in this article is to explore videogames as new media practices, not in isolation but as part of broader media transformations related to the development of current digital technologies. Videogames are the product of a hybridization process between audiovisual media forms and game cultures, rapidly gaining popularity among kids and the elderly population. The experience of audiovisual consumption

Antoni Roig; Gemma San Cornelio; Elisenda Ardèvol; Pau Alsina; Ruth Pagès

2009-01-01

279

Audiovisual Materials in Archives--A General Picture of Their Role and Function.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Delivered on behalf of the International Council of Archives (ICA), this paper briefly discusses the challenge inherent in the processing and preservation of audiovisual materials, the types of media included in the term audiovisual, the concerns of professional archivists, the development and services of archival institutions, the utilization of…

Booms, Hans

280

An Analysis of Audiovisual Machines for Individual Program Presentation. Research Memorandum Number Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Medical Information Project (MIP) purpose to select the right type of audiovisual equipment for communicating new medical information to general practitioners of medicine was hampered by numerous difficulties. There is a lack of uniformity and standardization in audiovisual equipment that amounts to chaos. There is no evaluative literature on…

Finn, James D.; Weintraub, Royd

281

A Team Approach to Developing an Audiovisual Single-Concept Instructional Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1973, the National Medical Audiovisual Center undertook the production of several audiovisual teaching units, each addressing a single-concept, using a team approach. The production team on the unit "Left Ventricle Catheterization" were a physiologist acting as content specialist, an artist and film producer as production specialist, and an…

Brooke, Martha L.; And Others

1974-01-01

282

The Current Status of Audiovisual Definitions and Terminology: An International Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Because no published glossary of audiovisual terms has yet gained international currency, there is a need to: (1) explore international acceptance of a list of audiovisual terms and definitions; (2) review current efforts to do so; (3) propose criteria for acceptable terms and definitions; and (4) recommend procedures for acceptance of…

Ely, Donald P.

283

In Support of Semantic Atoms. Semantic Studies 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several hypotheses about the nature of word meaning are discussed and discarded in favor of one that treats semantic atoms (distinctive semantic elements) as elemental predicates that can be arranged in any configuration. (Author/KM)|

Hofmann, Thomas R.

1974-01-01

284

The Semantic SPASE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Semantic SPASE (Space Physics Archive Search and Extract) prototype demonstrates the use of semantic web technologies to capture, document, and manage the SPASE data model, support facet- and text-based search, and provide flexible and intuitive user interfaces. The SPASE data model, under development since late 2003 by a consortium of space physics domain experts, is intended to serve as the basis for interoperability between independent data systems. To develop the Semantic SPASE prototype, the data model was first analyzed to determine the inherit object classes and their attributes. These were entered into Stanford Medical Informatics' Protege ontology tool and annotated using definitions from the SPASE documentation. Further analysis of the data model resulted in the addition of class relationships. Finally attributes and relationships that support broad-scope interoperability were added from research associated with the Object-Oriented Data Technology task. To validate the ontology and produce a knowledge base, example data products were ingested. The capture of the data model as an ontology results in a more formal specification of the model. The Protege software is also a powerful management tool and supports plug-ins that produce several graphical notations as output. The stated purpose of the semantic web is to support machine understanding of web-based information. Protege provides an export capability to RDF/XML and RDFS/XML for this purpose. Several research efforts use RDF/XML knowledge bases to provide semantic search. MIT's Simile/Longwell project provides both facet- and text-based search using a suite of metadata browsers and the text-based search engine Lucene. Using the Protege generated RDF knowledge-base a semantic search application was easily built and deployed to run as a web application. Configuration files specify the object attributes and values to be designated as facets (i.e. search) constraints. Semantic web technologies provide the means to easily implement semantic search for science data archives using space science data models and metadata. It also suggests the means to support correlative search across science disciplines, missions, and instruments since multiple ontologies can be gathered together for processing . Finally broad scope interoperability can be envisioned where semantically aware software agents reason about and process distributed science data repositories.

Hughes, S.; Crichton, D.; Thieman, J.; Ramirez, P.; King, T.; Weiss, M.

2005-12-01

285

Image emotional semantic query based on color semantic description  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describing images in semantic terms is an important and challenging problem in content-based image retrieval. According to the strong relationship between colors and human emotions, an emotional semantic query model based on image color semantic description is proposed in this study. First, images are segmented into regions through a new color image segmentation algorithm. Then, term sets are generated through

Wei-Ning Wang; Ying-Lin Yu

2005-01-01

286

Non-verbal semantic impairment in semantic dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical presentation of patients with semantic dementia is dominated by anomia and poor verbal comprehension. Although a number of researchers have argued that these patients have impaired comprehension of non-verbal as well as verbal stimuli, the evidence for semantic deterioration is mainly derived from tasks that include some form of verbal input or output. Few studies have investigated semantic

Sasha Bozeat; Matthew A. Lambon Ralph; Karalyn Patterson; Peter Garrard; John R. Hodges

2000-01-01

287

Primary and multisensory cortical activity is correlated with audiovisual percepts.  

PubMed

Incongruent auditory and visual stimuli can elicit audiovisual illusions such as the McGurk effect where visual /ka/ and auditory /pa/ fuse into another percept such as/ta/. In the present study, human brain activity was measured with adaptation functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate which brain areas support such audiovisual illusions. Subjects viewed trains of four movies beginning with three congruent /pa/ stimuli to induce adaptation. The fourth stimulus could be (i) another congruent /pa/, (ii) a congruent /ka/, (iii) an incongruent stimulus that evokes the McGurk effect in susceptible individuals (lips /ka/ voice /pa/), or (iv) the converse combination that does not cause the McGurk effect (lips /pa/ voice/ ka/). This paradigm was predicted to show increased release from adaptation (i.e. stronger brain activation) when the fourth movie and the related percept was increasingly different from the three previous movies. A stimulus change in either the auditory or the visual stimulus from /pa/ to /ka/ (iii, iv) produced within-modality and cross-modal responses in primary auditory and visual areas. A greater release from adaptation was observed for incongruent non-McGurk (iv) compared to incongruent McGurk (iii) trials. A network including the primary auditory and visual cortices, nonprimary auditory cortex, and several multisensory areas (superior temporal sulcus, intraparietal sulcus, insula, and pre-central cortex) showed a correlation between perceiving the McGurk effect and the fMRI signal, suggesting that these areas support the audiovisual illusion. PMID:19780040

Benoit, Margo McKenna; Raij, Tommi; Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Stufflebeam, Steven

2010-04-01

288

Fast parallel DNA-based algorithms for molecular computation: quadratic congruence and factoring integers.  

PubMed

Assume that n is a positive integer. If there is an integer such that M (2) ? C (mod n), i.e., the congruence has a solution, then C is said to be a quadratic congruence (mod n). If the congruence does not have a solution, then C is said to be a quadratic noncongruence (mod n). The task of solving the problem is central to many important applications, the most obvious being cryptography. In this article, we describe a DNA-based algorithm for solving quadratic congruence and factoring integers. In additional to this novel contribution, we also show the utility of our encoding scheme, and of the algorithm's submodules. We demonstrate how a variety of arithmetic, shifted and comparative operations, namely bitwise and full addition, subtraction, left shifter and comparison perhaps are performed using strands of DNA. PMID:21914574

Chang, Weng-Long

2011-09-12

289

The Moderating Effect of Work Value Congruence on Service-Worker Customer Orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper draws upon person-organisation fit theory, and develops several hypotheses that suggest that the level of work value congruence will explain variations in job satisfaction, organisational commitment and organisational citizenship behaviours.

Mark Farrell

290

Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first working draft of the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition is now available. The document "defines the process of Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition and the syntax and semantics of semantic interpretation tags that can be added to speech recognition grammars." The document is a draft, open for suggestions from W3C members and other interested users.

Lernout & Hauspie Speech Products.; Tichelen, Luc V.

2001-01-01

291

Electrophysiological correlates of facial configuration and audio–visual congruency: evidence that face processing is a visual rather than a multisensory task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural, neuroimaging and lesion studies show that face processing has a special role in human perception. The purpose\\u000a of this EEG study was to explore whether auditory information influences visual face perception. We employed a 2 × 2 factorial\\u000a design and presented subjects with visual stimuli that could be cartoon faces or scrambled faces where size changes of one\\u000a of the components,

Barnaby J. Proctor; Georg F. Meyer

292

Semantic Processing for Speech Understanding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes aspects of the semantic component of the speech understanding system currently being developed jointly by SRI and SDC. The semantic component consists of two major parts: a semantic network coding a model of the task domain and a batt...

G. G. Hendrix

1975-01-01

293

Translation using Minimal Recursion Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe minimal recursion semantics (MRS), a framework for semantics within HPSG, which considerably simplifies transfer and generation. We discuss why, in gen- eral, a semantic representation with minimal structure is desirable for transfer and illustrate how a descriptively adequate representation with a non-recursive structure may be achieved. The paper illustrates the application of MRS to transfer with a series

Ann Copestake; Dan Flickinger; Rob Malouf; Susanne Riehemann; Ivan Sag

1995-01-01

294

Semantic Annotation of Sports Videos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking into consideration the unique qualities of sports videos, we propose a system that semantically annotates them at different layers of semantic significance, using different elements of visual content. We decompose each shot into its visual and graphic content elements and, by combining several different low-level visual primitives, capture the semantic content at a higher level of significance

Jürgen Assfalg; Marco Bertini; Carlo Colombo; Alberto Del Bimbo

2002-01-01

295

The moderating influence of ad framing for ad-self-congruency effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research indicates that ad-self-congruency effects are signifi- cant only when participants are not motivated to process ad messages, as when they are in a positive rather than negative affective state (Chang, 2002a). In line with this reasoning, it was expected that ad tac- tics such as ad framing that can evoke emotional responses would determine reliance on ad-self-congruency for

Chingching Chang

2005-01-01

296

Ideal Self-Image Congruency as a Motivator for Smoking: The Moderating Effects of Personality Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A content analysis showed that cigarette advertising in Taiwan from June 2001 to May 2003 portrayed smokers as masculine, adventurous, pleasure-loving, and sociable. A survey of 1,490 high school students further indicated that smokers and nonsmokers differ in the congruency between their ideal self-images and the perceived smoker image on these 4 image dimensions. The self–smoker image congruency was greater

Chingching Chang

2007-01-01

297

Dispositional Motivations and Message Framing: A Test of the Congruency Hypothesis in College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined the congruency hypothesis that health messages framed to be concordant with dispositional motivations will be most effective in promoting health behaviors. Undergraduate students (N = 63) completed a measure of approach\\/avoidance orientation (behavioral activation\\/inhibition system) and read a gain- or loss-framed message promoting flossing. Results support the congruency hypothesis: When given a loss-framed message, avoidance-oriented people reported

Traci Mann; David Sherman; John Updegraff

2004-01-01

298

Corporate Governance Systems: Effects of Capital and Labor Market Congruency on Corporate Innovation and Global Competitiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Drawing on institutional economics, this article addresses how institutional congruence between capital and labor markets\\u000a influences corporate governance systems, which, in turn, create differences in national corporate innovation and entrepreneurship\\u000a systems and subsequently global competitiveness. We argue that such institutional congruence cultivates two ideal corporate\\u000a governance systems. The first ideal type is the market-based system with transactional capital and external

Robert E. Hoskisson; Daphne Yiu; Hicheon Kim

299

A congruence modulo p of zeta polynomial for cyclotomic function fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cyclotomic function field is defined as adding torsion points of Carlitz module to the rational function field of characteristic p. Properties of these fields are remarkably similar to those of cyclotomic number fields. In 1999, L. Guo and L. Shu gave congruence relations for class numbers of cyclotomic function fields. In this paper, we will generalize these results from the view point of congruence zeta function.

Shiomi, Daisuke

2010-07-01

300

Self-Congruency as a Cue in Different Advertising-Processing Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how self-congruent advertising messages affect ad and brand evaluations in different contexts. Within the Elaboration Likelihood Model, this study proposes that an ad message's congruency with subjects' self-concepts serves as a peripheral cue when subjects do not have the motivation to process information. Experiment 1 shows that subjects rely on messages' self-congruency in forming brand and ad

Chingching Chang

2002-01-01

301

Congruence Between Gender Stereotypes and Activity Preference in Self-Identified Tomboys and Non-Tomboys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major goal was to examine a central tenet of cognitive approaches to gender development, namely, that congruence exists\\u000a between personal gender stereotypes and behaviors. Item-by-item comparisons of girls’ stereotypes about activities and their\\u000a preferences for activities were conducted, for both girls who claimed to be tomboys and those who did not. Congruence was\\u000a expected for all girls, but because

Carol Lynn Martin; Lisa M. Dinella

302

Latent Semantic Kernels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kernel methods like Support Vector Machines have\\u000a successfully been used for text categorization. A standard\\u000a choice of kernel function has been the inner product\\u000a between the vector-space representation of two documents,\\u000a in analogy with classical information retrieval (IR)\\u000a approaches. Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) has been\\u000a successfully used for IR purposes, as a technique for\\u000a capturing semantic relations between terms and

Nello Cristianini; John Shawe-Taylor; Huma Lodhi

2001-01-01

303

The hot-hand fallacy in cognitive control: repetition expectancy modulates the congruency sequence effect.  

PubMed

In this study, the role of expectancies in cognitive control was tested. On the basis of the original interpretation of the congruency sequence effect (Gratton, Coles, & Donchin, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 121:480-506, 1992), we sought evidence for a repetition bias steering attentional control. In a series of four Stroop experiments, we investigated how participants' explicit predictions about the upcoming (in)congruency proactively influenced subsequent Stroop performance. Similar to the fallacious "hot-hand" belief in gambling, repeating stimulus events were overpredicted, as participants consistently expected more repetitions of the congruency level than the actual presented number of congruency-level repetitions (50 %). Moreover, behavioral adjustments (i.e., a congruency sequence effect) were only found when participants anticipated a congruency-level repetition, whereas no modulation of the Stroop effect was found following alternation predictions. We propose that proactive control processes in general, and repetition expectancy in particular, should be given more attention in current theorizing and modeling of cognitive control, which is characterized by an emphasis on reactive, conflict-induced control adjustments. PMID:23371807

Duthoo, Wout; Wühr, Peter; Notebaert, Wim

2013-08-01

304

The modified gap excess ratio (GER*) and the stratigraphic congruence of dinosaur phylogenies.  

PubMed

Palaeontologists routinely map their cladograms onto what is known of the fossil record. Where sister taxa first appear as fossils at different times, a ghost range is inferred to bridge the gap between these dates. Some measure of the total extent of ghost ranges across the tree underlies several indices of cladistic/stratigraphic congruence. We investigate this congruence for 19 independent, published cladograms of major dinosaur groups and report exceptional agreement between the phylogenetic and stratigraphic patterns, evidenced by sums of ghost ranges near the theoretical minima. This implies that both phylogenetic and stratigraphic data reflect faithfully the evolutionary history of dinosaurs, at least for the taxa included in this study. We formally propose modifications to an existing index of congruence (the gap excess ratio; GER), designed to remove a bias in the range of values possible with trees of different shapes. We also propose a more informative index of congruence--GER*--that takes account of the underlying distribution of sums of ghost ranges possible when permuting stratigraphic range data across the tree. Finally, we incorporate data on the range of possible first occurrence dates into our estimates of congruence, extending a procedure originally implemented with the modified Manhattan stratigraphic measure and GER to our new indices. Most dinosaur data sets maintain extremely high congruence despite such modifications. PMID:19085331

Wills, Matthew A; Barrett, Paul M; Heathcote, Julia F

2008-12-01

305

Congruence between gender stereotypes and activity preference in self-identified tomboys and non-tomboys.  

