Sample records for audiovisual semantic congruency

  1. Multisensory integration in complete unawareness: evidence from audiovisual congruency priming.

    PubMed

    Faivre, Nathan; Mudrik, Liad; Schwartz, Naama; Koch, Christof

    2014-11-01

    Multisensory integration is thought to require conscious perception. Although previous studies have shown that an invisible stimulus could be integrated with an audible one, none have demonstrated integration of two subliminal stimuli of different modalities. Here, pairs of identical or different audiovisual target letters (the sound /b/ with the written letter "b" or "m," respectively) were preceded by pairs of masked identical or different audiovisual prime digits (the sound /6/ with the written digit "6" or "8," respectively). In three experiments, awareness of the audiovisual digit primes was manipulated, such that participants were either unaware of the visual digit, the auditory digit, or both. Priming of the semantic relations between the auditory and visual digits was found in all experiments. Moreover, a further experiment showed that unconscious multisensory integration was not obtained when participants did not undergo prior conscious training of the task. This suggests that following conscious learning, unconscious processing suffices for multisensory integration. PMID:25269620

  2. Musical expertise induces audiovisual integration of abstract congruency rules.

    PubMed

    Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Kuchenbuch, Anja; Herholz, Sibylle C; Pantev, Christo

    2012-12-12

    Perception of everyday life events relies mostly on multisensory integration. Hence, studying the neural correlates of the integration of multiple senses constitutes an important tool in understanding perception within an ecologically valid framework. The present study used magnetoencephalography in human subjects to identify the neural correlates of an audiovisual incongruency response, which is not generated due to incongruency of the unisensory physical characteristics of the stimulation but from the violation of an abstract congruency rule. The chosen rule-"the higher the pitch of the tone, the higher the position of the circle"-was comparable to musical reading. In parallel, plasticity effects due to long-term musical training on this response were investigated by comparing musicians to non-musicians. The applied paradigm was based on an appropriate modification of the multifeatured oddball paradigm incorporating, within one run, deviants based on a multisensory audiovisual incongruent condition and two unisensory mismatch conditions: an auditory and a visual one. Results indicated the presence of an audiovisual incongruency response, generated mainly in frontal regions, an auditory mismatch negativity, and a visual mismatch response. Moreover, results revealed that long-term musical training generates plastic changes in frontal, temporal, and occipital areas that affect this multisensory incongruency response as well as the unisensory auditory and visual mismatch responses. PMID:23238733

  3. SALERO - Semantic Audiovisual Entertainment Reusable Objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werner Haas; Georg Thallinger; Pedro Cano; Charlie Cullen; Tobias Bürger

    2006-01-01

    The Integrated Project SALERO aims to advance the state of the art in digital media to the point where it becomes possible to create audiovisual content for cross-platform delivery using intelligent content tools, with greater quality at lower cost, to provide audiences with more engaging entertainment and information at home or on the move. SALERO will build on and extend

  4. Collaborative System for Semantic Annotation of Audiovisual Contents - Applications in the Context of Brazilian Independent Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luiz Rolim; Alexandre Osório; Ismael Avila

    2010-01-01

    This work presents an architecture that supports collaborative semantic annotation for audiovisual (AV) contents on the web. The main goal is to propose a semantically oriented infrastructure to organize audiovisual material produced by Brazilian points of culture and independent producers so as to optimize the searches made by community TV broadcasters, schools, film societies and internauts. The collaboration will rely

  5. Content congruency and its interplay with temporal synchrony modulate integration between rhythmic audiovisual streams

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yi-Huang

    2014-01-01

    Both lower-level stimulus factors (e.g., temporal proximity) and higher-level cognitive factors (e.g., content congruency) are known to influence multisensory integration. The former can direct attention in a converging manner, and the latter can indicate whether information from the two modalities belongs together. The present research investigated whether and how these two factors interacted in the perception of rhythmic, audiovisual (AV) streams derived from a human movement scenario. Congruency here was based on sensorimotor correspondence pertaining to rhythm perception. Participants attended to bimodal stimuli consisting of a humanlike figure moving regularly to a sequence of auditory beat, and detected a possible auditory temporal deviant. The figure moved either downwards (congruently) or upwards (incongruently) to the downbeat, while in both situations the movement was either synchronous with the beat, or lagging behind it. Greater cross-modal binding was expected to hinder deviant detection. Results revealed poorer detection for congruent than for incongruent streams, suggesting stronger integration in the former. False alarms increased in asynchronous stimuli only for congruent streams, indicating greater tendency for deviant report due to visual capture of asynchronous auditory events. In addition, a greater increase in perceived synchrony was associated with a greater reduction in false alarms for congruent streams, while the pattern was reversed for incongruent ones. These results demonstrate that content congruency as a top-down factor not only promotes integration, but also modulates bottom-up effects of synchrony. Results are also discussed regarding how theories of integration and attentional entrainment may be combined in the context of rhythmic multisensory stimuli. PMID:25538576

  6. Content congruency and its interplay with temporal synchrony modulate integration between rhythmic audiovisual streams.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi-Huang

    2014-01-01

    Both lower-level stimulus factors (e.g., temporal proximity) and higher-level cognitive factors (e.g., content congruency) are known to influence multisensory integration. The former can direct attention in a converging manner, and the latter can indicate whether information from the two modalities belongs together. The present research investigated whether and how these two factors interacted in the perception of rhythmic, audiovisual (AV) streams derived from a human movement scenario. Congruency here was based on sensorimotor correspondence pertaining to rhythm perception. Participants attended to bimodal stimuli consisting of a humanlike figure moving regularly to a sequence of auditory beat, and detected a possible auditory temporal deviant. The figure moved either downwards (congruently) or upwards (incongruently) to the downbeat, while in both situations the movement was either synchronous with the beat, or lagging behind it. Greater cross-modal binding was expected to hinder deviant detection. Results revealed poorer detection for congruent than for incongruent streams, suggesting stronger integration in the former. False alarms increased in asynchronous stimuli only for congruent streams, indicating greater tendency for deviant report due to visual capture of asynchronous auditory events. In addition, a greater increase in perceived synchrony was associated with a greater reduction in false alarms for congruent streams, while the pattern was reversed for incongruent ones. These results demonstrate that content congruency as a top-down factor not only promotes integration, but also modulates bottom-up effects of synchrony. Results are also discussed regarding how theories of integration and attentional entrainment may be combined in the context of rhythmic multisensory stimuli. PMID:25538576

  7. ERPs and Contextual Semantic Discrimination: Degrees of Congruence in Wakefulness and Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibanez, Agustin; Lopez, Vladimir; Cornejo, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    This study explores whether the brain can discriminate degrees of semantic congruency during wakefulness and sleep. Experiment 1 was conducted during wakefulness to test degrees of congruency by means of N400 amplitude. In Experiment 2, the same paradigm was applied to a different group of participants during natural night sleep. Stimuli were 108…

  8. Congruence

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Neubert

    2010-10-04

    Congruence Concepts: What exactly is Congruence? (Especially when it refers to triangles?) Congruence Here is some practice with Triangle Congruence. SSS, SAS, ASA Congruent Triangles in Proofs TIPS Triangle Congruence Numerical Practice Review Third Angles Theorem and Properties of Congruent Triangles (Reflexive Property, Symmetric Property, and Transitive Property) Theorems for Congruent Triangles SSS, SAS, AAS, HL Theorems for Congruent Triangles CPCTC means that if two triangles can be shown to be congruent by any method, then ALL ...

  9. The role of semantic self-perceptions in temporal distance perceptions toward autobiographical events: the semantic congruence model.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, Jochen E; Haddock, Geoffrey; Broemer, Philip; von Hecker, Ulrich

    2013-11-01

    Why do some autobiographical events feel as if they happened yesterday, whereas others feel like ancient history? Such temporal distance perceptions have surprisingly little to do with actual calendar time distance. Instead, psychologists have found that people typically perceive positive autobiographical events as overly recent, while perceiving negative events as overly distant. The origins of this temporal distance bias have been sought in self-enhancement strivings and mood congruence between autobiographical events and chronic mood. As such, past research exclusively focused on the evaluative features of autobiographical events, while neglecting semantic features. To close this gap, we introduce a semantic congruence model. Capitalizing on the Big Two self-perception dimensions, Study 1 showed that high semantic congruence between recalled autobiographical events and trait self-perceptions render the recalled events subjectively recent. Specifically, interpersonally warm (competent) individuals perceived autobiographical events reflecting warmth (competence) as relatively recent, but warm (competent) individuals did not perceive events reflecting competence (warmth) as relatively recent. Study 2 found that conscious perceptions of congruence mediate these effects. Studies 3 and 4 showed that neither mood congruence nor self-enhancement account for these results. Study 5 extended the results from the Big Two to the Big Five self-perception dimensions, while affirming the independence of the semantic congruence model from evaluative influences. PMID:23834641

  10. Neural Correlates of Audiovisual Integration of Semantic Category Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Zhonghua; Zhang, Ruiling; Zhang, Qinglin; Liu, Qiang; Li, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have found a late frontal-central audiovisual interaction during the time period about 150-220 ms post-stimulus. However, it is unclear to which process is this audiovisual interaction related: to processing of acoustical features or to classification of stimuli? To investigate this question, event-related potentials were recorded…

  11. Audiovisuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents information on a variety of audiovisual materials from government and nongovernment sources. Topics include aerodynamics and conditions of flight, airports, navigation, careers, history, medical factors, weather, films for classroom use, and others. (Author/SA)

  12. Delineating the Effect of Semantic Congruency on Episodic Memory: The Role of Integration and Relatedness

    PubMed Central

    Bein, Oded; Livneh, Neta; Reggev, Niv; Gilead, Michael; Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan; Maril, Anat

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in the study of learning and memory is to understand the role of existing knowledge in the encoding and retrieval of new episodic information. The importance of prior knowledge in memory is demonstrated in the congruency effect—the robust finding wherein participants display better memory for items that are compatible, rather than incompatible, with their pre-existing semantic knowledge. Despite its robustness, the mechanism underlying this effect is not well understood. In four studies, we provide evidence that demonstrates the privileged explanatory power of the elaboration-integration account over alternative hypotheses. Furthermore, we question the implicit assumption that the congruency effect pertains to the truthfulness/sensibility of a subject-predicate proposition, and show that congruency is a function of semantic relatedness between item and context words. PMID:25695759

  13. Delineating the effect of semantic congruency on episodic memory: the role of integration and relatedness.

    PubMed

    Bein, Oded; Livneh, Neta; Reggev, Niv; Gilead, Michael; Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan; Maril, Anat

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in the study of learning and memory is to understand the role of existing knowledge in the encoding and retrieval of new episodic information. The importance of prior knowledge in memory is demonstrated in the congruency effect-the robust finding wherein participants display better memory for items that are compatible, rather than incompatible, with their pre-existing semantic knowledge. Despite its robustness, the mechanism underlying this effect is not well understood. In four studies, we provide evidence that demonstrates the privileged explanatory power of the elaboration-integration account over alternative hypotheses. Furthermore, we question the implicit assumption that the congruency effect pertains to the truthfulness/sensibility of a subject-predicate proposition, and show that congruency is a function of semantic relatedness between item and context words. PMID:25695759

  14. Congruence Effect in Semantic Categorization with Masked Primes with Narrow and Broad Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Wendy Maree; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2008-01-01

    In semantic categorization, masked primes that are category-congruent with the target (e.g., "Planets: mars-VENUS") facilitate responses relative to category-incongruent primes (e.g., "tree-VENUS"). The present study investigated why this category congruence effect is more consistently found with narrow categories (e.g., "Numbers larger/smaller…

  15. SEMANTIC AUDIOVISUAL ANALYSIS FOR VIDEO SUMMARIZATION Junyong You, Member, IEEE, Miska M Hannuksela, Member, IEEE, Moncef Gabbouj, Senior Member,

    E-print Network

    Gabbouj, Moncef

    SEMANTIC AUDIOVISUAL ANALYSIS FOR VIDEO SUMMARIZATION Junyong You, Member, IEEE, Miska M Hannuksela analysis approach for video summarization. The sequence to be analyzed is first segmented into scenes importance is then calculated using selected audio and video features. Subsequently, key frames are extracted

  16. Between- and within-Ear Congruency and Laterality Effects in an Auditory Semantic/Emotional Prosody Conflict Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Techentin, Cheryl; Voyer, Daniel; Klein, Raymond M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of within- and between-ear congruency on interference and laterality effects in an auditory semantic/prosodic conflict task. Participants were presented dichotically with words (e.g., mad, sad, glad) pronounced in either congruent or incongruent emotional tones (e.g., angry, happy, or sad) and…

  17. Attentional differences in driving judgments for country and city scenes: Semantic congruency in inattentional blindness.

    PubMed

    Pammer, Kristen; Blink, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    'Looked-but-failed-to-see' vehicle collisions occur when a driver gives all indications of having responsibly evaluated the driving situation yet still fails to see a hazard that is clearly in view. The experience maps well onto the psychological phenomenon called inattentional blindness (IB). IB occurs when a viewer fails to see an unexpected object that is clearly visible, particularly if they are concentrating on an additional primary task. In this study, a driving-related IB task was used to explore whether an unexpected stimulus (US) such as a pedestrian or animal, is more likely to be seen in country or city-related driving scenarios if it is congruent or incongruent with the semantic context of the scenes, and thus congruent or incongruent with the attentional set of the viewer. Overall, participants were more likely to see the US in the City scenarios, which also demonstrated a borderline effect of congruency, with incongruent stimuli less likely to be seen than congruent stimuli. Analyses suggested that driver experience was related to detection of the US in City scenarios but not Country scenarios. However, analyses also revealed that participants generally tended to drive in city rather than country environments, thus prompting speculation that the results may reflect attentional requirements for familiar and unfamiliar driving scenarios. Thus we suggest that the analysis of the driving situation, and the attentional set that we develop to filter information, change when the driving situation is more familiar. PMID:22975367

  18. Semantic Facilitation in Category and Action Naming: Testing the Message-Congruency Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuipers, Jan-Rouke; La Heij, Wido

    2008-01-01

    Basic-level picture naming is hampered by the presence of a semantically related context word (compared to an unrelated word), whereas picture categorization is facilitated by a semantically related context word. This reversal of the semantic context effect has been explained by assuming that in categorization tasks, basic-level distractor words…

  19. When Hearing the Bark Helps to Identify the Dog: Semantically-Congruent Sounds Modulate the Identification of Masked Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yi-Chuan; Spence, Charles

    2010-01-01

    We report a series of experiments designed to assess the effect of audiovisual semantic congruency on the identification of visually-presented pictures. Participants made unspeeded identification responses concerning a series of briefly-presented, and then rapidly-masked, pictures. A naturalistic sound was sometimes presented together with the…

  20. SEMANTIC INDEXING OF SPORTS PROGRAM SEQUENCES BY AUDIO-VISUAL R. Leonardi, P. Migliorati

    E-print Network

    Migliorati, Pierangelo

    is divided into sets, then games and serves. In addition, in sports video, there are a fixed number, Italy prandini@elet.polimi.it ABSTRACT Semantic indexing of sports videos is a subject of great interest The efficient distribution of sports videos over various networks should contribute to the rapid adoption

  1. Extracting Semantic Information from Basketball Video Based on Audio-Visual Features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyungsu Kim; Junho Choi; Namjung Kim; Pankoo Kim

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a mechanism for extracting semantic information from basketball video sequence using audio and video\\u000a features. After we divide the input video into shots by a simple cut detection algorithm using visual information, we analyze\\u000a audio signal data to predict the location of an important event from which a cheering sound happens to start using the

  2. Congruence Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor, Keith; Worrall, Mike

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Carl Rogers' definitions of congruence, and identifies four specific requirements for the concept and practice of therapeutic congruence. Examines the interface between congruence and the other necessary and sufficient conditions of change, drawing on examples from practice. (JPS)

  3. Audiovisual Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physiology Teacher, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Lists and reviews recent audiovisual materials in areas of medical, dental, nursing and allied health, and veterinary medicine; undergraduate, and high school studies. Each is classified as to level, type of instruction, usefulness, and source of availability. Topics include respiration, renal physiology, muscle mechanics, anatomy, evolution,…

  4. Audiovisual Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möttönen, Riikka; Sams, Mikko

    Information about the objects and events in the external world is received via multiple sense organs, especially via eyes and ears. For example, a singing bird can be heard and seen. Typically, audiovisual objects are detected, localized and identified more rapidly and accurately than objects which are perceived via only one sensory system (see, e.g. Welch and Warren, 1986; Stein and Meredith, 1993; de Gelder and Bertelson, 2003; Calvert et al., 2004). The ability of the central nervous system to utilize sensory inputs mediated by different sense organs is called multisensory processing.

  5. The time course of auditory-visual processing of speech and body actions: evidence for the simultaneous activation of an extended neural network for semantic processing.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Georg F; Harrison, Neil R; Wuerger, Sophie M

    2013-08-01

    An extensive network of cortical areas is involved in multisensory object and action recognition. This network draws on inferior frontal, posterior temporal, and parietal areas; activity is modulated by familiarity and the semantic congruency of auditory and visual component signals even if semantic incongruences are created by combining visual and auditory signals representing very different signal categories, such as speech and whole body actions. Here we present results from a high-density ERP study designed to examine the time-course and source location of responses to semantically congruent and incongruent audiovisual speech and body actions to explore whether the network involved in action recognition consists of a hierarchy of sequentially activated processing modules or a network of simultaneously active processing sites. We report two main results:1) There are no significant early differences in the processing of congruent and incongruent audiovisual action sequences. The earliest difference between congruent and incongruent audiovisual stimuli occurs between 240 and 280 ms after stimulus onset in the left temporal region. Between 340 and 420 ms, semantic congruence modulates responses in central and right frontal areas. Late differences (after 460 ms) occur bilaterally in frontal areas.2) Source localisation (dipole modelling and LORETA) reveals that an extended network encompassing inferior frontal, temporal, parasaggital, and superior parietal sites are simultaneously active between 180 and 420 ms to process auditory–visual action sequences. Early activation (before 120 ms) can be explained by activity in mainly sensory cortices. . The simultaneous activation of an extended network between 180 and 420 ms is consistent with models that posit parallel processing of complex action sequences in frontal, temporal and parietal areas rather than models that postulate hierarchical processing in a sequence of brain regions. PMID:23727570

  6. The level of audiovisual print-speech integration deficits in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Kronschnabel, Jens; Brem, Silvia; Maurer, Urs; Brandeis, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    The classical phonological deficit account of dyslexia is increasingly linked to impairments in grapho-phonological conversion, and to dysfunctions in superior temporal regions associated with audiovisual integration. The present study investigates mechanisms of audiovisual integration in typical and impaired readers at the critical developmental stage of adolescence. Congruent and incongruent audiovisual as well as unimodal (visual only and auditory only) material was presented. Audiovisual presentations were single letters and three-letter (consonant-vowel-consonant) stimuli accompanied by matching or mismatching speech sounds. Three-letter stimuli exhibited fast phonetic transitions as in real-life language processing and reading. Congruency effects, i.e. different brain responses to congruent and incongruent stimuli were taken as an indicator of audiovisual integration at a phonetic level (grapho-phonological conversion). Comparisons of unimodal and audiovisual stimuli revealed basic, more sensory aspects of audiovisual integration. By means of these two criteria of audiovisual integration, the generalizability of audiovisual deficits in dyslexia was tested. Moreover, it was expected that the more naturalistic three-letter stimuli are superior to single letters in revealing group differences. Electrophysiological and hemodynamic (EEG and fMRI) data were acquired simultaneously in a simple target detection task. Applying the same statistical models to event-related EEG potentials and fMRI responses allowed comparing the effects detected by the two techniques at a descriptive level. Group differences in congruency effects (congruent against incongruent) were observed in regions involved in grapho-phonological processing, including the left inferior frontal and angular gyri and the inferotemporal cortex. Importantly, such differences also emerged in superior temporal key regions. Three-letter stimuli revealed stronger group differences than single letters. No significant differences in basic measures of audiovisual integration emerged. Convergence of hemodynamic and electrophysiological signals appeared to be limited and mainly occurred for highly significant and large effects in visual cortices. The findings suggest efficient superior temporal tuning to audiovisual congruency in controls. In impaired readers, however, grapho-phonological conversion is effortful and inefficient, although basic audiovisual mechanisms seem intact. This unprecedented demonstration of audiovisual deficits in adolescent dyslexics provides critical evidence that the phonological deficit might be explained by impaired audiovisual integration at a phonetic level, especially for naturalistic and word-like stimulation. PMID:25084224

  7. Similarity and Congruence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Daniel L.

    This instructional unit is an introduction to the common properties of similarity and congruence. Manipulation of objects leads to a recognition of these properties. The ASA, SAS, and SSS theorems are not mentioned. Limited use is made in the application of the properties of size and shape preserved by similarity or congruence. A teacher's guide…

  8. SPEAKER IDENTITY INDEXING IN AUDIO-VISUAL DOCUMENTS Mbarek Charhad, Daniel Moraru, Stphane Ayache and Georges Qunot

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SPEAKER IDENTITY INDEXING IN AUDIO-VISUAL DOCUMENTS Mbarek Charhad, Daniel Moraru, Stéphane Ayache The identity of persons in audiovisual documents represents very important semantic information for content-based indexing and retrieval. The task of speaker's identity detection can be carried out by exploiting data

  9. Fermat-holonomic congruences

    E-print Network

    J. Llosa; D. Soler

    2000-03-14

    Fermat-holonomic congruences are proposed as a weaker substitute for the too restrictive class of Born-rigid motions. The definition is expressed as a set of differential equations. Integrability conditions and Cauchy data are studied.

  10. Data flow semantics

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    The paper studies the semantics of data flow. First it assigns a history-based operational semantics to data-flow nets, which models a net as a function from inputs to sets of possible outputs. Moreover, it presents an alternative definition in which it associates with each node an automation. It introduces an intermediate semantics which is shown to be compositional by proving the intermediate semantics equivalent to denotational semantics, which is compositional by definition. It is also proved that the denotational semantics is fully abstract with respect to the operational semantics: it generates the greatest congruence which is contained in the equivalence relation generated by the operational semantics. It is shown that an alternative definition of the denotational semantics involves an (implicit) fixed point: a fixed point of a multivalued function (contain point) is taken. Some properties of contain points are given in a metric topological setting. These properties are used to show that for a restricted class of data flow nets there exists a metric compositional semantics in which the contain points can be obtained by iteration. It is called a metric semantics because the domains are metric spaces.

  11. Audiovisual Term Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpp, David N.; Butler, Ian S.

    1984-01-01

    As an alternative to traditional science projects, students in introductory organic and inorganic chemistry were given the opportunity to produce an "audiovisual" term paper. Rationale for the project, responses from student self-evaluation questionnaires, and comments on implementing the project (including cost and time factors) are included. (JN)

  12. Utilizing New Audiovisual Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Glen

    1975-01-01

    The University of Arizona's Agriculture Department has found that video cassette systems and 8 mm films are excellent audiovisual aids to classroom instruction at the high school level in small gasoline engines. Each system is capable of improving the instructional process for motor skill development. (MW)

  13. Computationally Efficient Clustering of Audio-Visual Meeting Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Hayley; Friedland, Gerald; Yeo, Chuohao

    This chapter presents novel computationally efficient algorithms to extract semantically meaningful acoustic and visual events related to each of the participants in a group discussion using the example of business meeting recordings. The recording setup involves relatively few audio-visual sensors, comprising a limited number of cameras and microphones. We first demonstrate computationally efficient algorithms that can identify who spoke and when, a problem in speech processing known as speaker diarization. We also extract visual activity features efficiently from MPEG4 video by taking advantage of the processing that was already done for video compression. Then, we present a method of associating the audio-visual data together so that the content of each participant can be managed individually. The methods presented in this article can be used as a principal component that enables many higher-level semantic analysis tasks needed in search, retrieval, and navigation.

  14. Unconscious Primes Activate Motor Codes through Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynvoet, Bert; Gevers, Wim; Caessens, Bernie

    2005-01-01

    Today, it is generally accepted that unconscious stimuli can activate a response code, which leads to a response congruency effect (RCE) on a subsequent target. However, it is not yet clear whether this is due to the semantic processing of the primes or to the formation of direct stimulus-response (S-R) associations bypassing the semantic system.…

  15. Audio?visual aids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul A. Carmack; Vernon E. Rank; R. Stanley Rutherford; Hayden K. Carruth

    1957-01-01

    FilmsSTATE LEGISLATURE. Academy Films, 1948. Sound. 23 minutes. Sale: Black and white, $100.00; color, $180.00.THE CONGRESS. McGraw?Hill Book Company, Inc., 1949. Sound. Black and white. 10 minutes. Sale: $40.00.PARLIAMENTARY PROCEDURE. National Film Board of Canada, 1955. Sound. Black and white. 22 minutes. Sale: $80,000. Rental: $5:00.FilmstripPARLIAMENTARY RULES OF ORDER. University of Michigan Audio?Visual Center, 1954? 59 frames (with captions). Sale:

  16. Audio?visual aids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robertson Strawn; Ruth Hankowsky; Ronad J. Koperski; Mary Louise Gehring; Dora Heintz; Ruby Cloys Krider; Jimmie D. Trent

    1967-01-01

    AUDIO?VISUAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING, 16 mm. 13 1\\/2 minutes. Sound. Color, $150.00, Black and White, $75.00; and NEW DIMENSIONS THROUGH TEACHING FILMS, 16 mm. 27 minutes. Sound. Color, $180.00. Available through Coronet Instructional Films, Coronet Building, Chicago, Illinois 60601.ART: WHAT IS IT: WHY IS IT?, No. 47561. 16 mm. go minutes. Sound. Color. Cost $360. Available through Encyclopaedia Britannica Films,

  17. UNSUPERVISED MINING OF MULTIPLE AUDIOVISUALLY CONSISTENT CLUSTERS FOR VIDEO STRUCTURE ANALYSIS

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    structuring consists in extracting semantic events--e.g., actions in sport videos, violent scenes in movies, like points, games or sets in tennis videos; ii) detection of specific events related to the videoUNSUPERVISED MINING OF MULTIPLE AUDIOVISUALLY CONSISTENT CLUSTERS FOR VIDEO STRUCTURE ANALYSIS Anh

  18. Singularities in geodesic surface congruence

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Yong Seung; Hong, Soon-Tae [Department of Mathematics, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, Republic of Korea and National Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 385-16 Doryong, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Science Education and Research Institute for Basic Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    In the stringy cosmology, we investigate singularities in geodesic surface congruences for the timelike and null strings to yield the Raychaudhuri type equations possessing correction terms associated with the novel features owing to the strings. Assuming the stringy strong energy condition, we have a Hawking-Penrose type inequality equation. If the initial expansion is negative so that the congruence is converging, we show that the expansion must pass through the singularity within a proper time. We observe that the stringy strong energy conditions of both the timelike and null string congruences produce the same inequality equation.

  19. Singularities in geodesic surface congruence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yong Seung; Hong, Soon-Tae

    2008-09-01

    In the stringy cosmology, we investigate singularities in geodesic surface congruences for the timelike and null strings to yield the Raychaudhuri type equations possessing correction terms associated with the novel features owing to the strings. Assuming the stringy strong energy condition, we have a Hawking-Penrose type inequality equation. If the initial expansion is negative so that the congruence is converging, we show that the expansion must pass through the singularity within a proper time. We observe that the stringy strong energy conditions of both the timelike and null string congruences produce the same inequality equation.

  20. Papers in Semantics. Working Papers in Linguistics No. 49.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Jae-Hak, Ed.; Kathol, Andreas, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Papers on semantic theory and research include: "Presupposition, Congruence, and Adverbs of Quantification" (Mike Calcagno); "A Unified Account of '(Ta)myen'-Conditionals in Korean" (Chan Chung); "Spanish 'imperfecto' and 'preterito': Truth Conditions and Aktionsart Effects in a Situation Semantics" (Alicia Cipria, Craige Roberts); "Remarks on…

  1. Towards Postmodernist Television: INA's Audiovisual Magazine Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Bowman, Susan

    Over the last 10 years, French television's Institute of Audiovisual Communication (INA) has shifted from modernist to post-modernist practice in broadcasting in a series of innovative audiovisual magazine programs about communication, and in a series of longer "compilation" documentaries. The first of INA's audiovisual magazines, "Hieroglyphes,"…

  2. AUDIOVISUAL SPEECH SYNTHESIS Barry-John Theobald

    E-print Network

    Theobald, Barry-John

    AUDIOVISUAL SPEECH SYNTHESIS Barry-John Theobald School of Computing Sciences, University of East Anglia bjt@cmp.uea.ac.uk ABSTRACT The ultimate goal of audiovisual speech synthesis is to create a machine that is able to articulate human- like audiovisual speech from text. There has been much interest

  3. Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bonnie K.

    2009-01-01

    Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal-spiritual disconnections of pathological gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT's theoretical…

  4. Current Developments in Audiovisual Cataloging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Paul

    1985-01-01

    This paper highlights significant advances in audiovisual cataloging theory and practice: development of "Anglo-American Cataloging Rules" (second edition); revision of the MARC Films Format; and project to provide cataloging-in-publication for microcomputer software. Evolution of rules and practices as an outgrowth of needs of the community is…

  5. Audio-Visual Materials Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson (M.D.) Hospital and Tumor Inst., Houston, TX.

    This catalog lists 27 audiovisual programs produced by the Department of Medical Communications of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute for public distribution. Video tapes, 16 mm. motion pictures and slide/audio series are presented dealing mostly with cancer and related subjects. The programs are intended for…

  6. Criminal Justice Audiovisual Materials Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

    This is the third edition of a source directory of audiovisual materials for the education, training, and orientation of those in the criminal justice field. It is divided into five parts covering the courts, police techniques and training, prevention, prisons and rehabilitation/correction, and public education. Each entry includes a brief…

  7. Criminal Justice Audiovisual Materials Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

    This source directory of audiovisual materials for the education, training, and orientation of those in the criminal justice field is divided into five parts covering the courts, police techniques and training, prevention, prisons and rehabilitation/correction, and public education. Each entry includes a brief description of the product, the time…

  8. Audiovisual Speech Recalibration in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Linden, Sabine; Vroomen, Jean

    2008-01-01

    In order to examine whether children adjust their phonetic speech categories, children of two age groups, five-year-olds and eight-year-olds, were exposed to a video of a face saying /aba/ or /ada/ accompanied by an auditory ambiguous speech sound halfway between /b/ and /d/. The effect of exposure to these audiovisual stimuli was measured on…

  9. EULER SYSTEMS AND JOCHNOWITZ CONGRUENCES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. BERTOLINI; H. DARMON

    2001-01-01

    This article relates the Gross-Zagier formula with a simpler formula of Gross for special values of L-series, via the theory of congruences between modular forms. Given two modular forms f and g (of different levels) which are congruent but whose functional equations have sign 1 and 1 respectively, and an imaginary quadratic field K satisfying certain auxiliary conditions, the main

  10. MPEG-7-based description infrastructure for an audiovisual content analysis and retrieval system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailer, Werner; Schallauer, Peter; Hausenblas, Michael; Thallinger, Georg

    2004-12-01

    We present a case study of establishing a description infrastructure for an audiovisual content-analysis and retrieval system. The description infrastructure consists of an internal metadata model and access tool for using it. Based on an analysis of requirements, we have selected, out of a set of candidates, MPEG-7 as the basis of our metadata model. The openness and generality of MPEG-7 allow using it in broad range of applications, but increase complexity and hinder interoperability. Profiling has been proposed as a solution, with the focus on selecting and constraining description tools. Semantic constraints are currently only described in textual form. Conformance in terms of semantics can thus not be evaluated automatically and mappings between different profiles can only be defined manually. As a solution, we propose an approach to formalize the semantic constraints of an MPEG-7 profile using a formal vocabulary expressed in OWL, which allows automated processing of semantic constraints. We have defined the Detailed Audiovisual Profile as the profile to be used in our metadata model and we show how some of the semantic constraints of this profile can be formulated using ontologies. To work practically with the metadata model, we have implemented a MPEG-7 library and a client/server document access infrastructure.

  11. MPEG-7-based description infrastructure for an audiovisual content analysis and retrieval system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailer, Werner; Schallauer, Peter; Hausenblas, Michael; Thallinger, Georg

    2005-01-01

    We present a case study of establishing a description infrastructure for an audiovisual content-analysis and retrieval system. The description infrastructure consists of an internal metadata model and access tool for using it. Based on an analysis of requirements, we have selected, out of a set of candidates, MPEG-7 as the basis of our metadata model. The openness and generality of MPEG-7 allow using it in broad range of applications, but increase complexity and hinder interoperability. Profiling has been proposed as a solution, with the focus on selecting and constraining description tools. Semantic constraints are currently only described in textual form. Conformance in terms of semantics can thus not be evaluated automatically and mappings between different profiles can only be defined manually. As a solution, we propose an approach to formalize the semantic constraints of an MPEG-7 profile using a formal vocabulary expressed in OWL, which allows automated processing of semantic constraints. We have defined the Detailed Audiovisual Profile as the profile to be used in our metadata model and we show how some of the semantic constraints of this profile can be formulated using ontologies. To work practically with the metadata model, we have implemented a MPEG-7 library and a client/server document access infrastructure.

  12. A Novel Framework for Semantic Annotation and Personalized Retrieval of Sports Video

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changsheng Xu; Jinjun Wang; Hanqing Lu; Yifan Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Sports video annotation is important for sports video semantic analysis such as event detection and personalization. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for sports video semantic annotation and personalized retrieval. Different from the state of the art sports video analysis methods which heavily rely on audio\\/visual features, the proposed approach incorporates web-casting text into sports video analysis. Compared

  13. Bilingualism affects audiovisual phoneme identification.

    PubMed

    Burfin, Sabine; Pascalis, Olivier; Ruiz Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Savariaux, Christophe; Kandel, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    We all go through a process of perceptual narrowing for phoneme identification. As we become experts in the languages we hear in our environment we lose the ability to identify phonemes that do not exist in our native phonological inventory. This research examined how linguistic experience-i.e., the exposure to a double phonological code during childhood-affects the visual processes involved in non-native phoneme identification in audiovisual speech perception. We conducted a phoneme identification experiment with bilingual and monolingual adult participants. It was an ABX task involving a Bengali dental-retroflex contrast that does not exist in any of the participants' languages. The phonemes were presented in audiovisual (AV) and audio-only (A) conditions. The results revealed that in the audio-only condition monolinguals and bilinguals had difficulties in discriminating the retroflex non-native phoneme. They were phonologically "deaf" and assimilated it to the dental phoneme that exists in their native languages. In the audiovisual presentation instead, both groups could overcome the phonological deafness for the retroflex non-native phoneme and identify both Bengali phonemes. However, monolinguals were more accurate and responded quicker than bilinguals. This suggests that bilinguals do not use the same processes as monolinguals to decode visual speech. PMID:25374551

  14. Geodesic congruences in warped spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Suman; Dasgupta, Anirvan; Kar, Sayan

    2011-04-01

    In this article, we explore the kinematics of timelike geodesic congruences in warped five-dimensional bulk spacetimes, with and without thick or thin branes. Beginning with geodesic flows in the Randall-Sundrum anti-de Sitter geometry without and with branes, we find analytical expressions for the expansion scalar and comment on the effects of including thin branes on its evolution. Later, we move on to congruences in more general warped bulk geometries with a cosmological thick brane and a time-dependent extra dimensional scale. Using analytical expressions for the velocity field, we interpret the expansion, shear and rotation (ESR) along the flows, as functions of the extra dimensional coordinate. The evolution of a cross-sectional area orthogonal to the congruence, as seen from a local observer’s point of view, is also shown graphically. Finally, the Raychaudhuri and geodesic equations in backgrounds with a thick brane are solved numerically in order to figure out the role of initial conditions (prescribed on the ESR) and spacetime curvature on the evolution of the ESR.

  15. Geodesic congruences in warped spacetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Suman [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Dasgupta, Anirvan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Centre for Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Kar, Sayan [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Centre for Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

    2011-04-15

    In this article, we explore the kinematics of timelike geodesic congruences in warped five-dimensional bulk spacetimes, with and without thick or thin branes. Beginning with geodesic flows in the Randall-Sundrum anti-de Sitter geometry without and with branes, we find analytical expressions for the expansion scalar and comment on the effects of including thin branes on its evolution. Later, we move on to congruences in more general warped bulk geometries with a cosmological thick brane and a time-dependent extra dimensional scale. Using analytical expressions for the velocity field, we interpret the expansion, shear and rotation (ESR) along the flows, as functions of the extra dimensional coordinate. The evolution of a cross-sectional area orthogonal to the congruence, as seen from a local observer's point of view, is also shown graphically. Finally, the Raychaudhuri and geodesic equations in backgrounds with a thick brane are solved numerically in order to figure out the role of initial conditions (prescribed on the ESR) and spacetime curvature on the evolution of the ESR.

