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1

Musical expertise induces audiovisual integration of abstract congruency rules.  

PubMed

Perception of everyday life events relies mostly on multisensory integration. Hence, studying the neural correlates of the integration of multiple senses constitutes an important tool in understanding perception within an ecologically valid framework. The present study used magnetoencephalography in human subjects to identify the neural correlates of an audiovisual incongruency response, which is not generated due to incongruency of the unisensory physical characteristics of the stimulation but from the violation of an abstract congruency rule. The chosen rule-"the higher the pitch of the tone, the higher the position of the circle"-was comparable to musical reading. In parallel, plasticity effects due to long-term musical training on this response were investigated by comparing musicians to non-musicians. The applied paradigm was based on an appropriate modification of the multifeatured oddball paradigm incorporating, within one run, deviants based on a multisensory audiovisual incongruent condition and two unisensory mismatch conditions: an auditory and a visual one. Results indicated the presence of an audiovisual incongruency response, generated mainly in frontal regions, an auditory mismatch negativity, and a visual mismatch response. Moreover, results revealed that long-term musical training generates plastic changes in frontal, temporal, and occipital areas that affect this multisensory incongruency response as well as the unisensory auditory and visual mismatch responses. PMID:23238733

Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Kuchenbuch, Anja; Herholz, Sibylle C; Pantev, Christo

2012-12-12

2

ERPs and Contextual Semantic Discrimination: Degrees of Congruence in Wakefulness and Sleep  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores whether the brain can discriminate degrees of semantic congruency during wakefulness and sleep. Experiment 1 was conducted during wakefulness to test degrees of congruency by means of N400 amplitude. In Experiment 2, the same paradigm was applied to a different group of participants during natural night sleep. Stimuli were 108…

Ibanez, Agustin; Lopez, Vladimir; Cornejo, Carlos

2006-01-01

3

Semantic congruence reverses effects of sleep restriction on associative encoding.  

PubMed

Encoding and memory consolidation are influenced by factors such as sleep and congruency of newly learned information with prior knowledge (i.e., schema). However, only a few studies have examined the contribution of sleep to enhancement of schema-dependent memory. Based on previous studies showing that total sleep deprivation specifically impairs hippocampal encoding, and that coherent schemas reduce the hippocampal consolidation period after learning, we predict that sleep loss in the pre-training night will mainly affect schema-unrelated information whereas sleep restriction in the post-training night will have similar effects on schema-related and unrelated information. Here, we tested this hypothesis by presenting participants with face-face associations that could be semantically related or unrelated under different sleep conditions: normal sleep before and after training, and acute sleep restriction either before or after training. Memory was tested one day after training, just after introducing an interference task, and two days later, without any interference. Significant results were evident on the second retesting session. In particular, sleep restriction before training enhanced memory for semantically congruent events in detriment of memory for unrelated events, supporting the specific role of sleep in hippocampal memory encoding. Unexpectedly, sleep restriction after training enhanced memory for both related and unrelated events. Although this finding may suggest a poorer encoding during the interference task, this hypothesis should be specifically tested in future experiments. All together, the present results support a framework in which encoding processes seem to be more vulnerable to sleep loss than consolidation processes. PMID:24462718

Alberca-Reina, Esther; Cantero, Jose L; Atienza, Mercedes

2014-04-01

4

Reproducibility and Discriminability of Brain Patterns of Semantic Categories Enhanced by Congruent Audiovisual Stimuli  

PubMed Central

One of the central questions in cognitive neuroscience is the precise neural representation, or brain pattern, associated with a semantic category. In this study, we explored the influence of audiovisual stimuli on the brain patterns of concepts or semantic categories through a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment. We used a pattern search method to extract brain patterns corresponding to two semantic categories: “old people” and “young people.” These brain patterns were elicited by semantically congruent audiovisual, semantically incongruent audiovisual, unimodal visual, and unimodal auditory stimuli belonging to the two semantic categories. We calculated the reproducibility index, which measures the similarity of the patterns within the same category. We also decoded the semantic categories from these brain patterns. The decoding accuracy reflects the discriminability of the brain patterns between two categories. The results showed that both the reproducibility index of brain patterns and the decoding accuracy were significantly higher for semantically congruent audiovisual stimuli than for unimodal visual and unimodal auditory stimuli, while the semantically incongruent stimuli did not elicit brain patterns with significantly higher reproducibility index or decoding accuracy. Thus, the semantically congruent audiovisual stimuli enhanced the within-class reproducibility of brain patterns and the between-class discriminability of brain patterns, and facilitate neural representations of semantic categories or concepts. Furthermore, we analyzed the brain activity in superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal gyrus (STS/MTG). The strength of the fMRI signal and the reproducibility index were enhanced by the semantically congruent audiovisual stimuli. Our results support the use of the reproducibility index as a potential tool to supplement the fMRI signal amplitude for evaluating multimodal integration.

Long, Jinyi; Yu, Zhuliang; Huang, Biao; Li, Xiaojian; Yu, Tianyou; Liang, Changhong; Li, Zheng; Sun, Pei

2011-01-01

5

Semantic Congruence Enhances Memory of Episodic Associations: Role of Theta Oscillations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing evidence suggests that theta oscillations play a crucial role in episodic encoding. The present study evaluates whether changes in electroencephalographic theta source dynamics mediate the positive influence of semantic congruence on incidental associative learning. Here we show that memory for episodic associations (face–location) is more accurate when studied under semantically congruent contexts. However, only participants showing RT priming effect

Mercedes Atienza; Maite Crespo-Garcia; Jose L. Cantero

2010-01-01

6

Congruence Effect in Semantic Categorization with Masked Primes with Narrow and Broad Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In semantic categorization, masked primes that are category-congruent with the target (e.g., "Planets: mars-VENUS") facilitate responses relative to category-incongruent primes (e.g., "tree-VENUS"). The present study investigated why this category congruence effect is more consistently found with narrow categories (e.g., "Numbers larger/smaller…

Quinn, Wendy Maree; Kinoshita, Sachiko

2008-01-01

7

Neural Correlates of Audiovisual Integration of Semantic Category Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have found a late frontal-central audiovisual interaction during the time period about 150-220 ms post-stimulus. However, it is unclear to which process is this audiovisual interaction related: to processing of acoustical features or to classification of stimuli? To investigate this question, event-related potentials were recorded…

Hu, Zhonghua; Zhang, Ruiling; Zhang, Qinglin; Liu, Qiang; Li, Hong

2012-01-01

8

Audiovisuals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information on a variety of audiovisual materials from government and nongovernment sources. Topics include aerodynamics and conditions of flight, airports, navigation, careers, history, medical factors, weather, films for classroom use, and others. (Author/SA)

Aviation/Space, 1980

1980-01-01

9

Semantic congruence enhances memory of episodic associations: role of theta oscillations.  

PubMed

Growing evidence suggests that theta oscillations play a crucial role in episodic encoding. The present study evaluates whether changes in electroencephalographic theta source dynamics mediate the positive influence of semantic congruence on incidental associative learning. Here we show that memory for episodic associations (face-location) is more accurate when studied under semantically congruent contexts. However, only participants showing RT priming effect in a conceptual priming test (priming group) also gave faster responses when recollecting source information of semantically congruent faces as compared with semantically incongruent faces. This improved episodic retrieval was positively correlated with increases in theta power during the study phase mainly in the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and left lateral posterior parietal lobe. Reconstructed signals from the estimated sources showed higher theta power for congruent than incongruent faces and also for the priming than the nonpriming group. These results are in agreement with the attention to memory model. Besides directing top-down attention to goal-relevant semantic information during encoding, the dorsal parietal lobe may also be involved in redirecting attention to bottom-up-driven memories thanks to connections between the medial-temporal and the left ventral parietal lobe. The latter function can either facilitate or interfere with encoding of face-location associations depending on whether they are preceded by semantically congruent or incongruent contexts, respectively, because only in the former condition retrieved representations related to the cue and the face are both coherent with the person identity and are both associated with the same location. PMID:19925185

Atienza, Mercedes; Crespo-Garcia, Maite; Cantero, Jose L

2011-01-01

10

Between- and within-Ear Congruency and Laterality Effects in an Auditory Semantic/Emotional Prosody Conflict Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the influence of within- and between-ear congruency on interference and laterality effects in an auditory semantic/prosodic conflict task. Participants were presented dichotically with words (e.g., mad, sad, glad) pronounced in either congruent or incongruent emotional tones (e.g., angry, happy, or sad) and…

Techentin, Cheryl; Voyer, Daniel; Klein, Raymond M.

2009-01-01

11

Semantic association of ecologically unrelated synchronous audio-visual information in cognitive integration: an event-related potential study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we aimed to study the semantic association of ecologically unrelated synchronous audio-visual information in cognitive integration. A moving particle, which speed varied, was taken as a visual stimulus, while a simple tone, which frequency varied, was used as an auditory stimulus, both were synchronously presented to subjects in the form of a video. Behavioral results confirmed our

B. Liu; G. Wu; Z. Wang; X. Meng; Q. Wang

2011-01-01

12

The Effect of Combined Sensory and Semantic Components on Audio-Visual Speech Perception in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have found that perception in older people benefits from multisensory over unisensory information. As normal speech recognition is affected by both the auditory input and the visual lip movements of the speaker, we investigated the efficiency of audio and visual integration in an older population by manipulating the relative reliability of the auditory and visual information in speech. We also investigated the role of the semantic context of the sentence to assess whether audio–visual integration is affected by top-down semantic processing. We presented participants with audio–visual sentences in which the visual component was either blurred or not blurred. We found that there was a greater cost in recall performance for semantically meaningless speech in the audio–visual ‘blur’ compared to audio–visual ‘no blur’ condition and this effect was specific to the older group. Our findings have implications for understanding how aging affects efficient multisensory integration for the perception of speech and suggests that multisensory inputs may benefit speech perception in older adults when the semantic content of the speech is unpredictable.

Maguinness, Corrina; Setti, Annalisa; Burke, Kate E.; Kenny, Rose Anne; Newell, Fiona N.

2011-01-01

13

Semantic Facilitation in Category and Action Naming: Testing the Message-Congruency Account  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic-level picture naming is hampered by the presence of a semantically related context word (compared to an unrelated word), whereas picture categorization is facilitated by a semantically related context word. This reversal of the semantic context effect has been explained by assuming that in categorization tasks, basic-level distractor words…

Kuipers, Jan-Rouke; La Heij, Wido

2008-01-01

14

Failures Semantics Based on Interval Semiwords is a Congruence for Refinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper concurrent systems are modelled with safe Petri nets. The coarsest equivalence contained in failures equivalence is determined that is a congruence with respect to refinement. It is shown that in this context partial orders are necessary for the description of system runs: what is needed here are so-called interval orders.

Walter Vogler

1991-01-01

15

Failures Semantics Based on Interval Semiwords is a Congruence for Refinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper concurrent systems are modelled with safe Petri nets. The coarsest equivalence contained in failures equivalence is determined that is a congruence with respect to refinement. It is shown that in this context partial orders are necessary for the description of system runs: What is needed here are so-called interval orders.

Walter Vogler

1990-01-01

16

A Further Look at Semantic Context Effects in Language Production: The Role of Response Congruency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most current models of speech production predict interference from related context words in picture-naming tasks. However, Glaser and Dungelhoff (1984) reported semantic facilitation when the task was changed from basic-level naming to category-level naming. The authors explore two proposals to account for this change in polarity of the semantic

Kuipers, Jan-Rouke; La Heij, Wido; Costa, Albert

2006-01-01

17

Indexing method of digital audiovisual medical resources with semantic Web integration.  

PubMed

Digitalization of audiovisual resources and network capability offer many possibilities which are the subject of intensive work in scientific and industrial sectors. Indexing such resources is a major challenge. Recently, the Motion Pictures Expert Group (MPEG) has developed MPEG-7, a standard for describing multimedia content. The goal of this standard is to develop a rich set of standardized tools to enable efficient retrieval from digital archives or the filtering of audiovisual broadcasts on the Internet. How could this kind of technology be used in the medical context? In this paper, we propose a simpler indexing system, based on the Dublin Core standard and compliant to MPEG-7. We use MeSH and the UMLS to introduce conceptual navigation. We also present a video-platform which enables encoding and gives access to audiovisual resources in streaming mode. PMID:15694622

Cuggia, Marc; Mougin, Fleur; Le Beux, Pierre

2005-03-01

18

Indexing method of digital audiovisual medical resources with semantic Web integration.  

PubMed

Digitalization of audio-visual resources combined with the performances of the networks offer many possibilities which are the subject of intensive work in the scientific and industrial sectors. Indexing such resources is a major challenge. Recently, the Motion Pictures Expert Group (MPEG) has been developing MPEG-7, a standard for describing multimedia content. The good of this standard is to develop a rich set of standardized tools to enable fast efficient retrieval from digital archives or filtering audiovisual broadcasts on the internet. How this kind of technologies could be used in the medical context? In this paper, we propose a simpler indexing system, based on Dublin Core standard and complaint to MPEG-7. We use MeSH and UMLS to introduce conceptual navigation. We also present a video-platform with enables to encode and give access to audio-visual resources in streaming mode. PMID:14664072

Cuggia, Marc; Mougin, Fleur; Le Beux, Pierre

2003-01-01

19

When Hearing the Bark Helps to Identify the Dog: Semantically-Congruent Sounds Modulate the Identification of Masked Pictures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report a series of experiments designed to assess the effect of audiovisual semantic congruency on the identification of visually-presented pictures. Participants made unspeeded identification responses concerning a series of briefly-presented, and then rapidly-masked, pictures. A naturalistic sound was sometimes presented together with the…

Chen, Yi-Chuan; Spence, Charles

2010-01-01

20

Acquired prior knowledge modulates audiovisual integration.  

PubMed

Orienting responses to audiovisual events in the environment can benefit markedly by the integration of visual and auditory spatial information. However, logically, audiovisual integration would only be considered successful for stimuli that are spatially and temporally aligned, as these would be emitted by a single object in space-time. As humans do not have prior knowledge about whether novel auditory and visual events do indeed emanate from the same object, such information needs to be extracted from a variety of sources. For example, expectation about alignment or misalignment could modulate the strength of multisensory integration. If evidence from previous trials would repeatedly favour aligned audiovisual inputs, the internal state might also assume alignment for the next trial, and hence react to a new audiovisual event as if it were aligned. To test for such a strategy, subjects oriented a head-fixed pointer as fast as possible to a visual flash that was consistently paired, though not always spatially aligned, with a co-occurring broadband sound. We varied the probability of audiovisual alignment between experiments. Reaction times were consistently lower in blocks containing only aligned audiovisual stimuli than in blocks also containing pseudorandomly presented spatially disparate stimuli. Results demonstrate dynamic updating of the subject's prior expectation of audiovisual congruency. We discuss a model of prior probability estimation to explain the results. PMID:20584180

Van Wanrooij, Marc M; Bremen, Peter; John Van Opstal, A

2010-05-01

21

Audiovisual Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists and reviews recent audiovisual materials in areas of medical, dental, nursing and allied health, and veterinary medicine; undergraduate, and high school studies. Each is classified as to level, type of instruction, usefulness, and source of availability. Topics include respiration, renal physiology, muscle mechanics, anatomy, evolution,…

Physiology Teacher, 1976

1976-01-01

22

Newtonian-like congruences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I consider the Newtonian-like, timelike congruences of Ellis and van Elst, which is to say timelike congruences which are both twist-free and shear-free. I find all such congruences in flat space and give an algorithm for recognizing candidates for such congruences in curved space. I find the metric form which is necessary and sufficient to admit infinitely many distinct such congruences. In particular, the spherically symmetric dust cosmologies of Bondi are seen to admit infinitely many.

Tod, K. P.

1999-05-01

23

Audiovisual Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information about the objects and events in the external world is received via multiple sense organs, especially via eyes and ears. For example, a singing bird can be heard and seen. Typically, audiovisual objects are detected, localized and identified more rapidly and accurately than objects which are perceived via only one sensory system (see, e.g. Welch and Warren, 1986; Stein and Meredith, 1993; de Gelder and Bertelson, 2003; Calvert et al., 2004). The ability of the central nervous system to utilize sensory inputs mediated by different sense organs is called multisensory processing.

Möttönen, Riikka; Sams, Mikko

24

[Ventriloquism and audio-visual integration of voice and face].  

PubMed

Presenting synchronous auditory and visual stimuli in separate locations creates the illusion that the sound originates from the direction of the visual stimulus. Participants' auditory localization bias, called the ventriloquism effect, has revealed factors affecting the perceptual integration of audio-visual stimuli. However, many studies on audio-visual processes have focused on performance in simplified experimental situations, with a single stimulus in each sensory modality. These results cannot necessarily explain our perceptual behavior in natural scenes, where various signals exist within a single sensory modality. In the present study we report the contributions of a cognitive factor, that is, the audio-visual congruency of speech, although this factor has often been underestimated in previous ventriloquism research. Thus, we investigated the contribution of speech congruency on the ventriloquism effect using a spoken utterance and two videos of a talking face. The salience of facial movements was also manipulated. As a result, when bilateral visual stimuli are presented in synchrony with a single voice, cross-modal speech congruency was found to have a significant impact on the ventriloquism effect. This result also indicated that more salient visual utterances attracted participants' auditory localization. The congruent pairing of audio-visual utterances elicited greater localization bias than did incongruent pairing, whereas previous studies have reported little dependency on the reality of stimuli in ventriloquism. Moreover, audio-visual illusory congruency, owing to the McGurk effect, caused substantial visual interference to auditory localization. This suggests that a greater flexibility in responding to multi-sensory environments exists than has been previously considered. PMID:22764349

Yokosawa, Kazuhiko; Kanaya, Shoko

2012-07-01

25

Neural correlates of audiovisual speech processing in a second language.  

PubMed

Neuroimaging studies of audiovisual speech processing have exclusively addressed listeners' native language (L1). Yet, several behavioural studies now show that AV processing plays an important role in non-native (L2) speech perception. The current fMRI study measured brain activity during auditory, visual, audiovisual congruent and audiovisual incongruent utterances in L1 and L2. BOLD responses to congruent AV speech in the pSTS were stronger than in either unimodal condition in both L1 and L2. Yet no differences in AV processing were expressed according to the language background in this area. Instead, the regions in the bilateral occipital lobe had a stronger congruency effect on the BOLD response (congruent higher than incongruent) in L2 as compared to L1. According to these results, language background differences are predominantly expressed in these unimodal regions, whereas the pSTS is similarly involved in AV integration regardless of language dominance. PMID:23872285

Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Visser, Maya; Alsius, Agnès; Pallier, Christophe; Avila Rivera, César; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

2013-09-01

26

The Audiovisual Portfolio.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development of an audiovisual portfolio, consisting of a student teaching notebook, slide narrative presentation, audiotapes, and a videotape-- valuable for prospective teachers in job interviews. (CMV)

Williams, Eugene

1979-01-01

27

Spatial Orienting in Complex Audiovisual Environments  

PubMed Central

Previous studies on crossmodal spatial orienting typically used simple and stereotyped stimuli in the absence of any meaningful context. This study combined computational models, behavioural measures and functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate audiovisual spatial interactions in naturalistic settings. We created short videos portraying everyday life situations that included a lateralised visual event and a co-occurring sound, either on the same or on the opposite side of space. Subjects viewed the videos with or without eye-movements allowed (overt or covert orienting). For each video, visual and auditory saliency maps were used to index the strength of stimulus-driven signals, and eye-movements were used as a measure of the efficacy of the audiovisual events for spatial orienting. Results showed that visual salience modulated activity in higher-order visual areas, whereas auditory salience modulated activity in the superior temporal cortex. Auditory salience modulated activity also in the posterior parietal cortex, but only when audiovisual stimuli occurred on the same side of space (multisensory spatial congruence). Orienting efficacy affected activity in the visual cortex, within the same regions modulated by visual salience. These patterns of activation were comparable in overt and covert orienting conditions. Our results demonstrate that, during viewing of complex multisensory stimuli, activity in sensory areas reflects both stimulus-driven signals and their efficacy for spatial orienting; and that the posterior parietal cortex combines spatial information about the visual and the auditory modality.

Nardo, Davide; Santangelo, Valerio; Macaluso, Emiliano

2013-01-01

28

Status Congruency and Mental Health.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study evaluated a status congruency model in relationship to effective military performance after psychiatric contact and compared the status congruency score distributions of psychiatric outpatients with those of non-psychiatric controls. The congrue...

J. M. Erickson D. Edwards E. K. E. Gunderson

1973-01-01

29

The effects of synchronization of temporal structures of sound and motion picture on the impression of audio-visual contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify the effects of the temporal structure of sound and motion pictures on the impression of audio-visual contents, the impression of various kinds of audio-visual combinations was measured by a semantic differential method. The experimental variables of audio-visual stimuli are the speed of the motion picture, the tempo of the auditory stimulus and the temporal relationship between the visual

S. Iwamiya; Y. Sugano; K. Kouda

2000-01-01

30

Student Perceptions of Occupational Congruency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated student perceptions of occupational congruency using Holland's realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional personality and environment types. Four levels of person-environment congruency were established from the hexagonal ordering of the types. Student perceptions of congruent activities, values,…

Williams, Gerald D.

1975-01-01

31

Utilizing New Audiovisual Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of Arizona's Agriculture Department has found that video cassette systems and 8 mm films are excellent audiovisual aids to classroom instruction at the high school level in small gasoline engines. Each system is capable of improving the instructional process for motor skill development. (MW)

Miller, Glen

1975-01-01

32

AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT STANDARDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

RECOMMENDED STANDARDS FOR AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT WERE PRESENTED SEPARATELY FOR GRADES KINDERGARTEN THROUGH SIX, AND FOR JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS. THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL EQUIPMENT CONSIDERED WAS THE FOLLOWING--CLASSROOM LIGHT CONTROL, MOTION PICTURE PROJECTOR WITH MOBILE STAND AND SPARE REELS, COMBINATION 2 INCH X 2 INCH SLIDE AND FILMSTRIP…

PATTERSON, PIERCE E.; AND OTHERS

33

[Appraisal of Audiovisual Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of four separate handouts all related to the appraisal of audiovisual (AV) materials: "How to Work with an Appraiser of AV Media: A Convenient Check List for Clients and Their Advisors," helps a client prepare for an appraisal, explaining what is necessary before the appraisal, the appraisal process and its costs, the kind…

Johnson, Steve

34

Selected Mental Health Audiovisuals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are approximately 2,300 abstracts on audio-visual Materials--films, filmstrips, audiotapes, and videotapes--related to mental health. Each citation includes material title; name, address, and phone number of film distributor; rental and purchase prices; technical information; and a description of the contents. Abstracts are listed in…

National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

35

A MultiStream Approach to Audiovisual Automatic Speech Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a multi-stream approach to automatic audiovisual speech recognition, based in part on Hickok and Poeppel's dual-stream model of human speech processing. The dual-stream model proposes that semantic networks may be accessed by at least three parallel neural streams: at least two ventral streams that map directly from acoustics to words (with different time scales), and at least

Mark Hasegawa-Johnson

2007-01-01

36

Soft Congruence Relations over Rings  

PubMed Central

Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft sets, which can be seen as a new mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, we initiate the study of soft congruence relations by using the soft set theory. The notions of soft quotient rings, generalized soft ideals and generalized soft quotient rings, are introduced, and several related properties are investigated. Also, we obtain a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and idealistic soft rings and a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and soft ideals. In particular, the first, second, and third soft isomorphism theorems are established, respectively.

Xin, Xiaolong; Li, Wenting

2014-01-01

37

Transformational Leadership and Value System Congruence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study looked at the relationship between transformational leadership and three types of value system congruence – leader-organization congruence, leader-follower congruence,and follower-organization congruence, separately for terminal and instrumental values. Findings indicate that follower's terminal value system congruence with leader is positively related to transformational leadership, and this relationship remains significant even after controlling for leader-organization or follower-organization terminal value system

Venkat R. Krishnan

2002-01-01

38

Audio?visual aids  

Microsoft Academic Search

AUDIO?VISUAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING, 16 mm. 13 1\\/2 minutes. Sound. Color, $150.00, Black and White, $75.00; and NEW DIMENSIONS THROUGH TEACHING FILMS, 16 mm. 27 minutes. Sound. Color, $180.00. Available through Coronet Instructional Films, Coronet Building, Chicago, Illinois 60601.ART: WHAT IS IT: WHY IS IT?, No. 47561. 16 mm. go minutes. Sound. Color. Cost $360. Available through Encyclopaedia Britannica Films,

Robertson Strawn; Ruth Hankowsky; Ronad J. Koperski; Mary Louise Gehring; Dora Heintz; Ruby Cloys Krider; Jimmie D. Trent

1967-01-01

39

Goal Congruence in the University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A questionnaire administered to 150 undergraduates and 90 faculty members compared their relative levels of goal congruence with those of their university. Programs in medicine, social sciences, and engineering were studied. (JW)

Neumann, Lily; Neumann, Yoram

1983-01-01

40

The Audio-Visual Man.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of twelve essays discuss the use of audiovisuals in religious education. The essays are divided into three sections: one which draws on the ideas of Marshall McLuhan and other educators to explore the newest ideas about audiovisual language and faith, one that describes how to learn and use the new language of audio and visual images, and…

Babin, Pierre, Ed.

41

Dissociating verbal and nonverbal audiovisual object processing  

PubMed Central

This fMRI study investigates how audiovisual integration differs for verbal stimuli that can be matched at a phonological level and nonverbal stimuli that can be matched at a semantic level. Subjects were presented simultaneously with one visual and one auditory stimulus and were instructed to decide whether these stimuli referred to the same object or not. Verbal stimuli were simultaneously presented spoken and written object names, and nonverbal stimuli were photographs of objects simultaneously presented with naturally occurring object sounds. Stimulus differences were controlled by including two further conditions that paired photographs of objects with spoken words and object sounds with written words. Verbal matching, relative to all other conditions, increased activation in a region of the left superior temporal sulcus that has previously been associated with phonological processing. Nonverbal matching, relative to all other conditions, increased activation in a right fusiform region that has previously been associated with structural and conceptual object processing. Thus, we demonstrate how brain activation for audiovisual integration depends on the verbal content of the stimuli, even when stimulus and task processing differences are controlled.

Hocking, Julia; Price, Cathy J.

2009-01-01

42

Papers in Semantics. Working Papers in Linguistics No. 49.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers on semantic theory and research include: "Presupposition, Congruence, and Adverbs of Quantification" (Mike Calcagno); "A Unified Account of '(Ta)myen'-Conditionals in Korean" (Chan Chung); "Spanish 'imperfecto' and 'preterito': Truth Conditions and Aktionsart Effects in a Situation Semantics" (Alicia Cipria, Craige Roberts); "Remarks on…

Yoon, Jae-Hak, Ed.; Kathol, Andreas, Ed.

1996-01-01

43

Comprehensive Interests Measurement in Counseling for Congruence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests counselors measure vocational interests with three inventories: Ramak Interest Inventory, Courses Interest Inventory, and Self-Directed Search. Discusses implications from studies on vocational congruence, environmental congruence, structure of occupational fields, and within-occupation congruence. Presents five defense mechanisms for…

Meir, Elchanan I.

1994-01-01

44

Semantic priming revealed by mouse movement trajectories.  

PubMed

Congruency effects are taken as evidence that semantic information can be processed automatically. However, these effects are often weak, and the straightforward association between primes and targets can exaggerate congruency effects. To address these problems, a mouse movement method is applied to scrutinize congruency effects. In one experiment, participants judged whether two numbers were the same ("3?3") or different ("3?5"), preceded by briefly presented pictures with either positive or negative connotations. Participants indicated their responses by clicking a "Same" or "Different" button on the computer screen, while their cursor trajectories were recorded for each trial. The trajectory data revealed greater deviation to unselected buttons in incongruent trials (e.g., "3?5" preceded by a green traffic light picture). This effect was influenced by the type of responses but not by prime durations. We suggest that the mouse movement method can complement the reaction time to study masked semantic priming. PMID:24797040

Xiao, Kunchen; Yamauchi, Takashi

2014-07-01

45

The Congruence Myth Revisited: Rejoinder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This rejoinder to comments on a previous article about research on the person-environment fit (PEF) model addresses issues in the relationship of congruence to vocational outcomes, the circumplex model, tests of Holland's hexagonal model, and advances in PEF theory and research. (Contains 61 references.) (SK)

Tinsley, Howard E. A.

2000-01-01

46

Attentional Factors in Conceptual Congruency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conceptual congruency effects are biases induced by an irrelevant conceptual dimension of a task (e.g., location in vertical space) on the processing of another, relevant dimension (e.g., judging words' emotional evaluation). Such effects are a central empirical pillar for recent views about how the mind/brain represents concepts. In the present…

Santiago, Julio; Ouellet, Marc; Roman, Antonio; Valenzuela, Javier

2012-01-01

47

Audio-visual speech perception: a developmental ERP investigation  

PubMed Central

Being able to see a talking face confers a considerable advantage for speech perception in adulthood. However, behavioural data currently suggest that children fail to make full use of these available visual speech cues until age 8 or 9. This is particularly surprising given the potential utility of multiple informational cues during language learning. We therefore explored this at the neural level. The event-related potential (ERP) technique has been used to assess the mechanisms of audio-visual speech perception in adults, with visual cues reliably modulating auditory ERP responses to speech. Previous work has shown congruence-dependent shortening of auditory N1/P2 latency and congruence-independent attenuation of amplitude in the presence of auditory and visual speech signals, compared to auditory alone. The aim of this study was to chart the development of these well-established modulatory effects over mid-to-late childhood. Experiment 1 employed an adult sample to validate a child-friendly stimulus set and paradigm by replicating previously observed effects of N1/P2 amplitude and latency modulation by visual speech cues; it also revealed greater attenuation of component amplitude given incongruent audio-visual stimuli, pointing to a new interpretation of the amplitude modulation effect. Experiment 2 used the same paradigm to map cross-sectional developmental change in these ERP responses between 6 and 11 years of age. The effect of amplitude modulation by visual cues emerged over development, while the effect of latency modulation was stable over the child sample. These data suggest that auditory ERP modulation by visual speech represents separable underlying cognitive processes, some of which show earlier maturation than others over the course of development.

Knowland, Victoria CP; Mercure, Evelyne; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dick, Fred; Thomas, Michael SC

2014-01-01

48

Cortical Plasticity of Audio-Visual Object Representations  

PubMed Central

Several regions in human temporal and frontal cortex are known to integrate visual and auditory object features. The processing of audio–visual (AV) associations in these regions has been found to be modulated by object familiarity. The aim of the present study was to explore training-induced plasticity in human cortical AV integration. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to analyze the neural correlates of AV integration for unfamiliar artificial object sounds and images in naïve subjects (PRE training) and after a behavioral training session in which subjects acquired associations between some of these sounds and images (POST-training). In the PRE-training session, unfamiliar artificial object sounds and images were mainly integrated in right inferior frontal cortex (IFC). The POST-training results showed extended integration-related IFC activations bilaterally, and a recruitment of additional regions in bilateral superior temporal gyrus/sulcus and intraparietal sulcus. Furthermore, training-induced differential response patterns to mismatching compared with matching (i.e., associated) artificial AV stimuli were most pronounced in left IFC. These effects were accompanied by complementary training-induced congruency effects in right posterior middle temporal gyrus and fusiform gyrus. Together, these findings demonstrate that short-term cross-modal association learning was sufficient to induce plastic changes of both AV integration of object stimuli and mechanisms of AV congruency processing.

Doehrmann, Oliver; Muller, Notger G.; Muckli, Lars; Kaiser, Jochen; Hein, Grit

2009-01-01

49

Autofocus using image phase congruency.  

PubMed

The key issue in passive autofocus is to choose robust focus measures to judge optical blur in defocused images. Existing focus measures are sensitive to image contrast (illumination) as they use image intensity. In this report we demonstrate a focus measure using phase congruency. The proposed focus measure is robust for noisy imaging sensors in varying illumination conditions, and has great balance of defocus sensitivity and effective range. Its advantages are shown with a number of synthetic image sequences. PMID:21263565

Tian, Yibin

2011-01-01

50

Geodesic congruences in warped spacetimes  

SciTech Connect

In this article, we explore the kinematics of timelike geodesic congruences in warped five-dimensional bulk spacetimes, with and without thick or thin branes. Beginning with geodesic flows in the Randall-Sundrum anti-de Sitter geometry without and with branes, we find analytical expressions for the expansion scalar and comment on the effects of including thin branes on its evolution. Later, we move on to congruences in more general warped bulk geometries with a cosmological thick brane and a time-dependent extra dimensional scale. Using analytical expressions for the velocity field, we interpret the expansion, shear and rotation (ESR) along the flows, as functions of the extra dimensional coordinate. The evolution of a cross-sectional area orthogonal to the congruence, as seen from a local observer's point of view, is also shown graphically. Finally, the Raychaudhuri and geodesic equations in backgrounds with a thick brane are solved numerically in order to figure out the role of initial conditions (prescribed on the ESR) and spacetime curvature on the evolution of the ESR.

Ghosh, Suman [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Dasgupta, Anirvan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Centre for Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Kar, Sayan [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Centre for Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

2011-04-15

51

Semantic processing of crowded stimuli?  

PubMed

Effects of semantic processing of crowded characters were investigated using numbers as stimuli. In an identification task, typical spacing effects in crowding were replicated. Using the same stimuli in a magnitude comparison task, a smaller effect of spacing was observed as well as an effect of response congruency. These effects were replicated in a second experiment with varying stimulus-onset asynchronies. In addition, decreasing performance with increasing onset-asynchrony (so-called type-B masking) for incongruent flankers indicates semantic processing of target and flankers. The data show that semantic processing takes place even in crowded stimuli. This argues strongly against common accounts of crowding in terms of early stimulus-driven impairments of processing. PMID:18841386

Huckauf, Anke; Knops, Andre; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Willmes, Klaus

2008-11-01

52

Criminal Justice Audiovisual Materials Directory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the third edition of a source directory of audiovisual materials for the education, training, and orientation of those in the criminal justice field. It is divided into five parts covering the courts, police techniques and training, prevention, prisons and rehabilitation/correction, and public education. Each entry includes a brief…

Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

53

Criminal Justice Audiovisual Materials Directory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This source directory of audiovisual materials for the education, training, and orientation of those in the criminal justice field is divided into five parts covering the courts, police techniques and training, prevention, prisons and rehabilitation/correction, and public education. Each entry includes a brief description of the product, the time…

Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

54

Neurofunctional Underpinnings of Audiovisual Emotion Processing in Teens with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Despite successful performance on some audiovisual emotion tasks, hypoactivity has been observed in frontal and temporal integration cortices in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Little is understood about the neurofunctional network underlying this ability in individuals with ASD. Research suggests that there may be processing biases in individuals with ASD, based on their ability to obtain meaningful information from the face and/or the voice. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined brain activity in teens with ASD (n?=?18) and typically developing controls (n?=?16) during audiovisual and unimodal emotion processing. Teens with ASD had a significantly lower accuracy when matching an emotional face to an emotion label. However, no differences in accuracy were observed between groups when matching an emotional voice or face-voice pair to an emotion label. In both groups brain activity during audiovisual emotion matching differed significantly from activity during unimodal emotion matching. Between-group analyses of audiovisual processing revealed significantly greater activation in teens with ASD in a parietofrontal network believed to be implicated in attention, goal-directed behaviors, and semantic processing. In contrast, controls showed greater activity in frontal and temporal association cortices during this task. These results suggest that in the absence of engaging integrative emotional networks during audiovisual emotion matching, teens with ASD may have recruited the parietofrontal network as an alternate compensatory system.

Doyle-Thomas, Krissy A.R.; Goldberg, Jeremy; Szatmari, Peter; Hall, Geoffrey B.C.

2013-01-01

55

Enemies and Friends in the Neighborhood: Orthographic Similarity Effects in Semantic Categorization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies investigating orthographic similarity effects in semantic tasks have produced inconsistent results. The authors investigated orthographic similarity effects in animacy decision and in contrast with previous studies, they took semantic congruency into account. In Experiments 1 and 2, performance to a target (cat) was better if a previously…

Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, Rene; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

2005-01-01

56

Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict  

PubMed Central

Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study sought to distinguish between conflict monitoring and congruency-based accounts of CSEs. To this end, we determined whether CSEs are driven by previous-trial reaction time (RT)—a putative measure of response conflict—or by previous-trial congruency. In two experiments using a face-word Stroop task (n = 49), we found that current-trial congruency effects did not vary with previous-trial RT independent of previous-trial congruency. In contrast, current-trial congruency effects were influenced by previous-trial congruency independent of previous-trial RT. These findings appear more consistent with theories that attribute CSEs to non-conflict processes whose recruitment varies with previous-trial congruency than with theories that link CSEs to previous-trial response conflict.

Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua

2013-01-01

57

Knowledge Representation for Semantic Multimedia Content Analysis and Reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a knowledge representation infrastructure for semantic multimedia content analysis and reasoning is presented. This is one of the major objectives of the aceMedia Integrated Project where ontolo- gies are being extended and enriched to include low-level audiovisual features, descriptors and behavioural models in order to support auto- matic content annotation. More specifically, the developed infrastruc- ture consists

Kosmas Petridis; Ioannis Kompatsiaris; Michael G. Strintzis; Stephan Bloehdorn; Siegfried Handschuh; Steffen Staab; Nikos Simou; Vassilis Tzouvaras; Yannis S. Avrithis

2004-01-01

58

Suggestion overrides automatic audiovisual integration.  

PubMed

Cognitive scientists routinely distinguish between controlled and automatic mental processes. Through learning, practice, and exposure, controlled processes can become automatic; however, whether automatic processes can become deautomatized - recuperated under the purview of control - remains unclear. Here we show that a suggestion derails a deeply ingrained process involving involuntary audiovisual integration. We compared the performance of highly versus less hypnotically suggestible individuals (HSIs versus LSIs) in a classic McGurk paradigm - a perceptual illusion task demonstrating the influence of visual facial movements on auditory speech percepts. Following a posthypnotic suggestion to prioritize auditory input, HSIs but not LSIs manifested fewer illusory auditory perceptions and correctly identified more auditory percepts. Our findings demonstrate that a suggestion deautomatized a ballistic audiovisual process in HSIs. In addition to guiding our knowledge regarding theories and mechanisms of automaticity, the present findings pave the road to a more scientific understanding of top-down effects and multisensory integration. PMID:24398260

Déry, Catherine; Campbell, Natasha K J; Lifshitz, Michael; Raz, Amir

2014-02-01

59

Event congruency and episodic encoding: a developmental fMRI study.  

