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1

Does Audiovisual Congruency in Advertisements Increase Persuasion? The Role of Cultural Music and Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given increasing advertisement clutter, advertisers are increasingly trying unconventional means to attract consumers' attention. One such method involves the use of incongruent ads, which are believed to attract viewers' attention. This research was conducted to ascertain the impact of audiovisual congruency in ads and the moderating role of product involvement on three facets of consumer response: attention to the ad,

Ashok K. Lalwani; May O. Lwin; Pee Beng Ling

2009-01-01

2

Evaluation on Second Language Collocational Congruency with Computational Semantic Similarity  

E-print Network

Evaluation on Second Language Collocational Congruency with Computational Semantic Similarity Ching of the important building blocks for the development of language competence. Remarkably, it is influenced by L1 in lexical components which underpin the foundation of language competence. The notion of collocational

3

Content congruency and its interplay with temporal synchrony modulate integration between rhythmic audiovisual streams  

PubMed Central

Both lower-level stimulus factors (e.g., temporal proximity) and higher-level cognitive factors (e.g., content congruency) are known to influence multisensory integration. The former can direct attention in a converging manner, and the latter can indicate whether information from the two modalities belongs together. The present research investigated whether and how these two factors interacted in the perception of rhythmic, audiovisual (AV) streams derived from a human movement scenario. Congruency here was based on sensorimotor correspondence pertaining to rhythm perception. Participants attended to bimodal stimuli consisting of a humanlike figure moving regularly to a sequence of auditory beat, and detected a possible auditory temporal deviant. The figure moved either downwards (congruently) or upwards (incongruently) to the downbeat, while in both situations the movement was either synchronous with the beat, or lagging behind it. Greater cross-modal binding was expected to hinder deviant detection. Results revealed poorer detection for congruent than for incongruent streams, suggesting stronger integration in the former. False alarms increased in asynchronous stimuli only for congruent streams, indicating greater tendency for deviant report due to visual capture of asynchronous auditory events. In addition, a greater increase in perceived synchrony was associated with a greater reduction in false alarms for congruent streams, while the pattern was reversed for incongruent ones. These results demonstrate that content congruency as a top-down factor not only promotes integration, but also modulates bottom-up effects of synchrony. Results are also discussed regarding how theories of integration and attentional entrainment may be combined in the context of rhythmic multisensory stimuli.

Su, Yi-Huang

2014-01-01

4

The role of semantic self-perceptions in temporal distance perceptions toward autobiographical events: the semantic congruence model.  

PubMed

Why do some autobiographical events feel as if they happened yesterday, whereas others feel like ancient history? Such temporal distance perceptions have surprisingly little to do with actual calendar time distance. Instead, psychologists have found that people typically perceive positive autobiographical events as overly recent, while perceiving negative events as overly distant. The origins of this temporal distance bias have been sought in self-enhancement strivings and mood congruence between autobiographical events and chronic mood. As such, past research exclusively focused on the evaluative features of autobiographical events, while neglecting semantic features. To close this gap, we introduce a semantic congruence model. Capitalizing on the Big Two self-perception dimensions, Study 1 showed that high semantic congruence between recalled autobiographical events and trait self-perceptions render the recalled events subjectively recent. Specifically, interpersonally warm (competent) individuals perceived autobiographical events reflecting warmth (competence) as relatively recent, but warm (competent) individuals did not perceive events reflecting competence (warmth) as relatively recent. Study 2 found that conscious perceptions of congruence mediate these effects. Studies 3 and 4 showed that neither mood congruence nor self-enhancement account for these results. Study 5 extended the results from the Big Two to the Big Five self-perception dimensions, while affirming the independence of the semantic congruence model from evaluative influences. PMID:23834641

Gebauer, Jochen E; Haddock, Geoffrey; Broemer, Philip; von Hecker, Ulrich

2013-11-01

5

Congruence Effect in Semantic Categorization with Masked Primes with Narrow and Broad Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In semantic categorization, masked primes that are category-congruent with the target (e.g., "Planets: mars-VENUS") facilitate responses relative to category-incongruent primes (e.g., "tree-VENUS"). The present study investigated why this category congruence effect is more consistently found with narrow categories (e.g., "Numbers larger/smaller…

Quinn, Wendy Maree; Kinoshita, Sachiko

2008-01-01

6

Neural Correlates of Audiovisual Integration of Semantic Category Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have found a late frontal-central audiovisual interaction during the time period about 150-220 ms post-stimulus. However, it is unclear to which process is this audiovisual interaction related: to processing of acoustical features or to classification of stimuli? To investigate this question, event-related potentials were recorded…

Hu, Zhonghua; Zhang, Ruiling; Zhang, Qinglin; Liu, Qiang; Li, Hong

2012-01-01

7

An ERP study on whether semantic integration exists in processing ecologically unrelated audio-visual information.  

PubMed

In the present study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether semantic integration occurs for ecologically unrelated audio-visual information. Videos with synchronous audio-visual information were used as stimuli, where the auditory stimuli were sine wave sounds with different sound levels, and the visual stimuli were simple geometric figures with different areas. In the experiment, participants were shown an initial display containing a single shape (drawn from a set of 6 shapes) with a fixed size (14cm(2)) simultaneously with a 3500Hz tone of a fixed intensity (80dB). Following a short delay, another shape/tone pair was presented and the relationship between the size of the shape and the intensity of the tone varied across trials: in the V+A- condition, a large shape was paired with a soft tone; in the V+A+ condition, a large shape was paired with a loud tone, and so forth. The ERPs results revealed that N400 effect was elicited under the VA- condition (V+A- and V-A+) as compared to the VA+ condition (V+A+ and V-A-). It was shown that semantic integration would occur when simultaneous, ecologically unrelated auditory and visual stimuli enter the human brain. We considered that this semantic integration was based on semantic constraint of audio-visual information, which might come from the long-term learned association stored in the human brain and short-term experience of incoming information. PMID:22005579

Liu, Baolin; Meng, Xianyao; Wang, Zhongning; Wu, Guangning

2011-11-14

8

Effects of congruency on localization of audiovisual three-dimensional speech sounds Part IIa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part two of the current study [J. Acoust. Soc. Am., this issue] investigated localization of virtual audiovisual speech under exactly the same conditions. Perceived directions were signified by pushing keypad-buttons. Inside-the-head localization occurred almost only for the median-plane stimuli, being insignificant of the stimulus type (7.62% congruent, 9.38% incongruent, and 6.54% auditory-only) and disregarded from further analyses. The mean of correct answers was 46.81%. Factorial within-subjects ANOVA showed no significance on acoustic stimuli (/ipi/, /iti/) or stimulus type but showed strong dependence on direction (p=0.000015) and its interactions with acoustic stimuli (p=0.015374) and stimulus type (p=0.00812). Reaction times were highly dependent on direction (p=0.000002). From the 384 frontal location answers (azimuths 0°, +/-40°) 25.52% congruent, 28.39% incongruent, and 28.65% auditory-only were perceived as backward confused, for 0° azimuth only the corresponding values were 28.13%, 28.13%, and 35.94%. Back-front confusions were 13.80%, 9.64%, and 8.85% (azimuths 180°, +/-130°), and 18.75%, 14.06%, and 14.06% (azimuth 180°). Seeing the (congruently) talking face biased the localization more to the front, especially for the median-backward sounds. Obviously, vision overcomes weaker monaural localization cues as in the ventriloquism effect [Driver, Nature (London) 381, 66-68 (1996)]. [Work supported by Graduate School of Electronics, Telecommunication and Automation.

Riederer, Klaus A. J.

2003-10-01

9

Between- and within-Ear Congruency and Laterality Effects in an Auditory Semantic/Emotional Prosody Conflict Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the influence of within- and between-ear congruency on interference and laterality effects in an auditory semantic/prosodic conflict task. Participants were presented dichotically with words (e.g., mad, sad, glad) pronounced in either congruent or incongruent emotional tones (e.g., angry, happy, or sad) and…

Techentin, Cheryl; Voyer, Daniel; Klein, Raymond M.

2009-01-01

10

The Effect of Combined Sensory and Semantic Components on Audio–Visual Speech Perception in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have found that perception in older people benefits from multisensory over unisensory information. As normal speech recognition is affected by both the auditory input and the visual lip movements of the speaker, we investigated the efficiency of audio and visual integration in an older population by manipulating the relative reliability of the auditory and visual information in speech. We also investigated the role of the semantic context of the sentence to assess whether audio–visual integration is affected by top-down semantic processing. We presented participants with audio–visual sentences in which the visual component was either blurred or not blurred. We found that there was a greater cost in recall performance for semantically meaningless speech in the audio–visual ‘blur’ compared to audio–visual ‘no blur’ condition and this effect was specific to the older group. Our findings have implications for understanding how aging affects efficient multisensory integration for the perception of speech and suggests that multisensory inputs may benefit speech perception in older adults when the semantic content of the speech is unpredictable. PMID:22207848

Maguinness, Corrina; Setti, Annalisa; Burke, Kate E.; Kenny, Rose Anne; Newell, Fiona N.

2011-01-01

11

Semantic association of ecologically unrelated synchronous audio-visual information in cognitive integration: an event-related potential study.  

PubMed

In this paper, we aimed to study the semantic association of ecologically unrelated synchronous audio-visual information in cognitive integration. A moving particle, which speed varied, was taken as a visual stimulus, while a simple tone, which frequency varied, was used as an auditory stimulus, both were synchronously presented to subjects in the form of a video. Behavioral results confirmed our hypothesis that the moving particle with varied speed and the simple tone with varied frequency were highly associated. Event-related potential (ERP) results showed that an N400 effect and a late posterior negativity (LPN) were elicited under the Incongruent condition as compared to the Congruent condition. It was further determined that there was semantic association between ecologically unrelated synchronous audio-visual information in cognitive integration. We considered that the N400 effect in our results reflected the process that stimulus-driven activities are bound together through a temporal semantic network (TSN) to form multimodal representations, while the state of this temporal semantic network was determined by both long-term learned association among stimuli and short-term experience of incoming information. The LPN might reflect the process that the human brain searches and retrieves context-specifying information in order to make a judgment, and the context-specifying information might have originated from the long-term learned association stored in the brain. PMID:21722711

Liu, B; Wu, G; Wang, Z; Meng, X; Wang, Q

2011-09-29

12

Semantic Facilitation in Category and Action Naming: Testing the Message-Congruency Account  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic-level picture naming is hampered by the presence of a semantically related context word (compared to an unrelated word), whereas picture categorization is facilitated by a semantically related context word. This reversal of the semantic context effect has been explained by assuming that in categorization tasks, basic-level distractor words…

Kuipers, Jan-Rouke; La Heij, Wido

2008-01-01

13

When Hearing the Bark Helps to Identify the Dog: Semantically-Congruent Sounds Modulate the Identification of Masked Pictures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report a series of experiments designed to assess the effect of audiovisual semantic congruency on the identification of visually-presented pictures. Participants made unspeeded identification responses concerning a series of briefly-presented, and then rapidly-masked, pictures. A naturalistic sound was sometimes presented together with the…

Chen, Yi-Chuan; Spence, Charles

2010-01-01

14

A Further Look at Semantic Context Effects in Language Production: The Role of Response Congruency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most current models of speech production predict interference from related context words in picture-naming tasks. However, Glaser and Dungelhoff (1984) reported semantic facilitation when the task was changed from basic-level naming to category-level naming. The authors explore two proposals to account for this change in polarity of the semantic…

Kuipers, Jan-Rouke; La Heij, Wido; Costa, Albert

2006-01-01

15

Congruence Reconsidered.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Carl Rogers' definitions of congruence, and identifies four specific requirements for the concept and practice of therapeutic congruence. Examines the interface between congruence and the other necessary and sufficient conditions of change, drawing on examples from practice. (JPS)

Tudor, Keith; Worrall, Mike

1994-01-01

16

Are Automatic Conceptual Cores the Gold Standard of Semantic Processing? The Context-Dependence of Spatial Meaning in Grounded Congruency Effects.  

PubMed

According to grounded cognition, words whose semantics contain sensory-motor features activate sensory-motor simulations, which, in turn, interact with spatial responses to produce grounded congruency effects (e.g., processing the spatial feature of up for sky should be faster for up vs. down responses). Growing evidence shows these congruency effects do not always occur, suggesting instead that the grounded features in a word's meaning do not become active automatically across contexts. Researchers sometimes use this as evidence that concepts are not grounded, further concluding that grounded information is peripheral to the amodal cores of concepts. We first review broad evidence that words do not have conceptual cores, and that even the most salient features in a word's meaning are not activated automatically. Then, in three experiments, we provide further evidence that grounded congruency effects rely dynamically on context, with the central grounded features in a concept becoming active only when the current context makes them salient. Even when grounded features are central to a word's meaning, their activation depends on task conditions. PMID:25243925

Lebois, Lauren A M; Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D; Barsalou, Lawrence W

2014-09-22

17

N1 enhancement in synesthesia during visual and audio-visual perception in semantic cross-modal conflict situations: an ERP study.  

PubMed

Synesthesia entails a special kind of sensory perception, where stimulation in one sensory modality leads to an internally generated perceptual experience of another, not stimulated sensory modality. This phenomenon can be viewed as an abnormal multisensory integration process as here the synesthetic percept is aberrantly fused with the stimulated modality. Indeed, recent synesthesia research has focused on multimodal processing even outside of the specific synesthesia-inducing context and has revealed changed multimodal integration, thus suggesting perceptual alterations at a global level. Here, we focused on audio-visual processing in synesthesia using a semantic classification task in combination with visually or auditory-visually presented animated and in animated objects in an audio-visual congruent and incongruent manner. Fourteen subjects with auditory-visual and/or grapheme-color synesthesia and 14 control subjects participated in the experiment. During presentation of the stimuli, event-related potentials were recorded from 32 electrodes. The analysis of reaction times and error rates revealed no group differences with best performance for audio-visually congruent stimulation indicating the well-known multimodal facilitation effect. We found enhanced amplitude of the N1 component over occipital electrode sites for synesthetes compared to controls. The differences occurred irrespective of the experimental condition and therefore suggest a global influence on early sensory processing in synesthetes. PMID:24523689

Sinke, Christopher; Neufeld, Janina; Wiswede, Daniel; Emrich, Hinderk M; Bleich, Stefan; Münte, Thomas F; Szycik, Gregor R

2014-01-01

18

N1 enhancement in synesthesia during visual and audio–visual perception in semantic cross-modal conflict situations: an ERP study  

PubMed Central

Synesthesia entails a special kind of sensory perception, where stimulation in one sensory modality leads to an internally generated perceptual experience of another, not stimulated sensory modality. This phenomenon can be viewed as an abnormal multisensory integration process as here the synesthetic percept is aberrantly fused with the stimulated modality. Indeed, recent synesthesia research has focused on multimodal processing even outside of the specific synesthesia-inducing context and has revealed changed multimodal integration, thus suggesting perceptual alterations at a global level. Here, we focused on audio–visual processing in synesthesia using a semantic classification task in combination with visually or auditory–visually presented animated and in animated objects in an audio–visual congruent and incongruent manner. Fourteen subjects with auditory-visual and/or grapheme-color synesthesia and 14 control subjects participated in the experiment. During presentation of the stimuli, event-related potentials were recorded from 32 electrodes. The analysis of reaction times and error rates revealed no group differences with best performance for audio-visually congruent stimulation indicating the well-known multimodal facilitation effect. We found enhanced amplitude of the N1 component over occipital electrode sites for synesthetes compared to controls. The differences occurred irrespective of the experimental condition and therefore suggest a global influence on early sensory processing in synesthetes. PMID:24523689

Sinke, Christopher; Neufeld, Janina; Wiswede, Daniel; Emrich, Hinderk M.; Bleich, Stefan; Münte, Thomas F.; Szycik, Gregor R.

2014-01-01

19

Multisensory integration of drumming actions: musical expertise aVects perceived audiovisual asynchrony  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the eVect of musical expertise on sensitivity to asynchrony for drumming point-light dis- plays, which varied in their physical characteristics (Exper- iment 1) or in their degree of audiovisual congruency (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, 21 repetitions of three tempos £ three accents £ nine audiovisual delays were presented to four jazz drummers and four novices. In Experiment

Karin Petrini; Davide Rocchesso; Carl Haakon Waadeland; Federico Avanzini; Aina Puce; Frank E. Pollick

2009-01-01

20

Multisensory integration of drumming actions: musical expertise affects perceived audiovisual asynchrony  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of musical expertise on sensitivity to asynchrony for drumming point-light displays, which varied\\u000a in their physical characteristics (Experiment 1) or in their degree of audiovisual congruency (Experiment 2). In Experiment\\u000a 1, 21 repetitions of three tempos × three accents × nine audiovisual delays were presented to four jazz drummers and four\\u000a novices. In Experiment 2, ten repetitions of two audiovisual

Karin Petrini; Sofia Dahl; Davide Rocchesso; Carl Haakon Waadeland; Federico Avanzini; Aina Puce; Frank E. Pollick

2009-01-01

21

Audiovisual Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists and reviews recent audiovisual materials in areas of medical, dental, nursing and allied health, and veterinary medicine; undergraduate, and high school studies. Each is classified as to level, type of instruction, usefulness, and source of availability. Topics include respiration, renal physiology, muscle mechanics, anatomy, evolution,…

Physiology Teacher, 1976

1976-01-01

22

Short-Term Audio-Visual Atoms for Generic Video Concept Classification  

E-print Network

Short-Term Audio-Visual Atoms for Generic Video Concept Classification Wei Jiang1 Courtenay Cotton1 the challenging issue of joint audio-visual analysis of generic videos targeting at semantic concept de- tection. We propose to extract a novel representation, the Short-term Audio-Visual Atom (S-AVA), for improved

Ellis, Dan

23

Cortical regions underlying successful encoding of semantically congruent and incongruent associations between common auditory and visual objects.  

PubMed

Recent studies implicate regions in the frontal, temporal and occipital cortices of the brain in audio-visual (AV) integration of familiar objects. It remains unclear, however, which brain regions contribute to the creation of object-related AV memories, and whether activation of these regions is affected by crossmodal congruency. Here we used event-related functional MRI in a subsequent memory paradigm to investigate the neural substrates of successful encoding of semantically congruent and incongruent AV memories. Creation of both types of memories activated a region in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). In addition, successful encoding of semantically related and unrelated AV pairs was correlated with increased activity in regions within the right lateral occipital cortex and bilateral lateral temporal cortex, respectively. These results may highlight a common role of IFG in retrieval of semantic information during encoding and suggest that the occipital and temporal cortices differentially process perceptual versus conceptual associations of AV memories. PMID:22024505

Naghavi, Hamid Reza; Eriksson, Johan; Larsson, Anne; Nyberg, Lars

2011-11-14

24

Congruence Closure Debapriyo Introduction  

E-print Network

Abstract Congruence Closure Debapriyo Majumdar 1 #12; 1 Introduction Consider the problems. These kind of problems reduce to the problem of constructing the \\congruence closure" of an equational theory. Congruence closure algorithm: provides a decision procedure for the quanti#12;er free theory of equality

Hillenbrand, Thomas

25

Electrophysiological evidence for speech-specific audiovisual integration.  

PubMed

Lip-read speech is integrated with heard speech at various neural levels. Here, we investigated the extent to which lip-read induced modulations of the auditory N1 and P2 (measured with EEG) are indicative of speech-specific audiovisual integration, and we explored to what extent the ERPs were modulated by phonetic audiovisual congruency. In order to disentangle speech-specific (phonetic) integration from non-speech integration, we used Sine-Wave Speech (SWS) that was perceived as speech by half of the participants (they were in speech-mode), while the other half was in non-speech mode. Results showed that the N1 obtained with audiovisual stimuli peaked earlier than the N1 evoked by auditory-only stimuli. This lip-read induced speeding up of the N1 occurred for listeners in speech and non-speech mode. In contrast, if listeners were in speech-mode, lip-read speech also modulated the auditory P2, but not if listeners were in non-speech mode, thus revealing speech-specific audiovisual binding. Comparing ERPs for phonetically congruent audiovisual stimuli with ERPs for incongruent stimuli revealed an effect of phonetic stimulus congruency that started at ~200 ms after (in)congruence became apparent. Critically, akin to the P2 suppression, congruency effects were only observed if listeners were in speech mode, and not if they were in non-speech mode. Using identical stimuli, we thus confirm that audiovisual binding involves (partially) different neural mechanisms for sound processing in speech and non-speech mode. PMID:24291340

Baart, Martijn; Stekelenburg, Jeroen J; Vroomen, Jean

2014-01-01

26

Congruences for Visibly Pushdown Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study congruences on words in order to characterize the class of visibly pushdown languages (Vpl), a subclass of context-free languages. For any language L, we define a natural congruence on words that resembles the syntactic congruence for regular languages, such that this congruence is of finite index if, and only if, L is a Vpl. We then study the

Rajeev Alur; Viraj Kumar; P. Madhusudan; Mahesh Viswanathan

2005-01-01

27

The level of audiovisual print-speech integration deficits in dyslexia.  

PubMed

The classical phonological deficit account of dyslexia is increasingly linked to impairments in grapho-phonological conversion, and to dysfunctions in superior temporal regions associated with audiovisual integration. The present study investigates mechanisms of audiovisual integration in typical and impaired readers at the critical developmental stage of adolescence. Congruent and incongruent audiovisual as well as unimodal (visual only and auditory only) material was presented. Audiovisual presentations were single letters and three-letter (consonant-vowel-consonant) stimuli accompanied by matching or mismatching speech sounds. Three-letter stimuli exhibited fast phonetic transitions as in real-life language processing and reading. Congruency effects, i.e. different brain responses to congruent and incongruent stimuli were taken as an indicator of audiovisual integration at a phonetic level (grapho-phonological conversion). Comparisons of unimodal and audiovisual stimuli revealed basic, more sensory aspects of audiovisual integration. By means of these two criteria of audiovisual integration, the generalizability of audiovisual deficits in dyslexia was tested. Moreover, it was expected that the more naturalistic three-letter stimuli are superior to single letters in revealing group differences. Electrophysiological and hemodynamic (EEG and fMRI) data were acquired simultaneously in a simple target detection task. Applying the same statistical models to event-related EEG potentials and fMRI responses allowed comparing the effects detected by the two techniques at a descriptive level. Group differences in congruency effects (congruent against incongruent) were observed in regions involved in grapho-phonological processing, including the left inferior frontal and angular gyri and the inferotemporal cortex. Importantly, such differences also emerged in superior temporal key regions. Three-letter stimuli revealed stronger group differences than single letters. No significant differences in basic measures of audiovisual integration emerged. Convergence of hemodynamic and electrophysiological signals appeared to be limited and mainly occurred for highly significant and large effects in visual cortices. The findings suggest efficient superior temporal tuning to audiovisual congruency in controls. In impaired readers, however, grapho-phonological conversion is effortful and inefficient, although basic audiovisual mechanisms seem intact. This unprecedented demonstration of audiovisual deficits in adolescent dyslexics provides critical evidence that the phonological deficit might be explained by impaired audiovisual integration at a phonetic level, especially for naturalistic and word-like stimulation. PMID:25084224

Kronschnabel, Jens; Brem, Silvia; Maurer, Urs; Brandeis, Daniel

2014-09-01

28

No effect of synesthetic congruency on temporal ventriloquism  

PubMed Central

A sound presented in temporal proximity to a light can alter the perceived temporal occurrence of that light (temporal ventriloquism). Recent studies have suggested that pitch–size synesthetic congruency (i.e., a natural association between the relative pitch of a sound and the relative size of a visual stimulus) might affect this phenomenon. To reexamine this, participants made temporal order judgements about small- and large-sized visual stimuli while high- or low-pitched tones were presented before the first and after the second light. We replicated a previous study showing that, at large sound–light intervals, sensitivity for visual temporal order was better for synesthetically congruent than for incongruent pairs. However, this congruency effect could not be attributed to temporal ventriloquism, since it disappeared at short sound–light intervals, if compared with a synchronous audiovisual baseline condition that excluded response biases. In addition, synesthetic congruency did not affect temporal ventriloquism even if participants were made explicitly aware of congruency before testing. Our results thus challenge the view that synesthetic congruency affects temporal ventriloquism. PMID:21258920

Keetels, Mirjam

2010-01-01

29

Fermat-holonomic congruences  

E-print Network

Fermat-holonomic congruences are proposed as a weaker substitute for the too restrictive class of Born-rigid motions. The definition is expressed as a set of differential equations. Integrability conditions and Cauchy data are studied.

J. Llosa; D. Soler

2000-03-14

30

Congruences concerning Jacobi polynomials  

E-print Network

Let $p$ be an odd prime. Using properties of Jacobi polynomials we prove congruences modulo $p^{3-d}$ for sums of the general form $\\sum_{k=0}^{(p-3)/2}\\frac{\\binom{2k}{k}t^k}{(2k+1)^{d+1}}$ and $\\sum_{k=1}^{(p-1)/2}\\frac{\\binom{2k}{k} t^k}{k^d},$ with $d=0, 1,$ in terms of the finite polylogarithms. This refines several results of Z. W. Sun on supercongruences. As a consequence, we also establish some congruences involving central binomial coefficients and Fibonacci or Lucas numbers.

Pilehrood, Khodabakhsh Hessami

2011-01-01

31

SPEAKER IDENTITY INDEXING IN AUDIO-VISUAL DOCUMENTS Mbarek Charhad, Daniel Moraru, Stphane Ayache and Georges Qunot  

E-print Network

SPEAKER IDENTITY INDEXING IN AUDIO-VISUAL DOCUMENTS Mbarek Charhad, Daniel Moraru, Stéphane Ayache The identity of persons in audiovisual documents represents very important semantic information for content are always needed for this. The great variety of video document contents yields a large number of possible

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

32

Vague Congruences and Quotient Lattice Implication Algebras  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper is to further develop the congruence theory on lattice implication algebras. Firstly, we introduce the notions of vague similarity relations based on vague relations and vague congruence relations. Secondly, the equivalent characterizations of vague congruence relations are investigated. Thirdly, the relation between the set of vague filters and the set of vague congruences is studied. Finally, we construct a new lattice implication algebra induced by a vague congruence, and the homomorphism theorem is given. PMID:25133207

Qin, Xiaoyan; Xu, Yang

2014-01-01

33

Soft Congruence Relations over Rings  

PubMed Central

Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft sets, which can be seen as a new mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, we initiate the study of soft congruence relations by using the soft set theory. The notions of soft quotient rings, generalized soft ideals and generalized soft quotient rings, are introduced, and several related properties are investigated. Also, we obtain a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and idealistic soft rings and a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and soft ideals. In particular, the first, second, and third soft isomorphism theorems are established, respectively. PMID:24949493

Xin, Xiaolong; Li, Wenting

2014-01-01

34

Interpersonal Congruency, Attitude Similarity, and Interpersonal Attraction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As no experimental study has examined the effects of congruency on attraction, the present investigation orthogonally varied attitude similarity and interpersonal congruency in order to compare the two independent variables as determinants of interpersonal attraction. (Author/RK)

Touhey, John C.

1975-01-01

35

Fast Decision Procedures Based on Congruence Closure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of the congruence closure of a relation on a graph is defined and several algorithms for computing it are surveyed. A simple proof is given that the congruence closure algorithm provides a decision procedure for the quantifier-free theory of equality. A decision procedure is then given for the quantifier-free theory of LISP list structure based on the congruence

Greg Nelson; Derek C. Oppen

1980-01-01

36

Fibonacci congruences and applications Rene BLACHER  

E-print Network

Fibonacci congruences and applications Ren´e BLACHER Laboratory LJK Universit´e Joseph Fourier that the congruences such that m and a are two successive elements of Fibonacci sequences are those having the weakest not too large. They are transformed using Fibonacci congruences and we will get by this way sequences xn

Boyer, Edmond

37

Attentional Factors in Conceptual Congruency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conceptual congruency effects are biases induced by an irrelevant conceptual dimension of a task (e.g., location in vertical space) on the processing of another, relevant dimension (e.g., judging words' emotional evaluation). Such effects are a central empirical pillar for recent views about how the mind/brain represents concepts. In the present…

Santiago, Julio; Ouellet, Marc; Roman, Antonio; Valenzuela, Javier

2012-01-01

38

Abstract Congruence Closure Leo Bachmair  

E-print Network

of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794-4400, U.S.A. (leo@cs.sunysb.edu) Ashish Tiwari SRI International, 333Abstract Congruence Closure #3; Leo Bachmair Department of Computer Science, State University Ravenswood Ave, Menlo Park, CA 94025, U.S.A. (tiwari@csl.sri.com) Laurent Vigneron LORIA { Universit#19;e

Vigneron, Laurent

39

Cortical Plasticity of Audio–Visual Object Representations  

PubMed Central

Several regions in human temporal and frontal cortex are known to integrate visual and auditory object features. The processing of audio–visual (AV) associations in these regions has been found to be modulated by object familiarity. The aim of the present study was to explore training-induced plasticity in human cortical AV integration. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to analyze the neural correlates of AV integration for unfamiliar artificial object sounds and images in naïve subjects (PRE training) and after a behavioral training session in which subjects acquired associations between some of these sounds and images (POST-training). In the PRE-training session, unfamiliar artificial object sounds and images were mainly integrated in right inferior frontal cortex (IFC). The POST-training results showed extended integration-related IFC activations bilaterally, and a recruitment of additional regions in bilateral superior temporal gyrus/sulcus and intraparietal sulcus. Furthermore, training-induced differential response patterns to mismatching compared with matching (i.e., associated) artificial AV stimuli were most pronounced in left IFC. These effects were accompanied by complementary training-induced congruency effects in right posterior middle temporal gyrus and fusiform gyrus. Together, these findings demonstrate that short-term cross-modal association learning was sufficient to induce plastic changes of both AV integration of object stimuli and mechanisms of AV congruency processing. PMID:19015373

Doehrmann, Oliver; Müller, Notger G.; Muckli, Lars; Kaiser, Jochen; Hein, Grit

2009-01-01

40

Geodesic congruences in warped spacetimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we explore the kinematics of timelike geodesic congruences in warped five-dimensional bulk spacetimes, with and without thick or thin branes. Beginning with geodesic flows in the Randall-Sundrum anti-de Sitter geometry without and with branes, we find analytical expressions for the expansion scalar and comment on the effects of including thin branes on its evolution. Later, we move

Suman Ghosh; Anirvan Dasgupta; Sayan Kar

2011-01-01

41

Geodesic congruences in warped spacetimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we explore the kinematics of timelike geodesic congruences\\u000ain warped five dimensional bulk spacetimes, with and without thick or thin\\u000abranes. We begin our investigations with the simplest case, namely geodesic\\u000aflows in the Randall--Sundrum AdS (Anti de Sitter) geometry without and with\\u000abranes. Analytical expressions for the expansion scalar are obtained and the\\u000aeffect of including

Suman Ghosh; Anirvan Dasgupta; Sayan Kar

2010-01-01

42

Guidelines for Audiovisual Services in Academic Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed by the Audiovisual Committee of the Association of College and Research Libraries, the guidelines presented here reflect technological innovations in audiovisual services. Areas covered include library planning, budgets, personnel, facilities, equipment and supplies, collection development, acquisitions, cataloging, collection…

Johnson, Margaret Ann; And Others

1987-01-01

43

Geodesic congruences in warped spacetimes  

SciTech Connect

In this article, we explore the kinematics of timelike geodesic congruences in warped five-dimensional bulk spacetimes, with and without thick or thin branes. Beginning with geodesic flows in the Randall-Sundrum anti-de Sitter geometry without and with branes, we find analytical expressions for the expansion scalar and comment on the effects of including thin branes on its evolution. Later, we move on to congruences in more general warped bulk geometries with a cosmological thick brane and a time-dependent extra dimensional scale. Using analytical expressions for the velocity field, we interpret the expansion, shear and rotation (ESR) along the flows, as functions of the extra dimensional coordinate. The evolution of a cross-sectional area orthogonal to the congruence, as seen from a local observer's point of view, is also shown graphically. Finally, the Raychaudhuri and geodesic equations in backgrounds with a thick brane are solved numerically in order to figure out the role of initial conditions (prescribed on the ESR) and spacetime curvature on the evolution of the ESR.

Ghosh, Suman [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Dasgupta, Anirvan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Centre for Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Kar, Sayan [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Centre for Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

2011-04-15

44

Towards Postmodernist Television: INA's Audiovisual Magazine Programmes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the last 10 years, French television's Institute of Audiovisual Communication (INA) has shifted from modernist to post-modernist practice in broadcasting in a series of innovative audiovisual magazine programs about communication, and in a series of longer "compilation" documentaries. The first of INA's audiovisual magazines, "Hieroglyphes,"…

Boyd-Bowman, Susan

45

Minimum Conditions for Congruence of Quadrilaterals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A complete characterization of minimum conditions for congruence of quadrilaterals is presented. Convex quadrilaterals are treated first, then concave quadrilaterals are considered. A study of such minimum conditions is seen to provide some interesting and important activities for students. Only background in triangle congruence is necessary. (MP)

Vance, Irvin E.

1982-01-01

46

Audiovisual Media for Computer Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The result of an international survey, this catalog lists over 450 films dealing with computing methods and automation and is intended for those who wish to use audiovisual displays as a means of instruction of computer education. The catalog gives the film's title, running time, and producer and tells whether the film is color or black-and-white,…

Van Der Aa, H. J., Ed.

47

Audiovisual Speech Recalibration in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to examine whether children adjust their phonetic speech categories, children of two age groups, five-year-olds and eight-year-olds, were exposed to a video of a face saying /aba/ or /ada/ accompanied by an auditory ambiguous speech sound halfway between /b/ and /d/. The effect of exposure to these audiovisual stimuli was measured on…

van Linden, Sabine; Vroomen, Jean

2008-01-01

48

Audio-Visual Teaching Machines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An audiovisual teaching machine (AVTM) presents programed audio and visual material simultaneously to a student and accepts his response. If his response is correct, the machine proceeds with the lesson; if it is incorrect, the machine so indicates and permits another choice (linear) or automatically presents supplementary material (branching).…

Dorsett, Loyd G.

49

Neurofunctional Underpinnings of Audiovisual Emotion Processing in Teens with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Despite successful performance on some audiovisual emotion tasks, hypoactivity has been observed in frontal and temporal integration cortices in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Little is understood about the neurofunctional network underlying this ability in individuals with ASD. Research suggests that there may be processing biases in individuals with ASD, based on their ability to obtain meaningful information from the face and/or the voice. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined brain activity in teens with ASD (n?=?18) and typically developing controls (n?=?16) during audiovisual and unimodal emotion processing. Teens with ASD had a significantly lower accuracy when matching an emotional face to an emotion label. However, no differences in accuracy were observed between groups when matching an emotional voice or face-voice pair to an emotion label. In both groups brain activity during audiovisual emotion matching differed significantly from activity during unimodal emotion matching. Between-group analyses of audiovisual processing revealed significantly greater activation in teens with ASD in a parietofrontal network believed to be implicated in attention, goal-directed behaviors, and semantic processing. In contrast, controls showed greater activity in frontal and temporal association cortices during this task. These results suggest that in the absence of engaging integrative emotional networks during audiovisual emotion matching, teens with ASD may have recruited the parietofrontal network as an alternate compensatory system. PMID:23750139

Doyle-Thomas, Krissy A.R.; Goldberg, Jeremy; Szatmari, Peter; Hall, Geoffrey B.C.

2013-01-01

50

Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict  

PubMed Central

Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study sought to distinguish between conflict monitoring and congruency-based accounts of CSEs. To this end, we determined whether CSEs are driven by previous-trial reaction time (RT)—a putative measure of response conflict—or by previous-trial congruency. In two experiments using a face-word Stroop task (n = 49), we found that current-trial congruency effects did not vary with previous-trial RT independent of previous-trial congruency. In contrast, current-trial congruency effects were influenced by previous-trial congruency independent of previous-trial RT. These findings appear more consistent with theories that attribute CSEs to non-conflict processes whose recruitment varies with previous-trial congruency than with theories that link CSEs to previous-trial response conflict. PMID:24027550

Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua

2013-01-01

51

Timing of audiovisual inputs to the prefrontal cortex and multisensory integration.  

PubMed

A number of studies have demonstrated that the relative timing of audiovisual stimuli is especially important for multisensory integration of speech signals although the neuronal mechanisms underlying this complex behavior are unknown. Temporal coincidence and congruency are thought to underlie the successful merging of two intermodal stimuli into a coherent perceptual representation. It has been previously shown that single neurons in the non-human primate prefrontal cortex integrate face and vocalization information. However, these multisensory responses and the degree to which they depend on temporal coincidence have yet to be determined. In this study we analyzed the response latency of ventrolateral prefrontal (VLPFC) neurons to face, vocalization and combined face-vocalization stimuli and an offset (asynchronous) version of the face-vocalization stimulus. Our results indicate that for most prefrontal multisensory neurons, the response latency for the vocalization was the shortest, followed by the combined face-vocalization stimuli. The face stimulus had the longest onset response latency. When tested with a dynamic face-vocalization stimulus that had been temporally offset (asynchronous) one-third of multisensory cells in VLPFC demonstrated a change in response compared to the response to the natural, synchronous face-vocalization movie. Our results indicate that prefrontal neurons are sensitive to the temporal properties of audiovisual stimuli. A disruption in the temporal synchrony of an audiovisual signal which results in a change in the firing of communication related prefrontal neurons could underlie the loss in intelligibility which occurs with asynchronous speech stimuli. PMID:22516006

Romanski, L M; Hwang, J

2012-07-12

52

An ALE meta-analysis on the audiovisual integration of speech signals.  