  16. An ALE meta-analysis on the audiovisual integration of speech signals.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Laura C; Heeg, Elizabeth; Rauschecker, Josef P; Turkeltaub, Peter E

    2014-11-01

    The brain improves speech processing through the integration of audiovisual (AV) signals. Situations involving AV speech integration may be crudely dichotomized into those where auditory and visual inputs contain (1) equivalent, complementary signals (validating AV speech) or (2) inconsistent, different signals (conflicting AV speech). This simple framework may allow the systematic examination of broad commonalities and differences between AV neural processes engaged by various experimental paradigms frequently used to study AV speech integration. We conducted an activation likelihood estimation metaanalysis of 22 functional imaging studies comprising 33 experiments, 311 subjects, and 347 foci examining "conflicting" versus "validating" AV speech. Experimental paradigms included content congruency, timing synchrony, and perceptual measures, such as the McGurk effect or synchrony judgments, across AV speech stimulus types (sublexical to sentence). Colocalization of conflicting AV speech experiments revealed consistency across at least two contrast types (e.g., synchrony and congruency) in a network of dorsal stream regions in the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. There was consistency across all contrast types (synchrony, congruency, and percept) in the bilateral posterior superior/middle temporal cortex. Although fewer studies were available, validating AV speech experiments were localized to other regions, such as ventral stream visual areas in the occipital and inferior temporal cortex. These results suggest that while equivalent, complementary AV speech signals may evoke activity in regions related to the corroboration of sensory input, conflicting AV speech signals recruit widespread dorsal stream areas likely involved in the resolution of conflicting sensory signals. PMID:24996043

  17. Audio-Visual Archives in the USSR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihajlov, O. A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Outlines the growth of the USSR's present centralized state storage system for film, photographic, and sound documents, describing its structure and the sources from which audiovisual archives are obtained. The preservation of audiovisual material is examined, and 11 references are provided. (Author/EJS)

  18. A Guide for Audiovisual and Newer Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, William D.

    One of the principal values of audiovisual materials is that they permit the teacher to depart from verbal and printed symbolism, and at the same time to provide a wider real or vicarious experience for pupils. This booklet is designed to aid the teacher in using audiovisual material effectively. It covers visual displays, non-projected materials,…

  19. Catalog of Audiovisual Materials Related to Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Joe, Ed.; Henderson, Jim, Ed.

    An annotated listing of a variety of audiovisual formats on content related to the social-rehabilitation process is provided. The materials in the listing were selected from a collection of over 200 audiovisual catalogs. The major portion of the materials has not been screened. The materials are classified alphabetically by the following subject…

  20. The Diadic Measure of Environmental Congruence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meir, Elchanan I.; Tzadok, Nizan

    2000-01-01

    The diadic method of measuring congruence by comparing the personality type of each member in an environment with each of the others was used with 205 workers. Correlations between diadic congruence scores and satisfaction were found. These correlations were similar to those between homogeneity of the environment and satisfaction. (SK)

  1. Audiovisual Materials for the Teaching of Language Acquisition: An Annotated Bibliography. CAL-ERIC/CLL Series on Languages and Linguistics, No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripp, Rosemary; Behrens, Sophia

    This annotated bibliography provides information concerning audiovisual aids for use in teaching and teacher training in language acquisition. A variety of areas is covered, including children's acquisition of morphology, phonology, and semantics, vocabulary and language development, the acquisition of specific items such as negatives and…

  2. An audiovisual emotion recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yi; Wang, Guoyin; Yang, Yong; He, Kun

    2007-12-01

    Human emotions could be expressed by many bio-symbols. Speech and facial expression are two of them. They are both regarded as emotional information which is playing an important role in human-computer interaction. Based on our previous studies on emotion recognition, an audiovisual emotion recognition system is developed and represented in this paper. The system is designed for real-time practice, and is guaranteed by some integrated modules. These modules include speech enhancement for eliminating noises, rapid face detection for locating face from background image, example based shape learning for facial feature alignment, and optical flow based tracking algorithm for facial feature tracking. It is known that irrelevant features and high dimensionality of the data can hurt the performance of classifier. Rough set-based feature selection is a good method for dimension reduction. So 13 speech features out of 37 ones and 10 facial features out of 33 ones are selected to represent emotional information, and 52 audiovisual features are selected due to the synchronization when speech and video fused together. The experiment results have demonstrated that this system performs well in real-time practice and has high recognition rate. Our results also show that the work in multimodules fused recognition will become the trend of emotion recognition in the future.

  3. Congruence Property In Conformal Field Theory

    E-print Network

    Chongying Dong; Xingjun Lin; Siu-Hung Ng

    2015-03-03

    The congruence subgroup property is established for the modular representations associated to any modular tensor category. This result is used to prove that the kernel of the representation of the modular group on the conformal blocks of any rational, C_2-cofinite vertex operator algebra is a congruence subgroup. In particular, the q-character of each irreducible module is a modular function on the same congruence subgroup. The Galois symmetry of the modular representations is obtained and the order of the anomaly for those modular categories satisfying some integrality conditions is determined.

  4. Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonnie K. Lee

    2009-01-01

    Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems\\u000a model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal–spiritual disconnections of pathological\\u000a gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT’s theoretical foundations, main constructs, and\\u000a treatment interventions are illustrated in a progression of six clinical phases. Promise of CCT’s systemic conceptualization\\u000a and interventions

  5. MPEG-7 audio-visual indexing test-bed for video retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Langis; Foucher, Samuel; Gouaillier, Valerie; Brun, Christelle; Brousseau, Julie; Boulianne, Gilles; Osterrath, Frederic; Chapdelaine, Claude; Dutrisac, Julie; St-Onge, Francis; Champagne, Benoit; Lu, Xiaojian

    2003-12-01

    This paper reports on the development status of a Multimedia Asset Management (MAM) test-bed for content-based indexing and retrieval of audio-visual documents within the MPEG-7 standard. The project, called "MPEG-7 Audio-Visual Document Indexing System" (MADIS), specifically targets the indexing and retrieval of video shots and key frames from documentary film archives, based on audio-visual content like face recognition, motion activity, speech recognition and semantic clustering. The MPEG-7/XML encoding of the film database is done off-line. The description decomposition is based on a temporal decomposition into visual segments (shots), key frames and audio/speech sub-segments. The visible outcome will be a web site that allows video retrieval using a proprietary XQuery-based search engine and accessible to members at the Canadian National Film Board (NFB) Cineroute site. For example, end-user will be able to ask to point on movie shots in the database that have been produced in a specific year, that contain the face of a specific actor who tells a specific word and in which there is no motion activity. Video streaming is performed over the high bandwidth CA*net network deployed by CANARIE, a public Canadian Internet development organization.

  6. Hysteresis in Audiovisual Synchrony Perception

    PubMed Central

    van Wassenhove, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    The effect of stimulation history on the perception of a current event can yield two opposite effects, namely: adaptation or hysteresis. The perception of the current event thus goes in the opposite or in the same direction as prior stimulation, respectively. In audiovisual (AV) synchrony perception, adaptation effects have primarily been reported. Here, we tested if perceptual hysteresis could also be observed over adaptation in AV timing perception by varying different experimental conditions. Participants were asked to judge the synchrony of the last (test) stimulus of an AV sequence with either constant or gradually changing AV intervals (constant and dynamic condition, respectively). The onset timing of the test stimulus could be cued or not (prospective vs. retrospective condition, respectively). We observed hysteretic effects for AV synchrony judgments in the retrospective condition that were independent of the constant or dynamic nature of the adapted stimuli; these effects disappeared in the prospective condition. The present findings suggest that knowing when to estimate a stimulus property has a crucial impact on perceptual simultaneity judgments. Our results extend beyond AV timing perception, and have strong implications regarding the comparative study of hysteresis and adaptation phenomena. PMID:25774653

  7. Building Intuitive Arguments for the Triangle Congruence Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piatek-Jimenez, Katrina

    2008-01-01

    The triangle congruence conditions are a central focus to nearly any course in Euclidean geometry. The author presents a hands-on activity that uses straws and pipe cleaners to explore and justify the triangle congruence conditions. (Contains 4 figures.)

  8. Epileptic seizure detection in EEG recordings using phase congruency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yodchanan Wongsawat

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the use of phase congruency to robustly detect the epileptic seizure. Phase congruency is calculated from log Gabor wavelets. Numbers of spikes detected from the phase congruency of two classes of EEG data (epilepsy and seizure free) are used as the features of interest. By using only one dimensional features, the detection accuracies of the proposed method

  9. Body Build Satisfaction and the Congruency of Body Build Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankins, Norman E.; Bailey, Roger C.

    1979-01-01

    Females were administered the somatotype rating scale. Satisfied subjects showed greater congruency between their own and wished-for body build, and greater congruency between their own and friend/date body builds, but less congruency between their own body build and the female stereotype. (Author/BEF)

  10. Effect of Perceptual Load on Semantic Access by Speech in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerger, Susan; Damian, Markus F.; Mills, Candice; Bartlett, James; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Abdi, Herve

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether semantic access by speech requires attention in children. Method: Children ("N" = 200) named pictures and ignored distractors on a cross-modal (distractors: auditory-no face) or multimodal (distractors: auditory-static face and audiovisual- dynamic face) picture word task. The cross-modal task had a low load,…

  11. Data congruence, paedomorphosis and salamanders

    PubMed Central

    Struck, Torsten H

    2007-01-01

    Background The retention of ancestral juvenile characters by adult stages of descendants is called paedomorphosis. However, this process can mislead phylogenetic analyses based on morphological data, even in combination with molecular data, because the assessment if a character is primary absent or secondary lost is difficult. Thus, the detection of incongruence between morphological and molecular data is necessary to investigate the reliability of simultaneous analyses. Different methods have been proposed to detect data congruence or incongruence. Five of them (PABA, PBS, NDI, LILD, DRI) are used herein to assess incongruence between morphological and molecular data in a case study addressing salamander phylogeny, which comprises several supposedly paedomorphic taxa. Therefore, previously published data sets were compiled herein. Furthermore, two strategies ameliorating effects of paedomorphosis on phylogenetic studies were tested herein using a statistical rigor. Additionally, efficiency of the different methods to assess incongruence was analyzed using this empirical data set. Finally, a test statistic is presented for all these methods except DRI. Results The addition of morphological data to molecular data results in both different positions of three of the four paedomorphic taxa and strong incongruence, but treating the morphological data using different strategies ameliorating the negative impact of paedomorphosis revokes these changes and minimizes the conflict. Of these strategies the strategy to just exclude paedomorphic character traits seem to be most beneficial. Of the three molecular partitions analyzed herein the RAG1 partition seems to be the most suitable to resolve deep salamander phylogeny. The rRNA and mtDNA partition are either too conserved or too variable, respectively. Of the different methods to detect incongruence, the NDI and PABA approaches are more conservative in the indication of incongruence than LILD and PBS. Conclusion Paedomorphosis induces strong conflicts and can mislead the phylogenetic analyses even in combined analyses. However, different strategies are efficiently minimizing these problems. Though the exploration of different methods to detect incongruence is preferable NDI and PABA are more conservative than the others and NDI is computational less extensive than PABA. PMID:17974010

  12. Active Methodology in the Audiovisual Communication Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimenez-Lopez, J. L.; Royo, T. Magal; Laborda, Jesus Garcia; Dunai, Larisa

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the adaptation methods of the active methodologies of the new European higher education area in the new Audiovisual Communication degree under the perspective of subjects related to the area of the interactive communication in Europe. The proposed active methodologies have been experimentally implemented into the new academic…

  13. Audio-Visual Speech Perception Is Special

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuomainen, J.; Andersen, T.S.; Tiippana, K.; Sams, M.

    2005-01-01

    In face-to-face conversation speech is perceived by ear and eye. We studied the prerequisites of audio-visual speech perception by using perceptually ambiguous sine wave replicas of natural speech as auditory stimuli. When the subjects were not aware that the auditory stimuli were speech, they showed only negligible integration of auditory and…

  14. Incongruence Detection in Audio-Visual Processing

    E-print Network

    classifier that evaluates the conjunction of direct classifiers for #12;2 M. Havlena, J. Heller, H. Kayser, JIncongruence Detection in Audio-Visual Processing Michal Havlena1 , Jan Heller1 , Hendrik Kayser2 , J¨org-Hendrik Bach2 , J¨orn Anem¨uller2 , and Tom´as Pajdla1 1 Center for Machine Perception

  15. An Acquired Deficit of Audiovisual Speech Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Roy H.; Shenton, Jeffrey T.; Coslett, H. Branch

    2006-01-01

    We report a 53-year-old patient (AWF) who has an acquired deficit of audiovisual speech integration, characterized by a perceived temporal mismatch between speech sounds and the sight of moving lips. AWF was less accurate on an auditory digit span task with vision of a speaker's face as compared to a condition in which no visual information from…

  16. Audiovisual Asynchrony Detection in Human Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Joost X.; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Noppeney, Uta

    2011-01-01

    Combining information from the visual and auditory senses can greatly enhance intelligibility of natural speech. Integration of audiovisual speech signals is robust even when temporal offsets are present between the component signals. In the present study, we characterized the temporal integration window for speech and nonspeech stimuli with…

  17. MATLAB Toolbox for Audiovisual Speech Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriano V Barbosa; Hani C Yehia; Eric Vatikiotis-Bateson

    Audiovisual speech processing has reached a stage of maturity where there are now numerous computational procedures needed to measure and assess multimodal sig- nals. However, as is often the case, the results of these procedures are better known than the procedures them- selves. This paper presents a MATLAB toolbox con- sisting of an extensive collection of tools we have de-

  18. Rapid, generalized adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech.

    PubMed

    Van der Burg, Erik; Goodbourn, Patrick T

    2015-04-01

    The brain is adaptive. The speed of propagation through air, and of low-level sensory processing, differs markedly between auditory and visual stimuli; yet the brain can adapt to compensate for the resulting cross-modal delays. Studies investigating temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech have used prolonged adaptation procedures, suggesting that adaptation is sluggish. Here, we show that adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech occurs rapidly. Participants viewed a brief clip of an actor pronouncing a single syllable. The voice was either advanced or delayed relative to the corresponding lip movements, and participants were asked to make a synchrony judgement. Although we did not use an explicit adaptation procedure, we demonstrate rapid recalibration based on a single audiovisual event. We find that the point of subjective simultaneity on each trial is highly contingent upon the modality order of the preceding trial. We find compelling evidence that rapid recalibration generalizes across different stimuli, and different actors. Finally, we demonstrate that rapid recalibration occurs even when auditory and visual events clearly belong to different actors. These results suggest that rapid temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech is primarily mediated by basic temporal factors, rather than higher-order factors such as perceived simultaneity and source identity. PMID:25716790

  19. Reduced audiovisual recalibration in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yu Man; Pianta, Michael J.; McKendrick, Allison M.

    2014-01-01

    Perceived synchrony of visual and auditory signals can be altered by exposure to a stream of temporally offset stimulus pairs. Previous literature suggests that adapting to audiovisual temporal offsets is an important recalibration to correctly combine audiovisual stimuli into a single percept across a range of source distances. Healthy aging results in synchrony perception over a wider range of temporally offset visual and auditory signals, independent of age-related unisensory declines in vision and hearing sensitivities. However, the impact of aging on audiovisual recalibration is unknown. Audiovisual synchrony perception for sound-lead and sound-lag stimuli was measured for 15 younger (22–32 years old) and 15 older (64–74 years old) healthy adults using a method-of-constant-stimuli, after adapting to a stream of visual and auditory pairs. The adaptation pairs were either synchronous or asynchronous (sound-lag of 230 ms). The adaptation effect for each observer was computed as the shift in the mean of the individually fitted psychometric functions after adapting to asynchrony. Post-adaptation to synchrony, the younger and older observers had average window widths (±standard deviation) of 326 (±80) and 448 (±105) ms, respectively. There was no adaptation effect for sound-lead pairs. Both the younger and older observers, however, perceived more sound-lag pairs as synchronous. The magnitude of the adaptation effect in the older observers was not correlated with how often they saw the adapting sound-lag stimuli as asynchronous. Our finding demonstrates that audiovisual synchrony perception adapts less with advancing age. PMID:25221508

  20. 36 CFR 1237.10 - How must agencies manage their audiovisual, cartographic, and related records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.10 How must agencies manage their audiovisual,...

  1. 36 CFR 1237.16 - How do agencies store audiovisual records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.16 How do agencies store audiovisual records?...

  2. Natural Semantics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilles Kahn

    1987-01-01

    During the past few years, many researchers have begun to present semantic specifications in a style that has been strongly advocated by Plotkin in (19). The purpose of this paper is to introduce in an intuitive manner the essential ideas of the method that we call now Natural Semantics~ together with its connections to ideas in logic and computing. Natural

  3. Semantic email

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luke McDowell; Oren Etzioni; Alon Y. Halevy; Henry M. Levy

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates how the vision of the Semantic Web can be carried overto the realm of email. We introduce a general notion of semantice mail, in which an email message consists of an RDF query or update coupled with corresponding explanatory text. Semantic email opens the door to a wide range of automated, email-mediated applications with formally guaranteed properties.

  4. Attributes of Quality in Audiovisual Materials for Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Emanuel; Waddell, Wendy H.

    1981-01-01

    Defines attributes of quality in content, instructional design, technical production, and packaging of audiovisual materials used in the education of health professionals. Seven references are listed. (FM)

  5. Audio-visual affective expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Thomas S.; Zeng, Zhihong

    2007-11-01

    Automatic affective expression recognition has attracted more and more attention of researchers from different disciplines, which will significantly contribute to a new paradigm for human computer interaction (affect-sensitive interfaces, socially intelligent environments) and advance the research in the affect-related fields including psychology, psychiatry, and education. Multimodal information integration is a process that enables human to assess affective states robustly and flexibly. In order to understand the richness and subtleness of human emotion behavior, the computer should be able to integrate information from multiple sensors. We introduce in this paper our efforts toward machine understanding of audio-visual affective behavior, based on both deliberate and spontaneous displays. Some promising methods are presented to integrate information from both audio and visual modalities. Our experiments show the advantage of audio-visual fusion in affective expression recognition over audio-only or visual-only approaches.

  6. Fast Encryption Methods for Audiovisual Data Confidentiality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chung-ping Wu; C. c Jay Kuo

    2000-01-01

    Two methodologies for efiqcient audiovisual data encryption are studied in this research, i.e. selective encryptionand MHT (multiple-Huffman-table). We first discuss benefits and limitations of selective encryption, and propose aselective encryption scheme for ITU G.723.1 speech coding. A review of all cryptanalysis work of selective encryptionalgorithms in the literature is given, our cryptanalysis for the JPEG\\/MPEG sign-bit encryption scheme is presented,and

  7. Cross-taxon congruence and environmental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolina Toranza; Matías Arim

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diversity patterns of different taxa typically covary in space, a phenomenon called cross-taxon congruence. This pattern has been explained by the effect of one taxon diversity on taxon diversity, shared biogeographic histories of different taxa, and\\/or common responses to environmental conditions. A meta-analysis of the association between environment and diversity patterns found that in 83 out of 85 studies,

  8. A RANK FOR RIGHT CONGRUENCES ON INVERSE VICTORIA GOULD

    E-print Network

    Gould, Victoria

    A RANK FOR RIGHT CONGRUENCES ON INVERSE SEMIGROUPS VICTORIA GOULD Abstract. The sandwich rank, or S­rank, of a right congruence # on a semi­ group S is the Cantor­Bendixson rank of # in the lattice of right congruences RC of S with respect to a topology we call the finite type topology. If ev­ ery # # RC possesses S­rank

  9. Coherence and congruence: Two aspects of personality integration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kennon M. Sheldon; Tim Kasser

    1995-01-01

    Coherence and congruence-based measures of personality integration were related to a variety of healthy personality characteristics. Functional coherence was denned as occurring when partici- pants' \\

  10. Einfuhrung Semantic Web Schlusswort Semantic Technologies

    E-print Network

    Pfeifer, Holger

    Einf¨uhrung Semantic Web Schlusswort Semantic Technologies Proseminar K¨unstliche Intelligenz Universit¨at Ulm Mario Volke 15. Juli 2008 1 / 32 #12;Einf¨uhrung Semantic Web Schlusswort Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Einf¨uhrung 2 Semantic Web 3 Schlusswort 2 / 32 #12;Einf¨uhrung Semantic Web Schlusswort Einf

  11. Cross-taxon congruence and environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Diversity patterns of different taxa typically covary in space, a phenomenon called cross-taxon congruence. This pattern has been explained by the effect of one taxon diversity on taxon diversity, shared biogeographic histories of different taxa, and/or common responses to environmental conditions. A meta-analysis of the association between environment and diversity patterns found that in 83 out of 85 studies, more than 60% of the spatial variability in species richness was related to variables representing energy, water or their interaction. The role of the environment determining taxa diversity patterns leads us to hypothesize that this would explain the observed cross-taxon congruence. However, recent analyses reported the persistence of cross-taxon congruence when environmental effect was statistically removed. Here we evaluate this hypothesis, analyzing the cross-taxon congruence between birds and mammals in the Brazilian Cerrado, and assess the environmental role on the spatial covariation in diversity patterns. Results We found a positive association between avian and mammal richness and a positive latitudinal trend for both groups in the Brazilian Cerrado. Regression analyses indicated an effect of latitude, PET, and mean temperature over both biological groups. In addition, we show that NDVI was only associated with avian diversity; while the annual relative humidity, was only correlated with mammal diversity. We determined the environmental effects on diversity in a path analysis that accounted for 73% and 76% of the spatial variation in avian and mammal richness. However, an association between avian and mammal diversity remains significant. Indeed, the importance of this link between bird and mammal diversity was also supported by a significant association between birds and mammal spatial autoregressive model residuals. Conclusion Our study corroborates the main role of environmental conditions on diversity patterns, but suggests that other important mechanisms, which have not been properly evaluated, are involved in the observed cross-taxon congruence. The approaches introduced here indicate that the prevalence of a significant association among taxa, after considering the environmental determinant, could indicate both the need to incorporate additional processes (e.g. biogeographic and evolutionary history or trophic interactions) and/or the existence of a shared trend in detection biases among taxa and regions. PMID:20637092

  12. Game Semantics and Subtyping 

    E-print Network

    Chroboczek, Juliusz

    Game Semantics is a relatively new framework for the description of the semantics of programming languages. By combining the mathematical elegance of Denotational Semantics with explicitly operational concepts, Game Semantics has made possible...

  13. Trigger Videos on the Web: Impact of Audiovisual Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verleur, Ria; Heuvelman, Ard; Verhagen, Plon W.

    2011-01-01

    Audiovisual design might impact emotional responses, as studies from the 1970s and 1980s on movie and television content show. Given today's abundant presence of web-based videos, this study investigates whether audiovisual design will impact web-video content in a similar way. The study is motivated by the potential influence of video-evoked…

  14. Application and Operation of Audiovisual Equipment in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pula, Fred John

    Interest in audiovisual aids in education has been increased by the shortage of classrooms and good teachers and by the modern predisposition toward learning by visual concepts. Effective utilization of audiovisual materials and equipment depends most importantly, on adequate preparation of the teacher in operating equipment and in coordinating…

  15. Perception of Intersensory Synchrony in Audiovisual Speech: Not that Special

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vroomen, Jean; Stekelenburg, Jeroen J.

    2011-01-01

    Perception of intersensory temporal order is particularly difficult for (continuous) audiovisual speech, as perceivers may find it difficult to notice substantial timing differences between speech sounds and lip movements. Here we tested whether this occurs because audiovisual speech is strongly paired ("unity assumption"). Participants made…

  16. Infant Perception of Audio-Visual Speech Synchrony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewkowicz, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigated perception of audio-visual (A-V) speech synchrony in 4- to 10-month-old infants. Experiments 1 and 2 used a convergent-operations approach by habituating infants to an audiovisually synchronous syllable (Experiment 1) and then testing for detection of increasing degrees of A-V asynchrony (366, 500, and 666 ms) or by…

  17. The Audio-Visual Marketing Handbook for Independent Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Tom

    This how-to booklet offers specific advice on producing video or slide/tape programs for marketing independent schools. Five chapters present guidelines for various stages in the process: (1) Audio-Visual Marketing in Context (aesthetics and economics of audiovisual marketing); (2) A Question of Identity (identifying the audience and deciding on…

  18. Principles of Managing Audiovisual Materials and Equipment. Second Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Biomedical Library.

    This manual offers information on a wide variety of health-related audiovisual materials (AVs) in many formats: video, motion picture, slide, filmstrip, audiocassette, transparencies, microfilm, and computer assisted instruction. Intended for individuals who are just learning about audiovisual materials and equipment management, the manual covers…

  19. Knowledge Generated by Audiovisual Narrative Action Research Loops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bautista Garcia-Vera, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    We present data collected from the research project funded by the Ministry of Education and Science of Spain entitled "Audiovisual Narratives and Intercultural Relations in Education." One of the aims of the research was to determine the nature of thought processes occurring during audiovisual narratives. We studied the possibility of getting to…

  20. Audiovisual Media and the Disabled. AV in Action 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nederlands Bibliotheek en Lektuur Centrum, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Designed to provide information on public library services to the handicapped, this pamphlet contains case studies from three different countries on various aspects of the provision of audiovisual services to the disabled. The contents include: (1) "The Value of Audiovisual Materials in a Children's Hospital in Sweden" (Lis Byberg); (2) "Danish…

  1. The Audio-Visual Equipment Director. Eighteenth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herickes, Sally, Ed.

    A cooperative undertaking of the audiovisual industry, this equipment directory for 1972-73 is designed to offer everyone who uses media a convenient, single source of information on all audiovisual equipment on the market today. Photographs, specifications, and prices of more than 1,500 models of equipment are provided, and over 520 manufacturers…

  2. Occupational Specialty Congruence: New Data and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meir, Elchanan I.; Melamed, Samuel

    2005-01-01

    The present research examined the relationship between within-occupational congruence and satisfaction, and attempted to integrate hypotheses and findings of prior studies with the conceptual implications of occupational specialty congruence. Correspondence between vocational interests within occupations and specialty choice has shown higher…

  3. Congruence and Welsh-English Code-Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deuchar, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to elucidating the notion of congruence in code-switching with particular reference to Welsh-English data. It has been suggested that a sufficient degree of congruence or equivalence between the constituents of one language and another is necessary in order for code-switching to take place. We shall distinguish…

  4. Enhancing Organizational Goal Congruence: A Solution to Organizational Politics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Witt

    1998-01-01

    Results of moderated multiple regression analyses on data collected from 979 workers in 5 organizations confirmed the hypothesis that supervisor–subordinate goal congruence would moderate the relationship between organizational politics and organizational commitment. Similar analyses on data collected from 366 workers in 2 of those organizations provided partial support for the second hypothesis that goal congruence would also moderate the relationship

  5. Evaluation of differences in quality of experience features for test stimuli of good-only and bad-only overall audiovisual quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohmeier, Dominik; Kunze, Kristina; Göbel, Klemens; Liebetrau, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Assessing audiovisual Quality of Experience (QoE) is a key element to ensure quality acceptance of today's multimedia products. The use of descriptive evaluation methods allows evaluating QoE preferences and the underlying QoE features jointly. From our previous evaluations on QoE for mobile 3D video we found that mainly one dimension, video quality, dominates the descriptive models. Large variations of the visual video quality in the tests may be the reason for these findings. A new study was conducted to investigate whether test sets of low QoE are described differently than those of high audiovisual QoE. Reanalysis of previous data sets seems to confirm this hypothesis. Our new study consists of a pre-test and a main test, using the Descriptive Sorted Napping method. Data sets of good-only and bad-only video quality were evaluated separately. The results show that the perception of bad QoE is mainly determined one-dimensionally by visual artifacts, whereas the perception of good quality shows multiple dimensions. Here, mainly semantic-related features of the content and affective descriptors are used by the naïve test participants. The results show that, with increasing QoE of audiovisual systems, content semantics and users' a_ective involvement will become important for assessing QoE differences.

  6. Target categorization with primes that vary in both congruency and sense modality

    PubMed Central

    Weatherford, Kathryn; Mills, Michael; Porter, Anne M.; Goolkasian, Paula

    2015-01-01

    In two experiments we examined conceptual priming within and across sense modalities by varying the modality (picture and environmental sounds) and the category congruency of prime-target pairs. Both experiments used a repetition priming paradigm, but Experiment 1 studied priming effects with a task that required a superordinate categorization response (man-made or natural), while Experiment 2 used a lower level category response (musical instruments or animal): one that was more closely associated with the basic level of the semantic network. Results from Experiment 1 showed a strong effect of target modality and two distinct patterns of conceptual priming effects with picture and environmental sound targets. However, no priming advantage was found when congruent and incongruent primes were compared. Results from Experiment 2, found congruency effects that were specific to environmental sound targets when preceded by picture primes. The findings provide support for the intermodal event file and multisensory framework, and suggest that auditory and visual features about a single item in a conceptual category may be more tightly connected than two different items from the same category. PMID:25667578

  7. Effects of temporal asynchrony and stimulus magnitude on competitive audio-visual binding.

    PubMed

    Wilbiks, Jonathan M P; Dyson, Benjamin J

    2013-11-01

    When making decisions as to whether or not to bind auditory and visual information, temporal and stimulus factors both contribute to the presumption of multimodal unity. In order to study the interaction between these factors, we conducted an experiment in which auditory and visual stimuli were placed in competitive binding scenarios, whereby an auditory stimulus was assigned to either a primary or a secondary anchor in a visual context (VAV) or a visual stimulus was assigned to either a primary or secondary anchor in an auditory context (AVA). Temporal factors were manipulated by varying the onset of the to-be-bound stimulus in relation to the two anchors. Stimulus factors were manipulated by varying the magnitudes of the visual (size) and auditory (intensity) signals. The results supported the dominance of temporal factors in auditory contexts, in that effects of time were stronger in AVA than in VAV contexts, and stimulus factors in visual contexts, in that effects of magnitude were stronger in VAV than in AVA contexts. These findings indicate the precedence for temporal factors, with particular reliance on stimulus factors when the to-be-assigned stimulus was temporally ambiguous. Stimulus factors seem to be driven by high-magnitude presentation rather than cross-modal congruency. The interactions between temporal and stimulus factors, modality weighting, discriminability, and object representation highlight some of the factors that contribute to audio-visual binding. PMID:23955058

  8. Are Tutor Behaviors in Problem-Based Learning Stable? A Generalizability Study of Social Congruence, Expertise and Cognitive Congruence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Judith C.; Alwis, W. A. M.; Rotgans, Jerome I.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability of three distinct tutor behaviors (1) use of subject-matter expertise, (2) social congruence and (3) cognitive congruence, in a problem-based learning (PBL) environment. The data comprised the input from 16,047 different students to a survey of 762 tutors administered in three consecutive…

  9. Categorization of Natural Dynamic Audiovisual Scenes

    PubMed Central

    Rummukainen, Olli; Radun, Jenni; Virtanen, Toni; Pulkki, Ville

    2014-01-01

    This work analyzed the perceptual attributes of natural dynamic audiovisual scenes. We presented thirty participants with 19 natural scenes in a similarity categorization task, followed by a semi-structured interview. The scenes were reproduced with an immersive audiovisual display. Natural scene perception has been studied mainly with unimodal settings, which have identified motion as one of the most salient attributes related to visual scenes, and sound intensity along with pitch trajectories related to auditory scenes. However, controlled laboratory experiments with natural multimodal stimuli are still scarce. Our results show that humans pay attention to similar perceptual attributes in natural scenes, and a two-dimensional perceptual map of the stimulus scenes and perceptual attributes was obtained in this work. The exploratory results show the amount of movement, perceived noisiness, and eventfulness of the scene to be the most important perceptual attributes in naturalistically reproduced real-world urban environments. We found the scene gist properties openness and expansion to remain as important factors in scenes with no salient auditory or visual events. We propose that the study of scene perception should move forward to understand better the processes behind multimodal scene processing in real-world environments. We publish our stimulus scenes as spherical video recordings and sound field recordings in a publicly available database. PMID:24788808

  10. Co-speech gestures influence neural activity in brain regions associated with processing semantic information

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Anthony Steven; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Hasson, Uri; Skipper, Jeremy I.; Small, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    Everyday communication is accompanied by visual information from several sources, including co-speech gestures, which provide semantic information listeners use to help disambiguate the speaker’s message. Using fMRI, we examined how gestures influence neural activity in brain regions associated with processing semantic information. The BOLD response was recorded while participants listened to stories under three audiovisual conditions and one auditory-only (speech alone) condition. In the first audiovisual condition, the storyteller produced gestures that naturally accompany speech. In the second, she made semantically unrelated hand movements. In the third, she kept her hands still. In addition to inferior parietal and posterior superior and middle temporal regions, bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus and left anterior inferior frontal gyrus responded more strongly to speech when it was further accompanied by gesture, regardless of the semantic relation to speech. However, the right inferior frontal gyrus was sensitive to the semantic import of the hand movements, demonstrating more activity when hand movements were semantically unrelated to the accompanying speech. These findings show that perceiving hand movements during speech modulates the distributed pattern of neural activation involved in both biological motion perception and discourse comprehension, suggesting listeners attempt to find meaning, not only in the words speakers produce, but also in the hand movements that accompany speech. PMID:19384890

  11. Taxonomic Congruence versus Total Evidence, and Amniote Phylogeny Inferred from Fossils, Molecules, and Morphology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas J. Eernisse; Arnold G. Kluge

    Taxonomic congruence and total evidence are competing paradigms in phylogenetic inference. Taxonomic congruence focuses on deriving a consensus from the results obtained from separately analyzed data sets, whereas total evidence uses character congruence in the search for the best-fitting hypothesis for all of the available char- acter evidence. Explicit or implicit use of taxonomic congruence is usually employed when an

  12. Is early osteoarthritis associated with differences in joint congruence?

    PubMed

    Conconi, Michele; Halilaj, Eni; Parenti Castelli, Vincenzo; Crisco, Joseph J

    2014-12-18

    Previous studies suggest that osteoarthritis (OA) is related to abnormal or excessive articular contact stress. The peak pressure resulting from an applied load is determined by many factors, among which is shape and relative position and orientation of the articulating surfaces or, referring to a more common nomenclature, joint congruence. It has been hypothesized that anatomical differences may be among the causes of OA. Individuals with less congruent joints would likely develop higher peak pressure and thus would be more exposed to the risk of OA onset. The aim of this work was to determine if the congruence of the first carpometacarpal (CMC) joint differs with the early onset of OA or with sex, as the female population has a higher incidence of OA. 59 without and 38 with early OA were CT-scanned with their dominant or arthritic hand in a neutral configuration. The proposed measure of joint congruence is both shape and size dependent. The correlation of joint congruence with pathology and sex was analyzed both before and after normalization for joint size. We found a significant correlation between joint congruence and sex due to the sex-related differences in size. The observed correlation disappeared after normalization. Although joint congruence increased with size, it did not correlate significantly with the onset of early OA. Differences in joint congruence in this population may not be a primary cause of OA onset or predisposition, at least for the CMC joint. PMID:25468667

  13. Semantic Domains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl A. Gunter; Dana S. Scott

    1990-01-01

    this report started working on denotational semantics in collaborationwith Christopher Strachey. In order to fix some mathematical precision, he took over some definitionsof recursion theorists such as Kleene, Nerode, Davis, and Platek and gave an approach to asimple type theory of higher-type functionals. It was only after giving an abstract characterizationof the spaces obtained (through the construction of bases) that

  14. Inquisitive semantics and pragmatics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeroen Groenendijk; Floris Roelofsen

    2009-01-01

    This paper starts with an informal introduction to inquisitive semantics. After that, we present a formal definition of the semantics, and introduce the basic semantic notions of inquisitiveness and informativeness, in terms of wich we define the semantic categories of questions, assertions, and hybrid sentences. The focus of this paper will be on the logical pragmatical notions that the semantics

  15. Inquisitive Semantics and Logic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salvador Mascarenhas

    2009-01-01

    Inquisitive Semantics and Logic Salvador Mascarenhas Abstract: The first chapter introduces inquisitive semantics as a research program for the study of the semantics of natural language questions and disjunctions. The author begins by providing a brief outline of the necessary background on question semantics and erotetic logics, and then presents inquisitive semantics, by first laying out its main tenets and

  16. Dynamics of stringy congruence in the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Yong Seung; Hong, Soon-Tae [Department of Mathematics, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Science Education and Research Institute for Basic Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    We study twist and shear aspects of the stingy geodesic surface congruence. Under some natural conditions we derive the equations of the twist and shear in terms of the expansion of the Universe. We observe in this higher dimensional cosmology that, as the early universe evolves with expansion rate, the twist of the stringy congruence decreases exponentially and the initial twist value should be large enough to sustain the rotations of the ensuing universe, while the effects of the shear are negligible to produce the isotropic and homogeneous universe. We also investigate the twist and shear of the geodesic surface congruence of the null strings.