PubMed

The major goal was to examine a central tenet of cognitive approaches to gender development, namely, that congruence exists between personal gender stereotypes and behaviors. Item-by-item comparisons of girls' stereotypes about activities and their preferences for activities were conducted, for both girls who claimed to be tomboys and those who did not. Congruence was expected for all girls, but because of their gender non-normative interests, tomboys may exhibit less congruence. A secondary goal was to examine factors that might influence congruence, specifically, whether tomboys develop more inclusive stereotypes and develop greater understanding of stereotype variability. Participants included 112 girls (7-12 years old, M age=9). Girls were interviewed about their activity preferences, beliefs about girls' and boys' activity preferences, understanding variability of stereotypes, and identification as tomboys. Tomboys (30% of the sample) and non-tomboys did not differ in their liking of or in the number of liked feminine activities. However, tomboys showed more interest in masculine activities than non-tomboys. Tomboys and non-tomboys did not differ in stereotype inclusiveness, although tomboys showed a trend toward more inclusive stereotypes. Both groups showed high levels of congruence between stereotypes and preferences. Congruence was stronger for nontomboys (14 times more likely to exhibit responses congruent with stereotypes vs. incongruent ones), as compared to tomboys who were four times more likely to exhibit responses congruent with stereotypes versus incongruent ones. Implications of these findings for cognitive approaches to gender development are discussed. PMID:21755383

Martin, Carol Lynn; Dinella, Lisa M

2011-07-14

306

Semantator: semantic annotator for converting biomedical text to linked data.  

PubMed

More than 80% of biomedical data is embedded in plain text. The unstructured nature of these text-based documents makes it challenging to easily browse and query the data of interest in them. One approach to facilitate browsing and querying biomedical text is to convert the plain text to a linked web of data, i.e., converting data originally in free text to structured formats with defined meta-level semantics. In this paper, we introduce Semantator (Semantic Annotator), a semantic-web-based environment for annotating data of interest in biomedical documents, browsing and querying the annotated data, and interactively refining annotation results if needed. Through Semantator, information of interest can be either annotated manually or semi-automatically using plug-in information extraction tools. The annotated results will be stored in RDF and can be queried using the SPARQL query language. In addition, semantic reasoners can be directly applied to the annotated data for consistency checking and knowledge inference. Semantator has been released online and was used by the biomedical ontology community who provided positive feedbacks. Our evaluation results indicated that (1) Semantator can perform the annotation functionalities as designed; (2) Semantator can be adopted in real applications in clinical and transactional research; and (3) the annotated results using Semantator can be easily used in Semantic-web-based reasoning tools for further inference. PMID:23867104

Tao, Cui; Song, Dezhao; Sharma, Deepak; Chute, Christopher G

2013-07-15

307

Semantator: Annotating Clinical Narratives with Semantic Web Ontologies  

PubMed Central

To facilitate clinical research, clinical data needs to be stored in a machine processable and understandable way. Manual annotating clinical data is time consuming. Automatic approaches (e.g., Natural Language Processing systems) have been adopted to convert such data into structured formats; however, the quality of such automatically extracted data may not always be satisfying. In this paper, we propose Semantator, a semi-automatic tool for document annotation with Semantic Web ontologies. With a loaded free text document and an ontology, Semantator supports the creation/deletion of ontology instances for any document fragment, linking/disconnecting instances with the properties in the ontology, and also enables automatic annotation by connecting to the NCBO annotator and cTAKES. By representing annotations in Semantic Web standards, Semantator supports reasoning based upon the underlying semantics of the owl:disjointWith and owl:equivalentClass predicates. We present discussions based on user experiences of using Semantator.

Song, Dezhao; Chute, Christopher G.; Tao, Cui

2012-01-01

308

Audiovisual synchrony perception for music, speech, and object actions.  

PubMed

We investigated the perception of synchrony for complex audiovisual events. In Experiment 1, a series of music (guitar and piano), speech (sentences), and object action video clips were presented at a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) using the method of constant stimuli. Participants made unspeeded temporal order judgments (TOJs) regarding which stream (auditory or visual) appeared to have been presented first. Temporal discrimination accuracy was significantly better for the object actions than for the speech video clips, and both were significantly better than for the music video clips. In order to investigate whether or not these differences in TOJ performance were driven by differences in stimulus familiarity, we conducted a second experiment using brief speech (syllables), music (guitar), and object action video clips of fixed duration together with temporally reversed (i.e., less familiar) versions of the same stimuli. The results showed no main effect of stimulus type on temporal discrimination accuracy. Interestingly, however, reversing the video clips resulted in a significant decrement in temporal discrimination accuracy as compared to the normally presented for the music and object actions clips, but not for the speech stimuli. Overall, our results suggest that cross-modal temporal discrimination performance is better for audiovisual stimuli of lower complexity as compared to stimuli having continuously varying properties (e.g., syllables versus words and/or sentences). PMID:16876772

Vatakis, Argiro; Spence, Charles

2006-07-31

309

Video genre categorization and representation using audio-visual information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an audio-visual approach to video genre classification using content descriptors that exploit audio, color, temporal, and contour information. Audio information is extracted at block-level, which has the advantage of capturing local temporal information. At the temporal structure level, we consider action content in relation to human perception. Color perception is quantified using statistics of color distribution, elementary hues, color properties, and relationships between colors. Further, we compute statistics of contour geometry and relationships. The main contribution of our work lies in harnessing the descriptive power of the combination of these descriptors in genre classification. Validation was carried out on over 91 h of video footage encompassing 7 common video genres, yielding average precision and recall ratios of 87% to 100% and 77% to 100%, respectively, and an overall average correct classification of up to 97%. Also, experimental comparison as part of the MediaEval 2011 benchmarking campaign demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed audio-visual descriptors over other existing approaches. Finally, we discuss a 3-D video browsing platform that displays movies using feature-based coordinates and thus regroups them according to genre.

Ionescu, Bogdan; Seyerlehner, Klaus; Rasche, Christoph; Vertan, Constantin; Lambert, Patrick

2012-04-01

310

Neural correlates of interindividual differences in children's audiovisual speech perception.  

PubMed

Children use information from both the auditory and visual modalities to aid in understanding speech. A dramatic illustration of this multisensory integration is the McGurk effect, an illusion in which an auditory syllable is perceived differently when it is paired with an incongruent mouth movement. However, there are significant interindividual differences in McGurk perception: some children never perceive the illusion, while others always do. Because converging evidence suggests that the posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) is a critical site for multisensory integration, we hypothesized that activity within the STS would predict susceptibility to the McGurk effect. To test this idea, we used BOLD fMRI in 17 children aged 6-12 years to measure brain responses to the following three audiovisual stimulus categories: McGurk incongruent, non-McGurk incongruent, and congruent syllables. Two separate analysis approaches, one using independent functional localizers and another using whole-brain voxel-based regression, showed differences in the left STS between perceivers and nonperceivers. The STS of McGurk perceivers responded significantly more than that of nonperceivers to McGurk syllables, but not to other stimuli, and perceivers' hemodynamic responses in the STS were significantly prolonged. In addition to the STS, weaker differences between perceivers and nonperceivers were observed in the fusiform face area and extrastriate visual cortex. These results suggest that the STS is an important source of interindividual variability in children's audiovisual speech perception. PMID:21957257

Nath, Audrey R; Fava, Eswen E; Beauchamp, Michael S

2011-09-28

311

Electrophysiological evidence of illusory audiovisual speech percept in human infants.  

PubMed

How effortlessly and quickly infants acquire their native language remains one of the most intriguing questions of human development. Our study extends this question into the audiovisual domain, taking into consideration visual speech cues, which were recently shown to have more importance for young infants than previously anticipated [Weikum WM, Vouloumanos A, Navarra J, Soto-Faraco S, Sebastián-Gallés N, Werker JF (2007) Science 316:1159]. A particularly interesting phenomenon of audiovisual speech perception is the McGurk effect [McGurk H, MacDonald J (1976) Nature 264:746-748], an illusory speech percept resulting from integration of incongruent auditory and visual speech cues. For some phonemes, the human brain does not detect the mismatch between conflicting auditory and visual cues but automatically assimilates them into the closest legal phoneme, sometimes different from both auditory and visual ones. Measuring event-related brain potentials in 5-month-old infants, we demonstrate differential brain responses when conflicting auditory and visual speech cues can be integrated and when they cannot be fused into a single percept. This finding reveals a surprisingly early ability to perceive speech cross-modally and highlights the role of visual speech experience during early postnatal development in learning of the phonemes and phonotactics of the native language. PMID:18682564

Kushnerenko, Elena; Teinonen, Tuomas; Volein, Agnes; Csibra, Gergely

2008-08-05

312

Audiovisual integration of speech in a bistable illusion.  

PubMed

Visible speech enhances the intelligibility of auditory speech when listening conditions are poor [1], and can modify the perception of otherwise perfectly audible utterances [2]. This audiovisual perception is our most natural form of communication and one of our most common multisensory phenomena. However, where and in what form the visual and auditory representations interact is still not completely understood. Although there are longstanding proposals that multisensory integration occurs relatively late in the speech-processing sequence [3], considerable neurophysiological evidence suggests that audiovisual interactions can occur in the brain stem and primary sensory cortices [4, 5]. A difficulty testing such hypotheses is that when the degree of integration is manipulated experimentally, the visual and/or auditory stimulus conditions are drastically modified [6, 7]; thus, the perceptual processing within a modality and the corresponding processing loads are affected [8]. Here, we used a bistable speech stimulus to examine the conditions under which there is a visual influence on auditory perception in speech. The results indicate that visual influences on auditory speech processing, at least for the McGurk illusion, necessitate the conscious perception of the visual speech gestures, thus supporting the hypothesis that multisensory speech integration is not completed in early processing stages. PMID:19345097

Munhall, K G; ten Hove, M W; Brammer, M; Paré, M

2009-04-02

313

Comparative semantic profiles in semantic dementia and Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Patients with the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia, also known as semantic dementia, and Alzheimer's disease have deficits in semantic memory. However, few comparative studies have been performed to determine whether these patient groups have distinct semantic memory impairments. We asked 15 patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia and 57 patients with Alzheimer's disease to judge semantic category membership of coloured photos and printed words that are members of familiar natural and manufactured categories, and we related performance to grey matter atrophy. We found that both semantic variant primary progressive aphasia and Alzheimer's disease are significantly impaired on this task. Moreover, patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia had a significantly more prominent deficit for natural objects than their own deficit judging manufactured objects. Both semantic variant primary progressive aphasia and Alzheimer's disease had atrophy that included portions of the left temporal lobe. Regression analyses related performance in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia to ventral and medial portions of the left temporal lobe, while regression analyses in Alzheimer's disease related performance to these ventral and medial temporal areas as well as lateral temporal-parietal regions in the left hemisphere. We conclude that both semantic variant primary progressive aphasia and Alzheimer's disease are significantly impaired in a simple category membership judgement task and the selective impairment for natural kinds in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia is related in part to disease in visual association cortex in ventral-medial portions of the left temporal lobe. We discuss factors that may contribute to the semantic memory deficit in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia. PMID:23824492

Libon, David J; Rascovsky, Katya; Powers, John; Irwin, David J; Boller, Ashley; Weinberg, Danielle; McMillan, Corey T; Grossman, Murray

2013-07-03

314

Neural dynamics of audiovisual speech integration under variable listening conditions: an individual participant analysis.  

PubMed

Speech perception engages both auditory and visual modalities. Limitations of traditional accuracy-only approaches in the investigation of audiovisual speech perception have motivated the use of new methodologies. In an audiovisual speech identification task, we utilized capacity (Townsend and Nozawa, 1995), a dynamic measure of efficiency, to quantify audiovisual integration. Capacity was used to compare RT distributions from audiovisual trials to RT distributions from auditory-only and visual-only trials across three listening conditions: clear auditory signal, S/N ratio of -12 dB, and S/N ratio of -18 dB. The purpose was to obtain EEG recordings in conjunction with capacity to investigate how a late ERP co-varies with integration efficiency. Results showed efficient audiovisual integration for low auditory S/N ratios, but inefficient audiovisual integration when the auditory signal was clear. The ERP analyses showed evidence for greater audiovisual amplitude compared to the unisensory signals for lower auditory S/N ratios (higher capacity/efficiency) compared to the high S/N ratio (low capacity/inefficient integration). The data are consistent with an interactive framework of integration, where auditory recognition is influenced by speech-reading as a function of signal clarity. PMID:24058358

Altieri, Nicholas; Wenger, Michael J

2013-09-10

315

Neural dynamics of audiovisual speech integration under variable listening conditions: an individual participant analysis  

PubMed Central

Speech perception engages both auditory and visual modalities. Limitations of traditional accuracy-only approaches in the investigation of audiovisual speech perception have motivated the use of new methodologies. In an audiovisual speech identification task, we utilized capacity (Townsend and Nozawa, 1995), a dynamic measure of efficiency, to quantify audiovisual integration. Capacity was used to compare RT distributions from audiovisual trials to RT distributions from auditory-only and visual-only trials across three listening conditions: clear auditory signal, S/N ratio of ?12 dB, and S/N ratio of ?18 dB. The purpose was to obtain EEG recordings in conjunction with capacity to investigate how a late ERP co-varies with integration efficiency. Results showed efficient audiovisual integration for low auditory S/N ratios, but inefficient audiovisual integration when the auditory signal was clear. The ERP analyses showed evidence for greater audiovisual amplitude compared to the unisensory signals for lower auditory S/N ratios (higher capacity/efficiency) compared to the high S/N ratio (low capacity/inefficient integration). The data are consistent with an interactive framework of integration, where auditory recognition is influenced by speech-reading as a function of signal clarity.

Altieri, Nicholas; Wenger, Michael J.

2013-01-01

316

Asymmetries in Spatial Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract sense. This simple fact marks the importance of Ewald Lang's cognitive linguistic work on the semantics of spatial adjectives (long, wide, high etc. ) or spatial dimension terms (Lang 2001). His treatment of the dimensional designation of spatial objects (Lang 1987, 1989) includes assumptions about the conceptual representation of spatial objects which are empirically grounded and theoretically well motivated

Kai-uwe Carstensen

317

Probabilistic latent semantic indexing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic Latent Semantic Indexing is a novel approach to automated document indexing which is based on a statistical latent class model for factor analysis of count data. Fitted from a training corpus of text documents by a generalization of the Expectation Maximization algorithm, the utilized model is able to deal with domain-specific synonymy as well as with polysemous words. In

Thomas Hofmann

1999-01-01

318

Semantic physical science  

PubMed Central

The articles in this special issue arise from a workshop and symposium held in January 2012 (Semantic Physical Science’). We invited people who shared our vision for the potential of the web to support chemical and related subjects. Other than the initial invitations, we have not exercised any control over the content of the contributed articles.

2012-01-01

319

Snapshots for Semantic Maps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A significant area of research in mobile robotics is in the local representation of a remote environment. To include a human in a mobile robot task it becomes important to present the remote information efficiently to a human. Semantic maps are a relative...

C. W. Nielsen B. Ricks M. A. Goodrich D. Bruemmer D. Few

2004-01-01

320

Lexical Semantics and Pragmatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I discuss some general problems one is confronted with when trying to analyze the utterance of words within concrete conceptual and contextual settings and to go beyond the aspects of meaning typically investigated by a contrastive analysis of lexemes within the Katz-Fodor tradition of semantics. After emphasizing some important consequences of the traditional view, several phenomena are

Reinhard Blutner

1998-01-01

321

Populating the Semantic Web.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vision of the Semantic Web is that a vast store of online information 'meaningful to computers will unleash a revolution of new possibilities'. Unfortunately, the vast majority of information on the Web is formatted to be easily read by human users, n...

