Sample records for audiovisual semantic congruency

  1. Audiovisual semantic congruency during encoding enhances memory performance.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Alho, Kimmo; Hyvönen, Heidi; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    Studies of memory and learning have usually focused on a single sensory modality, although human perception is multisensory in nature. In the present study, we investigated the effects of audiovisual encoding on later unisensory recognition memory performance. The participants were to memorize auditory or visual stimuli (sounds, pictures, spoken words, or written words), each of which co-occurred with either a semantically congruent stimulus, incongruent stimulus, or a neutral (non-semantic noise) stimulus in the other modality during encoding. Subsequent memory performance was overall better when the stimulus to be memorized was initially accompanied by a semantically congruent stimulus in the other modality than when it was accompanied by a neutral stimulus. These results suggest that semantically congruent multisensory experiences enhance encoding of both nonverbal and verbal materials, resulting in an improvement in their later recognition memory. PMID:25384643

  2. Content congruency and its interplay with temporal synchrony modulate integration between rhythmic audiovisual streams

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yi-Huang

    2014-01-01

    Both lower-level stimulus factors (e.g., temporal proximity) and higher-level cognitive factors (e.g., content congruency) are known to influence multisensory integration. The former can direct attention in a converging manner, and the latter can indicate whether information from the two modalities belongs together. The present research investigated whether and how these two factors interacted in the perception of rhythmic, audiovisual (AV) streams derived from a human movement scenario. Congruency here was based on sensorimotor correspondence pertaining to rhythm perception. Participants attended to bimodal stimuli consisting of a humanlike figure moving regularly to a sequence of auditory beat, and detected a possible auditory temporal deviant. The figure moved either downwards (congruently) or upwards (incongruently) to the downbeat, while in both situations the movement was either synchronous with the beat, or lagging behind it. Greater cross-modal binding was expected to hinder deviant detection. Results revealed poorer detection for congruent than for incongruent streams, suggesting stronger integration in the former. False alarms increased in asynchronous stimuli only for congruent streams, indicating greater tendency for deviant report due to visual capture of asynchronous auditory events. In addition, a greater increase in perceived synchrony was associated with a greater reduction in false alarms for congruent streams, while the pattern was reversed for incongruent ones. These results demonstrate that content congruency as a top-down factor not only promotes integration, but also modulates bottom-up effects of synchrony. Results are also discussed regarding how theories of integration and attentional entrainment may be combined in the context of rhythmic multisensory stimuli. PMID:25538576

  3. Congruence

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Neubert

    2010-10-04

    Congruence Concepts: What exactly is Congruence? (Especially when it refers to triangles?) Congruence Here is some practice with Triangle Congruence. SSS, SAS, ASA Congruent Triangles in Proofs TIPS Triangle Congruence Numerical Practice Review Third Angles Theorem and Properties of Congruent Triangles (Reflexive Property, Symmetric Property, and Transitive Property) Theorems for Congruent Triangles SSS, SAS, AAS, HL Theorems for Congruent Triangles CPCTC means that if two triangles can be shown to be congruent by any method, then ALL ...

  4. Congruence Effect in Semantic Categorization with Masked Primes with Narrow and Broad Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Wendy Maree; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2008-01-01

    In semantic categorization, masked primes that are category-congruent with the target (e.g., "Planets: mars-VENUS") facilitate responses relative to category-incongruent primes (e.g., "tree-VENUS"). The present study investigated why this category congruence effect is more consistently found with narrow categories (e.g., "Numbers larger/smaller…

  5. Audiovisuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents information on a variety of audiovisual materials from government and nongovernment sources. Topics include aerodynamics and conditions of flight, airports, navigation, careers, history, medical factors, weather, films for classroom use, and others. (Author/SA)

  6. Semantic congruency and the Colavita visual dominance effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Camille Koppen; Agnès Alsius; Charles Spence

    2008-01-01

    Participants presented with auditory, visual, or bimodal audiovisual stimuli in a speeded discrimination task, fail to respond\\u000a to the auditory component of bimodal targets significantly more often than to the visual component, a phenomenon known as\\u000a the Colavita visual dominance effect. Given that spatial and temporal factors have recently been shown to modulate the Colavita\\u000a effect, the aim of the

  7. Effect of hearing loss on semantic access by auditory and audiovisual speech in children

    PubMed Central

    Jerger, Susan; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Damian, Markus F.; Abdi, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This research studied whether the mode of input (auditory vs audiovisual) influenced semantic access by speech in children with sensorineural hearing impairment (HI). Design Participants, 31 children with HI and 62 children with normal hearing (NH), were tested with our new multi-modal picture word task. Children were instructed to name pictures displayed on a monitor and ignore auditory or audiovisual speech distractors. The semantic content of the distractors was varied to be related vs unrelated to the pictures (e.g, picture-distractor of dog-bear vs dog-cheese respectively). In children with NH, picture naming times were slower in the presence of semantically-related distractors. This slowing, called semantic interference, is attributed to the meaning-related picture-distractor entries competing for selection and control of the response [the lexical selection by competition (LSbyC) hypothesis]. Recently, a modification of the LSbyC hypothesis, called the competition threshold (CT) hypothesis, proposed that 1) the competition between the picture-distractor entries is determined by a threshold, and 2) distractors with experimentally reduced fidelity cannot reach the competition threshold. Thus, semantically-related distractors with reduced fidelity do not produce the normal interference effect, but instead no effect or semantic facilitation (faster picture naming times for semantically-related vs -unrelated distractors). Facilitation occurs because the activation level of the semantically-related distractor with reduced fidelity 1) is not sufficient to exceed the competition threshold and produce interference but 2) is sufficient to activate its concept which then strengthens the activation of the picture and facilitates naming. This research investigated whether the proposals of the CT hypothesis generalize to the auditory domain, to the natural degradation of speech due to HI, and to participants who are children. Our multi-modal picture word task allowed us to 1) quantify picture naming results in the presence of auditory speech distractors and 2) probe whether the addition of visual speech enriched the fidelity of the auditory input sufficiently to influence results. Results In the HI group, the auditory distractors produced no effect or a facilitative effect, in agreement with proposals of the CT hypothesis. In contrast, the audiovisual distractors produced the normal semantic interference effect. Results in the HI vs NH groups differed significantly for the auditory mode, but not for the audiovisual mode. Conclusions This research indicates that the lower fidelity auditory speech associated with HI affects the normalcy of semantic access by children. Further, adding visual speech enriches the lower fidelity auditory input sufficiently to produce the semantic interference effect typical of children with NH. PMID:23782714

  8. Electrophysiological correlates of facial configuration and audio-visual congruency: evidence that face processing is a visual rather than a multisensory task.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Barnaby J; Meyer, Georg F

    2011-09-01

    Behavioural, neuroimaging and lesion studies show that face processing has a special role in human perception. The purpose of this EEG study was to explore whether auditory information influences visual face perception. We employed a 2 × 2 factorial design and presented subjects with visual stimuli that could be cartoon faces or scrambled faces where size changes of one of the components, the mouth in the face condition, was either congruent or incongruent with the amplitude modulation of a simultaneously presented auditory signal. Our data show a significant main effect for signal congruence at an ERP peak around 135 ms and a significant main effect of face configuration at around 200 ms. The timing and scalp topology of both effects corresponds well to previously reported data on the integration of non-redundant audio-visual stimuli and face-selective processing. Our analysis did not show any significant statistical interactions. This double disassociation suggests that the early component, at 135 ms, is sensitive to auditory-visual congruency but not to facial configuration and that the later component is sensitive to facial configuration but not to AV congruency. We conclude that facial configurational processing is not influenced by the congruence of simultaneous auditory signals and is independent from featural processing where we see evidence for multisensory integration. PMID:21584626

  9. When Hearing the Bark Helps to Identify the Dog: Semantically-Congruent Sounds Modulate the Identification of Masked Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yi-Chuan; Spence, Charles

    2010-01-01

    We report a series of experiments designed to assess the effect of audiovisual semantic congruency on the identification of visually-presented pictures. Participants made unspeeded identification responses concerning a series of briefly-presented, and then rapidly-masked, pictures. A naturalistic sound was sometimes presented together with the…

  10. Between- and within-ear congruency and laterality effects in an auditory semantic/emotional prosody conflict task.

    PubMed

    Techentin, Cheryl; Voyer, Daniel; Klein, Raymond M

    2009-07-01

    The present study investigated the influence of within- and between-ear congruency on interference and laterality effects in an auditory semantic/prosodic conflict task. Participants were presented dichotically with words (e.g., mad, sad, glad) pronounced in either congruent or incongruent emotional tones (e.g., angry, happy, or sad) and identified a target word or emotion under one of two conditions. In the within-ear condition, the congruent or incongruent dimensions were bound within a single stimulus and therefore, presented to the same ear. In the between-ear condition, the two dimensions were split between two stimuli and, therefore, presented in separate ears. Findings indicated interference in both conditions. However, the expected right ear advantage (EA) for words and left EA for emotions were obtained only in the between-ear condition. Factors involved in producing interference and laterality effects in dichotic listening tasks are discussed. PMID:19303185

  11. Congruence Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor, Keith; Worrall, Mike

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Carl Rogers' definitions of congruence, and identifies four specific requirements for the concept and practice of therapeutic congruence. Examines the interface between congruence and the other necessary and sufficient conditions of change, drawing on examples from practice. (JPS)

  12. Semantic indexing of soccer audio-visual sequences: a multimodal approach based on controlled Markov chains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riccardo Leonardi; Pierangelo Migliorati; Maria Prandini

    2004-01-01

    Content characterization of sport videos is a subject of great interest to researchers working on the analysis of multimedia documents. In this paper, we propose a semantic indexing algorithm which uses both audio and visual information for salient event detection in soccer. The video signal is processed first by extracting low-level visual descriptors directly from an MPEG-2 bit stream. It

  13. When hearing the bark helps to identify the dog: semantically-congruent sounds modulate the identification of masked pictures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Chuan; Spence, Charles

    2010-03-01

    We report a series of experiments designed to assess the effect of audiovisual semantic congruency on the identification of visually-presented pictures. Participants made unspeeded identification responses concerning a series of briefly-presented, and then rapidly-masked, pictures. A naturalistic sound was sometimes presented together with the picture at a stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) that varied between 0 and 533 ms (auditory lagging). The sound could be semantically congruent, semantically incongruent, or else neutral (white noise) with respect to the target picture. The results showed that when the onset of the picture and sound occurred simultaneously, a semantically-congruent sound improved, whereas a semantically-incongruent sound impaired, participants' picture identification performance, as compared to performance in the white-noise control condition. A significant facilitatory effect was also observed at SOAs of around 300 ms, whereas no such semantic congruency effects were observed at the longest interval (533 ms). These results therefore suggest that the neural representations associated with visual and auditory stimuli can interact in a shared semantic system. Furthermore, this crossmodal semantic interaction is not constrained by the need for the strict temporal coincidence of the constituent auditory and visual stimuli. We therefore suggest that audiovisual semantic interactions likely occur in a short-term buffer which rapidly accesses, and temporarily retains, the semantic representations of multisensory stimuli in order to form a coherent multisensory object representation. These results are explained in terms of Potter's (1993) notion of conceptual short-term memory. PMID:19909945

  14. Audiovisual Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physiology Teacher, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Lists and reviews recent audiovisual materials in areas of medical, dental, nursing and allied health, and veterinary medicine; undergraduate, and high school studies. Each is classified as to level, type of instruction, usefulness, and source of availability. Topics include respiration, renal physiology, muscle mechanics, anatomy, evolution,…

  15. Similarity and Congruence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Daniel L.

    This instructional unit is an introduction to the common properties of similarity and congruence. Manipulation of objects leads to a recognition of these properties. The ASA, SAS, and SSS theorems are not mentioned. Limited use is made in the application of the properties of size and shape preserved by similarity or congruence. A teacher's guide…

  16. Spatial Orienting in Complex Audiovisual Environments

    PubMed Central

    Nardo, Davide; Santangelo, Valerio; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies on crossmodal spatial orienting typically used simple and stereotyped stimuli in the absence of any meaningful context. This study combined computational models, behavioural measures and functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate audiovisual spatial interactions in naturalistic settings. We created short videos portraying everyday life situations that included a lateralised visual event and a co-occurring sound, either on the same or on the opposite side of space. Subjects viewed the videos with or without eye-movements allowed (overt or covert orienting). For each video, visual and auditory saliency maps were used to index the strength of stimulus-driven signals, and eye-movements were used as a measure of the efficacy of the audiovisual events for spatial orienting. Results showed that visual salience modulated activity in higher-order visual areas, whereas auditory salience modulated activity in the superior temporal cortex. Auditory salience modulated activity also in the posterior parietal cortex, but only when audiovisual stimuli occurred on the same side of space (multisensory spatial congruence). Orienting efficacy affected activity in the visual cortex, within the same regions modulated by visual salience. These patterns of activation were comparable in overt and covert orienting conditions. Our results demonstrate that, during viewing of complex multisensory stimuli, activity in sensory areas reflects both stimulus-driven signals and their efficacy for spatial orienting; and that the posterior parietal cortex combines spatial information about the visual and the auditory modality. PMID:23616340

  17. SPEAKER IDENTITY INDEXING IN AUDIO-VISUAL DOCUMENTS Mbarek Charhad, Daniel Moraru, Stphane Ayache and Georges Qunot

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SPEAKER IDENTITY INDEXING IN AUDIO-VISUAL DOCUMENTS Mbarek Charhad, Daniel Moraru, Stéphane Ayache The identity of persons in audiovisual documents represents very important semantic information for content-based indexing and retrieval. The task of speaker's identity detection can be carried out by exploiting data

  18. Congruences concerning Legendre polynomials

    E-print Network

    Sun, Zhi-Hong

    2010-01-01

    Let $p$ be an odd prime. In the paper, by using the properties of Legendre polynomials we prove some congruences for $\\sum_{k=0}^{\\frac{p-1}2}\\binom{2k}k^2m^{-k}\\mod {p^2}$. In particular, we confirm several conjectures of Z.W. Sun. We also pose 13 conjectures on supercongruences.

  19. Semantic-based crossmodal processing during visual suppression

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Dustin; Hong, Sang Wook

    2015-01-01

    To reveal the mechanisms underpinning the influence of auditory input on visual awareness, we examine, (1) whether purely semantic-based multisensory integration facilitates the access to visual awareness for familiar visual events, and (2) whether crossmodal semantic priming is the mechanism responsible for the semantic auditory influence on visual awareness. Using continuous flash suppression, we rendered dynamic and familiar visual events (e.g., a video clip of an approaching train) inaccessible to visual awareness. We manipulated the semantic auditory context of the videos by concurrently pairing them with a semantically matching soundtrack (congruent audiovisual condition), a semantically non-matching soundtrack (incongruent audiovisual condition), or with no soundtrack (neutral video-only condition). We found that participants identified the suppressed visual events significantly faster (an earlier breakup of suppression) in the congruent audiovisual condition compared to the incongruent audiovisual condition and video-only condition. However, this facilitatory influence of semantic auditory input was only observed when audiovisual stimulation co-occurred. Our results suggest that the enhanced visual processing with a semantically congruent auditory input occurs due to audiovisual crossmodal processing rather than semantic priming, which may occur even when visual information is not available to visual awareness. PMID:26082736

  20. Orthographic dependency in the neural correlates of reading: evidence from audiovisual integration in english readers.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Ian D; van Atteveldt, Nienke; Blomert, Leo; Ansari, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Reading skills are indispensible in modern technological societies. In transparent alphabetic orthographies, such as Dutch, reading skills build on associations between letters and speech sounds (LS pairs). Previously, we showed that the superior temporal cortex (STC) of Dutch readers is sensitive to the congruency of LS pairs. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether a similar congruency sensitivity exists in STC of readers of the more opaque English orthography, where the relation among LS pairs is less reliable. Eighteen subjects passively perceived congruent and incongruent audiovisual pairs of different levels of transparency in English: letters and speech sounds (LS; irregular), letters and letter names (LN; fairly transparent), and numerals and number names (NN; transparent). In STC, we found congruency effects for NN and LN, but no effects in the predicted direction (congruent > incongruent) for LS pairs. These findings contrast with previous results obtained from Dutch readers. These data indicate that, through education, the STC becomes tuned to the congruency of transparent audiovisual pairs, but suggests a different neural processing of irregular mappings. The orthographic dependency of LS integration underscores cross-linguistic differences in the neural basis of reading and potentially has important implications for dyslexia interventions across languages. PMID:24351976

  1. Audiovisual integration in low vision individuals.

    PubMed

    Targher, Stefano; Occelli, Valeria; Zampini, Massimiliano

    2012-04-01

    Behavioral and neurophysiological studies have shown an enhancement of visual perception in crossmodal audiovisual stimulation conditions, both for sensitivity and reaction times, when the stimulation in the two sensory modalities occurs in condition of space and time congruency. The purpose of the present work is to verify whether congruent visual and acoustic stimulations can improve the detection of visual stimuli in people affected by low vision. Participants were asked to detect the presence of a visual stimulus (yes/no task) either presented in isolation (i.e., unimodal visual stimulation) or simultaneously with auditory stimuli, which could be placed in the same spatial position (i.e., crossmodal congruent conditions) or in different spatial positions (i.e., crossmodal incongruent conditions). The results show for the first time audiovisual integration effects in low vision individuals. In particular, it has been observed a significant visual detection benefit in the crossmodal congruent as compared to the unimodal visual condition. This effect is selective for visual stimulation that occurs in the portion of visual field that is impaired, and disappears in the region of space in which vision is spared. Surprisingly, there is a marginal crossmodal benefit when the sound is presented at 16 degrees far from the visual stimulus. The observed crossmodal effect seems to be determined by the contribution of both senses to a model of optimal combination, in which the most reliable provides the highest contribution. These results, indicating a significant beneficial effect of synchronous and spatially congruent sounds in a visual detection task, seem very promising for the development of a rehabilitation approach of low vision diseases based on the principles of multisensory integration. PMID:22056506

  2. On congruences in closed post classes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Gorlov

    1973-01-01

    It is shown herein that on almost all closed Post classes only trivial congruences are possible. Closed Post classes having nontrivial congruences are indicated, and all congruences of these classes are described. For k=3 closed classes having an infinity of congruences are indicated.

  3. Vague Congruences and Quotient Lattice Implication Algebras

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xiaoyan; Xu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to further develop the congruence theory on lattice implication algebras. Firstly, we introduce the notions of vague similarity relations based on vague relations and vague congruence relations. Secondly, the equivalent characterizations of vague congruence relations are investigated. Thirdly, the relation between the set of vague filters and the set of vague congruences is studied. Finally, we construct a new lattice implication algebra induced by a vague congruence, and the homomorphism theorem is given. PMID:25133207

  4. Temporal Video Segmentation to Scenes Using High-Level Audiovisual Features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panagiotis Sidiropoulos; Vasileios Mezaris; Ioannis Kompatsiaris; Hugo Meinedo; Miguel Bugalho; Isabel Trancoso

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach to video temporal decomposition into semantic units, termed scenes, is presented. In contrast to previous temporal segmentation approaches that employ mostly low-level visual or audiovisual features, we in- troduce a technique that jointly exploits low-level and high- level features automatically extracted from the visual and the auditory channel. This technique is built upon the

  5. Audio-visual speech perception: a developmental ERP investigation

    PubMed Central

    Knowland, Victoria CP; Mercure, Evelyne; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dick, Fred; Thomas, Michael SC

    2014-01-01

    Being able to see a talking face confers a considerable advantage for speech perception in adulthood. However, behavioural data currently suggest that children fail to make full use of these available visual speech cues until age 8 or 9. This is particularly surprising given the potential utility of multiple informational cues during language learning. We therefore explored this at the neural level. The event-related potential (ERP) technique has been used to assess the mechanisms of audio-visual speech perception in adults, with visual cues reliably modulating auditory ERP responses to speech. Previous work has shown congruence-dependent shortening of auditory N1/P2 latency and congruence-independent attenuation of amplitude in the presence of auditory and visual speech signals, compared to auditory alone. The aim of this study was to chart the development of these well-established modulatory effects over mid-to-late childhood. Experiment 1 employed an adult sample to validate a child-friendly stimulus set and paradigm by replicating previously observed effects of N1/P2 amplitude and latency modulation by visual speech cues; it also revealed greater attenuation of component amplitude given incongruent audio-visual stimuli, pointing to a new interpretation of the amplitude modulation effect. Experiment 2 used the same paradigm to map cross-sectional developmental change in these ERP responses between 6 and 11 years of age. The effect of amplitude modulation by visual cues emerged over development, while the effect of latency modulation was stable over the child sample. These data suggest that auditory ERP modulation by visual speech represents separable underlying cognitive processes, some of which show earlier maturation than others over the course of development. PMID:24176002

  6. Fibonacci congruences and applications Rene BLACHER

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Fibonacci congruences and applications Ren´e BLACHER Laboratory LJK Universit´e Joseph Fourier that the congruences such that m and a are two successive elements of Fibonacci sequences are those having the weakest not too large. They are transformed using Fibonacci congruences and we will get by this way sequences xn

  7. Audiovisual Gunshot Event Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng-Yao Chen; A. Abdallah; W. Wolf

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a gunshot event recognition system based on audio and visual feature analysis. We model the gunshot event by a hierarchical probabilistic system. By incorporating gunshot sounds, human emotion and human activity analysis, we developed an effective semantic gunshot scene description from consumer video sequences. Moreover, our system also detects possible threatening scenes and wounded victim

  8. Guidelines for Audiovisual Services in Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Margaret Ann; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Developed by the Audiovisual Committee of the Association of College and Research Libraries, the guidelines presented here reflect technological innovations in audiovisual services. Areas covered include library planning, budgets, personnel, facilities, equipment and supplies, collection development, acquisitions, cataloging, collection…

  9. An Interoperability Framework for the Management of Semantic Metadata in order to support Personalized TV Services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chrisa Tsinaraki; Eleni Fatourou; Stavros Christodoulakis

    In this paper, we describe a framework for the management of semantic metadata for audiovisual content description. The main objectives of this work are to provide a framework allowing enhanced retrieval performance, better support in the indexing phase and better user interfaces for audiovisual data, based on extensions of the well accepted international standards for the digital media, digital broadcasting

  10. Attentional Factors in Conceptual Congruency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Julio; Ouellet, Marc; Roman, Antonio; Valenzuela, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual congruency effects are biases induced by an irrelevant conceptual dimension of a task (e.g., location in vertical space) on the processing of another, relevant dimension (e.g., judging words' emotional evaluation). Such effects are a central empirical pillar for recent views about how the mind/brain represents concepts. In the present…

  11. Geodesic congruences in warped spacetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Suman [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Dasgupta, Anirvan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Centre for Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Kar, Sayan [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Centre for Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

    2011-04-15

    In this article, we explore the kinematics of timelike geodesic congruences in warped five-dimensional bulk spacetimes, with and without thick or thin branes. Beginning with geodesic flows in the Randall-Sundrum anti-de Sitter geometry without and with branes, we find analytical expressions for the expansion scalar and comment on the effects of including thin branes on its evolution. Later, we move on to congruences in more general warped bulk geometries with a cosmological thick brane and a time-dependent extra dimensional scale. Using analytical expressions for the velocity field, we interpret the expansion, shear and rotation (ESR) along the flows, as functions of the extra dimensional coordinate. The evolution of a cross-sectional area orthogonal to the congruence, as seen from a local observer's point of view, is also shown graphically. Finally, the Raychaudhuri and geodesic equations in backgrounds with a thick brane are solved numerically in order to figure out the role of initial conditions (prescribed on the ESR) and spacetime curvature on the evolution of the ESR.

  12. Audio-Visual Teaching Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsett, Loyd G.

    An audiovisual teaching machine (AVTM) presents programed audio and visual material simultaneously to a student and accepts his response. If his response is correct, the machine proceeds with the lesson; if it is incorrect, the machine so indicates and permits another choice (linear) or automatically presents supplementary material (branching).…

  13. Audiovisual Materials for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Instruction.

    This list of audiovisual materials for environmental education was prepared by the State of Minnesota, Department of Education, Division of Instruction, to accompany the pilot curriculum in environmental education. The majority of the materials listed are available from the University of Minnesota, or from state or federal agencies. The…

  14. Planning and Producing Audiovisual Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Jerrold E.

    The first few chapters of this book are devoted to an examination of the changing character of audiovisual materials; instructional design and the selection of media to serve specific objectives; and principles of perception, communication, and learning. Relevant research findings in the field are reviewed. The basic techniques of planning…

  15. Audiovisual Speech Recalibration in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Linden, Sabine; Vroomen, Jean

    2008-01-01

    In order to examine whether children adjust their phonetic speech categories, children of two age groups, five-year-olds and eight-year-olds, were exposed to a video of a face saying /aba/ or /ada/ accompanied by an auditory ambiguous speech sound halfway between /b/ and /d/. The effect of exposure to these audiovisual stimuli was measured on…

  16. Audio-Visual Materials Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson (M.D.) Hospital and Tumor Inst., Houston, TX.

    This catalog lists 27 audiovisual programs produced by the Department of Medical Communications of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute for public distribution. Video tapes, 16 mm. motion pictures and slide/audio series are presented dealing mostly with cancer and related subjects. The programs are intended for…

  17. Neurofunctional Underpinnings of Audiovisual Emotion Processing in Teens with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Doyle-Thomas, Krissy A.R.; Goldberg, Jeremy; Szatmari, Peter; Hall, Geoffrey B.C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite successful performance on some audiovisual emotion tasks, hypoactivity has been observed in frontal and temporal integration cortices in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Little is understood about the neurofunctional network underlying this ability in individuals with ASD. Research suggests that there may be processing biases in individuals with ASD, based on their ability to obtain meaningful information from the face and/or the voice. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined brain activity in teens with ASD (n?=?18) and typically developing controls (n?=?16) during audiovisual and unimodal emotion processing. Teens with ASD had a significantly lower accuracy when matching an emotional face to an emotion label. However, no differences in accuracy were observed between groups when matching an emotional voice or face-voice pair to an emotion label. In both groups brain activity during audiovisual emotion matching differed significantly from activity during unimodal emotion matching. Between-group analyses of audiovisual processing revealed significantly greater activation in teens with ASD in a parietofrontal network believed to be implicated in attention, goal-directed behaviors, and semantic processing. In contrast, controls showed greater activity in frontal and temporal association cortices during this task. These results suggest that in the absence of engaging integrative emotional networks during audiovisual emotion matching, teens with ASD may have recruited the parietofrontal network as an alternate compensatory system. PMID:23750139

  18. A Novel Audiovisual Brain-Computer Interface and Its Application in Awareness Detection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; He, Yanbin; Pan, Jiahui; Xie, Qiuyou; Yu, Ronghao; Zhang, Rui; Li, Yuanqing

    2015-01-01

    Currently, detecting awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) is a challenging task, which is commonly addressed through behavioral observation scales such as the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) provide an alternative approach to detect awareness in patients with DOC. However, these patients have a much lower capability of using BCIs compared to healthy individuals. This study proposed a novel BCI using temporally, spatially, and semantically congruent audiovisual stimuli involving numbers (i.e., visual and spoken numbers). Subjects were instructed to selectively attend to the target stimuli cued by instruction. Ten healthy subjects first participated in the experiment to evaluate the system. The results indicated that the audiovisual BCI system outperformed auditory-only and visual-only systems. Through event-related potential analysis, we observed audiovisual integration effects for target stimuli, which enhanced the discriminability between brain responses for target and nontarget stimuli and thus improved the performance of the audiovisual BCI. This system was then applied to detect the awareness of seven DOC patients, five of whom exhibited command following as well as number recognition. Thus, this audiovisual BCI system may be used as a supportive bedside tool for awareness detection in patients with DOC. PMID:26123281

  19. A qualitative and quantitative study of psychotherapists' congruence in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Wong, Shyh Shin; Ng, Vivienne

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the phenomenological world of 11 Satir-based Singaporean Chinese therapists with regard to their experience of congruence. A mixed qualitative-cum-quantitative research method was used in this study. A phenomenological methodology was used to explore (a) the phenomenological world of therapists with regard to their lived experience of congruence in their personal or inner lives, (b) how this congruence is used in psychotherapy, and (c) how therapists can enhance their level of congruence. Quantitative findings include (a) significant nonparametric correlations among the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and transpersonal levels of congruence with overall congruence; (b) significant nonparametric correlation between intrapersonal congruence and interpersonal congruence; (c) significant nonparametric correlations between overall congruence and interpersonal congruence with self-esteem and life satisfaction; and (d) significant nonparametric correlations between intrapersonal congruence and self-esteem. These results may have research and clinical implications for the practice of psychotherapy. PMID:18815957

  20. Hemirings, Congruences and the Hewitt Realcompactification

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Robin

    Hemirings, Congruences and the Hewitt Realcompactification S.K. Acharyya K.C. Chattopadhyay G.G. Ray Abstract The present paper indicate a method of obtaining the Hewitt realcompactifica- tion v that the set of all real maximal regular congruences on C+(X) with the hull-kernel topology in vX, the Hewitt

  1. A Guide for Audiovisual and Newer Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, William D.

    One of the principal values of audiovisual materials is that they permit the teacher to depart from verbal and printed symbolism, and at the same time to provide a wider real or vicarious experience for pupils. This booklet is designed to aid the teacher in using audiovisual material effectively. It covers visual displays, non-projected materials,…

  2. Catalog of Audiovisual Materials Related to Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Joe, Ed.; Henderson, Jim, Ed.

    An annotated listing of a variety of audiovisual formats on content related to the social-rehabilitation process is provided. The materials in the listing were selected from a collection of over 200 audiovisual catalogs. The major portion of the materials has not been screened. The materials are classified alphabetically by the following subject…

  3. Event congruency and episodic encoding: a developmental fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Maril, Anat; Avital, Rinat; Reggev, Niv; Zuckerman, Maya; Sadeh, Talya; Ben Sira, Liat; Livneh, Neta

    2011-09-01

    A known contributor to adults' superior memory performance compared to children is their differential reliance on an existing knowledge base. Compared to those of adults, children's semantic networks are less accessible and less established, a difference that is also thought to contribute to children's relative resistance to semantically related false alarms. Using the "congruency effect" - the memory advantage of congruity, we manipulated the encoded stimuli in the present experiment such that the use of the knowledge base at encoding was more - or less - accessible in both children and adults. While being scanned, 15 children (ages 8-11) and 18 young adults saw printed noun/color combinations and were asked to indicate whether each combination existed in nature. A subsequent recognition test was administered outside of the scanner. Behaviorally, although overall memory was higher in the adult group compared to the children, both age groups showed the congruency effect to the same extent. A comparison of the neural substrates supporting the congruency effect between adults and children revealed that whereas adults recruited regions primarily associated with semantic-conceptual processing (e.g., the left PFC and parietal and occipito-temporal cortices), children recruited regions earlier in the processing stream (e.g., the right occipital cortex). This evidence supports the hypothesis that early in development, episodic encoding depends more on perceptual systems, whereas top-down frontal control and parietal structures become more prominent in the encoding process with age. This developmental switch contributes to adults' superior memory performance but may render adults more vulnerable to committing semantically based errors. PMID:21777596

  4. Increasing and Detecting Memory Address Congruence

    E-print Network

    Larsen, Samuel

    A static memory reference exhibits a unique property when its dynamic memory addresses are congruent with respect to some non-trivial modulus. Extraction of this congruence information at compile-time enables new classes ...

  5. An Audio-Visual Approach to Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearnshaw, Trevor

    1977-01-01

    Describes the development of an audiovisual training course in duck husbandry which consists of synchronized tapes and slides. The production of the materials, equipment needs, operations, cost, and advantages of the program are discussed. (BM)

  6. COALA: Content-Oriented Audiovisual Library Access

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nastaran Fatemi; Omar Abou Khaled

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the COALA (Content-Oriented Audiovisual Library Access) project, which aims to offer a framework for the retrieval of audiovisual TV news documents. COALA’s principal design features are based on the analysis of a classical archive system: TSR (Television Suisse Romande) archive. It provides a retrieval interface allowing simple\\/advanced search capabilities combined with hierarchical video browsing features. Also, it

  7. Processing of audiovisual speech in Broca's area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ville Ojanen; Riikka Möttönen; Johanna Pekkola; Iiro P. Jääskeläinen; Raimo Joensuu; Taina Autti; Mikko Sams

    2005-01-01

    We investigated cerebral processing of audiovisual speech stimuli in humans using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten healthy volunteers were scanned with a ‘clustered volume acquisition’ paradigm at 3 T during observation of phonetically matching (e.g., visual and acoustic \\/y\\/) and conflicting (e.g., visual \\/a\\/ and acoustic \\/y\\/) audiovisual vowels. Both stimuli activated the sensory-specific auditory and visual cortices, along

  8. [Audiovisuals and development: a bibliography].

    PubMed

    Mignot-lefebvre, Y; Benveniste, A; Jouet, J

    1979-01-01

    The authors present a bibliography on audiovisuals and development. The works listed are divided into 4 main topics: 1) The role of communication in development: This section includes works on development policies, research methods and reflections on communication and the use of medias in the Third World. 2) Use of the medias in education: radio, television (in and outside the school), satellites, video and cinema. 3) Towards a new international dimension of communication: listed here are works from UNESCO on communication policies; studies and information documents; means of information; UNESCO mail; international commission for the study of communication problems; other UNESCO publications; and works on UNESCO. 4) Colloquia, conferences and reviews: several reviews published in English or French are listed in this last section. PMID:12261394

  9. Nonnegative Joint Diagonalization by Congruence Based on LU Matrix Factorization

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    of nuclear magnetic resonance spec- troscopy confirms the validity and improvement of the proposed method joint diagonalization by congruence, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. I. INTRODUCTION Consider cumulant matrix slices. The objective of Joint Diagonalizing by Congruence (JDC) such matrices consists

  10. Building Intuitive Arguments for the Triangle Congruence Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piatek-Jimenez, Katrina

    2008-01-01

    The triangle congruence conditions are a central focus to nearly any course in Euclidean geometry. The author presents a hands-on activity that uses straws and pipe cleaners to explore and justify the triangle congruence conditions. (Contains 4 figures.)

  11. Audio-visual interaction and perceptual assessment of water features used over road traffic noise.

    PubMed

    Galbrun, Laurent; Calarco, Francesca M A

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the audio-visual interaction and perception of water features used over road traffic noise, including their semantic aural properties, as well as their categorization and evocation properties. The research focused on a wide range of small to medium sized water features that can be used in gardens and parks to promote peacefulness and relaxation. Paired comparisons highlighted the inter-dependence between uni-modal (audio-only or visual-only) and bi-modal (audio-visual) perception, indicating that equal attention should be given to the design of both stimuli. In general, natural looking features tended to increase preference scores (compared to audio-only paired comparison scores), while manmade looking features decreased them. Semantic descriptors showed significant correlations with preferences and were found to be more reliable design criteria than physical parameters. A principal component analysis identified three components within the nine semantic attributes tested: "emotional assessment," "sound quality," and "envelopment and temporal variation." The first two showed significant correlations with audio-only preferences, "emotional assessment" being the most important predictor of preferences, and its attributes naturalness, relaxation, and freshness also being significantly correlated with preferences. Categorization results indicated that natural stream sounds are easily identifiable (unlike waterfalls and fountains), while evocation results showed no unique relationship with preferences. PMID:25373962

  12. MAXIMIZING AUDIOVISUAL QUALITY AT LOW BITRATES Stefan Winkler

    E-print Network

    Winkler, Stefan

    MAXIMIZING AUDIOVISUAL QUALITY AT LOW BITRATES Stefan Winkler Genista Corporation Rue du The^atre 5 1820 Montreux, Switzerland stefan.winkler@genista.com Christof Faller Audiovisual Communications Lab

  13. Adapting a high quality audiovisual database to PDA quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin McTait; Herve Bredin; S. Colon; Thomas Fillon; Gerard Chollet

    2005-01-01

    Audiovisual sequences in the BANCA database are degraded in quality so that they resemble audiovisual sequences recorded using the in-built sensors of a handheld PDA device. The quality of the new database is therefore reduced on a number of levels, but the recordings remain equivalent. This process is applicable for any given high quality audiovisual database and set of lower

  14. Govt. Pubs: U.S. Government Produced Audiovisual Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korman, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Describes the availability of United States government-produced audiovisual materials and discusses two audiovisual clearinghouses--the National Audiovisual Center (NAC) and the National Library of Medicine (NLM). Finding aids made available by NAC, NLM, and other government agencies are mentioned. NAC and the U.S. Government Printing Office…

  15. Retinotopic effects during spatial audio-visual integration.

    PubMed

    Meienbrock, A; Naumer, M J; Doehrmann, O; Singer, W; Muckli, L

    2007-02-01

    The successful integration of visual and auditory stimuli requires information about whether visual and auditory signals originate from corresponding places in the external world. Here we report crossmodal effects of spatially congruent and incongruent audio-visual (AV) stimulation. Visual and auditory stimuli were presented from one of four horizontal locations in external space. Seven healthy human subjects had to assess the spatial fit of a visual stimulus (i.e. a gray-scaled picture of a cartoon dog) and a simultaneously presented auditory stimulus (i.e. a barking sound). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) revealed two distinct networks of cortical regions that processed preferentially either spatially congruent or spatially incongruent AV stimuli. Whereas earlier visual areas responded preferentially to incongruent AV stimulation, higher visual areas of the temporal and parietal cortex (left inferior temporal gyrus [ITG], right posterior superior temporal gyrus/sulcus [pSTG/STS], left intra-parietal sulcus [IPS]) and frontal regions (left pre-central gyrus [PreCG], left dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex [DLPFC]) responded preferentially to congruent AV stimulation. A position-resolved analysis revealed three robust cortical representations for each of the four visual stimulus locations in retinotopic visual regions corresponding to the representation of the horizontal meridian in area V1 and at the dorsal and ventral borders between areas V2 and V3. While these regions of interest (ROIs) did not show any significant effect of spatial congruency, we found subregions within ROIs in the right hemisphere that showed an incongruency effect (i.e. an increased fMRI signal during spatially incongruent compared to congruent AV stimulation). We interpret this finding as a correlate of spatially distributed recurrent feedback during mismatch processing: whenever a spatial mismatch is detected in multisensory regions (such as the IPS), processing resources are re-directed to low-level visual areas. PMID:16797610

  16. Status congruence as a cognitive bias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean P. Poitou

    1970-01-01

    Conducted an experiment on the learning of hierarchical structures to examine if status congruence constitutes a cognitive bias. 2 types of material (individual names and nonsense syllables) were compared by 36 male undergraduates to test whether such a bias results from the abstract properties of complete ordering and congruent mapping, or from the individuals' familiarity with status congruent social organizations.

