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Sample records for auditory hallucination symptoms

  1. Internal versus External Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia: Symptom and Course Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Docherty, Nancy M.; Dinzeo, Thomas J.; McCleery, Amanda; Bell, Emily K.; Shakeel, Mohammed K.; Moe, Aubrey

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The auditory hallucinations associated with schizophrenia are phenomenologically diverse. “External” hallucinations classically have been considered to reflect more severe psychopathology than “internal” hallucinations, but empirical support has been equivocal. Methods We examined associations of “internal” v. “external” hallucinations with (a) other characteristics of the hallucinations, (b) severity of other symptoms, and (c) course of illness variables, in a sample of 97 stable outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who experienced auditory hallucinations. Results Patients with internal hallucinations did not differ from those with external hallucinations on severity of other symptoms. However, they reported their hallucinations to be more emotionally negative, distressing, and long-lasting, less controllable, and less likely to remit over time. They also were more likely to experience voices commenting, conversing, or commanding. However, they also were more likely to have insight into the self-generated nature of their voices. Patients with internal hallucinations were not older, but had a later age of illness onset. Conclusions Differences in characteristics of auditory hallucinations are associated with differences in other characteristics of the disorder, and hence may be relevant to identifying subgroups of patients that are more homogeneous with respect to their underlying disease processes. PMID:25530157

  2. Auditory hallucinations induced by trazodone

    PubMed Central

    Shiotsuki, Ippei; Terao, Takeshi; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Hatano, Koji

    2014-01-01

    A 26-year-old female outpatient presenting with a depressive state suffered from auditory hallucinations at night. Her auditory hallucinations did not respond to blonanserin or paliperidone, but partially responded to risperidone. In view of the possibility that her auditory hallucinations began after starting trazodone, trazodone was discontinued, leading to a complete resolution of her auditory hallucinations. Furthermore, even after risperidone was decreased and discontinued, her auditory hallucinations did not recur. These findings suggest that trazodone may induce auditory hallucinations in some susceptible patients. PMID:24700048

  3. Instruments for assessment of auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Frederick, J A; Killeen, M R

    1998-10-01

    The study of individual symptoms of schizophrenia, such as auditory hallucinations, can contribute to effective treatment strategies. We review existing instruments for the assessment of characteristics and dimensions of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders and describe their psychometric properties and implications for their use in clinical research and practice. In addition, three widely used global measurement scales for symptoms of schizophrenia, each of which contain questions that pertain to hallucinations, are included. PMID:9793212

  4. Reality of auditory verbal hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Valkonen-Korhonen, Minna; Holi, Matti; Therman, Sebastian; Lehtonen, Johannes; Hari, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Distortion of the sense of reality, actualized in delusions and hallucinations, is the key feature of psychosis but the underlying neuronal correlates remain largely unknown. We studied 11 highly functioning subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder while they rated the reality of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjective reality of AVH correlated strongly and specifically with the hallucination-related activation strength of the inferior frontal gyri (IFG), including the Broca's language region. Furthermore, how real the hallucination that subjects experienced was depended on the hallucination-related coupling between the IFG, the ventral striatum, the auditory cortex, the right posterior temporal lobe, and the cingulate cortex. Our findings suggest that the subjective reality of AVH is related to motor mechanisms of speech comprehension, with contributions from sensory and salience-detection-related brain regions as well as circuitries related to self-monitoring and the experience of agency. PMID:19620178

  5. Auditory hallucinations suppressed by etizolam in a patient with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Benazzi, F; Mazzoli, M; Rossi, E

    1993-10-01

    A patient presented with a 15 year history of schizophrenia with auditory hallucinations. Though unresponsive to prolonged trials of neuroleptics, the auditory hallucinations disappeared with etizolam. PMID:7902201

  6. REALITY OF AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, A.

    1982-01-01

    SUMMARY 25 untreated urban living schizophrenics fulfilling the criteria of Feighner et al., having Schneiderian auditory hallucination were studied with the aim of examining the experienced reality of auditory hallucination and the influence on this reality of certain variables. It was found that the hallucinations were more real than unreal. Duration of illness, presence of anxiety prior to hallucination, reality testing ability, duration of each episode of hallucination, and socio-economic status scores influenced the reality negatively. The number of hallucinating days per mouth, position of voice outside sensory range, psychotocism scores, insight scores (higher scores for poorer insight) and duration of hallucination influenced the reality positively. The variables explained 72% of the variations in reality of hallucinations. Findings are discussed and suggestions for future studies are offered. PMID:21965885

  7. Subcortical modulation in auditory processing and auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Toshikazu; DeRosse, Pamela; Argyelan, Miklos; Karlsgodt, Katherine H; Kingsley, Peter B; Szeszko, Philip R; Malhotra, Anil K

    2015-12-15

    Hearing perception in individuals with auditory hallucinations has not been well studied. Auditory hallucinations have previously been shown to involve primary auditory cortex activation. This activation suggests that auditory hallucinations activate the terminal of the auditory pathway as if auditory signals are submitted from the cochlea, and that a hallucinatory event is therefore perceived as hearing. The primary auditory cortex is stimulated by some unknown source that is outside of the auditory pathway. The current study aimed to assess the outcomes of stimulating the primary auditory cortex through the auditory pathway in individuals who have experienced auditory hallucinations. Sixteen patients with schizophrenia underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions, as well as hallucination assessments. During the fMRI session, auditory stimuli were presented in one-second intervals at times when scanner noise was absent. Participants listened to auditory stimuli of sine waves (SW) (4-5.5kHz), English words (EW), and acoustically reversed English words (arEW) in a block design fashion. The arEW were employed to deliver the sound of a human voice with minimal linguistic components. Patients' auditory hallucination severity was assessed by the auditory hallucination item of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). During perception of arEW when compared with perception of SW, bilateral activation of the globus pallidus correlated with severity of auditory hallucinations. EW when compared with arEW did not correlate with auditory hallucination severity. Our findings suggest that the sensitivity of the globus pallidus to the human voice is associated with the severity of auditory hallucination. PMID:26275927

  8. Auditory hallucination coping techniques and their relationship to psychotic symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Naoki; Igarashi, Yoshito; Suda, Kiyoko; Nakagawa, Seishu

    2007-12-01

    Use of coping techniques is of importance in the treatment for patients experiencing auditory hallucinations. Phenomenological features of auditory hallucinations and other psychotic symptoms are assumed to be factors influencing the coping activities. The aim of the present study was to determine psychotic symptoms including auditory hallucination phenomenological features that have effects on coping activities. The authors investigated 17 generally used coping techniques of 144 chronically psychotic patients who were currently experiencing auditory hallucination in DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective psychosis. Using factor analysis, scales characterizing the styles of coping application and efficacy were constructed. To assess the phenomenological features, the authors used the Matsuzawa Assessment Schedule for Auditory Hallucination (MASAH), which had been devised to assess four basic phenomenological features: intractability, delusion, influence, and externality. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was also applied for the assessment of psychotic symptoms. Regression analyses were conducted to determine the features and symptoms that could have effects on coping activities. Constructed scales were those of distraction and counteraction styles for each of coping application and efficacy. It was found that MASAH influence and externality features had an activating effect on both distraction and counteraction coping application, and counteraction coping application, respectively, and that PANSS negative symptom clusters and MASAH delusion feature had an inhibiting effect on distraction and counteraction coping application, respectively. No salient factor for coping efficacy was recognized. The current study presents information on the relationship between coping activities and the psychotic experience features and symptoms, which can be of help for planning coping training programs. PMID:18081625

  9. [Psychopathology and neurobiological bases of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia.].

    PubMed

    Ait Bentaleb, L; Stip, E; Beauregard, M

    2000-01-01

    Cognitive therapies of delusions and hallucinations are increasingly common and offer a complementary or interesting alternative to neuroleptic medication. But then again must these therapeutic approach relie on an explanatory neuropsychological basis. According to many observers, the study of the cardinal symptoms of schizophrenia is the " royal path " leading to the elucidation of this disabling and chronic illness affecting around 0,5% to 1% of the population. In this perspective, auditory hallucinations are one of the major symptoms of schizophrenia found in 50% to 80% of cases. Recently, experimental data drawn from cognitive neuropsychology and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have allowed the elaboration of many models regarding this symptomatic manifestation. This article proposes a literature review on the subject of psychopathology and neurobiological bases of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia and aims at proposing some leads that could contribute to a better undertanding of this phenomenon. PMID:18253579

  10. Dissociation and mindfulness in patients with auditory verbal hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Escudero-Pérez, Silvia; León-Palacios, María Gracia; Úbeda-Gómez, Juan; Barros-Albarrán, María Dolores; López-Jiménez, Ana María; Perona-Garcelán, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    The very few studies relating mindfulness and dissociation have found a negative association between them (depersonalization and absorption). However, all of these studies have been done in nonclinical populations, and there are no data on the relationship between these variables in psychiatric patients with auditory hallucinations. This study was designed to study the relationship between mindfulness and the two dissociative variables, absorption and depersonalization, as well as their predictive power for the severity of auditory hallucinations and the distress they cause in a clinical population. A total of 55 psychiatric patients with hallucinations were given the following tests: the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (K. Brown & R. Ryan, 2003), the Tellegen Absorption Scale (A. Tellegen & G. Atkinson, 1974), the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (M. Sierra & G. E. Berrios, 2000), the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (G. Haddock, J. McCarron, N. Tarrier, & E. B. Faragher, 1999), and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (S. R. Kay, L. A. Opler, & J.-P. Lindenmayer, 1988). A significant negative correlation was found between mindfulness and the dissociative variables and between mindfulness and the distress caused by the hallucinations. A positive correlation was found between absorption and distress caused by hallucinations and between depersonalization and the severity of hallucinations. Finally, the variable with the most predictive power for severity of the voices was depersonalization, and the variable with the most predictive power for distress caused by the voices was mindfulness. Interventions addressing training in mindfulness techniques could diminish the distress associated with hearing voices. PMID:26536908

  11. [Physiognomy-accompanying auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia: psychopathological investigation of 10 patients].

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    We previously reported two schizophrenic patients with characteristic hallucinations consisting of auditory hallucinations accompanied by visual hallucinations of the speaker's face. The patient sees the face of the hallucinatory speaker in his/her mind and hears the voice talking inwardly. We termed these experiences physiognomy-accompanying auditory hallucinations. In this report, we present 10 patients with schizophrenia showing physiognomy-accompanying auditory hallucinations and evaluate the characteristics of these clinical symptoms. Moreover we consider what the symptoms mean for patients and the metabasis from structural aspects. Lastly, we consider how we can treat these patients living autistic lives with the symptoms. During physiognomy-accompanying auditory hallucinations, the realistic face moves its mouth and talks to the patient expressively. In early onset cases, the faces of various real people appear talking about ordinary things while in late onset cases, the faces can be imaginary but are mainly real people talking about ordinary or delusional things. We suppose that these characteristics of the symptoms unify the schizophrenic world overwhelmed by "a force of non-sense" to "the sense field". "The force of non-sense" is a substantial power but cannot be reduced to the real meaning. And we suppose that not visual reality but the intensity of auditory hallucinations of the face brings about the overwhelming intensity of symptoms and the substantiality of this intensity depends on the states of excessive fullness of "the force of non-sense". With these symptoms patients see the narration of auditory hallucinations through the facial image and the content of auditory hallucinations is compressed into the movement of visual hallucinations of the speaker's face. The form of symptoms is realistic but the speaker's face and voice are beyond ordinary time and space. The symptoms are essentially different from ordinary perception. The visual

  12. “Where Do Auditory Hallucinations Come From?”—A Brain Morphometry Study of Schizophrenia Patients With Inner or Outer Space Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Plaze, Marion; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Penttilä, Jani; Januel, Dominique; de Beaurepaire, Renaud; Bellivier, Franck; Andoh, Jamila; Galinowski, André; Gallarda, Thierry; Artiges, Eric; Olié, Jean-Pierre; Mangin, Jean-François; Martinot, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations are a cardinal symptom of schizophrenia. Bleuler and Kraepelin distinguished 2 main classes of hallucinations: hallucinations heard outside the head (outer space, or external, hallucinations) and hallucinations heard inside the head (inner space, or internal, hallucinations). This distinction has been confirmed by recent phenomenological studies that identified 3 independent dimensions in auditory hallucinations: language complexity, self-other misattribution, and spatial location. Brain imaging studies in schizophrenia patients with auditory hallucinations have already investigated language complexity and self-other misattribution, but the neural substrate of hallucination spatial location remains unknown. Magnetic resonance images of 45 right-handed patients with schizophrenia and persistent auditory hallucinations and 20 healthy right-handed subjects were acquired. Two homogeneous subgroups of patients were defined based on the hallucination spatial location: patients with only outer space hallucinations (N = 12) and patients with only inner space hallucinations (N = 15). Between-group differences were then assessed using 2 complementary brain morphometry approaches: voxel-based morphometry and sulcus-based morphometry. Convergent anatomical differences were detected between the patient subgroups in the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ). In comparison to healthy subjects, opposite deviations in white matter volumes and sulcus displacements were found in patients with inner space hallucination and patients with outer space hallucination. The current results indicate that spatial location of auditory hallucinations is associated with the rTPJ anatomy, a key region of the “where” auditory pathway. The detected tilt in the sulcal junction suggests deviations during early brain maturation, when the superior temporal sulcus and its anterior terminal branch appear and merge. PMID:19666833

  13. Phenomenological features of auditory hallucinations and their symptomatological relevance.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Naoki; Igarashi, Yoshito; Suda, Kiyoko; Nakagawa, Seishu

    2004-12-01

    Auditory hallucinations include particularly diverse phenomena that reflect various mental functions and pathologies. Their assessment may provide valuable clinical information. This article describes the development of the Matsuzawa Assessment Schedule for Auditory Hallucination (MASAH), which was designed to obtain a broadened view of the phenomena by investigating a wide range of their characteristics. The aim was to identify the basic phenomenological features of auditory hallucinations by performing a factor analytic study of the MASAH ratings of 214 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Four identified factors were intractability, delusion, influence, and externality, on the basis of which we constructed composite scales that were assumed to represent the features. The correlation analysis of the scales with symptom dimensions derived from the positive and negative syndrome scale verified their clinical relevance. They were also interpretable in terms of human responses to the abnormal experience and some symptom constructs such as delusion and influence experience. It is concluded that the MASAH is an efficient means for evaluating the features, and that this study elicited new understandings of the phenomena such as their multifarious composition and contiguities with other psychotic symptoms. PMID:15601391

  14. 40 Hz auditory steady state response to linguistic features of stimuli during auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Ying, Jun; Yan, Zheng; Gao, Xiao-rong

    2013-10-01

    The auditory steady state response (ASSR) may reflect activity from different regions of the brain, depending on the modulation frequency used. In general, responses induced by low rates (≤40 Hz) emanate mostly from central structures of the brain, and responses from high rates (≥80 Hz) emanate mostly from the peripheral auditory nerve or brainstem structures. Besides, it was reported that the gamma band ASSR (30-90 Hz) played an important role in working memory, speech understanding and recognition. This paper investigated the 40 Hz ASSR evoked by modulated speech and reversed speech. The speech was Chinese phrase voice, and the noise-like reversed speech was obtained by temporally reversing the speech. Both auditory stimuli were modulated with a frequency of 40 Hz. Ten healthy subjects and 5 patients with hallucination symptom participated in the experiment. Results showed reduction in left auditory cortex response when healthy subjects listened to the reversed speech compared with the speech. In contrast, when the patients who experienced auditory hallucinations listened to the reversed speech, the auditory cortex of left hemispheric responded more actively. The ASSR results were consistent with the behavior results of patients. Therefore, the gamma band ASSR is expected to be helpful for rapid and objective diagnosis of hallucination in clinic. PMID:24142731

  15. A STUDY OF EXPERIENCED REALITY OF AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS IN SCHIZOPHERENICS

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, A.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY 30 Schizophrenics having verbal auditory hallucinations and satisfying the criteria of Feighner et al. (1972) were examined for the experienced reality of auditory hallucinations and the influence of certain variables on such reality. Number of hallucinating days per month, fast movement of time during hallucination, presence of running commentary voices, interference in self-care and social activities due to the Voices and degree of success in manipulation and avoidance (coping themes) appreciably influenced the experienced reality. The voices were more real than unreal. PMID:21847275

  16. Mechanisms of Auditory Verbal Hallucination in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Raymond; Wu, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Recent work on the mechanisms underlying auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) has been heavily informed by self-monitoring accounts that postulate defects in an internal monitoring mechanism as the basis of AVH. A more neglected alternative is an account focusing on defects in auditory processing, namely a spontaneous activation account of auditory activity underlying AVH. Science is often aided by putting theories in competition. Accordingly, a discussion that systematically contrasts the two models of AVH can generate sharper questions that will lead to new avenues of investigation. In this paper, we provide such a theoretical discussion of the two models, drawing strong contrasts between them. We identify a set of challenges for the self-monitoring account and argue that the spontaneous activation account has much in favor of it and should be the default account. Our theoretical overview leads to new questions and issues regarding the explanation of AVH as a subjective phenomenon and its neural basis. Accordingly, we suggest a set of experimental strategies to dissect the underlying mechanisms of AVH in light of the two competing models. PMID:24348430

  17. BENZODIAZEPINES FOR PROMINENT AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS: A REPORT AND HYPOTHESIS

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    1995-01-01

    A case is reported of diazepam - induced amelioration of prominent auditory hallucinations experienced by a female paranoid schizophrenic. With the assumption that subvocal speech may be primary to such hallucinations, it is proposed that diazepam may have acted by exerting a relaxant effect on speech musculature. This is a hypothesis testable in future research. PMID:21743715

  18. A Community of One: Social Cognition and Auditory Verbal Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Vaughan

    2013-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations have attracted a great deal of scientific interest, but despite the fact that they are fundamentally a social experience—in essence, a form of hallucinated communication—current theories remain firmly rooted in an individualistic account and have largely avoided engagement with social cognition. Nevertheless, there is mounting evidence for the role of social cognitive and social neurocognitive processes in auditory verbal hallucinations, and, consequently, it is proposed that problems with the internalisation of social models may be key to the experience. PMID:24311984

  19. [Unilateral auditory hallucinations due to left temporal lobe ischemia: a case report].

    PubMed

    Anegawa, T; Hara, K; Yamamoto, K; Matsuda, M

    1995-10-01

    Unilateral auditory hallucinations are a rare lateralization phenomenon experienced in one ear or from one direction. We recently encountered a 63-year-old right-handed man who developed transient unilateral auditory hallucinations associated with pure word deafness. The patient had a past history of myocardial infarction, lung cancer and aortic aneurysm, but no previous psychiatric or convulsive disorders. About six months before admission, he developed right hemiparesis and motor aphasia caused by a hemorrhagic left parietal infarct. These symptoms gradually improved over three weeks. Two days before admission, he suddenly lost the ability to understand spoken words. He concurrently experienced auditory hallucinations arising from the right anterior direction. On admission, he was very embarrassed to simple verbal commands. He was unable to comprehend spoken words and repeat speech, although he could fairly follow written commands. Confrontation naming, reading aloud, comprehension, spontaneous writing remained relatively unaffected, although he occasionally made paraphasic errors. He could distinguish environmental sounds such as a telephone ringing or running water. After gradual improvement of his auditory incomprehension, he began to describe auditory hallucinations of verbal, musical and elementary types. He was fully aware of the hallucinatory nature of his experience, and took some notes. Two days before admission, from the right anterior side of his head he heard a familiar radio announcer reporting news about the earthquake in Osaka Prefecture and the recommended places of refuge. After similar experiences over several days, he repetitively heard a familiar Japanese traditional song from the right side, which was followed by elementary auditory hallucinations such as a car engine and a siren. These symptoms spontaneously disappeared after nine days. Besides his auditory hallucinations, visual hallucinations and illusional emotion were temporarily present

  20. Using Facebook to Reach People Who Experience Auditory Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Brian, Rachel Marie; Ben-Zeev, Dror

    2016-01-01

    Background Auditory hallucinations (eg, hearing voices) are relatively common and underreported false sensory experiences that may produce distress and impairment. A large proportion of those who experience auditory hallucinations go unidentified and untreated. Traditional engagement methods oftentimes fall short in reaching the diverse population of people who experience auditory hallucinations. Objective The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to examine the viability of leveraging Web-based social media as a method of engaging people who experience auditory hallucinations and to evaluate their attitudes toward using social media platforms as a resource for Web-based support and technology-based treatment. Methods We used Facebook advertisements to recruit individuals who experience auditory hallucinations to complete an 18-item Web-based survey focused on issues related to auditory hallucinations and technology use in American adults. We systematically tested multiple elements of the advertisement and survey layout including image selection, survey pagination, question ordering, and advertising targeting strategy. Each element was evaluated sequentially and the most cost-effective strategy was implemented in the subsequent steps, eventually deriving an optimized approach. Three open-ended question responses were analyzed using conventional inductive content analysis. Coded responses were quantified into binary codes, and frequencies were then calculated. Results Recruitment netted N=264 total sample over a 6-week period. Ninety-seven participants fully completed all measures at a total cost of $8.14 per participant across testing phases. Systematic adjustments to advertisement design, survey layout, and targeting strategies improved data quality and cost efficiency. People were willing to provide information on what triggered their auditory hallucinations along with strategies they use to cope, as well as provide suggestions to others who experience

  1. Auditory hallucinations: A review of the ERC "VOICE" project.

    PubMed

    Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2015-06-22

    In this invited review I provide a selective overview of recent research on brain mechanisms and cognitive processes involved in auditory hallucinations. The review is focused on research carried out in the "VOICE" ERC Advanced Grant Project, funded by the European Research Council, but I also review and discuss the literature in general. Auditory hallucinations are suggested to be perceptual phenomena, with a neuronal origin in the speech perception areas in the temporal lobe. The phenomenology of auditory hallucinations is conceptualized along three domains, or dimensions; a perceptual dimension, experienced as someone speaking to the patient; a cognitive dimension, experienced as an inability to inhibit, or ignore the voices, and an emotional dimension, experienced as the "voices" having primarily a negative, or sinister, emotional tone. I will review cognitive, imaging, and neurochemistry data related to these dimensions, primarily the first two. The reviewed data are summarized in a model that sees auditory hallucinations as initiated from temporal lobe neuronal hyper-activation that draws attentional focus inward, and which is not inhibited due to frontal lobe hypo-activation. It is further suggested that this is maintained through abnormal glutamate and possibly gamma-amino-butyric-acid transmitter mediation, which could point towards new pathways for pharmacological treatment. A final section discusses new methods of acquiring quantitative data on the phenomenology and subjective experience of auditory hallucination that goes beyond standard interview questionnaires, by suggesting an iPhone/iPod app. PMID:26110121

  2. A STUDY OF BEHAVIOUR DURING AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENICS

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, A.

    1982-01-01

    SUMMARY Thirty untreated urban living Schizophrenics fulfilling the criteria of Feigher et al. (1972) and having Schneiderian hallucinations were studied with the aim of examining the relation of certain variables to their behaviour during auditory hallucinations. For those whose behaviour had no direction, the voices were less real in comparison to those with positive or negative direction. For those with negative direction in behaviour, voice were positioned more outside than within sensory range and the individual episodes of hallucination were of longer duration. The voices were more real for those who had emotional experience without physical activity and those without emotions of physical activity. PMID:21965928

  3. Oscillatory Cortical Network Involved in Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    van Lutterveld, Remko; Hillebrand, Arjan; Diederen, Kelly M. J.; Daalman, Kirstin; Kahn, René S.; Stam, Cornelis J.; Sommer, Iris E. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH), a prominent symptom of schizophrenia, are often highly distressing for patients. Better understanding of the pathogenesis of hallucinations could increase therapeutic options. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) provides direct measures of neuronal activity and has an excellent temporal resolution, offering a unique opportunity to study AVH pathophysiology. Methods Twelve patients (10 paranoid schizophrenia, 2 psychosis not otherwise specified) indicated the presence of AVH by button-press while lying in a MEG scanner. As a control condition, patients performed a self-paced button-press task. AVH-state and non-AVH state were contrasted in a region-of-interest (ROI) approach. In addition, the two seconds before AVH onset were contrasted with the two seconds after AVH onset to elucidate a possible triggering mechanism. Results AVH correlated with a decrease in beta-band power in the left temporal cortex. A decrease in alpha-band power was observed in the right inferior frontal gyrus. AVH onset was related to a decrease in theta-band power in the right hippocampus. Conclusions These results suggest that AVH are triggered by a short aberration in the theta band in a memory-related structure, followed by activity in language areas accompanying the experience of AVH itself. PMID:22844436

  4. Cultivating Empathy for the Mentally Ill Using Simulated Auditory Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunn, William; Terpstra, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors address the issue of cultivating medical students' empathy for the mentally ill by examining medical student empathy pre- and postsimulated auditory hallucination experience. Methods: At the University of Utah, 150 medical students participated in this study during their 6-week psychiatry rotation. The Jefferson Scale of…

  5. Attention Training with Auditory Hallucinations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valmaggia, Lucia R.; Bouman, Theo K.; Schuurman, Laura

    2007-01-01

    The case presented in this paper illustrates how Attention Training (ATT; [Wells, A. (1990). "Panic disorder in association with relaxation induced anxiety: An attentional training approach to treatment." "Behavior Therapy," 21, 273-280.]) can be applied in an outpatient setting in the treatment of auditory hallucinations. The 25-year-old male…

  6. [Auditory hallucinations in lesions of the brain stem].

    PubMed

    Cambier, J; Decroix, J P; Masson, C

    1987-01-01

    Since the publication by Jean Lhermitte in 1922 of his paper on hallucinosis, the peduncular type has been described as a purely visual phenomenon. However, limited brain stem lesions can give rise to analogous manifestations in the auditory field. Five cases of auditory hallucinosis are reviewed, the first four resulting from a lesion of tegmentum of pons responsible for contralateral hemi-anesthesia and homolateral facial palsy with paralysis of laterality. Central type hypoacusis and a severe disorder of localization of sounds revealed a lesion of trapezoid body. The fifth case resulted from a peduncular lesion in region supplied by superior cerebellar artery, the auditory deficit being related to a lesion of inferior corpus quadrigeminum. In one patient, the auditory hallucinosis was followed by a period of visual hallucinations and oneiric delusions. Both auditory and visual hallucinosis can be related to hypnagogic hallucinations. Dream mechanisms (the geniculo-occipital spikes system) escape from normal inhibitory control exerted by the raphe nuclei. Auditory deafferentation could predispose to auditory hallucinosis. PMID:3629075

  7. The role of emotion regulation in auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Badcock, Johanna C; Paulik, Georgie; Maybery, Murray T

    2011-02-28

    Emotion regulation involves the use of strategies to influence the experience and expression of emotions. Anxiety and depression are strongly associated with the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, such as auditory hallucinations (AHs). Individuals usually try to down-regulate (decrease) such emotions, consequently abnormal or maladaptive use of one or more of these down-regulatory processes (e.g. increased use of expressive suppression or maladaptive attentional deployment, i.e. rumination/worry) may play an important role in AHs (e.g. increasing AH severity and distress). This study examined the self-reported use of a range of emotion regulation strategies in individuals with schizophrenia and current AHs (SZ AH; N=34) and healthy controls (N=34). Two separable dimensions of hallucinatory experiences (severity and distress) were assessed together with measures of anxiety, depression and happiness. Within the SZ AH group, greater use of expressive suppression was associated with an increase in severity of AHs and greater disruption in daily life. In addition, rumination was significantly positively correlated with the distress (but not with the severity) associated with AHs. Within the control group, expressive suppression, rumination and worry were associated with more anxiety/depression and less happiness, as predicted. The implications of different emotion regulation strategies for the treatment of individuals with schizophrenia and AHs are discussed. PMID:20678808

  8. Dissociative experiences as mediators between childhood trauma and auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Perona-Garcelán, Salvador; Carrascoso-López, Francisco; García-Montes, José M; Ductor-Recuerda, María Jesús; López Jiménez, Ana Ma; Vallina-Fernández, Oscar; Pérez-Álvarez, Marino; Gómez-Gómez, María Teresa

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the relationship between reported traumatic experiences in childhood and positive psychotic symptoms. We hypothesized that dissociative experiences were potential mediators between childhood trauma and hallucinations, but not delusions. The sample comprised 71 patients diagnosed with psychoses. They were assessed with the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES-II; Carlson & Putnam, 1993), a questionnaire on trauma (TQ; Davidson, Hughes, & Blazer, 1990), and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS; Kay, Opler, & Lindenmayer, 1988) delusions and hallucinations items. The results showed that childhood trauma was positively associated with the dissociation scale scores (r = .40) and also the hallucination (r = .36) and delusions scale scores (r = .32). Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the dissociation variable was a potential mediator between childhood trauma and hallucinations, but not between childhood trauma and delusions. Of the 3 DES-II factors, only depersonalization showed a mediating relationship between childhood trauma and hallucinations. The main conclusion is that the impact of childhood trauma on hallucinations may not simply be direct, but mediated by dissociative experiences, especially depersonalization. Clinical implications are also briefly discussed. PMID:22589015

  9. Auditory top-down control and affective theory of mind in schizophrenia with and without hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Rominger, Christian; Bleier, Angelika; Fitz, Werner; Marksteiner, Josef; Fink, Andreas; Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2016-07-01

    Social cognitive impairments may represent a core feature of schizophrenia and above all are a strong predictor of positive psychotic symptoms. Previous studies could show that reduced inhibitory top-down control contributes to deficits in theory of mind abilities and is involved in the genesis of hallucinations. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between auditory inhibition, affective theory of mind and the experience of hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. In the present study, 20 in-patients with schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls completed a social cognition task (the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test) and an inhibitory top-down Dichotic Listening Test. Schizophrenia patients with greater severity of hallucinations showed impaired affective theory of mind as well as impaired inhibitory top-down control. More dysfunctional top-down inhibition was associated with poorer affective theory of mind performance, and seemed to mediate the association between impairment to affective theory of mind and severity of hallucinations. The findings support the idea of impaired theory of mind as a trait marker of schizophrenia. In addition, dysfunctional top-down inhibition may give rise to hallucinations and may further impair affective theory of mind skills in schizophrenia. PMID:27197903

  10. Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Nucleus Accumbens in Auditory and Visual Hallucinations in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Benjamin; Amad, Ali; Poulet, Emmanuel; Bordet, Régis; Vignaud, Alexandre; Bation, Rémy; Delmaire, Christine; Thomas, Pierre; Cottencin, Olivier; Jardri, Renaud

    2015-01-01

    Both auditory hallucinations (AH) and visual hallucinations may occur in schizophrenia. One of the main hypotheses underlying their occurrence involves the increased activity of the mesolimbic pathway, which links the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). However, the precise contribution of the mesolimbic pathway in hallucinations across various sensory modalities has not yet been explored. We compared the resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) of the NAcc among 16 schizophrenia patients with pure AH, 15 with both visuoauditory hallucinations (VAH), and 14 without hallucinations (NoH). A between-group comparison was performed using random-effects ANCOVA (rs-FC of the bilateral NAcc as the dependent variable, groups as the between-subjects factor, age and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores as covariates; q(false discovery rate [FDR]) < .05). Compared to the NoH group, the AH group exhibited significantly enhanced NAcc rs-FC with the left temporal superior gyrus, the cingulate gyri, and the VTA, whereas the VAH group, compared to the AH group, exhibited significantly enhanced NAcc rs-FC with the bilateral insula, putamen, parahippocampal gyri, and VTA. The strength in rs-FC between the NAcc and the VTA appeared to be positively associated with the presence of hallucinations, but the NAcc FC patterns changed with the complexity of these experiences (ie, 0, 1, or 2 sensory modalities), rather than with severity. This might support the aberrant salience hypothesis of schizophrenia. Moreover, these findings suggest that future clinical and neurobiological studies of hallucinations should evaluate not only the global severity of symptoms but also their sensorial features. PMID:25053649

  11. Abnormal synchrony and effective connectivity in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    de la Iglesia-Vaya, Maria; Escartí, Maria José; Molina-Mateo, Jose; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Gadea, Marien; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Aguilar García-Iturrospe, Eduardo J.; Robles, Montserrat; Biswal, Bharat B.; Sanjuan, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Auditory hallucinations (AH) are the most frequent positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Hallucinations have been related to emotional processing disturbances, altered functional connectivity and effective connectivity deficits. Previously, we observed that, compared to healthy controls, the limbic network responses of patients with auditory hallucinations differed when the subjects were listening to emotionally charged words. We aimed to compare the synchrony patterns and effective connectivity of task-related networks between schizophrenia patients with and without AH and healthy controls. Schizophrenia patients with AH (n = 27) and without AH (n = 14) were compared with healthy participants (n = 31). We examined functional connectivity by analyzing correlations and cross-correlations among previously detected independent component analysis time courses. Granger causality was used to infer the information flow direction in the brain regions. The results demonstrate that the patterns of cortico-cortical functional synchrony differentiated the patients with AH from the patients without AH and from the healthy participants. Additionally, Granger-causal relationships between the networks clearly differentiated the groups. In the patients with AH, the principal causal source was an occipital–cerebellar component, versus a temporal component in the patients without AH and the healthy controls. These data indicate that an anomalous process of neural connectivity exists when patients with AH process emotional auditory stimuli. Additionally, a central role is suggested for the cerebellum in processing emotional stimuli in patients with persistent AH. PMID:25379429

  12. Abnormal synchrony and effective connectivity in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia-Vaya, Maria; Escartí, Maria José; Molina-Mateo, Jose; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Gadea, Marien; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Aguilar García-Iturrospe, Eduardo J; Robles, Montserrat; Biswal, Bharat B; Sanjuan, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Auditory hallucinations (AH) are the most frequent positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Hallucinations have been related to emotional processing disturbances, altered functional connectivity and effective connectivity deficits. Previously, we observed that, compared to healthy controls, the limbic network responses of patients with auditory hallucinations differed when the subjects were listening to emotionally charged words. We aimed to compare the synchrony patterns and effective connectivity of task-related networks between schizophrenia patients with and without AH and healthy controls. Schizophrenia patients with AH (n = 27) and without AH (n = 14) were compared with healthy participants (n = 31). We examined functional connectivity by analyzing correlations and cross-correlations among previously detected independent component analysis time courses. Granger causality was used to infer the information flow direction in the brain regions. The results demonstrate that the patterns of cortico-cortical functional synchrony differentiated the patients with AH from the patients without AH and from the healthy participants. Additionally, Granger-causal relationships between the networks clearly differentiated the groups. In the patients with AH, the principal causal source was an occipital-cerebellar component, versus a temporal component in the patients without AH and the healthy controls. These data indicate that an anomalous process of neural connectivity exists when patients with AH process emotional auditory stimuli. Additionally, a central role is suggested for the cerebellum in processing emotional stimuli in patients with persistent AH. PMID:25379429

  13. A STUDY OF COPING WITH AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENICS

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, A.

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY The general orientation and activities involved in coping with auditory hallucinations were examined in 30 schizophrenics. Age, personality dimensions, duration of illness, position, loudness and pitch of the voice and interference with activities of patients by the voice were associated with the general orientation. Systematic coping behavior was useful. Socio-economic status and degree of interference with activities were associated with the choice of useful orientation. Manipulation of arousal and control of attention were beneficial. Neuroticism, interference due to voice, emotional intensity during the voice, ‘third person’ voices and anticipation of voice were related to suicidal ideas. PMID:21965990

  14. Brain Metabolism during Hallucination-Like Auditory Stimulation in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Horga, Guillermo; Fernández-Egea, Emilio; Mané, Anna; Font, Mireia; Schatz, Kelly C.; Falcon, Carles; Lomeña, Francisco; Bernardo, Miguel; Parellada, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia are typically characterized by rich emotional content. Despite the prominent role of emotion in regulating normal perception, the neural interface between emotion-processing regions such as the amygdala and auditory regions involved in perception remains relatively unexplored in AVH. Here, we studied brain metabolism using FDG-PET in 9 remitted patients with schizophrenia that previously reported severe AVH during an acute psychotic episode and 8 matched healthy controls. Participants were scanned twice: (1) at rest and (2) during the perception of aversive auditory stimuli mimicking the content of AVH. Compared to controls, remitted patients showed an exaggerated response to the AVH-like stimuli in limbic and paralimbic regions, including the left amygdala. Furthermore, patients displayed abnormally strong connections between the amygdala and auditory regions of the cortex and thalamus, along with abnormally weak connections between the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that abnormal modulation of the auditory cortex by limbic-thalamic structures might be involved in the pathophysiology of AVH and may potentially account for the emotional features that characterize hallucinatory percepts in schizophrenia. PMID:24416328

  15. Auditory Verbal Hallucinations and the Interhemispheric Auditory Pathway in Chronic Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Wigand, Marlene; Kubicki, Marek; von Hohenberg, Christian Clemm; Leicht, Gregor; Karch, Susanne; Eckbo, Ryan; Pelavin, Paula E.; Hawley, Kathryn; Rujescu, Dan; Bouix, Sylvain; Shenton, Martha E.; Mulert, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The interhemispheric auditory pathway has been shown to play a crucial role in the processing of acoustic stimuli, and alterations of structural and functional connectivity between bilateral auditory areas are likely relevant to the pathogenesis of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs). The aim of this study was to examine this pathway in patients with chronic schizophrenia regarding their lifetime history of AVHs. Methods DTI scans were acquired from 33 healthy controls (HC), 24 schizophrenia patients with a history of AVHs (LT-AVH) and 9 schizophrenia patients without any lifetime-hallucinations (N-LT-AVH). The interhemispheric auditory fibre bundles were extracted using streamline tractography. Subsequently, diffusivity indices, namely Fractional Anisotropy (FA), Trace, Mode, Axial and Radial Diffusivity, were calculated. Results FA was decreased over the entire pathway in LT-AVH compared with N-LT-AVH. Moreover, LT-AVH displayed decreased FA and Mode as well as increased Radial Diffusivity in the midsagittal section of the fibre tract. Conclusions These findings indicate complex microstructural changes in the interhemispheric auditory pathway of schizophrenia patients with a history of AVHs. Alterations appear to be absent in patients who have never hallucinated. PMID:25224883

  16. Interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Woods, Angela; Jones, Nev; Bernini, Marco; Callard, Felicity; Alderson-Day, Ben; Badcock, Johanna C; Bell, Vaughan; Cook, Chris C H; Csordas, Thomas; Humpston, Clara; Krueger, Joel; Larøi, Frank; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Moseley, Peter; Powell, Hilary; Raballo, Andrea; Smailes, David; Fernyhough, Charles

    2014-07-01

    Despite the recent proliferation of scientific, clinical, and narrative accounts of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), the phenomenology of voice hearing remains opaque and undertheorized. In this article, we outline an interdisciplinary approach to understanding hallucinatory experiences which seeks to demonstrate the value of the humanities and social sciences to advancing knowledge in clinical research and practice. We argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH utilizes rigorous and context-appropriate methodologies to analyze a wider range of first-person accounts of AVH at 3 contextual levels: (1) cultural, social, and historical; (2) experiential; and (3) biographical. We go on to show that there are significant potential benefits for voice hearers, clinicians, and researchers. These include (1) informing the development and refinement of subtypes of hallucinations within and across diagnostic categories; (2) "front-loading" research in cognitive neuroscience; and (3) suggesting new possibilities for therapeutic intervention. In conclusion, we argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH can nourish the ethical core of scientific enquiry by challenging its interpretive paradigms, and offer voice hearers richer, potentially more empowering ways to make sense of their experiences. PMID:24903416

  17. Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Phenomenology of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Angela; Jones, Nev; Bernini, Marco; Callard, Felicity; Alderson-Day, Ben; Badcock, Johanna C.; Bell, Vaughan; Cook, Chris C. H.; Csordas, Thomas; Humpston, Clara; Krueger, Joel; Larøi, Frank; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Moseley, Peter; Powell, Hilary; Raballo, Andrea; Smailes, David; Fernyhough, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recent proliferation of scientific, clinical, and narrative accounts of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), the phenomenology of voice hearing remains opaque and undertheorized. In this article, we outline an interdisciplinary approach to understanding hallucinatory experiences which seeks to demonstrate the value of the humanities and social sciences to advancing knowledge in clinical research and practice. We argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH utilizes rigorous and context-appropriate methodologies to analyze a wider range of first-person accounts of AVH at 3 contextual levels: (1) cultural, social, and historical; (2) experiential; and (3) biographical. We go on to show that there are significant potential benefits for voice hearers, clinicians, and researchers. These include (1) informing the development and refinement of subtypes of hallucinations within and across diagnostic categories; (2) “front-loading” research in cognitive neuroscience; and (3) suggesting new possibilities for therapeutic intervention. In conclusion, we argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH can nourish the ethical core of scientific enquiry by challenging its interpretive paradigms, and offer voice hearers richer, potentially more empowering ways to make sense of their experiences. PMID:24903416

  18. Steady state visually evoked potential correlates of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Line, P; Silberstein, R B; Wright, J J; Copolov, D L

    1998-11-01

    This study attempted to localize regions of brain electrical activity associated with the onset of auditory hallucinations. Changes in Steady State Visually Evoked Potential (SSVEP) topography associated with the onset of spontaneous auditory hallucinations was studied in eight schizophrenic patients. The SSVEP elicited by a spatially uniform sinusoidally varying visual flicker was recorded using a 64-channel electrode helmet. A large and significant decrease in SSVEP latency in the right temporo/parietal region occurred in the second prior to the report of auditory hallucinations. A control task with matching motor movements produced no significant decrease in SSVEP latency in the same right temporo/parietal location. This finding suggests that activity of fine temporal resolution in the neural networks in the right temporo/parietal area may be implicated in the genesis of auditory hallucination, in conformity with certain neuropsychological theories. PMID:9811555

  19. Evidence for functional abnormality in the right auditory cortex during musical hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Kasai, K; Asada, T; Yumoto, M; Takeya, J; Matsuda, H

    1999-11-13

    Right auditory cortex dysfunction during musical hallucinations occurred in an 88-year-old woman, who was otherwise cognitively intact. We assessed this phenomenon with a combination of neuromagnetic and cerebral blood-flow measurements. PMID:10568580

  20. [Cognitive-behavioral therapy for auditory hallucinations resistant to neuroleptic treatment].