C. Gazen C. Knoblock K. Lerman S. Minton

2004-01-01

322

Environmental Attitudes Semantic Differential.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is an evaluation instrument which utilizes semantic differential data to assess environmental attitudes. Twelve concepts are included: regulated access to beaches, urban planning, dune vegetation, wetlands, future cities, reclaiming wetlands for building development, city parks, commercial development of beaches, existing cities,…

Mehne, Paul R.; Goulard, Cary J.

323

Latent Semantic Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA): (1) LSA overview; (2) applications of LSA, including information retrieval (IR), information filtering, cross-language retrieval, and other IR-related LSA applications; (3) modeling human memory, including the relationship of LSA to other…

Dumais, Susan T.

2004-01-01

324

Semantics of probabilistic programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two complementary but equivalent semantic interpretations of a high level probabilistic programming language are given. One of these interprets programs as partial measurable functions on a measurable space. The other interprets programs as continuous linear operators on a Banach space of measures. It is shown how the ordered domains of Scott and others are embedded naturally into these spaces. Two

Dexter Kozen; Yorktown Heights

1979-01-01

325

Semantics of probabilistic programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents two complementary but equivalent semantics for a high level probabilistic programming language. One of these interprets programs as partial measurable functions on a measurable space. The other interprets programs as continuous linear operators on a Banach space of measures. It is shown how the ordered domains of Scott and others are embedded naturally into these spaces. We

Dexter Kozen

1981-01-01

326

Latent Semantic Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA): (1) LSA overview; (2) applications of LSA, including information retrieval (IR), information filtering, cross-language retrieval, and other IR-related LSA applications; (3) modeling human memory, including the relationship of LSA to other…

Dumais, Susan T.

2004-01-01

327

Is Semantic Priming Automatic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The time to decide that a letter string (e.g., 'doctor') is a word is reduced when it is preceeded by a related word ('nurse'). At least some component of this semantic priming effect is thought to be automatic and therefore free of attentional limitation...

J. E. Hoffman F. W. MacMillan

1984-01-01

328

Film semantic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper the problem of video segmentation and semantic analysis for video indexing and cinematographic language classification is addressed. Large archives of video sequences will remain a largely unexploitable resource of information, unless a straightforward way to describe their content is designed. The first step to be considered in this direction is the highlighting of the syntactic units of

J. M. Corridoni; A. Del Bimbo

1995-01-01

329

Atypical audiovisual speech integration in infants at risk for autism.  

PubMed

The language difficulties often seen in individuals with autism might stem from an inability to integrate audiovisual information, a skill important for language development. We investigated whether 9-month-old siblings of older children with autism, who are at an increased risk of developing autism, are able to integrate audiovisual speech cues. We used an eye-tracker to record where infants looked when shown a screen displaying two faces of the same model, where one face is articulating/ba/and the other/ga/, with one face congruent with the syllable sound being presented simultaneously, the other face incongruent. This method was successful in showing that infants at low risk can integrate audiovisual speech: they looked for the same amount of time at the mouths in both the fusible visual/ga/- audio/ba/and the congruent visual/ba/- audio/ba/displays, indicating that the auditory and visual streams fuse into a McGurk-type of syllabic percept in the incongruent condition. It also showed that low-risk infants could perceive a mismatch between auditory and visual cues: they looked longer at the mouth in the mismatched, non-fusible visual/ba/- audio/ga/display compared with the congruent visual/ga/- audio/ga/display, demonstrating that they perceive an uncommon, and therefore interesting, speech-like percept when looking at the incongruent mouth (repeated ANOVA: displays x fusion/mismatch conditions interaction: F(1,16) = 17.153, p = 0.001). The looking behaviour of high-risk infants did not differ according to the type of display, suggesting difficulties in matching auditory and visual information (repeated ANOVA, displays x conditions interaction: F(1,25) = 0.09, p = 0.767), in contrast to low-risk infants (repeated ANOVA: displays x conditions x low/high-risk groups interaction: F(1,41) = 4.466, p = 0.041). In some cases this reduced ability might lead to the poor communication skills characteristic of autism. PMID:22615768

Guiraud, Jeanne A; Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Kushnerenko, Elena; Ribeiro, Helena; Davies, Kim; Charman, Tony; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Johnson, Mark H

2012-05-15

330

Atypical Audiovisual Speech Integration in Infants at Risk for Autism  

PubMed Central

The language difficulties often seen in individuals with autism might stem from an inability to integrate audiovisual information, a skill important for language development. We investigated whether 9-month-old siblings of older children with autism, who are at an increased risk of developing autism, are able to integrate audiovisual speech cues. We used an eye-tracker to record where infants looked when shown a screen displaying two faces of the same model, where one face is articulating/ba/and the other/ga/, with one face congruent with the syllable sound being presented simultaneously, the other face incongruent. This method was successful in showing that infants at low risk can integrate audiovisual speech: they looked for the same amount of time at the mouths in both the fusible visual/ga/? audio/ba/and the congruent visual/ba/? audio/ba/displays, indicating that the auditory and visual streams fuse into a McGurk-type of syllabic percept in the incongruent condition. It also showed that low-risk infants could perceive a mismatch between auditory and visual cues: they looked longer at the mouth in the mismatched, non-fusible visual/ba/? audio/ga/display compared with the congruent visual/ga/? audio/ga/display, demonstrating that they perceive an uncommon, and therefore interesting, speech-like percept when looking at the incongruent mouth (repeated ANOVA: displays x fusion/mismatch conditions interaction: F(1,16)?=?17.153, p?=?0.001). The looking behaviour of high-risk infants did not differ according to the type of display, suggesting difficulties in matching auditory and visual information (repeated ANOVA, displays x conditions interaction: F(1,25)?=?0.09, p?=?0.767), in contrast to low-risk infants (repeated ANOVA: displays x conditions x low/high-risk groups interaction: F(1,41)?=?4.466, p?=?0.041). In some cases this reduced ability might lead to the poor communication skills characteristic of autism.

Guiraud, Jeanne A.; Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Kushnerenko, Elena; Ribeiro, Helena; Davies, Kim; Charman, Tony; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Johnson, Mark H.

2012-01-01

331

From Data to Semantic Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is no consensus yet on the definition of semantic information. This paper contributes to the current debate by criticising and revising the Standard Definition of semantic Information (SDI) as meaningful data, in favour of the Dretske-Grice approach: meaningful and well-formed data constitute semantic information only if they also qualify as contingently truthful. After a brief introduction, SDI is criticised for providing necessary but insufficient conditions for the definition of semantic information. SDI is incorrect because truth-values do not supervene on semantic information, and misinformation (that is, false semantic information) is not a type of semantic information, but pseudo-information, that is not semantic information at all. This is shown by arguing that none of the reasons for interpreting misinformation as a type of semantic information is convincing, whilst there are compelling reasons to treat it as pseudo-information. As a consequence, SDI is revised to include a necessary truth-condition. The last section summarises the main results of the paper and indicates the important implications of the revised definition for the analysis of the deflationary theories of truth, the standard definition of knowledge and the classic, quantitative theory of semantic information.

Floridi, Luciano

2003-06-01

332

Sequence Semantics for Dynamic Predicate Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a semantics for dynamic predicate logic is developed that uses sequencevalued assignments. This semantics is compared with the usual relational semantics fordynamic predicate logic: it is shown that the most important intuitions of the usual semanticsare preserved. Then it is shown that the refined semantics reflects out intuitionsabout information growth. Some other issues in dynamic semantics are

C. f. m. Vermeulen

1992-01-01

333

Sequence semantics for dynamic predicate logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a semantics for dynamic predicate logic is developed that uses sequence valued assignments. This semantics is compared with the usual relational semantics for dynamic predicate logic: it is shown that the most important intuitions of the usual semantics are preserved. Then it is shown that the refined semantics reflects out intuitions about information growth. Some other issues

C. F. M. Vermeulen

1993-01-01

334

Complete Process Semantics for Inhibitor Nets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we complete the semantical framework proposed in (13) for process and causality semantics of Petri nets by an additional aim and develop process and causality semantics of place\\/transition Petri nets with weighted in- hibitor arcs (pti-nets) satisfying the semantical framewo rk including this aim. The aim was firstly mentioned in (8) and states that causality semantics deduced

Gabriel Juhás; Robert Lorenz; Sebastian Mauser

2007-01-01

335

Latent Semantic Indexing of medical diagnoses using UMLS semantic structures.  

PubMed Central

The relational files within the UMLS Metathesaurus contain rich semantic associations to main concepts. We invoked the technique of Latent Semantic Indexing to generate information matrices based on these relationships and created "semantic vectors" using singular value decomposition. Evaluations were made on the complete set and subsets of Metathesaurus main concepts with the semantic type "Disease or Syndrome." Real number matrices were created with main concepts, lexical variants, synonyms, and associated expressions. Ancestors, children, siblings, and related terms were added to alternative matrices, preserving the hierarchical direction of the relation as the imaginary component of a complex number. Preliminary evaluation suggests that this technique is robust. A major advantage is the exploitation of semantic features which derive from a statistical decomposition of UMLS structures, possibly reducing dependence on the tedious construction of semantic frames by humans.

Chute, C. G.; Yang, Y.; Evans, D. A.

1991-01-01

336

Gaze-Direction-Based MEG Averaging During Audiovisual Speech Perception.  

PubMed

To take a step towards real-life-like experimental setups, we simultaneously recorded magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals and subject's gaze direction during audiovisual speech perception. The stimuli were utterances of /apa/ dubbed onto two side-by-side female faces articulating /apa/ (congruent) and /aka/ (incongruent) in synchrony, repeated once every 3 s. Subjects (N = 10) were free to decide which face they viewed, and responses were averaged to two categories according to the gaze direction. The right-hemisphere 100-ms response to the onset of the second vowel (N100m') was a fifth smaller to incongruent than congruent stimuli. The results demonstrate the feasibility of realistic viewing conditions with gaze-based averaging of MEG signals. PMID:20300464

Hirvenkari, Lotta; Jousmäki, Veikko; Lamminmäki, Satu; Saarinen, Veli-Matti; Sams, Mikko E; Hari, Riitta

2010-03-08

337

Audio-visual active speaker tracking in cluttered indoors environments.  

PubMed

We propose a system for detecting the active speaker in cluttered and reverberant environments where more than one person speaks and moves. Rather than using only audio information, the system utilizes audiovisual information from multiple acoustic and video sensors that feed separate audio and video tracking modules. The audio module operates using a particle filter (PF) and an information-theoretic framework to provide accurate acoustic source location under reverberant conditions. The video subsystem combines in 3-D a number of 2-D trackers based on a variation of Stauffer's adaptive background algorithm with spatiotemporal adaptation of the learning parameters and a Kalman tracker in a feedback configuration. Extensive experiments show that gains are to be expected when fusion of the separate modalities is performed to detect the active speaker. PMID:18558543

Talantzis, Fotios; Pnevmatikakis, Aristodemos; Constantinides, Anthony G

2008-06-01

338

Audio-visual active speaker tracking in cluttered indoors environments.  

PubMed

We propose a system for detecting the active speaker in cluttered and reverberant environments where more than one person speaks and moves. Rather than using only audio information, the system utilizes audiovisual information from multiple acoustic and video sensors that feed separate audio and video tracking modules. The audio module operates using a particle filter (PF) and an information-theoretic framework to provide accurate acoustic source location under reverberant conditions. The video subsystem combines in 3-D a number of 2-D trackers based on a variation of Stauffer's adaptive background algorithm with spatiotemporal adaptation of the learning parameters and a Kalman tracker in a feedback configuration. Extensive experiments show that gains are to be expected when fusion of the separate modalities is performed to detect the active speaker. PMID:19150757

Talantzis, Fotios; Pnevmatikakis, Aristodemos; Constantinides, Anthony G

2009-02-01

339

Selected Bibliography of Audiovisual Resources Suggested for Library Services to the Mentally Retarded.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Titles and prices for filmstrips with records, filmstrips, films, cassettes, film loops, disc recordings for utilization as audiovisual resources for library services for the mentally retarded are listed. A list of publishers and distributors of suitable ...

N. G. Harris

1971-01-01

340

Development and Evaluation of Audio-Visual ASR: A Study on Connected Digit Recognition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present our findings from audio-visual speech recognition experiments for connected digit recognition in noisy environments. We derive hybrid (geometric- and appearance-based) visual lip features using a real-time lip tracking algorithm that we propose...

M. T. Chan

2002-01-01

341

37 CFR 202.22 - Acquisition and deposit of unpublished audio and audiovisual transmission programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...any other commercial television broadcasting station...including transfer of ownership of a copy or phonorecord...access: in the case of television or other audiovisual...provisions of the âAmerican Television and Radio Archives...

2010-07-01

342

37 CFR 202.22 - Acquisition and deposit of unpublished audio and audiovisual transmission programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...any other commercial television broadcasting station...including transfer of ownership of a copy or phonorecord...access: in the case of television or other audiovisual...provisions of the âAmerican Television and Radio Archives...

2009-07-01

343

Effects of Audio-Visual Stimulation on the Incidence of Restraint Ulcers on the Wistar Rat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The role of sensory simulation in restrained rats was investigated. Both mixed audio-visual and pure sound stimuli, ineffective in themselves, were found to cause a significant increase in the incidence of restraint ulcers in the Wistar Rat.

M. S. Martin F. Martin R. Lambert

1979-01-01

344

Audiovisual speech perception and eye gaze behavior of adults with asperger syndrome.  

PubMed

Audiovisual speech perception was studied in adults with Asperger syndrome (AS), by utilizing the McGurk effect, in which conflicting visual articulation alters the perception of heard speech. The AS group perceived the audiovisual stimuli differently from age, sex and IQ matched controls. When a voice saying /p/ was presented with a face articulating /k/, the controls predominantly heard /k/. Instead, the AS group heard /k/ and /t/ with almost equal frequency, but with large differences between individuals. There were no differences in gaze direction or unisensory perception between the AS and control participants that could have contributed to the audiovisual differences. We suggest an explanation in terms of weak support from the motor system for audiovisual speech perception in AS. PMID:22068821

Saalasti, Satu; Kätsyri, Jari; Tiippana, Kaisa; Laine-Hernandez, Mari; von Wendt, Lennart; Sams, Mikko

2012-08-01

345

The Use of Audio-Visual Media for the Education of Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An Indian adult educator discusses the value of "pleasure-oriented" audiovisual adult education, the use of both commercial and subsidized films, television, and radio for their educational potential. He notes several production needs and techniques. (MF)|

Mathur, J. C.

1978-01-01

346

78 FR 48190 - Certain Audiovisual Components and Products Containing the Same Notice of Request for Statements...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...against certain infringing audiovisual components and products containing the same, imported by Funai Corporation, Inc. of Rutherford, New Jersey; Funai Electric Co., Ltd. of Osaka, Japan; P&F USA, Inc. of Alpharetta, Georgia; and Funai...

2013-08-07

347

36 CFR 1237.26 - What materials and processes must agencies use to create audiovisual records?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...audiovisual records? Agencies must: (a) For picture negatives and motion picture preprints (negatives, masters, and all...develop, fix, and wash. (b) Avoid using motion pictures in a final âA & Bâ format (two...

2012-07-01

348

36 CFR 1237.26 - What materials and processes must agencies use to create audiovisual records?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...audiovisual records? Agencies must: (a) For picture negatives and motion picture preprints (negatives, masters, and all...develop, fix, and wash. (b) Avoid using motion pictures in a final âA & Bâ format (two...

2011-07-01

349

An Illinois Union List of Commercially-Produced Audiovisual Materials for Bibliographic Instruction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This union list of purchased audiovisual materials for bibliographic instruction is based on responses to a questionnaire survey and it represents the relevant holdings of 37 academic libraries in Illinois. Excluded from the list are materials clearly des...