  17. Audiovisual Materials and Programming for Children: A Long Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, Carol A.

    1992-01-01

    Explores the use of audiovisual materials in children's programing at the Seattle Public Library prior to 1920. Kinds of materials discussed include pictures, reflectoscopes, films, sound recordings, lantern slides, and stereographs. (17 references) (MES)

  18. An audiovisual database of English speech sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, Stefan A.; Nikjeh, Dee Adams

    2003-10-01

    A preliminary audiovisual database of English speech sounds has been developed for teaching purposes. This database contains all Standard English speech sounds produced in isolated words in word initial, word medial, and word final position, unless not allowed by English phonotactics. There is one example of each word spoken by a male and a female talker. The database consists of an audio recording, video of the face from a 45 deg angle off of center, and ultrasound video of the tongue in the mid-saggital plane. The files contained in the database are suitable for examination by the Wavesurfer freeware program in audio or video modes [Sjolander and Beskow, KTH Stockholm]. This database is intended as a multimedia reference for students in phonetics or speech science. A demonstration and plans for further development will be presented.

  19. Congruence of triangles (grades 6-8)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Utah State University. National Library of Virtual Manipulatives for Interactive Mathematics

    2003-01-01

    This virtual manipulative enables the student to arrange sides and angles to construct and demonstrate the necessary and sufficient conditions for proving triangles congruent. The student drags line segments and angles to form triangles and can flip formed triangles as needed to show congruence. The student can select from options for constructing triangles given three sides (SSS), two sides and the included angle (SAS), and two angles and an included side (ASA). The applet also allows the student to experiment with the ambiguous case to find two triangles that are not congruent, given two sides and a non-included angle (SSA). Instructions for using the applet and a link to the NCTM standard for geometry are included. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  20. The perception of geometrical structure from congruence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lappin, Joseph S.; Wason, Thomas D.

    1989-01-01

    The principle function of vision is to measure the environment. As demonstrated by the coordination of motor actions with the positions and trajectories of moving objects in cluttered environments and by rapid recognition of solid objects in varying contexts from changing perspectives, vision provides real-time information about the geometrical structure and location of environmental objects and events. The geometric information provided by 2-D spatial displays is examined. It is proposed that the geometry of this information is best understood not within the traditional framework of perspective trigonometry, but in terms of the structure of qualitative relations defined by congruences among intrinsic geometric relations in images of surfaces. The basic concepts of this geometrical theory are outlined.

  1. Elevated audiovisual temporal interaction in patients with migraine without aura

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Photophobia and phonophobia are the most prominent symptoms in patients with migraine without aura. Hypersensitivity to visual stimuli can lead to greater hypersensitivity to auditory stimuli, which suggests that the interaction between visual and auditory stimuli may play an important role in the pathogenesis of migraine. However, audiovisual temporal interactions in migraine have not been well studied. Therefore, our aim was to examine auditory and visual interactions in migraine. Methods In this study, visual, auditory, and audiovisual stimuli with different temporal intervals between the visual and auditory stimuli were randomly presented to the left or right hemispace. During this time, the participants were asked to respond promptly to target stimuli. We used cumulative distribution functions to analyze the response times as a measure of audiovisual integration. Results Our results showed that audiovisual integration was significantly elevated in the migraineurs compared with the normal controls (p?audiovisual suppression was weaker in the migraineurs compared with the normal controls (p?audio-visual stimuli in patients with migraine. PMID:24961903

  2. Focusing of geodesic congruences in an accelerated expanding Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Albareti, F.D.; Cembranos, J.A.R. [Departamento de Física Teórica I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Cruz-Dombriz, A. de la, E-mail: fdalbareti@estumail.ucm.es, E-mail: cembra@fis.ucm.es, E-mail: alvaro.delacruz-dombriz@uct.ac.za [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), University of Cape Town, 7701 Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2012-12-01

    We study the accelerated expansion of the Universe through its consequences on a congruence of geodesics. We make use of the Raychaudhuri equation which describes the evolution of the expansion rate for a congruence of timelike or null geodesics. In particular, we focus on the space-time geometry contribution to this equation. By straightforward calculation from the metric of a Robertson-Walker cosmological model, it follows that in an accelerated expanding Universe the space-time contribution to the Raychaudhuri equation is positive for the fundamental congruence, favoring a non-focusing of the congruence of geodesics. However, the accelerated expansion of the present Universe does not imply a tendency of the fundamental congruence to diverge. It is shown that this is in fact the case for certain congruences of timelike geodesics without vorticity. Therefore, the focusing of geodesics remains feasible in an accelerated expanding Universe. Furthermore, a negative contribution to the Raychaudhuri equation from space-time geometry which is usually interpreted as the manifestation of the attractive character of gravity is restored in an accelerated expanding Robertson-Walker space-time at high speeds.

  3. Congruency sequence effect without feature integration and contingency learning.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanga; Cho, Yang Seok

    2014-06-01

    The magnitude of congruency effects, such as the flanker-compatibility effects, has been found to vary as a function of the congruency of the previous trial. Some studies have suggested that this congruency sequence effect is attributable to stimulus and/or response priming, and/or contingency learning, whereas other studies have suggested that the control process triggered by conflict modulates the congruency effect. The present study examined whether sequential modulation can occur without stimulus and response repetitions and contingency learning. Participants were asked to perform two color flanker-compatibility tasks alternately in a trial-by-trial manner, with four fingers of one hand in Experiment 1 and with the index and middle fingers of two hands in Experiment 2, to avoid stimulus and response repetitions and contingency learning. A significant congruency sequence effect was obtained between the congruencies of the two tasks in Experiment 1 but not in Experiment 2. These results provide evidence for the idea that the sequential modulation is, at least in part, an outcome of the top-down control process triggered by conflict, which is specific to response mode. PMID:24704781

  4. Work Status Congruence’s Relation to Employee Attitudes and Behaviors: The Moderating Role of Procedural Justice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon C. Carr; Brian T. Gregory; Stanley G. Harris

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  The purpose of this study is to explore procedural justice as a boundary condition of work status congruence’s (WSC) relationships\\u000a with organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). WSC is defined as the degree to which an employee’s\\u000a schedule, shift, full-time or part-time status, and number of working hours, match his or her preferences (Holtom et al. in\\u000a J Appl

  5. 36 CFR 1237.20 - What are special considerations in the maintenance of audiovisual records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Protect audiovisual records, including those recorded on digital media or magnetic sound or video media, from accidental or...identifiers for all audiovisual records (e.g., for digital files, use file naming conventions), that...

  6. 36 CFR 1237.20 - What are special considerations in the maintenance of audiovisual records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Protect audiovisual records, including those recorded on digital media or magnetic sound or video media, from accidental or...identifiers for all audiovisual records (e.g., for digital files, use file naming conventions), that...

  7. 36 CFR 1237.20 - What are special considerations in the maintenance of audiovisual records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Protect audiovisual records, including those recorded on digital media or magnetic sound or video media, from accidental or...identifiers for all audiovisual records (e.g., for digital files, use file naming conventions), that...

  8. 36 CFR 1237.20 - What are special considerations in the maintenance of audiovisual records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Protect audiovisual records, including those recorded on digital media or magnetic sound or video media, from accidental or...identifiers for all audiovisual records (e.g., for digital files, use file naming conventions), that...

  9. 16 CFR 307.8 - Requirements for disclosure in audiovisual and audio advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...disclosure in audiovisual and audio advertising. 307.8 Section 307...HEALTH EDUCATION ACT OF 1986 Advertising Disclosures § 307.8 Requirements...disclosure in audiovisual and audio advertising. In the case of...

  10. 36 CFR 1237.20 - What are special considerations in the maintenance of audiovisual records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...audiovisual records in accordance with commonly accepted industry practices. (b) Protect audiovisual records, including those recorded...media or magnetic sound or video media, from accidental or deliberate alteration or erasure. (c) If different versions of...

  11. 36 CFR 1237.18 - What are the environmental standards for audiovisual records storage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.18 What...standards for audiovisual records storage? (a) Photographic...acetate-based media. (b) Digital images on magnetic...

  12. Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Audiovisual Speech Processing

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Lynne E.; Auer, Edward T.; Wagner, Michael; Ponton, Curtis W.

    2007-01-01

    The cortical processing of auditory-alone, visual-alone, and audiovisual speech information is temporally and spatially distributed, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) cannot adequately resolve its temporal dynamics. In order to investigate a hypothesized spatio-temporal organization for audiovisual speech processing circuits, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded using electroencephalography (EEG). Stimuli were congruent audiovisual /b?/, incongruent auditory /b?/ synchronized with visual /g?/, auditory-only /b?/, and visual-only /b?/ and /g?/. Current density reconstructions (CDRs) of the ERP data were computed across the latency interval of 50-250 milliseconds. The CDRs demonstrated complex spatio-temporal activation patterns that differed across stimulus conditions. The hypothesized circuit that was investigated here comprised initial integration of audiovisual speech by the middle superior temporal sulcus (STS), followed by recruitment of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), followed by activation of Broca's area (Miller and d'Esposito, 2005). The importance of spatio-temporally sensitive measures in evaluating processing pathways was demonstrated. Results showed, strikingly, early (< 100 msec) and simultaneous activations in areas of the supramarginal and angular gyrus (SMG/AG), the IPS, the inferior frontal gyrus, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Also, emergent left hemisphere SMG/AG activation, not predicted based on the unisensory stimulus conditions was observed at approximately 160 to 220 msec. The STS was neither the earliest nor most prominent activation site, although it is frequently considered the sine qua non of audiovisual speech integration. As discussed here, the relatively late activity of the SMG/AG solely under audiovisual conditions is a possible candidate audiovisual speech integration response. PMID:17920933

  13. A Generic Framework for Checking Semantic Equivalences between Pushdown Automata and Finite-State Automata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonín Kucera; Richard Mayr

    2004-01-01

    We propose a generic method for deciding semantic equivalences between pushdown automata and finite-state automata. The abstract\\u000a part of the method is applicable to every process equivalence which is a right PDA congruence. Practical usability of the\\u000a method is demonstrated on selected equivalences which are conceptual representatives of the whole spectrum. In particular,\\u000a special attention is devoted to bisimulation-like equivalences

  14. Our nation's wetlands (video). Audio-Visual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Department of the Interior is custodian of approximately 500 million acres of federally owned land and has an important role to play in the management of wetlands. To contribute to the President's goal of no net loss of America's remaining wetlands, the Department of the Interior has initiated a 3-point program consisting of wetlands protection, restoration, and research: Wetlands Protection--Reduce wetlands losses on federally owned lands and encourage state and private landholders to practice wetlands conservation; Wetlands Restoration--Increase wetlands gains through the restoration and creation of wetlands on both public and private lands; Wetlands Research--Provide a foundation of scientific knowledge to guide future actions and decisions about wetlands. The audiovisual is a slide/tape-to-video transfer illustrating the various ways Interior bureaus are working to preserve our Nation's wetlands. The tape features an introduction by Secretary Manuel Lujan on the importance of wetlands and recognizing the benefit of such programs as the North American Waterfowl Management Program.

  15. Preserved Musical Semantic Memory in Semantic Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Jessica; Koenig, Phyllis; Gunawardena, Delani; McMillan, Corey; Bonner, Michael; Grossman, Murray

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the scope of semantic impairment in semantic dementia. Design Case study. Setting Academic medical center. Patient A man with semantic dementia, as demonstrated by clinical, neuropsychological, and imaging studies. Main Outcome Measures Music performance and magnetic resonance imaging results. Results Despite profoundly impaired semantic memory for words and objects due to left temporal lobe atrophy, this semiprofessional musician was creative and expressive in demonstrating preserved musical knowledge. Conclusion Long-term representations of words and objects in semantic memory may be dissociated from meaningful knowledge in other domains, such as music. PMID:21320991

  16. False recollections and the congruence of suggested information.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mata, Nieves; Diges, Margarita

    2007-10-01

    In two experiments, congruence of postevent information was manipulated in order to explore its role in the misinformation effect. Congruence of a detail was empirically defined as its compatibility (or match) with a concrete event. Based on this idea it was predicted that a congruent suggested detail would be more easily accepted than an incongruent one. In Experiments 1 and 2 two factors(congruence and truth value ) were manipulated within-subjects, and a two-alternative forced-choice recognition test was used followed by phenomenological judgements. Furthermore, in the second experiment participants were asked to describe four critical items (two seen and two suggested details)to explore differences and similarities between real and unreal memories. Both experiments clearly showed that the congruence of false information caused a robust misinformation effect, so that congruent information was much more accepted than false incongruent information. Furthermore, congruence increased the descriptive and phenomenological similarities between perceived and suggested memories, thus contributing to the misleading effect. PMID:17891682

  17. Kinaesthetic mirror illusion and spatial congruence.

    PubMed

    Metral, Morgane; Chancel, Marie; Brun, Clémentine; Luyat, Marion; Kavounoudias, Anne; Guerraz, Michel

    2015-05-01

    Position sense and kinaesthesia are mainly derived from the integration of somaesthetic and visual afferents to form a single, coherent percept. However, visual information related to the body can play a dominant role in these perceptual processes in some circumstances, and notably in the mirror paradigm. The objective of the present study was to determine whether or not the kinaesthetic illusions experienced in the mirror paradigm obey one of the key rules of multisensory integration: spatial congruence. In the experiment, the participant's left arm (the image of which was reflected in a mirror) was either passively flexed/extended with a motorized manipulandum (to induce a kinaesthetic illusion in the right arm) or remained static. The right (unseen) arm remained static but was positioned parallel to the left arm's starting position or placed in extension (from 15° to 90°, in steps of 15°), relative to the left arm's flexed starting position. The results revealed that the frequency of the illusion decreased only slightly as the incongruence prior to movement onset between the reflected left arm and the hidden right arm grew and remained quite high even in the most incongruent settings. However, the greater the incongruence between the visually and somaesthetically specified positions of the right forearm (from 15° to 90°), the later the onset and the lower the perceived speed of the kinaesthetic illusion. Although vision dominates perception in a context of visuoproprioceptive conflict (as in the mirror paradigm), our results show that the relative weightings allocated to proprioceptive and visual signals vary according to the degree of spatial incongruence prior to movement onset. PMID:25665873

  18. ISCO and Principal Null Congruences in Extremal Kerr Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2012-12-01

    The effective potential in universal like coordinates(U, V, ?, phi), which are smooth across the event horizon is derived and investigated the ISCO(Innermost Stable Circular Orbits) explicitly in these coordinates for extremal Kerr spacetime. Extremization of the effective potential for timelike circular orbit shows that the existence of a stable circular geodesics in the extremal spacetime for direct orbit, precisely on the event horizon in terms of the radial coordinate which coincides with the principal null geodesic congruences of the event horizon. These null geodesic congruences mold themselves to the spacetime curvature in such a way that Weyl conformal tensor and its dual are vanished, that is why they are in-fact doubly degenerate principal null congruences.

  19. Audiovisual biofeedback improves motion prediction accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Sean; Lee, Danny; Keall, Paul; Kim, Taeho

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The accuracy of motion prediction, utilized to overcome the system latency of motion management radiotherapy systems, is hampered by irregularities present in the patients’ respiratory pattern. Audiovisual (AV) biofeedback has been shown to reduce respiratory irregularities. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that AV biofeedback improves the accuracy of motion prediction. Methods: An AV biofeedback system combined with real-time respiratory data acquisition and MR images were implemented in this project. One-dimensional respiratory data from (1) the abdominal wall (30 Hz) and (2) the thoracic diaphragm (5 Hz) were obtained from 15 healthy human subjects across 30 studies. The subjects were required to breathe with and without the guidance of AV biofeedback during each study. The obtained respiratory signals were then implemented in a kernel density estimation prediction algorithm. For each of the 30 studies, five different prediction times ranging from 50 to 1400 ms were tested (150 predictions performed). Prediction error was quantified as the root mean square error (RMSE); the RMSE was calculated from the difference between the real and predicted respiratory data. The statistical significance of the prediction results was determined by the Student's t-test. Results: Prediction accuracy was considerably improved by the implementation of AV biofeedback. Of the 150 respiratory predictions performed, prediction accuracy was improved 69% (103/150) of the time for abdominal wall data, and 78% (117/150) of the time for diaphragm data. The average reduction in RMSE due to AV biofeedback over unguided respiration was 26% (p < 0.001) and 29% (p < 0.001) for abdominal wall and diaphragm respiratory motion, respectively. Conclusions: This study was the first to demonstrate that the reduction of respiratory irregularities due to the implementation of AV biofeedback improves prediction accuracy. This would result in increased efficiency of motion management techniques affected by system latencies used in radiotherapy. PMID:23556875

  20. Prefrontal neuronal responses during audiovisual mnemonic processing.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jaewon; Romanski, Lizabeth M

    2015-01-21

    During communication we combine auditory and visual information. Neurophysiological research in nonhuman primates has shown that single neurons in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) exhibit multisensory responses to faces and vocalizations presented simultaneously. However, whether VLPFC is also involved in maintaining those communication stimuli in working memory or combining stored information across different modalities is unknown, although its human homolog, the inferior frontal gyrus, is known to be important in integrating verbal information from auditory and visual working memory. To address this question, we recorded from VLPFC while rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) performed an audiovisual working memory task. Unlike traditional match-to-sample/nonmatch-to-sample paradigms, which use unimodal memoranda, our nonmatch-to-sample task used dynamic movies consisting of both facial gestures and the accompanying vocalizations. For the nonmatch conditions, a change in the auditory component (vocalization), the visual component (face), or both components was detected. Our results show that VLPFC neurons are activated by stimulus and task factors: while some neurons simply responded to a particular face or a vocalization regardless of the task period, others exhibited activity patterns typically related to working memory such as sustained delay activity and match enhancement/suppression. In addition, we found neurons that detected the component change during the nonmatch period. Interestingly, some of these neurons were sensitive to the change of both components and therefore combined information from auditory and visual working memory. These results suggest that VLPFC is not only involved in the perceptual processing of faces and vocalizations but also in their mnemonic processing. PMID:25609614

  1. The impact of congruence in cause marketing campaigns for service firms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald P. Roy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – Several studies have examined sponsor-cause congruence as an influence on consumer response to cause marketing campaigns. This paper aims to assess the relationship between sponsor-cause congruence and consumer responses to cause marketing programs. In addition, it aims to test the possible existence of an interaction of congruence and service type of a cause sponsor (utilitarian vs hedonic) on

  2. Congruency of gaze metrics in action, imagery and action observation

    PubMed Central

    Causer, Joe; McCormick, Sheree A.; Holmes, Paul S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a review of eye movements during action execution, action observation, and movement imagery. Furthermore, the paper highlights aspects of congruency in gaze metrics between these states. The implications of the imagery, observation, and action gaze congruency are discussed in terms of motor learning and rehabilitation. Future research directions are outlined in order to further the understanding of shared gaze metrics between overt and covert states. Suggestions are made for how researchers and practitioners can structure action observation and movement imagery interventions to maximize (re)learning. PMID:24068996

  3. Enhancing audiovisual experience with haptic feedback: a survey on HAV

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and design, including entertainment, flight simulation and virtual reality. Today there is a growing interest of virtual reality: numerous applications have been found for them in medical, robotic and artistic settings, research and technology for audiovisual entertainment remains essentially focused on improving image

  4. Research Article Efficacy of Audiovisual and Radar Surveys for Studying

    E-print Network

    Mladenoff, David

    ), a threatened seabird that nests in old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Theoretically, counts fromResearch Article Efficacy of Audiovisual and Radar Surveys for Studying Marbled Murrelets in Inland, Scotia Pacific Company LLC, Scotia, CA 95565, USA STEVEN P. COURTNEY, Sustainable Ecosystems Institute

  5. Audio-Visual Atoms for Generic Video Concept Classification

    E-print Network

    Chang, Shih-Fu

    -frequency analysis. Audio atoms are extracted around energy onsets. Visual and audio atoms form AVAs, based on which the challenging issue of joint audio-visual analysis of generic videos targeting at concept detection. We extract with regional visual fea- tures and audio onset features. We develop a hierarchical algorithm to extract visual

  6. Automatic summarization of audio-visual soccer feeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fan Chen; Christophe De Vleeschouwer; Helenca Duxans Barrobes; J. Gregorio Escalada; David Conejero

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a fully automatic system for soccer game summarization. The system takes audio-visual content as an input, and builds on the integration of two independent but complementary contributions (i) to identify crucial periods of the soccer game in a fully automatic way, and (ii) to summarize the soccer game as a function of individual narrative preferences of the

  7. School Building Design and Audio-Visual Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee for Audio-Visual Aids in Education, London (England).

    The design of new schools should facilitate the use of audiovisual resources by ensuring that the materials used in the construction of the buildings provide adequate sound insulation and acoustical and viewing conditions in all learning spaces. The facilities to be considered are: electrical services; electronic services; light control and…

  8. Audiovisual Aids and Techniques in Managerial and Supervisory Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigg, Robinson P.

    An attempt is made to show the importance of modern audiovisual (AV) aids and techniques to management training. The first two chapters give the background to the present situation facing the training specialist. Chapter III considers the AV aids themselves in four main groups: graphic materials, display equipment which involves projection, and…

  9. Multinational Exchange Mechanisms of Educational Audio-Visual Materials. Appendixes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center of Studies and Realizations for Permanent Education, Paris (France).

    These appendixes contain detailed information about the existing audiovisual material exchanges which served as the basis for the analysis contained in the companion report. Descriptions of the objectives, structure, financing and services of the following national and international organizations are included: (1) Educational Resources Information…

  10. AudioVisual Classroom Consoles(LARGE) AMX Touch panel

    E-print Network

    Peak, Derek

    AudioVisual Classroom Consoles(LARGE) AMX Touch panel Chapter 1: Start up console using console PC) 2. Touch AMX Panel to reveal access keypad. Touch number (please contact eMAP for code) then DONE of your computer screen. Make sure it is not muted and adjust the level with your mouse. 2. AMX TouchPanel

  11. Audio-visual emotion recognition in adult attachment interview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhihong Zeng; Yuxiao Hu; Yun Fu; Thomas S. Huang; Glenn I. Roisman; Zhen Wen

    2006-01-01

    Automatic multimodal recognition of spontaneous affective expressions is a largely unexplored and challenging problem. In this paper, we explore audio-visual emotion recognition in a realistic human conversation setting - Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Based on the assumption that facial expression and vocal expression be at the same coarse affective states, positive and negative emotion sequences are labeled according to Facial

  12. The Audiovisual Temporal Binding Window Narrows in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewkowicz, David J.; Flom, Ross

    2014-01-01

    Binding is key in multisensory perception. This study investigated the audio-visual (A-V) temporal binding window in 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children (total N = 120). Children watched a person uttering a syllable whose auditory and visual components were either temporally synchronized or desynchronized by 366, 500, or 666 ms. They were asked…

  13. Experienced quality factors: qualitative evaluation approach to audiovisual quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satu Jumisko-Pyykkö; Jukka Häkkinen; Göte Nyman

    2007-01-01

    Subjective evaluation is used to identify impairment factors of multimedia quality. The final quality is often formulated via quantitative experiments, but this approach has its constraints, as subject's quality interpretations, experiences and quality evaluation criteria are disregarded. To identify these quality evaluation factors, this study examined qualitatively the criteria participants used to evaluate audiovisual video quality. A semi-structured interview was

  14. Audiovisual Vowel Monitoring and the Word Superiority Effect in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Mathilde; Spinelli, Elsa; Savariaux, Christophe; Kandel, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore whether viewing the speaker's articulatory gestures contributes to lexical access in children (ages 5-10) and in adults. We conducted a vowel monitoring task with words and pseudo-words in audio-only (AO) and audiovisual (AV) contexts with white noise masking the acoustic signal. The results indicated that…

  15. An Audio-Visual Lecture Course in Russian Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leighton, Lauren G.

    1977-01-01

    An audio-visual course in Russian culture is given at Northern Illinois University. A collection of 4-5,000 color slides is the basis for the course, with lectures focussed on literature, philosophy, religion, politics, art and crafts. Acquisition, classification, storage and presentation of slides, and organization of lectures are discussed. (CHK)

  16. Overview of Audiovisual Resources in the State of Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, John W.; Meyers, Judith K.

    A survey was conducted to (1) identify the major collections of audiovisual resources, especially 16mm films, in the state of Ohio; (2) describe trends in the development of such collections; (3) determine patterns of utilization; and (4) identify policy issues for the development of collections and services. This report details materials,…

  17. Artimate: an articulatory animation framework for audiovisual speech synthesis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Artimate: an articulatory animation framework for audiovisual speech synthesis Ingmar Steiner1.steiner|slim.ouni}@loria.fr Abstract We present a modular framework for articulatory animation synthesis using speech motion capture animation of the tongue and teeth for a virtual character. The framework also provides an interface

  18. Libraries and Audio-Visual Center Cost Allocation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Miriam A.

    A 1975 cost analysis study of the Purdue University Library and Audio-Visual Center collected data to ascertain the cost of services and materials during the fiscal year 1975 and to identify the allocation of costs among user groups, among library functions (e.g., processing, client services), and among end uses (e.g., instruction, research). This…

  19. AUDIO-VISUAL ISOLATED DIGIT RECOGNITION FOR WHISPERED SPEECH

    E-print Network

    Busso, Carlos

    AUDIO-VISUAL ISOLATED DIGIT RECOGNITION FOR WHISPERED SPEECH Xing Fan, Carlos Busso, and John H.L. Hansen Center for Robust Speech Systems(CRSS) University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75083 xxf of whisper, there are considerable differences between neutral and whispered speech in the spectral structure

  20. When Knowing Can Replace Seeing in Audiovisual Integration of Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrini, Karin; Russell, Melanie; Pollick, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The ability to predict the effects of actions is necessary to behave properly in our physical and social world. Here, we describe how the ability to predict the consequence of complex gestures can change the way we integrate sight and sound when relevant visual information is missing. Six drummers and six novices were asked to judge audiovisual

  1. Auditory Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) in Audiovisual Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilling, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: It has recently been reported (e.g., V. van Wassenhove, K. W. Grant, & D. Poeppel, 2005) that audiovisual (AV) presented speech is associated with an N1/P2 auditory event-related potential (ERP) response that is lower in peak amplitude compared with the responses associated with auditory only (AO) speech. This effect was replicated.…

  2. Crossmodal and Incremental Perception of Audiovisual Cues to Emotional Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkhuysen, Pashiera; Krahmer, Emiel; Swerts, Marc

    2010-01-01

    In this article we report on two experiments about the perception of audiovisual cues to emotional speech. The article addresses two questions: (1) how do visual cues from a speaker's face to emotion relate to auditory cues, and (2) what is the recognition speed for various facial cues to emotion? Both experiments reported below are based on tests…

  3. Classification and retrieval of sound effects in audiovisual data management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tong Zhang; C.-C. Jay Kuo

    1999-01-01

    We present a method for the classification of sound effects which exploits time-frequency analysis of audio signals and uses the hidden Markov model as the classifier. The proposed approach can be used to retrieve audio\\/video segments in studios, audiovisual libraries, and family entertainment applications. For example, video scenes of a gun fight can be retrieved by searching for sounds of

  4. The Need for a Health Science Audiovisual Resource List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantz, Malcolm H.; McIlvaine, Paul M.

    1977-01-01

    The University of Connecticut Health Center Library's Learning Resource Center (LRC) maintains an audiovisual collection of 2,500 titles exclusive of audiocassette journals that is used heavily by medical educators. Recommendations for compiling reference indexes of the collection are made. (LBH)

  5. Audiovisual Market Place; A Multimedia Guide. 1976 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    The "Audiovisual Market Place" is a register of organizations, firms, and personnel in The AV industry as well as a buyers' guide for those who purchase instructional materials and those who buy services in the area of media production. Twenty-five sections are grouped under three major areas of interest: AV softward, AV hardware, and reference.…

  6. Bialgebraic Semantics and Recursion 

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Gordon

    2001-01-01

    In [9] a unifying framework was given for operational and denotational semantics. It uses bialgebras, which are combinations of algebras (used for syn- tax and denotational semantics) and coalgebras (used for operational ...

  7. Introduction Semantic Web

    E-print Network

    Nejdl, Wolfgang

    Introduction Semantic Web Ontologies Linked Data Information Sources Information Extraction Web Application Use Cases Knowledge Bases Entity Linking Entity Retrieval Linked Data Quality Conclusions Papers for Presentations Resources Semantic Web: Extracting and Mining Structured Data from

  8. Context-specific effects of musical expertise on audiovisual integration

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Laura; Goebl, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Ensemble musicians exchange auditory and visual signals that can facilitate interpersonal synchronization. Musical expertise improves how precisely auditory and visual signals are perceptually integrated and increases sensitivity to asynchrony between them. Whether expertise improves sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony in all instrumental contexts or only in those using sound-producing gestures that are within an observer's own motor repertoire is unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that musicians are more sensitive to audiovisual asynchrony in performances featuring their own instrument than in performances featuring other instruments. Short clips were extracted from audio-video recordings of clarinet, piano, and violin performances and presented to highly-skilled clarinetists, pianists, and violinists. Clips either maintained the audiovisual synchrony present in the original recording or were modified so that the video led or lagged behind the audio. Participants indicated whether the audio and video channels in each clip were synchronized. The range of asynchronies most often endorsed as synchronized was assessed as a measure of participants' sensitivities to audiovisual asynchrony. A positive relationship was observed between musical training and sensitivity, with data pooled across stimuli. While participants across expertise groups detected asynchronies most readily in piano stimuli and least readily in violin stimuli, pianists showed significantly better performance for piano stimuli than for either clarinet or violin. These findings suggest that, to an extent, the effects of expertise on audiovisual integration can be instrument-specific; however, the nature of the sound-producing gestures that are observed has a substantial effect on how readily asynchrony is detected as well. PMID:25324819

  9. The Effect of Visual Apparent Motion on Audiovisual Simultaneity

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jinhwan; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Visual motion information from dynamic environments is important in multisensory temporal perception. However, it is unclear how visual motion information influences the integration of multisensory temporal perceptions. We investigated whether visual apparent motion affects audiovisual temporal perception. Visual apparent motion is a phenomenon in which two flashes presented in sequence in different positions are perceived as continuous motion. Across three experiments, participants performed temporal order judgment (TOJ) tasks. Experiment 1 was a TOJ task conducted in order to assess audiovisual simultaneity during perception of apparent motion. The results showed that the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS) was shifted toward a sound-lead stimulus, and the just noticeable difference (JND) was reduced compared with a normal TOJ task with a single flash. This indicates that visual apparent motion affects audiovisual simultaneity and improves temporal discrimination in audiovisual processing. Experiment 2 was a TOJ task conducted in order to remove the influence of the amount of flash stimulation from Experiment 1. The PSS and JND during perception of apparent motion were almost identical to those in Experiment 1, but differed from those for successive perception when long temporal intervals were included between two flashes without motion. This showed that the result obtained under the apparent motion condition was unaffected by the amount of flash stimulation. Because apparent motion was produced by a constant interval between two flashes, the results may be accounted for by specific prediction. In Experiment 3, we eliminated the influence of prediction by randomizing the intervals between the two flashes. However, the PSS and JND did not differ from those in Experiment 1. It became clear that the results obtained for the perception of visual apparent motion were not attributable to prediction. Our findings suggest that visual apparent motion changes temporal simultaneity perception and improves temporal discrimination in audiovisual processing. PMID:25295594

  10. The Congruence of Quality Values in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telford, Ronnie; Masson, Ron

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate, in the context of university education, the relationship between the congruence of the quality values held by the students, the teaching staff and the university senior management and the level of student satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach: The research was carried out within a large Business School in a major UK…

  11. Student-College Congruency as a Predictor of Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nafziger, Dean H.; And Others

    Hypotheses about person-environment congruency, consistency, and differentiation from Holland's theory of careers were tested. Subjects were 1,878 students from one college and one university who had been given the "Self-Directed Search" (SDS) before their freshman year followed by a satisfaction questionnaire at one or three years later. Two…

  12. Depth, Spread, and Congruence of Encoding in Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicker, Frank W.; And Others

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of the following memory encoding variables on human learning: depth (implying progression through levels of encoding); spread (elaboration of information at a given level) and; congruence (integration of the form of encoding and the material to be learned). Encoding refers to the way in which…

  13. Families of surfaces and conjugate curve congruences Ana Claudia Nabarro

    E-print Network

    Tari, Farid - Instituto de Ciências Matemáticas e de Computação, Universidade de São Paulo

    (BDEs), also know as quadratic differential equations. These are equations in the form a(x, y)dy2 + 2b, in [21] is constructed a natural 1-parameter family of BDEs, called conjugate curve congruence. This link is explained in [13] as follows. A BDE can be viewed as a quadratic form and represented at each

  14. Toward a Theory of Psychological Type Congruence for Advertisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Michael H.; And Others

    Focusing on the impact of advertisers' persuasive selling messages on consumers, this paper discusses topics relating to the theory of psychological type congruence. Based on an examination of persuasion theory and relevant psychological concepts, including recent cognitive stability and personality and needs theory and the older concept of…

  15. Instructor/Student Congruence and the Ratings on Course Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purohit, Anal A.; Magoon, A. J.

    The purpose of this study was to determine what relationships exist between course and instructor evaluations and student/instructor preferences regarding classroom instructions. The specific null hypothesis explored was: The congruencies on ratings of the personal preferences of students and the personal preferences of instructors will not be…

  16. Programming up to Congruence Vilhelm Sjoberg Stephanie Weirich

    E-print Network

    Weirich, Stephanie

    implemented in the ZOMBIE language, which includes gen- eral recursion, irrelevant arguments, heterogeneous Definitions and Theory Keywords Dependent types; Congruence closure 1. Introduction The ZOMBIE language aims be done in conjunction with the function definition. In contrast, ZOMBIE includes arbitrary nontermination

  17. Improving Students' Attitudes toward Science Using Instructional Congruence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zain, Ahmad Nurulazam Md; Samsudin, Mohd Ali; Rohandi, Robertus; Jusoh, Azman

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to improve students' attitudes toward science using instructional congruence. The study was conducted in Malaysia, in three low-performing secondary schools in the state of Penang. Data collected with an Attitudes in Science instrument were analysed using Rasch modeling. Qualitative data based on the reflections of…

  18. Congruence from Rotations and Reflections: 4.5

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-11-18

    These 3 activities, part of the Mathematics Developmental Continuum of the State of Victoria, Australia, are intended to introduce learners to demonstrating congruence and line and rotational symmetry through the use of transformations. Hands on activities and computer software are employed. Supporting documents, materials, and progress indicators are included.

  19. Semantics via Machine Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culhane, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

  20. The Democratization of Semantic Properties: An Analysis of Semantic Wikis

    E-print Network

    Gil, Yolanda

    of the wiki. Keywords- Semantic wikis, social knowledge collection, Semantic Web, knowledge capture I to organize topic page categories as classes in an ontology, and to define properties that apply to each class overview of semantic wikis and a thorough comparison of semantic wiki frameworks. Semantic MediaWiki [10

  1. Making the Semantic Web a Reality through Active Semantic Spaces

    E-print Network

    Menczer, Filippo

    Making the Semantic Web a Reality through Active Semantic Spaces Yihong Ding1 , Ying Ding2 , David acceptance of the Semantic Web is the lack of simple, straightforward, and attractive end-user showcases of Semantic Web technologies, service agent technologies, and Web 2.0 technologies. Semantic Web technologies

  2. Is Semantics Physical?!

    E-print Network

    Maria K. Koleva

    2010-09-08

    It is demonstrated that under the hypothesis of boundedness, the semantics appears as a property of spontaneous physical processes. It turns that both semantic structure and semantic meaning have their own physical agents each of which is represented trough generic for the state space property. The boundedness sets an exclusive two-fold representation of a semantic unit: as a specific sequence of letters and as a performance of a specific engine so that their interplay serves as grounds for building a multi-layer hierarchy of semantic structures. It is established that in this setting the semantics admits both non-extensivity, permutation sensitivity and Zipf`s law. The robustness of the hierarchical organization of semantic structures is maintained by new generic form of non-local feedback that appears as a result of the necessary for sustaining boundeness matter wave emitting.