    PubMed

    Favrod, Jérôme; Pomini, Valentino; Grasset, François

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study is to test the feasibility and the efficacy of a cognitive and behavior therapy manual for auditory hallucinations with persons suffering from schizophrenia in a French-speaking environment and under natural clinical conditions. Eight patients met ICD-10 criteria for paranoid schizophrenia, 2 for hebephrenic schizophrenia and 1 for schizoaffective disorder. All were hearing voices daily. Patients followed the intervention for 3 to 6 months according to their individual rhythms. Participants filled up questionnaires at pre-test, post-test and three months follow-up. The instruments were the Belief About Voice Questionnaire--Revised and two seven points scales about frequency of hallucinations and attribution of the source of the voices. Results show a decrease of voices' frequency and improvement in attributing the voices rather to an internal than to an external source. Malevolent or benevolent beliefs about voices are significantly decreased at follow-up as well as efforts at coping with hallucinations. Results should be interpreted with caution because of the small number of subjects. The sample may not be representative of patients with persistent symptoms since there is an over representation of patients with benevolent voices and an under representation of patients with substance misuse. PMID:15209053

  1. Auditory hallucinations in tinnitus patients: Emotional relationships and depression

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Rosa Maria Rodrigues dos; Sanchez, Tanit Ganz; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Lucia, Mara Cristina Souza de

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Over the last few years, our Tinnitus Research Group has identified an increasing number of patients with tinnitus who also complained of repeated perception of complex sounds, such as music and voices. Such hallucinatory phenomena motivated us to study their possible relation to the patients' psyches. Aims: To assess whether hallucinatory phenomena were related to the patients' psychosis and/or depression, and clarify their content and function in the patients' psyches. Method: Ten subjects (8 women; mean age = 65.7 years) were selected by otolaryngologists and evaluated by the same psychologists through semi-structured interviews, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and psychoanalysis interviews. Results: We found no association between auditory hallucinations and psychosis; instead, this phenomenon was associated with depressive aspects. The patients' discourse revealed that hallucinatory phenomena played unconscious roles in their emotional life. In all cases, there was a remarkable and strong tendency to recall/repeat unpleasant facts/situations, which tended to exacerbate the distress caused by the tinnitus and hallucinatory phenomena and worsen depressive aspects. Conclusions: There is an important relationship between tinnitus, hallucinatory phenomena, and depression based on persistent recall of facts/situations leading to psychic distress. The knowledge of such findings represents a further step towards the need to adapt the treatment of this particular subgroup of tinnitus patients through interdisciplinary teamwork. Prospective. PMID:25991952

  2. Experiential Response to Auditory and Visual Hallucination Suggestions in Hypnotic Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanos, Nicholas P.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The effects of several attitudinal, cognitive skill, and personality variables in response to auditory and visual hallucination suggestions to hypnotic subjects are assessed. Cooperative attitudes toward hypnosis and involvement in everyday imaginative activities (absorption) correlated with response to auditory and visual hallucination…

  3. An examination of auditory processing and affective prosody in relatives of patients with auditory hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Rachel; Farhall, John; Thomas, Neil; Groot, Christopher; Rossell, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    Research on auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) indicates that AVH schizophrenia patients show greater abnormalities on tasks requiring recognition of affective prosody (AP) than non-AVH patients. Detecting AP requires accurate perception of manipulations in pitch, amplitude and duration. Schizophrenia patients with AVHs also experience difficulty detecting these acoustic manipulations; with a number of theorists speculating that difficulties in pitch, amplitude and duration discrimination underlie AP abnormalities. This study examined whether both AP and these aspects of auditory processing are also impaired in first degree relatives of persons with AVHs. It also examined whether pitch, amplitude and duration discrimination were related to AP, and to hallucination proneness. Unaffected relatives of AVH schizophrenia patients (N = 19) and matched healthy controls (N = 33) were compared using tone discrimination tasks, an AP task, and clinical measures. Relatives were slower at identifying emotions on the AP task (p = 0.002), with secondary analysis showing this was especially so for happy (p = 0.014) and neutral (p = 0.001) sentences. There was a significant interaction effect for pitch between tone deviation level and group (p = 0.019), and relatives performed worse than controls on amplitude discrimination and duration discrimination. AP performance for happy and neutral sentences was significantly correlated with amplitude perception. Lastly, AVH proneness in the entire sample was significantly correlated with pitch discrimination (r = 0.44) and pitch perception was shown to predict AVH proneness in the sample (p = 0.005). These results suggest basic impairments in auditory processing are present in relatives of AVH patients; they potentially underlie processing speed in AP tasks, and predict AVH proneness. This indicates auditory processing deficits may be a core feature of AVHs in schizophrenia, and are worthy of further study as a potential endophenotype

  4. Auditory hallucinations: A review of the ERC “VOICE” project

    PubMed Central

    Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    In this invited review I provide a selective overview of recent research on brain mechanisms and cognitive processes involved in auditory hallucinations. The review is focused on research carried out in the “VOICE” ERC Advanced Grant Project, funded by the European Research Council, but I also review and discuss the literature in general. Auditory hallucinations are suggested to be perceptual phenomena, with a neuronal origin in the speech perception areas in the temporal lobe. The phenomenology of auditory hallucinations is conceptualized along three domains, or dimensions; a perceptual dimension, experienced as someone speaking to the patient; a cognitive dimension, experienced as an inability to inhibit, or ignore the voices, and an emotional dimension, experienced as the “voices” having primarily a negative, or sinister, emotional tone. I will review cognitive, imaging, and neurochemistry data related to these dimensions, primarily the first two. The reviewed data are summarized in a model that sees auditory hallucinations as initiated from temporal lobe neuronal hyper-activation that draws attentional focus inward, and which is not inhibited due to frontal lobe hypo-activation. It is further suggested that this is maintained through abnormal glutamate and possibly gamma-amino-butyric-acid transmitter mediation, which could point towards new pathways for pharmacological treatment. A final section discusses new methods of acquiring quantitative data on the phenomenology and subjective experience of auditory hallucination that goes beyond standard interview questionnaires, by suggesting an iPhone/iPod app. PMID:26110121

  5. Auditory verbal hallucinations--breaking the silence of inner dialogue.

    PubMed

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Cutting, John

    2003-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are usually defined as perceptions of speech that occur in the absence of any appropriate external stimulus. This definition, we argue, is false. We maintain that AVHs are disorders of self-consciousness that are best understood as the becoming conscious of inner dialogue. Normally, subconscious interior conversations are experienced as a sense of partnership between distinct parts: we feel these parts as distinct, but also integrated and collaborating with each other in decision-making and in self-representation. AVHs attest to a breakdown in this process of interior conversation: the feeling of unity in duality falls apart, and the dialectic partnership on which self-representation is grounded shatters into a mere dichotomy. There is a fracture in self-consciousness. If ipseity (i.e. the prereflective modality of self-awareness, the self-feeling of one's own self in which the one who feels and what is felt is but one thing) is lacking, the sense of unity weakens, and the sense of duality increases. This crisis of ipseity is accompanied by an increase of reflexivity (i.e. the process through which I take a part of myself as a focal object of awareness). Hyperreflexivity contributes to the objectification of the sense of duality and to the loss of the sense of 'myness' of inner speech. In schizophrenics, inner dialogue becomes anomalously manifest. Whereas in normal conditions, inner dialogue is the medium for self-representation, AVHs arise through its morbid objectification: inner speech comes to the foreground in the concrete fashion of alien 'voices'. PMID:12845282

  6. Psychological Therapies for Auditory Hallucinations (Voices): Current Status and Key Directions for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Neil; Hayward, Mark; Peters, Emmanuelle; van der Gaag, Mark; Bentall, Richard P.; Jenner, Jack; Strauss, Clara; Sommer, Iris E.; Johns, Louise C.; Varese, Filippo; García-Montes, José Manuel; Waters, Flavie; Dodgson, Guy; McCarthy-Jones, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This report from the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research considers the current status and future directions in research on psychological therapies targeting auditory hallucinations (hearing voices). Therapy approaches have evolved from behavioral and coping-focused interventions, through formulation-driven interventions using methods from cognitive therapy, to a number of contemporary developments. Recent developments include the application of acceptance- and mindfulness-based approaches, and consolidation of methods for working with connections between voices and views of self, others, relationships and personal history. In this article, we discuss the development of therapies for voices and review the empirical findings. This review shows that psychological therapies are broadly effective for people with positive symptoms, but that more research is required to understand the specific application of therapies to voices. Six key research directions are identified: (1) moving beyond the focus on overall efficacy to understand specific therapeutic processes targeting voices, (2) better targeting psychological processes associated with voices such as trauma, cognitive mechanisms, and personal recovery, (3) more focused measurement of the intended outcomes of therapy, (4) understanding individual differences among voice hearers, (5) extending beyond a focus on voices and schizophrenia into other populations and sensory modalities, and (6) shaping interventions for service implementation. PMID:24936081

  7. Use of media technology to enhance the learning of student nurses in regards to auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Mawson, Kerry

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if simulation aided by media technology contributes towards an increase in knowledge, empathy, and a change in attitudes in regards to auditory hallucinations for nursing students. A convenience sample of 60 second-year undergraduate nursing students from an Australian university was invited to be part of the study. A pre-post-test design was used, with data analysed using a paired samples t-test to identify pre- and post-changes on nursing students' scores on knowledge of auditory hallucinations. Nine of the 11 questions reported statistically-significant results. The remaining two questions highlighted knowledge embedded within the curriculum, with therapeutic communication being the core work of mental health nursing. The implications for practice are that simulation aided by media technology increases the knowledge of students in regards to auditory hallucinations. PMID:23755742

  8. Are Auditory Hallucinations Related to the Brain's Resting State Activity? A 'Neurophenomenal Resting State Hypothesis'

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    While several hypotheses about the neural mechanisms underlying auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) have been suggested, the exact role of the recently highlighted intrinsic resting state activity of the brain remains unclear. Based on recent findings, we therefore developed what we call the 'resting state hypotheses' of AVH. Our hypothesis suggest that AVH may be traced back to abnormally elevated resting state activity in auditory cortex itself, abnormal modulation of the auditory cortex by anterior cortical midline regions as part of the default-mode network, and neural confusion between auditory cortical resting state changes and stimulus-induced activity. We discuss evidence in favour of our 'resting state hypothesis' and show its correspondence with phenomenal, i.e., subjective-experiential features as explored in phenomenological accounts. Therefore I speak of a 'neurophenomenal resting state hypothesis' of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. PMID:25598821

  9. Auditory Hallucinations and the Brain’s Resting-State Networks: Findings and Methodological Observations

    PubMed Central

    Alderson-Day, Ben; Diederen, Kelly; Fernyhough, Charles; Ford, Judith M.; Horga, Guillermo; Margulies, Daniel S.; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Northoff, Georg; Shine, James M.; Turner, Jessica; van de Ven, Vincent; van Lutterveld, Remko; Waters, Flavie; Jardri, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the potential for alterations to the brain’s resting-state networks (RSNs) to explain various kinds of psychopathology. RSNs provide an intriguing new explanatory framework for hallucinations, which can occur in different modalities and population groups, but which remain poorly understood. This collaboration from the International Consortium on Hallucination Research (ICHR) reports on the evidence linking resting-state alterations to auditory hallucinations (AH) and provides a critical appraisal of the methodological approaches used in this area. In the report, we describe findings from resting connectivity fMRI in AH (in schizophrenia and nonclinical individuals) and compare them with findings from neurophysiological research, structural MRI, and research on visual hallucinations (VH). In AH, various studies show resting connectivity differences in left-hemisphere auditory and language regions, as well as atypical interaction of the default mode network and RSNs linked to cognitive control and salience. As the latter are also evident in studies of VH, this points to a domain-general mechanism for hallucinations alongside modality-specific changes to RSNs in different sensory regions. However, we also observed high methodological heterogeneity in the current literature, affecting the ability to make clear comparisons between studies. To address this, we provide some methodological recommendations and options for future research on the resting state and hallucinations. PMID:27280452

  10. Auditory Hallucinations and the Brain's Resting-State Networks: Findings and Methodological Observations.

    PubMed

    Alderson-Day, Ben; Diederen, Kelly; Fernyhough, Charles; Ford, Judith M; Horga, Guillermo; Margulies, Daniel S; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Northoff, Georg; Shine, James M; Turner, Jessica; van de Ven, Vincent; van Lutterveld, Remko; Waters, Flavie; Jardri, Renaud

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the potential for alterations to the brain's resting-state networks (RSNs) to explain various kinds of psychopathology. RSNs provide an intriguing new explanatory framework for hallucinations, which can occur in different modalities and population groups, but which remain poorly understood. This collaboration from the International Consortium on Hallucination Research (ICHR) reports on the evidence linking resting-state alterations to auditory hallucinations (AH) and provides a critical appraisal of the methodological approaches used in this area. In the report, we describe findings from resting connectivity fMRI in AH (in schizophrenia and nonclinical individuals) and compare them with findings from neurophysiological research, structural MRI, and research on visual hallucinations (VH). In AH, various studies show resting connectivity differences in left-hemisphere auditory and language regions, as well as atypical interaction of the default mode network and RSNs linked to cognitive control and salience. As the latter are also evident in studies of VH, this points to a domain-general mechanism for hallucinations alongside modality-specific changes to RSNs in different sensory regions. However, we also observed high methodological heterogeneity in the current literature, affecting the ability to make clear comparisons between studies. To address this, we provide some methodological recommendations and options for future research on the resting state and hallucinations. PMID:27280452

  11. Auditory hallucinations as ictal phenomena in a patient with voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-associated limbic encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Michael; Attarian, Hrayr; Raizer, Jeffrey; Kumthekar, Priya; Macken, Micheal P; Schuele, Stephan U; Gerard, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    Limbic encephalitis involving anti-voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies (VGKC-LE) has become increasingly recognised, with seizures and psychotic features, such as hallucinations being typical clinical manifestations. Though the literature supports auditory hallucinations as ictal phenomena, there are no reported cases of these hallucinations correlating with electrographic seizure for this disease entity. Early recognition of auditory hallucinations as seizures could alter treatment and subsequently affect short-term outcomes in these patients. We report the case of a patient with auditory hallucinations and progressive cognitive decline, as well as serological evidence of VGKC antibodies, in whom ictal hallucinations were identified by continuous video-EEG monitoring. This case highlights the subtlety of this entity, in both clinical and electrographic detection. [Published with video sequences]. PMID:24571022

  12. Alterations of Functional and Structural Networks in Schizophrenia Patients with Auditory Verbal Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiajia; Wang, Chunli; Liu, Feng; Qin, Wen; Li, Jie; Zhuo, Chuanjun

    2016-01-01

    Background: There have been many attempts at explaining the underlying neuropathological mechanisms of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia on the basis of regional brain changes, with the most consistent findings being that AVH are associated with functional and structural impairments in auditory and speech-related regions. However, the human brain is a complex network and the global topological alterations specific to AVH in schizophrenia remain unclear. Methods: Thirty-five schizophrenia patients with AVH, 41 patients without AVH, and 50 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The whole-brain functional and structural networks were constructed and analyzed using graph theoretical approaches. Inter-group differences in global network metrics (including small-world properties and network efficiency) were investigated. Results: We found that three groups had a typical small-world topology in both functional and structural networks. More importantly, schizophrenia patients with and without AVH exhibited common disruptions of functional networks, characterized by decreased clustering coefficient, global efficiency and local efficiency, and increased characteristic path length; structural networks of only schizophrenia patients with AVH showed increased characteristic path length compared with those of healthy controls. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that less “small-worldization” and lower network efficiency of functional networks may be an independent trait characteristic of schizophrenia, and regularization of structural networks may be the underlying pathological process engaged in schizophrenic AVH symptom expression. PMID:27014042

  13. The effect of auditory verbal imagery on signal detection in hallucination-prone individuals

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Peter; Smailes, David; Ellison, Amanda; Fernyhough, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive models have suggested that auditory hallucinations occur when internal mental events, such as inner speech or auditory verbal imagery (AVI), are misattributed to an external source. This has been supported by numerous studies indicating that individuals who experience hallucinations tend to perform in a biased manner on tasks that require them to distinguish self-generated from non-self-generated perceptions. However, these tasks have typically been of limited relevance to inner speech models of hallucinations, because they have not manipulated the AVI that participants used during the task. Here, a new paradigm was employed to investigate the interaction between imagery and perception, in which a healthy, non-clinical sample of participants were instructed to use AVI whilst completing an auditory signal detection task. It was hypothesized that AVI-usage would cause participants to perform in a biased manner, therefore falsely detecting more voices in bursts of noise. In Experiment 1, when cued to generate AVI, highly hallucination-prone participants showed a lower response bias than when performing a standard signal detection task, being more willing to report the presence of a voice in the noise. Participants not prone to hallucinations performed no differently between the two conditions. In Experiment 2, participants were not specifically instructed to use AVI, but retrospectively reported how often they engaged in AVI during the task. Highly hallucination-prone participants who retrospectively reported using imagery showed a lower response bias than did participants with lower proneness who also reported using AVI. Results are discussed in relation to prominent inner speech models of hallucinations. PMID:26435050

  14. Auditory musical hallucinations associated with extended-release pramipexole in an elderly patient with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hiroshi; Ueno, Satoshi

    2014-12-01

    Auditory musical hallucinations (AMHs) are rare complex auditory hallucinations in Parkinson's disease (PD) that have been limited previously. The characteristics of AMHs in PD remain uncertain. We describe a 72-year-old woman with PD who presented with AMHs. The AMHs occurred after immediate-release pramipexole was switched to extended-release pramipexole. The AMHs were a quiet piano or often songs on a loud radio or background music over other sounds. The music was unpleasant, but not objectionable, threatening, or ego-syntonic, and it did not interrupt her daily activities. AMHs in PD were non-threatening, and dopaminergic treatment may predispose patients to AMHs or be a unique possible cause of AMHs. The hallucinations can occur after immediate-release pramipexole was switched to extended-release pramipexole. PMID:25501095

  15. Auditory Musical Hallucinations Associated With Extended-Release Pramipexole in an Elderly Patient With Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Hiroshi; Ueno, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Auditory musical hallucinations (AMHs) are rare complex auditory hallucinations in Parkinson's disease (PD) that have been limited previously. The characteristics of AMHs in PD remain uncertain. We describe a 72-year-old woman with PD who presented with AMHs. The AMHs occurred after immediate-release pramipexole was switched to extended-release pramipexole. The AMHs were a quiet piano or often songs on a loud radio or background music over other sounds. The music was unpleasant, but not objectionable, threatening, or ego-syntonic, and it did not interrupt her daily activities. AMHs in PD were non-threatening, and dopaminergic treatment may predispose patients to AMHs or be a unique possible cause of AMHs. The hallucinations can occur after immediate-release pramipexole was switched to extended-release pramipexole. PMID:25501095

  16. An EMG Study of the Lip Muscles during Covert Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapin, Lucile; Dohen, Marion; Polosan, Mircea; Perrier, Pascal; Loevenbruck, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: "Auditory verbal hallucinations" (AVHs) are speech perceptions in the absence of external stimulation. According to an influential theoretical account of AVHs in schizophrenia, a deficit in inner-speech monitoring may cause the patients' verbal thoughts to be perceived as external voices. The account is based on a…

  17. A synthesis of evidence on inhibitory control and auditory hallucinations based on the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework

    PubMed Central

    Badcock, Johanna C.; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health initiative called the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project aims to provide a new approach to understanding mental illness grounded in the fundamental domains of human behavior and psychological functioning. To this end the RDoC framework encourages researchers and clinicians to think outside the [diagnostic] box, by studying symptoms, behaviors or biomarkers that cut across traditional mental illness categories. In this article we examine and discuss how the RDoC framework can improve our understanding of psychopathology by zeroing in on hallucinations- now widely recognized as a symptom that occurs in a range of clinical and non-clinical groups. We focus on a single domain of functioning—namely cognitive [inhibitory] control—and assimilate key findings structured around the basic RDoC “units of analysis,” which span the range from observable behavior to molecular genetics. Our synthesis and critique of the literature provides a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in the emergence of auditory hallucinations, linked to the individual dynamics of inhibitory development before and after puberty; favors separate developmental trajectories for clinical and non-clinical hallucinations; yields new insights into co-occurring emotional and behavioral problems; and suggests some novel avenues for treatment. PMID:24723879

  18. Accounting for the phenomenology and varieties of auditory verbal hallucination within a predictive processing framework.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Sam

    2014-11-01

    Two challenges that face popular self-monitoring theories (SMTs) of auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) are that they cannot account for the auditory phenomenology of AVHs and that they cannot account for their variety. In this paper I show that both challenges can be met by adopting a predictive processing framework (PPF), and by viewing AVHs as arising from abnormalities in predictive processing. I show how, within the PPF, both the auditory phenomenology of AVHs, and three subtypes of AVH, can be accounted for. PMID:25286243

  19. Suicide Risk, Stress Sensitivity, and Self-Esteem among Young Adults Reporting Auditory Hallucinations.

    PubMed

    DeVylder, Jordan E; Hilimire, Matthew R

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with subthreshold psychotic experiences are at increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behavior, similar to those with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. This may be explained by shared risk factors such as heightened stress sensitivity or low self-esteem. Understanding the nature of this relationship could inform suicide prevention in social work practice. In this study, authors examined the relationship between self-reported auditory hallucinations and suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts, in a nonclinical sample of young adults, controlling for scores on the Psychological Stress Index and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Auditory hallucinations were associated with approximately double the odds of suicidal ideation and plans and four times the odds for suicide attempts. This relationship was not explained by stress sensitivity or self-esteem, which were independently related to hallucinations and suicidality, respectively. Subthreshold auditory hallucinations may be a useful indicator of suicide risk. This association may represent a clinically significant relationship that may be addressed through social work interventions intended to alleviate stress sensitivity or improve self-esteem. PMID:26285356

  20. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY ON THE RELATION BETWEEN NEUROTICISM AND CERTAIN ASPECTS OF AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENICS

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, A.

    1986-01-01

    SUMMARY 30 schizophrenics who met the criteria of Feighner et al and were having verbal auditory hallucinations, with or without hallucinations of other varieties were chosen for the study. The relation between neuroticism scale of Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire and different aspects of the voice was examined. Neuroticism scores were positively related to the level of anxiety prior to the voice, anticipation of the voice, intensity of anger during the voice and interference with occupation and social activities of patients by the voice. PMID:21927144

  1. Is chronicity a function of the relationship between the person and the auditory hallucination?

    PubMed

    Benjamin, L S

    1989-01-01

    Thirty psychiatric inpatients each rated their relationship with their auditory hallucination using the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior questionnaires which assess partnerships in terms of interpersonal focus, love-hate, and enmeshment-differentiation. Results showed that all subjects had integrated, interpersonally coherent relationships with their voice. Qualitative differences in the nature of the relationships related meaningfully to diagnosis. Selected clinical excerpts suggested that the relationship with the hallucination may serve an adaptive function. Chronicity may be dependent on the nature of that adaptation. PMID:2749190

  2. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in schizophrenia with treatment-refractory auditory hallucinations and major self-mutilation.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Torsten; Berger, Christoph; Krecklow, Beate; Kurth, Jens; Schwarzenboeck, Sarah; Foley, Paul; Thome, Johannes; Krause, Bernd Joachim; Hoeppner, Jacqueline

    2015-08-01

    Major self-mutilation is one of the most hazardous complications encountered in psychiatric patients, and is generally associated with auditory verbal hallucinations as part of a psychotic syndrome. This case report exemplarily discusses the treatment of such hallucinations with repeated (20 sessions) low-frequency (1 Hz) transcranial magnetic stimulation targeting areas of elevated metabolic activity in the temporo-parietal cortex ('neuronavigated rTMS'), drawing upon experience concerning treatment of a patient with chronic auditory verbal hallucinations that had proved intractable to antipsychotic medication combined with cognitive behavioural therapy, and who had severed a forearm because of the content of these hallucinations. This example of major self-mutilation underscores the urgent requirement for effective management of chronic auditory verbal hallucinations in patients suffering from psychiatric disease, and neuronavigated rTMS represents an approach that deserves further exploration in this regard. PMID:24398780

  3. Targeting Treatment-Resistant Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia with fMRI-Based Neurofeedback - Exploring Different Cases of Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Dyck, Miriam S; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Bergert, Susanne; Sarkheil, Pegah; Koush, Yury; Alawi, Eliza M; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Gaebler, Arnim J; Shergill, Sukhi S; Mathiak, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are a hallmark of schizophrenia and can significantly impair patients' emotional, social, and occupational functioning. Despite progress in psychopharmacology, over 25% of schizophrenia patients suffer from treatment-resistant hallucinations. In the search for alternative treatment methods, neurofeedback (NF) emerges as a promising therapy tool. NF based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) allows voluntarily change of the activity in a selected brain region - even in patients with schizophrenia. This study explored effects of NF on ongoing AVHs. The selected participants were trained in the self-regulation of activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a key monitoring region involved in generation and intensity modulation of AVHs. Using rt-fMRI, three right-handed patients, suffering from schizophrenia and ongoing, treatment-resistant AVHs, learned control over ACC activity on three separate days. The effect of NF training on hallucinations' severity was assessed with the Auditory Vocal Hallucination Rating Scale (AVHRS) and on the affective state - with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). All patients yielded significant upregulation of the ACC and reported subjective improvement in some aspects of AVHs (AVHRS) such as disturbance and suffering from the voices. In general, mood (PANAS) improved during NF training, though two patients reported worse mood after NF on the third day. ACC and reward system activity during NF learning and specific effects on mood and symptoms varied across the participants. None of them profited from the last training set in the prolonged three-session training. Moreover, individual differences emerged in brain networks activated with NF and in symptom changes, which were related to the patients' symptomatology and disease history. NF based on rt-fMRI seems a promising tool in therapy of AVHs. The patients, who suffered from continuous hallucinations for

  4. A comprehensive review of auditory verbal hallucinations: lifetime prevalence, correlates and mechanisms in healthy and clinical individuals

    PubMed Central

    de Leede-Smith, Saskia; Barkus, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, the prevalence of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) have been documented across the lifespan in varied contexts, and with a range of potential long-term outcomes. Initially the emphasis focused on whether AVHs conferred risk for psychosis. However, recent research has identified significant differences in the presentation and outcomes of AVH in patients compared to those in non-clinical populations. For this reason, it has been suggested that auditory hallucinations are an entity by themselves and not necessarily indicative of transition along the psychosis continuum. This review will examine the presentation of auditory hallucinations across the life span, as well as in various clinical groups. The stages described include childhood, adolescence, adult non-clinical populations, hypnagogic/hypnopompic experiences, high schizotypal traits, schizophrenia, substance induced AVH, AVH in epilepsy, and AVH in the elderly. In children, need for care depends upon whether the child associates the voice with negative beliefs, appraisals and other symptoms of psychosis. This theme appears to carry right through to healthy voice hearers in adulthood, in which a negative impact of the voice usually only exists if the individual has negative experiences as a result of their voice(s). This includes features of the voices such as the negative content, frequency, and emotional valence as well as anxiety and depression, independently or caused by voices presence. It seems possible that the mechanisms which maintain AVH in non-clinical populations are different from those which are behind AVH presentations in psychotic illness. For example, the existence of maladaptive coping strategies in patient populations is one significant difference between clinical and non-clinical groups which is associated with a need for care. Whether or not these mechanisms start out the same and have differential trajectories is not yet evidenced. Future research needs to focus on the

  5. True hallucination as conversion symptom--a case report.

    PubMed

    Zain, A M

    1990-03-01

    The concept of conversion hallucination is a relatively new one, however there have been several articles written on this phenomena, some attesting to it being a special form of hallucination while others dismissing it altogether. But currently this concept is slowly being accepted among psychiatrists and as such it is important for us to understand some of the concepts. In this case report, the patient presented with clear conversion hallucinations. The case is followed by a discussion on true and pseudo-hallucinations, previous case reports and finally a discussion of conversion hallucinations, viz. the clinical features and the conversion hypothesis. PMID:2152073

  6. Noninvasive brain stimulation for the treatment of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia: methods, effects and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kubera, Katharina M.; Barth, Anja; Hirjak, Dusan; Thomann, Philipp A.; Wolf, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    This mini-review focuses on noninvasive brain stimulation techniques as an augmentation method for the treatment of persistent auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in patients with schizophrenia. Paradigmatically, we place emphasis on transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We specifically discuss rationales of stimulation and consider methodological questions together with issues of phenotypic diversity in individuals with drug-refractory and persistent AVH. Eventually, we provide a brief outlook for future investigations and treatment directions. Taken together, current evidence suggests TMS as a promising method in the treatment of AVH. Low-frequency stimulation of the superior temporal cortex (STC) may reduce symptom severity and frequency. Yet clinical effects are of relatively short duration and effect sizes appear to decrease over time along with publication of larger trials. Apart from considering other innovative stimulation techniques, such as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), and optimizing stimulation protocols, treatment of AVH using noninvasive brain stimulation will essentially rely on accurate identification of potential responders and non-responders for these treatment modalities. In this regard, future studies will need to consider distinct phenotypic presentations of AVH in patients with schizophrenia, together with the putative functional neurocircuitry underlying these phenotypes. PMID:26528145

  7. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF THE RELATION BETWEEN PSYCHOTICISM AND CERTAIN ASPECTS OF AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENICS1

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, A.

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY 30 schizophrenics who met the criteria of Feighner et al. and were having verbal auditory hallucination with or without hallucinations of other varieties were chosen for the study. Psychoticism was measured with the help of Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire. The relation of psychoticism scores to different aspects of auditory hallucinations was examined. High psychoticism scores seemed to be associated with a greater number of languages of the voice, known living ‘speakers’ and less fear and passive listening during the voice. PMID:21965978

  8. Discrimination of schizophrenia auditory hallucinators by machine learning of resting-state functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Chyzhyk, Darya; Graña, Manuel; Öngür, Döst; Shinn, Ann K

    2015-05-01

    Auditory hallucinations (AH) are a symptom that is most often associated with schizophrenia, but patients with other neuropsychiatric conditions, and even a small percentage of healthy individuals, may also experience AH. Elucidating the neural mechanisms underlying AH in schizophrenia may offer insight into the pathophysiology associated with AH more broadly across multiple neuropsychiatric disease conditions. In this paper, we address the problem of classifying schizophrenia patients with and without a history of AH, and healthy control (HC) subjects. To this end, we performed feature extraction from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data and applied machine learning classifiers, testing two kinds of neuroimaging features: (a) functional connectivity (FC) measures computed by lattice auto-associative memories (LAAM), and (b) local activity (LA) measures, including regional homogeneity (ReHo) and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF). We show that it is possible to perform classification within each pair of subject groups with high accuracy. Discrimination between patients with and without lifetime AH was highest, while discrimination between schizophrenia patients and HC participants was worst, suggesting that classification according to the symptom dimension of AH may be more valid than discrimination on the basis of traditional diagnostic categories. FC measures seeded in right Heschl's gyrus (RHG) consistently showed stronger discriminative power than those seeded in left Heschl's gyrus (LHG), a finding that appears to support AH models focusing on right hemisphere abnormalities. The cortical brain localizations derived from the features with strong classification performance are consistent with proposed AH models, and include left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), parahippocampal gyri, the cingulate cortex, as well as several temporal and prefrontal cortical brain regions. Overall, the observed findings suggest that

  9. DISCRIMINATION OF SCHIZOPHRENIA AUDITORY HALLUCINATORS BY MACHINE LEARNING OF RESTING-STATE FUNCTIONAL MRI

    PubMed Central

    CHYZHYK, DARYA; GRAÑA, MANUEL; ÖNGÜR, DÖST; SHINN, ANN K

    2016-01-01

    Auditory hallucinations (AH) are a symptom that is most often associated with schizophrenia, but patients with other neuropsychiatric conditions, and even a small percentage of healthy individuals, may also experience AH. Elucidating the neural mechanisms underlying AH in schizophrenia may offer insight into the pathophysiology associated with AH more broadly across multiple neuropsychiatric disease conditions. In this paper, we address the problem of classifying schizophrenia patients with and without a history of AH, and healthy control subjects. To this end, we performed feature extraction from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data and applied machine learning classifiers, testing two kinds of neuroimaging features: (a) functional connectivity measures computed by lattice auto-associative memories (LAAM), and (b) local activity measures, including regional homogeneity (ReHo) and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF). We show that it is possible to perform classification within each pair of subject groups with high accuracy. Discrimination between patients with and without lifetime AH was highest, while discrimination between schizophrenia patients and healthy control participants was worst, suggesting that classification according to the symptom dimension of AH may be more valid than discrimination on the basis of traditional diagnostic categories. Functional connectivity measures seeded in right Heschl’s gyrus consistently showed stronger discriminative power than those seeded in left Heschl’s gyrus, a finding that appears to support AH models focusing on right hemisphere abnormalities. The cortical brain localizations derived from the features with strong classification performance are consistent with proposed AH models, and include left inferior frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyri, the cingulate cortex, as well as several temporal and prefrontal cortical brain regions. Overall, the observed findings suggest

  10. Pharmacology of Hallucinations: Several Mechanisms for One Single Symptom?

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Benjamin; Amad, Ali; Cottencin, Olivier; Bordet, Régis

    2014-01-01

    Hallucinations are complex misperceptions, that principally occur in schizophrenia or after intoxication induced by three main classes of drugs: psychostimulants, psychedelics, and dissociative anesthetics. There are at least three different pharmacological ways to induce hallucinations: (1) activation of dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) with psychostimulants, (2) activation of serotonin 5HT2A receptors (HT2ARs) with psychedelics, and (3) blockage of glutamate NMDA receptors (NMDARs) with dissociative anesthetics. In schizophrenia, the relative importance of NMDAR and D2R in the occurrence of hallucinations is still debated. Slight clinical differences are observed for each etiology. Thus, we investigated whether the concept of hallucination is homogenous, both clinically and neurobiologically. A narrative review of the literature is proposed to synthesize how the main contributors in the field have approached and tried to solve these outstanding questions. While some authors prefer one explanatory mechanism, others have proposed more integrated theories based on the different pharmacological psychosis models. In this review, such theories are discussed and faced with the clinical data. In addition, the nosological aspects of hallucinations and psychosis are addressed. We suggest that if there may be common neurobiological pathways between the different pharmacological systems that are responsible for the hallucinations, there may also be unique properties of each system, which explains the clinical differences observed. PMID:24991548

  11. Interdisciplinarity as cognitive integration: auditory verbal hallucinations as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Bernini, Marco; Woods, Angela

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we advocate a bottom-up direction for the methodological modeling of interdisciplinary research based on concrete interactions among individuals within interdisciplinary projects. Drawing on our experience in Hearing the Voice (a cross-disciplinary project on auditory verbal hallucinations running at Durham University), we focus on the dynamic if also problematic integration of cognitive science (neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and of mind), phenomenology, and humanistic disciplines (literature, narratology, history, and theology). We propose a new model for disciplinary integration which brings to the fore an under-investigated dynamic of interdisciplinary projects, namely their being processes of distributed cognition and cognitive integration. PMID:26005512

  12. Neuroimaging auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia: from neuroanatomy to neurochemistry and beyond.

    PubMed

    Allen, Paul; Modinos, Gemma; Hubl, Daniela; Shields, Gregory; Cachia, Arnaud; Jardri, Renaud; Thomas, Pierre; Woodward, Todd; Shotbolt, Paul; Plaze, Marion; Hoffman, Ralph

    2012-06-01

    Despite more than 2 decades of neuroimaging investigations, there is currently insufficient evidence to fully understand the neurobiological substrate of auditory hallucinations (AH). However, some progress has been made with imaging studies in patients with AH consistently reporting altered structure and function in speech and language, sensory, and nonsensory regions. This report provides an update of neuroimaging studies of AH with a particular emphasis on more recent anatomical, physiological, and neurochemical imaging studies. Specifically, we provide (1) a review of findings in schizophrenia and nonschizophrenia voice hearers, (2) a discussion regarding key issues that have interfered with progress, and (3) practical recommendations for future studies. PMID:22535906

  13. Neuroimaging Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia: From Neuroanatomy to Neurochemistry and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Paul; Modinos, Gemma; Hubl, Daniela; Shields, Gregory; Cachia, Arnaud; Jardri, Renaud; Thomas, Pierre; Woodward, Todd; Shotbolt, Paul; Plaze, Marion; Hoffman, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Despite more than 2 decades of neuroimaging investigations, there is currently insufficient evidence to fully understand the neurobiological substrate of auditory hallucinations (AH). However, some progress has been made with imaging studies in patients with AH consistently reporting altered structure and function in speech and language, sensory, and nonsensory regions. This report provides an update of neuroimaging studies of AH with a particular emphasis on more recent anatomical, physiological, and neurochemical imaging studies. Specifically, we provide (1) a review of findings in schizophrenia and nonschizophrenia voice hearers, (2) a discussion regarding key issues that have interfered with progress, and (3) practical recommendations for future studies. PMID:22535906

  14. Special Supplement Introduction: Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Fernyhough, Charles; Waters, Flavie

    2014-01-01

    This Special Supplement presents reports from 11 working groups of the interdisciplinary International Consortium on Hallucination Research meeting in Durham, UK, September 2013. Topics include psychological therapies for auditory hallucinations, culture and hallucinations, hallucinations in children and adolescents, visual hallucinations, interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), AVHs in persons without need for care, a multisite study of the PSYRATS instrument, subtypes of AVHs, the Hearing Voices Movement, Research Domain Criteria for hallucinations, and cortical specialization as a route to understanding hallucinations. PMID:24936079

  15. Increased Local Spontaneous Neural Activity in the Left Precuneus Specific to Auditory Verbal Hallucinations of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Chuan-Jun; Zhu, Jia-Jia; Wang, Chun-Li; Wang, Li-Na; Li, Jie; Qin, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) of schizophrenia have been associated with structural and functional alterations of some brain regions. However, the brain regional homogeneity (ReHo) alterations specific to AVHs of schizophrenia remain unclear. In the current study, we aimed to investigate ReHo alterations specific to schizophrenic AVHs. Methods: Thirty-five schizophrenic patients with AVH, 41 schizophrenic patients without AVHs, and fifty healthy subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. ReHo differences across the three groups were tested using a voxel-wise analysis. Results: Compared with the healthy control group, the two schizophrenia groups showed significantly increased ReHo in the right caudate and inferior temporal gyrus and decreased ReHo in the bilateral postcentral gyrus and thalamus and the right inferior occipital gyrus (false discovery rate corrected, P < 0.05). More importantly, the AVH group exhibited significantly increased ReHo in the left precuneus compared with the non-AVH group. However, using correlation analysis, we did not find any correlation between the auditory hallucination rating scale score and the ReHo of brain regions. Conclusions: Our results suggest that increased ReHo in the left precuneus may be a pathological feature exclusive to schizophrenic AVHs. PMID:26996476

  16. Diagnosis and evaluation of hallucinations and other psychotic symptoms in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sikich, Linmarie

    2013-10-01

    Recognizing positive psychotic symptoms and their diagnostic context in youth is challenging. A large minority say they "hear things others do not hear," though they seldom present with complaints of hallucinations or delusions. Few have schizophrenia spectrum disorder, but many have other psychiatric disorders. Frequently, they have psychotic symptoms for an extended period before diagnosis. Clinicians should understand psychotic symptoms and their differential diagnoses. This article reviews the epidemiology, associated diagnoses, and prognosis of hallucinations and delusions in youth. Strategies for optimizing the clinical diagnostic interview, appropriate laboratory tests, indications for psychological testing, and rating scales are reviewed. PMID:24012079

  17. Prevalence of auditory hallucinations in Norwegian adolescents: Results from a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Kompus, Kristiina; Løberg, Else-Marie; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Lundervold, Astri Johansen

    2015-01-01

    Knowing the prevalence and characteristics of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in adolescents is important for estimations of need for mental health care and assessment of psychosis risk. In this report we assess the prevalence of AVH in a population-based sample of 16–19 years old Norwegian adolescents (n = 9,646, 46.4% male) using two items assessing AVH (from the extended Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale). The prevalence of hearing a voice speaking thoughts aloud was 10.6%. The prevalence of being troubled by voices was 5.3%, showing that negative emotionality about AVH is less frequent than the experience of hearing voices. Female respondents had slightly increased risk for being troubled by voices than males (odds ratio = 1.3), while age did not modulate prevalence. This AVH prevalence is in line with earlier reports in smaller samples of adolescents and indicates that AVH are not uncommon in this period of life. Further longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the value of AVH in predicting psychiatric disorder. PMID:25968251

  18. Disseminating an evidence-based course to teach self-management of auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Buffum, Martha D; Buccheri, Robin Kay; Trygstad, Louise Nigh; Dowling, Glenna A

    2014-04-01

    This multi-site project extended course dissemination of the 10-session Behavioral Management of Auditory Hallucinations Course to U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) mental health outpatient settings. The VA Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) model and Rogers' theory of diffusion of innovations served as the theoretical framework. The course was taught to mental health professionals using teleconferencing, electronic media, and monthly conference calls across 24 VA mental health outpatient sites. Twenty course leaders provided feedback. One hundred percent reported being better able to communicate with patients about their voices and 96% reported improved understanding of the voice-hearing experience. Thirty-three course participants provided feedback. Ninety-four percent would recommend the course, 85% reported being better able to communicate with staff about their voices, and 66% reported being better able to manage their voices. Facilitators and barriers to course implementation are described. PMID:24200916

  19. A Cognitive Neuroscience View of Voice-Processing Abnormalities in Schizophrenia: A Window into Auditory Verbal Hallucinations?

    PubMed

    Conde, Tatiana; Gonçalves, Oscar F; Pinheiro, Ana P

    2016-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a core symptom of schizophrenia. Like "real" voices, AVH carry a rich amount of linguistic and paralinguistic cues that convey not only speech, but also affect and identity, information. Disturbed processing of voice identity, affective, and speech information has been reported in patients with schizophrenia. More recent evidence has suggested a link between voice-processing abnormalities and specific clinical symptoms of schizophrenia, especially AVH. It is still not well understood, however, to what extent these dimensions are impaired and how abnormalities in these processes might contribute to AVH. In this review, we consider behavioral, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological data to investigate the speech, identity, and affective dimensions of voice processing in schizophrenia, and we discuss how abnormalities in these processes might help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying specific phenomenological features of AVH. Schizophrenia patients exhibit behavioral and neural disturbances in the three dimensions of voice processing. Evidence suggesting a role of dysfunctional voice processing in AVH seems to be stronger for the identity and speech dimensions than for the affective domain. PMID:26954598

  20. Auditory verbal hallucinations result from combinatoric associations of multiple neural events

    PubMed Central

    Stephane, Massoud

    2013-01-01

    While Auditory Verbal Hallucinations (AVH) refer to specific experiences shared by all subjects who have AVH—the perception of auditory speech without corresponding external stimuli, the characteristics of these experiences differ from one subject to another. These characteristics include aspects such as the location of AVH (inside or outside the head), the linguistic complexity of AVH (hearing words, sentences, or conversations), the range of content of AVH (repetitive or systematized content), and many other variables. In another word, AVH are phenomenologically heterogeneous experiences. After decades of research focused on a few explanatory mechanisms for AVH, it is apparent that none of these mechanisms alone explains the wide phenomenological range of AVH experiences. To date, our phenomenological understanding of AVH remains largely disjointed from our understanding of the mechanisms of AVH. For a cohesive understanding of AVH, I review the phenomenology and the cognitive and neural basis of AVH. This review indicates that the phenomenology of AVH is not a pointless curiosity. How a subject describes his AVH experiences could inform about the neural events that resulted in AVH. I suggest that a subject-specific combinatoric associations of different neural events result in AVH experiences phenomenologically diverse across subjects. PMID:23755004

  1. The influence of thought control on the experience of persecutory delusions and auditory hallucinations in daily life.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Samantha; Haddock, Gillian; Vasconcelos e Sa, Débora; Emsley, Richard; Barrowclough, Christine

    2015-02-01

    Attempts to control or suppress thoughts are often unsuccessful and may even lead to an increase in the unwanted content. Intrusive thoughts and thought control are influential in the experience of psychosis, although recent findings have arisen from non-clinical samples and data tend to be retrospective in nature. The current study utilised repeated momentary assessments (experience sampling methodology) delivered as part of participants' daily routine to examine the associations between thought control and the experience of persecutory delusions and auditory hallucinations. The findings revealed that thought control was related to the subsequent severity and distress in relation to psychotic symptoms. Moreover, most of these effects persisted over two subsequent monitoring timepoints, although their size was diminished. These findings add weight to models of psychosis that include a role for thought control, and also highlight opportunities for targeted momentary interventions. Future work might seek to elucidate which specific aspects of thought control are important, alongside the use of more multifaceted measures of psychotic experiences. PMID:25544402

  2. Functional MRI Evaluation of Multiple Neural Networks Underlying Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Thoma, Robert. J.; Chaze, Charlotte; Lewine, Jeffrey David; Calhoun, Vince D.; Clark, Vincent P.; Bustillo, Juan; Houck, Jon; Ford, Judith; Bigelow, Rose; Wilhelmi, Corbin; Stephen, Julia M.; Turner, Jessica A.

    2016-01-01

    Functional MRI studies have identified a distributed set of brain activations to be associated with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). However, very little is known about how activated brain regions may be linked together into AVH-generating networks. Fifteen volunteers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder pressed buttons to indicate onset and offset of AVH during fMRI scanning. When a general linear model was used to compare blood oxygenation level dependence signals during periods in which subjects indicated that they were versus were not experiencing AVH (“AVH-on” versus “AVH-off”), it revealed AVH-related activity in bilateral inferior frontal and superior temporal regions; the right middle temporal gyrus; and the left insula, supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and extranuclear white matter. In an effort to identify AVH-related networks, the raw data were also processed using independent component analyses (ICAs). Four ICA components were spatially consistent with an a priori network framework based upon published meta-analyses of imaging correlates of AVH. Of these four components, only a network involving bilateral auditory cortices and posterior receptive language areas was significantly and positively correlated to the pattern of AVH-on versus AVH-off. The ICA also identified two additional networks (occipital–temporal and medial prefrontal), not fully matching the meta-analysis framework, but nevertheless containing nodes reported as active in some studies of AVH. Both networks showed significant AVH-related profiles, but both were most active during AVH-off periods. Overall, the data suggest that AVH generation requires specific and selective activation of auditory cortical and posterior language regions, perhaps coupled to a release of indirect influence by occipital and medial frontal structures. PMID:27065889

  3. Functional MRI Evaluation of Multiple Neural Networks Underlying Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Robert J; Chaze, Charlotte; Lewine, Jeffrey David; Calhoun, Vince D; Clark, Vincent P; Bustillo, Juan; Houck, Jon; Ford, Judith; Bigelow, Rose; Wilhelmi, Corbin; Stephen, Julia M; Turner, Jessica A

    2016-01-01

    Functional MRI studies have identified a distributed set of brain activations to be associated with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). However, very little is known about how activated brain regions may be linked together into AVH-generating networks. Fifteen volunteers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder pressed buttons to indicate onset and offset of AVH during fMRI scanning. When a general linear model was used to compare blood oxygenation level dependence signals during periods in which subjects indicated that they were versus were not experiencing AVH ("AVH-on" versus "AVH-off"), it revealed AVH-related activity in bilateral inferior frontal and superior temporal regions; the right middle temporal gyrus; and the left insula, supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and extranuclear white matter. In an effort to identify AVH-related networks, the raw data were also processed using independent component analyses (ICAs). Four ICA components were spatially consistent with an a priori network framework based upon published meta-analyses of imaging correlates of AVH. Of these four components, only a network involving bilateral auditory cortices and posterior receptive language areas was significantly and positively correlated to the pattern of AVH-on versus AVH-off. The ICA also identified two additional networks (occipital-temporal and medial prefrontal), not fully matching the meta-analysis framework, but nevertheless containing nodes reported as active in some studies of AVH. Both networks showed significant AVH-related profiles, but both were most active during AVH-off periods. Overall, the data suggest that AVH generation requires specific and selective activation of auditory cortical and posterior language regions, perhaps coupled to a release of indirect influence by occipital and medial frontal structures. PMID:27065889

  4. Auditory Verbal Hallucinations and Brain Dysconnectivity in the Perisylvian Language Network: A Multimodal Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson-Yeo, William; Allen, Paul; Catani, Marco; Williams, Steven; Barsaglini, Alessio; Kambeitz-Ilankovic, Lana M.; McGuire, Philip; Mechelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of schizophrenia have indicated that the development of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) is associated with altered structural and functional connectivity within the perisylvian language network. However, these studies focussed mainly on either structural or functional alterations in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Therefore, they were unable to examine the relationship between the 2 types of measures and could not establish whether the observed alterations would be expressed in the early stage of the illness. We used diffusion tensor imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine white matter integrity and functional connectivity within the left perisylvian language network of 46 individuals with an at risk mental state for psychosis or a first episode of the illness, including 28 who had developed AVH group and 18 who had not (nonauditory verbal hallucination [nAVH] group), and 22 healthy controls. Inferences were made at P < .05 (corrected). The nAVH group relative to healthy controls showed a reduction of both white matter integrity and functional connectivity as well as a disruption of the normal structure−function relationship along the fronto-temporal pathway. For all measures, the AVH group showed intermediate values between healthy controls and the nAVH group. These findings seem to suggest that, in the early stage of the disorder, a significant impairment of fronto-temporal connectivity is evident in patients who do not experience AVHs. This is consistent with the hypothesis that, whilst mild disruption of connectivity might still enable the emergence of AVHs, more severe alterations may prevent the occurrence of the hallucinatory experience. PMID:24361862

  5. Repeated measurements of cerebral blood flow in the left superior temporal gyrus reveal tonic hyperactivity in patients with auditory verbal hallucinations: a possible trait marker

    PubMed Central

    Homan, Philipp; Kindler, Jochen; Hauf, Martinus; Walther, Sebastian; Hubl, Daniela; Dierks, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background: The left superior temporal gyrus (STG) has been suggested to play a key role in auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Eleven medicated subjects with schizophrenia and medication-resistant AVH and 19 healthy controls underwent perfusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with arterial spin labeling (ASL). Three additional repeated measurements were conducted in the patients. Patients underwent a treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) between the first 2 measurements. The main outcome measure was the pooled cerebral blood flow (CBF), which consisted of the regional CBF measurement in the left STG and the global CBF measurement in the whole brain. Results: Regional CBF in the left STG in patients was significantly higher compared to controls (p < 0.0001) and to the global CBF in patients (p < 0.004) at baseline. Regional CBF in the left STG remained significantly increased compared to the global CBF in patients across time (p < 0.0007), and it remained increased in patients after TMS compared to the baseline CBF in controls (p < 0.0001). After TMS, PANSS (p = 0.003) and PSYRATS (p = 0.01) scores decreased significantly in patients. Conclusions: This study demonstrated tonically increased regional CBF in the left STG in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations despite a decrease in symptoms after TMS. These findings were consistent with what has previously been termed a trait marker of AVH in schizophrenia. PMID:23805093

  6. Targeting Treatment-Resistant Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia with fMRI-Based Neurofeedback – Exploring Different Cases of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Dyck, Miriam S.; Mathiak, Krystyna A.; Bergert, Susanne; Sarkheil, Pegah; Koush, Yury; Alawi, Eliza M.; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Gaebler, Arnim J.; Shergill, Sukhi S.; Mathiak, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are a hallmark of schizophrenia and can significantly impair patients’ emotional, social, and occupational functioning. Despite progress in psychopharmacology, over 25% of schizophrenia patients suffer from treatment-resistant hallucinations. In the search for alternative treatment methods, neurofeedback (NF) emerges as a promising therapy tool. NF based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) allows voluntarily change of the activity in a selected brain region – even in patients with schizophrenia. This study explored effects of NF on ongoing AVHs. The selected participants were trained in the self-regulation of activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a key monitoring region involved in generation and intensity modulation of AVHs. Using rt-fMRI, three right-handed patients, suffering from schizophrenia and ongoing, treatment-resistant AVHs, learned control over ACC activity on three separate days. The effect of NF training on hallucinations’ severity was assessed with the Auditory Vocal Hallucination Rating Scale (AVHRS) and on the affective state – with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). All patients yielded significant upregulation of the ACC and reported subjective improvement in some aspects of AVHs (AVHRS) such as disturbance and suffering from the voices. In general, mood (PANAS) improved during NF training, though two patients reported worse mood after NF on the third day. ACC and reward system activity during NF learning and specific effects on mood and symptoms varied across the participants. None of them profited from the last training set in the prolonged three-session training. Moreover, individual differences emerged in brain networks activated with NF and in symptom changes, which were related to the patients’ symptomatology and disease history. NF based on rt-fMRI seems a promising tool in therapy of AVHs. The patients, who suffered from continuous

  7. Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Persons With and Without a Need for Care

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Louise C.; Kompus, Kristiina; Connell, Melissa; Humpston, Clara; Lincoln, Tania M.; Longden, Eleanor; Preti, Antonio; Alderson-Day, Ben; Badcock, Johanna C.; Cella, Matteo; Fernyhough, Charles; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Peters, Emmanuelle; Raballo, Andrea; Scott, James; Siddi, Sara; Sommer, Iris E.; Larøi, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are complex experiences that occur in the context of various clinical disorders. AVH also occur in individuals from the general population who have no identifiable psychiatric or neurological diagnoses. This article reviews research on AVH in nonclinical individuals and provides a cross-disciplinary view of the clinical relevance of these experiences in defining the risk of mental illness and need for care. Prevalence rates of AVH vary according to measurement tool and indicate a continuum of experience in the general population. Cross-sectional comparisons of individuals with AVH with and without need for care reveal similarities in phenomenology and some underlying mechanisms but also highlight key differences in emotional valence of AVH, appraisals, and behavioral response. Longitudinal studies suggest that AVH are an antecedent of clinical disorders when combined with negative emotional states, specific cognitive difficulties and poor coping, plus family history of psychosis, and environmental exposures such as childhood adversity. However, their predictive value for specific psychiatric disorders is not entirely clear. The theoretical and clinical implications of the reviewed findings are discussed, together with directions for future research. PMID:24936085

  8. Stop, look, listen: the need for philosophical phenomenological perspectives on auditory verbal hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Krueger, Joel; Larøi, Frank; Broome, Matthew; Fernyhough, Charles

    2013-01-01

    One of the leading cognitive models of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) proposes such experiences result from a disturbance in the process by which inner speech is attributed to the self. Research in this area has, however, proceeded in the absence of thorough cognitive and phenomenological investigations of the nature of inner speech, against which AVHs are implicitly or explicitly defined. In this paper we begin by introducing philosophical phenomenology and highlighting its relevance to AVHs, before briefly examining the evolving literature on the relation between inner experiences and AVHs. We then argue for the need for philosophical phenomenology (Phenomenology) and the traditional empirical methods of psychology for studying inner experience (phenomenology) to mutually inform each other to provide a richer and more nuanced picture of both inner experience and AVHs than either could on its own. A critical examination is undertaken of the leading model of AVHs derived from phenomenological philosophy, the ipseity disturbance model. From this we suggest issues that future work in this vein will need to consider, and examine how interdisciplinary methodologies may contribute to advances in our understanding of AVHs. Detailed suggestions are made for the direction and methodology of future work into AVHs, which we suggest should be undertaken in a context where phenomenology and physiology are both necessary, but neither sufficient. PMID:23576974

  9. A New Phenomenological Survey of Auditory Hallucinations: Evidence for Subtypes and Implications for Theory and Practice

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the phenomenology of auditory hallucinations (AHs) is essential for developing accurate models of their causes. Yet, only 1 detailed study of the phenomenology of AHs with a sample size of N ≥ 100 has been published. The potential for overreliance on these findings, coupled with a lack of phenomenological research into many aspects of AHs relevant to contemporary neurocognitive models and the proposed (but largely untested) existence of AH subtypes, necessitates further research in this area. We undertook the most comprehensive phenomenological study of AHs to date in a psychiatric population (N = 199; 81% people diagnosed with schizophrenia), using a structured interview schedule. Previous phenomenological findings were only partially replicated. New findings included that 39% of participants reported that their voices seemed in some way to be replays of memories of previous conversations they had experienced; 45% reported that the general theme or content of what the voices said was always the same; and 55% said new voices had the same content/theme as previous voices. Cluster analysis, by variable, suggested the existence of 4 AH subtypes. We propose that there are likely to be different neurocognitive processes underpinning these experiences, necessitating revised AH models. PMID:23267192