C. Barry

1980-01-01

350

Neural Correlates of Interindividual Differences in Children's Audiovisual Speech Perception  

PubMed Central

Children use information from both the auditory and visual modalities to aid in understanding speech. A dramatic illustration of this multisensory integration is the McGurk effect, an illusion in which an auditory syllable is perceived differently when it is paired with an incongruent mouth movement. However, there are significant interindividual differences in McGurk perception: some children never perceive the illusion, while others always do. Because converging evidence suggests that the posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) is a critical site for multisensory integration, we hypothesized that activity within the STS would predict susceptibility to the McGurk effect. To test this idea, we used blood-oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) in seventeen children aged 6 to 12 years to measure brain responses to three audiovisual stimulus categories: McGurk incongruent, non-McGurk incongruent and congruent syllables. Two separate analysis approaches, one using independent functional localizers and another using whole-brain voxel-based regression, showed differences in the left STS between perceivers and non-perceivers. The STS of McGurk perceivers responded significantly more than non-perceivers to McGurk syllables, but not to other stimuli, and perceivers’ hemodynamic responses in the STS were significantly prolonged. In addition to the STS, weaker differences between perceivers and non-perceivers were observed in the FFA and extrastriate visual cortex. These results suggest that the STS is an important source of interindividual variability in children’s audiovisual speech perception.

Nath, Audrey R.; Fava, Eswen E.; Beauchamp, Michael S.

2011-01-01

351

Standards for Semantic Interoperability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metadata serves multiple purposes, including data discovery, access, and understanding. Data understanding is advanced through the use of semantic metadata that describes the meaning of the data via association with ontology elements. The use of OWL as a language standard has helped ensure sharing of concepts across ontologies. Yet the language is still weak enough that there are many different ways to express common relations such as "part of", "causes", "after", etc. to supplement the limited built-in relations of OWL. Standardization enables tools to be developed that understand such relations. This presentation presents a plan of action to advance an "OWL-Science" extension to OWL that will help advance semantic interoperability in Earth science.

Raskin, R. G.

2011-12-01

352

Practical Semantic Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many activities in the era of data-intensive astronomy are predicated upon some transference of domain knowledge and expertise from human to machine. The semantic infrastructure required to support this is no longer a pipe dream of computer science but a set of practical engineering challenges, more concerned with deployment and performance details than AI abstractions. The application of such ideas promises to help in such areas as contextual data access, exploiting distributed annotation and heterogeneous sources, and intelligent data dissemination and discovery. In this talk, we will review the status and use of semantic technologies in astronomy, particularly to address current problems in astroinformatics, with such projects as SKUA and AstroCollation.

Graham, Matthew; Gray, N.; Burke, D.

2010-01-01

353

Development of Surrounded Audio-Visual Display System for Humanoid Robot Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an audio-visual display system that is embedded in a cockpit where a human operator controls a tele-operated humanoid robot as if he was on the robot. The developed audio-visual display system consists of a surrounded visual display subsystem, a HMD with a head-tracking function, a surrounded audio display subsystem and a man-machine interface subsystem. Design principles, architectures

Takashi Nishiyama; Hiroshi Hoshino; Kenshi Suzuki; Ryoji Nakajima; Kazuya Sawada; Susumu Tachi

1999-01-01

354

Predictability modulates motor–auditory interactions in self-triggered audio–visual apparent motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied an effect of predictability in an audio–visual apparent motion task using magnetoencephalography. The synchronous\\u000a sequences of audio–visual stimuli were self-triggered by subjects. The task was to detect the direction of the apparent motion\\u000a in experimental blocks in which the motion either started from the side selected by subjects (predictable condition) or was\\u000a random (unpredictable condition). Magnetic fields yielded

Mikhail Zvyagintsev; Andrey R. Nikolaev; Krystyna A. Mathiak; Hans Menning; Ingo Hertrich; Klaus Mathiak

2008-01-01

355

Potential relevance of audio-visual integration in mammals for computational modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine typically developing infants' integration of audio-visual sensory information as a fundamental process involved in early word learning. One hundred sixty pre-linguistic children were randomly assigned to watch one of four counterbalanced versions of audio-visual video sequences. The infants' eye-movements were recorded and their looking behavior was analyzed throughout three repetitions of exposure-test-phases.

Eeva Klintfors; Francisco Lacerda

2006-01-01

356

Subliminal Semantic Priming in Speech  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have reported subliminal repetition and semantic priming in the visual modality. We transferred this paradigm to the auditory modality. Prime awareness was manipulated by a reduction of sound intensity level. Uncategorized prime words (according to a post-test) were followed by semantically related, unrelated, or repeated target words (presented without intensity reduction) and participants performed a lexical decision task (LDT). Participants with slower reaction times in the LDT showed semantic priming (faster reaction times for semantically related compared to unrelated targets) and negative repetition priming (slower reaction times for repeated compared to semantically related targets). This is the first report of semantic priming in the auditory modality without conscious categorization of the prime.

Tillmann, Barbara; Perrin, Fabien

2011-01-01

357

Anti-Realist Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

I argue that the implementation of theDummettian program of an ``anti-realist'' semanticsrequires quite different conceptions of the technicalmeaning-theoretic terms used than those presupposed byDummett. Starting from obvious incoherences in anattempt to conceive truth conditions as assertibilityconditions, I argue that for anti-realist purposesnon-epistemic semantic notions are more usefully kept apart from epistemic ones rather than beingreduced to them. Embedding an anti-realist

Wolfram Hinzen

2000-01-01

358

THE SEMANTIC HIFI PROJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SemanticHIFI European project aims at designing and prototyping tomorrow's Hi-fi systems, which will provide music lovers with innovative functions of access and manipulation of musical contents. The limitations of current equipments are mainly related to those of the music distribution media (album-based audio recordings in stereo format), with poor control features and interfaces (album\\/track selection, play, stop, volume, etc.).

Hugues Vinet

359

Semantic Resource Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Semantic Resource Framework (SRF) is a multi-level description of the data sources for search computing applications.\\u000a It responds to the need of having a structured representation of search services, amenable to service exploration, selection,\\u000a and invocation. The SRF aims at extending the Service Mart model used so far in search computing to overcome some of its limitations.\\u000a The main

Marco Brambilla; Alessandro Campi; Stefano Ceri; Silvia Quarteroni

2010-01-01

360

The semantic priming project.  

PubMed

Speeded naming and lexical decision data for 1,661 target words following related and unrelated primes were collected from 768 subjects across four different universities. These behavioral measures have been integrated with demographic information for each subject and descriptive characteristics for every item. Subjects also completed portions of the Woodcock-Johnson reading battery, three attentional control tasks, and a circadian rhythm measure. These data are available at a user-friendly Internet-based repository ( http://spp.montana.edu ). This Web site includes a search engine designed to generate lists of prime-target pairs with specific characteristics (e.g., length, frequency, associative strength, latent semantic similarity, priming effect in standardized and raw reaction times). We illustrate the types of questions that can be addressed via the Semantic Priming Project. These data represent the largest behavioral database on semantic priming and are available to researchers to aid in selecting stimuli, testing theories, and reducing potential confounds in their studies. PMID:23344737

Hutchison, Keith A; Balota, David A; Neely, James H; Cortese, Michael J; Cohen-Shikora, Emily R; Tse, Chi-Shing; Yap, Melvin J; Bengson, Jesse J; Niemeyer, Dale; Buchanan, Erin

2013-01-24

361

Clustering Deep Web Databases Semantically  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep Web database clustering is a key operation in organizing Deep Web resources. Cosine similarity in Vector Space Model\\u000a (VSM) is used as the similarity computation in traditional ways. However it cannot denote the semantic similarity between\\u000a the contents of two databases. In this paper how to cluster Deep Web databases semantically is discussed. Firstly, a fuzzy\\u000a semantic measure, which

Ling Song; Jun Ma; Po Yan; Li Lian; Dongmei Zhang

2008-01-01

362

Minimal Recursion Semantics: An Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimal recursion semantics (MRS) is a framework for computational semantics that is suitable for parsing and generation and\\u000a that can be implemented in typed feature structure formalisms. We discuss why, in general, a semantic representation with\\u000a minimal structure is desirable and illustrate how a descriptively adequate representation with a nonrecursive structure may\\u000a be achieved. MRS enables a simple formulation of

Ann Copestake; Dan Flickinger; Carl Pollard; Ivan A. Sag

2005-01-01

363

Uncertainty in the Semantic Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the recent decade, significant research activities have been directed towards the Semantic Web as future substitute\\u000a of the Web. Many experts predict that the next huge step forward in Web information technology will be achieved by adding\\u000a semantics to Web data. An important role in research towards the Semantic Web is played by formalisms and technologies for\\u000a handling uncertainty

Thomas Lukasiewicz

2009-01-01

364

Semantic and Interoperable WebGIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the property of XML, RDFs, ontology and logic, Semantic Web provides intelligent services on the Web. Taking the advantages of Semantic Web, semantic WebGIS can realize semantic interoperability and integration of GIS on the Web. The key basis of semantic WebGIS is its domain ontology. As an information exchange standard, XML is an important method of implementing semantic WebGIS.

Yi Shanzhen; Lizhu Zhou; Xing Chunxiao; Liu Qilun; Zhang Yong

2001-01-01

365

Proceedings of the Conference on Computer-Related Semantic Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

CONTENTS: Interfaces of language; The outlook for computational semantics; Some tasks for semantics; Structural semantics: Theory of sentential meaning; Semantic algorithms; Some quantitative problems in semantics and lexicology; Problems in automatic wor...

1965-01-01

366

Environmental Congruence and Symptoms of PsychopathologyA Further Exploration of the Effects of Exposure to the Jail Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the link between environmental congruence and symptoms of psychopathology among jail prisoners. Samples of New Jersey jail prisoners were administered instruments that measured environmental needs, perceived environmental resources, and symptoms of psychopathology. The needs and resources instruments were combined into a measure of environmental congruence and analyzed in conjunction with symptom scores. The results indicate that prisoners

JOHN J. GIBBS

1991-01-01

367

Stakeholders' expectations on ecosystem services affect the assessment of ecosystem services hotspots and their congruence with biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The congruence of ecosystem services (ESs) and the congruence of ES ‘hotspots’ and ‘hotspots’ of biodiversity are receiving growing interest. The thresholds used in such analyses to assess the ES presence vary widely but their effects have not been questioned. We provide an analysis of the effect of the choice of these thresholds on the overlap among ESs and the

Pierre Gos; Sandra Lavorel

2012-01-01

368

Why It Is too Early to Lose Control in Accounts of Item-Specific Proportion Congruency Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The item-specific proportion congruency (ISPC) effect is the finding of attenuated interference for mostly incongruent as compared to mostly congruent items. A debate in the Stroop literature concerns the mechanisms underlying this effect. Noting a confound between proportion congruency and contingency, Schmidt and Besner (2008) suggested that ISPC effects are entirely contingency based. We introduce a broader theoretical analysis that

Julie M. Bugg; Larry L. Jacoby; Swati Chanani

2011-01-01

369

Measuring Transgender Individuals' Comfort with Gender Identity and Appearance: Development and Validation of the Transgender Congruence Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Our study used the construct of congruence to conceptualize the degree to which transgender individuals feel genuine, authentic, and comfortable with their gender identity and external appearance. In Study 1, the Transgender Congruence scale (TCS) was developed, and data from 162 transgender individuals were used to estimate the reliability and…

Kozee, Holly B.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Bauerband, L. Andrew

2012-01-01

370

Why It Is Too Early to Lose Control in Accounts of Item-Specific Proportion Congruency Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The item-specific proportion congruency (ISPC) effect is the finding of attenuated interference for mostly incongruent as compared to mostly congruent items. A debate in the Stroop literature concerns the mechanisms underlying this effect. Noting a confound between proportion congruency and contingency, Schmidt and Besner (2008) suggested that…

Bugg, Julie M.; Jacoby, Larry L.; Chanani, Swati

2011-01-01

371

Congruence or Discrepancy? Comparing Patients' Health Valuations and Physicians' Treatment Goals for Rehabilitation for Patients with Chronic Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study was to test the congruence of patients' health valuations and physicians' treatment goals for the rehabilitation of chronically ill patients. In addition, patient characteristics associated with greater or less congruence were to be determined. In a questionnaire study, patients' health valuations and physicians' goals were…

Nagl, Michaela; Farin, Erik

2012-01-01

372

Examining the Degree of Congruency between a Traditional Career Instrument and an Online Self-Assessment Exercise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comparative study examined the degree of congruency between the results of the Self-Directed Search Form E (J. L. Holland, 1990) and an online self-assessment career planning exercise. A relatively high level of congruence was found between the 2 measures. Implications for career counselors and for future research studies are briefly…

Miller, Mark J.

2007-01-01

373

Semantic representation of multimedia content: Knowledge representation and semantic indexing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a framework for unified, personalized access to heterogeneous multimedia content in distributed repositories. Focusing on semantic analysis of multimedia documents, metadata, user queries and user profiles, it contributes to the bridging of the gap between the semantic nature of user queries and raw multimedia documents. The proposed approach utilizes as input visual content analysis results,

Phivos Mylonas; Thanos Athanasiadis; Manolis Wallace; Yannis S. Avrithis; Stefanos D. Kollias

2008-01-01

374

Adding Semantics to Business Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

· Lack of flexibility for extension of the exploratory capabilities. Despite the importance of analytical tools to organisations, they still lack the inference power needed to solve the requests of decision makers in a flexible way. Our approach aims at integrating business semantics into analytical tools by providing semantic descriptions of exploratory functionalities and available services. We propose an architecture

Denilson Sell; Liliana Cabral; Enrico Motta; John Domingue; Roberto Pacheco

2005-01-01

375

NASA and The Semantic Web.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We provide an overview of several ongoing NASA endeavors based on concepts, systems, and technology from the Semantic Web arena. Indeed NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic Web Technology and we describe ongoing and completed R & D efforts ...

N. Ashish

2005-01-01

376

Algorithmic detection of semantic similarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic extraction of semantic information from text and links in Web pages is key to improving the quality of search results. However, the assessment of automatic semantic measures is limited by the coverage of user studies, which do not scale with the size, heterogeneity, and growth of the Web. Here we propose to leverage human-generated metadata --- namely topical directories

Ana Gabriela Maguitman; Filippo Menczer; Heather Roinestad; Alessandro Vespignani

2005-01-01

377

The Problem of Naturalizing Semantics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates conceptual barriers prevalent in the works of both proponents and opponents of semantic naturalism. Searches for a tenable definition of naturalism according to which one can be a realist, a non-reductionist, and a naturalist about semantic content. (Author/VWL)|

Sullivan, Arthur

2000-01-01

378

The Semantics of Propositional Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

. In this paper we investigate the semantic properties of contexts.We describe the syntax and semantics of the propositional logicof context. This logic extends classical propositional logic in two ways.Firstly, a new modality, ist(; OE), is introduced. It is used to expressthat the sentence, OE, holds in the context . Secondly, each context hasits own vocabulary, i.e. a set of

Sasa Buvac; Vanja Buvac; Ian A. Mason

1994-01-01

379

Unconstrained Retrieval from Semantic Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines developmental change in processes used to retrieve information from semantic memory. Twenty-nine 8-, 12-, and 21-year-olds were asked to name as many animals and pieces of furniture as they could in separate 7-minute intervals. Results suggested that information in semantic memory changes with age, but that retrieval processes do not.…

Kail, Robert; and Nippold, Marilyn A.

1984-01-01

380

On communicating with semantic machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantics is the essence of human communication. It concerns the manufacture and use of symbols as representations to exchange meanings. Information technology is faced with the problem of using intelligent machines as intermediaries for interpersonal communication. The problem of designing such semantic machines has been intractable because brains and machines work on very different principles. A solution to the problem

Walter J Freeman

381

Improving Semantic Web Service Discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic Web Services (SWS) propose to extend the traditional Web Services technologies on the way to consolidate ontologies and semantics. This makes it possible to select, integrate and invocate services dynamically. In this way, services are able to dynamically adapt themselves to changes without human intervention. The main purpose of this paper is to present an algorithm for matching SWS.