  17. Validated Construction of Congruence Closures Aaron Stump

    E-print Network

    Stump, Aaron

    Validated Construction of Congruence Closures Aaron Stump Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering an implementation of a CC algorithm which is validated, in the following sense. Any non-aborting, terminating run themselves are usually proved terminating and correct. Validation of an implementation of a CC algorithm

  18. Vocal congruence in mother-infant play.

    PubMed

    Beebe, B; Alson, D; Jaffe, J; Feldstein, S; Crown, C

    1988-05-01

    Turn-taking is the fundamental temporal structure of adult dialogue. This structure defines two types of joint silence: intrapersonal pause (silence bounded by the vocalizations of a single speaker) and switching pause (silence bounded by the vocalizations of different speakers). Switching pauses mark the boundaries of the turn exchange. In adult conversation the mean durations of both types of pause are characteristically matched between partners. This matching, termed "vocal congruence," occurs developmentally earlier in the case of switching pauses. We hypothesized and confirmed that mothers and infants match switching pauses but not intrapersonal pauses at 4 months, even though the infants' vocalizations are prelinguistic. Second, since there are known affective correlates of vocal congruence in adult conversation, we hypothesized a similar affective correlate for mother-infant vocal congruence. We found, for the intrapersonal pause only, that the degree of matching within a dyad correlates with infant affective engagement. We conclude, from switching pause congruence, that a turn-taking dialogic structure is being regulated in the mother-infant pair at 4 months in the same way as seen in adult conversation. Thus, both the temporal structure of adult dialogue and its affective correlate are prelinguistic. PMID:3411533

  19. Congruence, Similarity, and Symmetries of Geometric Objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helmut Alt; Kurt Mehlhorn; Hubert Wagener; Emo Welzl

    1988-01-01

    We consider the problem of computing geometric transformations (rotation, translation, reflexion) that map a point setA exactly or approximately into a point setB. We derive efficient algorithms for various cases (Euclidean or maximum metric, translation or rotation, or general congruence).

  20. MPEG-7 audio-visual indexing test-bed for video retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Langis; Foucher, Samuel; Gouaillier, Valerie; Brun, Christelle; Brousseau, Julie; Boulianne, Gilles; Osterrath, Frederic; Chapdelaine, Claude; Dutrisac, Julie; St-Onge, Francis; Champagne, Benoit; Lu, Xiaojian

    2003-12-01

    This paper reports on the development status of a Multimedia Asset Management (MAM) test-bed for content-based indexing and retrieval of audio-visual documents within the MPEG-7 standard. The project, called "MPEG-7 Audio-Visual Document Indexing System" (MADIS), specifically targets the indexing and retrieval of video shots and key frames from documentary film archives, based on audio-visual content like face recognition, motion activity, speech recognition and semantic clustering. The MPEG-7/XML encoding of the film database is done off-line. The description decomposition is based on a temporal decomposition into visual segments (shots), key frames and audio/speech sub-segments. The visible outcome will be a web site that allows video retrieval using a proprietary XQuery-based search engine and accessible to members at the Canadian National Film Board (NFB) Cineroute site. For example, end-user will be able to ask to point on movie shots in the database that have been produced in a specific year, that contain the face of a specific actor who tells a specific word and in which there is no motion activity. Video streaming is performed over the high bandwidth CA*net network deployed by CANARIE, a public Canadian Internet development organization.

  1. Blind Audiovisual Source Separation using Sparse Representations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Llagostera Casanovas; Gianluca Monad; Pierre Vandergheynst

    2007-01-01

    In this work we present a method to jointly separate active audio and visual structures on a given mixture. Blind Audiovisual Source Separation is achieved exploiting the coherence between a video sig- nal and a one-microphone audio track. The efficient representation of audio and video sequences allows to build relationships between correlated structures on both modalities. Video structures exhibiting strong

  2. Audiovisual Education Self-Instructional Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheil, Sister Joan

    A set of self-instructional lessons is presented which are designed to acquaint teachers and librarians with the fundamentals of audiovisual education. The use of equipment, as well as the selection, evaluation, and in some cases production of materials, is presented. The lessons consist of instructions for learning activities which include…

  3. MATLAB Toolbox for Audiovisual Speech Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriano V Barbosa; Hani C Yehia; Eric Vatikiotis-Bateson

    Audiovisual speech processing has reached a stage of maturity where there are now numerous computational procedures needed to measure and assess multimodal sig- nals. However, as is often the case, the results of these procedures are better known than the procedures them- selves. This paper presents a MATLAB toolbox con- sisting of an extensive collection of tools we have de-

  4. Audiovisual Asynchrony Detection in Human Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Joost X.; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Noppeney, Uta

    2011-01-01

    Combining information from the visual and auditory senses can greatly enhance intelligibility of natural speech. Integration of audiovisual speech signals is robust even when temporal offsets are present between the component signals. In the present study, we characterized the temporal integration window for speech and nonspeech stimuli with…

  5. Planning and Producing Audiovisual Materials. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Jerrold E.

    A revised edition of this handbook provides illustrated, step-by-step explanations of how to plan and produce audiovisual materials. Included are sections on the fundamental skills--photography, graphics and recording sound--followed by individual sections on photographic print series, slide series, filmstrips, tape recordings, overhead…

  6. Using Audio-Visual Materials in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinder, James S.

    Organized to offer the prospective teacher an introduction into the field of audiovisual materials, this book covers the what, the why, and the how of their use. The process of communication is outlined to give a background for the choice of suitable material for the purpose. The use of pictorial instruction material, graphics, and sound material…

  7. The Status of Audiovisual Materials in Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coty, Patricia Ann

    1983-01-01

    The role of networks in correcting inadequate bibliographic control for audiovisual materials is discussed, citing efforts of Project Media Base, National Information Center for Educational Media, Consortium of University Film Centers, National Library of Medicine, National Agricultural Library, National Film Board of Canada, and bibliographic…

  8. Beta-elements and divided congruences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens. Hornbostel; Niko. Naumann

    2007-01-01

    The f-invariant is an injective homomorphism from the 2-line of the\\u000aAdams-Novikov spectral sequence to a group which is closely related to divided\\u000acongruences of elliptic modular forms. We compute the f-invariant for two\\u000ainfinite families of beta-elements and explain the relation of the arithmetic\\u000aof divided congruences with the Kervaire invariant one problem.

  9. How does information congruence influence diagnosis performance?

    PubMed

    Chen, Kejin; Li, Zhizhong

    2015-06-01

    Diagnosis performance is critical for the safety of high-consequence industrial systems. It depends highly on the information provided, perceived, interpreted and integrated by operators. This article examines the influence of information congruence (congruent information vs. conflicting information vs. missing information) and its interaction with time pressure (high vs. low) on diagnosis performance on a simulated platform. The experimental results reveal that the participants confronted with conflicting information spent significantly more time generating correct hypotheses and rated the results with lower probability values than when confronted with the other two levels of information congruence and were more prone to arrive at a wrong diagnosis result than when they were provided with congruent information. This finding stresses the importance of the proper processing of non-congruent information in safety-critical systems. Time pressure significantly influenced display switching frequency and completion time. This result indicates the decisive role of time pressure. Practitioner Summary: This article examines the influence of information congruence and its interaction with time pressure on human diagnosis performance on a simulated platform. For complex systems in the process control industry, the results stress the importance of the proper processing of non-congruent information in safety-critical systems. PMID:25646648

  10. 77 FR 22803 - Certain Audiovisual Components and Products Containing the Same; Institution of Investigation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ...337-TA-837] Certain Audiovisual Components and Products Containing the...importation of certain audiovisual components and products containing the...importation of certain audiovisual components and products containing the...1 Dusing Road 1, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu City,...

  11. Effect of Perceptual Load on Semantic Access by Speech in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerger, Susan; Damian, Markus F.; Mills, Candice; Bartlett, James; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Abdi, Herve

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether semantic access by speech requires attention in children. Method: Children ("N" = 200) named pictures and ignored distractors on a cross-modal (distractors: auditory-no face) or multimodal (distractors: auditory-static face and audiovisual- dynamic face) picture word task. The cross-modal task had a low load,…

  12. Sparsity and Synchrony in Blind Audio-Visual Source Separation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Llagostera Casanovas; Gianluca Monaci; Pierre Vandergheynst; Remi Gribonval

    Abstract When dealing with an audio-visual scene, humans tend to integrate both modalities by assessing the temporal synchrony,between,relevant audio and video events. In this way we are able to detect and separate audio-visual sources. Inspired by these observations, we propose a novel method to decompose sequences made of a video signal and a one-microphone audio track into audio-visual sources. First,

  13. Audio-visual integration and saccadic inhibition.

    PubMed

    Makovac, Elena; Buonocore, Antimo; McIntosh, Robert D

    2015-07-01

    Saccades operate a continuous selection between competing targets at different locations. This competition has been mostly investigated in the visual context, and it is well known that a visual distractor can interfere with a saccade toward a visual target. Here, we investigated whether multimodal, audio-visual targets confer stronger resilience against visual distraction. Saccades to audio-visual targets had shorter latencies than saccades to unisensory stimuli. This facilitation exceeded the level that could be explained by simple probability summation, indicating that multisensory integration had occurred. The magnitude of inhibition induced by a visual distractor was comparable for saccades to unisensory and multisensory targets, but the duration of the inhibition was shorter for multimodal targets. We conclude that multisensory integration can allow a saccade plan to be reestablished more rapidly following saccadic inhibition. PMID:25599266

  14. Congruence of Holland Personality Type and Marital Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruch, Monroe A. Skovholt, Thomas

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to test the relationship between spouse personality congruence based on Holland's typology and marital satisfaction. Satisfaction was tested at three levels including a sample of distressed couples seeking marital counseling. Congruence level was found to be a highly reliable predictor of marital satisfaction. (Author)

  15. Leadership Status Congruency and Cohesion in Outdoor Expedition Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eys, Mark A.; Ritchie, Stephen; Little, Jim; Slade, Heather; Oddson, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between status congruency and group cohesion in outdoor expedition groups in an educational setting. Specifically, three aspects of status congruency were assessed in relation to group cohesion in four adventure canoe groups. The groups participated in 2-week expeditions in the…

  16. Fast Encryption Methods for Audiovisual Data Confidentiality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chung-ping Wu; C. c Jay Kuo

    2000-01-01

    Two methodologies for efiqcient audiovisual data encryption are studied in this research, i.e. selective encryptionand MHT (multiple-Huffman-table). We first discuss benefits and limitations of selective encryption, and propose aselective encryption scheme for ITU G.723.1 speech coding. A review of all cryptanalysis work of selective encryptionalgorithms in the literature is given, our cryptanalysis for the JPEG\\/MPEG sign-bit encryption scheme is presented,and

  17. Emotional valence and spatial congruency differentially modulate crossmodal processing: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Dhana; Schock, Lisa; Bhavsar, Saurabh; Demenescu, Liliana R; Sturm, Walter; Mathiak, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Salient exogenous stimuli modulate attentional processes and lead to attention shifts-even across modalities and at a pre-attentive level. Stimulus properties such as hemispheric laterality and emotional valence influence processing, but their specific interaction in audio-visual attention paradigms remains ambiguous. We conducted an fMRI experiment to investigate the interaction of supramodal spatial congruency, emotional salience, and stimulus presentation side on neural processes of attention modulation. Emotionally neutral auditory deviants were presented in a dichotic listening oddball design. Simultaneously, visual target stimuli (schematic faces) were presented, which displayed either a negative or a positive emotion. These targets were presented in the left or in the right visual field and were either spatially congruent (valid) or incongruent (invalid) with the concurrent deviant auditory stimuli. According to our expectation we observed that deviant stimuli serve as attention-directing cues for visual target stimuli. Region-of-interest (ROI) analyses suggested differential effects of stimulus valence and spatial presentation on the hemodynamic response in bilateral auditory cortices. These results underline the importance of valence and presentation side for attention guidance by deviant sound events and may hint at a hemispheric specialization for valence and attention processing. PMID:25221495

  18. Olfactory ERPs in an odor/visual congruency task differentiate ApoE ?4 carriers from non-carriers

    PubMed Central

    Kowalewski, Joel; Murphy, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder that impairs memory and semantic processing. AD patients and MCI patients at risk for AD show altered N400 ERP responses to incongruent visual and verbal stimuli. AD patients exhibit neuropathology in olfactory brain areas before cognitive symptoms, suggesting the potential for olfactory processing to reflect early pathology. Despite this, odor congruency has not been examined. We investigated odor-image congruency in older adults at genetic risk for AD. ApoE ?4 carriers and non-carriers were screened for anosmia, severe hyposmia, and dementia. Olfactory ERPs were measured 600-1300ms following odor-image pairs. Odors were each presented once congruently and once incongruently via olfactometer. Right dorsal and ventral sites were vulnerable to the ?4 allele, consistent with a compensation hypothesis. Pz amplitude differences on congruous and incongruous trials were larger in non carriers. Regression indicated that congruency showed very high sensitivity and specificity for correctly classifying ?4 carriers from non-carriers. PMID:22305338

  19. Application and Operation of Audiovisual Equipment in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pula, Fred John

    Interest in audiovisual aids in education has been increased by the shortage of classrooms and good teachers and by the modern predisposition toward learning by visual concepts. Effective utilization of audiovisual materials and equipment depends most importantly, on adequate preparation of the teacher in operating equipment and in coordinating…

  20. The Audio-Visual Marketing Handbook for Independent Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Tom

    This how-to booklet offers specific advice on producing video or slide/tape programs for marketing independent schools. Five chapters present guidelines for various stages in the process: (1) Audio-Visual Marketing in Context (aesthetics and economics of audiovisual marketing); (2) A Question of Identity (identifying the audience and deciding on…

  1. Further experiments on audio-visual speech source separation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Sodoyer; Laurent Girin; Christian Jutten; Jean-Luc Schwartz

    Looking at the speaker's face seems useful to better hear a speech signal and extract it from competing sources before identification. This might result in elaborating new speech enhancement or extraction techniques exploiting the audio-visual coherence of speech stimuli. In this paper, we present a set of experiments on a novel algorithm plugging audio-visual coherence estimated by statistical tools, on

  2. Principles of Managing Audiovisual Materials and Equipment. Second Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Biomedical Library.

    This manual offers information on a wide variety of health-related audiovisual materials (AVs) in many formats: video, motion picture, slide, filmstrip, audiocassette, transparencies, microfilm, and computer assisted instruction. Intended for individuals who are just learning about audiovisual materials and equipment management, the manual covers…

  3. Use of Audiovisual Texts in University Education Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleksandrov, Evgeniy P.

    2014-01-01

    Audio-visual learning technologies offer great opportunities in the development of students' analytical and projective abilities. These technologies can be used in classroom activities and for homework. This article discusses the features of audiovisual media texts use in a series of social sciences and humanities in the University curriculum.

  4. Visual anticipatory information modulates multisensory interactions of artificial audiovisual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Vroomen, Jean; Stekelenburg, Jeroen J

    2010-07-01

    The neural activity of speech sound processing (the N1 component of the auditory ERP) can be suppressed if a speech sound is accompanied by concordant lip movements. Here we demonstrate that this audiovisual interaction is neither speech specific nor linked to humanlike actions but can be observed with artificial stimuli if their timing is made predictable. In Experiment 1, a pure tone synchronized with a deformation of a rectangle induced a smaller auditory N1 than auditory-only presentations if the temporal occurrence of this audiovisual event was made predictable by two moving disks that touched the rectangle. Local autoregressive average source estimation indicated that this audiovisual interaction may be related to integrative processing in auditory areas. When the moving disks did not precede the audiovisual stimulus--making the onset unpredictable--there was no N1 reduction. In Experiment 2, the predictability of the leading visual signal was manipulated by introducing a temporal asynchrony between the audiovisual event and the collision of moving disks. Audiovisual events occurred either at the moment, before (too "early"), or after (too "late") the disks collided on the rectangle. When asynchronies varied from trial to trial--rendering the moving disks unreliable temporal predictors of the audiovisual event--the N1 reduction was abolished. These results demonstrate that the N1 suppression is induced by visual information that both precedes and reliably predicts audiovisual onset, without a necessary link to human action-related neural mechanisms. PMID:19583474

  5. Perception of Intersensory Synchrony in Audiovisual Speech: Not that Special

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vroomen, Jean; Stekelenburg, Jeroen J.

    2011-01-01

    Perception of intersensory temporal order is particularly difficult for (continuous) audiovisual speech, as perceivers may find it difficult to notice substantial timing differences between speech sounds and lip movements. Here we tested whether this occurs because audiovisual speech is strongly paired ("unity assumption"). Participants made…

  6. Audiovisual Processing in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mongillo, Elizabeth A.; Irwin, Julia R.; Whalen, D. H.; Klaiman, Cheryl; Carter, Alice S.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2008-01-01

    Fifteen children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and twenty-one children without ASD completed six perceptual tasks designed to characterize the nature of the audiovisual processing difficulties experienced by children with ASD. Children with ASD scored significantly lower than children without ASD on audiovisual tasks involving human faces…

  7. Dynamics of stringy congruence in the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Yong Seung; Hong, Soon-Tae [Department of Mathematics, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Science Education and Research Institute for Basic Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    We study twist and shear aspects of the stingy geodesic surface congruence. Under some natural conditions we derive the equations of the twist and shear in terms of the expansion of the Universe. We observe in this higher dimensional cosmology that, as the early universe evolves with expansion rate, the twist of the stringy congruence decreases exponentially and the initial twist value should be large enough to sustain the rotations of the ensuing universe, while the effects of the shear are negligible to produce the isotropic and homogeneous universe. We also investigate the twist and shear of the geodesic surface congruence of the null strings.

  8. Semantic email

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luke McDowell; Oren Etzioni; Alon Y. Halevy; Henry M. Levy

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates how the vision of the Semantic Web can be carried overto the realm of email. We introduce a general notion of semantice mail, in which an email message consists of an RDF query or update coupled with corresponding explanatory text. Semantic email opens the door to a wide range of automated, email-mediated applications with formally guaranteed properties.

  9. Computational Semantics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Blackburn; Johan Bos

    In this article we discuss what constitutes a good choice of semantic rep- resentation, compare dierent approaches to constructing semantic representations for frag- ments of natural language, and give an overview of recent menthods for employing inference engines for natural understanding tasks.

  10. Natural Semantics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilles Kahn

    1987-01-01

    During the past few years, many researchers have begun to present semantic specifications in a style that has been strongly advocated by Plotkin in (19). The purpose of this paper is to introduce in an intuitive manner the essential ideas of the method that we call now Natural Semantics~ together with its connections to ideas in logic and computing. Natural

  11. Congruence of triangles (grades 6-8)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Utah State University. National Library of Virtual Manipulatives for Interactive Mathematics

    2003-01-01

    This virtual manipulative enables the student to arrange sides and angles to construct and demonstrate the necessary and sufficient conditions for proving triangles congruent. The student drags line segments and angles to form triangles and can flip formed triangles as needed to show congruence. The student can select from options for constructing triangles given three sides (SSS), two sides and the included angle (SAS), and two angles and an included side (ASA). The applet also allows the student to experiment with the ambiguous case to find two triangles that are not congruent, given two sides and a non-included angle (SSA). Instructions for using the applet and a link to the NCTM standard for geometry are included. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  12. The Shape of Congruence Lattices Keith A. Kearnes

    E-print Network

    Kiss, Emil

    The Shape of Congruence Lattices Keith A. Kearnes Emil W. Kiss Author address: Department@euclid.colorado.edu URL: http://spot.colorado.edu/~kearnes (Emil W. Kiss) Lor´and E¨otv¨os University, Department

  13. INFINITELY MANY CONGRUENCES MODULO 5 FOR 4COLORED FROBENIUS PARTITIONS

    E-print Network

    Sellers, James A.

    (n), which denotes the number of generalized Frobenius partitions of n into k colors. Recently, Baruah, 13, 14, 16]. In 2011, Baruah and Sarmah [2] proved a number of congruence properties for c4, all

  14. G-CO Showing a triangle congruence: a particular case

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Triangles $ABC$ and $PQR$ pictured below are congruent: Show the congruence using rigid motions of the plane. Can the congruence be shown with a single...

  15. Colavita dominance effect revisited: the effect of semantic congruity.

    PubMed

    Stubblefield, Alexandra; Jacobs, Lauryn A; Kim, Yongju; Goolkasian, Paula

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the effect of semantic congruity on audiovisual target responses, participants detected a semantic concept that was embedded in a series of rapidly presented stimuli. The target concept appeared as a picture, an environmental sound, or both; and in bimodal trials, the audiovisual events were either consistent or inconsistent in their representation of a semantic concept. The results showed faster detection latencies to bimodal than to unimodal targets and a higher rate of missed targets when visual distractors were presented together with auditory targets, in comparison to auditory targets presented alone. The findings of Experiment 2 showed a cross-modal asymmetry, such that visual distractors were found to interfere with the accuracy of auditory target detection, but auditory distractors had no effect on either the speed or the accuracy of visual target detection. The biased-competition theory of attention (Desimone & Duncan Annual Review of Neuroscience 18: 1995; Duncan, Humphreys, & Ward Current Opinion in Neurobiology 7: 255-261 1997) was used to explain the findings because, when the saliency of the visual stimuli was reduced by the addition of a noise filter in Experiment 4, visual interference on auditory target detection was diminished. Additionally, the results showed faster and more accurate target detection when semantic concepts were represented in a visual rather than an auditory format. PMID:23943499

  16. Categorization of natural dynamic audiovisual scenes.

    PubMed

    Rummukainen, Olli; Radun, Jenni; Virtanen, Toni; Pulkki, Ville

    2014-01-01

    This work analyzed the perceptual attributes of natural dynamic audiovisual scenes. We presented thirty participants with 19 natural scenes in a similarity categorization task, followed by a semi-structured interview. The scenes were reproduced with an immersive audiovisual display. Natural scene perception has been studied mainly with unimodal settings, which have identified motion as one of the most salient attributes related to visual scenes, and sound intensity along with pitch trajectories related to auditory scenes. However, controlled laboratory experiments with natural multimodal stimuli are still scarce. Our results show that humans pay attention to similar perceptual attributes in natural scenes, and a two-dimensional perceptual map of the stimulus scenes and perceptual attributes was obtained in this work. The exploratory results show the amount of movement, perceived noisiness, and eventfulness of the scene to be the most important perceptual attributes in naturalistically reproduced real-world urban environments. We found the scene gist properties openness and expansion to remain as important factors in scenes with no salient auditory or visual events. We propose that the study of scene perception should move forward to understand better the processes behind multimodal scene processing in real-world environments. We publish our stimulus scenes as spherical video recordings and sound field recordings in a publicly available database. PMID:24788808

  17. Neural correlates of coherent audiovisual motion perception.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Oliver; Greenlee, Mark W

    2007-06-01

    Real-life moving objects are often detected by multisensory cues. We investigated the cortical activity associated with coherent visual motion perception in the presence of a stationary or moving auditory noise source using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Twelve subjects judged episodes of 5-s random-dot motion containing either no (0%) or abundant (16%) coherent direction information. Auditory noise was presented with the displayed visual motion that was moving in phase, was moving out-of-phase, or was stationary. Subjects judged whether visual coherent motion was present, and if so, whether the auditory noise source was moving in phase, was moving out-of-phase, or was not moving. Performance was greatest for a moving sound source that was in phase with the visual coherent dot motion compared with when it was in antiphase. A random-effects analysis revealed that auditory motion activated extended regions in both cerebral hemispheres in the superior temporal gyrus (STG), with a right-hemispheric preponderance. Combined audiovisual motion led to activation clusters in the STG, the supramarginal gyrus, the superior parietal lobule, and the cerebellum. The size of the activated regions was substantially larger than that evoked by either visual or auditory motion alone. The congruent audiovisual motion evoked the most extensive activation pattern, exhibiting several exclusively activated subregions. PMID:16928890

  18. [Semantic dementia].

    PubMed

    Belliard, Serge; Bon, Laetitia; LeMoal, Sandrine; Jonin, Pierre Yves; Vercelletto, Martine; LeBail, Benoit

    2007-06-01

    Semantic dementia (SD) is characterized by an assymetric atrophy of the temporal lobes and, clinically, by an impairment of the semantic memory associated to psychobehavioral symptoms. The concept of SD was defined in 1989 and still remains controversial. Some authors consider DS as a specific entity, others as part of the frontotemporal dementia (FTD) or a variant of the progressive aphasia syndrome. Many arguments tend to include SD in the FTD. However, SD presents a high interest for the comprehension of the organization of semantic memory in man, and is often associated with specific histopathologic lesions (ubiquitine positive and tau negative). Therefore SD should be considered as a clinical specific entity. PMID:17556219

  19. Einfuhrung Semantic Web Schlusswort Semantic Technologies

    E-print Network

    Pfeifer, Holger

    Einf¨uhrung Semantic Web Schlusswort Semantic Technologies Proseminar K¨unstliche Intelligenz Universit¨at Ulm Mario Volke 15. Juli 2008 1 / 32 #12;Einf¨uhrung Semantic Web Schlusswort Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Einf¨uhrung 2 Semantic Web 3 Schlusswort 2 / 32 #12;Einf¨uhrung Semantic Web Schlusswort Einf

  20. Semantic Blogging: Spreading the Semantic Web Meme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: This paper is about semantic blogging, an application of the semantic web toblogging.The semantic web promises to make the web more useful by endowing metadata withmachine processable semantics. Blogging is a lightweight web publishing paradigmwhich provides a very low barrier to entry, useful syndication and aggregationbehaviour, a simple to understand structure and decentralized construction of a richinformation network. Semantic

  1. Future-saving audiovisual content for Data Science: Preservation of geoinformatics video heritage with the TIB|AV-Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwe, Peter; Plank, Margret; Ziedorn, Frauke

    2015-04-01

    In data driven research, the access to citation and preservation of the full triad consisting of journal article, research data and -software has started to become good scientific practice. To foster the adoption of this practice the significance of software tools has to be acknowledged, which enable scientists to harness auxiliary audiovisual content in their research work. The advent of ubiquitous computer-based audiovisual recording and corresponding Web 2.0 hosting platforms like Youtube, Slideshare and GitHub has created new ecosystems for contextual information related to scientific software and data, which continues to grow both in size and variety of content. The current Web 2.0 platforms lack capabilities for long term archiving and scientific citation, such as persistent identifiers allowing to reference specific intervals of the overall content. The audiovisual content currently shared by scientists ranges from commented howto-demonstrations on software handling, installation and data-processing, to aggregated visual analytics of the evolution of software projects over time. Such content are crucial additions to the scientific message, as they ensure that software-based data-processing workflows can be assessed, understood and reused in the future. In the context of data driven research, such content needs to be accessible by effective search capabilities, enabling the content to be retrieved and ensuring that the content producers receive credit for their efforts within the scientific community. Improved multimedia archiving and retrieval services for scientific audiovisual content which meet these requirements are currently implemented by the scientific library community. This paper exemplifies the existing challenges, requirements, benefits and the potential of the preservation, accessibility and citability of such audiovisual content for the Open Source communities based on the new audiovisual web service TIB|AV Portal of the German National Library of Science and Technology. The web-based portal allows for extended search capabilities based on enhanced metadata derived by automated video analysis. By combining state-of-the-art multimedia retrieval techniques such as speech-, text-, and image recognition with semantic analysis, content-based access to videos at the segment level is provided. Further, by using the open standard Media Fragment Identifier (MFID), a citable Digital Object Identifier is displayed for each video segment. In addition to the continuously growing footprint of contemporary content, the importance of vintage audiovisual information needs to be considered: This paper showcases the successful application of the TIB|AV-Portal in the preservation and provision of a newly discovered version of a GRASS GIS promotional video produced by US Army -Corps of Enginers Laboratory (US-CERL) in 1987. The video is provides insight into the constraints of the very early days of the GRASS GIS project, which is the oldest active Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) GIS project which has been active for over thirty years. GRASS itself has turned into a collaborative scientific platform and a repository of scientific peer-reviewed code and algorithm/knowledge hub for future generation of scientists [1]. This is a reference case for future preservation activities regarding semantic-enhanced Web 2.0 content from geospatial software projects within Academia and beyond. References: [1] Chemin, Y., Petras V., Petrasova, A., Landa, M., Gebbert, S., Zambelli, P., Neteler, M., Löwe, P.: GRASS GIS: a peer-reviewed scientific platform and future research Repository, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 17, EGU2015-8314-1, 2015 (submitted)

  2. Data Semantics Ken Baclawski

    E-print Network

    Baclawski, Kenneth B.

    Data Semantics Ken Baclawski College of Computer and Information Science Northeastern University #12;What is data semantics? #12;What is data semantics? To answer this we will look at software semantics in general. #12;What is data semantics? Software #12;What is data semantics? ProgramProgram Data

  3. Audiovisual quality evaluation of low-bitrate video

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Winkler; Christof Faller

    2005-01-01

    Audiovisual quality assessment is a relatively unexplored topic. We designed subjective experiments for audio, video, and audiovisual quality using content and encoding parameters representative of video for mobile applications. Our focus were the MPEG-4 AVC (a.k.a. H.264) and AAC coding standards. Our goals in this study are two-fold: we want to understand the interactions between audio and video in terms

  4. Audiovisual quality evaluation of low-bitrate video

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Winkler; C. Faller

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT Audiovisual quality assessment is a relatively unexplored topic. We designed subjective experiments for au- dio, video, and audiovisual quality using content and encoding parameters representative of video for mobile applications. Our focus were the MPEG-4 AVC (a.k.a. H.264) and AAC coding standards. Our goals in this study are two-fold: we want to understand the interactions between audio and video

  5. Central Audiovisual Library of the European Commission

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website from Mediatheque offers a variety of videos, developed by the European Commission, which are available to download free of charge for "EU-related information and education purposes." The Commission "embodies and upholds the general interest of the Union" and the videos address key issues for the political Community and public interest. The videos cover a variety of topics including trade, railways, and responsible fishing. The Research section includes two videos on nanotechnology, which feature interviews with researchers (some of which are translated into English through subtitles), an inside look at nanotechnology laboratories, and simulations to demonstrate the microscopic world of nanotechnology. The videos vary in length and newly added videos are noted. A link at the bottom of the page allows visitors to search for keywords to locate a particular video in the archive. Visitors to the website can also learn about other audiovisual services offered by Mediatheque.

  6. Prediction and constraint in audiovisual speech perception.

    PubMed

    Peelle, Jonathan E; Sommers, Mitchell S

    2015-07-01

    During face-to-face conversational speech listeners must efficiently process a rapid and complex stream of multisensory information. Visual speech can serve as a critical complement to auditory information because it provides cues to both the timing of the incoming acoustic signal (the amplitude envelope, influencing attention and perceptual sensitivity) and its content (place and manner of articulation, constraining lexical selection). Here we review behavioral and neurophysiological evidence regarding listeners' use of visual speech information. Multisensory integration of audiovisual speech cues improves recognition accuracy, particularly for speech in noise. Even when speech is intelligible based solely on auditory information, adding visual information may reduce the cognitive demands placed on listeners through increasing the precision of prediction. Electrophysiological studies demonstrate that oscillatory cortical entrainment to speech in auditory cortex is enhanced when visual speech is present, increasing sensitivity to important acoustic cues. Neuroimaging studies also suggest increased activity in auditory cortex when congruent visual information is available, but additionally emphasize the involvement of heteromodal regions of posterior superior temporal sulcus as playing a role in integrative processing. We interpret these findings in a framework of temporally-focused lexical competition in which visual speech information affects auditory processing to increase sensitivity to acoustic information through an early integration mechanism, and a late integration stage that incorporates specific information about a speaker's articulators to constrain the number of possible candidates in a spoken utterance. Ultimately it is words compatible with both auditory and visual information that most strongly determine successful speech perception during everyday listening. Thus, audiovisual speech perception is accomplished through multiple stages of integration, supported by distinct neuroanatomical mechanisms. PMID:25890390

  7. Quantifying temporal ventriloquism in audiovisual synchrony perception.

    PubMed

    Kuling, Irene A; Kohlrausch, Armin; Juola, James F

    2013-10-01

    The integration of visual and auditory inputs in the human brain works properly only if the components are perceived in close temporal proximity. In the present study, we quantified cross-modal interactions in the human brain for audiovisual stimuli with temporal asynchronies, using a paradigm from rhythm perception. In this method, participants had to align the temporal position of a target in a rhythmic sequence of four markers. In the first experiment, target and markers consisted of a visual flash or an auditory noise burst, and all four combinations of target and marker modalities were tested. In the same-modality conditions, no temporal biases and a high precision of the adjusted temporal position of the target were observed. In the different-modality conditions, we found a systematic temporal bias of 25-30 ms. In the second part of the first and in a second experiment, we tested conditions in which audiovisual markers with different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between the two components and a visual target were used to quantify temporal ventriloquism. The adjusted target positions varied by up to about 50 ms and depended in a systematic way on the SOA and its proximity to the point of subjective synchrony. These data allowed testing different quantitative models. The most satisfying model, based on work by Maij, Brenner, and Smeets (Journal of Neurophysiology 102, 490-495, 2009), linked temporal ventriloquism and the percept of synchrony and was capable of adequately describing the results from the present study, as well as those of some earlier experiments. PMID:23868564

  8. Balloons and bavoons versus spikes and shikes: ERPs reveal shared neural processes for shape-sound-meaning congruence in words, and shape-sound congruence in pseudowords.

    PubMed

    Su?evi?, Jelena; Savi?, Andrej M; Popovi?, Mirjana B; Styles, Suzy J; Kovi?, Vanja

    2015-01-01

    There is something about the sound of a pseudoword like takete that goes better with a spiky, than a curvy shape (Köhler, 1929:1947). Yet despite decades of research into sound symbolism, the role of this effect on real words in the lexicons of natural languages remains controversial. We report one behavioural and one ERP study investigating whether sound symbolism is active during normal language processing for real words in a speaker's native language, in the same way as for novel word forms. The results indicate that sound-symbolic congruence has a number of influences on natural language processing: Written forms presented in a congruent visual context generate more errors during lexical access, as well as a chain of differences in the ERP. These effects have a very early onset (40-80ms, 100-160ms, 280-320ms) and are later overshadowed by familiar types of semantic processing, indicating that sound symbolism represents an early sensory-co-activation effect. PMID:25935826

  9. Kinaesthetic mirror illusion and spatial congruence.

    PubMed

    Metral, Morgane; Chancel, Marie; Brun, Clémentine; Luyat, Marion; Kavounoudias, Anne; Guerraz, Michel

    2015-05-01

    Position sense and kinaesthesia are mainly derived from the integration of somaesthetic and visual afferents to form a single, coherent percept. However, visual information related to the body can play a dominant role in these perceptual processes in some circumstances, and notably in the mirror paradigm. The objective of the present study was to determine whether or not the kinaesthetic illusions experienced in the mirror paradigm obey one of the key rules of multisensory integration: spatial congruence. In the experiment, the participant's left arm (the image of which was reflected in a mirror) was either passively flexed/extended with a motorized manipulandum (to induce a kinaesthetic illusion in the right arm) or remained static. The right (unseen) arm remained static but was positioned parallel to the left arm's starting position or placed in extension (from 15° to 90°, in steps of 15°), relative to the left arm's flexed starting position. The results revealed that the frequency of the illusion decreased only slightly as the incongruence prior to movement onset between the reflected left arm and the hidden right arm grew and remained quite high even in the most incongruent settings. However, the greater the incongruence between the visually and somaesthetically specified positions of the right forearm (from 15° to 90°), the later the onset and the lower the perceived speed of the kinaesthetic illusion. Although vision dominates perception in a context of visuoproprioceptive conflict (as in the mirror paradigm), our results show that the relative weightings allocated to proprioceptive and visual signals vary according to the degree of spatial incongruence prior to movement onset. PMID:25665873

  10. The Comparative Contributions of Congruence and Social Support in Career Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, J. Irene; Moritzen, Sara K.; Robitschek, Christine; Imhoff, Anne; Lynch, Jonathan L. A.