  10. How do auditory verbal hallucinations in patients differ from those in non-patients?

    PubMed Central

    Larøi, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are experienced by individuals with various clinical diagnoses, such as psychosis, but also a significant minority of healthy individuals from the general population may experience them. Although much research has been carried out the past few decades, the mechanisms and factors underlying the emergence of AVHs is still poorly understood. One way of clarifying this issue involves comparing AVHs in patient and non-patient populations. In particular, differences between these groups will provide important information concerning the emergence of AVHs. After a general presentation and discussion of the notion of a continuum hypothesis, studies comparing patients with non-patients experiencing AVHs will be reviewed. This will comprise studies examining the phenomenological characteristics of AVHs in addition to neuroimaging and cognitive studies. Although we are beginning to elucidate important differences on a phenomenological level between these two types of AVHs, far too few studies have directly compared patient and non-patient AVHs in terms of underlying cerebral correlates and cognitive mechanisms. Nevertheless, and based on recent research on phenomenological differences, two issues stand out that need to be addressed, namely, the highly negative emotional content of AVHs in patients and the early onset of AVHs in non-patients populations. Suggestions for future research will be discussed. PMID:22375112

  11. Henry's voices: the representation of auditory verbal hallucinations in an autobiographical narrative.

    PubMed

    Demjén, Zsófia; Semino, Elena

    2015-06-01

    The book Henry's Demons (2011) recounts the events surrounding Henry Cockburn's diagnosis of schizophrenia from the alternating perspectives of Henry himself and his father Patrick. In this paper, we present a detailed linguistic analysis of Henry's first-person accounts of experiences that could be described as auditory verbal hallucinations. We first provide a typology of Henry's voices, taking into account who or what is presented as speaking, what kinds of utterances they produce and any salient stylistic features of these utterances. We then discuss the linguistically distinctive ways in which Henry represents these voices in his narrative. We focus on the use of Direct Speech as opposed to other forms of speech presentation, the use of the sensory verbs hear and feel and the use of 'non-factive' expressions such as I thought and as if. We show how different linguistic representations may suggest phenomenological differences between the experience of hallucinatory voices and the perception of voices that other people can also hear. We, therefore, propose that linguistic analysis is ideally placed to provide in-depth accounts of the phenomenology of voice hearing and point out the implications of this approach for clinical practice and mental healthcare. PMID:25505160

  12. Non-invasive Brain Stimulation and Auditory Verbal Hallucinations: New Techniques and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Peter; Alderson-Day, Ben; Ellison, Amanda; Jardri, Renaud; Fernyhough, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are the experience of hearing a voice in the absence of any speaker. Results from recent attempts to treat AVHs with neurostimulation (rTMS or tDCS) to the left temporoparietal junction have not been conclusive, but suggest that it may be a promising treatment option for some individuals. Some evidence suggests that the therapeutic effect of neurostimulation on AVHs may result from modulation of cortical areas involved in the ability to monitor the source of self-generated information. Here, we provide a brief overview of cognitive models and neurostimulation paradigms associated with treatment of AVHs, and discuss techniques that could be explored in the future to improve the efficacy of treatment, including alternating current and random noise stimulation. Technical issues surrounding the use of neurostimulation as a treatment option are discussed (including methods to localize the targeted cortical area, and the state-dependent effects of brain stimulation), as are issues surrounding the acceptability of neurostimulation for adolescent populations and individuals who experience qualitatively different types of AVH. PMID:26834541

  13. Mobile Assessment and Treatment for Schizophrenia (MATS): A Pilot Trial of An Interactive Text-Messaging Intervention for Medication Adherence, Socialization, and Auditory Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Granholm, Eric; Ben-Zeev, Dror; Bradshaw, Kristen R.; Holden, Jason L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile Assessment and Treatment for Schizophrenia (MATS) employs ambulatory monitoring methods and cognitive behavioral therapy interventions to assess and improve outcomes in consumers with schizophrenia through mobile phone text messaging. Three MATS interventions were developed to target medication adherence, socialization, and auditory hallucinations. Participants received up to 840 text messages over a 12-week intervention period. Fifty-five consumers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were enrolled, but 13 consumers with more severe negative symptoms, lower functioning, and lower premorbid IQ did not complete the intervention, despite repeated prompting and training. For completers, the average valid response rate for 216 outcome assessment questions over the 12-week period was 86%, and 86% of phones were returned undamaged. Medication adherence improved significantly, but only for individuals who were living independently. Number of social interactions increased significantly and a significant reduction in severity of hallucinations was found. In addition, the probability of endorsing attitudes that could interfere with improvement in these outcomes was also significantly reduced in MATS. Lab-based assessments of more general symptoms and functioning did not change significantly. This pilot study demonstrated that low-intensity text-messaging interventions like MATS are feasible and effective interventions to improve several important outcomes, especially for higher functioning consumers with schizophrenia. PMID:22080492

  14. Bilateral Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Auditory Hallucinations in Patients with Schizophrenia: A Randomized Controlled, Cross-over Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Ji; Yeo, Seonguk; Hwang, Inho; Park, Jong-Il; Cui, Yin; Jin, Hong-Mei; Kim, Hyung Tae; Hwang, Tae-Young

    2014-01-01

    Objective A randomized double-blind cross-over trial was conducted in patients with persistent auditory hallucinations (AHs) to investigate whether bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at the temporoparietal area or Broca's area is more effective at high- or low-frequencies compared to a sham condition. Methods Twenty three patients with persistent AHs who remained stable on the same medication for 2 months were enrolled. They were randomized to one of four conditions: low-frequency (1 Hz)-rTMS to the temporoparietal area (L-TP), high-frequency (20 Hz)-rTMS to the temporoparietal area (H-TP), high-frequency (20 Hz)-rTMS to Broca's area (H-B), or sham. Results All the four rTMS conditions resulted in significant decrease in the scores under the auditory hallucination rating scale and hallucination change scale over time. However, there were no significant treatment effects or interaction between time and treatment, suggesting no superior effects of the new paradigms over the sham condition. Conclusion Our findings suggest that bilateral rTMS at the temporoparietal area or Broca's area with high- or low-frequency does not produce superior effects in reducing AHs compared to sham stimulation. PMID:25598827

  15. Report on the 2nd International Consortium on Hallucination Research: Evolving Directions and Top-10 “Hot Spots” in Hallucination Research

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Flavie

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a report on the 2nd meeting of the International Consortium on Hallucination Research, held on September 12th and 13th 2013 at Durham University, UK. Twelve working groups involving specialists in each area presented their findings and sought to summarize the available knowledge, inconsistencies in the field, and ways to progress. The 12 working groups reported on the following domains of investigation: cortical organisation of hallucinations, nonclinical hallucinations, interdisciplinary approaches to phenomenology, culture and hallucinations, subtypes of auditory verbal hallucinations, a Psychotic Symptoms Rating Scale multisite study, visual hallucinations in the psychosis spectrum, hallucinations in children and adolescents, Research Domain Criteria behavioral constructs and hallucinations, new methods of assessment, psychological therapies, and the Hearing Voices Movement approach to understanding and working with voices. This report presents a summary of this meeting and outlines 10 hot spots for hallucination research, which include the in-depth examination of (1) the social determinants of hallucinations, (2) translation of basic neuroscience into targeted therapies, (3) different modalities of hallucination, (4) domain convergence in cross-diagnostic studies, (5) improved methods for assessing hallucinations in nonclinical samples, (6) using humanities and social science methodologies to recontextualize hallucinatory experiences, (7) developmental approaches to better understand hallucinations, (8) changing the memory or meaning of past trauma to help recovery, (9) hallucinations in the context of sleep and sleep disorders, and (10) subtypes of hallucinations in a therapeutic context. PMID:24282321

  16. Management of auditory hallucinations as a sequela of traumatic brain injury: a case report and a relevant literature review.

    PubMed

    Dobry, Yuriy; Novakovic, Vladan; Barkin, Robert L; Sundaram, Vikram K

    2014-01-01

    A patient with progressively worsening auditory hallucinations and 30-year history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) was reported. To formulate a comprehensive diagnostic and treatment approach to patients with auditory sensory disturbances and other neuropsychiatric sequela of a TBI, an electronic search of the major behavioral science databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Medline) and a textbook review were conducted to retrieve studies detailing the clinical characteristics, biological mechanisms, and therapeutic approaches to post-TBI psychosis. Additional references were incorporated from the bibliographies of the retrieved articles. Although infrequent, auditory hallucinations is a debilitating complication of TBI that can manifest itself 4-5 years after the occurrence of TBI. Because the age range of TBI survivors is 15-24 years, and the chance of developing post-TBI psychosis is reported to be up to 20%, this chronic neuropsychiatric complication and the available treatment options warrant close scrutiny from the clinical and the biomedical research community. Our case report and literature review demonstrates a clear need for a large, well-designed randomized trials to compare properties and efficacies of different, available, and promising pharmacotherapy agents for the treatment of post-TBI psychosis. PMID:24263164

  17. Individualized covariance profile of cortical morphology for auditory hallucinations in first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Yun, Je-Yeon; Kim, Sung Nyun; Lee, Tae Young; Chon, Myong-Wuk; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2016-03-01

    Neocortical phenotype of cortical surface area (CSA) and thickness (CT) are influenced by distinctive genetic factors and undergo differential developmental trajectories, which could be captured using the individualized cortical structural covariance (ISC). Disturbed patterns of neocortical development and maturation underlie the perceptual disturbance of psychosis including auditory hallucination (AH). To demonstrate the utility of selected ISC features as primal biomarker of AH in first-episode psychosis (FEP) subjects experiencing AH (FEP-AH), we employed herein a support vector machine (SVM). A total of 147 subjects (FEP-AH, n = 27; FEP-NAH, n = 24; HC, n = 96) underwent T1 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 3T. The FreeSurfer software suite was used for cortical parcellation, with the CSA-ISC and CT-ISC then calculated. The most informative ISCs showing statistical significance (P < 0.001) across every run of leave-one-out group-comparison were aligned according to the absolute value of averaged t-statistics and were packaged into candidate feature sets for classification analysis using the SVM. An optimal feature set comprising three CSA-ISCs, including the intraparietal sulcus, Broca's complex, and the anterior insula, distinguished FEP-AH from FEP-NAH subjects with 83.6% accuracy (sensitivity = 82.8%; specificity = 85.7%). Furthermore, six CT-ISCs encompassing the executive control network and Wernicke's module classified FEP-AH from FEP-NAH subjects with 82.3% accuracy (sensitivity = 79.5%; specificity = 88.6%). Finally, extended sets of ISCs related to the default-mode network distinguished FEP-AH or FEP-NAH from HC subjects with 89.0-93.0% accuracy (sensitivity = 88.4-93.4%; specificity = 89.0-94.1%). This study established a distinctive intermediate phenotype of biological proneness for AH in FEP using CSA-ISCs as well as a state marker of disease progression using CT-ISCs. PMID:26678706

  18. "Who is talking to me?" - Self-other attribution of auditory hallucinations and sulcation of the right temporoparietal junction.

    PubMed

    Plaze, Marion; Mangin, Jean-François; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Artiges, Eric; Olié, Jean-Pierre; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Gaillard, Raphaël; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Cachia, Arnaud

    2015-12-01

    Brain imaging research in schizophrenia has provided a better understanding of the neural basis of auditory hallucinations (AH). Recently, renewed interest in the phenomenology of AH raised questions related to their neural substrates. Hence, the neural basis of AH self/other attribution have yet to be investigated as beliefs regarding the origin of the voices is a cardinal feature of AH phenomenology. As the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) play a key role in disentangling the origin of sensory events and in self/other distinction, we tested the hypothesis that the morphology of the IPL/TPJ area may be involved in AH self/other attribution. Magnetic resonance images of 39 right-handed patients with persistent auditory hallucinations and 19 healthy subjects were analyzed with sulcus-based morphometry. AH self-other attribution were found to be associated with the sulcal pattern of the posterior part of the Sylvian fissure, encompassing the IPL/TPJ area. The preference for the attribution of AH to self or to others could be associated with early neurodevelopmental events as the sulcal pattern is determined during fetal life and is stable after birth. Our study also raises basic cognitive questions regarding self-consciousness and suggest that impairments at a pre-reflexive level, leading to hearing his/her thoughts as voices ('I' level or feeling of agency), and a reflexive level leading to attribution belief ('Me' level or judgment of agency) are likely involved in AH. PMID:26463879

  19. A randomized, sham-controlled study of high frequency rTMS for auditory hallucination in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Takase, Masayuki; Yoshida, Taisuke; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Iyo, Masaomi

    2016-07-30

    Chronic auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) in patients with schizophrenia are sometimes resistant to standard pharmacotherapy. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may be a promising treatment modality for AVHs, but the best protocol has yet to be identified. We used a double-blind randomized sham-controlled design aimed at 30 patients (active group N=16 vs. sham group N=14) with chronic AVHs that persisted regardless of adequate pharmacotherapy. The protocol was a total of four sessions of high-frequency (20-Hz) rTMS targeting the left temporoparietal cortex over 2 days (total 10,400 stimulations) administered to each patient. After the rTMS session the patients were followed for 4 weeks and evaluated with the Auditory Hallucination Rating Scale (AHRS). The mean changes of AHRS score were 22.9 (baseline) to 18.4 (4th week) in the Active group and 24.2 (baseline) to 21.8 (4th week) in the Sham group, indicating no significant difference by mix model analysis. As regards other secondary end points (each subscore of AHRS, BPRS, GAF and CGI-S), none of these parameters showed a significant between-group difference. The present study's rTMS protocol was ineffective for our patients. However, several previous studies demonstrated that high-frequency rTMS is a possible strategy to ameliorate pharmacotherapy-resistant AVH. It is important to establish a high-frequency rTMS protocol with more reliability. PMID:27179693

  20. The neurodynamic organization of modality-dependent hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Jardri, Renaud; Thomas, Pierre; Delmaire, Christine; Delion, Pierre; Pins, Delphine

    2013-05-01

    The pathophysiology of hallucinations remains mysterious. This research aims to specifically explore the interaction between hallucinations and spontaneous resting-state activity. We used multimodal magnetic resonance imaging during hallucinations occurrence in 20 drug-free adolescents with a "brief psychotic disorder." They were furthermore compared with 20 matched controls at rest or during exteroceptive stimuli. Anatomical and functional symptom-mapping demonstrated reduced cortical thickness and increased blood oxygen level-dependent signal in modality-dependent association sensory cortices during auditory, visual, and multisensory hallucinations. On the contrary, primary-sensory-cortex recruitment was not systematic and was shown to be associated with increased vividness of the hallucinatory experiences. Spatiotemporal activity patterns in the default-mode network (DMN) during hallucinations and symptom-free periods in patients were compared with patterns measured in healthy individuals. A disengagement of the DMN was concomitant to hallucinations, as for exogenous stimulations in healthy participants. Specifically, spatial and temporal instabilities of the DMN correlated with the severity of hallucinations but persisted during symptom-free periods. These results suggest that hallucinatory experiences emerge from a spontaneous DMN withdrawal, providing a convincing model for hallucinations beyond the auditory modality. PMID:22535908

  1. Translating Neurocognitive Models of Auditory-Verbal Hallucinations into Therapy: Using Real-time fMRI-Neurofeedback to Treat Voices

    PubMed Central

    Fovet, Thomas; Orlov, Natasza; Dyck, Miriam; Allen, Paul; Mathiak, Klaus; Jardri, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Auditory-verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are frequent and disabling symptoms, which can be refractory to conventional psychopharmacological treatment in more than 25% of the cases. Recent advances in brain imaging allow for a better understanding of the neural underpinnings of AVHs. These findings strengthened transdiagnostic neurocognitive models that characterize these frequent and disabling experiences. At the same time, technical improvements in real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enabled the development of innovative and non-invasive methods with the potential to relieve psychiatric symptoms, such as fMRI-based neurofeedback (fMRI-NF). During fMRI-NF, brain activity is measured and fed back in real time to the participant in order to help subjects to progressively achieve voluntary control over their own neural activity. Precisely defining the target brain area/network(s) appears critical in fMRI-NF protocols. After reviewing the available neurocognitive models for AVHs, we elaborate on how recent findings in the field may help to develop strong a priori strategies for fMRI-NF target localization. The first approach relies on imaging-based “trait markers” (i.e., persistent traits or vulnerability markers that can also be detected in the presymptomatic and remitted phases of AVHs). The goal of such strategies is to target areas that show aberrant activations during AVHs or are known to be involved in compensatory activation (or resilience processes). Brain regions, from which the NF signal is derived, can be based on structural MRI and neurocognitive knowledge, or functional MRI information collected during specific cognitive tasks. Because hallucinations are acute and intrusive symptoms, a second strategy focuses more on “state markers.” In this case, the signal of interest relies on fMRI capture of the neural networks exhibiting increased activity during AVHs occurrences, by means of multivariate pattern recognition methods. The fine

  2. Translating Neurocognitive Models of Auditory-Verbal Hallucinations into Therapy: Using Real-time fMRI-Neurofeedback to Treat Voices.

    PubMed

    Fovet, Thomas; Orlov, Natasza; Dyck, Miriam; Allen, Paul; Mathiak, Klaus; Jardri, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Auditory-verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are frequent and disabling symptoms, which can be refractory to conventional psychopharmacological treatment in more than 25% of the cases. Recent advances in brain imaging allow for a better understanding of the neural underpinnings of AVHs. These findings strengthened transdiagnostic neurocognitive models that characterize these frequent and disabling experiences. At the same time, technical improvements in real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enabled the development of innovative and non-invasive methods with the potential to relieve psychiatric symptoms, such as fMRI-based neurofeedback (fMRI-NF). During fMRI-NF, brain activity is measured and fed back in real time to the participant in order to help subjects to progressively achieve voluntary control over their own neural activity. Precisely defining the target brain area/network(s) appears critical in fMRI-NF protocols. After reviewing the available neurocognitive models for AVHs, we elaborate on how recent findings in the field may help to develop strong a priori strategies for fMRI-NF target localization. The first approach relies on imaging-based "trait markers" (i.e., persistent traits or vulnerability markers that can also be detected in the presymptomatic and remitted phases of AVHs). The goal of such strategies is to target areas that show aberrant activations during AVHs or are known to be involved in compensatory activation (or resilience processes). Brain regions, from which the NF signal is derived, can be based on structural MRI and neurocognitive knowledge, or functional MRI information collected during specific cognitive tasks. Because hallucinations are acute and intrusive symptoms, a second strategy focuses more on "state markers." In this case, the signal of interest relies on fMRI capture of the neural networks exhibiting increased activity during AVHs occurrences, by means of multivariate pattern recognition methods. The fine

  3. Visual Hallucinations in First-Episode Psychosis: Association with Childhood Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Solesvik, Martine; Joa, Inge; Larsen, Tor Ketil; Langeveld, Johannes; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Bjørnestad, Jone; Anda, Liss Gøril; Gisselgård, Jens; Hegelstad, Wenche ten Velden

    2016-01-01

    Background Hallucinations are a core diagnostic criterion for psychotic disorders and have been investigated with regard to its association with childhood trauma in first-episode psychosis samples. Research has largely focused on auditory hallucinations, while specific investigations of visual hallucinations in first-episode psychosis remain scarce. Objectives The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of visual hallucinations, and to explore the association between visual hallucination and childhood trauma in a first-episode psychosis sample. Methods Subjects were included from TIPS-2, a first episode psychosis study in south Rogaland, Norway. Based on the medical journal descriptions of the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), a separate score for visual and auditory hallucinations was created (N = 204). Patients were grouped according to hallucination severity (none, mild, and psychotic hallucinations) and multinomial logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with visual hallucination group. Results Visual hallucinations of a psychotic nature were reported by 26.5% of patients. The experience of childhood interpersonal trauma increased the likelihood of having psychotic visual hallucinations. Conclusion Visual hallucinations are common in first-episode psychosis, and are related to childhood interpersonal trauma. PMID:27144681

  4. Why must we attribute our own action to ourselves? Auditory hallucination like-experiences as the results both from the explicit self-other attribution and implicit regulation in speech.

    PubMed

    Asai, Tomohisa; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2013-05-30

    The sense of agency, which is the awareness that "I am the one who causes action," is important in understanding passive schizophrenic symptoms and bodily self-consciousness. However, this potential linkage between subjective self-other attribution (explicit agency) and automatic self-monitoring of an action (implicit agency) has not been examined fully. The present study included two experiments conducted with the same group of healthy participants (N=48) in order to examine explicit (Exp. 1) and implicit (Exp. 2) measures of the sense of agency in speech. Exp. 1 suggested that participants who tend not to attribute a fed-back voice to themselves (the other-attribution group) might have a stronger tendency toward auditory hallucinations, as measured by the Auditory Hallucination Experience Scale 17 (AHES-17). Furthermore, the results of Exp. 2 suggested that this other-attribution group might not utilize auditory feedback during speech production, indicating the expected link between explicit and implicit agency. These results are discussed in relation to the sense-of-agency model, wherein people are understood to construct the online "self" monitoring of action. PMID:23089161

  5. Auditory verbal hallucinations as atypical inner speech monitoring, and the potential of neurostimulation as a treatment option☆

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Peter; Fernyhough, Charles; Ellison, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are the experience of hearing voices in the absence of any speaker, often associated with a schizophrenia diagnosis. Prominent cognitive models of AVHs suggest they may be the result of inner speech being misattributed to an external or non-self source, due to atypical self- or reality monitoring. These arguments are supported by studies showing that people experiencing AVHs often show an externalising bias during monitoring tasks, and neuroimaging evidence which implicates superior temporal brain regions, both during AVHs and during tasks that measure verbal self-monitoring performance. Recently, efficacy of noninvasive neurostimulation techniques as a treatment option for AVHs has been tested. Meta-analyses show a moderate effect size in reduction of AVH frequency, but there has been little attempt to explain the therapeutic effect of neurostimulation in relation to existing cognitive models. This article reviews inner speech models of AVHs, and argues that a possible explanation for reduction in frequency following treatment may be modulation of activity in the brain regions involving the monitoring of inner speech. PMID:24125858

  6. Better than mermaids and stray dogs? Subtyping auditory verbal hallucinations and its implications for research and practice.

    PubMed

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Thomas, Neil; Strauss, Clara; Dodgson, Guy; Jones, Nev; Woods, Angela; Brewin, Chris R; Hayward, Mark; Stephane, Massoud; Barton, Jack; Kingdon, David; Sommer, Iris E

    2014-07-01

    The phenomenological diversity of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) is not currently accounted for by any model based around a single mechanism. This has led to the proposal that there may be distinct AVH subtypes, which each possess unique (as well as shared) underpinning mechanisms. This could have important implications both for research design and clinical interventions because different subtypes may be responsive to different types of treatment. This article explores how AVH subtypes may be identified at the levels of phenomenology, cognition, neurology, etiology, treatment response, diagnosis, and voice hearer's own interpretations. Five subtypes are proposed; hypervigilance, autobiographical memory (subdivided into dissociative and nondissociative), inner speech (subdivided into obsessional, own thought, and novel), epileptic and deafferentation. We suggest other facets of AVH, including negative content and form (eg, commands), may be best treated as dimensional constructs that vary across subtypes. After considering the limitations and challenges of AVH subtyping, we highlight future research directions, including the need for a subtype assessment tool. PMID:24936087

  7. Shot through with voices: Dissociation mediates the relationship between varieties of inner speech and auditory hallucination proneness

    PubMed Central

    Alderson-Day, Ben; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Bedford, Sarah; Collins, Hannah; Dunne, Holly; Rooke, Chloe; Fernyhough, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Inner speech is a commonly experienced but poorly understood phenomenon. The Varieties of Inner Speech Questionnaire (VISQ; McCarthy-Jones & Fernyhough, 2011) assesses four characteristics of inner speech: dialogicality, evaluative/motivational content, condensation, and the presence of other people. Prior findings have linked anxiety and proneness to auditory hallucinations (AH) to these types of inner speech. This study extends that work by examining how inner speech relates to self-esteem and dissociation, and their combined impact upon AH-proneness. 156 students completed the VISQ and measures of self-esteem, dissociation and AH-proneness. Correlational analyses indicated that evaluative inner speech and other people in inner speech were associated with lower self-esteem and greater frequency of dissociative experiences. Dissociation and VISQ scores, but not self-esteem, predicted AH-proneness. Structural equation modelling supported a mediating role for dissociation between specific components of inner speech (evaluative and other people) and AH-proneness. Implications for the development of “hearing voices” are discussed. PMID:24980910

  8. Hearing the Unheard: An Interdisciplinary, Mixed Methodology Study of Women's Experiences of Hearing Voices (Auditory Verbal Hallucinations).

    PubMed

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Castro Romero, Maria; McCarthy-Jones, Roseline; Dillon, Jacqui; Cooper-Rompato, Christine; Kieran, Kathryn; Kaufman, Milissa; Blackman, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the experiences of women who "hear voices" (auditory verbal hallucinations). We begin by examining historical understandings of women hearing voices, showing these have been driven by androcentric theories of how women's bodies functioned leading to women being viewed as requiring their voices be interpreted by men. We show the twentieth century was associated with recognition that the mental violation of women's minds (represented by some voice-hearing) was often a consequence of the physical violation of women's bodies. We next report the results of a qualitative study into voice-hearing women's experiences (n = 8). This found similarities between women's relationships with their voices and their relationships with others and the wider social context. Finally, we present results from a quantitative study comparing voice-hearing in women (n = 65) and men (n = 132) in a psychiatric setting. Women were more likely than men to have certain forms of voice-hearing (voices conversing) and to have antecedent events of trauma, physical illness, and relationship problems. Voices identified as female may have more positive affect than male voices. We conclude that women voice-hearers have and continue to face specific challenges necessitating research and activism, and hope this paper will act as a stimulus to such work. PMID:26779041

  9. Better Than Mermaids and Stray Dogs? Subtyping Auditory Verbal Hallucinations and Its Implications for Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Thomas, Neil; Strauss, Clara; Dodgson, Guy; Jones, Nev; Woods, Angela; Brewin, Chris R.; Hayward, Mark; Stephane, Massoud; Barton, Jack; Kingdon, David; Sommer, Iris E.

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenological diversity of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) is not currently accounted for by any model based around a single mechanism. This has led to the proposal that there may be distinct AVH subtypes, which each possess unique (as well as shared) underpinning mechanisms. This could have important implications both for research design and clinical interventions because different subtypes may be responsive to different types of treatment. This article explores how AVH subtypes may be identified at the levels of phenomenology, cognition, neurology, etiology, treatment response, diagnosis, and voice hearer’s own interpretations. Five subtypes are proposed; hypervigilance, autobiographical memory (subdivided into dissociative and nondissociative), inner speech (subdivided into obsessional, own thought, and novel), epileptic and deafferentation. We suggest other facets of AVH, including negative content and form (eg, commands), may be best treated as dimensional constructs that vary across subtypes. After considering the limitations and challenges of AVH subtyping, we highlight future research directions, including the need for a subtype assessment tool. PMID:24936087

  10. Do We Need Multiple Models of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations? Examining the Phenomenological Fit of Cognitive and Neurological Models

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Simon R.

    2010-01-01

    The causes of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are still unclear. The evidence for 2 prominent cognitive models of AVHs, one based on inner speech, the other on intrusions from memory, is briefly reviewed. The fit of these models, as well as neurological models, to the phenomenology of AVHs is then critically examined. It is argued that only a minority of AVHs, such as those with content clearly relating to verbalizations experienced surrounding previous trauma, are consistent with cognitive AVHs-as-memories models. Similarly, it is argued that current neurological models are only phenomenologically consistent with a limited subset of AVHs. In contrast, the phenomenology of the majority of AVHs, which involve voices attempting to regulate the ongoing actions of the voice hearer, are argued to be more consistent with inner speech–based models. It is concluded that subcategorizations of AVHs may be necessary, with each underpinned by different neurocognitive mechanisms. The need to study what is termed the dynamic developmental progression of AVHs is also highlighted. Future empirical research is suggested in this area. PMID:18820262

  11. Hearing the Unheard: An Interdisciplinary, Mixed Methodology Study of Women’s Experiences of Hearing Voices (Auditory Verbal Hallucinations)

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Castro Romero, Maria; McCarthy-Jones, Roseline; Dillon, Jacqui; Cooper-Rompato, Christine; Kieran, Kathryn; Kaufman, Milissa; Blackman, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the experiences of women who “hear voices” (auditory verbal hallucinations). We begin by examining historical understandings of women hearing voices, showing these have been driven by androcentric theories of how women’s bodies functioned leading to women being viewed as requiring their voices be interpreted by men. We show the twentieth century was associated with recognition that the mental violation of women’s minds (represented by some voice-hearing) was often a consequence of the physical violation of women’s bodies. We next report the results of a qualitative study into voice-hearing women’s experiences (n = 8). This found similarities between women’s relationships with their voices and their relationships with others and the wider social context. Finally, we present results from a quantitative study comparing voice-hearing in women (n = 65) and men (n = 132) in a psychiatric setting. Women were more likely than men to have certain forms of voice-hearing (voices conversing) and to have antecedent events of trauma, physical illness, and relationship problems. Voices identified as female may have more positive affect than male voices. We conclude that women voice-hearers have and continue to face specific challenges necessitating research and activism, and hope this paper will act as a stimulus to such work. PMID:26779041

  12. Dimensions of hallucinations and delusions in affective and nonaffective illnesses.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Ranju; Chaudhury, Suprakash; Kumar, Subodh

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the dimensions of hallucinations and delusions in affective (manic episode, bipolar affective disorder, and depressive episode) and nonaffective disorders (schizophrenia, acute and transient psychotic disorders, and unspecified psychosis). Sixty outpatients divided equally into two groups comprising affective and nonaffective disorders were taken up for evaluation after screening, as per inclusion and exclusion criteria. Scores of 3 or above on delusion and hallucinatory behavior subscales of positive and negative syndrome scale were sufficient to warrant rating on the psychotic symptom rating scales with which auditory hallucination and delusion were assessed on various dimensions. Insight was assessed using the Beck cognitive insight scale (BCIS). There were no significant differences between the two groups on age, sex, marital status, education, and economic status. There were significant differences in total score and emotional characteristic subscale, cognitive interpretation subscale, and physical characteristic subscale of auditory hallucination scales in between the two groups. Correlation between BCIS-total and total auditory hallucinations score was negative (Spearman Rho -0.319; P < 0.05). Hallucinating patients, more in nonaffective group, described a negative impact of hallucinating voices along with emotional consequences on their lives which lead to distress and disruption. PMID:23997978

  13. Dimensions of Hallucinations and Delusions in Affective and Nonaffective Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Ranju; Chaudhury, Suprakash; Kumar, Subodh

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the dimensions of hallucinations and delusions in affective (manic episode, bipolar affective disorder, and depressive episode) and nonaffective disorders (schizophrenia, acute and transient psychotic disorders, and unspecified psychosis). Sixty outpatients divided equally into two groups comprising affective and nonaffective disorders were taken up for evaluation after screening, as per inclusion and exclusion criteria. Scores of 3 or above on delusion and hallucinatory behavior subscales of positive and negative syndrome scale were sufficient to warrant rating on the psychotic symptom rating scales with which auditory hallucination and delusion were assessed on various dimensions. Insight was assessed using the Beck cognitive insight scale (BCIS). There were no significant differences between the two groups on age, sex, marital status, education, and economic status. There were significant differences in total score and emotional characteristic subscale, cognitive interpretation subscale, and physical characteristic subscale of auditory hallucination scales in between the two groups. Correlation between BCIS-total and total auditory hallucinations score was negative (Spearman Rho −0.319; P < 0.05). Hallucinating patients, more in nonaffective group, described a negative impact of hallucinating voices along with emotional consequences on their lives which lead to distress and disruption. PMID:23997978

  14. Abnormal Degree Centrality of Bilateral Putamen and Left Superior Frontal Gyrus in Schizophrenia with Auditory Hallucinations: A Resting-state Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng; Wang, Hui-Ling; Wu, Shi-Hao; Huang, Huan; Zou, Ji-Lin; Chen, Jun; Jiang, Tian-Zi; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Gao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dysconnectivity hypothesis of schizophrenia has been increasingly emphasized. Recent researches showed that this dysconnectivity might be related to occurrence of auditory hallucination (AH). However, there is still no consistent conclusion. This study aimed to explore intrinsic dysconnectivity pattern of whole-brain functional networks at voxel level in schizophrenic with AH. Methods: Auditory hallucinated patients group (n = 42 APG), no hallucinated patients group (n = 42 NPG) and normal controls (n = 84 NCs) were analyzed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The functional connectivity metrics index (degree centrality [DC]) across the entire brain networks was calculated and evaluated among three groups. Results: DC decreased in the bilateral putamen and increased in the left superior frontal gyrus in all the patients. However, in APG, the changes of DC were more obvious compared with NPG. Symptomology scores were negatively correlated with the DC of bilateral putamen in all patients. AH score of APG positively correlated with the DC in left superior frontal gyrus but negatively correlated with the DC in bilateral putamen. Conclusion: Our findings corroborated that schizophrenia was characterized by functional dysconnectivity, and the abnormal DC in bilateral putamen and left superior frontal gyrus might be crucial in the occurrence of AH. PMID:26612293

  15. Deficits in Predictive Coding Underlie Hallucinations in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Schatz, Kelly C.; Abi-Dargham, Anissa

    2014-01-01

    The neural mechanisms that produce hallucinations and other psychotic symptoms remain unclear. Previous research suggests that deficits in predictive signals for learning, such as prediction error signals, may underlie psychotic symptoms, but the mechanism by which such deficits produce psychotic symptoms remains to be established. We used model-based fMRI to study sensory prediction errors in human patients with schizophrenia who report daily auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) and sociodemographically matched healthy control subjects. We manipulated participants' expectations for hearing speech at different periods within a speech decision-making task. Patients activated a voice-sensitive region of the auditory cortex while they experienced AVHs in the scanner and displayed a concomitant deficit in prediction error signals in a similar portion of auditory cortex. This prediction error deficit correlated strongly with increased activity during silence and with reduced volumes of the auditory cortex, two established neural phenotypes of AVHs. Furthermore, patients with more severe AVHs had more deficient prediction error signals and greater activity during silence within the region of auditory cortex where groups differed, regardless of the severity of psychotic symptoms other than AVHs. Our findings suggest that deficient predictive coding accounts for the resting hyperactivity in sensory cortex that leads to hallucinations. PMID:24920613

  16. Auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder: common phenomenology, common cause, common interventions?

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Longden, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH: ‘hearing voices’) are found in both schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this paper we first demonstrate that AVH in these two diagnoses share a qualitatively similar phenomenology. We then show that the presence of AVH in schizophrenia is often associated with earlier exposure to traumatic/emotionally overwhelming events, as it is by definition in PTSD. We next argue that the content of AVH relates to earlier traumatic events in a similar way in both PTSD and schizophrenia, most commonly having direct or indirect thematic links to emotionally overwhelming events, rather than being direct re-experiencing. We then propose, following cognitive models of PTSD, that the reconstructive nature of memory may be able to account for the nature of these associations between trauma and AVH content, as may threat-hypervigilance and the individual’s personal goals. We conclude that a notable subset of people diagnosed with schizophrenia with AVH are having phenomenologically and aetiologically identical experiences to PTSD patients who hear voices. As such we propose that the iron curtain between AVH in PTSD (often termed ‘dissociative AVH’) and AVH in schizophrenia (so-called ‘psychotic AVH’) needs to be torn down, as these are often the same experience. One implication of this is that these trauma-related AVH require a common trans-diagnostic treatment strategy. Whilst antipsychotics are already increasingly being used to treat AVH in PTSD, we argue for the centrality of trauma-based interventions for trauma-based AVH in both PTSD and in people diagnosed with schizophrenia. PMID:26283997

  17. The Treatment of Hallucinations in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Iris E. C.; Slotema, Christina W.; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Derks, Eske M.; Blom, Jan Dirk; van der Gaag, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the treatment of hallucinations in schizophrenia. The first treatment option for hallucinations in schizophrenia is antipsychotic medication, which can induce a rapid decrease in severity. Only 8% of first-episode patients still experience mild to moderate hallucinations after continuing medication for 1 year. Olanzapine, amisulpride, ziprasidone, and quetiapine are equally effective against hallucinations, but haloperidol may be slightly inferior. If the drug of first choice provides inadequate improvement, it is probably best to switch medication after 2–4 weeks of treatment. Clozapine is the drug of choice for patients who are resistant to 2 antipsychotic agents. Blood levels should be above 350–450 μg/ml for maximal effect. For relapse prevention, medication should be continued in the same dose. Depot medication should be considered for all patients because nonadherence is high. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) can be applied as an augmentation to antipsychotic medication. The success of CBT depends on the reduction of catastrophic appraisals, thereby reducing the concurrent anxiety and distress. CBT aims at reducing the emotional distress associated with auditory hallucinations and develops new coping strategies. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is capable of reducing the frequency and severity of auditory hallucinations. Several meta-analyses found significantly better symptom reduction for low-frequency repetitive TMS as compared with placebo. Consequently, TMS currently has the status of a potentially useful treatment method for auditory hallucinations, but only in combination with state of the art antipsychotic treatment. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered a last resort for treatment-resistant psychosis. Although several studies showed clinical improvement, a specific reduction in hallucination severity has never been demonstrated. PMID:22368234

  18. Brain functional connectivity during the experience of thought blocks in schizophrenic patients with persistent auditory verbal hallucinations: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulos, Elias; Koutsoukos, Elias; Maillis, Antonis; Papadimitriou, George N; Stefanis, Costas

    2014-03-01

    Thought blocks (TBs) are characterized by regular interruptions in the stream of thought. Outward signs are abrupt and repeated interruptions in the flow of conversation or actions while subjective experience is that of a total and uncontrollable emptying of the mind. In the very limited bibliography regarding TB, the phenomenon is thought to be conceptualized as a disturbance of consciousness that can be attributed to stoppages of continuous information processing due to an increase in the volume of information to be processed. In an attempt to investigate potential expression of the phenomenon on the functional properties of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, an EEG study was contacted in schizophrenic patients with persisting auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) who additionally exhibited TBs. In this case, we hypothesized that the persistent and dense AVHs could serve the role of an increased information flow that the brain is unable to process, a condition that is perceived by the person as TB. Phase synchronization analyses performed on EEG segments during the experience of TBs showed that synchrony values exhibited a long-range common mode of coupling (grouped behavior) among the left temporal area and the remaining central and frontal brain areas. These common synchrony-fluctuation schemes were observed for 0.5 to 2s and were detected in a 4-s window following the estimated initiation of the phenomenon. The observation was frequency specific and detected in the broad alpha band region (6-12Hz). The introduction of synchrony entropy (SE) analysis applied on the cumulative synchrony distribution showed that TB states were characterized by an explicit preference of the system to be functioned at low values of synchrony, while the synchrony values are broadly distributed during the recovery state. Our results indicate that during TB states, the phase locking of several brain areas were converged uniformly in a narrow band of low synchrony values and in a

  19. Endolymphatic hydrops in patients with vestibular migraine and auditory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Gürkov, Robert; Kantner, Claudia; Strupp, Michael; Flatz, W; Krause, Eike; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit

    2014-10-01

    Vertigo patients exhibiting features of vestibular migraine (VM) and Menière's disease (MD) present a difficult diagnostic challenge to the clinician, and the two entities are likely to overlap. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of endolymphatic hydrops in patients with VM and auditory symptoms. This was an observatory diagnostic study. At an academic interdisciplinary dizziness centre, nineteen consecutive patients with definite or probable VM and auditory symptoms were examined by locally enhanced inner ear MR imaging. MR images were evaluated for the presence of endolymphatic hydrops. Of the 19 included patients, four patients (21 %) demonstrated evidence of cochlear and vestibular endolymphatic hydrops on locally enhanced inner ear MR imaging (three with "definite VM", one with "probable VM"). Locally enhanced inner ear MR imaging may be useful in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with VM and auditory symptoms, as some of these patients have signs of endolymphatic hydrops. Whether these patients suffer from MD only and are misdiagnosed as VM or suffer from both, VM and MD or whether endolymphatic hydrops is a consequence of inner ear damage due to VM are clinically relevant questions that can be evaluated by application of this technique. PMID:24121780

  20. Musical hallucinations - a challenge for psychiatric therapeutical management. Case report.

    PubMed

    Focseneanu, B E; Marian, G

    2015-01-01

    Background. Musical hallucinations occur in individuals with and without mental illness, and many patients tend to have intact reality testing. Although literature on musical hallucinations is limited, they have been associated with hearing abnormalities, adverse effects of pharmacological agents, female gender, advances in age and psychiatric illness. Aim. To present the psychiatric management of a case of an old female patient, who suddenly developed verbal and musical hallucinations with a pervasive impact on her daily activities. Method. Female, 71 years old, developed verbal and musical hallucinations 6 months before that have intensified later. She was known with bilateral hypoacusia starting with the age of 45, and magnetic resonance imaging performed 1 year before proved multiple lacunar infarcts. Because of the persistence, most of the time of these auditory hallucinations, the patient experienced pervasive difficulties with her major areas of activities. She was referred to a psychiatric department for evaluation and treatment. Results. The psychiatric consult revealed neither a depressive relapse, nor a mild cognitive impairment, and obsessive-compulsive disorder was suspected with intrusive obsessions. Patient received, as antiobsessional augmentation escitalopram 10mg/ day, an atypical antipsychotic, risperidone, which at 3 mg/ day induced extrapyramidal symptoms and cognitive impairment. Therefore, the dose of risperidone was reduced, extrapyramidal symptoms disappeared, and 300mg/ day of acidum valproicum was initiated. Discussion. Our patient presented with diminished sensory input to the auditory cortex, and it was hard to make a differential diagnosis between an organic and a mental etiology. Conclusion. The integration of musical hallucinations into a psychiatric disorder may be a difficult task, and, their treatment represents a challenge. PMID:26664485

  1. Hallucinations in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Diederich, Nico J; Fénelon, Gilles; Stebbins, Glenn; Goetz, Christopher G

    2009-06-01

    Patients with Parkinson disease (PD) can experience hallucinations (spontaneous aberrant perceptions) and illusions (misinterpretations of real perceptual stimuli). Of such phenomena, visual hallucinations (VHs) and illusions are the most frequently encountered, although auditory, olfactory and tactile hallucinations can also occur. In cross-sectional studies, VHs occur in approximately one-third of patients, but up to three-quarters of patients might develop VHs during a 20-year period. Hallucinations can have substantial psychosocial effects and, historically, were the main reason for placing patients in nursing homes. Concomitant or overlapping mechanisms are probably active during VHs, and these include the following: central dopaminergic overactivity and an imbalance with cholinergic neurotransmission; dysfunction of the visual pathways, including specific PD-associated retinopathy and functional alterations of the extrastriate visual pathways; alterations of brainstem sleep-wake and dream regulation; and impaired attentional focus. Possible treatments include patient-initiated coping strategies, a reduction of antiparkinson medications, atypical neuroleptics and, potentially, cholinesterase inhibitors. Evidence-based studies, however, only support the use of one atypical neuroleptic, clozapine, and only in patients without dementia. Better phenomenological discrimination, combined with neuroimaging tools, should refine therapeutic options and improve prognosis. The aim of this Review is to present epidemiological, phenomenological, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects of hallucinations in PD. PMID:19498436

  2. Musical hallucination associated with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Tanit Ganz; Rocha, Savya Cybelle Milhomem; Knobel, Keila Alessandra Baraldi; Kii, Márcia Akemi; Santos, Rosa Maria Rodrigues dos; Pereira, Cristiana Borges

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the fact that musical hallucination have a significant impact on patients' lives, they have received very little attention of experts. Some researchers agree on a combination of peripheral and central dysfunctions as the mechanism that causes hallucination. The most accepted physiopathology of musical hallucination associated to hearing loss (caused by cochlear lesion, cochlear nerve lesion or by interruption of mesencephalon or pontine auditory information) is the disinhibition of auditory memory circuits due to sensory deprivation. Concerning the cortical area involved in musical hallucination, there is evidence that the excitatory mechanism of the superior temporal gyrus, as in epilepsies, is responsible for musical hallucination. In musical release hallucination there is also activation of the auditory association cortex. Finally, considering the laterality, functional studies with musical perception and imagery in normal individuals showed that songs with words cause bilateral temporal activation and melodies activate only the right lobe. The effect of hearing aids on the improvement of musical hallucination as a result of the hearing loss improvement is well documented. It happens because auditory hallucination may be influenced by the external acoustical environment. Neuroleptics, antidepressants and anticonvulsants have been used in the treatment of musical hallucination. Cases of improvement with the administration of carbamazepine, meclobemide and donepezil were reported, but the results obtained were not consistent. PMID:21625772

  3. Visual hallucinations in photographs in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Vaou, Okeanis; Saint-Hilaire, Marie; Friedman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Visual hallucinations are reported in 16-37% of drug-treated patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and are the most common hallucinations in PD. We report two patients with PD with symptoms that uniquely integrate visual hallucinations and delusions. We report two cases of patients with PD with visual hallucinations who saw the persistence of these hallucinations in photographs. These pictures were taken to prove the absence of these hallucinations. We believe this is the first description of this peculiar phenomenon, in which hallucinations or illusions could be replicated in photographs. Both patients had delusions associated with the images and we speculate that the images they saw in the photographs represent a further delusion, hence a 'delusional hallucination' or 'delusional illusion.' We believe that delusions fostering hallucinations are rare. PMID:23704424

  4. Hallucinations in Nonpsychotic Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonds, John F.

    1975-01-01

    Case histories of ten nonpsychotic patients revealed significant anxiety and depression in a majority of the patients, with five expressing suicidal ideas. Stress factors were primarily family and school. Eight patients had combined auditory and visual hallucinations. The purposes of the hallucinations were multiple, but escape mechanisms were…

  5. Visual hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Collerton, Daniel; Mosimann, Urs Peter

    2010-11-01

    Understanding of visual hallucinations is developing rapidly. Single-factor explanations based on specific pathologies have given way to complex multifactor models with wide potential applicability. Clinical studies of disorders with frequent hallucinations-dementia, delirium, eye disease and psychosis-show that dysfunction within many parts of the distributed ventral object perception system is associated with a range of perceptions from simple flashes and dots to complex formed figures and landscapes. Dissociations between these simple and complex hallucinations indicate at least two hallucinatory syndromes, though exact boundaries need clarification. Neural models of hallucinations variably emphasize the importance of constraints from top down dorsolateral frontal systems, bottom up occipital systems, interconnecting tracts, and thalamic and brainstem regulatory systems. No model has yet gained general acceptance. Both qualitative (a small number of necessary and sufficient constraints) and quantitative explanations (an accumulation of many nonspecific factors) fit existing data. Variable associations of hallucinations with emotional distress and thought disorders across and within pathologies may reflect the roles of cognitive and regulatory systems outside of the purely perceptual. Functional imaging demonstrates that hallucinations and veridical perceptions occur in the same brain areas, intimating a key role for the negotiating interface between top down and bottom up processes. Thus, hallucinations occur when a perception that incorporates a hallucinatory element can provide a better match between predicted and actual sensory input than does a purely veridical experience. Translational research that integrates understandings from clinical hallucinations and basic vision science is likely to be the key to better treatments. WIREs Cogn Sci 2010 1 781-786 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26271777

  6. A new comparator account of auditory verbal hallucinations: how motor prediction can plausibly contribute to the sense of agency for inner speech

    PubMed Central

    Swiney, Lauren; Sousa, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    The comparator account holds that processes of motor prediction contribute to the sense of agency by attenuating incoming sensory information and that disruptions to this process contribute to misattributions of agency in schizophrenia. Over the last 25 years this simple and powerful model has gained widespread support not only as it relates to bodily actions but also as an account of misattributions of agency for inner speech, potentially explaining the etiology of auditory verbal hallucination (AVH). In this paper we provide a detailed analysis of the traditional comparator account for inner speech, pointing out serious problems with the specification of inner speech on which it is based and highlighting inconsistencies in the interpretation of the electrophysiological evidence commonly cited in its favor. In light of these analyses we propose a new comparator account of misattributed inner speech. The new account follows leading models of motor imagery in proposing that inner speech is not attenuated by motor prediction, but rather derived directly from it. We describe how failures of motor prediction would therefore directly affect the phenomenology of inner speech and trigger a mismatch in the comparison between motor prediction and motor intention, contributing to abnormal feelings of agency. We argue that the new account fits with the emerging phenomenological evidence that AVHs are both distinct from ordinary inner speech and heterogeneous. Finally, we explore the possibility that the new comparator account may extend to explain disruptions across a range of imagistic modalities, and outline avenues for future research. PMID:25221502

  7. Decreased integrity of the fronto-temporal fibers of the left inferior occipito-frontal fasciculus associated with auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Oestreich, Lena K L; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Whitford, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) have been proposed to result from altered connectivity between frontal speech production regions and temporal speech perception regions. Whilst the dorsal language pathway, serviced by the arcuate fasciculus, has been extensively studied in relation to AVH, the ventral language pathway, serviced by the inferior occipito-frontal fasciculus (IOFF) has been rarely studied in relation to AVH. This study examined whether structural changes in anatomically defined subregions of the IOFF were associated with AVH in patients with schizophrenia. Diffusion tensor imaging scans and clinical data were obtained from the Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank for 113 schizophrenia patients, of whom 39 had lifetime experience of AVH (18 had current AVH, 21 had remitted AVH), 74 had no lifetime experience of AVH, and 40 healthy controls. Schizophrenia patients with a lifetime experience of AVH exhibited reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in the fronto-temporal fibers of the left IOFF compared to both healthy controls and schizophrenia patients without AVH. In contrast, structural abnormalities in the temporal and occipital regions of the IOFF were observed bilaterally in both patient groups, relative to the healthy controls. These results suggest that while changes in the structural integrity of the bilateral IOFF are associated with schizophrenia per se, integrity reductions in the fronto-temporal fibers of the left IOFF may be specifically associated with AVH. PMID:26112051