J. Javier Samper; F. Javier Adell; Leo Van Den Berg; Juan José Martínez

2008-01-01

382

Semantic subclasses of temporal nouns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate and justify semantic coding of temporal nouns in Russian for Russian-to-English Machine Translation to facilitate syntactic parsing of Russian sentences and their subsequent translation into English. The paper deals only with the semantic classification, based on A. A. Kholodovich's theory of subclasses. The temporal nouns are selected for justification of four subclasses:

Michael Zarechnak

383

Evolutionary Self-Adaptive Semantics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present SASC, Self-Adaptive Semantic Crossover, a new class of crossover operators for genetic programming. SASC operators are designed to induce the emergence and then preserve good building-blocks, using meta-control techniques based on semantic compatibility measures. SASC performance is tested in a case study concerning the replication of investment funds.

Inhasz, Rafael; Stern, Julio M.

2011-03-01

384

Can personality traits predict pathological responses to audiovisual stimulation?  

PubMed

The "Pockemon shock" is the most famous accident in the history of the broadcasting industry in Japan. Based on the experiences of this unfortunate accident from famous animation program "Pocket Monster", this study focused on the psychology and psychosomatics of the patients. A head-mounted display was used as the three-dimensional image presentation device and "Descent", a free software shooting game, was used as the software. Ten healthy adult male volunteers were used in this experiment after obtaining their informed consent. The oxygen metabolic change in the anterior lobe of the brain was measured by near infrared spectroscopy and recorded on an electrocardiogram. The mental scaling tendency of the object was analyzed using the type A behavior pattern and the hostility scaling. The Cook and Medley hostility (HO) scale from the Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI) was also used in this experiment. From this scaling methodology, the paranoid scale, cynicism scale, lie scale, social support quality and social support quantity were calculated. All measured time series data were kept in the normal range, and no fatal arrhythmia or epilepsy were observed during experiments. In some cases, the brain oxygen metabolism may completely differ for the objects of Type A and Type B behavior patterns. On the whole, correlation did not become significant in type A scaling and hostility scaling. In a comparison of the percent changes of the HF in HRV with lie scaling, significant negative correlation was observed. The social support quantity was calculated from Cook and Medley, and significant negative correlations were observed with percent changes of LF/HF in HRV. The lie scale and social support quantity are opposite scaling. The sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system have an opposite function also. Therefore, our results showed an interesting phenomenon, when considering the relationship between the autonomic function and the pathophysiological reaction to the audiovisual stimulations. As for the photo sensitive epilepsy, it was reported to be only 5-10% for all patients. Therefore, 90% or more of the cause could not be determined in patients who started a morbid response. The results in this study suggest that the autonomic function was connected to the mental tendency of the objects. By examining such directivity, it is expected that subjects, which show morbid reaction to an audiovisual stimulation, can be screened beforehand. PMID:14572681

Yambe, Tomoyuki; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Fukudo, Shin; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Shizuka, Kazuhiko; Nanka, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Akira; Abe, Ken-ichi; Shouji, Tomonori; Hongo, Michio; Tabayashi, Kouichi; Nitta, Shin-ichi

2003-10-01

385

Audio-visual biofeedback for respiratory-gated radiotherapy: Impact of audio instruction and audio-visual biofeedback on respiratory-gated radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Respiratory gating is a commercially available technology for reducing the deleterious effects of motion during imaging and treatment. The efficacy of gating is dependent on the reproducibility within and between respiratory cycles during imaging and treatment. The aim of this study was to determine whether audio-visual biofeedback can improve respiratory reproducibility by decreasing residual motion and therefore increasing the accuracy of gated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 331 respiratory traces were collected from 24 lung cancer patients. The protocol consisted of five breathing training sessions spaced about a week apart. Within each session the patients initially breathed without any instruction (free breathing), with audio instructions and with audio-visual biofeedback. Residual motion was quantified by the standard deviation of the respiratory signal within the gating window. Results: Audio-visual biofeedback significantly reduced residual motion compared with free breathing and audio instruction. Displacement-based gating has lower residual motion than phase-based gating. Little reduction in residual motion was found for duty cycles less than 30%; for duty cycles above 50% there was a sharp increase in residual motion. Conclusions: The efficiency and reproducibility of gating can be improved by: incorporating audio-visual biofeedback, using a 30-50% duty cycle, gating during exhalation, and using displacement-based gating.

George, Rohini [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Chung, Theodore D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Vedam, Sastry S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan [Department of Biostatistics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Weiss, Elisabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Georg-August-Universitaet, Goettingen (Germany); Keall, Paul J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)]. E-mail: pjkeall@vcu.edu

2006-07-01

386

U.S. Government Films, 1971 Supplement; A Catalog of Audiovisual Materials for Rent and Sale by the National Audiovisual Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The first edition of the National Audiovisual Center sales catalog (LI 003875) is updated by this supplement. Changes in price and order number as well as deletions from the 1969 edition, are noted in this 1971 version. Purchase and rental information for the sound films and silent filmstrips is provided. The broad subject categories are:…

National Archives and Records Service (GSA), Washington, DC. National Audiovisual Center.

387

The Audio-Visual Services in Fifteen African Countries. Comparative Study on the Administration of Audio-Visual Services in Advanced and Developing Countries. Part Four. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the fourth part of a comparative study on the administration of audiovisual services in advanced and developing countries, this UNESCO-funded study reports on the African countries of Cameroun, Republic of Central Africa, Dahomey, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Swaziland, Tunisia, Upper Volta and Zambia. Information…

Jongbloed, Harry J. L.

388

Audio-Visual Aids for Pre-School and Primary School Children. A Training Document. Aids to Programming UNICEF Assistance to Education.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This discussion of the importance and scope of audiovisual aids in the educational programs and activities designed for children in developing countries includes the significance of audiovisual aids in pre-school and primary school education, types of aud...

S. Narayan

1980-01-01

389

"Pre-Semantic" Cognition Revisited: Critical Differences between Semantic Aphasia and Semantic Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal "pre-semantic" tasks, e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are…

Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

2010-01-01

390

When knowing can replace seeing in audiovisual integration of actions.  

PubMed

The ability to predict the effects of actions is necessary to behave properly in our physical and social world. Here, we describe how the ability to predict the consequence of complex gestures can change the way we integrate sight and sound when relevant visual information is missing. Six drummers and six novices were asked to judge audiovisual synchrony for drumming point-light displays where the visual information was manipulated to eliminate or include the drumstick-drumhead impact point. In the condition with only the arm information novices were unable to detect asynchrony whereas drummers were able to. Additionally, in the conditions that included the impact point drummers perceived the best alignment when the sight preceded the sound, while in the arm only condition they perceived the best alignment when the sound occurred together with or preceded the sight, as it would be expected if they were predicting the beat occurrence. Taken together these findings suggest that humans can acquire, through practice, internal models of action which can be used to replace missing information when integrating multisensory signals from the environment. PMID:19121519

Petrini, Karin; Russell, Melanie; Pollick, Frank

2009-01-01

391

Searching for audiovisual correspondence in multiple speaker scenarios.  

PubMed

A critical question in multisensory processing is how the constant information flow that arrives to our different senses is organized in coherent representations. Some authors claim that pre-attentive detection of inter-sensory correlations supports crossmodal binding, whereas other findings indicate that attention plays a crucial role. We used visual and auditory search tasks for speaking faces to address the role of selective spatial attention in audiovisual binding. Search efficiency amongst faces for the match with a voice declined with the number of faces being monitored concurrently, consistent with an attentive search mechanism. In contrast, search amongst auditory speech streams for the match with a face was independent of the number of streams being monitored concurrently, as long as localization was not required. We suggest that the fundamental differences in the way in which auditory and visual information is encoded play a limiting role in crossmodal binding. Based on these unisensory limitations, we provide a unified explanation for several previous apparently contradictory findings. PMID:21431431

Alsius, Agnès; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

2011-03-23

392

Reduced audiovisual integration in synesthesia - evidence from bimodal speech perception.  

PubMed

Recent research suggests synesthesia as a result of a hypersensitive multimodal binding mechanism. To address the question whether multimodal integration is altered in synesthetes in general, grapheme-colour and auditory-visual synesthetes were investigated using speech-related stimulation in two behavioural experiments. First, we used the McGurk illusion to test the strength and number of illusory perceptions in synesthesia. In a second step, we analysed the gain in speech perception coming from seen articulatory movements under acoustically noisy conditions. We used disyllabic nouns as stimulation and varied signal-to-noise ratio of the auditory stream presented concurrently to a matching video of the speaker. We hypothesized that if synesthesia is due to a general hyperbinding mechanism this group of subjects should be more susceptible to McGurk illusions and profit more from the visual information during audiovisual speech perception. The results indicate that there are differences between synesthetes and controls concerning multisensory integration - but in the opposite direction as hypothesized. Synesthetes showed a reduced number of illusions and had a reduced gain in comprehension by viewing matching articulatory movements in comparison to control subjects. Our results indicate that rather than having a hypersensitive binding mechanism, synesthetes show weaker integration of vision and audition. PMID:23279836

Sinke, Christopher; Neufeld, Janina; Zedler, Markus; Emrich, Hinderk M; Bleich, Stefan; Münte, Thomas F; Szycik, Gregor R

2012-12-20

393

Audio-visual assistance in co-creating transition knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth system and climate impact research results point to the tremendous ecologic, economic and societal implications of climate change. Specifically people will have to adopt lifestyles that are very different from those they currently strive for in order to mitigate severe changes of our known environment. It will most likely not suffice to transfer the scientific findings into international agreements and appropriate legislation. A transition is rather reliant on pioneers that define new role models, on change agents that mainstream the concept of sufficiency and on narratives that make different futures appealing. In order for the research community to be able to provide sustainable transition pathways that are viable, an integration of the physical constraints and the societal dynamics is needed. Hence the necessary transition knowledge is to be co-created by social and natural science and society. To this end, the Climate Media Factory - in itself a massively transdisciplinary venture - strives to provide an audio-visual connection between the different scientific cultures and a bi-directional link to stake holders and society. Since methodology, particular language and knowledge level of the involved is not the same, we develop new entertaining formats on the basis of a "complexity on demand" approach. They present scientific information in an integrated and entertaining way with different levels of detail that provide entry points to users with different requirements. Two examples shall illustrate the advantages and restrictions of the approach.

Hezel, Bernd; Broschkowski, Ephraim; Kropp, Jürgen P.

2013-04-01

394

Difference between diotic and dichotic presentations on audiovisual synchronization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant differences were found between diotic and dichotic presentations of auditory stimuli on audiovisual synchronization. Two types of moving sphere were used for visual stimuli; (a) a sphere moved straight from left to right at a constant velocity, and (b) it moved up and right and then turned down and right at the midpoint. Auditory stimuli included (1) a continuous pure tone (1000 Hz), (2) a sequence of two short tones of 30 ms (1000 Hz), (3) a sweep tone (500 Hz --> 1500 Hz), and (4) a Frequency-Modulated tone (500 Hz --> 1500 Hz --> 500 Hz). The duration of these stimuli was 240 ms each. Visual stimuli were presented on a Liquid-Crystal Display. Auditory stimuli were presented by headphones. The time difference between auditory and visual stimuli was changed between -360 ms and +360 ms. The sound source linearly moved from left to right in case of dichotic presentation. Subjective tests, using the forced-choice of synchronized or not, clarified the significant differences between diotic and dichotic presentations when the auditory stimulus (1) or (4) was presented with the visual stimulus (b). No significance was obtained for other combinations of auditory and visual stimuli. [Work supported by NTT.

Nakamura, Rie; Aikawa, Kiyoaki

2005-04-01

395

Event-related potentials with the Stroop colour-word task: timing of semantic conflict.  

PubMed

Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) elicited by congruent and incongruent colour-word stimuli of a Stroop paradigm, in a task in which participants were required to judge the congruence/incongruence of the two dimensions of the stimuli, were recorded in order to study the timing of the semantic conflict. The reaction time to colour-word incongruent stimuli was significantly longer than the reaction time to congruent stimuli (the Stroop effect). A temporal Principal Components Analysis was applied to the data to identify the ERP components. Three positive components were identified in the 300-600 ms interval in response to the congruent and incongruent stimuli: First P3, P3b and PSW. The factor scores corresponding to the First P3 and P3b components were significantly smaller for the incongruent stimuli than for the congruent stimuli. No differences between stimuli were observed in the factor scores corresponding to the PSW or in the ERP latencies. We conclude that the temporal locus of the semantic conflict, which intervenes in generating the Stroop effect, may occur within the time interval in which the First P3 and P3b components are identified, i.e. at approximately 300-450 ms post-stimulus. We suggest that the semantic conflict delays the start of the response selection process, which explains the longer reaction time to incongruent stimuli. PMID:19171167

Zurrón, Montserrat; Pouso, María; Lindín, Mónica; Galdo, Santiago; Díaz, Fernando

2009-01-13

396

An Audio-Visual Resource Notebook for Adult Consumer Education. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Audio-Visual Aids for Adult Consumer Education, with Special Emphasis on Materials for Elderly, Low-Income and Handicapped Consumers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is an annotated bibliography of audio-visual aids in the field of consumer education, intended especially for use among low-income, elderly, and handicapped consumers. It was developed to aid consumer education program planners in finding audio-visual resources to enhance their presentations. Materials listed include 293 resources…

Virginia State Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Richmond, VA.

397

An Audio-Visual Resource Notebook for Adult Consumer Education. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Audio-Visual Aids for Adult Consumer Education, with Special Emphasis on Materials for Elderly, Low-Income and Handicapped Consumers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is an annotated bibliography of audio-visual aids in the field of consumer education, intended especially for use among low-income, elderly, and handicapped consumers. It was developed to aid consumer education program planners in finding audio-visual resources to enhance their presentations. Materials listed include 293 resources…

Virginia State Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Richmond, VA.

398

Emotional Experiencing in Women with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Congruence Between Facial Expressivity and Self-Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The congruence between facial expressivity and self-report of emotion was examined among 11 women with sexual assault-related PTSD and 8 women without PTSD, under both a neutral and a sexual assault prime condition. The PTSD group demonstrated some incongruities in emotional responding. Although the PTSD group was as facially expressive as the control group, they reported more arousal to the

Amy W. Wagner; Lizabeth Roemer; Susan M. Orsillo; Brett T. Litz

2003-01-01

399

Congruency as a Nonspecific Perceptual Property Contributing to Newborns' Face Preference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Past research has shown that top-heaviness is a perceptual property that plays a crucial role in triggering newborns' preference toward faces. The present study examined the contribution of a second configural property, "congruency," to newborns' face preference. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that when embedded in nonfacelike stimuli,…

Cassia, Viola Macchi; Valenza, Eloisa; Simion, Francesca; Leo, Irene

2008-01-01

400

Alternatives to Difference Scores as Dependent Variables in the Study of Congruence in Organizational Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In organizational research, difference scores and profile similarity indices are often used as dependent variables in studies predicting the congruence (i.e., fit, match, similarity, agreement) between two constructs. Unfortunately, this practice introduces serious conceptual and methodological problems that render results ambiguous and potentially misleading. This article proposes an alternative procedure that avoids these problems but fully captures the effects of

Jeffrey R. Edwards

1995-01-01

401

Epistemological Congruency in Community College Classrooms: Effects of Epistemological Beliefs on Students' Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors explore how faculty-student epistemological congruency (EC) affects students' experiences and integration into the academic community. EC is defined as the level of similarity in beliefs about learning between a student and a faculty member. Because academic integration has been tied to retention, they investigated whether…

Fruge, Cheryl W.; Ropers-Huilman, Rebecca

2008-01-01

402

Proximity Congruency and Proximity Incongruency: Factors Affecting the State of the Art of Environmental Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents arguments for the premise that, from an instructional point of view, the most effective environmental education program is one that provides for proximity congruency (direct interaction with the natural and man-made environment) as opposed to proximity incongruency. The author suggests that if the teacher is interested in…

Peters, Richard

403

The role of speech-gesture congruency and delay in remembering action events  

Microsoft Academic Search

When watching others describe events, does information from their speech and gestures affect our memory representations for the gist and surface form of the described events? Does our reliance on these memory representations change over time? Forty participants watched videos of stories narrated by an actor. Each story included three target events that differed in their speech-gesture congruency for particular

Alexia Galati; Arthur G. Samuel

2011-01-01

404

Psychometric Properties of the Intergenerational Congruence in Immigrant Families-Parent Scale in Chinese Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study described in this article tested the psychometric properties of the Intergenerational Congruence in Immigrant Families--Parent Scale (ICIF-PS), an instrument developed to assess intergenerational conflict in immigrant families and evaluate interventions to ameliorate the conflict. ICIF-PS's psychometric properties were tested in a…

Ying, Yu-Wen; Tracy, Lisa C.