PubMed

A known contributor to adults' superior memory performance compared to children is their differential reliance on an existing knowledge base. Compared to those of adults, children's semantic networks are less accessible and less established, a difference that is also thought to contribute to children's relative resistance to semantically related false alarms. Using the "congruency effect" - the memory advantage of congruity, we manipulated the encoded stimuli in the present experiment such that the use of the knowledge base at encoding was more - or less - accessible in both children and adults. While being scanned, 15 children (ages 8-11) and 18 young adults saw printed noun/color combinations and were asked to indicate whether each combination existed in nature. A subsequent recognition test was administered outside of the scanner. Behaviorally, although overall memory was higher in the adult group compared to the children, both age groups showed the congruency effect to the same extent. A comparison of the neural substrates supporting the congruency effect between adults and children revealed that whereas adults recruited regions primarily associated with semantic-conceptual processing (e.g., the left PFC and parietal and occipito-temporal cortices), children recruited regions earlier in the processing stream (e.g., the right occipital cortex). This evidence supports the hypothesis that early in development, episodic encoding depends more on perceptual systems, whereas top-down frontal control and parietal structures become more prominent in the encoding process with age. This developmental switch contributes to adults' superior memory performance but may render adults more vulnerable to committing semantically based errors. PMID:21777596

Maril, Anat; Avital, Rinat; Reggev, Niv; Zuckerman, Maya; Sadeh, Talya; Ben Sira, Liat; Livneh, Neta

2011-09-01

60

TIMING OF AUDIOVISUAL INPUTS TO THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX AND MULTISENSORY INTEGRATION  

PubMed Central

A number of studies have demonstrated that the relative timing of audiovisual stimuli is especially important for multisensory integration of speech signals although the neuronal mechanisms underlying this complex behavior are unknown. Temporal coincidence and congruency are thought to underlie the successful merging of two inter-modal stimuli into a coherent perceptual representation. It has been previously shown that single neurons in the non-human primate prefrontal cortex integrate face and vocalization information. However, these multisensory responses and the degree to which they depend on temporal coincidence have yet to be determined. In this study we analyzed the response latency of ventrolateral prefrontal (VLPFC) neurons to face, vocalization and combined face–vocalization stimuli and an offset (asynchronous) version of the face–vocalization stimulus. Our results indicate that for most prefrontal multisensory neurons, the response latency for the vocalization was the shortest, followed by the combined face–vocalization stimuli. The face stimulus had the longest onset response latency. When tested with a dynamic face–vocalization stimulus that had been temporally offset (asynchronous) one-third of multisensory cells in VLPFC demonstrated a change in response compared to the response to the natural, synchronous face–vocalization movie. Our results indicate that prefrontal neurons are sensitive to the temporal properties of audiovisual stimuli. A disruption in the temporal synchrony of an audiovisual signal which results in a change in the firing of communication related prefrontal neurons could underlie the loss in intelligibility which occurs with asynchronous speech stimuli.

ROMANSKI, L. M.; HWANG, J.

2013-01-01

61

Lexical Influences in Audiovisual Speech Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phoneme identification with audiovisually discrepant stimuli is influenced by information in the visual signal (the McGurk effect). Additionally, lexical status affects identification of auditorily presented phonemes. The present study tested for lexical influences on the McGurk effect. Participants identified phonemes in audiovisually discrepant…

Brancazio,Lawrence

2004-01-01

62

Catalog of Audiovisual Materials Related to Rehabilitation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An annotated listing of a variety of audiovisual formats on content related to the social-rehabilitation process is provided. The materials in the listing were selected from a collection of over 200 audiovisual catalogs. The major portion of the materials has not been screened. The materials are classified alphabetically by the following subject…

Mann, Joe, Ed.; Henderson, Jim, Ed.

63

AUDIO-VISUAL INSTRUCTION, AN ADMINISTRATIVE HANDBOOK.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS HANDBOOK WAS DESIGNED FOR USE BY SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS IN DEVELOPING A TOTAL AUDIOVISUAL (AV) PROGRAM. ATTENTION IS GIVEN TO THE IMPORTANCE OF AUDIOVISUAL MEDIA TO EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION, ADMINISTRATIVE PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS FOR AN AV PROGRAM, BUDGETING FOR AV INSTRUCTION, PROPER UTILIZATION OF AV MATERIALS, SELECTION OF AV EQUIPMENT AND…

Missouri State Dept. of Education, Jefferson City.

64

Audiovisual Materials for the Teaching of Language Acquisition: An Annotated Bibliography. CAL-ERIC/CLL Series on Languages and Linguistics, No. 32.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography provides information concerning audiovisual aids for use in teaching and teacher training in language acquisition. A variety of areas is covered, including children's acquisition of morphology, phonology, and semantics, vocabulary and language development, the acquisition of specific items such as negatives and…

Tripp, Rosemary; Behrens, Sophia

65

Semantic Domains and Denotational Semantics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This chapter discusses classes of mathematical structures suitable for use as the semantic domains of programming language constructs. Such structures play a significant role in the foundation of denotational semantics. Many categories of domains have bee...

C. A. Gunter D. S. Scott P. D. Mosses

1989-01-01

66

Neuro-Semantics and Semantics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Draws distinctions between the terms semantics (dealing with such verbal parameters as dictionaries and "laws" of logic and rhetoric), general semantics (semantics, plus the complex, dynamic, organismal properties of human beings and their physical environment), and neurosemantics (names for relations-based input from the neurosensory system, and…

Holmes, Stewart W.

1987-01-01

67

Building Intuitive Arguments for the Triangle Congruence Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The triangle congruence conditions are a central focus to nearly any course in Euclidean geometry. The author presents a hands-on activity that uses straws and pipe cleaners to explore and justify the triangle congruence conditions. (Contains 4 figures.)

Piatek-Jimenez, Katrina

2008-01-01

68

Sequential congruency effects in implicit sequence learning.  

PubMed

We deal with situations incongruent with our automatic response tendencies much better right after having done so on a previous trial than after having reacted to a congruent trial. The nature of the mechanisms responsible for these sequential congruency effects is currently a hot topic of debate. According to the conflict monitoring model these effects depend on the adjustment of control triggered by the detection of conflict on the preceding situation. We tested whether these conflict monitoring processes can operate implicitly in an implicit learning procedure, modulating the expression of knowledge of which participants are not aware. We reanalyze recently published data, and present an experiment with a probabilistic sequence learning procedure, both showing consistent effects of implicit sequence learning. Despite being implicit, the expression of learning was reduced or completely eliminated right after trials incongruent with the learned sequence, thus showing that sequential congruency effects can be obtained even when the source of congruency itself remains implicit. PMID:19464194

Jiménez, Luis; Lupiáñez, Juan; Vaquero, Joaquín M M

2009-09-01

69

Data congruence, paedomorphosis and salamanders  

PubMed Central

Background The retention of ancestral juvenile characters by adult stages of descendants is called paedomorphosis. However, this process can mislead phylogenetic analyses based on morphological data, even in combination with molecular data, because the assessment if a character is primary absent or secondary lost is difficult. Thus, the detection of incongruence between morphological and molecular data is necessary to investigate the reliability of simultaneous analyses. Different methods have been proposed to detect data congruence or incongruence. Five of them (PABA, PBS, NDI, LILD, DRI) are used herein to assess incongruence between morphological and molecular data in a case study addressing salamander phylogeny, which comprises several supposedly paedomorphic taxa. Therefore, previously published data sets were compiled herein. Furthermore, two strategies ameliorating effects of paedomorphosis on phylogenetic studies were tested herein using a statistical rigor. Additionally, efficiency of the different methods to assess incongruence was analyzed using this empirical data set. Finally, a test statistic is presented for all these methods except DRI. Results The addition of morphological data to molecular data results in both different positions of three of the four paedomorphic taxa and strong incongruence, but treating the morphological data using different strategies ameliorating the negative impact of paedomorphosis revokes these changes and minimizes the conflict. Of these strategies the strategy to just exclude paedomorphic character traits seem to be most beneficial. Of the three molecular partitions analyzed herein the RAG1 partition seems to be the most suitable to resolve deep salamander phylogeny. The rRNA and mtDNA partition are either too conserved or too variable, respectively. Of the different methods to detect incongruence, the NDI and PABA approaches are more conservative in the indication of incongruence than LILD and PBS. Conclusion Paedomorphosis induces strong conflicts and can mislead the phylogenetic analyses even in combined analyses. However, different strategies are efficiently minimizing these problems. Though the exploration of different methods to detect incongruence is preferable NDI and PABA are more conservative than the others and NDI is computational less extensive than PABA.

Struck, Torsten H

2007-01-01

70

Body Build Satisfaction and the Congruency of Body Build Perceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Females were administered the somatotype rating scale. Satisfied subjects showed greater congruency between their own and wished-for body build, and greater congruency between their own and friend/date body builds, but less congruency between their own body build and the female stereotype. (Author/BEF)

Hankins, Norman E.; Bailey, Roger C.

1979-01-01

71

Audiovisuals for Aquaculture and Supplement I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication listing audiovisual materials on aquaculture and aquaculture-related subjects provides aquaculturists, Extension specialists, educators, librarians, and others who have an interest in the industry with a source of available materials in va...

E. M. McVey

1992-01-01

72

Correlations among Three Measures of Congruence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Combinations of Holland codes were drawn randomly and used to compare three common measures of congruency (the Iachan Index, the Kwak and Pulvino Index, and the Zener-Schnuelle Index) between pairs of three-letter codes. Findings suggest that the choice of which index is most appropriate remains contingent on one's particular purpose. (Author/NB)

Miller, Mark J.

1992-01-01

73

Realization of all Dold's congruences with stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of this paper is to prove that for each n>2, every sequence of integers satisfying Dold's congruences is realized as the sequence of fixed point indices of the iterates of an orientation preserving R-homeomorphism at an isolated stable fixed point. We use Conley index techniques even though stable fixed points are not isolated invariant sets.

Ruiz del Portal, Francisco R.; Salazar, José M.

74

Semantic email  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates how the vision of the Semantic Web can be carried overto the realm of email. We introduce a general notion of semantice mail, in which an email message consists of an RDF query or update coupled with corresponding explanatory text. Semantic email opens the door to a wide range of automated, email-mediated applications with formally guaranteed properties.

Luke McDowell; Oren Etzioni; Alon Y. Halevy; Henry M. Levy

2004-01-01

75

Audio-visual synchrony modulates the ventriloquist illusion and its neural/spatial representation in the auditory cortex.  

PubMed

An essential task of our perceptual systems is to bind together the distinctive features of single objects and events into unitary percepts, even when those features are registered in different sensory modalities. In cases where auditory and visual inputs are spatially incongruent, they may still be perceived as belonging to a single event at the location of the visual stimulus - a phenomenon known as the 'ventriloquist illusion'. The present study examined how audio-visual temporal congruence influences the ventriloquist illusion and characterized its neural underpinnings with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behaviorally, the ventriloquist illusion was reduced for asynchronous versus synchronous audio-visual stimuli, in accordance with previous reports. Neural activity patterns associated with the ventriloquist effect were consistently observed in the planum temporale (PT), with a reduction in illusion-related fMRI-signals ipsilateral to visual stimulation for central sounds perceived peripherally and a contralateral increase in illusion-related fMRI-signals for peripheral sounds perceived centrally. Moreover, it was found that separate but adjacent regions within the PT were preferentially activated for ventriloquist illusions produced by synchronous and asynchronous audio-visual stimulation. We conclude that the left-right balance of neural activity in the PT represents the neural code that underlies the ventriloquist illusion, with greater activity in the cerebral hemisphere contralateral to the direction of the perceived shift of sound location. PMID:24814210

Bonath, Björn; Noesselt, Toemme; Krauel, Kerstin; Tyll, Sascha; Tempelmann, Claus; Hillyard, Steven A

2014-09-01

76

Audiovisual Library of International Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations' Audiovisual Library of International Law was first proposed in 1997, and in recent years it has grown by leaps and bounds. It is a unique multimedia resource that provides "high quality international law training and research materials to an unlimited number of recipients on a global level." The Library consists of a "Historic Archives" section, along with a "Lecture Series" section, and an online research library with links to treaties, jurisprudence, publications, and research guides. In the "Historic Archives" section, visitors will find a drop-down menu with links to topics such as disarmament, human rights, and the laws of outer space. The "Lecture Series" section includes dozens of lectures organized by subject matter headings ranging from the Arctic to the United Nations. Subject experts deliver the video lectures and it's easy to see how these talks could be used to complement classroom lectures and discussions. Finally, the research library is a great tool for those seeking to explore various facets of United Nations treaties and other aspects of international jurisprudence. As a bonus, the site starts off with Orson Welles reading the Preamble to the Charter of the United Nations. [KMG

77

Gender affects semantic competition: the effect of gender in a non-gender-marking language.  

PubMed

English speakers tend to produce fewer pronouns when a referential competitor has the same gender as the referent than otherwise. Traditionally, this gender congruence effect has been explained in terms of ambiguity avoidance (e.g., Arnold, Eisenband, Brown-Schmidt, & Trueswell, 2000; Fukumura, Van Gompel, & Pickering, 2010). However, an alternative hypothesis is that the competitor's gender congruence affects semantic competition, making the referent less accessible relative to when the competitor has a different gender (Arnold & Griffin, 2007). Experiment 1 found that even in Finnish, which is a nongendered language, the competitor's gender congruence results in fewer pronouns, supporting the semantic competition account. In Experiment 2, Finnish native speakers took part in an English version of the same experiment. The effect of gender congruence was larger in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1, suggesting that the presence of a same-gender competitor resulted in a larger reduction in pronoun use in English than in Finnish. In contrast, other nonlinguistic similarity had similar effects in both experiments. This indicates that the effect of gender congruence in English is not entirely driven by semantic competition: Speakers also avoid gender-ambiguous pronouns. PMID:23356244

Fukumura, Kumiko; Hyönä, Jukka; Scholfield, Merete

2013-07-01

78

Effect of Perceptual Load on Semantic Access by Speech in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine whether semantic access by speech requires attention in children. Method: Children ("N" = 200) named pictures and ignored distractors on a cross-modal (distractors: auditory-no face) or multimodal (distractors: auditory-static face and audiovisual- dynamic face) picture word task. The cross-modal task had a low load,…

Jerger, Susan; Damian, Markus F.; Mills, Candice; Bartlett, James; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Abdi, Herve

2013-01-01

79

Flavour processing in semantic dementia  

PubMed Central

The cognitive mechanisms for the analysis of flavour information remain poorly understood. Patients with semantic dementia (SD) could potentially provide a window on these mechanisms; however, while abnormal eating behaviour and altered food preferences are common in SD, flavour processing has been little studied in this disorder. Here we undertook a detailed investigation of flavour processing in three patients at different stages of SD. One patient with a clinical syndrome of logopenic aphasia (LPA) was studied as a disease control, and six healthy control subjects also participated. Olfaction was assessed using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test and processing of flavours was assessed using a novel battery to assess flavour perception, flavour identification, and congruence and affective valence of flavour combinations. Patients with SD performed equivalently to healthy controls on the perceptual subtest, while their ability to identify flavours or to determine congruence of flavour combinations was impaired. Classification of flavours according to affective valence was comparable to healthy controls. In contrast, the patient with LPA exhibited a perceptual deficit with relatively preserved identification of flavours, but impaired ability to determine flavour congruence, which did not benefit from affective valence. Olfactory and flavour identification performance was correlated in both patients and controls. We propose that SD produces a true deficit of flavour knowledge (an associative agnosia), while other peri-Sylvian pathologies may lead to deficient flavour perception. Our findings are consistent with emerging evidence from healthy subjects for a cortical hierarchy for processing flavour information, instantiated in a brain network that includes the insula, anterior temporal lobes and orbitofrontal cortex. The findings suggest a potential mechanism for the development of food fads and other abnormal eating behaviours.

Piwnica-Worms, Katherine E.; Omar, Rohani; Hailstone, Julia C.; Warren, Jason D.

2010-01-01

80

Cross-taxon congruence and environmental conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Diversity patterns of different taxa typically covary in space, a phenomenon called cross-taxon congruence. This pattern has been explained by the effect of one taxon diversity on taxon diversity, shared biogeographic histories of different taxa, and\\/or common responses to environmental conditions. A meta-analysis of the association between environment and diversity patterns found that in 83 out of 85 studies,

Carolina Toranza; Matías Arim

2010-01-01

81

Semantic Metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of the Semantic Web, many ontology-related operations, e.g. ontology ranking, segmentation, alignment, articulation, reuse, evaluation, can reduced to one fundamental operation: comput- ing the similarity and\\/or dissimilarity among ontological entities, and in some cases among ontologies themselves. In this paper, we review standard metrics for computing distance measures and we propose a se- ries of semantic metrics.

Bo Hu; Yannis Kalfoglou; Harith Alani; David Dupplaw; Paul H. Lewis; Nigel Shadbolt

2006-01-01

82

Evaluative priming in a semantic flanker task: ERP evidence for a mutual facilitation explanation.  

PubMed

In semantic flanker tasks, target categorization response times are affected by the semantic compatibility of the flanker and target. With positive and negative category exemplars, we investigated the influence of evaluative congruency (whether flanker and target share evaluative valence) on the flanker effect, using behavioral and electrophysiological measures. We hypothesized a moderation of the flanker effect by evaluative congruency on the basis of the assumption that evaluatively congruent concepts mutually facilitate each other's activation (see Schmitz & Wentura in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 38:984-1000, 2012). Applying an onset delay of 50 ms for the flanker, we aimed to decrease the facilitative effect of an evaluatively congruent flanker on target encoding and, at the same time, increase the facilitative effect of an evaluatively congruent target on flanker encoding. As a consequence of increased flanker activation in the case of evaluative congruency, we expected a semantically incompatible flanker to interfere with the target categorization to a larger extent (as compared with an evaluatively incongruent pairing). Confirming our hypotheses, the flanker effect significantly depended on evaluative congruency, in both mean response times and N2 mean amplitudes. Thus, the present study provided behavioral and electrophysiological evidence for the mutual facilitation of evaluatively congruent concepts. Implications for the representation of evaluative connotations of semantic concepts are discussed. PMID:24006270

Schmitz, Melanie; Wentura, Dirk; Brinkmann, Thorsten A

2014-03-01

83

A qualitative and quantitative study of psychotherapists’ congruence in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the phenomenological world of 11 Satir-based Singaporean Chinese therapists with regard to their experience of congruence. A mixed qualitative-cum-quantitative research method was used in this study. A phenomenological methodology was used to explore (a) the phenomenological world of therapists with regard to their lived experience of congruence in their personal or inner lives, (b) how this congruence

Shyh Shin Wong; Vivienne Ng

2008-01-01

84

Language for Semantic Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Semantic analysis is important for compilers. In the APTS program transformation system, semantics is specified by rules in the language RSL. The semantic rules are interpreted by APTS to generate the semantic information of the program, which is then use...

J. Cai

1993-01-01

85

A Selection of Audiovisual Materials on Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disabled persons, family members, organizations, and libraries are often looking for materials to help inform, educate, or challenge them regarding the issues surrounding disabilities. This directory of audiovisual materials available from the State Library of Florida includes materials that present ideas and personal experiences covering a range…

Mayo, Kathleen; Rider, Sheila

86

An Acquired Deficit of Audiovisual Speech Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report a 53-year-old patient (AWF) who has an acquired deficit of audiovisual speech integration, characterized by a perceived temporal mismatch between speech sounds and the sight of moving lips. AWF was less accurate on an auditory digit span task with vision of a speaker's face as compared to a condition in which no visual information from…

Hamilton, Roy H.; Shenton, Jeffrey T.; Coslett, H. Branch

2006-01-01

87

Audiovisual speech perception in Williams syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

People with the genetic disorder of Williams syndrome (WS) show an anomalous cognitive profile, wherein some purely verbal and social communicative abilities are relatively proficient, while visuo-spatial skills can be extremely impaired. Face processing, while apparently relatively spared among visuo-spatial skills, can show deficits suggesting developmental immaturity. In this context, the exploration of visual and audiovisual speech perception in WS

M Böhning; R Campbell; A Karmiloff-Smith

2002-01-01

88

Audio-Visual Speech Perception Is Special  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In face-to-face conversation speech is perceived by ear and eye. We studied the prerequisites of audio-visual speech perception by using perceptually ambiguous sine wave replicas of natural speech as auditory stimuli. When the subjects were not aware that the auditory stimuli were speech, they showed only negligible integration of auditory and…

Tuomainen, J.; Andersen, T.S.; Tiippana, K.; Sams, M.

2005-01-01

89

Longevity and Depreciation of Audiovisual Equipment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes results of survey of media service directors at public universities in Ohio to determine the expected longevity of audiovisual equipment. Use of the Delphi technique for estimates is explained, results are compared with an earlier survey done in 1977, and use of spreadsheet software to calculate depreciation is discussed. (LRW)

Post, Richard

1987-01-01

90

Assessing Outcomes through Congruence of Course Objectives and Reflective Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Course outcomes have been assessed by examining the congruence between statements of commitment to change (CTCs) and course objectives. Other forms of postcourse reflective exercises (for example, impact and unmet-needs statements) have not been examined for congruence with course objectives or their utility in assessing course…

Lockyer, Jocelyn M.; Fidler, Herta; Hogan, David B.; Pereles, Laurie; Wright, Bruce; Lebeuf, Christine; Gerritsen, Cory

2005-01-01

91

Student Perceptions of Occupational Congruency. Work Unit 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examined student perceptions of occupational congruency using Holland's Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional personality and environmental types. Using the hexagonal arrangement of the types, congruency levels were established. Student perceptions were examined in the areas of activities, values,…

Williams, Gerald D.

92

Remedial Reading: Achieving Curricular Congruence in Classroom and Clinic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that remedial programs in reading have gradually lost sight of the original goal of improving classroom reading and that coordinating the program with the core curriculum is not sufficient to achieve curricular congruence. Offers suggestions for achieving congruence between the classroom and the clinic. (FL)

Allington, Richard L.; Shake, Mary C.

1986-01-01

93

Phase congruency assesses hyperspectral image quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blind image quality assessment (QA) is a tough task especially for hyperspectral imagery which is degraded by noise, distortion, defocus, and other complex factors. Subjective hyperspectral imagery QA methods are basically measured the degradation of image from human perceptual visual quality. As the most important image quality measurement features, noise and blur, determined the image quality greatly, are employed to predict the objective hyperspectral imagery quality of each band. We demonstrate a novel no-reference hyperspectral imagery QA model based on phase congruency (PC), which is a dimensionless quantity and provides an absolute measure of the significance of feature point. First, Log Gabor wavelet is used to calculate the phase congruency of frequencies of each band image. The relationship between noise and PC can be derived from above transformation under the assumption that noise is additive. Second, PC focus measure evaluation model is proposed to evaluate blur caused by different amounts of defocus. The ratio and mean factors of edge blur level and noise is defined to assess the quality of each band image. This image QA method obtains excellent correlation with subjective image quality score without any reference. Finally, the PC information is utilized to improve the quality of some bands images.

Shao, Xiaopeng; Zhong, Cheng

2012-10-01

94

Are Tutor Behaviors in Problem-Based Learning Stable? A Generalizability Study of Social Congruence, Expertise and Cognitive Congruence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability of three distinct tutor behaviors (1) use of subject-matter expertise, (2) social congruence and (3) cognitive congruence, in a problem-based learning (PBL) environment. The data comprised the input from 16,047 different students to a survey of 762 tutors administered in three consecutive…

Williams, Judith C.; Alwis, W. A. M.; Rotgans, Jerome I.

2011-01-01

95

Perceived cultural congruence’s influence on employed communication strategies and resultant performance: a transitional economy international joint venture illustration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employing effective communication strategies is critical for international joint ventures (IJVs) operating in economies in transition. Theory suggests perceived cultural congruence enhances the effectiveness of communication in international relationships. The influence of perceived national culture congruence on the communication strategies (frequency, modality, direction and content) employed by an IJV partner and its influence on self-reported IJV performance is examined within

Ali Yavuz Zeybek; Matthew O’Brien; David A. Griffith

2003-01-01

96

Sparsity and Synchrony in Blind Audio-Visual Source Separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract When dealing with an audio-visual scene, humans tend to integrate both modalities by assessing the temporal synchrony,between,relevant audio and video events. In this way we are able to detect and separate audio-visual sources. Inspired by these observations, we propose a novel method to decompose sequences made of a video signal and a one-microphone audio track into audio-visual sources. First,

Anna Llagostera Casanovas; Gianluca Monaci; Pierre Vandergheynst; Remi Gribonval

97

Audio-visual affective expression recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic affective expression recognition has attracted more and more attention of researchers from different disciplines, which will significantly contribute to a new paradigm for human computer interaction (affect-sensitive interfaces, socially intelligent environments) and advance the research in the affect-related fields including psychology, psychiatry, and education. Multimodal information integration is a process that enables human to assess affective states robustly and flexibly. In order to understand the richness and subtleness of human emotion behavior, the computer should be able to integrate information from multiple sensors. We introduce in this paper our efforts toward machine understanding of audio-visual affective behavior, based on both deliberate and spontaneous displays. Some promising methods are presented to integrate information from both audio and visual modalities. Our experiments show the advantage of audio-visual fusion in affective expression recognition over audio-only or visual-only approaches.

Huang, Thomas S.; Zeng, Zhihong

2007-11-01

98

Predicting the position of moving audiovisual stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicted motion (PM) tasks test the accuracy of predicting the future position of a moving target. Previous PM studies using\\u000a audiovisual stimuli have suggested that observers rely primarily on visual motion cues. To clarify the role of auditory signals\\u000a in predicting future positions of bimodal targets, we designed a novel PM task where spatial coincidence of audio and visual\\u000a motion

Steven L. Prime; Laurence R. Harris

2010-01-01

99

[Inaugural audiovisual impairment disclosing specific neurological disorders].  

PubMed

The association of visual and auditory impairments, simultaneously or consecutively, is a rare condition at the onset of neurological diseases. To determine whether audiovisual impairment can be associated with a specific group of neurological disorders at onset, we performed a prospective study of 307 patients over 6 months in a specialized neurological unit in inflammatory diseases. Six patients (2%) experienced inaugural audiovisual impairments. The mean age of patients at onset was 39.5 ± 14.7 years, with a male:female ratio of 1:2. Both deficiencies were reported in three cases, including loss of visual acuity with tinnitus (two cases) or hearing loss (one case). Initial visual dysfunction, characterised by loss of visual acuity, was noted in one patient. Initial auditory impairment, characterised by dizziness and hearing loss, was noted in two patients. The mean interval between the occurrence of visual and auditory impairments was 3.8 ± 4.3 months. A neurological diagnosis was made in four cases (67%) at a mean time of 4.6 ± 4.6 months after disease onset. Visual impairments were optic neuritis for multiple sclerosis, serous retinal detachment for Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada's disease, a central retinal artery occlusion for Susac's syndrome and a retinal vasculitis for Cogan's syndrome. The systematic investigation of inaugural audiovisual impairment in young patients could help shorten the time to a specific neurological diagnosis. PMID:21122882

Bourre, B; Aupy, J; Saleh, M; Gaucher, D; Thomas, L; Tranchant, C; De Seze, J; Collongues, N

2010-12-01

100

Taxonomic Congruence versus Total Evidence, and Amniote Phylogeny Inferred from Fossils, Molecules, and Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxonomic congruence and total evidence are competing paradigms in phylogenetic inference. Taxonomic congruence focuses on deriving a consensus from the results obtained from separately analyzed data sets, whereas total evidence uses character congruence in the search for the best-fitting hypothesis for all of the available char- acter evidence. Explicit or implicit use of taxonomic congruence is usually employed when an

Douglas J. Eernisse; Arnold G. Kluge

101

The context congruency effect is face specific.  

PubMed

There is evidence that faces are processed by specialized and independent modules that treat them as global configurations, or wholes (Axelrod & Yovel, 2010; Kanwisher, McDermott, & Chun, 1997). The holistic nature of face perception has been demonstrated with several experimental paradigms designed to examine whether facial parts interact, or are accessed independently. A recently introduced paradigm (Meinhardt-Injac, Persike, & Meinhardt, 2010) measures the strength of contextual interaction among internal and external facial features in congruent and incongruent target/no-target relationships. For this paradigm it is shown that the context congruency effect is indeed face specific: A strong and asymmetric contextual interaction of the inner and the outer stimulus regions exists for faces, but is absent for watches, which represent a non-facial object class with a comparable inner/outer object structure. PMID:23376137

Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana

2013-02-01

102

Dynamics of stringy congruence in the early universe  

SciTech Connect

We study twist and shear aspects of the stingy geodesic surface congruence. Under some natural conditions we derive the equations of the twist and shear in terms of the expansion of the Universe. We observe in this higher dimensional cosmology that, as the early universe evolves with expansion rate, the twist of the stringy congruence decreases exponentially and the initial twist value should be large enough to sustain the rotations of the ensuing universe, while the effects of the shear are negligible to produce the isotropic and homogeneous universe. We also investigate the twist and shear of the geodesic surface congruence of the null strings.

Cho, Yong Seung; Hong, Soon-Tae [Department of Mathematics, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Science Education and Research Institute for Basic Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-05-15

103

Infant Perception of Audio-Visual Speech Synchrony  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments investigated perception of audio-visual (A-V) speech synchrony in 4- to 10-month-old infants. Experiments 1 and 2 used a convergent-operations approach by habituating infants to an audiovisually synchronous syllable (Experiment 1) and then testing for detection of increasing degrees of A-V asynchrony (366, 500, and 666 ms) or by…

Lewkowicz, David J.

2010-01-01

104

Audio content analysis for online audiovisual data segmentation and classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

While current approaches for audiovisual data segmentation and classification are mostly focused on visual cues, audio signals may actually play a more important role in content parsing for many applications. An approach to automatic segmentation and classification of audiovisual data based on audio content analysis is proposed. The audio signal from movies or TV programs is segmented and classified into

Tong Zhang; C.-C. Jay Kuo

2001-01-01

105

Perception of Intersensory Synchrony in Audiovisual Speech: Not that Special  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perception of intersensory temporal order is particularly difficult for (continuous) audiovisual speech, as perceivers may find it difficult to notice substantial timing differences between speech sounds and lip movements. Here we tested whether this occurs because audiovisual speech is strongly paired ("unity assumption"). Participants made…

Vroomen, Jean; Stekelenburg, Jeroen J.

2011-01-01

106

Audiovisual Integration in High Functioning Adults with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism involves various perceptual benefits and deficits, but it is unclear if the disorder also involves anomalous audiovisual integration. To address this issue, we compared the performance of high-functioning adults with autism and matched controls on experiments investigating the audiovisual integration of speech, spatiotemporal relations, and…

Keane, Brian P.; Rosenthal, Orna; Chun, Nicole H.; Shams, Ladan

2010-01-01

107

Audiovisual Processing in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and twenty-one children without ASD completed six perceptual tasks designed to characterize the nature of the audiovisual processing difficulties experienced by children with ASD. Children with ASD scored significantly lower than children without ASD on audiovisual tasks involving human faces…

Mongillo, Elizabeth A.; Irwin, Julia R.; Whalen, D. H.; Klaiman, Cheryl; Carter, Alice S.; Schultz, Robert T.

2008-01-01

108

Overcoming asynchrony in Audio-Visual Speech Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose two alternatives to overcome the natural asynchrony of modalities in Audio-Visual Speech Recognition. We first investigate the use of asynchronous statistical models based on Dynamic Bayesian Networks with different levels of asynchrony. We show that audio-visual models should consider asynchrony within word boundaries and not at phoneme level. The second approach to the problem includes

Virginia Estellers; Jean-Philippe Thiran

2010-01-01

109

The Audio-Visual Marketing Handbook for Independent Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This how-to booklet offers specific advice on producing video or slide/tape programs for marketing independent schools. Five chapters present guidelines for various stages in the process: (1) Audio-Visual Marketing in Context (aesthetics and economics of audiovisual marketing); (2) A Question of Identity (identifying the audience and deciding on…

Griffith, Tom

110

Audiovisual Mass Media and Education. TTW 27/28.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 15 articles in this special issue focus on learning about the audiovisual mass media and education, especially television and film, in relation to various pedagogical and didactical questions. Individual articles are: (1) "Audiovisual Mass Media for Education in Pakistan: Problems and Prospects" (Ahmed Noor Kahn); (2) "The Role of the…

van Stapele, Peter, Ed.; Sutton, Clifford C., Ed.

1989-01-01

111

Audiovisual Media and the Disabled. AV in Action 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to provide information on public library services to the handicapped, this pamphlet contains case studies from three different countries on various aspects of the provision of audiovisual services to the disabled. The contents include: (1) "The Value of Audiovisual Materials in a Children's Hospital in Sweden" (Lis Byberg); (2) "Danish…

Nederlands Bibliotheek en Lektuur Centrum, The Hague (Netherlands).

112

Principles of Managing Audiovisual Materials and Equipment. Second Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual offers information on a wide variety of health-related audiovisual materials (AVs) in many formats: video, motion picture, slide, filmstrip, audiocassette, transparencies, microfilm, and computer assisted instruction. Intended for individuals who are just learning about audiovisual materials and equipment management, the manual covers…

California Univ., Los Angeles. Biomedical Library.

113

The Audio-Visual Equipment Director. Eighteenth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cooperative undertaking of the audiovisual industry, this equipment directory for 1972-73 is designed to offer everyone who uses media a convenient, single source of information on all audiovisual equipment on the market today. Photographs, specifications, and prices of more than 1,500 models of equipment are provided, and over 520 manufacturers…

Herickes, Sally, Ed.

114

An Improvement on SSA Congruence for Geometry and Trigonometry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three ideas are explored: (1) an improvement of the SSA congruence theorem for trigonometry; (2) a discussion of the failure of SSA in spherical geometry; and (3) an extension of SSA to spherical geometry and hyperbolic geometry. (MNS)

Yeshurun, Shraga; Kay, David C.

1983-01-01

115

Learners and Course Goal Congruence: Impact on Learning Outcomes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a study which determined that learner and course goal congruence are necessary variables of successful courses. In selecting course goals, learner goals must be identified and considered if the program is to be effective. (JOW)

Derby, Vivian Littlefield

1982-01-01

116

Sex Differences in the Congruency of Perceived Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to determine whether sex differences exist in the congruency between the self-rating of intelligence and expected parental ratings, actual intelligence achievement motivation and achievement performance. Subjects were 44 college students. (BD)

Bailey, Roger C.; Mettetal, Gwynn W.

1977-01-01

117

Semantic Composability Measure for Semantic Web Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by the problem of automatically composing network accessible services, such as those on the World Wide Web, this paper proposes an approach to exploit all semantic information available for semantic Web services to complete this task. For semantic Web services, we propose a prioritized and limited list of other Web services, with composability measure value based on feasibility of

Elham Paikari; Jafar Habibi; Soheil Hassas Yeganeh

2007-01-01

118

Pragmatic Reasoning. Pragmatic Semantics and Semantic Pragmatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the conceptual foundations of pragmatic reasoning (context-dependent reasoning). A general pragmatic semantics (a semantic analysis which includes a pragmatic parameter) is given for pragmatic reasoning, the logical properties of the various forms of pragmatic reasoning are discussed, as are many examples. The semantic pragmatics (the general study of choosing or inferring appropri- ate contexts) for

John Bell

2001-01-01

119

Congruency sequence effect without feature integration and contingency learning.  

PubMed

The magnitude of congruency effects, such as the flanker-compatibility effects, has been found to vary as a function of the congruency of the previous trial. Some studies have suggested that this congruency sequence effect is attributable to stimulus and/or response priming, and/or contingency learning, whereas other studies have suggested that the control process triggered by conflict modulates the congruency effect. The present study examined whether sequential modulation can occur without stimulus and response repetitions and contingency learning. Participants were asked to perform two color flanker-compatibility tasks alternately in a trial-by-trial manner, with four fingers of one hand in Experiment 1 and with the index and middle fingers of two hands in Experiment 2, to avoid stimulus and response repetitions and contingency learning. A significant congruency sequence effect was obtained between the congruencies of the two tasks in Experiment 1 but not in Experiment 2. These results provide evidence for the idea that the sequential modulation is, at least in part, an outcome of the top-down control process triggered by conflict, which is specific to response mode. PMID:24704781

Kim, Sanga; Cho, Yang Seok

2014-06-01

120

Vicarious audiovisual learning in perfusion education.  

PubMed

Perfusion technology is a mechanical and visual science traditionally taught with didactic instruction combined with clinical experience. It is difficult to provide perfusion students the opportunity to experience difficult clinical situations, set up complex perfusion equipment, or observe corrective measures taken during catastrophic events because of patient safety concerns. Although high fidelity simulators offer exciting opportunities for future perfusion training, we explore the use of a less costly low fidelity form of simulation instruction, vicarious audiovisual learning. Two low fidelity modes of instruction; description with text and a vicarious, first person audiovisual production depicting the same content were compared. Students (n = 37) sampled from five North American perfusion schools were prospectively randomized to one of two online learning modules, text or video.These modules described the setup and operation of the MAQUET ROTAFLOW stand-alone centrifugal console and pump. Using a 10 question multiple-choice test, students were assessed immediately after viewing the module (test #1) and then again 2 weeks later (test #2) to determine cognition and recall of the module content. In addition, students completed a questionnaire assessing the learning preferences of today's perfusion student. Mean test scores from test #1 for video learners (n = 18) were significantly higher (88.89%) than for text learners (n = 19) (74.74%), (p < .05). The same was true for test #2 where video learners (n = 10) had an average score of 77% while text learners (n = 9) scored 60% (p < .05). Survey results indicated video learners were more satisfied with their learning module than text learners. Vicarious audiovisual learning modules may be an efficacious, low cost means of delivering perfusion training on subjects such as equipment setup and operation. Video learning appears to improve cognition and retention of learned content and may play an important role in how we teach perfusion in the future, as simulation technology becomes more prevalent. PMID:21313929

Rath, Thomas E; Holt, David W

2010-12-01

121

Audiovisual time perception is spatially specific.  

PubMed

Our sensory systems face a daily barrage of auditory and visual signals whose arrival times form a wide range of audiovisual asynchronies. These temporal relationships constitute an important metric for the nervous system when surmising which signals originate from common external events. Internal consistency is known to be aided by sensory adaptation: repeated exposure to consistent asynchrony brings perceived arrival times closer to simultaneity. However, given the diverse nature of our audiovisual environment, functionally useful adaptation would need to be constrained to signals that were generated together. In the current study, we investigate the role of two potential constraining factors: spatial and contextual correspondence. By employing an experimental design that allows independent control of both factors, we show that observers are able to simultaneously adapt to two opposing temporal relationships, provided they are segregated in space. No such recalibration was observed when spatial segregation was replaced by contextual stimulus features (in this case, pitch and spatial frequency). These effects provide support for dedicated asynchrony mechanisms that interact with spatially selective mechanisms early in visual and auditory sensory pathways. PMID:22367399

Heron, James; Roach, Neil W; Hanson, James V M; McGraw, Paul V; Whitaker, David

2012-05-01

122

Categorization of Natural Dynamic Audiovisual Scenes  

PubMed Central

This work analyzed the perceptual attributes of natural dynamic audiovisual scenes. We presented thirty participants with 19 natural scenes in a similarity categorization task, followed by a semi-structured interview. The scenes were reproduced with an immersive audiovisual display. Natural scene perception has been studied mainly with unimodal settings, which have identified motion as one of the most salient attributes related to visual scenes, and sound intensity along with pitch trajectories related to auditory scenes. However, controlled laboratory experiments with natural multimodal stimuli are still scarce. Our results show that humans pay attention to similar perceptual attributes in natural scenes, and a two-dimensional perceptual map of the stimulus scenes and perceptual attributes was obtained in this work. The exploratory results show the amount of movement, perceived noisiness, and eventfulness of the scene to be the most important perceptual attributes in naturalistically reproduced real-world urban environments. We found the scene gist properties openness and expansion to remain as important factors in scenes with no salient auditory or visual events. We propose that the study of scene perception should move forward to understand better the processes behind multimodal scene processing in real-world environments. We publish our stimulus scenes as spherical video recordings and sound field recordings in a publicly available database.