  8. Effects of Fronto-Temporal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Auditory Verbal Hallucinations and Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Left Temporo-Parietal Junction in Patients With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Mondino, Marine; Jardri, Renaud; Suaud-Chagny, Marie-Françoise; Saoud, Mohamed; Poulet, Emmanuel; Brunelin, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in patients with schizophrenia are associated with abnormal hyperactivity in the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and abnormal connectivity between frontal and temporal areas. Recent findings suggest that fronto-temporal transcranial Direct Current stimulation (tDCS) with the cathode placed over the left TPJ and the anode over the left prefrontal cortex can alleviate treatment-resistant AVH in patients with schizophrenia. However, brain correlates of the AVH reduction are unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of tDCS on the resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) of the left TPJ. Twenty-three patients with schizophrenia and treatment-resistant AVH were randomly allocated to receive 10 sessions of active (2 mA, 20min) or sham tDCS (2 sessions/d for 5 d). We compared the rs-FC of the left TPJ between patients before and after they received active or sham tDCS. Relative to sham tDCS, active tDCS significantly reduced AVH as well as the negative symptoms. Active tDCS also reduced rs-FC of the left TPJ with the left anterior insula and the right inferior frontal gyrus and increased rs-FC of the left TPJ with the left angular gyrus, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the precuneus. The reduction of AVH severity was correlated with the reduction of the rs-FC between the left TPJ and the left anterior insula. These findings suggest that the reduction of AVH induced by tDCS is associated with a modulation of the rs-FC within an AVH-related brain network, including brain areas involved in inner speech production and monitoring. PMID:26303936

  9. The Changing Face of Hallucination Research: The International Consortium on Hallucination Research (ICHR) 2015 Meeting Report.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Neil; Rossell, Susan L; Waters, Flavie

    2016-07-01

    This article reports on the Third Biennial Meeting of the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research, held in Melbourne, Australia, in October 2015. Following a public conference in which research findings were considered in relation to subjective experience and practice, 9 multidisciplinary working groups examined key current issues in progressing the conceptualization and research of hallucinations. Work group topics included: multicenter validation of the transdiagnostic and multimodal Questionnaire for Psychotic Experiences; development of an improved outcome measure for psychological therapies; the relationship between inhibition and hallucinations across multiple levels of explanation; hallucinations in relation to sleep phenomena; emotion and hallucinations; multiple interactions between the experience of self and hallucinations; interactions between language, auditory and memory networks; resting state networks including the default mode; and analyses arising from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data-sharing. Major themes in hallucinations research identified during the meeting included (1) progression beyond the auditory verbal modality in schizophrenia to consider hallucinations across modalities and different populations; (2) development of new measures; (3) the central role of multisite collaboration through shared data collection and data pooling; (4) study of time-based and interactive models of hallucination; and (5) the need to increase the accessibility and availability of "real-life" interventions for people with persisting and distressing hallucinations. PMID:26675294

  10. How anxiety induces verbal hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, Matthew; Wilkinson, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Verbal hallucinations are often associated with pronounced feelings of anxiety, and it has also been suggested that anxiety somehow triggers them. In this paper, we offer a phenomenological or 'personal-level' account of how it does so. We show how anxious anticipation of one's own thought contents can generate an experience of their being 'alien'. It does so by making an experience of thinking more like one of perceiving, resulting in an unfamiliar kind of intentional state. This accounts for a substantial subset of verbal hallucinations, which are experienced as falling within one's psychological boundaries and lacking in auditory qualities. PMID:26683229

  11. How anxiety induces verbal hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliffe, Matthew; Wilkinson, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Verbal hallucinations are often associated with pronounced feelings of anxiety, and it has also been suggested that anxiety somehow triggers them. In this paper, we offer a phenomenological or ‘personal-level’ account of how it does so. We show how anxious anticipation of one’s own thought contents can generate an experience of their being ‘alien’. It does so by making an experience of thinking more like one of perceiving, resulting in an unfamiliar kind of intentional state. This accounts for a substantial subset of verbal hallucinations, which are experienced as falling within one’s psychological boundaries and lacking in auditory qualities. PMID:26683229

  12. Culture and Hallucinations: Overview and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Larøi, Frank; Luhrmann, Tanya Marie; Bell, Vaughan; Christian, William A.; Deshpande, Smita; Fernyhough, Charles; Jenkins, Janis; Woods, Angela

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have explored hallucinations as complex experiences involving interactions between psychological, biological, and environmental factors and mechanisms. Nevertheless, relatively little attention has focused on the role of culture in shaping hallucinations. This article reviews the published research, drawing on the expertise of both anthropologists and psychologists. We argue that the extant body of work suggests that culture does indeed have a significant impact on the experience, understanding, and labeling of hallucinations and that there may be important theoretical and clinical consequences of that observation. We find that culture can affect what is identified as a hallucination, that there are different patterns of hallucination among the clinical and nonclinical populations, that hallucinations are often culturally meaningful, that hallucinations occur at different rates in different settings; that culture affects the meaning and characteristics of hallucinations associated with psychosis, and that the cultural variations of psychotic hallucinations may have implications for the clinical outcome of those who struggle with psychosis. We conclude that a clinician should never assume that the mere report of what seems to be a hallucination is necessarily a symptom of pathology and that the patient’s cultural background needs to be taken into account when assessing and treating hallucinations. PMID:24936082

  13. Hallucinations as a trauma-based memory: implications for psychological interventions.

    PubMed

    Steel, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between hallucinations and life events is a topic of significant clinical importance. This review discusses the extent to which auditory and visual hallucinations may be directly related to traumatic events. Evidence suggests that intrusive images occur frequently within individuals who also report hallucinatory experiences. However, there has been limited research specifically investigating the extent to which hallucinations are the re-experiencing of a traumatic event. Our current theoretical understanding of these relationships, along with methodological difficulties associated with research in this area, are considered. Recent clinical studies, which adopt interventions aimed at the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in people diagnosed with a psychotic disorder, are reviewed. There is a need for the development of evidence-based interventions in this area. PMID:26441698

  14. Hallucinations as a trauma-based memory: implications for psychological interventions

    PubMed Central

    Steel, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between hallucinations and life events is a topic of significant clinical importance. This review discusses the extent to which auditory and visual hallucinations may be directly related to traumatic events. Evidence suggests that intrusive images occur frequently within individuals who also report hallucinatory experiences. However, there has been limited research specifically investigating the extent to which hallucinations are the re-experiencing of a traumatic event. Our current theoretical understanding of these relationships, along with methodological difficulties associated with research in this area, are considered. Recent clinical studies, which adopt interventions aimed at the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in people diagnosed with a psychotic disorder, are reviewed. There is a need for the development of evidence-based interventions in this area. PMID:26441698

  15. Musical hallucinations – a challenge for psychiatric therapeutical management. Case report

    PubMed Central

    Focseneanu, BE; Marian, G

    2015-01-01

    Background. Musical hallucinations occur in individuals with and without mental illness, and many patients tend to have intact reality testing. Although literature on musical hallucinations is limited, they have been associated with hearing abnormalities, adverse effects of pharmacological agents, female gender, advances in age and psychiatric illness. Aim. To present the psychiatric management of a case of an old female patient, who suddenly developed verbal and musical hallucinations with a pervasive impact on her daily activities. Method. Female, 71 years old, developed verbal and musical hallucinations 6 months before that have intensified later. She was known with bilateral hypoacusia starting with the age of 45, and magnetic resonance imaging performed 1 year before proved multiple lacunar infarcts. Because of the persistence, most of the time of these auditory hallucinations, the patient experienced pervasive difficulties with her major areas of activities. She was referred to a psychiatric department for evaluation and treatment. Results. The psychiatric consult revealed neither a depressive relapse, nor a mild cognitive impairment, and obsessive-compulsive disorder was suspected with intrusive obsessions. Patient received, as antiobsessional augmentation escitalopram 10mg/ day, an atypical antipsychotic, risperidone, which at 3 mg/ day induced extrapyramidal symptoms and cognitive impairment. Therefore, the dose of risperidone was reduced, extrapyramidal symptoms disappeared, and 300mg/ day of acidum valproicum was initiated. Discussion. Our patient presented with diminished sensory input to the auditory cortex, and it was hard to make a differential diagnosis between an organic and a mental etiology. Conclusion. The integration of musical hallucinations into a psychiatric disorder may be a difficult task, and, their treatment represents a challenge. PMID:26664485

  16. Musical hallucinations associated with acquired deafness.

    PubMed

    Hammeke, T A; McQuillen, M P; Cohen, B A

    1983-06-01

    Two patients with auditory hallucinations beginning after a long history of progressive bilateral hearing loss were studied. The hallucinations included both unformed (tinnitus and irregular sounds of varying pitch and timbre) and formed (instrumental music, singing and voices) components, and were repetitive. They were affected by ambient noise levels; their content and speed were influenced by attentional and intentional factors. There was no evidence of global dementia, nor of epileptogenic or psychiatric disturbance. A combination of peripheral and associated central "disinhibition" may be responsible for the occurrence of such hallucinations. PMID:6875592

  17. Case report of visual hallucinations in anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Ankur, SACHDEVA; Ankit, SAXENA; Manish, KANDPAL

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hallucinations rarely occur in individuals with anxiety disorders. This case report describes a 36-year-old male with Social Phobia and Agoraphobia with Panic Attacks who had prominent visual hallucinations that were both distressing and incapacitating. Treatment with sertraline 200 mg/d, clonazepam 1 mg/d, and propranolol 20 mg/day for one month completely resolved both his anxiety and the hallucinations, after which he was able to return to his social and occupational life. The report underscores the fact that visual hallucinations are not always indicators of a psychotic disorder, they may be present across a spectrum of mental disorders. In cases where hallucinations occur in nonpsychotic disorders, treatment of the underlying condition usually simultaneously resolves the associated hallucinations without the need to resort to the use of antipsychotic medication. Detailed analyses of such unusual cases can help improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of psychotic-like symptoms. PMID:26120264

  18. Case report of visual hallucinations in anxiety.

    PubMed

    Ankur, Sachdeva; Ankit, Saxena; Manish, Kandpal

    2015-04-25

    Hallucinations rarely occur in individuals with anxiety disorders. This case report describes a 36-year-old male with Social Phobia and Agoraphobia with Panic Attacks who had prominent visual hallucinations that were both distressing and incapacitating. Treatment with sertraline 200 mg/d, clonazepam 1 mg/d, and propranolol 20 mg/day for one month completely resolved both his anxiety and the hallucinations, after which he was able to return to his social and occupational life. The report underscores the fact that visual hallucinations are not always indicators of a psychotic disorder, they may be present across a spectrum of mental disorders. In cases where hallucinations occur in nonpsychotic disorders, treatment of the underlying condition usually simultaneously resolves the associated hallucinations without the need to resort to the use of antipsychotic medication. Detailed analyses of such unusual cases can help improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of psychotic-like symptoms. PMID:26120264

  19. Delusions, illusions and hallucinations in epilepsy: 1. Elementary phenomena.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Brent; Joyce, Eileen; Shorvon, Simon

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this paper and its pair is to provide a comprehensive review, from the different perspectives of neurology and neuropsychiatry, of the phenomenology and mechanisms of hallucinatory experience in epilepsy. We emphasise the clinical and electrophysiological features, and make comparisons with the primary psychoses. In this paper, we consider definitions and elementary hallucinatory phenomena. Regarding definition, there is a clearly divergent evolution in meaning of the terms delusion, illusion and hallucination in the separate traditions of neurology and psychiatry. Psychiatry makes clear distinctions between the terms and has focussed on the empirical use of descriptive psychopathology in order to delineate the various psychiatric syndromes, including those in epilepsy. These distinctions in psychiatry have stood the test of time and are useful in clinical descriptive terms, but do not help to understand the basic mechanisms. The focus of neurology has been to regard delusions, illusions and hallucinations in epilepsy as a result of localised or network based neuronal epileptic activity that can be investigated especially using intracranial stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG). The neurological approach leads to a more synoptical definition of 'hallucination' than in psychiatry and to the conclusion that there is little point in differentiating hallucination from illusion or delusion in view of the overlap in the physiological bases of the phenomena. The semiologically derived differentiation of these terms in psychiatry is not supported by similarly discrete electrophysiological signatures. However, as discussed in the second paper, some psychotic states are associated with similar electrophysiological changes. The wide range of hallucinatory symptoms occurring during epileptic seizures recorded during intracranial SEEG and brain stimulation are reviewed here, including: experiential and interpretive phenomena, affective symptoms, as well as auditory

  20. Sensory Symptoms and Processing of Nonverbal Auditory and Visual Stimuli in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Claire R; Sanchez, Sandra S; Grenesko, Emily L; Brown, Christine M; Chen, Colleen P; Keehn, Brandon; Velasquez, Francisco; Lincoln, Alan J; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2016-05-01

    Atypical sensory responses are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While evidence suggests impaired auditory-visual integration for verbal information, findings for nonverbal stimuli are inconsistent. We tested for sensory symptoms in children with ASD (using the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile) and examined unisensory and bisensory processing with a nonverbal auditory-visual paradigm, for which neurotypical adults show bisensory facilitation. ASD participants reported more atypical sensory symptoms overall, most prominently in the auditory modality. On the experimental task, reduced response times for bisensory compared to unisensory trials were seen in both ASD and control groups, but neither group showed significant race model violation (evidence of intermodal integration). Findings do not support impaired bisensory processing for simple nonverbal stimuli in high-functioning children with ASD. PMID:25652601

  1. Childhood Onset Schizophrenia: High Rate of Visual Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Christopher N.; Greenstein, Deanna; Clasen, Liv; Gochman, Pete; Miller, Rachel; Tossell, Julia W.; Mattai, Anand A.; Gogtay, Nitin; Rapoport, Judith L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To document high rates and clinical correlates of nonauditory hallucinations in childhood onset schizophrenia (COS). Method: Within a sample of 117 pediatric patients (mean age 13.6 years), diagnosed with COS, the presence of auditory, visual, somatic/tactile, and olfactory hallucinations was examined using the Scale for the Assessment…

  2. Sensory Symptoms and Processing of Nonverbal Auditory and Visual Stimuli in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Claire R.; Sanchez, Sandra S.; Grenesko, Emily L.; Brown, Christine M.; Chen, Colleen P.; Keehn, Brandon; Velasquez, Francisco; Lincoln, Alan J.; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2016-01-01

    Atypical sensory responses are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While evidence suggests impaired auditory-visual integration for verbal information, findings for nonverbal stimuli are inconsistent. We tested for sensory symptoms in children with ASD (using the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile) and examined unisensory and bisensory…

  3. Phenomenology of hallucinations, illusions, and delusions as part of seizure semiology.

    PubMed

    Kasper, B S; Kasper, E M; Pauli, E; Stefan, H

    2010-05-01

    In partial epilepsy, a localized hypersynchronous neuronal discharge evolving into a partial seizure affecting a particular cortical region or cerebral subsystem can give rise to subjective symptoms, which are perceived by the affected person only, that is, ictal hallucinations, illusions, or delusions. When forming the beginning of a symptom sequence leading to impairment of consciousness and/or a classic generalized seizure, these phenomena are referred to as an epileptic aura, but they also occur in isolation. They often manifest in the fully awake state, as part of simple partial seizures, but they also can be associated to different degrees of disturbed consciousness. Initial ictal symptoms often are closely related to the physiological functions of the cortical circuit involved and, therefore, can provide localizing information. When brain regions related to sensory integration are involved, the seizure discharge can cause specific kinds of hallucinations, for example, visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory, and cutaneous sensory sensations. In addition to these elementary sensory perceptions, quite complex hallucinations related to a partial seizure can arise, for example, perception of visual scenes or hearing music. By involving psychic and emotional spheres of human perception, many seizures also give rise to hallucinatory emotional states (e.g., fear or happiness) or even more complex hallucinations (e.g., visuospatial phenomena), illusions (e.g., déjà vu, out-of-body experience), or delusional beliefs (e.g., identity change) that often are not easily recognized as epileptic. Here we suggest a classification into elementary sensory, complex sensory, and complex integratory seizure symptoms. Epileptic hallucinations, illusions, and delusions shine interesting light on the physiology and functional anatomy of brain regions involved and their functions in the human being. This article, in which 10 cases are described, introduces the fascinating

  4. One patient with Sjogren's syndrome presenting schizophrenia-like symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-En

    2016-01-01

    Comorbid depression in patients with Sjogren's syndrome has been reported frequently, while comorbid psychosis in subjects with Sjogren's syndrome has rarely been reported. Here we report a patient with Sjogren's syndrome who presented with schizophrenia-like symptoms such as persecutory delusions and auditory hallucinations in contrast to her previous psychiatric presentations, which only included depression and anxiety. PMID:27042076

  5. Resting State Functional Connectivity in Patients with Chronic Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Iris E.; Clos, Mareike; Meijering, Anne Lotte; Diederen, Kelly M. J.; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2012-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are not only among the most common but also one of the most distressing symptoms of schizophrenia. Despite elaborate research, the underlying brain mechanisms are as yet elusive. Functional MRI studies have associated the experience of AVH with activation of bilateral language-related areas, in particular the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) and the left superior temporal gyrus (lSTG). While these findings helped to understand the neural underpinnings of hearing voices, they provide little information about possible brain mechanisms that predispose a person to experience AVH, i.e. the traits to hallucinate. In this study, we compared resting state connectivity between 49 psychotic patients with chronic AVH and 49 matched controls using the rIFG and the lSTG as seed regions, to identify functional brain systems underlying the predisposition to hallucinate. The right parahippocampal gyrus showed increased connectivity with the rIFG in patients as compared to controls. Reduced connectivity with the rIFG in patients was found for the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Reduced connectivity with the lSTG in patients was identified in the left frontal operculum as well as the parietal opercular area. Connectivity between the lSTG and the left hippocampus was also reduced in patients and showed a negative correlation with the severity of hallucinations. Concluding, we found aberrant connectivity between the seed regions and medial temporal lobe structures which have a prominent role in memory retrieval. Moreover, we found decreased connectivity between language-related areas, indicating aberrant integration in this system potentially including corollary discharge mechanisms. PMID:22970130

  6. Neurophysiological indices of atypical auditory processing and multisensory integration are associated with symptom severity in autism

    PubMed Central

    Brandwein, A.B.; Foxe, J.J.; Butler, J.S.; Frey, H.P.; Bates, J.C.; Shulman, L.; Molholm, S.

    2014-01-01

    Atypical processing and integration of sensory inputs are hypothesized to play a role in unusual sensory reactions and social-cognitive deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reports on the relationship between objective metrics of sensory processing and clinical symptoms, however, are surprisingly sparse. Here we examined the relationship between neurophysiological assays of sensory processing and 1) autism severity and 2) sensory sensitivities, in individuals with ASD aged 6–17. Multiple linear regression indicated significant associations between neural markers of auditory processing and multisensory integration, and autism severity. No such relationships were apparent for clinical measures of visual/auditory sensitivities. These data support that aberrant early sensory processing contributes to autism symptoms, and reveal the potential of electrophysiology to objectively subtype autism. PMID:25245785

  7. Musical hallucinations in schizophrenia. 2. Relations with verbal hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Baba, Akira; Hamada, Hidemichi; Kocha, Hiroki

    2003-01-01

    The musical hallucinations reported by 33 schizophrenics who fulfilled ICD-10 diagnostic criteria were assessed semiologically. The subjects were 24 men and 9 women. The duration of 48 episodes of musical hallucinations varied. They occurred at all times during the course of schizophrenia, and 9 of them (18.8%) occurred before the diagnosis was made. All of the episodes could be divided into three stages: 17 (35.4%) were first stage, close to obsession, 5 (10.4%) were second stage, close to Schneiderian first-rank symptoms, and 26 (54.2%) were third stage, which is the autochthonous experience. The sounds were in a subjective space in 38 episodes and in the majority of cases, their content was familiar. The second stage was associated with xenopathic experience ("gemachtes Erlebnis") and audition of thought, and words were added to melodies that normally had no lyrics. Musical hallucinations in schizophrenia are pseudohallucinations that originate in memory representations, and they may undergo a transition to true hallucinations. The authors think that the three stages are related to the severity of the disease. PMID:12766321

  8. Clinical Significance of Auditory Target P300 Subcomponents in Psychosis: Differential Diagnosis, Symptom Profiles, and Course

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Greg; Foti, Dan; Jackson, Felicia; Kotov, Roman; Constantino, Eduardo; Hajcak, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Background Reduced auditory target P300 amplitude is a leading biomarker for psychotic disorders, although its relevance for differential diagnosis and link to specific clinical features (symptom profiles, functional impairment, and course) is unclear. This study aims to clarify the clinical significance of auditory target P300 using concurrent and retrospective clinical data from a longitudinal cohort with psychosis. Methods 92 cases from an epidemiological study of first-admission psychosis were assessed using an auditory oddball paradigm at 15-year follow-up along with 44 never-psychotic adults. Subcomponents of auditory target P300 amplitude (i.e., a central positive P3a, a parietal positive P3b, and a frontal negative slow wave) were isolated using temporal-spatial principal components analysis. Results P3a amplitude was blunted across psychotic disorders relative to non-psychotic adults. P3b amplitude was reduced in schizophrenia specifically, including cases initially misclassified at baseline. The frontal negative slow wave did not distinguish among groups. P3b amplitude reduction was associated with several clinical features at the concurrent assessment, as well as previous time points, including recovery from psychosis even 5 years earlier and functioning even 15 years earlier. Conclusions Auditory target P300 amplitude yields both a schizophrenia-specific component (i.e., P3b) and a transdiagnostic psychosis component (i.e., P3a). The P3b component may also shed light on prognosis, real-world functioning, and course, as well as help to reduce misdiagnosis of psychotic disorders. Prospective studies are needed to test whether P3b tracks or predicts clinical status. PMID:25934167

  9. Musical hallucinations treated with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Blom, Jan Dirk; Coebergh, Jan Adriaan F; Lauw, René; Sommer, Iris E C

    2015-01-01

    Musical hallucinations are relatively rare auditory percepts which, due to their intrusive nature and the accompanying fear of impending mental decline, tend to cause significant distress and impairment. Although their etiology and pathophysiology appear to be heterogeneous and no evidence-based treatment methods are available, case reports indicate that acetylcholinesterase inhibitors may yield positive results in patients with comorbid hearing loss. We present two female patients (aged 76 and 78 years) both of whom suffered from hearing impairment and practically incessant musical hallucinations. Both patients were successfully treated with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor rivastigmine. Based on these two case descriptions and an overview of studies describing the use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in similar patients, we discuss possible mechanisms and propose further research on the use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for musical hallucinations experienced in concordance with hearing loss. PMID:25904872

  10. Musical Hallucinations Treated with Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Blom, Jan Dirk; Coebergh, Jan Adriaan F.; Lauw, René; Sommer, Iris E. C.

    2015-01-01

    Musical hallucinations are relatively rare auditory percepts which, due to their intrusive nature and the accompanying fear of impending mental decline, tend to cause significant distress and impairment. Although their etiology and pathophysiology appear to be heterogeneous and no evidence-based treatment methods are available, case reports indicate that acetylcholinesterase inhibitors may yield positive results in patients with comorbid hearing loss. We present two female patients (aged 76 and 78 years) both of whom suffered from hearing impairment and practically incessant musical hallucinations. Both patients were successfully treated with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor rivastigmine. Based on these two case descriptions and an overview of studies describing the use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in similar patients, we discuss possible mechanisms and propose further research on the use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for musical hallucinations experienced in concordance with hearing loss. PMID:25904872

  11. Quetiapine for hypnogogic musical release hallucinations.

    PubMed

    David, R R; Fernandez, H H

    2000-01-01

    Musical release hallucinations are complex auditory phenomena, affecting mostly the deaf geriatric population, in which individuals hear vocal or instrumental music. Progressive hearing loss from otosclerosis disrupts the usual external sensory stimuli necessary to inhibit the emergence of memory traces within the brain, thereby "releasing" previously recorded perceptions. Responses to conventional antipsychotic agents have been variable and extrapyramidal and other side effects have limited their use. We report the first case of hypnogogic release hallucinations successfully treated with the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine. The patient is an 88-year-old woman with progressive deafness who complained of hearing the piano, drums, or a full orchestra every time she was about to fall asleep. She accused her neighbor of hosting loud parties. Physical, neurologic, and psychiatric examination and work-up were unremarkable. She was treated with low-dose quetiapine affording near total resolution of hallucinations without adverse effects. PMID:11128061

  12. [Musical pseudo-hallucination in acquired hearing loss].

    PubMed

    Klostermann, W; Vieregge, P; Kömpf, D

    1992-07-01

    Auditory hallucinations take various forms including the perception of tinnitus, voices, and, rarely, music. While formed hallucinations are usually ascribed to psychiatric illness, we describe a syndrome of musical hallucinations in mentally sane patients, who are hard of hearing or deaf. 26 cases from the literature are supplemented by 6 own observations, including the first description of two cases in a single family. The different modes of emergence, the spectrum of clinical features and their course are outlined. Differential diagnostic, pathogenetic and therapeutic aspects are discussed. PMID:1500041

  13. Atypical behavioral and psychiatric symptoms: Neurosyphilis should always be considered.

    PubMed

    Crozatti, Lucas Lonardoni; de Brito, Marcelo Houat; Lopes, Beatriz Noele Azevedo; de Campos, Fernando Peixoto Ferraz

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis still remains a major health concern worldwide because of the possibility of serious medical and psychological consequences, long-term disability, and death. Neurosyphilis (NS) may occur at any stage of infection. Its clinical presentation has been changing over recent years including- psychiatric and neurocognitive symptoms. Several recent studies have described cases with these symptoms as the principal signs of NS. We present the case of neurosyphilis with a psychiatric presentation characterized by mood disturbance and auditory and visual hallucinations. PMID:26558247

  14. Effect of complex treatment using visual and auditory stimuli on the symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mi-Sook; Byun, Ki-Won; Park, Yong-Kyung; Kim, Mi-Han; Jung, Sung-Hwa; Kim, Hong

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of complex treatment using visual and auditory stimuli on the symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Forty-seven male children (7–13 yr old), who were clinically diagnosed with ADHD at the Balance Brain Center in Seoul, Korea, were included in this study. The complex treatment consisted of visual and auditory stimuli, core muscle exercise, targeting ball exercise, ocular motor exercise, and visual motor integration. All subjects completed the complex treatment for 60 min/day, 2–3 times/week for more than 12 weeks. Data regarding visual and auditory reaction time and cognitive function were obtained using the Neurosync program, Stroop Color-Word Test, and test of nonverbal intelligence (TONI) at pre- and post-treatment. The complex treatment significantly decreased the total reaction time, while it increased the number of combo actions on visual and auditory stimuli (P< 0.05). The Stroop color, word, and color-word scores were significantly increased at post-treatment compared to the scores at pretreatment (P< 0.05). There was no significant change in the TONI scores, although a tendency toward an increase in these scores was observed. In conclusion, complex treatment using visual and auditory stimuli alleviated the symptoms of ADHD and improved cognitive function in children. In addition, visual and auditory function might be possible indicators for demonstrating effective ADHD intervention. PMID:24278878

  15. Effect of complex treatment using visual and auditory stimuli on the symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Sook; Byun, Ki-Won; Park, Yong-Kyung; Kim, Mi-Han; Jung, Sung-Hwa; Kim, Hong

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the effects of complex treatment using visual and auditory stimuli on the symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Forty-seven male children (7-13 yr old), who were clinically diagnosed with ADHD at the Balance Brain Center in Seoul, Korea, were included in this study. The complex treatment consisted of visual and auditory stimuli, core muscle exercise, targeting ball exercise, ocular motor exercise, and visual motor integration. All subjects completed the complex treatment for 60 min/day, 2-3 times/week for more than 12 weeks. Data regarding visual and auditory reaction time and cognitive function were obtained using the Neurosync program, Stroop Color-Word Test, and test of nonverbal intelligence (TONI) at pre- and post-treatment. The complex treatment significantly decreased the total reaction time, while it increased the number of combo actions on visual and auditory stimuli (P< 0.05). The Stroop color, word, and color-word scores were significantly increased at post-treatment compared to the scores at pretreatment (P< 0.05). There was no significant change in the TONI scores, although a tendency toward an increase in these scores was observed. In conclusion, complex treatment using visual and auditory stimuli alleviated the symptoms of ADHD and improved cognitive function in children. In addition, visual and auditory function might be possible indicators for demonstrating effective ADHD intervention. PMID:24278878

  16. Education about Hallucinations Using an Internet Virtual Reality System: A Qualitative Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yellowlees, Peter M.; Cook, James N.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluate an Internet virtual reality technology as an education tool about the hallucinations of psychosis. Method: This is a pilot project using Second Life, an Internet-based virtual reality system, in which a virtual reality environment was constructed to simulate the auditory and visual hallucinations of two patients…

  17. Behavioral interventions for alleviating psychotic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, P W; Storzbach, D M

    1993-04-01

    Behavioral interventions can augment the effects of antipsychotic medication in alleviating hallucinations, delusions, and conceptual disorganization. Such interventions may be based on operant conditioning and reinforcement strategies and on training in coping skills. Reinforcement strategies have been used to decrease the rate of confused speech, delusional talk, and other psychotic behaviors, but they appear to have little effect on the subjective distress patients experience as a result of such symptoms. Strategies that teach patients skills for coping with psychotic symptoms include cognitive reframing methods, nonconfrontational methods that help patients find alternative explanations for delusions, and use of humming to interfere with subvocal movements of the larynx muscles, which may be related to auditory hallucinations. The authors review studies of the effectiveness of these interventions and suggest an approach integrating reinforcement and training in coping skills that may help reduce psychotic symptoms. PMID:8096490

  18. Metacognitions in patients with hallucinations and obsessive-compulsive disorder: the superstition factor.

    PubMed

    García-Montes, José M; Pérez-Alvarez, Marino; Soto Balbuena, Cristina; Perona Garcelán, Salvador; Cangas, Adolfo J

    2006-08-01

    On the basis of the analogy between intrusive thoughts and auditory hallucinations established by Morrison et al. [(1995). Intrusive thoughts and auditory hallucinations: a cognitive approach. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23, 265-280], the present work compares the metacognitive beliefs and processes of five groups of patients (current hallucinators, never-hallucinated people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, recovered hallucinators, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, and a clinical control group) and a non-clinical group. The results show that of the five metacognitive factors considered in this study, two were found to be different in the current hallucinators group in comparison to any other group in the design. Likewise, it is found that the metacognitive beliefs of the current hallucinators coincide with those of the OCD patients in various factors, particularly that relating to superstition, and this is interpreted as lending support to the model of Morrison et al. (1995). Furthermore, the results are discussed in the light of existing research on Thought-Action Fusion, stressing the role that may be played by superstitious beliefs and magical thinking in auditory hallucinations and OCD. PMID:16212934

  19. Musical hallucinations and forgotten tunes - case report and brief literature review.

    PubMed

    Vitorovic, Danilo; Biller, José

    2013-01-01

    Musical hallucinations represent a specific form of auditory hallucinations whereby patients experience formed music without an external source. We describe a 60-year-old woman with history of bilateral hearing impairment and tinnitus who experienced both recognizable and non-recognizable songs. Curiously, she was able to reproduce non-recognizable songs in a way that could be recognized by others. This phenomenon is in line with current understanding that musical hallucinations represent abnormal activity in the auditory associative cortices, raising intriguing questions regarding memory, forgetting, and access to lost memories. PMID:23964264

  20. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and psychosis: Epidemiological evidence from a population survey in England.

    PubMed

    Marwaha, Steven; Thompson, Andrew; Bebbington, Paul; Singh, Swaran P; Freeman, Daniel; Winsper, Catherine; Broome, Matthew R

    2015-09-30

    Despite both having some shared features, evidence linking psychosis and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is sparse and inconsistent. Hypotheses tested were (1) adult ADHD symptoms are associated with auditory hallucinations, paranoid ideation and psychosis (2) links between ADHD symptoms and psychosis are mediated by prescribed ADHD medications, use of illicit drugs, and dysphoric mood. The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N=7403) provided data for regression and multiple mediation analyses. ADHD symptoms were coded from the ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Higher ASRS total score was significantly associated with psychosis, paranoid ideation and auditory hallucinations despite controlling for socio-demographic variables, verbal IQ, autism spectrum disorder traits, childhood conduct problems, hypomanic and dysphoric mood. An ASRS score indicating probable ADHD diagnosis was also significantly associated with psychosis. The link between higher ADHD symptoms and psychosis, paranoia and auditory hallucinations was significantly mediated by dysphoric mood, but not by use of amphetamine, cocaine or cannabis. In conclusion, higher levels of adult ADHD symptoms and psychosis are linked and dysphoric mood may form part of the mechanism. Our analyses contradict the traditional clinical view that the main explanation for people with ADHD symptoms developing psychosis is illicit drugs. PMID:26235475

  1. Action simulation in hallucination-prone adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dahoun, Tarik; Eliez, Stephan; Chen, Fei; Badoud, Deborah; Schneider, Maude; Larøi, Frank; Debbane, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical accounts suggest that impairments in self-other discrimination processes are likely to promote the expression of hallucinations. Studies using a variety of paradigms involving self-performed actions argue in favor of perspective taking confusion in hallucination-prone subjects. However, our understanding of such processes during adolescence is still at an early stage. The present study thus aims (1) to delineate the neural correlates sustaining mental simulation of actions involving self-performed actions (first-person perspective; 1PP) and other-performed actions (third-person perspective; 3PP) during adolescence (2) to identify atypical activation patterns during 1PP/3PP mental simulation of actions in hallucination-prone adolescents (3) to examine whether differential risk for schizophrenia (clinical vs. genetic) is also associated with differential impairments in the 1PP/3PP mental simulation of actions during adolescence. Twenty-two typically developing controls (Control group; 6 females), 12 hallucination-prone adolescents [auditory hallucination (AH) group; 7 females] and 13 adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS group; 4 females) were included in the study. During the fMRI task, subjects were presented with a cue (self-other priming cues) indicating to perform the task using either a first person perspective (“you”-1PP) or a third person perspective (“best friend”-3PP) and then they were asked to mentally simulate actions based on the type of cue. Hallucination-proneness was assessed using a self-report questionnaire [Cardiff Anomalous Perception Scale (CAPS)]. Our results indicated that atypical patterns of cerebral activation, particularly in the key areas of self-other distinction, were found in both groups at risk for auditory hallucinations (AHs and 22q11.2DS). More precisely, adolescents in the AH group presented decreased activations in the right middle occipital gyrus BA19, left cingulate gyrus BA31

  2. Do specific early-life adversities lead to specific symptoms of psychosis? A study from the 2007 the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey.

    PubMed

    Bentall, Richard P; Wickham, Sophie; Shevlin, Mark; Varese, Filippo

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have reported associations between childhood adversities, eg, loss of a parent, being raised in institutional care, sexual and other kinds of abuse by adults and bullying by peers, and psychosis in adulthood. However, the mechanisms by which these adversities lead to psychotic experiences are poorly understood. From models of the psychological processes involved in positive symptoms, it was predicted that childhood sexual abuse would be specifically associated with auditory hallucinations in adulthood, and that disruption of early attachment relations and more chronic forms of victimization such as bullying would be specifically associated with paranoid ideation. We therefore examined the associations between sexual trauma, physical abuse, bullying, and being brought up in institutional or local authority care and reports of auditory hallucinations and paranoid beliefs in the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. All simple associations between childhood adversities and the two symptom types were significant. Childhood rape was associated only with hallucinations (OR 8.9, CI = 1.86-42.44) once co-occurring paranoia was controlled for. Being brought up in institutional care (OR = 11.08, CI = 3.26-37.62) was specifically associated with paranoia once comorbid hallucinations had been controlled for. For each symptom, dose-response relationships were observed between the number of childhood traumas and the risk of the symptom. The specific associations observed are consistent with current psychological theories about the origins of hallucinations and paranoia. Further research is required to study the psychological and biological mediators of these associations. PMID:22496540

  3. Studying Hallucinations Within the NIMH RDoC Framework

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Judith M.; Morris, Sarah E.; Hoffman, Ralph E.; Sommer, Iris; Waters, Flavie; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Thoma, Robert J.; Turner, Jessica A.; Keedy, Sarah K.; Badcock, Johanna C.; Cuthbert, Bruce N.

    2014-01-01

    We explore how hallucinations might be studied within the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework, which asks investigators to step back from diagnoses based on symptoms and focus on basic dimensions of functioning. We start with a description of the objectives of the RDoC project and its domains and constructs. Because the RDoC initiative asks investigators to study phenomena across the wellness spectrum and different diagnoses, we address whether hallucinations experienced in nonclinical populations are the same as those experienced by people with psychotic diagnoses, and whether hallucinations studied in one clinical group can inform our understanding of the same phenomenon in another. We then discuss the phenomenology of hallucinations and how different RDoC domains might be relevant to their study. We end with a discussion of various challenges and potential next steps to advance the application of the RDoC approach to this area of research. PMID:24847862

  4. Do musical hallucinations always arise from the inner ear?

    PubMed

    Gordon, A G

    1997-08-01

    It has been known for some time that musical hallucinations occur in deaf patients. This has been ignored, as it has been believed that neurological and psychiatric causes predominate. However, despite specific appeals, no one with musical hallucinations and a lesion in the brain but not in the ear has been produced. The postulated otological basis is a hyperactive state of the ear, a slight endolymphatic hydrops or pre-Meniere's disease. The hallucinations probably develop out of rhythmic tinnitus. A review of all the very disparate states and diseases supposedly causing musical hallucinations shows that peripheral ear symptoms are always present. It therefore seems that they always have the same simple otological trigger. PMID:9278923

  5. Hallucinations: Etiology and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Soren, Subhash; Chaudhury, Suprakash

    2009-01-01

    The literature on hallucinations is reviewed, including history; theoretical background from physiological, biochemical and psychological points of view; classification; causation; presentation in different psychiatric and neurological disorders and in normal persons. The available evidence suggests that hallucinations result from a failure of the metacognitive skills involved in discriminating between self-generated and external sources of information. Management of hallucinations is briefly discussed. PMID:21180490

  6. One patient with Sjogren’s syndrome presenting schizophrenia-like symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-En

    2016-01-01

    Comorbid depression in patients with Sjogren’s syndrome has been reported frequently, while comorbid psychosis in subjects with Sjogren’s syndrome has rarely been reported. Here we report a patient with Sjogren’s syndrome who presented with schizophrenia-like symptoms such as persecutory delusions and auditory hallucinations in contrast to her previous psychiatric presentations, which only included depression and anxiety. PMID:27042076

  7. Brief Report: Suboptimal Auditory Localization in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Support for the Bayesian Account of Sensory Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Skewes, Joshua C; Gebauer, Line

    2016-07-01

    Convergent research suggests that people with ASD have difficulties localizing sounds in space. These difficulties have implications for communication, the development of social behavior, and quality of life. Recently, a theory has emerged which treats perceptual symptoms in ASD as the product of impairments in implicit Bayesian inference; as suboptimalities in the integration of sensory evidence with prior perceptual knowledge. We present the results of an experiment that applies this new theory to understanding difficulties in auditory localization, and we find that adults with ASD integrate prior information less optimally when making perceptual judgments about the spatial sources of sounds. We discuss these results in terms of their implications for formal models of symptoms in ASD. PMID:27011323

  8. Treatment of Visual Hallucinations in Schizophrenia by Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Abad, Nazir Hashemi; Doulatabad, Najafi Shala; Mohammadi, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia and various neurological disorders have some signs and symptoms. Visual hallucinations are one of such disorders. The related studies in some diseases for example Parkinson Disease and Lewy Body Dementia indicate that Acetylcholine (Ach) plays a significant role in neuropsychiatric manifestation and its association with visual hallucination; therefore, visual hallucinations occur due to the depletion of Ach. Drug therapies such as Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) for increasing Ach level may be beneficial in treating visual hallucination. AchEI's have been used in the treatment of visual hallucinations in Dementia and Parkinson's Disease. We thought that a similar Ach depletion may cause visual hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia and may provide a target for drug treatment. We had a patient with schizophrenia whose psychotic symptoms responded to the treatment plan, but her visual hallucination did not. However, the patient's visual hallucination successfully responded to Rivastigmine (AchEI). This case illustrates the use of an AchEI in the treatment of refractory visual hallucinations in a patient with schizophrenia. PMID:22952543

  9. Atypical behavioral and psychiatric symptoms: Neurosyphilis should always be considered

    PubMed Central

    de Brito, Marcelo Houat; Lopes, Beatriz Noele Azevedo; de Campos, Fernando Peixoto Ferraz

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis still remains a major health concern worldwide because of the possibility of serious medical and psychological consequences, long-term disability, and death. Neurosyphilis (NS) may occur at any stage of infection. Its clinical presentation has been changing over recent years including­ psychiatric and neurocognitive symptoms. Several recent studies have described cases with these symptoms as the principal signs of NS. We present the case of neurosyphilis with a psychiatric presentation characterized by mood disturbance and auditory and visual hallucinations. PMID:26558247

  10. Auditory agnosia.

    PubMed

    Slevc, L Robert; Shell, Alison R

    2015-01-01

    Auditory agnosia refers to impairments in sound perception and identification despite intact hearing, cognitive functioning, and language abilities (reading, writing, and speaking). Auditory agnosia can be general, affecting all types of sound perception, or can be (relatively) specific to a particular domain. Verbal auditory agnosia (also known as (pure) word deafness) refers to deficits specific to speech processing, environmental sound agnosia refers to difficulties confined to non-speech environmental sounds, and amusia refers to deficits confined to music. These deficits can be apperceptive, affecting basic perceptual processes, or associative, affecting the relation of a perceived auditory object to its meaning. This chapter discusses what is known about the behavioral symptoms and lesion correlates of these different types of auditory agnosia (focusing especially on verbal auditory agnosia), evidence for the role of a rapid temporal processing deficit in some aspects of auditory agnosia, and the few attempts to treat the perceptual deficits associated with auditory agnosia. A clear picture of auditory agnosia has been slow to emerge, hampered by the considerable heterogeneity in behavioral deficits, associated brain damage, and variable assessments across cases. Despite this lack of clarity, these striking deficits in complex sound processing continue to inform our understanding of auditory perception and cognition. PMID:25726291

  11. Minds on replay: musical hallucinations and their relationship to neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Golden, Erin C; Josephs, Keith A

    2015-12-01

    The phenomenon of musical hallucinations, in which individuals perceive music in the absence of an external auditory stimulus, has been described sparingly in the literature through small case reports and series. Musical hallucinations have been linked to multiple associated conditions, including psychiatric and neurologic disease, brain lesions, drug effect, and hearing impairment. This study aimed to review the demographics of subjects with musical hallucinations and to determine the prevalence of neurological disorders, particularly neurodegenerative disease. Through the Mayo medical record, 393 subjects with musical hallucinations were identified and divided into five categories based on comorbid conditions that have been associated with musical hallucinations: neurological, psychiatric, structural, drug effect and not otherwise classifiable. Variables, including hearing impairment and the presence of visual and other auditory hallucinations, were evaluated independently in all five groups. The mean age at onset of the hallucinations was 56 years, ranging from 18 to 98 years, and 65.4% of the subjects were female. Neurological disease and focal brain lesions were found in 25% and 9% of the total subjects, respectively. Sixty-five subjects were identified with a neurodegenerative disorder, with the Lewy body disorders being the most common. Visual hallucinations were more common in the group with neurological disease compared to the psychiatric, structural, and not otherwise classifiable groups (P < 0.001), whereas auditory hallucinations were more common in the psychiatric group compared to all other groups (P < 0.001). Structural lesions associated with musical hallucinations involved both hemispheres with a preference towards the left, and all but two included the temporal lobe. Hearing impairment was common, particularly in the not otherwise classifiable category where 67.2% had documented hearing impairment, more than in any other group (P < 0.001). Those

  12. Psychosis and Hallucinations in FTD with C9ORF72 mutation: A detailed clinical cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kertesz, Andrew; Ang, Lee Cyn; Jesso, Sarah; MacKinley, Julia; Baker, Matt; Brown, Patricia; Shoesmith, Christen; Rademakers, Rosa; Finger, Elizabeth C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe in detail the presenting symptoms and clinical course of a cohort of patients with Frontotemporal dementia and the recently described C9ORF72 repeat expansion. BACKGROUND Recent discovery of the C9ORF72 repeat expansion linked to familial frontotemporal dementia and ALS has permitted retrospective evaluation of potential defining clinical characteristics that may distinguish C9ORF72 mutation carriers from other patients with FTD. Prior reports have identified a subset of patients with an increased incidence of psychosis, specifically delusions, though the detailed nature of these symptoms is not yet well described. METHODS We conducted a retrospective chart review of to report the detailed case histories of 7 patients with C9ORF72 mutations from a cohort of 61 patients with FTD. Results Detailed histories available from these patients reveal an increased incidence of psychosis, including visual and auditory hallucinations and delusions compared to sporadic FTD patients in our cohort. CONCLUSIONS This cohort confirms and adds symptom-related details to prior reports of increased incidence of psychotic phenomenon in FTD and ALS patients with C9ORF72 mutations, to enhance future clinical identification and diagnosis of patients presenting with these symptoms. PMID:24077574

  13. A case of right cerebellopontine-angle lesion: psychotic symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Jung, Min Soo; Lee, Byung Dae; Park, Je Min; Lee, Young Min; Moon, Eun Soo

    2012-09-01

    Here, we report psychotic symptoms together with a right cerebellopontine-angle lesion. A37-year-old female patient presented with a trigeminal Schwannoma occupying the right cerebellopontine angle. Her psychotic symptoms included auditory hallucinations and delusions of persecution. T1- and T2-weighted images on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hyperintense and hypointense areas in the right cerebellopontine angle, respectively. The clinical and neuroimaging reviews in this case suggest that sudden onset of psychotic symptoms at a mature age may be associated with a right cerebellopontine-angle lesion and that MRI should be used to evaluate possible organic bases in patients that present with psychosis. PMID:22993532

  14. A Case of Right Cerebellopontine-Angle Lesion: Psychotic Symptoms and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Min Soo; Park, Je Min; Lee, Young Min; Moon, Eun Soo

    2012-01-01

    Here, we report psychotic symptoms together with a right cerebellopontine-angle lesion. A37-year-old female patient presented with a trigeminal Schwannoma occupying the right cerebellopontine angle. Her psychotic symptoms included auditory hallucinations and delusions of persecution. T1- and T2-weighted images on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hyperintense and hypointense areas in the right cerebellopontine angle, respectively. The clinical and neuroimaging reviews in this case suggest that sudden onset of psychotic symptoms at a mature age may be associated with a right cerebellopontine-angle lesion and that MRI should be used to evaluate possible organic bases in patients that present with psychosis. PMID:22993532

  15. Relations of symptoms to cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Strauss, M E

    1993-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by a variety of cognitive dysfunctions. Information-processing dysfunctions differ between clinical subtypes such that nonparanoid schizophrenia patients attend less than paranoid schizophrenia patients to connotative or contextual aspects of stimuli. The positive and negative symptom dimensions are also associated with distinct cognitive deficits. In general, positive symptoms are related to auditory-processing deficits and negative symptoms to visual/motor dysfunctions. The interaction of frontal and septohippocampal brain systems, and failures of information-processing automaticity and self-monitoring, have been proposed as the bases of positive symptoms. Negative symptoms are thought to arise from abnormalities in the complex interactions of frontal and striatal systems. Recent theoretical analyses have recommended a focus on the cognitive and neuropsychological analysis of specific symptoms (e.g., hallucinations and delusions) instead of on the more heterogeneous symptom clusters or dimensions. Studies of specific symptoms indicate that patients with hallucinations have deficits in discriminating the source of information. Delusions have been related to abnormal inference processes as well as abnormal perceptual experiences. Studies should now examine the links between information-processing abnormalities and symptoms over time, as the latter change, within the framework of explicit, disconfirmable theoretical models. PMID:8322033

  16. Hallucinations in the classical Indian system of Ayurveda: A brief overview.

    PubMed

    Balsavar, Anuradha; Deshpande, Smita N

    2014-10-01

    The ancient Indian system of medicine "Ayurveda" is a compendium of various health related theories and practices and explained the abnormal state of mind, i.e., psychopathology in various contexts. Hallucinations were deemed abnormal. In Ayurvedic classics, hallucinations were called false perceptions (mithyajnana), illusions (maya), infatuations (moha), or confusion (bhrama). Hallucinations were not independent but a symptom of mental disorder (manasa roga). Hallucinations of different sensory organs were observed and explained. These symptoms could be observed in patients suffering from any illness of tridosha origin, organic disease or psychiatric disorder. False perceptions observed in patients were used as tools to understand the prognosis of the condition. This article may help provide preliminary insight and encourage interdisciplinary study toward understanding one of the main symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:25568471

  17. Hallucinations in the classical Indian system of Ayurveda: A brief overview

    PubMed Central

    Balsavar, Anuradha; Deshpande, Smita N.