  3. Effect of perceptual load on semantic access by speech in children

    PubMed Central

    Jerger, Susan; Damian, Markus F.; Mills, Candice; Bartlett, James; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Abdi, Hervè

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether semantic access by speech requires attention in children. Method Children (N=200) named pictures and ignored distractors on a cross-modal (distractors: auditory-no face) or multi-modal (distractors: auditory-static face and audiovisual-dynamic face) picture word task. The cross-modal had a low load, and the multi-modal had a high load [i.e., respectively naming pictures displayed 1) on a blank screen vs 2) below the talker’s face on his T-shirt]. Semantic content of distractors was manipulated to be related vs unrelated to picture (e.g., picture dog with distractors bear vs cheese). Lavie's (2005) perceptual load model proposes that semantic access is independent of capacity limited attentional resources if irrelevant semantic-content manipulation influences naming times on both tasks despite variations in loads but dependent on attentional resources exhausted by higher load task if irrelevant content influences naming only on cross-modal (low load). Results Irrelevant semantic content affected performance for both tasks in 6- to 9-year-olds, but only on cross-modal in 4–5-year-olds. The addition of visual speech did not influence results on the multi-modal task. Conclusion Younger and older children differ in dependence on attentional resources for semantic access by speech. PMID:22896045

  4. Unconscious Congruency Priming from Unpracticed Words Is Modulated by Prime-Target Semantic Relatedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortells, Juan J.; Mari-Beffa, Paloma; Plaza-Ayllon, Vanesa

    2013-01-01

    Participants performed a 2-choice categorization task on visible word targets that were preceded by novel (unpracticed) prime words. The prime words were presented for 33 ms and followed either immediately (Experiments 1-3) or after a variable delay (Experiments 1 and 4) by a pattern mask. Both subjective and objective measures of prime visibility…

  5. Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial for the life sciences? Is biomedical information too complex to benefit from simple interlinked representations? What are the implications of adopting a new paradigm for knowledge representation? What are the incentives for the adoption of the Semantic Web, and who are the facilitators? Is there going to be a Semantic Web revolution in the life sciences? We report here a few reflections on these questions, following discussions at the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences) workshop series, of which this Journal of Biomedical Semantics special issue presents selected papers from the 2009 edition, held in Amsterdam on November 20th. PMID:21388570

  6. Automatic Labeling of Semantic Roles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Gildea; Daniel Jurafsky

    2002-01-01

    We present a system for identifying the semantic relationships, or semantic roles, filled by constituents of a sentence within a semantic frame. Given an input sentence and a target word and frame, the system labels constituents with either abstract semantic roles such as AGENT or PATIENT, or more domain-specific semantic roles such as SPEAKER, MESSAGE, and TOPIC. The system is

  7. Semantic Networks and Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate the need for social network metadata within semantic metadata. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys properties of social networks and the semantic web, suggests that social network analysis applies to semantic content, argues that semantic content is more searchable if social network metadata is merged with semantic web…

  8. Semantic indexing of soccer audio-visual sequences: a multi-modal approach based on

    E-print Network

    Migliorati, Pierangelo

    of multimedia services, because sport videos appeal to large audi- ences. The problem of designing effective, Member, IEEE Abstract Content characterization of sport videos is a subject of great interest algorithm which uses both audio and visual information for salient event detection in soccer. The video

  9. Constructing audio-visual representations of consumer archetypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marylouise Caldwell; Paul Henry; Ariell Alman

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explain how audio-visual archetypal representations likely to engender emotional identification and consumer-inquisitiveness by marketing professionals can be constructed. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper employs video-ethnography involving the following steps: development of a typology of consumer archetypes based on a priori theory, screening for and identifying informants to exemplify each archetype, filming interviews

  10. Temporal Adaptation to Audiovisual Asynchrony Generalizes Across Different Sound Frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Navarra, Jordi; García-Morera, Joel; Spence, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The human brain exhibits a highly adaptive ability to reduce natural asynchronies between visual and auditory signals. Even though this mechanism robustly modulates the subsequent perception of sounds and visual stimuli, it is still unclear how such a temporal realignment is attained. In the present study, we investigated whether or not temporal adaptation generalizes across different auditory frequencies. In a first exposure phase, participants adapted to a fixed 220-ms audiovisual asynchrony or else to synchrony for 3?min. In a second phase, the participants performed simultaneity judgments (SJs) regarding pairs of audiovisual stimuli that were presented at different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and included either the same tone as in the exposure phase (a 250?Hz beep), another low-pitched beep (300?Hz), or a high-pitched beep (2500?Hz). Temporal realignment was always observed (when comparing SJ performance after exposure to asynchrony vs. synchrony), regardless of the frequency of the sound tested. This suggests that temporal recalibration influences the audiovisual perception of sounds in a frequency non-specific manner and may imply the participation of non-primary perceptual areas of the brain that are not constrained by certain physical features such as sound frequency. PMID:22615705

  11. G-CO, G-SRT Congruence of parallelograms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Rhianna has learned the SSS and SAS congruence tests for triangles and she wonders if these tests might work for parallelograms. Suppose $ABCD$ and $EF...

  12. G-CO Showing a triangle congruence: the general case

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Suppose $\\triangle ABC$ and $\\triangle PQR$ are distinct, congruent triangles. Using the steps below, show that a congruence can always be shown with o...

  13. Geodesic congruences in the Palatini f(R) theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shojai, Fatimah; Shojai, Ali

    2008-11-01

    We shall investigate the properties of a congruence of geodesics in the framework of Palatini f(R) theories. We shall evaluate the modified geodesic deviation equation and the Raychaudhuri’s equation and show that f(R) Palatini theories do not necessarily lead to attractive forces. Also, we shall study energy condition for f(R) Palatini gravity via a perturbative analysis of the Raychaudhuri’s equation.

  14. Congruence analysis of point clouds from unstable stereo image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jepping, C.; Bethmann, F.; Luhmann, T.

    2014-06-01

    This paper deals with the correction of exterior orientation parameters of stereo image sequences over deformed free-form surfaces without control points. Such imaging situation can occur, for example, during photogrammetric car crash test recordings where onboard high-speed stereo cameras are used to measure 3D surfaces. As a result of such measurements 3D point clouds of deformed surfaces are generated for a complete stereo sequence. The first objective of this research focusses on the development and investigation of methods for the detection of corresponding spatial and temporal tie points within the stereo image sequences (by stereo image matching and 3D point tracking) that are robust enough for a reliable handling of occlusions and other disturbances that may occur. The second objective of this research is the analysis of object deformations in order to detect stable areas (congruence analysis). For this purpose a RANSAC-based method for congruence analysis has been developed. This process is based on the sequential transformation of randomly selected point groups from one epoch to another by using a 3D similarity transformation. The paper gives a detailed description of the congruence analysis. The approach has been tested successfully on synthetic and real image data.

  15. Congruency Sequence Effects without Feature Integration or Contingency Learning Confounds

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, James R.; Weissman, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    The congruency effect in distracter interference (e.g., Stroop) tasks is often reduced after incongruent trials, relative to congruent trials. It has been proposed that this congruency sequence effect (CSE) results from trial-by-trial adjustments of attention, which are triggered by changes in response conflict, expectancy, or negative affect. Hence, a large literature has developed to investigate the source(s) of attention adaptation in distracter interference tasks. Recent work, however, suggests that CSEs may stem from feature integration and/or contingency learning processes that are confounded with congruency sequence in the vast majority of distracter interference tasks. By combining an established method for measuring CSEs in the absence of these learning and memory confounds with a prime-probe task, we observed robust CSEs in two experiments. These findings provide strong evidence of CSEs independent of learning and memory confounds, which might be explainable by trial-by-trial adjustments of attention. They also reveal a highly effective approach for observing CSEs independent of the typical confounds, which will facilitate future studies of how people adapt to distraction. PMID:25019526

  16. Metric Semantics from Partial Order Semantics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christel Baier; Mila E. Majster-cederbaum

    1997-01-01

    .   In dealing with denotational semantics of programming languages partial orders resp. metric spaces have been used with great\\u000a benefit in order to provide a meaning to recursive and repetitive constructs. This paper presents two methods to define a\\u000a metric on a subset of a complete partial order such that is a complete metric spaces and the metric semantics on

  17. The Lattices of Group Fuzzy Congruences and Normal Fuzzy Subsemigroups on E-Inversive Semigroups

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shoufeng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the lattices of group fuzzy congruences and normal fuzzy subsemigroups on E-inversive semigroups. We prove that group fuzzy congruences and normal fuzzy subsemigroups determined each other in E-inversive semigroups. Moreover, we show that the set of group t-fuzzy congruences and the set of normal subsemigroups with tip t in a given E-inversive semigroup form two mutually isomorphic modular lattices for every t? [0,1]. PMID:24892045

  18. On Fuzzy Congruences and Fuzzy Strong h-Ideals of Hemirings

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yunqiang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the concepts of fuzzy strong h-ideals and fuzzy congruences of hemirings. The quotient hemirings via fuzzy strong h-ideals are investigated. The relationships between fuzzy congruences and fuzzy strong h-ideals of hemirings are discussed. Pay attention to an open question on fuzzy congruences. Finally, the normal fuzzy strong h-ideals of hemirings are explored. PMID:25157379

  19. The role of arousal congruency in influencing consumers' satisfaction evaluations and in-store behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Wirtz; Anna S. Mattila; Rachel L. P. Tan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – It is widely accepted that consumers enter into a service consumption experience with a set of expectations, including affective expectations. This research aims to investigate the matching effects between arousal-level expectations and perceived stimulation (i.e. arousal congruency) on satisfaction and in-store behaviors. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A 3 (under-stimulation, arousal congruency and under-stimulation) perceived arousal congruency)×2 valence (pleasant or unpleasant

  20. Asymptotically Shear-free and Twist-free Null Geodesic Congruences

    E-print Network

    Carlos Kozameh; Ezra T. Newman

    2007-03-21

    We show that, though they are rare, there are asymptotically flat space-times that possess null geodesic congruences that are both asymptotically shear- free and twist-free (surface forming). In particular, we display the class of space-times that possess this property and demonstrate how these congruences can be found. A special case within this class are the Robinson- Trautman space-times. In addition, we show that in each case the congruence is isolated in the sense that there are no other neighboring congruences with this dual property.

  1. Clock synchronization by accelerated observers - Metric construction for arbitrary congruences of world lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriksen, R. N.; Nelson, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    Clock synchronization in an arbitrarily accelerated observer congruence is considered. A general solution is obtained that maintains the isotropy and coordinate independence of the one-way speed of light. Attention is also given to various particular cases including, rotating disk congruence or ring congruence. An explicit, congruence-based spacetime metric is constructed according to Einstein's clock synchronization procedure and the equation for the geodesics of the space-time was derived using Hamilton-Jacobi method. The application of interferometric techniques (absolute phase radio interferometry, VLBI) to the detection of the 'global Sagnac effect' is also discussed.

  2. Audiovisual Speech Perception and Eye Gaze Behavior of Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saalasti, Satu; Katsyri, Jari; Tiippana, Kaisa; Laine-Hernandez, Mari; von Wendt, Lennart; Sams, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Audiovisual speech perception was studied in adults with Asperger syndrome (AS), by utilizing the McGurk effect, in which conflicting visual articulation alters the perception of heard speech. The AS group perceived the audiovisual stimuli differently from age, sex and IQ matched controls. When a voice saying /p/ was presented with a face…

  3. Exploring Student Perceptions of Audiovisual Feedback via Screencasting in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieson, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Using Moore's (1993) theory of transactional distance as a framework, this action research study explored students' perceptions of audiovisual feedback provided via screencasting as a supplement to text-only feedback. A crossover design was employed to ensure that all students experienced both text-only and text-plus-audiovisual feedback and to…

  4. Evaluating an Experimental Audio-Visual Module Programmed to Teach a Basic Anatomical and Physiological System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Pat-Anthony

    The learning efficiency and effectiveness of teaching an anatomical and physiological system to Air Force enlisted trainees utilizing an experimental audiovisual programed module was compared to that of a commercial linear programed text. It was demonstrated that the audiovisual programed approach to training was more efficient than and equally as…

  5. The Use of Audiovisual Resources for Scholarly Research: A Jazz Archive as a Multidiscipline Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Marie P.

    1985-01-01

    Examination of the jazz archive as a primary resource emphasizes research potential of jazz sound recordings as an example of use of audiovisual materials for scholarly research. Discussion covers field recordings, commercial recordings, noncommercial recordings, archival collections, musicological research, visual resources, audiovisual

  6. Children with a History of SLI Show Reduced Sensitivity to Audiovisual Temporal Asynchrony: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaganovich, Natalya; Schumaker, Jennifer; Leonard, Laurence B.; Gustafson, Dana; Macias, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined whether school-age children with a history of specific language impairment (H-SLI), their peers with typical development (TD), and adults differ in sensitivity to audiovisual temporal asynchrony and whether such difference stems from the sensory encoding of audiovisual information. Method: Fifteen H-SLI children, 15…

  7. Changes of the Prefrontal EEG (Electroencephalogram) Activities According to the Repetition of Audio-Visual Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Jin; Chang, Nam-Kee

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the changes of neuronal response according to a four time repetition of audio-visual learning. Obtains EEG data from the prefrontal (Fp1, Fp2) lobe from 20 subjects at the 8th grade level. Concludes that the habituation of neuronal response shows up in repetitive audio-visual learning and brain hemisphericity can be changed by…

  8. Real time voice processing with audiovisual feedback: toward autonomous agents with perfect pitch

    E-print Network

    Isbell, Charles L.

    Real time voice processing with audiovisual feedback: toward autonomous agents with perfect pitch processing for voice-driven agents that attend to the pitch contours of human speech and provide continuous audiovisual feedback. The al- gorithm we use for pitch tracking has several distinguishing features: it makes

  9. 16 February 2005 Stream Semantics 1 Semantics of Data

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    1 16 February 2005 Stream Semantics 1 Semantics of Data Streams and Operators David Maier, Jin Li Stream Semantics 2 What do you say in an invited talk? Retrospective Tutorial All the stuff you've been, reconstruction functions, monotonicity, punctuation, disorder, windows #12;2 16 February 2005 Stream Semantics 3

  10. Hitzler Semantic Web Rostock Januar 2009 Semantic Web

    E-print Network

    Hitzler, Pascal

    Hitzler Semantic Web Rostock Januar 2009 AIFB Slide 1 Semantic Web PD Dr. Pascal Hitzler AIFB, University of Karlsruhe, Germany http://www.pascal-hitzler.de Rostock, Januar 2009 #12;Hitzler Semantic Web sind Europameister" #12;Hitzler Semantic Web Rostock Januar 2009 AIFB Slide 3 Lehrbuch · Hitzler

  11. Semantic data models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan Peckham; Fred J. Maryanski

    1988-01-01

    Semantic data models have emerged from a requirement for more expressive conceptual data models. Current generation data models lack direct support for relationships, data abstraction, inheritance, constraints, unstructured objects, and the dynamic properties of an application. Although the need for data models with richer semantics is widely recognized, no single approach has won general acceptance. This paper describes the generic

  12. Frame-Semantic Parsing

    E-print Network

    Das, Dipanjan

    Frame semantics is a linguistic theory that has been instantiated for English in the FrameNet lexicon. We solve the problem of frame-semantic parsing using a two-stage statistical model that takes lexical targets (i.e., ...

  13. A semantic concordance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George A. Miller; Claudia Leacock; Randee Tengi; Ross T. Bunker

    1993-01-01

    A semantic concordance is a textual corpus and a lexicon so combined that every substantive word in the text is linked to its appropriate sense in the lexicon. Thus it can be viewed either as a corpus in which words have been tagged syntactically and semantically, or as a lexicon in which example sentences can be found for many definitions.

  14. Aging and Semantic Activation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Darlene V.

    Three studies tested the theory that long term memory consists of a semantically organized network of concept nodes interconnected by leveled associations or relations, and that when a stimulus is processed, the corresponding concept node is assumed to be temporarily activated and this activation spreads to nearby semantically related nodes. In…

  15. The Semantic Learning Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicilia, Miguel-Angel; Lytras, Miltiadis D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is introducing the concept of a "semantic learning organization" (SLO) as an extension of the concept of "learning organization" in the technological domain. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes existing definitions and conceptualizations of both learning organizations and Semantic Web technology to develop…

  16. Communication: General Semantics Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Lee, Ed.

    This book contains the edited papers from the eleventh International Conference on General Semantics, titled "A Search for Relevance." The conference questioned, as a central theme, the relevance of general semantics in a world of wars and human misery. Reacting to a fundamental Korzybski-ian principle that man's view of reality is distorted by…

  17. Logical Foundations Semantic Web

    E-print Network

    Sattler, Ulrike

    Logical Foundations for the Semantic Web Ian Horrocks and Ulrike Sattler University of Manchester Manchester, UK {horrocks|sattler}@cs.man.ac.uk #12;Introduction #12;History of the Semantic Web · Web of the Web was much more ambitious than the reality of the existing (syntactic) Web: · TBL (and others) have

  18. Semantic Web Pascal Hitzler

    E-print Network

    Hitzler, Pascal

    Chapter 1 Semantic Web Pascal Hitzler Kno.e.sis Center, Wright State University, Dayton, OH, USA 1.1.1 Languages for Representing Knowledge on the Web ............................. 2 1.1.2 Formal the Semantic Web Vision ................................ 4 1.1.4 Linked Data

  19. Semantic Technologies andSemantic Technologies andSemantic Technologies andSemantic Technologies and eeee----businessbusinessbusinessbusiness

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Semantic Technologies andSemantic Technologies andSemantic Technologies andSemantic Technologies and eeee----businessbusinessbusinessbusiness Ivan Bedini Orange Labs France Georges Gardarin University of Versailles France Benjamin Nguyen University of Versailles France ABSTRACT In this chapter, we study what

  20. Static and dynamic semantics processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Consel; Olivier Danvy

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a step forward in the use of partial evaluationfor interpreting and compiling programs, as well asfor automatically generating a compiler from denotationaldefinitions of programming languages.We determine the static and dynamic semantics of a programminglanguage, reduce the expressions representing thestatic semantics, and generate object code by instantiatingthe expressions representing the dynamic semantics. By processingthe static semantics of the

  1. A Defense of Semantic Minimalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Su

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Minimalism is a position about the semantic content of declarative sentences, i.e., the content that is determined entirely by syntax. It is defined by the following two points: "Point 1": The semantic content is a complete/truth-conditional proposition. "Point 2": The semantic content is useful to a theory of…

  2. Person-Environment Fit: Is Satisfaction Predicted by Congruency, Environment, or Personality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Philip H.; Handal, Paul J.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship between the congruency of person and environment, and satisfaction with college in 150 students who completed the College and Unviersity Environment Scale, Personality Research Form, and College Student Satisfaction Questionniare. Results showed environment had a stronger relationship than person-environment congruency.…

  3. The Role of Mood Congruency Memory Effects in Dream Recall: A Pilot Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Schredl; Manuela E. Hebel; Rosemarie C. Klütsch; Lena J. Liehe

    2009-01-01

    A methodological issue in research relating daytime mood to dream content is the question of whether mood congruency effects—that is, recalling more negative events if the current mood is more negative—also play a role in the dream recall process. This study adopted an indirect approach by testing the hypothesis that interindividual differences in mood congruency effects in a memory task

  4. Quantifying the Level of Congruence between Two Career Measures: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mark J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the level of congruency between scores on the Self-Directed Search--Form R (J. L. Holland, 1994) and scores from an online instrument, both of which measure Holland types (J. L. Holland, 1985, 1997). A reasonably high level of congruence was found. Implications for career counselors are briefly delineated.

  5. Effects of Interest-Major Congruence, Motivation, and Academic Performance on Timely Degree Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Using longitudinal student data from 15 four-year (n = 3,072) and 13 (n = 788) two-year postsecondary institutions, the authors tested the effects of interest-major congruence, motivation, and 1st-year academic performance on timely degree completion. Findings suggest that interest-major congruence has a direct effect on timely degree completion…

  6. Congruency sequence effect in cross-task context: evidence for dimension-specific modulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaeyong; Cho, Yang Seok

    2013-11-01

    The congruency sequence effect refers to a reduced congruency effect after incongruent trials relative to congruent trials. This modulation is thought to be, at least in part, due to the control mechanisms resolving conflict. The present study examined the nature of the control mechanisms by having participants perform two different tasks in an alternating way. When participants performed horizontal and vertical Simon tasks in Experiment 1A, and horizontal and vertical spatial Stroop task in Experiment 1B, no congruency sequence effect was obtained between the task congruencies. When the Simon task and spatial Stroop task were performed with different response sets in Experiment 2, no congruency sequence effect was obtained. However, in Experiment 3, in which the participants performed the horizontal Simon and spatial Stroop tasks with an identical response set, a significant congruency sequence effect was obtained between the task congruencies. In Experiment 4, no congruency sequence effect was obtained when participants performed two tasks having different task-irrelevant dimensions with the identical response set. The findings suggest inhibitory processing between the task-irrelevant dimension and response mode after conflict. PMID:24184348

  7. Training of Manual Actions Improves Language Understanding of Semantically Related Action Sentences

    PubMed Central

    Locatelli, Matteo; Gatti, Roberto; Tettamanti, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual knowledge accessed by language may involve the reactivation of the associated primary sensory-motor processes. Whether these embodied representations are indeed constitutive to conceptual knowledge is hotly debated, particularly since direct evidence that sensory-motor expertise can improve conceptual processing is scarce. In this study, we sought for this crucial piece of evidence, by training naive healthy subjects to perform complex manual actions and by measuring, before and after training, their performance in a semantic language task. Nineteen participants engaged in 3?weeks of motor training. Each participant was trained in three complex manual actions (e.g., origami). Before and after the training period, each subject underwent a series of manual dexterity tests and a semantic language task. The latter consisted of a sentence-picture semantic congruency judgment task, with 6 target congruent sentence-picture pairs (semantically related to the trained manual actions), 6 non-target congruent pairs (semantically unrelated), and 12 filler incongruent pairs. Manual action training induced a significant improvement in all manual dexterity tests, demonstrating the successful acquisition of sensory-motor expertise. In the semantic language task, the reaction times (RTs) to both target and non-target congruent sentence-picture pairs decreased after action training, indicating a more efficient conceptual-semantic processing. Noteworthy, the RTs for target pairs decreased more than those for non-target pairs, as indicated by the 2?×?2 interaction. These results were confirmed when controlling for the potential bias of increased frequency of use of target lexical items during manual training. The results of the present study suggest that sensory-motor expertise gained by training of specific manual actions can lead to an improvement of cognitive-linguistic skills related to the specific conceptual-semantic domain associated to the trained actions. PMID:23233846

  8. Audio-Visual Temporal Recalibration Can be Constrained by Content Cues Regardless of Spatial Overlap.

    PubMed

    Roseboom, Warrick; Kawabe, Takahiro; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2013-01-01

    It has now been well established that the point of subjective synchrony for audio and visual events can be shifted following exposure to asynchronous audio-visual presentations, an effect often referred to as temporal recalibration. Recently it was further demonstrated that it is possible to concurrently maintain two such recalibrated estimates of audio-visual temporal synchrony. However, it remains unclear precisely what defines a given audio-visual pair such that it is possible to maintain a temporal relationship distinct from other pairs. It has been suggested that spatial separation of the different audio-visual pairs is necessary to achieve multiple distinct audio-visual synchrony estimates. Here we investigated if this is necessarily true. Specifically, we examined whether it is possible to obtain two distinct temporal recalibrations for stimuli that differed only in featural content. Using both complex (audio visual speech; see Experiment 1) and simple stimuli (high and low pitch audio matched with either vertically or horizontally oriented Gabors; see Experiment 2) we found concurrent, and opposite, recalibrations despite there being no spatial difference in presentation location at any point throughout the experiment. This result supports the notion that the content of an audio-visual pair alone can be used to constrain distinct audio-visual synchrony estimates regardless of spatial overlap. PMID:23658549

  9. Temporal Processing of Audiovisual Stimuli Is Enhanced in Musicians: Evidence from Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yao; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Herholz, Sibylle C.; Kuchenbuch, Anja; Pantev, Christo

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that the structural and functional differences between professional musicians and non-musicians are not only found within a single modality, but also with regard to multisensory integration. In this study we have combined psychophysical with neurophysiological measurements investigating the processing of non-musical, synchronous or various levels of asynchronous audiovisual events. We hypothesize that long-term multisensory experience alters temporal audiovisual processing already at a non-musical stage. Behaviorally, musicians scored significantly better than non-musicians in judging whether the auditory and visual stimuli were synchronous or asynchronous. At the neural level, the statistical analysis for the audiovisual asynchronous response revealed three clusters of activations including the ACC and the SFG and two bilaterally located activations in IFG and STG in both groups. Musicians, in comparison to the non-musicians, responded to synchronous audiovisual events with enhanced neuronal activity in a broad left posterior temporal region that covers the STG, the insula and the Postcentral Gyrus. Musicians also showed significantly greater activation in the left Cerebellum, when confronted with an audiovisual asynchrony. Taken together, our MEG results form a strong indication that long-term musical training alters the basic audiovisual temporal processing already in an early stage (direct after the auditory N1 wave), while the psychophysical results indicate that musical training may also provide behavioral benefits in the accuracy of the estimates regarding the timing of audiovisual events. PMID:24595014

  10. Video genre categorization and representation using audio-visual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, Bogdan; Seyerlehner, Klaus; Rasche, Christoph; Vertan, Constantin; Lambert, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    We propose an audio-visual approach to video genre classification using content descriptors that exploit audio, color, temporal, and contour information. Audio information is extracted at block-level, which has the advantage of capturing local temporal information. At the temporal structure level, we consider action content in relation to human perception. Color perception is quantified using statistics of color distribution, elementary hues, color properties, and relationships between colors. Further, we compute statistics of contour geometry and relationships. The main contribution of our work lies in harnessing the descriptive power of the combination of these descriptors in genre classification. Validation was carried out on over 91 h of video footage encompassing 7 common video genres, yielding average precision and recall ratios of 87% to 100% and 77% to 100%, respectively, and an overall average correct classification of up to 97%. Also, experimental comparison as part of the MediaEval 2011 benchmarking campaign demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed audio-visual descriptors over other existing approaches. Finally, we discuss a 3-D video browsing platform that displays movies using feature-based coordinates and thus regroups them according to genre.

  11. Talker variability in audio-visual speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Heald, Shannon L. M.; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2014-01-01

    A change in talker is a change in the context for the phonetic interpretation of acoustic patterns of speech. Different talkers have different mappings between acoustic patterns and phonetic categories and listeners need to adapt to these differences. Despite this complexity, listeners are adept at comprehending speech in multiple-talker contexts, albeit at a slight but measurable performance cost (e.g., slower recognition). So far, this talker variability cost has been demonstrated only in audio-only speech. Other research in single-talker contexts have shown, however, that when listeners are able to see a talker’s face, speech recognition is improved under adverse listening (e.g., noise or distortion) conditions that can increase uncertainty in the mapping between acoustic patterns and phonetic categories. Does seeing a talker’s face reduce the cost of word recognition in multiple-talker contexts? We used a speeded word-monitoring task in which listeners make quick judgments about target word recognition in single- and multiple-talker contexts. Results show faster recognition performance in single-talker conditions compared to multiple-talker conditions for both audio-only and audio-visual speech. However, recognition time in a multiple-talker context was slower in the audio-visual condition compared to audio-only condition. These results suggest that seeing a talker’s face during speech perception may slow recognition by increasing the importance of talker identification, signaling to the listener a change in talker has occurred. PMID:25076919

  12. Audiovisual speech from emotionally expressive and lateralized faces.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Michael S; Hibberts, Mary

    2011-04-01

    Emotional expression and how it is lateralized across the two sides of the face may influence how we detect audiovisual speech. To investigate how these components interact we conducted experiments comparing the perception of sentences expressed with happy, sad, and neutral emotions. In addition we isolated the facial asymmetries for affective and speech processing by independently testing the two sides of a talker's face. These asymmetrical differences were exaggerated using dynamic facial chimeras in which left- or right-face halves were paired with their mirror image during speech production. Results suggest that there are facial asymmetries in audiovisual speech such that the right side of the face and right-facial chimeras supported better speech perception than their left-face counterparts. Affective information was also found to be critical in that happy expressions tended to improve speech performance on both sides of the face relative to all other emotions, whereas sad emotions generally inhibited visual speech information, particularly from the left side of the face. The results suggest that approach information may facilitate visual and auditory speech detection. PMID:20945268

  13. Multilevel analysis of couple congruence on pain, interference, and disability

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Annmarie; Johansen, Ayna B.; Franz, Aleda

    2009-01-01

    Couple congruence on ratings of pain severity and disability were examined using hierarchical linear modeling. Older community Individuals with Chronic Pain (ICPs) and their spouses completed the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (pain severity, interference, negative spouse responses to pain), Sickness Impact Profile (physical disability, psychosocial disability), and the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (psychological distress). Both spouses reported on ICPs' pain and disability as well as their own psychological distress. Spousal incongruence was observed on interference and physical disability such that ICPs reported greater disability than their spouses reported for them. No significant incongruence was observed in pain severity or psychosocial disability. Predictors of couples' mean ratings of pain and disability were identified. Specifically, couples in which the ICP was female reported higher couples' ratings of pain severity and interference. ICP distress was related to higher couples' ratings of all pain and disability variables whereas spouse distress was related to higher psychosocial disability ratings. ICPs' perceptions of negative spouse responses were also positively associated with couples' ratings of physical and psychosocial disability. In terms of congruence, ICP distress was associated with incongruence on interference, physical disability, and psychosocial disability whereas spouse distress predicted incongruence on pain severity, and interference. This study suggests that understanding couples' pain outcome ratings involves an awareness of factors that might influence their perceptions and behaviors. PMID:16289795

  14. The heterogeneous world of congruency sequence effects: an update.

    PubMed

    Duthoo, Wout; Abrahamse, Elger L; Braem, Senne; Boehler, Carsten N; Notebaert, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Congruency sequence effects (CSEs) refer to the observation that congruency effects in conflict tasks are typically smaller following incongruent compared to following congruent trials. This measure has long been thought to provide a unique window into top-down attentional adjustments and their underlying brain mechanisms. According to the renowned conflict monitoring theory, CSEs reflect enhanced selective attention following conflict detection. Still, alternative accounts suggested that bottom-up associative learning suffices to explain the pattern of reaction times and error rates. A couple of years ago, a review by Egner (2007) pitted these two rivalry accounts against each other, concluding that both conflict adaptation and feature integration contribute to the CSE. Since then, a wealth of studies has further debated this issue, and two additional accounts have been proposed, offering intriguing alternative explanations. Contingency learning accounts put forward that predictive relationships between stimuli and responses drive the CSE, whereas the repetition expectancy hypothesis suggests that top-down, expectancy-driven control adjustments affect the CSE. In the present paper, we build further on the previous review (Egner, 2007) by summarizing and integrating recent behavioral and neurophysiological studies on the CSE. In doing so, we evaluate the relative contribution and theoretical value of the different attentional and memory-based accounts. Moreover, we review how all of these influences can be experimentally isolated, and discuss designs and procedures that can critically judge between them. PMID:25250005

  15. The heterogeneous world of congruency sequence effects: an update

    PubMed Central

    Duthoo, Wout; Abrahamse, Elger L.; Braem, Senne; Boehler, Carsten N.; Notebaert, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Congruency sequence effects (CSEs) refer to the observation that congruency effects in conflict tasks are typically smaller following incongruent compared to following congruent trials. This measure has long been thought to provide a unique window into top-down attentional adjustments and their underlying brain mechanisms. According to the renowned conflict monitoring theory, CSEs reflect enhanced selective attention following conflict detection. Still, alternative accounts suggested that bottom-up associative learning suffices to explain the pattern of reaction times and error rates. A couple of years ago, a review by Egner (2007) pitted these two rivalry accounts against each other, concluding that both conflict adaptation and feature integration contribute to the CSE. Since then, a wealth of studies has further debated this issue, and two additional accounts have been proposed, offering intriguing alternative explanations. Contingency learning accounts put forward that predictive relationships between stimuli and responses drive the CSE, whereas the repetition expectancy hypothesis suggests that top-down, expectancy-driven control adjustments affect the CSE. In the present paper, we build further on the previous review (Egner, 2007) by summarizing and integrating recent behavioral and neurophysiological studies on the CSE. In doing so, we evaluate the relative contribution and theoretical value of the different attentional and memory-based accounts. Moreover, we review how all of these influences can be experimentally isolated, and discuss designs and procedures that can critically judge between them. PMID:25250005

  16. Investigation of Phase Congruency for SSA Data Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, D.; Sydney, P.; Flewelling, B.

    2014-09-01

    The space situational awareness (SSA) data reduction pipeline is well established and formulated from our innate understanding of CCDs, optical distortion, and viewing conditions. Proper photometric calibration includes dark frame collection as well as the time-consuming task of on-sky flats which can vary with sky brightness and availability. Proper astrometric calibration includes synchronization of all timing sources, proper mount modeling, and jitter reduction. Once calibrated, further data analysis can include streak reduction, PSF fitting, and star separation with such goals as aperture photometry or dim object characterization. The ideal SSA feature detection algorithm would separate statistically-distinct spatial regions of an image into background, objects, and stars without need for darks/flats. Computer vision feature detection techniques may offer this one-stop-shop approach to data reduction and analysis using just the raw frames. One such technique uses phase congruency: a measure of the strength of how well the Fourier components of an image are in-phase which correlates with features such as edges. We examine a phase congruency approach based upon contrast invariant multi-scale image decomposition using simulated and nighttime Raven data.

  17. “Pre-semantic” cognition revisited: Critical differences between semantic aphasia and semantic dementia

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal “pre-semantic” tasks: e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are atypical of the domain and “regularisation errors” (irregular/atypical items are produced as if they were domain-typical). The emergence of this pattern across diverse tasks in the same patients indicates that semantic memory plays a key role in all of these types of “pre-semantic” processing. However, this claim remains controversial because semantically-impaired patients sometimes fail to show an influence of regularity. This study demonstrates that (a) the location of brain damage and (b) the underlying nature of the semantic deficit affect the likelihood of observing the expected relationship between poor comprehension and regularity effects. We compared the effect of multimodal semantic impairment in the context of semantic dementia and stroke aphasia on the seven “pre-semantic” tasks listed above. In all of these tasks, the semantic aphasia patients were less sensitive to typicality than the semantic dementia patients, even though the two groups obtained comparable scores on semantic tests. The semantic aphasia group also made fewer regularisation errors and many more unrelated and perseverative responses. We propose that these group differences reflect the different locus for the semantic impairment in the two conditions: patients with semantic dementia have degraded semantic representations, whereas semantic aphasia patients show deregulated semantic cognition with concomitant executive deficits. These findings suggest a reinterpretation of single case studies of comprehension-impaired aphasic patients who fail to show the expected effect of regularity on “pre-semantic” tasks. Consequently, such cases do not demonstrate the independence of these tasks from semantic memory. PMID:19766662

  18. Semantics of Temporal Indexicals 

    E-print Network

    Oberlander, Jon Reid

    1987-01-01

    The thesis investigates the formal semantics of temporal indexical expressions in English. Examples of such expressions include now, tomorrow and last year. In the past, research has concentrated on instances of such ...

  19. Foundations of Actor Semantics

    E-print Network

    Clinger, William Douglas

    1981-05-01

    The actor message-passing model of concurrent computation has inspired new ideas in the areas of knowledge-based systems, programming languages and their semantics, and computer systems architecture. The model itself ...

  20. Semantics of Persian Auxiliaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimian, Jalal

    1999-01-01

    Examines the semantics of Persian modal auxiliaries, considering them in the light of comparable verbs in English. A discussion of dimension of modality in English is provided for clarification. (Author/VWL)

  1. Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Hofmann

    1999-01-01

    Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis is a novel statistical technique for the analysis of two--mode and co-occurrence data, which has applications in information retrieval and filtering, natural language processing, machine learning from text, and in related areas. Compared to standard Latent Semantic Analysis which stems from linear algebra and performs a Singular Value Decomposition of co-occurrence tables, the proposed method is

  2. Bilingual Semantic Network Construction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianyong Duan; Yi Hu; Ruzhan Lu; Yan Tian; Hui Liu

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a This article proposes a neural network for building Chinese and English semantic resources connection. Abundant monolingual\\u000a semantic information is stored into its bipartite graph structure respectively. Two hidden layers are also set in every part,\\u000a word layer and concept layer. Every word associates with different concepts separately; every concept includes different vocabularies;\\u000a and these two layers also independently connect to

  3. Semantic Object Segmentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaogang Wang

    \\u000a Semantic object segmentation is to label each pixel in an image or a video sequence to one of the object classes with semantic\\u000a meanings. It has drawn a lot of research interest because of its wide applications to image and video search, editing and\\u000a compression. It is a very challenging problem because a large number of object classes need to

  4. Going, going, gone? Proactive control prevents the congruency sequence effect from rapid decay.

    PubMed

    Duthoo, W; Abrahamse, E L; Braem, S; Notebaert, W

    2014-07-01

    The congruency sequence effect, the finding of a reduced congruency effect following incongruent trials in conflict tasks, has received considerable attention in the research on cognitive control over the last two decades. This effect can reflect either the expectancy-guided, preparatory biasing of attention in anticipation of the upcoming stimulus (i.e. proactive control), or the phasic enhancement of the attentional set in response to conflict on the previous trial (i.e. reactive control). A recent study by Egner et al. in Front Psychol 1 (2010) set out to contrast these two alternatives, by exploring the congruency sequence effect across a wide range of inter-trial intervals. It was found that congruency sequence effects were subject to rapid decay over time. This decay fits well with the notion of reactive control, while at the same time speaking against the involvement of proactive regulation—which should also (and even mainly) be evident at longer intervals. In the present study, we first replicate the reduction of the congruency sequence effect with increasing inter-trial interval in a face-word Stroop task. In a second experiment, we show that congruency sequence effects are observed at longer intervals, too, when the proportion of trials with the longest inter-trial interval is increased. Our findings indicate that proactive control can prevent the congruency sequence effect from decaying rapidly. PMID:24077774

  5. Python programming --Semantic Web Finn Arup Nielsen

    E-print Network

    Python programming -- Semantic Web Finn °Arup Nielsen DTU Compute Technical University of Denmark October 9, 2013 #12;Python programming -- Semantic Web What is Semantic Web? Semantic Web = Triple data 9, 2013 #12;Python programming -- Semantic Web Why the Semantic Web? IBM's Watson supercomputer

  6. Robust audio-visual person verification using Web-camera video

    E-print Network

    Schultz, Daniel (Daniel T.)