PubMed

The brain improves speech processing through the integration of audiovisual (AV) signals. Situations involving AV speech integration may be crudely dichotomized into those where auditory and visual inputs contain (1) equivalent, complementary signals (validating AV speech) or (2) inconsistent, different signals (conflicting AV speech). This simple framework may allow the systematic examination of broad commonalities and differences between AV neural processes engaged by various experimental paradigms frequently used to study AV speech integration. We conducted an activation likelihood estimation metaanalysis of 22 functional imaging studies comprising 33 experiments, 311 subjects, and 347 foci examining "conflicting" versus "validating" AV speech. Experimental paradigms included content congruency, timing synchrony, and perceptual measures, such as the McGurk effect or synchrony judgments, across AV speech stimulus types (sublexical to sentence). Colocalization of conflicting AV speech experiments revealed consistency across at least two contrast types (e.g., synchrony and congruency) in a network of dorsal stream regions in the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. There was consistency across all contrast types (synchrony, congruency, and percept) in the bilateral posterior superior/middle temporal cortex. Although fewer studies were available, validating AV speech experiments were localized to other regions, such as ventral stream visual areas in the occipital and inferior temporal cortex. These results suggest that while equivalent, complementary AV speech signals may evoke activity in regions related to the corroboration of sensory input, conflicting AV speech signals recruit widespread dorsal stream areas likely involved in the resolution of conflicting sensory signals. PMID:24996043

Erickson, Laura C; Heeg, Elizabeth; Rauschecker, Josef P; Turkeltaub, Peter E

2014-11-01

53

Enemies and Friends in the Neighborhood: Orthographic Similarity Effects in Semantic Categorization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies investigating orthographic similarity effects in semantic tasks have produced inconsistent results. The authors investigated orthographic similarity effects in animacy decision and in contrast with previous studies, they took semantic congruency into account. In Experiments 1 and 2, performance to a target (cat) was better if a previously…

Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, Rene; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

2005-01-01

54

Event congruency and episodic encoding: a developmental fMRI study.  

PubMed

A known contributor to adults' superior memory performance compared to children is their differential reliance on an existing knowledge base. Compared to those of adults, children's semantic networks are less accessible and less established, a difference that is also thought to contribute to children's relative resistance to semantically related false alarms. Using the "congruency effect" - the memory advantage of congruity, we manipulated the encoded stimuli in the present experiment such that the use of the knowledge base at encoding was more - or less - accessible in both children and adults. While being scanned, 15 children (ages 8-11) and 18 young adults saw printed noun/color combinations and were asked to indicate whether each combination existed in nature. A subsequent recognition test was administered outside of the scanner. Behaviorally, although overall memory was higher in the adult group compared to the children, both age groups showed the congruency effect to the same extent. A comparison of the neural substrates supporting the congruency effect between adults and children revealed that whereas adults recruited regions primarily associated with semantic-conceptual processing (e.g., the left PFC and parietal and occipito-temporal cortices), children recruited regions earlier in the processing stream (e.g., the right occipital cortex). This evidence supports the hypothesis that early in development, episodic encoding depends more on perceptual systems, whereas top-down frontal control and parietal structures become more prominent in the encoding process with age. This developmental switch contributes to adults' superior memory performance but may render adults more vulnerable to committing semantically based errors. PMID:21777596

Maril, Anat; Avital, Rinat; Reggev, Niv; Zuckerman, Maya; Sadeh, Talya; Ben Sira, Liat; Livneh, Neta

2011-09-01

55

Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems\\u000a model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal–spiritual disconnections of pathological\\u000a gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT’s theoretical foundations, main constructs, and\\u000a treatment interventions are illustrated in a progression of six clinical phases. Promise of CCT’s systemic conceptualization\\u000a and interventions

Bonnie K. Lee

2009-01-01

56

Bilingualism affects audiovisual phoneme identification  

PubMed Central

We all go through a process of perceptual narrowing for phoneme identification. As we become experts in the languages we hear in our environment we lose the ability to identify phonemes that do not exist in our native phonological inventory. This research examined how linguistic experience—i.e., the exposure to a double phonological code during childhood—affects the visual processes involved in non-native phoneme identification in audiovisual speech perception. We conducted a phoneme identification experiment with bilingual and monolingual adult participants. It was an ABX task involving a Bengali dental-retroflex contrast that does not exist in any of the participants' languages. The phonemes were presented in audiovisual (AV) and audio-only (A) conditions. The results revealed that in the audio-only condition monolinguals and bilinguals had difficulties in discriminating the retroflex non-native phoneme. They were phonologically “deaf” and assimilated it to the dental phoneme that exists in their native languages. In the audiovisual presentation instead, both groups could overcome the phonological deafness for the retroflex non-native phoneme and identify both Bengali phonemes. However, monolinguals were more accurate and responded quicker than bilinguals. This suggests that bilinguals do not use the same processes as monolinguals to decode visual speech. PMID:25374551

Burfin, Sabine; Pascalis, Olivier; Ruiz Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Savariaux, Christophe; Kandel, Sonia

2014-01-01

57

Congruency proportion reveals asymmetric processing of irrelevant physical and numerical dimensions in the size congruity paradigm.  

PubMed

When the proportion of congruent trials in conflict tasks is manipulated (e.g., Stroop, Simon), the typical result is that the magnitude of the conflict effect increases as the proportion of congruent trials increases. The present experiment investigated the influence of Congruency Proportion in the context of the Size Congruity Paradigm. Congruency Proportion had a significant impact on the Numerical Judgement Task (judging which of two numbers is numerically larger), but not on the Physical Judgement Task (judging which of two numbers is printed in a larger font). These data support the inference that physical size information is processed before, and more fluently than, numerical size information. The implications of this asymmetry are discussed in terms of the relative role of semantic and physical size information in representations of magnitude, and the role they play in both of these tasks. PMID:21668091

Borgmann, Karl; Fugelsang, Jonathan; Ansari, Daniel; Besner, Derek

2011-06-01

58

MODERN LANGUAGE AUDIO-VISUAL RESEARCH PROJECT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS STUDY IMPROVED, EXTENDED, AND EVALUATED INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR THE TEACHING OF FRENCH. PREVIOUS EFFORTS HAD EXPLORED POTENTIALS FOR AUDIOVISUAL AIDS, HAD DEVELOPED INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR AN INTEGRATED AUDIOVISUAL LANGUAGE-TEACHING SYSTEM, AND HAD PRODUCED AN ILLUSTRATIVE FILM "LANGUAGE TEACHING IN CONTEXT." THE REVISED AND NEWLY…

BORGLUM, GEORGE P.

59

Catalog of Audiovisual Materials Related to Rehabilitation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An annotated listing of a variety of audiovisual formats on content related to the social-rehabilitation process is provided. The materials in the listing were selected from a collection of over 200 audiovisual catalogs. The major portion of the materials has not been screened. The materials are classified alphabetically by the following subject…

Mann, Joe, Ed.; Henderson, Jim, Ed.

60

Speech cues contribute to audiovisual spatial integration.  

PubMed

Speech is the most important form of human communication but ambient sounds and competing talkers often degrade its acoustics. Fortunately the brain can use visual information, especially its highly precise spatial information, to improve speech comprehension in noisy environments. Previous studies have demonstrated that audiovisual integration depends strongly on spatiotemporal factors. However, some integrative phenomena such as McGurk interference persist even with gross spatial disparities, suggesting that spatial alignment is not necessary for robust integration of audiovisual place-of-articulation cues. It is therefore unclear how speech-cues interact with audiovisual spatial integration mechanisms. Here, we combine two well established psychophysical phenomena, the McGurk effect and the ventriloquist's illusion, to explore this dependency. Our results demonstrate that conflicting spatial cues may not interfere with audiovisual integration of speech, but conflicting speech-cues can impede integration in space. This suggests a direct but asymmetrical influence between ventral 'what' and dorsal 'where' pathways. PMID:21909378

Bishop, Christopher W; Miller, Lee M

2011-01-01

61

An Audio-Visual Approach to Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development of an audiovisual training course in duck husbandry which consists of synchronized tapes and slides. The production of the materials, equipment needs, operations, cost, and advantages of the program are discussed. (BM)

Hearnshaw, Trevor

1977-01-01

62

Congruence, Similarity, and Symmetries of Geometric Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of computing geometric transformations (rotation, translation, reflexion) that map a point setA exactly or approximately into a point setB. We derive efficient algorithms for various cases (Euclidean or maximum metric, translation or rotation, or general congruence).

Helmut Alt; Kurt Mehlhorn; Hubert Wagener; Emo Welzl

1988-01-01

63

Some congruences for traces of singular moduli  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address a question posed by Ono [Ken Ono, The Web of Modularity: Arithmetic of the Coefficients of Modular Forms and q-Series, CBMS Reg. Conf. Ser. Math., vol. 102, Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 2004, Problem 7.30], prove a general result for powers of an arbitrary prime, and provide an explanation for the appearance of higher congruence moduli for certain

Pavel Guerzhoy

2007-01-01

64

RANK AND CONGRUENCES FOR OVERPARTITION PAIRS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rank of an overpartition pair is a generalization of Dyson's rank of a partition. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role that this statistic plays in the congruence properties of pp(n), the number of overpartition pairs of n. Some generating functions and identities involving this rank are also presented.

KATHRIN BRINGMANN; JEREMY LOVEJOY

2008-01-01

65

On finite congruence-simple semirings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe finite, additively commutative, congruence simple semirings. The main result is that the only such semirings are those of order 2, zero-multiplication rings of prime order, matrix rings over finite fields, those that are additively idempotent, and those with trivial addition.

Chris Monico

2002-01-01

66

On finite congruence-simple semirings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe finite, additively commutative, congruence simple semirings. The main result is that the only such semirings are those of order 2, zero-multiplication rings of prime order, matrix rings over finite fields, ones with trivial addition, and those that are additively idempotent.

Chris Monico

2004-01-01

67

COALA: Content-Oriented Audiovisual Library Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the {COALA} (Content-Oriented Audiovisual Library Access) project, which aims to offer a framework for the retrieval of audiovisual {TV} news documents. {COALA’s} principal design features are based on the analysis of a classical archive system: {TSR} (Television Suisse Romande) archive. It provides a retrieval interface allowing simple\\/advanced search capabilities combined with hierarchical video browsing features. Also, it

Nastaran Fatemi; Omar Abou Khaled

2001-01-01

68

Audio-visual integration in multimodal communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review recent research that examines audio-visual integration in multimodal communication. The topics include bimodality in human speech, human and automated lip reading, facial animation, lip synchronization, joint audio-video coding, and bimodal speaker verification. We also study the enabling technologies for these research topics, including automatic facial-feature tracking and audio-to-visual mapping. Recent progress in audio-visual research shows that joint processing

Tsuhan Chen; Ram R. Rao

1998-01-01

69

Audiovisual segregation in cochlear implant users.  

PubMed

It has traditionally been assumed that cochlear implant users de facto perform atypically in audiovisual tasks. However, a recent study that combined an auditory task with visual distractors suggests that only those cochlear implant users that are not proficient at recognizing speech sounds might show abnormal audiovisual interactions. The present study aims at reinforcing this notion by investigating the audiovisual segregation abilities of cochlear implant users in a visual task with auditory distractors. Speechreading was assessed in two groups of cochlear implant users (proficient and non-proficient at sound recognition), as well as in normal controls. A visual speech recognition task (i.e. speechreading) was administered either in silence or in combination with three types of auditory distractors: i) noise ii) reverse speech sound and iii) non-altered speech sound. Cochlear implant users proficient at speech recognition performed like normal controls in all conditions, whereas non-proficient users showed significantly different audiovisual segregation patterns in both speech conditions. These results confirm that normal-like audiovisual segregation is possible in highly skilled cochlear implant users and, consequently, that proficient and non-proficient CI users cannot be lumped into a single group. This important feature must be taken into account in further studies of audiovisual interactions in cochlear implant users. PMID:22427963

Landry, Simon; Bacon, Benoit A; Leybaert, Jacqueline; Gagné, Jean-Pierre; Champoux, François

2012-01-01

70

Audio-visual interaction and perceptual assessment of water features used over road traffic noise.  

PubMed

This paper examines the audio-visual interaction and perception of water features used over road traffic noise, including their semantic aural properties, as well as their categorization and evocation properties. The research focused on a wide range of small to medium sized water features that can be used in gardens and parks to promote peacefulness and relaxation. Paired comparisons highlighted the inter-dependence between uni-modal (audio-only or visual-only) and bi-modal (audio-visual) perception, indicating that equal attention should be given to the design of both stimuli. In general, natural looking features tended to increase preference scores (compared to audio-only paired comparison scores), while manmade looking features decreased them. Semantic descriptors showed significant correlations with preferences and were found to be more reliable design criteria than physical parameters. A principal component analysis identified three components within the nine semantic attributes tested: "emotional assessment," "sound quality," and "envelopment and temporal variation." The first two showed significant correlations with audio-only preferences, "emotional assessment" being the most important predictor of preferences, and its attributes naturalness, relaxation, and freshness also being significantly correlated with preferences. Categorization results indicated that natural stream sounds are easily identifiable (unlike waterfalls and fountains), while evocation results showed no unique relationship with preferences. PMID:25373962

Galbrun, Laurent; Calarco, Francesca M A

2014-11-01

71

Job Congruence, Academic Achievement, and Earnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study combines a widely held view of how earnings are related to education and job tenure (The Mincer model) with the notion that earnings are associated with the quality of an employer-employee job match. The quality of an individual's occupational choice is measured us- ing job congruence, a commonly-used construct in the psychometric literature. Better-matched individuals should be more

George Neumann; Neal H. Olitsky; Steve Robbins

2008-01-01

72

The interplay of discourse congruence and lexical association during sentence processing: Evidence from ERPs and eye tracking  

PubMed Central

Five experiments used ERPs and eye tracking to determine the interplay of word-level and discourse-level information during sentence processing. Subjects read sentences that were locally congruent but whose congruence with discourse context was manipulated. Furthermore, critical words in the local sentence were preceded by a prime word that was associated or not. Violations of discourse congruence had early and lingering effects on ERP and eye-tracking measures. This indicates that discourse representations have a rapid effect on lexical semantic processing even in locally congruous texts. In contrast, effects of association were more malleable: Very early effects of associative priming were only robust when the discourse context was absent or not cohesive. Together these results suggest that the global discourse model quickly influences lexical processing in sentences, and that spreading activation from associative priming does not contribute to natural reading in discourse contexts. PMID:17218992

Camblin, C. Christine; Gordon, Peter C.; Swaab, Tamara Y.

2006-01-01

73

MPEG-7 audio-visual indexing test-bed for video retrieval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the development status of a Multimedia Asset Management (MAM) test-bed for content-based indexing and retrieval of audio-visual documents within the MPEG-7 standard. The project, called "MPEG-7 Audio-Visual Document Indexing System" (MADIS), specifically targets the indexing and retrieval of video shots and key frames from documentary film archives, based on audio-visual content like face recognition, motion activity, speech recognition and semantic clustering. The MPEG-7/XML encoding of the film database is done off-line. The description decomposition is based on a temporal decomposition into visual segments (shots), key frames and audio/speech sub-segments. The visible outcome will be a web site that allows video retrieval using a proprietary XQuery-based search engine and accessible to members at the Canadian National Film Board (NFB) Cineroute site. For example, end-user will be able to ask to point on movie shots in the database that have been produced in a specific year, that contain the face of a specific actor who tells a specific word and in which there is no motion activity. Video streaming is performed over the high bandwidth CA*net network deployed by CANARIE, a public Canadian Internet development organization.

Gagnon, Langis; Foucher, Samuel; Gouaillier, Valerie; Brun, Christelle; Brousseau, Julie; Boulianne, Gilles; Osterrath, Frederic; Chapdelaine, Claude; Dutrisac, Julie; St-Onge, Francis; Champagne, Benoit; Lu, Xiaojian

2003-12-01

74

A Review of Research on Person-Environment Congruence in Holland's Theory of Careers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines correlational studies which consistently show significant, positive relationships between congruence and academic performance and persistence, job satisfaction, stability of choice, perceived congruence, and personality, but nonsignificant relationships between congruence and self-concept or sociability. More complex research designs…

Spokane, Arnold R.

1985-01-01

75

Emergent Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article discusses ways to let semantics emerge from simple observations from the bottom-up, rather than imposing concepts on the observations top-down, to provide precise query, retrieval, communication or translation for a wide variety of applications. The following areas are examined: image retrieval and databases; media information spaces including the Semantic Web and MPEG frameworks; language games for emergent semantics;

Steffen Staab; S. Santini; F. Nack; L. Steels; A. Maedche

2002-01-01

76

Coherence and congruence: Two aspects of personality integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coherence and congruence-based measures of personality integration were related to a variety of healthy personality characteristics. Functional coherence was denned as occurring when partici- pants' \\

Kennon M. Sheldon; Tim Kasser

1995-01-01

77

Semantic Representation 1 Semantic Representation  

E-print Network

Semantic Representation 1 Semantic Representation Gabriella Vigliocco and David P. Vinson Department of Psychology University College London 05 October 2005 #12;Semantic Representation 2 This chapter perspectives on the representation of meaning. We start by outlining four key issues in the investigation

Vigliocco, Gabriella

78

Audio-visual speech enhancement with AVCDCN (audio-visual codebook dependent cepstral normalization)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce a non-linear enhancement tech- nique called Audio-Visual Codebook Dependent Cepstral Normalization (AVCDCN) and we consider its use with both audio-only and audio-visual speech recognition. AVCDCN is inspired from CDCN (1) (2), an audio-only en- hancement technique that approximates the non-linear ef- fect of noise on speech with a piece-wise constant func- tion. Our experiments show

Sabine Deligne; Gerasimos Potamianos; Chalapathy Neti

2002-01-01

79

Occupational Specialty Congruence: New Data and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present research examined the relationship between within-occupational congruence and satisfaction, and attempted to integrate hypotheses and findings of prior studies with the conceptual implications of occupational specialty congruence. Correspondence between vocational interests within occupations and specialty choice has shown higher…

Meir, Elchanan I.; Melamed, Samuel

2005-01-01

80

Congruences between Derivatives of Geometric L-Functions  

E-print Network

1 Congruences between Derivatives of Geometric L-Functions David Burns with an appendix by David of the re- fined Stark conjectures formulated by, amongst others, Gross, Tate, Rubin and Popescu, to prove-functions, leading terms, congruences, Iwasawa theory #12;2 David Burns 1. Introduction The main result

Bushnell, Colin J.

81

A sound and efficient measure of joint congruence.  

PubMed

In the medical world, the term "congruence" is used to describe by visual inspection how the articular surfaces mate each other, evaluating the joint capability to distribute an applied load from a purely geometrical perspective. Congruence is commonly employed for assessing articular physiology and for the comparison between normal and pathological states. A measure of it would thus represent a valuable clinical tool. Several approaches for the quantification of joint congruence have been proposed in the biomechanical literature, differing on how the articular contact is modeled. This makes it difficult to compare different measures. In particular, in previous articles a congruence measure has been presented which proved to be efficient and suitable for the clinical practice, but it was still empirically defined. This article aims at providing a sound theoretical support to this congruence measure by means of the Winkler elastic foundation contact model which, with respect to others, has the advantage to hold also for highly conforming surfaces as most of the human articulations are. First, the geometrical relation between the applied load and the resulting peak of pressure is analytically derived from the elastic foundation contact model, providing a theoretically sound approach to the definition of a congruence measure. Then, the capability of congruence measure to capture the same geometrical relation is shown. Finally, the reliability of congruence measure is discussed. PMID:25231666

Conconi, Michele; Castelli, Vincenzo Parenti

2014-09-01

82

The Relationship between Interest-Occupation Congruence and Job Satisfaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationship between congruence and intrinsic job satisfaction for 1,688 young adults. A modest significant relationship was found. The congruence-satisfaction relationship was more pronounced for subjects meeting screens developed for three variables (interest clarity, career salience, and value placed on interesting work) suspected…

Swaney, Kyle; Prediger, Dale

1985-01-01

83

Active Methodology in the Audiovisual Communication Degree  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes the adaptation methods of the active methodologies of the new European higher education area in the new Audiovisual Communication degree under the perspective of subjects related to the area of the interactive communication in Europe. The proposed active methodologies have been experimentally implemented into the new academic…

Gimenez-Lopez, J. L.; Royo, T. Magal; Laborda, Jesus Garcia; Dunai, Larisa

2010-01-01

84

Dynamic Perceptual Changes in Audiovisual Simultaneity  

E-print Network

on the distance from the source audiovisual event [3­6, but see 7], and can constantly calibrate the point of AV attention was directed to a visual event, the perceived timing of an auditory event was attracted towards that event. Conclusions/Significance. This multistable display illustrates how flexible perceived timing can

85

Audiovisual Asynchrony Detection in Human Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Combining information from the visual and auditory senses can greatly enhance intelligibility of natural speech. Integration of audiovisual speech signals is robust even when temporal offsets are present between the component signals. In the present study, we characterized the temporal integration window for speech and nonspeech stimuli with…

Maier, Joost X.; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Noppeney, Uta

2011-01-01

86

Audio/Visual Ratios in Commercial Filmstrips.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Video Audio Compressed (VIDAC) is a compressed time, variable rate, still picture television system. This technology made it possible for a centralized library of audiovisual materials to be transmitted over a television channel in very short periods of time. In order to establish specifications…

Gulliford, Nancy L.

87

An Acquired Deficit of Audiovisual Speech Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report a 53-year-old patient (AWF) who has an acquired deficit of audiovisual speech integration, characterized by a perceived temporal mismatch between speech sounds and the sight of moving lips. AWF was less accurate on an auditory digit span task with vision of a speaker's face as compared to a condition in which no visual information from…

Hamilton, Roy H.; Shenton, Jeffrey T.; Coslett, H. Branch

2006-01-01

88

Video preprocessing for audiovisual indexing Alberto Albiol  

E-print Network

Video preprocessing for audiovisual indexing Alberto Albiol Communications Department Polytechnic are provided which prove the validity of the approach. 1. Introduction Recent advances in digital video coding and retrieve information from these databases. Audio and video indexing play a key role in this process

Torres, Luis

89

VIDEO PREPROCESSING FOR AUDIOVISUAL INDEXING Alberto Albiol  

E-print Network

VIDEO PREPROCESSING FOR AUDIOVISUAL INDEXING Alberto Albiol Politechnic University of Valencia. INTRODUCTION Recent advances in digital video coding have enabled the creation of a big number of digital to access and retrieve the digital data. Au- dio and video indexing play a key role in this process

Torres, Luis

90

Temporal recalibration during asynchronous audiovisual speech perception.  

PubMed

We investigated the consequences of monitoring an asynchronous audiovisual speech stream on the temporal perception of simultaneously presented vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) audiovisual speech video clips. Participants made temporal order judgments (TOJs) regarding whether the speech-sound or the visual-speech gesture occurred first, for video clips presented at various different stimulus onset asynchronies. Throughout the experiment, half of the participants also monitored a continuous stream of words presented audiovisually, superimposed over the VCV video clips. The continuous (adapting) speech stream could either be presented in synchrony, or else with the auditory stream lagging by 300 ms. A significant shift (13 ms in the direction of the adapting stimulus in the point of subjective simultaneity) was observed in the TOJ task when participants monitored the asynchronous speech stream. This result suggests that the consequences of adapting to asynchronous speech extends beyond the case of simple audiovisual stimuli (as has recently been demonstrated by Navarra et al. in Cogn Brain Res 25:499-507, 2005) and can even affect the perception of more complex speech stimuli. PMID:17431598

Vatakis, Argiro; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Spence, Charles

2007-07-01

91

A Guide to Audiovisual Resources about ERIC.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The currently available audiovisual products about ERIC reviewed in this guide have been developed to meet the needs of a variety of users with varying familiarity with the system. Materials to be included were screened on the basis of availability, currency, and technical quality. The remaining products were then reviewed using five criteria: (1)…

Ely, Donald P.

92

AUDIO-VISUAL AND MAINTENANCE SERVICES  

E-print Network

AUDIO-VISUAL AND MAINTENANCE SERVICES University Policy No: AD2510 Classification: Administration for the Use of Audio Visual Services PURPOSE 1.00 The purpose of this policy is to set out provisions for Audio Visual: services, equipment rental and maintenance on campus. DEFINITIONS For the purposes

Victoria, University of

93

Reduced audiovisual recalibration in the elderly  

PubMed Central

Perceived synchrony of visual and auditory signals can be altered by exposure to a stream of temporally offset stimulus pairs. Previous literature suggests that adapting to audiovisual temporal offsets is an important recalibration to correctly combine audiovisual stimuli into a single percept across a range of source distances. Healthy aging results in synchrony perception over a wider range of temporally offset visual and auditory signals, independent of age-related unisensory declines in vision and hearing sensitivities. However, the impact of aging on audiovisual recalibration is unknown. Audiovisual synchrony perception for sound-lead and sound-lag stimuli was measured for 15 younger (22–32 years old) and 15 older (64–74 years old) healthy adults using a method-of-constant-stimuli, after adapting to a stream of visual and auditory pairs. The adaptation pairs were either synchronous or asynchronous (sound-lag of 230 ms). The adaptation effect for each observer was computed as the shift in the mean of the individually fitted psychometric functions after adapting to asynchrony. Post-adaptation to synchrony, the younger and older observers had average window widths (±standard deviation) of 326 (±80) and 448 (±105) ms, respectively. There was no adaptation effect for sound-lead pairs. Both the younger and older observers, however, perceived more sound-lag pairs as synchronous. The magnitude of the adaptation effect in the older observers was not correlated with how often they saw the adapting sound-lag stimuli as asynchronous. Our finding demonstrates that audiovisual synchrony perception adapts less with advancing age. PMID:25221508

Chan, Yu Man; Pianta, Michael J.; McKendrick, Allison M.

2014-01-01

94

Target categorization with primes that vary in both congruency and sense modality  

PubMed Central

In two experiments we examined conceptual priming within and across sense modalities by varying the modality (picture and environmental sounds) and the category congruency of prime-target pairs. Both experiments used a repetition priming paradigm, but Experiment 1 studied priming effects with a task that required a superordinate categorization response (man-made or natural), while Experiment 2 used a lower level category response (musical instruments or animal): one that was more closely associated with the basic level of the semantic network. Results from Experiment 1 showed a strong effect of target modality and two distinct patterns of conceptual priming effects with picture and environmental sound targets. However, no priming advantage was found when congruent and incongruent primes were compared. Results from Experiment 2, found congruency effects that were specific to environmental sound targets when preceded by picture primes. The findings provide support for the intermodal event file and multisensory framework, and suggest that auditory and visual features about a single item in a conceptual category may be more tightly connected than two different items from the same category.

Weatherford, Kathryn; Mills, Michael; Porter, Anne M.; Goolkasian, Paula

2015-01-01

95

Target categorization with primes that vary in both congruency and sense modality.  

PubMed

In two experiments we examined conceptual priming within and across sense modalities by varying the modality (picture and environmental sounds) and the category congruency of prime-target pairs. Both experiments used a repetition priming paradigm, but Experiment 1 studied priming effects with a task that required a superordinate categorization response (man-made or natural), while Experiment 2 used a lower level category response (musical instruments or animal): one that was more closely associated with the basic level of the semantic network. Results from Experiment 1 showed a strong effect of target modality and two distinct patterns of conceptual priming effects with picture and environmental sound targets. However, no priming advantage was found when congruent and incongruent primes were compared. Results from Experiment 2, found congruency effects that were specific to environmental sound targets when preceded by picture primes. The findings provide support for the intermodal event file and multisensory framework, and suggest that auditory and visual features about a single item in a conceptual category may be more tightly connected than two different items from the same category. PMID:25667578

Weatherford, Kathryn; Mills, Michael; Porter, Anne M; Goolkasian, Paula

2015-01-01

96

7 CFR 3015.200 - Acknowledgement of support on publications and audiovisuals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Acknowledgement of support on publications and audiovisuals. 3015.200 Section...200 Acknowledgement of support on publications and audiovisuals. (a) Definitions...production of an audiovisual,” and “publication.” (b) Publications....

2010-01-01

97

Emotional valence and spatial congruency differentially modulate crossmodal processing: an fMRI study  

PubMed Central

Salient exogenous stimuli modulate attentional processes and lead to attention shifts–even across modalities and at a pre-attentive level. Stimulus properties such as hemispheric laterality and emotional valence influence processing, but their specific interaction in audio-visual attention paradigms remains ambiguous. We conducted an fMRI experiment to investigate the interaction of supramodal spatial congruency, emotional salience, and stimulus presentation side on neural processes of attention modulation. Emotionally neutral auditory deviants were presented in a dichotic listening oddball design. Simultaneously, visual target stimuli (schematic faces) were presented, which displayed either a negative or a positive emotion. These targets were presented in the left or in the right visual field and were either spatially congruent (valid) or incongruent (invalid) with the concurrent deviant auditory stimuli. According to our expectation we observed that deviant stimuli serve as attention-directing cues for visual target stimuli. Region-of-interest (ROI) analyses suggested differential effects of stimulus valence and spatial presentation on the hemodynamic response in bilateral auditory cortices. These results underline the importance of valence and presentation side for attention guidance by deviant sound events and may hint at a hemispheric specialization for valence and attention processing. PMID:25221495

Wolf, Dhana; Schock, Lisa; Bhavsar, Saurabh; Demenescu, Liliana R.; Sturm, Walter; Mathiak, Klaus

2014-01-01

98

Taxonomic Congruence versus Total Evidence, and Amniote Phylogeny Inferred from Fossils, Molecules, and Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxonomic congruence and total evidence are competing paradigms in phylogenetic inference. Taxonomic congruence focuses on deriving a consensus from the results obtained from separately analyzed data sets, whereas total evidence uses character congruence in the search for the best-fitting hypothesis for all of the available char- acter evidence. Explicit or implicit use of taxonomic congruence is usually employed when an

Douglas J. Eernisse; Arnold G. Kluge

99

Olfactory ERPs in an odor/visual congruency task differentiate ApoE ?4 carriers from non-carriers  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder that impairs memory and semantic processing. AD patients and MCI patients at risk for AD show altered N400 ERP responses to incongruent visual and verbal stimuli. AD patients exhibit neuropathology in olfactory brain areas before cognitive symptoms, suggesting the potential for olfactory processing to reflect early pathology. Despite this, odor congruency has not been examined. We investigated odor-image congruency in older adults at genetic risk for AD. ApoE ?4 carriers and non-carriers were screened for anosmia, severe hyposmia, and dementia. Olfactory ERPs were measured 600-1300ms following odor-image pairs. Odors were each presented once congruently and once incongruently via olfactometer. Right dorsal and ventral sites were vulnerable to the ?4 allele, consistent with a compensation hypothesis. Pz amplitude differences on congruous and incongruous trials were larger in non carriers. Regression indicated that congruency showed very high sensitivity and specificity for correctly classifying ?4 carriers from non-carriers. PMID:22305338

Kowalewski, Joel; Murphy, Claire

2012-01-01

100

Natural Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past few years, many researchers have begun to present semantic specifications in a style that has been strongly advocated by Plotkin in (19). The purpose of this paper is to introduce in an intuitive manner the essential ideas of the method that we call now Natural Semantics~ together with its connections to ideas in logic and computing. Natural

Gilles Kahn

1987-01-01

101

Ontological Semantics  

E-print Network

This book introduces ontological semantics, a comprehensive approach to the treatment of text meaning by computer. Ontological semantics is an integrated complex of theories, methodologies, descriptions and implementations. In ontological semantics, a theory is viewed as a set of statements determining the format of descriptions of the phenomena with which the theory deals. A theory is associated with a methodology used to obtain the descriptions. Implementations are computer systems that use the descriptions to solve specific problems in text processing. Implementations of ontological semantics are combined with other processing systems to produce applications, such as information extraction or machine translation. The theory of ontological semantics is built as a society of microtheories covering such diverse ground as specific language phenomena, world knowledge organization, processing heuristics and issues relating to knowledge representation and implementation system architecture. The theory briefly sketched above is a top-level microtheory, the ontological semantics theory per se. Descriptions in ontological semantics include text meaning representations, lexical entries, ontological concepts and instances as well as procedures for manipulating texts and their meanings. Methodologies in ontological semantics are sets of techniques and instructions for acquiring and

Sergei Nirenburg; Victor Raskin

2004-01-01

102

36 CFR 1237.16 - How do agencies store audiovisual records?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.16 How do agencies store audiovisual records?...

2010-07-01

103

36 CFR 1237.10 - How must agencies manage their audiovisual, cartographic, and related records?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.10 How must agencies manage their audiovisual,...

2010-07-01

104

36 CFR 1237.16 - How do agencies store audiovisual records?  

...16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.16 How do agencies store audiovisual records?...

2014-07-01

105

36 CFR 1237.10 - How must agencies manage their audiovisual, cartographic, and related records?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.10 How must agencies manage their audiovisual,...

2013-07-01

106

36 CFR 1237.10 - How must agencies manage their audiovisual, cartographic, and related records?  

...10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.10 How must agencies manage their audiovisual,...

2014-07-01

107

36 CFR 1237.10 - How must agencies manage their audiovisual, cartographic, and related records?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.10 How must agencies manage their audiovisual,...

2011-07-01

108

36 CFR 1237.10 - How must agencies manage their audiovisual, cartographic, and related records?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.10 How must agencies manage their audiovisual,...

2012-07-01

109

36 CFR 1237.16 - How do agencies store audiovisual records?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.16 How do agencies store audiovisual records?...

2012-07-01

110

36 CFR 1237.16 - How do agencies store audiovisual records?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.16 How do agencies store audiovisual records?...

2013-07-01

111

Dynamics of stringy congruence in the early universe  

SciTech Connect

We study twist and shear aspects of the stingy geodesic surface congruence. Under some natural conditions we derive the equations of the twist and shear in terms of the expansion of the Universe. We observe in this higher dimensional cosmology that, as the early universe evolves with expansion rate, the twist of the stringy congruence decreases exponentially and the initial twist value should be large enough to sustain the rotations of the ensuing universe, while the effects of the shear are negligible to produce the isotropic and homogeneous universe. We also investigate the twist and shear of the geodesic surface congruence of the null strings.

Cho, Yong Seung; Hong, Soon-Tae [Department of Mathematics, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Science Education and Research Institute for Basic Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-05-15

112

Diminished sensitivity of audiovisual temporal order in autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

We examined sensitivity of audiovisual temporal order in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using an audiovisual temporal order judgment (TOJ) task. In order to assess domain-specific impairments, the stimuli varied in social complexity from simple flash/beeps to videos of a handclap or a speaking face. Compared to typically-developing controls, individuals with ASD were generally less sensitive in judgments of audiovisual temporal order (larger just noticeable differences, JNDs), but there was no specific impairment with social stimuli. This suggests that people with ASD suffer from a more general impairment in audiovisual temporal processing. PMID:23450453

de Boer-Schellekens, Liselotte; Eussen, Mart; Vroomen, Jean

2013-01-01

113

Diminished sensitivity of audiovisual temporal order in autism spectrum disorder  

PubMed Central

We examined sensitivity of audiovisual temporal order in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using an audiovisual temporal order judgment (TOJ) task. In order to assess domain-specific impairments, the stimuli varied in social complexity from simple flash/beeps to videos of a handclap or a speaking face. Compared to typically-developing controls, individuals with ASD were generally less sensitive in judgments of audiovisual temporal order (larger just noticeable differences, JNDs), but there was no specific impairment with social stimuli. This suggests that people with ASD suffer from a more general impairment in audiovisual temporal processing. PMID:23450453

de Boer-Schellekens, Liselotte; Eussen, Mart; Vroomen, Jean

2012-01-01

114

‘When Birds of a Feather Flock Together’: Synesthetic Correspondences Modulate Audiovisual Integration in Non-Synesthetes  

PubMed Central

Background Synesthesia is a condition in which the stimulation of one sense elicits an additional experience, often in a different (i.e., unstimulated) sense. Although only a small proportion of the population is synesthetic, there is growing evidence to suggest that neurocognitively-normal individuals also experience some form of synesthetic association between the stimuli presented to different sensory modalities (i.e., between auditory pitch and visual size, where lower frequency tones are associated with large objects and higher frequency tones with small objects). While previous research has highlighted crossmodal interactions between synesthetically corresponding dimensions, the possible role of synesthetic associations in multisensory integration has not been considered previously. Methodology Here we investigate the effects of synesthetic associations by presenting pairs of asynchronous or spatially discrepant visual and auditory stimuli that were either synesthetically matched or mismatched. In a series of three psychophysical experiments, participants reported the relative temporal order of presentation or the relative spatial locations of the two stimuli. Principal Findings The reliability of non-synesthetic participants' estimates of both audiovisual temporal asynchrony and spatial discrepancy were lower for pairs of synesthetically matched as compared to synesthetically mismatched audiovisual stimuli. Conclusions Recent studies of multisensory integration have shown that the reduced reliability of perceptual estimates regarding intersensory conflicts constitutes the marker of a stronger coupling between the unisensory signals. Our results therefore indicate a stronger coupling of synesthetically matched vs. mismatched stimuli and provide the first psychophysical evidence that synesthetic congruency can promote multisensory integration. Synesthetic crossmodal correspondences therefore appear to play a crucial (if unacknowledged) role in the multisensory integration of auditory and visual information. PMID:19471644

Parise, Cesare Valerio; Spence, Charles

2009-01-01

115

Audio-visual affective expression recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic affective expression recognition has attracted more and more attention of researchers from different disciplines, which will significantly contribute to a new paradigm for human computer interaction (affect-sensitive interfaces, socially intelligent environments) and advance the research in the affect-related fields including psychology, psychiatry, and education. Multimodal information integration is a process that enables human to assess affective states robustly and flexibly. In order to understand the richness and subtleness of human emotion behavior, the computer should be able to integrate information from multiple sensors. We introduce in this paper our efforts toward machine understanding of audio-visual affective behavior, based on both deliberate and spontaneous displays. Some promising methods are presented to integrate information from both audio and visual modalities. Our experiments show the advantage of audio-visual fusion in affective expression recognition over audio-only or visual-only approaches.

Huang, Thomas S.; Zeng, Zhihong

2007-11-01

116

Congruence subgroups and rational conformal field theory  

E-print Network

We address here the question of whether the characters of an RCFT are modular functions for some level N, i.e. whether the representation of the modular group SL_2(Z) coming from any RCFT is trivial on some congruence subgroup. We prove that if the matrix T, associated to $(\\matrix{1&1\\cr 0&1})\\in{\\rm SL}_2(\\Z)$, has ODD order, then this must be so. When the order of T is even, we present a simple test which if satisfied -- and we conjecture it always will be -- implies that the characters for that RCFT will also be level N. We use this to explain three curious observations in RCFT made by various authors.

A. Coste; T. Gannon

1999-09-15

117

The perception of geometrical structure from congruence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principle function of vision is to measure the environment. As demonstrated by the coordination of motor actions with the positions and trajectories of moving objects in cluttered environments and by rapid recognition of solid objects in varying contexts from changing perspectives, vision provides real-time information about the geometrical structure and location of environmental objects and events. The geometric information provided by 2-D spatial displays is examined. It is proposed that the geometry of this information is best understood not within the traditional framework of perspective trigonometry, but in terms of the structure of qualitative relations defined by congruences among intrinsic geometric relations in images of surfaces. The basic concepts of this geometrical theory are outlined.