    2001-01-01

    Assesses the relative contributions of social support and interest-occupation congruence in job satisfaction and tenure. Congruence predicted 13% of the variance in job satisfaction for men while social support accounted for 10% of the variance in job satisfaction for women. Neither congruence nor social support predicted tenure. (Contains 35…

  11. Checking pi-Calculus Structural Congruence is Graph Isomorphism V. Khomenko , R. Meyer,

    E-print Network

    Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

    COMPUTING SCIENCE Checking pi-Calculus Structural Congruence is Graph Isomorphism Complete V-TR-1100 May, 2008 Checking pi-Calculus Structural Congruence is Graph Isomorphism Complete Victor Khomenko and Roland Meyer Abstract We show that the problems of checking pi-Calculus structural congruence (pi

  12. On the decidability and complexity of the structural congruence for beta-binders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro Romanel; Corrado Priami

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Beta-binders is a recent process calculus developed for modeling and simulating biological systems. As usual for process calculi, the se- mantic definition heavily relies on a structural congruence. The treat- ment of the structural congruence is essential for implementation. We present a subset of the calculus for which the structural congruence is decidable and a subset for which it

  13. Further Insight and Additional Inference Methods for Polynomial Regression Applied to the Analysis of Congruence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ayala; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Doveh, Etti

    2010-01-01

    In their seminal paper, Edwards and Parry (1993) presented the polynomial regression as a better alternative to applying difference score in the study of congruence. Although this method is increasingly applied in congruence research, its complexity relative to other methods for assessing congruence (e.g., difference score methods) was one of the…

  14. 36 CFR 1237.20 - What are special considerations in the maintenance of audiovisual records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...accessible documentation identifying creators of audiovisual products, their precise relationship to the agency, and the nature...audiovisual records (e.g., for digital files, use file naming conventions), that clarify connections between...

  15. 36 CFR 1237.20 - What are special considerations in the maintenance of audiovisual records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...accessible documentation identifying creators of audiovisual products, their precise relationship to the agency, and the nature...audiovisual records (e.g., for digital files, use file naming conventions), that clarify connections between...

  16. 36 CFR 1237.20 - What are special considerations in the maintenance of audiovisual records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...accessible documentation identifying creators of audiovisual products, their precise relationship to the agency, and the nature...audiovisual records (e.g., for digital files, use file naming conventions), that clarify connections between...

  17. 16 CFR 307.8 - Requirements for disclosure in audiovisual and audio advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...disclosure in audiovisual and audio advertising. 307.8 Section 307...HEALTH EDUCATION ACT OF 1986 Advertising Disclosures § 307.8 Requirements...disclosure in audiovisual and audio advertising. In the case of...

  18. Interactive visualization of video content and associated description for semantic annotation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Campanella; Riccardo Leonardi; Pierangelo Migliorati

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present an intuitive graphic framework introduced for the effective visualization of video content and associated\\u000a audio-visual description, with the aim to facilitate a quick understanding and annotation of the semantic content of a video\\u000a sequence. The basic idea consists in the visualization of a 2D feature space in which the shots of the considered video sequence

  19. Reasoning in Semantic Wikis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Krötzsch; Sebastian Schaffert; Denny Vrandecic

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. Semantic wikis combine,the collaborative environment,of a classical wiki with features of semantic technologies. Semantic data is used to structure information in the wiki, to improve information access by intelligent search and navigation, and to enable knowledge exchange across applications. Though semantic wikis hardly support complex semantic knowledge and inferencing, we argue that this is not due to a lack

  20. Neural restoration of degraded audiovisual speech

    PubMed Central

    Shahin, Antoine J.; Kerlin, Jess R.; Bhat, Jyoti; Miller, Lee M.

    2012-01-01

    When speech is interrupted by noise, listeners often perceptually “fill-in” the degraded signal, giving an illusion of continuity and improving intelligibility. This phenomenon involves a neural process in which the auditory cortex (AC) response to onsets and offsets of acoustic interruptions is suppressed. Since meaningful visual cues behaviorally enhance this illusory filling-in, we hypothesized that during the illusion, lip movements congruent with acoustic speech should elicit a weaker AC response to interruptions relative to static (no movements) or incongruent visual speech. AC response to interruptions was measured as the power and inter-trial phase consistency of the auditory evoked theta band (4-8 Hz) activity of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and the N1 and P2 auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). A reduction in the N1 and P2 amplitudes and in theta phase-consistency reflected the perceptual illusion at the onset and/or offset of interruptions regardless of visual condition. These results suggest that the brain engages filling-in mechanisms throughout the interruption, which repairs degraded speech lasting up to ~250 ms following the onset of the degradation. Behaviorally, participants perceived greater speech continuity over longer interruptions for congruent compared to incongruent or static audiovisual streams. However, this specific behavioral profile was not mirrored in the neural markers of interest. We conclude that lip-reading enhances illusory perception of degraded speech not by altering the quality of the AC response, but by delaying it during degradations so that longer interruptions can be tolerated. PMID:22178454

  1. Caregivers' Retirement Congruency: A Case for Caregiver Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humble, Aine M.; Keefe, Janice M.; Auton, Greg M.

    2012-01-01

    Using the concept of "retirement congruency" (RC), which takes into account greater variation in retirement decisions (low, moderate, or high RC) than a dichotomous conceptualization (forced versus chosen), multinomial logistic regression was conducted on a sample of caregivers from the 2002 Canadian General Social Survey who were retired from…

  2. Congruence from Rotations and Reflections: 4.5

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-11-18

    These 3 activities, part of the Mathematics Developmental Continuum of the State of Victoria, Australia, are intended to introduce learners to demonstrating congruence and line and rotational symmetry through the use of transformations. Hands on activities and computer software are employed. Supporting documents, materials, and progress indicators are included.

  3. The critical role of congruency in prototypical brand extensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Kalamas; Mark Cleveland; Michel Laroche; Robert Laufer

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on categorization theory, this empirical study focuses on the critical role of congruency in prototypical brand extensions. A survey, measuring reactions to 18 proposed extensions involving six well?known brands (Xerox, Kleenex, Band?Aid, Scotch Tape, Coke, Sony Walkman), was administered to a sample of graduate students. For each prototypical brand, there were three proposed extensions: congruent, moderately congruent, and incongruent.

  4. Conversational Congruence as a Criterion of Socialization in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welkowitz, Joan; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Tests the hypothesis that the extent to which the durations of pauses (silences within the utterances of a single speaker) and switching pauses (silences between the utterances of 2 speakers) in the speech of children in conversation become similar (i.e., exhibit conversational congruence) is positively related to age. (BRT)

  5. The Ediacaran emergence of bilaterians: congruence between the genetic and

    E-print Network

    Cotton, James

    The Ediacaran emergence of bilaterians: congruence between the genetic and the geological fossil from molecular clocks range from quite shallow (Ediacaran) to very deep (Mesoproterozoic), it has been of metazoan divergence times was during the Ediacaran, which is consistent with a synoptic reading

  6. Toward a Theory of Psychological Type Congruence for Advertisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Michael H.; And Others

    Focusing on the impact of advertisers' persuasive selling messages on consumers, this paper discusses topics relating to the theory of psychological type congruence. Based on an examination of persuasion theory and relevant psychological concepts, including recent cognitive stability and personality and needs theory and the older concept of…

  7. Reducing the Cost of Data Flow Analysis By Congruence Partitioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evelyn Duesterwald; Rajiv Gupta; Mary Lou Soffa

    1994-01-01

    . Data flow analysis expresses the solution of an informationgathering problem as the fixed point of a system of monotone equations.This paper presents a technique to improve the performance of dataflow analysis by systematically reducing the size of the equation systemin any monotone data flow problem. Reductions result from partitioningthe equations in the system according to congruence relations. Wepresent a

  8. Identity Formation and Parent-Child Value Congruence in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knafo, Ariel; Schwartz, Shalom H.

    2004-01-01

    We examine relations between identity formation and parent-child value congruence. A total of 267 adolescents reported their own values and the values they perceive their parents to hold, and parents reported their values for their children. We measured identity formation by location in one of the four Marcia (1966) identity statuses (diffusion,…

  9. On the Homology of Congruence Subgroups and K3(Z)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ronnie; Szczarba, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    Let ?(n;p) be the congruence subgroup of SL(n;Z) of level p. We study the homology and cohomology of ?(n;p) as modules over SL(n;Fp) and apply our results to obtain an upper bound for the order of K3(Z). PMID:16592224

  10. Arithmetic Congruence Monoids: A Survey Paul Baginski and Scott Chapman

    E-print Network

    Baginski, Paul

    , arithmetic progressions, nonunique factorization, elasticity of factorization, Krull monoids Early a common object from additive number theory, arith- metic progressions. An arithmetic congruence monoid a and b is both sufficient and necessary for the arithmetic progression a + bN0 to be closed under

  11. MMPI--2 Code-Type Congruence of Injured Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Ronald B.; Jennings, Earl; Colotla, Victor A.; Reynolds, Cecil R.; Shercliffe, Regan J.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the stability of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--2 (J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989) code types in a sample of 94 injured workers with a mean test-retest interval of 21.3 months (SD = 14.1). Congruence rates for undefined code types were 34% for…

  12. Harmonic morphisms and shear-free ray congruences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Baird; J. C. Wood

    2003-01-01

    We describe the relationship between complex-valued harmonic morphisms from Minkowski 4-space} and the shear-free ray congruences of mathematical physics. Then we show how a horizontally conformal submersion on a domain of Euclidean 3-space gives the boundary values at infinity of a complex-valued harmonic morphism on hyperbolic 4-space.

  13. Cross-modal priming effect based on short-term experience of ecologically unrelated audio-visual information: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Wu, G; Meng, X

    2012-10-25

    In the present study, we aimed to identify whether cross-modal priming effect based on short-term experience of ecologically unrelated audio-visual information existed. In the experiment, we employed ecologically unrelated pictures and sounds as visual and auditory stimuli. Participants were required to learn the associations between pictures and sounds in the study phase, and then finished the following experiment adopting a cross-modal priming paradigm. The result showed that the processing of sound was facilitated by a priming picture if an audio-visual pair was presented in the study phase. Enhanced induced gamma-band activity (GBA) was also found under the Match condition, and we suggested that induced GBA reflected the association between auditory and visual information to form supra-modal representation, which is top-down modulated by short-term experience of audio-visual information. Event-related potential (ERP) analysis revealed an N400 effect under the Mismatch condition compared to the Match condition, and source reconstruction of N400 effect showed that the biggest difference of activity between two conditions was localized in middle temporal gyrus (MTG), suggesting that MTG played an important role in the mapping process of auditory information onto a temporal semantic network. PMID:22698696

  14. [Effects of using audiovisual materials in gerontological nursing exercises].

    PubMed

    Kuzuhara, Seita; Muroya, Kazuko; Nomoto, Yumi

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of using audiovisual materials in gerontological nursing exercises. Sixty-five second year nursing students watched audiovisual materials of scenes of communication between simulated patients (SP) with functional difficulties and other nursing students, and then presented reports on this exercise. We analyzed the reports of the nursing students, and we could determine several categories of description in their reports, which suggest that they could perceive indescribable facial expressions of the SP and mutual communication by unspoken messages between the SP and students, and that they could understand the patients' nonverbal messages through the patient's expressions and reactions. These results suggest that using audiovisual materials in gerontological nursing exercises is effective in helping nursing students to develop a better understanding of the psychology of the elderly with functional difficulties. PMID:23774661

  15. The Capacity of Audiovisual Integration Is Limited to One Item

    PubMed Central

    Van der Burg, Erik; Awh, Edward; Olivers, Christian N. L.

    2015-01-01

    The human visual attention system is geared toward detecting the most salient and relevant events in an overwhelming stream of information. There has been great interest in measuring how many visual events can be processed at a time, and most of the work has suggested that the limit is three to four. However, attention to a visual stimulus can also be driven by a synchronous auditory event. The present work indicates that a fundamentally different limit applies to audiovisual processing, such that at most only a single audiovisual event can be processed at a time. This limited capacity is not due to a limitation in visual selection; participants were able to process about four visual objects simultaneously. Instead, we propose that audiovisual orienting is subject to a fundamentally different capacity limit than pure visual selection is. PMID:23389426

  16. Perceived synchrony for realistic and dynamic audiovisual events

    PubMed Central

    Eg, Ragnhild; Behne, Dawn M.

    2015-01-01

    In well-controlled laboratory experiments, researchers have found that humans can perceive delays between auditory and visual signals as short as 20 ms. Conversely, other experiments have shown that humans can tolerate audiovisual asynchrony that exceeds 200 ms. This seeming contradiction in human temporal sensitivity can be attributed to a number of factors such as experimental approaches and precedence of the asynchronous signals, along with the nature, duration, location, complexity and repetitiveness of the audiovisual stimuli, and even individual differences. In order to better understand how temporal integration of audiovisual events occurs in the real world, we need to close the gap between the experimental setting and the complex setting of everyday life. With this work, we aimed to contribute one brick to the bridge that will close this gap. We compared perceived synchrony for long-running and eventful audiovisual sequences to shorter sequences that contain a single audiovisual event, for three types of content: action, music, and speech. The resulting windows of temporal integration showed that participants were better at detecting asynchrony for the longer stimuli, possibly because the long-running sequences contain multiple corresponding events that offer audiovisual timing cues. Moreover, the points of subjective simultaneity differ between content types, suggesting that the nature of a visual scene could influence the temporal perception of events. An expected outcome from this type of experiment was the rich variation among participants' distributions and the derived points of subjective simultaneity. Hence, the designs of similar experiments call for more participants than traditional psychophysical studies. Heeding this caution, we conclude that existing theories on multisensory perception are ready to be tested on more natural and representative stimuli. PMID:26082738

  17. Residual Structure and Factor Congruence 1 On the effects of residual structure on factor congruence following Procrustes rotation

    E-print Network

    Hasto, Peter

    Big Five type data and derive critical values for congruence coefficients of Procrustes rotated factor Structure Comparison Ever since paper and pencil personality questionnaires were first used in personality in personality measurement. More generally, we define extraneous variance as systematic variance in the outcome

  18. Prefrontal neuronal responses during audiovisual mnemonic processing.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jaewon; Romanski, Lizabeth M

    2015-01-21

    During communication we combine auditory and visual information. Neurophysiological research in nonhuman primates has shown that single neurons in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) exhibit multisensory responses to faces and vocalizations presented simultaneously. However, whether VLPFC is also involved in maintaining those communication stimuli in working memory or combining stored information across different modalities is unknown, although its human homolog, the inferior frontal gyrus, is known to be important in integrating verbal information from auditory and visual working memory. To address this question, we recorded from VLPFC while rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) performed an audiovisual working memory task. Unlike traditional match-to-sample/nonmatch-to-sample paradigms, which use unimodal memoranda, our nonmatch-to-sample task used dynamic movies consisting of both facial gestures and the accompanying vocalizations. For the nonmatch conditions, a change in the auditory component (vocalization), the visual component (face), or both components was detected. Our results show that VLPFC neurons are activated by stimulus and task factors: while some neurons simply responded to a particular face or a vocalization regardless of the task period, others exhibited activity patterns typically related to working memory such as sustained delay activity and match enhancement/suppression. In addition, we found neurons that detected the component change during the nonmatch period. Interestingly, some of these neurons were sensitive to the change of both components and therefore combined information from auditory and visual working memory. These results suggest that VLPFC is not only involved in the perceptual processing of faces and vocalizations but also in their mnemonic processing. PMID:25609614

  19. Audiovisual Aids and Techniques in Managerial and Supervisory Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigg, Robinson P.

    An attempt is made to show the importance of modern audiovisual (AV) aids and techniques to management training. The first two chapters give the background to the present situation facing the training specialist. Chapter III considers the AV aids themselves in four main groups: graphic materials, display equipment which involves projection, and…

  20. Neural Development of Networks for Audiovisual Speech Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Anthony Steven; Solodkin, Ana; Small, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    Everyday conversation is both an auditory and a visual phenomenon. While visual speech information enhances comprehension for the listener, evidence suggests that the ability to benefit from this information improves with development. A number of brain regions have been implicated in audiovisual speech comprehension, but the extent to which the…

  1. Audio-guided audiovisual data segmentation, indexing, and retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tong; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    1998-12-01

    While current approaches for video segmentation and indexing are mostly focused on visual information, audio signals may actually play a primary role in video content parsing. In this paper, we present an approach for automatic segmentation, indexing, and retrieval of audiovisual data, based on audio content analysis. The accompanying audio signal of audiovisual data is first segmented and classified into basic types, i.e., speech, music, environmental sound, and silence. This coarse-level segmentation and indexing step is based upon morphological and statistical analysis of several short-term features of the audio signals. Then, environmental sounds are classified into finer classes, such as applause, explosions, bird sounds, etc. This fine-level classification and indexing step is based upon time- frequency analysis of audio signals and the use of the hidden Markov model as the classifier. On top of this archiving scheme, an audiovisual data retrieval system is proposed. Experimental results show that the proposed approach has an accuracy rate higher than 90 percent for the coarse-level classification, and higher than 85 percent for the fine-level classification. Examples of audiovisual data segmentation and retrieval are also provided.

  2. A Catalog of United States Government Produced Audiovisual Materials, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Service (GSA), Washington, DC. National Audiovisual Center.

    Containing 4,500 items available for sale and/or rent, this catalog lists 16mm films, motion cartridges, audiodiscs, audiotapes, slide sets, and film strips available through the National Audiovisual Center of the General Services Administration. The materials are listed in subject order, in alphabetical title order, and by producer code. In…

  3. Searching for Information About Audiovisuals in a Hospital Library

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane G. Wolf

    1985-01-01

    This article provides suggestions for manual and online searching for information about audiovisuals. The information presented reflects the author's experience searching in a hospital setting with limited resources. AVLINE, the National Library of Medicine database, is discussed in detail, with examples of typical searches.

  4. Arrested Development of Audiovisual Speech Perception in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Ryan A.; Siemann, Justin K.; Woynaroski, Tiffany G.; Schneider, Brittany C.; Eberly, Haley E.; Camarata, Stephen M.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Atypical communicative abilities are a core marker of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). A number of studies have shown that, in addition to auditory comprehension differences, individuals with autism frequently show atypical responses to audiovisual speech, suggesting a multisensory contribution to these communicative differences from their typically developing peers. To shed light on possible differences in the maturation of audiovisual speech integration, we tested younger (ages 6-12) and older (ages 13-18) children with and without ASD on a task indexing such multisensory integration. To do this, we used the McGurk effect, in which the pairing of incongruent auditory and visual speech tokens typically results in the perception of a fused percept distinct from the auditory and visual signals, indicative of active integration of the two channels conveying speech information. Whereas little difference was seen in audiovisual speech processing (i.e., reports of McGurk fusion) between the younger ASD and TD groups, there was a significant difference at the older ages. While TD controls exhibited an increased rate of fusion (i.e., integration) with age, children with ASD failed to show this increase. These data suggest arrested development of audiovisual speech integration in ASD. The results are discussed in light of the extant literature and necessary next steps in research. PMID:24218241

  5. Audio-Visual Communications, A Tool for the Professional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Environmental Health, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The manner in which the Cuyahoga County, Ohio Department of Environmental Health utilizes audio-visual presentations for communication with business and industry, professional public health agencies and the general public is presented. Subjects including food sanitation, radiation protection and safety are described. (BT)

  6. Developing an audio-visual speech source separation algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Sodoyer; Laurent Girin; Christian Jutten; Jean-luc Schwartz

    2004-01-01

    Looking at the speakers face is useful to hear better a speech signal and extract it from competing sources before identification. This might result in elaborating new speech enhancement or extraction techniques exploiting the audio- visual coherence of speech stimuli. In this paper, a novel algorithm plugging audio-visual coherence estimated by sta- tistical tools on classical blind source separation algorithms

  7. Audio-Visual Multimedia Retrieval on Mobile Iftikhar Ahmad1

    E-print Network

    Gabbouj, Moncef

    devices is a challenge. 8.1 Introduction The amount of personal digital information is increasing8 Audio-Visual Multimedia Retrieval on Mobile Devices Iftikhar Ahmad1 and Moncef Gabbouj2 1 Nokia of devices (hand held phones to personal computers). Mobile devices are not only limited in size, shape

  8. Project Report: Audiovisual Orientation for Freshman, Summer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Roger C.

    A slide tape presentation was devised for use in an orientation program to the State University of New York at Buffalo library for incoming freshmen students. The goals of the audiovisual orientation program are to: (1) indicate the complexity of the university libraries--to show that there are many libraries and that their resources are varied,…

  9. Web Access to Large Audiovisual Assets Based on User Preferences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kostas Karpouzis; George Moschovitis; Klimis S. Ntalianis; Spiros Ioannou; Stefanos D. Kollias

    2004-01-01

    8 9 Abstract. Current multimedia databases contain a wealth of information in the form of audiovisual as well as text data. Even though efficient search algorithms have been developed for either media, there still exists the need for abstract presentation and summarization of the results of database users' queries. Moreover, multimedia retrieval systems should be capable of providing the user

  10. The Audiovisual Temporal Binding Window Narrows in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewkowicz, David J.; Flom, Ross

    2014-01-01

    Binding is key in multisensory perception. This study investigated the audio-visual (A-V) temporal binding window in 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children (total N = 120). Children watched a person uttering a syllable whose auditory and visual components were either temporally synchronized or desynchronized by 366, 500, or 666 ms. They were asked…

  11. Audio-Visual Affective Expression Recognition Through Multistream Fused HMM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhihong Zeng; Jilin Tu; Brian M. Pianfetti; Jr .

    2008-01-01

    Advances in computer processing power and emerging algorithms are allowing new ways of envisioning human-computer interaction. Although the benefit of audio-visual fusion is expected for affect recognition from the psychological and engineering perspectives, most of existing approaches to automatic human affect analysis are unimodal: information processed by computer system is limited to either face images or the speech signals. This

  12. Audiovisual Market Place; A Multimedia Guide. 1976 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    The "Audiovisual Market Place" is a register of organizations, firms, and personnel in The AV industry as well as a buyers' guide for those who purchase instructional materials and those who buy services in the area of media production. Twenty-five sections are grouped under three major areas of interest: AV softward, AV hardware, and reference.…

  13. Enactive Mandala: Audio-visualizing Brain Waves Tomohiro Tokunaga

    E-print Network

    Lyons, Michael J.

    and animated visual music. Trans- parent real-time audio-visual feedback of brainwave quali- ties supports, this has largely reduced technical and financial barriers to getting involved in research on brainwaves a constructive approach to understanding brainwave data in the context of musical/artistic expression. Real

  14. Audiovisual Vowel Monitoring and the Word Superiority Effect in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Mathilde; Spinelli, Elsa; Savariaux, Christophe; Kandel, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore whether viewing the speaker's articulatory gestures contributes to lexical access in children (ages 5-10) and in adults. We conducted a vowel monitoring task with words and pseudo-words in audio-only (AO) and audiovisual (AV) contexts with white noise masking the acoustic signal. The results indicated that…

  15. Summary of Findings and Recommendations on Federal Audiovisual Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lissit, Robert; And Others

    At the direction of President Carter, a year-long study of government audiovisual programs was conducted out of the Office of Telecommunications Policy in the Executive Office of the President. The programs in 16 departments and independent agencies, and the departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force have been reviewed to identify the scope of…

  16. MULTIOBJECTIVES GENETIC SNAKES: APPLICATION ON AUDIO-VISUAL SPEECH RECOGNITION

    E-print Network

    Coello, Carlos A. Coello

    MULTIOBJECTIVES GENETIC SNAKES: APPLICATION ON AUDIO-VISUAL SPEECH RECOGNITION Renaud Séguier.Seguier@supelec.fr, Nicolas.Cladel@supelec.fr Abstract: We propose in this article a new optimization of Genetic Snakes (GS): Multiobjectives Genetics Snakes (MGS) faster and simpler to implement. They enable us to make converge two snakes

  17. An audiovisual content recorder using a removable hard disk drive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiro Hori; Yuichi Kanai; Kenji Taima

    2010-01-01

    We have developed an audiovisual content recorder using a removable hard disk drive. Protection of digital content recorded on the removable medium is important. Besides a large capacity and a high speed, the hard disk drive has much better features than optical discs, one of which is intelligent enough to make bi-directional authentication in the system. This benefit realizes more

  18. Neural development of networks for audiovisual speech comprehension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Steven Dick; Ana Solodkin; Steven L. Small

    2009-01-01

    Everyday conversation is both an auditory and a visual phenomenon. While visual speech information enhances comprehension for the listener, evidence suggests that the ability to benefit from this informa- tion improves with development. A number of brain regions have been implicated in audiovisual speech comprehension, but the extent to which the neurobiological substrate in the child compares to the adult

  19. Neural development of networks for audiovisual speech comprehension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Steven Dick; Ana Solodkin; Steven L. Small

    2010-01-01

    Everyday conversation is both an auditory and a visual phenomenon. While visual speech information enhances comprehension for the listener, evidence suggests that the ability to benefit from this information improves with development. A number of brain regions have been implicated in audiovisual speech comprehension, but the extent to which the neurobiological substrate in the child compares to the adult is

  20. Digital preservation of audiovisual files within PrestoPRIME

    E-print Network

    Southampton, University of

    Digital preservation of audiovisual files within PrestoPRIME Matthew J. Addis1 , Walter Allasia2 Preservation, AV Content Access 1 Introduction The common thinking about digital files worthlessness and technical troubles. Additionally, all the costs (investments) for digital AV preservation can

  1. Audiovisual Cues and Perceptual Learning of Spectrally Distorted Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilling, Michael; Thomas, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments investigate the effectiveness of audiovisual (AV) speech cues (cues derived from both seeing and hearing a talker speak) in facilitating perceptual learning of spectrally distorted speech. Speech was distorted through an eight channel noise-vocoder which shifted the spectral envelope of the speech signal to simulate the properties…

  2. The effect of visual apparent motion on audiovisual simultaneity.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jinhwan; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Visual motion information from dynamic environments is important in multisensory temporal perception. However, it is unclear how visual motion information influences the integration of multisensory temporal perceptions. We investigated whether visual apparent motion affects audiovisual temporal perception. Visual apparent motion is a phenomenon in which two flashes presented in sequence in different positions are perceived as continuous motion. Across three experiments, participants performed temporal order judgment (TOJ) tasks. Experiment 1 was a TOJ task conducted in order to assess audiovisual simultaneity during perception of apparent motion. The results showed that the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS) was shifted toward a sound-lead stimulus, and the just noticeable difference (JND) was reduced compared with a normal TOJ task with a single flash. This indicates that visual apparent motion affects audiovisual simultaneity and improves temporal discrimination in audiovisual processing. Experiment 2 was a TOJ task conducted in order to remove the influence of the amount of flash stimulation from Experiment 1. The PSS and JND during perception of apparent motion were almost identical to those in Experiment 1, but differed from those for successive perception when long temporal intervals were included between two flashes without motion. This showed that the result obtained under the apparent motion condition was unaffected by the amount of flash stimulation. Because apparent motion was produced by a constant interval between two flashes, the results may be accounted for by specific prediction. In Experiment 3, we eliminated the influence of prediction by randomizing the intervals between the two flashes. However, the PSS and JND did not differ from those in Experiment 1. It became clear that the results obtained for the perception of visual apparent motion were not attributable to prediction. Our findings suggest that visual apparent motion changes temporal simultaneity perception and improves temporal discrimination in audiovisual processing. PMID:25295594

  3. The Ground Congruence for Chi Calculus Yuxi Fu Zhenrong Yang

    E-print Network

    Fu, Yuxi

    The Ground Congruence for Chi Calculus Yuxi Fu Zhenrong Yang Department of Computer Science respectively. The x in the label (x) is local. Sequentialization [x].P [x] - P Sqn Composition P - P ln() gn(Q)= P|Q - P |Q Cmp0 P [y/x] - P P|Q [y/x] - P |Q[y/x] Cmp1 Communication P (x) - P Q [y] - Q P|Q - P

  4. G-CO Showing a triangle congruence: the general case

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Suppose $\\triangle ABC$ and $\\triangle PQR$ are distinct, congruent triangles. Using the steps below, show that a congruence can always be shown with o...

  5. G-CO, G-SRT Congruence of parallelograms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-05-28

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Rhianna has learned the SSS and SAS congruence tests for triangles and she wonders if these tests might work for parallelograms. Suppose $ABCD$ and $EF...

  6. Congruence analysis of point clouds from unstable stereo image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jepping, C.; Bethmann, F.; Luhmann, T.

    2014-06-01

    This paper deals with the correction of exterior orientation parameters of stereo image sequences over deformed free-form surfaces without control points. Such imaging situation can occur, for example, during photogrammetric car crash test recordings where onboard high-speed stereo cameras are used to measure 3D surfaces. As a result of such measurements 3D point clouds of deformed surfaces are generated for a complete stereo sequence. The first objective of this research focusses on the development and investigation of methods for the detection of corresponding spatial and temporal tie points within the stereo image sequences (by stereo image matching and 3D point tracking) that are robust enough for a reliable handling of occlusions and other disturbances that may occur. The second objective of this research is the analysis of object deformations in order to detect stable areas (congruence analysis). For this purpose a RANSAC-based method for congruence analysis has been developed. This process is based on the sequential transformation of randomly selected point groups from one epoch to another by using a 3D similarity transformation. The paper gives a detailed description of the congruence analysis. The approach has been tested successfully on synthetic and real image data.

  7. Factors Associated with Congruence Between Preferred and Actual Place of Death

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Christina L.; Somogyi-Zalud, Emese; Masaki, Kamal H.

    2009-01-01

    Congruence between preferred and actual place of death may be an essential component in terminal care. Most patients prefer a home death, but many patients do not die in their preferred location. Specialized (physician, hospice and palliative) home care visits may increase home deaths, but factors associated with congruence have not been systematically reviewed. This study sought to review the extent of congruence reported in the literature, and examine factors that may influence congruence. In July 2009, a comprehensive literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Psych Info, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Reference lists, related articles, and the past five years of six palliative care journals were also searched. Overall congruence rates (percentage of met preferences for all locations of death) were calculated for each study using reported data to allow cross-study comparison. Eighteen articles described 30% to 91% congruence. Eight specialized home care studies reported 59% to 91% congruence. A physician-led home care program reported 91% congruence. Of the 10 studies without specialized home care for all patients, seven reported 56% to 71% congruence and most reported unique care programs. Of the remaining three studies without specialized home care for all patients, two reported 43% to 46% congruence among hospital inpatients, and one elicited patient preference “if everything were possible,” with 30% congruence. Physician support, hospice enrollment, and family support improved congruence in multiple studies. Research in this important area must consider potential sources of bias, the method of eliciting patient preference, and the absence of a single ideal place of death. PMID:20116205

  8. Creativity and its relationship to locus of control, field-independence/dependence and congruence-incongruence 

    E-print Network

    Malatich, James Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    CREATIVITY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO LOCUS OF CONTROL, FIELD-INDEPENDENCE/DEPENDENCE AND CONGRUENCE-INCONGRUENCE A Thesis by JAMES NICHOLAS MALATICH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment...- Independence/Dependence and Congruence-Incongruence (August 1985) James Nicholas Malatich, B. S. , University of Wisconsin ? LaCrosse Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Anthony Bourgeois This study examined the relationship between congruence...

  9. Unconscious Congruency Priming from Unpracticed Words Is Modulated by Prime-Target Semantic Relatedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortells, Juan J.; Mari-Beffa, Paloma; Plaza-Ayllon, Vanesa

    2013-01-01

    Participants performed a 2-choice categorization task on visible word targets that were preceded by novel (unpracticed) prime words. The prime words were presented for 33 ms and followed either immediately (Experiments 1-3) or after a variable delay (Experiments 1 and 4) by a pattern mask. Both subjective and objective measures of prime visibility…

  10. Audio-Visual Localisation and Tracking Using Neurobiologically-Inspired Techniques

    E-print Network

    Wrigley, Stuart

    Audio-Visual Localisation and Tracking Using Neurobiologically-Inspired Techniques Stuart N the neurobiological and psychophysical behaviour of the human oculomotor system. Specifically, smooth pursuit

  11. El Text audiovisual: anàlisi des d'una perspectiva mediològica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Tous i Rovirosa

    2009-01-01

    El text audiovisual: Anàlisi des d'una perspectiva mediològica és una investigació\\u000ade cinc sèries dels Estats Units: El ala oeste de la Casa Blanca (The\\u000awest wing, NBC: 1999-2006), Perdidos (Lost, ABC: 2004- ), Mujeres desesperadas\\u000a(Desperate housewives, ABC: 2004- ), House (House, Fox: 2004- ) i\\u000aCSI: Las Vegas (CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, CBS: 2000- ), pel que fa

  12. Perceived Audiovisual Quality of Low-Bitrate Multimedia Content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Winkler; Christof Faller

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the quality of multimedia content at very low bitrates. We carried out subjective experiments for assessing audiovisual, audio-only, and video-only quality. We se- lected content and encoding parameters that are typical of mobile applications. Our focus were the MPEG-4 AVC (a.k.a. H.264) and AAC coding standards. Based on these data, we first analyze the in- fluence of

  13. Experienced quality factors: qualitative evaluation approach to audiovisual quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu; Häkkinen, Jukka; Nyman, Göte

    2007-02-01

    Subjective evaluation is used to identify impairment factors of multimedia quality. The final quality is often formulated via quantitative experiments, but this approach has its constraints, as subject's quality interpretations, experiences and quality evaluation criteria are disregarded. To identify these quality evaluation factors, this study examined qualitatively the criteria participants used to evaluate audiovisual video quality. A semi-structured interview was conducted with 60 participants after a subjective audiovisual quality evaluation experiment. The assessment compared several, relatively low audio-video bitrate ratios with five different television contents on mobile device. In the analysis, methodological triangulation (grounded theory, Bayesian networks and correspondence analysis) was applied to approach the qualitative quality. The results showed that the most important evaluation criteria were the factors of visual quality, contents, factors of audio quality, usefulness - followability and audiovisual interaction. Several relations between the quality factors and the similarities between the contents were identified. As a research methodological recommendation, the focus on content and usage related factors need to be further examined to improve the quality evaluation experiments.