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines the challenge of robust audio-visual person verification using data recorded in multiple environments with various lighting conditions, irregular visual backgrounds, and diverse background noise. ...

  7. 36 CFR 1237.26 - What materials and processes must agencies use to create audiovisual records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... true What materials and processes must agencies use to create...RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.26 What materials and processes must agencies use to...

  8. 36 CFR 1237.26 - What materials and processes must agencies use to create audiovisual records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false What materials and processes must agencies use to create...RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.26 What materials and processes must agencies use to...

  9. 36 CFR 1237.26 - What materials and processes must agencies use to create audiovisual records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false What materials and processes must agencies use to create...RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.26 What materials and processes must agencies use to...

  10. 36 CFR 1237.26 - What materials and processes must agencies use to create audiovisual records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false What materials and processes must agencies use to create...RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.26 What materials and processes must agencies use to...

  11. 36 CFR 1237.26 - What materials and processes must agencies use to create audiovisual records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false What materials and processes must agencies use to create...RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.26 What materials and processes must agencies use to...

  12. The development of sensorimotor influences in the audiovisual speech domain: some critical questions

    PubMed Central

    Guellaï, Bahia; Streri, Arlette; Yeung, H. Henny

    2014-01-01

    Speech researchers have long been interested in how auditory and visual speech signals are integrated, and the recent work has revived interest in the role of speech production with respect to this process. Here, we discuss these issues from a developmental perspective. Because speech perception abilities typically outstrip speech production abilities in infancy and childhood, it is unclear how speech-like movements could influence audiovisual speech perception in development. While work on this question is still in its preliminary stages, there is nevertheless increasing evidence that sensorimotor processes (defined here as any motor or proprioceptive process related to orofacial movements) affect developmental audiovisual speech processing. We suggest three areas on which to focus in future research: (i) the relation between audiovisual speech perception and sensorimotor processes at birth, (ii) the pathways through which sensorimotor processes interact with audiovisual speech processing in infancy, and (iii) developmental change in sensorimotor pathways as speech production emerges in childhood. PMID:25147528

  13. Effects of audio-visual stimulation on the incidence of restraint ulcers on the Wistar rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. S.; Martin, F.; Lambert, R.

    1979-01-01

    The role of sensory simulation in restrained rats was investigated. Both mixed audio-visual and pure sound stimuli, ineffective in themselves, were found to cause a significant increase in the incidence of restraint ulcers in the Wistar Rat.

  14. Neuron, Vol. 28, 617625, November, 2000, Copyright 2000 by Cell Press Audiovisual Integration of Letters

    E-print Network

    Coulson, Seana

    Neuron, Vol. 28, 617­625, November, 2000, Copyright ©2000 by Cell Press Audiovisual Integration 60­120 ms after stimulus onset. As expected, the largely unknown. Typically, neurons in the primary s

  15. Audiovisual Temporal Integration for Complex Speech, Object-Action, Animal Call, and Musical Stimuli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Argiro Vatakis; Charles Spence

    \\u000a Understanding the mechanisms underlying the human perception of synchrony for simple and complex audiovisual stimuli represents\\u000a an important, but as yet unresolved, issue in the field of cognitive science. Many questions regarding the processes involved\\u000a in the temporal integration of auditory and visual stimuli that give rise to a synchronous audiovisual experience of everyday\\u000a events are still open for research.

  16. Artimate: an articulatory animation framework for audiovisual speech synthesis

    E-print Network

    Steiner, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    We present a modular framework for articulatory animation synthesis using speech motion capture data obtained with electromagnetic articulography (EMA). Adapting a skeletal animation approach, the articulatory motion data is applied to a three-dimensional (3D) model of the vocal tract, creating a portable resource that can be integrated in an audiovisual (AV) speech synthesis platform to provide realistic animation of the tongue and teeth for a virtual character. The framework also provides an interface to articulatory animation synthesis, as well as an example application to illustrate its use with a 3D game engine. We rely on cross-platform, open-source software and open standards to provide a lightweight, accessible, and portable workflow.

  17. Audiovisual emotional processing and neurocognitive functioning in patients with depression

    PubMed Central

    Doose-Grünefeld, Sophie; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Müller, Veronika I.

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the processing of emotional stimuli (e.g., facial expressions, prosody, music) have repeatedly been reported in patients with major depression. Such impairments may result from the likewise prevalent executive deficits in these patients. However, studies investigating this relationship are rare. Moreover, most studies to date have only assessed impairments in unimodal emotional processing, whereas in real life, emotions are primarily conveyed through more than just one sensory channel. The current study therefore aimed at investigating multi-modal emotional processing in patients with depression and to assess the relationship between emotional and neurocognitive impairments. Fourty one patients suffering from major depression and 41 never-depressed healthy controls participated in an audiovisual (faces-sounds) emotional integration paradigm as well as a neurocognitive test battery. Our results showed that depressed patients were specifically impaired in the processing of positive auditory stimuli as they rated faces significantly more fearful when presented with happy than with neutral sounds. Such an effect was absent in controls. Findings in emotional processing in patients did not correlate with Beck’s depression inventory score. Furthermore, neurocognitive findings revealed significant group differences for two of the tests. The effects found in audiovisual emotional processing, however, did not correlate with performance in the neurocognitive tests. In summary, our results underline the diversity of impairments going along with depression and indicate that deficits found for unimodal emotional processing cannot trivially be generalized to deficits in a multi-modal setting. The mechanisms of impairments therefore might be far more complex than previously thought. Our findings furthermore contradict the assumption that emotional processing deficits in major depression are associated with impaired attention or inhibitory functioning. PMID:25688188

  18. Putative mechanisms mediating tolerance for audiovisual stimulus onset asynchrony.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Jyoti; Miller, Lee M; Pitt, Mark A; Shahin, Antoine J

    2015-03-01

    Audiovisual (AV) speech perception is robust to temporal asynchronies between visual and auditory stimuli. We investigated the neural mechanisms that facilitate tolerance for audiovisual stimulus onset asynchrony (AVOA) with EEG. Individuals were presented with AV words that were asynchronous in onsets of voice and mouth movement and judged whether they were synchronous or not. Behaviorally, individuals tolerated (perceived as synchronous) longer AVOAs when mouth movement preceded the speech (V-A) stimuli than when the speech preceded mouth movement (A-V). Neurophysiologically, the P1-N1-P2 auditory evoked potentials (AEPs), time-locked to sound onsets and known to arise in and surrounding the primary auditory cortex (PAC), were smaller for the in-sync than the out-of-sync percepts. Spectral power of oscillatory activity in the beta band (14-30 Hz) following the AEPs was larger during the in-sync than out-of-sync perception for both A-V and V-A conditions. However, alpha power (8-14 Hz), also following AEPs, was larger for the in-sync than out-of-sync percepts only in the V-A condition. These results demonstrate that AVOA tolerance is enhanced by inhibiting low-level auditory activity (e.g., AEPs representing generators in and surrounding PAC) that code for acoustic onsets. By reducing sensitivity to acoustic onsets, visual-to-auditory onset mapping is weakened, allowing for greater AVOA tolerance. In contrast, beta and alpha results suggest the involvement of higher-level neural processes that may code for language cues (phonetic, lexical), selective attention, and binding of AV percepts, allowing for wider neural windows of temporal integration, i.e., greater AVOA tolerance. PMID:25505102

  19. Audiovisual emotional processing and neurocognitive functioning in patients with depression.

    PubMed

    Doose-Grünefeld, Sophie; Eickhoff, Simon B; Müller, Veronika I

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the processing of emotional stimuli (e.g., facial expressions, prosody, music) have repeatedly been reported in patients with major depression. Such impairments may result from the likewise prevalent executive deficits in these patients. However, studies investigating this relationship are rare. Moreover, most studies to date have only assessed impairments in unimodal emotional processing, whereas in real life, emotions are primarily conveyed through more than just one sensory channel. The current study therefore aimed at investigating multi-modal emotional processing in patients with depression and to assess the relationship between emotional and neurocognitive impairments. Fourty one patients suffering from major depression and 41 never-depressed healthy controls participated in an audiovisual (faces-sounds) emotional integration paradigm as well as a neurocognitive test battery. Our results showed that depressed patients were specifically impaired in the processing of positive auditory stimuli as they rated faces significantly more fearful when presented with happy than with neutral sounds. Such an effect was absent in controls. Findings in emotional processing in patients did not correlate with Beck's depression inventory score. Furthermore, neurocognitive findings revealed significant group differences for two of the tests. The effects found in audiovisual emotional processing, however, did not correlate with performance in the neurocognitive tests. In summary, our results underline the diversity of impairments going along with depression and indicate that deficits found for unimodal emotional processing cannot trivially be generalized to deficits in a multi-modal setting. The mechanisms of impairments therefore might be far more complex than previously thought. Our findings furthermore contradict the assumption that emotional processing deficits in major depression are associated with impaired attention or inhibitory functioning. PMID:25688188

  20. Impact of emotional context congruency on decision making under ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Aïte, Ania; Borst, Grégoire; Moutier, Sylvain; Varescon, Isabelle; Brown, Ingi; Houdé, Olivier; Cassotti, Mathieu

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we tested the somatic marker hypothesis (SMH) by using an adaptation of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in which the emotional context associated with primary inducers was systematically manipulated. In this modified version of the IGT, a picture of either a happy face or a fearful face was presented after each feedback. Critically, the expression of the face was either congruent or incongruent with the feedback delivered. Analyses of participants' choices revealed that the congruency of the emotional context with the feedback affects performance on the IGT: The ability to choose advantageously increases when the emotional context is congruent with feedback (i.e., happy faces after rewards and fearful ones after punishments), whereas this ability is impaired with an incongruent emotional context (i.e., fearful faces after rewards and happy faces after punishments). These findings provide evidence that decision making under ambiguity is driven by emotion-related signals, as postulated by the SMH. PMID:23398587

  1. Spousal congruence on disability, pain, and spouse responses to pain

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Annmarie; Johansen, Ayna B.; Geisser, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We examined congruence between chronic pain patients and their spouses on their reports of patient pain severity, patient disability, and spouse responses to pain. Patients reported that they were more physically and psychosocially disabled than their spouses reported them to be. However, spouses reported that the patients’ pain was more severe than patients reported. Depressive disorders in the patient and gender interacted with patient–spouse ratings. For physical and psychosocial disability, depressed patient couples reported significantly larger differences in disability ratings than non-depressed patient couples. In addition, female patients’ disability was rated as more severe by the female patients than by their husbands. Male patient couples did not report differences on physical disability. Findings relating to other forms of disability and to spouse responses are also described. The results are discussed in the context of an interpersonal perspective of chronic pain and have implications for the assessment of pain and disability. PMID:15157686

  2. Quantum logic unites compositional functional semantics and distributional semantic models

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Quantum logic unites compositional functional semantics and distributional semantic models Anne but to sentences, paragraphs etc. They are ruled by laws of logic inherent to language. Natural language conveys in by the familiar logical models, the intensional aspect by distributional semantic models, DSM's. We propose

  3. A Frame-Semantic Approach to Semantic Annotation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Lowe; Garnet. be

    Abstract The number and arrangement of semantic tags must be constrained, lest the size and complexity,of the tagging sets (tagsets) used for semantic annotation become unwieldy,both,for humans,and,computers. The description of lexical predicates within the framework,of frame semantics,provides a natural method,for selecting and structuring appropriate,tagsets. 1,Motivation

  4. Semantic Web Services Christoph Bussler

    E-print Network

    Polz, Martin

    Semantic Web Services Christoph Bussler Oracle Corporation The 12th International World Wide Web Conference Budapest, Hungary, May 23rd, 2003 #12;Semantic (Web Services) Christoph Bussler Oracle Corporation

  5. Contextually-Dependent Lexical Semantics 

    E-print Network

    Verspoor, Cornelia M

    This thesis is an investigation of phenomena at the interface between syntax, semantics, and pragmatics, with the aim of arguing for a view of semantic interpretation as lexically driven yet contextually dependent. I ...

  6. Towards a Mathematical Operational Semantics 

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Gordon; Turi, Daniele

    2003-11-05

    We present a categorical theory of ‘well-behaved’ operational semantics which aims at complementing the established theory of domains and denotational semantics to form a coherent whole. It is shown that, if the operational ...

  7. Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lernout & Hauspie Speech Products.

    The first working draft of the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition is now available. The document "defines the process of Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition and the syntax and semantics of semantic interpretation tags that can be added to speech recognition grammars." The document is a draft, open for suggestions from W3C members and other interested users.

  8. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  9. The Semantic SPASE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, S.; Crichton, D.; Thieman, J.; Ramirez, P.; King, T.; Weiss, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Semantic SPASE (Space Physics Archive Search and Extract) prototype demonstrates the use of semantic web technologies to capture, document, and manage the SPASE data model, support facet- and text-based search, and provide flexible and intuitive user interfaces. The SPASE data model, under development since late 2003 by a consortium of space physics domain experts, is intended to serve as the basis for interoperability between independent data systems. To develop the Semantic SPASE prototype, the data model was first analyzed to determine the inherit object classes and their attributes. These were entered into Stanford Medical Informatics' Protege ontology tool and annotated using definitions from the SPASE documentation. Further analysis of the data model resulted in the addition of class relationships. Finally attributes and relationships that support broad-scope interoperability were added from research associated with the Object-Oriented Data Technology task. To validate the ontology and produce a knowledge base, example data products were ingested. The capture of the data model as an ontology results in a more formal specification of the model. The Protege software is also a powerful management tool and supports plug-ins that produce several graphical notations as output. The stated purpose of the semantic web is to support machine understanding of web-based information. Protege provides an export capability to RDF/XML and RDFS/XML for this purpose. Several research efforts use RDF/XML knowledge bases to provide semantic search. MIT's Simile/Longwell project provides both facet- and text-based search using a suite of metadata browsers and the text-based search engine Lucene. Using the Protege generated RDF knowledge-base a semantic search application was easily built and deployed to run as a web application. Configuration files specify the object attributes and values to be designated as facets (i.e. search) constraints. Semantic web technologies provide the means to easily implement semantic search for science data archives using space science data models and metadata. It also suggests the means to support correlative search across science disciplines, missions, and instruments since multiple ontologies can be gathered together for processing . Finally broad scope interoperability can be envisioned where semantically aware software agents reason about and process distributed science data repositories.

  10. AN EASY TEST FOR CONGRUENCE MODULARITY TOPAZ DENT, KEITH A. KEARNES, AND AGNES SZENDREI

    E-print Network

    Kearnes, Keith A.

    AN EASY TEST FOR CONGRUENCE MODULARITY TOPAZ DENT, KEITH A. KEARNES, AND ´AGNES SZENDREI Abstract) grant no. K77409. 1 #12;2 TOPAZ DENT, KEITH A. KEARNES, AND ´AGNES SZENDREI is independent of its first

  11. AN EASY TEST FOR CONGRUENCE MODULARITY TOPAZ DENT, KEITH A. KEARNES, AND AGNES SZENDREI

    E-print Network

    Kearnes, Keith A.

    AN EASY TEST FOR CONGRUENCE MODULARITY TOPAZ DENT, KEITH A. KEARNES, AND ´AGNES SZENDREI Abstract National Foundation for Scientific Research (OTKA) grant no. K77409. 1 #12;2 TOPAZ DENT, KEITH A. KEARNES

  12. Leader-follower value congruence in social responsibility and ethical satisfaction: a polynomial regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seung-Wan; Byun, Gukdo; Park, Hun-Joon

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents empirical research into the relationship between leader-follower value congruence in social responsibility and the level of ethical satisfaction for employees in the workplace. 163 dyads were analyzed, each consisting of a team leader and an employee working at a large manufacturing company in South Korea. Following current methodological recommendations for congruence research, polynomial regression and response surface modeling methodologies were used to determine the effects of value congruence. Results indicate that leader-follower value congruence in social responsibility was positively related to the ethical satisfaction of employees. Furthermore, employees' ethical satisfaction was stronger when aligned with a leader with high social responsibility. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:25539173

  13. Striking a Balance: The Role of Value Congruence in Shaping Employee Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intentions

    E-print Network

    Stazyk, Edmund C.

    2009-06-22

    be influenced by employee fit. Consequently, this study builds upon earlier theory to examine a broader range of factors that may shape employee value congruence, including public service motivation, employee reward satisfaction, human capital investments...

  14. Contextual correlates of semantic similarity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George A. Miller; Walter G. Charles

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between semantic and contextual similarity is investigated for pairs of nouns that vary from high to low semantic similarity. Semantic similarity is estimated by subjective ratings; contextual similarity is estimated by the method of sorting sentential contexts. The results show an inverse linear relationship between similarity of meaning and the discriminability of contexts. This relation, is obtained for

  15. The STATEMATE semantics of statecharts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Harel; Amnon Naamad

    1996-01-01

    We describe the semantics of statecharts as implemented in the STATEMATE system. This was the first executable semantics defined for the language and has been in use for almost a decade. In terms of the controversy around whether changes made in a given step should take effect in the current step or in the next one, this semantics adopts the

  16. Semantic Annotation of Sports Videos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen Assfalg; Marco Bertini; Carlo Colombo; Alberto Del Bimbo

    2002-01-01

    Taking into consideration the unique qualities of sports videos, we propose a system that semantically annotates them at different layers of semantic significance, using different elements of visual content. We decompose each shot into its visual and graphic content elements and, by combining several different low-level visual primitives, capture the semantic content at a higher level of significance

  17. Semantic Search of Web Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses semantic search of Web services using natural language processing. We first survey various existing approaches, focusing on the fact that the expensive costs of current semantic annotation frameworks result in limited use of semantic search for large scale applications. We then propose a vector space model based service…

  18. The modulation of spatial congruency by object-based attention: Analysing the “locus” of the modulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunming Luo; Juan Lupiáñez; María Jesús Funes; Xiaolan Fu

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that spatial cueing differentially reduces stimulus–stimulus congruency (e.g., spatial Stroop) interference but not stimulus–response congruency (e.g., Simon; e.g., Lupiáñez & Funes, 2005). This spatial cueing modulation over spatial Stroop seems to be entirely attributable to object-based attention (e.g., Luo, Lupiáñez, Funes, & Fu, 2010). In the present study, two experiments were conducted to further explore whether

  19. Corporate Governance Systems: Effects of Capital and Labor Market Congruency on Corporate Innovation and Global Competitiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Hoskisson; Daphne Yiu; Hicheon Kim

    \\u000a Drawing on institutional economics, this article addresses how institutional congruence between capital and labor markets\\u000a influences corporate governance systems, which, in turn, create differences in national corporate innovation and entrepreneurship\\u000a systems and subsequently global competitiveness. We argue that such institutional congruence cultivates two ideal corporate\\u000a governance systems. The first ideal type is the market-based system with transactional capital and external

  20. A generalization of the Gaussian formula and a q-analog of Fleck's congruence

    E-print Network

    Schultz, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The q-binomial coefficients are the polynomial cousins of the traditional binomial coefficients, and a number of identities for binomial coefficients can be translated into this polynomial setting. For instance, the familiar vanishing of the alternating sum across row n of Pascal's triangle is captured by the so-called Gaussian Formula. In this paper, we find a q-binomial congruence which synthesizes this result and Fleck's congruence for binomial coefficients.

  1. Using Segment Congruence Analysis to Determine Actionability of Travel\\/Tourism Segments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Johar; M Joseph Sirgy

    1996-01-01

    We introduced in this paper an analytic technique to help the travel\\/tourism marketer determine the actionability of viable or potential tourist segments. This technique is referred to as segment congruence analysis. The study was conducted using Maine as a tourist destination. Subjects were segmented based on psychographics, tourism-specific life-style variables, and tourism-specific benefit variables. Segment congruence analysis showed that the

  2. Customer-employee relationship : The role of self-employee congruence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad Jamal; Adegboyega Adelowore

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – Many have applied the concept of congruence or fit in the context of person-organization, person-environment and person-person relationships and interactions. However, despite the significance of customer-employee interactions and relations in a services context, no research has investigated the effects of congruence between a customer's self-concept and employee-image on important relational outcomes such as relationship satisfaction, loyalty to employees

  3. Can conceptual congruency effects between number, time, and space be accounted for by polarity correspondence?

    PubMed

    Santiago, Julio; Lakens, Daniël

    2015-03-01

    Conceptual congruency effects have been interpreted as evidence for the idea that the representations of abstract conceptual dimensions (e.g., power, affective valence, time, number, importance) rest on more concrete dimensions (e.g., space, brightness, weight). However, an alternative theoretical explanation based on the notion of polarity correspondence has recently received empirical support in the domains of valence and morality, which are related to vertical space (e.g., good things are up). In the present study we provide empirical arguments against the applicability of the polarity correspondence account to congruency effects in two conceptual domains related to lateral space: number and time. Following earlier research, we varied the polarity of the response dimension (left-right) by manipulating keyboard eccentricity. In a first experiment we successfully replicated the congruency effect between vertical and lateral space and its interaction with response eccentricity. We then examined whether this modulation of a concrete-concrete congruency effect can be extended to two types of concrete-abstract effects, those between left-right space and number (in both parity and magnitude judgment tasks), and temporal reference. In all three tasks response eccentricity failed to modulate the congruency effects. We conclude that polarity correspondence does not provide an adequate explanation of conceptual congruency effects in the domains of number and time. PMID:25542784

  4. Congruence between gender stereotypes and activity preference in self-identified tomboys and non-tomboys.

    PubMed

    Martin, Carol Lynn; Dinella, Lisa M

    2012-06-01

    The major goal was to examine a central tenet of cognitive approaches to gender development, namely, that congruence exists between personal gender stereotypes and behaviors. Item-by-item comparisons of girls' stereotypes about activities and their preferences for activities were conducted, for both girls who claimed to be tomboys and those who did not. Congruence was expected for all girls, but because of their gender non-normative interests, tomboys may exhibit less congruence. A secondary goal was to examine factors that might influence congruence, specifically, whether tomboys develop more inclusive stereotypes and develop greater understanding of stereotype variability. Participants included 112 girls (7-12 years old, M age=9). Girls were interviewed about their activity preferences, beliefs about girls' and boys' activity preferences, understanding variability of stereotypes, and identification as tomboys. Tomboys (30% of the sample) and non-tomboys did not differ in their liking of or in the number of liked feminine activities. However, tomboys showed more interest in masculine activities than non-tomboys. Tomboys and non-tomboys did not differ in stereotype inclusiveness, although tomboys showed a trend toward more inclusive stereotypes. Both groups showed high levels of congruence between stereotypes and preferences. Congruence was stronger for nontomboys (14 times more likely to exhibit responses congruent with stereotypes vs. incongruent ones), as compared to tomboys who were four times more likely to exhibit responses congruent with stereotypes versus incongruent ones. Implications of these findings for cognitive approaches to gender development are discussed. PMID:21755383

  5. The hot-hand fallacy in cognitive control: repetition expectancy modulates the congruency sequence effect.

    PubMed

    Duthoo, Wout; Wühr, Peter; Notebaert, Wim

    2013-08-01

    In this study, the role of expectancies in cognitive control was tested. On the basis of the original interpretation of the congruency sequence effect (Gratton, Coles, & Donchin, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 121:480-506, 1992), we sought evidence for a repetition bias steering attentional control. In a series of four Stroop experiments, we investigated how participants' explicit predictions about the upcoming (in)congruency proactively influenced subsequent Stroop performance. Similar to the fallacious "hot-hand" belief in gambling, repeating stimulus events were overpredicted, as participants consistently expected more repetitions of the congruency level than the actual presented number of congruency-level repetitions (50 %). Moreover, behavioral adjustments (i.e., a congruency sequence effect) were only found when participants anticipated a congruency-level repetition, whereas no modulation of the Stroop effect was found following alternation predictions. We propose that proactive control processes in general, and repetition expectancy in particular, should be given more attention in current theorizing and modeling of cognitive control, which is characterized by an emphasis on reactive, conflict-induced control adjustments. PMID:23371807

  6. 36 CFR 1256.98 - Can I get access to and obtain copies of USIA audiovisual records transferred to the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...audiovisual records transferred to the National Archives of the United States? 1256.98 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States §...

  7. 36 CFR 1256.96 - What provisions apply to the transfer of USIA audiovisual records to the National Archives of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...USIA audiovisual records to the National Archives of the United States? 1256.96 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States §...

  8. 36 CFR 1256.98 - Can I get access to and obtain copies of USIA audiovisual records transferred to the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...audiovisual records transferred to the National Archives of the United States? 1256.98 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States §...

  9. 36 CFR 1256.98 - Can I get access to and obtain copies of USIA audiovisual records transferred to the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...audiovisual records transferred to the National Archives of the United States? 1256.98 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States §...

  10. 36 CFR 1256.96 - What provisions apply to the transfer of USIA audiovisual records to the National Archives of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...USIA audiovisual records to the National Archives of the United States? 1256.96 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States §...

  11. 36 CFR 1256.96 - What provisions apply to the transfer of USIA audiovisual records to the National Archives of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...USIA audiovisual records to the National Archives of the United States? 1256.96 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States §...

  12. 36 CFR 1256.96 - What provisions apply to the transfer of USIA audiovisual records to the National Archives of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...USIA audiovisual records to the National Archives of the United States? 1256.96 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States §...

  13. 36 CFR 1256.98 - Can I get access to and obtain copies of USIA audiovisual records transferred to the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...audiovisual records transferred to the National Archives of the United States? 1256.98 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States §...

  14. 36 CFR 1256.96 - What provisions apply to the transfer of USIA audiovisual records to the National Archives of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...USIA audiovisual records to the National Archives of the United States? 1256.96 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States §...

  15. 36 CFR 1256.98 - Can I get access to and obtain copies of USIA audiovisual records transferred to the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...audiovisual records transferred to the National Archives of the United States? 1256.98 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States §...

  16. Audio-visual biofeedback for respiratory-gated radiotherapy: Impact of audio instruction and audio-visual biofeedback on respiratory-gated radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    George, Rohini [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Chung, Theodore D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Vedam, Sastry S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan [Department of Biostatistics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Weiss, Elisabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Georg-August-Universitaet, Goettingen (Germany); Keall, Paul J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)]. E-mail: pjkeall@vcu.edu

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: Respiratory gating is a commercially available technology for reducing the deleterious effects of motion during imaging and treatment. The efficacy of gating is dependent on the reproducibility within and between respiratory cycles during imaging and treatment. The aim of this study was to determine whether audio-visual biofeedback can improve respiratory reproducibility by decreasing residual motion and therefore increasing the accuracy of gated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 331 respiratory traces were collected from 24 lung cancer patients. The protocol consisted of five breathing training sessions spaced about a week apart. Within each session the patients initially breathed without any instruction (free breathing), with audio instructions and with audio-visual biofeedback. Residual motion was quantified by the standard deviation of the respiratory signal within the gating window. Results: Audio-visual biofeedback significantly reduced residual motion compared with free breathing and audio instruction. Displacement-based gating has lower residual motion than phase-based gating. Little reduction in residual motion was found for duty cycles less than 30%; for duty cycles above 50% there was a sharp increase in residual motion. Conclusions: The efficiency and reproducibility of gating can be improved by: incorporating audio-visual biofeedback, using a 30-50% duty cycle, gating during exhalation, and using displacement-based gating.

  17. Can personality traits predict pathological responses to audiovisual stimulation?

    PubMed

    Yambe, Tomoyuki; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Fukudo, Shin; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Shizuka, Kazuhiko; Nanka, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Akira; Abe, Ken-ichi; Shouji, Tomonori; Hongo, Michio; Tabayashi, Kouichi; Nitta, Shin-ichi

    2003-10-01

    The "Pockemon shock" is the most famous accident in the history of the broadcasting industry in Japan. Based on the experiences of this unfortunate accident from famous animation program "Pocket Monster", this study focused on the psychology and psychosomatics of the patients. A head-mounted display was used as the three-dimensional image presentation device and "Descent", a free software shooting game, was used as the software. Ten healthy adult male volunteers were used in this experiment after obtaining their informed consent. The oxygen metabolic change in the anterior lobe of the brain was measured by near infrared spectroscopy and recorded on an electrocardiogram. The mental scaling tendency of the object was analyzed using the type A behavior pattern and the hostility scaling. The Cook and Medley hostility (HO) scale from the Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI) was also used in this experiment. From this scaling methodology, the paranoid scale, cynicism scale, lie scale, social support quality and social support quantity were calculated. All measured time series data were kept in the normal range, and no fatal arrhythmia or epilepsy were observed during experiments. In some cases, the brain oxygen metabolism may completely differ for the objects of Type A and Type B behavior patterns. On the whole, correlation did not become significant in type A scaling and hostility scaling. In a comparison of the percent changes of the HF in HRV with lie scaling, significant negative correlation was observed. The social support quantity was calculated from Cook and Medley, and significant negative correlations were observed with percent changes of LF/HF in HRV. The lie scale and social support quantity are opposite scaling. The sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system have an opposite function also. Therefore, our results showed an interesting phenomenon, when considering the relationship between the autonomic function and the pathophysiological reaction to the audiovisual stimulations. As for the photo sensitive epilepsy, it was reported to be only 5-10% for all patients. Therefore, 90% or more of the cause could not be determined in patients who started a morbid response. The results in this study suggest that the autonomic function was connected to the mental tendency of the objects. By examining such directivity, it is expected that subjects, which show morbid reaction to an audiovisual stimulation, can be screened beforehand. PMID:14572681

  18. Crossmodal and incremental perception of audiovisual cues to emotional speech.

    PubMed

    Barkhuysen, Pashiera; Krahmer, Emiel; Swerts, Marc

    2010-01-01

    In this article we report on two experiments about the perception of audiovisual cues to emotional speech. The article addresses two questions: 1) how do visual cues from a speaker's face to emotion relate to auditory cues, and (2) what is the recognition speed for various facial cues to emotion? Both experiments reported below are based on tests with video clips of emotional utterances collected via a variant of the well-known Velten method. More specifically, we recorded speakers who displayed positive or negative emotions, which were congruent or incongruent with the (emotional) lexical content of the uttered sentence. In order to test this, we conducted two experiments. The first experiment is a perception experiment in which Czech participants, who do not speak Dutch, rate the perceived emotional state of Dutch speakers in a bimodal (audiovisual) or a unimodal (audio- or vision-only) condition. It was found that incongruent emotional speech leads to significantly more extreme perceived emotion scores than congruent emotional speech, where the difference between congruent and incongruent emotional speech is larger for the negative than for the positive conditions. Interestingly, the largest overall differences between congruent and incongruent emotions were found for the audio-only condition, which suggests that posing an incongruent emotion has a particularly strong effect on the spoken realization of emotions. The second experiment uses a gating paradigm to test the recognition speed for various emotional expressions from a speaker's face. In this experiment participants were presented with the same clips as experiment I, but this time presented vision-only. The clips were shown in successive segments (gates) of increasing duration. Results show that participants are surprisingly accurate in their recognition of the various emotions, as they already reach high recognition scores in the first gate (after only 160 ms). Interestingly, the recognition scores raise faster for positive than negative conditions. Finally, the gating results suggest that incongruent emotions are perceived as more intense than congruent emotions, as the former get more extreme recognition scores than the latter, already after a short period of exposure. PMID:20415000

  19. Latent Semantic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumais, Susan T.

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA): (1) LSA overview; (2) applications of LSA, including information retrieval (IR), information filtering, cross-language retrieval, and other IR-related LSA applications; (3) modeling human memory, including the relationship of LSA to other…

  20. Learning Lexical Semantic Representations

    E-print Network

    Baldwin, Timothy

    , clothes horse) · bipartite: glasses, scissors, trousers (*one scissors, scissor kick, pair of scissors degree deterministic given the semantics of a word: dog, pooch, canine, mongrel, ... gold, silver, copper the countability of members of each synset · Base experimentation on WordNet 1.5 · See also Bond and Vatikiotis

  1. Semantic Web 30Artificial

    E-print Network

    van Harmelen, Frank

    312007.11 "" Semantic Web 30Artificial IntelligenceKnowledge Representation Inductive Web datasets ---- Tim Berners-Lee Tim Berners-Lee " "" " Web 2.0---- Web Web 2.0 Frank van Harmelen W3C OWL Web Sesame RDF Aduna 100 Hirsch 35 5 15 ECAI2002 3 ISWC

  2. Probabilistic latent semantic indexing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Hofmann

    1999-01-01

    Probabilistic Latent Semantic Indexing is a novel approach to automated document indexing which is based on a statistical latent class model for factor analysis of count data. Fitted from a training corpus of text documents by a generalization of the Expectation Maximization algorithm, the utilized model is able to deal with domain-specific synonymy as well as with polysemous words. In

  3. Semantics for algebraic operations 

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Gordon; Power, John

    2003-01-01

    Given a category C with finite products and a strong monad T on C, we investigate axioms under which an ObC-indexed family of operations of the form ?_x : (Tx)n ! Tx provides a definitive semantics for algebraic operations added...

  4. Semantics of probabilistic programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dexter Kozen

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents two complementary but equivalent semantics for a high level probabilistic programming language. One of these interprets programs as partial measurable functions on a measurable space. The other interprets programs as continuous linear operators on a Banach space of measures. It is shown how the ordered domains of Scott and others are embedded naturally into these spaces. We

  5. Semantics of probabilistic programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dexter Kozen; Yorktown Heights

    1979-01-01

    Two complementary but equivalent semantic interpretations of a high level probabilistic programming language are given. One of these interprets programs as partial measurable functions on a measurable space. The other interprets programs as continuous linear operators on a Banach space of measures. It is shown how the ordered domains of Scott and others are embedded naturally into these spaces. Two

  6. Semantic physical science

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The articles in this special issue arise from a workshop and symposium held in January 2012 (Semantic Physical Science’). We invited people who shared our vision for the potential of the web to support chemical and related subjects. Other than the initial invitations, we have not exercised any control over the content of the contributed articles. PMID:22856527

  7. Semantic community Web portals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steffen Staab; Jürgen Angele; Stefan Decker; Michael Erdmann; Andreas Hotho; Alexander Maedche; Hans-peter Schnurr; Rudi Studer; York Sure

    2000-01-01

    Community Web portals serve as portals for the information needs of particular communities on the Web. We here discuss how a comprehensive and flexible strategy for building and maintaining a high-value community Web portal has been conceived and implemented. The strategy includes collaborative information provisioning by the community members. It is based on an ontology as a semantic backbone for

  8. Environmental Attitudes Semantic Differential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehne, Paul R.; Goulard, Cary J.

    This booklet is an evaluation instrument which utilizes semantic differential data to assess environmental attitudes. Twelve concepts are included: regulated access to beaches, urban planning, dune vegetation, wetlands, future cities, reclaiming wetlands for building development, city parks, commercial development of beaches, existing cities,…

  9. Fall 2011 -Distinguished Lecture Program Semantic Web

    E-print Network

    Mayfield, John

    Fall 2011 - Distinguished Lecture Program Semantic Web: State of the Art Semantic Web: State record lists over 160 publications in such diverse areas as semantic web, neural-symbolic integration-in-chief of the IOS Press journal "Semantic Web" and the IOS Press book series "Studies on the Semantic Web". He

  10. Temporal logic Hennessy-Milner logic Semantics of HML Recursion Semantics of Recursion Modal -Calculus

    E-print Network

    Mousavi, Mohammad

    Temporal logic Hennessy-Milner logic Semantics of HML Recursion Semantics of Recursion Modal µ;Temporal logic Hennessy-Milner logic Semantics of HML Recursion Semantics of Recursion Outline Temporal logic Hennessy-Milner logic Semantics of HML Recursion Semantics of Recursion Mousavi: Modal µ

  11. Audiovisual focus of attention and its application to Ultra High Definition video compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rerabek, Martin; Nemoto, Hiromi; Lee, Jong-Seok; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2014-02-01

    Using Focus of Attention (FoA) as a perceptual process in image and video compression belongs to well-known approaches to increase coding efficiency. It has been shown that foveated coding, when compression quality varies across the image according to region of interest, is more efficient than the alternative coding, when all region are compressed in a similar way. However, widespread use of such foveated compression has been prevented due to two main conflicting causes, namely, the complexity and the efficiency of algorithms for FoA detection. One way around these is to use as much information as possible from the scene. Since most video sequences have an associated audio, and moreover, in many cases there is a correlation between the audio and the visual content, audiovisual FoA can improve efficiency of the detection algorithm while remaining of low complexity. This paper discusses a simple yet efficient audiovisual FoA algorithm based on correlation of dynamics between audio and video signal components. Results of audiovisual FoA detection algorithm are subsequently taken into account for foveated coding and compression. This approach is implemented into H.265/HEVC encoder producing a bitstream which is fully compliant to any H.265/HEVC decoder. The influence of audiovisual FoA in the perceived quality of high and ultra-high definition audiovisual sequences is explored and the amount of gain in compression efficiency is analyzed.