Lappin, Joseph S.; Wason, Thomas D.

1989-01-01

118

Einfuhrung Semantic Web Schlusswort Semantic Technologies  

E-print Network

Einf¨uhrung Semantic Web Schlusswort Semantic Technologies Proseminar K¨unstliche Intelligenz Universit¨at Ulm Mario Volke 15. Juli 2008 1 / 32 #12;Einf¨uhrung Semantic Web Schlusswort Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Einf¨uhrung 2 Semantic Web 3 Schlusswort 2 / 32 #12;Einf¨uhrung Semantic Web Schlusswort Einf

Pfeifer, Holger

119

Focusing of geodesic congruences in an accelerated expanding Universe  

SciTech Connect

We study the accelerated expansion of the Universe through its consequences on a congruence of geodesics. We make use of the Raychaudhuri equation which describes the evolution of the expansion rate for a congruence of timelike or null geodesics. In particular, we focus on the space-time geometry contribution to this equation. By straightforward calculation from the metric of a Robertson-Walker cosmological model, it follows that in an accelerated expanding Universe the space-time contribution to the Raychaudhuri equation is positive for the fundamental congruence, favoring a non-focusing of the congruence of geodesics. However, the accelerated expansion of the present Universe does not imply a tendency of the fundamental congruence to diverge. It is shown that this is in fact the case for certain congruences of timelike geodesics without vorticity. Therefore, the focusing of geodesics remains feasible in an accelerated expanding Universe. Furthermore, a negative contribution to the Raychaudhuri equation from space-time geometry which is usually interpreted as the manifestation of the attractive character of gravity is restored in an accelerated expanding Robertson-Walker space-time at high speeds.

Albareti, F.D.; Cembranos, J.A.R. [Departamento de Física Teórica I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Cruz-Dombriz, A. de la, E-mail: fdalbareti@estumail.ucm.es, E-mail: cembra@fis.ucm.es, E-mail: alvaro.delacruz-dombriz@uct.ac.za [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), University of Cape Town, 7701 Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa)

2012-12-01

120

Application and Operation of Audiovisual Equipment in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest in audiovisual aids in education has been increased by the shortage of classrooms and good teachers and by the modern predisposition toward learning by visual concepts. Effective utilization of audiovisual materials and equipment depends most importantly, on adequate preparation of the teacher in operating equipment and in coordinating…

Pula, Fred John

121

The Practical Audio-Visual Handbook for Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of audio/visual media as an aid to instruction is a common practice in today's classroom. Most teachers, however, have little or no formal training in this field and rarely a knowledgeable coordinator to help them. "The Practical Audio-Visual Handbook for Teachers" discusses the types and mechanics of many of these media forms and proposes…

Scuorzo, Herbert E.

122

Infant Perception of Audio-Visual Speech Synchrony  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments investigated perception of audio-visual (A-V) speech synchrony in 4- to 10-month-old infants. Experiments 1 and 2 used a convergent-operations approach by habituating infants to an audiovisually synchronous syllable (Experiment 1) and then testing for detection of increasing degrees of A-V asynchrony (366, 500, and 666 ms) or by…

Lewkowicz, David J.

2010-01-01

123

Perception of Intersensory Synchrony in Audiovisual Speech: Not that Special  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perception of intersensory temporal order is particularly difficult for (continuous) audiovisual speech, as perceivers may find it difficult to notice substantial timing differences between speech sounds and lip movements. Here we tested whether this occurs because audiovisual speech is strongly paired ("unity assumption"). Participants made…

Vroomen, Jean; Stekelenburg, Jeroen J.

2011-01-01

124

Trigger Videos on the Web: Impact of Audiovisual Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Audiovisual design might impact emotional responses, as studies from the 1970s and 1980s on movie and television content show. Given today's abundant presence of web-based videos, this study investigates whether audiovisual design will impact web-video content in a similar way. The study is motivated by the potential influence of video-evoked…

Verleur, Ria; Heuvelman, Ard; Verhagen, Plon W.

2011-01-01

125

Audiovisual Mass Media and Education. TTW 27/28.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 15 articles in this special issue focus on learning about the audiovisual mass media and education, especially television and film, in relation to various pedagogical and didactical questions. Individual articles are: (1) "Audiovisual Mass Media for Education in Pakistan: Problems and Prospects" (Ahmed Noor Kahn); (2) "The Role of the…

van Stapele, Peter, Ed.; Sutton, Clifford C., Ed.

1989-01-01

126

Research and Theory Related to Audiovisual Information Transmission. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychological and physiological concepts about information transmission are reviewed with a view toward uncovering principles useful to the design of audiovisual teaching materials. Audiovisual materials which transmit information via the visual or auditory channels are considered, including sound motion pictures, film strips, and audio…

Travers, Robert M. W.; And Others

127

Semantic transcoding of video based on regions of interest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional transcoding on multimedia has been performed from the perspectives of user terminal capabilities such as display sizes and decoding processing power, and network resources such as available network bandwidth and quality of services (QoS) etc. The adaptation (or transcoding) of multimedia contents to given such constraints has been made by frame dropping and resizing of audiovisual, as well as reduction of SNR (Signal-to-Noise Ratio) values by saving the resulting bitrates. Not only such traditional transcoding is performed from the perspective of user"s environment, but also we incorporate a method of semantic transcoding of audiovisual based on region of interest (ROI) from user"s perspective. Users can designate their interested parts in images or video so that the corresponding video contents can be adapted focused on the user"s ROI. We incorporate the MPEG-21 DIA (Digital Item Adaptation) framework in which such semantic information of the user"s ROI is represented and delivered to the content provider side as XDI (context digital item). Representation schema of our semantic information of the user"s ROI has been adopted in MPEG-21 DIA Adaptation Model. In this paper, we present the usage of semantic information of user"s ROI for transcoding and show our system implementation with experimental results.

Lim, Jeongyeon; Kim, Munchurl; Kim, Jong-Nam; Kim, Kyeongsoo

2003-06-01

128

Fibonacci and Lucas congruences and their applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we obtain some new identities containing Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. These identities allow us to give some\\u000a congruences concerning Fibonacci and Lucas numbers such as L\\u000a 2mn+k\\u000a ? (?1)(m+1)n\\u000a \\u000a L\\u000a \\u000a k\\u000a (mod L\\u000a \\u000a m\\u000a ), F\\u000a 2mn+k\\u000a ? (?1)(m+1)n\\u000a \\u000a F\\u000a \\u000a k\\u000a (mod L\\u000a \\u000a m\\u000a ), L\\u000a 2mn+k\\u000a ? (?1)\\u000a mn\\u000a \\u000a L\\u000a \\u000a k\\u000a (mod F\\u000a \\u000a m\\u000a ) and

Refik Keskin; Bahar Demirtürk Bitim

2011-01-01

129

Effects of aging on audio-visual speech integration.  

PubMed

This study investigated the impact of aging on audio-visual speech integration. A syllable identification task was presented in auditory-only, visual-only, and audio-visual congruent and incongruent conditions. Visual cues were either degraded or unmodified. Stimuli were embedded in stationary noise alternating with modulated noise. Fifteen young adults and 15 older adults participated in this study. Results showed that older adults had preserved lipreading abilities when the visual input was clear but not when it was degraded. The impact of aging on audio-visual integration also depended on the quality of the visual cues. In the visual clear condition, the audio-visual gain was similar in both groups and analyses in the framework of the fuzzy-logical model of perception confirmed that older adults did not differ from younger adults in their audio-visual integration abilities. In the visual reduction condition, the audio-visual gain was reduced in the older group, but only when the noise was stationary, suggesting that older participants could compensate for the loss of lipreading abilities by using the auditory information available in the valleys of the noise. The fuzzy-logical model of perception confirmed the significant impact of aging on audio-visual integration by showing an increased weight of audition in the older group. PMID:25324091

Huyse, Aurélie; Leybaert, Jacqueline; Berthommier, Frédéric

2014-10-01

130

False recollections and the congruence of suggested information.  

PubMed

In two experiments, congruence of postevent information was manipulated in order to explore its role in the misinformation effect. Congruence of a detail was empirically defined as its compatibility (or match) with a concrete event. Based on this idea it was predicted that a congruent suggested detail would be more easily accepted than an incongruent one. In Experiments 1 and 2 two factors(congruence and truth value ) were manipulated within-subjects, and a two-alternative forced-choice recognition test was used followed by phenomenological judgements. Furthermore, in the second experiment participants were asked to describe four critical items (two seen and two suggested details)to explore differences and similarities between real and unreal memories. Both experiments clearly showed that the congruence of false information caused a robust misinformation effect, so that congruent information was much more accepted than false incongruent information. Furthermore, congruence increased the descriptive and phenomenological similarities between perceived and suggested memories, thus contributing to the misleading effect. PMID:17891682

Pérez-Mata, Nieves; Diges, Margarita

2007-10-01

131

Categorization of Natural Dynamic Audiovisual Scenes  

PubMed Central

This work analyzed the perceptual attributes of natural dynamic audiovisual scenes. We presented thirty participants with 19 natural scenes in a similarity categorization task, followed by a semi-structured interview. The scenes were reproduced with an immersive audiovisual display. Natural scene perception has been studied mainly with unimodal settings, which have identified motion as one of the most salient attributes related to visual scenes, and sound intensity along with pitch trajectories related to auditory scenes. However, controlled laboratory experiments with natural multimodal stimuli are still scarce. Our results show that humans pay attention to similar perceptual attributes in natural scenes, and a two-dimensional perceptual map of the stimulus scenes and perceptual attributes was obtained in this work. The exploratory results show the amount of movement, perceived noisiness, and eventfulness of the scene to be the most important perceptual attributes in naturalistically reproduced real-world urban environments. We found the scene gist properties openness and expansion to remain as important factors in scenes with no salient auditory or visual events. We propose that the study of scene perception should move forward to understand better the processes behind multimodal scene processing in real-world environments. We publish our stimulus scenes as spherical video recordings and sound field recordings in a publicly available database. PMID:24788808

Rummukainen, Olli; Radun, Jenni; Virtanen, Toni; Pulkki, Ville

2014-01-01

132

Proportion congruency effects: instructions may be enough  

PubMed Central

Learning takes time, namely, one needs to be exposed to contingency relations between stimulus dimensions in order to learn, whereas intentional control can be recruited through task demands. Therefore showing that control can be recruited as a function of experimental instructions alone, that is, adapting the processing according to the instructions before the exposure to the task, can be taken as evidence for existence of control recruitment in the absence of learning. This was done by manipulating the information given at the outset of the experiment. In the first experiment, we manipulated list-level congruency proportion. Half of the participants were informed that most of the stimuli would be congruent, whereas the other half were informed that most of the stimuli would be incongruent. This held true for the stimuli in the second part of each experiment. In the first part, however, the proportion of the two stimulus types was equal. A proportion congruent (PC) effect was found in both parts of the experiment, but it was larger in the second part. In our second experiment, we manipulated the proportion of the stimuli within participants by applying an item-specific design. This was done by presenting some color words most often in their congruent color, and other color words in incongruent colors. Participants were informed about the exact word-color pairings in advance. Similar to Experiment 1, this held true only for the second experimental part. In contrast to our first experiment, informing participants in advance did not result in an item-specific proportion effect, which was observed only in the second part. Thus our results support the hypothesis that instructions may be enough to trigger list-level control, yet learning does contribute to the PC effect under such conditions. The item-level proportion effect is apparently caused by learning or at least it is moderated by it. PMID:25339929

Entel, Olga; Tzelgov, Joseph; Bereby-Meyer, Yoella

2014-01-01

133

Congruence between Personality Type and Environment Type as a Predictor of Stay in an Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied level of congruence between personality type of subjects and modal personality type in their environment. Results showed modal personality type of males and females was not similar; correlation was high for congruence level and inclination to remain in an environment and low for congruence level and social acceptance. (Author/RC)

Meir, Elchanan I.; Hasson, Razia

1982-01-01

134

Further Insight and Additional Inference Methods for Polynomial Regression Applied to the Analysis of Congruence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In their seminal paper, Edwards and Parry (1993) presented the polynomial regression as a better alternative to applying difference score in the study of congruence. Although this method is increasingly applied in congruence research, its complexity relative to other methods for assessing congruence (e.g., difference score methods) was one of the…

Cohen, Ayala; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Doveh, Etti

2010-01-01

135

Checking pi-Calculus Structural Congruence is Graph Isomorphism V. Khomenko , R. Meyer,  

E-print Network

COMPUTING SCIENCE Checking pi-Calculus Structural Congruence is Graph Isomorphism Complete V-TR-1100 May, 2008 Checking pi-Calculus Structural Congruence is Graph Isomorphism Complete Victor Khomenko and Roland Meyer Abstract We show that the problems of checking pi-Calculus structural congruence (pi

Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

136

Congruency of gaze metrics in action, imagery and action observation.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to provide a review of eye movements during action execution, action observation, and movement imagery. Furthermore, the paper highlights aspects of congruency in gaze metrics between these states. The implications of the imagery, observation, and action gaze congruency are discussed in terms of motor learning and rehabilitation. Future research directions are outlined in order to further the understanding of shared gaze metrics between overt and covert states. Suggestions are made for how researchers and practitioners can structure action observation and movement imagery interventions to maximize (re)learning. PMID:24068996

Causer, Joe; McCormick, Sheree A; Holmes, Paul S

2013-01-01

137

Reasoning in Semantic Wikis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Semantic wikis combine,the collaborative environment,of a classical wiki with features of semantic technologies. Semantic data is used to structure information in the wiki, to improve information access by intelligent search and navigation, and to enable knowledge exchange across applications. Though semantic wikis hardly support complex semantic knowledge and inferencing, we argue that this is not due to a lack

Markus Krötzsch; Sebastian Schaffert; Denny Vrandecic

2007-01-01

138

Rapid temporal recalibration is unique to audiovisual stimuli.  

PubMed

Following prolonged exposure to asynchronous multisensory signals, the brain adapts to reduce the perceived asynchrony. Here, in three separate experiments, participants performed a synchrony judgment task on audiovisual, audiotactile or visuotactile stimuli and we used inter-trial analyses to examine whether temporal recalibration occurs rapidly on the basis of a single asynchronous trial. Even though all combinations used the same subjects, task and design, temporal recalibration occurred for audiovisual stimuli (i.e., the point of subjective simultaneity depended on the preceding trial's modality order), but none occurred when the same auditory or visual event was combined with a tactile event. Contrary to findings from prolonged adaptation studies showing recalibration for all three combinations, we show that rapid, inter-trial recalibration is unique to audiovisual stimuli. We conclude that recalibration occurs at two different timescales for audiovisual stimuli (fast and slow), but only on a slow timescale for audiotactile and visuotactile stimuli. PMID:25200176

Van der Burg, Erik; Orchard-Mills, Emily; Alais, David

2015-01-01

139

Perception of intersensory synchrony in audiovisual speech: not that special.  

PubMed

Perception of intersensory temporal order is particularly difficult for (continuous) audiovisual speech, as perceivers may find it difficult to notice substantial timing differences between speech sounds and lip movements. Here we tested whether this occurs because audiovisual speech is strongly paired ("unity assumption"). Participants made temporal order judgments (TOJ) and simultaneity judgments (SJ) about sine-wave speech (SWS) replicas of pseudowords and the corresponding video of the face. Listeners in speech and non-speech mode were equally sensitive judging audiovisual temporal order. Yet, using the McGurk effect, we could demonstrate that the sound was more likely integrated with lipread speech if heard as speech than non-speech. Judging temporal order in audiovisual speech is thus unaffected by whether the auditory and visual streams are paired. Conceivably, previously found differences between speech and non-speech stimuli are not due to the putative "special" nature of speech, but rather reflect low-level stimulus differences. PMID:21035795

Vroomen, Jean; Stekelenburg, Jeroen J

2011-01-01

140

Audiovisual Materials and Programming for Children: A Long Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the use of audiovisual materials in children's programing at the Seattle Public Library prior to 1920. Kinds of materials discussed include pictures, reflectoscopes, films, sound recordings, lantern slides, and stereographs. (17 references) (MES)

Doll, Carol A.

1992-01-01

141

Selective Attention and Audiovisual Integration: Is Attending to Both  

E-print Network

a strong resemblance to the auditory processing negativity, appeared to reflect late attention how attention modulates multisensory integration processes. Keywords: auditory, bindingSelective Attention and Audiovisual Integration: Is Attending to Both Modalities a Prerequisite

142

Speaker Independent Audio-Visual Database For Bimodal Asr  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the audio-visual database collected at AT&T Labs--Research for the study of bimodal speech recognition. To date, this database consists of two multiple speaker parts, namely isolated confusable words and connected letters, thus allowing the study of some popular and relatively simple speaker independent audio-visual recognition tasks. In addition, a single speaker connected digits database is collected to

Gerasimos Potamianos; Eric Cosatto; Hans Peter Graf; David B. Roe

1997-01-01

143

Central Audiovisual Library of the European Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from Mediatheque offers a variety of videos, developed by the European Commission, which are available to download free of charge for "EU-related information and education purposes." The Commission "embodies and upholds the general interest of the Union" and the videos address key issues for the political Community and public interest. The videos cover a variety of topics including trade, railways, and responsible fishing. The Research section includes two videos on nanotechnology, which feature interviews with researchers (some of which are translated into English through subtitles), an inside look at nanotechnology laboratories, and simulations to demonstrate the microscopic world of nanotechnology. The videos vary in length and newly added videos are noted. A link at the bottom of the page allows visitors to search for keywords to locate a particular video in the archive. Visitors to the website can also learn about other audiovisual services offered by Mediatheque.

144

Arithmetic Congruence Monoids: A Survey Paul Baginski and Scott Chapman  

E-print Network

, arithmetic progressions, nonunique factorization, elasticity of factorization, Krull monoids Early a common object from additive number theory, arith- metic progressions. An arithmetic congruence monoid a and b is both sufficient and necessary for the arithmetic progression a + bN0 to be closed under

Baginski, Paul

145

Caregivers' Retirement Congruency: A Case for Caregiver Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the concept of "retirement congruency" (RC), which takes into account greater variation in retirement decisions (low, moderate, or high RC) than a dichotomous conceptualization (forced versus chosen), multinomial logistic regression was conducted on a sample of caregivers from the 2002 Canadian General Social Survey who were retired from…

Humble, Aine M.; Keefe, Janice M.; Auton, Greg M.

2012-01-01

146

A congruence index for testing topological similarity between trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: Phylogenetic trees are omnipresent in evolutionary biology and the comparison of trees plays a central role there. Tree congruence statistics are based on the null hypothesis that two given trees are not more congruent (topologically similar) than expected by chance. Usually, one searches for the most parsimonious evolu- tionary scenario relating two trees and then one tests the null

Damien M. De Vienne; Tatiana Giraud; Olivier C. Martin

2007-01-01

147

Person-Environment Congruence in Residences for the Elderly.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the population of older Americans continues to increase, more and more elderly persons will seek diverse living arrangements. Residential facilities must be designed to meet their needs. Person-environment congruence may be an important determinant of residential satisfaction and relocation stress for the elderly. Residents (N=107) of eight…

Kiyak, Havva Asuman

148

Relationship Between Pattern of Achievement and Self-Ideal Congruence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the relationship between pattern of achievement and self-ideal congruence of 408 ninth grade boys and girls. Underachievers, average achievers and overachievers were determined on the basis of whether their final average marks were higher or lower than had been predicted. Prediction criteria are presented. Self-ideal…

Gill, Mohindra P.

149

Partner Choice, Relationship Satisfaction, and Oral Contraception: The Congruency Hypothesis.  

PubMed

Hormonal fluctuation across the menstrual cycle explains temporal variation in women's judgment of the attractiveness of members of the opposite sex. Use of hormonal contraceptives could therefore influence both initial partner choice and, if contraceptive use subsequently changes, intrapair dynamics. Associations between hormonal contraceptive use and relationship satisfaction may thus be best understood by considering whether current use is congruent with use when relationships formed, rather than by considering current use alone. In the study reported here, we tested this congruency hypothesis in a survey of 365 couples. Controlling for potential confounds (including relationship duration, age, parenthood, and income), we found that congruency in current and previous hormonal contraceptive use, but not current use alone, predicted women's sexual satisfaction with their partners. Congruency was not associated with women's nonsexual satisfaction or with the satisfaction of their male partners. Our results provide empirical support for the congruency hypothesis and suggest that women's sexual satisfaction is influenced by changes in partner preference associated with change in hormonal contraceptive use. PMID:24818612

Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; Burriss, Robert P; Cobey, Kelly D; Klapilová, Kate?ina; Havlí?ek, Jan; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa; Petrie, Marion

2014-05-12

150

Congruence from Rotations and Reflections: 4.5  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These 3 activities, part of the Mathematics Developmental Continuum of the State of Victoria, Australia, are intended to introduce learners to demonstrating congruence and line and rotational symmetry through the use of transformations. Hands on activities and computer software are employed. Supporting documents, materials, and progress indicators are included.

2010-11-18

151

Toward a Theory of Psychological Type Congruence for Advertisers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the impact of advertisers' persuasive selling messages on consumers, this paper discusses topics relating to the theory of psychological type congruence. Based on an examination of persuasion theory and relevant psychological concepts, including recent cognitive stability and personality and needs theory and the older concept of…

McBride, Michael H.; And Others

152

Determinants of congruency sequence effects without learning and memory confounds.  

PubMed

A common finding in distracter interference (e.g., Flanker) tasks is that the difference in mean reaction time (RT) between incongruent and congruent trials-the congruency effect-is smaller when the previous trial was incongruent relative to congruent. Over the past 2 decades, 2 main accounts of this congruency sequence effect (CSE) have been proposed. One posits that the CSE indexes trial-by-trial adjustments of cognitive control, which are triggered by expectation, response conflict, negative affect, or response suppression. The other holds that the CSE indexes feature integration and/or contingency learning processes that are confounded with congruency sequence in most studies. In 3 online experiments involving over 450 participants, we observed CSEs without such confounds when 2 preconditions were met: (a) stimulus-response translation could be completed more rapidly for the distracter than for the target and (b) the distracter and target appeared at the same location. We also found that CSE magnitude did not vary consistently with the size of the congruency effect. These findings reveal that CSEs can be observed in the absence of feature integration and contingency learning confounds, but impose important new constraints on certain cognitive control accounts of this phenomenon. PMID:25089574

Weissman, Daniel H; Jiang, Jiefeng; Egner, Tobias

2014-10-01

153

Instructor/Student Congruence and the Ratings on Course Evaluations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine what relationships exist between course and instructor evaluations and student/instructor preferences regarding classroom instructions. The specific null hypothesis explored was: The congruencies on ratings of the personal preferences of students and the personal preferences of instructors will not be…

Purohit, Anal A.; Magoon, A. J.

154

Programming up to Congruence Vilhelm Sjoberg Stephanie Weirich  

E-print Network

implemented in the ZOMBIE language, which includes gen- eral recursion, irrelevant arguments, heterogeneous Definitions and Theory Keywords Dependent types; Congruence closure 1. Introduction The ZOMBIE language aims be done in conjunction with the function definition. In contrast, ZOMBIE includes arbitrary nontermination

Weirich, Stephanie

155

MMPI--2 Code-Type Congruence of Injured Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors examined the stability of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--2 (J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989) code types in a sample of 94 injured workers with a mean test-retest interval of 21.3 months (SD = 14.1). Congruence rates for undefined code types were 34% for…

Livingston, Ronald B.; Jennings, Earl; Colotla, Victor A.; Reynolds, Cecil R.; Shercliffe, Regan J.

2006-01-01

156

Improving Students' Attitudes toward Science Using Instructional Congruence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to improve students' attitudes toward science using instructional congruence. The study was conducted in Malaysia, in three low-performing secondary schools in the state of Penang. Data collected with an Attitudes in Science instrument were analysed using Rasch modeling. Qualitative data based on the reflections of…

Zain, Ahmad Nurulazam Md; Samsudin, Mohd Ali; Rohandi, Robertus; Jusoh, Azman

2010-01-01

157

Audiovisual documentation in the preparation of news for television news programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to take, as a starting point, the contribution of audiovisual documentation to TV news programs, the impact of digitalisation in the organisation and design of audiovisual documentation's services is analysed. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data, collected by a quantitative and qualitative research on: the use of audiovisual documentation in the news, documentation requests processed by journalists, and

Teresa Agirreazaldegi

2008-01-01

158

Audiovisual News, Cartoons, and Films as Sources of Authentic Language Input and Language Proficiency Enhancement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In today's audiovisually driven world, various audiovisual programs can be incorporated as authentic sources of potential language input for second language acquisition. In line with this view, the present research aimed at discovering the effectiveness of exposure to news, cartoons, and films as three different types of authentic audiovisual…

Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

2012-01-01

159

Causal inference of asynchronous audiovisual speech  

PubMed Central

During speech perception, humans integrate auditory information from the voice with visual information from the face. This multisensory integration increases perceptual precision, but only if the two cues come from the same talker; this requirement has been largely ignored by current models of speech perception. We describe a generative model of multisensory speech perception that includes this critical step of determining the likelihood that the voice and face information have a common cause. A key feature of the model is that it is based on a principled analysis of how an observer should solve this causal inference problem using the asynchrony between two cues and the reliability of the cues. This allows the model to make predictions about the behavior of subjects performing a synchrony judgment task, predictive power that does not exist in other approaches, such as post-hoc fitting of Gaussian curves to behavioral data. We tested the model predictions against the performance of 37 subjects performing a synchrony judgment task viewing audiovisual speech under a variety of manipulations, including varying asynchronies, intelligibility, and visual cue reliability. The causal inference model outperformed the Gaussian model across two experiments, providing a better fit to the behavioral data with fewer parameters. Because the causal inference model is derived from a principled understanding of the task, model parameters are directly interpretable in terms of stimulus and subject properties. PMID:24294207

Magnotti, John F.; Ma, Wei Ji; Beauchamp, Michael S.

2013-01-01

160

Temporal Structure in Audiovisual Sensory Selection  

PubMed Central

In natural environments, sensory information is embedded in temporally contiguous streams of events. This is typically the case when seeing and listening to a speaker or when engaged in scene analysis. In such contexts, two mechanisms are needed to single out and build a reliable representation of an event (or object): the temporal parsing of information and the selection of relevant information in the stream. It has previously been shown that rhythmic events naturally build temporal expectations that improve sensory processing at predictable points in time. Here, we asked to which extent temporal regularities can improve the detection and identification of events across sensory modalities. To do so, we used a dynamic visual conjunction search task accompanied by auditory cues synchronized or not with the color change of the target (horizontal or vertical bar). Sounds synchronized with the visual target improved search efficiency for temporal rates below 1.4 Hz but did not affect efficiency above that stimulation rate. Desynchronized auditory cues consistently impaired visual search below 3.3 Hz. Our results are interpreted in the context of the Dynamic Attending Theory: specifically, we suggest that a cognitive operation structures events in time irrespective of the sensory modality of input. Our results further support and specify recent neurophysiological findings by showing strong temporal selectivity for audiovisual integration in the auditory-driven improvement of visual search efficiency. PMID:22829899

Kösem, Anne; van Wassenhove, Virginie

2012-01-01

161

Our nation's wetlands (video). Audio-Visual  

SciTech Connect

The Department of the Interior is custodian of approximately 500 million acres of federally owned land and has an important role to play in the management of wetlands. To contribute to the President's goal of no net loss of America's remaining wetlands, the Department of the Interior has initiated a 3-point program consisting of wetlands protection, restoration, and research: Wetlands Protection--Reduce wetlands losses on federally owned lands and encourage state and private landholders to practice wetlands conservation; Wetlands Restoration--Increase wetlands gains through the restoration and creation of wetlands on both public and private lands; Wetlands Research--Provide a foundation of scientific knowledge to guide future actions and decisions about wetlands. The audiovisual is a slide/tape-to-video transfer illustrating the various ways Interior bureaus are working to preserve our Nation's wetlands. The tape features an introduction by Secretary Manuel Lujan on the importance of wetlands and recognizing the benefit of such programs as the North American Waterfowl Management Program.

Not Available

1990-01-01

162

G-CO, G-SRT Congruence of parallelograms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Rhianna has learned the SSS and SAS congruence tests for triangles and she wonders if these tests might work for parallelograms. Suppose $ABCD$ and $EF...

163

Boosting pitch encoding with audiovisual interactions in congenital amusia.  

PubMed

The combination of information across senses can enhance perception, as revealed for example by decreased reaction times or improved stimulus detection. Interestingly, these facilitatory effects have been shown to be maximal when responses to unisensory modalities are weak. The present study investigated whether audiovisual facilitation can be observed in congenital amusia, a music-specific disorder primarily ascribed to impairments of pitch processing. Amusic individuals and their matched controls performed two tasks. In Task 1, they were required to detect auditory, visual, or audiovisual stimuli as rapidly as possible. In Task 2, they were required to detect as accurately and as rapidly as possible a pitch change within an otherwise monotonic 5-tone sequence that was presented either only auditorily (A condition), or simultaneously with a temporally congruent, but otherwise uninformative visual stimulus (AV condition). Results of Task 1 showed that amusics exhibit typical auditory and visual detection, and typical audiovisual integration capacities: both amusics and controls exhibited shorter response times for audiovisual stimuli than for either auditory stimuli or visual stimuli. Results of Task 2 revealed that both groups benefited from simultaneous uninformative visual stimuli to detect pitch changes: accuracy was higher and response times shorter in the AV condition than in the A condition. The audiovisual improvements of response times were observed for different pitch interval sizes depending on the group. These results suggest that both typical listeners and amusic individuals can benefit from multisensory integration to improve their pitch processing abilities and that this benefit varies as a function of task difficulty. These findings constitute the first step towards the perspective to exploit multisensory paradigms to reduce pitch-related deficits in congenital amusia, notably by suggesting that audiovisual paradigms are effective in an appropriate range of unimodal performance. PMID:25499145

Albouy, Philippe; Lévêque, Yohana; Hyde, Krista L; Bouchet, Patrick; Tillmann, Barbara; Caclin, Anne

2015-01-01

164

Congruence analysis of point clouds from unstable stereo image sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the correction of exterior orientation parameters of stereo image sequences over deformed free-form surfaces without control points. Such imaging situation can occur, for example, during photogrammetric car crash test recordings where onboard high-speed stereo cameras are used to measure 3D surfaces. As a result of such measurements 3D point clouds of deformed surfaces are generated for a complete stereo sequence. The first objective of this research focusses on the development and investigation of methods for the detection of corresponding spatial and temporal tie points within the stereo image sequences (by stereo image matching and 3D point tracking) that are robust enough for a reliable handling of occlusions and other disturbances that may occur. The second objective of this research is the analysis of object deformations in order to detect stable areas (congruence analysis). For this purpose a RANSAC-based method for congruence analysis has been developed. This process is based on the sequential transformation of randomly selected point groups from one epoch to another by using a 3D similarity transformation. The paper gives a detailed description of the congruence analysis. The approach has been tested successfully on synthetic and real image data.

Jepping, C.; Bethmann, F.; Luhmann, T.

2014-06-01

165

Congruency Sequence Effects without Feature Integration or Contingency Learning Confounds  

PubMed Central

The congruency effect in distracter interference (e.g., Stroop) tasks is often reduced after incongruent trials, relative to congruent trials. It has been proposed that this congruency sequence effect (CSE) results from trial-by-trial adjustments of attention, which are triggered by changes in response conflict, expectancy, or negative affect. Hence, a large literature has developed to investigate the source(s) of attention adaptation in distracter interference tasks. Recent work, however, suggests that CSEs may stem from feature integration and/or contingency learning processes that are confounded with congruency sequence in the vast majority of distracter interference tasks. By combining an established method for measuring CSEs in the absence of these learning and memory confounds with a prime-probe task, we observed robust CSEs in two experiments. These findings provide strong evidence of CSEs independent of learning and memory confounds, which might be explainable by trial-by-trial adjustments of attention. They also reveal a highly effective approach for observing CSEs independent of the typical confounds, which will facilitate future studies of how people adapt to distraction. PMID:25019526

Schmidt, James R.; Weissman, Daniel H.

2014-01-01

166

The Lattices of Group Fuzzy Congruences and Normal Fuzzy Subsemigroups on E-Inversive Semigroups  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper is to investigate the lattices of group fuzzy congruences and normal fuzzy subsemigroups on E-inversive semigroups. We prove that group fuzzy congruences and normal fuzzy subsemigroups determined each other in E-inversive semigroups. Moreover, we show that the set of group t-fuzzy congruences and the set of normal subsemigroups with tip t in a given E-inversive semigroup form two mutually isomorphic modular lattices for every t? [0,1]. PMID:24892045

Wang, Shoufeng

2014-01-01

167

The role of arousal congruency in influencing consumers' satisfaction evaluations and in-store behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – It is widely accepted that consumers enter into a service consumption experience with a set of expectations, including affective expectations. This research aims to investigate the matching effects between arousal-level expectations and perceived stimulation (i.e. arousal congruency) on satisfaction and in-store behaviors. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A 3 (under-stimulation, arousal congruency and under-stimulation) perceived arousal congruency)×2 valence (pleasant or unpleasant

Jochen Wirtz; Anna S. Mattila; Rachel L. P. Tan

2007-01-01

168

Unconscious Congruency Priming from Unpracticed Words Is Modulated by Prime-Target Semantic Relatedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants performed a 2-choice categorization task on visible word targets that were preceded by novel (unpracticed) prime words. The prime words were presented for 33 ms and followed either immediately (Experiments 1-3) or after a variable delay (Experiments 1 and 4) by a pattern mask. Both subjective and objective measures of prime visibility…

Ortells, Juan J.; Mari-Beffa, Paloma; Plaza-Ayllon, Vanesa

2013-01-01

169

Prefrontal Neuronal Responses during Audiovisual Mnemonic Processing.  

PubMed

During communication we combine auditory and visual information. Neurophysiological research in nonhuman primates has shown that single neurons in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) exhibit multisensory responses to faces and vocalizations presented simultaneously. However, whether VLPFC is also involved in maintaining those communication stimuli in working memory or combining stored information across different modalities is unknown, although its human homolog, the inferior frontal gyrus, is known to be important in integrating verbal information from auditory and visual working memory. To address this question, we recorded from VLPFC while rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) performed an audiovisual working memory task. Unlike traditional match-to-sample/nonmatch-to-sample paradigms, which use unimodal memoranda, our nonmatch-to-sample task used dynamic movies consisting of both facial gestures and the accompanying vocalizations. For the nonmatch conditions, a change in the auditory component (vocalization), the visual component (face), or both components was detected. Our results show that VLPFC neurons are activated by stimulus and task factors: while some neurons simply responded to a particular face or a vocalization regardless of the task period, others exhibited activity patterns typically related to working memory such as sustained delay activity and match enhancement/suppression. In addition, we found neurons that detected the component change during the nonmatch period. Interestingly, some of these neurons were sensitive to the change of both components and therefore combined information from auditory and visual working memory. These results suggest that VLPFC is not only involved in the perceptual processing of faces and vocalizations but also in their mnemonic processing. PMID:25609614

Hwang, Jaewon; Romanski, Lizabeth M

2015-01-21

170

Audiovisual Integration in Noise by Children and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate the development of multisensory facilitation in primary school-age children under conditions of auditory noise. Motor reaction times and accuracy were recorded from 8-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults during auditory, visual, and audiovisual detection tasks. Auditory signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 30-,…

Barutchu, Ayla; Danaher, Jaclyn; Crewther, Sheila G.; Innes-Brown, Hamish; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Paolini, Antonio G.

2010-01-01

171

Audiovisual Cues and Perceptual Learning of Spectrally Distorted Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments investigate the effectiveness of audiovisual (AV) speech cues (cues derived from both seeing and hearing a talker speak) in facilitating perceptual learning of spectrally distorted speech. Speech was distorted through an eight channel noise-vocoder which shifted the spectral envelope of the speech signal to simulate the properties…

Pilling, Michael; Thomas, Sharon

2011-01-01

172

School Building Design and Audio-Visual Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design of new schools should facilitate the use of audiovisual resources by ensuring that the materials used in the construction of the buildings provide adequate sound insulation and acoustical and viewing conditions in all learning spaces. The facilities to be considered are: electrical services; electronic services; light control and…

National Committee for Audio-Visual Aids in Education, London (England).

173

Noninvasive extraction of audiovisual cues for multimodal applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe HOPS, a system for extracting some audiovisual cues for the modeling of a computer end-user environment. The objective of the study is to provide some reliable audiovisual cues in order to 'augment' the computer input devices set for multimodal applications. The system accepts an audio-visual scene as input and produces different kinds of events which could contribute to increase the awareness and robustness of interactive system. The described framework for the extraction of cues is ecological and homogenous. On the audio path a cross power spectrum method is applied for extracting different kind of acoustic patterns defined as acoustic segments. The acoustic signal from a microphone and the acoustic segments are firstly FFT- transformed, averaged, and secondly correlated in the spectral domain. The maxima of the inverse Fourier transform of this cross-power spectrum is the criteria for the detection of some acoustic events. On the video path, we define some initial color models of some desired cues such as mouth, eyes, etc. and then track them in the audiovisual scene recorded by a camera.

Kabre, Harouna

1998-07-01

174

The Audiovisual Temporal Binding Window Narrows in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Binding is key in multisensory perception. This study investigated the audio-visual (A-V) temporal binding window in 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children (total N = 120). Children watched a person uttering a syllable whose auditory and visual components were either temporally synchronized or desynchronized by 366, 500, or 666 ms. They were asked…

Lewkowicz, David J.; Flom, Ross

2014-01-01

175

Skill dependent audiovisual integration in the fusiform induces repetition suppression.  