2004-01-01

405

Does Discourse Congruence Influence Spoken Language Comprehension before Lexical Association? Evidence from Event-Related Potentials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an event-related potential (ERP) norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a…

Boudewyn, Megan A.; Gordon, Peter C.; Long, Debra; Polse, Lara; Swaab, Tamara Y.

2012-01-01

406

The effects of rater training, job analysis format and congruence of training on job evaluation ratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted in order to assess the effects of three independent variables, rater training (accuracy versus error versus dimension), job analysis format (descriptions versus specifications) and congruence of training (congruent versus incongruent) on differential accuracy and halo and leniency error of job evaluation ratings. Subjects were 144 college students at a large midwestern university. The results indicated a

Douglas F. Cellar; John R. Curtis; Kim Kohlepp; Patricia Poczapski; Sameena Mohiuddin

1989-01-01

407

The Congruence between Industry Demand and Professional School Response in Architecture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought insight into the congruence between knowledge, skills and attitudes required by architecture practitioners and the benefits of professional school education. Twenty-four senior architects from Los Angeles architecture firms and 11 professional school deans and faculty members from the Graduate School of Architecture and Urban…

Hansen, Ronald

408

Congruence in family dyadic perceptions of pain controllability between older adult cancer patients and family caregivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have shown that perception of control over pain contributes to higher levels of well being and thus, is highly valued by both patients and their family caregivers (Anderson, 1998; Wells, 1994) trying to manage cancer pain in the home. However, there have been no studies that have investigated how congruence in perceptions of control over pain between patients

Cheryl K Riley-Doucet

2002-01-01

409

Stereotyping, congruence and presentation order: Interpretative biases in utilizing offender profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores how offender profiles might influence the way in which individuals interpret investigative information dependent on its congruence with the investigators’ own beliefs. Participants, comprising 222 lay people, completed an online questionnaire where a profile was either congruent or incongruent with a stereotypical or an atypical suspect who was presented before or after the introduction of the profile

Benjamin C. Marshall; Laurence J. Alison

2007-01-01

410

The effects of college major and job field congruence on job satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated predictors of job satisfaction and builds on previous research on the effects of bachelor’s degree majors and job field congruence on job satisfaction. Data on workers’ job experiences in 2001 were matched to those workers’ college experiences across 30 institutions and background characteristics up to 25 years earlier. With statistical controls for demographic, socioeconomic, and academic characteristics,

Gregory C. Wolniak; Ernest T. Pascarella

2005-01-01

411

Examining working memory load and congruency effects on affordances and conventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is a debate about whether designers should draw a distinction between perceptual affordances and cultural conventions, there are few behavioral studies. We examined the impact of working memory load and expected button-to-action mapping congruency on affordances and conventions. The findings suggest both sides of the debate are correct. Learned conventions were found to structure responses towards expected actions,

Jeremiah D. Still; Veronica J. Dark

2010-01-01

412

Life Course Stage in Young Adulthood and Intergenerational Congruence in Family Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We investigated how intergenerational congruence in family-related attitudes depends on life course stage in young adulthood. Recent data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study were used; the present sample included 2,041 dyads of young adults and their parents. Findings are discussed in terms of the elasticity in intergenerational attitude…

Bucx, Freek; Raaijmakers, Quinten; van Wel, Frits

2010-01-01

413

HEEGAARD GENUS, CUT NUMBER, WEAK p-CONGRUENCE, AND QUANTUM INVARIANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use quantum invariants to define a 3-manifold invariant j_p which lies in\\u000athe non-negative integers. We relate j_p to the Heegard genus, and the cut\\u000anumber. We show that j_$ is an invariant of weak p-congruence.

PATRICK M. GILMER

2009-01-01

414

Responses of Chinese Consumers to Sex Appeals in International Advertising: A Test of Congruency Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the use of sex appeal is on the rise in China to advertise products ranging from beer to cars, their effect on Chinese consumers is largely unknown and may be incongruent with the Chinese culture. This study adopts the congruency theory to examine the effects of sex appeal in international advertising and proposes several testable hypotheses. In an experiment,

Geng Cui; Xiaoyan Yang

2009-01-01

415

Effects of Contextual Congruence in Advertising Execution: The Case of Japanese Culture-Bound Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of congruence in advertising execution and relevance to the target audience were tested in a specific Japanese cultural context. An experiment was designed to test if significant differences existed between an advertisement for a traditional piece of clothing as modeled by a Japanese and an identical advertisement as modeled by a Westerner. The selected piece of clothing was

Emmanuel J. Chéron; Rodi C. Pau

2009-01-01

416

Problems and results in tame congruence theory. A survey of the '88 Budapest workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tame congruence theory is a powerful new tool, developed by Ralph McKenzie, to investigate finite algebraic structures. In the summer of 1988, many prominent researchers in this field visited Budapest, Hungary. This paper is a survey of problems and ideas that came up during these visits. It is intended both for beginners and experts, who want to do research, or

Emil W. Kiss; Peter Pröhle

1992-01-01

417

Affective priming with liked and disliked persons: Prime visibility determines congruency and incongruency effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research investigated whether the affective priming paradigm from Fazio, Sanbonmatsu, Powell, and Kardes (1986) can be used as an implicit measure of person schemata. Names and faces of friends or romantic partners and of a disliked person were used as primes. It was explored whether: (1) stimuli relating to liked and disliked persons elicit congruency priming effects similar

Rainer Banse

2001-01-01

418

Dimensions of advertising attitudes : Congruence between Turkish and New Zealand consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Examines the similarities and differences in the dimensionality of advertising attitudes between Turkish and New Zealand consumers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Survey data, collected by questionnaire from 303 respondents in Turkey and 189 respondents in New Zealand were first analysed separately using principal components analysis to identify the underlying dimensions of advertising attitudes. The factor congruency technique was then used

Nicholas J. Ashill; Ugur Yavas

2005-01-01

419

Person-environment congruence in relation to career change and career persistence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined Holland’s theoretical proposition, that personality-work environment congruence influences career stability and change, with a sample of 212 career changers (respondents who expressed an intent to change career and had engaged in preliminary career change activity) and 249 career persisters (respondents who indicated an intent to remain in their current career). Independent groups ANCOVA (controlling for age and

Ross Donohue

2006-01-01

420

Parent-Adolescent Congruency in Reports of Adolescent Sexual Behavior and in Communications about Sexual Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined mother-adolescent congruence in reports of adolescent sexual behavior and communication about sex in 745 African American adolescents (ages 14-17). Found that adolescent perceptions and reports were more predictive of adolescent sexual behavior than maternal reports. Mothers underestimated their teens' sexual activity, and teens…

Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia J.; Gordon, Vivian V.

1998-01-01

421

Dropout Prediction Within a Broad Psychosocial Context: An Analysis of Boshier's Congruence Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the best known conceptualizations of dropout in adult education is Boshier's congruence model. This model, however, based largely on self concept incongruency variables, has been criticized for its psychological reductionism. In addition, the model's generalizability has been questioned because it was based upon a single study using a sample of university continuing education students. To test the validity

D. R. Garrison

1987-01-01

422

Stroop Interference following Mood Induction: Emotionality, Mood Congruence, and Concern Relevance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research using the emotion Stroop task has established that individuals with various emotional disorders exhibit increased interference for stimuli specifically related to their disorder due to the concern relevance and negativity of these stimuli. Our study expands this research to normal populations. We examined the influence of emotionality, mood congruence, and concern relevance following experimental mood-induction procedures (MIPs) on emotion

Eva Gilboa-Schechtman; William Revelle; Ian H. Gotlib

2000-01-01

423

Model order reduction of nonuniform transmission lines using integrated congruence transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new algorithm based on Integrated Congruence transform for the analysis of both uniform and nonuniform transmission lines. The key advantage of the proposed algorithm is that constructing a spanning orthonormal basis for the space-dependent moments is done without computing these moments explicitly. The proposed algorithm thus carries the numerical efficiency of Krylov-based projection techniques of lumped

Emad Gad; Michel S. Nakhla

2003-01-01

424

CONGR: A FORTRAN IV Program to Compute Coefficients of Congruence for Factor Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A Fortran IV program which computes either of the coefficients of congruence (psi or phi) used in comparison of factors in factor analysis is presented. Output consists of a non-symmetric matrix of factor coefficients. Listings of the program, results and test data are available. (Author/JKS)|

Myers, Donald E.

1976-01-01

425

Congruence between the Democratic Purposes of Schools and School Principal Training in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines and compares the recent emphases in school education and school leadership training in Australia and the state of Tasmania as they relate to the democratic purposes of schools. It finds a strong emphasis on the democratic purposes of schools and congruence between these purposes and the means of achieving them, in respect of…

Mulford, Bill

2004-01-01

426

Culture and Congruence: The Fit Between Management Practices and National Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The financial performance of European and Asian work units of one multinational company is examined as a function of the congruence between management practices and national culture. Using Hofstede's five national culture dimensions and analogous management practices, we find that work unit financial performance is higher when management practices in the work unit are congruent with the national culture.Journal of

Karen L. Newman; Stanley D. Nollen

1996-01-01

427

Analysis of Nurse Theorists' Definition of Health for Congruence with Holism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the definitions of health of seven nurse theorists for congruence with the American Holistic Nurses' Association's (AHNA) definition of health. The two themes of wholeness and change in the AHNA definition reflect the Fawcett categorization of worldviews as organismic versus mechanistic and change versus persistence. The organismic view assumes the person to be a proactive integrated being;

Suzanne H. Brouse

1992-01-01

428

Effects of aroma–texture congruency within dairy custard on satiation and food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food intake regulation comprises numerous components from peripheral and central pathways, including sensory and cognitive elements. This study investigated if congruency in different aroma–texture combinations within a dairy product influences satiation and food consumption in humans. Among seven different aromas, vanilla was rated as congruent and lemon as incongruent aroma in the context of creamy texture, while both aromas were

Lucien F. Harthoorn; Rianne M. A. J. Ruijschop; Fanny Weinbreck; Maurits J. Burgering; Rene A. De Wijk; Carina T. Ponne; Johannes H. F. Bult

2008-01-01

429

A triangulation analysis of value congruency in corporate Spain: American dream or Spanish reality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construct of value congruency has become the centre of scholarly as well as practitioner attention in the past two decades. Theoretical reasoning, however, has mainly originated in an Anglo Saxon context accompanied by scarce and contradictory empirical results. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore further the construct and determine its presence in the relatively unexplored cultural

D. Knoppen; Simon L. Dolan; M. Díez-Piñol; R. Bell

2006-01-01

430

The performance of the Congruence Among Distance Matrices (CADM) test in phylogenetic analysis  

PubMed Central

Background CADM is a statistical test used to estimate the level of Congruence Among Distance Matrices. It has been shown in previous studies to have a correct rate of type I error and good power when applied to dissimilarity matrices and to ultrametric distance matrices. Contrary to most other tests of incongruence used in phylogenetic analysis, the null hypothesis of the CADM test assumes complete incongruence of the phylogenetic trees instead of congruence. In this study, we performed computer simulations to assess the type I error rate and power of the test. It was applied to additive distance matrices representing phylogenies and to genetic distance matrices obtained from nucleotide sequences of different lengths that were simulated on randomly generated trees of varying sizes, and under different evolutionary conditions. Results Our results showed that the test has an accurate type I error rate and good power. As expected, power increased with the number of objects (i.e., taxa), the number of partially or completely congruent matrices and the level of congruence among distance matrices. Conclusions Based on our results, we suggest that CADM is an excellent candidate to test for congruence and, when present, to estimate its level in phylogenomic studies where numerous genes are analysed simultaneously.

2011-01-01

431

Vocational identity and career choice congruence of gifted and talented high school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the career development of gifted high school juniorss in terms of vocational identity and congruence. The My Vo;cational Situation (MVS)was used to measure the career development of gifted high school ljuniors. Gender differences in vocational identity were found. Students who hasd tentative career and college major choices were found to have a higher level of vocational identity

Alvin S. Leung

1998-01-01

432

Chinese Character Decoding: A Semantic Bias?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effects of semantic and phonetic radicals on Chinese character decoding were examined. Our results suggest that semantic and phonetic radicals are each available for access when a corresponding task emphasizes one or the other kind of radical. But in a more neutral lexical recognition task, the semantic radical is more informative. Semantic

Williams, Clay; Bever, Thomas

2010-01-01

433

The multiple semantics hypothesis: Multiple confusions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss the issue of multiple versus unitary semantics. We argue that the notion of multiple semantics (as currently articulated) does not, in fact, represent a theory of semantic organisation but is, instead, an arbitrary conjunction of a set of independent assumptions which are either unmotivated or, if motivated, equally compatible with a unitary semantics hypothesis. Furthermore,

Alfonso Caramazza; Argye E. Hillis; Brenda C. Rapp; Cristina Romani

1990-01-01

434

A Generative Model for Semantic Role Labeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining the semantic role of sentence constituents is a key task in determining sentence meanings lying behind a veneer of variant syntactic expres- sion. We present a model of natural language generation from semantics using the FrameNet semantic role and frame ontology. We train the model using the FrameNet corpus and apply it to the task of automatic semantic role

Cynthia A. Thompson; Roger Levy; Christopher D. Manning

2003-01-01

435

Toward an Emergent View of Lexical Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I propose that the principles of Emergent Grammar (Hopper 1987, 1998) can be applied to lexical semantics. I discuss three instances of discourse semantics to show why an emergent view of semantics can provide a realistic account of semantics in discourse. The three cases are: 1) emergence and negotiation of meaning due to participant interaction in discourse;

Hongyin Tao

2003-01-01

436

Semantic Image Segmentation and Object Labeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a framework for simulta- neous image segmentation and object labeling leading to automatic image annotation. Focusing on semantic analysis of images, it con- tributes to knowledge-assisted multimedia analysis and bridging the gap between semantics and low level visual features. The proposed framework operates at semantic level using possible semantic labels, formally represented as fuzzy sets,

Thanos Athanasiadis; Phivos Mylonas; Yannis S. Avrithis; Stefanos D. Kollias

2007-01-01

437

Semantic Vector Products: Some Initial Investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic vector models have proven their worth in a number of natural language applications whose goals can be accomplished by modelling individual semantic concepts and measuring similarities between them. By comparison, the area of semantic compositionality in these models has so far remained underdeveloped. This will be a crucial hurdle for semantic vector models: in order to play a fuller

Dominic Widdows

438

A Metadata Approach to Resolving Semantic Conflicts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a rule-based ap- proach to semantic specification that can be used to establish semantic agreement be- tween a source and receiver. Query process- ing techniques use these specifications along with conversion routines and query modifi- cation to guarantee correct data semantics. This work also examines the effect of chang- ing data semantics. These changes may

Michael Siegel; Stuart E. Madnick

1991-01-01

439

A net-based semantics for VHDL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The VHDL standard gives only an informal description of the semantics of VHDL. To apply formal verification techniques, a precise semantics definition is necessary. A formal semantics for VHDL based on interpreted Petri nets is defined. The presented semantics is compositional and provides a link to automatic verification methods for VHDL based designs

Werner Damm; Bernhard Josko; R. Schlijr

1993-01-01

440

Bibliographic control of audiovisuals: analysis of a cataloging project using OCLC.  