    2014-01-01

    The ancient Indian system of medicine “Ayurveda” is a compendium of various health related theories and practices and explained the abnormal state of mind, i.e., psychopathology in various contexts. Hallucinations were deemed abnormal. In Ayurvedic classics, hallucinations were called false perceptions (mithyajnana), illusions (maya), infatuations (moha), or confusion (bhrama). Hallucinations were not independent but a symptom of mental disorder (manasa roga). Hallucinations of different sensory organs were observed and explained. These symptoms could be observed in patients suffering from any illness of tridosha origin, organic disease or psychiatric disorder. False perceptions observed in patients were used as tools to understand the prognosis of the condition. This article may help provide preliminary insight and encourage interdisciplinary study toward understanding one of the main symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:25568471

  18. Neurophysiological Indices of Atypical Auditory Processing and Multisensory Integration Are Associated with Symptom Severity in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandwein, Alice B.; Foxe, John J.; Butler, John S.; Frey, Hans-Peter; Bates, Juliana C.; Shulman, Lisa H.; Molholm, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Atypical processing and integration of sensory inputs are hypothesized to play a role in unusual sensory reactions and social-cognitive deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reports on the relationship between objective metrics of sensory processing and clinical symptoms, however, are surprisingly sparse. Here we examined the relationship…

  19. The Perceptual Characteristics of Voice-Hallucinations in Deaf People: Insights into the Nature of Subvocal Thought and Sensory Feedback Loops

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Joanna R.

    2006-01-01

    The study of voice-hallucinations in deaf individuals, who exploit the visuomotor rather than auditory modality for communication, provides rare insight into the relationship between sensory experience and how “voices” are perceived. Relatively little is known about the perceptual characteristics of voice-hallucinations in congenitally deaf people who use lip-reading or sign language as their preferred means of communication. The existing literature on hallucinations in deaf people is reviewed, alongside consideration of how such phenomena may fit into explanatory subvocal articulation hypotheses proposed for auditory verbal hallucinations in hearing people. It is suggested that a failure in subvocal articulation processes may account for voice-hallucinations in both hearing and deaf people but that the distinct way in which hallucinations are experienced may be due to differences in a sensory feedback component, which is influenced by both auditory deprivation and language modality. This article highlights how the study of deaf people may inform wider understanding of auditory verbal hallucinations and subvocal processes generally. PMID:16510696

  20. Complex visual hallucinations in the hemianopic field.

    PubMed Central

    Kölmel, H W

    1985-01-01

    From 120 patients with an homonymous hemianopia 16 experienced complex visual hallucinations in the hemianopic field. The brain lesion was located in the occipital lobe, though damage was not limited to this area. Complex hallucinations appeared after a latent period. They were weak in colour and stereotypical in appearance, which allowed differentiation from visual hallucinations of other causes. Different behaviour after saccadic eye movement differentiated between complex visual hallucinations in the hemianopic field and visual auras of an epileptic origin. PMID:3973619

  1. Misperceiving facial affect: effects of laterality and individual differences in susceptibility to visual hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Coy, Abbie L; Hutton, Samuel B

    2012-04-30

    It has been suggested that certain types of auditory hallucinations may be the by-product of a perceptual system that has evolved to be oversensitive to threat-related stimuli. People with schizophrenia and high schizotypes experience visual as well as auditory hallucinations, and have deficits in processing facial emotions. We sought to determine the relationship between visual hallucination proneness and the tendency to misattribute threat and non-threat related emotions to neutral faces. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing visual hallucination proneness (the Revised Visual Hallucination Scale - RVHS). High scoring individuals (N=64) were compared to low scoring individuals (N=72) on a novel emotion detection task. The high RVHS group made more false positive errors (ascribing emotions to neutral faces) than the low RVHS group, particularly when detecting threat-related emotions. All participants made more false positives when neutral faces were presented to the right visual field than to the left visual field. Our results support continuum models of visual hallucinatory experience in which tolerance for false positives is highest for potentially threatening emotional stimuli and suggest that lateral asymmetries in face processing extend to the misperception of facial emotion. PMID:22382049

  2. Hallucinations and psychosis in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rabey, Josè Martin

    2009-12-01

    Although Parkinson's disease (PD) is considered mainly a movement disorder, robust information accumulated during the last 30 years has shown that about 30% of PD patients may also suffer from psychosis, which deeply affects their quality of life and eventually brings them to permanent hospitalization in nursing homes. PD psychosis (PDPsy) mainly occurs after 10 or more years of treatment. The main features of PDPsy include recurrent and continuous hallucinations and delusions for at least 1 month. In addition, a recent consensus of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and National Institute of Mental Health Working Group also included illusions and a false sense of presence as "minor symptoms" supporting the diagnosis. In addition, accumulated clinical data have shown that "minor symptoms" and benign hallucinations also imply a bad prognosis with time. In the diagnostic criteria for PDPsy, it is considered that patients suffer from PD for at least more than 1 year before psychosis develops. If this is not the case, there is an unsolved problem of an overlapping diagnosis with Dementia with Lewy Bodies. Most clinicians consider that the main cause of psychosis is chronic exposure to dopaminergic medication. However, from an operational point of view there remain difficulties in defining a specific time of exposure and dose of treatment and the occurrence of PDPsy. Specific rating scales have been developed for the evaluation of PDPsy, such as the Parkinson Psychosis Rating Scale. The Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms usually applied in schizophrenic patients has also proved useful for scoring psychotic symptomatology in PD. Clozapine in low doses has been proven to be the most effective antipsychotic medication for PDPsy. However, its use may cause neutropenia. Therefore, new atypical antipsychotic drugs with serotonin 5-HT2A receptor inverse agonist properties have been developed. Recently, pimavanserin--a 5-HT2A inverse agonist

  3. New onset multimodal hallucinations associated with mirtazapine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Padala, Kalpana P; Padala, Prasad R; Malloy, Timothy; Burke, William J

    2010-08-01

    Mirtazapine, a commonly used antidepressant, has a relatively safe side effect profile and is commonly used in the elderly for treatment of depression. It has been proposed as being particularly suitable for patients with depression associated with insomnia and weight loss. Although mental status changes and perceptual abnormalities secondary to its use are rare, special care needs to be taken, especially while starting treatment or while increasing the dose. We report three cases of auditory, musical and visual hallucinations associated with the use of mirtazapine. PMID:20500925

  4. Do Specific Early-Life Adversities Lead to Specific Symptoms of Psychosis? A Study from the 2007 The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bentall, Richard P.; Wickham, Sophie; Shevlin, Mark; Varese, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported associations between childhood adversities, eg, loss of a parent, being raised in institutional care, sexual and other kinds of abuse by adults and bullying by peers, and psychosis in adulthood. However, the mechanisms by which these adversities lead to psychotic experiences are poorly understood. From models of the psychological processes involved in positive symptoms, it was predicted that childhood sexual abuse would be specifically associated with auditory hallucinations in adulthood, and that disruption of early attachment relations and more chronic forms of victimization such as bullying would be specifically associated with paranoid ideation. We therefore examined the associations between sexual trauma, physical abuse, bullying, and being brought up in institutional or local authority care and reports of auditory hallucinations and paranoid beliefs in the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. All simple associations between childhood adversities and the two symptom types were significant. Childhood rape was associated only with hallucinations (OR 8.9, CI = 1.86–42.44) once co-occurring paranoia was controlled for. Being brought up in institutional care (OR = 11.08, CI = 3.26–37.62) was specifically associated with paranoia once comorbid hallucinations had been controlled for. For each symptom, dose-response relationships were observed between the number of childhood traumas and the risk of the symptom. The specific associations observed are consistent with current psychological theories about the origins of hallucinations and paranoia. Further research is required to study the psychological and biological mediators of these associations. PMID:22496540

  5. [A Clinical Case of Grief Hallucination through the Mourning Work Normal Grief and Spiritual Care].

    PubMed

    Kurotori, Isaku; Kato, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Auditory or visual hallucinations of a deceased person are well known in the normal course of the bereavement process. According to DSM-5, this symptom is included in the associated features supporting diagnosis of persistent complex bereavement disorder. In Japan, however, little is known about these hallucinatory experiences during grieving, and few reports on their prevalence are available. Here, we have reported a clinical case of such experiences following the loss of a spouse. A 66-year-old patient presented to the outpatient department with insomnia after her husband's death. She was preoccupied with a sense of loss and absolute loneliness. One day, she confessed to regularly encountering her husband's ghost at night; the ghost was distinguishable from a dream and provided the bereaved wife with some degree of comfort. The appearances lasted for 15 months and occurred several times a week without disturbing her social functioning. She gradually became aware that her husband was returning from the spirit world to give her solace. Her treatment was focused on resolving her conflicting feelings concerning her grief at his death and her relief at his no longer suffering from disease. While accepting her experiences, she started to review the days they spent together and appreciated his attachment. Therefore she completed the work of mourning and the ghost no longer appeared. One year after the departure of the ghost, she still attends the hospital regularly and there has been no recurrence. A reconstruction of her internal world leads us to conclude that the support of normal grief with such hallucinations prevents the intense experience of loss from generating pathological grief. Furthermore, we suggest reconsidering the importance of the mourning work and the inclusion of both the bereaved and deceased person in the medical context. PMID:26642726

  6. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

  7. Hallucination-like experiences in the nonclinical population.

    PubMed

    Vellante, Marcello; Larøi, Frank; Cella, Matteo; Raballo, Andrea; Petretto, Donatella Rita; Preti, Antonio

    2012-04-01

    Unusual subjective experiences are relatively common in the general population and have been associated with an increased level of vulnerability to psychosis. The current study aimed to a) determine the distribution of hallucination-like experiences (HLEs) in a community sample of young adults, b) investigate their dimensional subtypes, and c) test the association of HLEs with indicators of poor mental health. Four hundred thirty-seven participants (men, 41%) completed a battery of questionnaires including the 16-item Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale (LSHS), the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the 21-item Peters et al. Delusions Inventory (PDI). The LSHS correlated significantly with GHQ-12 and PDI. Individuals with higher levels of psychological distress were found to report higher frequencies of the HLEs compared with those in the reference range. Exploratory factor analysis of LSHS produced a four-factor solution: a) "auditory and visual HLEs," b) "multisensory HLEs," c) "intrusive thoughts," and d) "vivid daydreams." The current results provide further support for the multidimensional nature of hallucination proneness in the general population and indicate that some HLEs (particularly those related to intrusiveness of thought) are associated with a lower level of perceived well-being. PMID:22456584

  8. Psychiatric Symptoms in a Patient with Influenza A (H1N1) Treated with Oseltamivir (Tamiflu): A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sang Won; Han, Changsu

    2015-01-01

    Oseltamivir is the most common antiviral drug used to treat and prevent influenza. Epidemiological studies performed in Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom indicate that oseltamivir may cause psychiatric symptoms; however, the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. In South Korea, interest in oseltamivir has increased with the spread of the new influenza virus; however, no case report or investigation of psychiatric symptoms associated with the drug has been reported to date. Here, we report a case o0f a 22-year-old male who complained of mood swings, suicidal feelings, auditory hallucinations, memory deterioration, and insomnia after taking oseltamivir. PMID:26243850

  9. Psychosis in Parkinson's disease without dementia: common and comorbid with other non-motor symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lee, Angela H; Weintraub, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Psychosis in Parkinson's disease (PD) is common and associated with a range of negative outcomes. Dementia and psychosis are highly correlated in PD, but the frequency and correlates of psychosis in patients without cognitive impairment are not well understood. One hundred and ninety-one non-demented PD patients at two movement disorders centers participated in a study of neuropsychiatric complications in PD and completed a detailed neurological and neuropsychiatric assessment, including the rater-administered Parkinson Psychosis Rating Scale for hallucinations, delusions, and minor symptoms of psychosis (illusions and misidentification of persons). Psychotic symptoms were present in 21.5% of the sample. Visual hallucinations were most common (13.6%), followed by auditory hallucinations (6.8%), illusions or misidentification of people (7.3%), and paranoid ideation (4.7%). Visual hallucinations and illusions or misidentification of people were the most common comorbid symptoms (3.1%). Depression (P = 0.01) and rapid eye movement behavior disorder symptoms (P = 0.03) were associated with psychosis in a multivariable model. The odds of experiencing psychotic symptoms were approximately five times higher in patients with comorbid disorders of depression and sleep-wakefulness. Even in patients without global cognitive impairment, psychosis in PD is common and most highly correlated with other non-motor symptoms. Screening for psychosis should occur at all stages of PD as part of a broad non-motor assessment. In addition, these findings suggest a common neural substrate for disturbances of perception, mood, sleep-wakefulness, and incipient cognitive decline in PD. PMID:22674352

  10. The Pareidolia Test: A Simple Neuropsychological Test Measuring Visual Hallucination-Like Illusions

    PubMed Central

    Mamiya, Yasuyuki; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Yokoi, Kayoko; Uchiyama, Makoto; Baba, Toru; Iizuka, Osamu; Kanno, Shigenori; Kamimura, Naoto; Kazui, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Ikeda, Manabu; Takeshita, Chieko; Shimomura, Tatsuo; Mori, Etsuro

    2016-01-01

    Background Visual hallucinations are a core clinical feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and this symptom is important in the differential diagnosis and prediction of treatment response. The pareidolia test is a tool that evokes visual hallucination-like illusions, and these illusions may be a surrogate marker of visual hallucinations in DLB. We created a simplified version of the pareidolia test and examined its validity and reliability to establish the clinical utility of this test. Methods The pareidolia test was administered to 52 patients with DLB, 52 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and 20 healthy controls (HCs). We assessed the test-retest/inter-rater reliability using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and the concurrent validity using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) hallucinations score as a reference. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the pareidolia test to differentiate DLB from AD and HCs. Results The pareidolia test required approximately 15 minutes to administer, exhibited good test-retest/inter-rater reliability (ICC of 0.82), and moderately correlated with the NPI hallucinations score (rs = 0.42). Using an optimal cut-off score set according to the ROC analysis, and the pareidolia test differentiated DLB from AD with a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 92%. Conclusions Our study suggests that the simplified version of the pareidolia test is a valid and reliable surrogate marker of visual hallucinations in DLB. PMID:27171377

  11. Are Hallucinations Due to an Imbalance Between Excitatory and Inhibitory Influences on the Brain?

    PubMed

    Jardri, Renaud; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Hughes, Matthew; Brunelin, Jérôme; Waters, Flavie; Alderson-Day, Ben; Smailes, Dave; Sterzer, Philipp; Corlett, Philip R; Leptourgos, Pantelis; Debbané, Martin; Cachia, Arnaud; Denève, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    This review from the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research intends to question the pertinence of the excitatory-to-inhibitory (E/I) imbalance hypothesis as a model for hallucinations. A large number of studies suggest that subtle impairments of the E/I balance are involved in neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia. Emerging evidence also points to a role of the E/I balance in maintaining stable perceptual representations, suggesting it may be a plausible model for hallucinations. In support, hallucinations have been linked to inhibitory deficits as shown with impairment of gamma-aminobutyric acid transmission, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor plasticity, reductions in gamma-frequency oscillations, hyperactivity in sensory cortices, and cognitive inhibition deficits. However, the mechanisms by which E/I dysfunctions at the cellular level might relate to clinical symptoms and cognitive deficits remain unclear. Given recent data advances in the field of clinical neuroscience, it is now possible to conduct a synthesis of available data specifically related to hallucinations. These findings are integrated with the latest computational frameworks of hallucinations, and recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:27261492

  12. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors (AChEI's) for the treatment of visual hallucinations in schizophrenia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Visual hallucinations are commonly seen in various neurological and psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Current models of visual processing and studies in diseases including Parkinsons Disease and Lewy Body Dementia propose that Acetylcholine (Ach) plays a pivotal role in our ability to accurately interpret visual stimuli. Depletion of Ach is thought to be associated with visual hallucination generation. AchEI's have been used in the targeted treatment of visual hallucinations in dementia and Parkinson's Disease patients. In Schizophrenia, it is thought that a similar Ach depletion leads to visual hallucinations and may provide a target for drug treatment Case Presentation We present a case of a patient with Schizophrenia presenting with treatment resistant and significantly distressing visual hallucinations. After optimising treatment for schizophrenia we used Rivastigmine, an AchEI, as an adjunct to treat her symptoms successfully. Conclusions This case is the first to illustrate this novel use of an AchEI in the targeted treatment of visual hallucinations in a patient with Schizophrenia. Targeted therapy of this kind can be considered in challenging cases although more evidence is required in this field. PMID:20822516

  13. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Posterior Cortical Atrophy and Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Crutch, Sebastian J.; Franco-Macías, Emilio; Gil-Néciga, Eulogio

    2016-01-01

    Background: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a rare neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by early progressive visual dysfunction in the context of relative preservation of memory and a pattern of atrophy mainly involving the posterior cortex. The aim of the present study is to characterize the neuropsychiatric profile of PCA. Methods: The Neuropsychiatric Inventory was used to assess 12 neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in 28 patients with PCA and 34 patients with typical Alzheimer disease (AD) matched by age, disease duration, and illness severity. Results: The most commonly reported NPS in both groups were depression, anxiety, apathy, and irritability. However, aside from a trend toward lower rates of apathy in patients with PCA, there were no differences in the percentage of NPS presented in each group. All those patients presenting visual hallucinations in the PCA group also met diagnostic criteria for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Auditory hallucinations were only present in patients meeting diagnosis criteria for DLB. Conclusion: Prevalence of the 12 NPS examined was similar between patients with PCA and AD. Hallucinations in PCA may be helpful in the differential diagnosis between PCA-AD and PCA-DLB. PMID:26404166

  14. Hallucinations

    MedlinePlus

    ... high, or coming down from such drugs like marijuana , LSD , cocaine (including crack), PCP, amphetamines, heroin, ketamine, ... do a physical examination and take a medical history. They will also ask you questions about your ...

  15. Hallucinations

    MedlinePlus

    ... and the elderly Narcolepsy Mental disorders, such as schizophrenia and psychotic depression Sensory problem, such as blindness ... Freudenriech O, Weiss AP, Goff DC. Psychosis and schizophrenia. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum JF, Fava M, Biederman ...

  16. Hallucinations and sleep disorders in PD

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Christopher G.; Ouyang, Bichun; Negron, Alice; Stebbins, Glenn T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess prospectively progression and relationship of hallucinations and sleep disorders over a 10-year longitudinal study of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: Eighty-nine patients with PD were recruited to fill cells of normal sleep without hallucinations (n = 20), sleep fragmentation only (n = 20), vivid dreams/nightmares (n = 20), hallucinations with insight (n = 20), and hallucinations without insight (n = 9). At baseline, 0.5, 1.5, 4, 6, and 10 years, sleep disorders and hallucinations were assessed by standardized scales with the longitudinal data analyzed by generalized estimating equations with assumptions of linearity in time. Results: At 10 years, we could account for all subjects (27 interviewed, 61 deceased, and 1 too ill for interview). Hallucination prevalence and severity increased over time (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0001). Acting out dreams also increased over time (p = 0.001). In contrast, presence of vivid dreams/nightmares or sleep fragmentation did not increase over time. For all visits, the prevalence of sleep fragmentation did not differ between subjects with vs without hallucinations (odds ratio [OR] = 1.50, p = 0.09). However, severe sleep fragmentation was associated with concurrent hallucinations (OR 2.01, p = 0.006). The presence of hallucinations was also highly associated with concurrent vivid dreams/nightmares (OR = 2.60, p < 0.0001) and with concurrent acting out dreams (OR = 2.38, p = 0.0004). Among the baseline nonhallucinators, no sleep abnormalities at study entry predicted future development of hallucinations. Conclusions: Hallucinations and sleep abnormalities follow very different patterns of progression in PD over 10 years. Whereas patients with hallucinations often have concurrent sleep aberrations, no sleep problem is predictive of future hallucinations. GLOSSARY CI = confidence interval; GEE = generalized estimating equation; MMSE = Mini-Mental State Examination; OR = odds ratio; PD = Parkinson disease

  17. A Cognitive Neuroscience View of Schizophrenic Symptoms: Abnormal Activation of a System for Social Perception and Communication

    PubMed Central

    Wible, Cynthia G.; Preus, Alexander P.; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro

    2009-01-01

    We will review converging evidence that language related symptoms of the schizophrenic syndrome such as auditory verbal hallucinations arise at least in part from processing abnormalities in posterior language regions. These language regions are either adjacent to or overlapping with regions in the (posterior) temporal cortex and temporo-parietal occipital junction that are part of a system for processing social cognition, emotion, and self representation or agency. The inferior parietal and posterior superior temporal regions contain multi-modal representational systems that may also provide rapid feedback and feed-forward activation to unimodal regions such as auditory cortex. We propose that the over-activation of these regions could not only result in erroneous activation of semantic and speech (auditory word) representations, resulting in thought disorder and voice hallucinations, but could also result in many of the other symptoms of schizophrenia. These regions are also part of the so-called “default network”, a network of regions that are normally active; and their activity is also correlated with activity within the hippocampal system. PMID:19809534

  18. Speech repetition as a window on the neurobiology of auditory-motor integration for speech: A voxel-based lesion symptom mapping study

    PubMed Central

    Rogalsky, Corianne; Poppa, Tasha; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Anderson, Steven W.; Damasio, Hanna; Love, Tracy; Hickok, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    For more than a century, speech repetition has been used as an assay for gauging the integrity of the auditory-motor pathway in aphasia, thought classically to involve a linkage between Wernicke’s area and Broca’s area via the arcuate fasciculus. During the last decade, evidence primarily from functional imaging in healthy individuals has refined this picture both computationally and anatomically, suggesting the existence of a cortical hub located at the parietal-temporal boundary (area Spt) that functions to integrate auditory and motor speech networks for both repetition and spontaneous speech production. While functional imaging research can pinpoint the regions activated in repetition/auditory-motor integration, lesion-based studies are needed to infer causal involvement. Previous lesion studies of repetition have yielded mixed results with respect to Spt’s critical involvement in speech repetition. The present study used voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM) to investigate the neuroanatomy of repetition of both real words and non-words in a sample of 47 patients with focal left hemisphere brain damage. VLSMs identified a large voxel cluster spanning gray and white matter in the left temporal-parietal junction, including area Spt, where damage was significantly related to poor non-word repetition. Repetition of real words implicated a very similar dorsal network including area Spt. Cortical regions including Spt were implicated in repetition performance even when white matter damage was factored out. In addition, removing variance associated with speech perception abilities did not alter the overall lesion pattern for either task. Together with past functional imaging work, our results suggest that area Spt is integral in both word and non-word repetition, that its contribution is above and beyond that made by white matter pathways, and is not driven by perceptual processes alone. These findings are highly consistent with the claim that Spt is an area

  19. Speech repetition as a window on the neurobiology of auditory-motor integration for speech: A voxel-based lesion symptom mapping study.

    PubMed

    Rogalsky, Corianne; Poppa, Tasha; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Anderson, Steven W; Damasio, Hanna; Love, Tracy; Hickok, Gregory

    2015-05-01

    For more than a century, speech repetition has been used as an assay for gauging the integrity of the auditory-motor pathway in aphasia, thought classically to involve a linkage between Wernicke's area and Broca's area via the arcuate fasciculus. During the last decade, evidence primarily from functional imaging in healthy individuals has refined this picture both computationally and anatomically, suggesting the existence of a cortical hub located at the parietal-temporal boundary (area Spt) that functions to integrate auditory and motor speech networks for both repetition and spontaneous speech production. While functional imaging research can pinpoint the regions activated in repetition/auditory-motor integration, lesion-based studies are needed to infer causal involvement. Previous lesion studies of repetition have yielded mixed results with respect to Spt's critical involvement in speech repetition. The present study used voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM) to investigate the neuroanatomy of repetition of both real words and non-words in a sample of 47 patients with focal left hemisphere brain damage. VLSMs identified a large voxel cluster spanning gray and white matter in the left temporal-parietal junction, including area Spt, where damage was significantly related to poor non-word repetition. Repetition of real words implicated a very similar dorsal network including area Spt. Cortical regions including Spt were implicated in repetition performance even when white matter damage was factored out. In addition, removing variance associated with speech perception abilities did not alter the overall lesion pattern for either task. Together with past functional imaging work, our results suggest that area Spt is integral in both word and non-word repetition, that its contribution is above and beyond that made by white matter pathways, and is not driven by perceptual processes alone. These findings are highly consistent with the claim that Spt is an area of

  20. [EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS AND CLINICAL SYMPTOMS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA].

    PubMed

    Domján, Nóra; Csifcsák, Gábor; Janka, Zoltán

    2016-01-30

    The investigation of schizophrenia's aetiology and pathomechanism is of high importance in neurosciences. In the recent decades, analyzing event-related potentials have proven to be useful to reveal the neuropsychological dysfunctions in schizophrenia. Even the very early stages of auditory stimulus processing are impaired in this disorder; this might contribute to the experience of auditory hallucinations. The present review summarizes the recent literature on the relationship between auditory hallucinations and event-related potentials. Due to the dysfunction of early auditory sensory processing, patients with schizophrenia are not able to locate the source of stimuli and to allocate their attention appropriately. These deficits might lead to auditory hallucinations and problems with daily functioning. Studies involving high risk groups may provide tools for screening and early interventions; thus improving the prognosis of schizophrenia. PMID:26987236

  1. Tactile hallucinations: conceptual and historical aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Berrios, G E

    1982-01-01

    A brief historical analysis of the general concept of hallucination is presented and the suggestion is made that it emerged as the unwarranted generalisation of a perceptual model that was meant to apply only to vision and the "distance senses". Against this background the evolution of tactile hallucinations is considered and its interaction with 19th century psychological theory explored. It is concluded that tactile hallucinations are sui generis phenomena which do not fit the conventional model and whose clinical identification rests on criteria so far unclear. A brief review of their taxonomy and diagnostic usefulness is presented. Some wider implications are drawn which should be relevant to the general concept of hallucination. PMID:7042917

  2. Musical hallucinations: review of treatment effects

    PubMed Central

    Coebergh, Jan A. F.; Lauw, R. F.; Bots, R.; Sommer, I. E. C.; Blom, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite an increased scientific interest in musical hallucinations over the past 25 years, treatment protocols are still lacking. This may well be due to the fact that musical hallucinations have multiple causes, and that published cases are relatively rare. Objective: To review the effects of published treatment methods for musical hallucinations. Methods: A literature search yielded 175 articles discussing a total number of 516 cases, of which 147 articles discussed treatment in 276 individuals. We analyzed the treatment results in relation to the etiological factor considered responsible for the mediation of the musical hallucinations, i.e., idiopathic/hypoacusis, psychiatric disorder, brain lesion, and other pathology, epilepsy or intoxication/pharmacology. Results: Musical hallucinations can disappear without intervention. When hallucinations are bearable, patients can be reassured without any other treatment. However, in other patients musical hallucinations are so disturbing that treatment is indicated. Distinct etiological groups appear to respond differently to treatment. In the hypoacusis group, treating the hearing impairment can yield significant improvement and coping strategies (e.g., more acoustic stimulation) are frequently helpful. Pharmacological treatment methods can also be successful, with antidepressants being possibly more helpful than antiepileptics (which are still better than antipsychotics). The limited use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors has looked promising. Musical hallucinations occurring as part of a psychiatric disorder tend to respond well to psychopharmacological treatments targeting the underlying disorder. Musical hallucinations experienced in the context of brain injuries and epilepsy tend to respond well to antiepileptics, but their natural course is often benign, irrespective of any pharmacological treatment. When intoxication/pharmacology is the main etiological factor, it is important to stop or switch the

  3. Brain modules of hallucination: an analysis of multiple patients with brain lesions

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Claude M.J.; Dumont, Mathieu; Duval, Julie; Hamel-Hébert, Isabelle; Godbout, Lucie

    2003-01-01

    We systematically reviewed the localization of focal brain lesions that cause isolated hallucination in a single sensory modality. Case reports of post-lesion nonparoxysmal hallucination in 1 (and only 1) of 3 sensory modalities (i.e., visual, auditory, somatic) were reviewed, and the content of the qualitative descriptions was analyzed for each modality. The lesion is practically always located in the brain pathway of the sensory modality of the hallucination. There seem to exist localized sensory brain circuits that in healthy people diminish the intensity of internal sensory representation. After a lesion, hallucinosis seems to be caused also by compensatory overactivation of tissue in the nearby brain sensory pathway. This type of hallucination may indeed be termed a “release” form, whereby patients are aware of the hallucinatory nature of their experience, but not usually of “dream centres” as proposed by Lhermitte. Instead, we propose that it is dreaming that should be considered a special case of neural “release.” Nous avons passé en revue systématiquement l'emplacement des lésions cérébrales focales qui causent des hallucinations isolées dans un seul mode sensoriel. On a analysé des rapports de cas portant sur l'hallucination non paroxystique postlésionnelle dans un mode sensoriel (et un seulement) sur trois (c.-à-d. visuel, auditif, somatique), et on a analysé le contenu des descriptions qualitatives de chaque mode. La lésion est presque toujours située dans la voie cérébrale du mode sensoriel de l'hallucination. Il semble y avoir des circuits cérébraux sensoriels localisés qui, chez les gens en bonne santé, «atténuent» l'intensité de la représentation sensorielle interne. Après une lésion, l'hallucinose semble être causée aussi par une suractivation compensatoire de tissus de la voie sensorielle cérébrale voisine. On peut en fait qualifier ce type d'hallucination de forme de «libération», dans laquelle les

  4. [Hallucinations and Parkinson's disease in the elderly: Pitfalls and medical care].

    PubMed

    Leroy, Arnaud; Roche, Jean; Dujardin, Kathy; Duthoit, Didier; Puisieux, François; Pins, Delphine; Jardri, Renaud; Boulanger, Eric

    2016-05-01

    Hallucinations are common neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), with a significant prognosis impact. It is necessary to rule out other diagnoses that can be mentioned when hallucinations occur in old patients with PD. The various etiological factors must be systematically checked and can help for diagnosis. Medical care will be focused on treating the primary cause (medical or iatrogenic origin) and will privilege non-pharmacological strategies. Due to their frequent adverse effects, antipsychotic medication should be limited and started at low dose in old patients with multiple comorbidities. Clozapine and quetiapine have the highest level of recommendation in this indication. In the future, defining fMRI-based targets for noninvasive brain stimulation tools should pave the way for innovative non-pharmacological treatment of hallucinations. PMID:27039336

  5. From Tones in Tinnitus to Sensed Social Interaction in Schizophrenia: How Understanding Cortical Organization Can Inform the Study of Hallucinations and Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    ffytche, Dominic H.; Wible, Cynthia G.

    2014-01-01

    The content, modality, and perceptual attributes of hallucinations and other psychotic symptoms may be related to neural representation at a single cell and population level in the cerebral cortex. A brief survey of some principles and examples of cortical representation and organization will be presented together with evidence for a correspondence between the neurobiology of brain areas activated at the time of a hallucination and the content of the corresponding hallucinatory and psychotic experiences. Contrasting the hallucinations of schizophrenia with other conditions, we highlight phenomenological aspects of hallucinations that are ignored in clinical practice but carry potentially important information about the brain regions and dysfunctions underlying them. Knowledge of cortical representation and organization are being used to develop animal models of hallucination and to test treatments that are now beginning to translate to the clinical domain. PMID:24936089

  6. Symptom Dimensions of the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales in Psychosis: A Multisite Study

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Todd S.; Jung, Kwanghee; Hwang, Heungsun; Yin, John; Taylor, Laura; Menon, Mahesh; Peters, Emmanuelle; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Waters, Flavie; Lecomte, Tania; Sommer, Iris E.; Daalman, Kirstin; van Lutterveld, Remko; Hubl, Daniela; Kindler, Jochen; Homan, Philipp; Badcock, Johanna C.; Chhabra, Saruchi; Cella, Matteo; Keedy, Sarah; Allen, Paul; Mechelli, Andrea; Preti, Antonio; Siddi, Sara; Erickson, David

    2014-01-01

    The Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS) is an instrument designed to quantify the severity of delusions and hallucinations and is typically used in research studies and clinical settings focusing on people with psychosis and schizophrenia. It is comprised of the auditory hallucinations (AHS) and delusions subscales (DS), but these subscales do not necessarily reflect the psychological constructs causing intercorrelation between clusters of scale items. Identification of these constructs is important in some clinical and research contexts because item clustering may be caused by underlying etiological processes of interest. Previous attempts to identify these constructs have produced conflicting results. In this study, we compiled PSYRATS data from 12 sites in 7 countries, comprising 711 participants for AHS and 520 for DS. We compared previously proposed and novel models of underlying constructs using structural equation modeling. For the AHS, a novel 4-dimensional model provided the best fit, with latent variables labeled Distress (negative content, distress, and control), Frequency (frequency, duration, and disruption), Attribution (location and origin of voices), and Loudness (loudness item only). For the DS, a 2-dimensional solution was confirmed, with latent variables labeled Distress (amount/intensity) and Frequency (preoccupation, conviction, and disruption). The within-AHS and within-DS dimension intercorrelations were higher than those between subscales, with the exception of the AHS and DS Distress dimensions, which produced a correlation that approached the range of the within-scale correlations. Recommendations are provided for integrating these underlying constructs into research and clinical applications of the PSYRATS. PMID:24936086

  7. Brief Report: Suboptimal Auditory Localization in Autism Spectrum Disorder--Support for the Bayesian Account of Sensory Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skewes, Joshua C.; Gebauer, Line

    2016-01-01

    Convergent research suggests that people with ASD have difficulties localizing sounds in space. These difficulties have implications for communication, the development of social behavior, and quality of life. Recently, a theory has emerged which treats perceptual symptoms in ASD as the product of impairments in implicit Bayesian inference; as…

  8. Cortical auditory disorders: clinical and psychoacoustic features.

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, M F; Geehan, G R

    1988-01-01

    The symptoms of two patients with bilateral cortical auditory lesions evolved from cortical deafness to other auditory syndromes: generalised auditory agnosia, amusia and/or pure word deafness, and a residual impairment of temporal sequencing. On investigation, both had dysacusis, absent middle latency evoked responses, acoustic errors in sound recognition and matching, inconsistent auditory behaviours, and similarly disturbed psychoacoustic discrimination tasks. These findings indicate that the different clinical syndromes caused by cortical auditory lesions form a spectrum of related auditory processing disorders. Differences between syndromes may depend on the degree of involvement of a primary cortical processing system, the more diffuse accessory system, and possibly the efferent auditory system. Images PMID:2450968

  9. Emotional prosody modulates attention in schizophrenia patients with hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Alba-Ferrara, L; de Erausquin, G A; Hirnstein, M; Weis, S; Hausmann, M

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that emotional prosody (EP) attracts attention involuntarily (Grandjean et al., 2008). The automat shift of attention toward emotionally salient stimuli can be overcome by attentional control (Hahn et al., 2010). Attentional control is impaired in schizophrenia, especially in schizophrenic patients with hallucinations because the "voices" capture attention increasing the processing load and competing for top-down resources. The present study investigates how involuntary attention is driven by implicit EP in schizophrenia with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) and without (NAVH). Fifteen AVH patients, 12 NAVH patients and 16 healthy controls (HC) completed a dual-task dichotic listening paradigm, in which an emotional vocal outburst was paired with a neutral vocalization spoken in male and female voices. Participants were asked to report the speaker's gender while attending to either the left or right ear. NAVH patients and HC revealed shorter response times for stimuli presented to the attended left ear than the attended right ear. This laterality effect was not present in AVH patients. In addition, NAVH patients and HC showed faster responses when the EP stimulus was presented to the unattended ear, probably because of less interference between the attention-controlled gender voice identification task and involuntary EP processing. AVH patients did not benefit from presenting emotional stimuli to the unattended ear. The findings suggest that similar to HC, NAVH patients show a right hemispheric bias for EP processing. AVH patients seem to be less lateralized for EP and therefore might be more susceptible to interfering involuntary EP processing; regardless which ear/hemisphere receives the bottom up input. PMID:23459397

  10. The face hallucinating two-step framework using hallucinated high-resolution residual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naleer, H. M. M.; Lu, Yao; An, Yaozu

    2011-06-01

    In video surveillance, the attention human faces are frequently of small size. Image hallucination is an imperative factor disturbing the face classification by human and computer. In this paper, we propose a two-step face hallucination framework by means of training data sets which have a small quantity of low and high resolution images. In the first step, the global face is constructed based on optimal weights of training images. In the second step, a local residual compensation method bases on position patch via residual training face image data sets. Moreover, the hallucinated highresolution residual image which is obtained by the identical process can be subsequent for the local face. Finally, the hallucinated high-resolution residual image is appended with the input low-resolution face image which is interpolated to the high-resolution image dimension by an upsampling factor. Experiments fully demonstrate that our framework is very flexible and accomplishs good performance via small training data sets.

  11. Visual hallucinations on eye closure associated with atropine toxicity. A neurological analysis and comparison with other visual hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Fisher, C M

    1991-02-01

    Visual hallucinations of remarkable intensity began shortly after intravenous atropine and persisted for 11 days. They were present only when the eyes were closed and were associated with heightened dreaming and disturbed sleep. The patient remained lucid and described his experiences to his attendants. Our patient's hallucinations bore some resemblance to hypnagogic hallucinations and this became the basis for the hypothesis that the hallucinations originated in the sleep-dream system of the brain stem. It is speculated that a similar site--a metabolic locus minoris resistentiae may play a part in other types of visual hallucinations and in delirium. PMID:2036612

  12. Visual Hallucinations in the Psychosis Spectrum and Comparative Information From Neurodegenerative Disorders and Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Flavie; Collerton, Daniel; ffytche, Dominic H.; Jardri, Renaud; Pins, Delphine; Dudley, Robert; Blom, Jan Dirk; Mosimann, Urs Peter; Eperjesi, Frank; Ford, Stephen; Larøi, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Much of the research on visual hallucinations (VHs) has been conducted in the context of eye disease and neurodegenerative conditions, but little is known about these phenomena in psychiatric and nonclinical populations. The purpose of this article is to bring together current knowledge regarding VHs in the psychosis phenotype and contrast this data with the literature drawn from neurodegenerative disorders and eye disease. The evidence challenges the traditional views that VHs are atypical or uncommon in psychosis. The weighted mean for VHs is 27% in schizophrenia, 15% in affective psychosis, and 7.3% in the general community. VHs are linked to a more severe psychopathological profile and less favorable outcome in psychosis and neurodegenerative conditions. VHs typically co-occur with auditory hallucinations, suggesting a common etiological cause. VHs in psychosis are also remarkably complex, negative in content, and are interpreted to have personal relevance. The cognitive mechanisms of VHs in psychosis have rarely been investigated, but existing studies point to source-monitoring deficits and distortions in top-down mechanisms, although evidence for visual processing deficits, which feature strongly in the organic literature, is lacking. Brain imaging studies point to the activation of visual cortex during hallucinations on a background of structural and connectivity changes within wider brain networks. The relationship between VHs in psychosis, eye disease, and neurodegeneration remains unclear, although the pattern of similarities and differences described in this review suggests that comparative studies may have potentially important clinical and theoretical implications. PMID:24936084

  13. Psychiatric Symptoms in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with Left Mesial Hippocampal Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hyun; Kim, Sang Hoon; Park, Sang Hag; Choo, Il Han

    2015-01-01

    A 16-year-old woman was referred to us for depression and persistent suicidal and homicidal ideation. From 2010, the patient visited a neurologist due to recurrent grand mal epilepsy, auditory and visual hallucinations, episodic memory loss, and persistent depression. Upon admission, it was revealed through clinical history taking that she had suffered from chronic bullying from same-sex peers and sexual abuse, twice, from an adult male in the neighborhood when she was 10 years old. A brain magnetic resonance imaging study showed left mesial hippocampal sclerosis. The patient exhibited improvement of her psychiatric symptoms after treatment with a combination of fluoxetine (30 mg) and aripiprazole (10 mg). Children and adolescents with epilepsy experience conflicts in the family, challenges at school, stigma, and psychosocial limitations or deprivations due to their comorbid psychiatric symptoms and hence, psychiatric evaluation and early intervention is important when treating these patients. PMID:25866531

  14. Psychiatric symptoms in temporal lobe epilepsy with left mesial hippocampal sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun; Kim, Sang Hoon; Park, Sang Hag; Choo, Il Han; Kim, Seung Gon

    2015-04-01

    A 16-year-old woman was referred to us for depression and persistent suicidal and homicidal ideation. From 2010, the patient visited a neurologist due to recurrent grand mal epilepsy, auditory and visual hallucinations, episodic memory loss, and persistent depression. Upon admission, it was revealed through clinical history taking that she had suffered from chronic bullying from same-sex peers and sexual abuse, twice, from an adult male in the neighborhood when she was 10 years old. A brain magnetic resonance imaging study showed left mesial hippocampal sclerosis. The patient exhibited improvement of her psychiatric symptoms after treatment with a combination of fluoxetine (30 mg) and aripiprazole (10 mg). Children and adolescents with epilepsy experience conflicts in the family, challenges at school, stigma, and psychosocial limitations or deprivations due to their comorbid psychiatric symptoms and hence, psychiatric evaluation and early intervention is important when treating these patients. PMID:25866531

  15. An interesting case that included visual hallucinations in a patient with severe hypomagnesaemia and hypocalcaemia

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    A 57-year-old man presenting with profound visual hallucinations was found to have severe hypomagnesaemia and hypocalcaemia with a normal level of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Magnesium is essential to the release of PTH so the suspected pathophysiology was thought to be: low Mg → inappropriately low PTH → low Ca. He commenced supplementation and his symptoms resolved. Causes of hypomagnesaemia are discussed. PMID:22669770

  16. [A case of Klinefelter's syndrome with schizophrenia-like symptoms].

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, H; Asakawa, O; Koyama, K; Takahashi, Y; Atsumi, Y; Kumakura, T

    2000-06-01

    A case of Klinefelter's syndrome with schizophrenia-like symptoms is reported. He was given a diagnosis of schizophrenia at the age of 39. After being treated with medication for many years, he stopped taking them at the age of seventy-two and involuntary movements appeared in his limbs and the trunk. Upon admission to our hospital, he was experiencing delusion and psychosocial excitement. A physical examination showed him to be a thin man of 175.5 cm height, suffering from a mild degree of gynecomastia, testicular atrophy. Serum LH and FSH were both high 10.9 and 47.8 mU/ml respectively. Serum testosterone concentration was 0.2 ng/ml, much lower than the normal range (2.7-10.7 ng/ml). On the Wechsler adult intelligence scale (Revision), his total IQ was 103 (performance IQ 100, verbal IQ105). Karyotype analysis revealed an XXY pattern. Although slight auditory hallucinations remained, the delusional symptoms as well as the involuntary movements diminished after the administration of psychotrophics. Personality changes such as apathy and abulia was subsided. The psychological symptoms were very similar to these of cases in other reports of Klinefelter's syndrome associated with schizophrenia-like symptoms. Some reports about the relationships between sex hormones and schizophrenia including other psychotic disorders suggest that the X-chromosome plays an important part in the mechanism of psychosocial symptoms and in the prognosis in Klinefelter's syndrome. PMID:10998933

  17. Misusing volatile substances for their hallucinatory effects: a qualitative pilot study with Mexican teenagers and a pharmacological discussion of their hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Silvia L; Domínguez, Mario

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the solvent-induced hallucinatory experiences of 10 male and seven female teenagers in Mexico City from 1998 to 2000. The youth were recruited from public schools through a combined snowball and convenience sampling procedure. Inclusion criteria were: 13-18 years of age, school attendance, living with family, and weekly toluene-based solvent misuse. Interested students were interviewed and transcripts were analyzed. Hallucinations and illusions were common, including changes in color perception, visual, somatic, auditory, and tactile hallucinations. Some users described their hallucinatory experience as being able to be shared by a group and modulated by their environment. The pharmacological linkages with hallucinations are discussed. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:21609151

  18. 'The devil lay upon her and held her down'. Hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis described by the Dutch physician Isbrand van Diemerbroeck (1609-1674) in 1664.

    PubMed

    Kompanje, E J O

    2008-12-01

    Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations are visual, tactile, auditory or other sensory events, usually brief but sometimes prolonged, that occur at the transition from wakefulness to sleep (hypnagogic) or from sleep to wakefulness (hypnopompic). Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations are often associated with sleep paralysis. Sleep paralysis occurs immediately prior to falling asleep (hypnagogic paralysis) or upon waking (hypnopompic paralysis). In 1664, the Dutch physician Isbrand Van Diemerbroeck (1609-1674) published a collection of case histories. One history with the title 'Of the Night-Mare' describes the nightly experiences of the 50-year-old woman. This case report is subject of this article. The experiences in this case could without doubt be diagnosed as sleep paralysis accompanied by hypnagogic hallucinations. This case from 1664 should be cited as the earliest detailed account of sleep paralysis associated with hypnagogic illusions and as the first observation that sleep paralysis and hypnagogic experiences occur more often in supine position of the body. PMID:18691361

  19. Face hallucination using orthogonal canonical correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huiling; Lam, Kin-Man

    2016-05-01

    A two-step face-hallucination framework is proposed to reconstruct a high-resolution (HR) version of a face from an input low-resolution (LR) face, based on learning from LR-HR example face pairs using orthogonal canonical correlation analysis (orthogonal CCA) and linear mapping. In the proposed algorithm, face images are first represented using principal component analysis (PCA). Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) with the orthogonality property is then employed, to maximize the correlation between the PCA coefficients of the LR and the HR face pairs to improve the hallucination performance. The original CCA does not own the orthogonality property, which is crucial for information reconstruction. We propose using orthogonal CCA, which is proven by experiments to achieve a better performance in terms of global face reconstruction. In addition, in the residual-compensation process, a linear-mapping method is proposed to include both the inter- and intrainformation about manifolds of different resolutions. Compared with other state-of-the-art approaches, the proposed framework can achieve a comparable, or even better, performance in terms of global face reconstruction and the visual quality of face hallucination. Experiments on images with various parameter settings and blurring distortions show that the proposed approach is robust and has great potential for real-world applications.