PubMed

Learning to read entails mapping existing phonological representations to novel orthographic representations and is thus an ideal context for investigating experience driven audiovisual integration. Because two dominant brain-based theories of reading development hinge on the sensitivity of the visual-object processing stream to phonological information, we were interested in how reading skill relates to audiovisual integration in this area. Thirty-two children between 8 and 13years of age spanning a range of reading skill participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Participants completed a rhyme judgment task to word pairs presented unimodally (auditory- or visual-only) and cross-modally (auditory followed by visual). Skill-dependent sub-additive audiovisual modulation was found in left fusiform gyrus, extending into the putative visual word form area, and was correlated with behavioral orthographic priming. These results suggest learning to read promotes facilitatory audiovisual integration in the ventral visual-object processing stream and may optimize this region for orthographic processing. PMID:25585276

McNorgan, Chris; Booth, James R

2015-02-01

176

Recent advances in the automatic recognition of audiovisual speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual speech information from the speaker's mouth region has been successfully shown to improve noise robustness of automatic speech recognizers, thus promising to extend their usability in the human computer interface. In this paper, we review the main components of audiovisual automatic speech recognition (ASR) and present novel contributions in two main areas: first, the visual front-end design, based on

GERASIMOS POTAMIANOS; CHALAPATHY NETI; GUILLAUME GRAVIER; ASHUTOSH GARG; ANDREW W. SENIOR

2003-01-01

177

Planning Schools for Use of Audio-Visual Instructional Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information is presented regarding--(1) types of audiovisual materials in the instructional program, (2) selection and placement of screens, (3) classroom acoustics and sound systems, (4) educational television, (5) provisions for nonprojected visuals, and (6) provisions for functional storage and storage within classrooms. Consideration is also…

Mathewson, Franklin T.

178

Audiovisual Vowel Monitoring and the Word Superiority Effect in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to explore whether viewing the speaker's articulatory gestures contributes to lexical access in children (ages 5-10) and in adults. We conducted a vowel monitoring task with words and pseudo-words in audio-only (AO) and audiovisual (AV) contexts with white noise masking the acoustic signal. The results indicated that…

Fort, Mathilde; Spinelli, Elsa; Savariaux, Christophe; Kandel, Sonia

2012-01-01

179

Artimate: an articulatory animation framework for audiovisual speech synthesis  

E-print Network

Artimate: an articulatory animation framework for audiovisual speech synthesis Ingmar Steiner1.steiner|slim.ouni}@loria.fr Abstract We present a modular framework for articulatory animation synthesis using speech motion capture animation of the tongue and teeth for a virtual character. The framework also provides an interface

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

180

The Audio-Visual Equipment Directory. Seventeenth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following types of audiovisual equipment are catalogued: 8 mm. and 16 mm. motion picture projectors, filmstrip and sound filmstrip projectors, slide projectors, random access projection equipment, opaque, overhead, and micro-projectors, record players, special purpose projection equipment, audio tape recorders and players, audio tape…

Herickes, Sally, Ed.

181

Crossmodal and Incremental Perception of Audiovisual Cues to Emotional Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we report on two experiments about the perception of audiovisual cues to emotional speech. The article addresses two questions: (1) how do visual cues from a speaker's face to emotion relate to auditory cues, and (2) what is the recognition speed for various facial cues to emotion? Both experiments reported below are based on tests…

Barkhuysen, Pashiera; Krahmer, Emiel; Swerts, Marc

2010-01-01

182

Investigating audiovisual integration of emotional signals in the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans can communicate their emotional state via facial expression and affective prosody. This chapter reviews behavioural, neuroanatomical, electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies pertaining to audiovisual integration of emotional communicative signals. Particular emphasis will be given to neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Conjunction analyses, interaction analyses, correlation analyses between haemodynamic responses and behavioural effects

Thomas Ethofer; Gilles Pourtois; Dirk Wildgruber

2006-01-01

183

A Language for Audiovisual Template Specification and Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the issue of detecting automatically occurrences of high level patterns in audiovisual documents. These patterns correspond to recurring sequences of shots, which are considered as first class entities by documentalists, and used for annotation and retrieval. We introduce a language for specifying these patterns, based on an extension of Allen's algebra with the regular expression operator +, which

Jean Carrive; Pierre Roy; François Pachet; Rémi Ronfard

2000-01-01

184

Auditory Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) in Audiovisual Speech Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: It has recently been reported (e.g., V. van Wassenhove, K. W. Grant, & D. Poeppel, 2005) that audiovisual (AV) presented speech is associated with an N1/P2 auditory event-related potential (ERP) response that is lower in peak amplitude compared with the responses associated with auditory only (AO) speech. This effect was replicated.…

Pilling, Michael

2009-01-01

185

Data Semantics Ken Baclawski  

E-print Network

Inference Integration Interoperability Question Answering Data Mining #12;Application Domains HealthData Semantics Ken Baclawski College of Computer and Information Science Northeastern University Interoperability #12;What is data semantics? Program Algorithm abstraction Complexity Correctness analyze Program

Baclawski, Kenneth B.

186

Introduction Semantic Web  

E-print Network

Introduction Semantic Web Ontologies Linked Data Information Sources Information Extraction Web Application Use Cases Knowledge Bases Entity Linking Entity Retrieval Linked Data Quality Conclusions Papers for Presentations Resources Semantic Web: Extracting and Mining Structured Data from

Nejdl, Wolfgang

187

Context-specific effects of musical expertise on audiovisual integration  

PubMed Central

Ensemble musicians exchange auditory and visual signals that can facilitate interpersonal synchronization. Musical expertise improves how precisely auditory and visual signals are perceptually integrated and increases sensitivity to asynchrony between them. Whether expertise improves sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony in all instrumental contexts or only in those using sound-producing gestures that are within an observer's own motor repertoire is unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that musicians are more sensitive to audiovisual asynchrony in performances featuring their own instrument than in performances featuring other instruments. Short clips were extracted from audio-video recordings of clarinet, piano, and violin performances and presented to highly-skilled clarinetists, pianists, and violinists. Clips either maintained the audiovisual synchrony present in the original recording or were modified so that the video led or lagged behind the audio. Participants indicated whether the audio and video channels in each clip were synchronized. The range of asynchronies most often endorsed as synchronized was assessed as a measure of participants' sensitivities to audiovisual asynchrony. A positive relationship was observed between musical training and sensitivity, with data pooled across stimuli. While participants across expertise groups detected asynchronies most readily in piano stimuli and least readily in violin stimuli, pianists showed significantly better performance for piano stimuli than for either clarinet or violin. These findings suggest that, to an extent, the effects of expertise on audiovisual integration can be instrument-specific; however, the nature of the sound-producing gestures that are observed has a substantial effect on how readily asynchrony is detected as well. PMID:25324819

Bishop, Laura; Goebl, Werner

2014-01-01

188

The effect of visual apparent motion on audiovisual simultaneity.  

PubMed

Visual motion information from dynamic environments is important in multisensory temporal perception. However, it is unclear how visual motion information influences the integration of multisensory temporal perceptions. We investigated whether visual apparent motion affects audiovisual temporal perception. Visual apparent motion is a phenomenon in which two flashes presented in sequence in different positions are perceived as continuous motion. Across three experiments, participants performed temporal order judgment (TOJ) tasks. Experiment 1 was a TOJ task conducted in order to assess audiovisual simultaneity during perception of apparent motion. The results showed that the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS) was shifted toward a sound-lead stimulus, and the just noticeable difference (JND) was reduced compared with a normal TOJ task with a single flash. This indicates that visual apparent motion affects audiovisual simultaneity and improves temporal discrimination in audiovisual processing. Experiment 2 was a TOJ task conducted in order to remove the influence of the amount of flash stimulation from Experiment 1. The PSS and JND during perception of apparent motion were almost identical to those in Experiment 1, but differed from those for successive perception when long temporal intervals were included between two flashes without motion. This showed that the result obtained under the apparent motion condition was unaffected by the amount of flash stimulation. Because apparent motion was produced by a constant interval between two flashes, the results may be accounted for by specific prediction. In Experiment 3, we eliminated the influence of prediction by randomizing the intervals between the two flashes. However, the PSS and JND did not differ from those in Experiment 1. It became clear that the results obtained for the perception of visual apparent motion were not attributable to prediction. Our findings suggest that visual apparent motion changes temporal simultaneity perception and improves temporal discrimination in audiovisual processing. PMID:25295594

Kwon, Jinhwan; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Miyake, Yoshihiro

2014-01-01

189

Audio-Visual Entrainment: The Application of Audio-Visual Entrainment for the Treatment of Seasonal Affective Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) strikes all people from all nations, not just those near the poles of the earth as might be thought. The treatment of SAD has traditionally involved the use of anti-depressants, and more recently, light box therapy. Audio-Visual Entrainment (AVE) has also been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of this genetically based affective disorder and

David Sieveri

190

Stable and efficient reduction of large, multiport RC networks by pole analysis via congruence transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel technique is presented which employs Pole Analysis via Congruence Transformations (PACT) to reduce RC networks in a well-conditioned manner. Pole analysis is shown to be more efficient than Padé approximations when the number of network ports is large, and congruence transforma- tions preserve the passivity (and thus absolute stability) of the networks. Networks are represented by admittance matrices

Kevin J. Kerns; Andrew T. Yang

1996-01-01

191

Stable and efficient reduction of large, multiport RC networks by pole analysis via congruence transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel technique is presented which employs pole analysis via congruence transformations (PACT) to reduce RC networks in a well-conditioned manner. Pole analysis is shown to be more efficient than Pade approximations when the number of network ports is large, and congruence transformations preserve the passivity (and thus absolute stability) of the networks. The error incurred by reducing the networks

Kevin J. Kerns; Andrew T. Yang

1997-01-01

192

Corporate governance systems: Effects of capital and labor market congruency on corporate innovation and global competitiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on institutional economics, this article addresses how institutional congruence between capital and labor markets influences corporate governance systems, which, in turn, create differences in national corporate innovation and entrepreneurship systems and subsequently global competitiveness. We argue that such institutional congruence cultivates two ideal corporate governance systems. The first ideal type is the market-based system with transactional capital and external

Robert E Hoskisson; Daphne Yiu; Hicheon Kim

2004-01-01

193

SEMANTICS AND CRITICAL READING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PROFICIENCY IN CRITICAL READING CAN BE ACCELERATED BY MAKING STUDENTS AWARE OF VARIOUS SEMANTIC DEVICES THAT HELP CLARIFY MEANINGS AND PURPOSES. EXCERPTS FROM THE ARTICLE "TEEN-AGE CORRUPTION" FROM THE NINTH-GRADE SEMANTICS UNIT WRITTEN BY THE PROJECT ENGLISH DEMONSTRATION CENTER AT EUCLID, OHIO, ARE USED TO ILLUSTRATE HOW SEMANTICS RELATE TO…

FLANIGAN, MICHAEL C.

194

Which semantic web?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through scenarios in the popular press and technical papers in the research literature, the promise of the Semantic Web has raised a number of different expectations. These expectations can be traced to three different perspectives on the Semantic Web. The Semantic Web is portrayed as: (1) a universal library, to be readily accessed and used by humans in a variety

Catherine C. Marshall; Frank M. Shipman III

2003-01-01

195

Semantics via Machine Translation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

Culhane, P. T.

1977-01-01

196

Investigation of Phase Congruency for SSA Data Reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space situational awareness (SSA) data reduction pipeline is well established and formulated from our innate understanding of CCDs, optical distortion, and viewing conditions. Proper photometric calibration includes dark frame collection as well as the time-consuming task of on-sky flats which can vary with sky brightness and availability. Proper astrometric calibration includes synchronization of all timing sources, proper mount modeling, and jitter reduction. Once calibrated, further data analysis can include streak reduction, PSF fitting, and star separation with such goals as aperture photometry or dim object characterization. The ideal SSA feature detection algorithm would separate statistically-distinct spatial regions of an image into background, objects, and stars without need for darks/flats. Computer vision feature detection techniques may offer this one-stop-shop approach to data reduction and analysis using just the raw frames. One such technique uses phase congruency: a measure of the strength of how well the Fourier components of an image are in-phase which correlates with features such as edges. We examine a phase congruency approach based upon contrast invariant multi-scale image decomposition using simulated and nighttime Raven data.

Schultz, D.; Sydney, P.; Flewelling, B.

2014-09-01

197

The heterogeneous world of congruency sequence effects: an update  

PubMed Central

Congruency sequence effects (CSEs) refer to the observation that congruency effects in conflict tasks are typically smaller following incongruent compared to following congruent trials. This measure has long been thought to provide a unique window into top-down attentional adjustments and their underlying brain mechanisms. According to the renowned conflict monitoring theory, CSEs reflect enhanced selective attention following conflict detection. Still, alternative accounts suggested that bottom-up associative learning suffices to explain the pattern of reaction times and error rates. A couple of years ago, a review by Egner (2007) pitted these two rivalry accounts against each other, concluding that both conflict adaptation and feature integration contribute to the CSE. Since then, a wealth of studies has further debated this issue, and two additional accounts have been proposed, offering intriguing alternative explanations. Contingency learning accounts put forward that predictive relationships between stimuli and responses drive the CSE, whereas the repetition expectancy hypothesis suggests that top-down, expectancy-driven control adjustments affect the CSE. In the present paper, we build further on the previous review (Egner, 2007) by summarizing and integrating recent behavioral and neurophysiological studies on the CSE. In doing so, we evaluate the relative contribution and theoretical value of the different attentional and memory-based accounts. Moreover, we review how all of these influences can be experimentally isolated, and discuss designs and procedures that can critically judge between them. PMID:25250005

Duthoo, Wout; Abrahamse, Elger L.; Braem, Senne; Boehler, Carsten N.; Notebaert, Wim

2014-01-01

198

Semantically Interoperable XML Data  

PubMed Central

XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups. PMID:25298789

Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

2013-01-01

199

Semantically Interoperable XML Data.  

PubMed

XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups. PMID:25298789

Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

2013-09-01

200

Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web  

PubMed Central

The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial for the life sciences? Is biomedical information too complex to benefit from simple interlinked representations? What are the implications of adopting a new paradigm for knowledge representation? What are the incentives for the adoption of the Semantic Web, and who are the facilitators? Is there going to be a Semantic Web revolution in the life sciences? We report here a few reflections on these questions, following discussions at the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences) workshop series, of which this Journal of Biomedical Semantics special issue presents selected papers from the 2009 edition, held in Amsterdam on November 20th. PMID:21388570

2011-01-01

201

36 CFR 1237.18 - What are the environmental standards for audiovisual records storage?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.18 What are the environmental standards for...

2010-07-01

202

Effect of perceptual load on semantic access by speech in children  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine whether semantic access by speech requires attention in children. Method Children (N=200) named pictures and ignored distractors on a cross-modal (distractors: auditory-no face) or multi-modal (distractors: auditory-static face and audiovisual-dynamic face) picture word task. The cross-modal had a low load, and the multi-modal had a high load [i.e., respectively naming pictures displayed 1) on a blank screen vs 2) below the talker’s face on his T-shirt]. Semantic content of distractors was manipulated to be related vs unrelated to picture (e.g., picture dog with distractors bear vs cheese). Lavie's (2005) perceptual load model proposes that semantic access is independent of capacity limited attentional resources if irrelevant semantic-content manipulation influences naming times on both tasks despite variations in loads but dependent on attentional resources exhausted by higher load task if irrelevant content influences naming only on cross-modal (low load). Results Irrelevant semantic content affected performance for both tasks in 6- to 9-year-olds, but only on cross-modal in 4–5-year-olds. The addition of visual speech did not influence results on the multi-modal task. Conclusion Younger and older children differ in dependence on attentional resources for semantic access by speech. PMID:22896045

Jerger, Susan; Damian, Markus F.; Mills, Candice; Bartlett, James; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Abdi, Hervè

2013-01-01

203

Multiple constraints on semantic integration in a hierarchical structure: ERP evidence from German.  

PubMed

A recent ERP study on Chinese demonstrated dissociable neural responses to semantic integration processes at different levels of syntactic hierarchy (Zhou et al., 2010). However, it is unclear whether such findings are restricted to a non-case marked language that relies heavily on word order and semantic information for the construction of sentence representation. This study aimed to further investigate, in a case-marked language, how semantic processes in a hierarchical structure take place during sentence reading. We used German sentences with the structure "subject noun+verb+article/determiner+adjective+object noun+prepositional phrase", in which the object noun was constrained either at the lower level by the adjective or at the higher level by the verb, and manipulated the semantic congruency between the adjective and the object noun and/or between the verb and the object noun. EEGs were recorded while participants read sentences and judged for their semantic acceptability. Compared with correct sentences, a biphasic pattern of an N400 effect followed by a late positivity effect was observed on the object noun for sentences with either lower- or higher-level mismatch or with double mismatches. Both the N400 effect and the late positivity (P600) effect were larger for the double mismatch condition than for either of the single mismatch conditions. These findings demonstrate cross-language mechanisms for processing multiple semantic constraints at different levels of syntactic hierarchy during sentence comprehension. PMID:21803335

Zhang, Yang; Jiang, Xiaoming; Saalbach, Henrik; Zhou, Xiaolin

2011-09-01

204

Audio-visual interactions in product sound design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consistent product experience requires congruity between product properties such as visual appearance and sound. Therefore, for designing appropriate product sounds by manipulating their spectral-temporal structure, product sounds should preferably not be considered in isolation but as an integral part of the main product concept. Because visual aspects of a product are considered to dominate the communication of the desired product concept, sound is usually expected to fit the visual character of a product. We argue that this can be accomplished successfully only on basis of a thorough understanding of the impact of audio-visual interactions on product sounds. Two experimental studies are reviewed to show audio-visual interactions on both perceptual and cognitive levels influencing the way people encode, recall, and attribute meaning to product sounds. Implications for sound design are discussed defying the natural tendency of product designers to analyze the "sound problem" in isolation from the other product properties.

Özcan, Elif; van Egmond, René

2010-02-01

205

Semantic Networks and Social Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To illustrate the need for social network metadata within semantic metadata. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys properties of social networks and the semantic web, suggests that social network analysis applies to semantic content, argues that semantic content is more searchable if social network metadata is merged with semantic web…

Downes, Stephen

2005-01-01

206

Stream confidence estimation for audio-visual speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the use of single modality confidence measures as a means of estimating adaptive, local weights for improved au- dio-visual automatic speech recognition. We limit our work to the toy problem of audio-visual phonetic classification by means of a two-stream Gaussian mixture model (GMM), where each stream models the class conditional audio- or visual-only obser- vation probability, raised to

Gerasimos Potamianos; Chalapathy Neti

2000-01-01

207

Hierarchical discriminant features for audio-visual LVCSR  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose the use of a hierarchical, two-stage discriminant transformation for obtaining audio-visual features that improve automatic speech recognition. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), followed by a maximum likelihood linear transform (MLLT) is first applied to MFCC based audio-only features, as well as on visual only features, obtained by a discrete cosine transform of the video region of interest. Subsequently, a

Gerasimos Potamianos; Juergen Luettiiz; Chalapathy Neti

2001-01-01

208

WEIGHTING SCHEMES FOR AUDIO-VISUAL FUSION IN SPEECH RECOGNITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we demonstrate an improvement in the state-of-the- art large vocabulary continuous speech recognition (LVCSR) per- formance, under clean and noisy conditions, by the use of visual information, in addition to the traditional audio one. We take a decision fusion approach for the audio-visual information, where the single-modality (audio- and visual- only) HMM classifiers are combined to recognize

Dimitra Vergyri; Gerasimos Potamianos; Juergen Luettin

209

Asynchrony modeling for audio-visual speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the use of multi-stream HMMs in the automatic recognition of audio-visual speech. Multi-stream HMMs allow the modeling of asynchrony between the audio and visual state sequences at a variety of levels (phone, syllable, word, etc.) and are equivalent to product, or composite, HMMs. In this paper, we consider such models synchronized at the phone boundary level, allowing various

Guillaume Gravier; Gerasimos Potamianos; Chalapathy Neti

2002-01-01

210

Audiovisual temporal adaptation of speech: temporal order versus simultaneity judgments.  

PubMed

The temporal perception of simple auditory and visual stimuli can be modulated by exposure to asynchronous audiovisual speech. For instance, research using the temporal order judgment (TOJ) task has shown that exposure to temporally misaligned audiovisual speech signals can induce temporal adaptation that will influence the TOJs of other (simpler) audiovisual events (Navarra et al. (2005) Cognit Brain Res 25:499-507). Given that TOJ and simultaneity judgment (SJ) tasks appear to reflect different underlying mechanisms, we investigated whether adaptation to asynchronous speech inputs would also influence SJ task performance. Participants judged whether a light flash and a noise burst, presented at varying stimulus onset asynchronies, were simultaneous or not, or else they discriminated which of the two sensory events appeared to have occurred first. While performing these tasks, participants monitored a continuous speech stream for target words that were either presented in synchrony, or with the audio channel lagging 300 ms behind the video channel. We found that the sensitivity of participant's TOJ and SJ responses was reduced when the background speech stream was desynchronized. A significant modulation of the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS) was also observed in the SJ task but, interestingly, not in the TOJ task, thus supporting previous claims that TOJ and SJ tasks may tap somewhat different aspects of temporal perception. PMID:17962929

Vatakis, Argiro; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Spence, Charles

2008-03-01

211

Audiovisual integration of speech falters under high attention demands.  

PubMed

One of the most commonly cited examples of human multisensory integration occurs during exposure to natural speech, when the vocal and the visual aspects of the signal are integrated in a unitary percept. Audiovisual association of facial gestures and vocal sounds has been demonstrated in nonhuman primates and in prelinguistic children, arguing for a general basis for this capacity. One critical question, however, concerns the role of attention in such multisensory integration. Although both behavioral and neurophysiological studies have converged on a preattentive conceptualization of audiovisual speech integration, this mechanism has rarely been measured under conditions of high attentional load, when the observers' attention resources are depleted. We tested the extent to which audiovisual integration was modulated by the amount of available attentional resources by measuring the observers' susceptibility to the classic McGurk illusion in a dual-task paradigm. The proportion of visually influenced responses was severely, and selectively, reduced if participants were concurrently performing an unrelated visual or auditory task. In contrast with the assumption that crossmodal speech integration is automatic, our results suggest that these multisensory binding processes are subject to attentional demands. PMID:15886102

Alsius, Agnès; Navarra, Jordi; Campbell, Ruth; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

2005-05-10

212

Temporal adaptation to audiovisual asynchrony generalizes across different sound frequencies.  

PubMed

The human brain exhibits a highly adaptive ability to reduce natural asynchronies between visual and auditory signals. Even though this mechanism robustly modulates the subsequent perception of sounds and visual stimuli, it is still unclear how such a temporal realignment is attained. In the present study, we investigated whether or not temporal adaptation generalizes across different auditory frequencies. In a first exposure phase, participants adapted to a fixed 220-ms audiovisual asynchrony or else to synchrony for 3?min. In a second phase, the participants performed simultaneity judgments (SJs) regarding pairs of audiovisual stimuli that were presented at different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and included either the same tone as in the exposure phase (a 250?Hz beep), another low-pitched beep (300?Hz), or a high-pitched beep (2500?Hz). Temporal realignment was always observed (when comparing SJ performance after exposure to asynchrony vs. synchrony), regardless of the frequency of the sound tested. This suggests that temporal recalibration influences the audiovisual perception of sounds in a frequency non-specific manner and may imply the participation of non-primary perceptual areas of the brain that are not constrained by certain physical features such as sound frequency. PMID:22615705

Navarra, Jordi; García-Morera, Joel; Spence, Charles

2012-01-01

213

Temporal Structure and Complexity Affect Audio-Visual Correspondence Detection  

PubMed Central

Synchrony between events in different senses has long been considered the critical temporal cue for multisensory integration. Here, using rapid streams of auditory and visual events, we demonstrate how humans can use temporal structure (rather than mere temporal coincidence) to detect multisensory relatedness. We find psychophysically that participants can detect matching auditory and visual streams via shared temporal structure for crossmodal lags of up to 200?ms. Performance on this task reproduced features of past findings based on explicit timing judgments but did not show any special advantage for perfectly synchronous streams. Importantly, the complexity of temporal patterns influences sensitivity to correspondence. Stochastic, irregular streams – with richer temporal pattern information – led to higher audio-visual matching sensitivity than predictable, rhythmic streams. Our results reveal that temporal structure and its complexity are key determinants for human detection of audio-visual correspondence. The distinctive emphasis of our new paradigms on temporal patterning could be useful for studying special populations with suspected abnormalities in audio-visual temporal perception and multisensory integration. PMID:23346067

Denison, Rachel N.; Driver, Jon; Ruff, Christian C.

2013-01-01

214

Semantic Wikis: Approaches, . . .  

E-print Network

In the decade (2001–2011) that has passed since Semantic Wikis were first proposed, systems have been conceived, developed and used for various purposes. This article aims at giving a comprehensive state-of-the-art overview of the research on Semantic Wikis, stressing what makes them easy to use by a wide and possibly inexperienced audience. This article further describes applications and use cases that have driven the research on Semantic Wikis, software techniques, and architectures that have been proposed for Semantic Wikis. Finally, this article suggests possible ways ahead for further research.

François Bry; Sebastian Schaffert; Denny Vrandecic; Klara Weiand

2012-01-01

215

Stimulus/response learning in masked congruency priming of faces: Evidence for covert  

E-print Network

and covertly. Keywords: Priming; Learning; Subliminal perception; Response priming; Unconscious; Semantic priming from invisible primes therefore suggests unconscious semantic access (Marcel, 1983). Subliminal

Henson, Rik

216

Audiovisual Speech Perception and Eye Gaze Behavior of Adults with Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Audiovisual speech perception was studied in adults with Asperger syndrome (AS), by utilizing the McGurk effect, in which conflicting visual articulation alters the perception of heard speech. The AS group perceived the audiovisual stimuli differently from age, sex and IQ matched controls. When a voice saying /p/ was presented with a face…

Saalasti, Satu; Katsyri, Jari; Tiippana, Kaisa; Laine-Hernandez, Mari; von Wendt, Lennart; Sams, Mikko

2012-01-01

217

Evaluating an Experimental Audio-Visual Module Programmed to Teach a Basic Anatomical and Physiological System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The learning efficiency and effectiveness of teaching an anatomical and physiological system to Air Force enlisted trainees utilizing an experimental audiovisual programed module was compared to that of a commercial linear programed text. It was demonstrated that the audiovisual programed approach to training was more efficient than and equally as…

Federico, Pat-Anthony

218

Robust AAM-Based Audio-Visual Speech Recognition against Face Direction Changes  

E-print Network

Robust AAM-Based Audio-Visual Speech Recognition against Face Direction Changes Yuto Komai komai, Experimentation Keywords audio-visual, speech recognition, face direction 1. INTRODUCTION In recent years, audio speech recognition (ASR) software for PCs and mobile phones has become widely used and at- tracts

Takiguchi, Tetsuya

219

The Use of Audiovisual Resources for Scholarly Research: A Jazz Archive as a Multidiscipline Resource.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examination of the jazz archive as a primary resource emphasizes research potential of jazz sound recordings as an example of use of audiovisual materials for scholarly research. Discussion covers field recordings, commercial recordings, noncommercial recordings, archival collections, musicological research, visual resources, audiovisual…

Griffin, Marie P.

1985-01-01

220

Changes of the Prefrontal EEG (Electroencephalogram) Activities According to the Repetition of Audio-Visual Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the changes of neuronal response according to a four time repetition of audio-visual learning. Obtains EEG data from the prefrontal (Fp1, Fp2) lobe from 20 subjects at the 8th grade level. Concludes that the habituation of neuronal response shows up in repetitive audio-visual learning and brain hemisphericity can be changed by…

Kim, Yong-Jin; Chang, Nam-Kee

2001-01-01

221

Exploring Student Perceptions of Audiovisual Feedback via Screencasting in Online Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Moore's (1993) theory of transactional distance as a framework, this action research study explored students' perceptions of audiovisual feedback provided via screencasting as a supplement to text-only feedback. A crossover design was employed to ensure that all students experienced both text-only and text-plus-audiovisual feedback and to…

Mathieson, Kathleen

2012-01-01

222

International Co-Production of Audio-Visual Material in Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an international advisory committee on audiovisual media, the procedure followed in the production and use of audiovisual materials and resources among member countries. Includes a list of the films that have been produced, over the years, by the committee. (GA)

Greetfeld, Hans

1979-01-01

223

Unconscious context-specific proportion congruency effect in a stroop-like task.  

PubMed

Cognitive control is a central topic of interest in psychology and cognitive neuroscience and has traditionally been associated with consciousness. However, recent research suggests that cognitive control may be unconscious in character. The main purpose of our study was to further explore this area of research focusing on the possibly unconscious nature of the conflict adaptation effect, specifically the context-specific proportion congruency effect (CSPCE), by using a masked Stroop-like task where the proportion of congruency was associated to various masks. We used electrophysiological measures to analyze the neural correlates of the CSPCE. Results showed evidence of an unconscious CSPCE in reaction times (RTs) and the N2 and P3 components. In addition, the P2 component evoked by both target and masks indicated that the proportion of congruency was processed earlier than the congruency between the color word and the ink color of the target. Taken together, our results provided evidence pointing to an unconscious CSPCE. PMID:25460239

Panadero, A; Castellanos, M C; Tudela, P

2015-01-01

224

Congruence of perceptions among nursing leaders and staff regarding missed nursing care and teamwork.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to test the congruence of the perceptions of unit-based nurse leaders (managers, advanced practice nurses) and nursing staff members (registered nurses, nursing assistants, unit secretaries) in acute care hospitals as to the extent and type of missed nursing care and nursing teamwork. Based on the leader-member exchange congruence framework (LMX), nursing staff and nursing leaders completed the MISSCARE Survey, and a segment of the participants completed the Nursing Teamwork Survey. The findings of this study show a lack of LMX congruence between leaders and nursing staff members. Nursing staff report less missed care and lower teamwork than do leaders, and nursing staff list more problems with having adequate material and labor resources than do leaders. LMX congruence has been associated with positive organizational outcomes. PMID:22968120

Kalisch, Beatrice J; Lee, Kyung Hee

2012-10-01

225

AN EASY TEST FOR CONGRUENCE MODULARITY TOPAZ DENT, KEITH A. KEARNES, AND AGNES SZENDREI  

E-print Network

AN EASY TEST FOR CONGRUENCE MODULARITY TOPAZ DENT, KEITH A. KEARNES, AND ´AGNES SZENDREI Abstract) grant no. K77409. 1 #12;2 TOPAZ DENT, KEITH A. KEARNES, AND ´AGNES SZENDREI is independent of its first

Kearnes, Keith A.

226

AN EASY TEST FOR CONGRUENCE MODULARITY TOPAZ DENT, KEITH A. KEARNES, AND AGNES SZENDREI  

E-print Network

AN EASY TEST FOR CONGRUENCE MODULARITY TOPAZ DENT, KEITH A. KEARNES, AND ´AGNES SZENDREI Abstract National Foundation for Scientific Research (OTKA) grant no. K77409. 1 #12;2 TOPAZ DENT, KEITH A. KEARNES

Kearnes, Keith A.

227

AN EASY TEST FOR CONGRUENCE MODULARITY TOPAZ DENT, KEITH A. KEARNES, AND AGNES SZENDREI  

E-print Network

AN EASY TEST FOR CONGRUENCE MODULARITY TOPAZ DENT, KEITH A. KEARNES, AND ´AGNES SZENDREI Abstract) grant no. K77409. 1 #12;2 TOPAZ DENT, KEITH A. KEARNES, AND ´AGNES SZENDREI F is independent of its

Szendrei, Ágnes

228

Leader-follower value congruence in social responsibility and ethical satisfaction: a polynomial regression analysis.  

PubMed

Summary.-This paper presents empirical research into the relationship between leader-follower value congruence in social responsibility and the level of ethical satisfaction for employees in the workplace. 163 dyads were analyzed, each consisting of a team leader and an employee working at a large manufacturing company in South Korea. Following current methodological recommendations for congruence research, polynomial regression and response surface modeling methodologies were used to determine the effects of value congruence. Results indicate that leader-follower value congruence in social responsibility was positively related to the ethical satisfaction of employees. Furthermore, employees' ethical satisfaction was stronger when aligned with a leader with high social responsibility. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:25539173

Kang, Seung-Wan; Byun, Gukdo; Park, Hun-Joon

2014-12-01

229

Fast parallel DNA-based algorithms for molecular computation: quadratic congruence and factoring integers.  

PubMed

Assume that n is a positive integer. If there is an integer such that M (2) ? C (mod n), i.e., the congruence has a solution, then C is said to be a quadratic congruence (mod n). If the congruence does not have a solution, then C is said to be a quadratic noncongruence (mod n). The task of solving the problem is central to many important applications, the most obvious being cryptography. In this article, we describe a DNA-based algorithm for solving quadratic congruence and factoring integers. In additional to this novel contribution, we also show the utility of our encoding scheme, and of the algorithm's submodules. We demonstrate how a variety of arithmetic, shifted and comparative operations, namely bitwise and full addition, subtraction, left shifter and comparison perhaps are performed using strands of DNA. PMID:21914574

Chang, Weng-Long

2012-03-01

230

CONGRUENCES AND RELATIONS FOR r-FISHBURN NUMBERS F. G. GARVAN  

E-print Network

and Sellers proved some amazing congruences for the Fish- burn numbers. We extend their results to a more).(1.7) In fact, they prove that there are analogous congruences for all primes p that are quadratic nonresidues]). If i S(p), then (p, n, i, k) = 0, for 0 k n - 1. We consider the analog of this result when 24i -1

Garvan, Frank

231

A generalization of the Gaussian formula and a q-analog of Fleck's congruence  

E-print Network

The q-binomial coefficients are the polynomial cousins of the traditional binomial coefficients, and a number of identities for binomial coefficients can be translated into this polynomial setting. For instance, the familiar vanishing of the alternating sum across row n of Pascal's triangle is captured by the so-called Gaussian Formula. In this paper, we find a q-binomial congruence which synthesizes this result and Fleck's congruence for binomial coefficients.

Schultz, Andrew

2012-01-01

232

Optical wavelength\\/spatial coding system based on quadratic congruence code matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter proposes a wavelength\\/spatial optical code-division multiple-access system based on quadratic congruence code matrices (QCCM). According to the in-phase cross-correlation of the QCCM, multiple-access interference can be fully eliminated by using balanced photodetectors (PDs). Moreover, this proposal provides greater signal power than does the modified quadratic congruence (MQC) coding system. Compared with the maximal-area matrices (M-matrices) and MQC coding

Chen-Mu Tsai

2006-01-01

233

Corporate Governance Systems: Effects of Capital and Labor Market Congruency on Corporate Innovation and Global Competitiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Drawing on institutional economics, this article addresses how institutional congruence between capital and labor markets\\u000a influences corporate governance systems, which, in turn, create differences in national corporate innovation and entrepreneurship\\u000a systems and subsequently global competitiveness. We argue that such institutional congruence cultivates two ideal corporate\\u000a governance systems. The first ideal type is the market-based system with transactional capital and external

Robert E. Hoskisson; Daphne Yiu; Hicheon Kim

234

Updating Semantic Web Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic data model for the Semantic Web is the Resource Description Framework (RDF). From a data management point of view, it resembles a lightweight knowledge base. In this paper we address updates in RDF. It is known that the semantics of updates for data models becomes unclear when the model turns, even slightly, more general than a simple relational

Claudio Gutierrez

235

Aging and Semantic Activation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies tested the theory that long term memory consists of a semantically organized network of concept nodes interconnected by leveled associations or relations, and that when a stimulus is processed, the corresponding concept node is assumed to be temporarily activated and this activation spreads to nearby semantically related nodes. In…

Howard, Darlene V.

236

Heterogeneous Semantics in Ptolemy  

E-print Network

Modeling Heterogeneous Semantics in Ptolemy with Modular Actor Interfaces Chris Shaver working analyses and forms of verification that cross the boundaries of heterogeneous composition. #12;Ptolemy II be understood in clear mathematical terms. From "A Modular Formal Semantics for Ptolemy", Tripakis et al

California at Irvine, University of

237

Learning with Semantic Wikis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge society requires life-long learning and flexible learning environments that allow learners to learn whenever they have time, whereever they are, and according to their own needs and back- ground knowledge. In this article, we investigate how Semantic Wikis - a combination of Wiki and Semantic Web technology - can support learners in such flexible learning environments. We first

Sebastian Schaffert; Diana Bischof; Tobias Bürger; Andreas Gruber; Wolf Hilzensauer; Sandra Schaffert

2006-01-01

238

Frame-Semantic Parsing  

E-print Network

Frame semantics is a linguistic theory that has been instantiated for English in the FrameNet lexicon. We solve the problem of frame-semantic parsing using a two-stage statistical model that takes lexical targets (i.e., ...

Das, Dipanjan

239

Semantics of Smalltalk-80  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A formal model of the Smalltalk-80 programming language is introduced. The semantics of much of the Smalltalk-80 language are described using the denotational style. A poorly-designed feature of Smalltalk is highlighted, and alternative semantics are presented for the language feature.

Wolczko, Mario

240

Logical Foundations Semantic Web  

E-print Network

Logical Foundations for the Semantic Web Ian Horrocks and Ulrike Sattler University of Manchester Manchester, UK {horrocks|sattler}@cs.man.ac.uk #12;Introduction #12;History of the Semantic Web · Web of the Web was much more ambitious than the reality of the existing (syntactic) Web: · TBL (and others) have

Sattler, Ulrike

241

Semantic Web Pascal Hitzler  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Semantic Web Pascal Hitzler Kno.e.sis Center, Wright State University, Dayton, OH, USA 1.1.1 Languages for Representing Knowledge on the Web ............................. 2 1.1.2 Formal the Semantic Web Vision ................................ 4 1.1.4 Linked Data

Hitzler, Pascal

242

The Semantic Learning Organization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this paper is introducing the concept of a "semantic learning organization" (SLO) as an extension of the concept of "learning organization" in the technological domain. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes existing definitions and conceptualizations of both learning organizations and Semantic Web technology to develop…

Sicilia, Miguel-Angel; Lytras, Miltiadis D.