  12. A Comparison of the Development of Audiovisual Integration in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Natalie; Isaac, Claire; Milne, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the development of audiovisual integration in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Audiovisual integration was measured using the McGurk effect in children with ASD aged 7-16 years and typically developing children (control group) matched approximately for age, sex, nonverbal ability and verbal ability.…

  13. Developing an Audiovisual Notebook as a Self-Learning Tool in Histology: Perceptions of Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos-Sánchez, Antonio; López-Núñez, Juan-Antonio; Scionti, Giuseppe; Garzón, Ingrid; González-Andrades, Miguel; Alaminos, Miguel; Sola, Tomás

    2014-01-01

    Videos can be used as didactic tools for self-learning under several circumstances, including those cases in which students are responsible for the development of this resource as an audiovisual notebook. We compared students' and teachers' perceptions regarding the main features that an audiovisual notebook should include. Four…

  14. AV@CAR: A Spanish Multichannel Multimodal Corpus for In-Vehicle Automatic Audio-Visual Speech Recognition

    E-print Network

    Frangi, Alejandro

    AV@CAR: A Spanish Multichannel Multimodal Corpus for In-Vehicle Automatic Audio-Visual Speech,fsukno,lleida,afrangi,amiguel,lbuera,zacur}@unizar.es Abstract This paper describes the acquisition of the multichannel multimodal database AV@CAR for automatic audio-visual speech recognition in cars. Automatic speech recognition (ASR) plays an important role

  15. Effects of stimulus duration on audio-visual synchrony perception.

    PubMed

    Kuling, I A; van Eijk, R L J; Juola, J F; Kohlrausch, A

    2012-09-01

    The integration of visual and auditory inputs in the human brain occurs only if the components are perceived in temporal proximity, that is, when the intermodal time difference falls within the so-called subjective synchrony range. We used the midpoint of this range to estimate the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS). We measured the PSS for audio-visual (AV) stimuli in a synchrony judgment task, in which subjects had to judge a given AV stimulus using three response categories (audio first, synchronous, video first). The relevant stimulus manipulation was the duration of the auditory and visual components. Results for unimodal auditory and visual stimuli have shown that the perceived onset shifts to relatively later positions with increasing stimulus duration. These unimodal shifts should be reflected in changing PSS values, when AV stimuli with different durations of the auditory and visual components are used. The results for 17 subjects showed indeed a significant shift of the PSS for different duration combinations of the stimulus components. Because the shifts were approximately equal for duration changes in either of the components, no net shift of the PSS was observed as long as the durations of the two components were equal. This result indicates the need to appropriately account for unimodal timing effects when quantifying intermodal synchrony perception. PMID:22821079

  16. Detection of audiovisual speech correspondences without visual awareness.

    PubMed

    Alsius, Agnès; Munhall, Kevin G

    2013-04-01

    Mounting physiological and behavioral evidence has shown that the detectability of a visual stimulus can be enhanced by a simultaneously presented sound. The mechanisms underlying these cross-sensory effects, however, remain largely unknown. Using continuous flash suppression (CFS), we rendered a complex, dynamic visual stimulus (i.e., a talking face) consciously invisible to participants. We presented the visual stimulus together with a suprathreshold auditory stimulus (i.e., a voice speaking a sentence) that either matched or mismatched the lip movements of the talking face. We compared how long it took for the talking face to overcome interocular suppression and become visible to participants in the matched and mismatched conditions. Our results showed that the detection of the face was facilitated by the presentation of a matching auditory sentence, in comparison with the presentation of a mismatching sentence. This finding indicates that the registration of audiovisual correspondences occurs at an early stage of processing, even when the visual information is blocked from conscious awareness. PMID:23462756

  17. Audio-Visual Perception System for a Humanoid Robotic Head

    PubMed Central

    Viciana-Abad, Raquel; Marfil, Rebeca; Perez-Lorenzo, Jose M.; Bandera, Juan P.; Romero-Garces, Adrian; Reche-Lopez, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    One of the main issues within the field of social robotics is to endow robots with the ability to direct attention to people with whom they are interacting. Different approaches follow bio-inspired mechanisms, merging audio and visual cues to localize a person using multiple sensors. However, most of these fusion mechanisms have been used in fixed systems, such as those used in video-conference rooms, and thus, they may incur difficulties when constrained to the sensors with which a robot can be equipped. Besides, within the scope of interactive autonomous robots, there is a lack in terms of evaluating the benefits of audio-visual attention mechanisms, compared to only audio or visual approaches, in real scenarios. Most of the tests conducted have been within controlled environments, at short distances and/or with off-line performance measurements. With the goal of demonstrating the benefit of fusing sensory information with a Bayes inference for interactive robotics, this paper presents a system for localizing a person by processing visual and audio data. Moreover, the performance of this system is evaluated and compared via considering the technical limitations of unimodal systems. The experiments show the promise of the proposed approach for the proactive detection and tracking of speakers in a human-robot interactive framework. PMID:24878593

  18. mirror neurons and audiovisual perception nullify the motor theory

    E-print Network

    2007-01-01

    According to the Motor Theory of Speech Perception (MTSP), listeners perceive speech by way of the articulatory gestures they would perform themselves in producing a similar signal. The theory postulates a module that allows extracting gestural information from the signal. The gestures constitute the event perceived. According to the Modulation Theory (MDT), speech is modulated voice. Listeners perceive it by demodulating the signal. The properties of the voice convey nonlinguistic information while the linguistically coded information is conveyed by its modulation. The modulation pattern constitutes the linguistic event perceived. The theories agree in requiring a linkage or mapping between perception and production. According to MDT, phonetically labeled links between exteroception and proprioception (mirror and echo neurons) are established in the brain during speech acquisition. The set of links embodies the knowledge of the relation. While MDT describes the device that MTSP would need in order to be implemented, it makes it redundant to recruit the motor system. Demodulation is also necessary in speechreading and in order to perceive sign language, when a face or body is ‘modulated ’ instead of a voice. In audiovisual speech perception, there are two percepts: a normally dominant vocal one and a gestural one that does not need to agree with it. MTSP knows of only one of these. It is concluded that all the specific claims of MTSP are false while MDT rests on ‘first principles’. Two theories A theory based on articulatory gestures

  19. Sensorimotor synchronization with audio-visual stimuli: limited multisensory integration.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Alan; Issartel, Johann

    2014-11-01

    Understanding how we synchronize our actions with stimuli from different sensory modalities plays a central role in helping to establish how we interact with our multisensory environment. Recent research has shown better performance with multisensory over unisensory stimuli; however, the type of stimuli used has mainly been auditory and tactile. The aim of this article was to expand our understanding of sensorimotor synchronization with multisensory audio-visual stimuli and compare these findings to their individual unisensory counterparts. This research also aims to assess the role of spatio-temporal structure for each sensory modality. The visual and/or auditory stimuli had either temporal or spatio-temporal information available and were presented to the participants in unimodal and bimodal conditions. Globally, the performance was significantly better for the bimodal compared to the unimodal conditions; however, this benefit was limited to only one of the bimodal conditions. In terms of the unimodal conditions, the level of synchronization with visual stimuli was better than auditory, and while there was an observed benefit with the spatio-temporal compared to temporal visual stimulus, this was not replicated with the auditory stimulus. PMID:25027792

  20. Audio-visual assistance in co-creating transition knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hezel, Bernd; Broschkowski, Ephraim; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    Earth system and climate impact research results point to the tremendous ecologic, economic and societal implications of climate change. Specifically people will have to adopt lifestyles that are very different from those they currently strive for in order to mitigate severe changes of our known environment. It will most likely not suffice to transfer the scientific findings into international agreements and appropriate legislation. A transition is rather reliant on pioneers that define new role models, on change agents that mainstream the concept of sufficiency and on narratives that make different futures appealing. In order for the research community to be able to provide sustainable transition pathways that are viable, an integration of the physical constraints and the societal dynamics is needed. Hence the necessary transition knowledge is to be co-created by social and natural science and society. To this end, the Climate Media Factory - in itself a massively transdisciplinary venture - strives to provide an audio-visual connection between the different scientific cultures and a bi-directional link to stake holders and society. Since methodology, particular language and knowledge level of the involved is not the same, we develop new entertaining formats on the basis of a "complexity on demand" approach. They present scientific information in an integrated and entertaining way with different levels of detail that provide entry points to users with different requirements. Two examples shall illustrate the advantages and restrictions of the approach.

  1. Effects of the audiovisual conflict on auditory early processes.

    PubMed

    Scannella, Sébastien; Causse, Mickaël; Chauveau, Nicolas; Pastor, Josette; Dehais, Frédéric

    2013-07-01

    Auditory alarm misperception is one of the critical events that lead aircraft pilots to an erroneous flying decision. The rarity of these alarms associated with their possible unreliability may play a role in this misperception. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we manipulated both audiovisual conflict and sound rarity in a simplified landing task. Behavioral data and event related potentials (ERPs) of thirteen healthy participants were analyzed. We found that the presentation of a rare auditory signal (i.e., an alarm), incongruent with visual information, led to a smaller amplitude of the auditory N100 (i.e., less negative) compared to the condition in which both signals were congruent. Moreover, the incongruity between the visual information and the rare sound did not significantly affect reaction times, suggesting that the rare sound was neglected. We propose that the lower N100 amplitude reflects an early visual-to-auditory gating that depends on the rarity of the sound. In complex aircraft environments, this early effect might be partly responsible for auditory alarm insensitivity. Our results provide a new basis for future aeronautic studies and the development of countermeasures. PMID:23774001

  2. Biodiversity Congruence and Conservation Strategies: A National Test

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Haigen Xu (Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences (NIES); )

    2008-08-01

    Understanding patterns of biodiversity is essential to developing conservation strategies and monitoring conservation goals, and severe data constraints make surrogate indicators necessary. We used a comprehensive data set of 6959 species of amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, and vascular plants in terrestrial ecosystems of China to test the correlations among taxa, the utility of surrogates, and the effectiveness of conservation strategies in China. The results showed that the patterns of species richness between terrestrial vertebrates and vascular plants are concordant, except for those patterns between amphibians and birds; patterns of endemism are concordant at the national level; species richness and endemism are congruent, and each class can represent the four remaining classes. The underlying mechanisms responsible for the decline of species, however, are quite diverse, and conservation of one endangered class will not necessarily save the other classes. These results suggest that the extent of congruence varies according to the taxa and measures of diversity that are compared. There is no correlation between the coverage of nature reserves and overall species richness, endemism, or threat, nor between biodiversity investment and species richness, endemism, or threat.

  3. Selective attention and recognition: effects of congruency on episodic learning.

    PubMed

    Rosner, Tamara M; D'Angelo, Maria C; MacLellan, Ellen; Milliken, Bruce

    2015-05-01

    Recent research on cognitive control has focused on the learning consequences of high selective attention demands in selective attention tasks (e.g., Botvinick, Cognit Affect Behav Neurosci 7(4):356-366, 2007; Verguts and Notebaert, Psychol Rev 115(2):518-525, 2008). The current study extends these ideas by examining the influence of selective attention demands on remembering. In Experiment 1, participants read aloud the red word in a pair of red and green spatially interleaved words. Half of the items were congruent (the interleaved words had the same identity), and the other half were incongruent (the interleaved words had different identities). Following the naming phase, participants completed a surprise recognition memory test. In this test phase, recognition memory was better for incongruent than for congruent items. In Experiment 2, context was only partially reinstated at test, and again recognition memory was better for incongruent than for congruent items. In Experiment 3, all of the items contained two different words, but in one condition the words were presented close together and interleaved, while in the other condition the two words were spatially separated. Recognition memory was better for the interleaved than for the separated items. This result rules out an interpretation of the congruency effects on recognition in Experiments 1 and 2 that hinges on stronger relational encoding for items that have two different words. Together, the results support the view that selective attention demands for incongruent items lead to encoding that improves recognition. PMID:24859839

  4. Identification of emission sources of umbral flashes using phase congruency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Song; Yu, Lan; Yang, Yun-Fei; Ji, Kai-Fan

    2014-08-01

    The emission sources of umbral flashes (UFs) are believed to be closely related to running umbral and penumbral waves, and are concluded to be associated with umbral dots in the solar photosphere. Accurate identification of emission sources of UFs is crucial for investigating these physical phenomena and their inherent relationships. A relatively novel model of shape perception, namely phase congruency (PC), uses phase information in the Fourier domain to identify the geometrical shape of the region of interest in different intensity levels, rather than intensity or gradient. Previous studies indicate that the model is suitable for identifying features with low contrast and low luminance. In the present paper, we applied the PC model to identify the emission sources of UFs and to locate their positions. For illustrating the high performance of our proposed method, two time sequences of Ca II H images derived from the Hinode/SOT on 2010 August 10 and 2013 August 20 were used. Furthermore, we also compared these results with the analysis results that are identified by the traditional/classical identification methods, including the gray-scale adjusted technique and the running difference technique. The result of our analysis demonstrates that our proposed method is more accurate and effective than the traditional identification methods when applied to identifying the emission sources of UFs and to locating their positions.

  5. Latent Semantic Indexing of medical diagnoses using UMLS semantic structures.

    PubMed

    Chute, C G; Yang, Y; Evans, D A

    1991-01-01

    The relational files within the UMLS Metathesaurus contain rich semantic associations to main concepts. We invoked the technique of Latent Semantic Indexing to generate information matrices based on these relationships and created "semantic vectors" using singular value decomposition. Evaluations were made on the complete set and subsets of Metathesaurus main concepts with the semantic type "Disease or Syndrome." Real number matrices were created with main concepts, lexical variants, synonyms, and associated expressions. Ancestors, children, siblings, and related terms were added to alternative matrices, preserving the hierarchical direction of the relation as the imaginary component of a complex number. Preliminary evaluation suggests that this technique is robust. A major advantage is the exploitation of semantic features which derive from a statistical decomposition of UMLS structures, possibly reducing dependence on the tedious construction of semantic frames by humans. PMID:1807584

  6. Inquisitive Semantics and Logic MSc Thesis (Afstudeerscriptie)

    E-print Network

    Amsterdam, University of

    Inquisitive Semantics and Logic MSc Thesis (Afstudeerscriptie) written by Salvador Mascarenhas Veltman #12;Contents 1 Inquisitive Semantics 3 1.1 Preliminaries with the partition framework . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.2 Inquisitive Semantics

  7. Composition in distributional models of semantics 

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Jeffrey John

    2011-06-30

    Distributional models of semantics have proven themselves invaluable both in cognitive modelling of semantic phenomena and also in practical applications. For example, they have been used to model judgments of semantic ...

  8. Gradable adjectives and the semantics of locatives 

    E-print Network

    Flieger, Johannes C.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation develops a semantic model of gradable adjectives such as ‘tall’, ‘good’, ‘big’, ‘heavy’, etc., within a formal semantic theory of locatives we call Locative Structure Semantics (LSS). Our central ...

  9. Semantic Web Enabled Composition of Web Services

    E-print Network

    Medjahed, Brahim

    Semantic Web Enabled Composition of Web Services Brahim Medjahed Dissertation submitted Falls Church, Virginia, USA Keywords: Semantic Web - Web Service - Ontology - Service Composition. Copyright 2004, Brahim Medjahed #12;Semantic Web Enabled Composition of Web Services Brahim Medjahed

  10. A checklist for planning and designing audiovisual facilities in health sciences libraries.

    PubMed Central

    Holland, G J; Bischoff, F A; Foxman, D S

    1984-01-01

    Developed by an MLA/HeSCA (Health Sciences Communications Association) joint committee, this checklist is intended to serve as a conceptual framework for planning a new or renovated audiovisual facility in a health sciences library. Emphasis is placed on the philosophical and organizational decisions that must be made about an audiovisual facility before the technical or spatial decisions can be wisely made. Specific standards for facilities or equipment are not included. The first section focuses on health sciences library settings. Ideas presented in the remaining sections could apply to academic learning resource center environments as well. A bibliography relating to all aspects of audiovisual facilities planning and design is included with references to specific sections of the checklist. PMID:6208957

  11. Live Social Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alani, Harith; Szomszor, Martin; Cattuto, Ciro; van den Broeck, Wouter; Correndo, Gianluca; Barrat, Alain

    Social interactions are one of the key factors to the success of conferences and similar community gatherings. This paper describes a novel application that integrates data from the semantic web, online social networks, and a real-world contact sensing platform. This application was successfully deployed at ESWC09, and actively used by 139 people. Personal profiles of the participants were automatically generated using several Web 2.0 systems and semantic academic data sources, and integrated in real-time with face-to-face contact networks derived from wearable sensors. Integration of all these heterogeneous data layers made it possible to offer various services to conference attendees to enhance their social experience such as visualisation of contact data, and a site to explore and connect with other participants. This paper describes the architecture of the application, the services we provided, and the results we achieved in this deployment.

  12. Living With Semantic Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Karen; Wilkinson, Ray; Keady, John

    2014-01-01

    Semantic dementia is a variant of frontotemporal dementia and is a recently recognized diagnostic condition. There has been some research quantitatively examining care partner stress and burden in frontotemporal dementia. There are, however, few studies exploring the subjective experiences of family members caring for those with frontotemporal dementia. Increased knowledge of such experiences would allow service providers to tailor intervention, support, and information better. We used a case study design, with thematic narrative analysis applied to interview data, to describe the experiences of a wife and son caring for a husband/father with semantic dementia. Using this approach, we identified four themes: (a) living with routines, (b) policing and protecting, (c) making connections, and (d) being adaptive and flexible. Each of these themes were shared and extended, with the importance of routines in everyday life highlighted. The implications for policy, practice, and research are discussed. PMID:24532121

  13. Standards for Semantic Interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raskin, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    Metadata serves multiple purposes, including data discovery, access, and understanding. Data understanding is advanced through the use of semantic metadata that describes the meaning of the data via association with ontology elements. The use of OWL as a language standard has helped ensure sharing of concepts across ontologies. Yet the language is still weak enough that there are many different ways to express common relations such as "part of", "causes", "after", etc. to supplement the limited built-in relations of OWL. Standardization enables tools to be developed that understand such relations. This presentation presents a plan of action to advance an "OWL-Science" extension to OWL that will help advance semantic interoperability in Earth science.

  14. Congruence of molecules and morphology using a narrow allometric approach

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Christopher C.; Rossie, James B.

    2007-01-01

    There are many cases of incongruence between phylogenetic hypotheses produced from morphological data and those produced from molecular data. In such instances, many researchers prefer to accept the results of molecular phylogenies. For example, in a recent analysis of primate phylogenies based on craniodental characters, Collard and Wood [Collard M, Wood BA (2000) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:5003–5006] argued that, because craniodental data do not yield relationships concordant with molecular studies, the results of studies that employ such characters must be considered suspect. As most of our knowledge of mammalian evolution and phylogenetic history comes from craniodental fossils, these results have dramatic implications. However, the aforementioned analysis did not take into account the potentially confounding effects of allometry on quantitative craniodental characters. In this article, we employ a previously undescribed narrow allometric coding method that accounts for such confounding influences in phylogenetic analyses of craniodental morphology. By using essentially the same raw data set as Collard and Wood [Collard M, Wood BA (2000) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:5003–5006], 65 quantitative craniodental characters were adjusted in a parsimony analysis for the primate tribe Papionini, a group of monkeys argued to display extensive homoplasy. The resulting phylogenetic tree was congruent with the phylogenetic tree based on molecular data for these species, thereby meeting the “criterion of congruence.” These results suggest that morphological data, when treated properly, can be considered as reliable as molecular data in phylogenetic reconstruction. Rather than accepting phylogenetic hypotheses from one data source over another, cases of incongruence should be examined with greater scrutiny. PMID:17620604

  15. Identity and belonging in social learning groups: the importance of distinguishing social, operational and knowledge?related identity congruence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gwyneth Hughes

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative learning has much to offer but not all learners participate fully and peer groups can be exclusive. The article examines how belonging or ‘congruence’ in learning groups is related to identities of gender, age, ethnicity and socio?economic status. A study of student experiences of collaborative learning on three different blended learning courses illustrated how learners negotiate identity congruence with

  16. Evaluating the Relationship between College Students' Vocational Congruence, Academic Success, and Career Maturity: Career Counseling Implications and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luzzo, Darrell Anthony

    Several researchers have hypothesized relationships between vocational congruence and career success. In view of this fact, a study examined the relationships between the vocational congruence, academic success, and career maturity of 401 undergraduates (251 females and 150 males) attending a large state university. The respondents, who…

  17. Congruence or Discrepancy? Comparing Patients' Health Valuations and Physicians' Treatment Goals for Rehabilitation for Patients with Chronic Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagl, Michaela; Farin, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the congruence of patients' health valuations and physicians' treatment goals for the rehabilitation of chronically ill patients. In addition, patient characteristics associated with greater or less congruence were to be determined. In a questionnaire study, patients' health valuations and physicians' goals were…

  18. Measuring Transgender Individuals' Comfort with Gender Identity and Appearance: Development and Validation of the Transgender Congruence Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozee, Holly B.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Bauerband, L. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Our study used the construct of congruence to conceptualize the degree to which transgender individuals feel genuine, authentic, and comfortable with their gender identity and external appearance. In Study 1, the Transgender Congruence scale (TCS) was developed, and data from 162 transgender individuals were used to estimate the reliability and…

  19. Moderation of the Relation between Person-Environment Congruence and Academic Success: Environmental Constraint, Personal Flexibility and Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Terence J. G.; Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    The relation of interest-major congruence to indicators of college success was examined as it was moderated by environmental constraint, individual flexibility, and congruence definition in an initial sample of 88,813 undergraduates (38,787 men and 50,026 women) from 42 different colleges and universities in 16 states. College achievement (GPA…

  20. Audiovisual correspondence between musical timbre and visual shapes.

    PubMed

    Adeli, Mohammad; Rouat, Jean; Molotchnikoff, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the cross-modal correspondences between musical timbre and shapes. Previously, such features as pitch, loudness, light intensity, visual size, and color characteristics have mostly been used in studies of audio-visual correspondences. Moreover, in most studies, simple stimuli e.g., simple tones have been utilized. In this experiment, 23 musical sounds varying in fundamental frequency and timbre but fixed in loudness were used. Each sound was presented once against colored shapes and once against grayscale shapes. Subjects had to select the visual equivalent of a given sound i.e., its shape, color (or grayscale) and vertical position. This scenario permitted studying the associations between normalized timbre and visual shapes as well as some of the previous findings for more complex stimuli. One hundred and nineteen subjects (31 females and 88 males) participated in the online experiment. Subjects included 36 claimed professional musicians, 47 claimed amateur musicians, and 36 claimed non-musicians. Thirty-one subjects have also claimed to have synesthesia-like experiences. A strong association between timbre of envelope normalized sounds and visual shapes was observed. Subjects have strongly associated soft timbres with blue, green or light gray rounded shapes, harsh timbres with red, yellow or dark gray sharp angular shapes and timbres having elements of softness and harshness together with a mixture of the two previous shapes. Color or grayscale had no effect on timbre-shape associations. Fundamental frequency was not associated with height, grayscale or color. The significant correspondence between timbre and shape revealed by the present work allows designing substitution systems which might help the blind to perceive shapes through timbre. PMID:24910604

  1. Audiovisual correspondence between musical timbre and visual shapes

    PubMed Central

    Adeli, Mohammad; Rouat, Jean; Molotchnikoff, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the cross-modal correspondences between musical timbre and shapes. Previously, such features as pitch, loudness, light intensity, visual size, and color characteristics have mostly been used in studies of audio-visual correspondences. Moreover, in most studies, simple stimuli e.g., simple tones have been utilized. In this experiment, 23 musical sounds varying in fundamental frequency and timbre but fixed in loudness were used. Each sound was presented once against colored shapes and once against grayscale shapes. Subjects had to select the visual equivalent of a given sound i.e., its shape, color (or grayscale) and vertical position. This scenario permitted studying the associations between normalized timbre and visual shapes as well as some of the previous findings for more complex stimuli. One hundred and nineteen subjects (31 females and 88 males) participated in the online experiment. Subjects included 36 claimed professional musicians, 47 claimed amateur musicians, and 36 claimed non-musicians. Thirty-one subjects have also claimed to have synesthesia-like experiences. A strong association between timbre of envelope normalized sounds and visual shapes was observed. Subjects have strongly associated soft timbres with blue, green or light gray rounded shapes, harsh timbres with red, yellow or dark gray sharp angular shapes and timbres having elements of softness and harshness together with a mixture of the two previous shapes. Color or grayscale had no effect on timbre-shape associations. Fundamental frequency was not associated with height, grayscale or color. The significant correspondence between timbre and shape revealed by the present work allows designing substitution systems which might help the blind to perceive shapes through timbre. PMID:24910604

  2. Effects of interest-major congruence, motivation, and academic performance on timely degree attainment.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Using longitudinal student data from 15 four-year (n = 3,072) and 13 (n = 788) two-year postsecondary institutions, the authors tested the effects of interest-major congruence, motivation, and 1st-year academic performance on timely degree completion. Findings suggest that interest-major congruence has a direct effect on timely degree completion at both institutional settings and that motivation has indirect effects (via 1st-year academic performance). The total effects of both interest-major congruence and motivation on timely degree completion underscore the importance of both constructs in understanding student adjustment and postsecondary success. Implications for theory and counseling practice are discussed. PMID:21133558

  3. Congruency between Word Position and Meaning is Caused by Task-Induced Spatial Attention

    PubMed Central

    Pecher, Diane; Van Dantzig, Saskia; Boot, Inge; Zanolie, Kiki; Huber, David E.

    2010-01-01

    We report an experiment that compared two explanations for the effect of congruency between a word's on screen spatial position and its meaning. On one account, congruency is explained by the match between position and a mental simulation of meaning. Alternatively, congruency is explained by the polarity alignment principle. To distinguish between these accounts we presented the same object names (e.g., shark, helicopter) in a sky decision task or an ocean decision task, such that response polarity and typical location were disentangled. Sky decision responses were faster to words at the top of the screen compared to words at the bottom of the screen, but the reverse was found for ocean decision responses. These results are problematic for the polarity principle, and support the claim that spatial attention is directed by mental simulation of the task-relevant conceptual dimension. PMID:21833200

  4. Evolution of geodesic congruences in a gravitationally collapsing scalar field background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Rajibul; Kar, Sayan; DasGupta, Anirvan

    2014-12-01

    The evolution of timelike geodesic congruences in a spherically symmetric, nonstatic, inhomogeneous spacetime representing gravitational collapse of a massless scalar field is studied. We delineate how initial values of the expansion, rotation, and shear of a congruence, as well as the spacetime curvature, influence the global behavior and focusing properties of a family of trajectories. Under specific conditions, the expansion scalar is shown to exhibit a finite jump (from negative to positive value) before focusing eventually occurs. This nonmonotonic behavior of the expansion, observed in our numerical work, is successfully explained through an analysis of the equation for the expansion. Finally, we bring out the role of the metric parameters (related to nonstaticity and spatial inhomogeneity) in shaping the overall behavior of geodesic congruences.

  5. Interactions between mood and the structure of semantic memory: event-related potentials evidence

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Ana P.; del Re, Elisabetta; Nestor, Paul G; McCarley, Robert W.; Gonçalves, Óscar F.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that affect acts as modulator of cognitive processes and in particular that induced mood has an effect on the way semantic memory is used on-line. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine affective modulation of semantic information processing under three different moods: neutral, positive and negative. Fifteen subjects read 324 pairs of sentences, after mood induction procedure with 30 pictures of neutral, 30 pictures of positive and 30 pictures of neutral valence: 108 sentences were read in each mood induction condition. Sentences ended with three word types: expected words, within-category violations, and between-category violations. N400 amplitude was measured to the three word types under each mood induction condition. Under neutral mood, a congruency (more negative N400 amplitude for unexpected relative to expected endings) and a category effect (more negative N400 amplitude for between- than to within-category violations) were observed. Also, results showed differences in N400 amplitude for both within- and between-category violations as a function of mood: while positive mood tended to facilitate the integration of unexpected but related items, negative mood made their integration as difficult as unexpected and unrelated items. These findings suggest the differential impact of mood on access to long-term semantic memory during sentence comprehension. PMID:22434931

  6. The Effect of Task Demands, Artificially Manipulated Critical Object Saliency and Semantic Congruence on Visual Attention in Real World Scenes 

    E-print Network

    Blyth, Steven Philip

    2008-06-27

    Bottom up and top down models of visual attention have been proposed to deal with the guidance of human visual attention in viewing real-world scenes. However task demands put upon us can change our behaviour dramatically. ...

  7. Hybrid ontologies and social semantics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Meersman; Christophe Debruyne

    2010-01-01

    Semantic Web, Social Web, and new economic challenges are causing major shifts in the pervasive fabric that the internet has become, in particular for the business world. The internet's new role as participatory medium and its ubiquity lead to dense tri-sortal communities of humans and businesses mixed with computer systems, and semantically interoperating in a well-defined sense. Many of the

  8. Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deerwester, Scott; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes a new method for automatic indexing and retrieval called latent semantic indexing (LSI). Problems with matching query words with document words in term-based information retrieval systems are discussed, semantic structure is examined, singular value decomposition (SVD) is explained, and the mathematics underlying the SVD model is…

  9. The semantic planetary data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Daniel; Kelly, Sean; Mattmann, Chris

    2005-01-01

    This paper will provide a brief overview of the PDS data model and the PDS catalog. It will then describe the implentation of the Semantic PDS including the development of the formal ontology, the generation of RDFS/XML and RDF/XML data sets, and the buiding of the semantic search application.

  10. The Progressive in Modal Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portner, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Presents a semantic analysis of English progressive as an intentional operator within the framework of modal semantics. The treatment allows a combination of the central idea that the progressive's meaning has a major modal component with insights of other theories. Using a more sophisticated background theory of modality allows natural solutions…

  11. Semantic Analysis in Machine Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skorokhodko, E. F.

    1970-01-01

    In many cases machine-translation does not produce satisfactory results within the framework of purely formal (morphological and syntaxic) analysis, particularly, in the case of syntaxic and lexical homonomy. An algorithm for syntaxic-semantic analysis is proposed, and its principles of operation are described. The syntaxico-semantic structure is…

  12. Bringing Semantics to Web Services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheila A. Mcilraith; David L. Martin

    2003-01-01

    A key element to realizing the Semantic Web is developing a suitably rich language for encoding and describing Web content. Such a language must have a well defined semantics, be sufficiently expressive to describe the complex interrelationships and constraints between Web objects, and be amenable to automated manipulation and reasoning with acceptable limits on time and resource requirements. A key

  13. Semantic annotation, indexing, and retrieval

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atanas Kiryakov; Borislav Popov; Ivan Terziev; Dimitar Manov; Damyan Ognyanoff

    2004-01-01

    The Semantic Web realization depends on the availability of a critical mass of metadata for the web content, associated with the respective formal knowledge about the world. We claim that the Semantic Web, at its current stage of development, is in a state of a critically need of metadata generation and usage schemata that are specific, well-defined and easy to

  14. Semantic Knowledge Management for Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Kohlhase; Michael Kohlhase

    2008-01-01

    ldquoSemantic technologiesrdquo are touted as the next big wave in educational technology and as the solution to many problems in this arena. Interdisciplinary work between the fields of knowledge management (KM) and educational technology (ET) is booming. But the crop of actual systems and semantically enhanced learning objects is still meager, maybe because KM and EL are lacking a consensus

  15. UNSUPERVISED MINING OF AUDIOVISUALLY CONSISTENT SEGMENTS IN VIDEOS WITH APPLICATION TO STRUCTURE ANALYSIS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    video structure analysis, using simple heuristics on occurrence patterns of the events discoveredUNSUPERVISED MINING OF AUDIOVISUALLY CONSISTENT SEGMENTS IN VIDEOS WITH APPLICATION TO STRUCTURE ANALYSIS Mathieu Ben INRIA Rennes 35042 Rennes Cedex, France mathieu.ben@inria.fr Guillaume Gravier IRISA

  16. Audiovisual Material as Educational Innovation Strategy to Reduce Anxiety Response in Students of Human Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casado, Maria Isabel; Castano, Gloria; Arraez-Aybar, Luis Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the design, effect and utility of using audiovisual material containing real images of dissected human cadavers as an innovative educational strategy (IES) in the teaching of Human Anatomy. The goal is to familiarize students with the practice of dissection and to transmit the importance and necessity of this discipline, while…

  17. Peer review of consultations in primary care: the use of audiovisual recordings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J E Verby; P Holden; R H Davis

    1979-01-01

    A rating scale was designed to measure performance in interviewing techniques in primary care. Peer review of audiovisual recordings of their consultations showed that a group of experienced general practitioners achieved significantly higher scores on the rating scale compared with a group of similarly experienced general practitioners who did not observe their recordings. The higher scores were obtained at the

  18. Brief Report: Arrested Development of Audiovisual Speech Perception in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Ryan A.; Siemann, Justin K.; Woynaroski, Tiffany G.; Schneider, Brittany C.; Eberly, Haley E.; Camarata, Stephen M.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Atypical communicative abilities are a core marker of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). A number of studies have shown that, in addition to auditory comprehension differences, individuals with autism frequently show atypical responses to audiovisual speech, suggesting a multisensory contribution to these communicative differences from their…

  19. CUAVE: A new audio-visual database for multimodal human-computer interface research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. K. Patterson; S. Gurbuz; Z. Tufekci; J. N. Gowdy

    2002-01-01

    Multimodal signal processing has become an important topic of research for overcoming certain problems of audio-only speech processing. Audio-visual speech recognition is one area with great potential. Difficulties due to background noise and multiple speakers are significantly reduced by the additional information provided by extra visual features. Despite a few efforts to create databases in this area, none has emerged

  20. Music expertise shapes audiovisual temporal integration windows for speech, sinewave speech, and music

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hweeling; Noppeney, Uta

    2014-01-01

    This psychophysics study used musicians as a model to investigate whether musical expertise shapes the temporal integration window for audiovisual speech, sinewave speech, or music. Musicians and non-musicians judged the audiovisual synchrony of speech, sinewave analogs of speech, and music stimuli at 13 audiovisual stimulus onset asynchronies (±360, ±300 ±240, ±180, ±120, ±60, and 0 ms). Further, we manipulated the duration of the stimuli by presenting sentences/melodies or syllables/tones. Critically, musicians relative to non-musicians exhibited significantly narrower temporal integration windows for both music and sinewave speech. Further, the temporal integration window for music decreased with the amount of music practice, but not with age of acquisition. In other words, the more musicians practiced piano in the past 3 years, the more sensitive they became to the temporal misalignment of visual and auditory signals. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that music practicing fine-tunes the audiovisual temporal integration window to various extents depending on the stimulus class. While the effect of piano practicing was most pronounced for music, it also generalized to other stimulus classes such as sinewave speech and to a marginally significant degree to natural speech. PMID:25147539

  1. Brief report: Arrested development of audiovisual speech perception in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Ryan A; Siemann, Justin K; Woynaroski, Tiffany G; Schneider, Brittany C; Eberly, Haley E; Camarata, Stephen M; Wallace, Mark T

    2014-06-01

    Atypical communicative abilities are a core marker of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). A number of studies have shown that, in addition to auditory comprehension differences, individuals with autism frequently show atypical responses to audiovisual speech, suggesting a multisensory contribution to these communicative differences from their typically developing peers. To shed light on possible differences in the maturation of audiovisual speech integration, we tested younger (ages 6-12) and older (ages 13-18) children with and without ASD on a task indexing such multisensory integration. To do this, we used the McGurk effect, in which the pairing of incongruent auditory and visual speech tokens typically results in the perception of a fused percept distinct from the auditory and visual signals, indicative of active integration of the two channels conveying speech information. Whereas little difference was seen in audiovisual speech processing (i.e., reports of McGurk fusion) between the younger ASD and TD groups, there was a significant difference at the older ages. While TD controls exhibited an increased rate of fusion (i.e., integration) with age, children with ASD failed to show this increase. These data suggest arrested development of audiovisual speech integration in ASD. The results are discussed in light of the extant literature and necessary next steps in research. PMID:24218241

  2. Development of Audiovisual Comprehension Skills in Prelingually Deaf Children With Cochlear Implants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tonya R. Bergeson; David B. Pisoni; Rebecca A. O. Davis

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated the devel- opment of audiovisual comprehension skills in pre- lingually deaf children who received cochlear implants. Design: We analyzed results obtained with the Com- mon Phrases (Robbins et al., 1995) test of sentence comprehension from 80 prelingually deaf children with cochlear implants who were enrolled in a longitudinal study, from pre-implantation to 5 years after

  3. Storage, Handling and Preservation of Audiovisual Materials. AV in Action 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Anthony Hugh

    Designed to provide the librarian with suggestions and guidelines for storing and preserving audiovisual materials, this pamphlet is divided into four major chapters: (1) Normal Use Storage Conditions; (2) Natural Lifetime, Working Lifetime and Long-Term Storage; (3) Handling; and (4) Shelving of Normal Use Materials. Topics addressed include:…

  4. The Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency: Helping You Grow Your Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency, European Commission, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA) is a public body created by a Decision of the European Commission and operates under its supervision. It is located in Brussels and has been operational since January 2006. Its role is to manage European funding opportunities and networks in the fields of education and training,…

  5. Event detection in field sports video using audio-visual features and a support vector Machine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Sadlier; Noel E. O'connor

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel audio-visual feature-based framework for event detection in broadcast video of multiple different field sports. Features indicating significant events are selected and robust detectors built. These features are rooted in characteristics common to all genres of field sports. The evidence gathered by the feature detectors is combined by means of a support vector machine,

  6. Audiovisual Education in Primary Schools: A Curriculum Project in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketzer, Jan W.