Rummukainen, Olli; Radun, Jenni; Virtanen, Toni; Pulkki, Ville

2014-01-01

123

A measure for assessing the effects of audiovisual speech integration.  

PubMed

We propose a measure of audiovisual speech integration that takes into account accuracy and response times. This measure should prove beneficial for researchers investigating multisensory speech recognition, since it relates to normal-hearing and aging populations. As an example, age-related sensory decline influences both the rate at which one processes information and the ability to utilize cues from different sensory modalities. Our function assesses integration when both auditory and visual information are available, by comparing performance on these audiovisual trials with theoretical predictions for performance under the assumptions of parallel, independent self-terminating processing of single-modality inputs. We provide example data from an audiovisual identification experiment and discuss applications for measuring audiovisual integration skills across the life span. PMID:23943582

Altieri, Nicholas; Townsend, James T; Wenger, Michael J

2014-06-01

124

Individually Prescribed Instruction Mathematics Program. Audio-Visual Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Audiovisual materials for use with the Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) Mathematics Program are listed. The guide gives the type of aid, title, content, and source. The aids are listed by the IPI objective which they are to illustrate. (JY)

Wine, William; Fisher, Jack R.

125

Central Audiovisual Library of the European Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from Mediatheque offers a variety of videos, developed by the European Commission, which are available to download free of charge for "EU-related information and education purposes." The Commission "embodies and upholds the general interest of the Union" and the videos address key issues for the political Community and public interest. The videos cover a variety of topics including trade, railways, and responsible fishing. The Research section includes two videos on nanotechnology, which feature interviews with researchers (some of which are translated into English through subtitles), an inside look at nanotechnology laboratories, and simulations to demonstrate the microscopic world of nanotechnology. The videos vary in length and newly added videos are noted. A link at the bottom of the page allows visitors to search for keywords to locate a particular video in the archive. Visitors to the website can also learn about other audiovisual services offered by Mediatheque.

126

Predicting the position of moving audiovisual stimuli.  

PubMed

Predicted motion (PM) tasks test the accuracy of predicting the future position of a moving target. Previous PM studies using audiovisual stimuli have suggested that observers rely primarily on visual motion cues. To clarify the role of auditory signals in predicting future positions of bimodal targets, we designed a novel PM task where spatial coincidence of audio and visual motion signals was varied in three conditions: auditory and visual motion stimuli were spatially correlated (congruent condition), the auditory motion stimulus was moving behind the visual motion stimulus (sound-trailing condition), or the auditory motion stimulus was moving ahead the visual motion stimulus (sound-leading condition). We manipulated target speed (5.5 or 11 cm/s), the time that the moving audiovisual stimulus was presented (500 or 750 ms viewing time), and the time the visual stimulus disappeared while the auditory stimulus continued to move by itself before prompting subjects to estimate the position of the visual stimulus would have traveled if it continued along with the auditory stimulus (750, 1,000, or 1,500 ms prediction time). We also included two unimodal control conditions: visual-only and auditory-only. Subjects (n = 12) typically overestimated the target position of congruent bimodal targets. In the sound-trailing and sound-leading conditions, pointing responses were biased in the direction of the auditory stimulus, showing that PM performance is not reliant solely upon visual motion cues. We conclude that putative cognitive extrapolation mechanisms assume spatial coherence of bimodal motion signals and may perform some averaging of these motion signals when they do not spatially coincide. PMID:20352200

Prime, Steven L; Harris, Laurence R

2010-06-01

127

The production of medical audiovisual teaching materials--Chinese style.  

PubMed

The production of medical audiovisual material for the advancement of medical education in China is a problem requiring an urgent solution. To achieve faster, better and more economical results, the production of audiovisual material must be undertaken with careful planning and efficient management. A systematic approach is essential to control production. The procedures described are: leadership and management; choice of subject and medium; production; distribution and evaluation. PMID:7543504

Wu, Z C

1994-07-01

128

[Cultural heritage and audiovisual creation in the Arab world].  

PubMed

Audiovisual creation is facing in Arab countries problems arising from the use of imported techniques in order to reconstitute or transform their own reality. Arab audiovisual producers see this technique as an easy and efficient way to reproduce reality or construct conventionally an artificial universe. Sometimes, audiovisuals have an absolute suggestion power; sometimes, these techniques are faced with total incredulity. From a diffusion point of view, audiovisuals in the Arab world have a very specific status. The effects of television, studied by western researchers in their cultural environment, are not reproduced in the same fashion in the Arab cultural world. In the Arab world, the word very often still competes successfully with the picture, even after the appearance and adoption of mass media. Finally, one must mention a very interesting situation resulting from a linguistic phenomenon which is specific to the Arab world: the existence of 2 communication languages, one noble but little used, the other dialectical but popular. In all Arab countries, the News, the most political program, is broadcasted in the classical language, despite the danger of meaning distortion in the least educated public. The reason is probably that the classical Arab language enjoys a sacred status. Arab audiovisuals are facing several obstacles to their total and autonomous realization. The contribution of the Arab audiovisual producers is relatively modest, compared to some other areas of cultural creation. Arab film-making is looking more and more for the cooperation of contemporary writers. Contemporary literature is a considerable source for the renewal of Arab audiovisual expression. A relationship between film and popular cultural heritage could be very usefully established in both directions. Audiovisuals should treat popular cultural manifestations as a global social fact on several significant levels. PMID:12261391

Aziza, M

1979-01-01

129

Elevated audiovisual temporal interaction in patients with migraine without aura  

PubMed Central

Background Photophobia and phonophobia are the most prominent symptoms in patients with migraine without aura. Hypersensitivity to visual stimuli can lead to greater hypersensitivity to auditory stimuli, which suggests that the interaction between visual and auditory stimuli may play an important role in the pathogenesis of migraine. However, audiovisual temporal interactions in migraine have not been well studied. Therefore, our aim was to examine auditory and visual interactions in migraine. Methods In this study, visual, auditory, and audiovisual stimuli with different temporal intervals between the visual and auditory stimuli were randomly presented to the left or right hemispace. During this time, the participants were asked to respond promptly to target stimuli. We used cumulative distribution functions to analyze the response times as a measure of audiovisual integration. Results Our results showed that audiovisual integration was significantly elevated in the migraineurs compared with the normal controls (p?audiovisual suppression was weaker in the migraineurs compared with the normal controls (p?audio-visual stimuli in patients with migraine.

2014-01-01

130

Socialized charismatic leadership, values congruence, and deviance in work groups.  

PubMed

The authors conducted a field study to investigate the relationship between socialized charismatic leadership and deviance in work groups. Because socialized charismatic leaders are thought to play an ethical leadership role, the authors hypothesized that the socialized charismatic leadership style would be associated with reduced deviance in the leader's work group. This prediction was supported for both the interpersonal and the organizational dimensions of deviance. Next, the authors examined the mediating role of values congruence. The results were partially supportive of the values congruence mediating hypothesis. Implications for future research and for management are discussed. PMID:16834518

Brown, Michael E; Treviño, Linda K

2006-07-01

131

Further Insight and Additional Inference Methods for Polynomial Regression Applied to the Analysis of Congruence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In their seminal paper, Edwards and Parry (1993) presented the polynomial regression as a better alternative to applying difference score in the study of congruence. Although this method is increasingly applied in congruence research, its complexity relative to other methods for assessing congruence (e.g., difference score methods) was one of the…

Cohen, Ayala; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Doveh, Etti

2010-01-01

132

The impact of congruence in cause marketing campaigns for service firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Several studies have examined sponsor-cause congruence as an influence on consumer response to cause marketing campaigns. This paper aims to assess the relationship between sponsor-cause congruence and consumer responses to cause marketing programs. In addition, it aims to test the possible existence of an interaction of congruence and service type of a cause sponsor (utilitarian vs hedonic) on

Donald P. Roy

2010-01-01

133

Effects of Worker Classification, Crystallization, and Job Autonomy on Congruence-Satisfaction Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A majority of the congruence-satisfaction literature has used interest measures based on Holland's theory, although the measures' accuracy in predicting job satisfaction is questionable. Divergent findings among studies on occupational congruence-job satisfaction may be due to ineffective measures of congruence and job satisfaction and lack of…

Obermesik, John W.; Beehr, Terry A.

134

Achieving Congruence in Tavistock Groups: Empirical Findings and Implications for Group Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined acceptance and congruence in four Tavistock groups consisting of college student volunteers (N=30) using scales measuring curative factors, group process, and congruence. Found participants with higher rankings on the group acceptance measures experienced greater degrees of congruence following the group experience. Discusses implications…

Rugel, Robert P.

1987-01-01

135

'Semantics' in Conceptual Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper examines the question of what a semantic theory should account for. Some aspects of the work of Katz, Fillmore, Lakoff and Chomsky are discussed. 'Semantics' is concluded to be the representation problem with respect to conceptual analysis. The ...

R. C. Schank

1970-01-01

136

Semantics via Machine Translation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

Culhane, P. T.

1977-01-01

137

Thalamic semantic paralexia.  

PubMed

Alexia may be divided into different subtypes, with semantic paralexia being particularly rare. A 57 year old woman with a discreet left thalamic stroke and semantic paralexia is described. Language evalution with the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Battery confirmed the semantic paralexia (deep alexia). Multimodality magnetic resonance imaging brain scanning excluded other cerebral lesions. A good recovery ensued. PMID:22593810

Hoffmann, Michael

2012-01-01

138

Coherence enhancing diffusion filtering based on the Phase Congruency Tensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many biomedical applications require the enhancement of coherent flow-like curvilinear structures in images. This can be accomplished in a natural way by adopting anisotropic diffusion filtering to local texture analysis by means of the structure tensor. Here we propose a contrast independent anisotropic diffusion filtering of curvilinear structures based on a novel concept: the Phase Congruency Tensor (PCT). The phase

Boguslaw Obara; Mark Fricker; Vicente Grau

2012-01-01

139

The Congruence between Reason for Referral and Placement Outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between referral and special education outcome was investigated in a state where students are referred by category of handicapping condition. Of specific interest was the congruence between categories for which students were referred and eventual placements. Results indicated that 72% of the students referred were placed in some form of special education and that most were placed in

Glen G. Foster; James E. Ysseldyke; Ann Casey; Martha L. Thurlow

1984-01-01

140

Person-Environment Congruence in Residences for the Elderly.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the population of older Americans continues to increase, more and more elderly persons will seek diverse living arrangements. Residential facilities must be designed to meet their needs. Person-environment congruence may be an important determinant of residential satisfaction and relocation stress for the elderly. Residents (N=107) of eight…

Kiyak, Havva Asuman

141

Instructor/Student Congruence and the Ratings on Course Evaluations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine what relationships exist between course and instructor evaluations and student/instructor preferences regarding classroom instructions. The specific null hypothesis explored was: The congruencies on ratings of the personal preferences of students and the personal preferences of instructors will not be…

Purohit, Anal A.; Magoon, A. J.

142

A monotonically convergent algorithm for orthogonal congruence rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brokken has proposed a method for orthogonal rotation of one matrix such that its columns have a maximal sum of congruences with the columns of a target matrix. This method employs an algorithm for which convergence from every starting point is not guaranteed. In the present paper, an iterative majorization algorithm is proposed which is guaranteed to converge from every

Henk A. L. Kiers; Patrick Groenen

1996-01-01

143

Toward a Theory of Psychological Type Congruence for Advertisers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the impact of advertisers' persuasive selling messages on consumers, this paper discusses topics relating to the theory of psychological type congruence. Based on an examination of persuasion theory and relevant psychological concepts, including recent cognitive stability and personality and needs theory and the older concept of…

McBride, Michael H.; And Others

144

Person-Environment Congruence: A Response to the Moos Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Moos' conceptual framework which delineates how perceptions of collective human environments (social climates) influence behavior, with congruence achieved when individuals adapt their preferences in selecting environments, as underemphasizing the role of individual variables and the actual environment. Advocates continual analysis of…

Walsh, W. Bruce

1987-01-01

145

Unmasking the dichoptic mask by sound: spatial congruency matters.  

PubMed

People tend to look toward where a sound occurs; however, the role of spatial congruency between sound and sight in the effect of sound facilitation on visual detection remains controversial. We propose that the role of spatial congruency depends on the reliability of the information provided by the facilitator; if it is relatively unreliable, adding spatially congruent information can help to unify different sensory inputs to compensate for this unreliability. To test this, we examine the influence of sound location on visual detection with a non-temporal task, presumably unfavorable for sound since it is better for temporal resolution, and predict that spatial congruency should matter in this situation. We used the continuous flash suppression paradigm that makes the visual stimuli invisible to keep the relationship of sound and sight opaque. The sound is on the same depth plane as the visual stimulus (the congruent condition) or on a different plane (the incongruent condition). The target was presented to one eye with luminance contrast gradually increased and continuously masked by flashed Mondrian masks presented to the other eye until the target was released from suppression. We found that sound facilitated visual detection (measured by released-from-suppression time) in the spatially congruent condition but not in the spatially incongruent condition. Together with previous findings in the literature, it is suggested that both task type and modality determine the reliability of the information for multisensory integration and thus determine whether spatial congruency is critical. PMID:24449005

Yang, Yung-Hao; Yeh, Su-Ling

2014-04-01

146

The Golden Mean and an Intriguing Congruence Problem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a method for finding two triangles that have five pairs of congruent parts, yet fail to be congruent. The solution is thought to involve some creative insights that should challenge both the teacher and students to recall and analyze all the congruence axioms and theorems. (MP)

Pagni, David L.; Gannon, Gerald E.

1981-01-01

147

Unconscious Congruency Priming from Unpracticed Words Is Modulated by Prime-Target Semantic Relatedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants performed a 2-choice categorization task on visible word targets that were preceded by novel (unpracticed) prime words. The prime words were presented for 33 ms and followed either immediately (Experiments 1-3) or after a variable delay (Experiments 1 and 4) by a pattern mask. Both subjective and objective measures of prime visibility…

Ortells, Juan J.; Mari-Beffa, Paloma; Plaza-Ayllon, Vanesa

2013-01-01

148

36 CFR 1237.18 - What are the environmental standards for audiovisual records storage?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... What are the environmental standards for audiovisual records storage... What are the environmental standards for audiovisual records storage...Organization for Standardization in ISO 18911 (incorporated by reference, see § 1237.3). See also ISO 18920 (incorporated by...

2013-07-01

149

Causal inference of asynchronous audiovisual speech  

PubMed Central

During speech perception, humans integrate auditory information from the voice with visual information from the face. This multisensory integration increases perceptual precision, but only if the two cues come from the same talker; this requirement has been largely ignored by current models of speech perception. We describe a generative model of multisensory speech perception that includes this critical step of determining the likelihood that the voice and face information have a common cause. A key feature of the model is that it is based on a principled analysis of how an observer should solve this causal inference problem using the asynchrony between two cues and the reliability of the cues. This allows the model to make predictions about the behavior of subjects performing a synchrony judgment task, predictive power that does not exist in other approaches, such as post-hoc fitting of Gaussian curves to behavioral data. We tested the model predictions against the performance of 37 subjects performing a synchrony judgment task viewing audiovisual speech under a variety of manipulations, including varying asynchronies, intelligibility, and visual cue reliability. The causal inference model outperformed the Gaussian model across two experiments, providing a better fit to the behavioral data with fewer parameters. Because the causal inference model is derived from a principled understanding of the task, model parameters are directly interpretable in terms of stimulus and subject properties.

Magnotti, John F.; Ma, Wei Ji; Beauchamp, Michael S.

2013-01-01

150

Temporal Structure in Audiovisual Sensory Selection  

PubMed Central

In natural environments, sensory information is embedded in temporally contiguous streams of events. This is typically the case when seeing and listening to a speaker or when engaged in scene analysis. In such contexts, two mechanisms are needed to single out and build a reliable representation of an event (or object): the temporal parsing of information and the selection of relevant information in the stream. It has previously been shown that rhythmic events naturally build temporal expectations that improve sensory processing at predictable points in time. Here, we asked to which extent temporal regularities can improve the detection and identification of events across sensory modalities. To do so, we used a dynamic visual conjunction search task accompanied by auditory cues synchronized or not with the color change of the target (horizontal or vertical bar). Sounds synchronized with the visual target improved search efficiency for temporal rates below 1.4 Hz but did not affect efficiency above that stimulation rate. Desynchronized auditory cues consistently impaired visual search below 3.3 Hz. Our results are interpreted in the context of the Dynamic Attending Theory: specifically, we suggest that a cognitive operation structures events in time irrespective of the sensory modality of input. Our results further support and specify recent neurophysiological findings by showing strong temporal selectivity for audiovisual integration in the auditory-driven improvement of visual search efficiency.

Kosem, Anne; van Wassenhove, Virginie

2012-01-01

151

Neural restoration of degraded audiovisual speech  

PubMed Central

When speech is interrupted by noise, listeners often perceptually “fill-in” the degraded signal, giving an illusion of continuity and improving intelligibility. This phenomenon involves a neural process in which the auditory cortex (AC) response to onsets and offsets of acoustic interruptions is suppressed. Since meaningful visual cues behaviorally enhance this illusory filling-in, we hypothesized that during the illusion, lip movements congruent with acoustic speech should elicit a weaker AC response to interruptions relative to static (no movements) or incongruent visual speech. AC response to interruptions was measured as the power and inter-trial phase consistency of the auditory evoked theta band (4-8 Hz) activity of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and the N1 and P2 auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). A reduction in the N1 and P2 amplitudes and in theta phase-consistency reflected the perceptual illusion at the onset and/or offset of interruptions regardless of visual condition. These results suggest that the brain engages filling-in mechanisms throughout the interruption, which repairs degraded speech lasting up to ~250 ms following the onset of the degradation. Behaviorally, participants perceived greater speech continuity over longer interruptions for congruent compared to incongruent or static audiovisual streams. However, this specific behavioral profile was not mirrored in the neural markers of interest. We conclude that lip-reading enhances illusory perception of degraded speech not by altering the quality of the AC response, but by delaying it during degradations so that longer interruptions can be tolerated.

Shahin, Antoine J.; Kerlin, Jess R.; Bhat, Jyoti; Miller, Lee M.

2012-01-01

152

Audiovisual News, Cartoons, and Films as Sources of Authentic Language Input and Language Proficiency Enhancement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In today's audiovisually driven world, various audiovisual programs can be incorporated as authentic sources of potential language input for second language acquisition. In line with this view, the present research aimed at discovering the effectiveness of exposure to news, cartoons, and films as three different types of authentic audiovisual

Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

2012-01-01

153

Guidelines for Development and Use of Selected Types of Audiovisual Materials in Home Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study was designed to encourage home economics teachers to use audiovisual materials for more effective classroom communication, and to provide information which would assist them in developing selected types of audiovisual materials. Seventy-eight vocational home economics teachers were questioned to determine audiovisual practices, equipment…

Gould, Grovalynn Foreman

154

Implicit phonological and semantic processing in children with developmental dyslexia: evidence from event-related potentials.  

PubMed

Dyslexia is characterized by a core phonological deficit, although recent studies indicate that semantic impairment also contributes to this condition. In this study, event-related potentials (ERP) were used to examine whether the N400 wave in dyslexic children is modulated by phonological or semantic priming, similarly to age-matched controls. ERPs were recorded while children listened to word lists in which the semantic and phonological congruency of the terminal words were manipulated. No overt judgments were made by participants. In control children the N400 amplitude to both semantically and phonologically incongruent words was enlarged relative to congruent words. Dyslexic children exhibited a dissociation of priming effects depending on whether semantic or phonological primes were used. Semantic priming elicited an N400 effect comparable to controls, though delayed. In phonological priming, the dyslexics differed from controls in both the phonologically incongruent and congruent conditions showing reduced N400 amplitude in the former and enhanced N400 in the latter. This pattern suggests that when faced with phonological priming, dyslexics show abnormal neural responses related to both integration of similarities between the consecutive stimuli and the ability to detect incongruent stimuli. Semantic priming seems relatively intact in dyslexics, however neural responses to contextual incongruency are delayed. PMID:20430041

Jednoróg, K; Marchewka, A; Tacikowski, P; Grabowska, A

2010-07-01

155

Cross-modal priming effect based on short-term experience of ecologically unrelated audio-visual information: an event-related potential study.  

PubMed

In the present study, we aimed to identify whether cross-modal priming effect based on short-term experience of ecologically unrelated audio-visual information existed. In the experiment, we employed ecologically unrelated pictures and sounds as visual and auditory stimuli. Participants were required to learn the associations between pictures and sounds in the study phase, and then finished the following experiment adopting a cross-modal priming paradigm. The result showed that the processing of sound was facilitated by a priming picture if an audio-visual pair was presented in the study phase. Enhanced induced gamma-band activity (GBA) was also found under the Match condition, and we suggested that induced GBA reflected the association between auditory and visual information to form supra-modal representation, which is top-down modulated by short-term experience of audio-visual information. Event-related potential (ERP) analysis revealed an N400 effect under the Mismatch condition compared to the Match condition, and source reconstruction of N400 effect showed that the biggest difference of activity between two conditions was localized in middle temporal gyrus (MTG), suggesting that MTG played an important role in the mapping process of auditory information onto a temporal semantic network. PMID:22698696

Liu, B; Wu, G; Meng, X

2012-10-25

156

Semantic Networks and Social Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To illustrate the need for social network metadata within semantic metadata. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys properties of social networks and the semantic web, suggests that social network analysis applies to semantic content, argues that semantic content is more searchable if social network metadata is merged with semantic web…

Downes, Stephen

2005-01-01

157

Determinantal Quintics and Mirror Symmetry of Reye Congruences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a certain family of determinantal quintic hypersurfaces in {{P}4} whose singularities are similar to the well-studied Barth-Nieto quintic. Smooth Calabi-Yau threefolds with Hodge numbers (h 1,1,h 2,1) = (52, 2) are obtained by taking crepant resolutions of the singularities. It turns out that these smooth Calabi-Yau threefolds are in a two dimensional mirror family to the complete intersection Calabi-Yau threefolds in {{P}4×{P}4} which have appeared in our previous study of Reye congruences in dimension three. We compactify the two dimensional family over {{P}2} and reproduce the mirror family to the Reye congruences. We also determine the monodromy of the family over {{P}2} completely. Our calculation shows an example of the orbifold mirror construction with a trivial orbifold group.

Hosono, Shinobu; Takagi, Hiromichi

2014-03-01

158

Student-college congruency as a predictor of satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested hypotheses about person-environment congruency, consistency, and differentiation from J. L. Holland's (1973) theory of careers. Ss were 1,878 undergraduates from 1 college and 1 university who had been given the Self-Directed Search before their freshman year followed by a satisfaction questionnaire 1 or 3 yrs later. 2 analyses were conducted. The 1st was a 3-factor multiple analysis of variance

Dean H. Nafziger; John L. Holland; Gary D. Gottfredson

1975-01-01

159

Emotional congruence within couple interaction: the role of attachment avoidance.  

PubMed

Attachment strategies refer to the conscious representations individuals make of their relationships, including the level of perceived comfort and safety that relationships offer during distressing times. From early in life, some individuals learn the coping strategy of attachment avoidance. When distressed, these individuals shut down emotionally and seek to mask what they are feeling. This represents incongruence between emotional experience and expression. Yet congruence is an important part of interpersonal relationships. In addition, incongruence has been identified as a core aspect of repressive coping, about which research has identified several potential long-term health risks. In this study, we examined the relationship between attachment avoidance and congruence between what individuals experience physiologically and what they report. A total of 63 couples completed the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR; Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998) and participated in a seminatural couple interaction and an interaction with a therapist/coach. Using dyadic data analysis and multilevel modeling, we found that, while avoidance was not associated with elevated skin conductance, it was indeed associated with greater incongruence between skin conductance and reports of feelings toward one's partner. Whereas individuals lower in attachment avoidance were likely to report more negative feelings toward their partners in the context of psychophysiological distress, those higher in attachment avoidance were more likely to report positive feelings toward their partners. We discuss implications of this incongruence and its potential to adversely influence individual and relationship health. We also discuss some important clinical considerations when working to increase emotional congruence. PMID:23127352

Seedall, Ryan B; Wampler, Karen S

2012-12-01

160

Congruency Sequence Effects without Feature Integration or Contingency Learning Confounds  

PubMed Central

The congruency effect in distracter interference (e.g., Stroop) tasks is often reduced after incongruent trials, relative to congruent trials. It has been proposed that this congruency sequence effect (CSE) results from trial-by-trial adjustments of attention, which are triggered by changes in response conflict, expectancy, or negative affect. Hence, a large literature has developed to investigate the source(s) of attention adaptation in distracter interference tasks. Recent work, however, suggests that CSEs may stem from feature integration and/or contingency learning processes that are confounded with congruency sequence in the vast majority of distracter interference tasks. By combining an established method for measuring CSEs in the absence of these learning and memory confounds with a prime-probe task, we observed robust CSEs in two experiments. These findings provide strong evidence of CSEs independent of learning and memory confounds, which might be explainable by trial-by-trial adjustments of attention. They also reveal a highly effective approach for observing CSEs independent of the typical confounds, which will facilitate future studies of how people adapt to distraction.

Schmidt, James R.; Weissman, Daniel H.

2014-01-01

161

Congruence analysis of point clouds from unstable stereo image sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the correction of exterior orientation parameters of stereo image sequences over deformed free-form surfaces without control points. Such imaging situation can occur, for example, during photogrammetric car crash test recordings where onboard high-speed stereo cameras are used to measure 3D surfaces. As a result of such measurements 3D point clouds of deformed surfaces are generated for a complete stereo sequence. The first objective of this research focusses on the development and investigation of methods for the detection of corresponding spatial and temporal tie points within the stereo image sequences (by stereo image matching and 3D point tracking) that are robust enough for a reliable handling of occlusions and other disturbances that may occur. The second objective of this research is the analysis of object deformations in order to detect stable areas (congruence analysis). For this purpose a RANSAC-based method for congruence analysis has been developed. This process is based on the sequential transformation of randomly selected point groups from one epoch to another by using a 3D similarity transformation. The paper gives a detailed description of the congruence analysis. The approach has been tested successfully on synthetic and real image data.

Jepping, C.; Bethmann, F.; Luhmann, T.

2014-06-01

162

The Lattices of Group Fuzzy Congruences and Normal Fuzzy Subsemigroups on E-Inversive Semigroups  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper is to investigate the lattices of group fuzzy congruences and normal fuzzy subsemigroups on E-inversive semigroups. We prove that group fuzzy congruences and normal fuzzy subsemigroups determined each other in E-inversive semigroups. Moreover, we show that the set of group t-fuzzy congruences and the set of normal subsemigroups with tip t in a given E-inversive semigroup form two mutually isomorphic modular lattices for every t? [0,1].

Wang, Shoufeng

2014-01-01

163

Dynamics of tilted spherical star and stability of non-tilted congruence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper aims to study the dynamics of spherical star having anisotropic pressure, heat dissipation and shear viscosity with radial four-velocity. We formulate the field equations, equations of motion and equations for the Weyl tensor to study the inhomogeneity factor of the tilted congruence. An evolution equation for the shear is established to explore the stability of the non-tilted congruence. We conclude that the non-tilted congruence is stable for shear-free case.

Sharif, M.; Tahir, Hira

2014-06-01

164

Investigating audiovisual integration of emotional signals in the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans can communicate their emotional state via facial expression and affective prosody. This chapter reviews behavioural, neuroanatomical, electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies pertaining to audiovisual integration of emotional communicative signals. Particular emphasis will be given to neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Conjunction analyses, interaction analyses, correlation analyses between haemodynamic responses and behavioural effects

Thomas Ethofer; Gilles Pourtois; Dirk Wildgruber

2006-01-01

165

Summary of Findings and Recommendations on Federal Audiovisual Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the direction of President Carter, a year-long study of government audiovisual programs was conducted out of the Office of Telecommunications Policy in the Executive Office of the President. The programs in 16 departments and independent agencies, and the departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force have been reviewed to identify the scope of…

Lissit, Robert; And Others

166

Effect of Audiovisual Cancer Programs on Patients and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four audiovisual programs about cancer and cancer treatment were evaluated. Cancer patients, their families, and friends were asked to complete questionnaires before and after watching a program to determine the effects of the program on their knowledge of cancer, anxiety levels, and perceived ability to communicate with the staff. (Author/MLW)

Cassileth, Barrie R.; And Others

1982-01-01

167

Media literacy and audiovisual languages: a case study from Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the use of media in the construction of a “new” language for children. We studied how children acquire and use media literacy skills through their engagement in an educational art project. This media literacy project is rooted in the realm of audiovisual media, within which children’s sound and visual worlds are the focus of inquiry. Using an

Sofie Van Bauwel

2008-01-01

168

The Audiovisual Temporal Binding Window Narrows in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Binding is key in multisensory perception. This study investigated the audio-visual (A-V) temporal binding window in 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children (total N = 120). Children watched a person uttering a syllable whose auditory and visual components were either temporally synchronized or desynchronized by 366, 500, or 666 ms. They were asked…

Lewkowicz, David J.; Flom, Ross

2014-01-01

169

Multicamera Audio-Visual Analysis of Dance Figures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an automated system for multicamera motion capture and audio-visual analysis of dance figures. The multiview video of a dancing actor is acquired using 8 synchronized cameras. The motion capture technique is based on 3D tracking of the markers attached to the person's body in the scene, using stereo color information without need for an explicit 3D model. The

Ferda Ofli; Yasemin Demir; Engin Erzin; Yücel Yemez; A. Murat Tekalp

2007-01-01

170

Audio-visual speaker identification using coupled hidden Markov models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the use of the coupled hid- den Markov models (CHMM) for the task of audio-visual text dependent speaker identification. Our system deter- mines the identity of the user from a temporal sequence of audio and visual observations obtained from the acous- tic speech and the shape of the mouth, respectively. The multi modal observation sequences

Tieyan Fu; Xiao Xing Liu; Lu Hong Liang; Xiaobo Pi; Ara V. Nefian

2003-01-01

171

Audiovisual Market Place 1972-1973. A Multimedia Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The audiovisual (AV) field has been expanding rapidly, although in the last year or so there is evidence of a healthy slowing down in growth. This fourth edition of the guide to the AV industry represents an attempt to keep abreast of the information and to provide a single publication listing the many types of AV organizations and products which…

1972

172

Multinational Exchange Mechanisms of Educational Audio-Visual Materials. Appendixes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These appendixes contain detailed information about the existing audiovisual material exchanges which served as the basis for the analysis contained in the companion report. Descriptions of the objectives, structure, financing and services of the following national and international organizations are included: (1) Educational Resources Information…

Center of Studies and Realizations for Permanent Education, Paris (France).

173

Doctoral Program in Audio-Visual Communication Research. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Program objectives may be summarized as follows: (1) to provide an opportunity for outstanding students to become trained in research through participation in a doctoral program having a special emphasis on audiovisual communication; (2) to produce persons trained in the research skills that are essential for the development, implementation, and…

Jwaideh, Alice R.

174

School Building Design and Audio-Visual Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design of new schools should facilitate the use of audiovisual resources by ensuring that the materials used in the construction of the buildings provide adequate sound insulation and acoustical and viewing conditions in all learning spaces. The facilities to be considered are: electrical services; electronic services; light control and…

National Committee for Audio-Visual Aids in Education, London (England).

175

Design for Safety: The Audiovisual Cart Hazard Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the design of carts for moving audiovisual equipment in schools emphasizes safety factors. Topics addressed include poor design of top-heavy carts that has led to deaths and injuries; cart navigation; new manufacturing standards; and an alternative, safer cart design. (Contains 13 references.) (LRW)

Sherry, Annette C.; Strojny, Allan

1993-01-01

176

PHAROS - Personalizing Users' Experience in Audio-Visual Online Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large volume of user generated content, although sometimes amateurish, represents a valuable source of information for audiovisual service providers. For example, companies and organizations can efficiently get feedback from consumers observing their online interaction with social media providers. Offering accurately personalized services is possible now, since users provide more personal information about themselves openly, which was previously much more

Raluca Paiu; Ling Chen; Claudiu S. Firan; Wolfgang Nejdl

2008-01-01

177

Selected Audio-Visual Materials for Consumer Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph provides an annotated listing of suggested audiovisual materials which teachers should consider as they plan consumer education programs. The materials are divided into a general section on consumer education and a section on specific topics, such as credit, decision making, health, insurance, money management, and others. The…

Oppenheim, Irene

178

Crossmodal and Incremental Perception of Audiovisual Cues to Emotional Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we report on two experiments about the perception of audiovisual cues to emotional speech. The article addresses two questions: (1) how do visual cues from a speaker's face to emotion relate to auditory cues, and (2) what is the recognition speed for various facial cues to emotion? Both experiments reported below are based on tests…

Barkhuysen, Pashiera; Krahmer, Emiel; Swerts, Marc

2010-01-01

179

Libraries and Audio-Visual Center Cost Allocation Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 1975 cost analysis study of the Purdue University Library and Audio-Visual Center collected data to ascertain the cost of services and materials during the fiscal year 1975 and to identify the allocation of costs among user groups, among library functio...

M. A. Drake

1976-01-01

180

Audiovisual Vowel Monitoring and the Word Superiority Effect in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to explore whether viewing the speaker's articulatory gestures contributes to lexical access in children (ages 5-10) and in adults. We conducted a vowel monitoring task with words and pseudo-words in audio-only (AO) and audiovisual (AV) contexts with white noise masking the acoustic signal. The results indicated that…

Fort, Mathilde; Spinelli, Elsa; Savariaux, Christophe; Kandel, Sonia

2012-01-01

181

The development of an integrated audiovisual coding standard: MPEG  

Microsoft Academic Search

These days companies from many industry segments are moving towards the adoption of digital technology for upgrading existing or introducing new services. This unstoppable movement prompted by technological progress could have produced the digital replica of the existing incompatible systems put in place in the analog world. It is the merit of MPEG to have provided an integrated audiovisual coding

L. Chiariglione

1995-01-01

182

Media Literacy and Audiovisual Languages: A Case Study from Belgium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the use of media in the construction of a "new" language for children. We studied how children acquire and use media literacy skills through their engagement in an educational art project. This media literacy project is rooted in the realm of audiovisual media, within which children's sound and visual worlds are the focus of…

Van Bauwel, Sofie

2008-01-01

183

Audiovisual Distraction in Patients undergoing Surgery with Regional Anesthesia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Systems and methods provide audio-visual distraction to a patient while the patient is undergoing a surgical or other such medical procedure. When used in the context of a surgical procedure, local anesthetics are used to eliminate the pain of the procedu...

A. Wallace

2005-01-01

184

Neural development of networks for audiovisual speech comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Everyday conversation is both an auditory and a visual phenomenon. While visual speech information enhances comprehension for the listener, evidence suggests that the ability to benefit from this informa- tion improves with development. A number of brain regions have been implicated in audiovisual speech comprehension, but the extent to which the neurobiological substrate in the child compares to the adult

Anthony Steven Dick; Ana Solodkin; Steven L. Small

2009-01-01

185

The Audio-Visual Equipment Directory. Seventeenth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following types of audiovisual equipment are catalogued: 8 mm. and 16 mm. motion picture projectors, filmstrip and sound filmstrip projectors, slide projectors, random access projection equipment, opaque, overhead, and micro-projectors, record players, special purpose projection equipment, audio tape recorders and players, audio tape…

Herickes, Sally, Ed.

186

Audio-Visual Equipment Depreciation. RDU-75-07.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted at Purdue University to gather operational and budgetary planning data for the Libraries and Audiovisual Center. The objectives were: (1) to complete a current inventory of equipment including year of purchase, costs, and salvage value; (2) to determine useful life data for general classes of equipment; and (3) to determine…

Drake, Miriam A.; Baker, Martha

187

Towards practical deployment of audio-visual speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much progress has been achieved during the past two decades in audio-visual automatic speech recognition (AVASR). However, challenges persist that hinder AVASR deployment in practical situations, most notably, robust and fast extraction of visual speech features. We review our efforts in overcoming this problem, based on an appearance-based visual feature representation of the speaker's mouth region. We cover three topics

G. Potamianos; C. Neti; J. Huang; J. H. Connell; S. Chu; V. Libal; E. Marcheret; N. Haas; J. Jiang

2004-01-01

188

Audiovisual integration of emotional signals from music improvisation does not depend on temporal correspondence.  

PubMed

In the present study we applied a paradigm often used in face-voice affect perception to solo music improvisation to examine how the emotional valence of sound and gesture are integrated when perceiving an emotion. Three brief excerpts expressing emotion produced by a drummer and three by a saxophonist were selected. From these bimodal congruent displays the audio-only, visual-only, and audiovisually incongruent conditions (obtained by combining the two signals both within and between instruments) were derived. In Experiment 1 twenty musical novices judged the perceived emotion and rated the strength of each emotion. The results indicate that sound dominated the visual signal in the perception of affective expression, though this was more evident for the saxophone. In Experiment 2 a further sixteen musical novices were asked to either pay attention to the musicians' movements or to the sound when judging the perceived emotions. The results showed no effect of visual information when judging the sound. On the contrary, when judging the emotional content of the visual information, a worsening in performance was obtained for the incongruent condition that combined different emotional auditory and visual information for the same instrument. The effect of emotionally discordant information thus became evident only when the auditory and visual signals belonged to the same categorical event despite their temporal mismatch. This suggests that the integration of emotional information may be reinforced by its semantic attributes but might be independent from temporal features. PMID:20153297

Petrini, Karin; McAleer, Phil; Pollick, Frank

2010-04-01

189

Semantic Business Process Validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of formal semantics for the support of Business Process Man- agement is an emerging branch of research, with substantial economic potential. In particular, business processes modelled in graphical notations such as BPMN can be semantically annotated to specify more precisely what the individual tasks in the process will be responsible for. This raises the need for, and opens

Ingo Weber; Jan Mendling

190

Aging and Semantic Activation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies tested the theory that long term memory consists of a semantically organized network of concept nodes interconnected by leveled associations or relations, and that when a stimulus is processed, the corresponding concept node is assumed to be temporarily activated and this activation spreads to nearby semantically related nodes. In…

Howard, Darlene V.

191

SKUA { retrotting semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Semantic Web promises much for software developers, but because its claimed benets are rather abstract, there is little ob- vious incentive to master its unfamiliar technology. In contrast, many 'Social Web' applications seem rather trivial, and not obviously useful for astronomy. The SKUA project (Semantic Knowledge Underpinning Astronomy) is implementing a service which will realise the benets of both

Norman Gray; Tony Linde; Kona Andrews

192

Semantic Basis of Communication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A semantic recognition procedure is defined in which interlingually coded text is machine searched with an inventory of semantic targets. From the result of this search a final message structure for a text is constructed by means of a system of rules for ...