2005-01-01

243

Hitzler Semantic Web Rostock Januar 2009 Semantic Web  

E-print Network

Hitzler Semantic Web Rostock Januar 2009 AIFB Slide 1 Semantic Web PD Dr. Pascal Hitzler AIFB, University of Karlsruhe, Germany http://www.pascal-hitzler.de Rostock, Januar 2009 #12;Hitzler Semantic Web sind Europameister" #12;Hitzler Semantic Web Rostock Januar 2009 AIFB Slide 3 Lehrbuch · Hitzler

Hitzler, Pascal

244

The Democratization of Semantic Properties: An Analysis of Semantic Wikis  

E-print Network

The Democratization of Semantic Properties: An Analysis of Semantic Wikis Yolanda Gil Information California 4676 Admiralty Way Marina del Rey CA, 90292 varunr@isi.edu, ricky@sethi Abstract--Semantic wikis augment wikis with semantic properties that can be used to aggregate and query data through reasoning

Gil, Yolanda

245

Denotational semantics of hybrid automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a denotational semantics for non-linear hybrid automata and relate it to the operational semantics given in terms of hybrid trajectories. The semantics is defined as least fixpoint of an operator on the continuous domain of functions of time that take values in the lattice of compact subsets of n-dimensional Euclidean space. The semantic function assigns to every point

Abbas Edalat; Dirk Pattinson

2007-01-01

246

Denotational Semantics of Hybrid Automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a denotational semantics for non-linear hybrid au- tomata, and relate it to the operational semantics given in t erms of hybrid trajec- tories. The semantics is defined as least fixpoint of an operat or on the continuous domain of functions of time that take values in the lattice of compact subsets of n-dimensional Euclidean space. The semantic function

Abbas Edalat; Dirk Pattinson

2006-01-01

247

Effect of attentional load on audiovisual speech perception: evidence from ERPs  

PubMed Central

Seeing articulatory movements influences perception of auditory speech. This is often reflected in a shortened latency of auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) generated in the auditory cortex. The present study addressed whether this early neural correlate of audiovisual interaction is modulated by attention. We recorded ERPs in 15 subjects while they were presented with auditory, visual, and audiovisual spoken syllables. Audiovisual stimuli consisted of incongruent auditory and visual components known to elicit a McGurk effect, i.e., a visually driven alteration in the auditory speech percept. In a Dual task condition, participants were asked to identify spoken syllables whilst monitoring a rapid visual stream of pictures for targets, i.e., they had to divide their attention. In a Single task condition, participants identified the syllables without any other tasks, i.e., they were asked to ignore the pictures and focus their attention fully on the spoken syllables. The McGurk effect was weaker in the Dual task than in the Single task condition, indicating an effect of attentional load on audiovisual speech perception. Early auditory ERP components, N1 and P2, peaked earlier to audiovisual stimuli than to auditory stimuli when attention was fully focused on syllables, indicating neurophysiological audiovisual interaction. This latency decrement was reduced when attention was loaded, suggesting that attention influences early neural processing of audiovisual speech. We conclude that reduced attention weakens the interaction between vision and audition in speech. PMID:25076922

Alsius, Agnès; Möttönen, Riikka; Sams, Mikko E.; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Tiippana, Kaisa

2014-01-01

248

Temporal Processing of Audiovisual Stimuli Is Enhanced in Musicians: Evidence from Magnetoencephalography (MEG)  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have demonstrated that the structural and functional differences between professional musicians and non-musicians are not only found within a single modality, but also with regard to multisensory integration. In this study we have combined psychophysical with neurophysiological measurements investigating the processing of non-musical, synchronous or various levels of asynchronous audiovisual events. We hypothesize that long-term multisensory experience alters temporal audiovisual processing already at a non-musical stage. Behaviorally, musicians scored significantly better than non-musicians in judging whether the auditory and visual stimuli were synchronous or asynchronous. At the neural level, the statistical analysis for the audiovisual asynchronous response revealed three clusters of activations including the ACC and the SFG and two bilaterally located activations in IFG and STG in both groups. Musicians, in comparison to the non-musicians, responded to synchronous audiovisual events with enhanced neuronal activity in a broad left posterior temporal region that covers the STG, the insula and the Postcentral Gyrus. Musicians also showed significantly greater activation in the left Cerebellum, when confronted with an audiovisual asynchrony. Taken together, our MEG results form a strong indication that long-term musical training alters the basic audiovisual temporal processing already in an early stage (direct after the auditory N1 wave), while the psychophysical results indicate that musical training may also provide behavioral benefits in the accuracy of the estimates regarding the timing of audiovisual events. PMID:24595014

Lu, Yao; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Herholz, Sibylle C.; Kuchenbuch, Anja; Pantev, Christo

2014-01-01

249

Audiovisual speech from emotionally expressive and lateralized faces.  

PubMed

Emotional expression and how it is lateralized across the two sides of the face may influence how we detect audiovisual speech. To investigate how these components interact we conducted experiments comparing the perception of sentences expressed with happy, sad, and neutral emotions. In addition we isolated the facial asymmetries for affective and speech processing by independently testing the two sides of a talker's face. These asymmetrical differences were exaggerated using dynamic facial chimeras in which left- or right-face halves were paired with their mirror image during speech production. Results suggest that there are facial asymmetries in audiovisual speech such that the right side of the face and right-facial chimeras supported better speech perception than their left-face counterparts. Affective information was also found to be critical in that happy expressions tended to improve speech performance on both sides of the face relative to all other emotions, whereas sad emotions generally inhibited visual speech information, particularly from the left side of the face. The results suggest that approach information may facilitate visual and auditory speech detection. PMID:20945268

Gordon, Michael S; Hibberts, Mary

2011-04-01

250

Audiovisual synchrony perception for music, speech, and object actions.  

PubMed

We investigated the perception of synchrony for complex audiovisual events. In Experiment 1, a series of music (guitar and piano), speech (sentences), and object action video clips were presented at a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) using the method of constant stimuli. Participants made unspeeded temporal order judgments (TOJs) regarding which stream (auditory or visual) appeared to have been presented first. Temporal discrimination accuracy was significantly better for the object actions than for the speech video clips, and both were significantly better than for the music video clips. In order to investigate whether or not these differences in TOJ performance were driven by differences in stimulus familiarity, we conducted a second experiment using brief speech (syllables), music (guitar), and object action video clips of fixed duration together with temporally reversed (i.e., less familiar) versions of the same stimuli. The results showed no main effect of stimulus type on temporal discrimination accuracy. Interestingly, however, reversing the video clips resulted in a significant decrement in temporal discrimination accuracy as compared to the normally presented for the music and object actions clips, but not for the speech stimuli. Overall, our results suggest that cross-modal temporal discrimination performance is better for audiovisual stimuli of lower complexity as compared to stimuli having continuously varying properties (e.g., syllables versus words and/or sentences). PMID:16876772

Vatakis, Argiro; Spence, Charles

2006-09-21

251

Audiovisual events capture attention: evidence from temporal order judgments.  

PubMed

Is an irrelevant audiovisual event able to guide attention automatically? In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were asked to make a temporal order judgment (TOJ) about which of two dots (left or right) appeared first. In Experiment 3, participants were asked to make a simultaneity judgment (SJ) instead. Such tasks have been shown to be affected by attention. Lateral to each of the dots, nine irrelevant distractors continuously changed color. Prior to the presentation of the first dot, a spatially non-informative tone was synchronized with the color change of one of these distractors, either on the same side or on the opposite side of the first dot. Even though both the tone and the distractors were completely irrelevant to the task, TOJs were affected by the synchronized distractor. TOJs were not affected when the tone was absent or synchronized with distractors on both sides. SJs were also affected by the synchronized distractor, ruling out an alternative response bias hypothesis. We conclude that audiovisual synchrony guides attention in an exogenous manner. PMID:18842073

Van der Burg, Erik; Olivers, Christian N L; Bronkhorst, Adelbert W; Theeuwes, Jan

2008-01-01

252

Depth Cues and Perceived Audiovisual Synchrony of Biological Motion  

PubMed Central

Background Due to their different propagation times, visual and auditory signals from external events arrive at the human sensory receptors with a disparate delay. This delay consistently varies with distance, but, despite such variability, most events are perceived as synchronic. There is, however, contradictory data and claims regarding the existence of compensatory mechanisms for distance in simultaneity judgments. Principal Findings In this paper we have used familiar audiovisual events – a visual walker and footstep sounds – and manipulated the number of depth cues. In a simultaneity judgment task we presented a large range of stimulus onset asynchronies corresponding to distances of up to 35 meters. We found an effect of distance over the simultaneity estimates, with greater distances requiring larger stimulus onset asynchronies, and vision always leading. This effect was stronger when both visual and auditory cues were present but was interestingly not found when depth cues were impoverished. Significance These findings reveal that there should be an internal mechanism to compensate for audiovisual delays, which critically depends on the depth information available. PMID:24244617

Silva, Carlos César; Mendonça, Catarina; Mouta, Sandra; Silva, Rosa; Campos, José Creissac; Santos, Jorge

2013-01-01

253

Evaluating Phylogenetic Congruence in the Post-Genomic Era  

PubMed Central

Congruence is a broadly applied notion in evolutionary biology used to justify multigene phylogeny or phylogenomics, as well as in studies of coevolution, lateral gene transfer, and as evidence for common descent. Existing methods for identifying incongruence or heterogeneity using character data were designed for data sets that are both small and expected to be rarely incongruent. At the same time, methods that assess incongruence using comparison of trees test a null hypothesis of uncorrelated tree structures, which may be inappropriate for phylogenomic studies. As such, they are ill-suited for the growing number of available genome sequences, most of which are from prokaryotes and viruses, either for phylogenomic analysis or for studies of the evolutionary forces and events that have shaped these genomes. Specifically, many existing methods scale poorly with large numbers of genes, cannot accommodate high levels of incongruence, and do not adequately model patterns of missing taxa for different markers. We propose the development of novel incongruence assessment methods suitable for the analysis of the molecular evolution of the vast majority of life and support the investigation of homogeneity of evolutionary process in cases where markers do not share identical tree structures. PMID:21712432

Leigh, Jessica W.; Lapointe, François-Joseph; Lopez, Philippe; Bapteste, Eric

2011-01-01

254

Biodiversity Congruence and Conservation Strategies: A National Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding patterns of biodiversity is essential to developing conservation strategies and monitoring conservation goals, and severe data constraints make surrogate indicators necessary. We used a comprehensive data set of 6959 species of amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, and vascular plants in terrestrial ecosystems of China to test the correlations among taxa, the utility of surrogates, and the effectiveness of conservation strategies in China. The results showed that the patterns of species richness between terrestrial vertebrates and vascular plants are concordant, except for those patterns between amphibians and birds; patterns of endemism are concordant at the national level; species richness and endemism are congruent, and each class can represent the four remaining classes. The underlying mechanisms responsible for the decline of species, however, are quite diverse, and conservation of one endangered class will not necessarily save the other classes. These results suggest that the extent of congruence varies according to the taxa and measures of diversity that are compared. There is no correlation between the coverage of nature reserves and overall species richness, endemism, or threat, nor between biodiversity investment and species richness, endemism, or threat.

Haigen Xu (Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences (NIES);)

2008-08-01

255

Robust audio-visual person verification using Web-camera video  

E-print Network

This thesis examines the challenge of robust audio-visual person verification using data recorded in multiple environments with various lighting conditions, irregular visual backgrounds, and diverse background noise. ...

Schultz, Daniel (Daniel T.)

2006-01-01

256

36 CFR 1237.20 - What are special considerations in the maintenance of audiovisual records?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.20 What are special considerations in the maintenance...

2010-07-01

257

37 CFR 202.22 - Acquisition and deposit of unpublished audio and audiovisual transmission programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES...audiovisual transmission programs by the Library of Congress under section 407(e...Recording of transmission programs. (1) Library of Congress employees,...

2012-07-01

258

37 CFR 202.22 - Acquisition and deposit of unpublished audio and audiovisual transmission programs.  

...Copyrights U.S. COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES...audiovisual transmission programs by the Library of Congress under section 407(e...Recording of transmission programs. (1) Library of Congress employees,...

2014-07-01

259

37 CFR 202.22 - Acquisition and deposit of unpublished audio and audiovisual transmission programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES...audiovisual transmission programs by the Library of Congress under section 407(e...Recording of transmission programs. (1) Library of Congress employees,...

2011-07-01

260

37 CFR 202.22 - Acquisition and deposit of unpublished audio and audiovisual transmission programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES...audiovisual transmission programs by the Library of Congress under section 407(e...Recording of transmission programs. (1) Library of Congress employees,...

2013-07-01

261

37 CFR 202.22 - Acquisition and deposit of unpublished audio and audiovisual transmission programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES...audiovisual transmission programs by the Library of Congress under section 407(e...Recording of transmission programs. (1) Library of Congress employees,...

2010-07-01

262

36 CFR 1237.20 - What are special considerations in the maintenance of audiovisual records?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.20 What are special considerations in the maintenance...

2012-07-01

263

36 CFR 1237.20 - What are special considerations in the maintenance of audiovisual records?  

...20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.20 What are special considerations in the maintenance...

2014-07-01

264

Effects of audio-visual stimulation on the incidence of restraint ulcers on the Wistar rat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of sensory simulation in restrained rats was investigated. Both mixed audio-visual and pure sound stimuli, ineffective in themselves, were found to cause a significant increase in the incidence of restraint ulcers in the Wistar Rat.

Martin, M. S.; Martin, F.; Lambert, R.

1979-01-01

265

Does Socio-Technical Congruence Have an Effect on Software Build Success? A Study of Coordination in a Software Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socio-technical congruence is an approach that measures coordination by examining the alignment between the technical dependencies and the social coordination in the project. We conduct a case study of coordination in the IBM Rational Team Concert project, which consists of 151 developers over seven geographically distributed sites, and expect that high congruence leads to a high probability of successful builds.

Irwin Kwan; Adrian Schröter; Daniela Damian

2011-01-01

266

Why It Is Too Early to Lose Control in Accounts of Item-Specific Proportion Congruency Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The item-specific proportion congruency (ISPC) effect is the finding of attenuated interference for mostly incongruent as compared to mostly congruent items. A debate in the Stroop literature concerns the mechanisms underlying this effect. Noting a confound between proportion congruency and contingency, Schmidt and Besner (2008) suggested that…

Bugg, Julie M.; Jacoby, Larry L.; Chanani, Swati

2011-01-01

267

Congruence or Discrepancy? Comparing Patients' Health Valuations and Physicians' Treatment Goals for Rehabilitation for Patients with Chronic Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to test the congruence of patients' health valuations and physicians' treatment goals for the rehabilitation of chronically ill patients. In addition, patient characteristics associated with greater or less congruence were to be determined. In a questionnaire study, patients' health valuations and physicians' goals were…

Nagl, Michaela; Farin, Erik

2012-01-01

268

Python programming --Semantic Web Finn Arup Nielsen  

E-print Network

Python programming -- Semantic Web Finn °Arup Nielsen DTU Compute Technical University of Denmark October 9, 2013 #12;Python programming -- Semantic Web What is Semantic Web? Semantic Web = Triple data 9, 2013 #12;Python programming -- Semantic Web Why the Semantic Web? IBM's Watson supercomputer

269

Evolution of geodesic congruences in a gravitationally collapsing scalar field background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of timelike geodesic congruences in a spherically symmetric, nonstatic, inhomogeneous spacetime representing gravitational collapse of a massless scalar field is studied. We delineate how initial values of the expansion, rotation, and shear of a congruence, as well as the spacetime curvature, influence the global behavior and focusing properties of a family of trajectories. Under specific conditions, the expansion scalar is shown to exhibit a finite jump (from negative to positive value) before focusing eventually occurs. This nonmonotonic behavior of the expansion, observed in our numerical work, is successfully explained through an analysis of the equation for the expansion. Finally, we bring out the role of the metric parameters (related to nonstaticity and spatial inhomogeneity) in shaping the overall behavior of geodesic congruences.

Shaikh, Rajibul; Kar, Sayan; DasGupta, Anirvan

2014-12-01

270

Congruency between Word Position and Meaning is Caused by Task-Induced Spatial Attention  

PubMed Central

We report an experiment that compared two explanations for the effect of congruency between a word's on screen spatial position and its meaning. On one account, congruency is explained by the match between position and a mental simulation of meaning. Alternatively, congruency is explained by the polarity alignment principle. To distinguish between these accounts we presented the same object names (e.g., shark, helicopter) in a sky decision task or an ocean decision task, such that response polarity and typical location were disentangled. Sky decision responses were faster to words at the top of the screen compared to words at the bottom of the screen, but the reverse was found for ocean decision responses. These results are problematic for the polarity principle, and support the claim that spatial attention is directed by mental simulation of the task-relevant conceptual dimension. PMID:21833200

Pecher, Diane; Van Dantzig, Saskia; Boot, Inge; Zanolie, Kiki; Huber, David E.

2010-01-01

271

In Support of Semantic Atoms. Semantic Studies 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several hypotheses about the nature of word meaning are discussed and discarded in favor of one that treats semantic atoms (distinctive semantic elements) as elemental predicates that can be arranged in any configuration. (Author/KM)

Hofmann, Thomas R.

1974-01-01

272

A Comparison Of Model And Transform-Based Visual Features For Audio-Visual LVCSR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four different visual speech parameterisation methods are com- pared on a large vocabulary, continuous, audio-visual speech recog- nition task using the IBM ViaVoice TM audio-visual speech database. Three are direct mouth image region based transforms; discrete cosine and wavelet transforms, and principal component analysis. The fourth uses a statistical model of shape and appearance called an active appearance model, to

Iain Matthews; Gerasimos Potamianos; Chalapathy Neti; Juergen Luettin

2001-01-01

273

The effect of visual spatial attention on audiovisual speech perception in adults with Asperger syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) have problems in following conversation, especially in the situations where several\\u000a people are talking. This might result from impairments in audiovisual speech perception, especially from difficulties in focusing\\u000a attention to speech-relevant visual information and ignoring distracting information. We studied the effect of visual spatial\\u000a attention on the audiovisual speech perception of adult individuals with AS

Satu Saalasti; Kaisa Tiippana; Jari Kätsyri; Mikko Sams

274

Survey of error recovery techniques for IP-based audio-visual multicast applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

IP-based audio-visual multicast applications are gaining increasing interest since they can be realized using inexpensive network services that offer no guarantees for loss or delay. When using network services that do not guarantee the quality of service (QoS) required by audio-visual applications, recovery from losses due to congestion in the network is a key problem that must be solved. This

Georg Carle; Ernst W. Biersack

1997-01-01

275

Culture, salience, and psychiatric diagnosis: exploring the concept of cultural congruence & its practical application  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cultural congruence is the idea that to the extent a belief or experience is culturally shared it is not to feature in a diagnostic judgement, irrespective of its resemblance to psychiatric pathology. This rests on the argument that since deviation from norms is central to diagnosis, and since what counts as deviation is relative to context, assessing the degree of fit between mental states and cultural norms is crucial. Various problems beset the cultural congruence construct including impoverished definitions of culture as religious, national or ethnic group and of congruence as validation by that group. This article attempts to address these shortcomings to arrive at a cogent construct. Results The article distinguishes symbolic from phenomenological conceptions of culture, the latter expanded upon through two sources: Husserl’s phenomenological analysis of background intentionality and neuropsychological literature on salience. It is argued that culture is not limited to symbolic presuppositions and shapes subjects’ experiential dispositions. This conception is deployed to re-examine the meaning of (in)congruence. The main argument is that a significant, since foundational, deviation from culture is not from a value or belief but from culturally-instilled experiential dispositions, in what is salient to an individual in a particular context. Conclusion Applying the concept of cultural congruence must not be limited to assessing violations of the symbolic order and must consider alignment with or deviations from culturally-instilled experiential dispositions. By virtue of being foundational to a shared experience of the world, such dispositions are more accurate indicators of potential vulnerability. Notwithstanding problems of access and expertise, clinical practice should aim to accommodate this richer meaning of cultural congruence. PMID:23870676

2013-01-01

276

Audiovisual emotional processing and neurocognitive functioning in patients with depression  

PubMed Central

Alterations in the processing of emotional stimuli (e.g., facial expressions, prosody, music) have repeatedly been reported in patients with major depression. Such impairments may result from the likewise prevalent executive deficits in these patients. However, studies investigating this relationship are rare. Moreover, most studies to date have only assessed impairments in unimodal emotional processing, whereas in real life, emotions are primarily conveyed through more than just one sensory channel. The current study therefore aimed at investigating multi-modal emotional processing in patients with depression and to assess the relationship between emotional and neurocognitive impairments. Fourty one patients suffering from major depression and 41 never-depressed healthy controls participated in an audiovisual (faces-sounds) emotional integration paradigm as well as a neurocognitive test battery. Our results showed that depressed patients were specifically impaired in the processing of positive auditory stimuli as they rated faces significantly more fearful when presented with happy than with neutral sounds. Such an effect was absent in controls. Findings in emotional processing in patients did not correlate with Beck’s depression inventory score. Furthermore, neurocognitive findings revealed significant group differences for two of the tests. The effects found in audiovisual emotional processing, however, did not correlate with performance in the neurocognitive tests. In summary, our results underline the diversity of impairments going along with depression and indicate that deficits found for unimodal emotional processing cannot trivially be generalized to deficits in a multi-modal setting. The mechanisms of impairments therefore might be far more complex than previously thought. Our findings furthermore contradict the assumption that emotional processing deficits in major depression are associated with impaired attention or inhibitory functioning.

Doose-Grünefeld, Sophie; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Müller, Veronika I.

2015-01-01

277

Crossmodal integration enhances neural representation of task-relevant features in audiovisual face perception.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that audiovisual integration improves identification performance and enhances neural activity in heteromodal brain areas, for example, the posterior superior temporal sulcus/middle temporal gyrus (pSTS/MTG). Furthermore, it has also been demonstrated that attention plays an important role in crossmodal integration. In this study, we considered crossmodal integration in audiovisual facial perception and explored its effect on the neural representation of features. The audiovisual stimuli in the experiment consisted of facial movie clips that could be classified into 2 gender categories (male vs. female) or 2 emotion categories (crying vs. laughing). The visual/auditory-only stimuli were created from these movie clips by removing the auditory/visual contents. The subjects needed to make a judgment about the gender/emotion category for each movie clip in the audiovisual, visual-only, or auditory-only stimulus condition as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals were recorded. The neural representation of the gender/emotion feature was assessed using the decoding accuracy and the brain pattern-related reproducibility indices, obtained by a multivariate pattern analysis method from the fMRI data. In comparison to the visual-only and auditory-only stimulus conditions, we found that audiovisual integration enhanced the neural representation of task-relevant features and that feature-selective attention might play a role of modulation in the audiovisual integration. PMID:23978654

Li, Yuanqing; Long, Jinyi; Huang, Biao; Yu, Tianyou; Wu, Wei; Liu, Yongjian; Liang, Changhong; Sun, Pei

2015-02-01

278

Superadditive responses in superior temporal sulcus predict audiovisual benefits in object categorization.  

PubMed

Merging information from multiple senses provides a more reliable percept of our environment. Yet, little is known about where and how various sensory features are combined within the cortical hierarchy. Combining functional magnetic resonance imaging and psychophysics, we investigated the neural mechanisms underlying integration of audiovisual object features. Subjects categorized or passively perceived audiovisual object stimuli with the informativeness (i.e., degradation) of the auditory and visual modalities being manipulated factorially. Controlling for low-level integration processes, we show higher level audiovisual integration selectively in the superior temporal sulci (STS) bilaterally. The multisensory interactions were primarily subadditive and even suppressive for intact stimuli but turned into additive effects for degraded stimuli. Consistent with the inverse effectiveness principle, auditory and visual informativeness determine the profile of audiovisual integration in STS similarly to the influence of physical stimulus intensity in the superior colliculus. Importantly, when holding stimulus degradation constant, subjects' audiovisual behavioral benefit predicts their multisensory integration profile in STS: only subjects that benefit from multisensory integration exhibit superadditive interactions, while those that do not benefit show suppressive interactions. In conclusion, superadditive and subadditive integration profiles in STS are functionally relevant and related to behavioral indices of multisensory integration with superadditive interactions mediating successful audiovisual object categorization. PMID:19923200

Werner, Sebastian; Noppeney, Uta

2010-08-01

279

The Impact of Semantic Neighborhood Density on Semantic Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories of word recognition agree that multiple word candidates are activated and compete for recognition when a word is read or heard. Orthographic and phonological density metrics have provided significant, but partial, accounts of this activation and competition process. We extend this approach to examine the impact of semantic neighborhood density on visual semantic access. We compare measures of semantic

Daniel Mirman

280

A Frame-Semantic Approach to Semantic Annotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The number and arrangement of semantic tags must be constrained, lest the size and complexity,of the tagging sets (tagsets) used for semantic annotation become unwieldy,both,for humans,and,computers. The description of lexical predicates within the framework,of frame semantics,provides a natural method,for selecting and structuring appropriate,tagsets. 1,Motivation

B. Lowe; Garnet. be

281

Quantum logic unites compositional functional semantics and distributional semantic models  

E-print Network

Quantum logic unites compositional functional semantics and distributional semantic models Anne but to sentences, paragraphs etc. They are ruled by laws of logic inherent to language. Natural language conveys in by the familiar logical models, the intensional aspect by distributional semantic models, DSM's. We propose

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

282

Making the Semantic Web a Reality through Active Semantic Spaces  

E-print Network

of Semantic Web technologies, service agent technologies, and Web 2.0 technologies. Semantic Web technologies machine agents on ASpaces that communicate with both their human users and their peers. Web 2 the gap between the Semantic Web and Web 2.0. #12;2 Yihong Ding and et. al. 1 Introduction Despite its

Menczer, Filippo

283

Large-vocabulary audio-visual speech recognition: a summary of the Johns Hopkins Summer 2000 Workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a summary of the Johns Hopkins Summer 2000 Workshop on audio-visual automatic speech recognition (ASR) in the large-vocabulary, continuous speech domain. Two problems of audio-visual ASR were mainly addressed: visual feature extraction and audio-visual information fusion. First, image transform and model-based visual features were considered, obtained by means of the discrete cosine transform (DCT) and active appearance models,

Chalapathy Neti; Gerasimos Potamianos; Juergen Luettin; Iain Matthews; Herd Glotin; Dimitra Vergyri

2001-01-01

284

Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs  

SciTech Connect

A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

2007-08-07

285

Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first working draft of the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition is now available. The document "defines the process of Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition and the syntax and semantics of semantic interpretation tags that can be added to speech recognition grammars." The document is a draft, open for suggestions from W3C members and other interested users.

Lernout & Hauspie Speech Products.; Tichelen, Luc V.

2001-01-01

286

Indexing of multilingual news telecast using audio-visual keywords  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indexing of news video streams with semantic keywords is of interest to agencies that regularly monitor many news channels. In this paper, we describe a new method for indexing news video in different languages, for which there are inadequate language tools. Our approach involves combining multimodal inputs, namely audio and visual, and spotting of a handful of keywords with higher

H. Ghosh; A. Khare; A. Gorai; S. K. Kopparapu; M. Pandharipande

2010-01-01

287

36 CFR 1237.14 - What are the additional scheduling requirements for audiovisual, cartographic, and related records?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.14 What are the additional scheduling requirements...

2010-07-01

288

36 CFR 1237.14 - What are the additional scheduling requirements for audiovisual, cartographic, and related records?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.14 What are the additional scheduling requirements...

2013-07-01

289

36 CFR 1237.14 - What are the additional scheduling requirements for audiovisual, cartographic, and related records?  

...14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.14 What are the additional scheduling requirements...

2014-07-01

290

36 CFR 1237.14 - What are the additional scheduling requirements for audiovisual, cartographic, and related records?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.14 What are the additional scheduling requirements...

2012-07-01

291

36 CFR 1237.14 - What are the additional scheduling requirements for audiovisual, cartographic, and related records?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.14 What are the additional scheduling requirements...

2011-07-01

292

Effect of Syllable Congruency in Sixth Graders in the Lexical Decision Task with Masked Priming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the syllable in visual recognition of French words in Grade 6. To do so, the syllabic congruency effect was examined in the lexical decision task combined with masked priming. Target words were preceded by pseudoword primes sharing the first letters that either corresponded to the syllable…

Chetail, Fabienne; Mathey, Stephanie

2012-01-01

293

A Theory of Debt and Equity: Diversity of Securities and Manager-Shareholder Congruence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how the optimal financial structure of a firm complements incentive schemes to discipline managers, and how the securities' return streams determine the claimholders' incentives to intervene in management. The theory rationalizes (1) the multiplicity of securities, (2) the observed correlation between return streams and control rights of securities, and (3) the partial congruence between managerial and equityholder

Mathias Dewatripont; Jean Tirole

1994-01-01

294

The Effect of Congruence of Leadership Behaviors on Motivation, Commitment, and Satisfaction of College Tennis Players  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of congruence of leadership behaviors on motivation, commitment, and satisfaction of college tennis players. Respondents (n = 245) included collegiate tennis players from all NCAA division levels (I, II, and III). The athletes were asked to complete a demographic questionnaire, the preferred and perceived versions of the Revised Leadership Scale

Damon Patrick Sermons Andrew

2004-01-01

295

Congruence of Beliefs and Practices of Elementary and Special Education Majors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study identified individuals' beliefs about learning and practices in reading and the degree of congruence between the two. Sixty-two undergraduate elementary and special education majors enrolled in the first of three reading methods courses completed the Reading Beliefs Inventory (RBI). In the first part of the RBI, consisting of 10 categories…

Combs, Martha; Yellin, David

296

Examining the Relationships among Coaching Staff Diversity, Perceptions of Diversity, Value Congruence, and Life Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among coaching staff diversity, perceptions of diversity, value congruence, and life satisfaction. Data were collected from 71 coaching staffs (N = 196 coaches). Observed path analysis was used to examine the study predictions. Results indicate that actual staff diversity was positively…

Cunningham, George B.

2009-01-01

297

The Beck Depression Inventory and Research Diagnostic Criteria: Congruence in an Older Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the congruence between conventional cutoff scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and selected diagnostic classifications of the Research Diagnostic Criteria in a sample of 102 elders seeking psychological treatment. Findings supported the utility of the BDI as a screening instrument for identification of clinically depressed…

Gallagher, Dolores; And Others

1983-01-01

298

The performance of the Congruence Among Distance Matrices (CADM) test in phylogenetic analysis  

PubMed Central

Background CADM is a statistical test used to estimate the level of Congruence Among Distance Matrices. It has been shown in previous studies to have a correct rate of type I error and good power when applied to dissimilarity matrices and to ultrametric distance matrices. Contrary to most other tests of incongruence used in phylogenetic analysis, the null hypothesis of the CADM test assumes complete incongruence of the phylogenetic trees instead of congruence. In this study, we performed computer simulations to assess the type I error rate and power of the test. It was applied to additive distance matrices representing phylogenies and to genetic distance matrices obtained from nucleotide sequences of different lengths that were simulated on randomly generated trees of varying sizes, and under different evolutionary conditions. Results Our results showed that the test has an accurate type I error rate and good power. As expected, power increased with the number of objects (i.e., taxa), the number of partially or completely congruent matrices and the level of congruence among distance matrices. Conclusions Based on our results, we suggest that CADM is an excellent candidate to test for congruence and, when present, to estimate its level in phylogenomic studies where numerous genes are analysed simultaneously. PMID:21388552

2011-01-01

299

Applying the "Congruence" Principle of Bloom's Taxonomy to Designing Online Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. A case study is then presented that explains how the use of the taxonomy was instrumental in the development of graduate-level online instruction and how the taxonomy helped to maintain the congruence among the components of online instruction. (MES)

Chyung, Seung-Youn; Stepich, Donald

2003-01-01

300

Child physical activity and parent-child attitude congruence of athletic competence and activity type  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our purpose was to evaluate parental influence on child physical activity (PA) through parental beliefs on child competence and importance of specific types of PA. Utilizing Eccles' expectancy-value model of task choice, the study examined parent-child attitude congruence and whether task value bel...

301

Does Discourse Congruence Influence Spoken Language Comprehension before Lexical Association? Evidence from Event-Related Potentials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an event-related potential (ERP) norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a…

Boudewyn, Megan A.; Gordon, Peter C.; Long, Debra; Polse, Lara; Swaab, Tamara Y.

2012-01-01

302

The Adolescent-Parent Career Congruence Scale: Development and Initial Validation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there is a growing interest in the discrepancy between parents and their adolescent children in relation to career expectations, there is no existing, psychometrically sound scale that directly measures adolescent-parent career congruence or incongruence. This study reports the development and initial validation of the Adolescent-Parent…

Sawitri, Dian R.; Creed, Peter A.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

2013-01-01

303

Fine-Scale Phylogeographic Congruence despite Demographic Incongruence in Two Low-Mobility Saproxylic Springtails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary trajectories of codistributed taxa with comparable ecological preferences and dispersal abilities may be similarly impacted by historical landscape-level processes. Species' responses to changes in a shared biogeographic landscape may be purely concerted, completely independent, or classified as falling within an intermediate part of the continuum bounded by these two extremes. With sufficient molecular data, temporal contrasts of congruence among

Ryan C. Garrick; David M. Rowell; Chris S. Simmons; David M. Hillis; Paul Sunnucks

2008-01-01

304

Congruence of Self-Reported Medications with Pharmacy Prescription Records in Low-Income Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined the congruence of self-reported medications with computerized pharmacy records. Design and Methods: Pharmacy records and self-reported medications were obtained for 294 members of a state pharmaceutical assistance program who also participated in ACTIVE, a clinical trial on cognitive training in nondemented elderly…

Caskie, Grace I. L.; Willis, Sherry L.

2004-01-01

305

Person-Environment Interaction in an Evolving Profession: Examining the Congruence and Job Satisfaction of Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

John Holland's theory considers congruence between the vocational interests of the individual and characteristics of the work environment to be the primary predictor of job satisfaction and stability. The managed care model has markedly changed the demands of the work environment of mental health counselors. Changes in the way services are…

Beverly, William D., Jr.

2010-01-01

306

Exploring the Congruence between the Lesotho Junior Secondary Geography Curriculum and Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we analyse the Lesotho junior secondary geography curriculum document with the purpose of exploring the congruence between geography and environmental education. The study is based on a curriculum reform process introduced by the Lesotho Environmental Education Support Project (LEESP) in 2001. we draw theoretical insights from…

Raselimo, Mohaeka; Irwin, Pat; Wilmot, Di

2013-01-01

307

The Effects of College Major and Job Field Congruence on Job Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated predictors of job satisfaction and builds on previous research on the effects of bachelor's degree majors and job field congruence on job satisfaction. Data on workers' job experiences in 2001 were matched to those workers' college experiences across 30 institutions and background characteristics up to 25 years earlier.…

Wolniak, Gregory C.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

2005-01-01

308

A PolynomialTime Algorithm for Checking Equivalence Under Certain Semiring Congruences motivated by the Statespace  

E-print Network

A Polynomial­Time Algorithm for Checking Equivalence Under Certain Semiring Congruences motivated@control.rutgers.edu Abstract This paper presents a polynomial­time algorithm for equivalence under certain semiring con­negative integer coefficients. This set can be seen as a semiring, that is, sums and products obey all the usual

Sontag, Eduardo

309

Topic Congruence and Topic Interest: How Do They Affect Second Language Reading Comprehension?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because human memory is largely reconstructive, people tend to reorganize and reevaluate an event in a way that is coherent to the truth values held in their belief system. This study investigated the role of topic congruence (defined as whether the reading content corresponds with readers' prior beliefs towards a contentious topic) in second…

Lee, Sang-Ki

2009-01-01

310

Epistemological Congruency in Community College Classrooms: Effects of Epistemological Beliefs on Students' Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors explore how faculty-student epistemological congruency (EC) affects students' experiences and integration into the academic community. EC is defined as the level of similarity in beliefs about learning between a student and a faculty member. Because academic integration has been tied to retention, they investigated whether…

Fruge, Cheryl W.; Ropers-Huilman, Rebecca

2008-01-01

311

Development and Field Test of the Multiple Intelligences Learning Instruction Congruency Impact Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to contribute to the academic discussion regarding the validity of Multiple Intelligences (MI) theory through focusing on the validity of an important construct embedded in the theory, that of congruence between instructional style and preferred MI style for optimal learning. Currently there is insufficient empirical…

Peifer, Nancy

2012-01-01

312

36 CFR 1256.96 - What provisions apply to the transfer of USIA audiovisual records to the National Archives of the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...USIA audiovisual records to the National Archives of the United States? 1256.96 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States §...

2010-07-01

313

36 CFR 1256.98 - Can I get access to and obtain copies of USIA audiovisual records transferred to the National...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...audiovisual records transferred to the National Archives of the United States? 1256.98 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States §...

2010-07-01

314

36 CFR 1256.96 - What provisions apply to the transfer of USIA audiovisual records to the National Archives of the...  

...USIA audiovisual records to the National Archives of the United States? 1256.96 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States §...

2014-07-01

315

36 CFR 1256.98 - Can I get access to and obtain copies of USIA audiovisual records transferred to the National...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...audiovisual records transferred to the National Archives of the United States? 1256.98 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States §...

2011-07-01

316

36 CFR 1256.98 - Can I get access to and obtain copies of USIA audiovisual records transferred to the National...  

...audiovisual records transferred to the National Archives of the United States? 1256.98 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States §...

2014-07-01

317

36 CFR 1256.96 - What provisions apply to the transfer of USIA audiovisual records to the National Archives of the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...USIA audiovisual records to the National Archives of the United States? 1256.96 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States §...

2013-07-01

318

36 CFR 1256.98 - Can I get access to and obtain copies of USIA audiovisual records transferred to the National...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...audiovisual records transferred to the National Archives of the United States? 1256.98 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States §...

2012-07-01

319

36 CFR 1256.98 - Can I get access to and obtain copies of USIA audiovisual records transferred to the National...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...audiovisual records transferred to the National Archives of the United States? 1256.98 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States §...

2013-07-01

320

The Audio-Visual Services in Fifteen African Countries. Comparative Study on the Administration of Audio-Visual Services in Advanced and Developing Countries. Part Four. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the fourth part of a comparative study on the administration of audiovisual services in advanced and developing countries, this UNESCO-funded study reports on the African countries of Cameroun, Republic of Central Africa, Dahomey, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Swaziland, Tunisia, Upper Volta and Zambia. Information…

Jongbloed, Harry J. L.

321

U.S. Government Films, 1971 Supplement; A Catalog of Audiovisual Materials for Rent and Sale by the National Audiovisual Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first edition of the National Audiovisual Center sales catalog (LI 003875) is updated by this supplement. Changes in price and order number as well as deletions from the 1969 edition, are noted in this 1971 version. Purchase and rental information for the sound films and silent filmstrips is provided. The broad subject categories are:…

National Archives and Records Service (GSA), Washington, DC. National Audiovisual Center.