PubMed

The staff of the Quillen-Dishner College of Medicine Library cataloged 702 audiovisual titles between July 1, 1982, and June 30, 1983, using the OCLC database. This paper discusses the library's audiovisual collection and describes the method and scope of a study conducted during this project, the cataloging standards and conventions adopted, the assignment and use of NLM classification, the provision of summaries for programs, and the amount of staff time expended in cataloging typical items. An analysis of the use of OCLC for this project resulted in the following findings: the rate of successful searches for audiovisual copy was 82.4%; the error rate for records used was 41.9%; modifications were required in every record used; the Library of Congress and seven member institutions provided 62.8% of the records used. It was concluded that the effort to establish bibliographic control of audiovisuals is not widespread and that expanded and improved audiovisual cataloging by the Library of Congress and the National Library of Medicine would substantially contribute to that goal. PMID:2581645

Curtis, J A; Davison, F M

1985-04-01

441

Enhancing Web Search with Heterogeneous Semantic Knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores four kinds of semantic knowledge to improve keyword-based Web search, including thesauruses, categories, ontologies, and social annotations. These heterogeneous semantic knowledge represent meanings of Web information, thus they can be used to improve search results in respect of semantic relevance. Currently, different semantic search paradigms have been developed for different kind of semantic knowledge respectively. However, how to make the most of all heterogeneous semantic knowledge to optimize Web search is still a big challenge in practice. To these ends, this paper proposes an integrated semantic search mechanism to incorporate textual information and keyword search with heterogeneous semantic knowledge and semantic search. Experiments show that the proposed mechanism effectively integrates heterogeneous semantic knowledge to improve Web search.

Huang, Rui; Shi, Zhongzhi

442

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR TEACHING AUDIOVISUAL COURSES, AN ANNOTATED LIST OF MOTION PICTURES, KINESCOPES, FILMSTRIPS, SLIDESETS, RECORDINGS, AND TAPES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS DOCUMENT IS THE END PRODUCT OF A PROGRAM TO BRING TOGETHER THE SOURCES OF AVAILABLE MATERIALS CONCERNING AUDIOVISUAL COMMUNICATION AND TO PROVIDE A GUIDE FOR EASY ACCESSIBILITY. AN ANNOTATED LIST OF MOTION PICTURES, KINESCOPES, FILMSTRIPS, SLIDESETS, RECORDINGS, AND TAPES CONCERNED WITH AUDIOVISUAL COMMUNICATION IS INCLUDED. THE GUIDE IS…

WEINER, KENNETH; AND OTHERS

443

Audiovisuelle Materialien fur den modernen Fremdsprachenunterricht. Stand: Juni 1971 (Audiovisual Materials for Modern Foreign Language Instruction. June 1971 Edition).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This listing, updating the 1969 publication, cites commerically available language instruction programs having audiovisual components. Supplementary audiovisual aids are available only as components of total programs noted in this work. Organization is by language and commerical source. Indications for classroom applications and prices (in German…

Informationszentrum fuer Fremdsprachenforschung, Marburg (West Germany).

444

The effect of audio materials from a rear-seat audiovisual entertainment system or from radio on simulated driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-car audiovisual entertainment systems are increasingly prevalent, yet research on which to base appropriate legislation regarding their use is lacking. Current legislation seeks to prevent drivers from seeing the audiovisual display within their own vehicle. However, research suggests that the auditory materials alone may result in cognitive and auditory distraction that impairs driving. In a driving simulator experiment, 27 participants

Julie Hatfield; Timothy Chamberlain

2008-01-01

445

The Relationship of Teacher Perceptions of a School's Audiovisual Climate to the Organizational Structure of its Media Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The primary purpose of this study was to ascertain, through teacher perceptions of the audiovisual climate within a school, some of the factors which might affect the utilization of media in the teaching-learning process. The subjects of the study were 432 teachers in 50 secondary schools, and the audiovisual coordinators for the schools. The…

Miller, Paul David

446

Interactive Elicitation of Relation Semantics for the Semantic Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper the workflow and architecture of the Relation Semantics Elicitation Prototype {RSEP}. RSEP has been developed to\\u000a address the limitations of the Description Logic based constructs of the Web Ontology Language (OWL)

Cartik Kothari; David Russomanno; Phillip Tran

447

A comparison of the development of audiovisual integration in children with autism spectrum disorders and typically developing children.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the development of audiovisual integration in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Audiovisual integration was measured using the McGurk effect in children with ASD aged 7-16 years and typically developing children (control group) matched approximately for age, sex, nonverbal ability and verbal ability. Results showed that the children with ASD were delayed in visual accuracy and audiovisual integration compared to the control group. However, in the audiovisual integration measure, children with ASD appeared to 'catch-up' with their typically developing peers at the older age ranges. The suggestion that children with ASD show a deficit in audiovisual integration which diminishes with age has clinical implications for those assessing and treating these children. PMID:20354776

Taylor, Natalie; Isaac, Claire; Milne, Elizabeth

2010-11-01

448

Robot Command Interface Using an Audio-Visual Speech Recognition System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years audio-visual speech recognition has emerged as an active field of research thanks to advances in pattern recognition, signal processing and machine vision. Its ultimate goal is to allow human-computer communication using voice, taking into account the visual information contained in the audio-visual speech signal. This document presents a command's automatic recognition system using audio-visual information. The system is expected to control the laparoscopic robot da Vinci. The audio signal is treated using the Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients parametrization method. Besides, features based on the points that define the mouth's outer contour according to the MPEG-4 standard are used in order to extract the visual speech information.

Ceballos, Alexánder; Gómez, Juan; Prieto, Flavio; Redarce, Tanneguy

449

Neural correlates of the implicit association test: evidence for semantic and emotional processing  

PubMed Central

The implicit association test (IAT) has been widely used in social cognitive research over the past decade. Controversies have arisen over what cognitive processes are being tapped into using this task. While most models use behavioral (RT) results to support their claims, little research has examined neurocognitive correlates of these behavioral measures. The present study measured event-related brain potentials (ERPs) of participants while completing a gay-straight IAT in order to further understand the processes involved in a typical group bias IAT. Results indicated significantly smaller N400 amplitudes and significantly larger LPP amplitudes for compatible trials than for incompatible trials, suggesting that both the semantic and emotional congruence of stimuli paired together in an IAT trial contribute to the typical RT differences found, while no differences were present for earlier ERP components including the N2. These findings are discussed with respect to early and late processing in group bias IATs.

Themanson, Jason R.

2011-01-01

450

Semantic Models of Parameter Passing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents semantic models of four parameter passing mechanisms used in various algebraic programming languages: Call By Value, Copy Restore, Call By Reference, and Call By Name. The correspondence between actual parameter values and formal parame...

R. E. Fairley

1973-01-01

451

Semantics for Compiling Data Parallelism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research in semantics and in compiler construction is often separated. The first has a theoretical character, in general, whereas the second has a more applied character. However, both fields are of fundamental importance in the interaction between a prog...

P. F. G. Dechering

1998-01-01

452

Redundancy gain for semantic features.  

PubMed

In a go/no-go experiment, semantic redundancy gain was assessed for responses to single written words. Specifically, we asked participants to respond only to words whose meaning matched at least one semantic target feature-that is, the target category (e.g., animal), the target color (e.g., gray), or both. On redundant-target trials, the word (e.g., elephant) matched both semantic target features (i.e., gray and animal). On single-target trials, the word (e.g., beaver) matched one target feature (i.e., animal) and a nontarget feature (i.e., brown). We observed shorter reaction times in the redundant-target condition than in the faster single-target condition. Hence, the present study provides the first evidence that redundancy gain is not limited to responses to redundant proximal stimulus features but can also be observed for responses to semantic feature information. PMID:23250760

Fiedler, Anja; Schröter, Hannes; Ulrich, Rolf

2013-06-01

453

Semantic priming from crowded words.  

PubMed

Vision in a cluttered scene is extremely inefficient. This damaging effect of clutter, known as crowding, affects many aspects of visual processing (e.g., reading speed). We examined observers' processing of crowded targets in a lexical decision task, using single-character Chinese words that are compact but carry semantic meaning. Despite being unrecognizable and indistinguishable from matched nonwords, crowded prime words still generated robust semantic-priming effects on lexical decisions for test words presented in isolation. Indeed, the semantic-priming effect of crowded primes was similar to that of uncrowded primes. These findings show that the meanings of words survive crowding even when the identities of the words do not, suggesting that crowding does not prevent semantic activation, a process that may have evolved in the context of a cluttered visual environment. PMID:22593118

Yeh, Su-Ling; He, Sheng; Cavanagh, Patrick

2012-05-16

454

Operational Semantics of Hybrid Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses an interpretation of hybrid systems as executable models. A specification of a hybrid system for this purpose can be viewed as a program in a domain-specific programming language. We describe the semantics of HyVisual, which is such a domain-specific programming language. The semantic properties of such a language aect our ability to understand, execute, and analyze a

Edward A. Lee; Haiyang Zheng

2005-01-01

455

Semantic web reasoners and languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic web reasoners and languages enable the semantic web to function. Some of the latest reasoning models developed in\\u000a the last few years are: DLP, FaCT, RACER, Pellet, MSPASS, CEL, Cerebra Engine, QuOnto, KAON2, HermiT and others. Some software\\u000a tools such as Protégé, Jena and others also have been developed, which provide inferencing as well as ontology development\\u000a and management

Ravi Bhushan Mishra; Sandeep Kumar

2011-01-01

456

Domain semantics of possibility computations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a kind of computational model, called possibility computation, to deal with non-determinism. Both its denotational and logical semantics in the framework of domain theory are established and their equivalence is verified. In this approach, the denotational semantics will be set up by assigning to programs possibility state transformers, i.e., Scott-continuous functions from

Yixiang Chen; Hengyang Wu

2008-01-01

457

Semantic Data Caching and Replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a semantic model for client-side caching and replace- ment in a client-server database system and compare this approach to page caching and tuple caching strategies. Our caching model is based on, and derives its advantages from, three key ideas. First, the client maintains a semantic description of the data in its cache,which allows for a compact specification, as

Shaul Dar; Michael J. Franklin; Björn Þór Jónsson; Divesh Srivastava; Michael Tan

1996-01-01

458

Concept Signatures and Semantic Drift  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ontology evolution is the process of incrementally and consistently adapting an existing ontology to changes in the relevant\\u000a domain. Semantic drift refers to how ontology concepts’ intentions gradually change as the domain evolves. Normally, a semantic\\u000a drift captures small domain changes that are hard to detect with traditional ontology management tools or ontology learning\\u000a methods, but may be important to

Jon Atle Gulla; Geir Solskinnsbakk; Per Myrseth; Veronika Haderlein; Olga Cerrato

459

Bi-inductive structural semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a simple order-theoretic generalization, possibly non monotone, of set- theoretic inductive definitions. This generalization covers inductive, co-inductive and bi-inductive definitions and is preserved by abstraction. This allows structural operational semantics to describe simultaneously the finite\\/terminating and infi- nite\\/diverging behaviors of programs. This is illustrated on grammars and the structural bifinitary small\\/big-step trace\\/relational\\/operational semantics of the call-by-value -calculus (for

Patrick Cousot; Radhia Cousot

2009-01-01

460

Clean formal semantics for VHDL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple formal semantics for the standard hardwaredescription language vhdl is set out in functionalstyle. The presentation comprises an executable specificationfor a synchronously clocked vhdl simulator.1 IntroductionThis paper attempts to lay the basis for simplerformal semantics for vhdl than available in the literature. Vhdl is a standardized hardware descriptionlanguage developed in the 1980s with the supportof the US DoD, and

Peter T. Breuer; Luis Sánchez Fernández; Carlos Delgado Kloos

1994-01-01

461

COTARD SYNDROME IN SEMANTIC DEMENTIA  

PubMed Central

Background Semantic dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of meaning of words or concepts. semantic dementia can offer potential insights into the mechanisms of content-specific delusions. Objective The authors present a rare case of semantic dementia with Cotard syndrome, a delusion characterized by nihilism or self-negation. Method The semantic deficits and other features of semantic dementia were evaluated in relation to the patient's Cotard syndrome. Results Mrs. A developed the delusional belief that she was wasting and dying. This occurred after she lost knowledge for her somatic discomforts and sensations and for the organs that were the source of these sensations. Her nihilistic beliefs appeared to emerge from her misunderstanding of her somatic sensations. Conclusion This unique patient suggests that a mechanism for Cotard syndrome is difficulty interpreting the nature and source of internal pains and sensations. We propose that loss of semantic knowledge about one's own body may lead to the delusion of nihilism or death.

Mendez, Mario F.; Ramirez-Bermudez, Jesus

2011-01-01

462

Taking Message-Attitude Congruence as Media Effects: Examining Perceived Influence of Political Talk Radio in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how people perceive the influence of political talk radio in Hong Kong. Theoretically, the study focuses on the influence of message-attitude congruence, that is, the situation in which a person's opinions or attitudes are consistent with the viewpoints promulgated by media messages, on the third-person perception. It is argued that message-attitude congruence provides a situation in which

Francis L. F. Lee

2011-01-01

463

Congruence Between Implicit and Explicit Motives and Emotional Well-Being: The Moderating Role of Activity Inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current research tested the hypothesis that activity inhibition–conceptualized as the degree of restraint an individual\\u000a exercises over emotional and motivational impulses–moderates the association between congruence of implicit and explicit motives\\u000a and emotional well-being. Congruence of implicit and explicit motives was expected to be related to a more positive well-being\\u000a among individuals low in activity inhibition, but not among individuals

Thomas A. Langens

2007-01-01

464

Congruency of preferences for family-based gender roles and family satisfaction in two-generation farm families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the congruency of family-based gender-role preferences among adult members within intergenerational farm families, and tests the effects of congruency on family satisfaction. From a sample of 71 families (284 adults), results showed that the adult children hold more modern gender-role preferences and that disparities in gender-role preferences impact the satisfaction of the younger generation. The results

Daniel J. Weigel; Randy R. Weigel

1990-01-01

465

Aztec arithmetic revisited: land-area algorithms and Acolhua congruence arithmetic.  