  20. Musical hallucinations responding to a further increase of carbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Saeko; Terao, Takeshi; Hatano, Koji; Ishii, Nobuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman outpatient with mild cognitive impairment, parasomnia and depressive state with musical hallucinations failed to respond to 400 mg/day of valproate. Once she was admitted to a university hospital, her musical hallucinations partially responded to 1 mg/day of clonazepam and sufficiently improved on 100 mg/day of carbamazepine. Two months after discharge, however, her musical hallucinations recurred probably as a consequence of psychological stress. The increase of carbamazepine from 100 to 200 mg/day completely remitted her musical hallucinations. This case suggests that musical hallucinations respond in a dose-dependent manner to increasing carbamazepine, and that gradual titration from small doses of carbamazepine is required because optimal doses appear to be smaller than those required for epilepsy and bipolar disorder. Further studies are warranted to determine the therapeutic levels of carbamazepine for musical hallucinations. PMID:25253486

  1. The mind with a radio of its own: a case report and review of the literature on the treatment of musical hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Colon-Rivera, Hector A; Oldham, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Musical hallucinations (MH) have been labeled Oliver Sacks syndrome, and in the majority of cases, they occur in the context of a hearing loss. In these instances, they have been described as auditory Charles Bonnet syndrome because they are thought to represent a cortical release phenomenon. Patients with MH tend to have intact reality testing, and as such, the condition may also be described as musical hallucinosis. The temporal course of MH is variable, but given that they may improve or remit with time, education on their benign nature is often sufficient. MH also may improve when hearing loss is reversed. The use of ambient noise potentially ameliorates mild to moderate MH; however, where this is insufficient, somatic treatments may be considered. Case reports have documented successful use of low-dose antiepileptics, atypical antipsychotics and donepezil. We present a case of a 52-year-old man who received only partial relief from serial treatment with several psychotropic agents. He developed major depression with suicidal ideation in the context of persistent, intrusive MH that were refractory to several medication trials, and whereas a course of electroconvulsive therapy led to remission of depressive and suicidal symptoms, it provided only transient relief of his MH. In this article, we also provide a review of the literature on the neurobiology and treatment of MH. PMID:24359763

  2. A case of Déjerine-Sottas disease with schizophrenic symptoms. A clinical and pathological study.

    PubMed

    Nakao, T; Takahashi, K; Okuma, T; Matsushima, Y; Nagami, M

    1975-01-01

    A case of hypertrophic interstitial neuritis with a disturbance of intelligence and schizophrenic symptoms was reported. The patient, a 41-year-old male, showed monologia at the age of 14 and auditory hallucination at the age of 21. He was diagnosed as schizophrenia. Torsion of the head to the right side and muscular atrophy were also noticed at 21 years. Atrophy of the muscles progressed gradually, particularly in the distal parts of the upper and lower extremeties. Psychiatric examination revealed schizophrenic symptoms such as auditory hallucination, thought disorder, lack of spontaneity, autism, apathy, etc. There was also a disturbance of intelligence (imbecility). In neurological examination, the torsion of the head to the right side, slight exaggeration of the peripheral reflexes, muscular atrophy in the distal parts of the extremeties were noted. The bilateral ulnar nerves were markedly hypertrophied. The biopsy of the right ulnar nerve revealed a remarkable thickening of the endoneuria and "onion bulb" formations. A large amount of the interstitial accumulation of PAS positive substance, which showed metachromasia in cresyl violet staining, was also noted. Schwann cell processes were proved electron-microscopically to surround the myelin sheaths and some of them meandered and extended and into the metachromatic substance. The basement membrane of the sheath cell was hypertrophic in some portions and elongated into interstitium. The nucleus of the sheath cell was hyperchromic and showed marked atrophy. Histological examination of the biopsy specimen obtained from the gastrocnemius muscle suggested neurogenic muscular atrophy. The relationship among the hypertrophic interstitial neuritis, schizophrenic symptoms, disturbance of intelligence and torsion of the head was also discussed. PMID:1158314

  3. Visual Hallucinations and Amyloid Deposition in Parkinson's Disease Dementia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Um, Yoo Hyun; Kim, Tae-Won; Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Seo, Ho-Jun; Han, Jin-Hee; Hong, Seung-Chul; Jung, Won-Sang; Choi, Woo Hee; Lee, Chang-Uk; Lim, Hyun Kook

    2016-05-01

    Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) is notorious for its debilitating clinical course and high mortality rates. Consequently, various attempts to investigate predictors of cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been made. Here we report a case of a 75-year-old female patient with PD who visited the clinic with complaints of recurrent visual hallucinations and cognitive decline, whose symptoms were ameliorated by the titration of rivastigmine. Imaging results showed pronounced diffuse cortical amyloid deposition evidenced by 18F-florbetaben amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. This observation suggests that pronounced amyloid deposition and visual hallucinations in PD patients could be clinically significant predictors of cognitive decline in PD patients. Future research should concentrate on accumulating more evidence for possible predictors of cognitive decline and their association with PD pathology that can enable an early intervention and standardized treatment in PDD patients. PMID:27247605

  4. Visual Hallucinations and Amyloid Deposition in Parkinson's Disease Dementia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Um, Yoo Hyun; Kim, Tae-Won; Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Seo, Ho-Jun; Han, Jin-Hee; Hong, Seung-Chul; Jung, Won-Sang; Choi, Woo Hee; Lee, Chang-Uk

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) is notorious for its debilitating clinical course and high mortality rates. Consequently, various attempts to investigate predictors of cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been made. Here we report a case of a 75-year-old female patient with PD who visited the clinic with complaints of recurrent visual hallucinations and cognitive decline, whose symptoms were ameliorated by the titration of rivastigmine. Imaging results showed pronounced diffuse cortical amyloid deposition evidenced by 18F-florbetaben amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. This observation suggests that pronounced amyloid deposition and visual hallucinations in PD patients could be clinically significant predictors of cognitive decline in PD patients. Future research should concentrate on accumulating more evidence for possible predictors of cognitive decline and their association with PD pathology that can enable an early intervention and standardized treatment in PDD patients. PMID:27247605

  5. Hallucination proneness, schizotypy and meta-cognition.

    PubMed

    Stirling, John; Barkus, Emma; Lewis, Shon

    2007-06-01

    Disordered or maladaptive meta-cognitive processing appears to be a prominent feature for some individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. We sought to establish whether healthy individuals distinguished either in terms hallucination proneness (HP) or level of schizotypy could also be differentiated on the sub-scales of the Meta-cognitions Questionnaire (MCQ), or a modified version of it in which items about worry were replaced with items specifically related to thinking. A total of 106 healthy volunteers completed the Oxford and Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences and Launay-Slade hallucination scale, the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and two versions of the MCQ: the original which assesses five domains of meta-cognition and an adapted version in which items relating to worry had been replaced by items relating to thinking or reflecting on thinking (MCQ-th). ANOVA indicated highly significant differences between three groups of individuals differentiated in terms of high, medium and low proneness to hallucinations on four of the five MCQ sub-scales, and three of the four MCQ-th factors. Regression analyses indicated that the MCQ factors encompassing (1) a sense of uncontrollability of thinking (and the perceived attendant dangers of this) and (2) negative beliefs about thinking related to suspicion and punishment were the strongest predictors of high schizotypy. Individuals who score higher on a measure of HP are more likely to display patterns of meta-cognitive processing that resemble, in certain respects, those reported in individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. High schizotypy predicts a negative appraisal about both the controllability and consequences of thinking. PMID:16934218

  6. The 40-Hz auditory steady-state response: a selective biomarker for cortical NMDA function.

    PubMed

    Sivarao, Digavalli V

    2015-05-01

    When subjected to a phasic input, sensory cortical neurons display a remarkable ability to entrain faithfully to the driving stimuli. The entrainment to rhythmic sound stimuli is often referred to as the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) and can be captured using noninvasive techniques, such as scalp-recorded electroencephalography (EEG). An ASSR to a driving frequency of approximately 40 Hz is particularly interesting in that it shows, in relative terms, maximal power, synchrony, and synaptic activity. Moreover, the 40-Hz ASSR has been consistently found to be abnormal in schizophrenia patients across multiple studies. The nature of the reported abnormality has been less consistent; while most studies report a deficit in entrainment, several studies have reported increased signal power, particularly when there are concurrent positive symptoms, such as auditory hallucinations. However, the neuropharmacological basis for the 40-Hz ASSR, as well as its dysfunction in schizophrenia, has been unclear until recently. On the basis of several recent reports, it is argued that the 40-Hz ASSR represents a specific marker for cortical NMDA transmission. If confirmed, the 40-Hz ASSR may be a simple and easy-to-access pharmacodynamic biomarker for testing the integrity of cortical NMDA neurotransmission that is robustly translational across species. PMID:25809615

  7. [The turn of the screw: complex visual hallucinations in the Henry James' novel].

    PubMed

    Alvaro, L C; Martín Del Burgo, A

    2002-03-01

    The turn of the screw is one of the most celebrated stories by Henry James. It is also a top writing within the so-called fantastic literature, whose narrative strength comes from the intermittent visions suffered by the main character. The vividness and dramatic content that represent the firstly unidentified human figures, that moreover recur as brief, stereotyped and fragmentary images, are constitutive of complex visual hallucinations. These characteristics, alongside acute premonitory symptoms such as emotional changes (fear, anxiety) or altered thinking (forced, "dejà vu", "jamais vu"), and the final altered awareness or loss of consciousness, allow us to infer an epileptic nature of the ten episodes described. Postictal psychosis, that follows a lucid interval and may last up to the several weeks encompassed by the story, would account for the paranoia featured, in the setting of a temporal lobe epilepsy. The accurate descriptions prompted us to search for autobiographical, scientific or literary influences: The alcoholism and visual hallucinations suffered by his father, the knowledge on hallucinations provided by his brother Williams on his paramount and former The Principles of Psychology, and an early devotion to Poe's writings, an epileptic himself with excellent descriptions of seizures in his writings, might have enabled the author to perform his story with such a hallmark of neurological details. PMID:11927104

  8. Testing a model of the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and psychosis in a first-episode psychosis group: the role of hallucinations and delusions, posttraumatic intrusions, and selective attention.

    PubMed

    Bendall, Sarah; Hulbert, Carol Anne; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario; Allott, Kelly; McGorry, Patrick D; Jackson, Henry James

    2013-11-01

    Several theories suggest that posttraumatic intrusive symptoms are central to the relationship between childhood trauma (CT) and hallucinations and delusions in psychosis. Biased selective attention has been implicated as a cognitive process underlying posttraumatic intrusions. The current study sought to test theories of the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA), hallucinations and delusions, posttraumatic intrusions, and selective attention in first-episode psychosis (FEP). Twenty-eight people with FEP and 21 nonclinical controls were assessed for CT and psychotic and posttraumatic stress symptoms and completed an emotional Stroop test using CSA-related and other words. Those with FEP and CSA had more severe hallucinations and delusions than those with FEP and without CSA. They also reported posttraumatic intrusions at clinical levels and showed selective attention to CSA-related words. The results are consistent with the posttraumatic intrusions account of hallucinations and delusions in those with CSA and psychosis. PMID:24177480

  9. Auditory neglect and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Dykstra, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Neglect is a neurologic disorder, typically associated with lesions of the right hemisphere, in which patients are biased towards their ipsilesional - usually right - side of space while awareness for their contralesional - usually left - side is reduced or absent. Neglect is a multimodal disorder that often includes deficits in the auditory domain. Classically, auditory extinction, in which left-sided sounds that are correctly perceived in isolation are not detected in the presence of synchronous right-sided stimulation, has been considered the primary sign of auditory neglect. However, auditory extinction can also be observed after unilateral auditory cortex lesions and is thus not specific for neglect. Recent research has shown that patients with neglect are also impaired in maintaining sustained attention, on both sides, a fact that is reflected by an impairment of auditory target detection in continuous stimulation conditions. Perhaps the most impressive auditory symptom in full-blown neglect is alloacusis, in which patients mislocalize left-sided sound sources to their right, although even patients with less severe neglect still often show disturbance of auditory spatial perception, most commonly a lateralization bias towards the right. We discuss how these various disorders may be explained by a single model of neglect and review emerging interventions for patient rehabilitation. PMID:25726290

  10. Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations during sleep paralysis: neurological and cultural construction of the night-mare.

    PubMed

    Cheyne, J A; Rueffer, S D; Newby-Clark, I R

    1999-09-01

    Hypnagogic and hypnopompic experiences (HHEs) accompanying sleep paralysis (SP) are often cited as sources of accounts of supernatural nocturnal assaults and paranormal experiences. Descriptions of such experiences are remarkably consistent across time and cultures and consistent also with known mechanisms of REM states. A three-factor structural model of HHEs based on their relations both to cultural narratives and REM neurophysiology is developed and tested with several large samples. One factor, labeled Intruder, consisting of sensed presence, fear, and auditory and visual hallucinations, is conjectured to originate in a hypervigilant state initiated in the midbrain. Another factor, Incubus, comprising pressure on the chest, breathing difficulties, and pain, is attributed to effects of hyperpolarization of motoneurons on perceptions of respiration. These two factors have in common an implied alien "other" consistent with occult narratives identified in numerous contemporary and historical cultures. A third factor, labeled Unusual Bodily Experiences, consisting of floating/flying sensations, out-of-body experiences, and feelings of bliss, is related to physically impossible experiences generated by conflicts of endogenous and exogenous activation related to body position, orientation, and movement. Implications of this last factor for understanding of orientational primacy in self-consciousness are considered. Central features of the model developed here are consistent with recent work on hallucinations associated with hypnosis and schizophrenia. PMID:10487786

  11. From mind-pops to hallucinations? A study of involuntary semantic memories in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Elua, Ia; Laws, Keith R; Kvavilashvili, Lia

    2012-04-30

    Involuntary semantic memories or mind-pops consist of isolated fragments of one's semantic knowledge (e.g., a word or a sentence, proper name, image or a melody) that come to mind unexpectedly, without any deliberate attempt to recall them. They can be experienced as alien and uncontrollable, and may share some phenomenological similarities with hallucinations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the nature and frequency of mind-pops in people with schizophrenia (N=37), as well as clinically depressed (N=31) and non-clinical controls (N=31). Results showed that schizophrenia patients reported experiencing mind-pops more frequently than both depressed and non-clinical controls. Schizophrenia patients also reported a wider range of different types of mind-pops than non-clinical controls. The depressed group did not differ from non-clinical controls in the frequency and range of mind-pops, indicating that mind-pops are not characteristic of clinical populations in general, but may be particularly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. The possible implications of this finding to current models of auditory verbal hallucinations are discussed and the need for future research in this area is emphasized. PMID:22424894

  12. Hallucinations and related concepts—their conceptual background

    PubMed Central

    Telles-Correia, Diogo; Moreira, Ana Lúcia; Gonçalves, João S.

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the seventeenth century, the experiences we now name hallucinations were valued within a cultural context, they could bring meaning to the subject or the world. From mid-seventeenth to eighteenth centuries, they acquire a medical quality in mental and organic illnesses. However, the term was only fully integrated in psychiatry by Esquirol in the eighteenth–nineteenth centuries. By then, a controversy begins on whether hallucinations have a perceptual or intellectual origin. Esquirol favors the intellectual origin, describing them as an involuntary exercise of memory and imagination. By the twentieth century, some authors maintain that hallucinations are a form of delusion (Ey), while others describe them as a change in perception (Jaspers, Fish). More integrated perspectives like those proposed by Alonso Fernandez and Luque, highlights the heterogeneity of hallucinations and the multiplicity of their types and causes. The terms pseudohallucination, illusion, and hallucinosis are grafted into the concept of hallucination. Since its introduction the term pseudohallucination has been used with different meanings. The major characteristics that we found associated with pseudohallucinations were “lack of objectivity” and “presence of insight” (differing from hallucinations). Illusions are unanimously taken as distortions of real objects. Hallucinosis, first described in the context of alcohol consumption, is generally considered egodystonic, in which insight is preserved. These and other controversial aspects regarding the evolution of the term hallucination and all its derivative concepts are discussed in this paper. PMID:26283978

  13. Hallucinations and related concepts-their conceptual background.

    PubMed

    Telles-Correia, Diogo; Moreira, Ana Lúcia; Gonçalves, João S

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the seventeenth century, the experiences we now name hallucinations were valued within a cultural context, they could bring meaning to the subject or the world. From mid-seventeenth to eighteenth centuries, they acquire a medical quality in mental and organic illnesses. However, the term was only fully integrated in psychiatry by Esquirol in the eighteenth-nineteenth centuries. By then, a controversy begins on whether hallucinations have a perceptual or intellectual origin. Esquirol favors the intellectual origin, describing them as an involuntary exercise of memory and imagination. By the twentieth century, some authors maintain that hallucinations are a form of delusion (Ey), while others describe them as a change in perception (Jaspers, Fish). More integrated perspectives like those proposed by Alonso Fernandez and Luque, highlights the heterogeneity of hallucinations and the multiplicity of their types and causes. The terms pseudohallucination, illusion, and hallucinosis are grafted into the concept of hallucination. Since its introduction the term pseudohallucination has been used with different meanings. The major characteristics that we found associated with pseudohallucinations were "lack of objectivity" and "presence of insight" (differing from hallucinations). Illusions are unanimously taken as distortions of real objects. Hallucinosis, first described in the context of alcohol consumption, is generally considered egodystonic, in which insight is preserved. These and other controversial aspects regarding the evolution of the term hallucination and all its derivative concepts are discussed in this paper. PMID:26283978

  14. Surreptitious observation of responses to hypnotically suggested hallucinations: a test of the compliance hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Perugini, E M; Kirsch, I; Allen, S T; Coldwell, E; Meredith, J M; Montgomery, G H; Sheehan, J

    1998-04-01

    Suggestions for arm levitation and for visual, auditory, tactile, and taste hallucinations were administered twice via audiotape to a group of high suggestible students and low suggestible simulators. During one of the administrations, participants were led to believe they were alone, but their behavior was surreptitiously recorded on videotape and observed on a video monitor. During the other administration, they were observed openly by an experimenter who had not been informed about group assignment. When unaware that they were being observed, simulators were significantly less responsive to suggestion and engaged in substantially more role-inappropriate behavior. In contrast, the responsiveness of nonsimulating students was not affected by the presence of an experimenter, and they exhibited little role-inappropriate behavior even when alone. These data indicate that the responses of suggestible individuals reflect internally generated changes in experience and are not due to simple intentional compliance (i.e., faking). PMID:9558807

  15. Insightful hallucination: psychopathology or paranormal phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Gadit, Amin A Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a 26-year-old man who was so emotionally attached to his mother that the mere thought of separating from her caused immense anxiety. The death of his mother after a brief illness resulted in prolonged bereavement. However, the patient started seeing and talking to his mother after her death, which led to huge improvement in his mood and social functioning. His wife brought him in for consultation but no obvious psychopathology was detected. This gave rise to the dilemma of whether to consider this a real psychopathology and treat it, or to disregard this reported hallucination. No active treatment is being given to this patient at the moment. PMID:22698904

  16. [Visual hallucinations and giant cell arteritis: the Charles Bonnet syndrome].

    PubMed

    Bloch, J; Morell-Dubois, S; Koch, E; Launay, D; Maillard-Lefebvre, H; Buchdahl, A-L; Hachulla, E; Rouland, J-F; Hatron, P-Y; Lambert, M

    2011-12-01

    In patients with visual hallucinations, diagnostic strategy is unclearly codified. In patients known to have giant cell arteritis, the main diagnostic assumption is disease relapse. Indeed, this should lead to rapid corticosteroid therapy. However, the Charles Bonnet syndrome, that is a poorly known etiology of visual hallucinations usually observed in elderly people, should be part of the differential diagnosis. We report a 87-year-old woman, with a 2-year history of giant cell arteritis who was admitted with an acute onset of visual hallucinations and who met all the criteria for Charles Bonnet syndrome. PMID:21269738

  17. Renal Cell Carcinoma Presenting with Paraneoplastic Hallucinations and Cognitive Decline from Limbic Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Joshua W; Cherukuri, Ramesh; Buchan, Debra

    2015-07-01

    We present a 66-year-old woman with 2 months of visual hallucinations, unintentional weight loss, and short-term memory decline, whose clinical presentation and EEG supported a diagnosis of limbic encephalitis. Subsequent evaluation for a paraneoplastic etiology revealed a renal mass, which was resected and identified as clear cell renal carcinoma. The patient's clinical condition improved after resection of the mass. When patients present with incongruous subacute neuropsychiatric symptoms, clinicians should be mindful of paraneoplastic neurological disorders, as early diagnosis and treatment of malignancy may lead to symptomatic improvement. PMID:25608740

  18. Hymns and arias: musical hallucinations in older people in Wales.

    PubMed

    Warner, Nick; Aziz, Victor

    2005-07-01

    This is a phenomenological study of 30 consecutive referrals of older people with musical hallucinations concentrating on the names of the melodies heard. Hymns and Christmas carols were the most common experience with 'Abide with Me' particularly frequent. PMID:16021667

  19. An exploration of how psychotic-like symptoms are experienced, endorsed, and understood from the National Latino and Asian American Study and National Survey of American Life

    PubMed Central

    Earl, Tara; Fortuna, Lisa R.; Gao, Shan; Williams, David R.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Takeuchi, David; Alegría, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine racial/ethnic differences in the endorsement and attribution of psychotic-like symptoms in a nationally representative sample of African Americans, Asians, Caribbean Blacks, and Latinos living in the United States. Design Data were drawn from a total of 979 respondents who endorsed psychotic-like symptoms as part of the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). We use a mixed qualitative and quantitative analytical approach to examine sociodemographic and ethnic variations in the prevalence and attributions of hallucinations and other psychotic-like symptoms in the NLAAS and NSAL. The lifetime presence of psychotic-like symptoms was assessed using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI) psychotic symptom screener. We used logistic regression models to examine the probability of endorsing the four most frequently occurring thematic categories for psychotic-like experiences by race/ethnicity (n>100). We used qualitative methods to explore common themes from participant responses to open ended questions on their attributions for psychotic-like symptoms. Results African Americans were significantly less likely to endorse visual hallucinations compared to Caribbean Blacks (73.7% and 89.3%, p<.001), but they endorsed auditory hallucinations symptoms more than Caribbean Blacks (43.1% and 25.7, p<.05). Endorsing delusions of reference and thought insertion/withdrawal were more prevalent for Latinos than for African Americans (11% and 4.7%, p<.05; 6.3% and 2.7%, p<.05, respectively). Attribution themes included: supernatural, ghosts/unidentified beings, death and dying, spirituality or religiosity, premonitions, familial and other. Respondents differed by race/ethnicity in the attributions given to psychotic like symptoms. Conclusion Findings suggest that variations exist by race/ethnicity in both psychotic-like symptom endorsement and in self

  20. The Default Mode Network is Disrupted in Parkinson's Disease with Visual Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Nailin; Shek-Kwan Chang, Richard; Cheung, Charlton; Pang, Shirley; Lau, Kui Kai; Suckling, John; Rowe, James B; Yu, Kevin; Ka-Fung Mak, Henry; Chua, Siew-Eng; Ho, Shu Leong; McAlonan, Grainne M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Visual hallucinations (VH) are one of the most striking nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), and predict dementia and mortality. Aberrant default mode network (DMN) is associated with other psychoses. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DMN dysfunction contributes to VH in PD. Methods: Resting state functional data was acquired from individuals with PD with VH (PDVH) and without VH (PDnonVH), matched for levodopa drug equivalent dose, and a healthy control group (HC). Independent component analysis was used to investigate group differences in functional connectivity within the DMN. In addition, we investigated whether the functional changes associated with hallucinations were accompanied by differences in cortical thickness. Results: There were no group differences in cortical thickness but functional coactivation within components of the DMN was significantly lower in both PDVH and PDnonVH groups compared to HC. Functional coactivation within the DMN was found to be greater in PDVH group relative to PDnonVH group. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates, for the first time that, within a functionally abnormal DMN in PD, relatively higher “connectivity” is associated with VH. We postulate that aberrant connectivity in a large scale network affects sensory information processing and perception, and contributes to “positive” symptom generation in PD. Hum Brain Mapp 35:5658–5666, 2014. © 2014 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24985056

  1. Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder Masquerading as Social Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Mukund G.; Mishra, Shree; Varambally, Shivarama; Nagarajarao, Shivashankar; Gangadhar, Bangalore N.

    2015-01-01

    The authors report a case of a 47-year-old man who presented with treatment-resistant anxiety disorder. Behavioral observation raised clinical suspicion of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. The presence of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder was confirmed on audiological investigations. The patient was experiencing extreme symptoms of anxiety, which initially masked the underlying diagnosis of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. Challenges in diagnosis and treatment of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder are discussed. PMID:26351622

  2. Hearing it right: Evidence of hemispheric lateralization in auditory imagery.

    PubMed

    Prete, Giulia; Marzoli, Daniele; Brancucci, Alfredo; Tommasi, Luca

    2016-02-01

    An advantage of the right ear (REA) in auditory processing (especially for verbal content) has been firmly established in decades of behavioral, electrophysiological and neuroimaging research. The laterality of auditory imagery, however, has received little attention, despite its potential relevance for the understanding of auditory hallucinations and related phenomena. In Experiments 1-4 we find that right-handed participants required to imagine hearing a voice or a sound unilaterally show a strong population bias to localize the self-generated auditory image at their right ear, likely the result of left-hemispheric dominance in auditory processing. In Experiments 5-8 - by means of the same paradigm - it was also ascertained that the right-ear bias for hearing imagined voices depends just on auditory attention mechanisms, as biases due to other factors (i.e., lateralized movements) were controlled. These results, suggesting a central role of the left hemisphere in auditory imagery, demonstrate that brain asymmetries can drive strong lateral biases in mental imagery. PMID:26706706

  3. Auditory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ades, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    The physical correlations of hearing, i.e. the acoustic stimuli, are reported. The auditory system, consisting of external ear, middle ear, inner ear, organ of Corti, basilar membrane, hair cells, inner hair cells, outer hair cells, innervation of hair cells, and transducer mechanisms, is discussed. Both conductive and sensorineural hearing losses are also examined.

  4. Auditory synesthesias.

    PubMed

    Afra, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia is experienced when sensory stimulation of one sensory modality (the inducer) elicits an involuntary or automatic sensation in another sensory modality or different aspect of the same sensory modality (the concurrent). Auditory synesthesias (AS) occur when auditory stimuli trigger a variety of concurrents, or when non-auditory sensory stimulations trigger auditory synesthetic perception. The AS are divided into three types: developmental, acquired, and induced. Developmental AS are not a neurologic disorder but a different way of experiencing one's environment. They are involuntary and highly consistent experiences throughout one's life. Acquired AS have been reported in association with neurologic diseases that cause deafferentation of anterior optic pathways, with pathologic lesions affecting the central nervous system (CNS) outside of the optic pathways, as well as non-lesional cases associated with migraine, and epilepsy. It also has been reported with mood disorders as well as a single idiopathic case. Induced AS has been reported in experimental and postsurgical blindfolding, as well as intake of hallucinogenics or psychedelics. In this chapter the three different types of synesthesia, their characteristics, and phenomologic differences, as well as their possible neural mechanisms are discussed. PMID:25726281

  5. The effect of psychological stress and expectation on auditory perception: A signal detection analysis.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, Robert; Hunter, Mike D; Woodruff, Peter W R

    2014-11-01

    Both psychological stress and predictive signals relating to expected sensory input are believed to influence perception, an influence which, when disrupted, may contribute to the generation of auditory hallucinations. The effect of stress and semantic expectation on auditory perception was therefore examined in healthy participants using an auditory signal detection task requiring the detection of speech from within white noise. Trait anxiety was found to predict the extent to which stress influenced response bias, resulting in more anxious participants adopting a more liberal criterion, and therefore experiencing more false positives, when under stress. While semantic expectation was found to increase sensitivity, its presence also generated a shift in response bias towards reporting a signal, suggesting that the erroneous perception of speech became more likely. These findings provide a potential cognitive mechanism that may explain the impact of stress on hallucination-proneness, by suggesting that stress has the tendency to alter response bias in highly anxious individuals. These results also provide support for the idea that top-down processes such as those relating to semantic expectation may contribute to the generation of auditory hallucinations. PMID:25280122

  6. Might Hallucinations Have Social Utility?: A Proposal for Scientific Study.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Paul Richard

    2016-09-01

    There are many historical examples of people who heard voices or saw visions but were not classified as having a mental illness and who were supported by a religious community. The article offers a perspective for effective psychosocial supports for schizophrenia. The author analyzes data on 95 people who experienced verifiable persistent non-drug-assisted hallucinations in Europe, North America, and Australasia and discusses the life outcomes of 39 subjects. They include founders of religions, dysfunctional monarchs, persons with cosmological beliefs, and mental health workers. Their psychoses were intrinsic to their personalities and contributions. Hallucinations generated by psychosis were useful for cultural innovation, particularly in religion as many hallucinators were integrated into church history. Community, work, friendship, and supportive practices are discussed. A scientific study of effective psychosocial support to supplement medication for schizophrenia is outlined. PMID:27570899

  7. Network dynamics during the different stages of hallucinations in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Stéphanie; Demeulemeester, Morgane; Leroy, Arnaud; Delmaire, Christine; Lopes, Renaud; Pins, Delphine; Thomas, Pierre; Jardri, Renaud

    2016-07-01

    The majority of patients with schizophrenia suffer from hallucinations. While the triple-network model, which includes the default mode network (DMN), the central executive network (CEN) and the salience network (SAL), has recently been applied to schizophrenia, how this framework could explain the emergence of hallucinations remains unclear. Therefore, complementary brain regions that have been linked to hallucinations, such as the left hippocampus, should also be considered and added to this model. Accordingly, the present study explored the effective connectivity across these four components (i.e., the quadripartite model) during the different stages of hallucinations. Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia participated in a single session of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to capture hallucinatory experiences. Based on the participants' self-report of the psychosensory experiences that occurred during scanning, hallucinatory experiences were identified and divided into four stages: periods without hallucination ("OFF"), periods with hallucination ("ON"), transition periods between "OFF" and "ON", and the extinction of the hallucinatory experience ("END"). Using stochastic dynamic causal modeling analysis, this study first confirmed that the SAL played a critical and causal role in switching between the CEN and the DMN in schizophrenia. In addition, effective connectivity within the quadripartite model depended on the hallucinatory stage. In particular, "ON" periods were linked to memory-based sensory input from the hippocampus to the SAL, while "END" periods were associated with a takeover of the CEN in favor of a voluntary process. Finally, the pathophysiological and therapeutic implications of these findings are critically discussed. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2571-2586, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27016153

  8. Meta-analysis of the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on negative and positive symptoms in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Catarina; Fregni, Felipe; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2009-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence suggests that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can alleviate negative and positive symptoms of refractory schizophrenia. However, trials to date have been small and results are mixed. Methods We performed meta-analyses of all prospective studies of the therapeutic application of rTMS in refractory schizophrenia assessing the effects of high-frequency rTMS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to treat negative symptoms, and low-frequency rTMS to the left temporo-parietal cortex (TPC) to treat auditory hallucinations (AH) and overall positive symptoms. Results When analyzing controlled (active arms) and uncontrolled studies together, the effect sizes showed significant and moderate effects of rTMS on negative and positive symptoms (based on PANSS-N or SANS, and PANSS-P or SAPS, respectively). However, the analysis for the sham-controlled studies revealed a small non-significant effect size for negative (0.27, p=0.417) and for positive symptoms (0.17, p=0.129). When specifically analyzing AH (based on AHRS, HCS or SAH), the effect size for the sham-controlled studies was large and significant (1.04; p=0.002). Conclusions These meta-analyses support the need for further controlled, larger trials to assess the clinical efficacy of rTMS on negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia, while suggesting the need for exploration for alternative stimulation protocols. PMID:19138833

  9. Influence of metacognitive variables and thought suppression on number of thoughts, discomfort they produce and number and quality of auditory illusions.

    PubMed

    García-Montes, José M; Pérez-Alvarez, Marino; Fidalgo, Angel M

    2004-01-01

    Based on the model proposed by Morrison, Haddock & Tarrier (1995) on auditory hallucinations, this study explores the relationships between certain metacognitive variables and number of thoughts, the discomfort they produce, number of auditory illusions and the quality with which they are perceived in a sample from a non-clinical population. After group administration of the Metacognitions Questionnaire, 61 participants were randomly assigned to a suppression group (n = 31) or a focalization group (n = 30) in relation to thoughts with different degrees of self-discrepancy. Forty-eight hours after the set task, a non-vocal auditory stimulus was presented, and subjects were required to say whether they heard any words and, if so, how clearly. The results show how the metacognitive factors studied are useful for predicting our findings only for the suppression group and not for that of focalization. These data are discussed in the light of Morrison et al.'s model of auditory hallucinations. PMID:15625792

  10. Visuoperceptive region atrophy independent of cognitive status in patients with Parkinson’s disease with hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Stebbins, Glenn T.; Dinh, Vy; Bernard, Bryan; Merkitch, Doug; deToledo-Morrell, Leyla; Goetz, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    Visual hallucinations are frequent, disabling complications of advanced Parkinson’s disease, but their neuroanatomical basis is incompletely understood. Previous structural brain magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest volume loss in the mesial temporal lobe and limbic regions in subjects with Parkinson’s disease with visual hallucinations, relative to those without visual hallucinations. However, these studies have not always controlled for the presence of cognitive impairment or dementia, which are common co-morbidities of hallucinations in Parkinson’s disease and whose neuroanatomical substrates may involve mesial temporal lobe and limbic regions. Therefore, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging to examine grey matter atrophy patterns associated with visual hallucinations, comparing Parkinson’s disease hallucinators to Parkinson’s disease non-hallucinators of comparable cognitive function. We studied 50 subjects with Parkinson’s disease: 25 classified as current and chronic visual hallucinators and 25 as non-hallucinators, who were matched for cognitive status (demented or non-demented) and age (±3 years). Subjects underwent (i) clinical evaluations; and (ii) brain MRI scans analysed using whole-brain voxel-based morphometry techniques. Clinically, the Parkinson’s disease hallucinators did not differ in their cognitive classification or performance in any of the five assessed cognitive domains, compared with the non-hallucinators. The Parkinson’s disease groups also did not differ significantly in age, motor severity, medication use or duration of disease. On imaging analyses, the hallucinators, all of whom experienced visual hallucinations, exhibited grey matter atrophy with significant voxel-wise differences in the cuneus, lingual and fusiform gyri, middle occipital lobe, inferior parietal lobule, and also cingulate, paracentral, and precentral gyri, compared with the non-hallucinators. Grey matter atrophy in the hallucinators

  11. Visuoperceptive region atrophy independent of cognitive status in patients with Parkinson's disease with hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Jennifer G; Stebbins, Glenn T; Dinh, Vy; Bernard, Bryan; Merkitch, Doug; deToledo-Morrell, Leyla; Goetz, Christopher G

    2014-03-01

    Visual hallucinations are frequent, disabling complications of advanced Parkinson's disease, but their neuroanatomical basis is incompletely understood. Previous structural brain magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest volume loss in the mesial temporal lobe and limbic regions in subjects with Parkinson's disease with visual hallucinations, relative to those without visual hallucinations. However, these studies have not always controlled for the presence of cognitive impairment or dementia, which are common co-morbidities of hallucinations in Parkinson's disease and whose neuroanatomical substrates may involve mesial temporal lobe and limbic regions. Therefore, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging to examine grey matter atrophy patterns associated with visual hallucinations, comparing Parkinson's disease hallucinators to Parkinson's disease non-hallucinators of comparable cognitive function. We studied 50 subjects with Parkinson's disease: 25 classified as current and chronic visual hallucinators and 25 as non-hallucinators, who were matched for cognitive status (demented or non-demented) and age (± 3 years). Subjects underwent (i) clinical evaluations; and (ii) brain MRI scans analysed using whole-brain voxel-based morphometry techniques. Clinically, the Parkinson's disease hallucinators did not differ in their cognitive classification or performance in any of the five assessed cognitive domains, compared with the non-hallucinators. The Parkinson's disease groups also did not differ significantly in age, motor severity, medication use or duration of disease. On imaging analyses, the hallucinators, all of whom experienced visual hallucinations, exhibited grey matter atrophy with significant voxel-wise differences in the cuneus, lingual and fusiform gyri, middle occipital lobe, inferior parietal lobule, and also cingulate, paracentral, and precentral gyri, compared with the non-hallucinators. Grey matter atrophy in the hallucinators occurred

  12. Carbamazepine in Treatment of Visual Hallucinations: A Case of Chronic Hallucinatory Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Sayantanava; Khanra, Sourav; Mondal, Supriya Kumar; Kavoor, Anjana Rao; Das, Basudeb

    2015-01-01

    Visual hallucinations are commonly present in various neurological and psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia and other hallucinatory psychosis. Current conceptualization of hallucinations assume pattern completion model of thalamus to be responsible for the origin of this type of the perceptual abnormality and proposes that central inhibition of such circuits may treat hallucinations. We present a case of chronic hallucinatory psychosis with significantly distressing visual hallucinations, resistant to antipsychotics, which successfully responded to carbamazepine. This case illustrates the novel use of an antiepileptic in the treatment of resistant visual hallucinations. Targeted therapy of this kind can be considered in the future, although more evidence is required in this field. PMID:26702181

  13. Musical hallucinations in normal children and adult non-psychiatric population

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Victor

    2009-01-01

    A descriptive account of musical hallucinations of a series of 19 people is presented. Five people reported the onset of hallucination before adulthood. In this paper we demonstrate that musical hallucinations are not necessarily pathological and can occur as a normal experience in people (children and adults) who have no contact with mental health services and no concurrent mental disorder. This is also the first paper to recognise that children can experience musical hallucinations. Also, we show that musical hallucinations are more common than previously thought, but people do not report their occurrence. It seems plausible that in musical hallucinations there is an insult to the ear or brain that produces a change in quality of these images, converting them to a psychotic experience. Musical hallucinations should be regarded as a continuum with normal experiences and clinical syndromes. PMID:21686956

  14. Hallucinations predict attentional improvements with rivastigmine in dementia with lewy bodies.

    PubMed

    McKeith, Ian G; Wesnes, Keith A; Perry, Elaine; Ferrara, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this analysis of the effects of cholinergic therapy in dementia with Lewy bodies was to determine whether rivastigmine-induced benefits in attention and memory could be predicted by the presence of visual hallucinations. At study entry, 74% of patients were hallucinators and 26% were non-hallucinators. The population was analyzed for two-factor scores: power of attention (PoA) and quality of memory (QoM). A significant effect over placebo on PoA was observed in hallucinators at weeks 12 (p = 0.023) and 20 (p = 0.0019), while no treatment effects were seen in non-hallucinators. Significant treatment effects on QoM were not observed in either subgroup. Visual hallucinations predicted greater improvements in PoA, but not QoM. This may reflect the greater cholinergic deficits in areas of the brain responsible for visual hallucinations, offering greater potential for attentional improvement. PMID:15087584

  15. Auditory Neuropathy/Dyssynchrony in Biotinidase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Yaghini, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is a disorder inherited autosomal recessively showing evidence of hearing loss and optic atrophy in addition to seizures, hypotonia, and ataxia. In the present study, a 2-year-old boy with Biotinidase deficiency is presented in which clinical symptoms have been reported with auditory neuropathy/auditory dyssynchrony (AN/AD). In this case, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions showed bilaterally normal responses representing normal function of outer hair cells. In contrast, acoustic reflex test showed absent reflexes bilaterally, and visual reinforcement audiometry and auditory brainstem responses indicated severe to profound hearing loss in both ears. These results suggest AN/AD in patients with Biotinidase deficiency. PMID:27144235

  16. High resolution examination of the role of sleep disturbance in predicting functioning and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia: A novel experience sampling study.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Lee D; Haddock, Gillian; Emsley, Richard; Neil, Sandra T; Kyle, Simon D

    2016-08-01

    Sleep disturbance is common in schizophrenia, but its role in predicting functioning and psychotic symptoms has yet to be rigorously examined. The purpose of this study was to conduct a prospective, high-resolution examination of the relationship between nightly sleep and next-day functioning and psychotic symptoms in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Experience sampling methodology was integrated with actigraphy and sleep diaries across 7 days in 22 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Momentary assessments of mood, psychotic symptoms, and functioning were gathered at 5 points each day following pseudorandom schedules. Multilevel modeling was performed to evaluate the links between variables. Objective and subjective sleep disturbance predicted reduced next-day functioning, which remained significant after controlling for psychotic symptom severity. Increased sleep fragmentation and reduced subjective and objective sleep efficiency predicted greater next-day auditory hallucinations, whereas increased objective sleep fragmentation and reduced subjective sleep quality predicted greater paranoia and delusions of control. Negative affect on awakening mediated a proportion of these relationships (range: 17.9-57.3%). For the first time, we show that sleep disturbance is a predictor of next-day impaired functioning and psychotic symptom severity in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Therefore, interventions targeting sleep may have the potential to directly and indirectly enhance functional and symptomatic recovery in those experiencing psychosis. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27362488

  17. Auditory change detection in schizophrenia: sources of activity, related neuropsychological function and symptoms in patients with a first episode in adolescence, and patients 14 years after an adolescent illness-onset

    PubMed Central

    Oades, Robert D; Wild-Wall, Nele; Juran, Stephanie A; Sachsse, Jan; Oknina, Ljubov B; Röpcke, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    Background The event-related brain response mismatch negativity (MMN) registers changes in auditory stimulation with temporal lobe sources reflecting short-term echoic memory and frontal sources a deviance-induced switch in processing. Impairment, controversially present at the onset of schizophrenia, develops rapidly and can remain independent of clinical improvement. We examined the characteristics of the scalp-recorded MMN and related these to tests of short-term memory and set-shifting. We assessed whether the equivalent dipole sources are affected already at illness-onset in adolescence and how these features differ after a 14-year course following an adolescent onset. The strength, latency, orientation and location of frontal and temporal lobe sources of MMN activity early and late in the course of adolescent-onset schizophrenia are analysed and illustrated. Methods MMN, a measure of auditory change-detection, was elicited by short deviant tones in a 3-tone oddball-presentation and recorded from 32 scalp electrodes. Four dipole sources were placed following hypothesis-led calculations using brain electrical source analysis on brain atlas and MR-images. A short neuropsychological test battery was administered. We compared 28 adolescent patients with a first episode of schizophrenia and 18 patients 14 years after diagnosis in adolescence with two age-matched control groups from the community (n = 22 and 18, respectively). Results MMN peaked earlier in the younger than the older subjects. The amplitude was reduced in patients, especially the younger group, and was here associated with negative symptoms and slow set-shifting. In first-episode patients the temporal lobe sources were more ventral than in controls, while the left cingular and right inferior-mid frontal sources were more caudal. In the older patients the left temporal locus remained ventral (developmental stasis), the right temporal locus extended more antero-laterally (illness progression), and the

  18. Attentional modulation of external speech attribution in patients with hallucinations and delusions.

    PubMed

    Ilankovic, Lana Marija; Allen, Paul P; Engel, Rolf; Kambeitz, Joseph; Riedel, Michael; Müller, Norbert; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2011-04-01

    A range of psychological theories have been proposed to account for the experience of auditory hallucinations and delusions in schizophrenic patients. Most influential theories are those implicating the defective self-monitoring of inner speech. Some recent studies measured response bias independently of self-monitoring and found the results inconsistent with the defective self-monitoring model, but explained by an externalizing response bias. We aimed to investigate the role of attentional bias in external misattribution of source by modulating participant's endogenous expectancies. Comparisons were made between patients with paranoid schizophrenia (N=23) and matched healthy controls (N=23) who participated in two different versions of an audio-visual task, which differed based upon level of the cue predictiveness. The acoustic characteristic of voice was altered in half of the trials by shifting the pitch (distortion). Participants passively listened to recordings of single adjectives spoken in their own and another person's voice (alien) preceded by their own or another person's (alien) face and made self/non self judgments about the source. The patients showed increased error rates comparing to controls, when listening to the distorted self spoken words, misidentifying their own speech as produced by others. Importantly, patients made significantly more errors across all the invalid cue conditions. This suggests not only the presence of pathological misattribution bias, but also an inadequate balance between top-down and bottom-up attentional processes in the patients, which could be responsible for misattribution of the ambiguous sensory material. PMID:21241719

  19. Avatar therapy for persecutory auditory hallucinations: What is it and how does it work?

    PubMed Central

    Leff, Julian; Williams, Geoffrey; Huckvale, Mark; Arbuthnot, Maurice; Leff, Alex P.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a novel therapy based on a computer program, which enables the patient to create an avatar of the entity, human or non-human, which they believe is persecuting them. The therapist encourages the patient to enter into a dialogue with their avatar, and is able to use the program to change the avatar so that it comes under the patient's control over the course of six 30-min sessions and alters from being abusive to becoming friendly and supportive. The therapy was evaluated in a randomised controlled trial with a partial crossover design. One group went straight into the therapy arm: “immediate therapy”. The other continued with standard clinical care for 7 weeks then crossed over into Avatar therapy: “delayed therapy”. There was a significant reduction in the frequency and intensity of the voices and in their omnipotence and malevolence. Several individuals had a dramatic response, their voices ceasing completely after a few sessions of the therapy. The average effect size of the therapy was 0.8. We discuss the possible psychological mechanisms for the success of Avatar therapy and the implications for the origins of persecutory voices. PMID:24999369

  20. A Neuropsychiatric Model of Biological and Psychological Processes in the Remission of Delusions and Auditory Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    van der Gaag, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This selective review combines cognitive models and biological models of psychosis into a tentative integrated neuropsychiatric model. The aim of the model is to understand better, how pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavior therapy come forward as partners in the treatment of psychosis and play complementary and mutually reinforcing roles. The article reviews the dominant models in literature. The focus in this review is on one hand on neural circuits that are involved in cognitive models and on the other hand on cognitive processes and experiences involved in biological models. In this way, a 4-component neuropsychiatric model is tentatively constructed: (1) a biological component that leads to aberrant perceptions and salience of stimuli, (2) a cognitive component that attempts to explain the psychic abnormal events, (3) a mediating component with psychological biases which influences the reasoning process in the direction of the formation of (secondary) delusions, and (4) a component of psychological processes that maintains delusions and prevents the falsification of delusional ideas. Remission consists actually of 2 processes. Biological remission consists of the dampening of mesolimbic dopamine releases with antipsychotic medication and decreases the continuous salient experiences. Psychological remission consists of the reappraisal of primary psychotic experiences. Both forms of remission are partially independent. We expect that a full remission including biological and psychological remission could prevent relapse. PMID:16905635

  1. Unified framework of face hallucination across multiple modalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiang; Liu, Junhui; Li, Wenmin

    2015-02-01

    Face hallucination in a single modality environment has been heavily studied, in real-world environments under multiple modalities is still in its early stage. This paper presents a unified framework to solve face hallucination problem across multiple modalities i.e. different expressions, poses, illuminations. Almost all of the state-of-the-art face superresolution methods only generate a single output with the same modality of the low-resolution input. Our proposed framework is able to generate multiple outputs of different new modalities from only a single low-resolution input. It includes a global transformation with diagonal loading for modeling the mappings among different new facial modalities, and a local position-patch based method with weights compensation for incorporating image details. Experimental results illustrate the superiority of our framework.

  2. Changing relationship with voices: new therapeutic perspectives for treating hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Alvarez, Marino; García-Montes, José M; Perona-Garcelán, Salvador; Vallina-Fernández, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    A growing body of research on verbal hallucinations shows the importance of beliefs about and relationships with the voices for their pathological course. In particular, beliefs about the omnipotence of the voices and the need to control them, and relationships with them that involve efforts to resist or fight them, have shown themselves to be more pathogenic than effective. Likewise, treatments aimed at eliminating the voices, be they based on medication or 'traditional' cognitive-behavioural therapy, have not always been successful. A series of strategies focused on changing relationships with the voices instead of trying to eliminate them-including mindfulness, acceptance, experiential role plays and re-authoring lives-is emerging as a new perspective for the treatment of hallucinations. All of these strategies are based on the person, not on the syndrome, which also represents a new conception of the problem, in a phenomenological-social perspective, alternative to the predominant medical conception. PMID:19115430

  3. Visual Hallucinations (Charles Bonnet Syndrome) Associated with Neurosarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jason; Waisbren, Emily; Hashemi, Nafiseh; Lee, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    The Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) refers to lucid and complex visual hallucinations in cognitively normal patients with acquired vision loss. It can be associated with any type of vision loss including that related to macular degeneration, corneal disease, diabetic retinopathy, and occipital infarct. Neurosarcoidosis, a multi-systemic inflammatory granulomatous disease affecting both the central and peripheral nervous systems, is rarely associated with CBS. We report a patient with biopsy-confirmed neurosarcoidosis who experienced visual hallucinations following the development of a right seventh-nerve palsy, right facial paresthesia, and bilateral progressive visual loss. This case highlights the importance of recognizing that the CBS can occur in visual loss of any etiology. PMID:24339694

  4. The similarities between the hallucinations associated with the partial epileptic seizures of the occipital lobe and ball lightning observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, G. K.; Cooray, V.