322

Effects of spatial congruency on saccade and visual discrimination performance in a dual-task paradigm.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the coupling of selection-for-perception and selection-for-action during saccadic eye movement planning in three dual-task experiments. We focused on the effects of spatial congruency of saccade target (ST) location and discrimination target (DT) location and the time between ST-cue and Go-signal (SOA) on saccadic eye movement performance. In two experiments, participants performed a visual discrimination task at a cued location while programming a saccadic eye movement to a cued location. In the third experiment, the discrimination task was not cued and appeared at a random location. Spatial congruency of ST-location and DT-location resulted in enhanced perceptual performance irrespective of SOA. Perceptual performance in spatially incongruent trials was above chance, but only when the DT-location was cued. Saccade accuracy and precision were also affected by spatial congruency showing superior performance when the ST- and DT-location coincided. Saccade latency was only affected by spatial congruency when the DT-cue was predictive of the ST-location. Moreover, saccades consistently curved away from the incongruent DT-locations. Importantly, the effects of spatial congruency on saccade parameters only occurred when the DT-location was cued; therefore, results from experiments 1 and 2 are due to the endogenous allocation of attention to the DT-location and not caused by the salience of the probe. The SOA affected saccade latency showing decreasing latencies with increasing SOA. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that visuospatial attention can be voluntarily distributed upon spatially distinct perceptual and motor goals in dual-task situations, resulting in a decline of visual discrimination and saccade performance. PMID:25449339

Moehler, Tobias; Fiehler, Katja

2014-12-01

323

Semantic Business Process Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current Business Process Management technologies cover all the process life-cycle but still suffer from many limitations with respect to their complexity, maintainability and degree of automation. Recent research initiatives aim at overcoming these limitations by introducing Semantic technologies in the process life-cycle. One of the steps that can benefit from this approach is the Business Process Analysis, that focuses on

Irene Celino; Ana Karla Alves De Medeiros; Gernot Zeissler; Michael Oppitz; Federico Michele Facca; Stefan Zoeller

2007-01-01

324

Semantic community Web portals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community Web portals serve as portals for the information needs of particular communities on the Web. We here discuss how a comprehensive and flexible strategy for building and maintaining a high-value community Web portal has been conceived and implemented. The strategy includes collaborative information provisioning by the community members. It is based on an ontology as a semantic backbone for

Steffen Staab; Jürgen Angele; Stefan Decker; Michael Erdmann; Andreas Hotho; Alexander Maedche; Hans-peter Schnurr; Rudi Studer; York Sure

2000-01-01

325

Environmental Attitudes Semantic Differential.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is an evaluation instrument which utilizes semantic differential data to assess environmental attitudes. Twelve concepts are included: regulated access to beaches, urban planning, dune vegetation, wetlands, future cities, reclaiming wetlands for building development, city parks, commercial development of beaches, existing cities,…

Mehne, Paul R.; Goulard, Cary J.

326

Latent Semantic Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA): (1) LSA overview; (2) applications of LSA, including information retrieval (IR), information filtering, cross-language retrieval, and other IR-related LSA applications; (3) modeling human memory, including the relationship of LSA to other…

Dumais, Susan T.

2004-01-01

327

Semantic Web 30Artificial  

E-print Network

312007.11 "" Semantic Web 30Artificial IntelligenceKnowledge Representation Inductive Web datasets ---- Tim Berners-Lee Tim Berners-Lee " "" " Web 2.0---- Web Web 2.0 Frank van Harmelen W3C OWL Web Sesame RDF Aduna 100 Hirsch 35 5 15 ECAI2002 3 ISWC

van Harmelen, Frank

328

Semantic physical science  

PubMed Central

The articles in this special issue arise from a workshop and symposium held in January 2012 (Semantic Physical Science’). We invited people who shared our vision for the potential of the web to support chemical and related subjects. Other than the initial invitations, we have not exercised any control over the content of the contributed articles. PMID:22856527

2012-01-01

329

Learning Semantic Query Suggestions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important application of semantic web technology is recognizing human-defined concepts in text. Query transformation is a strategy often used in search engines to derive queries that are able to return more useful search results than the original query and most popular search engines provide facilities that let users complete, specify, or reformulate their queries. We study the problem of semantic query suggestion, a special type of query transformation based on identifying semantic concepts contained in user queries. We use a feature-based approach in conjunction with supervised machine learning, augmenting term-based features with search history-based and concept-specific features. We apply our method to the task of linking queries from real-world query logs (the transaction logs of the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision) to the DBpedia knowledge base. We evaluate the utility of different machine learning algorithms, features, and feature types in identifying semantic concepts using a manually developed test bed and show significant improvements over an already high baseline. The resources developed for this paper, i.e., queries, human assessments, and extracted features, are available for download.

Meij, Edgar; Bron, Marc; Hollink, Laura; Huurnink, Bouke; de Rijke, Maarten

330

Semantics of probabilistic programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two complementary but equivalent semantic interpretations of a high level probabilistic programming language are given. One of these interprets programs as partial measurable functions on a measurable space. The other interprets programs as continuous linear operators on a Banach space of measures. It is shown how the ordered domains of Scott and others are embedded naturally into these spaces. Two

Dexter Kozen; Yorktown Heights

1979-01-01

331

Relational Semantics Through Duality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we show how the classical duality results ex- tended to a Duality via Truth contribute to development of a relational semantics for various modal-like logics. In particular, we present a Du- ality via Truth for some classes of information algebras and frames. We also show that the full categorical formulation of classical duality extends to a full

Ewa Orlowska; Ingrid Rewitzky; Ivo Düntsch

2005-01-01

332

Impact of value congruence on work-family conflicts: the mediating role of work-related support.  

PubMed

Based on past research regarding the relationship between person-environment fit and work-family conflict (WFC), we examined the mediating effects of perceived organization/supervisor support on the relationship between person-organization/supervisor value congruence and WFC. A structural equation model was used to test three hypotheses using data collected from 637 workers in Taiwan. Person-organization value congruence regarding role boundaries was found to be positively correlated with employee perception of organizational support, resulting in reduced WFC. Person-supervisor value congruence regarding role boundaries also increased employee perception of organizational support, mediated by perceived supervisor support. Research and managerial implications are discussed. PMID:22558824

Pan, Su-Ying; Yeh, Ying-Jung Yvonne

2012-01-01

333

An Audio-Visual Resource Notebook for Adult Consumer Education. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Audio-Visual Aids for Adult Consumer Education, with Special Emphasis on Materials for Elderly, Low-Income and Handicapped Consumers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is an annotated bibliography of audio-visual aids in the field of consumer education, intended especially for use among low-income, elderly, and handicapped consumers. It was developed to aid consumer education program planners in finding audio-visual resources to enhance their presentations. Materials listed include 293 resources…

Virginia State Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Richmond, VA.

334

Fall 2011 -Distinguished Lecture Program Semantic Web  

E-print Network

Fall 2011 - Distinguished Lecture Program Semantic Web: State of the Art Semantic Web: State record lists over 160 publications in such diverse areas as semantic web, neural-symbolic integration-in-chief of the IOS Press journal "Semantic Web" and the IOS Press book series "Studies on the Semantic Web". He

Mayfield, John

335

Temporal order judgments for audiovisual targets embedded in unimodal and bimodal distractor streams.  

PubMed

We investigated whether the presence of unimodal or bimodal (synchronous) distractors would affect temporal order judgments (TOJs) for pairs of asynchronous audiovisual target stimuli. Participants made unspeeded TOJs regarding which of a pair of auditory and visual stimuli, presented at different stimulus onset asynchronies using the method of constant stimuli, occurred first. These asynchronous target stimuli were presented in a fixed position amongst a stream of three (auditory, visual, or audiovisual) distractors in each block of trials. The largest just noticeable differences (JNDs) were reported when the target stimuli were presented in the middle (position 3) of the distractor stream. Importantly, audiovisual distractors were shown to interfere with TOJ performance far more than unimodal (auditory or visual) distractors. The point of subjective simultaneity (PSS) was also influenced by the modality of the distractors, and by the position of the target within the distractor stream. These results confirm the existence of a specifically bimodal crowding effect, with audiovisual TOJs being impaired far more by the presence of audiovisual distractors that by unimodal auditory or visual distractors. PMID:17010520

Vatakis, Argiro; Spence, Charles

2006-11-01

336

Temporal logic Hennessy-Milner logic Semantics of HML Recursion Semantics of Recursion Modal -Calculus  

E-print Network

Temporal logic Hennessy-Milner logic Semantics of HML Recursion Semantics of Recursion Modal µ;Temporal logic Hennessy-Milner logic Semantics of HML Recursion Semantics of Recursion Outline Temporal logic Hennessy-Milner logic Semantics of HML Recursion Semantics of Recursion Mousavi: Modal µ

Mousavi, Mohammad

337

The role of speech production system in audiovisual speech perception.  

PubMed

Seeing the articulatory gestures of the speaker significantly enhances speech perception. Findings from recent neuroimaging studies suggest that activation of the speech motor system during lipreading enhance speech perception by tuning, in a top-down fashion, speech-sound processing in the superior aspects of the posterior temporal lobe. Anatomically, the superior-posterior temporal lobe areas receive connections from the auditory, visual, and speech motor cortical areas. Thus, it is possible that neuronal receptive fields are shaped during development to respond to speech-sound features that coincide with visual and motor speech cues, in contrast with the anterior/lateral temporal lobe areas that might process speech sounds predominantly based on acoustic cues. The superior-posterior temporal lobe areas have also been consistently associated with auditory spatial processing. Thus, the involvement of these areas in audiovisual speech perception might partly be explained by the spatial processing requirements when associating sounds, seen articulations, and one's own motor movements. Tentatively, it is possible that the anterior "what" and posterior "where / how" auditory cortical processing pathways are parts of an interacting network, the instantaneous state of which determines what one ultimately perceives, as potentially reflected in the dynamics of oscillatory activity. PMID:20922046

Jääskeläinen, Iiro P

2010-01-01

338

Audio-visual assistance in co-creating transition knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth system and climate impact research results point to the tremendous ecologic, economic and societal implications of climate change. Specifically people will have to adopt lifestyles that are very different from those they currently strive for in order to mitigate severe changes of our known environment. It will most likely not suffice to transfer the scientific findings into international agreements and appropriate legislation. A transition is rather reliant on pioneers that define new role models, on change agents that mainstream the concept of sufficiency and on narratives that make different futures appealing. In order for the research community to be able to provide sustainable transition pathways that are viable, an integration of the physical constraints and the societal dynamics is needed. Hence the necessary transition knowledge is to be co-created by social and natural science and society. To this end, the Climate Media Factory - in itself a massively transdisciplinary venture - strives to provide an audio-visual connection between the different scientific cultures and a bi-directional link to stake holders and society. Since methodology, particular language and knowledge level of the involved is not the same, we develop new entertaining formats on the basis of a "complexity on demand" approach. They present scientific information in an integrated and entertaining way with different levels of detail that provide entry points to users with different requirements. Two examples shall illustrate the advantages and restrictions of the approach.

Hezel, Bernd; Broschkowski, Ephraim; Kropp, Jürgen P.

2013-04-01

339

Audiovisual asynchrony modulates the Colavita visual dominance effect.  

PubMed

Participants presented with unimodal auditory, unimodal visual, or bimodal audiovisual stimuli in a speeded discrimination task, fail to respond to the auditory component of bimodal targets significantly more often than they fail to respond to the visual component. We explored the influence of temporal factors on this phenomenon, known as the Colavita visual dominance effect. Participants performed a temporal order judgment (TOJ) task followed by the Colavita task. The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between the auditory and visual components of the bimodal targets was varied and the results showed that the point at which the Colavita effect disappeared was correlated with the point at which participants started to reliably perceive the auditory stimulus as coming first. Furthermore, no Colavita effect was observed at those SOAs where the participants always perceived the visual stimulus as having come first. These results are explained in terms of the unity effect; that is, the Colavita visual dominance effect occurs within the temporal window in which participants bind auditory and visual stimuli into a single multisensory perceptual event. However, within this window, the Colavita effect is larger when the visual (rather than the auditory) stimulus is presented first. PMID:18005944

Koppen, Camille; Spence, Charles

2007-12-01

340

Teleconferences and Audiovisual Materials in Earth Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unidad de Educacion Continua y a Distancia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoaca 04510 Mexico, MEXICO As stated in the special session description, 21st century undergraduate education has access to resources/experiences that go beyond university classrooms. However in some cases, resources may go largely unused and a number of factors may be cited such as logistic problems, restricted internet and telecommunication service access, miss-information, etc. We present and comment on our efforts and experiences at the National University of Mexico in a new unit dedicated to teleconferences and audio-visual materials. The unit forms part of the geosciences institutes, located in the central UNAM campus and campuses in other States. The use of teleconference in formal graduate and undergraduate education allows teachers and lecturers to distribute course material as in classrooms. Course by teleconference requires learning and student and teacher effort without physical contact, but they have access to multimedia available to support their exhibition. Well selected multimedia material allows the students to identify and recognize digital information to aid understanding natural phenomena integral to Earth Sciences. Cooperation with international partnerships providing access to new materials and experiences and to field practices will greatly add to our efforts. We will present specific examples of the experiences that we have at the Earth Sciences Postgraduate Program of UNAM with the use of technology in the education in geosciences.

Cortina, L. M.

2007-05-01

341

Detection of audiovisual speech correspondences without visual awareness.  

PubMed

Mounting physiological and behavioral evidence has shown that the detectability of a visual stimulus can be enhanced by a simultaneously presented sound. The mechanisms underlying these cross-sensory effects, however, remain largely unknown. Using continuous flash suppression (CFS), we rendered a complex, dynamic visual stimulus (i.e., a talking face) consciously invisible to participants. We presented the visual stimulus together with a suprathreshold auditory stimulus (i.e., a voice speaking a sentence) that either matched or mismatched the lip movements of the talking face. We compared how long it took for the talking face to overcome interocular suppression and become visible to participants in the matched and mismatched conditions. Our results showed that the detection of the face was facilitated by the presentation of a matching auditory sentence, in comparison with the presentation of a mismatching sentence. This finding indicates that the registration of audiovisual correspondences occurs at an early stage of processing, even when the visual information is blocked from conscious awareness. PMID:23462756

Alsius, Agnès; Munhall, Kevin G

2013-04-01

342

A Comparison of the Development of Audiovisual Integration in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to investigate the development of audiovisual integration in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Audiovisual integration was measured using the McGurk effect in children with ASD aged 7-16 years and typically developing children (control group) matched approximately for age, sex, nonverbal ability and verbal ability.…

Taylor, Natalie; Isaac, Claire; Milne, Elizabeth

2010-01-01

343

Developing an Audiovisual Notebook as a Self-Learning Tool in Histology: Perceptions of Teachers and Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Videos can be used as didactic tools for self-learning under several circumstances, including those cases in which students are responsible for the development of this resource as an audiovisual notebook. We compared students' and teachers' perceptions regarding the main features that an audiovisual notebook should include. Four…

Campos-Sánchez, Antonio; López-Núñez, Juan-Antonio; Scionti, Giuseppe; Garzón, Ingrid; González-Andrades, Miguel; Alaminos, Miguel; Sola, Tomás

2014-01-01

344

Audiovisual Materials with a Social Justice Focus for Professors Teaching Courses in Educational Leadership and Teacher Preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This project developed academic audiovisual materials using Power Point in order to increase the scarce availability of such resources to support arguments related to social justice in the preparation of leaders and teachers in education. The materials document social injustices in different aspects of social life that impact education and are available to programs for administrators and teachers. Audiovisual

Monica Pini

345

ACES Human Sexuality Training Network Handbook. A Compilation of Sexuality Course Syllabi and Audio-Visual Material.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook contains a compilation of human sexuality course syllabi and audio-visual materials. It was developed to enable sex educators to identify and contact one another, to compile Human Sexuality Course Syllabi from across the country, and to bring to attention audio-visual materials which are available for teaching Human Sexuality…

American Association for Counseling and Development, Alexandria, VA.

346

Educational Practices in an Age of Information Innovation: Audiovisual Education Prize Winning Papers in 1998. AVE in Japan No. 38.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet contains two papers that won the 1998 Audiovisual Education Prize of the Japan Audio-Visual Education Association. "Nurturing the Ability To Live in an Advanced Information Network Society: Making the Most Effective Use of Networking" reports on a study of 7th grade students in Okazaki City (Japan). The focus was on an 8-month…

Japan Audiovisual Information Center for International Service, Tokyo.

347

Holism, conceptual-role semantics, and syntactic semantics  

E-print Network

This essay continues my investigation of “syntactic semantics”: the theory that, pace Searle’s Chinese-Room Argument, syntax does suffice for semantics (in particular, for the semantics needed for a computational cognitive theory of natural-language understanding). Here, I argue that syntactic semantics (which is internal and first-person) is what has been called a conceptual-role semantics: The meaning of any expression is the role that it plays in the complete system of expressions. Such a “narrow”, conceptual-role semantics is the appropriate sort of semantics to account (from an “internal”, or first-person perspective) for how a cognitive agent understands language. Some have argued for the primacy of external, or “wide”, semantics, while others have argued for a two-factor analysis. But, although two factors can be specified—one internal and first-person, the other only specifiable in an external, third-person way—only the internal, first-person one is needed for understanding how someone understands. A truth-conditional semantics can still be provided, but only from a third-person perspective. Who knows only one thing knows not even that. A thing entirely isolated would be unknowable. There would be nothing to say of it, or any language for it. The reason for

William J. Rapaport

2002-01-01

348

Robot Command Interface Using an Audio-Visual Speech Recognition System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years audio-visual speech recognition has emerged as an active field of research thanks to advances in pattern recognition, signal processing and machine vision. Its ultimate goal is to allow human-computer communication using voice, taking into account the visual information contained in the audio-visual speech signal. This document presents a command's automatic recognition system using audio-visual information. The system is expected to control the laparoscopic robot da Vinci. The audio signal is treated using the Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients parametrization method. Besides, features based on the points that define the mouth's outer contour according to the MPEG-4 standard are used in order to extract the visual speech information.

Ceballos, Alexánder; Gómez, Juan; Prieto, Flavio; Redarce, Tanneguy

349

Phylogenetic congruence of lichenised fungi and algae is affected by spatial scale and taxonomic diversity  

PubMed Central

The role of species’ interactions in structuring biological communities remains unclear. Mutualistic symbioses, involving close positive interactions between two distinct organismal lineages, provide an excellent means to explore the roles of both evolutionary and ecological processes in determining how positive interactions affect community structure. In this study, we investigate patterns of co-diversification between fungi and algae for a range of New Zealand lichens at the community, genus, and species levels and explore explanations for possible patterns related to spatial scale and pattern, taxonomic diversity of the lichens considered, and the level sampling replication. We assembled six independent datasets to compare patterns in phylogenetic congruence with varied spatial extent of sampling, taxonomic diversity and level of specimen replication. For each dataset, we used the DNA sequences from the ITS regions of both the fungal and algal genomes from lichen specimens to produce genetic distance matrices. Phylogenetic congruence between fungi and algae was quantified using distance-based redundancy analysis and we used geographic distance matrices in Moran’s eigenvector mapping and variance partitioning to evaluate the effects of spatial variation on the quantification of phylogenetic congruence. Phylogenetic congruence was highly significant for all datasets and a large proportion of variance in both algal and fungal genetic distances was explained by partner genetic variation. Spatial variables, primarily at large and intermediate scales, were also important for explaining genetic diversity patterns in all datasets. Interestingly, spatial structuring was stronger for fungal than algal genetic variation. As the spatial extent of the samples increased, so too did the proportion of explained variation that was shared between the spatial variables and the partners’ genetic variation. Different lichen taxa showed some variation in their phylogenetic congruence and spatial genetic patterns and where greater sample replication was used, the amount of variation explained by partner genetic variation increased. Our results suggest that the phylogenetic congruence pattern, at least at small spatial scales, is likely due to reciprocal co-adaptation or co-dispersal. However, the detection of these patterns varies among different lichen taxa, across spatial scales and with different levels of sample replication. This work provides insight into the complexities faced in determining how evolutionary and ecological processes may interact to generate diversity in symbiotic association patterns at the population and community levels. Further, it highlights the critical importance of considering sample replication, taxonomic diversity and spatial scale in designing studies of co-diversification. PMID:25250218

Rafat, Arash; Ridden, Johnathon D.; Cruickshank, Robert H.; Ridgway, Hayley J.; Paterson, Adrian M.

2014-01-01

350

Semantic Web Enabled Composition of Web Services  

E-print Network

Semantic Web Enabled Composition of Web Services Brahim Medjahed Dissertation submitted Falls Church, Virginia, USA Keywords: Semantic Web - Web Service - Ontology - Service Composition. Copyright 2004, Brahim Medjahed #12;Semantic Web Enabled Composition of Web Services Brahim Medjahed

Medjahed, Brahim

351

Semantic interoperability in healthcare.  

PubMed

The improved understanding of the whole healthcare and wellbeing pathway for individuals depends on the power of healthcare information, being made readily available and easily interpretable by both humans and machines. In the centre of this challenge lies the concept of interoperability, as a way to provide fundamental linkage, integration and meaningful use of healthcare data between systems, organisations and users. In particular, semantic interoperability can offer a way of enriching healthcare data with context and meaning, in order to achieve enhanced understanding and better evidence-based interpretation of disease and wellbeing for an individual, within the context of healthcare provision and clinical research. In this keynote paper, the concept of semantic interoperability, for healthcare data linkage and exchange, is critically discussed. An emphasis is given on the importance of clinical terminologies and associated services, as means for adding meaning to routinely collected clinical data. PMID:25000001

Arvanitis, Theodoros N

2014-01-01

352

Complex Semantic Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Verbal language is a dynamic mental process. Ideas emerge by means of the selection of words from subjective and individual characteristics throughout the oral discourse. The goal of this work is to characterize the complex network of word associations that emerge from an oral discourse from a discourse topic. Because of that, concepts of associative incidence and fidelity have been elaborated and represented the probability of occurrence of pairs of words in the same sentence in the whole oral discourse. Semantic network of words associations were constructed, where the words are represented as nodes and the edges are created when the incidence-fidelity index between pairs of words exceeds a numerical limit (0.001). Twelve oral discourses were studied. The networks generated from these oral discourses present a typical behavior of complex networks and their indices were calculated and their topologies characterized. The indices of these networks obtained from each incidence-fidelity limit exhibit a critical value in which the semantic network has maximum conceptual information and minimum residual associations. Semantic networks generated by this incidence-fidelity limit depict a pattern of hierarchical classes that represent the different contexts used in the oral discourse.

Teixeira, G. M.; Aguiar, M. S. F.; Carvalho, C. F.; Dantas, D. R.; Cunha, M. V.; Morais, J. H. M.; Pereira, H. B. B.; Miranda, J. G. V.

353

The semantic priming project.  

PubMed

Speeded naming and lexical decision data for 1,661 target words following related and unrelated primes were collected from 768 subjects across four different universities. These behavioral measures have been integrated with demographic information for each subject and descriptive characteristics for every item. Subjects also completed portions of the Woodcock-Johnson reading battery, three attentional control tasks, and a circadian rhythm measure. These data are available at a user-friendly Internet-based repository ( http://spp.montana.edu ). This Web site includes a search engine designed to generate lists of prime-target pairs with specific characteristics (e.g., length, frequency, associative strength, latent semantic similarity, priming effect in standardized and raw reaction times). We illustrate the types of questions that can be addressed via the Semantic Priming Project. These data represent the largest behavioral database on semantic priming and are available to researchers to aid in selecting stimuli, testing theories, and reducing potential confounds in their studies. PMID:23344737

Hutchison, Keith A; Balota, David A; Neely, James H; Cortese, Michael J; Cohen-Shikora, Emily R; Tse, Chi-Shing; Yap, Melvin J; Bengson, Jesse J; Niemeyer, Dale; Buchanan, Erin

2013-12-01

354

Audiovisual correspondence between musical timbre and visual shapes  

PubMed Central

This article investigates the cross-modal correspondences between musical timbre and shapes. Previously, such features as pitch, loudness, light intensity, visual size, and color characteristics have mostly been used in studies of audio-visual correspondences. Moreover, in most studies, simple stimuli e.g., simple tones have been utilized. In this experiment, 23 musical sounds varying in fundamental frequency and timbre but fixed in loudness were used. Each sound was presented once against colored shapes and once against grayscale shapes. Subjects had to select the visual equivalent of a given sound i.e., its shape, color (or grayscale) and vertical position. This scenario permitted studying the associations between normalized timbre and visual shapes as well as some of the previous findings for more complex stimuli. One hundred and nineteen subjects (31 females and 88 males) participated in the online experiment. Subjects included 36 claimed professional musicians, 47 claimed amateur musicians, and 36 claimed non-musicians. Thirty-one subjects have also claimed to have synesthesia-like experiences. A strong association between timbre of envelope normalized sounds and visual shapes was observed. Subjects have strongly associated soft timbres with blue, green or light gray rounded shapes, harsh timbres with red, yellow or dark gray sharp angular shapes and timbres having elements of softness and harshness together with a mixture of the two previous shapes. Color or grayscale had no effect on timbre-shape associations. Fundamental frequency was not associated with height, grayscale or color. The significant correspondence between timbre and shape revealed by the present work allows designing substitution systems which might help the blind to perceive shapes through timbre. PMID:24910604

Adeli, Mohammad; Rouat, Jean; Molotchnikoff, Stéphane

2014-01-01

355

Audiovisual correspondence between musical timbre and visual shapes.  

PubMed

This article investigates the cross-modal correspondences between musical timbre and shapes. Previously, such features as pitch, loudness, light intensity, visual size, and color characteristics have mostly been used in studies of audio-visual correspondences. Moreover, in most studies, simple stimuli e.g., simple tones have been utilized. In this experiment, 23 musical sounds varying in fundamental frequency and timbre but fixed in loudness were used. Each sound was presented once against colored shapes and once against grayscale shapes. Subjects had to select the visual equivalent of a given sound i.e., its shape, color (or grayscale) and vertical position. This scenario permitted studying the associations between normalized timbre and visual shapes as well as some of the previous findings for more complex stimuli. One hundred and nineteen subjects (31 females and 88 males) participated in the online experiment. Subjects included 36 claimed professional musicians, 47 claimed amateur musicians, and 36 claimed non-musicians. Thirty-one subjects have also claimed to have synesthesia-like experiences. A strong association between timbre of envelope normalized sounds and visual shapes was observed. Subjects have strongly associated soft timbres with blue, green or light gray rounded shapes, harsh timbres with red, yellow or dark gray sharp angular shapes and timbres having elements of softness and harshness together with a mixture of the two previous shapes. Color or grayscale had no effect on timbre-shape associations. Fundamental frequency was not associated with height, grayscale or color. The significant correspondence between timbre and shape revealed by the present work allows designing substitution systems which might help the blind to perceive shapes through timbre. PMID:24910604

Adeli, Mohammad; Rouat, Jean; Molotchnikoff, Stéphane

2014-01-01

356

Value congruence in health care priority setting: social values, institutions and decisions in three countries.  

PubMed

Most developed democracies have faced the challenge of priority setting in health care by setting up specialized agencies to take decisions on which medical services to include in public health baskets. Under the influence of Daniels and Sabin's seminal work on the topic, agencies increasingly aim to fulfil criteria of procedural justice, such as accountability and transparency. We assume, however, that the institutional design of agencies also and necessarily reflects substantial value judgments on the respective weight of distributive principles such as efficiency, need and equality. The public acceptance of prioritization decisions, and eventually of the health care system at large, will ultimately depend not only on considerations of procedural fairness, but also on the congruence between a society's values and its institutions. We study social values, institutions and decisions in three countries (France, Germany and the United Kingdom) in order to assess such congruence and formulate expectations on its effects. PMID:25434454

Landwehr, Claudia; Klinnert, Dorothea

2014-12-01

357

Self-reported smoking and exercising behaviours during the postnatal period: assessing congruence between spouses.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to assess the congruence between women's self-reported behaviours during the postnatal period and the answers provided by their husbands. One hundred nineteen couples participated. Firstly, women reported their own smoking and exercising behaviours for four months following childbirth. Subsequently, husbands evaluated their spouses' behaviours over the same period of time. Smoking behaviour was assessed on 5-category scale ranging from non-smoker to daily smoker whereas physical activity was measured on a 6-category scale ranging from no physical activity to regular physical activity. The polychoric correlation coefficients and the weighted Kappa indexes indicated that the degree of congruence between respondent pairs were appropriate, but better for smoking than exercising. The results of the present study support the idea that the information obtained from spouses can be helpful in the assessment of the reliability of the answers provided by their live-in partner, particularly in surveys regarding smoking. PMID:1631377

Godin, G; Valois, P; Lepage, L

1992-01-01

358

Congruence classes of 2-adic valuations of Stirling numbers of the second kind  

E-print Network

We analyze congruence classes of $S(n,k)$, the Stirling numbers of the second kind, modulo powers of 2. This analysis provides insight into a conjecture posed by Amdeberhan, Manna and Moll, which those authors established for $k\\le5$. We provide a framework that can be used to justify the conjecture by computational means, which we then complete for $k=5, 6,..., 20$.

Bennett, Curtis

2012-01-01

359

Instructional Congruence to Promote Science Learning and Literacy Development for Linguistically Diverse Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increasing numbers of students from diverse language and cultural backgrounds, the nation is challenged to achieve the\\u000a goal of high academic standards for all students. In this chapter we have presented a model of instructional congruence to promote linguistically diverse students’ achievement inscience. We have described how fourth-grade elementary teachers\\u000a who shared the language and culture of their students

Okhee Lee; Sandra H. Fradd

360

Efficient face recognition method using a combined phase congruency/Gabor wavelet technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a Face Recognition method based on the combination of the Gabor Wavelets (GW) and the Phase Congruency (PC) method [1]. While the GW method allows an efficient space-frequency analysis to code the Face Image points, it requires significant down-sampling, in order to end up with a reasonably small-size feature vector. Now, the Phase Congruency method can be used as an efficient features detector, to uncover the salient local features of the face and can be computed using the GW Transform. An additional advantage of the Phase Congruency method is its insensitivity to variations in image illumination and contrast. The method proposed is to use the PC method in determining the salient points of the Face Image, thus replacing the random down-sampling method. The first step in our proposed method is to obtain the local frequency information of a face image using a multi-scale, multi-orientation set of Gabor filters, from which the Phase Congruency image is computed. We then use this method to select a limited number of maximum-value points, whose values are taken from the GW- transformed face images, forming a feature vector of about 5000 components. Preliminary results using the ORL face dataset show 98% recognition rate even without the use of the PCA method. Upon using the PCA method we can further reduce the number of components to 45 while still retaining the recognition rate of 98%. This as compared to a recognition rate of 96% using GW and PCA with a random 64:1 down-sampling on the GW coefficients. The proposed combined method, allows in addition to an efficient reduction in the number of image points used, the derivation of both the PC image and the GW feature vector representation, using a single GW transform.

Bezalel, E.; Efron, U.

2005-09-01

361

Congruence properties of the function which counts compositions into powers of 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let v(n) denote the number of compositions (ordered partitions) of a positive integer n into powers of 2. It appears that the function v(n) satisfies many congruences modulo 2^N. For example, for every integer B there exists (as k tends to infinity) the limit of v(2^k+B) in the 2-adic topology. The parity of v(n) obeys a simple rule. In this

Giedrius Alkauskas; Gregor Mendel-Straße

2010-01-01

362

Semantic Computing, Cloud Computing, and Semantic Search Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic Computing extends Semantic Web both in breadth and depth. It bridges, and integrates, technologies such as software engineering, user interface, natural language processing, artificial intelligence, programming language, grid computing and pervasive computing, among others, into a complete and unified theme. Cloud Computing, the dream of computing as a utility, shifts user programs and data from personal computers to the

Phillip C.-Y. Sheu; Shu Wang; Qi Wang; Ke Hao; Raymond A. Paul

2009-01-01

363

Semantic Gossiping: Fostering Semantic Interoperability in Peer Data Management  

E-print Network

.hauswirth}@epfl.ch 1 Introduction Ubiquitous availability of digital equipment has transformed end-users into industrious producers of digital content. As a matter of fact, electronic de- vices do not only produce of semantics at all (e.g., Gnutella, standard DHT-based infrastructures) but simply support a semantically

364

The N3 is sensitive to odd-even congruency information in arithmetic fact retrieval.  

PubMed

This study investigated the behavioral and electrophysiological effects elicited by adults' simple addition verification when false answers agree or disagree with the odd-even status of the correct sum (parity congruency vs. parity incongruency), while they are near or far from correct (small vs. large splits). Event-related brain potentials were recorded from 18 students using a first-answer-then-problem paradigm. The results showed that odd-even congruency had a significant effect on the N3 latency with a small, but not a large split. Specifically, odd-even congruent answers with a small split elicited an N3 with a longer latency. Analyses of RT similarly indicated a bigger parity-congruency effect with small-split answers compared with large-split answers. This pattern parallels the corresponding effects on N3 and confirms that the N3 is sensitive to odd-even information in arithmetic fact retrieval and that there are clear links between the event-related brain potential pattern and behavioral effects. PMID:23354663

Chen, Yalin; Campbell, Jamie I D; Liu, Chang

2013-04-01

365

Fine-scale phylogeographic congruence despite demographic incongruence in two low-mobility saproxylic springtails.  

PubMed

Evolutionary trajectories of codistributed taxa with comparable ecological preferences and dispersal abilities may be similarly impacted by historical landscape-level processes. Species' responses to changes in a shared biogeographic landscape may be purely concerted, completely independent, or classified as falling within an intermediate part of the continuum bounded by these two extremes. With sufficient molecular data, temporal contrasts of congruence among taxa with respect to these responses can be made. Such contrasts provide insights into the relative influence of ancient versus more recent climatic (and other) impacts on genetic structuring. Using phylogenetic, allele frequency, and genotypic data from two low-mobility, rotting-log-adapted (saproxylic) springtail species (Collembola) from an isolated 100-km-long section of the Great Dividing Range in southeastern Australia, we tested the concerted-response hypothesis over three timescales. Tests of phylogeographic, demographic, and contemporary population-genetic congruence were performed using an integrative approach that draws on both direct (pattern-based) and indirect (scenario-based) analyses. Our data revealed a general pattern of broad-scale similarities in species' responses to the interaction between Pleistocene climatic cycles and landscape setting, overlaid with some species-specific differences on local geographic and more recent temporal scales. This general pattern of phylogeographic congruence was accompanied by evidence for contemporaneous demographic incongruence indicating that, even at relatively small spatial scales, biogeographic context can exert an overarching influence on genetic structuring. PMID:18298648

Garrick, Ryan C; Rowell, David M; Simmons, Chris S; Hillis, David M; Sunnucks, Paul

2008-05-01

366

Spatial congruence in language and species richness but not threat in the world's top linguistic hotspot  

PubMed Central

Languages share key evolutionary properties with biological species, and global-level spatial congruence in richness and threat is documented between languages and several taxonomic groups. However, there is little understanding of the functional connection between diversification or extinction in languages and species, or the relationship between linguistic and species richness across different spatial scales. New Guinea is the world's most linguistically rich region and contains extremely high biological diversity. We demonstrate significant positive relationships between language and mammal richness in New Guinea across multiple spatial scales, revealing a likely functional relationship over scales at which infra-island diversification may occur. However, correlations are driven by spatial congruence between low levels of language and species richness. Regional biocultural richness may have showed closer congruence before New Guinea's linguistic landscape was altered by Holocene demographic events. In contrast to global studies, we demonstrate a significant negative correlation across New Guinea between areas with high levels of threatened languages and threatened mammals, indicating that landscape-scale threats differ between these groups. Spatial resource prioritization to conserve biodiversity may not benefit threatened languages, and conservation policy must adopt a multi-faceted approach to protect biocultural diversity as a whole. PMID:25320172

Turvey, Samuel T.; Pettorelli, Nathalie

2014-01-01

367

Exploiting UMLS Semantics for Checking Semantic Consistency among UMLS concepts  

PubMed Central

Objectives To quantify semantic inconsistency in UMLS concepts from the perspective of their hierarchical relations and to show through examples how semantically-inconsistent concepts can help reveal erroneous synonymy relations. Methods Inconsistency is defined in reference to concepts from the UMLS Metathesaurus. Consistency is evaluated by comparing the semantic groups of the two concepts in each pair of hierarchically-related concepts. A limited number of inconsistent concepts was inspected manually. Results 81,512 concepts are inconsistent due to the differences in semantic groups between a concept and its parent. Four examples of wrong synonymy are presented. Conclusions A vast majority of inconsistent hierarchical relations are not indicative of any errors. We discovered an interesting semantic pattern along hierarchies, which seems associated with wrong synonymy. PMID:20841786

Erdogan, Halit; Erdem, Esra; Bodenreider, Olivier

2015-01-01

368

Audio-visual onset differences are used to determine syllable identity for ambiguous audio-visual stimulus pairs  

PubMed Central

Content and temporal cues have been shown to interact during audio-visual (AV) speech identification. Typically, the most reliable unimodal cue is used more strongly to identify specific speech features; however, visual cues are only used if the AV stimuli are presented within a certain temporal window of integration (TWI). This suggests that temporal cues denote whether unimodal stimuli belong together, that is, whether they should be integrated. It is not known whether temporal cues also provide information about the identity of a syllable. Since spoken syllables have naturally varying AV onset asynchronies, we hypothesize that for suboptimal AV cues presented within the TWI, information about the natural AV onset differences can aid in speech identification. To test this, we presented low-intensity auditory syllables concurrently with visual speech signals, and varied the stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) of the AV pair, while participants were instructed to identify the auditory syllables. We revealed that specific speech features (e.g., voicing) were identified by relying primarily on one modality (e.g., auditory). Additionally, we showed a wide window in which visual information influenced auditory perception, that seemed even wider for congruent stimulus pairs. Finally, we found a specific response pattern across the SOA range for syllables that were not reliably identified by the unimodal cues, which we explained as the result of the use of natural onset differences between AV speech signals. This indicates that temporal cues not only provide information about the temporal integration of AV stimuli, but additionally convey information about the identity of AV pairs. These results provide a detailed behavioral basis for further neuro-imaging and stimulation studies to unravel the neurofunctional mechanisms of the audio-visual-temporal interplay within speech perception. PMID:23805110

ten Oever, Sanne; Sack, Alexander T.; Wheat, Katherine L.; Bien, Nina; van Atteveldt, Nienke

2013-01-01

369

Semantic annotation, indexing, and retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Semantic Web realization depends on the availability of a critical mass of metadata for the web content, associated with the respective formal knowledge about the world. We claim that the Semantic Web, at its current stage of development, is in a state of a critically need of metadata generation and usage schemata that are specific, well-defined and easy to

Atanas Kiryakov; Borislav Popov; Ivan Terziev; Dimitar Manov; Damyan Ognyanoff

2004-01-01

370

Bringing Semantics to Web Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key element to realizing the Semantic Web is developing a suitably rich language for encoding and describing Web content. Such a language must have a well defined semantics, be sufficiently expressive to describe the complex interrelationships and constraints between Web objects, and be amenable to automated manipulation and reasoning with acceptable limits on time and resource requirements. A key

Sheila A. Mcilraith; David L. Martin

2003-01-01

371

Semantic Web Services Christoph Bussler  

E-print Network

Semantic Web Services Christoph Bussler Oracle Corporation The 12th International World Wide Web Conference Budapest, Hungary, May 23rd, 2003 #12;Semantic (Web Services) Christoph Bussler Oracle Corporation The 12th International World Wide Web Conference Budapest, Hungary, May 23rd, 2003 #12;3 Obstacles

Polz, Martin

372

Semantic Feature Distinctiveness and Frequency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical access is the process in which basic components of meaning in language, the lexical entries (words) are activated. This activation is based on the organization and representational structure of the lexical entries. Semantic features of words, which are the prominent semantic characteristics of a word concept, provide important information…

Lamb, Katherine M.