  14. [Intermodal timing cues for audio-visual speech recognition].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Masahiro; Kumashiro, Masaharu

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the limitations of lip-reading advantages for Japanese young adults by desynchronizing visual and auditory information in speech. In the experiment, audio-visual speech stimuli were presented under the six test conditions: audio-alone, and audio-visually with either 0, 60, 120, 240 or 480 ms of audio delay. The stimuli were the video recordings of a face of a female Japanese speaking long and short Japanese sentences. The intelligibility of the audio-visual stimuli was measured as a function of audio delays in sixteen untrained young subjects. Speech intelligibility under the audio-delay condition of less than 120 ms was significantly better than that under the audio-alone condition. On the other hand, the delay of 120 ms corresponded to the mean mora duration measured for the audio stimuli. The results implied that audio delays of up to 120 ms would not disrupt lip-reading advantage, because visual and auditory information in speech seemed to be integrated on a syllabic time scale. Potential applications of this research include noisy workplace in which a worker must extract relevant speech from all the other competing noises. PMID:15244074

  15. Audiovisual integration of emotional signals from others' social interactions

    PubMed Central

    Piwek, Lukasz; Pollick, Frank; Petrini, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Audiovisual perception of emotions has been typically examined using displays of a solitary character (e.g., the face-voice and/or body-sound of one actor). However, in real life humans often face more complex multisensory social situations, involving more than one person. Here we ask if the audiovisual facilitation in emotion recognition previously found in simpler social situations extends to more complex and ecological situations. Stimuli consisting of the biological motion and voice of two interacting agents were used in two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with visual, auditory, auditory filtered/noisy, and audiovisual congruent and incongruent clips. We asked participants to judge whether the two agents were interacting happily or angrily. In Experiment 2, another group of participants repeated the same task, as in Experiment 1, while trying to ignore either the visual or the auditory information. The findings from both experiments indicate that when the reliability of the auditory cue was decreased participants weighted more the visual cue in their emotional judgments. This in turn translated in increased emotion recognition accuracy for the multisensory condition. Our findings thus point to a common mechanism of multisensory integration of emotional signals irrespective of social stimulus complexity. PMID:26005430

  16. Audiovisual integration of emotional signals from others' social interactions.

    PubMed

    Piwek, Lukasz; Pollick, Frank; Petrini, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Audiovisual perception of emotions has been typically examined using displays of a solitary character (e.g., the face-voice and/or body-sound of one actor). However, in real life humans often face more complex multisensory social situations, involving more than one person. Here we ask if the audiovisual facilitation in emotion recognition previously found in simpler social situations extends to more complex and ecological situations. Stimuli consisting of the biological motion and voice of two interacting agents were used in two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with visual, auditory, auditory filtered/noisy, and audiovisual congruent and incongruent clips. We asked participants to judge whether the two agents were interacting happily or angrily. In Experiment 2, another group of participants repeated the same task, as in Experiment 1, while trying to ignore either the visual or the auditory information. The findings from both experiments indicate that when the reliability of the auditory cue was decreased participants weighted more the visual cue in their emotional judgments. This in turn translated in increased emotion recognition accuracy for the multisensory condition. Our findings thus point to a common mechanism of multisensory integration of emotional signals irrespective of social stimulus complexity. PMID:26005430

  17. Values Congruence: Its Effect on Perceptions of Montana Elementary School Principal Leadership Practices and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorn, Daniel Roy

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between principal and teacher values congruence and perceived principal leadership practices. Additionally, this study considered the relationship between values congruence, leadership practices, and student achievement. The perceptions teachers hold regarding their principal's…

  18. Formal and Emergent Predictors of Coworkers' Perceptual Congruence on an Organization's Social Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heald, Maureen R.; Contractor, Noshir S.; Koehly, Laura M.; Wasserman, Stanley

    1998-01-01

    Examines several factors that are hypothesized to influence the perceptual congruence of organization members (extent to which members agree on their perceptions of the organization's social structure). Proposes that employees' congruence on the organization's social structure is influenced by similarities in formal structure, demographic…

  19. Dharma and Interest-Occupation Congruence in Asian Indian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Saurabh; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2005-01-01

    Interest-occupation congruence and career exploration behaviors were examined in a sample of 107 White and 83 Asian Indian American college students. It was hypothesized that there would be both intergroup differences and intragroup differences. Asian Indians were expected to evidence less congruence and career exploration than Whites. The…

  20. Dimensions of hotel choice criteria: congruence between business and leisure travelers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ugur Yavas; Emin Babakus

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates whether hotel choice attributes decompose into comparable configurations for two important guest groups served by hotels: business and leisure travelers. Each group's responses were factor analyzed and the factor congruency technique was then employed to ascertain the extent of similarity between them. Results indicate that the congruence between the business and leisure travelers is weak in terms

  1. Person–Environment Congruence and Holland's Theory: A Review and Reconsideration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold R. Spokane; Elchanan I. Meir; Michele Catalano

    2000-01-01

    A dozen literary reviews and two meta-analyses of congruence research, operationally defined using John Holland's (1959) theory, continue to reveal a mixture of significant and nonsignificant relations between congruence and a variety of work-related behaviors. Congruenceappears to be a sufficient, though not a necessary, condition for job satisfaction with correlations in the .25 range (5% of variance). Repeated and sometimes

  2. Stable and efficient reduction of large, multiport RC networks by pole analysis via congruence transformations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin J. Kerns; Andrew T. Yang

    1996-01-01

    A novel technique is presented which employs Pole Analysis via Congruence Transformations (PACT) to reduce RC networks in a well-conditioned manner. Pole analysis is shown to be more efficient than Padé approximations when the number of network ports is large, and congruence transforma- tions preserve the passivity (and thus absolute stability) of the networks. Networks are represented by admittance matrices

  3. Stable and efficient reduction of large, multiport RC networks by pole analysis via congruence transformations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin J. Kerns; Andrew T. Yang

    1997-01-01

    A novel technique is presented which employs pole analysis via congruence transformations (PACT) to reduce RC networks in a well-conditioned manner. Pole analysis is shown to be more efficient than Pade approximations when the number of network ports is large, and congruence transformations preserve the passivity (and thus absolute stability) of the networks. The error incurred by reducing the networks

  4. Supervisor and coworker support: a source congruence approach to buffering role conflict and physical stressors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margarita Mayo; Juan I. Sanchez; Juan C. Pastor; Alfredo Rodriguez

    2012-01-01

    The buffering effects of supervisor support on the stressor–strain relationship have proven elusive in prior research (Beehr, Farmer, Glazer, Gudanowski and Nair (2003), ‘The Enigma of Social Support and Occupational Stress: Source Congruence and Gender Role Effects,’ Journal of Occupational and Health Psychology, 8, 220–231). We built on emerging work on source congruence and conservation of resource theory to test

  5. Simulation of Conservative Congruence Transformation: Conservative Properties in the Joint and Cartesian Spaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shih-feng Chen; Imin Kao

    2000-01-01

    The stiffness characteristics of robot systems via the conservative congruence transformation (CCT) and the conventional congruence transformation (CT) between the joint and Cartesian spaces are investigated. A stiffness matrix is conservative if: 1) the force resulting from the stiffness matrix is conservative, and 2) the work done by such force along a closed path is zero. The criteria result in

  6. Congruence between Students' and Teachers' Goals: Implications for Social and Academic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spera, Christopher; Wentzel, Kathryn R.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined student-teacher goal congruence and its relation to social and academic motivation. Based on a sample of 97 ninth-graders, high levels of goal congruence for each of the four goals measured (prosocial, responsibility, learning, performance) was positively related to student interest in class and perceived social support from…

  7. Minding the PS, queues, and PXQs: Uniformity of semantic processing across multiple stimulus types

    PubMed Central

    Laszlo, Sarah; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2009-01-01

    An assumption in the reading literature is that access to semantics is gated by stimulus properties such as orthographic regularity or familiarity. In the electrophysiological domain, this assumption has led to a debate about the features necessary to initiate semantic processing as indexed by theN400 event-related potential (ERP) component. To examine this, we recorded ERPs to sentences with endings that were familiar and legal (words), familiar and illegal (acronyms), or unfamiliar and illegal (consonant or vowel strings). N400 congruency effects (reduced negativity to expected relative to unexpected endings) were observed for words and acronyms; these were identical in size, timing, and scalp distribution. Notably, clear N400 potentials were also elicited by unfamiliar, illegal strings, suggesting that, at least in a verbal context, semantic access may be attempted for any letter string, regardless of familiarity or regularity. PMID:18221447

  8. Introduction Semantic Web

    E-print Network

    Nejdl, Wolfgang

    Introduction Semantic Web Ontologies Linked Data Information Sources Information Extraction Web Application Use Cases Knowledge Bases Entity Linking Entity Retrieval Linked Data Quality Conclusions Papers for Presentations Resources Semantic Web: Extracting and Mining Structured Data from

  9. Goal congruence in project teams: does the fit between members' personal mastery and performance goals matter?

    PubMed

    Kristof-Brown, A L; Stevens, C K

    2001-12-01

    Research on team goals rarely considers the impact of congruence in perceptions of personal goals of self versus other members. In this study of 324 members of 64 short-term project teams, polynomial regression analysis was used to explore how congruence in personal and perceived team mastery and performance goals affected individual outcomes. Results indicated that congruence in perceived performance goals elicited greater individual satisfaction and contributions, regardless of goal strength (i.e.. high or low personal performance goals). Conversely, perceived team mastery goals had a greater effect on individual outcomes than did perceived congruence in self-other mastery goals. Congruent self-actual team goals showed weaker but similar relationships to individual outcomes, but contrary to hypotheses, this effect was not mediated by congruence in perceived self-other goals. PMID:11768052

  10. Audio-Visual Speech Source Separation Bertrand Rivet, Wenwu Wang, Syed Mohsen Naqvi and Jonathon A. Chambers

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Audio-Visual Speech Source Separation Bertrand Rivet, Wenwu Wang, Syed Mohsen Naqvi and Jonathon of audio-visual speech source separation which targets at doing likewise in a machine. Success in audio-visual speech source separation building from early methods which simply use the visual modality

  11. A Citation Comparison of Sourcebooks for Audiovisuals to AVLINE Records: Access and the Chief Source of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weimer, Katherine Hart

    1994-01-01

    Discusses cataloging audiovisual materials and the concept of chief source of information and describes a study that compared citations from fully cataloged audiovisual records with their corresponding citations from bibliographic sourcebooks, based on records in AVLINE (National Library of Medicine's Audiovisual On-Line Catalog). Examples of…

  12. Effect of perceptual load on semantic access by speech in children

    PubMed Central

    Jerger, Susan; Damian, Markus F.; Mills, Candice; Bartlett, James; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Abdi, Hervè

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether semantic access by speech requires attention in children. Method Children (N=200) named pictures and ignored distractors on a cross-modal (distractors: auditory-no face) or multi-modal (distractors: auditory-static face and audiovisual-dynamic face) picture word task. The cross-modal had a low load, and the multi-modal had a high load [i.e., respectively naming pictures displayed 1) on a blank screen vs 2) below the talker’s face on his T-shirt]. Semantic content of distractors was manipulated to be related vs unrelated to picture (e.g., picture dog with distractors bear vs cheese). Lavie's (2005) perceptual load model proposes that semantic access is independent of capacity limited attentional resources if irrelevant semantic-content manipulation influences naming times on both tasks despite variations in loads but dependent on attentional resources exhausted by higher load task if irrelevant content influences naming only on cross-modal (low load). Results Irrelevant semantic content affected performance for both tasks in 6- to 9-year-olds, but only on cross-modal in 4–5-year-olds. The addition of visual speech did not influence results on the multi-modal task. Conclusion Younger and older children differ in dependence on attentional resources for semantic access by speech. PMID:22896045

  13. The heterogeneous world of congruency sequence effects: an update

    PubMed Central

    Duthoo, Wout; Abrahamse, Elger L.; Braem, Senne; Boehler, Carsten N.; Notebaert, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Congruency sequence effects (CSEs) refer to the observation that congruency effects in conflict tasks are typically smaller following incongruent compared to following congruent trials. This measure has long been thought to provide a unique window into top-down attentional adjustments and their underlying brain mechanisms. According to the renowned conflict monitoring theory, CSEs reflect enhanced selective attention following conflict detection. Still, alternative accounts suggested that bottom-up associative learning suffices to explain the pattern of reaction times and error rates. A couple of years ago, a review by Egner (2007) pitted these two rivalry accounts against each other, concluding that both conflict adaptation and feature integration contribute to the CSE. Since then, a wealth of studies has further debated this issue, and two additional accounts have been proposed, offering intriguing alternative explanations. Contingency learning accounts put forward that predictive relationships between stimuli and responses drive the CSE, whereas the repetition expectancy hypothesis suggests that top-down, expectancy-driven control adjustments affect the CSE. In the present paper, we build further on the previous review (Egner, 2007) by summarizing and integrating recent behavioral and neurophysiological studies on the CSE. In doing so, we evaluate the relative contribution and theoretical value of the different attentional and memory-based accounts. Moreover, we review how all of these influences can be experimentally isolated, and discuss designs and procedures that can critically judge between them. PMID:25250005

  14. Investigation of Phase Congruency for SSA Data Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, D.; Sydney, P.; Flewelling, B.

    2014-09-01

    The space situational awareness (SSA) data reduction pipeline is well established and formulated from our innate understanding of CCDs, optical distortion, and viewing conditions. Proper photometric calibration includes dark frame collection as well as the time-consuming task of on-sky flats which can vary with sky brightness and availability. Proper astrometric calibration includes synchronization of all timing sources, proper mount modeling, and jitter reduction. Once calibrated, further data analysis can include streak reduction, PSF fitting, and star separation with such goals as aperture photometry or dim object characterization. The ideal SSA feature detection algorithm would separate statistically-distinct spatial regions of an image into background, objects, and stars without need for darks/flats. Computer vision feature detection techniques may offer this one-stop-shop approach to data reduction and analysis using just the raw frames. One such technique uses phase congruency: a measure of the strength of how well the Fourier components of an image are in-phase which correlates with features such as edges. We examine a phase congruency approach based upon contrast invariant multi-scale image decomposition using simulated and nighttime Raven data.

  15. The Current Status of Audiovisual Definitions and Terminology: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Donald P.

    Because no published glossary of audiovisual terms has yet gained international currency, there is a need to: (1) explore international acceptance of a list of audiovisual terms and definitions; (2) review current efforts to do so; (3) propose criteria for acceptable terms and definitions; and (4) recommend procedures for acceptance of…

  16. Changes of the Prefrontal EEG (Electroencephalogram) Activities According to the Repetition of Audio-Visual Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Jin; Chang, Nam-Kee

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the changes of neuronal response according to a four time repetition of audio-visual learning. Obtains EEG data from the prefrontal (Fp1, Fp2) lobe from 20 subjects at the 8th grade level. Concludes that the habituation of neuronal response shows up in repetitive audio-visual learning and brain hemisphericity can be changed by…

  17. A Team Approach to Developing an Audiovisual Single-Concept Instructional Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke, Martha L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    In 1973, the National Medical Audiovisual Center undertook the production of several audiovisual teaching units, each addressing a single-concept, using a team approach. The production team on the unit "Left Ventricle Catheterization" were a physiologist acting as content specialist, an artist and film producer as production specialist, and an…

  18. Engineering multimedia applications on the basis of multi-structured descriptions of audiovisual contents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Caillet; Jean Carrive; Cécile Roisin; François Yvon

    2007-01-01

    We focus our interest on the engineering of multimedia ap- plications whose purpose is to exploit and make best use of the audiovisual heritage by means of prospective explo- ration of virtual access to audiovisual documents through multi-structured descriptions of these. Multi-structured de- scriptions are composed of multiple descriptors that are ex- pressed using the FDL (Feria Description Language) object

  19. Audiovisual integration of stimulus transients Tobias S. Andersen a,b,*, Pascal Mamassian c

    E-print Network

    Mamassian, Pascal

    Audiovisual integration of stimulus transients Tobias S. Andersen a,b,*, Pascal Mamassian c stimulus transients as the basis for audiovisual integration. Facilitation of luminance detection occurred integration may occur when perceiving auditory and visual intensity transients. More specifi- cally, we expect

  20. An Analysis of Audiovisual Machines for Individual Program Presentation. Research Memorandum Number Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, James D.; Weintraub, Royd

    The Medical Information Project (MIP) purpose to select the right type of audiovisual equipment for communicating new medical information to general practitioners of medicine was hampered by numerous difficulties. There is a lack of uniformity and standardization in audiovisual equipment that amounts to chaos. There is no evaluative literature on…

  1. Blind Audio-Visual Source Separation based on Sparse Redundant Representations

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Blind Audio-Visual Source Separation based on Sparse Redundant Representations Anna Llagostera a novel method which is able to detect and separate audio-visual sources present in a scene. Our method to separate the audio signal in periods during which several sources are mixed. The proposed approach has been

  2. Energetic and informational masking effects in an audio-visual speech recognition system.

    E-print Network

    Barker, Jon

    1 Energetic and informational masking effects in an audio-visual speech recognition system. Jon Barker and Xu Shao Abstract The paper presents a robust audio-visual speech recognition technique called on a small vocabulary simultaneous speech recognition task in conditions that promote two contrasting types

  3. Exploring Student Perceptions of Audiovisual Feedback via Screencasting in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieson, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Using Moore's (1993) theory of transactional distance as a framework, this action research study explored students' perceptions of audiovisual feedback provided via screencasting as a supplement to text-only feedback. A crossover design was employed to ensure that all students experienced both text-only and text-plus-audiovisual feedback and to…

  4. Children with a History of SLI Show Reduced Sensitivity to Audiovisual Temporal Asynchrony: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaganovich, Natalya; Schumaker, Jennifer; Leonard, Laurence B.; Gustafson, Dana; Macias, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined whether school-age children with a history of specific language impairment (H-SLI), their peers with typical development (TD), and adults differ in sensitivity to audiovisual temporal asynchrony and whether such difference stems from the sensory encoding of audiovisual information. Method: Fifteen H-SLI children, 15…

  5. A Short History of Audiovisual Education in Japan. AVE in Japan No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japan Audio-Visual Education Association, Tokyo.

    This brief history of audiovisual education in Japan covers (1) the utilization of slides, films, and radio prior to 1945; (2) film education activities after World War II; (3) the establishment and objectives of the Audiovisual Education Division of the Ministry of Education; (4) educational film production from 1945-1954; (5) the use of films in…

  6. The Use of Audiovisual Resources for Scholarly Research: A Jazz Archive as a Multidiscipline Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Marie P.

    1985-01-01

    Examination of the jazz archive as a primary resource emphasizes research potential of jazz sound recordings as an example of use of audiovisual materials for scholarly research. Discussion covers field recordings, commercial recordings, noncommercial recordings, archival collections, musicological research, visual resources, audiovisual

  7. Engineering Multimedia Applications on the basis of Multi-Structured Descriptions of Audiovisual Contents

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Engineering Multimedia Applications on the basis of Multi-Structured Descriptions of Audiovisual of multimedia ap- plications whose purpose is to exploit and make best use of the audiovisual heritage by means provides a multimedia developer with operations on descriptions and their inner descriptors, as well

  8. Making the Semantic Web a Reality through Active Semantic Spaces

    E-print Network

    Menczer, Filippo

    Making the Semantic Web a Reality through Active Semantic Spaces Yihong Ding1 , Ying Ding2 , David acceptance of the Semantic Web is the lack of simple, straightforward, and attractive end-user showcases of Semantic Web technologies, service agent technologies, and Web 2.0 technologies. Semantic Web technologies

  9. Semantically Interoperable XML Data.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2013-09-01

    XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups. PMID:25298789

  10. Semantically Interoperable XML Data

    PubMed Central

    Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2013-01-01

    XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups. PMID:25298789

  11. Neural correlates of audiovisual temporal processing - Comparison of temporal order and simultaneity judgments.

    PubMed

    Binder, M

    2015-08-01

    Multisensory integration is one of the essential features of perception. Though the processing of spatial information is an important clue to understand its mechanisms, a complete knowledge cannot be achieved without taking into account the processing of temporal information. Simultaneity judgments (SJs) and temporal order judgments (TOJs) are the two most widely used procedures for explicit estimation of temporal relations between sensory stimuli. Behavioral studies suggest that both tasks recruit different sets of cognitive operations. On the other hand, empirical evidence related to their neuronal underpinnings is still scarce, especially with regard to multisensory stimulation. The aim of the current fMRI study was to explore neural correlates of both tasks using paradigm with audiovisual stimuli. Fifteen subjects performed TOJ and SJ tasks grouped in 18-second blocks. Subjects were asked to estimate onset synchrony or temporal order of onsets of non-semantic auditory and visual stimuli. Common areas of activation elicited by both tasks were found in the bilateral fronto-parietal network, including regions whose activity can be also observed in tasks involving spatial selective attention. This can be regarded as an evidence for the hypothesis that tasks involving selection based on temporal information engage the similar regions as the attentional tasks based on spatial information. The direct contrast between the SJ task and the TOJ task did not reveal any regions showing stronger activity for SJ task than in TOJ task. The reverse contrast revealed a number of left hemisphere regions which were more active during the TOJ task than the SJ task. They were found in the prefrontal cortex, the parietal lobules (superior and inferior) and in the occipito-temporal regions. These results suggest that the TOJ task requires recruitment of additional cognitive operations in comparison to SJ task. They are probably associated with forming representations of stimuli as separate and temporally ordered sensory events. PMID:25982561

  12. Temporal Processing of Audiovisual Stimuli Is Enhanced in Musicians: Evidence from Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yao; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Herholz, Sibylle C.; Kuchenbuch, Anja; Pantev, Christo

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that the structural and functional differences between professional musicians and non-musicians are not only found within a single modality, but also with regard to multisensory integration. In this study we have combined psychophysical with neurophysiological measurements investigating the processing of non-musical, synchronous or various levels of asynchronous audiovisual events. We hypothesize that long-term multisensory experience alters temporal audiovisual processing already at a non-musical stage. Behaviorally, musicians scored significantly better than non-musicians in judging whether the auditory and visual stimuli were synchronous or asynchronous. At the neural level, the statistical analysis for the audiovisual asynchronous response revealed three clusters of activations including the ACC and the SFG and two bilaterally located activations in IFG and STG in both groups. Musicians, in comparison to the non-musicians, responded to synchronous audiovisual events with enhanced neuronal activity in a broad left posterior temporal region that covers the STG, the insula and the Postcentral Gyrus. Musicians also showed significantly greater activation in the left Cerebellum, when confronted with an audiovisual asynchrony. Taken together, our MEG results form a strong indication that long-term musical training alters the basic audiovisual temporal processing already in an early stage (direct after the auditory N1 wave), while the psychophysical results indicate that musical training may also provide behavioral benefits in the accuracy of the estimates regarding the timing of audiovisual events. PMID:24595014

  13. Audio-Visual Temporal Recalibration Can be Constrained by Content Cues Regardless of Spatial Overlap

    PubMed Central

    Roseboom, Warrick; Kawabe, Takahiro; Nishida, Shin’Ya

    2013-01-01

    It has now been well established that the point of subjective synchrony for audio and visual events can be shifted following exposure to asynchronous audio-visual presentations, an effect often referred to as temporal recalibration. Recently it was further demonstrated that it is possible to concurrently maintain two such recalibrated estimates of audio-visual temporal synchrony. However, it remains unclear precisely what defines a given audio-visual pair such that it is possible to maintain a temporal relationship distinct from other pairs. It has been suggested that spatial separation of the different audio-visual pairs is necessary to achieve multiple distinct audio-visual synchrony estimates. Here we investigated if this is necessarily true. Specifically, we examined whether it is possible to obtain two distinct temporal recalibrations for stimuli that differed only in featural content. Using both complex (audio visual speech; see Experiment 1) and simple stimuli (high and low pitch audio matched with either vertically or horizontally oriented Gabors; see Experiment 2) we found concurrent, and opposite, recalibrations despite there being no spatial difference in presentation location at any point throughout the experiment. This result supports the notion that the content of an audio-visual pair alone can be used to constrain distinct audio-visual synchrony estimates regardless of spatial overlap. PMID:23658549

  14. Talker variability in audio-visual speech perception.

    PubMed

    Heald, Shannon L M; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2014-01-01

    A change in talker is a change in the context for the phonetic interpretation of acoustic patterns of speech. Different talkers have different mappings between acoustic patterns and phonetic categories and listeners need to adapt to these differences. Despite this complexity, listeners are adept at comprehending speech in multiple-talker contexts, albeit at a slight but measurable performance cost (e.g., slower recognition). So far, this talker variability cost has been demonstrated only in audio-only speech. Other research in single-talker contexts have shown, however, that when listeners are able to see a talker's face, speech recognition is improved under adverse listening (e.g., noise or distortion) conditions that can increase uncertainty in the mapping between acoustic patterns and phonetic categories. Does seeing a talker's face reduce the cost of word recognition in multiple-talker contexts? We used a speeded word-monitoring task in which listeners make quick judgments about target word recognition in single- and multiple-talker contexts. Results show faster recognition performance in single-talker conditions compared to multiple-talker conditions for both audio-only and audio-visual speech. However, recognition time in a multiple-talker context was slower in the audio-visual condition compared to audio-only condition. These results suggest that seeing a talker's face during speech perception may slow recognition by increasing the importance of talker identification, signaling to the listener a change in talker has occurred. PMID:25076919

  15. Depth Cues and Perceived Audiovisual Synchrony of Biological Motion

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Carlos César; Mendonça, Catarina; Mouta, Sandra; Silva, Rosa; Campos, José Creissac; Santos, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to their different propagation times, visual and auditory signals from external events arrive at the human sensory receptors with a disparate delay. This delay consistently varies with distance, but, despite such variability, most events are perceived as synchronic. There is, however, contradictory data and claims regarding the existence of compensatory mechanisms for distance in simultaneity judgments. Principal Findings In this paper we have used familiar audiovisual events – a visual walker and footstep sounds – and manipulated the number of depth cues. In a simultaneity judgment task we presented a large range of stimulus onset asynchronies corresponding to distances of up to 35 meters. We found an effect of distance over the simultaneity estimates, with greater distances requiring larger stimulus onset asynchronies, and vision always leading. This effect was stronger when both visual and auditory cues were present but was interestingly not found when depth cues were impoverished. Significance These findings reveal that there should be an internal mechanism to compensate for audiovisual delays, which critically depends on the depth information available. PMID:24244617

  16. CONGRUENCES FOR GENERALIZED FROBENIUS PARTITIONS WITH AN ARBITRARILY LARGE NUMBER OF COLORS

    E-print Network

    Garvan, Frank

    , with recent works completed by Baruah and Sarmah as well as the author. Unfortunately, in all cases, this work has continued. Baruah and Sarmah [3] proved a number of congruence properties for c4, all

  17. Unconscious context-specific proportion congruency effect in a stroop-like task.

    PubMed

    Panadero, A; Castellanos, M C; Tudela, P

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control is a central topic of interest in psychology and cognitive neuroscience and has traditionally been associated with consciousness. However, recent research suggests that cognitive control may be unconscious in character. The main purpose of our study was to further explore this area of research focusing on the possibly unconscious nature of the conflict adaptation effect, specifically the context-specific proportion congruency effect (CSPCE), by using a masked Stroop-like task where the proportion of congruency was associated to various masks. We used electrophysiological measures to analyze the neural correlates of the CSPCE. Results showed evidence of an unconscious CSPCE in reaction times (RTs) and the N2 and P3 components. In addition, the P2 component evoked by both target and masks indicated that the proportion of congruency was processed earlier than the congruency between the color word and the ink color of the target. Taken together, our results provided evidence pointing to an unconscious CSPCE. PMID:25460239

  18. Semantic Social Software: Semantically Enabled Social Software or Socially Enabled Semantic Web?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Schaert

    Semantic Social Software - the combination of social soft- ware and Semantic Web technology - has recently been gaining signif- icant attention in the Semantic Web community. This article first dis- cusses the two dierent perspectives the research community takes on \\

  19. Ideal Self-Image Congruency as a Motivator for Smoking: The Moderating Effects of Personality Traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chingching Chang

    2007-01-01

    A content analysis showed that cigarette advertising in Taiwan from June 2001 to May 2003 portrayed smokers as masculine, adventurous, pleasure-loving, and sociable. A survey of 1,490 high school students further indicated that smokers and nonsmokers differ in the congruency between their ideal self-images and the perceived smoker image on these 4 image dimensions. The self–smoker image congruency was greater

  20. Can conceptual congruency effects between number, time, and space be accounted for by polarity correspondence?

    PubMed

    Santiago, Julio; Lakens, Daniël

    2015-03-01

    Conceptual congruency effects have been interpreted as evidence for the idea that the representations of abstract conceptual dimensions (e.g., power, affective valence, time, number, importance) rest on more concrete dimensions (e.g., space, brightness, weight). However, an alternative theoretical explanation based on the notion of polarity correspondence has recently received empirical support in the domains of valence and morality, which are related to vertical space (e.g., good things are up). In the present study we provide empirical arguments against the applicability of the polarity correspondence account to congruency effects in two conceptual domains related to lateral space: number and time. Following earlier research, we varied the polarity of the response dimension (left-right) by manipulating keyboard eccentricity. In a first experiment we successfully replicated the congruency effect between vertical and lateral space and its interaction with response eccentricity. We then examined whether this modulation of a concrete-concrete congruency effect can be extended to two types of concrete-abstract effects, those between left-right space and number (in both parity and magnitude judgment tasks), and temporal reference. In all three tasks response eccentricity failed to modulate the congruency effects. We conclude that polarity correspondence does not provide an adequate explanation of conceptual congruency effects in the domains of number and time. PMID:25542784

  1. Congruence between gender stereotypes and activity preference in self-identified tomboys and non-tomboys.

    PubMed

    Martin, Carol Lynn; Dinella, Lisa M

    2012-06-01

    The major goal was to examine a central tenet of cognitive approaches to gender development, namely, that congruence exists between personal gender stereotypes and behaviors. Item-by-item comparisons of girls' stereotypes about activities and their preferences for activities were conducted, for both girls who claimed to be tomboys and those who did not. Congruence was expected for all girls, but because of their gender non-normative interests, tomboys may exhibit less congruence. A secondary goal was to examine factors that might influence congruence, specifically, whether tomboys develop more inclusive stereotypes and develop greater understanding of stereotype variability. Participants included 112 girls (7-12 years old, M age=9). Girls were interviewed about their activity preferences, beliefs about girls' and boys' activity preferences, understanding variability of stereotypes, and identification as tomboys. Tomboys (30% of the sample) and non-tomboys did not differ in their liking of or in the number of liked feminine activities. However, tomboys showed more interest in masculine activities than non-tomboys. Tomboys and non-tomboys did not differ in stereotype inclusiveness, although tomboys showed a trend toward more inclusive stereotypes. Both groups showed high levels of congruence between stereotypes and preferences. Congruence was stronger for nontomboys (14 times more likely to exhibit responses congruent with stereotypes vs. incongruent ones), as compared to tomboys who were four times more likely to exhibit responses congruent with stereotypes versus incongruent ones. Implications of these findings for cognitive approaches to gender development are discussed. PMID:21755383

  2. Hitzler Semantic Web Rostock Januar 2009 Semantic Web

    E-print Network

    Hitzler, Pascal

    Hitzler Semantic Web Rostock Januar 2009 AIFB Slide 1 Semantic Web PD Dr. Pascal Hitzler AIFB, University of Karlsruhe, Germany http://www.pascal-hitzler.de Rostock, Januar 2009 #12;Hitzler Semantic Web sind Europameister" #12;Hitzler Semantic Web Rostock Januar 2009 AIFB Slide 3 Lehrbuch · Hitzler

  3. The Democratization of Semantic Properties: An Analysis of Semantic Wikis

    E-print Network

    Gil, Yolanda

    The Democratization of Semantic Properties: An Analysis of Semantic Wikis Yolanda Gil Information California 4676 Admiralty Way Marina del Rey CA, 90292 varunr@isi.edu, ricky@sethi Abstract--Semantic wikis augment wikis with semantic properties that can be used to aggregate and query data through reasoning

  4. Heterogeneous Semantics in Ptolemy

    E-print Network

    California at Irvine, University of

    Modeling Heterogeneous Semantics in Ptolemy with Modular Actor Interfaces Chris Shaver working analyses and forms of verification that cross the boundaries of heterogeneous composition. #12;Ptolemy II be understood in clear mathematical terms. From "A Modular Formal Semantics for Ptolemy", Tripakis et al

  5. Semantic Citation Indiana University

    E-print Network

    Menczer, Filippo

    referencing services to linking bibliographical papers and citations with existing Linked Open Data. It aims Measurement, Design, Keywords semantic web, citation analysis, Linked Open Data (LOD) 1. INTRODUCTION and knowledge discovery. Adding semantics to bibliographical data and citation data is an on-going research

  6. Semantic Web Pascal Hitzler

    E-print Network

    Hitzler, Pascal

    Chapter 1 Semantic Web Pascal Hitzler Kno.e.sis Center, Wright State University, Dayton, OH, USA 1.1.1 Languages for Representing Knowledge on the Web ............................. 2 1.1.2 Formal the Semantic Web Vision ................................ 4 1.1.4 Linked Data

  7. Logical Foundations Semantic Web

    E-print Network

    Sattler, Ulrike

    Logical Foundations for the Semantic Web Ian Horrocks and Ulrike Sattler University of Manchester Manchester, UK {horrocks|sattler}@cs.man.ac.uk #12;Introduction #12;History of the Semantic Web · Web of the Web was much more ambitious than the reality of the existing (syntactic) Web: · TBL (and others) have

  8. Learning with Semantic Wikis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Schaffert; Diana Bischof; Tobias Bürger; Andreas Gruber; Wolf Hilzensauer; Sandra Schaffert

    2006-01-01

    The knowledge society requires life-long learning and flexible learning environments that allow learners to learn whenever they have time, whereever they are, and according to their own needs and back- ground knowledge. In this article, we investigate how Semantic Wikis - a combination of Wiki and Semantic Web technology - can support learners in such flexible learning environments. We first

  9. The development of sensorimotor influences in the audiovisual speech domain: some critical questions

    PubMed Central

    Guellaï, Bahia; Streri, Arlette; Yeung, H. Henny

    2014-01-01

    Speech researchers have long been interested in how auditory and visual speech signals are integrated, and the recent work has revived interest in the role of speech production with respect to this process. Here, we discuss these issues from a developmental perspective. Because speech perception abilities typically outstrip speech production abilities in infancy and childhood, it is unclear how speech-like movements could influence audiovisual speech perception in development. While work on this question is still in its preliminary stages, there is nevertheless increasing evidence that sensorimotor processes (defined here as any motor or proprioceptive process related to orofacial movements) affect developmental audiovisual speech processing. We suggest three areas on which to focus in future research: (i) the relation between audiovisual speech perception and sensorimotor processes at birth, (ii) the pathways through which sensorimotor processes interact with audiovisual speech processing in infancy, and (iii) developmental change in sensorimotor pathways as speech production emerges in childhood. PMID:25147528

  10. 36 CFR 1237.20 - What are special considerations in the maintenance of audiovisual records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...produced records.) (f) Create unique identifiers for all audiovisual records (e.g., for digital files, use file naming conventions), that clarify connections between related elements (e.g., photographic prints and negatives, or...

  11. I can see, hear, and smell your fear: comparing olfactory and audiovisual media in fear communication.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Jasper H B; Semin, Gün R; Smeets, Monique A M

    2014-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that humans can become fearful after exposure to olfactory fear signals, yet these studies have reported the effects of fear chemosignals without examining emotion-relevant input from traditional communication modalities (i.e., vision, audition). The question that we pursued here was therefore: How significant is an olfactory fear signal in the broader context of audiovisual input that either confirms or contradicts olfactory information? To test this, we manipulated olfactory (fear, no fear) and audiovisual (fear, no fear) information and demonstrated that olfactory fear signals were as potent as audiovisual fear signals in eliciting a fearful facial expression. Irrespective of confirmatory or contradictory audiovisual information, olfactory fear signals produced by senders induced fear in receivers outside of conscious access. These findings run counter to traditional views that emotions are communicated exclusively via visual and linguistic channels. PMID:23855495

  12. Effects of audio-visual stimulation on the incidence of restraint ulcers on the Wistar rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. S.; Martin, F.; Lambert, R.

    1979-01-01

    The role of sensory simulation in restrained rats was investigated. Both mixed audio-visual and pure sound stimuli, ineffective in themselves, were found to cause a significant increase in the incidence of restraint ulcers in the Wistar Rat.

  13. Pull the Other One: Exploring the communicative power of audiovisual cues when feigning knowledge. 

    E-print Network

    Aquarone, Bethany

    2010-03-17

    Various audio-visual cues have been found to increase when people are deceiving. Similarly, these cues have also been reported to affect judgements of speaker certainty and confidence. In this study, both types of research ...

  14. Real-time audiovisual speech capture and motion tracking for speech-driven facial animation

    E-print Network

    Jablonski, Karl Adam

    2013-02-22

    movements through speech patterns, they are limited by their storage requirements and high-priced equipment. Furthermore, the audiovisual processing can be delayed, taking place after the initial capture and transfer of all required audio and video...

  15. Enhancing medical database semantics.

    PubMed Central

    Leão, B. de F.; Pavan, A.

    1995-01-01

    Medical Databases deal with dynamic, heterogeneous and fuzzy data. The modeling of such complex domain demands powerful semantic data modeling methodologies. This paper describes GSM-Explorer a Case Tool that allows for the creation of relational databases using semantic data modeling techniques. GSM Explorer fully incorporates the Generic Semantic Data Model-GSM enabling knowledge engineers to model the application domain with the abstraction mechanisms of generalization/specialization, association and aggregation. The tool generates a structure that implements persistent database-objects through the automatic generation of customized SQL ANSI scripts that sustain the semantics defined in the higher lever. This paper emphasizes the system architecture and the mapping of the semantic model into relational tables. The present status of the project and its further developments are discussed in the Conclusions. PMID:8563288

  16. A Semantic Graph Query Language

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I L

    2006-10-16

    Semantic graphs can be used to organize large amounts of information from a number of sources into one unified structure. A semantic query language provides a foundation for extracting information from the semantic graph. The graph query language described here provides a simple, powerful method for querying semantic graphs.

  17. The UCREL Semantic Analysis System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Rayson; Dawn Archer; Scott Piao; Tony McEnery

    The UCREL semantic analysis system (USAS) is a software tool for undertaking the automatic semantic analysis of English spoken and written data. This paper describes the software system, and the hierarchical semantic tag set containing 21 major discourse fields and 232 fine-grained semantic field tags. We discuss the manually constructed lexical resources on which the system relies, and the seven

  18. The UCREL semantic analysis system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Rayson; D. Archer; S. L. Piao; T. Mcenery

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The UCREL semantic analysis system (USAS) is a software tool for undertaking the automatic semantic analysis of English spoken and written data. This paper describes the software system, and the hierarchical semantic tag set containing 21 major discourse fields and 232 fine-grained semantic field tags. We discuss the manually constructed lexical resources on which the system relies, and the

  19. A comprehensive audio-visual corpus for teaching sound Persian phoneme articulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azam Bastanfard; Maryam Fazel; Alireza Abdi Kelishami; Mohammad Aghaahmadi

    2009-01-01

    Building an audio-visual data corpus is one significant step in audio-visual research. One of the most challenging tasks in computer science is computer-aided speech therapy and language learning. Developing computer applications for training and rehabilitation of the handicapped and helping the hearing and speaking-impaired by facial speech synthesis are among the most helpful, state-of-the-art roles of computer technology in today's

  20. Design and Recording of Czech Audio-Visual Database with Impaired Conditions for Continuous Speech Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jana Trojanová; Marek Hrúz; Pavel Campr; Milos Zelezný

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the design, acquisition and preprocessing of a Czech audio-visual speech corpus. The corpus is intended for training and testing of existing audio-visual speech recognition system. The name of the database is UWB-07-ICAVR, where ICAVR stands for Impaired Condition Audio Visual speech Recognition. The corpus consist of 10000 utterances of continuous speech obtained from 50 speakers.