Y. Wilks D. Shillan J. Dobson K. S. Jones

1964-01-01

193

The Semantic Learning Organization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this paper is introducing the concept of a "semantic learning organization" (SLO) as an extension of the concept of "learning organization" in the technological domain. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes existing definitions and conceptualizations of both learning organizations and Semantic Web technology to develop…

Sicilia, Miguel-Angel; Lytras, Miltiadis D.

2005-01-01

194

A Semantic Infosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a prototype implementation of a semantic filtering capability added to an existing XML-based publish and subscribe infrastructure. An ontology is used to provide vocabulary for expressing both 1) the semantic annotations that characterize the published documents and 2) the subscriptions specifying the class of documents to be routed to a given client. A description logic (DL) classifier is

Michael Uschold; Peter Clark; Fred Dickey; Casey K. Fung; Sonia Smith; Stephen A. Uczekaj; Michael Wilke; Sean Bechhofer; Ian Horrocks

2003-01-01

195

Clock synchronization by accelerated observers - Metric construction for arbitrary congruences of world lines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clock synchronization in an arbitrarily accelerated observer congruence is considered. A general solution is obtained that maintains the isotropy and coordinate independence of the one-way speed of light. Attention is also given to various particular cases including, rotating disk congruence or ring congruence. An explicit, congruence-based spacetime metric is constructed according to Einstein's clock synchronization procedure and the equation for the geodesics of the space-time was derived using Hamilton-Jacobi method. The application of interferometric techniques (absolute phase radio interferometry, VLBI) to the detection of the 'global Sagnac effect' is also discussed.

Henriksen, R. N.; Nelson, L. A.

1985-01-01

196

A Semantic Graph Query Language  

SciTech Connect

Semantic graphs can be used to organize large amounts of information from a number of sources into one unified structure. A semantic query language provides a foundation for extracting information from the semantic graph. The graph query language described here provides a simple, powerful method for querying semantic graphs.

Kaplan, I L

2006-10-16

197

Quantifying the Level of Congruence between Two Career Measures: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the level of congruency between scores on the Self-Directed Search--Form R (J. L. Holland, 1994) and scores from an online instrument, both of which measure Holland types (J. L. Holland, 1985, 1997). A reasonably high level of congruence was found. Implications for career counselors are briefly delineated.

Miller, Mark J.

2008-01-01

198

The Modified Gap Excess Ratio (GER*) and the Stratigraphic Congruence of Dinosaur Phylogenies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palaeontologists routinely map their cladograms onto what is known of the fossil record. Where sister taxa first appear as fossils at different times, a ghost range is inferred to bridge the gap between these dates. Some measure of the total extent of ghost ranges across the tree underlies several indices of cladistic\\/stratigraphic congruence. We investigate this congruence for 19 independent,

MATTHEW A. WILLS; PAUL M. BARRETT; Julia Heathcote

2008-01-01

199

Family-Infant Congruence: Routines and Rhythmicity in Family Adaptations to a Young Infant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the hypothesis that degree of match or congruence between behavioral characteristics of infants and their families may significantly influence the nature of their interactions and the success of their mutual adaptation. Conducted a cross-sectional study on infant-family congruence on the degree of rhythmicity (predictable regularity in…

Sprunger, Lewis W.; And Others

1985-01-01

200

College Women's Holland-Theme Congruence: Effects of Self-Knowledge and Subjective Occupational Structure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined personality/occupational choice congruence as a function of self-knowledge of personality and consistency of occupational perceptions with a task-oriented hexagonal model of work proposed by Holland among college women. Results indicated a statistically significant relation between congruence and both self-knowledge and hexagonal…

Raphael, Karen G.; Gorman, Bernard S.

1986-01-01

201

Congruence between Assessed Needs and IEP Goals of Identified Behaviorally Disabled Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A checklist was developed to assess congruence between needs identified by psychoeducational assessment and instructional goals of the Individualized Education Program. Use with records of 106 behaviorally disordered students (K-12) suggested lack of diagnostic-intervention congruence and dissimilarity between IEP goals and diagnostic/assessment…

Fiedler, Jacque F.; Knight, Richard R.

1986-01-01

202

Congruence between Culturally Competent Treatment and Cultural Needs of Older Latinos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated a new 2-factor construct, termed "cultural congruence", which is related to cultural competence in the delivery of mental health services to ethnic minority clients. Cultural congruence was defined as the distance between the cultural competence characteristics of the health care organization and the clients' perception of…

Costantino, Giuseppe; Malgady, Robert G.; Primavera, Louis H.

2009-01-01

203

The principle of belief congruence and the congruity principle as models of cognitive interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principle of belief congruence, previously presented in Rokeach (1960), is elaborated here so that it can be applied to instances of cognitive interaction. The belief congruence model is compared and contrasted with Osgood and Tannenbaum's congruity principle, the main difference between the 2 principles being that the former asserts that the outcome of cognitive interaction cannot be accurately predicted

Milton Rokeach; Gilbert Rothman

1965-01-01

204

Congruence between Students' and Teachers' Goals: Implications for Social and Academic Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined student-teacher goal congruence and its relation to social and academic motivation. Based on a sample of 97 ninth-graders, high levels of goal congruence for each of the four goals measured (prosocial, responsibility, learning, performance) was positively related to student interest in class and perceived social support from…

Spera, Christopher; Wentzel, Kathryn R.

2003-01-01

205

Stable and efficient reduction of large, multiport RC networks by pole analysis via congruence transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel technique is presented which employs Pole Analysis via Congruence Transformations (PACT) to reduce RC networks in a well-conditioned manner. Pole analysis is shown to be more efficient than Padé approximations when the number of network ports is large, and congruence transforma- tions preserve the passivity (and thus absolute stability) of the networks. Networks are represented by admittance matrices

Kevin J. Kerns; Andrew T. Yang

1996-01-01

206

Stable and efficient reduction of large, multiport RC networks by pole analysis via congruence transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel technique is presented which employs pole analysis via congruence transformations (PACT) to reduce RC networks in a well-conditioned manner. Pole analysis is shown to be more efficient than Pade approximations when the number of network ports is large, and congruence transformations preserve the passivity (and thus absolute stability) of the networks. The error incurred by reducing the networks

Kevin J. Kerns; Andrew T. Yang

1997-01-01

207

"Pre-semantic" cognition revisited: critical differences between semantic aphasia and semantic dementia.  

PubMed

Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal "pre-semantic" tasks, e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are atypical of the domain and "regularization errors" (irregular/atypical items are produced as if they were domain-typical). The emergence of this pattern across diverse tasks in the same patients indicates that semantic memory plays a key role in all of these types of "pre-semantic" processing. However, this claim remains controversial because semantically impaired patients sometimes fail to show an influence of regularity. This study demonstrates that (a) the location of brain damage and (b) the underlying nature of the semantic deficit affect the likelihood of observing the expected relationship between poor comprehension and regularity effects. We compared the effect of multimodal semantic impairment in the context of semantic dementia and stroke aphasia on the seven "pre-semantic" tasks listed above. In all of these tasks, the semantic aphasia patients were less sensitive to typicality than the semantic dementia patients, even though the two groups obtained comparable scores on semantic tests. The semantic aphasia group also made fewer regularization errors and many more unrelated and perseverative responses. We propose that these group differences reflect the different locus for the semantic impairment in the two conditions: patients with semantic dementia have degraded semantic representations, whereas semantic aphasia patients show deregulated semantic cognition with concomitant executive deficits. These findings suggest a reinterpretation of single-case studies of comprehension-impaired aphasic patients who fail to show the expected effect of regularity on "pre-semantic" tasks. Consequently, such cases do not demonstrate the independence of these tasks from semantic memory. PMID:19766662

Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T; Hopper, Samantha; Ralph, Matthew A Lambon

2010-01-01

208

Semantic Approach to Fairness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the semantic framework of metric process theory, fairness of processes are investigated from two points of view: (1) intrinsic fairness of processes, and (2) fair operations on processes. Regarding (1) a fairification operation on processes called Fair...

J. J. M. M. Rutten J. I. Zucker

1987-01-01

209

Semantics of Ontology Alignment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ontology alignment is a foundational problem area for semantic interoperability. We discuss the complexity faced by automated alignment solutions and describe an ontology-based approach for describing and evaluating alignments.

B. C. Ashpole T. C. Hughes

2004-01-01

210

The Semantic Web  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Semantic Web is the new-generation Web that tries to represent information so that it can be used by machines not just for display purposes, but for automation, integration, and reuse across applications (Boley et al. 2001). It has been one of the hottest R&D topics in recent years in the AI community, as well as in the Internet community—the Semantic Web is an important W3C activity (SW Activity 2008).

Gaševic, Dragan; Djuric, Dragan; Devedžic, Vladan

211

Semantically Configurable Code Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In model-driven engineering (MDE), software development is centred around a formal description (model) of the proposed software\\u000a system, and other software artifacts are derived directly from the model. We are investigating semantically configurable MDE, in which specifiers are able to configure the semantics of their models. The goal of this work is to provide a modelling\\u000a environment that offers flexible,

Adam Prout; Joanne M. Atlee; Nancy A. Day; Pourya Shaker

2008-01-01

212

Facilitating congruence between religious beliefs and sexual identity with mindfulness.  

PubMed

With the increasing relevance of sexual minority concerns, including the process of navigating sexual and religious identities, clinical practice has focused on helping sexual minorities address methods of self-expression that are most congruent with the client's values. Sexual Identity Therapy (SIT), (Throckmorton & Yarhouse, 2006) has been developed to assist individuals who are seeking to address potential conflicts between religious and sexual identities by focusing on personal congruence. To facilitate this process, the practice of mindfulness is applied. As an adaptation from its spiritual origins, mindfulness is used to facilitate the treatment of various disorders, such as chronic pain, substance abuse, and depression. It has also been the crux of several different third-wave cognitive and behavioral therapies that consider the "… context and functions of psychological phenomena" (Hayes, 2004, p. 5) for the purpose of helping clients to develop "… broad, flexible and effective repertoires" (p. 6). In this instance, mindfulness is applied to SIT to assist individuals with same-sex attraction to become nonjudgmentally aware of their thoughts and feelings related to same-sex attraction such that they are able to experience their attractions in an open and honest manner without feeling compelled to either dismiss or augment these attractions. Mindful awareness of same-sex attraction facilitates congruence because there is less emphasis on changing behaviors, thoughts or feelings, but rather, changing the relationship the individual has to their experiences of same-sex attraction so that they are experienced as neutral, as opposed to aversive. PMID:21198238

Tan, Erica S N; Yarhouse, Mark A

2010-12-01

213

Training of Manual Actions Improves Language Understanding of Semantically Related Action Sentences  

PubMed Central

Conceptual knowledge accessed by language may involve the reactivation of the associated primary sensory-motor processes. Whether these embodied representations are indeed constitutive to conceptual knowledge is hotly debated, particularly since direct evidence that sensory-motor expertise can improve conceptual processing is scarce. In this study, we sought for this crucial piece of evidence, by training naive healthy subjects to perform complex manual actions and by measuring, before and after training, their performance in a semantic language task. Nineteen participants engaged in 3?weeks of motor training. Each participant was trained in three complex manual actions (e.g., origami). Before and after the training period, each subject underwent a series of manual dexterity tests and a semantic language task. The latter consisted of a sentence-picture semantic congruency judgment task, with 6 target congruent sentence-picture pairs (semantically related to the trained manual actions), 6 non-target congruent pairs (semantically unrelated), and 12 filler incongruent pairs. Manual action training induced a significant improvement in all manual dexterity tests, demonstrating the successful acquisition of sensory-motor expertise. In the semantic language task, the reaction times (RTs) to both target and non-target congruent sentence-picture pairs decreased after action training, indicating a more efficient conceptual-semantic processing. Noteworthy, the RTs for target pairs decreased more than those for non-target pairs, as indicated by the 2?×?2 interaction. These results were confirmed when controlling for the potential bias of increased frequency of use of target lexical items during manual training. The results of the present study suggest that sensory-motor expertise gained by training of specific manual actions can lead to an improvement of cognitive-linguistic skills related to the specific conceptual-semantic domain associated to the trained actions.

Locatelli, Matteo; Gatti, Roberto; Tettamanti, Marco

2012-01-01

214

AN ASYNCHRONOUS DBN FOR AUDIO-VISUAL SPEECH RECOGNITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate an asynchronous two-stream dynamic Bayesian network-based model for audio-visual speech recognition. The model allows the audio and visual streams to de-synchronize within the boundaries of each word. The probability of de-synchronization by a given number of states is learned during training. This type of asynchrony has been previously used for pronunciation modeling and for visual speech recognition (lipreading);

Kate Saenko; Karen Livescu

2006-01-01

215

Multistream Asynchrony Modeling for Audio-Visual Speech Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, two multi-stream asynchrony Dynamic Bayesian Network models (MS-ADBN model and MM-ADBN model) are proposed for audio-visual speech recognition (AVSR). The proposed models, with different topology structures, loose the asynchrony of audio and visual streams to word level. For MS-ADBN model, both in audio stream and in visual stream, each word is composed of its corresponding phones, and

Guoyun Lv; Dongmei Jiang; Rongchun Zhao; Yunshu Hou

2007-01-01

216

Voice activity detection using audio-visual information  

Microsoft Academic Search

An audio-visual voice activity detector that uses sensors positioned distantly from the speaker is presented. Its constituting unimodal detectors are based on the modeling of the temporal variation of audio and visual features using hidden Markov models; their outcomes are fused using a post-decision scheme. The Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients and the vertical mouth opening are the chosen audio and visual

Theodoros Petsatodis; Aristodemos Pnevmatikakis; Christos Boukis

2009-01-01

217

Audiovisual integration in the human perception of materials.  

PubMed

Interest in the perception of the material of objects has been growing. While material perception is a critical ability for animals to properly regulate behavioral interactions with surrounding objects (e.g., eating), little is known about its underlying processing. Vision and audition provide useful information for material perception; using only its visual appearance or impact sound, we can infer what an object is made from. However, what material is perceived when the visual appearance of one material is combined with the impact sound of another, and what are the rules that govern cross-modal integration of material information? We addressed these questions by asking 16 human participants to rate how likely it was that audiovisual stimuli (48 combinations of visual appearances of six materials and impact sounds of eight materials) along with visual-only stimuli and auditory-only stimuli fell into each of 13 material categories. The results indicated strong interactions between audiovisual material perceptions; for example, the appearance of glass paired with a pepper sound is perceived as transparent plastic. Rating material-category likelihoods follow a multiplicative integration rule in that the categories judged to be likely are consistent with both visual and auditory stimuli. On the other hand, rating-material properties, such as roughness and hardness, follow a weighted average rule. Despite a difference in their integration calculations, both rules can be interpreted as optimal Bayesian integration of independent audiovisual estimations for the two types of material judgment, respectively. PMID:24744448

Fujisaki, Waka; Goda, Naokazu; Motoyoshi, Isamu; Komatsu, Hidehiko; Nishida, Shin'ya

2014-01-01

218

Audiovisual temporal fusion in 6-month-old infants.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate neural dynamics of audiovisual temporal fusion processes in 6-month-old infants using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). In a habituation-test paradigm, infants did not show any behavioral signs of discrimination of an audiovisual asynchrony of 200ms, indicating perceptual fusion. In a subsequent EEG experiment, audiovisual synchronous stimuli and stimuli with a visual delay of 200ms were presented in random order. In contrast to the behavioral data, brain activity differed significantly between the two conditions. Critically, N1 and P2 latency delays were not observed between synchronous and fused items, contrary to previously observed N1 and P2 latency delays between synchrony and perceived asynchrony. Hence, temporal interaction processes in the infant brain between the two sensory modalities varied as a function of perceptual fusion versus asynchrony perception. The visual recognition components Pb and Nc were modulated prior to sound onset, emphasizing the importance of anticipatory visual events for the prediction of auditory signals. Results suggest mechanisms by which young infants predictively adjust their ongoing neural activity to the temporal synchrony relations to be expected between vision and audition. PMID:24525177

Kopp, Franziska

2014-07-01

219

In Support of Semantic Atoms. Semantic Studies 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several hypotheses about the nature of word meaning are discussed and discarded in favor of one that treats semantic atoms (distinctive semantic elements) as elemental predicates that can be arranged in any configuration. (Author/KM)

Hofmann, Thomas R.

1974-01-01

220

A Frame-Semantic Approach to Semantic Annotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The number and arrangement of semantic tags must be constrained, lest the size and complexity,of the tagging sets (tagsets) used for semantic annotation become unwieldy,both,for humans,and,computers. The description of lexical predicates within the framework,of frame semantics,provides a natural method,for selecting and structuring appropriate,tagsets. 1,Motivation

B. Lowe; Garnet. be

221

Congruency, Scoring Method, and Encoding Specificity in Cued Recall  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the use of the congruity dimension as defined by association values (semantic similarity), encoding specificity was examined in cued recall situations. One hundred twenty-eight undergraduates of both sexes learned 24 target words in an experiment run under a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, with two input and two output variations (congruous vs. incongruous, respectively) and two retention

Marianne K. Wohl; Chizuko Izawa

1980-01-01

222

Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static piece...

G. M. Abdulla J. J. Levandoski

2007-01-01

223

Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first working draft of the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition is now available. The document "defines the process of Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition and the syntax and semantics of semantic interpretation tags that can be added to speech recognition grammars." The document is a draft, open for suggestions from W3C members and other interested users.

Lernout & Hauspie Speech Products.; Tichelen, Luc V.

2001-01-01

224

Ideal self-image congruency as a motivator for smoking: the moderating effects of personality traits.  

PubMed

A content analysis showed that cigarette advertising in Taiwan from June 2001 to May 2003 portrayed smokers as masculine, adventurous, pleasure-loving, and sociable. A survey of 1,490 high school students further indicated that smokers and nonsmokers differ in the congruency between their ideal self-images and the perceived smoker image on these 4 image dimensions. The self-smoker image congruency was greater for smokers than for nonsmokers and was positively associated with attitudes toward cigarette advertising Most important, this study demonstrated that participants' personality traits moderated self-smoker image congruency effects on smoking attitudes. Implications and suggestions for antismoking campaigns are discussed. PMID:17617009

Chang, Chingching

2007-01-01

225

Audiovisual Between-Channel Redundancy and Its Effects upon Immediate Recall and Short-Term Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to ascertain the facilitating functions of audiovisual between-channel redundancy in information processing, a series of audiovisual experiments alternating auditory and visual as the dominant and redundant channels were conducted. As predicted, results generally supported the between-channel redundancy when input (stimulus) was…

Hsia, H. J.

226

An Analysis of Audiovisual Machines for Individual Program Presentation. Research Memorandum Number Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Medical Information Project (MIP) purpose to select the right type of audiovisual equipment for communicating new medical information to general practitioners of medicine was hampered by numerous difficulties. There is a lack of uniformity and standardization in audiovisual equipment that amounts to chaos. There is no evaluative literature on…

Finn, James D.; Weintraub, Royd

227

Audiovisual Speech Perception and Eye Gaze Behavior of Adults with Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Audiovisual speech perception was studied in adults with Asperger syndrome (AS), by utilizing the McGurk effect, in which conflicting visual articulation alters the perception of heard speech. The AS group perceived the audiovisual stimuli differently from age, sex and IQ matched controls. When a voice saying /p/ was presented with a face…

Saalasti, Satu; Katsyri, Jari; Tiippana, Kaisa; Laine-Hernandez, Mari; von Wendt, Lennart; Sams, Mikko

2012-01-01

228

A-V Buyer's Guide. A User's Look At the Audio-Visual World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To enable a potential user to select the proper medium for his message, buy the appropriate equipment, and take proper care of it, this guide provides an accumulation of questions, answers, and tips on getting the most out of audiovisual buying decisions. Common questions about audiovisual equipment are discussed, along with more detailed…

Laird, Dugan

229

Audiovisual Materials in Archives--A General Picture of Their Role and Function.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Delivered on behalf of the International Council of Archives (ICA), this paper briefly discusses the challenge inherent in the processing and preservation of audiovisual materials, the types of media included in the term audiovisual, the concerns of professional archivists, the development and services of archival institutions, the utilization of…

Booms, Hans

230

A Written and Audiovisual Educational Program for Students Assigned to the Normal Newborn Nursery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A combined written and audiovisual educational program developed for junior medical students rotating for one week on the normal newborn and intermediate care nurseries at the Indiana University School of Medicine is evaluated. It was concluded that audiovisual and/or written programs are useful in medical student education. (Author/MLW)

Schreiner, Richard L.; And Others

1980-01-01

231

A Short History of Audiovisual Education in Japan. AVE in Japan No. 25.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief history of audiovisual education in Japan covers (1) the utilization of slides, films, and radio prior to 1945; (2) film education activities after World War II; (3) the establishment and objectives of the Audiovisual Education Division of the Ministry of Education; (4) educational film production from 1945-1954; (5) the use of films in…

Japan Audio-Visual Education Association, Tokyo.

232

Exploring Student Perceptions of Audiovisual Feedback via Screencasting in Online Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Moore's (1993) theory of transactional distance as a framework, this action research study explored students' perceptions of audiovisual feedback provided via screencasting as a supplement to text-only feedback. A crossover design was employed to ensure that all students experienced both text-only and text-plus-audiovisual feedback and to…

Mathieson, Kathleen

2012-01-01

233

From "Piracy" to Payment: Audio-Visual Copyright and Teaching Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The changing circumstances in Australia governing the use of broadcast television and radio material in education are examined, from the uncertainty of the early 1980s to current management of copyrighted audiovisual material under the statutory licensing agreement between universities and an audiovisual copyright agency. (MSE)

Anderson, Peter

1993-01-01

234

Computing Semantic Similarity Using Ontologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining semantic similarity of two sets of words that describe two entities is an important problem in web mining (search and recommendation systems), targeted advertisement and domains that need semantic content matching. Traditional Information Retrieval ap- proaches, even when extended to include semantics by performing the similarity comparison on concepts instead of words\\/terms, may not al- ways determine the right

Rajesh Thiagarajan; Geetha Manjunath; Markus Stumptner

235

Operational Semantics for MSC'96  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Recently, the ITU-standardised specification language Message Sequence Chart has been extended with constructs for more complete and structured specifications. The new version of the language is called MSC’96. Currently, research is performed on the extension of the formal semantics towards a semantics for MSC’96. In this article, we aim at explaining the basic ideas behind the formal semantics. We

M. A. Reniers; S. Mauw

1998-01-01

236

Operational Semantics for MSC'96  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the ITU-standardised specification language Message Sequence Chart has been extended with constructs for more complete and structured specifications. The new version of the language is called MSC'96. Currently, research is performed on the extension of the formal semantics towards a semantics for MSC'96. In this article, we aim at explaining the basic ideas behind the formal semantics. We give

Sjouke Mauw; Michel A. Reniers

1999-01-01

237

Next Generation Semantic Web Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this short paper, we examine current Semantic Web application and we highlight what we see as a shift away from first generation Semantic Web applications, towards a new generation of applications, designed to exploit the large amounts of heterogeneous semantic markup, which are increasingly becoming available. Our analysis aims both to highlight the main features that can be used

Enrico Motta; Marta Sabou

2006-01-01

238

Compositional specification of behavioral semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domain-Specific Modeling Languages (DSMLs) play fundamental role in the model-based design of embedded software and systems. While abstract syntax metamodeling enables the rapid and inexpensive development of DSMLs, the specification of DSML semantics is still a hard problem. In previous work, we have developed methods and tools for the semantic anchoring of DSMLs. Semantic anchoring introduces a set of reusable

Kai Chen; Janos Sztipanovits; Sandeep Neema

2007-01-01

239

Causal premise semantics.  

PubMed

The rise of causality and the attendant graph-theoretic modeling tools in the study of counterfactual reasoning has had resounding effects in many areas of cognitive science, but it has thus far not permeated the mainstream in linguistic theory to a comparable degree. In this study I show that a version of the predominant framework for the formal semantic analysis of conditionals, Kratzer-style premise semantics, allows for a straightforward implementation of the crucial ideas and insights of Pearl-style causal networks. I spell out the details of such an implementation, focusing especially on the notions of intervention on a network and backtracking interpretations of counterfactuals. PMID:23927020

Kaufmann, Stefan

2013-08-01

240

Semantator: semantic annotator for converting biomedical text to linked data.  

PubMed

More than 80% of biomedical data is embedded in plain text. The unstructured nature of these text-based documents makes it challenging to easily browse and query the data of interest in them. One approach to facilitate browsing and querying biomedical text is to convert the plain text to a linked web of data, i.e., converting data originally in free text to structured formats with defined meta-level semantics. In this paper, we introduce Semantator (Semantic Annotator), a semantic-web-based environment for annotating data of interest in biomedical documents, browsing and querying the annotated data, and interactively refining annotation results if needed. Through Semantator, information of interest can be either annotated manually or semi-automatically using plug-in information extraction tools. The annotated results will be stored in RDF and can be queried using the SPARQL query language. In addition, semantic reasoners can be directly applied to the annotated data for consistency checking and knowledge inference. Semantator has been released online and was used by the biomedical ontology community who provided positive feedbacks. Our evaluation results indicated that (1) Semantator can perform the annotation functionalities as designed; (2) Semantator can be adopted in real applications in clinical and transactional research; and (3) the annotated results using Semantator can be easily used in Semantic-web-based reasoning tools for further inference. PMID:23867104

Tao, Cui; Song, Dezhao; Sharma, Deepak; Chute, Christopher G

2013-10-01

241

Fast parallel DNA-based algorithms for molecular computation: quadratic congruence and factoring integers.  

PubMed

Assume that n is a positive integer. If there is an integer such that M (2) ? C (mod n), i.e., the congruence has a solution, then C is said to be a quadratic congruence (mod n). If the congruence does not have a solution, then C is said to be a quadratic noncongruence (mod n). The task of solving the problem is central to many important applications, the most obvious being cryptography. In this article, we describe a DNA-based algorithm for solving quadratic congruence and factoring integers. In additional to this novel contribution, we also show the utility of our encoding scheme, and of the algorithm's submodules. We demonstrate how a variety of arithmetic, shifted and comparative operations, namely bitwise and full addition, subtraction, left shifter and comparison perhaps are performed using strands of DNA. PMID:21914574

Chang, Weng-Long

2012-03-01

242

Global meta-analysis reveals low consistency of biodiversity congruence relationships.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the number and distribution of species is fundamental to biodiversity conservation efforts, but this information is lacking for the majority of species on earth. Consequently, subsets of taxa are often used as proxies for biodiversity; but this assumes that different taxa display congruent distribution patterns. Here we use a global meta-analysis to show that studies of cross-taxon congruence rarely give consistent results. Instead, species richness congruence is highest at extreme spatial scales and close to the equator, while congruence in species composition is highest at large extents and grain sizes. Studies display highest variance in cross-taxon congruence when conducted in areas with dissimilar areal extents (for species richness) or latitudes (for species composition). These results undermine the assumption that a subset of taxa can be representative of biodiversity. Therefore, researchers whose goal is to prioritize locations or actions for conservation should use data from a range of taxa. PMID:24844928

Westgate, Martin J; Barton, Philip S; Lane, Peter W; Lindenmayer, David B

2014-01-01

243

Congruence of perceptions among nursing leaders and staff regarding missed nursing care and teamwork.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to test the congruence of the perceptions of unit-based nurse leaders (managers, advanced practice nurses) and nursing staff members (registered nurses, nursing assistants, unit secretaries) in acute care hospitals as to the extent and type of missed nursing care and nursing teamwork. Based on the leader-member exchange congruence framework (LMX), nursing staff and nursing leaders completed the MISSCARE Survey, and a segment of the participants completed the Nursing Teamwork Survey. The findings of this study show a lack of LMX congruence between leaders and nursing staff members. Nursing staff report less missed care and lower teamwork than do leaders, and nursing staff list more problems with having adequate material and labor resources than do leaders. LMX congruence has been associated with positive organizational outcomes. PMID:22968120

Kalisch, Beatrice J; Lee, Kyung Hee

2012-10-01

244

Semantics of probabilistic programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two complementary but equivalent semantic interpretations of a high level probabilistic programming language are given. One of these interprets programs as partial measurable functions on a measurable space. The other interprets programs as continuous linear operators on a Banach space of measures. It is shown how the ordered domains of Scott and others are embedded naturally into these spaces. Two

Dexter Kozen; Yorktown Heights

1979-01-01

245

Applying Semantic Web Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of Semantic Web Services (SWS) for increasing agility and adaptability in process execution is currently investigated in many settings. The common underlying idea is the dynamic selection, composition and mediation - on the basis of available SWS descriptions - of the most adequate Web resource (services and data) to accomplish a specific process activity. In this paper we

Stefania Galizia; Alessio Gugliotta; Carlos Pedrinaci; John Domingue

2007-01-01

246

Semantic Composability and XMSF  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Abstract Composability is the capability to select and assemble simulation components in various combinations into simulation systems. The defining characteristic of composability is the ability to combine and recombine components. There are both syntactic and semantic forms of composability; they deal respectively with technical aspects of enabling components to work together and with whether their combined computation is meaningful.

Mikel D. Petty

247

Semantic Web Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The work funded by DARPA and done by MIT and W3C under DAML Agent Markup Language (DAML) project between 2002 and 2005 provided key steps in the research in the Semantic Web technology, and also played an essential role in delivering the technology to ind...

R. Swick T. Berners-Lee

2006-01-01

248

Semantic Business Process Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current Business Process Management technologies cover all the process life-cycle but still suffer from many limitations with respect to their complexity, maintainability and degree of automation. Recent research initiatives aim at overcoming these limitations by introducing Semantic technologies in the process life-cycle. One of the steps that can benefit from this approach is the Business Process Analysis, that focuses on

Irene Celino; Ana Karla Alves De Medeiros; Gernot Zeissler; Michael Oppitz; Federico Michele Facca; Stefan Zoeller

2007-01-01

249

Interactions between stimulus-stimulus congruence and stimulus-response compatibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to a central claim of Kornblum's dimensional-overlap model, response-related processes do not start before stimulus-related processes have been completed, which implies an additive relationship between effects of stimulus-stimulus congruence and stimulus-response compatibility. Three experiments were conducted to test this prediction. In Exp. 1, additive effects of color-word congruence (Stroop effect) and irrelevant spatial S-R compatibility (Simon effect) were in

Bernhard Hommel

1997-01-01

250

The moderating influence of ad framing for ad-self-congruency effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research indicates that ad-self-congruency effects are signifi- cant only when participants are not motivated to process ad messages, as when they are in a positive rather than negative affective state (Chang, 2002a). In line with this reasoning, it was expected that ad tac- tics such as ad framing that can evoke emotional responses would determine reliance on ad-self-congruency for

Chingching Chang

2005-01-01

251

The hot-hand fallacy in cognitive control: repetition expectancy modulates the congruency sequence effect.  

PubMed

In this study, the role of expectancies in cognitive control was tested. On the basis of the original interpretation of the congruency sequence effect (Gratton, Coles, & Donchin, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 121:480-506, 1992), we sought evidence for a repetition bias steering attentional control. In a series of four Stroop experiments, we investigated how participants' explicit predictions about the upcoming (in)congruency proactively influenced subsequent Stroop performance. Similar to the fallacious "hot-hand" belief in gambling, repeating stimulus events were overpredicted, as participants consistently expected more repetitions of the congruency level than the actual presented number of congruency-level repetitions (50 %). Moreover, behavioral adjustments (i.e., a congruency sequence effect) were only found when participants anticipated a congruency-level repetition, whereas no modulation of the Stroop effect was found following alternation predictions. We propose that proactive control processes in general, and repetition expectancy in particular, should be given more attention in current theorizing and modeling of cognitive control, which is characterized by an emphasis on reactive, conflict-induced control adjustments. PMID:23371807

Duthoo, Wout; Wühr, Peter; Notebaert, Wim

2013-08-01

252

Congruence between gender stereotypes and activity preference in self-identified tomboys and non-tomboys.  

PubMed

The major goal was to examine a central tenet of cognitive approaches to gender development, namely, that congruence exists between personal gender stereotypes and behaviors. Item-by-item comparisons of girls' stereotypes about activities and their preferences for activities were conducted, for both girls who claimed to be tomboys and those who did not. Congruence was expected for all girls, but because of their gender non-normative interests, tomboys may exhibit less congruence. A secondary goal was to examine factors that might influence congruence, specifically, whether tomboys develop more inclusive stereotypes and develop greater understanding of stereotype variability. Participants included 112 girls (7-12 years old, M age=9). Girls were interviewed about their activity preferences, beliefs about girls' and boys' activity preferences, understanding variability of stereotypes, and identification as tomboys. Tomboys (30% of the sample) and non-tomboys did not differ in their liking of or in the number of liked feminine activities. However, tomboys showed more interest in masculine activities than non-tomboys. Tomboys and non-tomboys did not differ in stereotype inclusiveness, although tomboys showed a trend toward more inclusive stereotypes. Both groups showed high levels of congruence between stereotypes and preferences. Congruence was stronger for nontomboys (14 times more likely to exhibit responses congruent with stereotypes vs. incongruent ones), as compared to tomboys who were four times more likely to exhibit responses congruent with stereotypes versus incongruent ones. Implications of these findings for cognitive approaches to gender development are discussed. PMID:21755383

Martin, Carol Lynn; Dinella, Lisa M

2012-06-01

253

Lexical and context effects in children's audiovisual speech recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Audiovisual Lexical Neighborhood Sentence Test (AVLNST), a new, recorded speech recognition test for children with sensory aids, was administered in multiple presentation modalities to children with normal hearing and vision. Each sentence consists of three key words whose lexical difficulty is controlled according to the Neighborhood Activation Model (NAM) of spoken word recognition. According to NAM, the recognition of spoken words is influenced by two lexical factors: the frequency of occurrence of individual words in a language, and how phonemically similar the target word is to other words in the listeners lexicon. These predictions are based on auditory similarity only, and thus do not take into account how visual information can influence the perception of speech. Data from the AVLNST, together with those from recorded audiovisual versions of isolated word recognition measures, the Lexical Neighborhood, and the Multisyllabic Lexical Neighborhood Tests, were used to examine the influence of visual information on speech perception in children. Further, the influence of top-down processing on speech recognition was examined by evaluating performance on the recognition of words in isolation versus words in sentences. [Work supported by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Foundation, the American Hearing Research Foundation, and the NIDCD, T32 DC00012 to Indiana University.

Holt, Rachael; Kirk, Karen; Pisoni, David; Burckhartzmeyer, Lisa; Lin, Anna

2005-09-01

254

Talker variability in audio-visual speech perception  

PubMed Central

A change in talker is a change in the context for the phonetic interpretation of acoustic patterns of speech. Different talkers have different mappings between acoustic patterns and phonetic categories and listeners need to adapt to these differences. Despite this complexity, listeners are adept at comprehending speech in multiple-talker contexts, albeit at a slight but measurable performance cost (e.g., slower recognition). So far, this talker variability cost has been demonstrated only in audio-only speech. Other research in single-talker contexts have shown, however, that when listeners are able to see a talker’s face, speech recognition is improved under adverse listening (e.g., noise or distortion) conditions that can increase uncertainty in the mapping between acoustic patterns and phonetic categories. Does seeing a talker’s face reduce the cost of word recognition in multiple-talker contexts? We used a speeded word-monitoring task in which listeners make quick judgments about target word recognition in single- and multiple-talker contexts. Results show faster recognition performance in single-talker conditions compared to multiple-talker conditions for both audio-only and audio-visual speech. However, recognition time in a multiple-talker context was slower in the audio-visual condition compared to audio-only condition. These results suggest that seeing a talker’s face during speech perception may slow recognition by increasing the importance of talker identification, signaling to the listener a change in talker has occurred.

Heald, Shannon L. M.; Nusbaum, Howard C.

2014-01-01

255

Effect of attentional load on audiovisual speech perception: evidence from ERPs  

PubMed Central

Seeing articulatory movements influences perception of auditory speech. This is often reflected in a shortened latency of auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) generated in the auditory cortex. The present study addressed whether this early neural correlate of audiovisual interaction is modulated by attention. We recorded ERPs in 15 subjects while they were presented with auditory, visual, and audiovisual spoken syllables. Audiovisual stimuli consisted of incongruent auditory and visual components known to elicit a McGurk effect, i.e., a visually driven alteration in the auditory speech percept. In a Dual task condition, participants were asked to identify spoken syllables whilst monitoring a rapid visual stream of pictures for targets, i.e., they had to divide their attention. In a Single task condition, participants identified the syllables without any other tasks, i.e., they were asked to ignore the pictures and focus their attention fully on the spoken syllables. The McGurk effect was weaker in the Dual task than in the Single task condition, indicating an effect of attentional load on audiovisual speech perception. Early auditory ERP components, N1 and P2, peaked earlier to audiovisual stimuli than to auditory stimuli when attention was fully focused on syllables, indicating neurophysiological audiovisual interaction. This latency decrement was reduced when attention was loaded, suggesting that attention influences early neural processing of audiovisual speech. We conclude that reduced attention weakens the interaction between vision and audition in speech.

Alsius, Agnes; Mottonen, Riikka; Sams, Mikko E.; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Tiippana, Kaisa

2014-01-01

256

Temporal processing of audiovisual stimuli is enhanced in musicians: evidence from magnetoencephalography (MEG).  

PubMed

Numerous studies have demonstrated that the structural and functional differences between professional musicians and non-musicians are not only found within a single modality, but also with regard to multisensory integration. In this study we have combined psychophysical with neurophysiological measurements investigating the processing of non-musical, synchronous or various levels of asynchronous audiovisual events. We hypothesize that long-term multisensory experience alters temporal audiovisual processing already at a non-musical stage. Behaviorally, musicians scored significantly better than non-musicians in judging whether the auditory and visual stimuli were synchronous or asynchronous. At the neural level, the statistical analysis for the audiovisual asynchronous response revealed three clusters of activations including the ACC and the SFG and two bilaterally located activations in IFG and STG in both groups. Musicians, in comparison to the non-musicians, responded to synchronous audiovisual events with enhanced neuronal activity in a broad left posterior temporal region that covers the STG, the insula and the Postcentral Gyrus. Musicians also showed significantly greater activation in the left Cerebellum, when confronted with an audiovisual asynchrony. Taken together, our MEG results form a strong indication that long-term musical training alters the basic audiovisual temporal processing already in an early stage (direct after the auditory N1 wave), while the psychophysical results indicate that musical training may also provide behavioral benefits in the accuracy of the estimates regarding the timing of audiovisual events. PMID:24595014

Lu, Yao; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Herholz, Sibylle C; Kuchenbuch, Anja; Pantev, Christo

2014-01-01

257

The Role of the Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus in Audiovisual Processing  

PubMed Central

In this study we investigate previous claims that a region in the left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is more activated by audiovisual than unimodal processing. First, we compare audiovisual to visual–visual and auditory–auditory conceptual matching using auditory or visual object names that are paired with pictures of objects or their environmental sounds. Second, we compare congruent and incongruent audiovisual trials when presentation is simultaneous or sequential. Third, we compare audiovisual stimuli that are either verbal (auditory and visual words) or nonverbal (pictures of objects and their associated sounds). The results demonstrate that, when task, attention, and stimuli are controlled, pSTS activation for audiovisual conceptual matching is 1) identical to that observed for intramodal conceptual matching, 2) greater for incongruent than congruent trials when auditory and visual stimuli are simultaneously presented, and 3) identical for verbal and nonverbal stimuli. These results are not consistent with previous claims that pSTS activation reflects the active formation of an integrated audiovisual representation. After a discussion of the stimulus and task factors that modulate activation, we conclude that, when stimulus input, task, and attention are controlled, pSTS is part of a distributed set of regions involved in conceptual matching, irrespective of whether the stimuli are audiovisual, auditory–auditory or visual–visual.