    Audiovisual, or mass media education can play a significant role in children's social, emotional, cognitive, sensory, motor, and creative development. It includes all school activities which teach children to interact with The field includes all school activities which teach children to interact with visualize ideas. Students can be involved in…

  7. Selective Review of the Results of Research on the Use of Audiovisual Media to Teach Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campeau, Peggie L.

    The purpose of this literature review was to summarize results of experimental studies on the instructional effectiveness of audiovisual media in post-secondary education. Studies which met seven major screening criteria were used. A study was generally accepted if it compared performance of experimental and control groups on objective measures of…

  8. Audiovisuals for Nutrition Education. Nutrition Education Resource Series No. 9. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Nutrition Education Clearing House, Berkeley, CA.

    This bibliography contains reviews of more than 250 audiovisual materials in eight subject areas related to nutrition: (1) general nutrition; (2) life cycle; (3) diet/health and disease; (4) health and athletics; (5) food - general; (6) food preparation and service; (7) food habits and preferences; and (8) food economics and concerns. Materials…

  9. Audiovisuals for Nutrition Education; Selected Evaluative Reviews from the Journal of Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Sue Ellen, Comp.

    Audiovisual materials suitable for the teaching of nutrition are listed. Materials include coloring books, flannelboard stories, games, kits, audiotapes, records, charts, posters, study prints, films, videotapes, filmstrips, slides, and transparencies. Each entry contains bibliographic data, educational level, price and evaluation. Mateiral is…

  10. Audiovisual interventions to reduce the use of general anaesthesia with paediatric patients during radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Willis, D; Barry, P

    2010-06-01

    Clinical audiovisual interventions were implemented to avoid the use of general anaesthesia with children undergoing radiation therapy treatment. A retrospective audit and case study review was conducted to evaluate the utility of distraction interventions aimed at improving immobilisation and reducing separation anxiety for children aged between 2 and 6 years old who received radiation therapy. A simple, inexpensive audiovisual system was established using commercially available equipment. Paediatric patients could elect to (i) use a closed-circuit TV system that allowed them to see their carer(s); (ii) watch a DVD movie; or (iii) listen to carer(s) on a microphone during their treatment. Over a 2-year period (March 2007-May 2009), 37 paediatric patients aged 2-6 years received radiation therapy at the centre. Twenty-four children participated in audiovisual interventions, and 92% (n = 22) of these children did not require the use of general anaesthesia for some or all of their treatment. Case study review illustrates the utility and limitations of the system. The audit and case studies suggest that the audiovisual interventions provided supportive care and reduced the need to anaesthetise children undergoing radiation therapy treatment. PMID:20598013

  11. Audiovisual Speech Perception in Children with Developmental Language Disorder in Degraded Listening Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meronen, Auli; Tiippana, Kaisa; Westerholm, Jari; Ahonen, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The effect of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the perception of audiovisual speech in children with and without developmental language disorder (DLD) was investigated by varying the noise level and the sound intensity of acoustic speech. The main hypotheses were that the McGurk effect (in which incongruent visual speech alters the…

  12. Audiovisual Media in the Dutch Public Library. AV in Action 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spruit, Ed.

    Based mainly on the experiences of seven Dutch public libraries during a 5-year study, this report discusses issues related to the integration of audiovisual materials and equipment into existing library collections. Following a brief introduction, its contents are divided into chapters: (1) Collection Building; (2) Processing; (3) Cataloguing;…

  13. A Portable Presentation Package for Audio-Visual Instruction. Technical Documentary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Edgar A.; And Others

    The Portable Presentation Package is a prototype of an audiovisual equipment package designed to facilitate technical training in remote areas, situations in which written communications are difficult, or in situations requiring rapid presentation of instructional material. The major criteria employed in developing the package were (1) that the…

  14. Selective Attention Modulates the Direction of Audio-Visual Temporal Recalibration

    PubMed Central

    Ikumi, Nara; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    Temporal recalibration of cross-modal synchrony has been proposed as a mechanism to compensate for timing differences between sensory modalities. However, far from the rich complexity of everyday life sensory environments, most studies to date have examined recalibration on isolated cross-modal pairings. Here, we hypothesize that selective attention might provide an effective filter to help resolve which stimuli are selected when multiple events compete for recalibration. We addressed this question by testing audio-visual recalibration following an adaptation phase where two opposing audio-visual asynchronies were present. The direction of voluntary visual attention, and therefore to one of the two possible asynchronies (flash leading or flash lagging), was manipulated using colour as a selection criterion. We found a shift in the point of subjective audio-visual simultaneity as a function of whether the observer had focused attention to audio-then-flash or to flash-then-audio groupings during the adaptation phase. A baseline adaptation condition revealed that this effect of endogenous attention was only effective toward the lagging flash. This hints at the role of exogenous capture and/or additional endogenous effects producing an asymmetry toward the leading flash. We conclude that selective attention helps promote selected audio-visual pairings to be combined and subsequently adjusted in time but, stimulus organization exerts a strong impact on recalibration. We tentatively hypothesize that the resolution of recalibration in complex scenarios involves the orchestration of top-down selection mechanisms and stimulus-driven processes. PMID:25004132

  15. Audio, Video and Audio-Visual Signatures for Short Video Clip Detection: Experiments on Trecvid2003

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Audio, Video and Audio-Visual Signatures for Short Video Clip Detection: Experiments on Trecvid2003.Senechal,Denis.Pellerin}@lis.inpg.fr, Laurent.Besacier@imag.fr ABSTRACT In this paper, we present the association of audio and video signatures for short video clip detection. First, we present an audio signature based on the spectral flatness measure

  16. Catalogo de peliculas educativas y otros materiales audiovisuales (Catalogue of Educational Films and other Audiovisual Materials).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    This catalogue of educational films and other audiovisual materials consists predominantly of films in Spanish and English which are intended for use in elementary and secondary schools. A wide variety of topics including films for social studies, language arts, humanities, physical and natural sciences, safety and health, agriculture, physical…

  17. DreamThrower: An audio/visual display for influencing dreams Noreen Kamal

    E-print Network

    British Columbia, University of

    DreamThrower: An audio/visual display for influencing dreams Noreen Kamal , Abir Al Hajri, Sidney: Dream detection Dream creation Dream stimulus Rapid eye movement a b s t r a c t The DreamThrower is a novel technology that explores virtually creating, throwing and catching dreams. It detects users' dream

  18. Audio-Visual Materials in Adult Consumer Education: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgue, Raymond E.; And Others

    Designed to provide a quick but thorough reference for consumer educators of adults to use when choosing audio-visual materials, this annotated bibliography includes eighty-five titles from the currently available 1,500 films, slidesets, cassettes, records, and transparencies. (Materials were rejected because they were out-of-date; not relevant to…

  19. REVERBERANT SPEECH SEPARATION BASED ON AUDIO-VISUAL DICTIONARY LEARNING AND BINAURAL CUES

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Philip JB

    difference (IPD) and the interaural level difference (ILD), can be used to obtain the audio mask in the time- frequency (TF) domain, for source separation of binaural mixtures. Those models are, however, often degraded the audio-visual (AV) coherence based on dictionary learning. A visual mask is constructed from the video

  20. Evaluation of an audiovisual-FM system: speechreading performance as a function of distance.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Jean-Pierre; Charest, Monique; Le Monday, K; Desbiens, C

    2006-05-01

    A research program was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of an audiovisual-FM system as a speechreading aid. The present study investigated the effects of the distance between the talker and the speechreader on a visual-speech perception task. Sentences were recorded simultaneously with a conventional Hi8 mm video camera, and with the microcamera of an audiovisual-FM system. The recordings were obtained from two talkers at three different distances: 1.83 m, 3.66 m, and 7.32 m. Sixteen subjects completed a visual-keyword recognition task. The main results of the investigation were as follows: For the recordings obtained with the conventional video camera, there was a significant decrease in speechreading performance as the distance between the talker and the camera increased. For the recordings obtained with the microcamera of the audiovisual-FM system, there were no differences in speechreading as a function of the test distances. The findings of the investigation confirm that in a classroom setting the use of an audiovisual-FM system may constitute an effective way of overcoming the deleterious effects of distance on speechreading performance. PMID:16717020

  1. Effects of Audio-Visual Information on the Intelligibility of Alaryngeal Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evitts, Paul M.; Portugal, Lindsay; Van Dine, Ami; Holler, Aline

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is minimal research on the contribution of visual information on speech intelligibility for individuals with a laryngectomy (IWL). Aims: The purpose of this project was to determine the effects of mode of presentation (audio-only, audio-visual) on alaryngeal speech intelligibility. Method: Twenty-three naive listeners were…

  2. Temporal Interval Discrimination Thresholds Depend on Perceived Synchrony for Audio-Visual Stimulus Pairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Eijk, Rob L. J.; Kohlrausch, Armin; Juola, James F.; van de Par, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Audio-visual stimulus pairs presented at various relative delays, are commonly judged as being "synchronous" over a range of delays from about -50 ms (audio leading) to +150 ms (video leading). The center of this range is an estimate of the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS). The judgment boundaries, where "synchronous" judgments yield to a…

  3. Infant Attention to Dynamic Audiovisual Stimuli: Look Duration from 3 to 9 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Greg D.; Zhang, Dantong; Guy, Maggie W.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine developmental change in visual attention to dynamic visual and audiovisual stimuli in 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old infants. Infant look duration was measured during exposure to dynamic geometric patterns and Sesame Street video clips under three different stimulus modality conditions: unimodal visual, synchronous…

  4. Management of Audio-Visual Media Services. Part II. Practical Management Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Robert V.

    1978-01-01

    This paper furnishes a framework that allows the local audiovisual administrator to develop a management system necessary for the instructional support of teaching through modern media and educational technology. The structure of this framework rests on organizational patterns which are explained in four categories: complete decentralization,…

  5. Sources of Audiovisual Materials about Handicapping Conditions. Reference Circular No. 85-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    The reference circular lists sources of audiovisual materials on handicapping conditions with separate sections on adults and children. The materials, which include films, videocassettes, and slides address such adult-related topics as accessibility, arthritis, attitudes toward disabled persons, communication, deafness, mainstreaming, employment,…

  6. Selected List of Instructional Materials for English as a Second Language: Audio-Visual Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Arlington, VA.

    This bibliography lists audiovisual materials used in the teaching of English as a second language. The sections of the bibliography include: (1) Pictures, Charts, and Flash cards, (2) Flannel Aids, (3) Games and Puzzles, (4) Films, (5) Filmstrips and Transparencies, (6) Aural Aids, and (7) Miscellaneous Aids, including a classroom thermometer, a…

  7. Non-intrusive remote sleep monitoring & event detection system using audio-visual recording

    E-print Network

    Nakanishi, Hideyuki

    sleep monitoring & event detection system using audio-visual recording 3-2 Modeling and Predicting;25 3 50 1 2 GeoNLP 6-2 6-1 5-3 The CO2 reduction effect of eco, such as atomic BECs and exciton-polariton BECs for use in applications such as novel light sources, atomtronics

  8. The Efficacy of an Audiovisual Aid in Teaching the Neo-Classical Screenplay Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uys, P. G.

    2009-01-01

    This study interrogated the central theoretical statement that understanding and learning to apply the abstract concept of classical dramatic narrative structure can be addressed effectively through a useful audiovisual teaching method. The purpose of the study was to design an effective DVD teaching and learning aid, to justify the design through…

  9. The Use of Video as an Audio-visual Material in Foreign Language Teaching Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakir, Ismail

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, a great tendency towards the use of technology and its integration into the curriculum has gained a great importance. Particularly, the use of video as an audio-visual material in foreign language teaching classrooms has grown rapidly because of the increasing emphasis on communicative techniques, and it is obvious that the use of…

  10. Content-based Table Tennis Games Highlight Detection Utilizing Audiovisual Clues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Zhang; Wei Chen; Weibei Dou; Yu-jin Zhang; Liming Chen

    2007-01-01

    Both audio and video are considered as important information carriers of multimedia content. In this paper, we propose an algorithm utilizing audiovisual clues for a scenario of sports game highlight detection, where the highlight detection for table tennis games are studied. Since audio and video contain different aspects of information that is helpful to locate highlights, we build two algorithms

  11. MushyPeek: A Framework for Online Investigation of Audiovisual Dialogue Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edlund, Jens; Beskow, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of methods and techniques for conversational and multimodal spoken dialogue systems is complex, as is gathering data for the modeling and tuning of such techniques. This article describes MushyPeek, an experiment framework that allows us to manipulate the audiovisual behavior of interlocutors in a setting similar to face-to-face…

  12. Audiovisual Education at the Local Level: Chiba Prefecture. AVE in Japan No. 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japan Audio-Visual Education Association, Tokyo.

    This collection of three essays examines the use of audiovisual instruction in Chiba Prefecture, east of Tokyo. In the first example, a closed circuit video system combined with overhead projectors was used to increase student motivation in a junior high school. In the second example, films, radio, television, slides, and videotaped materials were…

  13. A fully automatic face recognition system using a combined audio-visual approach

    E-print Network

    Torres, Luis

    A fully automatic face recognition system using a combined audio-visual approach Alberto Albiol and illumination settings for face recognition. However, in uncontrolled environments with changes in pose and illumination, face recognition is still an open problem, and it seems that this situation will still remain

  14. Arousal and Reminiscence in Learning From Color and Black/White Audio-Visual Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Frank H.; Grant, Alfred D.

    Reminiscence, or an increase in retention scores from a short-to-long-term retention test, has been shown in some previous work to be a significant function of arousal. Previous studies of the effects of color versus black-and-white audiovisual presentations have generally used film or television and have found no facilitating effect of color on…

  15. Comparisons of Audio and Audiovisual Measures of Stuttering Frequency and Severity in Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Isabelle; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Jones, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether measures of stuttering frequency and measures of overall stuttering severity in preschoolers differ when made from audio-only recordings compared with audiovisual recordings. Method: Four blinded speech-language pathologists who had extensive experience with preschoolers who stutter measured stuttering frequency and…

  16. Characterization and extraction of mouth opening parameters available for audiovisual speech enhancement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frédéric Berthommier

    2004-01-01

    The strong association existing between audio subband envelope parameters and video parameters extracted using the full DCT (discrete cosine transform) can be exploited for audiovisual speech enhancement, thanks to a good prediction of amplitude variations by a statistical model. Since the video parameter space is highly multidimensional, the causality of this association must be clarified. At first, a new method

  17. Hotel and Restaurant Management; A Bibliography of Books and Audio-Visual Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkames, James P.; And Others

    This bibliography represents a collection of 1,300 book volumes and audiovisual materials collected by the Luzerne County Community College Library in support of the college's Hotel and Restaurant Management curriculum. It covers such diverse topics as advertising, business practices, decoration, nutrition, hotel law, insurance landscaping, health…

  18. Perception of Dynamic and Static Audiovisual Sequences in 3- and 4-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewkowicz, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated perception of audiovisual sequences in 3- and 4-month-old infants. Infants were habituated to sequences consisting of moving/sounding or looming/sounding objects and then tested for their ability to detect changes in the order of the objects, sounds, or both. Results showed that 3-month-olds perceived the order of 3-element…

  19. Semantic Social Profile a Semantic Boost for the Social Information in MediaWiki

    E-print Network

    Langendoen, Koen

    Semantic Social Profile ­ a Semantic Boost for the Social Information in MediaWiki Yury Katkov1 of concept introduces a flexible way of integration the social features of MediaWiki and Semantic Media.pokoptsev@gmail.com Abstract. Semantic MediaWiki proved its effectiveness as a platform for creating semantically connected

  20. Failing to Get the Gist: Reduced False Recognition of Semantic Associates in Semantic Dementia

    E-print Network

    Schacter, Daniel

    Failing to Get the Gist: Reduced False Recognition of Semantic Associates in Semantic Dementia Jon and Women's Hospital In 2 experiments involving patients with semantic dementia, the authors investigated semantically. Patients with semantic dementia obtained item-specific recollection and gist memory scores

  1. DRAFT: Please do not distribute without permission. Thanks! A New Axiomatic Semantics for Semantic Web

    E-print Network

    Menzel, Christopher

    Ginness and Fikes provided a commendable "axomatic semantics" of the Semantic Web languages RDF, RDF Schema://www-unix.mcs.anl.gov/AR/otter) or Tau (http://hsinfosystems.com/taujay). #12;Menzel An Architecture for Integrating Semantic WebDRAFT: Please do not distribute without permission. Thanks! A New Axiomatic Semantics for Semantic

  2. Mapping the Structure of Semantic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morais, Ana Sofia; Olsson, Henrik; Schooler, Lael J.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregating snippets from the semantic memories of many individuals may not yield a good map of an individual's semantic memory. The authors analyze the structure of semantic networks that they sampled from individuals through a new snowball sampling paradigm during approximately 6 weeks of 1-hr daily sessions. The semantic networks of individuals…

  3. Initial Algebra Semantics and Continuous Algebras

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph A. Goguen; James W. Thatcher; Eric G. Wagner; Jesse B. Wright

    1977-01-01

    Many apparently divergent approaches to specifying formal semantics of programming languages are applications of initial algebra semantics. In this paper an overview of initial algebra semantics is provided. The major technical feature is an initial continuous algebra which permits unified algebraic treatment of iterative and recursive semantic features in the same framework as more basic operations.

  4. Chinese Character Decoding: A Semantic Bias?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Clay; Bever, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The effects of semantic and phonetic radicals on Chinese character decoding were examined. Our results suggest that semantic and phonetic radicals are each available for access when a corresponding task emphasizes one or the other kind of radical. But in a more neutral lexical recognition task, the semantic radical is more informative. Semantic

  5. Steffen Staab ISWeb Lecture ,,Semantic Web"

    E-print Network

    Staab, Steffen

    Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" Semantic Web Prof. Dr. Steffen Staab Dipl.-Med.Inf. Bernhard Tausch Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" Organizational Issues Contact: staab excercise) Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" General Schedule Lecture Thursdays 10.15 MK 208

  6. Steffen Staab ISWeb Lecture ,,Semantic Web" (1)

    E-print Network

    Staab, Steffen

    Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" (1) Semantic Web Logical foundations Acknowledgements to Pascal Hitzler, York Sure Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" (2) ,,Logic is the Calculus of differential equations in the natural sciences." Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" (3) Applications

  7. Semantic Web Methodologies for Spatial Decision Support

    E-print Network

    Austin, Mark

    Semantic Web Methodologies for Spatial Decision Support Michael J. Casey Mark A. Austin for the web-based exchange of data and services using semantic agents. A semantic-web enabled spatial. Finally, we discuss extensions and challenges in semantic-web research as they pertain to spatial decision

  8. Meaning and the Semantic Web # Bijan Parsia

    E-print Network

    Jeffrey, Alan

    Meaning and the Semantic Web # Bijan Parsia University of Maryland College Park, MD, USA bparsia The meaning of names (URI references) is a contentious issue in the Semantic Web. Numerous proposals as to how to provide meaning for names in the Semantic Web, ranging from a strict lo­ calized model­theoretic semantics

  9. Steffen Staab ISWeb Lecture ,,Semantic Web" (1)

    E-print Network

    Staab, Steffen

    Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" (1) Semantic Web Logical foundations Acknowledgements to Pascal Hitzler, York Sure #12;Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" (2) ,,Logic is the Calculus of differential equations in the natural sciences." #12;Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" (3

  10. Semantic Web research main streams, popular falacies,

    E-print Network

    van Harmelen, Frank

    Semantic Web research anno 2006: main streams, popular falacies, current status, future challenges Frank van Harmelen Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam #12;2 This is NOT a Semantic Web evangelization talk (I of the day, of temporary interest" #12;Which Semantic Web are we talking about? Semantic Web research anno

  11. Steffen Staab ISWeb Lecture ,,Semantic Web"

    E-print Network

    Staab, Steffen

    Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" Semantic Web Prof. Dr. Steffen Staab Dipl.-Med.Inf. Bernhard Tausch #12;Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" Organizational Issues Contact: staab excercise) #12;Steffen Staab ISWeb ­ Lecture ,,Semantic Web" General Schedule Lecture Thursdays 10.15 MK 208

  12. "Pre-Semantic" Cognition Revisited: Critical Differences between Semantic Aphasia and Semantic Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal "pre-semantic" tasks, e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are…

  13. Audio-visual speech intelligibility benefits with bilateral cochlear implants when talker location varies.

    PubMed

    van Hoesel, Richard J M

    2015-04-01

    One of the key benefits of using cochlear implants (CIs) in both ears rather than just one is improved localization. It is likely that in complex listening scenes, improved localization allows bilateral CI users to orient toward talkers to improve signal-to-noise ratios and gain access to visual cues, but to date, that conjecture has not been tested. To obtain an objective measure of that benefit, seven bilateral CI users were assessed for both auditory-only and audio-visual speech intelligibility in noise using a novel dynamic spatial audio-visual test paradigm. For each trial conducted in spatially distributed noise, first, an auditory-only cueing phrase that was spoken by one of four talkers was selected and presented from one of four locations. Shortly afterward, a target sentence was presented that was either audio-visual or, in another test configuration, audio-only and was spoken by the same talker and from the same location as the cueing phrase. During the target presentation, visual distractors were added at other spatial locations. Results showed that in terms of speech reception thresholds (SRTs), the average improvement for bilateral listening over the better performing ear alone was 9 dB for the audio-visual mode, and 3 dB for audition-alone. Comparison of bilateral performance for audio-visual and audition-alone showed that inclusion of visual cues led to an average SRT improvement of 5 dB. For unilateral device use, no such benefit arose, presumably due to the greatly reduced ability to localize the target talker to acquire visual information. The bilateral CI speech intelligibility advantage over the better ear in the present study is much larger than that previously reported for static talker locations and indicates greater everyday speech benefits and improved cost-benefit than estimated to date. PMID:25582430

  14. Exploiting Recurring Structure in a Semantic Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, Richard M.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing popularity of the Semantic Web, an increasing amount of information is becoming available in machine interpretable, semantically structured networks. Within these semantic networks are recurring structures that could be mined by existing or novel knowledge discovery methods. The mining of these semantic structures represents an interesting area that focuses on mining both for and from the Semantic Web, with surprising applicability to problems confronting the developers of Semantic Web applications. In this paper, we present representative examples of recurring structures and show how these structures could be used to increase the utility of a semantic repository deployed at NASA.

  15. The performance of the Congruence Among Distance Matrices (CADM) test in phylogenetic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background CADM is a statistical test used to estimate the level of Congruence Among Distance Matrices. It has been shown in previous studies to have a correct rate of type I error and good power when applied to dissimilarity matrices and to ultrametric distance matrices. Contrary to most other tests of incongruence used in phylogenetic analysis, the null hypothesis of the CADM test assumes complete incongruence of the phylogenetic trees instead of congruence. In this study, we performed computer simulations to assess the type I error rate and power of the test. It was applied to additive distance matrices representing phylogenies and to genetic distance matrices obtained from nucleotide sequences of different lengths that were simulated on randomly generated trees of varying sizes, and under different evolutionary conditions. Results Our results showed that the test has an accurate type I error rate and good power. As expected, power increased with the number of objects (i.e., taxa), the number of partially or completely congruent matrices and the level of congruence among distance matrices. Conclusions Based on our results, we suggest that CADM is an excellent candidate to test for congruence and, when present, to estimate its level in phylogenomic studies where numerous genes are analysed simultaneously. PMID:21388552

  16. Congruence Between Intention and Strategy in University Science Teachers' Approaches to Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trigwell, Keith; Prosser, Michael

    1996-01-01

    An Australian study investigated the congruence between intention and strategy in science teachers' qualitatively different approaches to teaching in introductory courses. Results indicated that the strategy adopted by the teacher matched his teaching intention. As anticipated, a student-focused strategy was associated with a conceptual change…

  17. Topic Congruence and Topic Interest: How Do They Affect Second Language Reading Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang-Ki

    2009-01-01

    Because human memory is largely reconstructive, people tend to reorganize and reevaluate an event in a way that is coherent to the truth values held in their belief system. This study investigated the role of topic congruence (defined as whether the reading content corresponds with readers' prior beliefs towards a contentious topic) in second…

  18. Congruency as a Nonspecific Perceptual Property Contributing to Newborns' Face Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassia, Viola Macchi; Valenza, Eloisa; Simion, Francesca; Leo, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Past research has shown that top-heaviness is a perceptual property that plays a crucial role in triggering newborns' preference toward faces. The present study examined the contribution of a second configural property, "congruency," to newborns' face preference. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that when embedded in nonfacelike stimuli,…

  19. COMPLETELY O-SIMPLE SEMIGROUPS An Abstract Treatment of the Lattice of Congruences

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Hans

    of Congruences Copyright © 1969 by W. A. Benjamin, Inc. All rights reserved Library of Congress Catalog Card;#12;FOR THE READER We propose in this monograph to introduce the reader to some of the basic tools necessary although the proofs of some of the easier propositions will be left to the reader. (Most

  20. Exploring the Congruence between the Lesotho Junior Secondary Geography Curriculum and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raselimo, Mohaeka; Irwin, Pat; Wilmot, Di

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the Lesotho junior secondary geography curriculum document with the purpose of exploring the congruence between geography and environmental education. The study is based on a curriculum reform process introduced by the Lesotho Environmental Education Support Project (LEESP) in 2001. we draw theoretical insights from…

  1. The practice orientations of physicians and patients: the effect of doctor–patient congruence on satisfaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Krupat; Susan L. Rosenkranz; Carter M. Yeager; Karen Barnard; Samuel M. Putnam; Thomas S. Inui

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which the individual orientations of physicians and patients and the congruence between them are associated with patient satisfaction. A survey was mailed to 400 physicians and 1020 of their patients. All respondents filled out the Patient–Practitioner Orientation Scale, which measures the roles that doctors and patients believe each should play in the course of

  2. Does Discourse Congruence Influence Spoken Language Comprehension before Lexical Association? Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudewyn, Megan A.; Gordon, Peter C.; Long, Debra; Polse, Lara; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an event-related potential (ERP) norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a…

  3. Teaching Work Group-Task Congruence: The Fit for Performance Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Mark A.; Blancero, Donna; Luce, Carol; Marron, George

    2001-01-01

    The Fit for Performance exercise is designed to show how congruence between a work group's composition and complexity of its tasks affects outcomes. Students are assigned to one of four conditions, with complex or simple tasks and unifunctional or multifunctional group composition. (SK)

  4. Development and Field Test of the Multiple Intelligences Learning Instruction Congruency Impact Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peifer, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to the academic discussion regarding the validity of Multiple Intelligences (MI) theory through focusing on the validity of an important construct embedded in the theory, that of congruence between instructional style and preferred MI style for optimal learning. Currently there is insufficient empirical…

  5. Clinical information systems end user satisfaction: The expectations and needs congruencies effects.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Faezeh; Poo, Danny C C; Tan, Yung Ming

    2015-02-01

    Prior research on information systems (IS) shows that users' attitudes and continuance intentions are associated with their satisfaction with information systems. As such, the increasing amount of investments in clinical information systems (CIS) signifies the importance of understanding CIS end users' (i.e., clinicians) satisfaction. In this study, we develop a conceptual framework to identify the cognitive determinants of clinicians' satisfaction formation. The disconfirmation paradigm serves as the core of the framework. The expectations and needs congruency models are the two models of this paradigm, and perceived performance is the basis of the comparisons in the models. The needs and expectations associated with the models are also specified. The survey methodology is adopted in this study to empirically validate the proposed research model. The survey is conducted at a public hospital and results in 112 and 203 valid responses (56% and 98% response rates) from doctors and nurses respectively. The partial least squares (PLS) method is used to analyze the data. The results of the study show that perceived CIS performance is the most influential factor on clinicians' (i.e., doctors and nurses) satisfaction. Doctors' expectations congruency is the next significant determinant of their satisfaction. Contrary to most previous findings, nurses' expectations and expectations congruency do not show a significant effect on their satisfaction. However, the needs congruency is found to significantly affect nurses' satisfaction. PMID:25542853

  6. A triangulation analysis of value congruency in corporate Spain: American dream or Spanish reality?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Knoppen; Simon L. Dolan; M. Díez-Piñol; R. Bell

    2006-01-01

    The construct of value congruency has become the centre of scholarly as well as practitioner attention in the past two decades. Theoretical reasoning, however, has mainly originated in an Anglo Saxon context accompanied by scarce and contradictory empirical results. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore further the construct and determine its presence in the relatively unexplored cultural

  7. Congruence of Self-Reported Medications with Pharmacy Prescription Records in Low-Income Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caskie, Grace I. L.; Willis, Sherry L.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the congruence of self-reported medications with computerized pharmacy records. Design and Methods: Pharmacy records and self-reported medications were obtained for 294 members of a state pharmaceutical assistance program who also participated in ACTIVE, a clinical trial on cognitive training in nondemented elderly…

  8. The Congruence between Industry Demand and Professional School Response in Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Ronald

    This study sought insight into the congruence between knowledge, skills and attitudes required by architecture practitioners and the benefits of professional school education. Twenty-four senior architects from Los Angeles architecture firms and 11 professional school deans and faculty members from the Graduate School of Architecture and Urban…

  9. Congruence between the Democratic Purposes of Schools and School Principal Training in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulford, Bill

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines and compares the recent emphases in school education and school leadership training in Australia and the state of Tasmania as they relate to the democratic purposes of schools. It finds a strong emphasis on the democratic purposes of schools and congruence between these purposes and the means of achieving them, in respect of…

  10. Person-Environment Congruence and Personality Domains in the Prediction of Job Performance and Work Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Kevin M.; Schinka, John A.; Curtiss, Glenn

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of the 5-Factor Model (FFM; P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) and RIASEC (J. L. Holland, 1994) constructs of consistency, differentiation, and person-environment congruence in predicting job performance ratings in a large sample (N = 514) of employees. Hierarchical regression analyses conducted separately by…

  11. Modulating the Masked Congruence Priming Effect With the Hands and the Mouth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Finkbeiner; Alfonso Caramazza

    2008-01-01

    The authors report a series of experiments in which they use the masked congruence priming paradigm to investigate the processing of masked primes in the manual and verbal response modalities. In the manual response modality, they found that masked incongruent primes produced interference relative to both congruent and neutral primes. This finding, which replicates the standard finding in the masked

  12. Occupational Congruence and Personal Task-Related Attributes: How Do They Relate to Work Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tziner, Aharon; Meir, Elchanan I.; Segal, Hila

    2002-01-01

    Data from 359 military officers (measures of personality, ability, and congruence) and supervisor and peer performance ratings were analyzed. Personality and person-environment fit were related to performance. Extroverts and those whose interests were congruent with their work environment tended to receive higher ratings. (Contains 41 references.)…

  13. Child physical activity and parent-child attitude congruence of athletic competence and activity type

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to evaluate parental influence on child physical activity (PA) through parental beliefs on child competence and importance of specific types of PA. Utilizing Eccles' expectancy-value model of task choice, the study examined parent-child attitude congruence and whether task value bel...

  14. The effects of college major and job field congruence on job satisfaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory C. Wolniak; Ernest T. Pascarella

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of job satisfaction and builds on previous research on the effects of bachelor’s degree majors and job field congruence on job satisfaction. Data on workers’ job experiences in 2001 were matched to those workers’ college experiences across 30 institutions and background characteristics up to 25 years earlier. With statistical controls for demographic, socioeconomic, and academic characteristics,

  15. The Adolescent-Parent Career Congruence Scale: Development and Initial Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawitri, Dian R.; Creed, Peter A.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2013-01-01

    Although there is a growing interest in the discrepancy between parents and their adolescent children in relation to career expectations, there is no existing, psychometrically sound scale that directly measures adolescent-parent career congruence or incongruence. This study reports the development and initial validation of the Adolescent-Parent…

  16. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 7, The Rational Numbers, Chapter 8, Congruence. Student's Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    The first chapter in this fourth unit in this SMSG series of student texts covers properties and operations with rational numbers (both negative and non-negative rationals), equations involving rational numbers, and the structure of the rational number system. The second chapter on congruence discusses congruent segments, angles, and triangles;…

  17. JOURNAL OF NUMBER THEORY 20, 210-237 (1985) Congruences via Abelian Groups

    E-print Network

    Sagan, Bruce

    JOURNAL OF NUMBER THEORY 20, 210-237 (1985) Congruences via Abelian Groups BRUCE E. SAGAN* Departmen of Mathematics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont OS753 Communicated by D. J. Lewis Received at Dickson's History of the Theory of Numbers [9] shows that this method has been rediscovered many times

  18. Examining Congruence within School-Family Partnerships: Definition, Importance, and Current Measurement Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glueck, Courtney L.; Reschly, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the construct of congruence, particularly with regard to school-family collaboration and partnerships. An in-depth review of the empirical and theoretical literature supporting a shift in focus from encouraging family involvement to creating effective school-family partnerships is presented, followed by an…

  19. The effect of color congruency and involvement on non-profit organizational messaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire Selius

    2010-01-01

    Color is a major factor in persuasive communication and messaging. This study examines the role of color and other variables in the communication of environmental causes. Many environmental organizations are starting to use color to generate awareness and create symbolic color associations. Based on the congruency theory and the elaboration likelihood model, this study tested specific research hypotheses pertaining to

  20. Measuring Instructional Congruence in Elementary Science Classrooms: Pedagogical and Methodological Components of a Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luykx, Aurolyn; Lee, Okhee

    2007-01-01

    This article is situated within a theoretical framework, "instructional congruence," articulating issues of student diversity with the demands of academic disciplines. In the context of a large-scale study targeting elementary school science, the article describes a research instrument that aims to combine the strengths of both quantitative and…

  1. The Interest-Major Congruence and College Success Relation: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Terence J. G.; Robbins, Steven B.

    2006-01-01

    The relation of interest-major congruence to indicators of college success was examined in an initial sample of 80, 574 individuals enrolled in 87 colleges. Both college achievement (GPA after 1 year, after 2 years and at graduation) as well as persistence (enrollment status after 1 year, after 2 years and graduation after 5 years) were used as…

  2. Ramanujan-type congruences for broken 2-diamond partitions modulo 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, William Y. C.; Fan, Anna R. B.; Yu, Rebecca T.

    2014-08-01

    The notion of broken $k$-diamond partitions was introduced by Andrews and Paule. Let $\\Delta_k(n)$ denote the number of broken k-diamond partitions of $n$. They also posed three conjectures on the congruences of $\\Delta_2(n)$ modulo 2, 5 and 25. Hirschhorn and sellers proved the conjectures for modulo 2, and Chan proved cases of modulo 5. For the case of modulo 3, Radu and Sellers obtained an infinite family of congruences for $\\Delta_2(n)$. In this paper, we obtain two infinite families of congruences for $\\Delta_2(n)$ modulo 3 based on a formula of Radu and Sellers, the 3-dissection formula of the generating function of triangular number due to Berndt, and the properties of the $U$-operator, the $V$-operator, the Hecke operator and the Hecke eigenform. For example, we find that $\\Delta_2(243n+142)\\equiv \\Delta_2(243n+223)\\equiv0\\pmod{3}$. The infinite family of Radu and Sellers and the two infinite families derived in this paper have two congruences in common, namely, $\\Delta_2(27n+16)\\equiv\\Delta_2(27n+25)\\equiv0 \\pmod{3}$.