  1. Fused HMM-adaptation of multi-stream HMMs for audio-visual speech recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Dean; Patrick Lucey; Sridha Sridharan; Tim Wark

    2007-01-01

    A technique known as fused hidden Markov models (FHMMs) was recently proposed as an alternative multi-stream modelling technique for audio-visual speaker recognition. In this paper we show that for audio-visual speech recognition (AVSR), FH- MMs can be adopted as a novel method of training synchronous MSHMMs. MSHMMs, as proposed by several authors for use in AVSR, are jointly trained on

  2. Artimate: an articulatory animation framework for audiovisual speech synthesis

    E-print Network

    Steiner, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    We present a modular framework for articulatory animation synthesis using speech motion capture data obtained with electromagnetic articulography (EMA). Adapting a skeletal animation approach, the articulatory motion data is applied to a three-dimensional (3D) model of the vocal tract, creating a portable resource that can be integrated in an audiovisual (AV) speech synthesis platform to provide realistic animation of the tongue and teeth for a virtual character. The framework also provides an interface to articulatory animation synthesis, as well as an example application to illustrate its use with a 3D game engine. We rely on cross-platform, open-source software and open standards to provide a lightweight, accessible, and portable workflow.

  3. "Pre-semantic" cognition revisited: critical differences between semantic aphasia and semantic dementia.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T; Hopper, Samantha; Ralph, Matthew A Lambon

    2010-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal "pre-semantic" tasks, e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are atypical of the domain and "regularization errors" (irregular/atypical items are produced as if they were domain-typical). The emergence of this pattern across diverse tasks in the same patients indicates that semantic memory plays a key role in all of these types of "pre-semantic" processing. However, this claim remains controversial because semantically impaired patients sometimes fail to show an influence of regularity. This study demonstrates that (a) the location of brain damage and (b) the underlying nature of the semantic deficit affect the likelihood of observing the expected relationship between poor comprehension and regularity effects. We compared the effect of multimodal semantic impairment in the context of semantic dementia and stroke aphasia on the seven "pre-semantic" tasks listed above. In all of these tasks, the semantic aphasia patients were less sensitive to typicality than the semantic dementia patients, even though the two groups obtained comparable scores on semantic tests. The semantic aphasia group also made fewer regularization errors and many more unrelated and perseverative responses. We propose that these group differences reflect the different locus for the semantic impairment in the two conditions: patients with semantic dementia have degraded semantic representations, whereas semantic aphasia patients show deregulated semantic cognition with concomitant executive deficits. These findings suggest a reinterpretation of single-case studies of comprehension-impaired aphasic patients who fail to show the expected effect of regularity on "pre-semantic" tasks. Consequently, such cases do not demonstrate the independence of these tasks from semantic memory. PMID:19766662

  4. 36 CFR 1256.96 - What provisions apply to the transfer of USIA audiovisual records to the National Archives of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...USIA audiovisual records to the National Archives of the United States? 1256.96 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States §...

  5. 36 CFR 1256.98 - Can I get access to and obtain copies of USIA audiovisual records transferred to the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...audiovisual records transferred to the National Archives of the United States? 1256.98 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States §...

  6. 36 CFR 1256.98 - Can I get access to and obtain copies of USIA audiovisual records transferred to the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...audiovisual records transferred to the National Archives of the United States? 1256.98 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States §...

  7. 36 CFR 1256.98 - Can I get access to and obtain copies of USIA audiovisual records transferred to the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...audiovisual records transferred to the National Archives of the United States? 1256.98 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States §...

  8. 36 CFR 1256.96 - What provisions apply to the transfer of USIA audiovisual records to the National Archives of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...USIA audiovisual records to the National Archives of the United States? 1256.96 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States §...

  9. 36 CFR 1256.96 - What provisions apply to the transfer of USIA audiovisual records to the National Archives of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...USIA audiovisual records to the National Archives of the United States? 1256.96 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States §...

  10. 36 CFR 1256.96 - What provisions apply to the transfer of USIA audiovisual records to the National Archives of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...USIA audiovisual records to the National Archives of the United States? 1256.96 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States §...

  11. 36 CFR 1256.98 - Can I get access to and obtain copies of USIA audiovisual records transferred to the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...audiovisual records transferred to the National Archives of the United States? 1256.98 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States §...

  12. 36 CFR 1256.98 - Can I get access to and obtain copies of USIA audiovisual records transferred to the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...audiovisual records transferred to the National Archives of the United States? 1256.98 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States §...

  13. 36 CFR 1256.96 - What provisions apply to the transfer of USIA audiovisual records to the National Archives of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...USIA audiovisual records to the National Archives of the United States? 1256.96 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States §...

  14. Identity and belonging in social learning groups: the importance of distinguishing social, operational and knowledge?related identity congruence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gwyneth Hughes

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative learning has much to offer but not all learners participate fully and peer groups can be exclusive. The article examines how belonging or ‘congruence’ in learning groups is related to identities of gender, age, ethnicity and socio?economic status. A study of student experiences of collaborative learning on three different blended learning courses illustrated how learners negotiate identity congruence with

  15. Moderation of the Relation between Person-Environment Congruence and Academic Success: Environmental Constraint, Personal Flexibility and Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Terence J. G.; Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    The relation of interest-major congruence to indicators of college success was examined as it was moderated by environmental constraint, individual flexibility, and congruence definition in an initial sample of 88,813 undergraduates (38,787 men and 50,026 women) from 42 different colleges and universities in 16 states. College achievement (GPA…

  16. Why It Is Too Early to Lose Control in Accounts of Item-Specific Proportion Congruency Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugg, Julie M.; Jacoby, Larry L.; Chanani, Swati

    2011-01-01

    The item-specific proportion congruency (ISPC) effect is the finding of attenuated interference for mostly incongruent as compared to mostly congruent items. A debate in the Stroop literature concerns the mechanisms underlying this effect. Noting a confound between proportion congruency and contingency, Schmidt and Besner (2008) suggested that…

  17. DEFINABLE PRINCIPAL CONGRUENCES AND SOLVABILITY PAWEL M. IDZIAK, KEITH A. KEARNES, EMIL W. KISS, MATTHEW A. VALERIOTE

    E-print Network

    Kearnes, Keith A.

    DEFINABLE PRINCIPAL CONGRUENCES AND SOLVABILITY PAWEL M. IDZIAK, KEITH A. KEARNES, EMIL W. KISS that a variety of lattices has DPC if and only if it is distributive and in [10] Kiss generalizes, KEITH A. KEARNES, EMIL W. KISS, MATTHEW A. VALERIOTE In this paper we investigate solvable congruences

  18. Congruence or Discrepancy? Comparing Patients' Health Valuations and Physicians' Treatment Goals for Rehabilitation for Patients with Chronic Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagl, Michaela; Farin, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the congruence of patients' health valuations and physicians' treatment goals for the rehabilitation of chronically ill patients. In addition, patient characteristics associated with greater or less congruence were to be determined. In a questionnaire study, patients' health valuations and physicians' goals were…

  19. Congruency between Word Position and Meaning is Caused by Task-Induced Spatial Attention

    PubMed Central

    Pecher, Diane; Van Dantzig, Saskia; Boot, Inge; Zanolie, Kiki; Huber, David E.

    2010-01-01

    We report an experiment that compared two explanations for the effect of congruency between a word's on screen spatial position and its meaning. On one account, congruency is explained by the match between position and a mental simulation of meaning. Alternatively, congruency is explained by the polarity alignment principle. To distinguish between these accounts we presented the same object names (e.g., shark, helicopter) in a sky decision task or an ocean decision task, such that response polarity and typical location were disentangled. Sky decision responses were faster to words at the top of the screen compared to words at the bottom of the screen, but the reverse was found for ocean decision responses. These results are problematic for the polarity principle, and support the claim that spatial attention is directed by mental simulation of the task-relevant conceptual dimension. PMID:21833200

  20. The enigma of social support and occupational stress: source congruence and gender role effects.

    PubMed

    Beehr, Terry A; Farmer, Suzanne J; Glazer, Sharon; Gudanowski, David M; Nair, Vandana Nadig

    2003-07-01

    Research on the potential ameliorating effects of social support on occupational stress produces weak, inconsistent, and even contradictory results. This study of 117 employees, mostly from a southern U.S. hospital supply company, examined potential moderators that were theorized might reduce the confusion: source congruence (congruence between sources of the stressor and of social support) and gender role. Congruence between the sources of stressors and of social support appeared to make little difference in determining the moderating or buffering effect of social support on the relationship between stressors and strain. Gender role, however, may moderate the relationship between social support and individual stains such that more feminine people react more strongly and positively to social support than more masculine people do. PMID:12872959

  1. Can personality traits predict pathological responses to audiovisual stimulation?

    PubMed

    Yambe, Tomoyuki; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Fukudo, Shin; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Shizuka, Kazuhiko; Nanka, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Akira; Abe, Ken-ichi; Shouji, Tomonori; Hongo, Michio; Tabayashi, Kouichi; Nitta, Shin-ichi

    2003-10-01

    The "Pockemon shock" is the most famous accident in the history of the broadcasting industry in Japan. Based on the experiences of this unfortunate accident from famous animation program "Pocket Monster", this study focused on the psychology and psychosomatics of the patients. A head-mounted display was used as the three-dimensional image presentation device and "Descent", a free software shooting game, was used as the software. Ten healthy adult male volunteers were used in this experiment after obtaining their informed consent. The oxygen metabolic change in the anterior lobe of the brain was measured by near infrared spectroscopy and recorded on an electrocardiogram. The mental scaling tendency of the object was analyzed using the type A behavior pattern and the hostility scaling. The Cook and Medley hostility (HO) scale from the Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI) was also used in this experiment. From this scaling methodology, the paranoid scale, cynicism scale, lie scale, social support quality and social support quantity were calculated. All measured time series data were kept in the normal range, and no fatal arrhythmia or epilepsy were observed during experiments. In some cases, the brain oxygen metabolism may completely differ for the objects of Type A and Type B behavior patterns. On the whole, correlation did not become significant in type A scaling and hostility scaling. In a comparison of the percent changes of the HF in HRV with lie scaling, significant negative correlation was observed. The social support quantity was calculated from Cook and Medley, and significant negative correlations were observed with percent changes of LF/HF in HRV. The lie scale and social support quantity are opposite scaling. The sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system have an opposite function also. Therefore, our results showed an interesting phenomenon, when considering the relationship between the autonomic function and the pathophysiological reaction to the audiovisual stimulations. As for the photo sensitive epilepsy, it was reported to be only 5-10% for all patients. Therefore, 90% or more of the cause could not be determined in patients who started a morbid response. The results in this study suggest that the autonomic function was connected to the mental tendency of the objects. By examining such directivity, it is expected that subjects, which show morbid reaction to an audiovisual stimulation, can be screened beforehand. PMID:14572681

  2. Python programming --Semantic Web Finn Arup Nielsen

    E-print Network

    Python programming -- Semantic Web Finn °Arup Nielsen DTU Compute Technical University of Denmark October 9, 2013 #12;Python programming -- Semantic Web What is Semantic Web? Semantic Web = Triple data 9, 2013 #12;Python programming -- Semantic Web Why the Semantic Web? IBM's Watson supercomputer

  3. Culture, salience, and psychiatric diagnosis: exploring the concept of cultural congruence & its practical application

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cultural congruence is the idea that to the extent a belief or experience is culturally shared it is not to feature in a diagnostic judgement, irrespective of its resemblance to psychiatric pathology. This rests on the argument that since deviation from norms is central to diagnosis, and since what counts as deviation is relative to context, assessing the degree of fit between mental states and cultural norms is crucial. Various problems beset the cultural congruence construct including impoverished definitions of culture as religious, national or ethnic group and of congruence as validation by that group. This article attempts to address these shortcomings to arrive at a cogent construct. Results The article distinguishes symbolic from phenomenological conceptions of culture, the latter expanded upon through two sources: Husserl’s phenomenological analysis of background intentionality and neuropsychological literature on salience. It is argued that culture is not limited to symbolic presuppositions and shapes subjects’ experiential dispositions. This conception is deployed to re-examine the meaning of (in)congruence. The main argument is that a significant, since foundational, deviation from culture is not from a value or belief but from culturally-instilled experiential dispositions, in what is salient to an individual in a particular context. Conclusion Applying the concept of cultural congruence must not be limited to assessing violations of the symbolic order and must consider alignment with or deviations from culturally-instilled experiential dispositions. By virtue of being foundational to a shared experience of the world, such dispositions are more accurate indicators of potential vulnerability. Notwithstanding problems of access and expertise, clinical practice should aim to accommodate this richer meaning of cultural congruence. PMID:23870676

  4. Teleconferences and Audiovisual Materials in Earth Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortina, L. M.

    2007-05-01

    Unidad de Educacion Continua y a Distancia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoaca 04510 Mexico, MEXICO As stated in the special session description, 21st century undergraduate education has access to resources/experiences that go beyond university classrooms. However in some cases, resources may go largely unused and a number of factors may be cited such as logistic problems, restricted internet and telecommunication service access, miss-information, etc. We present and comment on our efforts and experiences at the National University of Mexico in a new unit dedicated to teleconferences and audio-visual materials. The unit forms part of the geosciences institutes, located in the central UNAM campus and campuses in other States. The use of teleconference in formal graduate and undergraduate education allows teachers and lecturers to distribute course material as in classrooms. Course by teleconference requires learning and student and teacher effort without physical contact, but they have access to multimedia available to support their exhibition. Well selected multimedia material allows the students to identify and recognize digital information to aid understanding natural phenomena integral to Earth Sciences. Cooperation with international partnerships providing access to new materials and experiences and to field practices will greatly add to our efforts. We will present specific examples of the experiences that we have at the Earth Sciences Postgraduate Program of UNAM with the use of technology in the education in geosciences.

  5. Effects of stimulus duration on audio-visual synchrony perception.

    PubMed

    Kuling, I A; van Eijk, R L J; Juola, J F; Kohlrausch, A

    2012-09-01

    The integration of visual and auditory inputs in the human brain occurs only if the components are perceived in temporal proximity, that is, when the intermodal time difference falls within the so-called subjective synchrony range. We used the midpoint of this range to estimate the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS). We measured the PSS for audio-visual (AV) stimuli in a synchrony judgment task, in which subjects had to judge a given AV stimulus using three response categories (audio first, synchronous, video first). The relevant stimulus manipulation was the duration of the auditory and visual components. Results for unimodal auditory and visual stimuli have shown that the perceived onset shifts to relatively later positions with increasing stimulus duration. These unimodal shifts should be reflected in changing PSS values, when AV stimuli with different durations of the auditory and visual components are used. The results for 17 subjects showed indeed a significant shift of the PSS for different duration combinations of the stimulus components. Because the shifts were approximately equal for duration changes in either of the components, no net shift of the PSS was observed as long as the durations of the two components were equal. This result indicates the need to appropriately account for unimodal timing effects when quantifying intermodal synchrony perception. PMID:22821079

  6. Audio-Visual Perception System for a Humanoid Robotic Head

    PubMed Central

    Viciana-Abad, Raquel; Marfil, Rebeca; Perez-Lorenzo, Jose M.; Bandera, Juan P.; Romero-Garces, Adrian; Reche-Lopez, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    One of the main issues within the field of social robotics is to endow robots with the ability to direct attention to people with whom they are interacting. Different approaches follow bio-inspired mechanisms, merging audio and visual cues to localize a person using multiple sensors. However, most of these fusion mechanisms have been used in fixed systems, such as those used in video-conference rooms, and thus, they may incur difficulties when constrained to the sensors with which a robot can be equipped. Besides, within the scope of interactive autonomous robots, there is a lack in terms of evaluating the benefits of audio-visual attention mechanisms, compared to only audio or visual approaches, in real scenarios. Most of the tests conducted have been within controlled environments, at short distances and/or with off-line performance measurements. With the goal of demonstrating the benefit of fusing sensory information with a Bayes inference for interactive robotics, this paper presents a system for localizing a person by processing visual and audio data. Moreover, the performance of this system is evaluated and compared via considering the technical limitations of unimodal systems. The experiments show the promise of the proposed approach for the proactive detection and tracking of speakers in a human-robot interactive framework. PMID:24878593

  7. A network analysis of audiovisual affective speech perception.

    PubMed

    Jansma, H; Roebroeck, A; Münte, T F

    2014-01-01

    In this study we were interested in the neural system supporting the audiovisual (AV) integration of emotional expression and emotional prosody. To this end normal participants were exposed to short videos of a computer-animated face voicing emotionally positive or negative words with the appropriate prosody. Facial expression of the face was either neutral or emotionally appropriate. To reveal the neural network involved in affective AV integration, standard univariate analysis of functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) data was followed by a random-effects Granger causality mapping (RFX-GCM). The regions that distinguished emotional from neutral facial expressions in the univariate analysis were taken as seed regions. In trials showing emotional expressions compared to neutral trials univariate analysis showed activation primarily in bilateral amygdala, fusiform gyrus, middle temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus and inferior occipital gyrus. When employing either the left amygdala or the right amygdala as a seed region in RFX-GCM we found connectivity with the right hemispheric fusiform gyrus, with the indication that the fusiform gyrus sends information to the Amygdala. These results led to a working model for face perception in general and for AV-affective integration in particular which is an elaborated adaptation of existing models. PMID:24184115

  8. Semantic Turkey : A Semantic Bookmarking Tool (System Description)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donato Griesi; Maria Teresa Pazienza; Armando Stellato

    2007-01-01

    In this work we introduce Semantic Turkey, a Semantic Extension for the popular web browser Mozilla Firefox. Semantic Turkey can be used to keep track of relevant information from visited web sites and organize collected content according to a personally defined ontology. Clear separation between knowledge data (the WHAT) and web links (the WHERE) is established into the knowledge model

  9. Supporting Personal Semantic Annotations in P2P Semantic Wikis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Diego; Skaf-Molli, Hala; Díaz, Alicia; Molli, Pascal

    In this paper, we propose to extend Peer-to-Peer Semantic Wikis with personal semantic annotations. Semantic Wikis are one of the most successful Semantic Web applications. In semantic wikis, wikis pages are annotated with semantic data to facilitate the navigation, information retrieving and ontology emerging. Semantic data represents the shared knowledge base which describes the common understanding of the community. However, in a collaborative knowledge building process the knowledge is basically created by individuals who are involved in a social process. Therefore, it is fundamental to support personal knowledge building in a differentiated way. Currently there are no available semantic wikis that support both personal and shared understandings. In order to overcome this problem, we propose a P2P collaborative knowledge building process and extend semantic wikis with personal annotations facilities to express personal understanding. In this paper, we detail the personal semantic annotation model and show its implementation in P2P semantic wikis. We also detail an evaluation study which shows that personal annotations demand less cognitive efforts than semantic data and are very useful to enrich the shared knowledge base.

  10. Quantum logic unites compositional functional semantics and distributional semantic models

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Quantum logic unites compositional functional semantics and distributional semantic models Anne but to sentences, paragraphs etc. They are ruled by laws of logic inherent to language. Natural language conveys in by the familiar logical models, the intensional aspect by distributional semantic models, DSM's. We propose

  11. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  12. Semantic Annotation of Sports Videos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen Assfalg; Marco Bertini; Carlo Colombo; Alberto Del Bimbo

    2002-01-01

    Taking into consideration the unique qualities of sports videos, we propose a system that semantically annotates them at different layers of semantic significance, using different elements of visual content. We decompose each shot into its visual and graphic content elements and, by combining several different low-level visual primitives, capture the semantic content at a higher level of significance

  13. An Exposition of Pollard's Algorithm for Quadratic Congruences Je rey Shallit

    E-print Network

    Shallit, Jeffrey O.

    it in the form u 2 Dt 2 = B: (3) First, consider (2) as an equation in x and complete the square. We #12;nd (2ax + 2gy + h: Now multiply this last equation through by D and complete the square to get (Dy + g) 2 = DtAn Exposition of Pollard's Algorithm for Quadratic Congruences Je#11;rey Shallit Department

  14. Problems and results in tame congruence theory. A survey of the '88 Budapest workshop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emil W. Kiss; Peter Pröhle

    1992-01-01

    Tame congruence theory is a powerful new tool, developed by Ralph McKenzie, to investigate finite algebraic structures. In the summer of 1988, many prominent researchers in this field visited Budapest, Hungary. This paper is a survey of problems and ideas that came up during these visits. It is intended both for beginners and experts, who want to do research, or

  15. The Interest-Major Congruence and College Success Relation: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Terence J. G.; Robbins, Steven B.

    2006-01-01

    The relation of interest-major congruence to indicators of college success was examined in an initial sample of 80, 574 individuals enrolled in 87 colleges. Both college achievement (GPA after 1 year, after 2 years and at graduation) as well as persistence (enrollment status after 1 year, after 2 years and graduation after 5 years) were used as…

  16. Locus of Control, Situational Control, Perceived Control and Stress: An Extension of the Congruency Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Michael J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Classified 96 undergraduates by locus of control and assigned them to either situational control, perceived control, or no control conditions. Measures of stress reactions during and after exposure to noxious noise revealed no significant interactions between dispositional and situational or perceived control, not supporting congruency hypothesis.…

  17. Does Discourse Congruence Influence Spoken Language Comprehension before Lexical Association? Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudewyn, Megan A.; Gordon, Peter C.; Long, Debra; Polse, Lara; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an event-related potential (ERP) norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a…

  18. Children's Perceptions of Close Peer Relationships: Quality, Congruence, and Meta-Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, David J.; Ray, Glen E.; LoBello, Steven G.; Zachar, Peter

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed second-, third-, fifth-, and sixth-graders' perceptions of relationship quality with a reciprocal classroom friend and a reciprocal classroom best friend. Findings demonstrated that best friends rated higher in quality than did friends on four of seven dimensions. Best friends exhibited more response congruence than did friends…

  19. Development and Field Test of the Multiple Intelligences Learning Instruction Congruency Impact Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peifer, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to the academic discussion regarding the validity of Multiple Intelligences (MI) theory through focusing on the validity of an important construct embedded in the theory, that of congruence between instructional style and preferred MI style for optimal learning. Currently there is insufficient empirical…

  20. Similarity & Congruence, continued Similar figures have the same shape, but not necessarily the same size. Similar

    E-print Network

    White, Donald L.

    Similarity & Congruence, continued Similar figures have the same shape, but not necessarily the same size. Similar figures have all corresponding angles congruent and corresponding sides are increased by the same scale factor. 1. Are all equilateral triangles similar? Explain why you believe what

  1. Further Insight and Additional Inference Methods for Polynomial Regression Applied to the Analysis of Congruence

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Ayala; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Doveh, Etti

    2010-01-01

    In their seminal paper, Edwards and Parry (1993) presented the polynomial regression as a better alternative to applying difference score in the study of congruence. While this method is increasingly applied in congruence research, its complexity relative to other methods for assessing congruence (e.g., difference score methods) was one of the main claims against its use. The objective of this work is to gain additional insight into the use of polynomial regression in the area of social and behavioral sciences. First, we elaborate on the meaning and the inference based on the coefficients obtained by applying polynomial regression and explain the mathematical terms that are used to describe response surfaces. Then, we introduce additional inference methods and illustrate their application on a real life example from the area of supportive exchanges, using data collected by the Smithers Institute at Cornell University (supported by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism). Our work is aimed to provide a guide to researchers who apply polynomial regression in order to assess the effect of congruence between two constructs and enable better understanding and interpretation of the results obtained. PMID:21103324

  2. Sex Role Identity and Career Indecision as Predictors of Holland's Congruence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eells, Gregory T.; Romans, John S. C.

    A study examined the extent to which sex role identity and career indecision could be used as predictors of individuals' congruence with their environment. Holland's Self-Directed Search, the Bem Sex Role Inventory, and the Career Decision Scale were administered to 84 male and 42 female undergraduates who had declared Animal Science majors at a…

  3. Occupational Congruence and Personal Task-Related Attributes: How Do They Relate to Work Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tziner, Aharon; Meir, Elchanan I.; Segal, Hila

    2002-01-01

    Data from 359 military officers (measures of personality, ability, and congruence) and supervisor and peer performance ratings were analyzed. Personality and person-environment fit were related to performance. Extroverts and those whose interests were congruent with their work environment tended to receive higher ratings. (Contains 41 references.)…

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Intergenerational Congruence in Immigrant Families-Parent Scale in Chinese Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ying, Yu-Wen; Tracy, Lisa C.

    2004-01-01

    The study described in this article tested the psychometric properties of the Intergenerational Congruence in Immigrant Families--Parent Scale (ICIF-PS), an instrument developed to assess intergenerational conflict in immigrant families and evaluate interventions to ameliorate the conflict. ICIF-PS's psychometric properties were tested in a sample…

  5. A memory-based, Simon-like, spatial congruence effect: Evidence for persisting

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Marcia K.

    A memory-based, Simon-like, spatial congruence effect: Evidence for persisting spatial codes John X. Zhang and Marcia K. Johnson Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA The Simon effect refers to the finding locations are congruent than when they are not. Domi- nant theories of the Simon effect have generally

  6. Congruence between the Democratic Purposes of Schools and School Principal Training in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulford, Bill

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines and compares the recent emphases in school education and school leadership training in Australia and the state of Tasmania as they relate to the democratic purposes of schools. It finds a strong emphasis on the democratic purposes of schools and congruence between these purposes and the means of achieving them, in respect of…

  7. Exploring the Congruence between the Lesotho Junior Secondary Geography Curriculum and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raselimo, Mohaeka; Irwin, Pat; Wilmot, Di

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the Lesotho junior secondary geography curriculum document with the purpose of exploring the congruence between geography and environmental education. The study is based on a curriculum reform process introduced by the Lesotho Environmental Education Support Project (LEESP) in 2001. we draw theoretical insights from…

  8. Gender differences in personality components of computer science students: a test of Holland's congruence hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Haliburton; Mack Thweatt; Nancy J. Wahl

    1998-01-01

    The problem of disproportional representation of females in computer science curricula was examined in the context of Holland's theory of vocational personality. It was hypothesized that some combination of standardized mathematical aptitude and congruence would significantly predict achievement and persistence in computer science.

  9. ON A CONJECTURE OF R.J.SIMPSON ABOUT EXACT COVERING CONGRUENCES Doron ZEILBERGER

    E-print Network

    Zeilberger, Doron

    system (henceforth, DCS) is a finite set of ordered pai* *rs of integers congruence n * * ai(moddi). The integers diwill be called the moduli of the DCS. In recent years DCS Then there exists a DCS whose sequence of moduli is D if and only if for ea* *ch prime p, and for each positive

  10. Congruence in family dyadic perceptions of pain controllability between older adult cancer patients and family caregivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl K Riley-Doucet

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have shown that perception of control over pain contributes to higher levels of well being and thus, is highly valued by both patients and their family caregivers (Anderson, 1998; Wells, 1994) trying to manage cancer pain in the home. However, there have been no studies that have investigated how congruence in perceptions of control over pain between patients

  11. Value Congruence in a Canadian Nonprofit Sport Organisation: A Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shannon Hamm; Joanne MacLean; Lisa Kikulis; Lucie Thibault

    2008-01-01

    At a time when company ethics and accountability continue to affect organisations, it is important for managers to understand the values held by their employees (Abbott, White, & Charles, 2005). Consequently, researchers focussing on the communications, manufacturing and academic settings have acknowledged the need for increased investigation of values and value congruence (cf. Abbott et al., 2005; Finegan, 2000; Jung

  12. Topic Congruence and Topic Interest: How Do They Affect Second Language Reading Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang-Ki

    2009-01-01

    Because human memory is largely reconstructive, people tend to reorganize and reevaluate an event in a way that is coherent to the truth values held in their belief system. This study investigated the role of topic congruence (defined as whether the reading content corresponds with readers' prior beliefs towards a contentious topic) in second…

  13. Explaining Cooperation: How Resource Interdependence, Goal Congruence, and Trust Affect Joint Actions in Policy Implementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Lundin

    2007-01-01

    A perennial problem when political decisions are to be implemented is how to make authorities work together. Previous research shows that resource interdependence, goal congruence, and mutual trust increase interorganizational cooperation. In this article, it is argued that interaction effects must also be considered in order to fully understand how these variables affect cooperation. The study is based on 203

  14. Geometrical Approach to the Conservative Congruence Transformation (CCT) for Robotic Stiffness Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shih-feng Chen; Imin Kao

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the conservative congruence transformation (CCT) for robot stiffness control is investigated by using geometrical methods. With the strategy of changing basis, it indicates that the formulation of stiffness matrix depends on the choice of coordinates. Thus, we show that the CCT can directly represent the spatial mapping relationship in robotic stiffness control. The CCT theory suggests a

  15. The Relationship of Congruence of Spouses' Personal Constructs and Reported Marital Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Richard G.; And Others

    Based on Kelly's theory of Personal Constructs, it was hypothesized that there is a positive relationship between the degree of congruence of spouses Personal Constructs (PCs) and their reported marital success. Twenty-four couples, married from six months to 31 years, volunteered as Ss. To assess PCs, each S was administered a 40-dimension scale…

  16. A CONGRUENCE MODULO FOUR IN REAL SCHUBERT CALCULUS WITH ISOTROPIC FLAGS

    E-print Network

    Sottile, Frank

    A CONGRUENCE MODULO FOUR IN REAL SCHUBERT CALCULUS WITH ISOTROPIC FLAGS NICKOLAS HEIN, FRANK on a Grass- mannian given by osculating flags to Schubert problems given by isotropic flags. Introduction by osculating flags, leaving as a conjecture a stronger form of that result. We prove this conjecture

  17. A Modal Characterization of Observational Congruence on Finite Terms of CCS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne Graf; Joseph Sifakis

    1984-01-01

    We propose, a translation method of finite terms of CCS into formulas of a modal language representing their class of observational congruence. For this purpose, we define a modal language and a function associating with any finite term of CCS a formula of the language, satisfied by the term. Furthermore, this function is such that two terms are congruent if

  18. Interaction between Phonemic Abilities and Syllable Congruency Effect in Young Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetail, Fabienne; Mathey, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether and to what extent phonemic abilities of young readers (Grade 5) influence syllabic effects in reading. More precisely, the syllable congruency effect was tested in the lexical decision task combined with masked priming in eleven-year-old children. Target words were preceded by a pseudo-word prime sharing the first…

  19. Culture and Congruence: The Fit Between Management Practices and National Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen L. Newman; Stanley D. Nollen

    1996-01-01

    The financial performance of European and Asian work units of one multinational company is examined as a function of the congruence between management practices and national culture. Using Hofstede's five national culture dimensions and analogous management practices, we find that work unit financial performance is higher when management practices in the work unit are congruent with the national culture.Journal of

  20. Culture and Congruence: The Fit Between Management Practices and National Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen L. Newman; Stanley D. Nollen

    The financial performance of European and Asian work units of one multinational company is examined as a function of the congruence between management practices and national culture. Using Hofstede's five national culture dimensions and analogous management practices, we find that work unit financial performance is higher when management practices in the work unit are congruent with the national culture.Journal of

  1. The effect of color congruency and involvement on non-profit organizational messaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire Selius

    2010-01-01

    Color is a major factor in persuasive communication and messaging. This study examines the role of color and other variables in the communication of environmental causes. Many environmental organizations are starting to use color to generate awareness and create symbolic color associations. Based on the congruency theory and the elaboration likelihood model, this study tested specific research hypotheses pertaining to

  2. Exploring congruence between organizational structure and task performance: a simulation approach

    E-print Network

    Dignum, Frank

    should also be based on cognitive agents. In fact, greater cognitive realism in social simulations mayExploring congruence between organizational structure and task performance: a simulation approach in an open, dynamic environment. Ideally, autonomous agents must be able to evaluate and decide the most

  3. Audio-Visual Detection Benefits in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Gleiss, Stephanie; Kayser, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Human psychophysical studies have described multisensory perceptual benefits such as enhanced detection rates and faster reaction times in great detail. However, the neural circuits and mechanism underlying multisensory integration remain difficult to study in the primate brain. While rodents offer the advantage of a range of experimental methodologies to study the neural basis of multisensory processing, rodent studies are still limited due to the small number of available multisensory protocols. We here demonstrate the feasibility of an audio-visual stimulus detection task for rats, in which the animals detect lateralized uni- and multi-sensory stimuli in a two-response forced choice paradigm. We show that animals reliably learn and perform this task. Reaction times were significantly faster and behavioral performance levels higher in multisensory compared to unisensory conditions. This benefit was strongest for dim visual targets, in agreement with classical patterns of multisensory integration, and was specific to task-informative sounds, while uninformative sounds speeded reaction times with little costs for detection performance. Importantly, multisensory benefits for stimulus detection and reaction times appeared at different levels of task proficiency and training experience, suggesting distinct mechanisms inducing these two multisensory benefits. Our results demonstrate behavioral multisensory enhancement in rats in analogy to behavioral patterns known from other species, such as humans. In addition, our paradigm enriches the set of behavioral tasks on which future studies can rely, for example to combine behavioral measurements with imaging or pharmacological studies in the behaving animal or to study changes of integration properties in disease models. PMID:23029179

  4. Oscillatory signatures of crossmodal congruence effects: An EEG investigation employing a visuotactile pattern matching paradigm.

    PubMed

    Göschl, Florian; Friese, Uwe; Daume, Jonathan; König, Peter; Engel, Andreas K

    2015-08-01

    Coherent percepts emerge from the accurate combination of inputs from the different sensory systems. There is an ongoing debate about the neurophysiological mechanisms of crossmodal interactions in the brain, and it has been proposed that transient synchronization of neurons might be of central importance. Oscillatory activity in lower frequency ranges (<30Hz) has been implicated in mediating long-range communication as typically studied in multisensory research. In the current study, we recorded high-density electroencephalograms while human participants were engaged in a visuotactile pattern matching paradigm and analyzed oscillatory power in the theta- (4-7Hz), alpha- (8-13Hz) and beta-bands (13-30Hz). Employing the same physical stimuli, separate tasks of the experiment either required the detection of predefined targets in visual and tactile modalities or the explicit evaluation of crossmodal stimulus congruence. Analysis of the behavioral data showed benefits for congruent visuotactile stimulus combinations. Differences in oscillatory dynamics related to crossmodal congruence within the two tasks were observed in the beta-band for crossmodal target detection, as well as in the theta-band for congruence evaluation. Contrasting ongoing activity preceding visuotactile stimulation between the two tasks revealed differences in the alpha- and beta-bands. Source reconstruction of between-task differences showed prominent involvement of premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, somatosensory association cortex and the supramarginal gyrus. These areas not only exhibited more involvement in the pre-stimulus interval for target detection compared to congruence evaluation, but were also crucially involved in post-stimulus differences related to crossmodal stimulus congruence within the detection task. These results add to the increasing evidence that low frequency oscillations are functionally relevant for integration in distributed brain networks, as demonstrated for crossmodal interactions in visuotactile pattern matching in the current study. PMID:25846580

  5. The Effect of Task Demands, Artificially Manipulated Critical Object Saliency and Semantic Congruence on Visual Attention in Real World Scenes 

    E-print Network

    Blyth, Steven Philip

    2008-06-27

    Bottom up and top down models of visual attention have been proposed to deal with the guidance of human visual attention in viewing real-world scenes. However task demands put upon us can change our behaviour dramatically. ...