Price, Cathy J.

2008-01-01

258

Modeling Computations in a Semantic Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic network research has seen a resurgence from its early history in the cognitive sciences with the inception of the Semantic Web initiative. The Semantic Web e ort has brought forth an array of technologies that support the encoding, storage, and querying of the semantic network data structure at the world stage. Currently, the popular conception of the Semantic Web

Marko A. Rodriguez; Johan Bollen

2007-01-01

259

Semantic Web Services in Corporate Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present our experiment in integrating semantic web services in the existing corporate semantic web server architecture we use to implement corporate memories. We rely on a semantic web search engine, to provide a semantic registry and automatically discover and invoke corporate applications wrapped into semantically annotated web services. Using rules we also demonstrate how to compose the web services

Moussa Lo; Fabien L. Gandon

2007-01-01

260

Biodiversity Congruence and Conservation Strategies: A National Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding patterns of biodiversity is essential to developing conservation strategies and monitoring conservation goals, and severe data constraints make surrogate indicators necessary. We used a comprehensive data set of 6959 species of amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, and vascular plants in terrestrial ecosystems of China to test the correlations among taxa, the utility of surrogates, and the effectiveness of conservation strategies in China. The results showed that the patterns of species richness between terrestrial vertebrates and vascular plants are concordant, except for those patterns between amphibians and birds; patterns of endemism are concordant at the national level; species richness and endemism are congruent, and each class can represent the four remaining classes. The underlying mechanisms responsible for the decline of species, however, are quite diverse, and conservation of one endangered class will not necessarily save the other classes. These results suggest that the extent of congruence varies according to the taxa and measures of diversity that are compared. There is no correlation between the coverage of nature reserves and overall species richness, endemism, or threat, nor between biodiversity investment and species richness, endemism, or threat.

Haigen Xu (Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences (NIES);)

2008-08-01

261

[Towards congruence in nursing information provision in The Netherlands].  

PubMed

Few reliable data are available about nursing care in the Netherlands, whereas pressure from society to support the contributions of the discipline of nursing to health care delivery increases. This paper presents an information model to support analytical access to nursing labour and services. This model, the nursing information reference model (Dutch acronym 'VIRM') focuses on the structure to achieve congruence between data from the primary process of nursing care and data derived from that process for clinical practice, management, research, and policy purposes. The model is based on the 'collect-once/use-often' principle of data collection and management, which emphasizes single collection and registration through the patient record for multiple subsequent uses and purposes. In this paper core elements of the VIRM are being discussed. Determination of data from the primary process of nursing care to be provided for certain aims is currently being conducted by the Dutch Nursing Minimum Data Set (VMDNS) initiative. The article at issue should be understood as a starting point in the discussion about the development of a Nursing Minimum Data Set in the Netherlands. PMID:9516820

Epping, P J; Goossen, W T; Dassen, T W; Hasman, A

1996-11-01

262

The semantic priming project.  

PubMed

Speeded naming and lexical decision data for 1,661 target words following related and unrelated primes were collected from 768 subjects across four different universities. These behavioral measures have been integrated with demographic information for each subject and descriptive characteristics for every item. Subjects also completed portions of the Woodcock-Johnson reading battery, three attentional control tasks, and a circadian rhythm measure. These data are available at a user-friendly Internet-based repository ( http://spp.montana.edu ). This Web site includes a search engine designed to generate lists of prime-target pairs with specific characteristics (e.g., length, frequency, associative strength, latent semantic similarity, priming effect in standardized and raw reaction times). We illustrate the types of questions that can be addressed via the Semantic Priming Project. These data represent the largest behavioral database on semantic priming and are available to researchers to aid in selecting stimuli, testing theories, and reducing potential confounds in their studies. PMID:23344737

Hutchison, Keith A; Balota, David A; Neely, James H; Cortese, Michael J; Cohen-Shikora, Emily R; Tse, Chi-Shing; Yap, Melvin J; Bengson, Jesse J; Niemeyer, Dale; Buchanan, Erin

2013-12-01

263

Soft Semantic Web services agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web services play an active role in the business integration and other fields such as bioinformatics. Current Web services technologies such as WSDL, UDDI, BPEL4WS and BSML are not semantic-oriented. Several proposals have been proposed to develop Semantic Web services to facilitate the discovery of relevant Web services [1][8]. In our vision, with the mature of Semantic Web services technologies,

Haibin Wang; Yan-Qing Zhang; Rajshekhar Sunderraman

2004-01-01

264

Is Semantic Information Meaningful Data?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no consensus yet on the definition of semantic information. This paper contrib-utes to the current debate by criticising and revising the Standard Definition of semantic Information (SDI) as meaningful data, in favour of the Dretske-Grice approach: meaningful and well-formed data constitute semantic information only if they also qual-ify as contingently truthful. After a brief introduction, SDI is criticised

LUCIANO FLORIDI

2005-01-01

265

Atypical Audiovisual Speech Integration in Infants at Risk for Autism  

PubMed Central

The language difficulties often seen in individuals with autism might stem from an inability to integrate audiovisual information, a skill important for language development. We investigated whether 9-month-old siblings of older children with autism, who are at an increased risk of developing autism, are able to integrate audiovisual speech cues. We used an eye-tracker to record where infants looked when shown a screen displaying two faces of the same model, where one face is articulating/ba/and the other/ga/, with one face congruent with the syllable sound being presented simultaneously, the other face incongruent. This method was successful in showing that infants at low risk can integrate audiovisual speech: they looked for the same amount of time at the mouths in both the fusible visual/ga/? audio/ba/and the congruent visual/ba/? audio/ba/displays, indicating that the auditory and visual streams fuse into a McGurk-type of syllabic percept in the incongruent condition. It also showed that low-risk infants could perceive a mismatch between auditory and visual cues: they looked longer at the mouth in the mismatched, non-fusible visual/ba/? audio/ga/display compared with the congruent visual/ga/? audio/ga/display, demonstrating that they perceive an uncommon, and therefore interesting, speech-like percept when looking at the incongruent mouth (repeated ANOVA: displays x fusion/mismatch conditions interaction: F(1,16)?=?17.153, p?=?0.001). The looking behaviour of high-risk infants did not differ according to the type of display, suggesting difficulties in matching auditory and visual information (repeated ANOVA, displays x conditions interaction: F(1,25)?=?0.09, p?=?0.767), in contrast to low-risk infants (repeated ANOVA: displays x conditions x low/high-risk groups interaction: F(1,41)?=?4.466, p?=?0.041). In some cases this reduced ability might lead to the poor communication skills characteristic of autism.

Guiraud, Jeanne A.; Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Kushnerenko, Elena; Ribeiro, Helena; Davies, Kim; Charman, Tony; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Johnson, Mark H.

2012-01-01

266

Proceedings of the Conference on Computer-Related Semantic Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

CONTENTS: Interfaces of language; The outlook for computational semantics; Some tasks for semantics; Structural semantics: Theory of sentential meaning; Semantic algorithms; Some quantitative problems in semantics and lexicology; Problems in automatic wor...

1965-01-01

267

Temporal Asynchronicity Modeling by Product HMMS for Audio-Visual Speech Recognition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There have been higher demands recently for Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems able to operate robustly in acoustically noisy environments. This paper proposes a method to effectively integrate audio and visual information in audio-visual (bi-moda...

S. Nakamura

2002-01-01

268

Audiovisual speech perception and eye gaze behavior of adults with asperger syndrome.  

PubMed

Audiovisual speech perception was studied in adults with Asperger syndrome (AS), by utilizing the McGurk effect, in which conflicting visual articulation alters the perception of heard speech. The AS group perceived the audiovisual stimuli differently from age, sex and IQ matched controls. When a voice saying /p/ was presented with a face articulating /k/, the controls predominantly heard /k/. Instead, the AS group heard /k/ and /t/ with almost equal frequency, but with large differences between individuals. There were no differences in gaze direction or unisensory perception between the AS and control participants that could have contributed to the audiovisual differences. We suggest an explanation in terms of weak support from the motor system for audiovisual speech perception in AS. PMID:22068821

Saalasti, Satu; Kätsyri, Jari; Tiippana, Kaisa; Laine-Hernandez, Mari; von Wendt, Lennart; Sams, Mikko

2012-08-01

269

37 CFR 202.22 - Acquisition and deposit of unpublished audio and audiovisual transmission programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES...audiovisual transmission programs by the Library of Congress under section 407(e...Recording of transmission programs. (1) Library of Congress employees,...

2013-07-01

270

War on Film: Military History Education. Video Tapes, Motion Pictures, and Related Audiovisual Aids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography is a listing of selected, unclassified government and commercially produced motion picture films, videotapes and related audiovisual materials that support the teaching of American military history. It is designed to serve as a resource ...

F. A. Eiserman

1987-01-01

271

Potential and limitations of a teleteaching environment based on H.323 audio-visual communication systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effective support of teleteaching services requires the development of multimedia collaboration systems thatare capable of providing real-time and high quality audio-visual communication among distributed instructors and students.

Pantelis Balaouras; Ioannis Stavrakakis; Lazaros F. Merakos

2000-01-01

272

Effects of audio-visual stimulation on the incidence of restraint ulcers on the Wistar rat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of sensory simulation in restrained rats was investigated. Both mixed audio-visual and pure sound stimuli, ineffective in themselves, were found to cause a significant increase in the incidence of restraint ulcers in the Wistar Rat.

Martin, M. S.; Martin, F.; Lambert, R.

1979-01-01

273

An Examination of the Use of Audiovisual Media in Reducing Prejudice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated effectiveness of audiovisual media as an instructional technique for altering ethnic attitudes among young children. Group 2 (viewers of one film) and Group 3 (viewers of two films) gave significantly fewer prejudiced responses than the control group. (Author)

Houser, Betsy Bosak

1978-01-01

274

Broadcast...Or Be Damned? Using Audio-Visual Material for Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two issues in the use of multimedia for adult learning are addressed in this description of an Open University course: (1) integration of audiovisual and written materials and (2) merits of broadcast television versus videocassettes. (SK)

Surgey, Pip; Manners, Paul

1993-01-01

275

Eye movement of perceivers during audiovisual speech perception.  

PubMed

Perceiver eye movements were recorded during audiovisual presentations of extended monologues. Monologues were presented at different image sizes and with different levels of acoustic masking noise. Two clear targets of gaze fixation were identified, the eyes and the mouth. Regardless of image size, perceivers of both Japanese and English gazed more at the mouth as masking noise levels increased. However, even at the highest noise levels and largest image sizes, subjects gazed at the mouth only about half the time. For the eye target, perceivers typically gazed at one eye more than the other, and the tendency became stronger at higher noise levels. English perceivers displayed more variety of gaze-sequence patterns (e.g., left eye to mouth to left eye to right eye) and persisted in using them at higher noise levels than did Japanese perceivers. No segment-level correlations were found between perceiver eye motions and phoneme identity of the stimuli. PMID:9718953

Vatikiotis-Bateson, E; Eigsti, I M; Yano, S; Munhall, K G

1998-08-01

276

Audiovisual distraction reduces pain perception during aural microsuction  

PubMed Central

Introduction Aural microsuction is a common ear, nose and throat procedure used in the outpatient setting. Some patients, however, find it difficult to tolerate owing to discomfort, pain or noise. This study evaluated the effect of audiovisual distraction on patients’ pain perception and overall satisfaction. Methods A prospective study was conducted for patients attending our aural care clinic requiring aural toileting of bilateral mastoid cavities over a three-month period. All microsuction was performed by a single clinical nurse specialist. Any patients with active infection were excluded. For each patient, during microsuction of one ear, they watched the procedure on a television screen while for the other ear they did not view the procedure. All patients received the same real time explanations during microsuction of both ears. After the procedure, each patient completed a visual analogue scale (VAS) to rate the pain they experienced for each ear, with and without access to the television screen. They also documented their preference and reasons why. Results A total of 37 patients were included in the study. The mean pain score for patients viewing the procedure was 2.43 compared with a mean of 3.48 for patients with no television view. This difference in patients’ pain perception was statistically lower in the group who observed the procedure on the television (p=0.003), consistent with the majority of patients reporting a preference to viewing their procedure (65%). Conclusions Audiovisual distraction significantly lowered patients’ VAS pain scores during aural microsuction. This simple intervention can therefore reduce patients’ perceived pain and help improve acceptance of this procedure.

Amer, I; Daniels, M; Wareing, MJ

2013-01-01

277

Neural Correlates of Interindividual Differences in Children's Audiovisual Speech Perception  

PubMed Central

Children use information from both the auditory and visual modalities to aid in understanding speech. A dramatic illustration of this multisensory integration is the McGurk effect, an illusion in which an auditory syllable is perceived differently when it is paired with an incongruent mouth movement. However, there are significant interindividual differences in McGurk perception: some children never perceive the illusion, while others always do. Because converging evidence suggests that the posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) is a critical site for multisensory integration, we hypothesized that activity within the STS would predict susceptibility to the McGurk effect. To test this idea, we used blood-oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) in seventeen children aged 6 to 12 years to measure brain responses to three audiovisual stimulus categories: McGurk incongruent, non-McGurk incongruent and congruent syllables. Two separate analysis approaches, one using independent functional localizers and another using whole-brain voxel-based regression, showed differences in the left STS between perceivers and non-perceivers. The STS of McGurk perceivers responded significantly more than non-perceivers to McGurk syllables, but not to other stimuli, and perceivers’ hemodynamic responses in the STS were significantly prolonged. In addition to the STS, weaker differences between perceivers and non-perceivers were observed in the FFA and extrastriate visual cortex. These results suggest that the STS is an important source of interindividual variability in children’s audiovisual speech perception.

Nath, Audrey R.; Fava, Eswen E.; Beauchamp, Michael S.

2011-01-01

278

Determinants of person-environment congruence in institutionalized elderly men and women.  

PubMed

This study was designed to obtain information potentially of value in understanding an modifying the impact of the social environment of the perceived quality of like among institutionalized aged persons. It was hypothesized that Person-Environment (P-E) congruence, as assessed by the Environmental Perception, Preference and Importance Scale (EPPIS), would be related to (1) sex integration/segregation makeup of the health related facility (HRF) living units, and (2) quantity of social interaction between staff and residents. Analysis of sex by unit sex-type interaction for 60 residents' Person-Environment (P-E) congruence scores revealed that elderly females on sex-integrated units reported a higher level of P-E congruence than those residing on female-only units; males on sex-integrated units, in contrast, reported a poorer level of P-E congruence than males on sex -segregated units. Furthermore, behavioral observations of staff-resident verbal interactions confirmed the hypothesis that residents living on units with high staff-resident interaction perceived the environments more congruent with their preferences than residents on units low in verbal interaction. The observed relationships between the P-E congruence measure, resident-staff interaction, and unit sex-type were taken as further support for the relevance and value of the EPPIS measure as a tool for assessing and improving the institutional milieu. PMID:7333334

Sperbeck, D J; Whitbourne, S K; Nehrke, M F

1981-01-01

279

Effects of Working Memory Span on Processing of Lexical Associations and Congruence in Spoken Discourse  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to determine whether variability in working memory (WM) capacity and cognitive control affects the processing of global discourse congruence and local associations among words when participants listened to short discourse passages. The final, critical word of each passage was either associated or unassociated with a preceding prime word (e.g., “He was not prepared for the fame and fortune/praise”). These critical words were also either congruent or incongruent with respect to the preceding discourse context [e.g., a context in which a prestigious prize was won (congruent) or in which the protagonist had been arrested (incongruent)]. We used multiple regression to assess the unique contribution of suppression ability (our measure of cognitive control) and WM capacity on the amplitude of individual N400 effects of congruence and association. Our measure of suppression ability did not predict the size of the N400 effects of association or congruence. However, as expected, the results showed that high WM capacity individuals were less sensitive to the presence of lexical associations (showed smaller N400 association effects). Furthermore, differences in WM capacity were related to differences in the topographic distribution of the N400 effects of discourse congruence. The topographic differences in the global congruence effects indicate differences in the underlying neural generators of the N400 effects, as a function of WM. This suggests additional, or at a minimum, distinct, processing on the part of higher capacity individuals when tasked with integrating incoming words into the developing discourse representation.

Boudewyn, Megan A.; Long, Debra L.; Swaab, Tamara Y.

2013-01-01

280

Audiovisual Temporal Integration for Complex Speech, Object-Action, Animal Call, and Musical Stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Understanding the mechanisms underlying the human perception of synchrony for simple and complex audiovisual stimuli represents\\u000a an important, but as yet unresolved, issue in the field of cognitive science. Many questions regarding the processes involved\\u000a in the temporal integration of auditory and visual stimuli that give rise to a synchronous audiovisual experience of everyday\\u000a events are still open for research.

Argiro Vatakis; Charles Spence

281

Intermodal attention affects the processing of the temporal alignment of audiovisual stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporal asynchrony between inputs to different sensory modalities has been shown to be a critical factor influencing\\u000a the interaction between such inputs. We used scalp-recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the effects of\\u000a attention on the processing of audiovisual multisensory stimuli as the temporal asynchrony between the auditory and visual\\u000a inputs varied across the audiovisual integration window (i.e., up

Durk Talsma; Daniel Senkowski; Marty G. Woldorff

2009-01-01

282

MultiStream Asynchrony Dynamic Bayesian Network Model for Audio-Visual Continuous Speech Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

How best to describe the asynchrony of the speech and lip motion is a key problem of audio-visual speech recognition model. A multi-stream asynchrony dynamic Bayesian network (MS-ADBN) model is brought forward for audio-visual speech recognition, and in this model, audio stream and visual stream are synchronous in word node, while between the word nodes, each stream has its own

Guoyun Lv; Dongmei Jiang; Rongchun Zhao; Xiaoyue Jiang; H. Sahli

2007-01-01

283

Relative/Identical Semantic Structuralization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the teaching of Afrikaans and English to speakers of Xhosa, with semantics as the point of focus. The purpose is to aid the teaching of Afrikaans and English by introducing componential analysis in order to compare the relative/identical aspects of semantic structuralization in these languages with those in Xhosa. (Author/RM)

Stanley, George Edward

1976-01-01

284

The semantic planetary data system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper will provide a brief overview of the PDS data model and the PDS catalog. It will then describe the implentation of the Semantic PDS including the development of the formal ontology, the generation of RDFS/XML and RDF/XML data sets, and the buiding of the semantic search application.

Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Daniel; Kelly, Sean; Mattmann, Chris

2005-01-01

285

Semantic Analysis in Machine Translation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many cases machine-translation does not produce satisfactory results within the framework of purely formal (morphological and syntaxic) analysis, particularly, in the case of syntaxic and lexical homonomy. An algorithm for syntaxic-semantic analysis is proposed, and its principles of operation are described. The syntaxico-semantic structure is…

Skorokhodko, E. F.

1970-01-01

286

The Progressive in Modal Semantics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a semantic analysis of English progressive as an intentional operator within the framework of modal semantics. The treatment allows a combination of the central idea that the progressive's meaning has a major modal component with insights of other theories. Using a more sophisticated background theory of modality allows natural solutions…

Portner, Paul

1998-01-01

287

Algorithmic detection of semantic similarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic extraction of semantic information from text and links in Web pages is key to improving the quality of search results. However, the assessment of automatic semantic measures is limited by the coverage of user studies, which do not scale with the size, heterogeneity, and growth of the Web. Here we propose to leverage human-generated metadata --- namely topical directories

Ana Gabriela Maguitman; Filippo Menczer; Heather Roinestad; Alessandro Vespignani

2005-01-01

288

Semantic Roles and Grammatical Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of semantic roles and grammatical relations are explored from the perspective of Role and Reference Grammar (RRG). It is proposed that unraveling the relational aspects of grammar involves the recognition that semantic roles fall into two types, thematic relations and macroroles, and that grammatical relations are not universal and are…

Van Valin, Robert D., Jr.

289

Notes on Semantic Discourse Structure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The semantic problems of natural language discourse analysis are more serious than the syntactic ones, and much less work has been done on them. It is widely held that a semantic classification of words by their meanings is required for selecting the corr...

K. S. Jones

1967-01-01

290

Polar histograms of curvature for quantifying skeletal joint shape and congruence.  

PubMed

The effect of articular joint shape and congruence on kinematics, contact stress, and the natural progression of joint disease continue to be a topic of interest in the orthopedic biomechanics literature. Currently, the most widely used metrics of assessing skeletal joint shape and congruence are based on average principal curvatures across the articular surfaces. Here we propose a method for comparing articular joint shape and quantifying joint congruence based on three-dimensional (3D) histograms of curvature-shape descriptors that preserve spatial information. Illustrated by experimental results from the trapeziometacarpal joint, this method could help unveil the interrelations between joint shape and function and provide much needed insight for the high incidence of osteoarthritis (OA)-a mechanically mediated disease whose onset has been hypothesized to be precipitated by joint incongruity. PMID:24976300

Halilaj, Eni; Laidlaw, David H; Moore, Douglas C; Crisco, Joseph J

2014-09-01

291

Out of control: an associative account of congruency effects in sequence learning.  

PubMed

The demonstration of a sequential congruency effect in sequence learning has been offered as evidence for control processes that act to inhibit automatic response tendencies (Jiménez, Lupiáñez, & Vaquero, 2009) via unconscious conflict monitoring. Here we propose an alternative interpretation of this effect based on the associative learning of chains of sequenced contingencies. This account is supported by simulations with a Simple Recurrent Network, an associative (connectionist) model of sequence learning. We argue that the control- and associative-based accounts differ in their predictions concerning the magnitude of the sequential congruency effect across training. These predictions are tested by reanalysing data from a study by Shanks, Wilkinson, and Channon (2003). The results support the associative learning account which explains the sequential congruency effect without appealing to control processes (either conscious or unconscious). PMID:22093446

Beesley, Tom; Jones, Fergal W; Shanks, David R

2012-03-01

292

Establishment of neurovascular congruency in the mouse whisker system by an independent patterning mechanism.  

PubMed

Nerves and vessels often run parallel to one another, a phenomenon that reflects their functional interdependency. Previous studies have suggested that neurovascular congruency in planar tissues such as skin is established through a "one-patterns-the-other" model, in which either the nervous system or the vascular system precedes developmentally and then instructs the other system to form using its established architecture as a template. Here, we find that, in tissues with complex three-dimensional structures such as the mouse whisker system, neurovascular congruency does not follow the previous model but rather is established via a mechanism in which nerves and vessels are patterned independently. Given the diversity of neurovascular structures in different tissues, guidance signals emanating from a central organizer in the specific target tissue may act as an important mechanism to establish neurovascular congruency patterns that facilitate unique target tissue function. PMID:24139045

Oh, Won-Jong; Gu, Chenghua

2013-10-16

293

Effects of interest-major congruence, motivation, and academic performance on timely degree attainment.  

PubMed

Using longitudinal student data from 15 four-year (n = 3,072) and 13 (n = 788) two-year postsecondary institutions, the authors tested the effects of interest-major congruence, motivation, and 1st-year academic performance on timely degree completion. Findings suggest that interest-major congruence has a direct effect on timely degree completion at both institutional settings and that motivation has indirect effects (via 1st-year academic performance). The total effects of both interest-major congruence and motivation on timely degree completion underscore the importance of both constructs in understanding student adjustment and postsecondary success. Implications for theory and counseling practice are discussed. PMID:21133558

Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steve

2010-01-01

294

Establishment of neurovascular congruency in complex tissue by a novel independent patterning mechanism  

PubMed Central

Summary Nerves and vessels often run parallel to one another, a phenomenon that reflects their functional interdependency. Previous studies have suggested that neurovascular congruency in planar tissues such as skin is established through a “one patterns the other” model in which either the nervous or vascular system precedes developmentally, and then instructs the other system to form using its established architecture as a template. Here we find that in tissues with complex three-dimensional structures such as the mouse whisker system, neurovascular congruency does not follow the previous model, but rather is established via a novel mechanism in which nerves and vessels are patterned independently. Given the diversity of neurovascular structures in different tissues, guidance signals emanating from a central organizer in the specific target tissue may act as an important mechanism to establish neurovascular congruency patterns that facilitate unique target tissue function.

Oh, Won-Jong; Gu, Chenghua

2014-01-01

295

Why It Is Too Early to Lose Control in Accounts of Item-Specific Proportion Congruency Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The item-specific proportion congruency (ISPC) effect is the finding of attenuated interference for mostly incongruent as compared to mostly congruent items. A debate in the Stroop literature concerns the mechanisms underlying this effect. Noting a confound between proportion congruency and contingency, Schmidt and Besner (2008) suggested that…

Bugg, Julie M.; Jacoby, Larry L.; Chanani, Swati

2011-01-01

296

Measuring Transgender Individuals' Comfort with Gender Identity and Appearance: Development and Validation of the Transgender Congruence Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our study used the construct of congruence to conceptualize the degree to which transgender individuals feel genuine, authentic, and comfortable with their gender identity and external appearance. In Study 1, the Transgender Congruence scale (TCS) was developed, and data from 162 transgender individuals were used to estimate the reliability and…

Kozee, Holly B.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Bauerband, L. Andrew

2012-01-01

297

Examining the Degree of Congruency between a Traditional Career Instrument and an Online Self-Assessment Exercise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comparative study examined the degree of congruency between the results of the Self-Directed Search Form E (J. L. Holland, 1990) and an online self-assessment career planning exercise. A relatively high level of congruence was found between the 2 measures. Implications for career counselors and for future research studies are briefly…

Miller, Mark J.

2007-01-01

298

Engagement in adolescent career preparation: social support, personality and the development of choice decidedness and congruence.  

PubMed

This longitudinal panel study investigated predictors and outcomes of active engagement in career preparation among 349 Swiss adolescents from the beginning to the end of eighth grade. Latent variable structural equation modeling was applied. The results showed that engagement in terms of self- and environmental-exploration and active career planning related positively to interindividual increases in career decidedness and choice congruence. More perceived social support, early goal decidedness, and particular personality traits predicted more engagement. Support and personality impacted outcomes only mediated through engagement. Early decidedness and congruence were significant predictors of their respective later levels. Implications for practice are presented. PMID:20074789

Hirschi, Andreas; Niles, Spencer G; Akos, Patrick

2011-02-01

299

"Pre-Semantic" Cognition Revisited: Critical Differences between Semantic Aphasia and Semantic Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal "pre-semantic" tasks, e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are…

Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

2010-01-01

300

Distributed Semantic Overlay Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semantic Overlay Networks (SONs) have been recently proposed as a way to organize content in peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. The main objective is to discover peers with similar content and then form thematically focused peer groups. Efficient content retrieval can be performed by having queries selectively forwarded only to relevant groups of peers to the query. As a result, less peers need to be contacted, in order to answer a query. In this context, the challenge is to generate SONs in a decentralized and distributed manner, as the centralized assembly of global information is not feasible. Different approaches for exploiting the generated SONs for content retrieval have been proposed in the literature, which are examined in this chapter, with a particular focus on SON interconnections for efficient search. Several applications, such as P2P document and image retrieval, can be deployed over generated SONs, motivating the need for distributed and truly scalable SON creation. Therefore, recently several research papers focus on SONs as stated in our comprehensive overview of related work in the field of semantic overlay networks. A classification of existing algorithms according to a set of qualitative criteria is also provided. In spite of the rich existing work in the field of SONs, several challenges have not been efficiently addressed yet, therefore, future promising research directions are pointed out and discussed at the end of this chapter.

Doulkeridis, Christos; Vlachou, Akrivi; Nørvåg, Kjetil; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

301

The underlying mechanisms of semantic memory loss in Alzheimer's disease and semantic dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and patients with semantic dementia (SD) both exhibit deficits on explicit tasks of semantic memory such as picture naming and category fluency. These deficits have been attributed to a degradation of the stored semantic network. An alternative explanation attributes the semantic deficit in AD to an impaired ability to consciously retrieve items from the semantic

Sean L. Rogers; Rhonda B. Friedman

2008-01-01

302

Semantic Turkey - A New Web Experience in between Ontology Editing and Semantic Annotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we describe Semantic Turkey, a Semantic Extension for the popular web browser Mozilla Firefox. Semantic Turkey can be used to keep track of relevant information from visited web sites and organize collected content according to a personally defined ontology. In this sense, Semantic Turkey can be seen both as an advanced semantic bookmarking system as well as

Francesca Fallucchi; Maria Teresa Pazienza; Noemi Scarpato; Armando Stellato

2008-01-01

303

A Metadata Approach to Resolving Semantic Conflicts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a rule-based ap- proach to semantic specification that can be used to establish semantic agreement be- tween a source and receiver. Query process- ing techniques use these specifications along with conversion routines and query modifi- cation to guarantee correct data semantics. This work also examines the effect of chang- ing data semantics. These changes may

Michael Siegel; Stuart E. Madnick

1991-01-01

304

Using semantic networks for data base management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a semantic model of data bases. The model assumes the availability of a semantic network storing knowledge about a data base and a set of attributes for the data base. The use of the semantic net in generating a relational schema for the data base, in defining a set of semantic operators and in maintaining the data

Nicholas Roussopoulos; John Mylopoulos

1975-01-01

305

A semantic model for authentication protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors specify authentication protocols as formal objects with precise syntax and semantics, and define a semantic model that characterizes protocol executions. They have identified two basic types of correctness properties, namely, correspondence and secrecy; that underlie the correctness concerns of authentication protocols. Assertions for specifying these properties, and a formal semantics for their satisfaction in the semantic model are

Thomas Y. c. Woo; Simon S. Lam

1993-01-01

306

A net-based semantics for VHDL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The VHDL standard gives only an informal description of the semantics of VHDL. To apply formal verification techniques, a precise semantics definition is necessary. A formal semantics for VHDL based on interpreted Petri nets is defined. The presented semantics is compositional and provides a link to automatic verification methods for VHDL based designs

Werner Damm; Bernhard Josko; R. Schlijr

1993-01-01

307

Mapping the Structure of Semantic Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aggregating snippets from the semantic memories of many individuals may not yield a good map of an individual's semantic memory. The authors analyze the structure of semantic networks that they sampled from individuals through a new snowball sampling paradigm during approximately 6 weeks of 1-hr daily sessions. The semantic networks of individuals…

Morais, Ana Sofia; Olsson, Henrik; Schooler, Lael J.

2013-01-01

308

Using semantic technology in intelligence analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss how modern intelligence information management can be enhanced by using wiki and semantic web technology concepts, and how the fusion of these concepts, the semantic wiki, could be beneficial in helping decision-makers achieve situational awareness. The Semantic MilWiki, a semantic wiki prototype developed at the Swedish Defence Research Agency, is described, as well as initial

Christian Martenson; Andreas Horndahl

309

Learning image semantics with latent aspect model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic image annotation has become an important and challenging problem due to the existence of semantic gap. In this paper, we present an approach based on probabilistic latent semantic analysis (PLSA) to accomplish the tasks of semantic image annotation and retrieval. In order to model training images precisely, we employ two PLSA models to capture semantic information from visual and

Zhixin Li; Xi Liu; Zhiping Shi; Zhongzhi Shi

2009-01-01

310

Electrophysiological differentiation of phonological and semantic integration in word and sentence contexts  

PubMed Central

During auditory language comprehension, listeners need to rapidly extract meaning from the continuous speech-stream. It is a matter of debate when and how contextual information constrains the activation of lexical representations in meaningful contexts. Electrophysiological studies of spoken language comprehension have identified an event-related potential (ERP) that was sensitive to phonological properties of speech, which was termed the phonological mismatch negativity (PMN). With the PMN, early lexical processing could potentially be distinguished from processes of semantic integration in spoken language comprehension. However, the sensitivity of the PMN to phonological processing per se has been questioned, and it has additionally been suggested that the “PMN” is not separable from the N400, an ERP that is sensitive to semantic aspects of the input. Here, we investigated whether or not a separable PMN exists and if it reflects purely phonological aspects of the speech input. In the present experiment, ERPs were recorded from healthy young adults (N =24) while they listened to sentences and word lists, in which we manipulated semantic and phonological expectation and congruency of the final word. ERPs sensitive to phonological processing were elicited only when phonological expectancy was violated in lists of words, but not during normal sentential processing. This suggests a differential role of phonological processing in more or less meaningful contexts and indicates a very early influence of the overall context on lexical processing in sentences.

Diaz, Michele T.; Swaab, Tamara Y.

2006-01-01

311

Interactions between mood and the structure of semantic memory: event-related potentials evidence  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence suggests that affect acts as modulator of cognitive processes and in particular that induced mood has an effect on the way semantic memory is used on-line. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine affective modulation of semantic information processing under three different moods: neutral, positive and negative. Fifteen subjects read 324 pairs of sentences, after mood induction procedure with 30 pictures of neutral, 30 pictures of positive and 30 pictures of neutral valence: 108 sentences were read in each mood induction condition. Sentences ended with three word types: expected words, within-category violations, and between-category violations. N400 amplitude was measured to the three word types under each mood induction condition. Under neutral mood, a congruency (more negative N400 amplitude for unexpected relative to expected endings) and a category effect (more negative N400 amplitude for between- than to within-category violations) were observed. Also, results showed differences in N400 amplitude for both within- and between-category violations as a function of mood: while positive mood tended to facilitate the integration of unexpected but related items, negative mood made their integration as difficult as unexpected and unrelated items. These findings suggest the differential impact of mood on access to long-term semantic memory during sentence comprehension.

Pinheiro, Ana P.; del Re, Elisabetta; Nestor, Paul G; McCarley, Robert W.; Goncalves, Oscar F.

2013-01-01

312

Brain responses to audiovisual speech mismatch in infants are associated with individual differences in looking behaviour.  

PubMed

Research on audiovisual speech integration has reported high levels of individual variability, especially among young infants. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that this variability results from individual differences in the maturation of audiovisual speech processing during infancy. A developmental shift in selective attention to audiovisual speech has been demonstrated between 6 and 9 months with an increase in the time spent looking to articulating mouths as compared to eyes (Lewkowicz & Hansen-Tift. (2012) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 109, 1431-1436; Tomalski et al. (2012) Eur. J. Dev. Psychol., 1-14). In the present study we tested whether these changes in behavioural maturational level are associated with differences in brain responses to audiovisual speech across this age range. We measured high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to videos of audiovisually matching and mismatched syllables /ba/ and /ga/, and subsequently examined visual scanning of the same stimuli with eye-tracking. There were no clear age-specific changes in ERPs, but the amplitude of audiovisual mismatch response (AVMMR) to the combination of visual /ba/ and auditory /ga/ was strongly negatively associated with looking time to the mouth in the same condition. These results have significant implications for our understanding of individual differences in neural signatures of audiovisual speech processing in infants, suggesting that they are not strictly related to chronological age but instead associated with the maturation of looking behaviour, and develop at individual rates in the second half of the first year of life. PMID:23889202

Kushnerenko, Elena; Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Ballieux, Haiko; Ribeiro, Helena; Potton, Anita; Axelsson, Emma L; Murphy, Elizabeth; Moore, Derek G

2013-11-01

313

The Audio-Visual Services in Fifteen African Countries. Comparative Study on the Administration of Audio-Visual Services in Advanced and Developing Countries. Part Four. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the fourth part of a comparative study on the administration of audiovisual services in advanced and developing countries, this UNESCO-funded study reports on the African countries of Cameroun, Republic of Central Africa, Dahomey, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Swaziland, Tunisia, Upper Volta and Zambia. Information…

Jongbloed, Harry J. L.

314

U.S. Government Films, 1971 Supplement; A Catalog of Audiovisual Materials for Rent and Sale by the National Audiovisual Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first edition of the National Audiovisual Center sales catalog (LI 003875) is updated by this supplement. Changes in price and order number as well as deletions from the 1969 edition, are noted in this 1971 version. Purchase and rental information for the sound films and silent filmstrips is provided. The broad subject categories are:…

National Archives and Records Service (GSA), Washington, DC. National Audiovisual Center.

315

Audio-visual biofeedback for respiratory-gated radiotherapy: Impact of audio instruction and audio-visual biofeedback on respiratory-gated radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Respiratory gating is a commercially available technology for reducing the deleterious effects of motion during imaging and treatment. The efficacy of gating is dependent on the reproducibility within and between respiratory cycles during imaging and treatment. The aim of this study was to determine whether audio-visual biofeedback can improve respiratory reproducibility by decreasing residual motion and therefore increasing the accuracy of gated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 331 respiratory traces were collected from 24 lung cancer patients. The protocol consisted of five breathing training sessions spaced about a week apart. Within each session the patients initially breathed without any instruction (free breathing), with audio instructions and with audio-visual biofeedback. Residual motion was quantified by the standard deviation of the respiratory signal within the gating window. Results: Audio-visual biofeedback significantly reduced residual motion compared with free breathing and audio instruction. Displacement-based gating has lower residual motion than phase-based gating. Little reduction in residual motion was found for duty cycles less than 30%; for duty cycles above 50% there was a sharp increase in residual motion. Conclusions: The efficiency and reproducibility of gating can be improved by: incorporating audio-visual biofeedback, using a 30-50% duty cycle, gating during exhalation, and using displacement-based gating.

George, Rohini [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Chung, Theodore D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Vedam, Sastry S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan [Department of Biostatistics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Weiss, Elisabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Georg-August-Universitaet, Goettingen (Germany); Keall, Paul J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)]. E-mail: pjkeall@vcu.edu

2006-07-01

316

Audio-Visual Aids for Pre-School and Primary School Children. A Training Document. Aids to Programming UNICEF Assistance to Education.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This discussion of the importance and scope of audiovisual aids in the educational programs and activities designed for children in developing countries includes the significance of audiovisual aids in pre-school and primary school education, types of aud...

S. Narayan

1980-01-01

317

On the Semantics of SPARQL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is the standard data model for representing information about World Wide Web resources. In January 2008, it was released the recommendation of the W3C for querying RDF data, a query language called SPARQL. In this chapter, we give a detailed description of the semantics of this language. We start by focusing on the definition of a formal semantics for the core part of SPARQL, and then move to the definition for the entire language, including all the features in the specification of SPARQL by the W3C such as blank nodes in graph patterns and bag semantics for solutions.

Arenas, Marcelo; Gutierrez, Claudio; Pérez, Jorge

318

Workspaces in the Semantic Web  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Due to the recency and relatively limited adoption of Semantic Web technologies. practical issues related to technology scaling have received less attention than foundational issues. Nonetheless, these issues must be addressed if the Semantic Web is to realize its full potential. In particular, we concentrate on the lack of scoping methods that reduce the size of semantic information spaces so they are more efficient to work with and more relevant to an agent's needs. We provide some intuition to motivate the need for such reduced information spaces, called workspaces, give a formal definition, and suggest possible methods of deriving them.

Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, RIchard M.