PubMed

Acolhua-Aztec land records depicting areas and side dimensions of agricultural fields provide insight into Aztec arithmetic. Hypothesizing that recorded areas resulted from indigenous calculation, in a study of sample quadrilateral fields we found that 60% of the area values could be reproduced exactly by computation. In remaining cases, discrepancies between computed and recorded areas were consistently small, suggesting use of an unknown indigenous arithmetic. In revisiting the research, we discovered evidence for the use of congruence principles, based on proportions between the standard linear Acolhua measure and their units of shorter length. This procedure substitutes for computation with fractions and is labeled "Acolhua congruence arithmetic." The findings also clarify variance between Acolhua and Tenochca linear units, long an issue in understanding Aztec metrology. PMID:18388287

Williams, Barbara J; Jorge y Jorge, María del Carmen

2008-04-01

466

Approach\\/avoidance motivation, message framing, and health behavior: understanding the congruency effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health messages framed to be congruent with individuals’ approach\\/avoidance motivations have been found to be more effective\\u000a in promoting health behaviors than health messages incongruent with approach\\/avoidance motivations. This study examines the\\u000a processes underlying this congruency effect. Participants (undergraduate students, N=67) completed a measure of approach\\/avoidance orientation (the BIS\\/BAS scales) and read either a gain- or loss-framed message\\u000a promoting dental

David K. Sherman; Traci Mann; John A. Updegraff

2006-01-01

467

The Effects of Role Congruence and Role Conflict on Work, Marital, and Life Satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of role congruence and role conflict on work, marital, and life satisfaction was studied using Super’s life-span, life-space theory. A conceptual model of relationships between these variables was proposed, and gender differences were examined. Participants were 35 male and 60 female college graduates who completed surveys by mail. Results indicated adequate fit for the proposed model. Results of

Kristin M. Perrone; L. Kay Webb; Rachel H. Blalock

2005-01-01

468

The origin of the Julian Period: An application of congruences and the Chinese Remainder Theorem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1583, Joseph Justus Scaliger introduced the Julian Period of 7980 years, which is the basis of the Julian Day system of counting days sequentially from 1 January 4713 BC. It is not commonly known how this date was chosen as the origin of the system. This paper formulates the problem as an application of the theory of congruences and the Chinese Remainder Theorem. Scaliger's interesting original solution to the problem is also reviewed.

Reese, Ronald Lane; Everett, Steven M.; Craun, Edwin D.

1981-07-01

469

Does organismal pedigree impact the magnitude of topological congruence among gene trees for unlinked loci?  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the fundamental assumptions in the multi-locus approach to phylogeographic studies is that unlinked loci have independent\\u000a genealogies. For this reason, congruence among gene trees from unlinked loci is normally interpreted as support for the existence\\u000a of external forces that may have concordantly shaped the topology of multiple gene trees. However, it is also important to\\u000a address and quantify

Chih-Horng Kuo; John C. Avise

2008-01-01

470

A Congruence Theorem for Minimal Surfaces in $S^{5}$ with Constant Contact Angle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a congruence theorem for minimal surfaces in $S^5$ with constant contact angle using Gauss-Codazzi-Ricci equations. More precisely, we prove that Gauss-Codazzi-Ricci equations for minimal surfaces in $S^5$ with constant contact angle satisfy an equation for the Laplacian of the holomorphic angle. Also, we will give a characterization of flat minimal surfaces in $S^5$ with constant contact angle.

Rodrigo Ristow Montes; Jose A. Verderesi

2006-01-01

471

A congruence theorem for minimal surfaces in S 5 with constant contact angle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a congruence theorem for minimal surfaces in S5 with constant contact angle using the Gauss–Codazzi–Ricci equations. More precisely, we prove that the Gauss–Codazzi–Ricci equations for minimal surfaces in S5 with constant contact angle satisfy an equation for the Laplacian of the holomorphic angle. To cite this article: R.R. Montes, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Ser. I 346 (2008).

Rodrigo Ristow Montes; Jose A. Verderesi

2008-01-01

472

Sex role egalitarianism as a moderator of gender congruence bias in evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex-role egalitarianism, or the degree to which one perceives the gender of an individual to be independent of his\\/her abilities, rights and opportunities, was tested as a moderator of gender congruence in the evaluation of job applicants. It was hypothesized that scores on a measure of sex role egalitarianism would moderate the evaluation of female or male applicants in masculine-typed,

Stéphane Brutus; Matthew Montei; Steve Jex; Lynda King; Daniel King

1993-01-01

473

Gender-Role Congruence and Self-Referencing as Determinants of Advertising Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an initial experiment, men and women with varied gender-role orientations evaluated gender-stereotyped and nonstereotyped advertisements for “gendered” products that are actually used by both sexes. Consistent with a gender-role congruence model of advertising effectiveness, traditional participants (masculine men; feminine women) responded more favorably to traditional (i.e., gender-stereotyped) than to nontraditional advertisements, whereas nontraditional participants (androgynous individuals; feminine men; masculine

Maria Michelle Morrison; David R. Shaffer

2003-01-01

474

Simulation and sensitivity computation of nonuniform transmission lines via integrated congruence transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new algorithm is presented for sensitivity analysis of nonuniform multi-conductor transmission lines in the presence of nonlinear terminations. The algorithm is based on model-order reduction using integrated congruence transform. The proposed algorithm does not require partitioning the nonuniform line into cascaded connections of uniform sections. In addition, sensitivity information are obtained from solving a reduced-order system, which provides significant

Emad Gad; Michel Nakhla

2003-01-01

475

Feeling trusted by business leaders in China: Antecedents and the mediating role of value congruence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the antecedents of felt trust, an under-explored area in the trust literature. We hypothesized that subordinates’\\u000a felt trust would relate positively with their leaders’ moral leadership behaviors and negatively with autocratic leadership\\u000a behaviors and demographic differences between leaders and themselves. We also hypothesized the above relationships to be mediated\\u000a by the leader-member value congruence. Results supported our

Dora C. Lau; Jun Liu; Ping Ping Fu

2007-01-01

476

Effect of the social context on the principle of belief congruence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested principle of belief congruence on 43 middle-class Caucasian home owners living in an all white neighborhood. 22 had previously signed a petition supporting the principles of open housing, while 21 had refused. Ss evaluated hypothetical persons (who varied on race, attitude similarity, and socioeconomic class) in 4 social contexts (friend, neighbor, home purchaser, and son-in-law) and completed a measure

Bernie I. Silverman; Raymond Cochrane

1972-01-01

477

The eVects of message quality and congruency on perceptions of tailored health communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has documented the eVectiveness of tailoring health behavior change messages to characteristics of the recipients, but little is known about the processes underlying these eVects. Drawing from the elaboration likelihood model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986), we examined the role of message scrutiny in moderating the congruency eVect (Mann, Sherman, & UpdegraV, 2004). One hundred and thirty- six undergraduate

John A. UpdegraV; David K. Sherman; Faith S. Luyster; Traci L. Mann

2007-01-01

478

Does discourse congruence influence spoken language comprehension before lexical association? Evidence from event-related potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an event-related potential (ERP) norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a typical N400 effect when participants heard

Megan A. Boudewyn; Peter C. Gordon; Debra Long; Lara Polse; Tamara Y. Swaab

2012-01-01

479

Does discourse congruence influence spoken language comprehension before lexical association? Evidence from event-related potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an event-related potential (ERP) norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a typical N400 effect when participants heard

Megan A. Boudewyn; Peter C. Gordon; Debra Long; Lara Polse; Tamara Y. Swaab

2011-01-01

480

Gender and Job Role Congruence: A Field Study of Trust in Labor Mediators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which individuals are seen as fulfilling their social roles is related to the extent they are seen as successful\\u000a in that role. Using social role theory, the congruence of job roles and gender roles was examined among labor mediators, a\\u000a profession requiring both agentic and communal characteristics. A total of 362 employees and employers involved in a

Alice F. Stuhlmacher; Jean Poitras

2010-01-01

481

Bidentity: Sexual Behavior\\/Identity Congruence and Women's Sexual, Physical and Mental Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to cognitive dissonance theory, the co-occurrence of inconsistent cognitions may result in psychological distress. This distress may lead to undesirable health outcomes. This study explored the role of sexual behavior\\/identity congruence on women's mental, physical and sexual well-being. A total of 2,578 women who reported sexual attraction, desire, affection, intentions and\\/or behavior involving other women completed a web-based survey

Vanessa Schick; Joshua G. Rosenberger; Debby Herbenick; Sarah K. Calabrese; Michael Reece

2012-01-01

482

Comparisons of Audio and Audiovisual Measures of Stuttering Frequency and Severity in Preschool-Age Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: To determine whether measures of stuttering frequency and measures of overall stuttering severity in preschoolers differ when made from audio-only recordings compared with audiovisual recordings. Method: Four blinded speech-language pathologists who had extensive experience with preschoolers who stutter measured stuttering frequency and…

Rousseau, Isabelle; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Jones, Mark

2008-01-01

483

Evaluation of an audiovisual-FM system: speechreading performance as a function of distance.  

PubMed

A research program was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of an audiovisual-FM system as a speechreading aid. The present study investigated the effects of the distance between the talker and the speechreader on a visual-speech perception task. Sentences were recorded simultaneously with a conventional Hi8 mm video camera, and with the microcamera of an audiovisual-FM system. The recordings were obtained from two talkers at three different distances: 1.83 m, 3.66 m, and 7.32 m. Sixteen subjects completed a visual-keyword recognition task. The main results of the investigation were as follows: For the recordings obtained with the conventional video camera, there was a significant decrease in speechreading performance as the distance between the talker and the camera increased. For the recordings obtained with the microcamera of the audiovisual-FM system, there were no differences in speechreading as a function of the test distances. The findings of the investigation confirm that in a classroom setting the use of an audiovisual-FM system may constitute an effective way of overcoming the deleterious effects of distance on speechreading performance. PMID:16717020

Gagné, Jean-Pierre; Charest, Monique; Le Monday, K; Desbiens, C

2006-05-01

484

Audiovisual Materials and Techniques for Teaching Foreign Languages: Recent Trends and Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent experimentation with audio-visual (A-V) materials has provided insight into the language learning process. Researchers and teachers alike have recognized the importance of using A-V materials to achieve goals related to meaningful and relevant communication, retention and recall of language items, non-verbal aspects of communication, and…

Parks, Carolyn

485

Audiovisuals for Nutrition Education; Selected Evaluative Reviews from the Journal of Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Audiovisual materials suitable for the teaching of nutrition are listed. Materials include coloring books, flannelboard stories, games, kits, audiotapes, records, charts, posters, study prints, films, videotapes, filmstrips, slides, and transparencies. Each entry contains bibliographic data, educational level, price and evaluation. Mateiral is…

Rowe, Sue Ellen, Comp.

486

Nutrition Education Materials and Audiovisuals for Grades 7 through 12. Special Reference Briefs Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This annotated bibliography lists nutrition education materials, audiovisuals, and resources for classroom use. Items listed cover topics such as general nutrition, food preparation, food science, and dietary management. Each item is listed in one or more of the following categories: (1) curriculum/lesson plans; (2) learning activities; (3)…

Evans, Shirley King, Comp.

487

Audiovisuals for Nutrition Education. Nutrition Education Resource Series No. 9. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This bibliography contains reviews of more than 250 audiovisual materials in eight subject areas related to nutrition: (1) general nutrition; (2) life cycle; (3) diet/health and disease; (4) health and athletics; (5) food - general; (6) food preparation and service; (7) food habits and preferences; and (8) food economics and concerns. Materials…

National Nutrition Education Clearing House, Berkeley, CA.

488

Nutrition Education Materials and Audiovisuals for Grades Preschool through 6. Special Reference Briefs Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This bibliography was prepared for educators interested in nutrition education materials, audiovisuals, and resources for classroom use. Items listed cover a range of topics including general nutrition, food preparation, food science, and dietary management. Teaching materials listed include food models, games, kits, videocassettes, and lesson…

Evans, Shirley King, Comp.

489

Nutrition Education Materials and Audiovisuals for Grades Preschool through 6. Special Reference Briefs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This resource guide lists nutrition education materials, audiovisuals, and other materials for elementary school classroom use. Topics covered include general nutrition, food preparation, food science, and dietary management. Teaching materials listed include books, brochures, food models, games, kits, videocassettes, audiocassettes, activity…

Evans, Shirley King

490

Nutrition Education Materials and Audiovisuals for Grades 7 through 12. Special Reference Briefs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This resource guide lists nutrition education materials, audiovisuals, and other materials for secondary school classroom use. Topics covered include general nutrition, food preparation, food science, and dietary management. Teaching materials listed include books, brochures, food models, games, kits, videocassettes, audiocassettes, activity…

Evans, Shirley King

491

Audio-Visual Materials in Adult Consumer Education: An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to provide a quick but thorough reference for consumer educators of adults to use when choosing audio-visual materials, this annotated bibliography includes eighty-five titles from the currently available 1,500 films, slidesets, cassettes, records, and transparencies. (Materials were rejected because they were out-of-date; not relevant to…

Forgue, Raymond E.; And Others

492

Strategies for Media Literacy: Audiovisual Skills and the Citizenship in Andalusia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Media consumption is an undeniable fact in present-day society. The hours that members of all social segments spend in front of a screen take up a large part of their leisure time worldwide. Audiovisual communication becomes especially important within the context of today's digital society (society-network), where information and communication…

Aguaded-Gomez, Ignacio; Perez-Rodriguez, M. Amor

2012-01-01

493

Non-Commercial Audiovisual Instructional Materials in Japan. AVE in Japan No. 24.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report outlines the history of non-commercial and local production of audiovisual instructional materials in Japan since World War II, discusses current trends in instructional materials usage, and presents four case studies of materials production at the prefectural level. Topics addressed include: (1) materials production prior to the…

Takakuwa, Yasuo

494

Audiovisual Speech Perception in Children with Developmental Language Disorder in Degraded Listening Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The effect of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the perception of audiovisual speech in children with and without developmental language disorder (DLD) was investigated by varying the noise level and the sound intensity of acoustic speech. The main hypotheses were that the McGurk effect (in which incongruent visual speech alters the…

Meronen, Auli; Tiippana, Kaisa; Westerholm, Jari; Ahonen, Timo

2013-01-01

495

Development of Audiovisual Comprehension Skills in Prelingually Deaf Children With Cochlear Implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The present study investigated the devel- opment of audiovisual comprehension skills in pre- lingually deaf children who received cochlear implants. Design: We analyzed results obtained with the Com- mon Phrases (Robbins et al., 1995) test of sentence comprehension from 80 prelingually deaf children with cochlear implants who were enrolled in a longitudinal study, from pre-implantation to 5 years after

Tonya R. Bergeson; David B. Pisoni; Rebecca A. O. Davis

2005-01-01

496

Writing for the Mass Media: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography of Audio-Visual Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed to help college instructors of media writing choose appropriate audiovisual materials for a basic course, this annotated bibliography presents 26 entries that cover diverse aspects of journalism. Films cited cover topics from the technical and legal aspects of journalism to television newswriting and police reporting. Citations are…

Applegate, Edd

497

Modular Audio-Visual Multimedia Programming Concept; Electronic Blueprint Reading. Study Report 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The concept of Modular Audiovisual Multimedia Programing, which is generally applicable to meeting the need for automated mass training, has been implemented in an electronic blueprint reading course for industrial employees. A preliminary study revealed that the average prospective student was 25 to 35 years old, limited to a high school…

Suchesk, Arthur M.

498

Audiovisual Aids and Publications Available from the VIMS/Sea Grant Marine Education Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Teaching aids available from VIMS/Sea Grant Marine Education Center are listed in this inventory. Audio-visual aids listed are in the following categories: 16 mm color films, silent films, 8 mm film loops, filmstrips with cassettes, filmstrips with record...

S. Gammisch

1979-01-01

499

Temporal Interval Discrimination Thresholds Depend on Perceived Synchrony for Audio-Visual Stimulus Pairs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Audio-visual stimulus pairs presented at various relative delays, are commonly judged as being "synchronous" over a range of delays from about -50 ms (audio leading) to +150 ms (video leading). The center of this range is an estimate of the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS). The judgment boundaries, where "synchronous" judgments yield to a…

van Eijk, Rob L. J.; Kohlrausch, Armin; Juola, James F.; van de Par, Steven

2009-01-01

500

Audiovisual Material as Educational Innovation Strategy to Reduce Anxiety Response in Students of Human Anatomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study presents the design, effect and utility of using audiovisual material containing real images of dissected human cadavers as an innovative educational strategy (IES) in the teaching of Human Anatomy. The goal is to familiarize students with the practice of dissection and to transmit the importance and necessity of this discipline, while…

Casado, Maria Isabel; Castano, Gloria; Arraez-Aybar, Luis Alfonso

2012-01-01