  6. Audio-visual onset differences are used to determine syllable identity for ambiguous audio-visual stimulus pairs.

    PubMed

    Ten Oever, Sanne; Sack, Alexander T; Wheat, Katherine L; Bien, Nina; van Atteveldt, Nienke

    2013-01-01

    Content and temporal cues have been shown to interact during audio-visual (AV) speech identification. Typically, the most reliable unimodal cue is used more strongly to identify specific speech features; however, visual cues are only used if the AV stimuli are presented within a certain temporal window of integration (TWI). This suggests that temporal cues denote whether unimodal stimuli belong together, that is, whether they should be integrated. It is not known whether temporal cues also provide information about the identity of a syllable. Since spoken syllables have naturally varying AV onset asynchronies, we hypothesize that for suboptimal AV cues presented within the TWI, information about the natural AV onset differences can aid in speech identification. To test this, we presented low-intensity auditory syllables concurrently with visual speech signals, and varied the stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) of the AV pair, while participants were instructed to identify the auditory syllables. We revealed that specific speech features (e.g., voicing) were identified by relying primarily on one modality (e.g., auditory). Additionally, we showed a wide window in which visual information influenced auditory perception, that seemed even wider for congruent stimulus pairs. Finally, we found a specific response pattern across the SOA range for syllables that were not reliably identified by the unimodal cues, which we explained as the result of the use of natural onset differences between AV speech signals. This indicates that temporal cues not only provide information about the temporal integration of AV stimuli, but additionally convey information about the identity of AV pairs. These results provide a detailed behavioral basis for further neuro-imaging and stimulation studies to unravel the neurofunctional mechanisms of the audio-visual-temporal interplay within speech perception. PMID:23805110

  7. Semantic community Web portals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steffen Staab; Jürgen Angele; Stefan Decker; Michael Erdmann; Andreas Hotho; Alexander Maedche; Hans-peter Schnurr; Rudi Studer; York Sure

    2000-01-01

    Community Web portals serve as portals for the information needs of particular communities on the Web. We here discuss how a comprehensive and flexible strategy for building and maintaining a high-value community Web portal has been conceived and implemented. The strategy includes collaborative information provisioning by the community members. It is based on an ontology as a semantic backbone for

  8. Semantic physical science

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The articles in this special issue arise from a workshop and symposium held in January 2012 (Semantic Physical Science’). We invited people who shared our vision for the potential of the web to support chemical and related subjects. Other than the initial invitations, we have not exercised any control over the content of the contributed articles. PMID:22856527

  9. Semantic Web 30Artificial

    E-print Network

    van Harmelen, Frank

    312007.11 "" Semantic Web 30Artificial IntelligenceKnowledge Representation Inductive Web datasets ---- Tim Berners-Lee Tim Berners-Lee " "" " Web 2.0---- Web Web 2.0 Frank van Harmelen W3C OWL Web Sesame RDF Aduna 100 Hirsch 35 5 15 ECAI2002 3 ISWC

  10. Learning Semantic Query Suggestions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edgar Meij; Marc Bron; Laura Hollink; Bouke Huurnink; Maarten De Rijke

    2009-01-01

    An important application of semantic web technology is recognizing human-defined concepts in text. Query transformation is a strategy often used in search engines to derive queries that are able to return more useful search results than the original query and most popular search engines provide facilities that let users complete, specify, or reformulate their queries. We study the problem of

  11. Semantics of Architectural Connectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Luiz Fiadeiro; Antónia Lopes

    1997-01-01

    A categorical semantics is proposed for the notion of architectural connector in the style defined by Allen and Garlan which adopts notions of parameterisation similar to those developed for Abstract Data Type specification, and adapts them to formalisms for parallel program design. We show how many of the claims made in (1) can be formally substantiated, and generalised to formalisms

  12. Are Terminologies Semantically Uninteresting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Sven

    Some semanticists have argued that technical vocabulary or terminology is extralinguistic and therefore semantically uninteresting. However, no boundary exists in linguistic reality between terminology and ordinary vocabulary. Rather, terminologies and ordinary language exist on a continuum, and terminology is therefore a legitimate field for…

  13. Semantics of probabilistic programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dexter Kozen; Yorktown Heights

    1979-01-01

    Two complementary but equivalent semantic interpretations of a high level probabilistic programming language are given. One of these interprets programs as partial measurable functions on a measurable space. The other interprets programs as continuous linear operators on a Banach space of measures. It is shown how the ordered domains of Scott and others are embedded naturally into these spaces. Two

  14. Latent Semantic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumais, Susan T.

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA): (1) LSA overview; (2) applications of LSA, including information retrieval (IR), information filtering, cross-language retrieval, and other IR-related LSA applications; (3) modeling human memory, including the relationship of LSA to other…

  15. The Spatial Semantic Hierarchy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Kuipers

    2000-01-01

    The Spatial Semantic Hierarchy is a model of knowledge of large-scale space consisting of multiple interacting representations, both qualitative and quantitative. The SSH is inspired by the properties of the human cognitive map, and is intended to serve both as a model of the human cognitive map and as a method for robot exploration and map-building. The multiple levels of

  16. Semantic Social Network Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillaume Erétéo; Fabien L. Gandon; Olivier Corby; Michel Buffa

    2009-01-01

    Social Network Analysis (SNA) tries to understand and exploit the key features of social networks in order to manage their life cycle and predict their evolution. Increasingly popular web 2.0 sites are forming huge social network. Classical methods from social network analysis (SNA) have been applied to such online networks. In this paper, we propose leveraging semantic web technologies to

  17. Effects of audio-visual AIDS on foreign language test anxiety, reading and listening comprehension, and retention in efl learners (.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Shu-Ping; Lee, Shin-Da; Liao, Yuan-Lin; Wang, An-Chi

    2015-04-01

    -This study examined the effects of audio-visual aids on anxiety, comprehension test scores, and retention in reading and listening to short stories in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms. Reading and listening tests, general and test anxiety, and retention were measured in English-major college students in an experimental group with audio-visual aids (n = 83) and a control group without audio-visual aids (n = 94) with similar general English proficiency. Lower reading test anxiety, unchanged reading comprehension scores, and better reading short-term and long-term retention after four weeks were evident in the audiovisual group relative to the control group. In addition, lower listening test anxiety, higher listening comprehension scores, and unchanged short-term and long-term retention were found in the audiovisual group relative to the control group after the intervention. Audio-visual aids may help to reduce EFL learners' listening test anxiety and enhance their listening comprehension scores without facilitating retention of such materials. Although audio-visual aids did not increase reading comprehension scores, they helped reduce EFL learners' reading test anxiety and facilitated retention of reading materials. PMID:25914939

  18. Temporal logic Hennessy-Milner logic Semantics of HML Recursion Semantics of Recursion Modal -Calculus

    E-print Network

    Mousavi, Mohammad

    Temporal logic Hennessy-Milner logic Semantics of HML Recursion Semantics of Recursion Modal µ;Temporal logic Hennessy-Milner logic Semantics of HML Recursion Semantics of Recursion Outline Temporal logic Hennessy-Milner logic Semantics of HML Recursion Semantics of Recursion Mousavi: Modal µ

  19. Fall 2011 -Distinguished Lecture Program Semantic Web

    E-print Network

    Mayfield, John

    Fall 2011 - Distinguished Lecture Program Semantic Web: State of the Art Semantic Web: State record lists over 160 publications in such diverse areas as semantic web, neural-symbolic integration-in-chief of the IOS Press journal "Semantic Web" and the IOS Press book series "Studies on the Semantic Web". He

  20. The Semantic Distance Model of Relevance Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terrence A. Brooks

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the Semantic Distance Model of Relevance Assessment. It is a cognitive model of the relationship between semantic distance and relevance assessment. Premises of the model such as the subjective nature of information and the metaphor of semantic distance are discussed. Empirical results illustrate the effects of semantic distance and semantic direction. Relevance auras, a combination of vertical

  1. Hotel and Restaurant Management; A Bibliography of Books and Audio-Visual Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkames, James P.; And Others

    This bibliography represents a collection of 1,300 book volumes and audiovisual materials collected by the Luzerne County Community College Library in support of the college's Hotel and Restaurant Management curriculum. It covers such diverse topics as advertising, business practices, decoration, nutrition, hotel law, insurance landscaping, health…

  2. Guide to Recommended Curriculum and Audio-Visual Materials for Teaching about Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    Designed to assist teachers in planning units on Japan, this guide identifies widely available instructional materials that have been found to be effective. The guide is organized in six sections. Sections 1-4 list recommended curriculum and audiovisual materials for elementary and secondary classrooms with purchase and/or rental information…

  3. Spatial attention can modulate audiovisual integration at multiple cortical and subcortical sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Fairhall; E. Macaluso

    2009-01-01

    The role of attention in multisensory integration (MI) is presently uncertain, with some studies supporting an automatic, pre-attentive process and others suggesting possible modulation through selective attention. The goal of this functional magnetic resonance imaging study was to investigate the role of spatial attention on the processing of congruent audiovisual speech stimuli (here indexing MI). Subjects were presented with two

  4. Selective Review of the Results of Research on the Use of Audiovisual Media to Teach Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campeau, Peggie L.

    The purpose of this literature review was to summarize results of experimental studies on the instructional effectiveness of audiovisual media in post-secondary education. Studies which met seven major screening criteria were used. A study was generally accepted if it compared performance of experimental and control groups on objective measures of…

  5. Audiovisual Education in Primary Schools: A Curriculum Project in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketzer, Jan W.

    Audiovisual, or mass media education can play a significant role in children's social, emotional, cognitive, sensory, motor, and creative development. It includes all school activities which teach children to interact with The field includes all school activities which teach children to interact with visualize ideas. Students can be involved in…

  6. A fully automatic face recognition system using a combined audio-visual approach

    E-print Network

    Torres, Luis

    A fully automatic face recognition system using a combined audio-visual approach Alberto Albiol and illumination settings for face recognition. However, in uncontrolled environments with changes in pose and illumination, face recognition is still an open problem, and it seems that this situation will still remain

  7. ARTUS: Synthesis and Audiovisual Watermarking of the Movements of a Virtual Agent Interpreting Subtitling

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    service for deaf televiewers: a virtual talking head (cf. Figure 1)., that communicates using cued speech, can be superimposed on demand on the end-user TV screen. The movements of the face, head and hands are then compressed and inserted into the audiovisual content of the original TV program using watermarking techniques

  8. Superior Temporal Activation in Response to Dynamic Audio-Visual Emotional Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Diana L.; Hunyadi, Elinora; Schultz, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Perception of emotion is critical for successful social interaction, yet the neural mechanisms underlying the perception of dynamic, audio-visual emotional cues are poorly understood. Evidence from language and sensory paradigms suggests that the superior temporal sulcus and gyrus (STS/STG) play a key role in the integration of auditory and visual…

  9. Psychophysics of the McGurk and Other Audiovisual Speech Integration Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Jintao; Bernstein, Lynne E.

    2011-01-01

    When the auditory and visual components of spoken audiovisual nonsense syllables are mismatched, perceivers produce four different types of perceptual responses, auditory correct, visual correct, fusion (the so-called "McGurk effect"), and combination (i.e., two consonants are reported). Here, quantitative measures were developed to account for…

  10. Brief Report: Arrested Development of Audiovisual Speech Perception in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Ryan A.; Siemann, Justin K.; Woynaroski, Tiffany G.; Schneider, Brittany C.; Eberly, Haley E.; Camarata, Stephen M.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Atypical communicative abilities are a core marker of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). A number of studies have shown that, in addition to auditory comprehension differences, individuals with autism frequently show atypical responses to audiovisual speech, suggesting a multisensory contribution to these communicative differences from their…

  11. Comparing Infants' Preference for Correlated Audiovisual Speech with Signal-Level Computational Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollich, George; Prince, Christopher G.

    2009-01-01

    How much of infant behaviour can be accounted for by signal-level analyses of stimuli? The current paper directly compares the moment-by-moment behaviour of 8-month-old infants in an audiovisual preferential looking task with that of several computational models that use the same video stimuli as presented to the infants. One type of model…

  12. Audiovisual Resources for Teaching Instructional Technology; an Annotated List of Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Donald P., Ed.; Beilby, Albert, Ed.

    The audiovisual resources listed in this catalog cover 10 instructional-technology topics: administration; facilities; instructional design; learning and communication; media equipment; media production; media utilization; research; instructional techniques; and society, education, and technology. Any entry falling into more than one category is…

  13. Report on the Development of Six Point-Of-Use Audio-Visual Library Instructional Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Myoung; And Others

    Six point-of-use audiovisual programs were developed by librarians as part of a library instruction program in Alexander Library at Rutgers University to illustrate the basic skills needed in using the library's print collections in the social sciences and humanities. Topics for the 16mm filmstrip cartridges were (1) Tour of Alexander Library; (2)…

  14. Talker and Lexical Effects on Audiovisual Word Recognition by Adults with Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Adam R.; Kirk, Karen Iler; Lachs, Lorin; Pisoni, David B.

    2003-01-01

    A study examined how 20 adults with postlingual deafness with cochlear implants combined visual information from lip reading with auditory cues in an open-set word recognition task. Word recognition performance was highest for audiovisual presentation followed by auditory-only and then visual-only stimulus presentation, and for single-talker…

  15. A Reference List of Audiovisual Materials Produced by the United States Government. Supplement, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Service (GSA), Washington, DC. National Audiovisual Center.

    This supplement to the 1978 reference guide from the National Audiovisual Center (NAC) lists approximately 600 titles recently added to its collection of more than 12,000 titles. Major subject concentrations of the collection are in education, science, social studies, industrial/technical training, and the environmental sciences; formats include…

  16. Audiovisual Records Relating to Indians in the National Archives. Preliminary Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Joe Doan

    Approximately 11,000 still pictures, 300 sound recordings, and 125 reels of motion picture film relating to Indians in the United States are among the holdings of the Audiovisual Archives Division of the National Archives. The materials include Eskimos in Alaska, but not Eskimos in Greenland and Canada or Indians in Canada. The descriptions are…

  17. UNSUPERVISED MINING OF AUDIOVISUALLY CONSISTENT SEGMENTS IN VIDEOS WITH APPLICATION TO STRUCTURE ANALYSIS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    video structure analysis, using simple heuristics on occurrence patterns of the events discoveredUNSUPERVISED MINING OF AUDIOVISUALLY CONSISTENT SEGMENTS IN VIDEOS WITH APPLICATION TO STRUCTURE ANALYSIS Mathieu Ben INRIA Rennes 35042 Rennes Cedex, France mathieu.ben@inria.fr Guillaume Gravier IRISA

  18. Audiovisual Speech Perception in Children with Developmental Language Disorder in Degraded Listening Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meronen, Auli; Tiippana, Kaisa; Westerholm, Jari; Ahonen, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The effect of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the perception of audiovisual speech in children with and without developmental language disorder (DLD) was investigated by varying the noise level and the sound intensity of acoustic speech. The main hypotheses were that the McGurk effect (in which incongruent visual speech alters the…

  19. Speech Enhancement and Recognition in Meetings With an Audio-Visual Sensor Array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hari Krishna Maganti; Daniel Gatica-perez; Iain Mccowan

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of distant speech acquisition in multiparty meetings, using multiple microphones and cameras. Microphone array beamforming techniques present a potential alternative to close-talking microphones by providing speech enhancement through spatial filtering. Beamforming techniques, however, rely on knowledge of the speaker location. In this paper, we present an integrated approach, in which an audio-visual multiperson tracker is

  20. Characterization and extraction of mouth opening parameters available for audiovisual speech enhancement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frédéric Berthommier

    2004-01-01

    The strong association existing between audio subband envelope parameters and video parameters extracted using the full DCT (discrete cosine transform) can be exploited for audiovisual speech enhancement, thanks to a good prediction of amplitude variations by a statistical model. Since the video parameter space is highly multidimensional, the causality of this association must be clarified. At first, a new method

  1. CUAVE: A new audio-visual database for multimodal human-computer interface research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. K. Patterson; S. Gurbuz; Z. Tufekci; J. N. Gowdy

    2002-01-01

    Multimodal signal processing has become an important topic of research for overcoming certain problems of audio-only speech processing. Audio-visual speech recognition is one area with great potential. Difficulties due to background noise and multiple speakers are significantly reduced by the additional information provided by extra visual features. Despite a few efforts to create databases in this area, none has emerged

  2. Terminological Control of "Anonymous Groups" for Catalogues of Audiovisual Television Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldera-Serrano, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the exceptional nature of the description of moving images for television archives, deriving from their audiovisual nature, and of the specifications in the queries of journalists as users of the Document Information System. It is suggested that there is a need to control completely "Anonymous Groups"--groups without any…

  3. Event detection in field sports video using audio-visual features and a support vector Machine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Sadlier; Noel E. O'connor

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel audio-visual feature-based framework for event detection in broadcast video of multiple different field sports. Features indicating significant events are selected and robust detectors built. These features are rooted in characteristics common to all genres of field sports. The evidence gathered by the feature detectors is combined by means of a support vector machine,

  4. Seminario latinoamericano de didactica de los medios audiovisuales (Latin American Seminar on Teaching with Audiovisual Aids).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eduplan Informa, 1971

    1971-01-01

    This seminar on the use of audiovisual aids reached several conclusions on the need for and the use of such aids in Latin America. The need for educational innovation in the face of a new society, a new type of communication, and a new vision of man is stressed. A new definition of teaching and learning as a fundamental process of communication is…

  5. Automated Apprenticeship Training (AAT). A Systematized Audio-Visual Approach to Self-Paced Job Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, William J.; And Others

    Two Automated Apprenticeship Training (AAT) courses were developed for Air Force Security Police Law Enforcement and Security specialists. The AAT was a systematized audio-visual approach to self-paced job training employing an easily operated teaching device. AAT courses were job specific and based on a behavioral task analysis of the two…

  6. Effects of Audio-Visual Information on the Intelligibility of Alaryngeal Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evitts, Paul M.; Portugal, Lindsay; Van Dine, Ami; Holler, Aline

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is minimal research on the contribution of visual information on speech intelligibility for individuals with a laryngectomy (IWL). Aims: The purpose of this project was to determine the effects of mode of presentation (audio-only, audio-visual) on alaryngeal speech intelligibility. Method: Twenty-three naive listeners were…

  7. An Annotated Guide to Audio-Visual Materials for Teaching Shakespeare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Richard N.

    Audio-visual materials, found in a variety of periodicals, catalogs, and reference works, are listed in this guide to expedite the process of finding appropriate classroom materials for a study of William Shakespeare in the classroom. Separate listings of films, filmstrips, and recordings are provided, with subdivisions for "The Plays" and…

  8. Training Methodology. Part 4: Audiovisual Theory, Aids and Equipment; an Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    A collection of 332 abstracts, resumes, and annotations of selected documents on audiovisual theory and methods, aids, facilities, and equipment, this publication is the fourth part of a bibliography on training methodology within a larger series on mental health inservice training and training methodology. Television instruction and equipment,…

  9. Alignment of Binocular-Binaural Data Using a Moving Audio-Visual Target

    E-print Network

    to build computational paradigms for AV scene analysis consider the issue of integration as the cornerstone research topic during the past years due to many useful applications: human-robot interaction [1], multimodal inter- faces [2], audio-visual tracking [3], [4], object localization [5], etc. Various attempts

  10. Illinois Audiovisual Association Leadership Conference (August 12-16, 1974). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedient, Douglas, Ed.; And Others

    The present and future roles of professional audiovisual media personnel are discussed in summaries of three addresses and five round-table discussions. The qualifications of a media professional are examined, along with in-school functions of media personnel, relationships among media personnel, professional ethics, and competencies requisite to…

  11. Synchronous reading: learning French orthography by audiovisual training Grard Bailly and Will Barbour

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Synchronous reading: learning French orthography by audiovisual training Gérard Bailly assess here the potential benefit of a karaoke-style reading system for learning sound-to-letter mapping). Synchronous reading consists of using time-aligned text with speech at the phone level to displace a cursor

  12. Music expertise shapes audiovisual temporal integration windows for speech, sinewave speech, and music

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hweeling; Noppeney, Uta

    2014-01-01

    This psychophysics study used musicians as a model to investigate whether musical expertise shapes the temporal integration window for audiovisual speech, sinewave speech, or music. Musicians and non-musicians judged the audiovisual synchrony of speech, sinewave analogs of speech, and music stimuli at 13 audiovisual stimulus onset asynchronies (±360, ±300 ±240, ±180, ±120, ±60, and 0 ms). Further, we manipulated the duration of the stimuli by presenting sentences/melodies or syllables/tones. Critically, musicians relative to non-musicians exhibited significantly narrower temporal integration windows for both music and sinewave speech. Further, the temporal integration window for music decreased with the amount of music practice, but not with age of acquisition. In other words, the more musicians practiced piano in the past 3 years, the more sensitive they became to the temporal misalignment of visual and auditory signals. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that music practicing fine-tunes the audiovisual temporal integration window to various extents depending on the stimulus class. While the effect of piano practicing was most pronounced for music, it also generalized to other stimulus classes such as sinewave speech and to a marginally significant degree to natural speech. PMID:25147539

  13. Selective attention modulates the direction of audio-visual temporal recalibration.

    PubMed

    Ikumi, Nara; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    Temporal recalibration of cross-modal synchrony has been proposed as a mechanism to compensate for timing differences between sensory modalities. However, far from the rich complexity of everyday life sensory environments, most studies to date have examined recalibration on isolated cross-modal pairings. Here, we hypothesize that selective attention might provide an effective filter to help resolve which stimuli are selected when multiple events compete for recalibration. We addressed this question by testing audio-visual recalibration following an adaptation phase where two opposing audio-visual asynchronies were present. The direction of voluntary visual attention, and therefore to one of the two possible asynchronies (flash leading or flash lagging), was manipulated using colour as a selection criterion. We found a shift in the point of subjective audio-visual simultaneity as a function of whether the observer had focused attention to audio-then-flash or to flash-then-audio groupings during the adaptation phase. A baseline adaptation condition revealed that this effect of endogenous attention was only effective toward the lagging flash. This hints at the role of exogenous capture and/or additional endogenous effects producing an asymmetry toward the leading flash. We conclude that selective attention helps promote selected audio-visual pairings to be combined and subsequently adjusted in time but, stimulus organization exerts a strong impact on recalibration. We tentatively hypothesize that the resolution of recalibration in complex scenarios involves the orchestration of top-down selection mechanisms and stimulus-driven processes. PMID:25004132

  14. JOINT-PROCESSING OF AUDIO-VISUAL SIGNALS IN HUMAN PERCEPTION OF CONFLICTING SYNTHETIC CHARACTER EMOTIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily Mower; Sungbok Lee; Maja J Matari ´ c; Shrikanth Narayanan

    Expressive audio-visual synthetic characters are increasingly em- ployed in research and commercial applications. However, the mechanism that people employ to interpret conflicting or uncertain multimodal emotional displays of these agents is not yet well un- derstood. This study is an attempt to provide a better understanding of the interpretation of conflicting expressive displays in video and audio channels through the

  15. Joint-processing of audio-visual signals in human perception of conflicting synthetic character emotions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily Mower; Sungbok Lee; Maja J. Mataric; Shrikanth Narayanan

    2008-01-01

    Expressive audio-visual synthetic characters are increasingly em- ployed in research and commercial applications. However, the mechanism that people employ to interpret conflicting or uncertain multimodal emotional displays of these agents is not yet well un- derstood. This study is an attempt to provide a better understanding of the interpretation of conflicting expressive displays in video and audio channels through the

  16. Seeing to Hear Better: Evidence for Early Audio-Visual Interactions in Speech Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Berthommier, Frederic; Savariaux, Christophe

    2004-01-01

    Lip reading is the ability to partially understand speech by looking at the speaker's lips. It improves the intelligibility of speech in noise when audio-visual perception is compared with audio-only perception. A recent set of experiments showed that seeing the speaker's lips also enhances "sensitivity" to acoustic information, decreasing the…

  17. Performance enhancement for audio-visual speaker identification using dynamic facial muscle model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vahid Asadpour; Farzad Towhidkhah; Mohammad Mehdi Homayounpour

    2006-01-01

    Science of human identification using physiological characteristics or biometry has been of great concern in security systems. However, robust multimodal identification systems based on audio-visual information has not been thoroughly investigated yet. Therefore, the aim of this work to propose a model-based feature extraction method which employs physiological characteristics of facial muscles producing lip movements. This approach adopts the intrinsic

  18. Audiovisuals and Non-Print Learning Resources in a Health Sciences Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinow, Beatrix H.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the assembly and delivery of the self-instructional learning resources of the premedical undergraduate program at McMaster University, placing emphasis on the practical library problems of cataloging, shelving, maintenance, and distribution of such audiovisual materials as pathology specimens, films, videotape, and slide/tape sets.…

  19. Klas Arne Ihme Cross-Modal Integration of Audio-Visual Information.

    E-print Network

    Kallenrode, May-Britt

    Klas Arne Ihme Cross-Modal Integration of Audio-Visual Information. An EEG Study PICS Publications of Cognitive Science #12;Bachelor's Thesis Cognitive Science undergraduate programme Cross-modal integration of Cognitive Science, University of Osnabrück Submitted September 2007 #12;Cross-modal integration of audio

  20. Audiovisual Aids for Astronomy and Space Physics at an Urban College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moche, Dinah L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the use of easily available audiovisual aids to teach a one semester course in astronomy and space physics to liberal arts students of both sexes at Queensborough Community College. Included is a list of teaching aids for use in astronomy instruction. (CC)

  1. Congruence of perceptions among the principal, mentor teacher, and novice teacher regarding the principal's role in a campus mentoring program

    E-print Network

    Larrison, Lucy Elaine

    2006-10-30

    purpose of this study is to examine the congruency of perceptions among the principal, novice teacher, and mentor teacher regarding the role of the principal in supporting mentoring programs at the campus level. The relationship between a principal...

  2. CGRU and CONG: CONVERT and LISP Programs to Find the Congruence Relations of a Finite State Machine

    E-print Network

    McIntosh, Harold V.

    1968-01-01

    CRGU is a CONVERT program, CONG its literal transcription into LISP, realized in the CTSS LISP of Project MAC, for finding all the congruence relations of a finite state machine whose transition table is given as an argument. ...

  3. Phylogeny of Greya (Lepidoptera: Prodoxidae), Based on Nucleotide Sequence Variation in Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I and II: Congruence with

    E-print Network

    Thompson, John N.

    in Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I and II: Congruence with Morphological Data Jonathan A&.Brown, * Olle Pellmyr in the cytochrome oxidase I and II genes of the mitochondrial genome. Most parsimonious relationships of 25

  4. Automated x-ray/light field congruence using the LINAC EPID panel

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, Wojciech [Department of Medical Physics, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford GU2 7XX (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Physics, Radiotherapy Section, Queen Alexandra Hospital NHS Trust, Portsmouth PO6 3LY (United Kingdom); O'Doherty, Jim [Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, London SE1 7EH, United Kingdom and Department of Medical Physics, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford GU2 7XX (United Kingdom); Jones, Matt [Department of Medical Physics, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford GU2 7XX (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: X-ray/light field alignment is a test described in many guidelines for the routine quality control of clinical linear accelerators (LINAC). Currently, the gold standard method for measuring alignment is through utilization of radiographic film. However, many modern LINACs are equipped with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) that may be used to perform this test and thus subsequently reducing overall cost, processing, and analysis time, removing operator dependency and the requirement to sustain the departmental film processor. Methods: This work describes a novel method of utilizing the EPID together with a custom inhouse designed jig and automatic image processing software allowing measurement of the light field size, x-ray field size, and congruence between them. The authors present results of testing the method for aS1000 and aS500 Varian EPID detectors for six LINACs at a range of energies (6, 10, and 15 MV) in comparison with the results obtained from the use of radiographic film. Results: Reproducibility of the software in fully automatic operation under a range of operating conditions for a single image showed a congruence of 0.01 cm with a coefficient of variation of 0. Slight variation in congruence repeatability was noted through semiautomatic processing by four independent operators due to manual marking of positions on the jig. Testing of the methodology using the automatic method shows a high precision of 0.02 mm compared to a maximum of 0.06 mm determined by film processing. Intraindividual examination of operator measurements of congruence was shown to vary as much as 0.75 mm. Similar congruence measurements of 0.02 mm were also determined for a lower resolution EPID (aS500 model), after rescaling of the image to the aS1000 image size. Conclusions: The designed methodology was proven to be time efficient, cost effective, and at least as accurate as using the gold standard radiographic film. Additionally, congruence testing can be easily performed for all four cardinal gantry angles which can be difficult when using radiographic film. Therefore, the authors propose it can be used as an alternative to the radiographic film method allowing decommissioning of the film processor.

  5. Electrophysiological differentiation of phonological and semantic integration in word and sentence contexts

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Michele T.; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2006-01-01

    During auditory language comprehension, listeners need to rapidly extract meaning from the continuous speech-stream. It is a matter of debate when and how contextual information constrains the activation of lexical representations in meaningful contexts. Electrophysiological studies of spoken language comprehension have identified an event-related potential (ERP) that was sensitive to phonological properties of speech, which was termed the phonological mismatch negativity (PMN). With the PMN, early lexical processing could potentially be distinguished from processes of semantic integration in spoken language comprehension. However, the sensitivity of the PMN to phonological processing per se has been questioned, and it has additionally been suggested that the “PMN” is not separable from the N400, an ERP that is sensitive to semantic aspects of the input. Here, we investigated whether or not a separable PMN exists and if it reflects purely phonological aspects of the speech input. In the present experiment, ERPs were recorded from healthy young adults (N =24) while they listened to sentences and word lists, in which we manipulated semantic and phonological expectation and congruency of the final word. ERPs sensitive to phonological processing were elicited only when phonological expectancy was violated in lists of words, but not during normal sentential processing. This suggests a differential role of phonological processing in more or less meaningful contexts and indicates a very early influence of the overall context on lexical processing in sentences. PMID:16952338

  6. Semantic Web Enabled Composition of Web Services

    E-print Network

    Medjahed, Brahim

    Semantic Web Enabled Composition of Web Services Brahim Medjahed Dissertation submitted Falls Church, Virginia, USA Keywords: Semantic Web - Web Service - Ontology - Service Composition. Copyright 2004, Brahim Medjahed #12;Semantic Web Enabled Composition of Web Services Brahim Medjahed

  7. Clustering Deep Web Databases Semantically

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling Song; Jun Ma; Po Yan; Li Lian; Dongmei Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Deep Web database clustering is a key operation in organizing Deep Web resources. Cosine similarity in Vector Space Model\\u000a (VSM) is used as the similarity computation in traditional ways. However it cannot denote the semantic similarity between\\u000a the contents of two databases. In this paper how to cluster Deep Web databases semantically is discussed. Firstly, a fuzzy\\u000a semantic measure, which

  8. Image splicing detection using 2-D phase congruency and statistical moments of characteristic function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen; Shi, Yun Q.; Su, Wei

    2007-02-01

    A new approach to efficient blind image splicing detection is proposed in this paper. Image splicing is the process of making a composite picture by cutting and joining two or more photographs. The spliced image may introduce a number of sharp transitions such as lines, edges and corners. Phase congruency has been known as a sensitive measure of these sharp transitions and hence been proposed as features for splicing detection. In addition to the phase information, the magnitude information is also used for splicing detection. Specifically, statistical moments of characteristic functions of wavelet subbands have been examined to catch the difference between the authentic images and spliced images. Consequently, the proposed scheme extracts image features from moments of wavelet characteristic functions and 2-D phase congruency for image splicing detection. The experiments have demonstrated that the proposed approach can achieve a higher detection rate as compared with the state-of-the-art.

  9. Value congruence in health care priority setting: social values, institutions and decisions in three countries.

    PubMed

    Landwehr, Claudia; Klinnert, Dorothea

    2015-04-01

    Most developed democracies have faced the challenge of priority setting in health care by setting up specialized agencies to take decisions on which medical services to include in public health baskets. Under the influence of Daniels and Sabin's seminal work on the topic, agencies increasingly aim to fulfil criteria of procedural justice, such as accountability and transparency. We assume, however, that the institutional design of agencies also and necessarily reflects substantial value judgments on the respective weight of distributive principles such as efficiency, need and equality. The public acceptance of prioritization decisions, and eventually of the health care system at large, will ultimately depend not only on considerations of procedural fairness, but also on the congruence between a society's values and its institutions. We study social values, institutions and decisions in three countries (France, Germany and the United Kingdom) in order to assess such congruence and formulate expectations on its effects. PMID:25434454

  10. Living With Semantic Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Karen; Wilkinson, Ray; Keady, John

    2014-01-01

    Semantic dementia is a variant of frontotemporal dementia and is a recently recognized diagnostic condition. There has been some research quantitatively examining care partner stress and burden in frontotemporal dementia. There are, however, few studies exploring the subjective experiences of family members caring for those with frontotemporal dementia. Increased knowledge of such experiences would allow service providers to tailor intervention, support, and information better. We used a case study design, with thematic narrative analysis applied to interview data, to describe the experiences of a wife and son caring for a husband/father with semantic dementia. Using this approach, we identified four themes: (a) living with routines, (b) policing and protecting, (c) making connections, and (d) being adaptive and flexible. Each of these themes were shared and extended, with the importance of routines in everyday life highlighted. The implications for policy, practice, and research are discussed. PMID:24532121

  11. Integration of spoken and written words in beginning readers: a topographic ERP study.

    PubMed

    Jost, Lea B; Eberhard-Moscicka, Aleksandra K; Frisch, Christine; Dellwo, Volker; Maurer, Urs

    2014-11-01

    Integrating visual and auditory language information is critical for reading. Suppression and congruency effects in audiovisual paradigms with letters and speech sounds have provided information about low-level mechanisms of grapheme-phoneme integration during reading. However, the central question about how such processes relate to reading entire words remains unexplored. Using ERPs, we investigated whether audiovisual integration occurs for words already in beginning readers, and if so, whether this integration is reflected by differences in map strength or topography (aim 1); and moreover, whether such integration is associated with reading fluency (aim 2). A 128-channel EEG was recorded while 69 monolingual (Swiss)-German speaking first-graders performed a detection task with rare targets. Stimuli were presented in blocks either auditorily (A), visually (V) or audiovisually (matching: AVM; nonmatching: AVN). Corresponding ERPs were computed, and unimodal ERPs summated (A + V = sumAV). We applied TANOVAs to identify time windows with significant integration effects: suppression (sumAV-AVM) and congruency (AVN-AVM). They were further characterized using GFP and 3D-centroid analyses, and significant effects were correlated with reading fluency. The results suggest that audiovisual suppression effects occur for familiar German and unfamiliar English words, whereas audiovisual congruency effects can be found only for familiar German words, probably due to lexical-semantic processes involved. Moreover, congruency effects were characterized by topographic differences, indicating that different sources are active during processing of congruent compared to incongruent audiovisual words. Furthermore, no clear associations between audiovisual integration and reading fluency were found. The degree to which such associations develop in beginning readers remains open to further investigation. PMID:24271979

  12. The Semantics of SPECTRUM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radu Grosu; Franz Regensburger

    1993-01-01

    Abstract. The Spectrum project concentrates on the process of devel-oping well-structured, precise system speci cations. Spectrum is a spec-i cation language, with a deduction calculus and a development method-ology. An informal presentation of the Spectrum language with many examples illustrating its properties is given in [2, 3]. The purpose of this article is to describe its formal semantics.

  13. Semantic satiation among bilinguals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leon A. Jakobovits; Wallace E. Lambert

    1961-01-01

    The phenomenon of semantic satiation was related to the mediation theory of compound and coordinate bilingualism. It was predicted that compound bilinguals, having interdependent language systems, will exhibit a cross-linguistic satiation effect (cross-satiation), while coordinate bilinguals, having functionally independent language systems, would not exhibit the cross-satiation effect. The results supported the prediction that the two types of bilinguals would behave

  14. Local directional pattern of phase congruency features for illumination invariant face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essa, Almabrok E.; Asari, Vijayan K.

    2014-04-01

    An illumination-robust face recognition system using Local Directional Pattern (LDP) descriptors in Phase Congruency (PC) space is proposed in this paper. The proposed Directional Pattern of Phase Congruency (DPPC) is an oriented and multi-scale local descriptor that is able to encode various patterns of face images under different lighting conditions. It is constructed by applying LDP on the oriented PC images. A LDP feature is obtained by computing the edge response values in eight directions at each pixel position and encoding them into an eight bit binary code using the relative strength magnitude of these edge responses. Phase congruency and local directional pattern have been independently used in the field of face and facial expression recognition, since they are robust to illumination changes. When the PC extracts the discontinuities in the image such as edges and corners, the LDP computes the edge response values in different directions and uses these to encode the image texture. The local directional pattern descriptor on the phase congruency image is subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) for dimensionality reduction for fast and effective face recognition application. The performance evaluation of the proposed DPPC algorithm is conducted on several publicly available databases and observed promising recognition rates. Better classification accuracy shows the superiority of the LDP descriptor against other appearance-based feature descriptors such as Local Binary Pattern (LBP). In other words, our result shows that by using the LDP descriptor the Euclidean distance between reference image and testing images in the same class is much less than that between reference image and testing images from the other classes.

  15. The performance appraisal congruency scale: an assessment of person-environment fit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hal J. Whiting; Theresa J. B. Kline; Lorne M. Sulsky

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to construct an instrument to assess employee-perceived performance appraisal congruency and then to use the scale to predict employee attitudes about their performance appraisal systems. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The scale was developed using 28 subject-matter experts and researcher knowledge of the extant literature. The scale was then completed by a sample of 135

  16. On the structure of varieties with equationally definable principal congruences III

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Blok; D. Pigozzi

    1994-01-01

    p(x, y, z) is aternary deduction (TD) term function on an algebra A if, for alla, b e A, p(a, b,z) = z (modT (a, b)), and {p(a, b, z): z eA} is a transversal of the set of equivalence classes of the principal congruence ?(a, b). p iscommutative ifp(a, b, z) and p(a', b', z) define the same transversal

  17. The origin of the Julian Period: An application of congruences and the Chinese Remainder Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, Ronald Lane; Everett, Steven M.; Craun, Edwin D.

    1981-07-01

    In 1583, Joseph Justus Scaliger introduced the Julian Period of 7980 years, which is the basis of the Julian Day system of counting days sequentially from 1 January 4713 BC. It is not commonly known how this date was chosen as the origin of the system. This paper formulates the problem as an application of the theory of congruences and the Chinese Remainder Theorem. Scaliger's interesting original solution to the problem is also reviewed.