2005-01-01

319

Semantic perception for ground robotics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semantic perception involves naming objects and features in the scene, understanding the relations between them, and understanding the behaviors of agents, e.g., people, and their intent from sensor data. Semantic perception is a central component of future UGVs to provide representations which 1) can be used for higher-level reasoning and tactical behaviors, beyond the immediate needs of autonomous mobility, and 2) provide an intuitive description of the robot's environment in terms of semantic elements that can shared effectively with a human operator. In this paper, we summarize the main approaches that we are investigating in the RCTA as initial steps toward the development of perception systems for UGVs.

Hebert, M.; Bagnell, J. A.; Bajracharya, M.; Daniilidis, K.; Matthies, L. H.; Mianzo, L.; Navarro-Serment, L.; Shi, J.; Wellfare, M.

2012-05-01

320

THE EFFECT OF PARENTAL CONGRUENCE ON PREADOLESCENT PROBLE M BEHAVIOR IN AFRICAN AMERICAN FAMILIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the effects of parenting congruence on child outcome behaviors. Participants were 144 African American families with a child between 9 and 12 years old. Mothers and fathers provided self report on their behavior regarding monitoring, posit ive parenting, and parental beliefs. Children provided self report regarding child probl em behavior, and sexual intentions. Results revealed the

ALANA K. MILLER

321

Further Insight and Additional Inference Methods for Polynomial Regression Applied to the Analysis of Congruence.  

PubMed

In their seminal paper, Edwards and Parry (1993) presented the polynomial regression as a better alternative to applying difference score in the study of congruence. While this method is increasingly applied in congruence research, its complexity relative to other methods for assessing congruence (e.g., difference score methods) was one of the main claims against its use. The objective of this work is to gain additional insight into the use of polynomial regression in the area of social and behavioral sciences. First, we elaborate on the meaning and the inference based on the coefficients obtained by applying polynomial regression and explain the mathematical terms that are used to describe response surfaces. Then, we introduce additional inference methods and illustrate their application on a real life example from the area of supportive exchanges, using data collected by the Smithers Institute at Cornell University (supported by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism). Our work is aimed to provide a guide to researchers who apply polynomial regression in order to assess the effect of congruence between two constructs and enable better understanding and interpretation of the results obtained. PMID:21103324

Cohen, Ayala; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Doveh, Etti

2010-09-01

322

A covariant formalism of spin precession with respect to a reference congruence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive an effectively three-dimensional relativistic spin precession formalism. The formalism is applicable to any spacetime where an arbitrary timelike reference congruence of worldlines is specified. We employ what we call a stopped spin vector which is the spin vector that we would get if we momentarily make a pure boost of the spin vector to stop it relative to the congruence. Starting from the Fermi transport equation for the standard spin vector we derive a corresponding transport equation for the stopped spin vector. Employing a spacetime transport equation for a vector along a worldline, corresponding to spatial parallel transport with respect to the congruence, we can write down a precession formula for a gyroscope relative to the local spatial geometry defined by the congruence. This general approach has already been pursued by Jantzen et al (see e.g. Jantzen R T, Carini P and Bini D 1992 Ann. Phys. 215 1 50), but the algebraic form of our respective expressions differs. We are also applying the formalism to a novel type of spatial parallel transport introduced in Jonsson (2006 Class. Quantum Grav. 23 1), as well as verifying the validity of the intuitive approach of a forthcoming paper (Jonsson 2006 forthcoming) where gyroscope precession is explained entirely as a double Thomas type of effect. We also present the resulting formalism in explicit three-dimensional form (using the boldface vector notation), and give examples of applications.

Jonsson, Rickard

2006-01-01

323

Exploring the Congruence between the Lesotho Junior Secondary Geography Curriculum and Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we analyse the Lesotho junior secondary geography curriculum document with the purpose of exploring the congruence between geography and environmental education. The study is based on a curriculum reform process introduced by the Lesotho Environmental Education Support Project (LEESP) in 2001. we draw theoretical insights from…

Raselimo, Mohaeka; Irwin, Pat; Wilmot, Di

2013-01-01

324

Congruency as a Nonspecific Perceptual Property Contributing to Newborns' Face Preference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past research has shown that top-heaviness is a perceptual property that plays a crucial role in triggering newborns' preference toward faces. The present study examined the contribution of a second configural property, "congruency," to newborns' face preference. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that when embedded in nonfacelike stimuli,…

Cassia, Viola Macchi; Valenza, Eloisa; Simion, Francesca; Leo, Irene

2008-01-01

325

Congruence de valeurs et engagement envers l'organisation et le groupe de travail  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether individual, organizational and work group values, as well as value congruence were related to employee commitment to the organization and to the work group. A survey questionnaire measuring the relevant variables was sent to 225 employees from 10 organizations including in total 39 work groups. On the whole, 200 employees provided usable responses. Results demonstrated

F. Stinglhamber; K. Bentein; C. Vandenberghe

2004-01-01

326

The Flip Side of Holland Type Congruence: Incongruence and Job Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between Holland type (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional; Holland, 1959, 1997) congruence and incongruence (i.e., lack of ft between an occupation's 3-letter Holland code and a person's lowest 3 Holland interest types) and tested whether incongruence predicts unique…

Dik, Bryan J.; Strife, Samantha Roberts; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

2010-01-01

327

Topic Congruence and Topic Interest: How Do They Affect Second Language Reading Comprehension?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because human memory is largely reconstructive, people tend to reorganize and reevaluate an event in a way that is coherent to the truth values held in their belief system. This study investigated the role of topic congruence (defined as whether the reading content corresponds with readers' prior beliefs towards a contentious topic) in second…

Lee, Sang-Ki

2009-01-01

328

The practice orientations of physicians and patients: the effect of doctor–patient congruence on satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the extent to which the individual orientations of physicians and patients and the congruence between them are associated with patient satisfaction. A survey was mailed to 400 physicians and 1020 of their patients. All respondents filled out the Patient–Practitioner Orientation Scale, which measures the roles that doctors and patients believe each should play in the course of

Edward Krupat; Susan L. Rosenkranz; Carter M. Yeager; Karen Barnard; Samuel M. Putnam; Thomas S. Inui

2000-01-01

329

The modulation of spatial congruency by object-based attention: analysing the "locus" of the modulation.  

PubMed

Earlier studies have demonstrated that spatial cueing differentially reduces stimulus-stimulus congruency (e.g., spatial Stroop) interference but not stimulus-response congruency (e.g., Simon; e.g., Lupiáñez & Funes, 2005). This spatial cueing modulation over spatial Stroop seems to be entirely attributable to object-based attention (e.g., Luo, Lupiáñez, Funes, & Fu, 2010). In the present study, two experiments were conducted to further explore whether the cueing modulation of spatial Stroop is object based and/or space based and to analyse the "locus" of this modulation. In Experiment 1, we found that the cueing modulation over spatial Stroop is entirely object based, independent of stimulus-response congruency. In Experiment 2, we observed that the modulation of object-based attention over the spatial Stroop only occurred at a short cue-target interval (i.e., stimulus onset asynchrony; SOA), whereas the stimulus-response congruency effect was not modulated either by object-based or by location-based attentional cueing. The overall pattern of results suggests that the spatial cueing modulation over spatial Stroop arises from object-based attention and occurs at the perceptual stage of processing. PMID:21923623

Luo, Chunming; Lupiáñez, Juan; Funes, María Jesús; Fu, Xiaolan

2011-12-01

330

Relationships Between Attitude Congruency and Attraction to Candidates in Teacher Selection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study explored the relationships between 1) congruence of attitudes between principals and teacher candidates with different job qualifications, and 2) principals' attraction to teacher candidates. Concern was to test relationships expressed in Newcomb's ABX system of interpersonal attraction. In a simulated selection situation, elementary…

Merritt, Daniel L.

331

CONGR: A FORTRAN IV Program to Compute Coefficients of Congruence for Factor Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Fortran IV program which computes either of the coefficients of congruence (psi or phi) used in comparison of factors in factor analysis is presented. Output consists of a non-symmetric matrix of factor coefficients. Listings of the program, results and test data are available. (Author/JKS)

Myers, Donald E.

1976-01-01

332

Congruence of Self-Reported Medications with Pharmacy Prescription Records in Low-Income Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined the congruence of self-reported medications with computerized pharmacy records. Design and Methods: Pharmacy records and self-reported medications were obtained for 294 members of a state pharmaceutical assistance program who also participated in ACTIVE, a clinical trial on cognitive training in nondemented elderly…

Caskie, Grace I. L.; Willis, Sherry L.

2004-01-01

333

Person-Environment Interaction in an Evolving Profession: Examining the Congruence and Job Satisfaction of Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

John Holland's theory considers congruence between the vocational interests of the individual and characteristics of the work environment to be the primary predictor of job satisfaction and stability. The managed care model has markedly changed the demands of the work environment of mental health counselors. Changes in the way services are…

Beverly, William D., Jr.

2010-01-01

334

Some Experimental Tests of Holland's Congruency Hypotheses: The Reactions of High School Students to Occupational Simulations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High school students (92 females, 127 males) using Krumboltz Job Experience Kits (occupational simulations) experienced 6 diverse jobs in random order and recorded reactions on the Perceived Congruency Questionnaire. Results supported Holland's hexagonal model, indicating that different personality types react to different jobs in accord with the…

Helms, Samuel T.

1996-01-01

335

The Congruence Myth: An Analysis of the Efficacy of the Person-Environment Fit Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A research review supports the validity of the person-environment fit (PEF) model in vocational psychology; however, sampling inadequacies have influenced results. One PEF example, Holland's hexagonal model, is unsupported due to lack of commensurate measurement; most hexagonal congruence indices are invalid. (Contains 110 references.) (SK)

Tinsley, Howard E. A.

2000-01-01

336

Loyalty, Value Congruency,and Affective Organizational Commitment: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports findings of a study designed to test a hypothesized relationship between generalized values of loyalty and duty; individual and organization value congruency; and organizational commitment offered by Yoash Wiener. He argued that, “a fullerexplanation of individual behavior in an organization requires a consideration of effect of generalized values of loyalty and duty.” These generalized values are considered

Isaiah O. Ugboro

1993-01-01

337

An Experimental Test for Goal Congruence in an Air Force Major Command.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author adapted a policy-capturing model frequently used in psychological research to test for goal congruence between managers at different levels of a large U.S. Air Force service organization. The data base was derived from a field experiment wherei...

C. G. O'Berry

1977-01-01

338

Ecological Congruence Assessment for Classroom Activities and Routines: Identifying Goals and Intervention Practices in Childcare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explains how educators can use the ecological congruence assessment process for identifying functional goals for young children with disabilities. Process steps include: teacher collects information about functioning in usual classroom activities, routines, and transitions; summarizes the collected information; and shares the…

Wolery, Mark; Brashers, Margaret Sigalove; Neitzel, Jennifer C.

2002-01-01

339

Goal Diffusion and Congruence at a Large Land-Grant University: A Preliminary Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined organizational goal diffusion and goal congruence at a large land-grant university. A questionnaire was completed by 42 university faculty and staff members. The questionnaire included nine goal statements which had been presented in official university publications. Respondents indicated agreement or disagreement on a five-point…

Cronin, Karen

340

Goal Congruence and Organizational Efficacy in Two Merging Adult Education Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the growth and development of two adult education centers (units of the University of Tennessee and Memphis State University) prior to their merger; the goals of the new joint university center (JUC); and the congruence of JUC goals with the goal perceptions of the faculty, students, administrative staff, and management…

Hyde, Ralph Abner

341

Applying the "Congruence" Principle of Bloom's Taxonomy to Designing Online Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. A case study is then presented that explains how the use of the taxonomy was instrumental in the development of graduate-level online instruction and how the taxonomy helped to maintain the congruence among the components of online instruction. (MES)

Chyung, Seung-Youn; Stepich, Donald

2003-01-01

342

Person-Environment Congruence and Personality Domains in the Prediction of Job Performance and Work Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the contributions of the 5-Factor Model (FFM; P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) and RIASEC (J. L. Holland, 1994) constructs of consistency, differentiation, and person-environment congruence in predicting job performance ratings in a large sample (N = 514) of employees. Hierarchical regression analyses conducted separately by…

Kieffer, Kevin M.; Schinka, John A.; Curtiss, Glenn

2004-01-01

343

Congruence in Maternal and Professional Early Intervention Assessments of Young Children with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maternal and professional perspectives on the developmental, behavioral, and ecological status of children with disabilities and their families were compared, specifically examining the degree of congruence between maternal and professional estimates on various measures designed to assess child and family status. A review of 37 studies helped…

Snyder, Patricia; And Others

344

Examining Congruence within School-Family Partnerships: Definition, Importance, and Current Measurement Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to explore the construct of congruence, particularly with regard to school-family collaboration and partnerships. An in-depth review of the empirical and theoretical literature supporting a shift in focus from encouraging family involvement to creating effective school-family partnerships is presented, followed by an…

Glueck, Courtney L.; Reschly, Amy L.

2014-01-01

345

A triangulation analysis of value congruency in corporate Spain: American dream or Spanish reality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construct of value congruency has become the centre of scholarly as well as practitioner attention in the past two decades. Theoretical reasoning, however, has mainly originated in an Anglo Saxon context accompanied by scarce and contradictory empirical results. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore further the construct and determine its presence in the relatively unexplored cultural

D. Knoppen; Simon L. Dolan; M. Díez-Piñol; R. Bell

2006-01-01

346

Life Course Stage in Young Adulthood and Intergenerational Congruence in Family Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated how intergenerational congruence in family-related attitudes depends on life course stage in young adulthood. Recent data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study were used; the present sample included 2,041 dyads of young adults and their parents. Findings are discussed in terms of the elasticity in intergenerational attitude…

Bucx, Freek; Raaijmakers, Quinten; van Wel, Frits

2010-01-01

347

Interpersonal Congruence, Transactive Memory, and Feedback Processes: An Integrative Model of Group Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a multilevel model of group learning that focuses on antecedents and consequences of interpersonal congruence, transactive memory, and feedback processes. The model holds that members' self-verification motives and situational conditions (e.g., member diversity and task demands) give rise to identity negotiation behaviors…

London, Manuel; Polzer, Jeffrey T.; Omoregie, Heather

2005-01-01

348

Person-Environment Congruence and Employee Satisfaction: a Test of Holland's Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Person-environment congruence as assessed by Holland's model of vocational preference was tested in a sample of 362 employees from five environmental typologies. The results indicate that congruent employees are significantly more satisfied with the job facet satisfaction measures than incongruent employees. (Author)

Mount, Michael K.; Muchinsky, Paul M.

1978-01-01

349

The Adolescent-Parent Career Congruence Scale: Development and Initial Validation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there is a growing interest in the discrepancy between parents and their adolescent children in relation to career expectations, there is no existing, psychometrically sound scale that directly measures adolescent-parent career congruence or incongruence. This study reports the development and initial validation of the Adolescent-Parent…

Sawitri, Dian R.; Creed, Peter A.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

2013-01-01

350

An Audio-Visual Resource Notebook for Adult Consumer Education. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Audio-Visual Aids for Adult Consumer Education, with Special Emphasis on Materials for Elderly, Low-Income and Handicapped Consumers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is an annotated bibliography of audio-visual aids in the field of consumer education, intended especially for use among low-income, elderly, and handicapped consumers. It was developed to aid consumer education program planners in finding audio-visual resources to enhance their presentations. Materials listed include 293 resources…

Virginia State Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Richmond, VA.

351

Difference between diotic and dichotic presentations on audiovisual synchronization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant differences were found between diotic and dichotic presentations of auditory stimuli on audiovisual synchronization. Two types of moving sphere were used for visual stimuli; (a) a sphere moved straight from left to right at a constant velocity, and (b) it moved up and right and then turned down and right at the midpoint. Auditory stimuli included (1) a continuous pure tone (1000 Hz), (2) a sequence of two short tones of 30 ms (1000 Hz), (3) a sweep tone (500 Hz --> 1500 Hz), and (4) a Frequency-Modulated tone (500 Hz --> 1500 Hz --> 500 Hz). The duration of these stimuli was 240 ms each. Visual stimuli were presented on a Liquid-Crystal Display. Auditory stimuli were presented by headphones. The time difference between auditory and visual stimuli was changed between -360 ms and +360 ms. The sound source linearly moved from left to right in case of dichotic presentation. Subjective tests, using the forced-choice of synchronized or not, clarified the significant differences between diotic and dichotic presentations when the auditory stimulus (1) or (4) was presented with the visual stimulus (b). No significance was obtained for other combinations of auditory and visual stimuli. [Work supported by NTT.

Nakamura, Rie; Aikawa, Kiyoaki

2005-04-01

352

Audio-visual assistance in co-creating transition knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth system and climate impact research results point to the tremendous ecologic, economic and societal implications of climate change. Specifically people will have to adopt lifestyles that are very different from those they currently strive for in order to mitigate severe changes of our known environment. It will most likely not suffice to transfer the scientific findings into international agreements and appropriate legislation. A transition is rather reliant on pioneers that define new role models, on change agents that mainstream the concept of sufficiency and on narratives that make different futures appealing. In order for the research community to be able to provide sustainable transition pathways that are viable, an integration of the physical constraints and the societal dynamics is needed. Hence the necessary transition knowledge is to be co-created by social and natural science and society. To this end, the Climate Media Factory - in itself a massively transdisciplinary venture - strives to provide an audio-visual connection between the different scientific cultures and a bi-directional link to stake holders and society. Since methodology, particular language and knowledge level of the involved is not the same, we develop new entertaining formats on the basis of a "complexity on demand" approach. They present scientific information in an integrated and entertaining way with different levels of detail that provide entry points to users with different requirements. Two examples shall illustrate the advantages and restrictions of the approach.

Hezel, Bernd; Broschkowski, Ephraim; Kropp, Jürgen P.

2013-04-01

353

A network analysis of audiovisual affective speech perception.  

PubMed

In this study we were interested in the neural system supporting the audiovisual (AV) integration of emotional expression and emotional prosody. To this end normal participants were exposed to short videos of a computer-animated face voicing emotionally positive or negative words with the appropriate prosody. Facial expression of the face was either neutral or emotionally appropriate. To reveal the neural network involved in affective AV integration, standard univariate analysis of functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) data was followed by a random-effects Granger causality mapping (RFX-GCM). The regions that distinguished emotional from neutral facial expressions in the univariate analysis were taken as seed regions. In trials showing emotional expressions compared to neutral trials univariate analysis showed activation primarily in bilateral amygdala, fusiform gyrus, middle temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus and inferior occipital gyrus. When employing either the left amygdala or the right amygdala as a seed region in RFX-GCM we found connectivity with the right hemispheric fusiform gyrus, with the indication that the fusiform gyrus sends information to the Amygdala. These results led to a working model for face perception in general and for AV-affective integration in particular which is an elaborated adaptation of existing models. PMID:24184115

Jansma, H; Roebroeck, A; Münte, T F

2014-01-01

354

Effects of the audiovisual conflict on auditory early processes.  

PubMed

Auditory alarm misperception is one of the critical events that lead aircraft pilots to an erroneous flying decision. The rarity of these alarms associated with their possible unreliability may play a role in this misperception. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we manipulated both audiovisual conflict and sound rarity in a simplified landing task. Behavioral data and event related potentials (ERPs) of thirteen healthy participants were analyzed. We found that the presentation of a rare auditory signal (i.e., an alarm), incongruent with visual information, led to a smaller amplitude of the auditory N100 (i.e., less negative) compared to the condition in which both signals were congruent. Moreover, the incongruity between the visual information and the rare sound did not significantly affect reaction times, suggesting that the rare sound was neglected. We propose that the lower N100 amplitude reflects an early visual-to-auditory gating that depends on the rarity of the sound. In complex aircraft environments, this early effect might be partly responsible for auditory alarm insensitivity. Our results provide a new basis for future aeronautic studies and the development of countermeasures. PMID:23774001

Scannella, Sébastien; Causse, Mickaël; Chauveau, Nicolas; Pastor, Josette; Dehais, Frédéric

2013-07-01

355

Audio-visual perception system for a humanoid robotic head.  

PubMed

One of the main issues within the field of social robotics is to endow robots with the ability to direct attention to people with whom they are interacting. Different approaches follow bio-inspired mechanisms, merging audio and visual cues to localize a person using multiple sensors. However, most of these fusion mechanisms have been used in fixed systems, such as those used in video-conference rooms, and thus, they may incur difficulties when constrained to the sensors with which a robot can be equipped. Besides, within the scope of interactive autonomous robots, there is a lack in terms of evaluating the benefits of audio-visual attention mechanisms, compared to only audio or visual approaches, in real scenarios. Most of the tests conducted have been within controlled environments, at short distances and/or with off-line performance measurements. With the goal of demonstrating the benefit of fusing sensory information with a Bayes inference for interactive robotics, this paper presents a system for localizing a person by processing visual and audio data. Moreover, the performance of this system is evaluated and compared via considering the technical limitations of unimodal systems. The experiments show the promise of the proposed approach for the proactive detection and tracking of speakers in a human-robot interactive framework. PMID:24878593

Viciana-Abad, Raquel; Marfil, Rebeca; Perez-Lorenzo, Jose M; Bandera, Juan P; Romero-Garces, Adrian; Reche-Lopez, Pedro

2014-01-01

356

Brain Mechanisms of Successful Recognition through Retrieval of Semantic Context.  

PubMed

Episodic memory is associated with the encoding and retrieval of context information and with a subjective sense of reexperiencing past events. The neural correlates of episodic retrieval have been extensively studied using fMRI, leading to the identification of a "general recollection network" including medial temporal, parietal, and prefrontal regions. However, in these studies, it is difficult to disentangle the effects of context retrieval from recollection. In this study, we used fMRI to determine the extent to which the recruitment of regions in the recollection network is contingent on context reinstatement. Participants were scanned during a cued recognition test for target words from encoded sentences. Studied target words were preceded by either a cue word studied in the same sentence (thus congruent with encoding context) or a cue word studied in a different sentence (thus incongruent with encoding context). Converging fMRI results from independently defined ROIs and whole-brain analysis showed regional specificity in the recollection network. Activity in hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex was specifically increased during successful retrieval following congruent context cues, whereas parietal and prefrontal components of the general recollection network were associated with confident retrieval irrespective of contextual congruency. Our findings implicate medial temporal regions in the retrieval of semantic context, contributing to, but dissociable from, recollective experience. PMID:24564467

Flegal, Kristin E; Marín-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Ragland, J Daniel; Ranganath, Charan

2014-08-01

357

Audiovisual focus of attention and its application to Ultra High Definition video compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Focus of Attention (FoA) as a perceptual process in image and video compression belongs to well-known approaches to increase coding efficiency. It has been shown that foveated coding, when compression quality varies across the image according to region of interest, is more efficient than the alternative coding, when all region are compressed in a similar way. However, widespread use of such foveated compression has been prevented due to two main conflicting causes, namely, the complexity and the efficiency of algorithms for FoA detection. One way around these is to use as much information as possible from the scene. Since most video sequences have an associated audio, and moreover, in many cases there is a correlation between the audio and the visual content, audiovisual FoA can improve efficiency of the detection algorithm while remaining of low complexity. This paper discusses a simple yet efficient audiovisual FoA algorithm based on correlation of dynamics between audio and video signal components. Results of audiovisual FoA detection algorithm are subsequently taken into account for foveated coding and compression. This approach is implemented into H.265/HEVC encoder producing a bitstream which is fully compliant to any H.265/HEVC decoder. The influence of audiovisual FoA in the perceived quality of high and ultra-high definition audiovisual sequences is explored and the amount of gain in compression efficiency is analyzed.

Rerabek, Martin; Nemoto, Hiromi; Lee, Jong-Seok; Ebrahimi, Touradj

2014-02-01

358

Semantic Interoperation Via Intelligent Mediation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This effort presents a query mediation approach to the trusted interoperation of autonomous databases containing data that mismatch in semantics, representations, and security policies. The main contributions are a unified policy framework of mandatory ac...

X. Qian L. Gong R. A. Riemenschneider

1995-01-01

359

Semantic Networks and Neural Nets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Connected networks of nodes representing conceptual knowledge are widely employed in artificial intelligence and cognitive science. This report describes a direct way of realizing these semantic networks with neuron-like computing units. The proposed fram...

L. Shastri J. A. Feldman

1984-01-01

360

Congruence or discrepancy? Comparing patients' health valuations and physicians' treatment goals for rehabilitation for patients with chronic conditions.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to test the congruence of patients' health valuations and physicians' treatment goals for the rehabilitation of chronically ill patients. In addition, patient characteristics associated with greater or less congruence were to be determined. In a questionnaire study, patients' health valuations and physicians' goals were assessed in three chronic conditions [breast cancer (BC), chronic ischemic heart disease (CIHD), and chronic back pain (CBP)] using a ranking method. Sociodemographic variables and health-related quality of life were assessed as patient-related factors that influence congruence. Congruence was determined at the group (Spearman's ?) and individual levels (percentage of congruence). Patient-related influencing factors were calculated after a simple imputation using multiple logistic regression analysis. At the group level, there were often only low correlations. The mean percentage of congruence was 34.7% (BC), 48.5% (CIHD), and 31.9% (CBP). Patients with BC or CIHD who have a higher level of education showed greater congruence. Our results indicate some high discrepancy rates between physicians' treatment goals and patients' health valuations. It is possible that patients have preferences that do not correspond well with realistic rehabilitation goals or that physicians do not take patients' individual health valuations sufficiently into consideration when setting goals. PMID:22113240

Nagl, Michaela; Farin, Erik

2012-03-01

361

Correlates of emotional congruence with children in sexual offenders against children: a test of theoretical models in an incarcerated sample.  

PubMed

Emotional congruence with children is a psychological construct theoretically involved in the etiology and maintenance of sexual offending against children. Research conducted to date has not examined the relationship between emotional congruence with children and other psychological meaningful risk factors for sexual offending against children. The current study derived potential correlates of emotional congruence with children from the published literature and proposed three models of emotional congruence with children that contain relatively unique sets of correlates: the blockage, sexual deviance, and psychological immaturity models. Using Area under the Curve analysis, we assessed the relationship between emotional congruence with children and offense characteristics, victim demographics, and psychologically meaningful risk factors in a sample of incarcerated sexual offenders against children (n=221). The sexual deviance model received the most support: emotional congruence with children was significantly associated with deviant sexual interests, sexual self-regulation problems, and cognition that condones and supports child molestation. The blockage model received partial support, and the immaturity model received the least support. Based on the results, we propose a set of further predictions regarding the relationships between emotional congruence with children and other psychologically meaningful risk factors to be examined in future research. PMID:24211124

McPhail, Ian V; Hermann, Chantal A; Fernandez, Yolanda M

2014-02-01

362

Effects of working memory span on processing of lexical associations and congruence in spoken discourse.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to determine whether variability in working memory (WM) capacity and cognitive control affects the processing of global discourse congruence and local associations among words when participants listened to short discourse passages. The final, critical word of each passage was either associated or unassociated with a preceding prime word (e.g., "He was not prepared for the fame and fortune/praise"). These critical words were also either congruent or incongruent with respect to the preceding discourse context [e.g., a context in which a prestigious prize was won (congruent) or in which the protagonist had been arrested (incongruent)]. We used multiple regression to assess the unique contribution of suppression ability (our measure of cognitive control) and WM capacity on the amplitude of individual N400 effects of congruence and association. Our measure of suppression ability did not predict the size of the N400 effects of association or congruence. However, as expected, the results showed that high WM capacity individuals were less sensitive to the presence of lexical associations (showed smaller N400 association effects). Furthermore, differences in WM capacity were related to differences in the topographic distribution of the N400 effects of discourse congruence. The topographic differences in the global congruence effects indicate differences in the underlying neural generators of the N400 effects, as a function of WM. This suggests additional, or at a minimum, distinct, processing on the part of higher capacity individuals when tasked with integrating incoming words into the developing discourse representation. PMID:23407753

Boudewyn, Megan A; Long, Debra L; Swaab, Tamara Y

2013-01-01

363

Developing an Audiovisual Notebook as a Self-Learning Tool in Histology: Perceptions of Teachers and Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Videos can be used as didactic tools for self-learning under several circumstances, including those cases in which students are responsible for the development of this resource as an audiovisual notebook. We compared students' and teachers' perceptions regarding the main features that an audiovisual notebook should include. Four…

Campos-Sánchez, Antonio; López-Núñez, Juan-Antonio; Scionti, Giuseppe; Garzón, Ingrid; González-Andrades, Miguel; Alaminos, Miguel; Sola, Tomás

2014-01-01

364

A Comparison of the Development of Audiovisual Integration in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to investigate the development of audiovisual integration in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Audiovisual integration was measured using the McGurk effect in children with ASD aged 7-16 years and typically developing children (control group) matched approximately for age, sex, nonverbal ability and verbal ability.…

Taylor, Natalie; Isaac, Claire; Milne, Elizabeth

2010-01-01

365

Audiovisuelle Materialien fur den modernen Fremdsprachenunterricht. Stand: Juni 1971 (Audiovisual Materials for Modern Foreign Language Instruction. June 1971 Edition).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This listing, updating the 1969 publication, cites commerically available language instruction programs having audiovisual components. Supplementary audiovisual aids are available only as components of total programs noted in this work. Organization is by language and commerical source. Indications for classroom applications and prices (in German…

Informationszentrum fuer Fremdsprachenforschung, Marburg (West Germany).

366

Audiovisuelle Materialien fur den modernen Fremdsprachenunterricht. Stand: August 1969 (Audiovisual Materials for Modern Foreign Language Instruction. August 1969 Edition).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This listing cites commercially available programs for foreign language instruction which have audiovisual components. Supplementary audiovisual aids without accompanying basic text materials are not included. Organization is by language and commercial source. Indications for classroom application and prices (in German currency) are provided. The…

Mohr, Peter, Comp.

367

Event Structure Semantics of Orc  

Microsoft Academic Search

One challenge in developing wide-area distributed applications is analyzing the system's non-functional properties, including timing constraints and internal dependencies that can affect quality of service. Analysis of non-functional properties requires a precise formal semantics for the language in which the system is written; but labelled transition systems and trace semantics, which are commonly used for this purpose, do not facilitate

Sidney Rosario; David Kitchin; Albert Benveniste; William R. Cook; Stefan Haar; Claude Jard

2007-01-01

368

NASA and The Semantic Web  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We provide an overview of several ongoing NASA endeavors based on concepts, systems, and technology from the Semantic Web arena. Indeed NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic Web Technology and we describe ongoing and completed R&D efforts for several applications ranging from collaborative systems to airspace information management to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and discovery systems at NASA.

Ashish, Naveen

2005-01-01

369

Clean formal semantics for VHDL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple formal semantics for the standard hardwaredescription language vhdl is set out in functionalstyle. The presentation comprises an executable specificationfor a synchronously clocked vhdl simulator.1 IntroductionThis paper attempts to lay the basis for simplerformal semantics for vhdl than available in the literature. Vhdl is a standardized hardware descriptionlanguage developed in the 1980s with the supportof the US DoD, and

Peter T. Breuer; Luis Sánchez Fernández; Carlos Delgado Kloos

1994-01-01

370

On Constructing Semantic Decision Tables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decision tables are a widely used knowledge management tool in the decision making process. Ambiguity and conceptual reasoning\\u000a difficulties arise while designing large decision tables in a collaborative environment. We introduce the notion of Semantic\\u000a Decision Table (SDT), which enhances a decision table with explicit decision semantics by annotating it properly with a domain ontology. In this paper, we focus

Yan Tang; Robert Meersman

2007-01-01

371

Semantic Data Caching and Replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a semantic model for client-side caching and replace- ment in a client-server database system and compare this approach to page caching and tuple caching strategies. Our caching model is based on, and derives its advantages from, three key ideas. First, the client maintains a semantic description of the data in its cache,which allows for a compact specification, as

Shaul Dar; Michael J. Franklin; Björn Þór Jónsson; Divesh Srivastava; Michael Tan

1996-01-01

372

Congruence of Holland's theory of vocational and work environments with GPA of college students in the United Arab Emirates.  

PubMed

Holland's theory of vocational personalities and work environment, extended to educational environments, was used as a theoretical framework for the study of the relation of congruence and sex on self-reported GPA. 617 students at Ajman University of Science and Technology responded to the Vocational Preference Inventory. Analysis of variance indicated that students' congruence and sex were significant predictors of GPA and the interaction of GPA and sex. Associations of sex with congruence and with Academic Environment were significant, represented by choice of major. Implications of the findings were discussed. PMID:17886507

Al Khatib, Saleh A

2007-06-01

373

Audiovisual correspondence between musical timbre and visual shapes  

PubMed Central

This article investigates the cross-modal correspondences between musical timbre and shapes. Previously, such features as pitch, loudness, light intensity, visual size, and color characteristics have mostly been used in studies of audio-visual correspondences. Moreover, in most studies, simple stimuli e.g., simple tones have been utilized. In this experiment, 23 musical sounds varying in fundamental frequency and timbre but fixed in loudness were used. Each sound was presented once against colored shapes and once against grayscale shapes. Subjects had to select the visual equivalent of a given sound i.e., its shape, color (or grayscale) and vertical position. This scenario permitted studying the associations between normalized timbre and visual shapes as well as some of the previous findings for more complex stimuli. One hundred and nineteen subjects (31 females and 88 males) participated in the online experiment. Subjects included 36 claimed professional musicians, 47 claimed amateur musicians, and 36 claimed non-musicians. Thirty-one subjects have also claimed to have synesthesia-like experiences. A strong association between timbre of envelope normalized sounds and visual shapes was observed. Subjects have strongly associated soft timbres with blue, green or light gray rounded shapes, harsh timbres with red, yellow or dark gray sharp angular shapes and timbres having elements of softness and harshness together with a mixture of the two previous shapes. Color or grayscale had no effect on timbre-shape associations. Fundamental frequency was not associated with height, grayscale or color. The significant correspondence between timbre and shape revealed by the present work allows designing substitution systems which might help the blind to perceive shapes through timbre.

Adeli, Mohammad; Rouat, Jean; Molotchnikoff, Stephane

2014-01-01

374

SEAL: a framework for developing SEmantic PortALs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The core idea of the Semantic Web is to make information accessible to human and software agents on a semantic basis. Hence, Web sites may feed directly from the Semantic Web exploiting the underlying structures for human and machine access. We have developed a domain-independent approach for developing semantic portals, viz. SEAL (SEmantic portAL), that exploits semantics for providing and

Nenad Stojanovic; Alexander Maedche; Steffen Staab; Rudi Studer; York Sure

2001-01-01

375

Audio-visual onset differences are used to determine syllable identity for ambiguous audio-visual stimulus pairs  

PubMed Central

Content and temporal cues have been shown to interact during audio-visual (AV) speech identification. Typically, the most reliable unimodal cue is used more strongly to identify specific speech features; however, visual cues are only used if the AV stimuli are presented within a certain temporal window of integration (TWI). This suggests that temporal cues denote whether unimodal stimuli belong together, that is, whether they should be integrated. It is not known whether temporal cues also provide information about the identity of a syllable. Since spoken syllables have naturally varying AV onset asynchronies, we hypothesize that for suboptimal AV cues presented within the TWI, information about the natural AV onset differences can aid in speech identification. To test this, we presented low-intensity auditory syllables concurrently with visual speech signals, and varied the stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) of the AV pair, while participants were instructed to identify the auditory syllables. We revealed that specific speech features (e.g., voicing) were identified by relying primarily on one modality (e.g., auditory). Additionally, we showed a wide window in which visual information influenced auditory perception, that seemed even wider for congruent stimulus pairs. Finally, we found a specific response pattern across the SOA range for syllables that were not reliably identified by the unimodal cues, which we explained as the result of the use of natural onset differences between AV speech signals. This indicates that temporal cues not only provide information about the temporal integration of AV stimuli, but additionally convey information about the identity of AV pairs. These results provide a detailed behavioral basis for further neuro-imaging and stimulation studies to unravel the neurofunctional mechanisms of the audio-visual-temporal interplay within speech perception.

ten Oever, Sanne; Sack, Alexander T.; Wheat, Katherine L.; Bien, Nina; van Atteveldt, Nienke

2013-01-01

376

Web Feature Service Semantic Mediation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists from different organizations and disciplines need to work together to find the solutions to complex problems. Multi-disciplinary science typically involves users with specialized tools and their own preferred view of the data including unique characteristics of the user's information model and symbology. Even though organizations use web services to expose data, there are still semantic inconsistencies that need to be solved. Recent activities within the OGC Interoperability Program (IP) have helped advance semantic mediation solutions when using OGC services to help solve complex problems. The OGC standards development process is influenced by the feedback of activities within the Interoperability Program, which conducts international interoperability initiatives such as Testbeds, Pilot Projects, Interoperability Experiments, and Interoperability Support Services. These activities are designed to encourage rapid development, testing, validation, demonstration and adoption of open, consensus based standards and best practices. Two recent Testbeds, the OGC Web Services Phase 8 and Phase 9, have advanced the use of semantic mediation approaches to increase semantic interoperability among geospatial communities. The Cross-Community Interoperability (CCI) thread within these two testbeds, advanced semantic mediation approaches for data discovery, access and use of heterogeneous data models and heterogeneous metadata models. This presentation will provide an overview of the interoperability program, the CCI Thread and will explain the methodology to mediate heterogeneous GML Application Profiles served via WFS, including discovery of services via a catalog standard interface and mediating symbology applicable to each application profile.

Hobona, G.; Bermudez, L. E.; Brackin, R.; Percivall, G. S.

2012-12-01

377

Semantic graphs and associative memories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphs have been increasingly utilized in the characterization of complex networks from diverse origins, including different kinds of semantic networks. Human memories are associative and are known to support complex semantic nets; these nets are represented by graphs. However, it is not known how the brain can sustain these semantic graphs. The vision of cognitive brain activities, shown by modern functional imaging techniques, assigns renewed value to classical distributed associative memory models. Here we show that these neural network models, also known as correlation matrix memories, naturally support a graph representation of the stored semantic structure. We demonstrate that the adjacency matrix of this graph of associations is just the memory coded with the standard basis of the concept vector space, and that the spectrum of the graph is a code invariant of the memory. As long as the assumptions of the model remain valid this result provides a practical method to predict and modify the evolution of the cognitive dynamics. Also, it could provide us with a way to comprehend how individual brains that map the external reality, almost surely with different particular vector representations, are nevertheless able to communicate and share a common knowledge of the world. We finish presenting adaptive association graphs, an extension of the model that makes use of the tensor product, which provides a solution to the known problem of branching in semantic nets.

Pomi, Andrés; Mizraji, Eduardo

2004-12-01

378

Taking Message-Attitude Congruence as Media Effects: Examining Perceived Influence of Political Talk Radio in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how people perceive the influence of political talk radio in Hong Kong. Theoretically, the study focuses on the influence of message-attitude congruence, that is, the situation in which a person's opinions or attitudes are consistent with the viewpoints promulgated by media messages, on the third-person perception. It is argued that message-attitude congruence provides a situation in which

Francis L. F. Lee

2011-01-01

379

Event Congruency and Episodic Encoding: A Developmental fMRI Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A known contributor to adults' superior memory performance compared to children is their differential reliance on an existing knowledge base. Compared to those of adults, children's semantic networks are less accessible and less established, a difference that is also thought to contribute to children's relative resistance to semantically related…

Maril, Anat; Avital, Rinat; Reggev, Niv; Zuckerman, Maya; Sadeh, Talya; Sira, Liat Ben; Livneh, Neta

2011-01-01

380

Semantic video classification with insufficient labeled samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To support more e®ective video retrieval at semantic level, we introduce a novel framework to achieve semantic video classification. This novel framework includes: (a) A semantic-senstive video content representation framework via principal video shots to enhance the quality of features (i.e., the ability of the selected low-level multimodal perceptual features to discriminate among various semantic video concepts); (b) A semantic video concept interpretation framework via flexible mixture model to bridge the semantic gap between the semantic video concepts and the low-level multimodal perceptual features; (c) A novel concept learning technique to integrate unlabeled samples with labeled samples for more accurate classifier training. Experimental results on semantic medical video classification are also presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed framework.