    2007-12-01

    Ball Lightning was seen and described since antiquity and recorded in many places. Ball lightning is usually observed during thunderstorms but large number of ball lightning observations is also reported during fine weather without any connection to thunderstorms or lightning. However, so far no one has managed to generate them in the laboratory. It is photographed very rarely and in many cases the authenticity of them is questionable. It is possible that many different phenomena are grouped together and categorized simply as ball lightning. Indeed, the visual hallucinations associated with simple partial epileptic seizures, during which the patient remains conscious, may also be categorized by a patient unaware of his or her condition as ball lightning observation. Such visual hallucinations may occur as a result of an epileptic seizure in the occipital, temporo-occipital or temporal lobes of the cerebrum [1,2,3]. In some cases the hallucination is perceived as a coloured ball moving horizontally from the periphery to the centre of the vision. The ball may appear to be rotating or spinning. The colour of the ball can be red, yellow, blue or green. Sometimes, the ball may appear to have a solid structure surrounded by a thin glow or in other cases the ball appears to generate spark like phenomena. When the ball is moving towards the centre of the vision it may increase its intensity and when it reaches the centre it can 'explode' illuminating the whole field of vision. During the hallucinations the vision is obscured only in the area occupied by the apparent object. The hallucinations may last for 5 to 30 seconds and rarely up to a minute. Occipital seizures may spread into other regions of the brain giving auditory, olfactory and sensory sensations. These sensations could be buzzing sounds, the smell of burning rubber, pain with thermal perception especially in the arms and the face, and numbness and tingling sensation. In some cases a person may experience only

  5. Persistent psychotic symptoms after long-term heavy use of mephedrone: A two-case series.

    PubMed

    Barrio, Pablo; Gaskell, Matthew; Goti, Javier; Vilardell, Sergi; Fàbregas, Josep Maria

    2016-01-01

    Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is a synthetic stimulant drug of the cathinone class. Similar effects to those of cocaine and ecstasy are reported by users, with a high addictive potential. Given its increasing rate of consumption in Europe, it is getting more and more attention from the addiction field. In spite of that, little is known about the long-term consequences of prolonged heavy use. The two following cases might depict some of them. Case 1 was a middle-age man who reported three years of intravenous use of mephedrone. He used to binge for several days in a row. Psychotic symptoms appeared after a few months, especially paranoid delusions. Sent to aftercare in a therapeutic community, delusions kept reappearing after prolonged abstinence. A good response to risperidone was observed. Case 2 was a young man who used mephedrone heavily for two years, always snorted. Upon admission to the therapeutic community, the patient reported auditory hallucinations that partially remitted with olanzapine. Both cases showed a good insight and no personality deterioration. Given its similarities to other substances that are known to induce psychotic symptoms, and the increasing consumption of mephedrone around Europe, similar cases are expected in the near future. Conventional antipsychotic treatment seems a reasonable pharmacological approach. PMID:27399224

  6. New-onset delusions and hallucinations in patients infected with HIV.

    PubMed Central

    Alciati, A; Fusi, A; D'Arminio Monforte, A; Coen, M; Ferri, A; Mellado, C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between HIV-associated psychotic symptoms (i.e., delusions, hallucinations) and demographic, psychopathological and medical variables by comparing patients with and without cerebral opportunistic infections or metabolic encephalopathy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PATIENTS: 26 patients admitted to hospital with HIV and new-onset psychotic symptoms, defined according to DSM-III-R criteria. OUTCOME MEASURES: A semistructured psychiatric interview using the Psychopathology Assessment Scale (AMDP-4) of the Association for Methodology and Documentation in Psychiatry system. Comprehensive medical assessments, including laboratory tests and computed tomographic scans, were also performed. RESULTS: Patients with cerebral opportunistic infections or metabolic encephalopathy (i.e., "secondary" psychosis, n = 13) were more likely to show disorders of consciousness, disorders of orientation and disturbances of attention and memory than those with no evidence of HIV-related cerebral disease (i.e., "primary" psychosis, n = 13); 10 patients (77%) with cerebral opportunistic infections or metabolic encephalopathy and only 1 (8%) patient without (p < 0.001) were diagnosed with delirium. These associations were stronger for the "secondary" patients with no focal brain lesions than for those with lesions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that "organic" symptoms of psychosis in those infected with HIV are related to the systemic and cerebral complications of HIV infection rather than to the psychotic process itself. PMID:11394192

  7. Rumination, reflection, intrusive thoughts, and hallucination-proneness: towards a new model.

    PubMed

    Jones, Simon R; Fernyhough, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Although rumination has been proposed to play an important role in the creation of hallucinations, direct empirical tests of this proposal have not yet been performed. Employing a distinction between ruminative and reflective self-consciousness, we set out to test a new model of the relations among rumination, reflection, intrusive thoughts, thought suppression, social anxiety, and hallucination-proneness. This model proposed that rumination would be related to hallucination-proneness through the mediating variable of intrusive thoughts, but that reflection would not be related to hallucination-proneness. The model was tested in a student population (N=296) using path analyses. A modified version of the model was found to be a good fit to the data, once a direct path from reflection to hallucination-proneness had been added. As hypothesized, rumination was related to hallucination-proneness only indirectly, through the mediating variable of intrusive thoughts. Implications for interventions and future directions for research are considered. PMID:19013552

  8. The relationship between hallucinations and FDG-PET in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    PubMed

    Firbank, Michael J; Lloyd, Jim; O'Brien, John T

    2016-09-01

    Visual hallucinations are common in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), although their etiology is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between severity and frequency of hallucinations and regional brain glucose metabolism. We performed brain FDG-PET scanning on 28 subjects with DLB (mean age 76). The neuropsychiatric index (NPI) was used to assess frequency and severity of hallucinations. We used the SPM package to investigate voxelwise correlations between NPI hallucination score (severity x frequency) and FDG uptake relative to the cerebellum. There was a bilateral medial occipital region where reduced FDG was associated with increased hallucination severity and frequency. We conclude that the reduced occipital metabolism frequently seen in DLB is associated with frequency and severity of visual hallucinations. Further studies are required to investigate whether this is the result of deficits in top-down or bottom-up visual processing pathways. PMID:26239998

  9. Disturbances of Agency and Ownership in Schizophrenia: An Auditory Verbal Event Related Potentials Study.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Tim; Kindler, Jochen; Schneider, Rahel C; Strik, Werner; Dierks, Thomas; Hubl, Daniela; Koenig, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    A 'sense of self' is essentially the ability to distinguish between self-generated and external stimuli. It consists of at least two very basic senses: a sense of agency and a sense of ownership. Disturbances seem to provide a basic deficit in many psychiatric diseases. The aim of our study was to manipulate those qualities separately in 28 patients with schizophrenia (14 auditory hallucinators and 14 non-hallucinators) and 28 healthy controls (HC) and to investigate the effects on the topographies and the power of the event-related potential (ERP). We performed a 76-channel EEG while the participants performed the task as in our previous paper. We computed ERPs and difference maps for the conditions and compared the amount of agency and ownership between the HC and the patients. Furthermore, we compared the global field power and the topographies of these effects. Our data showed effects of agency and ownership in the healthy controls and the hallucinator group and to a lesser degree in the non-hallucinator group. We found a reduction of the N100 during the presence of agency, and a bilateral temporal negativity related to the presence of ownership. For the agency effects, we found significant differences between HC and the patients. Contrary to the expectations, our findings were more pronounced in non-hallucinators, suggesting a more profoundly disturbed sense of agency compared to hallucinators. A contemporary increase of global field power in both patient groups indicates a compensatory recruitment of other mechanisms not normally associated with the processing of agency and ownership. PMID:27209172

  10. Interactions of visual hallucinations, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: A review.

    PubMed

    Lenka, Abhishek; Hegde, Shantala; Jhunjhunwala, Ketan Ramakant; Pal, Pramod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease may develop various non-motor symptoms during the course of the illness. Visual hallucinations (VH) and cognitive impairment (CI) are two common non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Studies have reported association of both VH and CI with presence of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Presence of visual hallucinations and cognitive impairment has been described as risk factors for emergence of each other. There is marked overlap in the risk factors for development of RBD, VH and CI in patients with PD. Results of clinical and epidemiological studies as well as studies based on neuroimaging, electrophysiology especially transcranial magnetic stimulation and neuropsycholgical evaluations in PD patients have suggested presence of certain common neurobiological process leading to emergence of RBD, VH and CI. Structural neuroimaging studies using voxel-based morphometry have often reported grey matter atrophy of hippocampus and parahippocampal cortices in PD patients with RBD, VH and CI. Cholinergic dysfunction is common in PD patients with RBD, VH and CI. This review explores the complex interactions of RBD, VH and CI in patients with PD and their potential implications. PMID:26639978

  11. Right Anterior Insula: Core Region of Hallucinations in Cognitive Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Frédéric; Noblet, Vincent; Philippi, Nathalie; Cretin, Benjamin; Foucher, Jack; Armspach, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, François

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the neural basis of hallucinations Alzheimer's disease (AD) by applying voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to anatomical and functional data from the AD Neuroimaging Initiative. Methods AD patients with hallucinations, based on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-Q) (AD-hallu group; n = 39), were compared to AD patients without hallucinations matched for age, sex, educational level, handedness and MMSE (AD-c group; n = 39). Focal brain volume on MRI was analyzed and compared between the two groups according to the VBM method. We also performed voxel-level correlations between brain volume and hallucinations intensity. A similar paradigm was used for the PET analysis. “Core regions” (i.e. regions identified in both MRI and PET analyses, simply done by retaining the clusters obtained from the two analyses that are overlapping) were then determined. Results Regions with relative atrophy in association with hallucinations were: anterior part of the right insula, left superior frontal gyrus and lingual gyri. Regions with relative hypometabolism in association with hallucinations were a large right ventral and dorsolateral prefrontal area. "Core region" in association with hallucinations was the right anterior part of the insula. Correlations between intensity of hallucinations and brain volume were found in the right anterior insula, precentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and left precuneus. Correlations between intensity of hallucinations and brain hypometabolism were found in the left midcingulate gyrus. We checked the neuropathological status and we found that the 4 patients autopsied in the AD-hallu group had the mixed pathology AD and Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Conclusion Neural basis of hallucinations in cognitive neurodegenerative diseases (AD or AD and DLB) include a right predominant anterior-posterior network, and the anterior insula as the core region. This study is coherent with the top-down/bottom-up hypotheses on

  12. Contribution of psychoacoustics and neuroaudiology in revealing correlation of mental disorders with central auditory processing disorders

    PubMed Central

    Iliadou, V; Iakovides, S

    2003-01-01

    Background Psychoacoustics is a fascinating developing field concerned with the evaluation of the hearing sensation as an outcome of a sound or speech stimulus. Neuroaudiology with electrophysiologic testing, records the electrical activity of the auditory pathways, extending from the 8th cranial nerve up to the cortical auditory centers as a result of external auditory stimuli. Central Auditory Processing Disorders may co-exist with mental disorders and complicate diagnosis and outcome. Design A MEDLINE search was conducted to search for papers concerning the association between Central Auditory Processing Disorders and mental disorders. The research focused on the diagnostic methods providing the inter-connection of various mental disorders and central auditory deficits. Measurements and Main Results The medline research revealed 564 papers when using the keywords 'auditory deficits' and 'mental disorders'. 79 papers were referring specifically to Central Auditory Processing Disorders in connection with mental disorders. 175 papers were related to Schizophrenia, 126 to learning disabilities, 29 to Parkinson's disease, 88 to dyslexia and 39 to Alzheimer's disease. Assessment of the Central Auditory System is carried out through a great variety of tests that fall into two main categories: psychoacoustic and electrophysiologic testing. Different specialties are involved in the diagnosis and management of Central Auditory Processing Disorders as well as the mental disorders that may co-exist with them. As a result it is essential that they are all aware of the possibilities in diagnostic procedures. Conclusions Considerable evidence exists that mental disorders may correlate with CAPD and this correlation could be revealed through psychoacoustics and neuroaudiology. Mental disorders that relate to Central Auditory Processing Disorders are: Schizophrenia, attention deficit disorders, Alzheimer's disease, learning disabilities, dyslexia, depression, auditory

  13. [Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and their management].

    PubMed

    Lykouras, L; Gournellis, R

    2011-01-01

    The decline in cognitive function is a core feature of dementias. However, other symptoms of the disease are also crucial. These symptoms are the behavioral and psychological manifestations of dementia and include symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, delusional misindentification syndromes (DMS), illusions, anxiety, aggression, depression, personality changes, disinhibition-impulsivity, violation of social and moral norms, changes in dietary or eating behavior and repetitive behaviors. Delusions, hallucinations, anxiety, depression and aggression are highly prevalent in Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies, whereas symptoms that include severe disturbance of behavior are highly prevalent in frontotemporal dementias. Psychotic symptoms are associated with subcortical disturbances mainly of the limbic system. Patients with depression present greater loss of noradrenergic cells in the locus coeruleus and loss of serotonergic nuclei of dorsal raphe. Furthermore, disturbances of behavior are associated with frontal lobe dysfunction. Atypical antipsychotics is the first treatment option for delusions, hallucinations, misidentifications, anxiety and aggression. Furthermore, antidepressants may be useful for moderate or severe depression as well as for disinhibition-impulsivity, aggression, changes in dietary or eating behavior and repetitive behaviors. Cholinesterase inhibitors may also improve apathy, anxiety, disinhibition, aberrant behavior, mood disorders and hallucinations. Moreover, non-pharmacological methods alone or in combination with psychotropic drugs may also improve patient's symptomatology. PMID:21688522

  14. Fifty Percent Prevalence of Extracampine Hallucinations in Parkinson’s Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Ruth A.; Hopkins, Sarah A.; Moodley, Kuven K.; Chan, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Extracampine hallucinations (EH), the sense of a presence or fleeting movement in the absence of an associated visual percept, have been reported in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients but their prevalence, characteristics, and temporal relationship to visual hallucinations (VH) remain unclear. Given that, VH are predictive of cognitive impairment in PD, improved understanding of EH may have significant prognostic implications. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of EH in a large unselected population with PD and to assess the temporal relationship between EH, VH, and memory decline. Cross-sectional data were collected from 414 PD patients using a questionnaire circulated via an online patient community. Data were obtained regarding the occurrence, timing, and characteristics of VH and EH and symptoms of PD, disease duration, disease severity, and medication history. About 50.4% of respondents reported EH and 15.5% reported VH. EH were typically experienced alongside, rather than behind, the individual (p < 0.001) without clear lateralization (p = 0.438) and were more likely to be of unfamiliar presences (p < 0.001). The occurrence of EH was associated with Hoehn and Yahr score (p = 0.002) but not disease duration (p = 0.158). EH onset was associated with VH onset (p = 0.046) and occurred after the onset of anosmia (p < 0.001), cognitive decline (p = 0.002), and sleep disturbance (p = 0.002). The reported prevalence of EH in PD patients was threefold greater than that of VH, with similar timings of onset, suggesting that EH are under-recognized and under-reported. Further work is needed to determine whether EH are predictive of cognitive decline. PMID:26733937

  15. Nasopharyngeal tuberculosis presenting with auditory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Pankhania, Miran; Elloy, Marianne; Conboy, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    We present an unusual case of a 54-year-old Chinese lady presenting to the ears, nose and throat clinic after family members noticed that her hearing had progressively deteriorated over the preceding weeks. She also complained of tinnitus. Examination of the ears, nose and throat was unremarkable. Flexible nasoendoscopy demonstrated swelling in the postnasal space, which, following biopsy, was shown to be pathognomonic of tuberculosis. This was successfully treated with multidisciplinary input and the patient made a complete recovery. PMID:23047991

  16. The Search for Elusive Structure: A Promiscuous Realist Case for Researching Specific Psychotic Experiences Such as Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Bentall, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Problems in psychiatric classification have impeded research into psychopathology for more than a century. Here, I briefly review several new approaches to solving this problem, including the internalizing-externalizing-psychosis spectra, the 5-factor model of psychotic symptoms, and the more recent network approach. Researchers and clinicians should probably adopt an attitude of promiscuous realism and assume that a single classification system is unlikely to be effective for all purposes, and that different systems will need to be chosen for research into etiology, public mental health research, and clinical activities. Progress in understanding the risk factors and mechanisms that lead to psychopathology is most likely to be achieved by focusing on specific types of experience or symptoms such as hallucinations. PMID:24936080

  17. Auditory Imagery: Empirical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d)…

  18. Auditory Training for Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    PubMed

    Weihing, Jeffrey; Chermak, Gail D; Musiek, Frank E

    2015-11-01

    Auditory training (AT) is an important component of rehabilitation for patients with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). The present article identifies and describes aspects of AT as they relate to applications in this population. A description of the types of auditory processes along with information on relevant AT protocols that can be used to address these specific deficits is included. Characteristics and principles of effective AT procedures also are detailed in light of research that reflects on their value. Finally, research investigating AT in populations who show CAPD or present with auditory complaints is reported. Although efficacy data in this area are still emerging, current findings support the use of AT for treatment of auditory difficulties. PMID:27587909

  19. French version validation of the psychotic symptom rating scales (PSYRATS) for outpatients with persistent psychotic symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most scales that assess the presence and severity of psychotic symptoms often measure a broad range of experiences and behaviours, something that restricts the detailed measurement of specific symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations. The Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS) is a clinical assessment tool that focuses on the detailed measurement of these core symptoms. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the French version of the PSYRATS. Methods A sample of 103 outpatients suffering from schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders and presenting persistent psychotic symptoms over the previous three months was assessed using the PSYRATS. Seventy-five sample participants were also assessed with the Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results ICCs were superior to .90 for all items of the PSYRATS. Factor analysis replicated the factorial structure of the original version of the delusions scale. Similar to previous replications, the factor structure of the hallucinations scale was partially replicated. Convergent validity indicated that some specific PSYRATS items do not correlate with the PANSS delusions or hallucinations. The distress items of the PSYRATS are negatively correlated with the grandiosity scale of the PANSS. Conclusions The results of this study are limited by the relatively small sample size as well as the selection of participants with persistent symptoms. The French version of the PSYRATS partially replicates previously published results. Differences in factor structure of the hallucinations scale might be explained by greater variability of its elements. The future development of the scale should take into account the presence of grandiosity in order to better capture details of the psychotic experience. PMID:23020603

  20. Psychotic symptoms in young people warrant urgent referral.

    PubMed

    Deakin, Julia; Lennox, Belinda

    2013-03-01

    There is a worse prognosis for psychosis and schizophrenia when onset is in childhood or adolescence. However, outcomes are improved with early detection and treatment. Psychotic symptoms can be associated with a variety of disorders including schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, drug-induced psychosis, personality disorder, epilepsy and autistic spectrum disorder. Positive symptoms include hallucinations and delusions. Negative symptoms include apathy, lack of drive, poverty of speech, social withdrawal and self-neglect. The DSM IV criteria for schizophrenia include two or more of the following: hallucinations, delusions, disorganised speech, grossly disorganised or catatonic behaviour and negative symptoms. Adults may raise concerns about social withdrawal, bizarre ideas, a change in behaviour or a decline in achievement. Most children and young people with psychotic symptoms will not go on to develop psychosis or schizophrenia. Direct enquiry may be needed to elicit suspected unusual beliefs or hallucinations. To distinguish unusual ideas from delusions the ideas should be tested for fixity. For example by asking: 'Are you sure? Could there be another explanation?' Mood and anxiety symptoms should be explored. The assessment should include a developmental history with particular attention to premorbid functioning. Failure to make expected progress whether personal, social or academic is significant. Better outcomes in terms of symptoms and social function are associated with a shorter duration of untreated psychosis. The detection of psychotic symptoms in primary care therefore warrants an urgent referral to secondary care mental health services for assessment and treatment. PMID:23634636

  1. Elementary Visual Hallucinations and Their Relationships to Neural Pattern-Forming Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billock, Vincent A.; Tsou, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    An extraordinary variety of experimental (e.g., flicker, magnetic fields) and clinical (epilepsy, migraine) conditions give rise to a surprisingly common set of elementary hallucinations, including spots, geometric patterns, and jagged lines, some of which also have color, depth, motion, and texture. Many of these simple hallucinations fall into a…

  2. What Is the Link Between Hallucinations, Dreams, and Hypnagogic-Hypnopompic Experiences?

    PubMed

    Waters, Flavie; Blom, Jan Dirk; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Cheyne, Allan J; Alderson-Day, Ben; Woodruff, Peter; Collerton, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    By definition, hallucinations occur only in the full waking state. Yet similarities to sleep-related experiences such as hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations, dreams and parasomnias, have been noted since antiquity. These observations have prompted researchers to suggest a common aetiology for these phenomena based on the neurobiology of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. With our recent understanding of hallucinations in different population groups and at the neurobiological, cognitive and interpersonal levels, it is now possible to draw comparisons between the 2 sets of experiences as never before. In the current article, we make detailed comparisons between sleep-related experiences and hallucinations in Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and eye disease, at the levels of phenomenology (content, sensory modalities involved, perceptual attributes) and of brain function (brain activations, resting-state networks, neurotransmitter action). Findings show that sleep-related experiences share considerable overlap with hallucinations at the level of subjective descriptions and underlying brain mechanisms. Key differences remain however: (1) Sleep-related perceptions are immersive and largely cut off from reality, whereas hallucinations are discrete and overlaid on veridical perceptions; and (2) Sleep-related perceptions involve only a subset of neural networks implicated in hallucinations, reflecting perceptual signals processed in a functionally and cognitively closed-loop circuit. In summary, both phenomena are non-veridical perceptions that share some phenomenological and neural similarities, but insufficient evidence exists to fully support the notion that the majority of hallucinations depend on REM processes or REM intrusions into waking consciousness. PMID:27358492

  3. The linguistics of schizophrenia: thought disturbance as language pathology across positive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesize that linguistic (dis-)organization in the schizophrenic brain plays a more central role in the pathogenesis of this disease than commonly supposed. Against the standard view, that schizophrenia is a disturbance of thought or selfhood, we argue that the origins of the relevant forms of thought and selfhood at least partially depend on language. The view that they do not is premised by a theoretical conception of language that we here identify as ‘Cartesian’ and contrast with a recent ‘un-Cartesian’ model. This linguistic model empirically argues for both (i) a one-to-one correlation between human-specific thought or meaning and forms of grammatical organization, and (ii) an integrative and co-dependent view of linguistic cognition and its sensory-motor dimensions. Core dimensions of meaning mediated by grammar on this model specifically concern forms of referential and propositional meaning. A breakdown of these is virtually definitional of core symptoms. Within this model the three main positive symptoms of schizophrenia fall into place as failures in language-mediated forms of meaning, manifest either as a disorder of speech perception (Auditory Verbal Hallucinations), abnormal speech production running without feedback control (Formal Thought Disorder), or production of abnormal linguistic content (Delusions). Our hypothesis makes testable predictions for the language profile of schizophrenia across symptoms; it simplifies the cognitive neuropsychology of schizophrenia while not being inconsistent with a pattern of neurocognitive deficits and their correlations with symptoms; and it predicts persistent findings on disturbances of language-related circuitry in the schizophrenic brain. PMID:26236257

  4. The linguistics of schizophrenia: thought disturbance as language pathology across positive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesize that linguistic (dis-)organization in the schizophrenic brain plays a more central role in the pathogenesis of this disease than commonly supposed. Against the standard view, that schizophrenia is a disturbance of thought or selfhood, we argue that the origins of the relevant forms of thought and selfhood at least partially depend on language. The view that they do not is premised by a theoretical conception of language that we here identify as 'Cartesian' and contrast with a recent 'un-Cartesian' model. This linguistic model empirically argues for both (i) a one-to-one correlation between human-specific thought or meaning and forms of grammatical organization, and (ii) an integrative and co-dependent view of linguistic cognition and its sensory-motor dimensions. Core dimensions of meaning mediated by grammar on this model specifically concern forms of referential and propositional meaning. A breakdown of these is virtually definitional of core symptoms. Within this model the three main positive symptoms of schizophrenia fall into place as failures in language-mediated forms of meaning, manifest either as a disorder of speech perception (Auditory Verbal Hallucinations), abnormal speech production running without feedback control (Formal Thought Disorder), or production of abnormal linguistic content (Delusions). Our hypothesis makes testable predictions for the language profile of schizophrenia across symptoms; it simplifies the cognitive neuropsychology of schizophrenia while not being inconsistent with a pattern of neurocognitive deficits and their correlations with symptoms; and it predicts persistent findings on disturbances of language-related circuitry in the schizophrenic brain. PMID:26236257

  5. Auditory Processing in Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rotschafer, Sarah E.; Razak, Khaleel A.

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an inherited form of intellectual disability and autism. Among other symptoms, FXS patients demonstrate abnormalities in sensory processing and communication. Clinical, behavioral, and electrophysiological studies consistently show auditory hypersensitivity in humans with FXS. Consistent with observations in humans, the Fmr1 KO mouse model of FXS also shows evidence of altered auditory processing and communication deficiencies. A well-known and commonly used phenotype in pre-clinical studies of FXS is audiogenic seizures. In addition, increased acoustic startle response is seen in the Fmr1 KO mice. In vivo electrophysiological recordings indicate hyper-excitable responses, broader frequency tuning, and abnormal spectrotemporal processing in primary auditory cortex of Fmr1 KO mice. Thus, auditory hyper-excitability is a robust, reliable, and translatable biomarker in Fmr1 KO mice. Abnormal auditory evoked responses have been used as outcome measures to test therapeutics in FXS patients. Given that similarly abnormal responses are present in Fmr1 KO mice suggests that cellular mechanisms can be addressed. Sensory cortical deficits are relatively more tractable from a mechanistic perspective than more complex social behaviors that are typically studied in autism and FXS. The focus of this review is to bring together clinical, functional, and structural studies in humans with electrophysiological and behavioral studies in mice to make the case that auditory hypersensitivity provides a unique opportunity to integrate molecular, cellular, circuit level studies with behavioral outcomes in the search for therapeutics for FXS and other autism spectrum disorders. PMID:24550778

  6. Auditory imagery: empirical findings.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2010-03-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear). PMID:20192565

  7. Imagine that: elevated sensory strength of mental imagery in individuals with Parkinson's disease and visual hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Shine, James M.; Keogh, Rebecca; O'Callaghan, Claire; Muller, Alana J.; Lewis, Simon J. G.; Pearson, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Visual hallucinations occur when our conscious experience does not accurately reflect external reality. However, these dissociations also regularly occur when we imagine the world around us in the absence of visual stimulation. We used two novel behavioural paradigms to objectively measure visual hallucinations and voluntary mental imagery in 19 individuals with Parkinson's disease (ten with visual hallucinations; nine without) and ten healthy, age-matched controls. We then used this behavioural overlap to interrogate the connectivity both within and between the major attentional control networks using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with visual hallucinations had elevated mental imagery strength compared with patients without hallucinations and controls. Specifically, the sensory strength of imagery predicted the frequency of visual hallucinations. Together, hallucinations and mental imagery predicted multiple abnormalities in functional connectivity both within and between the attentional control networks, as measured with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. However, the two phenomena were also dissociable at the neural level, with both mental imagery and visual misperceptions associated with specific abnormalities in attentional network connectivity. Our results provide the first evidence of both the shared and unique neural correlates of these two similar, yet distinct phenomena. PMID:25429016

  8. Visual symptoms in Parkinson's disease and Parkinson's disease dementia.

    PubMed

    Archibald, Neil K; Clarke, Mike P; Mosimann, Urs P; Burn, David J

    2011-11-01

    Visual symptoms are common in PD and PD dementia and include difficulty reading, double vision, illusions, feelings of presence and passage, and complex visual hallucinations. Despite the established prognostic implications of complex visual hallucinations, the interaction between cognitive decline, visual impairment, and other visual symptoms remains poorly understood. Our aim was to characterize the spectrum of visual symptomatology in PD and examine clinical predictors for their occurrence. Sixty-four subjects with PD, 26 with PD dementia, and 32 age-matched controls were assessed for visual symptoms, cognitive impairment, and ocular pathology. Complex visual hallucinations were common in PD (17%) and PD dementia (89%). Dementia subjects reported illusions (65%) and presence (62%) more frequently than PD or control subjects, but the frequency of passage hallucinations in PD and PD dementia groups was equivalent (48% versus 69%, respectively; P = 0.102). Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity was impaired in parkinsonian subjects, with disease severity and age emerging as the key predictors. Regression analysis identified a variety of factors independently predictive of complex visual hallucinations (e.g., dementia, visual acuity, and depression), illusions (e.g., excessive daytime somnolence and disease severity), and presence (e.g., rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and excessive daytime somnolence). Our results demonstrate that different "hallucinatory" experiences in PD do not necessarily share common disease predictors and may, therefore, be driven by different pathophysiological mechanisms. If confirmed, such a finding will have important implications for future studies of visual symptoms and cognitive decline in PD and PD dementia. PMID:21953737

  9. Rate and predictors of psychotic symptoms after Kashmir earthquake.

    PubMed

    Ayub, Muhammad; Saeed, Khalid; Kingdon, David; Naeem, Farooq

    2015-09-01

    Psychotic symptoms are more common in general population than validated diagnosis of psychosis. There is evidence to suggest that these symptoms, hallucinations, paranoia, elated mood, thought insertion, are part of a spectrum of psychosis and may have association with the same risk factors that determine development of psychosis. These symptoms have an association with exposure to psychological trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in the population affected by a natural disaster, earthquake in this case and possible correlates of these symptoms. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a population sample affected by the disaster, comprising of 1,291 individuals, 18 months after 2005 earthquake in Northern Pakistan and Kashmir to look at the prevalence of these symptoms and their correlates. Screening Instrument for Traumatic Stress in Earthquake Survivors and Self-Reporting Questionnaire and Psychosis Screening Questionnaire were used as tools. We examined association between the symptoms of anxiety, depression, PTSD and psychotic symptoms. We performed logistic regression analysis where hallucinations and delusions were dependent variables and demographic and trauma exposure variables were independent variables. The prevalence of psychotic symptoms ranged between 16.8 and 30.4 %. They were directly correlated with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder as well as concurrent symptoms of anxiety and depression. Lower level of education had a strong association in all the regression models. For hallucinations, living in a joint family had a negative association and participation in rescue, history of exposure to previous trauma and past psychiatric history had positive association. Paranoia was associated with female gender. Any psychiatric symptom was associated death of a family member, history of past psychiatric illness and living in a tent at the time of

  10. Structural and functional neuroimaging in patients with Parkinson's disease and visual hallucinations: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Lenka, Abhishek; Jhunjhunwala, Ketan Ramakant; Saini, Jitender; Pal, Pramod Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may develop various non-motor symptoms (NMS) during the course of the illness and psychosis is one of the common NMS of PD. Visual hallucinations (VH) are the most common manifestation of psychosis in PD. The exact pathogenesis of VH in patients with PD is not clearly understood. Presence of VH has been described to be associated with rapid cognitive decline and increased nursing home placements in PD patients. A large number of structural and functional neuroimaging studies have been conducted to understand the cerebral basis of VH in PD. Structural imaging studies (Voxel Based Morphometry) have reported grey matter atrophy in multiple regions of the brain such as primary visual cortex, visual association cortex, limbic regions, cholinergic structures such as pedunculopontine nucleus and substantia innominata, which conclude possible alterations of brain regions associated with functions such as visuospatial-perception, attention control and memory. Most functional neuroimaging studies (functional MRI, positron emission tomography and single photon emission computerized tomography) have reported altered activation, blood flow, or reduced metabolism in both dorsal and ventral visual pathways, which probably indicates an alteration in the normal bottom-top visual processing and the presence of an aberrant top-down visual processing. This review critically analyzes the published studies on the structural and functional neuroimaging in PD patients with VH. PMID:25920541

  11. Attending to auditory memory.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Jacqueline F; Moscovitch, Morris; Alain, Claude

    2016-06-01

    Attention to memory describes the process of attending to memory traces when the object is no longer present. It has been studied primarily for representations of visual stimuli with only few studies examining attention to sound object representations in short-term memory. Here, we review the interplay of attention and auditory memory with an emphasis on 1) attending to auditory memory in the absence of related external stimuli (i.e., reflective attention) and 2) effects of existing memory on guiding attention. Attention to auditory memory is discussed in the context of change deafness, and we argue that failures to detect changes in our auditory environments are most likely the result of a faulty comparison system of incoming and stored information. Also, objects are the primary building blocks of auditory attention, but attention can also be directed to individual features (e.g., pitch). We review short-term and long-term memory guided modulation of attention based on characteristic features, location, and/or semantic properties of auditory objects, and propose that auditory attention to memory pathways emerge after sensory memory. A neural model for auditory attention to memory is developed, which comprises two separate pathways in the parietal cortex, one involved in attention to higher-order features and the other involved in attention to sensory information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26638836

  12. Case Report of Vestibularly evoked Visual Hallucinations in a Patient with Cortical Blindness.

    PubMed

    Kolev, Ognyan I

    2016-08-01

    Previous work has shown that caloric vestibular stimulation may evoke elementary visual hallucinations in healthy humans, such as different colored lines or dots. Surprisingly, the present case report reveals that the same stimulation can evoke visual hallucinations in a patient with cortical blindness, but with fundamentally different characteristics. The visual hallucinations evoked were complex and came from daily life experiences. Moreover, they did not include other senses beyond vision. This case report suggests that in conditions of cerebral pathology, vestibular-visual interaction may stimulate hallucinogenic subcortical, or undamaged cortical structures, and arouse mechanisms that can generate visual images exclusively. PMID:27246956

  13. Auditory Hallucinosis as a Presenting Feature of Interpeduncular Lipoma with Proximal P1 Segment Fenestration: Report of a Rare Case and Review of Literature on Peduncular Hallucinosis

    PubMed Central

    Kulhari, Ashish; Manjila, Sunil; Singh, Gagandeep; Kumar, Kunal; Tarr, Robert W; Bambakidis, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The authors present a unique case of intracranial lipoma in the interpeduncular cistern associated with proximal P1 segment fenestration. This patient is a 20-year-old male with extensive psychiatric history and complaints of recent auditory hallucinations. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (T1, T2, and FLAIR) showed a hyperintense lesion in the left aspect of interpeduncular cistern with a prominent flow void within the hyperintense lesion suggestive of a combined vascular–lipomatous lesion. Computed tomography (CT) angiography showed a high-riding large tortuous P1 segment on the left side with proximal fenestration, the ectatic posteromedial limb harboring a fusiform dilated segment. Since there are anecdotal cases of cerebral aneurysms associated with intracranial lipomas, a conventional angiography was done, which confirmed a proximal left P1 fenestration and a fusiform-dilated segment, and no aneurysm. There are few cases of hallucinations associated with a vascular midbrain pathology reported in literature, but hallucinations associated with a combination of lipoma and arterial ectasia have never been reported. This article not only demonstrates the MRI and angiographic appearance of this rare lipomatous lesion but also highlights this unique association and significance of auditory hallucinations as a clinical presentation, akin to peduncular hallucinosis. PMID:27403217

  14. The curious case of an invisible dog: a patient with non-psychiatric visual hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Gulsin, Gaurav Singh; Gali, Swetha; Patel, Prashanth; Gupta, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    A 74-year-old man reported experiencing hallucinations of a dog standing on his right side, following a recent episode of infective endocarditis. There was no history of reduced conscious level, psychosis or substance misuse. Neurological examination revealed an isolated right inferior quadrantopia, and the hallucinations were visible only in the area of the visual defect. A computed tomography scan confirmed a left occipital lobe infarct, congruent with the clinical signs. The infarct was deemed to be have originated from a septic embolus of his infected aortic valve and he was diagnosed with Charles Bonnet's syndrome (CBS). CBS is characterized by the presence of stereotyped visual hallucinations on a background of partial sight and in the absence of any psychotic illness. Early recognition can prevent wrongful diagnosis of a psychiatric condition, which may provide comfort to patients. Management is centred on reassurance and counselling, with medical therapies reserved only for patients experiencing distressing hallucinations. PMID:26835149

  15. Visual hallucinations and pontine demyelination in a child: possible REM dissociation?

    PubMed

    Vita, Maria Gabriella; Batocchi, Anna Paola; Dittoni, Serena; Losurdo, Anna; Cianfoni, Alessandro; Stefanini, Maria Chiara; Vollono, Catello; Della Marca, Giacomo; Mariotti, Paolo

    2008-12-15

    An 11 year-old-boy acutely developed complex visual and acoustic hallucinations. Hallucinations, consisting of visions of a threatening, evil character of the Harry Potter saga, persisted for 3 days. Neurological and psychiatric examinations were normal. Ictal EEG was negative. MRI documented 3 small areas of hyperintense signal in the brainstem, along the paramedian and lateral portions of pontine tegmentum, one of which showed post-contrast enhancement. These lesions were likely of inflammatory origin, and treatment with immunoglobulins was started. Polysomnography was normal, multiple sleep latency test showed a mean sleep latency of 8 minutes, with one sleep-onset REM period. The pontine tegmentum is responsible for REM sleep regulation, and contains definite "REM-on" and "REM-off" regions. The anatomical distribution of the lesions permits us to hypothesize that hallucinations in this boy were consequent to a transient impairment of REM sleep inhibitory mechanisms, with the appearance of dream-like hallucinations during wake. PMID:19110890

  16. From stroboscope to dream machine: a history of flicker-induced hallucinations.

    PubMed

    ter Meulen, B C; Tavy, D; Jacobs, B C

    2009-01-01

    When early neurophysiologists, like William Grey Walter (1910-1977), started using intermittent photic driving in electroencephalography, they were struck by a wide range of visual hallucinations that were reported. In current neuroscience, the phenomenon is used mainly to model hallucinations that are related to altered neuronal activity between the thalamus and the visual cortex, such as the Charles Bonnet syndrome. However, during the psychedelic 1960s, Brion Gysin (1916-1986), a painter and a poet, became interested in the hallucinations and designed his own stroboscope or dream machine, as a means for spiritual enlightenment. This article traces back the history of flicker-induced hallucinations from the early use of stroboscopes in neurophysiology to the dream machine. PMID:19729929

  17. THE STABILITY OF SYMPTOMS AND SYNDROMES IN CHRONIC SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Borde, Milind; Davis, Elizabeth J.B.; Sharma, L.N.

    1992-01-01

    36 chronic schizophrenic patients meeting D.S.M. III - R criteria were assessed by a single rater using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Ratings were repeated 9 months later by the same rater. Negative symptoms and syndromes were much more stable over time than positive symptoms and syndromes. Only hallucinations had stability comparable to the negative symptoms. Positive and negative subtypes of schizophrenia based on the composite score were very stable. Relatively few symptoms from the general psychopathology subscale were stable over time. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21776113

  18. What causes auditory distraction?

    PubMed

    Macken, William J; Phelps, Fiona G; Jones, Dylan M

    2009-02-01

    The role of separating task-relevant from task-irrelevant aspects of the environment is typically assigned to the executive functioning of working memory. However, pervasive aspects of auditory distraction have been shown to be unrelated to working memory capacity in a range of studies of individual differences. We measured individual differences in global pattern matching and deliberate recoding of auditory sequences, and showed that, although deliberate processing was related to short-term memory performance, it did not predict the extent to which that performance was disrupted by task-irrelevant sound. Individual differences in global sequence processing were, however, positively related to the degree to which auditory distraction occurred. We argue that much auditory distraction, rather than being a negative function of working memory capacity, is in fact a positive function of the acuity of obligatory auditory processing. PMID:19145024

  19. Multimodal Hallucination (Audio-visual, Kinaesthetic and Scenic) Associated with the Use of Zolpidem

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Dushad; Eiman, Najla; Gowdappa, Basavana

    2015-01-01

    We are reporting a case of zolpidem induced multimodal hallucinations in a 22 year old female without any history of psychiatric disorders. Zolpidem, by acting on gamma-amino butyric acid type A receptor has a potential to cause a paradoxical reaction and there also exists a possibility of an induced delirium with its use. This case reports evaluates its potential to cause multimodal hallucinations. Zolpidem needs to be prescribed judiciously with the caution of potential side effects particularly in females. PMID:26243852

  20. The seahorse, the almond, and the night-mare: elaborative encoding during sleep-paralysis hallucinations?

    PubMed

    Girard, Todd A

    2013-12-01

    Llewellyn's proposal that rapid eye movement (REM) dreaming reflects elaborative encoding mediated by the hippocampus ("seahorse") offers an interesting perspective for understanding hallucinations accompanying sleep paralysis (SP; "night-mare"). SP arises from anomalous intrusion of REM processes into waking consciousness, including threat-detection systems mediated by the amygdala ("almond"). Unique aspects of SP hallucinations offer additional prospects for investigation of Llewellyn's theory of elaborative encoding. PMID:24304759

  1. Visual hallucinations in the 19th century: research in a medical archive.

    PubMed

    di Diodoro, D; Bruschi, C; Esposito, W; Ferrari, G

    1998-11-01

    The authors have gathered and analyzed the visual hallucinations described in the mid- to late-19th century from archived medical records of the former psychiatric hospital "Osservanza" in Imola, northern Italy. Though the investigation was not intended as a statistical survey, the principal aim being to classify the hallucinations according to their outward characteristics, the authors have tried to locate the possible sources of these phenomena in folklore and religious iconography. PMID:9824175

  2. Multimodal Hallucination (Audio-visual, Kinaesthetic and Scenic) Associated with the Use of Zolpidem.

    PubMed

    Ram, Dushad; Eiman, Najla; Gowdappa, Basavana

    2015-08-31

    We are reporting a case of zolpidem induced multimodal hallucinations in a 22 year old female without any history of psychiatric disorders. Zolpidem, by acting on gamma-amino butyric acid type A receptor has a potential to cause a paradoxical reaction and there also exists a possibility of an induced delirium with its use. This case reports evaluates its potential to cause multimodal hallucinations. Zolpidem needs to be prescribed judiciously with the caution of potential side effects particularly in females. PMID:26243852

  3. Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how auditory-motor learning influences performers' memory for music. Skilled pianists learned novel melodies in four conditions: auditory only (listening), motor only (performing without sound), strongly coupled auditory-motor (normal performance), and weakly coupled auditory-motor (performing along with auditory recordings). Pianists' recognition of the learned melodies was better following auditory-only or auditory-motor (weakly coupled and strongly coupled) learning than following motor-only learning, and better following strongly coupled auditory-motor learning than following auditory-only learning. Auditory and motor imagery abilities modulated the learning effects: Pianists with high auditory imagery scores had better recognition following motor-only learning, suggesting that auditory imagery compensated for missing auditory feedback at the learning stage. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 with melodies that contained greater variation in acoustic features. Melodies that were slower and less variable in tempo and intensity were remembered better following weakly coupled auditory-motor learning. These findings suggest that motor learning can aid performers' auditory recognition of music beyond auditory learning alone, and that motor learning is influenced by individual abilities in mental imagery and by variation in acoustic features. PMID:22271265

  4. Hallucinators find meaning in noises: pareidolic illusions in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Kayoko; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Uchiyama, Makoto; Shimomura, Tatsuo; Iizuka, Osamu; Mori, Etsuro

    2014-04-01

    By definition, visual illusions and hallucinations differ in whether the perceived objects exist in reality. A recent study challenged this dichotomy, in which pareidolias, a type of complex visual illusion involving ambiguous forms being perceived as meaningful objects, are very common and phenomenologically similar to visual hallucinations in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We hypothesise that a common psychological mechanism exists between pareidolias and visual hallucinations in DLB that confers meaning upon meaningless visual information. Furthermore, we believe that these two types of visual misperceptions have a common underlying neural mechanism, namely, cholinergic insufficiency. The current study investigated pareidolic illusions using meaningless visual noise stimuli (the noise pareidolia test) in 34 patients with DLB, 34 patients with Alzheimer׳s disease and 28 healthy controls. Fifteen patients with DLB were administered the noise pareidolia test twice, before and after donepezil treatment. Three major findings were discovered: (1) DLB patients saw meaningful illusory images (pareidolias) in meaningless visual stimuli, (2) the number of pareidolic responses correlated with the severity of visual hallucinations, and (3) cholinergic enhancement reduced both the number of pareidolias and the severity of visual hallucinations in patients with DLB. These findings suggest that a common underlying psychological and neural mechanism exists between pareidolias and visual hallucinations in DLB. PMID:24491313

  5. Performance evaluation in color face hallucination with error regression model in MPCA subspace method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asavaskulkiet, Krissada

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel face super-resolution reconstruction (hallucination) technique for YCbCr color space. The underlying idea is to learn with an error regression model and multi-linear principal component analysis (MPCA). From hallucination framework, many color face images are explained in YCbCr space. To reduce the time complexity of color face hallucination, we can be naturally described the color face imaged as tensors or multi-linear arrays. In addition, the error regression analysis is used to find the error estimation which can be obtained from the existing LR in tensor space. In learning process is from the mistakes in reconstruct face images of the training dataset by MPCA, then finding the relationship between input and error by regression analysis. In hallucinating process uses normal method by backprojection of MPCA, after that the result is corrected with the error estimation. In this contribution we show that our hallucination technique can be suitable for color face images both in RGB and YCbCr space. By using the MPCA subspace with error regression model, we can generate photorealistic color face images. Our approach is demonstrated by extensive experiments with high-quality hallucinated color faces. Comparison with existing algorithms shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Relationship between childhood trauma, mindfulness, and dissociation in subjects with and without hallucination proneness.

    PubMed

    Perona-Garcelán, Salvador; García-Montes, José M; Rodríguez-Testal, Juan Francisco; López-Jiménez, Ana Ma; Ruiz-Veguilla, Miguel; Ductor-Recuerda, María Jesús; Benítez-Hernández, María del Mar; Arias-Velarde, Ma Ángeles; Gómez-Gómez, María Teresa; Pérez-Álvarez, Marino

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between childhood traumas, mindfulness, and dissociation (more specifically, absorption and depersonalization) in healthy subjects with and without hallucination proneness. A sample of 318 subjects was given the Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale-Revised (R. P. Bentall & P. Slade, 1985). From this sample, 2 groups were formed: one with high and the other with low hallucination proneness. Furthermore, all participants were given the Tellegen Absorption Scale (A. Tellegen & G. Atkinson, 1974), the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (M. Sierra & G. E. Berrios, 2000), the Southampton Mindfulness Questionnaire (P. D. J. Chadwick et al., 2008), and the Trauma Questionnaire (J. R. E. Davidson, D. Hughes, & D. G. Blazer, 1990). The results showed that in the group with high hallucination proneness, there were significantly more subjects with traumatic experiences than in the group with low predisposition, although no significant difference in the mean number of traumatic experiences undergone in childhood was found between the 2 groups, although there was a trend toward significance. A correlation analysis showed a significant negative association between mindfulness on the one hand and absorption and depersonalization on the other. A positive relationship was also found between childhood traumas and absorption and depersonalization. Finally, multiple mediation analysis showed that the absorption and depersonalization variables acted as mediators between childhood traumas and hallucination proneness. We discuss the importance of the relationship between the variables studied and hallucination proneness and suggest some approaches for their treatment. PMID:24377971

  7. Preclinical Polymodal Hallucinations for 13 Years before Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Abbate, Carlo; Trimarchi, Pietro Davide; Inglese, Silvia; Viti, Niccolò; Cantatore, Alessandra; De Agostini, Lisa; Pirri, Federico; Marino, Lorenza; Bagarolo, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We describe a case of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) that presented long-lasting preclinical complex polymodal hallucinations. Background. Few studies have deeply investigated the characteristics of hallucinations in DLB, especially in the preclinical phase. Moreover, the clinical phenotype of mild cognitive impairment-(MCI-) DLB is poorly understood. Methods. The patient was followed for 4 years and a selective phenomenological and cognitive study was performed at the predementia stage. Results. The phenomenological study showed the presence of hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations that allowed us to make a differential diagnosis between DLB and Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS). The neuropsychological evaluation showed a multiple domain without amnesia MCI subtype with prefrontal dysexecutive, visuoperceptual, and visuospatial impairments and simultanagnosia, which has not previously been reported in MCI-DLB. Conclusions. This study extends the prognostic value of hallucinations for DLB to the preclinical phases. It supports and refines the MCI-DLB concept and identifies simultanagnosia as a possible early cognitive marker. Finally, it confirms an association between hallucinations and visuoperceptual impairments at an intermediate stage of the disease course and strongly supports the hypothesis that hallucinations in the earliest stages of DLB may reflect a narcolepsy-like REM-sleep disorder. PMID:24868122

  8. Failing to self-ascribe thought and motion: towards a three-factor account of passivity symptoms in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gray, David Miguel

    2014-01-01

    There has recently been emphasis put on providing two-factor accounts of monothematic delusions. Such accounts would explain (1) whether a delusional hypothesis (e.g. someone else is inserting thoughts into my mind) can be understood as a prima facie reasonable response to an experience and (2) why such a delusional hypothesis is believed and maintained given its implausibility and evidence against it. I argue that if we are to avoid obfuscating the cognitive mechanisms involved in monothematic delusion formation we should split the first factor (1 above) into two factors: how abnormal experience can give rise to a delusional 'proto-hypothesis' and how a 'proto-hypothesis' in consort with normal experiences and background information, can be developed into a delusional hypothesis. In particular I will argue that a schizophrenic is faced with the unusual requirement of having to identify an introspectively accessible thought as one's own, and that this requirement of identification is the central experiential abnormality of thought insertion, auditory verbal hallucination, and alien control (i.e. passivity symptoms). Additionally, I will consider non-experiential factors which are required for the formation of a delusional hypothesis. PMID:23835003

  9. Insomnia and hallucinations in the general population: Findings from the 2000 and 2007 British Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys.

    PubMed

    Sheaves, Bryony; Bebbington, Paul E; Goodwin, Guy M; Harrison, Paul J; Espie, Colin A; Foster, Russell G; Freeman, Daniel

    2016-07-30

    Insomnia is common in people experiencing psychosis. It has been identified as a contributory cause of paranoia, but any causal relationship with hallucinations has yet to be established. We tested the hypotheses that insomnia i) has a cross-sectional association with hallucinations ii) predicts new inceptions of hallucinations and iii) that these associations remain after controlling for depression, anxiety, and paranoia. Data from the second (2000, N=8580) and third (2007, N=7403) British Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys were used to assess cross-sectional associations between insomnia and hallucinations. The 2000 dataset included an 18 month follow up of a subsample (N=2406) used to test whether insomnia predicted new inceptions of hallucinations. Insomnia was associated with hallucinations in both cross-sectional datasets. Mild sleep problems were associated with 2-3 times greater odds of reporting hallucinations, whilst chronic insomnia was associated with four times greater odds. Insomnia was also associated with increased odds of hallucinations occurring de novo over the next 18 months. These associations remained significant, although with smaller odds ratios, after controlling for depression, anxiety and paranoia. This is the first longitudinal evidence that insomnia is associated with the development of hallucinatory experiences. Effective treatment of insomnia may lessen the occurrence of hallucinations. PMID:27173659

  10. Temperature sensitive auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiujing; Lan, Lan; Shi, Wei; Yu, Lan; Xie, Lin-Yi; Xiong, Fen; Zhao, Cui; Li, Na; Yin, Zifang; Zong, Liang; Guan, Jing; Wang, Dayong; Sun, Wei; Wang, Qiuju

    2016-05-01

    Temperature sensitive auditory neuropathy is a very rare and puzzling disorder. In the present study, we reported three unrelated 2 to 6 year-old children who were diagnosed as auditory neuropathy patients who complained of severe hearing loss when they had fever. Their hearing thresholds varied from the morning to the afternoon. Two of these patients' hearing improved with age, and one patient received positive results from cochlear implant. Genetic analysis revealed that these three patients had otoferlin (OTOF) homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations with the genotypes c.2975_2978delAG/c.4819C>T, c.4819C>T/c.4819C>T, or c.2382_2383delC/c.1621G>A, respectively. Our study suggests that these gene mutations may be the cause of temperature sensitive auditory neuropathy. The long term follow up results suggest that the hearing loss in this type of auditory neuropathy may recover with age. PMID:26778470

  11. Auditory Spatial Layout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wightman, Frederic L.; Jenison, Rick

    1995-01-01

    All auditory sensory information is packaged in a pair of acoustical pressure waveforms, one at each ear. While there is obvious structure in these waveforms, that structure (temporal and spectral patterns) bears no simple relationship to the structure of the environmental objects that produced them. The properties of auditory objects and their layout in space must be derived completely from higher level processing of the peripheral input. This chapter begins with a discussion of the peculiarities of acoustical stimuli and how they are received by the human auditory system. A distinction is made between the ambient sound field and the effective stimulus to differentiate the perceptual distinctions among various simple classes of sound sources (ambient field) from the known perceptual consequences of the linear transformations of the sound wave from source to receiver (effective stimulus). Next, the definition of an auditory object is dealt with, specifically the question of how the various components of a sound stream become segregated into distinct auditory objects. The remainder of the chapter focuses on issues related to the spatial layout of auditory objects, both stationary and moving.