  18. Conservative Congruence Transformation for Joint and Cartesian Stiffness Matrices of Robotic Hands and Fingers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shih-feng Chen; Imin Kao

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we develop the theoretical work on the properties and mapping of stiffness matrices between joint and Cartesian spaces of robotic hands and fingers, and propose the conservative congruence transformation (CCT). In this paper, we show that the conventional formulation between the joint and Cartesian spaces, K&thgr; = JT&thgr;KpJ&thgr;, first derived by Salisbury in 1980, is only valid

  19. Evaluating and interpreting cross-taxon congruence: Potential pitfalls and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioria, Margherita; Bacaro, Giovanni; Feehan, John

    2011-05-01

    Characterizing the relationship between different taxonomic groups is critical to identify potential surrogates for biodiversity. Previous studies have shown that cross-taxa relationships are generally weak and/or inconsistent. The difficulties in finding predictive patterns have often been attributed to the spatial and temporal scales of these studies and on the differences in the measure used to evaluate such relationships (species richness versus composition). However, the choice of the analytical approach used to evaluate cross-taxon congruence inevitably represents a major source of variation. Here, we described the use of a range of methods that can be used to comprehensively assess cross-taxa relationships. To do so, we used data for two taxonomic groups, wetland plants and water beetles, collected from 54 farmland ponds in Ireland. Specifically, we used the Pearson correlation and rarefaction curves to analyse patterns in species richness, while Mantel tests, Procrustes analysis, and co-correspondence analysis were used to evaluate congruence in species composition. We compared the results of these analyses and we described some of the potential pitfalls associated with the use of each of these statistical approaches. Cross-taxon congruence was moderate to strong, depending on the choice of the analytical approach, on the nature of the response variable, and on local and environmental conditions. Our findings indicate that multiple approaches and measures of community structure are required for a comprehensive assessment of cross-taxa relationships. In particular, we showed that selection of surrogate taxa in conservation planning should not be based on a single statistic expressing the degree of correlation in species richness or composition. Potential solutions to the analytical issues associated with the assessment of cross-taxon congruence are provided and the implications of our findings in the selection of surrogates for biodiversity are discussed.

  20. The whole is more than the sum of its parts - audiovisual processing of phonemes investigated with ERPs.

    PubMed

    Hessler, Dörte; Jonkers, Roel; Stowe, Laurie; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2013-03-01

    In the current ERP study, an active oddball task was carried out, testing pure tones and auditory, visual and audiovisual syllables. For pure tones, an MMN, an N2b, and a P3 were found, confirming traditional findings. Auditory syllables evoked an N2 and a P3. We found that the amplitude of the P3 depended on the distance between standard and deviant. A smaller distance required more attention, which was reflected in a larger amplitude. An analysis of audiovisual material, after correction for visual activity, showed that McGurk type stimuli evoked brain responses that differed from both the standard and the congruent deviants. Finally, we found that congruent audiovisual stimuli elicited an N2 with a shorter latency and a P3 with a smaller amplitude than auditory stimuli. The current ERP study, thus, shows that for audiovisual processing the whole is more than the sum of its parts. PMID:23395711

  1. 36 CFR 1256.100 - What is the copying policy for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright protection or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States § 1256.100...involved) provided to me by the National Archives and Records Administration...

  2. 36 CFR 1256.100 - What is the copying policy for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright protection or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States § 1256.100...involved) provided to me by the National Archives and Records Administration...

  3. 36 CFR 1256.100 - What is the copying policy for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright protection or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States § 1256.100...involved) provided to me by the National Archives and Records Administration...

  4. Audiovisual training is better than auditory-only training for auditory-only speech-in-noise identification.

    PubMed

    Lidestam, Björn; Moradi, Shahram; Pettersson, Rasmus; Ricklefs, Theodor

    2014-08-01

    The effects of audiovisual versus auditory training for speech-in-noise identification were examined in 60 young participants. The training conditions were audiovisual training, auditory-only training, and no training (n?=?20 each). In the training groups, gated consonants and words were presented at 0?dB signal-to-noise ratio; stimuli were either audiovisual or auditory-only. The no-training group watched a movie clip without performing a speech identification task. Speech-in-noise identification was measured before and after the training (or control activity). Results showed that only audiovisual training improved speech-in-noise identification, demonstrating superiority over auditory-only training. PMID:25096138

  5. Spatial congruence in language and species richness but not threat in the world's top linguistic hotspot.

    PubMed

    Turvey, Samuel T; Pettorelli, Nathalie

    2014-12-01

    Languages share key evolutionary properties with biological species, and global-level spatial congruence in richness and threat is documented between languages and several taxonomic groups. However, there is little understanding of the functional connection between diversification or extinction in languages and species, or the relationship between linguistic and species richness across different spatial scales. New Guinea is the world's most linguistically rich region and contains extremely high biological diversity. We demonstrate significant positive relationships between language and mammal richness in New Guinea across multiple spatial scales, revealing a likely functional relationship over scales at which infra-island diversification may occur. However, correlations are driven by spatial congruence between low levels of language and species richness. Regional biocultural richness may have showed closer congruence before New Guinea's linguistic landscape was altered by Holocene demographic events. In contrast to global studies, we demonstrate a significant negative correlation across New Guinea between areas with high levels of threatened languages and threatened mammals, indicating that landscape-scale threats differ between these groups. Spatial resource prioritization to conserve biodiversity may not benefit threatened languages, and conservation policy must adopt a multi-faceted approach to protect biocultural diversity as a whole. PMID:25320172

  6. Putting Beta-Diversity on the Map: Broad-Scale Congruence and Coincidence in the Extremes

    PubMed Central

    McKnight, Meghan W; White, Peter S; McDonald, Robert I; Lamoreux, John F; Sechrest, Wes; Ridgely, Robert S; Stuart, Simon N

    2007-01-01

    Beta-diversity, the change in species composition between places, is a critical but poorly understood component of biological diversity. Patterns of beta-diversity provide information central to many ecological and evolutionary questions, as well as to conservation planning. Yet beta-diversity is rarely studied across large extents, and the degree of similarity of patterns among taxa at such scales remains untested. To our knowledge, this is the first broad-scale analysis of cross-taxon congruence in beta-diversity, and introduces a new method to map beta-diversity continuously across regions. Congruence between amphibian, bird, and mammal beta-diversity in the Western Hemisphere varies with both geographic location and spatial extent. We demonstrate that areas of high beta-diversity for the three taxa largely coincide, but areas of low beta-diversity exhibit little overlap. These findings suggest that similar processes lead to high levels of differentiation in amphibian, bird, and mammal assemblages, while the ecological and biogeographic factors influencing homogeneity in vertebrate assemblages vary. Knowledge of beta-diversity congruence can help formulate hypotheses about the mechanisms governing regional diversity patterns and should inform conservation, especially as threat from global climate change increases. PMID:17927449

  7. Application of the instructional congruence framework: Developing supplemental materials for English language learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drews, Tina Skjerping

    2009-12-01

    This dissertation is a study of the instructional congruence framework as it was used to develop and pilot a supplemental science unit on energy and the environment for sixth grade students in Arizona. With the growing linguistic and cultural diversity of children in American schools, congruent materials are more important now than ever before. The supplemental materials were designed by the researcher and underwent a six person, three educator and three engineer, panel review. The revised materials were then piloted in two sixth grade classrooms in the Southwest with high numbers of English language learners. Classroom observation, teacher interviews, and the classroom observation protocol were utilized to understand the fidelity to the instructional congruence framework. The fidelity of implementation of materials was subject to the realities of varied educational contexts. Piloting materials in urban contexts with diverse students involved additional challenges. The results of the study explore the challenges in creating instructionally congruent materials for diverse students in urban contexts. Recommendations are provided for curriculum developers that undertake the task of creating instructionally congruent materials and emphasize the need to devise innovative methods of creation, while understanding that there is no perfect solution. The education community as a whole could benefit from incorporating and synthesizing the instructional congruence framework in order to provide maximum opportunities in science for all students.

  8. The congruency sequence effect emerges when the distracter precedes the target.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Daniel H; Egner, Tobias; Hawks, Zoë; Link, Jacqueline

    2015-03-01

    The congruency effect in distracter interference tasks is typically smaller when the previous trial was incongruent as compared to congruent, suggesting the operation of a control process that minimizes the influence of irrelevant stimuli on behavior. However, both the conditions under which this congruency sequence effect (CSE) can be most easily observed without the typical learning and memory confounds, and the control process underlying it, remain controversial. We therefore tested a recent hypothesis that the CSE is most easily observed without the typical confounds when the distracter is processed before the target. In line with this "distracter head start" hypothesis, in Experiments 1 and 2 the CSE was larger when the distracter appeared before, relative to with, the target. Further, in Experiment 3, we observed a negative congruency effect after incongruent trials when a long interval separated the distracter from the target, consistent with a modulation of the response engendered by the distracter but not with a shift of attention toward the target. These findings reveal an important determinant of CSE magnitude when the typical learning and memory confounds are absent and new insights into the nature of control processes that contribute to this phenomenon. PMID:25616120

  9. Spatial congruence in language and species richness but not threat in the world's top linguistic hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, Samuel T.; Pettorelli, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Languages share key evolutionary properties with biological species, and global-level spatial congruence in richness and threat is documented between languages and several taxonomic groups. However, there is little understanding of the functional connection between diversification or extinction in languages and species, or the relationship between linguistic and species richness across different spatial scales. New Guinea is the world's most linguistically rich region and contains extremely high biological diversity. We demonstrate significant positive relationships between language and mammal richness in New Guinea across multiple spatial scales, revealing a likely functional relationship over scales at which infra-island diversification may occur. However, correlations are driven by spatial congruence between low levels of language and species richness. Regional biocultural richness may have showed closer congruence before New Guinea's linguistic landscape was altered by Holocene demographic events. In contrast to global studies, we demonstrate a significant negative correlation across New Guinea between areas with high levels of threatened languages and threatened mammals, indicating that landscape-scale threats differ between these groups. Spatial resource prioritization to conserve biodiversity may not benefit threatened languages, and conservation policy must adopt a multi-faceted approach to protect biocultural diversity as a whole. PMID:25320172

  10. Accurate matching method of multimodal image based on phase congruency and local mutual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunyang; Zhao, Huaici; Zhao, Gang

    2014-11-01

    Multimodal image matching is difficult because of the contrast and intensity difference of the images. For solving this problem, a new matching method based on the phase congruency, histograms of oriented gradients and local normalized mutual information was proposed. The proposed method first extract feature points and edge map based on monogenic signal and phase congruency method which is insensitivity to variations in illumination and contrast. Then, the Monogenic Phase Congruency Edge Descriptor based on edge orientation histogram was generated by gathering the edge information of orientations from edge map around the feature point. For increasing the matched point-pair number, the Multi Candidate Point Matching Method by selecting multi better candidate matching points for each feature point was presented. Finally, the location accuracy was refined using local normalized mutual information method. The experimental results indicated that the proposed method could achieve higher performance in heterogonous image matching, the average matching correct rate up to 88%, is about 3 times of SURF matching method.

  11. Semantic Forensics: An Application of Ontological Semantics to Information Assurance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Raskin; Christian F. Hempelmann; Katrina E. Triezenberg

    The paper deals with the latest application of natural language processing (NLP), specifically of ontological semantics (ONSE) to natural language information assurance and security (NL IAS). It demonstrates how the existing ideas, methods, and resources of ontological semantics can be applied to detect deception in NL text (and, eventually, in data and other media as well). After stating the problem,

  12. SemaFor: Semantic Document Indexing using Semantic Forests

    E-print Network

    Nørvåg, Kjetil

    SemaFor: Semantic Document Indexing using Semantic Forests George Tsatsaronis Biotechnology Center Trondheim, Norway Kjetil.Norvag@idi.ntnu.no ABSTRACT Traditional document indexing techniques store at indexing and retrieval time. In this paper we propose SemaFor, an indexing algorithm for text documents

  13. Semantic content-based recommendations using semantic graphs.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weisen; Kraines, Steven B

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems (RSs) can be useful for suggesting items that might be of interest to specific users. Most existing content-based recommendation (CBR) systems are designed to recommend items based on text content, and the items in these systems are usually described with keywords. However, similarity evaluations based on keywords suffer from the ambiguity of natural languages. We present a semantic CBR method that uses Semantic Web technologies to recommend items that are more similar semantically with the items that the user prefers. We use semantic graphs to represent the items and we calculate the similarity scores for each pair of semantic graphs using an inverse graph frequency algorithm. The items having higher similarity scores to the items that are known to be preferred by the user are recommended. PMID:20865551

  14. The UMLS Semantic Network and the Semantic Web.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Vipul

    2003-01-01

    The Unified Medical Language System is an extensive source of biomedical knowledge developed and maintained by the US National Library of Medicine (NLM) and is being currently used in a wide variety of biomedical applications. The Semantic Network, a component of the UMLS is a structured description of core biomedical knowledge consisting of well defined semantic types and relationships between them. We investigate the expressiveness of DAML+OIL, a markup language proposed for ontologies on the Semantic Web, for representing the knowledge contained in the Semantic Network. Requirements specific to the Semantic Network, such as polymorphic relationships and blocking relationship inheritance are discussed and approaches to represent these in DAML+OIL are presented. Finally, conclusions are presented along with a discussion of ongoing and future work. PMID:14728193

  15. Event Congruency and Episodic Encoding: A Developmental fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maril, Anat; Avital, Rinat; Reggev, Niv; Zuckerman, Maya; Sadeh, Talya; Sira, Liat Ben; Livneh, Neta

    2011-01-01

    A known contributor to adults' superior memory performance compared to children is their differential reliance on an existing knowledge base. Compared to those of adults, children's semantic networks are less accessible and less established, a difference that is also thought to contribute to children's relative resistance to semantically related…

  16. Bringing Semantics to Web Services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheila A. Mcilraith; David L. Martin

    2003-01-01

    A key element to realizing the Semantic Web is developing a suitably rich language for encoding and describing Web content. Such a language must have a well defined semantics, be sufficiently expressive to describe the complex interrelationships and constraints between Web objects, and be amenable to automated manipulation and reasoning with acceptable limits on time and resource requirements. A key

  17. Semantic annotation, indexing, and retrieval

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atanas Kiryakov; Borislav Popov; Ivan Terziev; Dimitar Manov; Damyan Ognyanoff

    2004-01-01

    The Semantic Web realization depends on the availability of a critical mass of metadata for the web content, associated with the respective formal knowledge about the world. We claim that the Semantic Web, at its current stage of development, is in a state of a critically need of metadata generation and usage schemata that are specific, well-defined and easy to

  18. Semantic Web Services Christoph Bussler

    E-print Network

    Polz, Martin

    Semantic Web Services Christoph Bussler Oracle Corporation The 12th International World Wide Web Conference Budapest, Hungary, May 23rd, 2003 #12;Semantic (Web Services) Christoph Bussler Oracle Corporation The 12th International World Wide Web Conference Budapest, Hungary, May 23rd, 2003 #12;3 Obstacles

  19. Actor semantics of PLANNER73

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene Greif; Carl Hewitt

    1975-01-01

    Work on PLANNER-73 and actors has led to the development of a basis for semantics of programming languages. Its value in describing programs with side-effects, parallelism, and synchronization is discussed. Formal definitions are written and explained for sequences, cells, and a simple synchronization primitive. In addition there is discussion of the implications of actor semantics for the controversy over elimination

  20. Semantic Feature Distinctiveness and Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Lexical access is the process in which basic components of meaning in language, the lexical entries (words) are activated. This activation is based on the organization and representational structure of the lexical entries. Semantic features of words, which are the prominent semantic characteristics of a word concept, provide important information…

  1. The semantic planetary data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Daniel; Kelly, Sean; Mattmann, Chris

    2005-01-01

    This paper will provide a brief overview of the PDS data model and the PDS catalog. It will then describe the implentation of the Semantic PDS including the development of the formal ontology, the generation of RDFS/XML and RDF/XML data sets, and the buiding of the semantic search application.

  2. How semantics make better wikis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eyal Oren; John G. Breslin; Stefan Decker

    2006-01-01

    Wikis are popular collaborative hypertext authoring envi- ronments, but they neither support structured access nor information reuse. Adding semantic annotations helps to address these limitations. We present an architecture for Semantic Wikis and discuss design decisions including struc- tured access, views, and annotation language. We present our prototype SemperWiki that implements this architec- ture.

  3. The Problem of Naturalizing Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Arthur

    2000-01-01

    Investigates conceptual barriers prevalent in the works of both proponents and opponents of semantic naturalism. Searches for a tenable definition of naturalism according to which one can be a realist, a non-reductionist, and a naturalist about semantic content. (Author/VWL)

  4. Semantic Resolution of Discourse Contradiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norrick, Neal R.

    A discussion of semantic interpretation argues that contradictions such as "Sue's both right and wrong" are assigned consistent propositional interpretations such as "Sue's partly right and partly wrong" by universal semantic principles, which obviates analysis via conversational maxims and implicatures. First, it is shown from investigation of…

  5. Semantic Turkey - A New Web Experience in between Ontology Editing and Semantic Annotation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesca Fallucchi; Maria Teresa Pazienza; Noemi Scarpato; Armando Stellato

    2008-01-01

    In this work we describe Semantic Turkey, a Semantic Extension for the popular web browser Mozilla Firefox. Semantic Turkey can be used to keep track of relevant information from visited web sites and organize collected content according to a personally defined ontology. In this sense, Semantic Turkey can be seen both as an advanced semantic bookmarking system as well as

  6. DRAFT: Please do not distribute without permission. Thanks! A New Axiomatic Semantics for Semantic Web

    E-print Network

    Menzel, Christopher

    Ginness and Fikes provided a commendable "axomatic semantics" of the Semantic Web languages RDF, RDF Schema://www-unix.mcs.anl.gov/AR/otter) or Tau (http://hsinfosystems.com/taujay). #12;Menzel An Architecture for Integrating Semantic WebDRAFT: Please do not distribute without permission. Thanks! A New Axiomatic Semantics for Semantic

  7. The Audio-Visual Temporal Binding Window Narrows In Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Lewkowicz, David J.; Flom, Ross

    2014-01-01

    Binding is key in multisensory perception. This study investigated the audio-visual temporal binding window in 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children (total N=120). Children watched a person uttering a syllable whose auditory and visual components were either temporally synchronized or desynchronized by 366, 500, or 666 ms. They were asked whether the voice and face went together (Experiment 1) or whether the desynchronized videos differed from the synchronized one (Experiment 2). Four-year-olds detected the 666 ms asynchrony, 5-year-olds detected the 666 and 500 ms asynchrony, and 6-year-olds detected all asynchronies. These results show that the audio-visual temporal binding window narrows slowly during early childhood and that it is still wider at six years of age than in older children and adults. PMID:23888869

  8. Musicians have enhanced subcortical auditory and audiovisual processing of speech and music.

    PubMed

    Musacchia, Gabriella; Sams, Mikko; Skoe, Erika; Kraus, Nina

    2007-10-01

    Musical training is known to modify cortical organization. Here, we show that such modifications extend to subcortical sensory structures and generalize to processing of speech. Musicians had earlier and larger brainstem responses than nonmusician controls to both speech and music stimuli presented in auditory and audiovisual conditions, evident as early as 10 ms after acoustic onset. Phase-locking to stimulus periodicity, which likely underlies perception of pitch, was enhanced in musicians and strongly correlated with length of musical practice. In addition, viewing videos of speech (lip-reading) and music (instrument being played) enhanced temporal and frequency encoding in the auditory brainstem, particularly in musicians. These findings demonstrate practice-related changes in the early sensory encoding of auditory and audiovisual information. PMID:17898180

  9. Development of an audiovisual speech perception app for children with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    IRWIN, JULIA; PRESTON, JONATHAN; BRANCAZIO, LAWRENCE; D’ANGELO, MICHAEL; TURCIOS, JACQUELINE

    2015-01-01

    Perception of spoken language requires attention to acoustic as well as visible phonetic information. This article reviews the known differences in audiovisual speech perception in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and specifies the need for interventions that address this construct. Elements of an audiovisual training program are described. This researcher-developed program delivered via an iPad app presents natural speech in the context of increasing noise, but supported with a speaking face. Children are cued to attend to visible articulatory information to assist in perception of the spoken words. Data from four children with ASD ages 8–10 are presented showing that the children improved their performance on an untrained auditory speech-in-noise task. PMID:25313714

  10. Steffen Staab ISWeb Lecture ,,Semantic Web" (1)

    E-print Network

    Staab, Steffen

    Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" (1) Semantic Web Logical foundations Acknowledgements to Pascal Hitzler, York Sure Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" (2) ,,Logic is the Calculus of differential equations in the natural sciences." Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" (3) Applications

  11. Steffen Staab ISWeb Lecture ,,Semantic Web" (1)

    E-print Network

    Staab, Steffen

    Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" (1) Semantic Web Logical foundations Acknowledgements to Pascal Hitzler, York Sure #12;Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" (2) ,,Logic is the Calculus of differential equations in the natural sciences." #12;Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" (3

  12. Steffen Staab ISWeb Lecture ,,Semantic Web"

    E-print Network

    Staab, Steffen

    Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" Semantic Web Prof. Dr. Steffen Staab Dipl.-Med.Inf. Bernhard Tausch Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" Organizational Issues Contact: staab excercise) Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" General Schedule Lecture Thursdays 10.15 MK 208

  13. Semantic Web Methodologies for Spatial Decision Support

    E-print Network

    Austin, Mark

    Semantic Web Methodologies for Spatial Decision Support Michael J. Casey Mark A. Austin for the web-based exchange of data and services using semantic agents. A semantic-web enabled spatial. Finally, we discuss extensions and challenges in semantic-web research as they pertain to spatial decision

  14. Steffen Staab ISWeb Lecture ,,Semantic Web"

    E-print Network

    Staab, Steffen

    Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" Semantic Web Prof. Dr. Steffen Staab Dipl.-Med.Inf. Bernhard Tausch #12;Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" Organizational Issues Contact: staab excercise) #12;Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" General Schedule Lecture Thursdays 10.15 MK 208

  15. Meaning and the Semantic Web # Bijan Parsia

    E-print Network

    Jeffrey, Alan

    Meaning and the Semantic Web # Bijan Parsia University of Maryland College Park, MD, USA bparsia The meaning of names (URI references) is a contentious issue in the Semantic Web. Numerous proposals as to how to provide meaning for names in the Semantic Web, ranging from a strict lo­ calized model­theoretic semantics

  16. Semantic Web research main streams, popular falacies,

    E-print Network

    van Harmelen, Frank

    Semantic Web research anno 2006: main streams, popular falacies, current status, future challenges Frank van Harmelen Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam #12;2 This is NOT a Semantic Web evangelization talk (I of the day, of temporary interest" #12;Which Semantic Web are we talking about? Semantic Web research anno

  17. Chinese Character Decoding: A Semantic Bias?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Clay; Bever, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The effects of semantic and phonetic radicals on Chinese character decoding were examined. Our results suggest that semantic and phonetic radicals are each available for access when a corresponding task emphasizes one or the other kind of radical. But in a more neutral lexical recognition task, the semantic radical is more informative. Semantic

  18. Audiovisual speech source separation: a regularization method based on visual voice activity detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bertrand Rivet; Laurent Girin; Christine Serviere; Dinh-Tuan Pham; Christian Jutten

    Audio-visual speech source separation consists in mixing vi- sual speech processing techniques (e.g. lip parameters tra ck- ing) with source separation methods to improve and\\/or simplify the extraction of a speech signal from a mixture of acoustic sig- nals. In this paper, we present a new approach to this prob- lem: visual information is used here as a voice activity

  19. Audiovisual material as educational innovation strategy to reduce anxiety response in students of human anatomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Isabel Casado; Gloria Castaño; Luis Alfonso Arráez-Aybar

    This study presents the design, effect and utility of using audiovisual material containing real images of dissected human\\u000a cadavers as an innovative educational strategy (IES) in the teaching of Human Anatomy. The goal is to familiarize students\\u000a with the practice of dissection and to transmit the importance and necessity of this discipline, while modulating their anxiety.\\u000a The study included 303

  20. Brain activation during audiovisual exposure anticipates future perception of ambiguous speech.

    PubMed

    Kilian-Hütten, Niclas; Vroomen, Jean; Formisano, Elia

    2011-08-15

    In modern perceptual neuroscience, the focus of interest has shifted from a restriction to individual modalities to an acknowledgement of the importance of multisensory processing. One particularly well-known example of cross-modal interaction is the McGurk illusion. It has been shown that this illusion can be modified, such that it creates an auditory perceptual bias that lasts beyond the duration of audiovisual stimulation, a process referred to as cross-modal recalibration (Bertelson et al., 2003). Recently, we have suggested that this perceptual bias is stored in auditory cortex, by demonstrating the feasibility of retrieving the subjective perceptual interpretation of recalibrated ambiguous phonemes from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements in these regions (Kilian-Hütten et al., 2011). However, this does not explain which brain areas integrate the information from the two senses and represent the origin of the auditory perceptual bias. Here we analyzed fMRI data from audiovisual recalibration blocks, utilizing behavioral data from perceptual classifications of ambiguous auditory phonemes that followed these blocks later in time. Adhering to this logic, we could identify a network of brain areas (bilateral inferior parietal lobe [IPL], inferior frontal sulcus [IFS], and posterior middle temporal gyrus [MTG]), whose activation during audiovisual exposure anticipated auditory perceptual tendencies later in time. We propose a model in which a higher-order network, including IPL and IFS, accommodates audiovisual integrative learning processes, which are responsible for the installation of a perceptual bias in auditory regions. This bias then determines constructive perceptual processing. PMID:21664279

  1. Sight and sound out of synch: Fragmentation and renormalisation of audiovisual integration and subjective timing

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Elliot D.; Ipser, Alberta; Palmbaha, Austra; Paunoiu, Diana; Brown, Peter; Lambert, Christian; Leff, Alex; Driver, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The sight and sound of a person speaking or a ball bouncing may seem simultaneous, but their corresponding neural signals are spread out over time as they arrive at different multisensory brain sites. How subjective timing relates to such neural timing remains a fundamental neuroscientific and philosophical puzzle. A dominant assumption is that temporal coherence is achieved by sensory resynchronisation or recalibration across asynchronous brain events. This assumption is easily confirmed by estimating subjective audiovisual timing for groups of subjects, which is on average similar across different measures and stimuli, and approximately veridical. But few studies have examined normal and pathological individual differences in such measures. Case PH, with lesions in pons and basal ganglia, hears people speak before seeing their lips move. Temporal order judgements (TOJs) confirmed this: voices had to lag lip-movements (by ?200 msec) to seem synchronous to PH. Curiously, voices had to lead lips (also by ?200 msec) to maximise the McGurk illusion (a measure of audiovisual speech integration). On average across these measures, PH's timing was therefore still veridical. Age-matched control participants showed similar discrepancies. Indeed, normal individual differences in TOJ and McGurk timing correlated negatively: subjects needing an auditory lag for subjective simultaneity needed an auditory lead for maximal McGurk, and vice versa. This generalised to the Stream–Bounce illusion. Such surprising antagonism seems opposed to good sensory resynchronisation, yet average timing across tasks was still near-veridical. Our findings reveal remarkable disunity of audiovisual timing within and between subjects. To explain this we propose that the timing of audiovisual signals within different brain mechanisms is perceived relative to the average timing across mechanisms. Such renormalisation fully explains the curious antagonistic relationship between disparate timing estimates in PH and healthy participants, and how they can still perceive the timing of external events correctly, on average. PMID:23664001

  2. Semantical Counting Circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrice Noilhan; Miklos Santha

    2003-01-01

      \\u000a \\u000a Abstract. Counting functions can be defined syntactically or semantically depending on whether they count the number of witnesses in\\u000a a non-deterministic or in a deterministic computation on the input. In the Turing-machine-based model these two ways of defining\\u000a counting were proven to be equivalent for many important complexity classes. In the circuit-based model it was done for #P,\\u000a but

  3. Requirements for semantic biobanks.

    PubMed

    Andrade, André Q; Kreuzthaler, Markus; Hastings, Janna; Krestyaninova, Maria; Schulz, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    World-wide availability of biobank samples is a great desideratum for biomedical researchers. We describe the use case of biobank information retrieval that requires the semantic descriptions of biobank samples and of clinical information. In addition we sketch the foundations of an ontology for biobanks, as a basis on which distributed biobank indexing and retrieval systems can be built. We advocate that a detailed and robust representation of this kind of information improves and allows complex queries that will certainly arise to explore the full potential of biobanks. PMID:22874255

  4. Visual and audiovisual effects of isochronous timing on visual perception and brain activity.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Jennifer L; Driver, Jon

    2013-06-01

    Understanding how the brain extracts and combines temporal structure (rhythm) information from events presented to different senses remains unresolved. Many neuroimaging beat perception studies have focused on the auditory domain and show the presence of a highly regular beat (isochrony) in "auditory" stimulus streams enhances neural responses in a distributed brain network and affects perceptual performance. Here, we acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements of brain activity while healthy human participants performed a visual task on isochronous versus randomly timed "visual" streams, with or without concurrent task-irrelevant sounds. We found that visual detection of higher intensity oddball targets was better for isochronous than randomly timed streams, extending previous auditory findings to vision. The impact of isochrony on visual target sensitivity correlated positively with fMRI signal changes not only in visual cortex but also in auditory sensory cortex during audiovisual presentations. Visual isochrony activated a similar timing-related brain network to that previously found primarily in auditory beat perception work. Finally, activity in multisensory left posterior superior temporal sulcus increased specifically during concurrent isochronous audiovisual presentations. These results indicate that regular isochronous timing can modulate visual processing and this can also involve multisensory audiovisual brain mechanisms. PMID:22508766

  5. Inverse Effectiveness and Multisensory Interactions in Visual Event-Related Potentials with Audiovisual Speech

    PubMed Central

    Bushmakin, Maxim; Kim, Sunah; Wallace, Mark T.; Puce, Aina; James, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, it has become evident that neural responses previously considered to be unisensory can be modulated by sensory input from other modalities. In this regard, visual neural activity elicited to viewing a face is strongly influenced by concurrent incoming auditory information, particularly speech. Here, we applied an additive-factors paradigm aimed at quantifying the impact that auditory speech has on visual event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited to visual speech. These multisensory interactions were measured across parametrically varied stimulus salience, quantified in terms of signal to noise, to provide novel insights into the neural mechanisms of audiovisual speech perception. First, we measured a monotonic increase of the amplitude of the visual P1-N1-P2 ERP complex during a spoken-word recognition task with increases in stimulus salience. ERP component amplitudes varied directly with stimulus salience for visual, audiovisual, and summed unisensory recordings. Second, we measured changes in multisensory gain across salience levels. During audiovisual speech, the P1 and P1-N1 components exhibited less multisensory gain relative to the summed unisensory components with reduced salience, while N1-P2 amplitude exhibited greater multisensory gain as salience was reduced, consistent with the principle of inverse effectiveness. The amplitude interactions were correlated with behavioral measures of multisensory gain across salience levels as measured by response times, suggesting that change in multisensory gain associated with unisensory salience modulations reflects an increased efficiency of visual speech processing. PMID:22367585

  6. Window of audio-visual simultaneity is unaffected by spatio-temporal visual clutter

    PubMed Central

    Van der Burg, Erik; Cass, John; Alais, David

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we investigate the rules governing the perception of audiovisual synchrony within spatio-temporally cluttered visual environments. Participants viewed a ring of 19 discs modulating in luminance while hearing an amplitude modulating tone. Each disc modulated with a unique temporal phase (40?ms intervals), with only one synchronized to the tone. Participants searched for the synchronised disc whose spatial location varied randomly across trials. Square-wave modulation facilitated search: the synchronized disc was frequently chosen, with tight response distributions centred near zero-phase lag. In the sinusoidal condition responses were equally distributed over the 19 discs regardless of phase. To investigate whether subjective synchrony in the square-wave condition was limited by spatial or temporal factors we repeated the experiment with either reduced spatial density (9 discs) or temporal density (80?ms phase intervals). Reduced temporal density greatly facilitated synchrony perception but left the synchrony bandwidth unchanged, while no influence of spatial density was found. We conclude that audio-visual synchrony is not strongly constrained by the spatial or temporal density of the visual display, but by a temporal window within which audio-visual events are perceived as synchronous, with a full bandwidth of ~185?ms. PMID:24872325

  7. Exploring semantic groups through visual approaches

    PubMed Central

    Bodenreider, Olivier; McCray, Alexa T.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives We investigate several visual approaches for exploring semantic groups, a grouping of semantic types from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) semantic network. We are particularly interested in the semantic coherence of the groups, and we use the semantic relationships as important indicators of that coherence. Methods First, we create a radial representation of the number of relationships among the groups, generating a profile for each semantic group. Second, we show that, in our partition, the relationships are organized around a limited number of pivot groups and that partitions created at random do not exhibit this property. Finally, we use correspondence analysis to visualize groupings resulting from the association between semantic types and the relationships. Results The three approaches provide different views on the semantic groups and help detect potential inconsistencies. They make outliers immediately apparent, and, thus, serve as a tool for auditing and validating both the semantic network and the semantic groups. PMID:14759816

  8. Semantic enrichment for medical ontologies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yugyung; Geller, James

    2006-04-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) contains two separate but interconnected knowledge structures, the Semantic Network (upper level) and the Metathesaurus (lower level). In this paper, we have attempted to work out better how the use of such a two-level structure in the medical field has led to notable advances in terminologies and ontologies. However, most ontologies and terminologies do not have such a two-level structure. Therefore, we present a method, called semantic enrichment, which generates a two-level ontology from a given one-level terminology and an auxiliary two-level ontology. During semantic enrichment, concepts of the one-level terminology are assigned to semantic types, which are the building blocks of the upper level of the auxiliary two-level ontology. The result of this process is the desired new two-level ontology. We discuss semantic enrichment of two example terminologies and how we approach the implementation of semantic enrichment in the medical domain. This implementation performs a major part of the semantic enrichment process with the medical terminologies, with difficult cases left to a human expert. PMID:16185937

  9. The effect of endpoint congruency on bimanual transport and rotation tasks

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Andrea H.; Bryden, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    The completion of many goal oriented skills requires the tight coordination of the right and left hands to achieve the task objective. Although the coordination of wrist transport and orientation of the hand before object contact has been studied in detail for discrete bimanual tasks, as yet, very few studies have examined bimanual coordination when the target is already in hand. It has been shown that congruency of the goal facilitates the production of discrete bimanual responses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of goal congruency on precision bimanual transport and rotate tasks. In the current investigation, participants transported two cubic objects while rotating them laterally to place them into tight-fitting targets. The magnitude of the rotation could be the same for both hands (i.e., both 45 or 90?) or different (i.e., one 45 and 90?) and the endpoint orientations (i.e., goal) could either be congruent or incongruent. Results indicated that when the endpoint orientation was congruent for the two hands, movement times were similar regardless of hand (left or right), rotation magnitude (45, 90?) and whether the rotation magnitude for the two hands was the same or different. These results suggest that congruency of the endpoint goal facilitates the temporal synchronization of the transport component for two limbs. In contrast, a different pattern of results was obtained when considering the rotation component. Specifically, regardless of whether the hands were rotating the same magnitude or ending in congruent endpoint positions, the coordination of the rotation component between the hands was asynchronous. We hypothesize that the greater requirement to shift visual fixation from one hand/target to the other to ascertain the separate goal orientations may explain these differences. These results provide further evidence that multiple constraints act to influence the performance of skilled bimanual tasks. PMID:25713546

  10. High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.

    2011-06-02

    As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

  11. Effective connections and fields associated with shear-free null congruences

    E-print Network

    V. V. Kassandrov; V. N. Trishin

    2004-01-29

    A special subclass of shear-free null congruences (SFC) is studied, with tangent vector field being a repeated principal null direction of the Weyl tensor. We demonstrate that this field is parallel with respect to an effective affine connection which contains the Weyl nonmetricity and the skew symmetric torsion. On the other hand, a Maxwell-like field can be directly associated with any special SFC, and the electric charge for bounded singularities of this field turns to be ``self-quantized''. Two invariant differential operators are introduced which can be thought of as spinor analogues of the Beltrami operators and both nullify the principal spinor of any special SFC.

  12. Leader-team congruence in power distance values and team effectiveness: the mediating role of procedural justice climate.

    PubMed

    Cole, Michael S; Carter, Min Z; Zhang, Zhen

    2013-11-01

    We examine the effect of (in)congruence between leaders' and teams' power distance values on team effectiveness. We hypothesize that the (in)congruence between these values would differentially predict team effectiveness, with procedural justice climate serving as a mediator. Using multisource data and polynomial regression, we found that similarities (and differences) between leaders' and their teams' power distance values can have consequential effects on teams' justice climate and, ultimately, their effectiveness (viz., team performance and team organizational citizenship behavior). We conclude that to fully understand the implications of power distance, one should consider the multiple perspectives of both leaders and team members. PMID:24060159

  13. Semantics and phonology in syntax

    E-print Network

    Csirmaz, Aniko

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis I argue that morphology should be allowed to interpret not only the information provided by the syntactic component, but also compositional semantic properties. This conception of grammar requires morphology ...

  14. Active maintenance of semantic representations.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Ryoji

    2014-12-01

    In research on verbal working memory, articulatory rehearsal, a maintenance mechanism for phonological representations, has undergone intensive and excellent study. Possible mechanisms for semantic representation have received less attention. However, several studies have reported a double dissociation in types of memory deficits (semantic memory difficulties vs. phonological memory difficulties). This suggests the separability of two maintenance mechanisms. The present study focused on this separability in individuals with normal memory abilities, using a dual-task interference paradigm. The results indicate a crossover interaction between memory and interference task effects: Preventing articulatory rehearsal more strongly disrupted the phonological memory task, whereas performing a tapping task that interfered with attentional control more strongly disrupted semantic memory. These results suggest that semantic representations are actively maintained by a mechanism other than phonological maintenance. PMID:24687734

  15. Actor Semantics of PLANNER-73

    E-print Network

    Greif, Irene

    Work on PLANNER-73 and actors has led to the development of a basis for semantics of programming languages. Its value in describing programs with side-effects, parallelism, and synchronization is discussed. Formal definitions ...