Luo, Hangzai; Gao, Yuli; Liu, Zhaoya; Fan, Jianping

2003-12-01

381

Semantic Services for Wikipedia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wikipedia, a killer application in Web 2.0, has embraced the power of collaborative editing to harness collective intelligence. It features many attractive characteristics, like entity-based link graph, abundant categorization and semi-structured layout, and can serve as an ideal data source to extract high quality and well-structured data. In this chapter, we first propose several solutions to extract knowledge from Wikipedia. We do not only consider information from the relational summaries of articles (infoboxes) but also semi-automatically extract it from the article text using the structured content available. Due to differences with information extraction from the Web, it is necessary to tackle new problems, like the lack of redundancy in Wikipedia that is dealt with by extending traditional machine learning algorithms to work with few labeled data. Furthermore, we also exploit the widespread categories as a complementary way to discover additional knowledge. Benefiting from both structured and textural information, we additionally provide a suggestion service for Wikipedia authoring. With the aim to facilitate semantic reuse, our proposal provides users with facilities such as link, categories and infobox content suggestions. The proposed enhancements can be applied to attract more contributors and lighten the burden of professional editors. Finally, we developed an enhanced search system, which can ease the process of exploiting Wikipedia. To provide a user-friendly interface, it extends the faceted search interface with relation navigation and let the user easily express his complex information needs in an interactive way. In order to achieve efficient query answering, it extends scalable IR engines to index and search both the textual and structured information with an integrated ranking support.

Wang, Haofen; Penin, Thomas; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Qiaoling; Xue, Guirong; Yu, Yong

382

The congruence energy: A contribution to nuclear masses and deformation energies  

SciTech Connect

The difference between measured binding energies and those calculated using a shell- and pairing-corrected Thomas-Fermi model can be described approximately by C(I) = {minus}10exp({minus}4.2{vert_bar}I{vert_bar}) MeV. The authors` interpretation of this extra binding is in terms of the granularity of quantal nucleonic density distributions, which leads to a stronger interaction for a neutron and proton with congruent nodal structures of their wave functions. The predicted doubling of this congruence energy in fission is supported by an analysis of measured fission barriers and by a study of wave functions in a dividing Hill-Wheeler box potential. A semi-empirical formula for the shape-dependent congruence energy is described.

Myers, W.D.; Swiatecki, W.J.

1995-06-01

383

Efficient face recognition method using a combined phase congruency/Gabor wavelet technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a Face Recognition method based on the combination of the Gabor Wavelets (GW) and the Phase Congruency (PC) method [1]. While the GW method allows an efficient space-frequency analysis to code the Face Image points, it requires significant down-sampling, in order to end up with a reasonably small-size feature vector. Now, the Phase Congruency method can be used as an efficient features detector, to uncover the salient local features of the face and can be computed using the GW Transform. An additional advantage of the Phase Congruency method is its insensitivity to variations in image illumination and contrast. The method proposed is to use the PC method in determining the salient points of the Face Image, thus replacing the random down-sampling method. The first step in our proposed method is to obtain the local frequency information of a face image using a multi-scale, multi-orientation set of Gabor filters, from which the Phase Congruency image is computed. We then use this method to select a limited number of maximum-value points, whose values are taken from the GW- transformed face images, forming a feature vector of about 5000 components. Preliminary results using the ORL face dataset show 98% recognition rate even without the use of the PCA method. Upon using the PCA method we can further reduce the number of components to 45 while still retaining the recognition rate of 98%. This as compared to a recognition rate of 96% using GW and PCA with a random 64:1 down-sampling on the GW coefficients. The proposed combined method, allows in addition to an efficient reduction in the number of image points used, the derivation of both the PC image and the GW feature vector representation, using a single GW transform.

Bezalel, E.; Efron, U.

2005-09-01

384

The origin of the Julian Period: An application of congruences and the Chinese Remainder Theorem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1583, Joseph Justus Scaliger introduced the Julian Period of 7980 years, which is the basis of the Julian Day system of counting days sequentially from 1 January 4713 BC. It is not commonly known how this date was chosen as the origin of the system. This paper formulates the problem as an application of the theory of congruences and the Chinese Remainder Theorem. Scaliger's interesting original solution to the problem is also reviewed.

Reese, Ronald Lane; Everett, Steven M.; Craun, Edwin D.

1981-07-01

385

(M, N)-Soft Intersection BL-Algebras and Their Congruences  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to give a foundation for providing a new soft algebraic tool in considering many problems containing uncertainties. In order to provide these new soft algebraic structures, we discuss a new soft set-(M, N)-soft intersection set, which is a generalization of soft intersection sets. We introduce the concepts of (M, N)-SI filters of BL-algebras and establish some characterizations. Especially, (M, N)-soft congruences in BL-algebras are concerned.

Ma, Xueling

2014-01-01

386

Congruency analysis of species ranking based on leaf traits: which traits are the more reliable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine leaf traits (area, fresh weight, dry weight, volume, density, thickness, specific leaf area (SLA), dry matter content\\u000a (LDMC), leaf nitrogen content (LNC)) from ten plant species at eight sites in southern mediterranean France were investigated\\u000a in order to assess their variability along a climatic gradient and their ranking congruency power. After examination of trait\\u000a correlation patterns, we reduced the

Philip Roche; Natalia Díaz-Burlinson; Sophie Gachet

2004-01-01

387

Local directional pattern of phase congruency features for illumination invariant face recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An illumination-robust face recognition system using Local Directional Pattern (LDP) descriptors in Phase Congruency (PC) space is proposed in this paper. The proposed Directional Pattern of Phase Congruency (DPPC) is an oriented and multi-scale local descriptor that is able to encode various patterns of face images under different lighting conditions. It is constructed by applying LDP on the oriented PC images. A LDP feature is obtained by computing the edge response values in eight directions at each pixel position and encoding them into an eight bit binary code using the relative strength magnitude of these edge responses. Phase congruency and local directional pattern have been independently used in the field of face and facial expression recognition, since they are robust to illumination changes. When the PC extracts the discontinuities in the image such as edges and corners, the LDP computes the edge response values in different directions and uses these to encode the image texture. The local directional pattern descriptor on the phase congruency image is subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) for dimensionality reduction for fast and effective face recognition application. The performance evaluation of the proposed DPPC algorithm is conducted on several publicly available databases and observed promising recognition rates. Better classification accuracy shows the superiority of the LDP descriptor against other appearance-based feature descriptors such as Local Binary Pattern (LBP). In other words, our result shows that by using the LDP descriptor the Euclidean distance between reference image and testing images in the same class is much less than that between reference image and testing images from the other classes.

Essa, Almabrok E.; Asari, Vijayan K.

2014-04-01

388

Congruence properties of the function which counts compositions into powers of 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let v(n) denote the number of compositions (ordered partitions) of a positive integer n into powers of 2. It appears that the function v(n) satisfies many congruences modulo 2^N. For example, for every integer B there exists (as k tends to infinity) the limit of v(2^k+B) in the 2-adic topology. The parity of v(n) obeys a simple rule. In this

Giedrius Alkauskas; Gregor Mendel-Straße

2010-01-01

389

Gender and Job Role Congruence: A Field Study of Trust in Labor Mediators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which individuals are seen as fulfilling their social roles is related to the extent they are seen as successful\\u000a in that role. Using social role theory, the congruence of job roles and gender roles was examined among labor mediators, a\\u000a profession requiring both agentic and communal characteristics. A total of 362 employees and employers involved in a

Alice F. Stuhlmacher; Jean Poitras

2010-01-01

390

Examining Lateralized Semantic Access Using Pictures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A divided visual field (DVF) experiment examined the semantic processing strategies employed by the cerebral hemispheres to determine if strategies observed with written word stimuli generalize to other media for communicating semantic information. We employed picture stimuli and vary the degree of semantic relatedness between the picture pairs.…

Lovseth, Kyle; Atchley, Ruth Ann

2010-01-01

391

Semantic Weight and Verb Retrieval in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with agrammatic aphasia may have difficulty with verb production in comparison to nouns. Additionally, they may have greater difficulty producing verbs that have fewer semantic components (i.e., are semantically "light") compared to verbs that have greater semantic weight. A connectionist verb-production model proposed by Gordon and…

Barde, Laura H. F.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Boronat, Consuelo B.

2006-01-01

392

From Operational Semantics for Abstract Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of mechanically constructing abstract machines from operational semantics, producing intermediate-level specifications of evaluators guaranteed to be correct with respect to the operational semantics. We construct these machines by repeatedly applying correctness-preserving transformations to operational semantics until the resulting specifications have the form of abstract machines. Though not automatable in general, this approach to constructing machine implementations

John Hannan; Dale Miller

1992-01-01

393

Pattern discovery using semantic network analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive information processing at higher conceptual levels requires a computational approach to knowledge representation and analysis. Semantic network analysis bridges the gap between probabilistic pattern recognition techniques and symbolic representations by replacing cumbersome and computationally complex forms of logic-based semantic inference common in symbolic approaches with mathematical metrics on graph representations of labelled, directed semantic networked data. These metrics in

Robin Burk; Alan Chappell; Michelle Gregory; Cliff Joslyn; Liam McGrath

2012-01-01

394

Accessing alcohol expectancy networks through semantic priming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive theories of alcohol use have suggested that information pertinent to an individuals' experience with alcohol is acquired and stored in a semantic network of expectancies regarding the effects of alcohol. Semantic priming using a lexical decision task has been used to access memory processes within a semantic network. The present study involved screening 40 individuals with heavy current drinking

Luke W Galen

1996-01-01

395

Video Retrieval Based on Semantic Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach using many intermediate semantic concepts is proposed with the potential to bridge the semantic gap between what a color, shape, and texture-based ldquolow-levelrdquo image analysis can extract from video and what users really want to find, most likely using text descriptions of their information needs. Semantic concepts such as cars, planes, roads, people, animals, and different types of

Alexander G. Hauptmann; Michael G. Christel; Rong Yan

2008-01-01

396

Geospatial Semantics: Why, of What, and How?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why are notions like semantics and ontologies suddenly getting so much attention, within and outside geospatial information communities? The main reason lies in the componentization of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) into services, which are supposed to interoperate within and across these communities. Consequently, I look at geospatial semantics in the context of semantic interoperability. The paper clarifies the relevant notion

Werner Kuhn

2005-01-01

397

Measuring Semantic Similarity Between Geospatial Conceptual Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining the grade of semantic similarity between geospatial concepts is the basis for evaluating semantic interoperability of geographic information services and their users. Geometrical models, such as conceptual spaces, offer one way of representing geospatial concepts, which are modelled as n-dimensional regions. Previous approaches have suggested to measure semantic similarity between concepts based on their approximation by single points. This

Angela Schwering; Martin Raubal

2005-01-01

398

Metasemantics: On the Limits of Semantic Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

METASEMANTICS is a wake-up call for semantic theory: It reveals that some semantic questions have no adequate answer. (This is meant to be the "epistemic" point that certain semantic questions cannot be "settled"--not a metaphysical point about whether there is a fact-of-the-matter.) METASEMANTICS thus checks our default "optimism" that any…

Parent, T.

2009-01-01

399

Non-Commercial Audiovisual Instructional Materials in Japan. AVE in Japan No. 24.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report outlines the history of non-commercial and local production of audiovisual instructional materials in Japan since World War II, discusses current trends in instructional materials usage, and presents four case studies of materials production at the prefectural level. Topics addressed include: (1) materials production prior to the…

Takakuwa, Yasuo

400

Comparing Infants' Preference for Correlated Audiovisual Speech with Signal-Level Computational Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How much of infant behaviour can be accounted for by signal-level analyses of stimuli? The current paper directly compares the moment-by-moment behaviour of 8-month-old infants in an audiovisual preferential looking task with that of several computational models that use the same video stimuli as presented to the infants. One type of model…

Hollich, George; Prince, Christopher G.

2009-01-01

401

The Efficacy of an Audiovisual Aid in Teaching the Neo-Classical Screenplay Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study interrogated the central theoretical statement that understanding and learning to apply the abstract concept of classical dramatic narrative structure can be addressed effectively through a useful audiovisual teaching method. The purpose of the study was to design an effective DVD teaching and learning aid, to justify the design through…

Uys, P. G.

2009-01-01

402

Audiovisual speech integration in Pervasive Developmental Disorder: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Integration of information from multiple sensory sources is an important prerequisite for successful social behavior, especially during face-to-face conversation. It has been suggested that communicative impairments among individuals with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) might be caused by an inability to integrate synchronously presented visual and auditory cues. Method: We investigated audiovisual integration of speech stimuli among a group of

M. J. C. M. Magnee; Beatrice de Gelder; Herman van Engeland; Chantal Kemner

2008-01-01

403

Demonstration and Evaluation of a Microfiche-Based Audio/Visual System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility and cost effectiveness of a microfiche-based audio/visual facility and to solicit user opinions and recommendations regarding this medium. Twenty instructors and 20 trainees at the Basic Electricity and Electronics School, Orlando, Florida, reviewed four sound/microfiche programs and…

Rizzo, William A.

404

Brief report: arrested development of audiovisual speech perception in autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Atypical communicative abilities are a core marker of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). A number of studies have shown that, in addition to auditory comprehension differences, individuals with autism frequently show atypical responses to audiovisual speech, suggesting a multisensory contribution to these communicative differences from their typically developing peers. To shed light on possible differences in the maturation of audiovisual speech integration, we tested younger (ages 6-12) and older (ages 13-18) children with and without ASD on a task indexing such multisensory integration. To do this, we used the McGurk effect, in which the pairing of incongruent auditory and visual speech tokens typically results in the perception of a fused percept distinct from the auditory and visual signals, indicative of active integration of the two channels conveying speech information. Whereas little difference was seen in audiovisual speech processing (i.e., reports of McGurk fusion) between the younger ASD and TD groups, there was a significant difference at the older ages. While TD controls exhibited an increased rate of fusion (i.e., integration) with age, children with ASD failed to show this increase. These data suggest arrested development of audiovisual speech integration in ASD. The results are discussed in light of the extant literature and necessary next steps in research. PMID:24218241

Stevenson, Ryan A; Siemann, Justin K; Woynaroski, Tiffany G; Schneider, Brittany C; Eberly, Haley E; Camarata, Stephen M; Wallace, Mark T

2014-06-01

405

Audiovisual Speech Perception in Children with Developmental Language Disorder in Degraded Listening Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The effect of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the perception of audiovisual speech in children with and without developmental language disorder (DLD) was investigated by varying the noise level and the sound intensity of acoustic speech. The main hypotheses were that the McGurk effect (in which incongruent visual speech alters the…

Meronen, Auli; Tiippana, Kaisa; Westerholm, Jari; Ahonen, Timo

2013-01-01

406

Nutrition Education Materials and Audiovisuals for Grades Preschool through 6. Special Reference Briefs Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography was prepared for educators interested in nutrition education materials, audiovisuals, and resources for classroom use. Items listed cover a range of topics including general nutrition, food preparation, food science, and dietary management. Teaching materials listed include food models, games, kits, videocassettes, and lesson…

Evans, Shirley King, Comp.

407

QUANTITATIVE STANDARDS FOR AUDIOVISUAL PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS (IN ELEMENTARY, SECONDARY, AND HIGHER EDUCATION).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS DOCUMENT IS A STAGE IN A STUDY TO FORMULATE QUANTITATIVE GUIDELINES FOR THE AUDIO-VISUAL COMMUNICATIONS FIELD, BEING CONDUCTED BY DOCTORS GENE FARIS AND MENDEL SHERMAN UNDER A NATIONAL DEFENSE EDUCATION ACT CONTRACT. THE STANDARDS LISTED HERE HAVE BEEN OFFICIALLY APPROVED AND ADOPTED BY SEVERAL AGENCIES, INCLUDING THE DEPARTMENT OF…

COBUN, TED; AND OTHERS

408

A Study to Formulate Quantitative Guidelines for the Audio-Visual Communications Field. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quantitative guidelines for use in determining the audiovisual (AV) needs of educational institutions were developed by the Octobe r 14-16, 1965 Seminar of the NDEA (National Defense Education Act), Faris-Sherman study. The guidelines that emerged were based in part on a review of past efforts and existing standards but primarily reflected the…

Faris, Gene; Sherman, Mendel

409

Audiovisual Material as Educational Innovation Strategy to Reduce Anxiety Response in Students of Human Anatomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents the design, effect and utility of using audiovisual material containing real images of dissected human cadavers as an innovative educational strategy (IES) in the teaching of Human Anatomy. The goal is to familiarize students with the practice of dissection and to transmit the importance and necessity of this discipline, while…

Casado, Maria Isabel; Castano, Gloria; Arraez-Aybar, Luis Alfonso

2012-01-01

410

Storage, Handling and Preservation of Audiovisual Materials. AV in Action 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to provide the librarian with suggestions and guidelines for storing and preserving audiovisual materials, this pamphlet is divided into four major chapters: (1) Normal Use Storage Conditions; (2) Natural Lifetime, Working Lifetime and Long-Term Storage; (3) Handling; and (4) Shelving of Normal Use Materials. Topics addressed include:…

Thompson, Anthony Hugh

411

An Annotated Guide to Audio-Visual Materials for Teaching Shakespeare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Audio-visual materials, found in a variety of periodicals, catalogs, and reference works, are listed in this guide to expedite the process of finding appropriate classroom materials for a study of William Shakespeare in the classroom. Separate listings of films, filmstrips, and recordings are provided, with subdivisions for "The Plays" and…

Albert, Richard N.

412

Associating audio-visual activity cues in a dominance estimation framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of both estimating the dominant person in a meeting from a single audio source and identifying them visually in a multi-camera setting. We use a speaker diarization algorithm to perform speaker segmentation and clustering, representing when they spoke. Using a greedy ordered audio-visual association algorithm, we investigate using the speaker clusters to find the corresponding person

Hayley Hung; Yan Huang; Chuohao Yeo; Daniel Gatica-Perez

2008-01-01

413

The impact of audio-visual stimulation on alpha brain oscillations: An EEG study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies investigated the brain responses as a reaction in auditory or visual stimuli separately. However a few studies have been published so far investigating the interactions of the two aforementioned stimuli. The current study comes to examine the impact of the audio-visual stimulation with binaural beats and flickering light in four different colors on low and upper alpha oscillations.

Christos N. Moridis; Manousos A. Klados; Ioannis A. Kokkinakis; Vasileios Terzis; Anastasios A. Economides; Anna Karlovasitou; Panagiotis D. Bamidis; Vasileios E. Karabatakis

2010-01-01

414

Some methodological aspects for measuring asynchrony detection in audio-visual stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

For audio-visual stimuli with a clear temporal structure, like impact events, a difference exists between physical and perceived synchrony. We compare the results of different methods to establish the point of subjective equality (PSE). These methods differ in the type of response categories subjects can use: 1) 3 categories: audio first, synchronous, video first, 2) 2 categories: synchronous, asynchronous, 3)

Armin Kohlrausch; Lawrence KS

415

Effects of Audio-Visual Information on the Intelligibility of Alaryngeal Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is minimal research on the contribution of visual information on speech intelligibility for individuals with a laryngectomy (IWL). Aims: The purpose of this project was to determine the effects of mode of presentation (audio-only, audio-visual) on alaryngeal speech intelligibility. Method: Twenty-three naive listeners were…

Evitts, Paul M.; Portugal, Lindsay; Van Dine, Ami; Holler, Aline

2010-01-01

416

A probabilistic principal component analysis based hidden Markov model for audio-visual speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipreading is an efficient method among those proposed to improve the performance of speech recognition systems, especially in acoustic noisy environments. This paper proposes a simple audio-visual speech recognition (AVSR) system, which could improve the robustness and accuracy of audio speech recognition by integrating the synchronous audio and visual information. We propose a hidden Markov model (HMM) based on the

Zhanyu Ma; Arne Leijon

2008-01-01

417

Audio-visual continuous speech recognition using a coupled hidden Markov model  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increase in the computational complexity of recent computers, audio-visual speech recognition (AVSR) became an attractive research topic that can lead to a robust solution for speech recognition in noisy environments. In the audio visual continuous speech recognition system presented in this paper, the audio and visual observation sequences are integrated using a coupled hidden Markov model (CHMM). The

Xiaoxing Liu; Yibao Zhao; Xiaobo Pi; Luhong Liang; Ara V. Nefian

2002-01-01

418

A-V Buyer's Guide. A User's Look at the Audio-Visual World. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The revised second edition has been expanded and updated. The first section examines six common questions: 1) selecting the medium, 2) selecting the vendor, 3) standardization in the industry, 4) performance standards, 5) facilities design, and 6) maintenance. The second section looks at each type of audiovisual equipment now on the market.…

Laird, Dugan

419

Superior Temporal Activation in Response to Dynamic Audio-Visual Emotional Cues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perception of emotion is critical for successful social interaction, yet the neural mechanisms underlying the perception of dynamic, audio-visual emotional cues are poorly understood. Evidence from language and sensory paradigms suggests that the superior temporal sulcus and gyrus (STS/STG) play a key role in the integration of auditory and visual…

Robins, Diana L.; Hunyadi, Elinora; Schultz, Robert T.

2009-01-01

420

CUAVE: A new audio-visual database for multimodal human-computer interface research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multimodal signal processing has become an important topic of research for overcoming certain problems of audio-only speech processing. Audio-visual speech recognition is one area with great potential. Difficulties due to background noise and multiple speakers are significantly reduced by the additional information provided by extra visual features. Despite a few efforts to create databases in this area, none has emerged

E. K. Patterson; S. Gurbuz; Z. Tufekci; J. N. Gowdy

2002-01-01

421

A phone-viseme dynamic Bayesian network for audio-visual automatic speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work extends and improves a recently intro- duced (Dec. 2007) dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) based audio-visual automatic speech recognition (AV- ASR) system. That system models the audio and visual components of speech as being composed of the same sub-word units when, in fact, this is not psycholinguisti- cally true. We extend the system to model the audio and visual

Louis H. Terry; Aggelos K. Katsaggelos

2008-01-01

422

Temporal Interval Discrimination Thresholds Depend on Perceived Synchrony for Audio-Visual Stimulus Pairs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Audio-visual stimulus pairs presented at various relative delays, are commonly judged as being "synchronous" over a range of delays from about -50 ms (audio leading) to +150 ms (video leading). The center of this range is an estimate of the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS). The judgment boundaries, where "synchronous" judgments yield to a…

van Eijk, Rob L. J.; Kohlrausch, Armin; Juola, James F.; van de Par, Steven

2009-01-01

423

Strategies for Media Literacy: Audiovisual Skills and the Citizenship in Andalusia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Media consumption is an undeniable fact in present-day society. The hours that members of all social segments spend in front of a screen take up a large part of their leisure time worldwide. Audiovisual communication becomes especially important within the context of today's digital society (society-network), where information and communication…

Aguaded-Gomez, Ignacio; Perez-Rodriguez, M. Amor

2012-01-01

424

Enhanced descriptions for personalized retrieval and automatic adaptation of audiovisual content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous growth of audiovisual content in digital format available worldwide poses new challenges to content retrieval technologies, calling for new solutions that cope with the current scale and complexity of content corpora, technological infrastructures, and user audiences. Two major problem areas to be addressed in facing such challenges in- volve a) the effective selection of content items when the

Iván Cantador; Fernando López; Jesús Bescós; Pablo Castells; José M. Martínez

425

Infant Attention to Dynamic Audiovisual Stimuli: Look Duration from 3 to 9 Months of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to examine developmental change in visual attention to dynamic visual and audiovisual stimuli in 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old infants. Infant look duration was measured during exposure to dynamic geometric patterns and Sesame Street video clips under three different stimulus modality conditions: unimodal visual, synchronous…

Reynolds, Greg D.; Zhang, Dantong; Guy, Maggie W.

2013-01-01

426

Recent Advances in the Automatic Recognition of Audio-Visual Speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual speech information from the speaker's mouth region has been successfully shown to improve noise robustness of automatic speech recognizers, thus promising to extend their usability in the human computer interface. In this paper, we review the main components of audio-visual automatic speech recognition and present novel contributions in two main areas: First, the visual front end design, based on

Gerasimos Potamianos; Chalapathy Neti; Guillaume Gravier; Ashutosh Garg; Andrew W. Senior

427

Speech Enhancement and Recognition in Meetings With an Audio-Visual Sensor Array  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of distant speech acquisition in multiparty meetings, using multiple microphones and cameras. Microphone array beamforming techniques present a potential alternative to close-talking microphones by providing speech enhancement through spatial filtering. Beamforming techniques, however, rely on knowledge of the speaker location. In this paper, we present an integrated approach, in which an audio-visual multiperson tracker is

Hari Krishna Maganti; Daniel Gatica-perez; Iain Mccowan

2007-01-01

428

Hearing impairment and audiovisual speech integration ability: a case study report  

PubMed Central

Research in audiovisual speech perception has demonstrated that sensory factors such as auditory and visual acuity are associated with a listener's ability to extract and combine auditory and visual speech cues. This case study report examined audiovisual integration using a newly developed measure of capacity in a sample of hearing-impaired listeners. Capacity assessments are unique because they examine the contribution of reaction-time (RT) as well as accuracy to determine the extent to which a listener efficiently combines auditory and visual speech cues relative to independent race model predictions. Multisensory speech integration ability was examined in two experiments: an open-set sentence recognition and a closed set speeded-word recognition study that measured capacity. Most germane to our approach, capacity illustrated speed-accuracy tradeoffs that may be predicted by audiometric configuration. Results revealed that some listeners benefit from increased accuracy, but fail to benefit in terms of speed on audiovisual relative to unisensory trials. Conversely, other listeners may not benefit in the accuracy domain but instead show an audiovisual processing time benefit.

Altieri, Nicholas; Hudock, Daniel

2014-01-01

429

The Audio-Visual Equipment Directory; Twenty-Second Edition, 1976-1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over 2,000 currently available items are listed in the 1976-1977 Audio-Visual Equipment Directory with specifications on price, model, weight, capacity, accessories, and technical details. Charts for screen size, lists of film and tape running times, an index to industry trade names, and a directory of equipment manufacturers are also provided.…

Herickes, Sally, Ed.

430

Automated Apprenticeship Training (AAT). A Systematized Audio-Visual Approach to Self-Paced Job Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two Automated Apprenticeship Training (AAT) courses were developed for Air Force Security Police Law Enforcement and Security specialists. The AAT was a systematized audio-visual approach to self-paced job training employing an easily operated teaching device. AAT courses were job specific and based on a behavioral task analysis of the two…

Pieper, William J.; And Others

431

Nutrition Education Materials and Audiovisuals for Grades 7 through 12. Special Reference Briefs Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography lists nutrition education materials, audiovisuals, and resources for classroom use. Items listed cover topics such as general nutrition, food preparation, food science, and dietary management. Each item is listed in one or more of the following categories: (1) curriculum/lesson plans; (2) learning activities; (3)…

Evans, Shirley King, Comp.

432

Audiovisual quality estimation of mobile phone video cameras with interpretation-based quality approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an effective method for comparing subjective audiovisual quality and the features related to the quality changes of different video cameras. Both quantitative estimation of overall quality and qualitative description of critical quality features are achieved by the method. The aim was to combine two image quality evaluation methods, the quantitative Absolute Category Rating (ACR) method with hidden reference

Jenni E. Radun; Toni Virtanen; Jean-Luc Olives; Mikko Vaahteranoksa; Tero Vuori; Göte Nyman

2007-01-01

433

Selective Attention Modulates the Direction of Audio-Visual Temporal Recalibration  

PubMed Central

Temporal recalibration of cross-modal synchrony has been proposed as a mechanism to compensate for timing differences between sensory modalities. However, far from the rich complexity of everyday life sensory environments, most studies to date have examined recalibration on isolated cross-modal pairings. Here, we hypothesize that selective attention might provide an effective filter to help resolve which stimuli are selected when multiple events compete for recalibration. We addressed this question by testing audio-visual recalibration following an adaptation phase where two opposing audio-visual asynchronies were present. The direction of voluntary visual attention, and therefore to one of the two possible asynchronies (flash leading or flash lagging), was manipulated using colour as a selection criterion. We found a shift in the point of subjective audio-visual simultaneity as a function of whether the observer had focused attention to audio-then-flash or to flash-then-audio groupings during the adaptation phase. A baseline adaptation condition revealed that this effect of endogenous attention was only effective toward the lagging flash. This hints at the role of exogenous capture and/or additional endogenous effects producing an asymmetry toward the leading flash. We conclude that selective attention helps promote selected audio-visual pairings to be combined and subsequently adjusted in time but, stimulus organization exerts a strong impact on recalibration. We tentatively hypothesize that the resolution of recalibration in complex scenarios involves the orchestration of top-down selection mechanisms and stimulus-driven processes.

Ikumi, Nara; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

2014-01-01

434

Catalogo de peliculas educativas y otros materiales audiovisuales (Catalogue of Educational Films and other Audiovisual Materials).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This catalogue of educational films and other audiovisual materials consists predominantly of films in Spanish and English which are intended for use in elementary and secondary schools. A wide variety of topics including films for social studies, language arts, humanities, physical and natural sciences, safety and health, agriculture, physical…

Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., Chicago, IL.

435

The perception of gloss depends on highlight congruence with surface shading.  

PubMed

Studies have shown that displacing specular highlights from their natural locations in images reduces perceived surface gloss. Here, we assessed the extent to which perceived gloss depends on congruence in the position and orientation of specular highlights relative to surface shape and the diffuse shading from which surface shape is recovered. The position and orientation congruence of specular highlights with diffuse shading was altered while preserving their compatibility with physical surface shape (Experiment 1). We found that perceived gloss diminished as the position of highlights became incompatible wit h the surface's global diffuse shading maxima. In a subsequent experiment, we constrained highlight proximity near the global luminance maxima in diffuse shading. When we disrupted the consistency in the local position and orientation of specular highlights with respect to the diffuse shading and local surface meso-structure, a decline in perceived gloss was still observed (Experiment 2). This decline in perceived gloss caused by misaligning the positions and orientations of specular highlights relative to diffuse surface shading could not be explained by differences in orientation fields alone (Experiments 3 and 4). These results suggest the visual system assesses both position and orientation congruence between specular highlights and diffuse shading to estimate surface gloss. PMID:21841140

Kim, Juno; Marlow, Phillip; Anderson, Barton L

2011-01-01

436

Compensator design for hysteresis of a stacked PZT actuator using a congruency-based hysteresis model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a rate-independent hysteresis compensator for a stacked PZT (lead zirconate titanate) actuator. From a congruency-based hysteresis (CBH) model which is derived from the inherent properties of this actuator, especially the congruency, a feedforward compensator associated with it is developed. The formulation of the proposed compensator is based on an assumption that the inverse operator also possesses the same properties as the CBH model does. This implies that the compensator also possesses properties such as the wiped-out loop closing between the consecutive control points and congruency. Consequently, the expressions for the compensator can be conducted by exploiting the equations for the CBH model in two cases of monotonic increase and monotonic decrease of input excitation. In order to assess the performance of the compensator, several experiments in both open-loop and closed-loop controls are undertaken. In the open-loop control experiment, the performance of the feedforward compensator using the CBH model is compared with the classical Preisach model-based one in three cases of reference waveforms. In the closed-loop control experiment, the proposed compensator is incorporated into a PID (proportional-integral-derivative) control system and the performance of this integrated system is then evaluated and compared to that of the PID with and without compensator.

Nguyen, Phuong-Bac; Choi, Seung-Bok

2012-01-01

437

Toward a model of person-environment congruence: development of the EPPIS.  

PubMed

The Person Environment (P-E) Congruence model represents an approach to understanding the impact of the environment on the well-being and adjustment of elderly which may also provide information for the development of intervention programs at individual, group and/or institutional levels. Assessment of P-E congruence, or fit between the person and his/her environment, was operationalized in two studies through the development of the Environmental Perception, Preference and Importance Scale (EPPIS). the EPPIS provides scales to assess environmental perceptions, individual environmental preferences and the important or salience of the environment on 15 empirically derived, commensurate dimensions. In a third study, the four-month test-retest reliability of the overall P-E congruence score of the EPPIS, defined as the absolute difference between the perceived and preferred environment weighted by importance, was .78 while the unweighted model reliability was .76. Also, the 15 dimensions of the EPPIS were observed to be significant predictors of well-being. It was proposed that the EPPIS may be used both to determine areas of intervention which the elderly themselves feel are important and as a means to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions intended to reduce P-E incongruence and increase psychological well-being. PMID:7333333

Nehrke, M F; Turner, R R; Cohen, S H; Whitbourne, S K; Morganti, J B; Hulicka, I M

1981-01-01

438

Relationships among client-therapist personality congruence, working alliance, and therapeutic outcome.  

PubMed

Despite the importance of the working alliance in therapeutic outcome, little is known about the factors associated with its formation. We advance that personality similarity between client and therapist is one such factor pertinent to the working alliance. In this study, personality similarity in 32 client-therapist dyads was examined for its relations to the bond, task, and goal elements of the working alliance (Bordin, 1979, Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice, 16, 252-260) and therapeutic outcome. Personality similarity was conceptualized using Holland's (1997, Making vocational choices [3rd ed.]) congruence construct. Therapists completed the Self-Directed Search pretreatment and clients completed the Working Alliance Inventory-Short Revised and Self-Directed Search after the third session. Results indicated that (a) client-therapist personality congruence was associated with the bond, (b) bond was associated with task and goal, and (c) task and goal were associated with therapeutic outcome. Congruence was not associated with task, goal, or therapeutic outcome. Holland's theory provides a framework for adapting to clients of varying personality types. By understanding how client-therapist personalities relate to each other in therapy, client-therapist bonds may be more efficiently realized. PMID:21604905

Taber, Brian J; Leibert, Todd W; Agaskar, Vaibhavee R

2011-12-01

439

A novel phase congruency based algorithm for online data reduction in ambulatory EEG systems.  

PubMed

Real signals are often corrupted by noise with a power spectrum variable over time. In applications involving these signals, it is expected that dynamically estimating and correcting for this noise would increase the amount of useful information extracted from the signal. One such application is scalp EEG monitoring in epilepsy, where electrical activity generated by cranio-facial muscles obscure the measured brainwaves. This paper presents a data-selection algorithm based on phase congruency to identify interictal spikes from background EEG; together with a novel statistical method that allows a more comprehensive trade-off based quantitative comparison of two algorithms which have been tested at a fixed threshold in the same database. Here, traditional phase congruency has been modified to incorporate a dynamic estimate of muscle activity present in the input scalp EEG signal. The proposed algorithm achieves 50% data reduction whilst detecting more than 80% of interictal spikes. This represents a significant improvement over the state-of-the-art denoising method for phase congruency. PMID:21712154

Logesparan, Lojini; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

2011-10-01

440

From CSP to Game Semantics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this short essay, we describe in informal terms how game semantics can be seen to arise as a perturbation of process calculi such as CSP, by making an explicit distinction between the rôles of the System and the Environment. Drawing out the consequences of this distinction uncovers a wealth of mathematical structure, with Game intuitions entering in a natural and compelling fashion. This leads ultimately to the elaboration of mathematically well-structured and behaviourally expressive semantic universes for computation. These provide a basis for fully abstract models of a wide range of programming languages, and lead on to algorithmic methods, with applications to compositional model-checking and program analysis.

Abramsky, Samson

441

Noise alters beta-band activity in superior temporal cortex during audiovisual speech processing.  

PubMed

Speech recognition is improved when complementary visual information is available, especially under noisy acoustic conditions. Functional neuroimaging studies have suggested that the superior temporal sulcus (STS) plays an important role for this improvement. The spectrotemporal dynamics underlying audiovisual speech processing in the STS, and how these dynamics are affected by auditory noise, are not well understood. Using electroencephalography, we investigated how auditory noise affects audiovisual speech processing in event-related potentials (ERPs) and oscillatory activity. Spoken syllables were presented in audiovisual (AV) and auditory only (A) trials at three different auditory noise levels (no, low, and high). Responses to A stimuli were subtracted from responses to AV stimuli, separately for each noise level, and these responses were subjected to the statistical analysis. Central ERPs differed between the no noise and the two noise conditions from 130 to 150 ms and 170 to 210 ms after auditory stimulus onset. Source localization using the local autoregressive average procedure revealed an involvement of the lateral temporal lobe, encompassing the superior and middle temporal gyrus. Neuronal activity in the beta-band (16 to 32 Hz) was suppressed at central channels around 100 to 400 ms after auditory stimulus onset in the averaged AV minus A signal over the three noise levels. This suppression was smaller in the high noise compared to the no noise and low noise condition, possibly reflecting disturbed recognition or altered processing of multisensory speech stimuli. Source analysis of the beta-band effect using linear beamforming demonstrated an involvement of the STS. Our study shows that auditory noise alters audiovisual speech processing in ERPs localized to lateral temporal lobe and provides evidence that beta-band activity in the STS plays a role for audiovisual speech processing under regular and noisy acoustic conditions. PMID:23274182

Schepers, Inga M; Schneider, Till R; Hipp, Joerg F; Engel, Andreas K; Senkowski, Daniel

2013-04-15

442

Investigating the Congruence of Crowdsourced Information With Official Government Data: The Case of Pediatric Clinics  

PubMed Central

Background Health 2.0 is a benefit to society by helping patients acquire knowledge about health care by harnessing collective intelligence. However, any misleading information can directly affect patients’ choices of hospitals and drugs, and potentially exacerbate their health condition. Objective This study investigates the congruence between crowdsourced information and official government data in the health care domain and identifies the determinants of low congruence where it exists. In-line with infodemiology, we suggest measures to help the patients in the regions vulnerable to inaccurate health information. Methods We text-mined multiple online health communities in South Korea to construct the data for crowdsourced information on public health services (173,748 messages). Kendall tau and Spearman rank order correlation coefficients were used to compute the differences in 2 ranking systems of health care quality: actual government evaluations of 779 hospitals and mining results of geospecific online health communities. Then we estimated the effect of sociodemographic characteristics on the level of congruence by using an ordinary least squares regression. Results The regression results indicated that the standard deviation of married women’s education (P=.046), population density (P=.01), number of doctors per pediatric clinic (P=.048), and birthrate (P=.002) have a significant effect on the congruence of crowdsourced data (adjusted R 2=.33). Specifically, (1) the higher the birthrate in a given region, (2) the larger the variance in educational attainment, (3) the higher the population density, and (4) the greater the number of doctors per clinic, the more likely that crowdsourced information from online communities is congruent with official government data. Conclusions To investigate the cause of the spread of misleading health information in the online world, we adopted a unique approach by associating mining results on hospitals from geospecific online health communities with the sociodemographic characteristics of corresponding regions. We found that the congruence of crowdsourced information on health care services varied across regions and that these variations could be explained by geospecific demographic factors. This finding can be helpful to governments in reducing the potential risk of misleading online information and the accompanying safety issues.