2012-01-01

373

How semantics make better wikis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wikis are popular collaborative hypertext authoring envi- ronments, but they neither support structured access nor information reuse. Adding semantic annotations helps to address these limitations. We present an architecture for Semantic Wikis and discuss design decisions including struc- tured access, views, and annotation language. We present our prototype SemperWiki that implements this architec- ture.

Eyal Oren; John G. Breslin; Stefan Decker

2006-01-01

374

Semantic Processing of Mathematical Gestures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine whether or not university mathematics students semantically process gestures depicting mathematical functions (mathematical gestures) similarly to the way they process action gestures and sentences. Semantic processing was indexed by the N400 effect. Results: The N400 effect elicited by words primed with mathematical gestures…

Lim, Vanessa K.; Wilson, Anna J.; Hamm, Jeff P.; Phillips, Nicola; Iwabuchi, Sarina J.; Corballis, Michael C.; Arzarello, Ferdinando; Thomas, Michael O. J.

2009-01-01

375

IT Ontology and Semantic Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT (information technology) ontology is to be used for analyzing the information technology as well as for enhancing it. Semantic technology is compared with the syntactic one. Ontology plays a backbone for meaning-centered reconfiguration of syntactic structure, which is one aspect of semantic technology. The purpose of use of IT ontology will be categorized into two things: to capture the

Key-Sun Choi

2007-01-01

376

Executable Semantics for Compensating CSP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compensation is an error recovery mechanism for long-running transactions. Compensating CSP is a variant of the CSP process algebra with constructs for orchestration of compensations. We present a simple operational semantics for Compensating CSP and outline an encoding of this semantics in Prolog. This provides a basis for implementation and model checking of the language.

Michael J. Butler; Shamim Ripon

2005-01-01

377

Semantic Focus and Sentence Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reaction time to detect a phoneme target in a sentence was faster when the target-containing word formed part of the semantic focus of the sentence. Sentence understanding was facilitated by rapid identification of focused information. Active search for accented words can be interpreted as a search for semantic focus. (Author/RD)

Cutler, Anne; Fodor, Jerry A.

1979-01-01

378

The semantic planetary data system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper will provide a brief overview of the PDS data model and the PDS catalog. It will then describe the implentation of the Semantic PDS including the development of the formal ontology, the generation of RDFS/XML and RDF/XML data sets, and the buiding of the semantic search application.

Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Daniel; Kelly, Sean; Mattmann, Chris

2005-01-01

379

Conversational Semantics with Social Commitments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Message semantics are traditionally deflned in terms of men- tal states, which is a trend that is criticized for assuming the sincerity and cooperativeness of agents. To circumvent these limitations, several proposals have been put forth to deflne the semantics of messages using social commitments. We follow this trend and present a conversational model where the meaning of messages is

Roberto A. Flores; Philippe Pasquier; Brahim Chaib-draa

2004-01-01

380

Event Congruency and Episodic Encoding: A Developmental fMRI Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A known contributor to adults' superior memory performance compared to children is their differential reliance on an existing knowledge base. Compared to those of adults, children's semantic networks are less accessible and less established, a difference that is also thought to contribute to children's relative resistance to semantically related…

Maril, Anat; Avital, Rinat; Reggev, Niv; Zuckerman, Maya; Sadeh, Talya; Sira, Liat Ben; Livneh, Neta

2011-01-01

381

Investigating the Congruence of Crowdsourced Information With Official Government Data: The Case of Pediatric Clinics  

PubMed Central

Background Health 2.0 is a benefit to society by helping patients acquire knowledge about health care by harnessing collective intelligence. However, any misleading information can directly affect patients’ choices of hospitals and drugs, and potentially exacerbate their health condition. Objective This study investigates the congruence between crowdsourced information and official government data in the health care domain and identifies the determinants of low congruence where it exists. In-line with infodemiology, we suggest measures to help the patients in the regions vulnerable to inaccurate health information. Methods We text-mined multiple online health communities in South Korea to construct the data for crowdsourced information on public health services (173,748 messages). Kendall tau and Spearman rank order correlation coefficients were used to compute the differences in 2 ranking systems of health care quality: actual government evaluations of 779 hospitals and mining results of geospecific online health communities. Then we estimated the effect of sociodemographic characteristics on the level of congruence by using an ordinary least squares regression. Results The regression results indicated that the standard deviation of married women’s education (P=.046), population density (P=.01), number of doctors per pediatric clinic (P=.048), and birthrate (P=.002) have a significant effect on the congruence of crowdsourced data (adjusted R 2=.33). Specifically, (1) the higher the birthrate in a given region, (2) the larger the variance in educational attainment, (3) the higher the population density, and (4) the greater the number of doctors per clinic, the more likely that crowdsourced information from online communities is congruent with official government data. Conclusions To investigate the cause of the spread of misleading health information in the online world, we adopted a unique approach by associating mining results on hospitals from geospecific online health communities with the sociodemographic characteristics of corresponding regions. We found that the congruence of crowdsourced information on health care services varied across regions and that these variations could be explained by geospecific demographic factors. This finding can be helpful to governments in reducing the potential risk of misleading online information and the accompanying safety issues. PMID:24496094

Jung, Yuchul; Jung, Dain; Hur, Cinyoung

2014-01-01

382

Audio, Video and Audio-Visual Signatures for Short Video Clip Detection: Experiments on Trecvid2003  

E-print Network

Audio, Video and Audio-Visual Signatures for Short Video Clip Detection: Experiments on Trecvid2003.Senechal,Denis.Pellerin}@lis.inpg.fr, Laurent.Besacier@imag.fr ABSTRACT In this paper, we present the association of audio and video signatures for short video clip detection. First, we present an audio signature based on the spectral flatness measure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

383

Energetic and informational masking effects in an audio-visual speech recognition system.  

E-print Network

1 Energetic and informational masking effects in an audio-visual speech recognition system. Jon of masking: energetic masking caused by the energy of the masker utterance swamping that of the target the effects of both types of masking. Further, whereas recovery from energetic masking may require detailed

Barker, Jon

384

UNSUPERVISED MINING OF AUDIOVISUALLY CONSISTENT SEGMENTS IN VIDEOS WITH APPLICATION TO STRUCTURE ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

UNSUPERVISED MINING OF AUDIOVISUALLY CONSISTENT SEGMENTS IN VIDEOS WITH APPLICATION TO STRUCTURE technique is proposed to discover repeating video segments exhibiting audio and visual con- sistency accurate detection of the underlying event throughout the video. Event min- ing is applied to unsupervised

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

385

Audiovisual Speech Perception in Children with Developmental Language Disorder in Degraded Listening Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The effect of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the perception of audiovisual speech in children with and without developmental language disorder (DLD) was investigated by varying the noise level and the sound intensity of acoustic speech. The main hypotheses were that the McGurk effect (in which incongruent visual speech alters the…

Meronen, Auli; Tiippana, Kaisa; Westerholm, Jari; Ahonen, Timo

2013-01-01

386

An Evaluation Concept for Audiovisual Activities in the Department of Defense.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The DAVA (Directorate for Audiovisual Activities) evaluation model was developed for the U.S. Department of Defense to generate studies, decision models, standards, and directives, with outputs coordinated by the military departments that implement the decisions through the major commands and down to the installation level. The 3-level model is…

Main, Robert G.

387

Brief Report: Arrested Development of Audiovisual Speech Perception in Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Atypical communicative abilities are a core marker of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). A number of studies have shown that, in addition to auditory comprehension differences, individuals with autism frequently show atypical responses to audiovisual speech, suggesting a multisensory contribution to these communicative differences from their…

Stevenson, Ryan A.; Siemann, Justin K.; Woynaroski, Tiffany G.; Schneider, Brittany C.; Eberly, Haley E.; Camarata, Stephen M.; Wallace, Mark T.

2014-01-01

388

Psychophysics of the McGurk and Other Audiovisual Speech Integration Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When the auditory and visual components of spoken audiovisual nonsense syllables are mismatched, perceivers produce four different types of perceptual responses, auditory correct, visual correct, fusion (the so-called "McGurk effect"), and combination (i.e., two consonants are reported). Here, quantitative measures were developed to account for…

Jiang, Jintao; Bernstein, Lynne E.

2011-01-01

389

TRACKING ATOMS WITH PARTICLES FOR AUDIO-VISUAL SOURCE LOCALIZATION Gianluca Monaci, Pierre Vandergheynst  

E-print Network

TRACKING ATOMS WITH PARTICLES FOR AUDIO-VISUAL SOURCE LOCALIZATION Gianluca Monaci, Pierre. Local deformations are then propa- gated over time by updating the parameter field of the atoms to ap is demonstrated on audio- visual source localization. Index Terms-- Video signal processing, tracking, feature ex

Cavallaro, Andrea

390

The Audio-Visual Equipment Directory; Twenty-Second Edition, 1976-1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over 2,000 currently available items are listed in the 1976-1977 Audio-Visual Equipment Directory with specifications on price, model, weight, capacity, accessories, and technical details. Charts for screen size, lists of film and tape running times, an index to industry trade names, and a directory of equipment manufacturers are also provided.…

Herickes, Sally, Ed.

391

Audiovisual Speech Perception in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Julia R. Irwin  

E-print Network

Audiovisual Speech Perception in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Julia R. Irwin Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT Do gaze patterns to a speaking face differ for children with ASD and TD controls of Cognitive Psychology, 3, 69-86. Irwin, J.R., Whalen, D.H., & Fowler, C.A. (2006). A sex difference in visual

392

Report on the Development of Six Point-Of-Use Audio-Visual Library Instructional Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six point-of-use audiovisual programs were developed by librarians as part of a library instruction program in Alexander Library at Rutgers University to illustrate the basic skills needed in using the library's print collections in the social sciences and humanities. Topics for the 16mm filmstrip cartridges were (1) Tour of Alexander Library; (2)…

Chung, Myoung; And Others

393

Audio-Visual Materials in Adult Consumer Education: An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to provide a quick but thorough reference for consumer educators of adults to use when choosing audio-visual materials, this annotated bibliography includes eighty-five titles from the currently available 1,500 films, slidesets, cassettes, records, and transparencies. (Materials were rejected because they were out-of-date; not relevant to…

Forgue, Raymond E.; And Others

394

DreamThrower: An audio/visual display for influencing dreams Noreen Kamal  

E-print Network

DreamThrower: An audio/visual display for influencing dreams Noreen Kamal , Abir Al Hajri, Sidney and ocean were found to have little influence on dreams. The second experiment with five subjects found that voice sound stimulus could influence dreams in one case. Interestingly, our subjects felt that the Dream

British Columbia, University of

395

RTMC: An Error Control Protocol for IP-based Audio-Visual Multicast Applications  

E-print Network

- ment of retransmission-based error control mechanisms for continuous media (CM) applications has beenRTMC: An Error Control Protocol for IP-based Audio-Visual Multicast Applications Georg Carle 1 GMD application of the IP-based best-effort service in the Internet. We present an error control protocol

Carle, Georg

396

Terminological Control of "Anonymous Groups" for Catalogues of Audiovisual Television Documents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the exceptional nature of the description of moving images for television archives, deriving from their audiovisual nature, and of the specifications in the queries of journalists as users of the Document Information System. It is suggested that there is a need to control completely "Anonymous Groups"--groups without any…

Caldera-Serrano, Jorge

2006-01-01

397

Audiovisuals and Non-Print Learning Resources in a Health Sciences Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the assembly and delivery of the self-instructional learning resources of the premedical undergraduate program at McMaster University, placing emphasis on the practical library problems of cataloging, shelving, maintenance, and distribution of such audiovisual materials as pathology specimens, films, videotape, and slide/tape sets.…

Robinow, Beatrix H.

1979-01-01

398

AUDIO-VISUAL CONTENT-BASED MULTIMEDIA INDEXING AND RETRIEVAL THE MUVIS FRAMEWORK  

E-print Network

AUDIO-VISUAL CONTENT-BASED MULTIMEDIA INDEXING AND RETRIEVAL ­ THE MUVIS FRAMEWORK Moncef Gabbouj and Serkan Kiranyaz Institute of Signal Processing Tampere University of Technology Tampere, Finland moncef multimedia types such as audio, video, audio/video interlaced in several formats. It allows real-time audio

Gabbouj, Moncef

399

Selective Attention Modulates the Direction of Audio-Visual Temporal Recalibration  

PubMed Central

Temporal recalibration of cross-modal synchrony has been proposed as a mechanism to compensate for timing differences between sensory modalities. However, far from the rich complexity of everyday life sensory environments, most studies to date have examined recalibration on isolated cross-modal pairings. Here, we hypothesize that selective attention might provide an effective filter to help resolve which stimuli are selected when multiple events compete for recalibration. We addressed this question by testing audio-visual recalibration following an adaptation phase where two opposing audio-visual asynchronies were present. The direction of voluntary visual attention, and therefore to one of the two possible asynchronies (flash leading or flash lagging), was manipulated using colour as a selection criterion. We found a shift in the point of subjective audio-visual simultaneity as a function of whether the observer had focused attention to audio-then-flash or to flash-then-audio groupings during the adaptation phase. A baseline adaptation condition revealed that this effect of endogenous attention was only effective toward the lagging flash. This hints at the role of exogenous capture and/or additional endogenous effects producing an asymmetry toward the leading flash. We conclude that selective attention helps promote selected audio-visual pairings to be combined and subsequently adjusted in time but, stimulus organization exerts a strong impact on recalibration. We tentatively hypothesize that the resolution of recalibration in complex scenarios involves the orchestration of top-down selection mechanisms and stimulus-driven processes. PMID:25004132

Ikumi, Nara; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

2014-01-01

400

Music expertise shapes audiovisual temporal integration windows for speech, sinewave speech, and music  

PubMed Central

This psychophysics study used musicians as a model to investigate whether musical expertise shapes the temporal integration window for audiovisual speech, sinewave speech, or music. Musicians and non-musicians judged the audiovisual synchrony of speech, sinewave analogs of speech, and music stimuli at 13 audiovisual stimulus onset asynchronies (±360, ±300 ±240, ±180, ±120, ±60, and 0 ms). Further, we manipulated the duration of the stimuli by presenting sentences/melodies or syllables/tones. Critically, musicians relative to non-musicians exhibited significantly narrower temporal integration windows for both music and sinewave speech. Further, the temporal integration window for music decreased with the amount of music practice, but not with age of acquisition. In other words, the more musicians practiced piano in the past 3 years, the more sensitive they became to the temporal misalignment of visual and auditory signals. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that music practicing fine-tunes the audiovisual temporal integration window to various extents depending on the stimulus class. While the effect of piano practicing was most pronounced for music, it also generalized to other stimulus classes such as sinewave speech and to a marginally significant degree to natural speech. PMID:25147539

Lee, Hweeling; Noppeney, Uta

2014-01-01

401

The Vera am Mittag German audio-visual emotional speech database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of publicly available annotated databases is one of the major barriers to research advances on emotional informa- tion processing. In this contribution we present a recently col- lected database of spontaneous emotional speech in German which is being made available to the research community. The database consists of 12 hours of audio-visual recordings of the German TV talk

Michael Grimm; Kristian Kroschel; Shrikanth Narayanan

2008-01-01

402

An Annotated Guide to Audio-Visual Materials for Teaching Shakespeare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Audio-visual materials, found in a variety of periodicals, catalogs, and reference works, are listed in this guide to expedite the process of finding appropriate classroom materials for a study of William Shakespeare in the classroom. Separate listings of films, filmstrips, and recordings are provided, with subdivisions for "The Plays" and…

Albert, Richard N.

403

Infant Attention to Dynamic Audiovisual Stimuli: Look Duration from 3 to 9 Months of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to examine developmental change in visual attention to dynamic visual and audiovisual stimuli in 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old infants. Infant look duration was measured during exposure to dynamic geometric patterns and Sesame Street video clips under three different stimulus modality conditions: unimodal visual, synchronous…

Reynolds, Greg D.; Zhang, Dantong; Guy, Maggie W.

2013-01-01

404

Gender in audiovisual translation: Naturalizing feminine voices in the French Sex and the City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores how certain feminine voices are adapted or ‘naturalized’ in audiovisual translation in order to conform to the intended audience’s assumed gender beliefs and values. Using purposefully selected examples from the American series Sex and the City, the author analyses elements pertaining to American feminism and how they are rendered in the French dubbing and subtitles. While the

Anne-Lise Feral

2011-01-01

405

Audiovisual Material as Educational Innovation Strategy to Reduce Anxiety Response in Students of Human Anatomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents the design, effect and utility of using audiovisual material containing real images of dissected human cadavers as an innovative educational strategy (IES) in the teaching of Human Anatomy. The goal is to familiarize students with the practice of dissection and to transmit the importance and necessity of this discipline, while…

Casado, Maria Isabel; Castano, Gloria; Arraez-Aybar, Luis Alfonso

2012-01-01

406

Quantified acoustic-optical speech signal incongruity identifies cortical sites of audiovisual speech processing  

PubMed Central

A fundamental question about human perception is how the speech perceiving brain combines auditory and visual phonetic stimulus information. We assumed that perceivers learn the normal relationship between acoustic and optical signals. We hypothesized that when the normal relationship is perturbed by mismatching the acoustic and optical signals, cortical areas responsible for audiovisual stimulus integration respond as a function of the magnitude of the mismatch. To test this hypothesis, in a previous study, we developed quantitative measures of acoustic-optical speech stimulus incongruity that correlate with perceptual measures. In the current study, we presented low incongruity (LI, matched), medium incongruity (MI, moderately mismatched), and high incongruity (HI, highly mismatched) audiovisual nonsense syllable stimuli during fMRI scanning. Perceptual responses differed as a function of the incongruity level, and BOLD measures were found to vary regionally and quantitatively with perceptual and quantitative incongruity levels. Each increase in level of incongruity resulted in an increase in overall levels of cortical activity and in additional activations. However, the only cortical region that demonstrated differential sensitivity to the three stimulus incongruity levels (HI > MI > LI) was a subarea of the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG). The left SMG might support a fine-grained analysis of the relationship between audiovisual phonetic input in comparison with stored knowledge, as hypothesized here. The methods here show that quantitative manipulation of stimulus incongruity is a new and powerful tool for disclosing the system that processes audiovisual speech stimuli. PMID:18495091

Bernstein, Lynne E.; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Jiang, Jintao

2008-01-01

407

Asynchronous stream modeling for large vocabulary audio-visual speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addresses the problem of audio-visual information fusion to provide highly robust speech recognition. We investigate methods that make different assumptions about asynchrony and conditional dependence across streams and propose a technique based on composite HMMs that can account for stream asynchrony and different levels of information integration. We show how these models can be trained jointly based on maximum likelihood

Juergen Luettin; Gerasimos Potamianos; Chalapathy Neti

2001-01-01

408

Audiovisual Resources for Teaching Instructional Technology; an Annotated List of Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The audiovisual resources listed in this catalog cover 10 instructional-technology topics: administration; facilities; instructional design; learning and communication; media equipment; media production; media utilization; research; instructional techniques; and society, education, and technology. Any entry falling into more than one category is…

Ely, Donald P., Ed.; Beilby, Albert, Ed.

409

Seminario latinoamericano de didactica de los medios audiovisuales (Latin American Seminar on Teaching with Audiovisual Aids).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This seminar on the use of audiovisual aids reached several conclusions on the need for and the use of such aids in Latin America. The need for educational innovation in the face of a new society, a new type of communication, and a new vision of man is stressed. A new definition of teaching and learning as a fundamental process of communication is…

Eduplan Informa, 1971

1971-01-01

410

Sounds from Shapes: Audiovisual Performance with Hand Silhouette Contours in The Manual Input Sessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on The Manual Input Sessions, a series of audiovisual vignettes which probe the expressive possibilities of free-form hand gestures. Performed on a hybrid projection system which combines a traditional analog overhead projector and a digital PC video projector, our vision-based software instruments generate dynamic sounds and graphics solely in response to the forms and movements of the silhouette

Golan Levin; Zachary Lieberman

2005-01-01

411

Recent Advances in the Automatic Recognition of Audio-Visual Speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual speech information from the speaker's mouth region has been successfully shown to improve noise robustness of automatic speech recognizers, thus promising to extend their usability in the human computer interface. In this paper, we review the main components of audio-visual automatic speech recognition and present novel contributions in two main areas: First, the visual front end design, based on

Gerasimos Potamianos; Chalapathy Neti; Guillaume Gravier; Ashutosh Garg; Andrew W. Senior

412

Audiovisual Aids for Astronomy and Space Physics at an Urban College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of easily available audiovisual aids to teach a one semester course in astronomy and space physics to liberal arts students of both sexes at Queensborough Community College. Included is a list of teaching aids for use in astronomy instruction. (CC)

Moche, Dinah L.

1973-01-01

413

Nutrition Education Materials and Audiovisuals for Grades 7 through 12. Special Reference Briefs Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography lists nutrition education materials, audiovisuals, and resources for classroom use. Items listed cover topics such as general nutrition, food preparation, food science, and dietary management. Each item is listed in one or more of the following categories: (1) curriculum/lesson plans; (2) learning activities; (3)…

Evans, Shirley King, Comp.

414

Hotel and Restaurant Management; A Bibliography of Books and Audio-Visual Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography represents a collection of 1,300 book volumes and audiovisual materials collected by the Luzerne County Community College Library in support of the college's Hotel and Restaurant Management curriculum. It covers such diverse topics as advertising, business practices, decoration, nutrition, hotel law, insurance landscaping, health…

Malkames, James P.; And Others

415

Nutrition Education Materials and Audiovisuals for Grades Preschool through 6. Special Reference Briefs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource guide lists nutrition education materials, audiovisuals, and other materials for elementary school classroom use. Topics covered include general nutrition, food preparation, food science, and dietary management. Teaching materials listed include books, brochures, food models, games, kits, videocassettes, audiocassettes, activity…

Evans, Shirley King

416

Nutrition Education Materials and Audiovisuals for Grades 7 through 12. Special Reference Briefs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource guide lists nutrition education materials, audiovisuals, and other materials for secondary school classroom use. Topics covered include general nutrition, food preparation, food science, and dietary management. Teaching materials listed include books, brochures, food models, games, kits, videocassettes, audiocassettes, activity…

Evans, Shirley King

417

Harvard Maxwell Dworkin AV Description, draft 20100222, CW Classroom Audio-Visual (AV) System Overview  

E-print Network

Harvard Maxwell Dworkin AV Description, draft 20100222, CW Classroom Audio-Visual (AV) System Overview Maxwell Dworkin, Room G-125 Welcome to Maxwell Dworkin, Room G-125! This classroom is equipped a variety of other sources. Please use this document as a quick reference guide for the AV system . TURNING

Chen, Yiling

418

REAL-TIME MONITORING OF PARTICIPANTS' INTERACTION IN A MEETING USING AUDIO-VISUAL SENSORS  

E-print Network

, automatically annotated by our smart room system, to infer the interaction dynamics between the participants sensing and human centered computing. Example realms in which monitoring human interaction is very usefulREAL-TIME MONITORING OF PARTICIPANTS' INTERACTION IN A MEETING USING AUDIO-VISUAL SENSORS Carlos

Busso, Carlos

419

The Application of Audio-Visual Entrainment for the Treatment of Seasonal Affective Disorder (Part 4)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) strikes all people from all nations, no t just t hose near the poles of the earth as might be thought. The treatment of SAD has traditionally involved the use of anti-depressants, and more recently, light box therapy. Audio-Visual Entrainment (AVE) has also b een shown to b e beneficial i n the treatment of this

David Sieveri

420

Infants' Perceptual Differentiation of Amodal and Modality-Specific Audio-Visual Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested the ability of 3.5-month-old infants to detect audiovisual relations. Results demonstrated infants' visual recovery to changes in temporal synchrony of sight and sound and in composition of objects. Infants did not demonstrate visual recovery to changes in the relationship between pitch and color or shape. (BC)

Bahrick, Lorraine E.

1992-01-01

421

Copyright Question: Using Audiovisual Works in a Satellite-Delivered Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the question of copyright violation of audiovisual materials when used in a Master's of Business Administration (MBA) degree offered via satellite transmission through Colorado State University. Topics discussed include fair use; definitions of literary works, performance, and transmission; and the need to revise the 1976 Copyright Act to…

Switzer, Jamie S.; Switzer, Ralph V., Jr.

1994-01-01

422

Audio-visual Convolutive Blind Source Separation Qingju Liu, Wenwu Wang, Philip Jackson  

E-print Network

Audio-visual Convolutive Blind Source Separation Qingju Liu, Wenwu Wang, Philip Jackson Centre.Liu,W.Wang,P.Jackson}@surrey.ac.uk Abstract--We present a novel method for speech separation from their audio mixtures using the audio to characterise statistically the audio- visual coherence with features obtained from the training set

Jackson, Philip JB

423

May 26th, 2008 SAIL1 Recording audio-visual emotional databases  

E-print Network

corpora · Broadcasted television programs (VAN [Grimm, 2007], EmoTV [Abrilian, 2005], Belfast [DouglasMay 26th, 2008 SAIL1 Recording audio-visual emotional databases from actors: a closer look Signal problems · Constrained to specific domains · Lack of control over the microphones and camera locations

Busso, Carlos

424

Teacher's Guide to Aviation Education Resources. Including: Career Information, Audiovisuals, Publications, Periodicals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Currently available aviation education resource materials are listed alphabetically by title under four headings: (1) career information; (2) audiovisual materials; (3) publications; and (4) periodicals. Each entry includes: title; format (16mm film, slides, slide/tape presentation, VHS/Beta videotape, book, booklet, newsletter, pamphlet, poster,…

Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

425

DRAFT: Please do not distribute without permission. Thanks! A New Axiomatic Semantics for Semantic Web  

E-print Network

Ginness and Fikes provided a commendable "axomatic semantics" of the Semantic Web languages RDF, RDF Schema://www-unix.mcs.anl.gov/AR/otter) or Tau (http://hsinfosystems.com/taujay). #12;Menzel An Architecture for Integrating Semantic WebDRAFT: Please do not distribute without permission. Thanks! A New Axiomatic Semantics for Semantic

Menzel, Christopher

426

Failing to Get the Gist: Reduced False Recognition of Semantic Associates in Semantic Dementia  

E-print Network

Failing to Get the Gist: Reduced False Recognition of Semantic Associates in Semantic Dementia Jon and Women's Hospital In 2 experiments involving patients with semantic dementia, the authors investigated semantically. Patients with semantic dementia obtained item-specific recollection and gist memory scores

Schacter, Daniel

427

Semantic Web Methodologies for Spatial Decision Support  

E-print Network

Semantic Web Methodologies for Spatial Decision Support Michael J. Casey Mark A. Austin for the web-based exchange of data and services using semantic agents. A semantic-web enabled spatial. Finally, we discuss extensions and challenges in semantic-web research as they pertain to spatial decision

Austin, Mark

428

Steffen Staab ISWeb Lecture ,,Semantic Web" (1)  

E-print Network

Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" (1) Semantic Web Logical foundations Acknowledgements to Pascal Hitzler, York Sure #12;Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" (2) ,,Logic is the Calculus of differential equations in the natural sciences." #12;Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" (3

Staab, Steffen

429

Steffen Staab ISWeb Lecture ,,Semantic Web" (1)  

E-print Network

Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" (1) Semantic Web Logical foundations Acknowledgements to Pascal Hitzler, York Sure Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" (2) ,,Logic is the Calculus of differential equations in the natural sciences." Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" (3) Applications

Staab, Steffen

430

Semantic Web research main streams, popular falacies,  

E-print Network

Semantic Web research anno 2006: main streams, popular falacies, current status, future challenges Frank van Harmelen Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam #12;2 This is NOT a Semantic Web evangelization talk (I of the day, of temporary interest" #12;Which Semantic Web are we talking about? Semantic Web research anno

van Harmelen, Frank

431

Segregating Semantic from Phonological Processes during Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of previous functional neuroimaging studies have linked activation of the left inferior frontal gyms with semantic processing, yet damage to the frontal lobes does not critically impair semantic knowledge. This study distinguishes between semantic knowledge and the strategic processes required to make verbal decisions. Using positron emission tomography (PET), we identify the neural correlates of semantic knowledge by

C. J. Price; C. J. Moore; G. W. Humphreys; R. J. S. Wise

1997-01-01

432

Chinese Character Decoding: A Semantic Bias?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of semantic and phonetic radicals on Chinese character decoding were examined. Our results suggest that semantic and phonetic radicals are each available for access when a corresponding task emphasizes one or the other kind of radical. But in a more neutral lexical recognition task, the semantic radical is more informative. Semantic…

Williams, Clay; Bever, Thomas

2010-01-01

433

Mapping the Structure of Semantic Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aggregating snippets from the semantic memories of many individuals may not yield a good map of an individual's semantic memory. The authors analyze the structure of semantic networks that they sampled from individuals through a new snowball sampling paradigm during approximately 6 weeks of 1-hr daily sessions. The semantic networks of individuals…

Morais, Ana Sofia; Olsson, Henrik; Schooler, Lael J.

2013-01-01

434

An Initial Analysis of Semantic Wikis  

E-print Network

Semantic wikis augment wikis with semantic properties that can be used to aggregate and query data through reasoning. Semantic wikis are used by many communities, for widely varying purposes such as organizing genomic knowledge, coding software, and tracking environmental data. Although wikis have been analyzed extensively, there has been no published analysis of the use of semantic wikis. We carried out an initial analysis of twenty semantic wikis selected for their diverse characteristics and content. Based on the number of property edits per contributor, we identified several patterns to characterize community behaviors that are common to groups of wikis. Author Keywords Semantic wikis; semantic web; RDF; social knowledge collection. ACM Classification Keywords

Yolanda Gil; Angela Knight; Kevin Zhang; Larry Zhang; Ricky Sethi

435

Exploiting Recurring Structure in a Semantic Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the growing popularity of the Semantic Web, an increasing amount of information is becoming available in machine interpretable, semantically structured networks. Within these semantic networks are recurring structures that could be mined by existing or novel knowledge discovery methods. The mining of these semantic structures represents an interesting area that focuses on mining both for and from the Semantic Web, with surprising applicability to problems confronting the developers of Semantic Web applications. In this paper, we present representative examples of recurring structures and show how these structures could be used to increase the utility of a semantic repository deployed at NASA.

Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, Richard M.

2004-01-01

436

Audiovisual training is better than auditory-only training for auditory-only speech-in-noise identification.  

PubMed

The effects of audiovisual versus auditory training for speech-in-noise identification were examined in 60 young participants. The training conditions were audiovisual training, auditory-only training, and no training (n?=?20 each). In the training groups, gated consonants and words were presented at 0?dB signal-to-noise ratio; stimuli were either audiovisual or auditory-only. The no-training group watched a movie clip without performing a speech identification task. Speech-in-noise identification was measured before and after the training (or control activity). Results showed that only audiovisual training improved speech-in-noise identification, demonstrating superiority over auditory-only training. PMID:25096138

Lidestam, Björn; Moradi, Shahram; Pettersson, Rasmus; Ricklefs, Theodor

2014-08-01

437

36 CFR 1256.100 - What is the copying policy for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright protection or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States § 1256.100...involved) provided to me by the National Archives and Records Administration...

2010-07-01

438

36 CFR 1256.100 - What is the copying policy for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright protection or...  

...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States § 1256.100...involved) provided to me by the National Archives and Records Administration...

2014-07-01

439

36 CFR 1256.100 - What is the copying policy for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright protection or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States § 1256.100...involved) provided to me by the National Archives and Records Administration...

2013-07-01

440

36 CFR 1256.100 - What is the copying policy for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright protection or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States § 1256.100...involved) provided to me by the National Archives and Records Administration...

2011-07-01

441

36 CFR 1256.100 - What is the copying policy for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright protection or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States § 1256.100...involved) provided to me by the National Archives and Records Administration...

2012-07-01

442

Semantic perception for ground robotics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semantic perception involves naming objects and features in the scene, understanding the relations between them, and understanding the behaviors of agents, e.g., people, and their intent from sensor data. Semantic perception is a central component of future UGVs to provide representations which 1) can be used for higher-level reasoning and tactical behaviors, beyond the immediate needs of autonomous mobility, and 2) provide an intuitive description of the robot's environment in terms of semantic elements that can shared effectively with a human operator. In this paper, we summarize the main approaches that we are investigating in the RCTA as initial steps toward the development of perception systems for UGVs.

Hebert, M.; Bagnell, J. A.; Bajracharya, M.; Daniilidis, K.; Matthies, L. H.; Mianzo, L.; Navarro-Serment, L.; Shi, J.; Wellfare, M.

2012-06-01

443

Workspaces in the Semantic Web  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Due to the recency and relatively limited adoption of Semantic Web technologies. practical issues related to technology scaling have received less attention than foundational issues. Nonetheless, these issues must be addressed if the Semantic Web is to realize its full potential. In particular, we concentrate on the lack of scoping methods that reduce the size of semantic information spaces so they are more efficient to work with and more relevant to an agent's needs. We provide some intuition to motivate the need for such reduced information spaces, called workspaces, give a formal definition, and suggest possible methods of deriving them.

Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, RIchard M.

2005-01-01

444

High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases  

SciTech Connect

As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.

2011-06-02

445

Gaze behavior in audiovisual speech perception: The influence of ocular fixations on the McGurk effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted three experiments in order to examine the influence of gaze behavior and fixation on audiovisual speech perception\\u000a in a task that required subjects to report the speech sound they perceived during the presentation of congruent and incongruent\\u000a (McGurk) audiovisual stimuli. Experiment 1 showed that the subjects’ natural gaze behavior rarely involved gaze fixations\\u000a beyond the oral and ocular

Martin Paré; Rebecca C. Richler; Martin ten Hove; K. G. Munhall

2003-01-01

446

The Congruence of Nurses’ Performance with Developmental Care Standards in Neonatal Intensive Care Units  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Many studies support the positive short and long-term developmental care for premature infants. This study aimed to determine the congruence of nurses’ activity in four areas of developmental care in order to obtain basic information for authorities to provide a program to achieve related standards in the future. Methods: The study was performed on 70 nurses working in neonatal intensive care units in Tabriz, Iran. Nurses answered to a questionnaire retrieved from Robison’s developmental program. Content validity and reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) of translated version were evaluated. Data were analysed using SPSS. Results: The mean (standard deviation) of total score was 3.06 (0.44). It was 3.02 (0.50) for individualized care, 3.01 (0.63) for appropriate development environment for the child and family, 3 (0.46) in supporting family relationship and approving the relationship between infant and family and 3.22 (0.56) for collaboration among all care factors. Score 4 was considered as completely meet standards. Therefore, a mean of 3.20 and above was considered as observance higher than 80% and was favorable. The Friedman test showed statistically significant difference among the activities related to the four areas (p = 0.001). The collaboration field had the highest mean score and providing services in this field had more congruence with the related standard of developmental care. Conclusion: The study showed that the congruence of nurses’ performance with standards of developmental care still requires more efforts. Therefore, it is necessary to train the staff in this regard and prepare them for structural and functional facilities. PMID:25276711

Valizadeh, Leila; Asadollahi, Malihe; Mostafa Gharebaghi, Manizheh; Gholami, Fatemeh

2013-01-01

447

Perception of the multisensory coherence of fluent audiovisual speech in infancy: Its emergence and the role of experience.  

PubMed

To investigate the developmental emergence of the perception of the multisensory coherence of native and non-native audiovisual fluent speech, we tested 4-, 8- to 10-, and 12- to 14-month-old English-learning infants. Infants first viewed two identical female faces articulating two different monologues in silence and then in the presence of an audible monologue that matched the visible articulations of one of the faces. Neither the 4-month-old nor 8- to 10-month-old infants exhibited audiovisual matching in that they did not look longer at the matching monologue. In contrast, the 12- to 14-month-old infants exhibited matching and, consistent with the emergence of perceptual expertise for the native language, perceived the multisensory coherence of native-language monologues earlier in the test trials than that of non-native language monologues. Moreover, the matching of native audible and visible speech streams observed in the 12- to 14-month-olds did not depend on audiovisual synchrony, whereas the matching of non-native audible and visible speech streams did depend on synchrony. Overall, the current findings indicate that the perception of the multisensory coherence of fluent audiovisual speech emerges late in infancy, that audiovisual synchrony cues are more important in the perception of the multisensory coherence of non-native speech than that of native audiovisual speech, and that the emergence of this skill most likely is affected by perceptual narrowing. PMID:25462038

Lewkowicz, David J; Minar, Nicholas J; Tift, Amy H; Brandon, Melissa

2015-02-01

448

Evolution-Development Congruence in Pattern Formation Dynamics: Bifurcations in Gene Expressions and Regulation of Networks Structures  

E-print Network

Although the phrase "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny'' turned out to be incorrect, the search for possible relationships between development and evolution still gathers much attention. Recently, dynamical-systems analysis has proven to be relevant to both development and evolution, and it may therefore provide a link between the two. Using extensive simulations to evolve gene regulation networks that shape morphogenesis, we observed remarkable congruence between development and evolution: Both consisted of the same successive epochs to shape stripes, and good agreement was observed for the ordering as well as the topology of branching of stripes between the two. This congruence is explained by the agreement of bifurcations in dynamical-systems theory between evolution and development, where slowly varying gene-expression levels work as emergent control parameters. In terms of the gene regulation networks, this congruence is understood as the successive addition of downstream modules, either as feedforward or...