  16. Audio/Visual Charges Cost-Sharing Request Form Please complete this form and submit it along with the receipt from the Office of Space Management

    E-print Network

    Prodiæ, Aleksandar

    . Please note that this 50% cost-sharing program only applies to basic Audio/Visual charges associatedAudio/Visual Charges Cost-Sharing Request Form Please complete this form and submit it along Audio/Visual equipment or support are not eligible for this cost-sharing program. Name of Group

  17. FORMAT: Canada's Computerized Information System for Audiovisual Materials = FORMAT: Un Systeme National d'Information Informatise pour les Produits Audiovisuels Canadiens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidd, Donald; And Others

    This report describes the development and operations of FORMAT, a Canadian database system designed to achieve comprehensive national bibliographic control of Canadian-produced audiovisual materials. FORMAT's developmental criteria are outlined, including its emphasis on Canadian-produced audiovisual documents, French/English bilingualism,…

  18. Semantic wireless body area networks.

    PubMed

    Nimmala, Venkatarama S R; Penders, Julien; van Hyfte, Dirk; Brands, Michael; Gyselinckx, Bert

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of semantic Wireless Body Area Network (sWBAN). First the method for semantic interpretation of body sensor data is developed. This method is then illustrated for the case of ECG monitoring, providing the user with real-time monitoring and interpretation of heart activity. Finally, possible extensions of the method to data fusion and context-aware monitoring are discussed. PMID:19163441

  19. Event Structure Semantics of Orc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sidney Rosario; David Kitchin; Albert Benveniste; William R. Cook; Stefan Haar; Claude Jard

    2007-01-01

    One challenge in developing wide-area distributed applications is analyzing the system's non-functional properties, including timing constraints and internal dependencies that can affect quality of service. Analysis of non-functional properties requires a precise formal semantics for the language in which the system is written; but labelled transition systems and trace semantics, which are commonly used for this purpose, do not facilitate

  20. Semantic web reasoners and languages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ravi Bhushan Mishra; Sandeep Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Semantic web reasoners and languages enable the semantic web to function. Some of the latest reasoning models developed in\\u000a the last few years are: DLP, FaCT, RACER, Pellet, MSPASS, CEL, Cerebra Engine, QuOnto, KAON2, HermiT and others. Some software\\u000a tools such as Protégé, Jena and others also have been developed, which provide inferencing as well as ontology development\\u000a and management

  1. Semantic Oriented Clustering of Documents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessio Leoncini; Fabio Sangiacomo; Sergio Decherchi; Paolo Gastaldo; Rodolfo Zunino

    2011-01-01

    \\u000a Semantic web-based approaches and computational intelligence can be merged in order to get useful tools for several data mining\\u000a issues. In this work a web-based tagging process followed by a validation step is carried to tag WordNet adjectives with positive,\\u000a neutral or negative moods. This tagged WordNet is used to define a semantic metric for text documents clustering. Experimental\\u000a results

  2. Constructive Action Semantics in OBJ

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter D. Mosses

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a Goguen and Malcolm specify semantics of programming languages in OBJ. Here, we consider how the extensibility and reusability\\u000a of their specifications could be improved. We propose using the notation and modular structure of the Constructive Action\\u000a Semantics framework in OBJ, and give a simple illustration. The reader is assumed to be familiar with OBJ.

  3. Use of Cross-Taxon Congruence for Hotspot Identification at a Regional Scale

    PubMed Central

    Fattorini, Simone; Dennis, Roger L. H.; Cook, Laurence M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most debated problems in conservation biology is the use of indicator (surrogate) taxa to predict spatial patterns in other taxa. Cross-taxon congruence in species richness patterns is of paramount importance at regional scales to disclose areas of high conservation value that are significant in a broader biogeographical context but yet placed in the finer, more practical, political context of decision making. We analysed spatial patterns of diversity in six arthropod taxa from the Turkish fauna as a regional case study relevant to global conservation of the Mediterranean basin. Although we found high congruence in cross-taxon comparisons of species richness (0.241

  4. Re: Congruence and phylogenetic reanalysis of perching bird cytochrome b sequences.

    PubMed

    Edwards, S V; Arctander, P

    1997-04-01

    In a study of the phylogenetic relationships among perching bird mtDNA sequences, Edwards et al. (1991; Proc. R. Soc. London Ser B. 243: 99-107) sequenced part of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from 13 perching birds (Passeriformes) and a woodpecker outgroup. However, recently the validity of part of the sequence of the hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus) in that study has been questioned. To determine the effect of inclusion of this apparently chimeric sequence on the conclusions of the original analysis, we reanalyzed these sequences using a different published hermit thrush sequence. In addition, we applied tests of congruence to examine the possibility that the aberrant phylogenetic behavior of chimeric mtDNA sequences might be detected. The reanalysis confirms the ability of slow evolving first and second codon positions of cytochrome b sequences to resolve deep branches in the avian tree. The fact that the new data set does not reject the DNA hybridization tree of these species probably indicates poor ability of the cytochrome b sequences to discriminate among alternative trees, rather than consistency among data sets. Statistical testing of trees based on individual amplified segments of mtDNA indicates that congruence tests may be one useful way of identifying chimeric mtDNA sequences when they have not been detected in the laboratory or during standard phylogenetic analysis. PMID:9126569

  5. On the specificity of sequential congruency effects in implicit learning of motor and perceptual sequences.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Maria C; Jiménez, Luis; Milliken, Bruce; Lupiáñez, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Individuals experience less interference from conflicting information following events that contain conflicting information. Recently, Jiménez, Lupiáñez, and Vaquero (2009) demonstrated that such adaptations to conflict occur even when the source of conflict arises from implicit knowledge of sequences. There is accumulating evidence that momentary changes in adaptations made in response to conflicting information are conflict-type specific (e.g., Funes, Lupiáñez, & Humphreys, 2010a), suggesting that there are multiple modes of control. The current study examined whether conflict-specific sequential congruency effects occur when the 2 sources of conflict are implicitly learned. Participants implicitly learned a motor sequence while simultaneously learning a perceptual sequence. In a first experiment, after learning the 2 orthogonal sequences, participants expressed knowledge of the 2 sequences independently of each other in a transfer phase. In Experiments 2 and 3, within each sequence, the presence of a single control trial disrupted the expression of this specific type of learning on the following trial. There was no evidence of cross-conflict modulations in the expression of sequence learning. The results suggest that the mechanisms involved in transient shifts in conflict-specific control, as reflected in sequential congruency effects, are also engaged when the source of conflict is implicit. PMID:22612164

  6. Spatial constraints on visual-tactile cross-modal distractor congruency effects.

    PubMed

    Spence, Charles; Pavani, Francesco; Driver, Jon

    2004-06-01

    Across three experiments, participants made speeded elevation discrimination responses to vibrotactile targets presented to the thumb (held in a lower position) or the index finger (upper position) of either hand, while simultaneously trying to ignore visual distractors presented independently from either the same or a different elevation. Performance on the vibrotactile elevation discrimination task was slower and less accurate when the visual distractor was incongruent with the elevation of the vibrotactile target (e.g., a lower light during the presentation of an upper vibrotactile target to the index finger) than when they were congruent, showing that people cannot completely ignore vision when selectively attending to vibrotactile information. We investigated the attentional, temporal, and spatial modulation of these cross-modal congruency effects by manipulating the direction of endogenous tactile spatial attention, the stimulus onset asynchrony between target and distractor, and the spatial separation between the vibrotactile target, any visual distractors, and the participant's two hands within and across hemifields. Our results provide new insights into the spatiotemporal modulation of cross-modal congruency effects and highlight the utility of this paradigm for investigating the contributions of visual, tactile, and proprioceptive inputs to the multisensory representation of peripersonal space. PMID:15460922

  7. Creating Semantically Integrated Communities on the World Wide Web

    E-print Network

    Grüninger, Michael

    Creating Semantically Integrated Communities on the World Wide Web Invited Talk Semantic Web on the World Wide Web? We first clarify some confusion about what "semantics" means and introduce a semantic continuum ranging from the kind of semantics that exist on the Web today to a rich semantic infrastructure

  8. Semantic Coordination: A New Approach and an Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Bouquet; Luciano Serafini; Stefano Zanobini

    2003-01-01

    Semantic coordination, namely the problem of finding an agreement on the meaning of heterogeneous semantic models, is one of the key issues in the development of the Semantic Web. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for discovering semantic mappings across hierarchical classifications based on a new approach to semantic coordination. This approach shifts the problem of semantic coordination

  9. SEAL: a framework for developing SEmantic PortALs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nenad Stojanovic; Alexander Maedche; Steffen Staab; Rudi Studer; York Sure

    2001-01-01

    The core idea of the Semantic Web is to make information accessible to human and software agents on a semantic basis. Hence, Web sites may feed directly from the Semantic Web exploiting the underlying structures for human and machine access. We have developed a domain-independent approach for developing semantic portals, viz. SEAL (SEmantic portAL), that exploits semantics for providing and

  10. Almost ASAP Semantics: from Timed Models to Timed Implementations

    E-print Network

    De Wulf, Martin

    Almost ASAP Semantics: from Timed Models to Timed Implementations Martin De Wulf, Laurent Doyen. In this paper, we introduce a parametric semantics for timed controllers called the Almost ASAP semantics. This semantics is a relax- ation of the usual ASAP semantics (also called the maximal progress semantics) which

  11. Almost ASAP Semantics: from Timed Models to Timed Implementations #

    E-print Network

    De Wulf, Martin

    Almost ASAP Semantics: from Timed Models to Timed Implementations # Martin De Wulf, Laurent Doyen. In this paper, we introduce a parametric semantics for timed controllers called the Almost ASAP semantics. This semantics is a relaxation of the usual ASAP semantics (also called the maximal progress semantics) which

  12. Almost ASAP Semantics: from Timed Models to Timed Implementations #

    E-print Network

    De Wulf, Martin

    Almost ASAP Semantics: from Timed Models to Timed Implementations # Martin De Wulf, Laurent Doyen. In this paper, we introduce a parametric semantics for timed controllers called the Almost ASAP semantics. This semantics is a relax­ ation of the usual ASAP semantics (also called the maximal progress semantics) which

  13. A Semantic Wiki for Collaborative Modeling and GloballyA Semantic Wiki for Collaborative Modeling and GloballyA Semantic Wiki for Collaborative Modeling and GloballyA Semantic Wiki for Collaborative Modeling and Globally Distributed Software DevelopmentDi

    E-print Network

    Mannheim, Universität

    A Semantic Wiki for Collaborative Modeling and GloballyA Semantic Wiki for Collaborative Modeling and GloballyA Semantic Wiki for Collaborative Modeling and GloballyA Semantic Wiki for Collaborative Modeling Engineering based on Semantic Media WikiSoftware Engineering based on Semantic Media WikiSoftware Engineering

  14. The Impact of Politics 2.0 in the Spanish Social Media: Tracking the Conversations around the Audiovisual Political Wars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguera, José M.; Correyero, Beatriz

    After the consolidation of weblogs as interactive narratives and producers, audiovisual formats are gaining ground on the Web. Videos are spreading all over the Internet and establishing themselves as a new medium for political propaganda inside social media with tools so powerful like YouTube. This investigation proceeds in two stages: on one hand we are going to examine how this audiovisual formats have enjoyed an enormous amount of attention in blogs during the Spanish pre-electoral campaign for the elections of March 2008. On the other hand, this article tries to investigate the social impact of this phenomenon using data from a content analysis of the blog discussion related to these videos centered on the most popular Spanish political blogs. Also, we study when the audiovisual political messages (made by politicians or by users) "born" and "die" in the Web and with what kind of rules they do.

  15. Delayed Audiovisual Integration of Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease Compared with Normal Aged Controls

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jinglong; Yang, Jiajia; Yu, Yinghua; Li, Qi; Nakamura, Naoya; Shen, Yong; Ohta, Yasuyuki; Yu, Shengyuan; Abe, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The human brain can anatomically combine task-relevant information from different sensory pathways to form a unified perception; this process is called multisensory integration. The aim of the present study was to test whether the multisensory integration abilities of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) differed from those of normal aged controls (NC). A total of 64 subjects were divided into three groups: NC individuals (n = 24), MCI patients (n = 19), and probable AD patients (n = 21). All of the subjects were asked to perform three separate audiovisual integration tasks and were instructed to press the response key associated with the auditory, visual, or audiovisual stimuli in the three tasks. The accuracy and response time (RT) of each task were measured, and the RTs were analyzed using cumulative distribution functions to observe the audiovisual integration. Our results suggest that the mean RT of patients with AD was significantly longer than those of patients with MCI and NC individuals. Interestingly, we found that patients with both MCI and AD exhibited adequate audiovisual integration, and a greater peak (time bin with the highest percentage of benefit) and broader temporal window (time duration of benefit) of multisensory enhancement were observed. However, the onset time and peak benefit of audiovisual integration in MCI and AD patients occurred significantly later than did those of the NC. This finding indicates that the cognitive functional deficits of patients with MCI and AD contribute to the differences in performance enhancements of audiovisual integration compared with NC. PMID:22810093

  16. Dynamic, rhythmic facial expressions and the superior temporal sulcus of macaque monkeys: implications for the evolution of audiovisual speech

    PubMed Central

    Ghazanfar, Asif A.; Chandrasekaran, Chandramouli; Morrill, Ryan J.

    2010-01-01

    Audiovisual speech has a stereotypical rhythm that is between 2 and 7 Hz, and deviations from this frequency range in either modality reduce intelligibility. Understanding how audiovisual speech evolved requires investigating the origins of this rhythmic structure. One hypothesis is that the rhythm of speech evolved through the modification of some pre-existing cyclical jaw movements in a primate ancestor. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the temporal structure of lipsmacks and teeth-grinds of macaque monkeys and the neural responses to these facial gestures in the superior temporal sulcus (STS), a region implicated in the processing of audiovisual communication signals in both humans and monkeys. We found that both lipsmacks and teeth-grinds have consistent but distinct peak frequencies and that both fall well within the 2–7 Hz range of mouth movements associated with audiovisual speech. Single neurons and local field potentials of the STS of monkeys readily responded to such facial rhythms, but also responded just as robustly to yawns, a nonrhythmic but dynamic facial expression. All expressions elicited enhanced power in the delta (0–3Hz), theta (3–8Hz), alpha (8–14Hz) and gamma (> 60 Hz) frequency ranges, and suppressed power in the beta (20–40Hz) range. Thus, STS is sensitive to, but not selective for, rhythmic facial gestures. Taken together, these data provide support for the idea that that audiovisual speech evolved (at least in part) from the rhythmic facial gestures of an ancestral primate and that the STS was sensitive to and thus ‘prepared’ for the advent of rhythmic audiovisual communication. PMID:20584185

  17. Elucidating the Nature of Deregulated Semantic Cognition in Semantic Aphasia: Evidence for the Roles of Prefrontal and Temporoparietal Cortices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krist A. Noonan; Elizabeth Jefferies; Faye Corbett; Matthew A. Lambon Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Semantic cognition—semantically driven verbal and nonverbal behavior—is composed of at least two interactive principal components: conceptual representations and executive control processes that regulate and shape activation within the semantic system. Previous studies indicate that semantic dementia follows from a progressive yet specific degradation of conceptual knowledge. In contrast, multimodal semantic impairment in aphasic patients (semantic aphasia [SA]) reflects damage to

  18. Building a Semantic Virtual Museum: from Wiki to Semantic Wiki using Named Entity Recognition

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Building a Semantic Virtual Museum: from Wiki to Semantic Wiki using Named Entity Recognition Alain semantic wiki pages from regular wiki pages, in the domain of scientific museums, using information to generate semantic wiki pages. Our initial evaluation of the prototype shows promising results in terms

  19. Theory and Method in Establishing the Cultural Congruence of Classroom Speech Events. Asian Pacific American Occasional Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Kathryn Hu-pei

    The purpose of this paper is to outline theory and methods associated with a research strategy for identifying elements of cultural congruence or incogruence in classroom speech events. The hypothesis of "sociolinguistic interference" proposed by D. Hymes is discussed and studies of language education of Hawaiians and other minorities are reviewed…

  20. Congruence between patients’ preferred and perceived participation in medical decision-making: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients are increasingly expected and asked to be involved in health care decisions. In this decision-making process, preferences for participation are important. In this systematic review we aim to provide an overview the literature related to the congruence between patients’ preferences and their perceived participation in medical decision-making. We also explore the direction of mismatched and outline factors associated with congruence. Methods A systematic review was performed on patient participation in medical decision-making. Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases up to September 2012, were searched and all studies were rigorously critically appraised. In total 44 papers were included, they sampled contained 52 different patient samples. Results Mean of congruence between preference for and perceived participation in decision-making was 60% (49 and 70 representing 25th and 75th percentiles). If no congruence was found, of 36 patient samples most patients preferred more involvement and of 9 patient samples most patients preferred less involvement. Factors associated with preferences the most investigated were age and educational level. Younger patients preferred more often an active or shared role as did higher educated patients. Conclusion This review suggests that a similar approach to all patients is not likely to meet patients’ wishes, since preferences for participation vary among patients. Health care professionals should be sensitive to patients individual preferences and communicate about patients’ participation wishes on a regular basis during their illness trajectory. PMID:24708833

  1. Adult Students' Perception of the Congruence of Hybrid Courses with Their Adult Learning Needs and Their Satisfaction from Hybrid Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iqbal, Rubina

    2011-01-01

    The overall purpose of the study was to examine adult students' perception of the congruence of hybrid courses with adult learning needs and to examine adult students' level of satisfaction with hybrid courses. The study collected data through pre and post surveys, administered at the beginning and near the end of the hybrid courses, of adult…

  2. Congruence Function for Measuring the Extent of Coverage of the Enacted Curriculum and District Pacing Calendars to State Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walkup, John R.; Jones, Ben S.; Pilipenko, John; Davenport, David P.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a mathematical function for measuring the congruence among the strand representation in the enacted curriculum, state assessments, and district pacing guides. Using the Manhattan distance as its basis, this method allows researchers to incorporate the strand coverage of the enacted curriculum (i.e., the curriculum actually…

  3. Multirater Congruence on the Social Skills Rating System: Mother, Father, and Teacher Assessments of Urban Head Start Children's Social Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jay; Fantuzzo, John W.

    1999-01-01

    Examined relationships between parent and teacher and between mother and father Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) reports for 134 urban Head Start children to assess the cross-informant capacity of the SSRS. Found an insignificant relationship between parent and teacher SSRS ratings; found significant congruence between mothers' and fathers'…

  4. Jacobi forms in two variables: Multiple elliptic Dedekind sums, The Kummer-von Staudt Clausen Congruences for elliptic

    E-print Network

    Bayad, Abdelmejid

    Jacobi forms in two variables: Multiple elliptic Dedekind sums, The Kummer-von Staudt Clausen Congruences for elliptic Bernoulli functions and values of Hecke L-functions Abdelmejid Bayad abayad January 7, 2008 In this paper we introduce elliptic Bernoulli functions and numbers, which are related

  5. DEFINABLE PRINCIPAL CONGRUENCES AND SOLVABILITY PAWEL M. IDZIAK, KEITH A. KEARNES, EMIL W. KISS, MATTHEW A. VALERIOTE

    E-print Network

    Kearnes, Keith A.

    DEFINABLE PRINCIPAL CONGRUENCES AND SOLVABILITY PAWEL M. IDZIAK, KEITH A. KEARNES, EMIL W. KISS that a variety of lattices has DPC if and only if it is distributive and in [10] Kiss generalizes. 1 #12;2 PAWEL M. IDZIAK, KEITH A. KEARNES, EMIL W. KISS, MATTHEW A. VALERIOTE In this paper we

  6. The Influence of Cultural Congruency, Communication, and Work Alienation on Employee Satisfaction and Commitment in Mexican Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madlock, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of cultural congruency between societal and organizational cultures on Mexican supervisors' and employees' communication behaviors and employees' work alienation, satisfaction, and commitment. The participants were full time nonmanagement adults working for Mexican owned organizations located in Mexico. This study…

  7. The impact of role?congruency and photo presence on the processing of news stories about Hillary Clinton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Mendelson; Esther Thorson

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of news photo presence and role?congruency in news stories of Hillary Clinton on reader interest and memory. In the photos and stories, Clinton was either portrayed as a wife, or as a professional person. Results indicate readers processed the photos at least sufficiently to rate them as fitting with the story or

  8. The Intergenerational Congruence of Mothers' and Preschoolers' Narrative Affective Content and Narrative Coherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher-Censor, Efrat; Grey, Izabela; Yates, Tuppett M.

    2013-01-01

    Intergenerational congruence of mothers' and preschoolers' narratives about the mother-child relationship was examined in a sample of 198 Hispanic (59.1%), Black (19.2%), and White (21.7%) mothers and their preschool child. Mothers' narratives were obtained with the Five Minute Speech Sample and were coded for negative and positive…

  9. Document space models using latent semantic analysis. 

    E-print Network

    Gotoh, Yoshihiko; Renals, Steve

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, an approach for constructing mixture language models (LMs) based on some notion of semantics is discussed. To this end, a technique known as latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used. The approach encapsulates ...

  10. SEMANTIC KNOWLEDGE CONSTRUCTION FROM ANNOTATED IMAGE COLLECTIONS

    E-print Network

    Chang, Shih-Fu

    SEMANTIC KNOWLEDGE CONSTRUCTION FROM ANNOTATED IMAGE COLLECTIONS Ana B. Benitez and Shih-Fu Chang Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 {ana, sfchang} @ ee images. The proposed methods include novel automatic techniques for extracting semantic concepts

  11. Learning Semantic Scene Models by Trajectory Analysis

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xiaogang

    2006-02-10

    In this paper, we describe an unsupervised learning framework to segment a scene into semantic regions and to build semantic scene models from long-term observations of moving objects in the scene. First, we introduce two ...

  12. The Semantic Web: from Concept to Percept

    E-print Network

    Menczer, Filippo

    and people to work in co-operation." ­ Tim Berners- Lee, James Hendler, Ora Lassila, The Semantic Web user. Tim Berners-Lee created the vision of a Semantic Web that enables automated information access

  13. Cognitive load and semantic analogies: Searching semantic space.

    PubMed

    Thibaut, Jean-Pierre; French, Robert; Vezneva, Milena

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the performance of children of different ages on an analogy-making task involving semantic analogies in which there are competing semantic matches. We suggest that this can best be studied in terms of developmental changes in executive functioning. We hypothesize that the selection of common relational structure requires the inhibition of other salient features, in particular semantically related matches. Our results show that children's performance in classic A: B:: C: D analogy-making tasks seems to depend crucially on the nature of the distractors and the association strength between both the A and B terms and the C and D terms. These results agree with an analogy-making account (Richland, Morrison, & Holyoak, 2006) based on different limitations in executive functioning at different ages. PMID:20702879

  14. Body Size Is a Significant Predictor of Congruency in Species Richness Patterns: A Meta-Analysis of Aquatic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Velghe, Katherine; Gregory-Eaves, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity losses over the next century are predicted to result in alterations of ecosystem functions that are on par with other major drivers of global change. Given the seriousness of this issue, there is a need to effectively monitor global biodiversity. Because performing biodiversity censuses of all taxonomic groups is prohibitively costly, indicator groups have been studied to estimate the biodiversity of different taxonomic groups. Quantifying cross-taxon congruence is a method of evaluating the assumption that the diversity of one taxonomic group can be used to predict the diversity of another. To improve the predictive ability of cross-taxon congruence in aquatic ecosystems, we evaluated whether body size, measured as the ratio of average body length between organismal groups, is a significant predictor of their cross-taxon biodiversity congruence. To test this hypothesis, we searched the published literature and screened for studies that used species richness correlations as their metric of cross-taxon congruence. We extracted 96 correlation coefficients from 16 studies, which encompassed 784 inland water bodies. With these correlation coefficients, we conducted a categorical meta-analysis, grouping data based on the body size ratio of organisms. Our results showed that cross-taxon congruence is variable among sites and between different groups (r values ranging between ?0.53 to 0.88). In addition, our quantitative meta-analysis demonstrated that organisms most similar in body size showed stronger species richness correlations than organisms which differed increasingly in size (radj2?=?0.94, p?=?0.02). We propose that future studies applying biodiversity indicators in aquatic ecosystems consider functional traits such as body size, so as to increase their success at predicting the biodiversity of taxonomic groups where cost-effective conservation tools are needed. PMID:23468903

  15. Semantic photo synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Matthew; Brostow, G. J.; Shotton, J.; Kwatra, V.; Cipolla, R.

    2007-02-01

    Composite images are synthesized from existing photographs by artists who make concept art, e.g. storyboards for movies or architectural planning. Current techniques allow an artist to fabricate such an image by digitally splicing parts of stock photographs. While these images serve mainly to "quickly" convey how a scene should look, their production is laborious. We propose a technique that allows a person to design a new photograph with substantially less effort. This paper presents a method that generates a composite image when a user types in nouns, such as "boat" and "sand." The artist can optionally design an intended image by specifying other constraints. Our algorithm formulates the constraints as queries to search an automatically annotated image database. The desired photograph, not a collage, is then synthesized using graph-cut optimization, optionally allowing for further user interaction to edit or choose among alternative generated photos. Our results demonstrate our contributions of (1) a method of creating specific images with minimal human effort, and (2) a combined algorithm for automatically building an image library with semantic annotations from any photo collection.

  16. Prevalence of abnormal patellofemoral congruence in elite American football players and association with quadriceps isokinetic testing.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christopher A; Carragee, Cat; Sox-Harris, Alex; Merchant, Alan C; Mcadams, Timothy R

    2014-02-01

    Abnormal patellofemoral joint alignment has been discussed as a potential risk factor for patellofemoral disorders and can impact the longevity of any elite athlete's career. The prevalence of abnormal patellofemoral congruence in elite American football athletes is similar to the general population and does not have a relationship with quadriceps isokinetic testing. A total of 125 athletes (220 knees) from the 2011 National Football League (NFL) Combine database who had radiographic and isokinetic studies were reviewed. Congruence angles (CA) and lateral patellofemoral angles (LPA) were calculated on a Merchant radiographic view. Isokinetic testing was used to determine quadriceps-to-hamstring strength (Q/H) ratio and side-to-side deficits. The relationships between abnormal CA and LPA with Q/H ratios, side-to-side deficits, and body mass index (BMI) were examined in separate logistic regression models. A Chi-square test was used to examine the association between CA and player position. Of all, 26.8% of the knees (95% CI: 21.1-33.2%) had an abnormal CA. Knees with normal CA (n?=?161) did not significantly differ from those with an abnormal CA (n? = 59) in Q/H ratios (mean: 0.699 vs. 0.728, p?=?0.19) or side-to-side quadriceps deficits (mean: 4.0 vs. 1.24, p? = 0.45). For each point increase in BMI, the odds ratio (OR) of abnormal congruence increased by 11.4% (p?=?0.002). Of all the knees, 4.1% (95% CI: 1.9-7.6%) had an abnormal LPA, and this was not associated with Q/H ratios (p? = ?0.13). For each point increase in BMI, the odds of abnormal LPA increased by 16% (p? = 0.036). CA abnormality had much higher odds of having an abnormal LPA (OR: 5.96, p = 0.014). We found that abnormal patellofemoral radiographic alignment in elite American football players is relatively common and there was no association with isokinetic testing. PMID:23925950

  17. Gobbleing Over the Web With Semantic Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donato Griesi; Maria Teresa Pazienza; Armando Stellato

    2006-01-01

    In this work we introduce Semantic Turkey, a Semantic Extension for the popular web browser Mozilla Firefox. Semantic Turkey can be used to annotate information from visited web sites and organize this information according to a personally defined ontology. Clear separation between knowledge data (the WHAT) and web links (the WHERE) is established into the knowledge model of the system,

  18. Din din! The (Semantic) Turkey is served

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Teresa Pazienza; Noemi Scarpato; Armando Stellato; Andrea Turbati

    2008-01-01

    From its first introduction in this same conference, the original prototype of the Semantic Bookmarking tool Semantic Turkey has undergone a deep and extensive revision process, breaking the boundaries of its original intents and going more and more towards an extensible platform for Knowledge Management and Acquisition based on Semantic Web technologies. Following its recent official release, we discuss here

  19. DIALETHEISM, SEMANTIC PATHOLOGY, AND THE OPEN PAIR

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    DIALETHEISM, SEMANTIC PATHOLOGY, AND THE OPEN PAIR Bradley Armour-Garb and James A. Woodbridge Over wish to address the dialetheist's treatment of cases of semantic pathology and to pose a worry, afflicting both consistent and inconsistent proposals for resolving semantic pathology. Thus, while our

  20. KAON - Towards a Large Scale Semantic Web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erol Bozsak; Marc Ehrig; Siegfried Handschuh; Andreas Hotho; Alexander Maedche; Boris Motik; Daniel Oberle; Christoph Schmitz; Steffen Staab; Ljiljana Stojanovic; Nenad Stojanovic; Rudi Studer; Gerd Stumme; York Sure; Julien Tane; Raphael Volz; Valentin Zacharias

    2002-01-01

    The Semantic Web will bring structure to the content of Web pages, being an extension of the current Web, in which information is given a well- defined meaning. Especially within e-commerce applications, Semantic Web tech- nologies in the form of ontologies and metadata are becoming increasingly preva- lent and important. This paper introduce KAON - the Karlsruhe Ontology and Semantic

  1. Rule System Interoperability on the Semantic Web

    E-print Network

    Polz, Martin

    Rule System Interoperability on the Semantic Web with SWRL Martin O'Connor1, Holger Knublauch1., San Francisco CA #12;What is SWRL? · SWRL is an acronym for Semantic Web Rule Language. · SWRL relating to currently loaded OWL entities. · Basic semantic checking, e.g., no variables can be used

  2. Adding Semantics to Web Services Standards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaarthik Sivashanmugam; Kunal Verma; Amit P. Sheth; John A. Miller

    2003-01-01

    With the increasing growth in popularity of Web services, discovery of relevant Web services becomes a significant challenge. One approach is to develop semantic Web services where by the Web services are annotated based on shared ontologies, and use these annotations for semantics-based discovery of relevant Web services. We discuss one such approach that involves adding semantics to WSDL using

  3. SIMILARITY NETWORK FOR SEMANTIC WEB SERVICES SUBSTITUTION

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SIMILARITY NETWORK FOR SEMANTIC WEB SERVICES SUBSTITUTION Chantal Cherifi LE2I Laboratory, Burgundy is performed on a benchmark of semantically annotated Web services. Results show that this approach allows a more detailed analysis of substitutable Web services. Keywords - Semantic Web services, Functional

  4. Natural Language Annotations for the Semantic Web

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, InfoLab

    Natural Language Annotations for the Semantic Web Boris Katz 1 , Jimmy Lin 1 , and Dennis Quan 2 1. Because the ultimate purpose of the Semantic Web is to help users locate, organize, and process of the Semantic Web, was designed to be easily processed by computers, not humans. To render RDF friendlier

  5. Natural Language Annotations for the Semantic Web

    E-print Network

    Lin, Jimmy

    Natural Language Annotations for the Semantic Web Boris Katz1 , Jimmy Lin1 , and Dennis Quan2 1 MIT. Because the ultimate purpose of the Semantic Web is to help users locate, organize, and process of the Semantic Web, was designed to be easily processed by computers, not humans. To render RDF friendlier

  6. Steffen Staab ISWeb Informationssysteme & Semantic Web

    E-print Network

    Staab, Steffen

    Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Informationssysteme & Semantic Web Topic Communities in P2P Networks Steffen #12;Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Informationssysteme & Semantic Web Two opposite challenges when considering;Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Informationssysteme & Semantic Web Problem 1: Bibliography Use Case I am searching

  7. Measuring Semantic Similarity Between Geospatial Conceptual Regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Schwering; Martin Raubal

    2005-01-01

    Determining the grade of semantic similarity between geospatial concepts is the basis for evaluating semantic interoperability of geographic information services and their users. Geometrical models, such as conceptual spaces, offer one way of representing geospatial concepts, which are modelled as n-dimensional regions. Previous approaches have suggested to measure semantic similarity between concepts based on their approximation by single points. This

  8. Towards an Operational Semantics for Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannakopoulos, Theophilos; Dougherty, Daniel J.; Fisler, Kathi; Krishnamurthi, Shriram

    The Alloy modeling language has a mathematically rigorous denotational semantics based on relational algebra. Alloy specifications often represent operations on a state, suggesting a transition-system semantics. Because Alloy does not intrinsically provide a notion of state, however, this interpretation is only implicit in the relational-algebra semantics underlying the Alloy Analyzer.

  9. Semantic Web and Machine Learning Tutorial

    E-print Network

    Staab, Steffen

    to knowledge base to proofs Design principles of WWW applied to Semantics!! Tim Berners- Lee, Weaving the WebSemantic Web and Machine Learning Tutorial Andreas Hotho Knowledge and Data Engineering Group University of Kassel Germany Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Information Systems and Semantic Web University of Koblenz

  10. Visual analysis of documents with semantic graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Delia Rusu; Blaz Fortuna; Dunja Mladenic; Marko Grobelnik; Ruben Sipos

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a technique for visual analysis of documents based on the semantic representation of text in the form of a directed graph, referred to as semantic graph. This approach can aid data mining tasks, such as exploratory data analysis, data description and summarization. In order to derive the semantic graph, we take advantage of natural language

  11. Semantic Web Research anno 2006: main streams,

    E-print Network

    van Harmelen, Frank

    Semantic Web Research anno 2006: main streams, popular fallacies, current status and future. In this topical1 paper we try to give an analysis and overview of the current state of Semantic Web research. We point to different in- terpretations of the Semantic Web as the reason underlying many contro- versies

  12. Relating Semantic Models of Compensating CSP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shamim Ripon; Michael Butler

    Building equivalences between difierent semantic models of a language strengthens the formal foundation of the language. This pa- per shows the derivation of denotational semantics from operational se- mantics of the language cCSP. The aim is to show the correspondence between the operational and trace semantics. We extract traces from op- erational rules and use structural induction to show the

  13. International Journal on Semantic Web and

    E-print Network

    Chen-Burger, Yun-Heh (Jessica)

    ON AIR!!! International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (Discount to SIG members) DON'T MISS: TOM GRUBER INTERVIEW (page 4) BulletinSemantic Web & Information Systems The Official Quarterly Newsletter of AIS Special Interest Group on Semantic Web and Information Systems AIS SIGSEMIS http

  14. Characterizing the Semantic Web on the Web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Ding; Tim Finin

    2006-01-01

    Semantic Web languages are being used to represent, encode and ex- change semantic data in many contexts beyond the Web - in databases, multia- gent systems, mobile computing, and ad hoc networking environments. The core paradigm, however, remains what we call the Web aspect of the Semantic Web - its use by independent and distributed agents who publish and consume

  15. Social networks and the Semantic Web

    E-print Network

    Baeza-Yates, Ricardo

    Social networks and the Semantic Web Peter Mika Business Informatics group Dept. of Computer technology for the social sciences Social network mining from the Web Semantics-based data management Browsing and visualization Case study Network Analysis of Semantic Web research 2. Network Analysis

  16. Einsatz von Web Services im Semantic Web

    E-print Network

    Moeller, Ralf

    Einsatz von Web Services im Semantic Web am Beispiel der RACER Engine und OWL-QL Jan Galinski Aufbau der Arbeit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 Grundlagen 5 2.1 Semantic Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1.1 Komponenten des Semantic Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.1.2 Repräsentation

  17. SemperWiki: a semantic personal Wiki

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eyal Oren

    2005-01-01

    Wikis are collaborative authoring environments, and are very popular. The original concept has recently been extended in two di- rections: semantic Wikis and personal Wikis. Semantic Wikis focus on better retrieval and querying facilities, by using semantic annotations of pages. Personal Wikis focus on improving usability and on provid- ing an easy-to-use personal information space. We combine these two developments

  18. Reusing Ontological Background Knowledge in Semantic Wikis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denny Vrandecic; Markus Krötzsch

    2006-01-01

    A number of approaches have been developed for combining wikis with semantic technologies. Many semantic wikis focus on enabling users to specify properties and relationships of individual elements. Complex schema in- formation is typically not edited by the wiki user. Nevertheless, semantic wikis could benefit from taking existing schema information into account, and to allow users to specify additional information

  19. Annotation and Navigation in Semantic Wikis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eyal Oren; Renaud Delbru; Knud Möller; Max Völkel; Siegfried Handschuh

    2006-01-01

    Abstract. Semantic Wikis allow users to semantically annotate their Wiki content. The particular annotations can dier in expressive power, simplicity, and meaning. We present an elaborate conceptual model for semantic annotations, introduce a unique and rich Wiki syntax for these annotations, and discuss how to best formally represent the augmented Wiki content. We improve existing navigation techniques to automatically construct

  20. Rethinking the Semantic Web, Part 1

    E-print Network

    Petrie, Charles

    . The Semantic Web thus represents a "shadow web" that's entirely separate from today's Web. EachRethinking the Semantic Web, Part 1 T he Semantic Web is a compelling vision, laid out in 2001 by Tim Berners-Lee and others,1 in which the World Wide Web will include a notion of meaning in data