Jung, Yuchul; Jung, Dain; Hur, Cinyoung

2014-01-01

443

Experiential congruence: Qualitative analysis of client and counsellor narrative accounts of significant events in time-limited person-centred therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of congruence represents a core theoretical construct in the development of client-centred therapy, and remains fundamental to the practice of experiential approaches to psychotherapy. This study explores the ways in which congruence is experienced during significant moments of therapy. Client and counsellor accounts of moments of congruence\\/incongruence were collected from six cases of person-centred counselling, and were analysed

Soti Grafanaki; John McLeod

2002-01-01

444

Self-organizing semantic maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-organized formation of topographic maps for abstract data, such as words, is demonstrated in this work. The semantic relationships in the data are reflected by their relative distances in the map. Two different simulations, both based on a neural network model that implements the algorithm of the selforganizing feature maps, are given. For both, an essential, new ingredient is the

H. Ritter; T. Kohonen

1989-01-01

445

Incrementally Dissociating Syntax and Semantics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A basic challenge for research into the neurobiology of language is understanding how the brain combines words to make complex representations. Linguistic theory divides this task into several computations including syntactic structure building and semantic composition. The close relationship between these computations, however, poses a strong…

Brennan, Jonathan R.

2010-01-01

446

The Semantic Web in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The semantic web or Web 3.0 makes information more meaningful to people by making it more understandable to machines. In this article, the author examines the implications of Web 3.0 for education. The author considers three areas of impact: knowledge construction, personal learning network maintenance, and personal educational administration.…

Ohler, Jason

2008-01-01

447

Sensible Semantics of Imperfect Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In [1] Cameron and Hodges proved, by means of a combinatorial argument, that no compositional semantics for a logic of Imperfect Information such as Independence Friendly Logic [2] or Dependence Logic ([3]) may use sets of tuples of elements as meanings of formulas.

Galliani, Pietro

448

Semantic networks: visualizations of knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of semantic networks is almost as long as that of their parent discipline, artificial intelligence. They have formed the basis of many fascinating, yet controversial discussions in conferences and in the literature, ranging from metaphysics through to complexity theory in computer science. Many excellent surveys of the field have been written, and yet it is our belief that

Roger T. Hartley; John A. Barnden

1997-01-01

449

CASL: From Semantics to Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

CASL, the common algebraic specification language, has been developed as a language that subsumes many previous algebraic specification frameworks and also provides tool interoperability. CASL is a complex language with a complete formal semantics. It is therefore a challenge to build good tools for CASL. In this work, we present and discuss the Bremen HOL-CASL system, which provides parsing, static

Till Mossakowski

2000-01-01

450

Semantic Fission through Dialect Fusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The linguistic atlas projects have provided much information on the regional distribution of pronunciation, vocabulary, and syntax and have given important evidence for a greater understanding of problems involved in semantic change, particularly in pointing out transition areas where dialects become fused. In a study supplementary to that…

Linn, Michael D.

451

Inductive Assertions and Operational Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how classic inductive assertions can be used in conjunction with an operational semantics to prove partial cor- rectness properties of programs. The method imposes only the proof obli- gations that would be produced by a verification condition generator but does not require the definition of a verification condition generation. The paper focuses on iterative programs but recursive

J. Strother Moore

2003-01-01

452

Planning for Semantic Web Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Semantic Web ontologies to describe Web Services has proven to be useful for various different tasks including service discovery a nd composi- tion. AI planning techniques have been employed to automate the composition of Web Services described this way. Planners use the description of the pre- conditions and effects of a service to do various sorts of reasoning abo

Evren Sirin; Bijan Parsia

2004-01-01

453

Semantic processing of neglected numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

While neglected stimuli can still be processed, few studies have directly addressed the issue of the unconscious access to semantics. In order to clarify this issue, we engaged four patients with unilateral left spatial neglect in a number comparison task. Each target number was preceded by a lateralized number prime, either in the intact or neglected hemifield (HF). Both group

Jérôme Sackur; Lionel Naccache; Pascale Pradat-Diehl; Philippe Azouvi; Dominique Mazevet; Rose Katz; Laurent Cohen; Stanislas Dehaene

2008-01-01

454

Agents and the Semantic Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article offers a few pointers to this emerging area and shows how the ontology languages of the Semantic Web can lead directly to more powerful agent-based approaches---that is, to the realization of my colleague's "science fiction " vision.

James A. Hendler

2001-01-01

455

Toward the semantic geospatial web  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growth of the World Wide Web has come the insight that currently available methods for finding and using information on the web are often insufficient. In order to move the Web from a data repository to an information resource, a totally new way of organizing information is needed. The advent of the Semantic Web promises better retrieval methods

Max J. Egenhofer

2002-01-01

456

Handbook of Semantic Word Norms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains information derived from college student ratings of a large number and variety of individual words (along with some nonwords) for seven basic semantic characteristics. The primary data are rating values for over 2800 words for seven dimensions of special significance for current research on verbal behavior and related topics.…

Toglia, Michael P.; Battig, William F.

457

Programming semantics for multiprogrammed computations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The semantics are defined for a number of meta-instructions which perform operations essential to the writing of programs in multiprogrammed computer systems. These meta-instructions relate to parallel processing, protecting of separate computations, program debugging, and the sharing among users of memory segments and other computing objects, the names of which are hierarchically structured. The language sophistication contemplated is midway between

Jack B. Dennis; Earl C. Van Horn

1966-01-01

458

Semantic Annotation of Computational Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a methodology to specify machine-processable semantic descriptions of computational components to enable them to be shared and reused. A particular focus of this scheme is to enable automatic compositon of such components into simple work-flows.

Vanderbilt, Peter; Mehrotra, Piyush

2004-01-01

459

An Experiment in Scientific Code Semantic Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper concerns a procedure that analyzes aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. This procedure involves taking a user's existing code, adding semantic declarations for some primitive variables, and parsing this annotated code using multiple, distributed expert parsers. These semantic parser are designed to recognize formulae in different disciplines including physical and mathematical formulae and geometrical position in a numerical scheme. The parsers will automatically recognize and document some static, semantic concepts and locate some program semantic errors. Results are shown for a subroutine test case and a collection of combustion code routines. This ability to locate some semantic errors and document semantic concepts in scientific and engineering code should reduce the time, risk, and effort of developing and using these codes.

Stewart, Mark E. M.

1998-01-01

460

Lexical Semantics and Irregular Inflection  

PubMed Central

Whether a word has an irregular inflection does not depend on its sound alone: compare lie-lay (recline) and lie-lied (prevaricate). Theories of morphology, particularly connectionist and symbolic models, disagree on which nonphonological factors are responsible. We test four possibilities: (1) Lexical effects, in which two lemmas differ in whether they specify an irregular form; (2) Semantic effects, in which the semantic features of a word become associated with regular or irregular forms; (3) Morphological structure effects, in which a word with a headless structure (e.g., a verb derived from a noun) blocks access to a stored irregular form; (4) Compositionality effects, in which the stored combination of an irregular word’s meaning (e.g., the verb’s inherent aspect) with the meaning of the inflection (e.g., pastness) doesn’t readily transfer to new senses with different combinations of such meanings. In four experiments, speakers were presented with existing and novel verbs and asked to rate their past-tense forms, semantic similarities, grammatical structure, and aspectual similarities. We found (1) an interaction between semantic and phonological similarity, coinciding with reported strategies of analogizing to known verbs and implicating lexical effects; (2) weak and inconsistent effects of semantic similarity; (3) robust effects of morphological structure, and (4) robust effects of aspectual compositionality. Results are consistent with theories of language that invoke lexical entries and morphological structure, and which differentiate the mode of storage of regular and irregular verbs. They also suggest how psycholinguistic processes have shaped vocabulary structure over history.

Huang, Yi Ting; Pinker, Steven

2010-01-01

461

The whole is more than the sum of its parts - audiovisual processing of phonemes investigated with ERPs.  

PubMed

In the current ERP study, an active oddball task was carried out, testing pure tones and auditory, visual and audiovisual syllables. For pure tones, an MMN, an N2b, and a P3 were found, confirming traditional findings. Auditory syllables evoked an N2 and a P3. We found that the amplitude of the P3 depended on the distance between standard and deviant. A smaller distance required more attention, which was reflected in a larger amplitude. An analysis of audiovisual material, after correction for visual activity, showed that McGurk type stimuli evoked brain responses that differed from both the standard and the congruent deviants. Finally, we found that congruent audiovisual stimuli elicited an N2 with a shorter latency and a P3 with a smaller amplitude than auditory stimuli. The current ERP study, thus, shows that for audiovisual processing the whole is more than the sum of its parts. PMID:23395711

Hessler, Dörte; Jonkers, Roel; Stowe, Laurie; Bastiaanse, Roelien

2013-03-01

462

Endoscopic Image Analysis in Semantic Space  

PubMed Central

A novel approach to the design of a semantic, low-dimensional, encoding for endoscopic imagery is proposed. This encoding is based on recent advances in scene recognition, where semantic modeling of image content has gained considerable attention over the last decade. While the semantics of scenes are mainly comprised of environmental concepts such as vegetation, mountains or sky, the semantics of endoscopic imagery are medically relevant visual elements, such as polyps, special surface patterns, or vascular structures. The proposed semantic encoding differs from the representations commonly used in endoscopic image analysis (for medical decision support) in that it establishes a semantic space, where each coordinate axis has a clear human interpretation. It is also shown to establish a connection to Riemannian geometry, which enables principled solutions to a number of problems that arise in both physician training and clinical practice. This connection is exploited by leveraging results from information geometry to solve problems such as 1) recognition of important semantic concepts, 2) semantically-focused image browsing, and 3) estimation of the average-case semantic encoding for a collection of images that share a medically relevant visual detail. The approach can provide physicians with an easily interpretable, semantic encoding of visual content, upon which further decisions, or operations, can be naturally carried out. This is contrary to the prevalent practice in endoscopic image analysis for medical decision support, where image content is primarily captured by discriminative, high-dimensional, appearance features, which possess discriminative power but lack human interpretability.

Kwitt, R.; Vasconcelos, N.; Rasiwasia, N.; Uhl, A.; Davis, B.; Hafner, M.; Wrba, F.

2013-01-01

463

Conceptual Space Markup Language (CSML): Towards the Cognitive Semantic Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

CSML is a semantic markup language created for the publishing and sharing of conceptual spaces, which are geometric structures that represent semantics at the conceptual level. CSML can be used to describe semantics that are not captured well by the ontology languages commonly used in the Semantic Web. Measurement of the semantic similarity of concepts as well as the combination

Benjamin Adams; Martin Raubal

2009-01-01

464

MuseumFinland—Finnish museums on the semantic web  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the semantic portal MuseumFinland for publishing heterogeneous museum collections on the Semantic Web. It is shown how museums with their semantically rich and interrelated collection content can create a large, consolidated semantic collection portal together on the web. By sharing a set of ontologies, it is possible to make collections semantically interoperable, and provide the museum visitors

Eero Hyvönen; Eetu Mäkelä; Mirva Salminen; Arttu Valo; Kim Viljanen; Samppa Saarela; Miikka Junnila; Suvi Kettula

2005-01-01

465

Measuring semantic similarity between words using web search engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic similarity measures play important roles in infor- mation retrieval and Natural Language Processing. Previ- ous work in semantic web-related applications such as com- munity mining, relation extraction, automatic meta data extraction have used various semantic similarity measures. Despite the usefulness of semantic similarity measures in these applications, robustly measuring semantic similarity between two words (or entities) remains a challenging

Danushka Bollegala; Yutaka Matsuo; Mitsuru Ishizuka

2007-01-01

466

Fast semantic retrieval in a P2P corporate memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines a semantic framework for storing and retrieving the document contents that make up a Corporate Semantic Web (CSW). After a brief overview of our basic assumptions concerning semantic overlays on Peer-to-Peer systems, we describe a Corporate Semantic Web by means of a graph G1, whose nodes represent a collection of documents having a common range of semantic

Ana B. Rios-Alvarado; R. Carolina Medina-Ramírez; Ricardo Marcelín Jiménez

2008-01-01

467

A feature-tracking model simulates the motion direction bias induced by phase congruency.  

PubMed

Here we report a new motion illusion where the prevailing motion direction is strongly influenced by the relative phase of the harmonic components of the stimulus. The basic stimulus is the sum of three sinusoidal contrast-reversing gratings: the first, the third, and the fifth harmonic of two square wave gratings that drift in opposite direction. The phase of one of the fifth components was kept constant at 180 deg, whereas the phase of the other fifth harmonic was varied over the range 0-150 deg. For each phase value of the fifth harmonic, the motion was strongly biased toward its direction, corresponding to the direction with stronger phase congruency between the three harmonics. The strength of the prevailing motion was assessed by measuring motion direction discrimination thresholds, by varying the contrast of the third and the fifth harmonics plaid pattern. Results show that the contrast of high harmonics had to be increased by more than a factor of 10, to achieve a balance of motion for phase differences greater than 60 deg between the 2 fifth harmonics. We also measured the dependence on the absolute phase of harmonic components and found that it is not an important parameter, excluding the possibility that local luminance cues could be mediating the effect. A feature-tracking model based on previous work is proposed to simulate the data. The model computes local energy function from a pair of space-time separable front stage filters and applies a battery of directional second stage mechanisms. It is able to simulate quantitatively the phase congruency dependence illusion and the insensitivity to overall phase. Other energy models based on directional filters fail to simulate the phase congruency dependency effect. PMID:16643089

Del Viva, M Michela; Morrone, M Concetta

2006-01-01

468

Semantic remote patient monitoring system.  

PubMed

We propose an automated and personalized remote patient monitoring (RPM) system, which is applied to care homes and is dependent on the manipulation of semantics describing situations during patient monitoring in ontological models. Decision making in RPM is based on reasoning performed upon ontologies, which secures the delivery of appropriate e-health services in care homes. Our working experiment shows an example of preventive e-healthcare, but it can be extended to any situation that requires either urgent action from healthcare professionals or a simple recommendation during RPM. We use Semantic Web technology and OWL/SWRL-enabled ontologies to illustrate the proposal and feasibility of implementing this RPM system as a software solution in pervasive healthcare. It will be of interest to healthcare professionals, who can directly shape and populate the proposed ontological model, and software engineers, who would consider using OWL/SWRL when creating e-health services in general. PMID:23363406

Shojanoori, Reza; Juric, Radmila

2013-02-01

469

Network visualization by semantic substrates.  

PubMed

Networks have remained a challenge for information visualization designers because of the complex issues of node and link layout coupled with the rich set of tasks that users present. This paper offers a strategy based on two principles: (1) layouts are based on user-defined semantic substrates, which are non-overlapping regions in which node placement is based on node attributes, (2) users interactively adjust sliders to control link visibility to limit clutter and thus ensure comprehensibility of source and destination. Scalability is further facilitated by user control of which nodes are visible. We illustrate our semantic substrates approach as implemented in NVSS 1.0 with legal precedent data for up to 1122 court cases in three regions with 7645 legal citations. PMID:17080794

Shneiderman, Ben; Aris, Aleks

2006-01-01

470

European Union RACE program contributions to digital audiovisual communications and services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Union RACE (R&D in advanced communications technologies in Europe) and the future ACTS (advanced communications technologies and services) programs have been contributing and continue to contribute to world-wide developments in audio-visual services. The paper focuses on research progress in: (1) Image data compression. Several methods of image analysis leading to the use of encoders based on improved hybrid DCT-DPCM (MPEG or not), object oriented, hybrid region/waveform or knowledge-based coding methods are discussed. (2) Program production in the aspects of 3D imaging, data acquisition, virtual scene construction, pre-processing and sequence generation. (3) Interoperability and multimedia access systems. The diversity of material available and the introduction of interactive or near- interactive audio-visual services led to the development of prestandards for video-on-demand (VoD) and interworking of multimedia services storage systems and customer premises equipment.

de Albuquerque, Augusto; van Noorden, Leon; Badique', Eric

1995-02-01

471

Audiovisual presentation of video-recorded stimuli at a high frame rate.  

PubMed

A method for creating and presenting video-recorded synchronized audiovisual stimuli at a high frame rate-which would be highly useful for psychophysical studies on, for example, just-noticeable differences and gating-is presented. Methods for accomplishing this include recording audio and video separately using an exact synchronization signal, editing the recordings and finding exact synchronization points, and presenting the synchronized audiovisual stimuli with a desired frame rate on a cathode ray tube display using MATLAB and Psychophysics Toolbox 3. The methods from an empirical gating study (Moradi, Lidestam, & Rönnberg, Frontiers in Psychology 4:359, 2013) are presented as an example of the implementation of playback at 120 fps. PMID:24197711

Lidestam, Björn

2014-06-01

472

Cognitive Mapping Meets Semantic Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive mapping has been a valuable tool in understanding how individuals view their external environment. It has been used successfully to investigate crisis decision making, juror decision making, and international negotiation, and may find further use as a support tool in negotiation and mediation. This article presents a method for enhanced cognitive mapping—WorldView, which uses the symbol-based formalism of semantic

Michael D. Young

1996-01-01

473

Small Worlds in Semantic Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present graph-theoretic analyses of three types of semantic networks: associative networks, WordNet, and Roget's thesaurus. We show that they have a small- world structure: they are sparse, exhibit short average path-lengths between words as well as strong local clustering. In addition, the distributions of the number of connections follow power laws that suggests a hub structure similar to the

Mark Steyvers

474

Inductive assertions and operational semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how classic inductive assertions can be used in conjunction with a formal operational semantics to prove\\u000a partial correctness properties of programs. The method imposes only the proof obligations that would be produced by a verification\\u000a condition generator – but does not require the definition of a verification condition generator. All that is required is a\\u000a theorem prover,

J. Strother Moore

2006-01-01

475

Brain activation during audiovisual exposure anticipates future perception of ambiguous speech.  

PubMed

In modern perceptual neuroscience, the focus of interest has shifted from a restriction to individual modalities to an acknowledgement of the importance of multisensory processing. One particularly well-known example of cross-modal interaction is the McGurk illusion. It has been shown that this illusion can be modified, such that it creates an auditory perceptual bias that lasts beyond the duration of audiovisual stimulation, a process referred to as cross-modal recalibration (Bertelson et al., 2003). Recently, we have suggested that this perceptual bias is stored in auditory cortex, by demonstrating the feasibility of retrieving the subjective perceptual interpretation of recalibrated ambiguous phonemes from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements in these regions (Kilian-Hütten et al., 2011). However, this does not explain which brain areas integrate the information from the two senses and represent the origin of the auditory perceptual bias. Here we analyzed fMRI data from audiovisual recalibration blocks, utilizing behavioral data from perceptual classifications of ambiguous auditory phonemes that followed these blocks later in time. Adhering to this logic, we could identify a network of brain areas (bilateral inferior parietal lobe [IPL], inferior frontal sulcus [IFS], and posterior middle temporal gyrus [MTG]), whose activation during audiovisual exposure anticipated auditory perceptual tendencies later in time. We propose a model in which a higher-order network, including IPL and IFS, accommodates audiovisual integrative learning processes, which are responsible for the installation of a perceptual bias in auditory regions. This bias then determines constructive perceptual processing. PMID:21664279

Kilian-Hütten, Niclas; Vroomen, Jean; Formisano, Elia

2011-08-15

476

Influence of auditory and audiovisual stimuli on the right-left prevalence effect.  

PubMed

When auditory stimuli are used in two-dimensional spatial compatibility tasks, where the stimulus and response configurations vary along the horizontal and vertical dimensions simultaneously, a right-left prevalence effect occurs in which horizontal compatibility dominates over vertical compatibility. The right-left prevalence effects obtained with auditory stimuli are typically larger than that obtained with visual stimuli even though less attention should be demanded from the horizontal dimension in auditory processing. In the present study, we examined whether auditory or visual dominance occurs when the two-dimensional stimuli are audiovisual, as well as whether there will be cross-modal facilitation of response selection for the horizontal and vertical dimensions. We also examined whether there is an additional benefit of adding a pitch dimension to the auditory stimulus to facilitate vertical coding through use of the spatial-musical association of response codes (SMARC) effect, where pitch is coded in terms of height in space. In Experiment 1, we found a larger right-left prevalence effect for unimodal auditory than visual stimuli. Neutral, non-pitch coded, audiovisual stimuli did not result in cross-modal facilitation, but did show evidence of visual dominance. The right-left prevalence effect was eliminated in the presence of SMARC audiovisual stimuli, but the effect influenced horizontal rather than vertical coding. Experiment 2 showed that the influence of the pitch dimension was not in terms of influencing response selection on a trial-to-trial basis, but in terms of altering the salience of the task environment. Taken together, these findings indicate that in the absence of salient vertical cues, auditory and audiovisual stimuli tend to be coded along the horizontal dimension and vision tends to dominate audition in this two-dimensional spatial stimulus-response task. PMID:24096315

Vu, Kim-Phuong L; Minakata, Katsumi; Ngo, Mary Kim

2014-05-01

477

Audio-Visual Person Authentication with Multiple Visualized-Speech Features and Multiple Face Profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an Audio-visual person authentication system which extracts several novel ldquovisualized-speech-featuresrdquo (VSF) from the spoken-password and multiple face profiles using a simple user-interface and combine these features to deliver high performance and resilience against imposter attacks. The spoken password is converted to a string of images formed by several visualized speech features. A compressed form of these VSFs preserves

Amitava Das; Ohil K. Manyam; Makarand Tapaswi

2008-01-01

478

Performance enhancement for audio-visual speaker identification using dynamic facial muscle model.  

PubMed

Science of human identification using physiological characteristics or biometry has been of great concern in security systems. However, robust multimodal identification systems based on audio-visual information has not been thoroughly investigated yet. Therefore, the aim of this work to propose a model-based feature extraction method which employs physiological characteristics of facial muscles producing lip movements. This approach adopts the intrinsic properties of muscles such as viscosity, elasticity, and mass which are extracted from the dynamic lip model. These parameters are exclusively dependent on the neuro-muscular properties of speaker; consequently, imitation of valid speakers could be reduced to a large extent. These parameters are applied to a hidden Markov model (HMM) audio-visual identification system. In this work, a combination of audio and video features has been employed by adopting a multistream pseudo-synchronized HMM training method. Noise robust audio features such as Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC), spectral subtraction (SS), and relative spectra perceptual linear prediction (J-RASTA-PLP) have been used to evaluate the performance of the multimodal system once efficient audio feature extraction methods have been utilized. The superior performance of the proposed system is demonstrated on a large multispeaker database of continuously spoken digits, along with a sentence that is phonetically rich. To evaluate the robustness of algorithms, some experiments were performed on genetically identical twins. Furthermore, changes in speaker voice were simulated with drug inhalation tests. In 3 dB signal to noise ratio (SNR), the dynamic muscle model improved the identification rate of the audio-visual system from 91 to 98%. Results on identical twins revealed that there was an apparent improvement on the performance for the dynamic muscle model-based system, in which the identification rate of the audio-visual system was enhanced from 87 to 96%. PMID:17031716

Asadpour, Vahid; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Homayounpour, Mohammad Mehdi

2006-10-01

479

Subjective Quality Evaluation of Foveated Video Coding Using Audio-Visual Focus of Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a foveated coding method using audio-visual focus of attention and its evaluation through ex- tensive subjective experiments on both standard-definition and high-definition sequences. Regarding a sound-emitting region as the location drawing the human attention, the method applies varying quality levels in an image frame according to the distance of a pixel to the identified sound source. Two

Jong-Seok Lee; Francesca De Simone; Touradj Ebrahimi

2011-01-01

480

Audiovisual material as educational innovation strategy to reduce anxiety response in students of human anatomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the design, effect and utility of using audiovisual material containing real images of dissected human\\u000a cadavers as an innovative educational strategy (IES) in the teaching of Human Anatomy. The goal is to familiarize students\\u000a with the practice of dissection and to transmit the importance and necessity of this discipline, while modulating their anxiety.\\u000a The study included 303

María Isabel Casado; Gloria Castaño; Luis Alfonso Arráez-Aybar

481

Application of poly(ethylene naphthalate) films to electrical and audio-visual uses in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction and development of biaxially-oriented poly(ethylene naphthalate) film (PEN film) in Japan has been compared with the biaxially-oriented poly(ethylene terephthalate) film (the PET film), which is usually mass-produced for electrical and audio-visual uses. Its physical, mechanical, electrical, thermal, chemical, optical and surface properties and radiation resistance were reviewed and its superiority over the PET film, such as a higher

SACHIO YASUFUKU

1996-01-01

482

Sensorimotor cortical response during motion reflecting audiovisual stimulation: evidence from fractal EEG analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensorimotor activity in response to motion reflecting audiovisual titillation is studied in this article. EEG recordings,\\u000a and especially the Mu-rhythm over the sensorimotor cortex (C3, CZ, and C4 electrodes), were acquired and explored. An experiment\\u000a was designed to provide auditory (Modest Mussorgsky’s “Promenade” theme) and visual (synchronized human figure walking) stimuli\\u000a to advanced music students (AMS) and non-musicians (NM) as

Stelios Hadjidimitriou; A. Zacharakis; Panagiotis Doulgeris; Konstantinos I. Panoulas; Leontios J. Hadjileontiadis; Stavros M. Panas

2010-01-01

483

Inter-speaker Synchronization in Audiovisual Database for Lip-Readable Speech to Animation Conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study proposes an inter-speaker audiovisual synchronization method to decrease the speaker dependency of our direct speech to animation conversion system. Our aim is to convert an everyday speaker's voice to lip-readable facial animation for hearing impaired users. This conversion needs mixed training data: acoustic features from normal speakers coupled with visual features from professional lip-speakers. Audio and video

Gergely Feldhoffer; Balázs Oroszi; György Takács; Attila Tihanyi; Tamás Bárdi

2007-01-01

484

Exploring Semantic Social Networks Using Virtual Reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present Redgraph, a generic virtual reality visualization program for Semantic Web data capable of handling large data-sets, which we demonstrate on social network data from the U.S. Patent Trade Office. We develop a Semantic Web vocabulary of virtual reality terms compatible with GraphXML to map graph visualization into the Seman- tic Web itself. Our approach in visualizing Semantic Web

Harry Halpin; David J. Zielinski; Rachael Brady; Glenda Kelly

2008-01-01

485

Statistical properties of Chinese semantic networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost all language networks in word and syntactic levels are small-world and scale-free. This raises the questions of whether\\u000a a language network in deeper semantic or cognitive level also has the similar properties. To answer the question, we built\\u000a up a Chinese semantic network based on a treebank with semantic role (argument structure) annotation and investigated its\\u000a global statistical properties.

HaiTao Liu

2009-01-01

486

Bridging the Gap: Query by Semantic Example  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of query-by-visual-example (QBVE) and semantic retrieval (SR), denoted as query-by-semantic-example (QBSE), is proposed. Images are labeled with respect to a vo- cabulary of visual concepts, as is usual in SR. Each image is then represented by a vector, referred to as a semantic multino- mial, of posterior concept probabilities. Retrieval is based on the query-by-example paradigm: the user

Nikhil Rasiwasia; Pedro J. Moreno; Nuno Vasconcelos

2007-01-01

487

An fMRI Study of Audiovisual Speech Perception Reveals Multisensory Interactions in Auditory Cortex  

PubMed Central

Research on the neural basis of speech-reading implicates a network of auditory language regions involving inferior frontal cortex, premotor cortex and sites along superior temporal cortex. In audiovisual speech studies, neural activity is consistently reported in posterior superior temporal Sulcus (pSTS) and this site has been implicated in multimodal integration. Traditionally, multisensory interactions are considered high-level processing that engages heteromodal association cortices (such as STS). Recent work, however, challenges this notion and suggests that multisensory interactions may occur in low-level unimodal sensory cortices. While previous audiovisual speech studies demonstrate that high-level multisensory interactions occur in pSTS, what remains unclear is how early in the processing hierarchy these multisensory interactions may occur. The goal of the present fMRI experiment is to investigate how visual speech can influence activity in auditory cortex above and beyond its response to auditory speech. In an audiovisual speech experiment, subjects were presented with auditory speech with and without congruent visual input. Holding the auditory stimulus constant across the experiment, we investigated how the addition of visual speech influences activity in auditory cortex. We demonstrate that congruent visual speech increases the activity in auditory cortex.

Okada, Kayoko; Venezia, Jonathan H.; Matchin, William; Saberi, Kourosh; Hickok, Gregory

2013-01-01

488

Cross-Modal Matching of Audio-Visual German and French Fluent Speech in Infancy  

PubMed Central

The present study examined when and how the ability to cross-modally match audio-visual fluent speech develops in 4.5-, 6- and 12-month-old German-learning infants. In Experiment 1, 4.5- and 6-month-old infants’ audio-visual matching ability of native (German) and non-native (French) fluent speech was assessed by presenting auditory and visual speech information sequentially, that is, in the absence of temporal synchrony cues. The results showed that 4.5-month-old infants were capable of matching native as well as non-native audio and visual speech stimuli, whereas 6-month-olds perceived the audio-visual correspondence of native language stimuli only. This suggests that intersensory matching narrows for fluent speech between 4.5 and 6 months of age. In Experiment 2, auditory and visual speech information was presented simultaneously, therefore, providing temporal synchrony cues. Here, 6-month-olds were found to match native as well as non-native speech indicating facilitation of temporal synchrony cues on the intersensory perception of non-native fluent speech. Intriguingly, despite the fact that audio and visual stimuli cohered temporally, 12-month-olds matched the non-native language only. Results were discussed with regard to multisensory perceptual narrowing during the first year of life.

Kubicek, Claudia; Hillairet de Boisferon, Anne; Dupierrix, Eve; Pascalis, Olivier; Loevenbruck, Helene; Gervain, Judit; Schwarzer, Gudrun

2014-01-01

489

Inverse Effectiveness and Multisensory Interactions in Visual Event-Related Potentials with Audiovisual Speech  

PubMed Central

In recent years, it has become evident that neural responses previously considered to be unisensory can be modulated by sensory input from other modalities. In this regard, visual neural activity elicited to viewing a face is strongly influenced by concurrent incoming auditory information, particularly speech. Here, we applied an additive-factors paradigm aimed at quantifying the impact that auditory speech has on visual event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited to visual speech. These multisensory interactions were measured across parametrically varied stimulus salience, quantified in terms of signal to noise, to provide novel insights into the neural mechanisms of audiovisual speech perception. First, we measured a monotonic increase of the amplitude of the visual P1-N1-P2 ERP complex during a spoken-word recognition task with increases in stimulus salience. ERP component amplitudes varied directly with stimulus salience for visual, audiovisual, and summed unisensory recordings. Second, we measured changes in multisensory gain across salience levels. During audiovisual speech, the P1 and P1-N1 components exhibited less multisensory gain relative to the summed unisensory components with reduced salience, while N1-P2 amplitude exhibited greater multisensory gain as salience was reduced, consistent with the principle of inverse effectiveness. The amplitude interactions were correlated with behavioral measures of multisensory gain across salience levels as measured by response times, suggesting that change in multisensory gain associated with unisensory salience modulations reflects an increased efficiency of visual speech processing.

Bushmakin, Maxim; Kim, Sunah; Wallace, Mark T.; Puce, Aina; James, Thomas W.

2013-01-01

490

Window of audio-visual simultaneity is unaffected by spatio-temporal visual clutter  

PubMed Central

In the present study we investigate the rules governing the perception of audiovisual synchrony within spatio-temporally cluttered visual environments. Participants viewed a ring of 19 discs modulating in luminance while hearing an amplitude modulating tone. Each disc modulated with a unique temporal phase (40?ms intervals), with only one synchronized to the tone. Participants searched for the synchronised disc whose spatial location varied randomly across trials. Square-wave modulation facilitated search: the synchronized disc was frequently chosen, with tight response distributions centred near zero-phase lag. In the sinusoidal condition responses were equally distributed over the 19 discs regardless of phase. To investigate whether subjective synchrony in the square-wave condition was limited by spatial or temporal factors we repeated the experiment with either reduced spatial density (9 discs) or temporal density (80?ms phase intervals). Reduced temporal density greatly facilitated synchrony perception but left the synchrony bandwidth unchanged, while no influence of spatial density was found. We conclude that audio-visual synchrony is not strongly constrained by the spatial or temporal density of the visual display, but by a temporal window within which audio-visual events are perceived as synchronous, with a full bandwidth of ~185?ms.

Van der Burg, Erik; Cass, John; Alais, David

2014-01-01

491

Infant perception of audio-visual speech synchrony in familiar and unfamiliar fluent speech.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of linguistic experience and language familiarity on the perception of audio-visual (A-V) synchrony in fluent speech. In Experiment 1, we tested a group of monolingual Spanish- and Catalan-learning 8-month-old infants to a video clip of a person speaking Spanish. Following habituation to the audiovisually synchronous video, infants saw and heard desynchronized clips of the same video where the audio stream now preceded the video stream by 366, 500, or 666ms. In Experiment 2, monolingual Catalan and Spanish infants were tested with a video clip of a person speaking English. Results indicated that in both experiments, infants detected a 666 and a 500ms asynchrony. That is, their responsiveness to A-V synchrony was the same regardless of their specific linguistic experience or familiarity with the tested language. Compared to previous results from infant studies with isolated audiovisual syllables, these results show that infants are more sensitive to A-V temporal relations inherent in fluent speech. Furthermore, the absence of a language familiarity effect on the detection of A-V speech asynchrony at eight months of age is consistent with the broad perceptual tuning usually observed in infant response to linguistic input at this age. PMID:24576508

Pons, Ferran; Lewkowicz, David J

2014-06-01

492

The ventriloquist in periphery: impact of eccentricity-related reliability on audio-visual localization.  

PubMed

The relative reliability of separate sensory estimates influences the way they are merged into a unified percept. We investigated how eccentricity-related changes in reliability of auditory and visual stimuli influence their integration across the entire frontal space. First, we surprisingly found that despite a strong decrease in auditory and visual unisensory localization abilities in periphery, the redundancy gain resulting from the congruent presentation of audio-visual targets was not affected by stimuli eccentricity. This result therefore contrasts with the common prediction that a reduction in sensory reliability necessarily induces an enhanced integrative gain. Second, we demonstrate that the visual capture of sounds observed with spatially incongruent audio-visual targets (ventriloquist effect) steadily decreases with eccentricity, paralleling a lowering of the relative reliability of unimodal visual over unimodal auditory stimuli in periphery. Moreover, at all eccentricities, the ventriloquist effect positively correlated with a weighted combination of the spatial resolution obtained in unisensory conditions. These findings support and extend the view that the localization of audio-visual stimuli relies on an optimal combination of auditory and visual information according to their respective spatial reliability. All together, these results evidence that the external spatial coordinates of multisensory events relative to an observer's body (e.g., eyes' or head's position) influence how this information is merged, and therefore determine the perceptual outcome. PMID:24167163

Charbonneau, Geneviève; Véronneau, Marie; Boudrias-Fournier, Colin; Lepore, Franco; Collignon, Olivier

2013-01-01

493

Explaining semantic short-term memory deficits: Evidence for the critical role of semantic control  

PubMed Central

Patients with apparently selective short-term memory (STM) deficits for semantic information have played an important role in developing multi-store theories of STM and challenge the idea that verbal STM is supported by maintaining activation in the language system. We propose that semantic STM deficits are not as selective as previously thought and can occur as a result of mild disruption to semantic control processes, i.e., mechanisms that bias semantic processing towards task-relevant aspects of knowledge and away from irrelevant information. We tested three semantic STM patients with tasks that tapped four aspects of semantic control: (i) resolving ambiguity between word meanings, (ii) sensitivity to cues, (iii) ignoring irrelevant information and (iv) detecting weak semantic associations. All were impaired in conditions requiring more semantic control, irrespective of the STM demands of the task, suggesting a mild, but task-general, deficit in regulating semantic knowledge. This mild deficit has a disproportionate effect on STM tasks because they have high intrinsic control demands: in STM tasks, control is required to keep information active when it is no longer available in the environment and to manage competition between items held in memory simultaneously. By re-interpreting the core deficit in semantic STM patients in this way, we are able to explain their apparently selective impairment without the need for a specialised STM store. Instead, we argue that semantic STM patients occupy the mildest end of spectrum of semantic control disorders.

Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

2011-01-01

494

Representations for Semantic Learning Webs: Semantic Web Technology in Learning Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent work on applying semantic technologies to learning has concentrated on providing novel means of accessing and making use of learning objects. However, this is unnecessarily limiting: semantic technologies will make it possible to develop a range of educational Semantic Web services, such as interpretation, structure-visualization, support…

Dzbor, M.; Stutt, A.; Motta, E.; Collins, T.

2007-01-01

495

Similarity Based Semantic Web Service Match  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semantic web service discovery aims at returning the most matching advertised services to the service requester by comparing the semantic of the request service with an advertised service. The semantic of a web service are described in terms of inputs, outputs, preconditions and results in Ontology Web Language for Service (OWL-S) which formalized by W3C. In this paper we proposed an algorithm to calculate the semantic similarity of two services by weighted averaging their inputs and outputs similarities. Case study and applications show the effectiveness of our algorithm in service match.

Peng, Hui; Niu, Wenjia; Huang, Ronghuai

496

Leader-team congruence in power distance values and team effectiveness: the mediating role of procedural justice climate.  

PubMed

We examine the effect of (in)congruence between leaders' and teams' power distance values on team effectiveness. We hypothesize that the (in)congruence between these values would differentially predict team effectiveness, with procedural justice climate serving as a mediator. Using multisource data and polynomial regression, we found that similarities (and differences) between leaders' and their teams' power distance values can have consequential effects on teams' justice climate and, ultimately, their effectiveness (viz., team performance and team organizational citizenship behavior). We conclude that to fully understand the implications of power distance, one should consider the multiple perspectives of both leaders and team members. PMID:24060159

Cole, Michael S; Carter, Min Z; Zhang, Zhen

2013-11-01

497

Does Discourse Congruence Influence Spoken Language Comprehension before Lexical Association? Evidence from Event-Related Potentials  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an ERP norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a typical N400 effect when participants heard critical associated and unassociated target words in word pairs. In a subsequent experiment, we presented the same word pairs in spoken discourse contexts. Target words were always consistent with the local sentence context, but were congruent or not with the global discourse (e.g., “Luckily Ben had picked up some salt and pepper/basil”, preceded by a context in which Ben was preparing marinara sauce (congruent) or dealing with an icy walkway (incongruent). ERP effects of global discourse congruence preceded those of local lexical association, suggesting an early influence of the global discourse representation on lexical processing, even in locally congruent contexts. Furthermore, effects of lexical association occurred earlier in the congruent than incongruent condition. These results differ from those that have been obtained in studies of reading, suggesting that the effects may be unique to spoken word recognition.

Boudewyn, Megan A.; Gordon, Peter C.; Long, Debra; Polse, Lara; Swaab, Tamara Y.

2011-01-01

498