  3. The Flip Side of Holland Type Congruence: Incongruence and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dik, Bryan J.; Strife, Samantha Roberts; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between Holland type (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional; Holland, 1959, 1997) congruence and incongruence (i.e., lack of ft between an occupation's 3-letter Holland code and a person's lowest 3 Holland interest types) and tested whether incongruence predicts unique…

  4. Examining the Relationships among Coaching Staff Diversity, Perceptions of Diversity, Value Congruence, and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, George B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among coaching staff diversity, perceptions of diversity, value congruence, and life satisfaction. Data were collected from 71 coaching staffs (N = 196 coaches). Observed path analysis was used to examine the study predictions. Results indicate that actual staff diversity was positively…

  5. Life Course Stage in Young Adulthood and Intergenerational Congruence in Family Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucx, Freek; Raaijmakers, Quinten; van Wel, Frits

    2010-01-01

    We investigated how intergenerational congruence in family-related attitudes depends on life course stage in young adulthood. Recent data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study were used; the present sample included 2,041 dyads of young adults and their parents. Findings are discussed in terms of the elasticity in intergenerational attitude…

  6. Relation of Interest and Self-Efficacy Occupational Congruence and Career Choice Certainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 2145 adults completed the Personal Globe Inventory (PGI) as well as indicating their occupational choice and the certainty of this choice. The PGI yielded interest and self-efficacy scores and these were used with the occupational choice to calculate a congruence score for interests and one for efficacy. The prediction of career…

  7. A Community of Congruence among Secondary Social Studies Teachers: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Province, Rachael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to explore the community of one purposely selected department of secondary social studies teachers. I aimed to provide insight into the nature of one community of congruence amid the many constraints and systemic pressures in school systems today. Many have suggested that education is a microcosm of larger…

  8. Demographics in Service Encounters: Effects of Racial and Gender Congruence on Perceived Fairness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol T. Kulik; Robert L. Jr. Holbrook

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the effects of outcome favorability, opportunity for voice, and demographic congruence on customer reactions to bank loan decisions. Applicants for loans engaged in a transaction with loan officers who were either congruent or incongruent with respect to race and gender. Results suggest that perceptions of outcome favorability and opportunity for voice explain significant variance in customer reactions. Customers

  9. The Effects of Role Congruence and Role Conflict on Work, Marital, and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone, Kristin M.; Webb, L. Kay; Blalock, Rachel H.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of role congruence and role conflict on work, marital, and life satisfaction was studied using Super's life-span, life-space theory. A conceptual model of relationships between these variables was proposed, and gender differences were examined. Participants were 35 male and 60 female college graduates who completed surveys by mail.…

  10. A memory-based, Simon-like, spatial congruence effect: Evidence for persisting

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Marcia K.

    attributed this spatial congruence effect to a spatial code automatically generated upon stimulus (1970) presented a red or a green light to the left or the right visual field. Participants were instructed to respond with a left-hand key to the green light and a right-hand key to the red light. Reaction

  11. The Gender Congruency Effect and the Selection of Freestanding and Bound Morphemes: Evidence From Croatian

    E-print Network

    Caramazza, Alfonso

    The Gender Congruency Effect and the Selection of Freestanding and Bound Morphemes: Evidence From in which the noun's gender value had an impact on the selection of gender-marked freestand- ing morphemes (pronouns) while ignoring the presentation of same- or different-gender distractor words. In Experiments 2

  12. Semantic Matching of Spatial Linguistic Expressions Matching of Restricted Spatial Linguistic Expressions in Natural Semantic Metalanguage

    E-print Network

    Stock, Kristin

    Semantic Matching of Spatial Linguistic Expressions 1 Matching of Restricted Spatial Linguistic Expressions in Natural Semantic Metalanguage to Spatial Query Operators Kristin Stock and Claudia in a restricted language developed by linguists called Natural Semantic Metalanguage to conventional spatial query

  13. 36 CFR 1256.100 - What is the copying policy for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright protection or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States § 1256.100...involved) provided to me by the National Archives and Records Administration...

  14. 36 CFR 1256.100 - What is the copying policy for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright protection or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States § 1256.100...involved) provided to me by the National Archives and Records Administration...

  15. 36 CFR 1256.100 - What is the copying policy for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright protection or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States § 1256.100...involved) provided to me by the National Archives and Records Administration...

  16. 36 CFR 1256.100 - What is the copying policy for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright protection or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States § 1256.100...involved) provided to me by the National Archives and Records Administration...

  17. 36 CFR 1256.100 - What is the copying policy for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright protection or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States § 1256.100...involved) provided to me by the National Archives and Records Administration...

  18. Native American elders' health congruence: the role of gender and corresponding functional well-being, hospital admissions, and social engagement.

    PubMed

    Ruthig, Joelle C; Allery, Alan

    2008-11-01

    Addressing the need to explore how Native American (NA) elders' subjective health (SH) compares to their objective health (OH; chronic disease conditions), we examined whether: congruence between 8191 NA elders' SH and OH parallels that of non-NA elders; health optimism (SH > OH) is protective and health pessimism (SH < OH), is detrimental; and whether gender moderates links between health congruence and health-related outcomes. Results comparing health optimists and pessimists to realists in functioning, hospitalizations, and social engagement showed optimists experienced better outcomes; pessimists had poorer outcomes; the role of health congruence differed by gender. Findings suggest implications for improving health-related outcomes among NA elders. PMID:18987080

  19. On the Semantics of SPARQL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Marcelo; Gutierrez, Claudio; Pérez, Jorge

    The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is the standard data model for representing information about World Wide Web resources. In January 2008, it was released the recommendation of the W3C for querying RDF data, a query language called SPARQL. In this chapter, we give a detailed description of the semantics of this language. We start by focusing on the definition of a formal semantics for the core part of SPARQL, and then move to the definition for the entire language, including all the features in the specification of SPARQL by the W3C such as blank nodes in graph patterns and bag semantics for solutions.

  20. Workspaces in the Semantic Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the recency and relatively limited adoption of Semantic Web technologies. practical issues related to technology scaling have received less attention than foundational issues. Nonetheless, these issues must be addressed if the Semantic Web is to realize its full potential. In particular, we concentrate on the lack of scoping methods that reduce the size of semantic information spaces so they are more efficient to work with and more relevant to an agent's needs. We provide some intuition to motivate the need for such reduced information spaces, called workspaces, give a formal definition, and suggest possible methods of deriving them.

  1. High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.

    2011-06-02

    As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

  2. Perception of the multisensory coherence of fluent audiovisual speech in infancy: its emergence and the role of experience.

    PubMed

    Lewkowicz, David J; Minar, Nicholas J; Tift, Amy H; Brandon, Melissa

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the developmental emergence of the perception of the multisensory coherence of native and non-native audiovisual fluent speech, we tested 4-, 8- to 10-, and 12- to 14-month-old English-learning infants. Infants first viewed two identical female faces articulating two different monologues in silence and then in the presence of an audible monologue that matched the visible articulations of one of the faces. Neither the 4-month-old nor 8- to 10-month-old infants exhibited audiovisual matching in that they did not look longer at the matching monologue. In contrast, the 12- to 14-month-old infants exhibited matching and, consistent with the emergence of perceptual expertise for the native language, perceived the multisensory coherence of native-language monologues earlier in the test trials than that of non-native language monologues. Moreover, the matching of native audible and visible speech streams observed in the 12- to 14-month-olds did not depend on audiovisual synchrony, whereas the matching of non-native audible and visible speech streams did depend on synchrony. Overall, the current findings indicate that the perception of the multisensory coherence of fluent audiovisual speech emerges late in infancy, that audiovisual synchrony cues are more important in the perception of the multisensory coherence of non-native speech than that of native audiovisual speech, and that the emergence of this skill most likely is affected by perceptual narrowing. PMID:25462038

  3. Semantics and phonology in syntax

    E-print Network

    Csirmaz, Aniko

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis I argue that morphology should be allowed to interpret not only the information provided by the syntactic component, but also compositional semantic properties. This conception of grammar requires morphology ...

  4. Hardware Architecture for Semantic Comparison

    E-print Network

    Mohan, Suneil

    2012-07-16

    the required data structures followed by computation of semantic similarity. The performance of the proposed design is further enhanced using a pipelined architecture. The proposed algorithms were also implemented on two contemporary platforms...

  5. Distributed semantic networks and CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, James; Rodriguez, Tony

    1991-01-01

    Semantic networks of frames are commonly used as a method of reasoning in many problems. In most of these applications the semantic network exists as a single entity in a single process environment. Advances in workstation hardware provide support for more sophisticated applications involving multiple processes, interacting in a distributed environment. In these applications the semantic network may well be distributed over several concurrently executing tasks. This paper describes the design and implementation of a frame based, distributed semantic network in which frames are accessed both through C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) expert systems and procedural C++ language programs. The application area is a knowledge based, cooperative decision making model utilizing both rule based and procedural experts.

  6. From Distributional to Semantic Similarity 

    E-print Network

    Curran, James Richard

    Lexical-semantic resources, including thesauri and WORDNET, have been successfully incorporated into a wide range of applications in Natural Language Processing. However they are very difficult and expensive to create ...

  7. NASA and The Semantic Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashish, Naveen

    2005-01-01

    We provide an overview of several ongoing NASA endeavors based on concepts, systems, and technology from the Semantic Web arena. Indeed NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic Web Technology and we describe ongoing and completed R&D efforts for several applications ranging from collaborative systems to airspace information management to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and discovery systems at NASA.

  8. Semantic Indexing of Legal Documents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erich Schweighofer

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Automated semantic indexing may be the answer to insufficient recall of legal information systems. The semantic web has created\\u000a powerful tools for mark-up and ontological representation. Re-use in legal applications remains low due to inappropriate knowledge\\u000a structuring and lack of automated knowledge acquisition. This paper describes the state of the art and proposes a dynamic\\u000a electronic legal commentary.

  9. Fixed Points in Metric Semantics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. de Bakker

    2001-01-01

    We present a brief tutorial on the use of metric spaces in semantics, with special attention for the role of fixed points.In traditional semantic modelling, one is primarily interested in the I\\/O behaviour of a program. In more recent developments, phenomena such as parallel processing and reactive systems have gained increased importance. For these kinds of notions, the I\\/O model

  10. COTARD SYNDROME IN SEMANTIC DEMENTIA

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Mario F.; Ramírez-Bermúdez, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Background Semantic dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of meaning of words or concepts. semantic dementia can offer potential insights into the mechanisms of content-specific delusions. Objective The authors present a rare case of semantic dementia with Cotard syndrome, a delusion characterized by nihilism or self-negation. Method The semantic deficits and other features of semantic dementia were evaluated in relation to the patient's Cotard syndrome. Results Mrs. A developed the delusional belief that she was wasting and dying. This occurred after she lost knowledge for her somatic discomforts and sensations and for the organs that were the source of these sensations. Her nihilistic beliefs appeared to emerge from her misunderstanding of her somatic sensations. Conclusion This unique patient suggests that a mechanism for Cotard syndrome is difficulty interpreting the nature and source of internal pains and sensations. We propose that loss of semantic knowledge about one's own body may lead to the delusion of nihilism or death. PMID:22054629

  11. Phylogenetic congruence of lichenised fungi and algae is affected by spatial scale and taxonomic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Rafat, Arash; Ridden, Johnathon D.; Cruickshank, Robert H.; Ridgway, Hayley J.; Paterson, Adrian M.

    2014-01-01

    The role of species’ interactions in structuring biological communities remains unclear. Mutualistic symbioses, involving close positive interactions between two distinct organismal lineages, provide an excellent means to explore the roles of both evolutionary and ecological processes in determining how positive interactions affect community structure. In this study, we investigate patterns of co-diversification between fungi and algae for a range of New Zealand lichens at the community, genus, and species levels and explore explanations for possible patterns related to spatial scale and pattern, taxonomic diversity of the lichens considered, and the level sampling replication. We assembled six independent datasets to compare patterns in phylogenetic congruence with varied spatial extent of sampling, taxonomic diversity and level of specimen replication. For each dataset, we used the DNA sequences from the ITS regions of both the fungal and algal genomes from lichen specimens to produce genetic distance matrices. Phylogenetic congruence between fungi and algae was quantified using distance-based redundancy analysis and we used geographic distance matrices in Moran’s eigenvector mapping and variance partitioning to evaluate the effects of spatial variation on the quantification of phylogenetic congruence. Phylogenetic congruence was highly significant for all datasets and a large proportion of variance in both algal and fungal genetic distances was explained by partner genetic variation. Spatial variables, primarily at large and intermediate scales, were also important for explaining genetic diversity patterns in all datasets. Interestingly, spatial structuring was stronger for fungal than algal genetic variation. As the spatial extent of the samples increased, so too did the proportion of explained variation that was shared between the spatial variables and the partners’ genetic variation. Different lichen taxa showed some variation in their phylogenetic congruence and spatial genetic patterns and where greater sample replication was used, the amount of variation explained by partner genetic variation increased. Our results suggest that the phylogenetic congruence pattern, at least at small spatial scales, is likely due to reciprocal co-adaptation or co-dispersal. However, the detection of these patterns varies among different lichen taxa, across spatial scales and with different levels of sample replication. This work provides insight into the complexities faced in determining how evolutionary and ecological processes may interact to generate diversity in symbiotic association patterns at the population and community levels. Further, it highlights the critical importance of considering sample replication, taxonomic diversity and spatial scale in designing studies of co-diversification. PMID:25250218

  12. Phylogenetic congruence of lichenised fungi and algae is affected by spatial scale and taxonomic diversity.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Hannah L; Rafat, Arash; Ridden, Johnathon D; Cruickshank, Robert H; Ridgway, Hayley J; Paterson, Adrian M

    2014-01-01

    The role of species' interactions in structuring biological communities remains unclear. Mutualistic symbioses, involving close positive interactions between two distinct organismal lineages, provide an excellent means to explore the roles of both evolutionary and ecological processes in determining how positive interactions affect community structure. In this study, we investigate patterns of co-diversification between fungi and algae for a range of New Zealand lichens at the community, genus, and species levels and explore explanations for possible patterns related to spatial scale and pattern, taxonomic diversity of the lichens considered, and the level sampling replication. We assembled six independent datasets to compare patterns in phylogenetic congruence with varied spatial extent of sampling, taxonomic diversity and level of specimen replication. For each dataset, we used the DNA sequences from the ITS regions of both the fungal and algal genomes from lichen specimens to produce genetic distance matrices. Phylogenetic congruence between fungi and algae was quantified using distance-based redundancy analysis and we used geographic distance matrices in Moran's eigenvector mapping and variance partitioning to evaluate the effects of spatial variation on the quantification of phylogenetic congruence. Phylogenetic congruence was highly significant for all datasets and a large proportion of variance in both algal and fungal genetic distances was explained by partner genetic variation. Spatial variables, primarily at large and intermediate scales, were also important for explaining genetic diversity patterns in all datasets. Interestingly, spatial structuring was stronger for fungal than algal genetic variation. As the spatial extent of the samples increased, so too did the proportion of explained variation that was shared between the spatial variables and the partners' genetic variation. Different lichen taxa showed some variation in their phylogenetic congruence and spatial genetic patterns and where greater sample replication was used, the amount of variation explained by partner genetic variation increased. Our results suggest that the phylogenetic congruence pattern, at least at small spatial scales, is likely due to reciprocal co-adaptation or co-dispersal. However, the detection of these patterns varies among different lichen taxa, across spatial scales and with different levels of sample replication. This work provides insight into the complexities faced in determining how evolutionary and ecological processes may interact to generate diversity in symbiotic association patterns at the population and community levels. Further, it highlights the critical importance of considering sample replication, taxonomic diversity and spatial scale in designing studies of co-diversification. PMID:25250218

  13. Development of an audiovisual speech perception app for children with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    IRWIN, JULIA; PRESTON, JONATHAN; BRANCAZIO, LAWRENCE; D’ANGELO, MICHAEL; TURCIOS, JACQUELINE

    2015-01-01

    Perception of spoken language requires attention to acoustic as well as visible phonetic information. This article reviews the known differences in audiovisual speech perception in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and specifies the need for interventions that address this construct. Elements of an audiovisual training program are described. This researcher-developed program delivered via an iPad app presents natural speech in the context of increasing noise, but supported with a speaking face. Children are cued to attend to visible articulatory information to assist in perception of the spoken words. Data from four children with ASD ages 8–10 are presented showing that the children improved their performance on an untrained auditory speech-in-noise task. PMID:25313714

  14. European Union RACE program contributions to digital audiovisual communications and services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Albuquerque, Augusto; van Noorden, Leon; Badique', Eric

    1995-02-01

    The European Union RACE (R&D in advanced communications technologies in Europe) and the future ACTS (advanced communications technologies and services) programs have been contributing and continue to contribute to world-wide developments in audio-visual services. The paper focuses on research progress in: (1) Image data compression. Several methods of image analysis leading to the use of encoders based on improved hybrid DCT-DPCM (MPEG or not), object oriented, hybrid region/waveform or knowledge-based coding methods are discussed. (2) Program production in the aspects of 3D imaging, data acquisition, virtual scene construction, pre-processing and sequence generation. (3) Interoperability and multimedia access systems. The diversity of material available and the introduction of interactive or near- interactive audio-visual services led to the development of prestandards for video-on-demand (VoD) and interworking of multimedia services storage systems and customer premises equipment.

  15. SEAL: a framework for developing SEmantic PortALs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nenad Stojanovic; Alexander Maedche; Steffen Staab; Rudi Studer; York Sure

    2001-01-01

    The core idea of the Semantic Web is to make information accessible to human and software agents on a semantic basis. Hence, Web sites may feed directly from the Semantic Web exploiting the underlying structures for human and machine access. We have developed a domain-independent approach for developing semantic portals, viz. SEAL (SEmantic portAL), that exploits semantics for providing and

  16. Creating Semantically Integrated Communities on the World Wide Web

    E-print Network

    Grüninger, Michael

    Creating Semantically Integrated Communities on the World Wide Web Invited Talk Semantic Web on the World Wide Web? We first clarify some confusion about what "semantics" means and introduce a semantic continuum ranging from the kind of semantics that exist on the Web today to a rich semantic infrastructure

  17. Semantic Coordination: A New Approach and an Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Bouquet; Luciano Serafini; Stefano Zanobini

    2003-01-01

    Semantic coordination, namely the problem of finding an agreement on the meaning of heterogeneous semantic models, is one of the key issues in the development of the Semantic Web. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for discovering semantic mappings across hierarchical classifications based on a new approach to semantic coordination. This approach shifts the problem of semantic coordination

  18. Sight and sound out of synch: Fragmentation and renormalisation of audiovisual integration and subjective timing

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Elliot D.; Ipser, Alberta; Palmbaha, Austra; Paunoiu, Diana; Brown, Peter; Lambert, Christian; Leff, Alex; Driver, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The sight and sound of a person speaking or a ball bouncing may seem simultaneous, but their corresponding neural signals are spread out over time as they arrive at different multisensory brain sites. How subjective timing relates to such neural timing remains a fundamental neuroscientific and philosophical puzzle. A dominant assumption is that temporal coherence is achieved by sensory resynchronisation or recalibration across asynchronous brain events. This assumption is easily confirmed by estimating subjective audiovisual timing for groups of subjects, which is on average similar across different measures and stimuli, and approximately veridical. But few studies have examined normal and pathological individual differences in such measures. Case PH, with lesions in pons and basal ganglia, hears people speak before seeing their lips move. Temporal order judgements (TOJs) confirmed this: voices had to lag lip-movements (by ?200 msec) to seem synchronous to PH. Curiously, voices had to lead lips (also by ?200 msec) to maximise the McGurk illusion (a measure of audiovisual speech integration). On average across these measures, PH's timing was therefore still veridical. Age-matched control participants showed similar discrepancies. Indeed, normal individual differences in TOJ and McGurk timing correlated negatively: subjects needing an auditory lag for subjective simultaneity needed an auditory lead for maximal McGurk, and vice versa. This generalised to the Stream–Bounce illusion. Such surprising antagonism seems opposed to good sensory resynchronisation, yet average timing across tasks was still near-veridical. Our findings reveal remarkable disunity of audiovisual timing within and between subjects. To explain this we propose that the timing of audiovisual signals within different brain mechanisms is perceived relative to the average timing across mechanisms. Such renormalisation fully explains the curious antagonistic relationship between disparate timing estimates in PH and healthy participants, and how they can still perceive the timing of external events correctly, on average. PMID:23664001

  19. Involvement of right STS in audio-visual integration for affective speech

    E-print Network

    Hagan, Cindy

    2012-03-28

    =Brodmann Area; L=Left; R=Right Running Head: Right STS combines cues of emotional speech 17 SI References Bradley MM, Lang PJ (1999) Affective norms for English words (ANEW): Stimuli, instruction manual and affective ratings. Technical report C-1... Running Head: Right STS combines cues of emotional speech 1 Supporting Information SI Text Supporting Materials and Methods Video Stimuli Creation Audio-visual stimuli were recorded in an anechoic room with a digital video camera. Two speakers...

  20. Anticipating action effects recruits audiovisual movement representations in the ventral premotor cortex.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Matthias; Zentgraf, Karen; Pilgramm, Sebastian; Stark, Rudolf; Krüger, Britta; Munzert, Jörn

    2014-10-29

    When table tennis players anticipate the course of the ball while preparing their motor responses, they not only observe their opponents striking the ball but also listen to events such as the sound of racket-ball contact. Because visual stimuli can be detected more easily when accompanied by a sound, we assumed that complementary sensory audiovisual information would influence the anticipation of biological motion, especially when the racket-ball contact is not presented visually, but has to be inferred from continuous movement kinematics and an abrupt sound. Twenty-six observers were examined with fMRI while watching point-light displays (PLDs) of an opposing table tennis player. Their task was to anticipate the resultant ball flight. The sound was presented complementary to the veracious event or at a deviant time point in its kinematics. Results showed that participants performed best in the complementary condition. Using a region-of-interest approach, fMRI data showed that complementary audiovisual stimulation elicited higher activation in the left temporo-occipital middle temporal gyrus (MTGto), the left primary motor cortex, and the right anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS). Both hemispheres also revealed higher activation in the ventral premotor cortex (vPMC) and the pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44). Ranking the behavioral effect of complementary versus conflicting audiovisual information over participants revealed an association between the complementary information and higher activation in the right vPMC. We conclude that the recruitment of movement representations in the auditory and visual modalities in the vPMC can be influenced by task-relevant cross-modal audiovisual interaction. PMID:25463138

  1. Multisensory Perceptual Learning of Temporal Order: Audiovisual Learning Transfers to Vision but Not Audition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Alais; John Cass; Georges Chapouthier

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundAn outstanding question in sensory neuroscience is whether the perceived timing of events is mediated by a central supra-modal timing mechanism, or multiple modality-specific systems. We use a perceptual learning paradigm to address this question.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThree groups were trained daily for 10 sessions on an auditory, a visual or a combined audiovisual temporal order judgment (TOJ). Groups were pre-tested on

  2. Audio-Visual Wireless Streaming Platform for the Residential Environment Employing Mesh and MIMO Extensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioannis Sarris; Inn Inn Er; Peng-Yong Kong; Charline Guguen

    2007-01-01

    ASTRALS is a project funded by the FP6 1ST program which focuses on the in-home delivery, adaptation and processing of multiple audio\\/visual streams. One aspect of this project focuses on the wireless transmission of these streams using the IEEE 802.16 standard. A premium Quality of Service and IP based transmission scheme is employed in this project including MIMO and mesh

  3. The Role of the Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus in Audiovisual Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Hocking; Cathy J. Price

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigate previous claims that a region in the left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is more activated by audiovisual than unimodal processing. First, we compare audiovi- sual to visual--visual and auditory--auditory conceptual matching using auditory or visual object names that are paired with pictures of objects or their environmental sounds. Second, we compare congruent and incongruent

  4. Audiovisual associations alter the perception of low-level visual motion

    PubMed Central

    Kafaligonul, Hulusi; Oluk, Can

    2015-01-01

    Motion perception is a pervasive nature of vision and is affected by both immediate pattern of sensory inputs and prior experiences acquired through associations. Recently, several studies reported that an association can be established quickly between directions of visual motion and static sounds of distinct frequencies. After the association is formed, sounds are able to change the perceived direction of visual motion. To determine whether such rapidly acquired audiovisual associations and their subsequent influences on visual motion perception are dependent on the involvement of higher-order attentive tracking mechanisms, we designed psychophysical experiments using regular and reverse-phi random dot motions isolating low-level pre-attentive motion processing. Our results show that an association between the directions of low-level visual motion and static sounds can be formed and this audiovisual association alters the subsequent perception of low-level visual motion. These findings support the view that audiovisual associations are not restricted to high-level attention based motion system and early-level visual motion processing has some potential role.

  5. Window of audio-visual simultaneity is unaffected by spatio-temporal visual clutter

    PubMed Central

    Van der Burg, Erik; Cass, John; Alais, David

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we investigate the rules governing the perception of audiovisual synchrony within spatio-temporally cluttered visual environments. Participants viewed a ring of 19 discs modulating in luminance while hearing an amplitude modulating tone. Each disc modulated with a unique temporal phase (40?ms intervals), with only one synchronized to the tone. Participants searched for the synchronised disc whose spatial location varied randomly across trials. Square-wave modulation facilitated search: the synchronized disc was frequently chosen, with tight response distributions centred near zero-phase lag. In the sinusoidal condition responses were equally distributed over the 19 discs regardless of phase. To investigate whether subjective synchrony in the square-wave condition was limited by spatial or temporal factors we repeated the experiment with either reduced spatial density (9 discs) or temporal density (80?ms phase intervals). Reduced temporal density greatly facilitated synchrony perception but left the synchrony bandwidth unchanged, while no influence of spatial density was found. We conclude that audio-visual synchrony is not strongly constrained by the spatial or temporal density of the visual display, but by a temporal window within which audio-visual events are perceived as synchronous, with a full bandwidth of ~185?ms. PMID:24872325

  6. Infant perception of audio-visual speech synchrony in familiar and unfamiliar fluent speech.

    PubMed

    Pons, Ferran; Lewkowicz, David J

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effects of linguistic experience and language familiarity on the perception of audio-visual (A-V) synchrony in fluent speech. In Experiment 1, we tested a group of monolingual Spanish- and Catalan-learning 8-month-old infants to a video clip of a person speaking Spanish. Following habituation to the audiovisually synchronous video, infants saw and heard desynchronized clips of the same video where the audio stream now preceded the video stream by 366, 500, or 666 ms. In Experiment 2, monolingual Catalan and Spanish infants were tested with a video clip of a person speaking English. Results indicated that in both experiments, infants detected a 666 and a 500 ms asynchrony. That is, their responsiveness to A-V synchrony was the same regardless of their specific linguistic experience or familiarity with the tested language. Compared to previous results from infant studies with isolated audiovisual syllables, these results show that infants are more sensitive to A-V temporal relations inherent in fluent speech. Furthermore, the absence of a language familiarity effect on the detection of A-V speech asynchrony at eight months of age is consistent with the broad perceptual tuning usually observed in infant response to linguistic input at this age. PMID:24576508

  7. Cross-Modal Matching of Audio-Visual German and French Fluent Speech in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Kubicek, Claudia; Hillairet de Boisferon, Anne; Dupierrix, Eve; Pascalis, Olivier; Lœvenbruck, Hélène; Gervain, Judit; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined when and how the ability to cross-modally match audio-visual fluent speech develops in 4.5-, 6- and 12-month-old German-learning infants. In Experiment 1, 4.5- and 6-month-old infants’ audio-visual matching ability of native (German) and non-native (French) fluent speech was assessed by presenting auditory and visual speech information sequentially, that is, in the absence of temporal synchrony cues. The results showed that 4.5-month-old infants were capable of matching native as well as non-native audio and visual speech stimuli, whereas 6-month-olds perceived the audio-visual correspondence of native language stimuli only. This suggests that intersensory matching narrows for fluent speech between 4.5 and 6 months of age. In Experiment 2, auditory and visual speech information was presented simultaneously, therefore, providing temporal synchrony cues. Here, 6-month-olds were found to match native as well as non-native speech indicating facilitation of temporal synchrony cues on the intersensory perception of non-native fluent speech. Intriguingly, despite the fact that audio and visual stimuli cohered temporally, 12-month-olds matched the non-native language only. Results were discussed with regard to multisensory perceptual narrowing during the first year of life. PMID:24586651

  8. Event Congruency and Episodic Encoding: A Developmental fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maril, Anat; Avital, Rinat; Reggev, Niv; Zuckerman, Maya; Sadeh, Talya; Sira, Liat Ben; Livneh, Neta

    2011-01-01

    A known contributor to adults' superior memory performance compared to children is their differential reliance on an existing knowledge base. Compared to those of adults, children's semantic networks are less accessible and less established, a difference that is also thought to contribute to children's relative resistance to semantically related…

  9. Exploring multimodal semantic control impairments in semantic aphasia: Evidence from naturalistic object use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faye Corbett; Elizabeth Jefferies; Matthew A. Lambon Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Semantic processing can break down in qualitatively distinct ways in different neuropsychological populations. Previous studies have shown that patients with multimodal semantic impairments following stroke – referred to as semantic aphasia (SA) – show deficits on a range of conceptual tasks due to a failure of semantic control processes in the context of prefrontal and\\/or temporoparietal infarction. Although a deficit

  10. On the equivalence of state transformer semantics and predicate transformer semantics

    E-print Network

    Keimel, Klaus

    On the equivalence of state transformer semantics and predicate transformer semantics Dedicated and the author [13] have worked out the equivalence between state transformer semantics and predicate transformer the last section, where the equivalence of predicate and state transformer semantics is finally put

  11. Proceedings of SALT 23: 514534, 2013 Measure semantics and qualitative semantics

    E-print Network

    Fitelson, Branden

    Proceedings of SALT 23: 514­534, 2013 Measure semantics and qualitative semantics for epistemic Abstract In this paper, we explore semantics for comparative epistemic modals that avoid the entailment problems shown by Yalcin (2006, 2009, 2010) to result from Kratzer's (1991) semantics. In contrast

  12. A Guide to Naturalizing Semantics Semantic predicates -is true, refers, is about, has the truth

    E-print Network

    Loewer, Barry

    A Guide to Naturalizing Semantics I Semantic predicates - is true, refers, is about, has the truth that the cat is crying. It is generally (and correctly) held that the semantic properties of natural language expressions (and other non-mental representations) are derived from the semantic properties of mental states.1

  13. Connectivity among Semantic Associates: An fMRI Study of Semantic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wible, Cynthia G.; Han, S. Duke; Spencer, Magdalena H.; Kubicki, Marek; Niznikiewicz, Margaret H.; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; McCarley, Robert W.; Nestor, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Semantic priming refers to a reduction in the reaction time to identify or make a judgment about a stimulus that has been immediately preceded by a semantically related word or picture and is thought to result from a partial overlap in the semantic associates of the two words. A semantic priming lexical decision task using spoken words was…

  14. Vertical metaphor with motion and judgment: a valenced congruency effect with fluency.

    PubMed

    Freddi, Sébastien; Cretenet, Joël; Dru, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    Following metaphorical theories of affect, several research studies have shown that the spatial cues along a vertical dimension are useful in qualifying emotional experience (HAPPINESS is UP, SADNESS is DOWN). Three experiments were conducted to examine the role of vertical motion in affective judgment. They showed that positive stimuli moving UPWARD were evaluated more positively than those moving DOWNWARD, whereas negative stimuli moving DOWNWARD were evaluated as less negative than those moving UPWARD. They showed a valenced congruency effect, but an alternative hypothesis in terms of MORE is UP and LESS is DOWN was also examined. Finally, fluency mechanisms were investigated to confirm that relationships between affect and verticality were in accordance with a valenced congruency effect. PMID:24077775

  15. Congruence between public opinion and congressional actions on energy issues, 1973-1974

    SciTech Connect

    Goss, C. (California State College, San Bernardino); Kamieniecki, S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyzes the correspondence between public opinion on energy issues during and immediately after the oil embargo and the energy policies acted on by Congress. The purpose of the study is to identify some of the conditions under which congruence between public opinion and public policy is likely to occur. Representatives were found to act contrary to public preferences only when they believed they were more knowledgeable than the public. In general, representatives' actions were congruent with public opinion on issues where public feeling was widespread and intense, when there was a clear majority preference, and when an interactive process had taken place involving public response to a governmental initiative. When the public was divided, representatives tended to divide, or postponed resolution of the issue. This study suggests a number of other possible conditions affecting congruence related to crisis situations, new problems, and the direction of public opinion. 20 references, 4 tables.

  16. Congruence between public opinion and congressional actions on energy issues, 1973-1974

    SciTech Connect

    Goss, C.; Kamieniecki, S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyzes the correspondence between public opinion on energy issues during and immediately after the oil embargo and the energy policies acted on by Congress. The purpose of the study is to identify some of the conditions under which congruence between public opinion and public policy is likely to occur. Representatives were found to act contrary to public preferences only when they believed they were more knowledgeable than the public. In general, representatives' actions were congruent with public opinion on issues where public feeling was widespread and intense, when there was a clear majority preference, and when an interactive process had taken place involving public response to a governmental initiative. When the public was divided, representatives tended to divide or postponed resolution of the issue. This study suggests a number of other possible conditions affecting congruence related to crisis situations, new problems, and the direction of public opinion.

  17. Value congruence in health care priority setting: social values, institutions and decisions in three countries.

    PubMed

    Landwehr, Claudia; Klinnert, Dorothea

    2015-04-01

    Most developed democracies have faced the challenge of priority setting in health care by setting up specialized agencies to take decisions on which medical services to include in public health baskets. Under the influence of Daniels and Sabin's seminal work on the topic, agencies increasingly aim to fulfil criteria of procedural justice, such as accountability and transparency. We assume, however, that the institutional design of agencies also and necessarily reflects substantial value judgments on the respective weight of distributive principles such as efficiency, need and equality. The public acceptance of prioritization decisions, and eventually of the health care system at large, will ultimately depend not only on considerations of procedural fairness, but also on the congruence between a society's values and its institutions. We study social values, institutions and decisions in three countries (France, Germany and the United Kingdom) in order to assess such congruence and formulate expectations on its effects. PMID:25434454

  18. Evaluating and interpreting cross-taxon congruence: Potential pitfalls and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioria, Margherita; Bacaro, Giovanni; Feehan, John

    2011-05-01

    Characterizing the relationship between different taxonomic groups is critical to identify potential surrogates for biodiversity. Previous studies have shown that cross-taxa relationships are generally weak and/or inconsistent. The difficulties in finding predictive patterns have often been attributed to the spatial and temporal scales of these studies and on the differences in the measure used to evaluate such relationships (species richness versus composition). However, the choice of the analytical approach used to evaluate cross-taxon congruence inevitably represents a major source of variation. Here, we described the use of a range of methods that can be used to comprehensively assess cross-taxa relationships. To do so, we used data for two taxonomic groups, wetland plants and water beetles, collected from 54 farmland ponds in Ireland. Specifically, we used the Pearson correlation and rarefaction curves to analyse patterns in species richness, while Mantel tests, Procrustes analysis, and co-correspondence analysis were used to evaluate congruence in species composition. We compared the results of these analyses and we described some of the potential pitfalls associated with the use of each of these statistical approaches. Cross-taxon congruence was moderate to strong, depending on the choice of the analytical approach, on the nature of the response variable, and on local and environmental conditions. Our findings indicate that multiple approaches and measures of community structure are required for a comprehensive assessment of cross-taxa relationships. In particular, we showed that selection of surrogate taxa in conservation planning should not be based on a single statistic expressing the degree of correlation in species richness or composition. Potential solutions to the analytical issues associated with the assessment of cross-taxon congruence are provided and the implications of our findings in the selection of surrogates for biodiversity are discussed.

  19. Congruence properties of the -function on sumsets J. Rivat A. Sarkozy

    E-print Network

    Congruence properties of the -function on sumsets J. Rivat A. S´ark¨ozy C. L. Stewart February 21 The results In 1988, S´ark¨ozy[11] proved the following result. If H > 0, N > N0(H), A, B {1, 2, . . . , N problem to study is the following related conjecture of S´ark¨ozy[12] which partly generalizes the result

  20. Gender-Role Congruence and Self-Referencing as Determinants of Advertising Effectiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Michelle Morrison; David R. Shaffer

    2003-01-01

    In an initial experiment, men and women with varied gender-role orientations evaluated gender-stereotyped and nonstereotyped advertisements for “gendered” products that are actually used by both sexes. Consistent with a gender-role congruence model of advertising effectiveness, traditional participants (masculine men; feminine women) responded more favorably to traditional (i.e., gender-stereotyped) than to nontraditional advertisements, whereas nontraditional participants (androgynous individuals; feminine men; masculine