Kohsokabe, Takahiro

2014-01-01

449

Semantics and phonology in syntax  

E-print Network

In this thesis I argue that morphology should be allowed to interpret not only the information provided by the syntactic component, but also compositional semantic properties. This conception of grammar requires morphology ...

Csirmaz, Aniko

2005-01-01

450

Semantic Web Grundlagen Birte Glimm  

E-print Network

Technologien in der Pharma Branche Projekte der derivo GmbH #12;3/41 Birte Glimm | Semantic Web Grundlagen | 06 Mikroformate in der Rezeptsuche Semantische Technologien in der Pharma Branche Projekte der derivo GmbH #12

Pfeifer, Holger

451

NASA and The Semantic Web  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We provide an overview of several ongoing NASA endeavors based on concepts, systems, and technology from the Semantic Web arena. Indeed NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic Web Technology and we describe ongoing and completed R&D efforts for several applications ranging from collaborative systems to airspace information management to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and discovery systems at NASA.

Ashish, Naveen

2005-01-01

452

Constructive Action Semantics in OBJ  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Goguen and Malcolm specify semantics of programming languages in OBJ. Here, we consider how the extensibility and reusability\\u000a of their specifications could be improved. We propose using the notation and modular structure of the Constructive Action\\u000a Semantics framework in OBJ, and give a simple illustration. The reader is assumed to be familiar with OBJ.

Peter D. Mosses

2006-01-01

453

Leader-team congruence in power distance values and team effectiveness: the mediating role of procedural justice climate.  

PubMed

We examine the effect of (in)congruence between leaders' and teams' power distance values on team effectiveness. We hypothesize that the (in)congruence between these values would differentially predict team effectiveness, with procedural justice climate serving as a mediator. Using multisource data and polynomial regression, we found that similarities (and differences) between leaders' and their teams' power distance values can have consequential effects on teams' justice climate and, ultimately, their effectiveness (viz., team performance and team organizational citizenship behavior). We conclude that to fully understand the implications of power distance, one should consider the multiple perspectives of both leaders and team members. PMID:24060159

Cole, Michael S; Carter, Min Z; Zhang, Zhen

2013-11-01

454

Semantic preview benefit during reading.  

PubMed

Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word during the saccade to the preview (boundary paradigm). In the 1st experiment the preview word was semantically related or unrelated to the target. Fixation durations on the target were shorter for semantically related than unrelated previews, consistent with a semantic preview benefit. In the 2nd experiment, half the sentences were presented following the rules of German spelling (i.e., previews and targets were printed with an initial capital letter), and the other half were presented completely in lowercase. A semantic preview benefit was obtained under both conditions. In the 3rd experiment, we introduced 2 further preview conditions, an identical word and a pronounceable nonword, while also manipulating the text contrast. Whereas the contrast had negligible effects, fixation durations on the target were reliably different for all 4 types of preview. Semantic preview benefits were greater for pretarget fixations closer to the boundary (large preview space) and, although not as consistently, for long pretarget fixation durations (long preview time). The results constrain theoretical proposals about eye movement control in reading. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23895448

Hohenstein, Sven; Kliegl, Reinhold

2014-01-01

455

COTARD SYNDROME IN SEMANTIC DEMENTIA  

PubMed Central

Background Semantic dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of meaning of words or concepts. semantic dementia can offer potential insights into the mechanisms of content-specific delusions. Objective The authors present a rare case of semantic dementia with Cotard syndrome, a delusion characterized by nihilism or self-negation. Method The semantic deficits and other features of semantic dementia were evaluated in relation to the patient's Cotard syndrome. Results Mrs. A developed the delusional belief that she was wasting and dying. This occurred after she lost knowledge for her somatic discomforts and sensations and for the organs that were the source of these sensations. Her nihilistic beliefs appeared to emerge from her misunderstanding of her somatic sensations. Conclusion This unique patient suggests that a mechanism for Cotard syndrome is difficulty interpreting the nature and source of internal pains and sensations. We propose that loss of semantic knowledge about one's own body may lead to the delusion of nihilism or death. PMID:22054629

Mendez, Mario F.; Ramírez-Bermúdez, Jesús

2011-01-01

456

Development of an audiovisual speech perception app for children with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Abstract Perception of spoken language requires attention to acoustic as well as visible phonetic information. This article reviews the known differences in audiovisual speech perception in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and specifies the need for interventions that address this construct. Elements of an audiovisual training program are described. This researcher-developed program delivered via an iPad app presents natural speech in the context of increasing noise, but supported with a speaking face. Children are cued to attend to visible articulatory information to assist in perception of the spoken words. Data from four children with ASD ages 8-10 are presented showing that the children improved their performance on an untrained auditory speech-in-noise task. PMID:25313714

Irwin, Julia; Preston, Jonathan; Brancazio, Lawrence; D'angelo, Michael; Turcios, Jacqueline

2015-01-01

457

Gated audiovisual speech identification in silence vs. noise: effects on time and accuracy  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the degree to which audiovisual presentation (compared to auditory-only presentation) affected isolation point (IPs, the amount of time required for the correct identification of speech stimuli using a gating paradigm) in silence and noise conditions. The study expanded on the findings of Moradi et al. (under revision), using the same stimuli, but presented in an audiovisual instead of an auditory-only manner. The results showed that noise impeded the identification of consonants and words (i.e., delayed IPs and lowered accuracy), but not the identification of final words in sentences. In comparison with the previous study by Moradi et al., it can be concluded that the provision of visual cues expedited IPs and increased the accuracy of speech stimuli identification in both silence and noise. The implication of the results is discussed in terms of models for speech understanding. PMID:23801980

Moradi, Shahram; Lidestam, Björn; Rönnberg, Jerker

2013-01-01

458

A Controlled Comparison of Audio-Visual Entrainment for Treating Seasonal Affective Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) affects up to 6% of the population, primarily in the winter months and at higher latitudes.Methods. Light-box therapy has been the traditional intervention for SAD, where the individual is exposed to a bright light for substantial periods in an effort to replace the lack of sunshine. Audio-visual entrainment (AVE) is a technique using flashing lights

Kathy Berg; Dave Siever

2009-01-01

459

Evaluation of Metadata Standards in the Context of Digital Audio-Visual Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Digital file-based libraries for the audio-visual material of television broadcasters and production houses are becoming desirable.\\u000a These libraries not only address the problem of loss of content due to tape deterioration, but also improve disclosure of\\u000a the content. However, switching to a digital file-based library involves many new concerns and problems for content providers.\\u000a This paper will discuss one of

Robbie De Sutter; Stijn Notebaert; Rik Van De Walle

2006-01-01

460

Realizing Audio-Visually Triggered ELIZA-Like Non-verbal Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are studying how to create social physical agents, i.e., humanoids, that perform actions empowered by real-time audio-visual tracking of multiple talkers. So- cial skills require complex perceptual and motor capabilities as well as communicating ones. It is critical to identify primary features in designing building blocks for social skills, because performance of social interaction is usually evaluated as a

Hiroshi G. Okuno; Kazuhiro Nakadai; Hiroaki Kitano

2002-01-01

461

Discriminative training of HMM stream exponents for audio-visual speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose the use of discriminative training by means of the generalized probabilistic descent (GPB) algorithm to estimate hidden Markov model (HMM) stream exponents for audio-visual speech recognition. Synchronized audio and visual features are used to respectively train audio-only and visual-only single-stream HMMs of identical topology by maximum likelihood. A two-stream HMM is then obtained by combining the two single-stream

Gerasimos Potamianos; Hans Peter Graf

1998-01-01

462

Audio-Visual Unit Selection for the Synthesis of Photo-Realistic Talking-Heads  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates audio-visual unit selection for the synthesis of photo-realistic, speech-synchronized talking-head animations. These animations are synthesized from recorded video samples of a subject speaking in front of a camera, resulting in a photo-realistic appearance. The lip-synchronization is obtained by optimally selecting and concatenating variable-length video units of the mouth area. Synthesizing a new speech animation from these recorded

Eric Cosatto; Gerasimos Potamianos; Hans Peter Graf

2000-01-01

463

Large-vocabulary audio-visual speech recognition by machines and humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare automatic recognition with human perception of audio-visual speech, in the large-vocabulary, continuous speech recognition (LVCSR) domain. Specifically, we study the bene- fit of the visual modality for both machines and humans, when combined with audio degraded by speech-babble noise at var- ious signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). We first consider an auto- matic speechreading system with a pixel based visual

Gerasimos Potamianos; Chalapathy Neti; Giridharan Iyengar; Eric Helmuth

2001-01-01

464

Maximum entropy and MCE based HMM stream weight estimation for audio-visual ASR  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new fast and flexible algorithm based on the maximum entropy (MAXENT) criterion to estimate stream weights in a state-synchronous multi-stream HMM. The technique is compared to the minimum classification error (MCE) criterion and to a brute-force, grid-search optimization of the WER on both a small and a large vocabulary audio-visual continuous speech recognition task.

Guillaume Gravier; Scott Axelrod; Gerasimos Potamianos; Chalapathy Neti

2002-01-01

465

Anticipating action effects recruits audiovisual movement representations in the ventral premotor cortex.  

PubMed

When table tennis players anticipate the course of the ball while preparing their motor responses, they not only observe their opponents striking the ball but also listen to events such as the sound of racket-ball contact. Because visual stimuli can be detected more easily when accompanied by a sound, we assumed that complementary sensory audiovisual information would influence the anticipation of biological motion, especially when the racket-ball contact is not presented visually, but has to be inferred from continuous movement kinematics and an abrupt sound. Twenty-six observers were examined with fMRI while watching point-light displays (PLDs) of an opposing table tennis player. Their task was to anticipate the resultant ball flight. The sound was presented complementary to the veracious event or at a deviant time point in its kinematics. Results showed that participants performed best in the complementary condition. Using a region-of-interest approach, fMRI data showed that complementary audiovisual stimulation elicited higher activation in the left temporo-occipital middle temporal gyrus (MTGto), the left primary motor cortex, and the right anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS). Both hemispheres also revealed higher activation in the ventral premotor cortex (vPMC) and the pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44). Ranking the behavioral effect of complementary versus conflicting audiovisual information over participants revealed an association between the complementary information and higher activation in the right vPMC. We conclude that the recruitment of movement representations in the auditory and visual modalities in the vPMC can be influenced by task-relevant cross-modal audiovisual interaction. PMID:25463138

Bischoff, Matthias; Zentgraf, Karen; Pilgramm, Sebastian; Stark, Rudolf; Krüger, Britta; Munzert, Jörn

2014-10-29

466

Sight and sound out of synch: Fragmentation and renormalisation of audiovisual integration and subjective timing  

PubMed Central

The sight and sound of a person speaking or a ball bouncing may seem simultaneous, but their corresponding neural signals are spread out over time as they arrive at different multisensory brain sites. How subjective timing relates to such neural timing remains a fundamental neuroscientific and philosophical puzzle. A dominant assumption is that temporal coherence is achieved by sensory resynchronisation or recalibration across asynchronous brain events. This assumption is easily confirmed by estimating subjective audiovisual timing for groups of subjects, which is on average similar across different measures and stimuli, and approximately veridical. But few studies have examined normal and pathological individual differences in such measures. Case PH, with lesions in pons and basal ganglia, hears people speak before seeing their lips move. Temporal order judgements (TOJs) confirmed this: voices had to lag lip-movements (by ?200 msec) to seem synchronous to PH. Curiously, voices had to lead lips (also by ?200 msec) to maximise the McGurk illusion (a measure of audiovisual speech integration). On average across these measures, PH's timing was therefore still veridical. Age-matched control participants showed similar discrepancies. Indeed, normal individual differences in TOJ and McGurk timing correlated negatively: subjects needing an auditory lag for subjective simultaneity needed an auditory lead for maximal McGurk, and vice versa. This generalised to the Stream–Bounce illusion. Such surprising antagonism seems opposed to good sensory resynchronisation, yet average timing across tasks was still near-veridical. Our findings reveal remarkable disunity of audiovisual timing within and between subjects. To explain this we propose that the timing of audiovisual signals within different brain mechanisms is perceived relative to the average timing across mechanisms. Such renormalisation fully explains the curious antagonistic relationship between disparate timing estimates in PH and healthy participants, and how they can still perceive the timing of external events correctly, on average. PMID:23664001

Freeman, Elliot D.; Ipser, Alberta; Palmbaha, Austra; Paunoiu, Diana; Brown, Peter; Lambert, Christian; Leff, Alex; Driver, Jon

2013-01-01

467

Sight and sound out of synch: fragmentation and renormalisation of audiovisual integration and subjective timing.  

PubMed

The sight and sound of a person speaking or a ball bouncing may seem simultaneous, but their corresponding neural signals are spread out over time as they arrive at different multisensory brain sites. How subjective timing relates to such neural timing remains a fundamental neuroscientific and philosophical puzzle. A dominant assumption is that temporal coherence is achieved by sensory resynchronisation or recalibration across asynchronous brain events. This assumption is easily confirmed by estimating subjective audiovisual timing for groups of subjects, which is on average similar across different measures and stimuli, and approximately veridical. But few studies have examined normal and pathological individual differences in such measures. Case PH, with lesions in pons and basal ganglia, hears people speak before seeing their lips move. Temporal order judgements (TOJs) confirmed this: voices had to lag lip-movements (by ?200 msec) to seem synchronous to PH. Curiously, voices had to lead lips (also by ?200 msec) to maximise the McGurk illusion (a measure of audiovisual speech integration). On average across these measures, PH's timing was therefore still veridical. Age-matched control participants showed similar discrepancies. Indeed, normal individual differences in TOJ and McGurk timing correlated negatively: subjects needing an auditory lag for subjective simultaneity needed an auditory lead for maximal McGurk, and vice versa. This generalised to the Stream-Bounce illusion. Such surprising antagonism seems opposed to good sensory resynchronisation, yet average timing across tasks was still near-veridical. Our findings reveal remarkable disunity of audiovisual timing within and between subjects. To explain this we propose that the timing of audiovisual signals within different brain mechanisms is perceived relative to the average timing across mechanisms. Such renormalisation fully explains the curious antagonistic relationship between disparate timing estimates in PH and healthy participants, and how they can still perceive the timing of external events correctly, on average. PMID:23664001

Freeman, Elliot D; Ipser, Alberta; Palmbaha, Austra; Paunoiu, Diana; Brown, Peter; Lambert, Christian; Leff, Alex; Driver, Jon

2013-01-01

468

Patient Education in the Doctor's Office: A Trial of Audiovisual Cassettes  

PubMed Central

Audiovisual tapes for patient education are now available in Canada. This paper summarizes the utilization of 12 tapes in an urban solo family practice over one year. Evaluation of this learning experience by both the physician and the patient showed positive results, in some cases affecting the outcome of the patient's condition. This patient education aid is intended to provide information only and is not subject to learning analysis.

Bryant, William H.

1980-01-01

469

SEAL: a framework for developing SEmantic PortALs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The core idea of the Semantic Web is to make information accessible to human and software agents on a semantic basis. Hence, Web sites may feed directly from the Semantic Web exploiting the underlying structures for human and machine access. We have developed a domain-independent approach for developing semantic portals, viz. SEAL (SEmantic portAL), that exploits semantics for providing and

Nenad Stojanovic; Alexander Maedche; Steffen Staab; Rudi Studer; York Sure

2001-01-01

470

Creating Semantically Integrated Communities on the World Wide Web  

E-print Network

Creating Semantically Integrated Communities on the World Wide Web Invited Talk Semantic Web on the World Wide Web? We first clarify some confusion about what "semantics" means and introduce a semantic continuum ranging from the kind of semantics that exist on the Web today to a rich semantic infrastructure

Grüninger, Michael

471

Semantic Coordination: A New Approach and an Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic coordination, namely the problem of finding an agreement on the meaning of heterogeneous semantic models, is one of the key issues in the development of the Semantic Web. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for discovering semantic mappings across hierarchical classifications based on a new approach to semantic coordination. This approach shifts the problem of semantic coordination

Paolo Bouquet; Luciano Serafini; Stefano Zanobini

2003-01-01

472

A Semantic Wiki for Collaborative Modeling and GloballyA Semantic Wiki for Collaborative Modeling and GloballyA Semantic Wiki for Collaborative Modeling and GloballyA Semantic Wiki for Collaborative Modeling and Globally Distributed Software DevelopmentDi  

E-print Network

A Semantic Wiki for Collaborative Modeling and GloballyA Semantic Wiki for Collaborative Modeling and GloballyA Semantic Wiki for Collaborative Modeling and GloballyA Semantic Wiki for Collaborative Modeling Engineering based on Semantic Media WikiSoftware Engineering based on Semantic Media WikiSoftware Engineering

Mannheim, Universität

473

Re: Congruence and phylogenetic reanalysis of perching bird cytochrome b sequences.  

PubMed

In a study of the phylogenetic relationships among perching bird mtDNA sequences, Edwards et al. (1991; Proc. R. Soc. London Ser B. 243: 99-107) sequenced part of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from 13 perching birds (Passeriformes) and a woodpecker outgroup. However, recently the validity of part of the sequence of the hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus) in that study has been questioned. To determine the effect of inclusion of this apparently chimeric sequence on the conclusions of the original analysis, we reanalyzed these sequences using a different published hermit thrush sequence. In addition, we applied tests of congruence to examine the possibility that the aberrant phylogenetic behavior of chimeric mtDNA sequences might be detected. The reanalysis confirms the ability of slow evolving first and second codon positions of cytochrome b sequences to resolve deep branches in the avian tree. The fact that the new data set does not reject the DNA hybridization tree of these species probably indicates poor ability of the cytochrome b sequences to discriminate among alternative trees, rather than consistency among data sets. Statistical testing of trees based on individual amplified segments of mtDNA indicates that congruence tests may be one useful way of identifying chimeric mtDNA sequences when they have not been detected in the laboratory or during standard phylogenetic analysis. PMID:9126569

Edwards, S V; Arctander, P

1997-04-01

474

Emotional congruence in learning and health encounters in medicine: addressing an aspect of the hidden curriculum.  

PubMed

This paper aims to draw attention to and provide insights into an area that is of educational significance for clinical teachers, namely the need to acknowledge and respond appropriately to the emotional context of both learning and health encounters in order to improve the outcomes of both. This need has been highlighted by recent calls for more attention to be paid to the role of emotion within medical education and within health care provision. What is already known about the role of emotion in learner-teacher encounters and in patient-doctor encounters will be used to develop the concept of emotional congruence within these two types of encounter as a challenge to clinical teachers to examine their own practice. The reasons why emotional congruence is not always apparent in the learning environment of the teaching hospital will be discussed using the model of the 'hidden curriculum'. It will be suggested that explicit strategies to counteract the hidden curriculum in relation to emotion can bring about transformative change in individual practice and the health care environment that has the potential to improve both learning and health outcomes. PMID:22367055

O'Callaghan, Anne

2013-05-01

475

Does Discourse Congruence Influence Spoken Language Comprehension before Lexical Association? Evidence from Event-Related Potentials  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an ERP norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a typical N400 effect when participants heard critical associated and unassociated target words in word pairs. In a subsequent experiment, we presented the same word pairs in spoken discourse contexts. Target words were always consistent with the local sentence context, but were congruent or not with the global discourse (e.g., “Luckily Ben had picked up some salt and pepper/basil”, preceded by a context in which Ben was preparing marinara sauce (congruent) or dealing with an icy walkway (incongruent). ERP effects of global discourse congruence preceded those of local lexical association, suggesting an early influence of the global discourse representation on lexical processing, even in locally congruent contexts. Furthermore, effects of lexical association occurred earlier in the congruent than incongruent condition. These results differ from those that have been obtained in studies of reading, suggesting that the effects may be unique to spoken word recognition. PMID:23002319

Boudewyn, Megan A.; Gordon, Peter C.; Long, Debra; Polse, Lara; Swaab, Tamara Y.

2011-01-01

476

Does Discourse Congruence Influence Spoken Language Comprehension before Lexical Association? Evidence from Event-Related Potentials.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an ERP norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a typical N400 effect when participants heard critical associated and unassociated target words in word pairs. In a subsequent experiment, we presented the same word pairs in spoken discourse contexts. Target words were always consistent with the local sentence context, but were congruent or not with the global discourse (e.g., "Luckily Ben had picked up some salt and pepper/basil", preceded by a context in which Ben was preparing marinara sauce (congruent) or dealing with an icy walkway (incongruent). ERP effects of global discourse congruence preceded those of local lexical association, suggesting an early influence of the global discourse representation on lexical processing, even in locally congruent contexts. Furthermore, effects of lexical association occurred earlier in the congruent than incongruent condition. These results differ from those that have been obtained in studies of reading, suggesting that the effects may be unique to spoken word recognition. PMID:23002319

Boudewyn, Megan A; Gordon, Peter C; Long, Debra; Polse, Lara; Swaab, Tamara Y

2012-06-01

477

Let them fall where they may: congruence analysis in massive phylogenetically messy data sets.  

PubMed

Interest in congruence in phylogenetic data has largely focused on issues affecting multicellular organisms, and animals in particular, in which the level of incongruence is expected to be relatively low. In addition, assessment methods developed in the past have been designed for reasonably small numbers of loci and scale poorly for larger data sets. However, there are currently over a thousand complete genome sequences available and of interest to evolutionary biologists, and these sequences are predominantly from microbial organisms, whose molecular evolution is much less frequently tree-like than that of multicellular life forms. As such, the level of incongruence in these data is expected to be high. We present a congruence method that accommodates both very large numbers of genes and high degrees of incongruence. Our method uses clustering algorithms to identify subsets of genes based on similarity of phylogenetic signal. It involves only a single phylogenetic analysis per gene, and therefore, computation time scales nearly linearly with the number of genes in the data set. We show that our method performs very well with sets of sequence alignments simulated under a wide variety of conditions. In addition, we present an analysis of core genes of prokaryotes, often assumed to have been largely vertically inherited, in which we identify two highly incongruent classes of genes. This result is consistent with the complexity hypothesis. PMID:21527387

Leigh, Jessica W; Schliep, Klaus; Lopez, Philippe; Bapteste, Eric

2011-10-01

478

When music tempo affects the temporal congruence between physical practice and motor imagery.  

PubMed

When people listen to music, they hear beat and a metrical structure in the rhythm; these perceived patterns enable coordination with the music. A clear correspondence between the tempo of actual movement (e.g., walking) and that of music has been demonstrated, but whether similar coordination occurs during motor imagery is unknown. Twenty participants walked naturally for 8m, either physically or mentally, while listening to slow and fast music, or not listening to anything at all (control condition). Executed and imagined walking times were recorded to assess the temporal congruence between physical practice (PP) and motor imagery (MI). Results showed a difference when comparing slow and fast time conditions, but each of these durations did not differ from soundless condition times, hence showing that body movement may not necessarily change in order to synchronize with music. However, the main finding revealed that the ability to achieve temporal congruence between PP and MI times was altered when listening to either slow or fast music. These data suggest that when physical movement is modulated with respect to the musical tempo, the MI efficacy of the corresponding movement may be affected by the rhythm of the music. Practical applications in sport are discussed as athletes frequently listen to music before competing while they mentally practice their movements to be performed. PMID:24681309

Debarnot, Ursula; Guillot, Aymeric

2014-06-01

479

Automatic detection of ridges in lunar images using phase symmetry and phase congruency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar surface exploration is increasing rapidly. These exploring satellites provide a large number of high resolution images containing topographical information. The topographical information in lunar surface are craters, ridges, mountains and grabens. Extracting this topographical information manually is time-consuming. Hence, an automatic feature extraction is favored. This paper presents a novel approach using image processing techniques to automatically detect ridges in lunar images. The approaches adopted for this development includes phase symmetry, phase congruency and morphological operations to automatically detect significant ridges. The phase symmetry extracts symmetry features with discontinuities, phase congruency extracts features lying in low contrast regions and morphological operations such as thinning and pruning are used to obtain significant ridges. The proposed novel approach experiments on a test set of different regions. These different region images are obtained from different sensors (LROC, Selene and Clementine) having different spatial resolution and illumination variation. The results obtained are compared with the plan curvature method; and they are evaluated based on true and false detection of ridge pixels. Irrespective of illumination variation and spatial resolution, the proposed approach provides better results than the plan curvature method and its detection rate is approximately 92%.

Micheal, Anto A.; Vani, K.; Sanjeevi, S.

2014-12-01

480

Sound location can influence audiovisual speech perception when spatial attention is manipulated.  

PubMed

Audiovisual speech perception has been considered to operate independent of sound location, since the McGurk effect (altered auditory speech perception caused by conflicting visual speech) has been shown to be unaffected by whether speech sounds are presented in the same or different location as a talking face. Here we show that sound location effects arise with manipulation of spatial attention. Sounds were presented from loudspeakers in five locations: the centre (location of the talking face) and 45°/90° to the left/right. Auditory spatial attention was focused on a location by presenting the majority (90%) of sounds from this location. In Experiment 1, the majority of sounds emanated from the centre, and the McGurk effect was enhanced there. In Experiment 2, the major location was 90° to the left, causing the McGurk effect to be stronger on the left and centre than on the right. Under control conditions, when sounds were presented with equal probability from all locations, the McGurk effect tended to be stronger for sounds emanating from the centre, but this tendency was not reliable. Additionally, reaction times were the shortest for a congruent audiovisual stimulus, and this was the case independent of location. Our main finding is that sound location can modulate audiovisual speech perception, and that spatial attention plays a role in this modulation. PMID:21406157

Tiippana, Kaisa; Puharinen, Hanna; Möttönen, Riikka; Sams, Mikko

2011-01-01

481

An fMRI Study of Audiovisual Speech Perception Reveals Multisensory Interactions in Auditory Cortex  

PubMed Central

Research on the neural basis of speech-reading implicates a network of auditory language regions involving inferior frontal cortex, premotor cortex and sites along superior temporal cortex. In audiovisual speech studies, neural activity is consistently reported in posterior superior temporal Sulcus (pSTS) and this site has been implicated in multimodal integration. Traditionally, multisensory interactions are considered high-level processing that engages heteromodal association cortices (such as STS). Recent work, however, challenges this notion and suggests that multisensory interactions may occur in low-level unimodal sensory cortices. While previous audiovisual speech studies demonstrate that high-level multisensory interactions occur in pSTS, what remains unclear is how early in the processing hierarchy these multisensory interactions may occur. The goal of the present fMRI experiment is to investigate how visual speech can influence activity in auditory cortex above and beyond its response to auditory speech. In an audiovisual speech experiment, subjects were presented with auditory speech with and without congruent visual input. Holding the auditory stimulus constant across the experiment, we investigated how the addition of visual speech influences activity in auditory cortex. We demonstrate that congruent visual speech increases the activity in auditory cortex. PMID:23805332

Okada, Kayoko; Venezia, Jonathan H.; Matchin, William; Saberi, Kourosh; Hickok, Gregory

2013-01-01

482

[Audiovisual telecommunication by multimedia technology in HNO medicine. ISDN--internet--ATM].  

PubMed

Telemedicine includes all medical activities in diagnosis, therapeutics, or social medicine undertaken by means of an electronic transfer medium, enabling the transmission of visual and acoustic information over long distances to doctors not personally present at the place of the requested consultation. Most experience with telemedicine applications has been gained in the field of diagnosis (teleconsultation, teleradiology, telepathology) and is expanding to quality control and quality assurance. Decisive for each form of application is its availability, practicability, cost, safety, and especially quality of audiovisual transmission. For telesurgical applications, particularly the use of minimally invasive techniques in otorhinolaryngology, head, and neck surgery, the high quality transmission of audiovisual data in real time is necessary. Rapid expansion and further developments in transmission technologies and networks in the last decade have created several technologies with increased quality and costs. In this paper, we tested different transmission media for audiovisual telecommunication--integrated services digital network (ISDN), Internet, and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM)--using real time video transmission of typical operations in otorhinolaryngology. Their applications, costs, and future perspectives are discussed. PMID:11139885

Plinkert, P K; Plinkert, B; Kurek, R; Zenner, H P

2000-11-01

483

Elucidating the Nature of Deregulated Semantic Cognition in Semantic Aphasia: Evidence for the Roles of Prefrontal and Temporoparietal Cortices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic cognition—semantically driven verbal and nonverbal behavior—is composed of at least two interactive principal components: conceptual representations and executive control processes that regulate and shape activation within the semantic system. Previous studies indicate that semantic dementia follows from a progressive yet specific degradation of conceptual knowledge. In contrast, multimodal semantic impairment in aphasic patients (semantic aphasia [SA]) reflects damage to

Krist A. Noonan; Elizabeth Jefferies; Faye Corbett; Matthew A. Lambon Ralph

2010-01-01

484

On the equivalence of state transformer semantics and predicate transformer semantics  

E-print Network

On the equivalence of state transformer semantics and predicate transformer semantics Dedicated and the author [13] have worked out the equivalence between state transformer semantics and predicate transformer the last section, where the equivalence of predicate and state transformer semantics is finally put

Keimel, Klaus

485

Building a Semantic Virtual Museum: from Wiki to Semantic Wiki using Named Entity Recognition  

E-print Network

Building a Semantic Virtual Museum: from Wiki to Semantic Wiki using Named Entity Recognition Alain semantic wiki pages from regular wiki pages, in the domain of scientific museums, using information to generate semantic wiki pages. Our initial evaluation of the prototype shows promising results in terms

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

486

Connectivity among Semantic Associates: An fMRI Study of Semantic Priming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Semantic priming refers to a reduction in the reaction time to identify or make a judgment about a stimulus that has been immediately preceded by a semantically related word or picture and is thought to result from a partial overlap in the semantic associates of the two words. A semantic priming lexical decision task using spoken words was…

Wible, Cynthia G.; Han, S. Duke; Spencer, Magdalena H.; Kubicki, Marek; Niznikiewicz, Margaret H.; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; McCarley, Robert W.; Nestor, Paul

2006-01-01

487

Introducing Reference Semantics via Refinement Graeme Smith  

E-print Network

Introducing Reference Semantics via Refinement Graeme Smith Software Verification Research Centre, University of Queensland, Australia smith@svrc.uq.edu.au Abstract. Two types of semantics have been given

Smith, Graeme

488

Towards a Statistically Semantic Web Gerhard Weikum  

E-print Network

-Lee: ,,The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web in which information is given meaning." Noam Chomsky: ,,Whether there is also a semantics of natural language ... seems to me an open question

489

Semantic Authoring for Blissymbols Augmented Communication  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.1.1 What is Augmentative and Alternative Communication? . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.1.2 WhoSemantic Authoring for Blissymbols Augmented Communication Using Multilingual Text Generation;Semantic Authoring for Blissymbols Augmented Communication Using Multilingual Text Generation Thesis

Elhadad, Michael

490

Simulating a Semantic Network in LMS  

E-print Network

A semantic network is a collection of nodes and the links between them. The nodes represent concepts, functions and entities, and the links represent relationships between varoius nodes. Any semantic network must be supplied ...

Koton, Phyllis A.

1980-09-29

491

Investigating the impact of audio instruction and audio-visual biofeedback for lung cancer radiation therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lung cancer accounts for 13% of all cancers in the Unites States and is the leading cause of deaths among both men and women. The five-year survival for lung cancer patients is approximately 15%.(ACS facts & figures) Respiratory motion decreases accuracy of thoracic radiotherapy during imaging and delivery. To account for respiration, generally margins are added during radiation treatment planning, which may cause a substantial dose delivery to normal tissues and increase the normal tissue toxicity. To alleviate the above-mentioned effects of respiratory motion, several motion management techniques are available which can reduce the doses to normal tissues, thereby reducing treatment toxicity and allowing dose escalation to the tumor. This may increase the survival probability of patients who have lung cancer and are receiving radiation therapy. However the accuracy of these motion management techniques are inhibited by respiration irregularity. The rationale of this thesis was to study the improvement in regularity of respiratory motion by breathing coaching for lung cancer patients using audio instructions and audio-visual biofeedback. A total of 331 patient respiratory motion traces, each four minutes in length, were collected from 24 lung cancer patients enrolled in an IRB-approved breathing-training protocol. It was determined that audio-visual biofeedback significantly improved the regularity of respiratory motion compared to free breathing and audio instruction, thus improving the accuracy of respiratory gated radiotherapy. It was also observed that duty cycles below 30% showed insignificant reduction in residual motion while above 50% there was a sharp increase in residual motion. The reproducibility of exhale based gating was higher than that of inhale base gating. Modeling the respiratory cycles it was found that cosine and cosine 4 models had the best correlation with individual respiratory cycles. The overall respiratory motion probability distribution function could be approximated to a normal distribution function. A statistical analysis was also performed to investigate if a patient's physical, tumor or general characteristics played a role in identifying whether he/she responded positively to the coaching type---signified by a reduction in the variability of respiratory motion. The analysis demonstrated that, although there were some characteristics like disease type and dose per fraction that were significant with respect to time-independent analysis, there were no significant time trends observed for the inter-session or intra-session analysis. Based on patient feedback with the existing audio-visual biofeedback system used for the study and research performed on other feedback systems, an improved audio-visual biofeedback system was designed. It is hoped the widespread clinical implementation of audio-visual biofeedback for radiotherapy will improve the accuracy of lung cancer radiotherapy.

George, Rohini

492

Student Assessment of Teacher Masculinity and Femininity: A Test of the Sex Role Congruency Hypothesis on Student Attitudes toward Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of teacher and student sex differences and student assessment of teacher sex role orientation on student attitudes toward learning was examined with 252 undergraduate students, each evaluating 1 teacher. Results do not support the sex role congruency hypothesis. Students were more affected by overall teacher qualities. (SLD)

Wheeless, Virginia Eman; Potorti, Paul F.

1989-01-01

493

Congruence Function for Measuring the Extent of Coverage of the Enacted Curriculum and District Pacing Calendars to State Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a mathematical function for measuring the congruence among the strand representation in the enacted curriculum, state assessments, and district pacing guides. Using the Manhattan distance as its basis, this method allows researchers to incorporate the strand coverage of the enacted curriculum (i.e., the curriculum actually…

Walkup, John R.; Jones, Ben S.; Pilipenko, John; Davenport, David P.

2008-01-01

494

Person-Environment Congruence, Self-Efficacy, and Environmental Identity in Relation to Job Satisfaction: A Career Decision Theory Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the relationship between person-environment congruence, self-efficacy, and environmental identity and job satisfaction. Participants were 198 employees of a multinational telecommunications corporation. The predictor domain included the lachan Index (R. lachan, 1984), the Mahalanobis Distance Index (L. J. Cronbach & G. C.…

Perdue, Stacie Vernick; Reardon, Robert C.; Peterson, Gary W.

2007-01-01

495

What Is Cultural Congruence, and Why Are They Saying Such Terrible Things about It? Occasional Paper No. 120.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Certain scholars in anthropology and education have recently suggested as an approach to combat school failure for minority students the concept of cultural congruence--the idea that learning is best accomplished in classrooms compatible with the cultural context of the communities they are supposed to serve. Although this concept is yet to be…

Singer, Eliot A.

496

Predicting the Gap: Perceptual Congruence between American Principals and Their Teachers' Ratings of Leadership Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to determine the extent to which principals' self-ratings of leadership effectiveness coincide with their teachers' perceptions of their leadership effectiveness. Furthermore, we explore several characteristics of teachers and principals in an attempt to identify the factors that may predict congruence in…

Goff, Peter T; Goldring, Ellen; Bickman, Leonard

2014-01-01

497

Congruence between patients’ preferred and perceived participation in medical decision-making: a review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Patients are increasingly expected and asked to be involved in health care decisions. In this decision-making process, preferences for participation are important. In this systematic review we aim to provide an overview the literature related to the congruence between patients’ preferences and their perceived participation in medical decision-making. We also explore the direction of mismatched and outline factors associated with congruence. Methods A systematic review was performed on patient participation in medical decision-making. Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases up to September 2012, were searched and all studies were rigorously critically appraised. In total 44 papers were included, they sampled contained 52 different patient samples. Results Mean of congruence between preference for and perceived participation in decision-making was 60% (49 and 70 representing 25th and 75th percentiles). If no congruence was found, of 36 patient samples most patients preferred more involvement and of 9 patient samples most patients preferred less involvement. Factors associated with preferences the most investigated were age and educational level. Younger patients preferred more often an active or shared role as did higher educated patients. Conclusion This review suggests that a similar approach to all patients is not likely to meet patients’ wishes, since preferences for participation vary among patients. Health care professionals should be sensitive to patients individual preferences and communicate about patients’ participation wishes on a regular basis during their illness trajectory. PMID:24708833

2014-01-01

498

Adult Students' Perception of the Congruence of Hybrid Courses with Their Adult Learning Needs and Their Satisfaction from Hybrid Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The overall purpose of the study was to examine adult students' perception of the congruence of hybrid courses with adult learning needs and to examine adult students' level of satisfaction with hybrid courses. The study collected data through pre and post surveys, administered at the beginning and near the end of the hybrid courses, of adult…

Iqbal, Rubina

2011-01-01

499

The Intergenerational Congruence of Mothers' and Preschoolers' Narrative Affective Content and Narrative Coherence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intergenerational congruence of mothers' and preschoolers' narratives about the mother-child relationship was examined in a sample of 198 Hispanic (59.1%), Black (19.2%), and White (21.7%) mothers and their preschool child. Mothers' narratives were obtained with the Five Minute Speech Sample and were coded for negative and positive…

Sher-Censor, Efrat; Grey, Izabela; Yates, Tuppett M.

2013-01-01

500

Semantic graphs and associative memories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphs have been increasingly utilized in the characterization of complex networks from diverse origins, including different kinds of semantic networks. Human memories are associative and are known to support complex semantic nets; these nets are represented by graphs. However, it is not known how the brain can sustain these semantic graphs. The vision of cognitive brain activities, shown by modern functional imaging techniques, assigns renewed value to classical distributed associative memory models. Here we show that these neural network models, also known as correlation matrix memories, naturally support a graph representation of the stored semantic structure. We demonstrate that the adjacency matrix of this graph of associations is just the memory coded with the standard basis of the concept vector space, and that the spectrum of the graph is a code invariant of the memory. As long as the assumptions of the model remain valid this result provides a practical method to predict and modify the evolution of the cognitive dynamics. Also, it could provide us with a way to comprehend how individual brains that map the external reality, almost surely with different particular vector representations, are nevertheless able to communicate and share a common knowledge of the world. We finish presenting adaptive association graphs, an extension of the model that makes use of the tensor product, which provides a solution to the known problem of branching in semantic nets.

Pomi, Andrés; Mizraji, Eduardo

2004-12-01