  12. [Central auditory prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Lenarz, T; Lim, H; Joseph, G; Reuter, G; Lenarz, M

    2009-06-01

    Deaf patients with severe sensory hearing loss can benefit from a cochlear implant (CI), which stimulates the auditory nerve fibers. However, patients who do not have an intact auditory nerve cannot benefit from a CI. The majority of these patients are neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients who developed neural deafness due to growth or surgical removal of a bilateral acoustic neuroma. The only current solution is the auditory brainstem implant (ABI), which stimulates the surface of the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem. Although the ABI provides improvement in environmental awareness and lip-reading capabilities, only a few NF2 patients have achieved some limited open set speech perception. In the search for alternative procedures our research group in collaboration with Cochlear Ltd. (Australia) developed a human prototype auditory midbrain implant (AMI), which is designed to electrically stimulate the inferior colliculus (IC). The IC has the potential as a new target for an auditory prosthesis as it provides access to neural projections necessary for speech perception as well as a systematic map of spectral information. In this paper the present status of research and development in the field of central auditory prostheses is presented with respect to technology, surgical technique and hearing results as well as the background concepts of ABI and AMI. PMID:19517084

  13. Decision Making about Children with Psychotic Symptoms: Using the Best Evidence in Choosing a Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Philip; Rapoport, Judith L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents Peter, an 11-year-old boy, with brief self-limited hallucinations and persecutory ideation (if not frank delusions) on a background of a gradual deterioration in overall functioning. Affective symptoms are not prominent, and there is little to suggest an organic contribution. This raises the possibility that he has, or is on…

  14. Visual hallucinations in dementia with Lewy bodies: transcranial magnetic stimulation study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, John-Paul; Firbank, Michael; Barnett, Nicola; Pearce, Sarah; Livingstone, Anthea; Mosimann, Urs; Eyre, Janet; McKeith, Ian G.; O’Brien, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Background The aetiology of visual hallucinations is poorly understood in dementia with Lewy bodies. Pathological alterations in visual cortical excitability may be one contributory mechanism. Aims To determine visual cortical excitability in people with dementia with Lewy bodies compared with aged-matched controls and also the relationship between visual cortical excitability and visual hallucinations in dementia with Lewy bodies. Method Visual cortical excitability was determined by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied to the occiput to elicit phosphenes (transient subjective visual responses) in 21 patients with dementia with Lewy bodies and 19 age-matched controls. Results Phosphene parameters were similar between both groups. However, in the patients with dementia with Lewy bodies, TMS measures of visual cortical excitability correlated strongly with the severity of visual hallucinations (P = 0.005). Six patients with dementia with Lewy bodies experienced visual hallucination-like phosphenes (for example, seeing people or figures on stimulation) compared with none of the controls (P = 0.02). Conclusions Increased visual cortical excitability in dementia with Lewy bodies does not appear to explain visual hallucinations but it may be a marker for their severity. PMID:22016436

  15. Auditory models for speech analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maybury, Mark T.

    This paper reviews the psychophysical basis for auditory models and discusses their application to automatic speech recognition. First an overview of the human auditory system is presented, followed by a review of current knowledge gleaned from neurological and psychoacoustic experimentation. Next, a general framework describes established peripheral auditory models which are based on well-understood properties of the peripheral auditory system. This is followed by a discussion of current enhancements to that models to include nonlinearities and synchrony information as well as other higher auditory functions. Finally, the initial performance of auditory models in the task of speech recognition is examined and additional applications are mentioned.

  16. Paranoid delusions and threatening hallucinations: a prospective study of sleep paralysis experiences.

    PubMed

    Cheyne, J Allan; Girard, Todd A

    2007-12-01

    Previously we reported a three-factor structure for hallucinations accompanying sleep paralysis (SP). These earlier analyses were, however, based on retrospective accounts. In a prospective study, 383 individuals reported individual episodes online providing further evidence for the three-factor structure as well as clearer conceptually meaningful relations among factors than retrospective studies. In addition, reports of individual episodes permitted a more fine-grained analysis of the internal structure of factors to assess predictions based on the hypothesis that a sensed or felt presence (FP) is a core experience affecting other SP hallucinations. Results were generally consistent with this hypothesis. In particular, associations among, and temporal stability of, sensory hallucinations were largely explained by their common association with FP. The findings are consistent with REM initiation of a threat activated vigilance system with pervasive effects on the SP experience and suggest a potential model for the thematic organization of nightmares and dreams more generally. PMID:17337212

  17. Elementary visual hallucinations and their relationships to neural pattern-forming mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Billock, Vincent A; Tsou, Brian H

    2012-07-01

    An extraordinary variety of experimental (e.g., flicker, magnetic fields) and clinical (epilepsy, migraine) conditions give rise to a surprisingly common set of elementary hallucinations, including spots, geometric patterns, and jagged lines, some of which also have color, depth, motion, and texture. Many of these simple hallucinations fall into a small number of perceptual geometries-the Klüver forms-that (via a nonlinear mapping from retina to cortex) correspond to even simpler sets of oriented stripes of cortical activity (and their superpositions). Other simple hallucinations (phosphenes and fortification auras) are linked to the Klüver forms and to pattern-forming cortical mechanisms by their spatial and temporal scales. The Klüver cortical activity patterns are examples of self-organized pattern formation that arise from nonlinear dynamic interactions between excitatory and inhibitory cortical neurons; with reasonable modifications, this model accounts for a wide range of hallucinated patterns. The Klüver cortical activity patterns are a subset of autonomous spatiotemporal cortical patterns, some of which have been studied with functional imaging techniques. Understanding the interaction of these intrinsic patterns with stimulus-driven cortical activity is an important problem in neuroscience. In line with this, hallucinatory pattern formation interacts with physical stimuli, and many conditions that induce hallucinations show interesting interactions with one another. Both types of interactions are predictable from neural and psychophysical principles such as localized processing, excitatory-inhibitory neural circuits, lateral inhibition, simultaneous and sequential contrast, saccadic suppression, and perceptual opponency. Elementary hallucinations arise from familiar mechanisms stimulated in unusual ways. PMID:22448914

  18. Was Anna O.'s black snake hallucination a sleep paralysis nightmare? Dreams, memories, and trauma.

    PubMed

    Powell, R A; Nielsen, T A

    1998-01-01

    The final traumatic event recalled by Anna O. during her treatment with Josef Breuer was a terrifying hallucination she once had of a black snake attacking her ailing father. This event has been variously interpreted as indicating an underlying psychodynamic conflict, as a temporal lobe seizure, and as an hypnotic confabulation. We argue, however, that the hallucination--during which Anna O.'s arm was reportedly "asleep" due to nerve blockage--was probably a sleep paralysis nightmare. Sleep paralysis nightmares continue to be overlooked or misdiagnosed in clinical practice, and, in recent years, have been implicated in the controversy surrounding memories of trauma and sexual abuse. PMID:9823033

  19. Evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow in a patient with musical hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Shoyama, Masaru; Ukai, Satoshi; Kitabata, Yuji; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Okumura, Masatoshi; Kose, Asami; Tsuji, Tomikimi; Shinosaki, Kazuhiro

    2010-02-01

    A 52-year-old woman with musical hallucinations was examined using brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc-ECD. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after carbamazepine treatment were assessed using a three-dimensional stereotaxic ROI template. Following treatment, rCBF was decreased in the subcortical structures and increased in the global cortical regions. From our findings, we propose that rCBF values in subcortical structures represent abnormalities similar to those reported in previous reports or other psychiatric disorders, while those in cortical regions suggest background brain dysfunctions that result in generation of musical hallucinations. PMID:20391182

  20. The Drosophila Auditory System

    PubMed Central

    Boekhoff-Falk, Grace; Eberl, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Development of a functional auditory system in Drosophila requires specification and differentiation of the chordotonal sensilla of Johnston’s organ (JO) in the antenna, correct axonal targeting to the antennal mechanosensory and motor center (AMMC) in the brain, and synaptic connections to neurons in the downstream circuit. Chordotonal development in JO is functionally complicated by structural, molecular and functional diversity that is not yet fully understood, and construction of the auditory neural circuitry is only beginning to unfold. Here we describe our current understanding of developmental and molecular mechanisms that generate the exquisite functions of the Drosophila auditory system, emphasizing recent progress and highlighting important new questions arising from research on this remarkable sensory system. PMID:24719289

  1. Overriding auditory attentional capture.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Polly; Lavie, Nilli

    2007-02-01

    Attentional capture by color singletons during shape search can be eliminated when the target is not a feature singleton (Bacon & Egeth, 1994). This suggests that a "singleton detection" search strategy must be adopted for attentional capture to occur. Here we find similar effects on auditory attentional capture. Irrelevant high-intensity singletons interfered with an auditory search task when the target itself was also a feature singleton. However, singleton interference was eliminated when the target was not a singleton (i.e., when nontargets were made heterogeneous, or when more than one target sound was presented). These results suggest that auditory attentional capture depends on the observer's attentional set, as does visual attentional capture. The suggestion that hearing might act as an early warning system that would always be tuned to unexpected unique stimuli must therefore be modified to accommodate these strategy-dependent capture effects. PMID:17557587

  2. Complex Diagnostic and Treatment Issues in Psychotic Symptoms Associated with Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Ivanenko, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Narcolepsy is an uncommon chronic, neurological disorder characterized by abnormal manifestations of rapid eye movement sleep and perturbations in the sleep-wake cycle. Accurate diagnosis of psychotic symptoms in a person with narcolepsy could be difficult due to side effects of stimulant treatment (e.g., hallucinations) as well as primary symptoms of narcolepsy (e.g., sleep paralysis and hypnagogic and/or hypnapompic hallucinations). Pertinent articles from peer-reviewed journals were identified to help understand the complex phenomenology of psychotic symptoms in patients with narcolepsy. In this ensuing review and discussion, we present an overview of narcolepsy and outline diagnostic and management approaches for psychotic symptoms in patients with narcolepsy. PMID:19724760

  3. Psychotic symptoms in a woman with severe Anorexia Nervosa : psychotic symptoms in Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Delsedime, Nadia; Nicotra, Barbara; Giovannone, Maria Cristina; Marech, Lucrezia; Barosio, Marta; Marzola, Enrica; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2013-03-01

    With this paper we aimed to describe a case of a woman affected by Anorexia Nervosa Restricting subtype (AN-R) with delusional symptoms, visual hallucinations and severe body image distortion. We discussed the main AN diagnosis and whether delusional symptoms could be related to severity of AN describing also the use of olanzapine in such a severe clinical condition. The use of olanzapine was found to be effective to reduce both delusions and body distortions, and to improve compliance to treatments. We found a severe delusional symptomatology with mystic, omnipotence and persecution features. The psychotic structure seemed preceding the eating disorder and was also found to be worsened by emaciation. The use of antipsychotic helped reducing delusional symptoms and improving compliance to treatments. Finally, the dynamically oriented therapeutic relationship helped the patient to gain weight and to achieve a full recovery from psychotic symptoms. PMID:23757258

  4. DSM-IV "criterion A" schizophrenia symptoms across ethnically different populations: evidence for differing psychotic symptom content or structural organization?

    PubMed

    McLean, Duncan; Thara, Rangaswamy; John, Sujit; Barrett, Robert; Loa, Peter; McGrath, John; Mowry, Bryan

    2014-09-01

    There is significant variation in the expression of schizophrenia across ethnically different populations, and the optimal structural and diagnostic representation of schizophrenia are contested. We contrasted both lifetime frequencies of DSM-IV criterion A (the core symptom criterion of the internationally recognized DSM classification system) symptoms and types/content of delusions and hallucinations in transethnic schizophrenia populations from Australia (n = 776), India (n = 504) and Sarawak, Malaysia (n = 259), to elucidate clinical heterogeneity. Differences in both criterion A symptom composition and symptom content were apparent. Indian individuals with schizophrenia reported negative symptoms more frequently than other sites, whereas individuals from Sarawak reported disorganized symptoms more frequently. Delusions of control and thought broadcast, insertion, or withdrawal were less frequent in Sarawak than Australia. Curiously, a subgroup of 20 Indian individuals with schizophrenia reported no lifetime delusions or hallucinations. These findings potentially challenge the long-held view in psychiatry that schizophrenia is fundamentally similar across cultural groups, with differences in only the content of psychotic symptoms, but equivalence in structural form. PMID:24981830

  5. Pediatric central auditory processing disorder showing elevated threshold on pure tone audiogram.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yukihide; Nakagawa, Atsuko; Nagayasu, Rie; Sugaya, Akiko; Omichi, Ryotaro; Kariya, Shin; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) is a condition in which dysfunction in the central auditory system causes difficulty in listening to conversations, particularly under noisy conditions, despite normal peripheral auditory function. Central auditory testing is generally performed in patients with normal hearing on the pure tone audiogram (PTA). This report shows that diagnosis of CAPD is possible even in the presence of an elevated threshold on the PTA, provided that the normal function of the peripheral auditory pathway was verified by distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE), auditory brainstem response (ABR), and auditory steady state response (ASSR). Three pediatric cases (9- and 10-year-old girls and an 8-year-old boy) of CAPD with elevated thresholds on PTAs are presented. The chief complaint was difficulty in listening to conversations. PTA showed elevated thresholds, but the responses and thresholds for DPOAE, ABR, and ASSR were normal, showing that peripheral auditory function was normal. Significant findings of central auditory testing such as dichotic speech tests, time compression of speech signals, and binaural interaction tests confirmed the diagnosis of CAPD. These threshold shifts in PTA may provide a new concept of a clinical symptom due to central auditory dysfunction in CAPD. PMID:26922127

  6. Psychological Mechanisms Mediating Effects Between Trauma and Psychotic Symptoms: The Role of Affect Regulation, Intrusive Trauma Memory, Beliefs, and Depression.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Amy; Emsley, Richard; Freeman, Daniel; Bebbington, Paul; Garety, Philippa A; Kuipers, Elizabeth E; Dunn, Graham; Fowler, David

    2016-07-01

    Evidence suggests a causal role for trauma in psychosis, particularly for childhood victimization. However, the establishment of underlying trauma-related mechanisms would strengthen the causal argument. In a sample of people with relapsing psychosis (n = 228), we tested hypothesized mechanisms specifically related to impaired affect regulation, intrusive trauma memory, beliefs, and depression. The majority of participants (74.1%) reported victimization trauma, and a fifth (21.5%) met symptomatic criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. We found a specific link between childhood sexual abuse and auditory hallucinations (adjusted OR = 2.21, SE = 0.74, P = .018). This relationship was mediated by posttraumatic avoidance and numbing (OR = 1.48, SE = 0.19, P = .038) and hyperarousal (OR = 1.44, SE = 0.18, P = .045), but not intrusive trauma memory, negative beliefs or depression. In contrast, childhood emotional abuse was specifically associated with delusions, both persecutory (adjusted OR = 2.21, SE = 0.68, P = .009) and referential (adjusted OR = 2.43, SE = 0.74, P = .004). The link with persecutory delusions was mediated by negative-other beliefs (OR = 1.36, SE = 0.14, P = .024), but not posttraumatic stress symptoms, negative-self beliefs, or depression. There was no evidence of mediation for referential delusions. No relationships were identified between childhood physical abuse and psychosis. The findings underline the role of cognitive-affective processes in the relationship between trauma and symptoms, and the importance of assessing and treating victimization and its psychological consequences in people with psychosis. PMID:27460616

  7. Psychological Mechanisms Mediating Effects Between Trauma and Psychotic Symptoms: The Role of Affect Regulation, Intrusive Trauma Memory, Beliefs, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Amy; Emsley, Richard; Freeman, Daniel; Bebbington, Paul; Garety, Philippa A.; Kuipers, Elizabeth E.; Dunn, Graham; Fowler, David

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests a causal role for trauma in psychosis, particularly for childhood victimization. However, the establishment of underlying trauma-related mechanisms would strengthen the causal argument. In a sample of people with relapsing psychosis (n = 228), we tested hypothesized mechanisms specifically related to impaired affect regulation, intrusive trauma memory, beliefs, and depression. The majority of participants (74.1%) reported victimization trauma, and a fifth (21.5%) met symptomatic criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. We found a specific link between childhood sexual abuse and auditory hallucinations (adjusted OR = 2.21, SE = 0.74, P = .018). This relationship was mediated by posttraumatic avoidance and numbing (OR = 1.48, SE = 0.19, P = .038) and hyperarousal (OR = 1.44, SE = 0.18, P = .045), but not intrusive trauma memory, negative beliefs or depression. In contrast, childhood emotional abuse was specifically associated with delusions, both persecutory (adjusted OR = 2.21, SE = 0.68, P = .009) and referential (adjusted OR = 2.43, SE = 0.74, P = .004). The link with persecutory delusions was mediated by negative-other beliefs (OR = 1.36, SE = 0.14, P = .024), but not posttraumatic stress symptoms, negative-self beliefs, or depression. There was no evidence of mediation for referential delusions. No relationships were identified between childhood physical abuse and psychosis. The findings underline the role of cognitive-affective processes in the relationship between trauma and symptoms, and the importance of assessing and treating victimization and its psychological consequences in people with psychosis. PMID:27460616

  8. Auditory Memory for Timbre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeown, Denis; Wellsted, David

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies are reported examining how the context of recent auditory stimulation may modulate the processing of new sounds. The question posed is how recent tone stimulation may affect ongoing performance in a discrimination task. In the task, two complex sounds occurred in successive intervals. A single target component of one complex…

  9. Incidental Auditory Category Learning

    PubMed Central

    Gabay, Yafit; Dick, Frederic K.; Zevin, Jason D.; Holt, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about how auditory categories are learned incidentally, without instructions to search for category-diagnostic dimensions, overt category decisions, or experimenter-provided feedback. This is an important gap because learning in the natural environment does not arise from explicit feedback and there is evidence that the learning systems engaged by traditional tasks are distinct from those recruited by incidental category learning. We examined incidental auditory category learning with a novel paradigm, the Systematic Multimodal Associations Reaction Time (SMART) task, in which participants rapidly detect and report the appearance of a visual target in one of four possible screen locations. Although the overt task is rapid visual detection, a brief sequence of sounds precedes each visual target. These sounds are drawn from one of four distinct sound categories that predict the location of the upcoming visual target. These many-to-one auditory-to-visuomotor correspondences support incidental auditory category learning. Participants incidentally learn categories of complex acoustic exemplars and generalize this learning to novel exemplars and tasks. Further, learning is facilitated when category exemplar variability is more tightly coupled to the visuomotor associations than when the same stimulus variability is experienced across trials. We relate these findings to phonetic category learning. PMID:26010588

  10. Auditory Channel Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Philip H.; Suiter, Patricia A.

    This teacher's guide contains a list of general auditory problem areas where students have the following problems: (a) inability to find or identify source of sound; (b) difficulty in discriminating sounds of words and letters; (c) difficulty with reproducing pitch, rhythm, and melody; (d) difficulty in selecting important from unimportant sounds;…

  11. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Command Hallucinations and Intellectual Disability: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrowcliff, Alastair L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of literature detailing cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for psychosis in people with intellectual disability. Of the available literature, only two case studies involve people with command hallucinations and these do not address specific issues of intervention indicated in the wider literature for this type of…

  12. Visual Hallucinations in an Old Patient after Cataract Surgery and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, Halil; Yucel, Atakan; Ates, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Sensory visual pathologies, accompanying simple or complex visual hallucinations that occur in visually-impaired individuals due to ophthalmologic or brain pathologies related to visual pathways in patients without mental disorders, are defined as Charles Bonnet syndrome. Between 10% and 60% of the patients having age-related eye diseases involving retina, cornea and the lens, commonly with macular degeneration experience complex visual hallucinations depending on the severity of visual problems. The neurophysiology of the visual hallucinations in Charles Bonnet Syndrome is not clearly known, and they may differ in content and severity over time. In differential diagnoses of Charles Bonnet Syndrome, many aetiologies (drugs, uraemia, exposure to toxic materials, neurodegenerative and psychiatric conditions) need to be ruled out. In the treatment of Charles Bonnet syndrome, first the management of the reason of visual loss should be clarified if possible. If needed, neuroleptics, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, benzodiazepines, cognitive enhancer agents such as cholinesterase inhibitors can be used also. In this case, an 83-year-old female patient experiencing visual hallucinations as burning candles in both eyes’ visual field after left eye cataract surgery, treated with 0.5 milligram/day risperidone will be presented. PMID:27026767

  13. Zolpidem-induced Hallucinations: A Brief Case Report from the Indian Subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gurvinder Pal; Loona, Neeraj

    2013-01-01

    We are reporting a case of zolpidem-induced hallucinations in a 20-year-old patient. The duration of this phenomenon was brief, 15-20 minutes. Our case suggests that clinicians must be aware of this phenomenon while prescribing zolpidem. PMID:24049236

  14. From Phenomenology to Neurophysiological Understanding of Hallucinations in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jardri, Renaud; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.; Debbané, Martin; Jenner, Jack A.; Kelleher, Ian; Dauvilliers, Yves; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Demeulemeester, Morgane; David, Christopher N.; Rapoport, Judith; Dobbelaere, Dries; Escher, Sandra; Fernyhough, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Typically reported as vivid, multisensory experiences which may spontaneously resolve, hallucinations are present at high rates during childhood. The risk of associated psychopathology is a major cause of concern. On the one hand, the risk of developing further delusional ideation has been shown to be reduced by better theory of mind skills. On the other hand, ideas of reference, passivity phenomena, and misidentification syndrome have been shown to increase the risk of self-injury or heteroaggressive behaviors. Cognitive psychology and brain-imaging studies have advanced our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying these early-onset hallucinations. Notably, specific functional impairments have been associated with certain phenomenological characteristics of hallucinations in youths, including intrusiveness and the sense of reality. In this review, we provide an update of associated epidemiological and phenomenological factors (including sociocultural context, social adversity, and genetics, considered in relation to the psychosis continuum hypothesis), cognitive models, and neurophysiological findings concerning hallucinations in children and adolescents. Key issues that have interfered with progress are considered and recommendations for future studies are provided. PMID:24936083

  15. Hearing symptoms personal stereos

    PubMed Central

    da Luz, Tiara Santos; Borja, Ana Lúcia Vieira de Freitas

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Practical and portable the personal stereos if had become almost indispensable accessories in the day the day. Studies disclose that the portable players of music can cause auditory damages in the long run for who hear music in high volume for a drawn out time. Objective: to verify the prevalence of auditory symptoms in users of amplified players and to know its habits of use Method: Observational prospective study of transversal cut carried through in three institutions of education of the city of Salvador BA, being two of public net and one of the private net. 400 students had answered to the questionnaire, of both the sex, between 14 and 30 years that had related the habit to use personal stereos. Results: The symptoms most prevalent had been hyperacusis (43.5%), auricular fullness (30.5%) and humming (27.5), being that the humming is the symptom most present in the population youngest. How much to the daily habits: 62.3% frequent use, 57% in raised intensities, 34% in drawn out periods. An inverse relation between exposition time was verified and the band of age (p = 0,000) and direct with the prevalence of the humming. Conclusion: Although to admit to have knowledge on the damages that the exposition the sound of high intensity can cause the hearing, the daily habits of the young evidence the inadequate use of the portable stereos characterized by long periods of exposition, raised intensities, frequent use and preference for the insertion phones. The high prevalence of symptoms after the use suggests a bigger risk for the hearing of these young. PMID:25991931

  16. The Application of Cognitive Therapy for Command Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alisa R.; Addington, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    It has become increasingly recognized that cognitive therapy (CT) is an effective treatment for the positive symptoms of schizophrenia yet there are few cognitive therapists in North America who are specialized to work with this patient population. There is a need for further dissemination of CT for schizophrenia in order to increase its…

  17. Shared Etiology of Psychotic Experiences and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Zavos, Helena M S; Eley, Thalia C; McGuire, Philip; Plomin, Robert; Cardno, Alastair G; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica

    2016-09-01

    Psychotic disorders and major depression, both typically adult-onset conditions, often co-occur. At younger ages psychotic experiences and depressive symptoms are often reported in the community. We used a genetically sensitive longitudinal design to investigate the relationship between psychotic experiences and depressive symptoms in adolescence. A representative community sample of twins from England and Wales was employed. Self-rated depressive symptoms, paranoia, hallucinations, cognitive disorganization, grandiosity, anhedonia, and parent-rated negative symptoms were collected when the twins were age 16 (N = 9618) and again on a representative subsample 9 months later (N = 2873). Direction and aetiology of associations were assessed using genetically informative cross-lagged models. Depressive symptoms were moderately correlated with paranoia, hallucinations, and cognitive disorganization. Lower correlations were observed between depression and anhedonia, and depression and parent-rated negative symptoms. Nonsignificant correlations were observed between depression and grandiosity. Largely the same genetic effects influenced depression and paranoia, depression and hallucinations, and depression and cognitive disorganization. Modest overlap in environmental influences also played a role in the associations. Significant bi-directional longitudinal associations were observed between depression and paranoia. Hallucinations and cognitive disorganization during adolescence were found to impact later depression, even after controlling for earlier levels of depression. Our study shows that psychotic experiences and depression, as traits in the community, have a high genetic overlap in mid-adolescence. Future research should test the prediction stemming from our longitudinal results, namely that reducing or ameliorating positive and cognitive psychotic experiences in adolescence would decrease later depressive symptoms. PMID:26994398

  18. Nonmotor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease in 2012: Relevant Clinical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Anne Marie; Jutras, Marie France; Czernecki, Virginie; Corvol, Jean Christophe; Vidailhet, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Nonmotor symptoms (NMSs) of Parkinson's disease (PD) are common, but they are often underrecognized in clinical practice, because of the lack of spontaneous complaints by the patients, and partly because of the absence of systematic questioning by the consulting physician. However, valid specific instruments for identification and assessment of these symptoms are available in 2012. The administration of the self-completed screening tool, NMSQuest, associated with questioning during the consultation, improves the diagnosis of NMSs. NMSs play a large role in degradation of quality of life. More relevant NMSs are described in this review, mood disorders, impulse control disorders, cognitive deficits, hallucinations, pain, sleep disorders, and dysautonomia. PMID:22888466

  19. Development of the auditory system

    PubMed Central

    Litovsky, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Auditory development involves changes in the peripheral and central nervous system along the auditory pathways, and these occur naturally, and in response to stimulation. Human development occurs along a trajectory that can last decades, and is studied using behavioral psychophysics, as well as physiologic measurements with neural imaging. The auditory system constructs a perceptual space that takes information from objects and groups, segregates sounds, and provides meaning and access to communication tools such as language. Auditory signals are processed in a series of analysis stages, from peripheral to central. Coding of information has been studied for features of sound, including frequency, intensity, loudness, and location, in quiet and in the presence of maskers. In the latter case, the ability of the auditory system to perform an analysis of the scene becomes highly relevant. While some basic abilities are well developed at birth, there is a clear prolonged maturation of auditory development well into the teenage years. Maturation involves auditory pathways. However, non-auditory changes (attention, memory, cognition) play an important role in auditory development. The ability of the auditory system to adapt in response to novel stimuli is a key feature of development throughout the nervous system, known as neural plasticity. PMID:25726262

  20. Auditory object cognition in dementia.

    PubMed

    Goll, Johanna C; Kim, Lois G; Hailstone, Julia C; Lehmann, Manja; Buckley, Aisling; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2011-07-01

    The cognition of nonverbal sounds in dementia has been relatively little explored. Here we undertook a systematic study of nonverbal sound processing in patient groups with canonical dementia syndromes comprising clinically diagnosed typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD; n=21), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n=5), logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA; n=7) and aphasia in association with a progranulin gene mutation (GAA; n=1), and in healthy age-matched controls (n=20). Based on a cognitive framework treating complex sounds as 'auditory objects', we designed a novel neuropsychological battery to probe auditory object cognition at early perceptual (sub-object), object representational (apperceptive) and semantic levels. All patients had assessments of peripheral hearing and general neuropsychological functions in addition to the experimental auditory battery. While a number of aspects of auditory object analysis were impaired across patient groups and were influenced by general executive (working memory) capacity, certain auditory deficits had some specificity for particular dementia syndromes. Patients with AD had a disproportionate deficit of auditory apperception but preserved timbre processing. Patients with PNFA had salient deficits of timbre and auditory semantic processing, but intact auditory size and apperceptive processing. Patients with LPA had a generalised auditory deficit that was influenced by working memory function. In contrast, the patient with GAA showed substantial preservation of auditory function, but a mild deficit of pitch direction processing and a more severe deficit of auditory apperception. The findings provide evidence for separable stages of auditory object analysis and separable profiles of impaired auditory object cognition in different dementia syndromes. PMID:21689671

  1. Sleep Paralysis Among Egyptian College Students: Association With Anxiety Symptoms (PTSD, Trait Anxiety, Pathological Worry).

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Hinton, Devon E

    2015-11-01

    Among Egyptian college students in Cairo (n = 100), this study examined the relationship between sleep paralysis (SP) and anxiety symptoms, viz., posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), trait anxiety, and pathological worry. SP rates were high; 43% of participants reported at least one lifetime episode of SP, and 24% of those who reported at least one lifetime episode had experienced four or more episodes during the previous year. Fourteen percent of men had experienced SP as compared to 86% of women. As hypothesized, relative to non-SP experiencers, participants who had SP reported higher symptoms of PTSD, trait anxiety, and pathological worry. Also, as hypothesized, the experiencing of hypnogogic/hypnopompic hallucinations during SP, even after controlling for negative affect, was highly correlated with symptoms of PTSD and trait anxiety. The study also investigated possible mechanisms by examining the relationship of hallucinations to anxiety variables. PMID:26488914

  2. The auditory characteristics of children with inner auditory canal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Ai, Yu; Xu, Lei; Li, Li; Li, Jianfeng; Luo, Jianfen; Wang, Mingming; Fan, Zhaomin; Wang, Haibo

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions This study shows that the prevalence of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) in the children with inner auditory canal (IAC) stenosis is much higher than those without IAC stenosis, regardless of whether they have other inner ear anomalies. In addition, the auditory characteristics of ANSD with IAC stenosis are significantly different from those of ANSD without any middle and inner ear malformations. Objectives To describe the auditory characteristics in children with IAC stenosis as well as to examine whether the narrow inner auditory canal is associated with ANSD. Method A total of 21 children, with inner auditory canal stenosis, participated in this study. A series of auditory tests were measured. Meanwhile, a comparative study was conducted on the auditory characteristics of ANSD, based on whether the children were associated with isolated IAC stenosis. Results Wave V in the ABR was not observed in all the patients, while cochlear microphonic (CM) response was detected in 81.1% ears with stenotic IAC. Sixteen of 19 (84.2%) ears with isolated IAC stenosis had CM response present on auditory brainstem responses (ABR) waveforms. There was no significant difference in ANSD characteristics between the children with and without isolated IAC stenosis. PMID:26981851

  3. Central auditory disorders: toward a neuropsychology of auditory objects

    PubMed Central

    Goll, Johanna C.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warren, Jason D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Analysis of the auditory environment, source identification and vocal communication all require efficient brain mechanisms for disambiguating, representing and understanding complex natural sounds as ‘auditory objects’. Failure of these mechanisms leads to a diverse spectrum of clinical deficits. Here we review current evidence concerning the phenomenology, mechanisms and brain substrates of auditory agnosias and related disorders of auditory object processing. Recent findings Analysis of lesions causing auditory object deficits has revealed certain broad anatomical correlations: deficient parsing of the auditory scene is associated with lesions involving the parieto-temporal junction, while selective disorders of sound recognition occur with more anterior temporal lobe or extra-temporal damage. Distributed neural networks have been increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of such disorders as developmental dyslexia, congenital amusia and tinnitus. Auditory category deficits may arise from defective interaction of spectrotemporal encoding and executive and mnestic processes. Dedicated brain mechanisms are likely to process specialised sound objects such as voices and melodies. Summary Emerging empirical evidence suggests a clinically relevant, hierarchical and fractionated neuropsychological model of auditory object processing that provides a framework for understanding auditory agnosias and makes specific predictions to direct future work. PMID:20975559

  4. Early hominin auditory capacities.

    PubMed

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G; Thackeray, J Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-09-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats. PMID:26601261

  5. Early hominin auditory capacities

    PubMed Central

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J.; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G.; Thackeray, J. Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats. PMID:26601261

  6. Longitudinal social competence and adult psychiatric symptoms at first hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Prentky, R A; Watt, N F; Fryer, J H

    1979-01-01

    Patterns of psychiatric symptoms of 141 patients at first hospital admission were correlated with social competence, as measured in childhood from school records and in adulthood by the Index of Social Competence, which is based on hospital records. Results confirmed the hypothesis that low social competence is associated with the more disintegrative symptoms of withdrawal, thought disorder, and antisocial acting out, but this conclusion held only when the measure of social competence was based upon adult premorbid behavior. A longitudinal perspective on social competence did not improve upon the symptomatic discrimination based on adult cross-sectional assessment alone, except that a cluster of schizoid symptoms (apathy, flat affect, hallucinations, resentfulness, and verbal hostility) was significantly associated with a longitudinal measure of social competence, though not with either cross-sectional measure by itself. Positive symptoms (delusions, hallucinations, and other florid processes) appeared not to be part of a longstanding, longitudinal process, but the negative symptoms included in the withdrawal cluster showed some association with childhood behavior. PMID:462143

  7. Auditory interfaces: The human perceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colburn, H. Steven

    1991-01-01

    A brief introduction to the basic auditory abilities of the human perceiver with particular attention toward issues that may be important for the design of auditory interfaces is presented. The importance of appropriate auditory inputs to observers with normal hearing is probably related to the role of hearing as an omnidirectional, early warning system and to its role as the primary vehicle for communication of strong personal feelings.

  8. Efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy for sleep improvement in patients with persistent delusions and hallucinations (BEST): a prospective, assessor-blind, randomised controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Daniel; Waite, Felicity; Startup, Helen; Myers, Elissa; Lister, Rachel; McInerney, Josephine; Harvey, Allison G; Geddes, John; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Foster, Russell; Clifton, Lei; Yu, Ly-Mee

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Sleep disturbance occurs in most patients with delusions or hallucinations and should be treated as a clinical problem in its own right. However, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)—the best evidence-based treatment for insomnia—has not been tested in this patient population. We aimed to pilot procedures for a randomised trial testing CBT for sleep problems in patients with current psychotic experiences, and to provide a preliminary assessment of potential benefit. Methods We did this prospective, assessor-blind, randomised controlled pilot trial (Better Sleep Trial [BEST]) at two mental health centres in the UK. Patients (aged 18–65 years) with persistent distressing delusions or hallucinations in the context of insomnia and a schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis were randomly assigned (1:1), via a web-based randomisation system with minimisation to balance for sex, insomnia severity, and psychotic experiences, to receive either eight sessions of CBT plus standard care (medication and contact with the local clinical team) or standard care alone. Research assessors were masked to group allocation. Assessment of outcome was done at weeks 0, 12 (post-treatment), and 24 (follow-up). The primary efficacy outcomes were insomnia assessed by the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and delusions and hallucinations assessed by the Psychotic Symptoms Rating Scale (PSYRATS) at week 12. We did analysis by intention to treat, with an aim to provide confidence interval estimation of treatment effects. This study is registered with ISRCTN, number 33695128. Findings Between Dec 14, 2012, and May 22, 2013, and Nov 7, 2013, and Aug 26, 2014, we randomly assigned 50 patients to receive CBT plus standard care (n=24) or standard care alone (n=26). The last assessments were completed on Feb 10, 2015. 48 (96%) patients provided follow-up data. 23 (96%) patients offered CBT took up the intervention. Compared with standard care, CBT led to reductions in insomnia in the large

  9. Auditory Discrimination and Auditory Sensory Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Marsden, Anita J. S.; Tregay, Jenifer; Phillips, Rebecca J.; Goswami, Usha; Thomson, Jennifer M.; Charman, Tony

    2009-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that auditory processing may be enhanced in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We tested auditory discrimination ability in 72 adolescents with ASD (39 childhood autism; 33 other ASD) and 57 IQ and age-matched controls, assessing their capacity for successful discrimination of the frequency, intensity and duration…

  10. Anthrax: Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... hands Inhalation anthrax symptoms can include: Fever and chills Chest Discomfort Shortness of breath Confusion or dizziness ... aches Gastrointestinal anthrax symptoms can include: Fever and chills Swelling of neck or neck glands Sore throat ...

  11. Selective diplopia in Parkinson's disease: a special subtype of visual hallucination?

    PubMed

    Nebe, Angelika; Ebersbach, Georg

    2007-06-15

    Diplopia is sometimes reported by patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) without apparent oculomotor disorders. We assessed clinical features and associated oculomotor and perceptual performance in 14 patients (6 male, 8 female) with PD with a peculiar type of selective diplopia. Duplication of images was confined to single objects or persons, occurred repetitively, and lasted few seconds in all subjects. Frequency of episodes ranged from several episodes per day to three episodes per year. In six of seven subjects undergoing comprehensive ophtalmological examination, subtle ocular disorders (heterophoria, strabism, etc.) were found. Nine of 14 patients were suffering from current or previous visual hallucinations and 3 more patients developed hallucinations within 3 years of diplopia onset. Selective diplopia of isolated single objects and persons in PD is possibly related to hallucinosis and minor ocular disturbances seem to be a triggering factor for this peculiar type of misperception. PMID:17230466

  12. Religious psychopathology: The prevalence of religious content of delusions and hallucinations in mental disorder

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background: Religious themes are commonly encountered in delusions and hallucinations associated with major mental disorders, and the form and content of presentation are significant in relation to both diagnosis and management. Aims: This study aimed to establish what is known about the frequency of occurrence of religious delusions (RD) and religious hallucinations (RH) and their inter-relationship. Methods: A review was undertaken of the quantitative empirical English literature on RD and RH. Results: A total of 55 relevant publications were identified. The lack of critical criteria for defining and classifying RD and RH makes comparisons between studies difficult, but prevalence clearly varies with time and place, and probably also according to personal religiosity. In particular, little is known about the content and frequency of RH and the relationship between RH and RD. Conclusion: Clearer research criteria are needed to facilitate future study of RD and RH, and more research is needed on the relationship between RD and RH. PMID:25770205

  13. Heterogeneous iris image hallucination using sparse representation on a learned heterogeneous patch dictionary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yung-Hui; Zheng, Bo-Ren; Ji, Dai-Yan; Tien, Chung-Hao; Liu, Po-Tsun

    2014-09-01

    Cross sensor iris matching may seriously degrade the recognition performance because of the sensor mis-match problem of iris images between the enrollment and test stage. In this paper, we propose two novel patch-based heterogeneous dictionary learning method to attack this problem. The first method applies the latest sparse representation theory while the second method tries to learn the correspondence relationship through PCA in heterogeneous patch space. Both methods learn the basic atoms in iris textures across different image sensors and build connections between them. After such connections are built, at test stage, it is possible to hallucinate (synthesize) iris images across different sensors. By matching training images with hallucinated images, the recognition rate can be successfully enhanced. The experimental results showed the satisfied results both visually and in terms of recognition rate. Experimenting with an iris database consisting of 3015 images, we show that the EER is decreased 39.4% relatively by the proposed method.

  14. Auditory Reserve and the Legacy of Auditory Experience

    PubMed Central

    Skoe, Erika; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Musical training during childhood has been linked to more robust encoding of sound later in life. We take this as evidence for an auditory reserve: a mechanism by which individuals capitalize on earlier life experiences to promote auditory processing. We assert that early auditory experiences guide how the reserve develops and is maintained over the lifetime. Experiences that occur after childhood, or which are limited in nature, are theorized to affect the reserve, although their influence on sensory processing may be less long-lasting and may potentially fade over time if not repeated. This auditory reserve may help to explain individual differences in how individuals cope with auditory impoverishment or loss of sensorineural function. PMID:25405381

  15. Differential Diagnosis of Hallucinations in a Patient with Myasthenia Gravis

    PubMed Central

    Hizem, Yosr; Ben Djebara, Mouna; Kacem, Imen; Gargouri, Amina; Gouider, Riadh

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a 63-year-old woman with comorbidity of myasthenia gravis and psychosis. Different diagnostic hypotheses based on a review of the literature are discussed. A protracted history of physical spousal abuse, patient symptoms, and results of different investigations allowed us to conclude that the patient had a form of posttraumatic stress disorder with secondary psychotic features. Psychosis due to myasthenia gravis is rarely seen, and it remains unclear what is the pathophysiology, if any, for such an association. The present case highlights the difficulties the physician faces in disentangling psychosis as a potential manifestation of myasthenia gravis itself versus being caused by a medical side effect of treatment, or psychosis due to a distinct co-occurring neurologic or psychiatric condition. PMID:24307978

  16. Neural interactions between flicker-induced self-organized visual hallucinations and physical stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Billock, Vincent A.; Tsou, Brian H.

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous pattern formation in cortical activity may have consequences for perception, but little is known about interactions between sensory-driven and self-organized cortical activity. To address this deficit, we explored the relationship between ordinary stimulus-controlled pattern perception and the autonomous hallucinatory geometrical pattern formation that occurs for unstructured visual stimulation (e.g., empty-field flicker). We found that flicker-induced hallucinations are biased by the presentation of adjacent geometrical stimuli; geometrical forms that map to cortical area V1 as orthogonal gratings are perceptually opponent in biasing hallucinations. Rotating fan blades and pulsating circular patterns are the most salient biased hallucinations. Apparent motion and fractal (1/f) noise are also effective in driving hallucinatory pattern formation (the latter is consistent with predictions of spatiotemporal pattern formation driven by stochastic resonance). The behavior of these percepts suggests that self-organized hallucinatory pattern formation in human vision is governed by the same cortical properties of localized processing, lateral inhibition, simultaneous contrast, and nonlinear retinotopic mapping that govern ordinary vision. PMID:17470794

  17. Hypermnesia using auditory input.

    PubMed

    Allen, J

    1992-07-01

    The author investigated whether hypermnesia would occur with auditory input. In addition, the author examined the effects of subjects' knowledge that they would later be asked to recall the stimuli. Two groups of 26 subjects each were given three successive recall trials after they listened to an audiotape of 59 high-imagery nouns. The subjects in the uninformed group were not told that they would later be asked to remember the words; those in the informed group were. Hypermnesia was evident, but only in the uninformed group. PMID:1447564

  18. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  19. The Perception of Auditory Motion

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Johahn

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of efficient and relatively inexpensive virtual auditory display technology has provided new research platforms to explore the perception of auditory motion. At the same time, deployment of these technologies in command and control as well as in entertainment roles is generating an increasing need to better understand the complex processes underlying auditory motion perception. This is a particularly challenging processing feat because it involves the rapid deconvolution of the relative change in the locations of sound sources produced by rotational and translations of the head in space (self-motion) to enable the perception of actual source motion. The fact that we perceive our auditory world to be stable despite almost continual movement of the head demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of this process. This review examines the acoustical basis of auditory motion perception and a wide range of psychophysical, electrophysiological, and cortical imaging studies that have probed the limits and possible mechanisms underlying this perception. PMID:27094029

  20. The Perception of Auditory Motion.

    PubMed

    Carlile, Simon; Leung, Johahn

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of efficient and relatively inexpensive virtual auditory display technology has provided new research platforms to explore the perception of auditory motion. At the same time, deployment of these technologies in command and control as well as in entertainment roles is generating an increasing need to better understand the complex processes underlying auditory motion perception. This is a particularly challenging processing feat because it involves the rapid deconvolution of the relative change in the locations of sound sources produced by rotational and translations of the head in space (self-motion) to enable the perception of actual source motion. The fact that we perceive our auditory world to be stable despite almost continual movement of the head demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of this process. This review examines the acoustical basis of auditory motion perception and a wide range of psychophysical, electrophysiological, and cortical imaging studies that have probed the limits and possible mechanisms underlying this perception. PMID:27094029

  1. Frequencies and Associations of Narcolepsy-Related Symptoms: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Lenise Jihe; Coelho, Fernando Morgadinho; Hirotsu, Camila; Araujo, Paula; Bittencourt, Lia; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Narcolepsy is a disabling disease with a delayed diagnosis. At least 3 years before the disorder identification, several comorbidities can be observed in patients with narcolepsy. The early recognition of narcolepsy symptoms may improve long-term prognosis of the patients. Thus, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of the symptoms associated with narcolepsy and its social and psychological association in a sample of Sao Paulo city inhabitants. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional evaluation with 1,008 individuals from the Sao Paulo Epidemiologic Sleep Study (EPISONO). Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) was assessed by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Volunteers were also asked about the occurrence of cataplectic-like, hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis symptoms. The participants underwent a full-night polysomnography and completed questionnaires about psychological, demographic, and quality of life parameters. Results: We observed a prevalence of 39.2% of EDS, 15.0% of cataplectic-like symptom, 9.2% of hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and 14.9% of sleep paralysis in Sao Paulo city inhabitants. A frequency of 6.9% was observed when EDS and cataplectic-like symptoms were grouped. The other associations were EDS + hallucinations (4.7%) and EDS + sleep paralysis (7.5%). Symptomatic participants were predominantly women and younger compared with patients without any narcolepsy symptom (n = 451). Narcolepsy symptomatology was also associated with a poor quality of life and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and fatigue. Conclusions: Narcolepsy-related symptoms are associated with poor quality of life and worse psychological parameters. Citation: Kim LJ, Coelho FM, Hirotsu C, Araujo P, Bittencourt L, Tufik S, Andersen ML. Frequencies and associations of narcolepsy-related symptoms: a cross-sectional study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(12):1377–1384. PMID:26235160

  2. Psychiatric symptoms in glioma patients: from diagnosis to management

    PubMed Central

    Boele, Florien W; Rooney, Alasdair G; Grant, Robin; Klein, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Patients with primary intrinsic brain tumors can experience neurological, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms that greatly affect daily life. In this review, we focus on changes in personality and behavior, mood issues, hallucinations, and psychosis, because these are either difficult to recognize, to treat, or are understudied in scientific literature. Neurobehavioral symptoms are common, often multiple, and causation can be multifactorial. Although different symptoms sometimes require a different treatment approach, we advise a comprehensive treatment approach, including pharmacological treatment and/or psychotherapy where appropriate. Further research is needed to obtain a better estimate of the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms in glioma patients, and the extent to which these affect everyday functioning and family life. PMID:26089669

  3. Auditory color constancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluender, Keith R.; Kiefte, Michael

    2003-10-01

    It is both true and efficient that sensorineural systems respond to change and little else. Perceptual systems do not record absolute level be it loudness, pitch, brightness, or color. This fact has been demonstrated in every sensory domain. For example, the visual system is remarkable at maintaining color constancy over widely varying illumination such as sunlight and varieties of artificial light (incandescent, fluorescent, etc.) for which spectra reflected from objects differ dramatically. Results will be reported for a series of experiments demonstrating how auditory systems similarly compensate for reliable characteristics of spectral shape in acoustic signals. Specifically, listeners' perception of vowel sounds, characterized by both local (e.g., formants) and broad (e.g., tilt) spectral composition, changes radically depending upon reliable spectral composition of precursor signals. These experiments have been conducted using a variety of precursor signals consisting of meaningful and time-reversed vocoded sentences, as well as novel nonspeech precursors consisting of multiple filter poles modulating sinusoidally across a source spectrum with specific local and broad spectral characteristics. Constancy across widely varying spectral compositions shares much in common with visual color constancy. However, auditory spectral constancy appears to be more effective than visual constancy in compensating for local spectral fluctuations. [Work supported by NIDCD DC-04072.

  4. Mechanisms Underlying Auditory Hallucinations—Understanding Perception without Stimulus

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Derek K.; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.

    2013-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a common phenomenon, occurring in the “healthy” population as well as in several mental illnesses, most notably schizophrenia. Current thinking supports a spectrum conceptualisation of AVH: several neurocognitive hypotheses of AVH have been proposed, including the “feed-forward” model of failure to provide appropriate information to somatosensory cortices so that stimuli appear unbidden, and an “aberrant memory model” implicating deficient memory processes. Neuroimaging and connectivity studies are in broad agreement with these with a general dysconnectivity between frontotemporal regions involved in language, memory and salience properties. Disappointingly many AVH remain resistant to standard treatments and persist for many years. There is a need to develop novel therapies to augment existing pharmacological and psychological therapies: transcranial magnetic stimulation has emerged as a potential treatment, though more recent clinical data has been less encouraging. Our understanding of AVH remains incomplete though much progress has been made in recent years. We herein provide a broad overview and review of this. PMID:24961419

  5. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and auditory processing in autism: Modifiable deficits of an integrated social engagement system?

    PubMed Central

    Porges, Stephen W.; Macellaio, Matthew; Stanfill, Shannon D.; McCue, Kimberly; Lewis, Gregory F.; Harden, Emily R.; Handelman, Mika; Denver, John; Bazhenova, Olga V.; Heilman, Keri J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluated processes underlying two common symptoms (i.e., state regulation problems and deficits in auditory processing) associated with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders. Although these symptoms have been treated in the literature as unrelated, when informed by the Polyvagal Theory, these symptoms may be viewed as the predictable consequences of depressed neural regulation of an integrated social engagement system, in which there is down regulation of neural influences to the heart (i.e., via the vagus) and to the middle ear muscles (i.e., via the facial and trigeminal cranial nerves). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and heart period were monitored to evaluate state regulation during a baseline and two auditory processing tasks (i.e., the SCAN tests for Filtered Words and Competing Words), which were used to evaluate auditory processing performance. Children with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were contrasted with aged matched typically developing children. The current study identified three features that distinguished the ASD group from a group of typical developing children: 1) baseline RSA, 2) direction of RSA reactivity, and 3) auditory processing performance. In the ASD group, the pattern of change in RSA during the attention demanding SCAN tests moderated the relation between performance on the Competing Words test and IQ. In addition, in a subset of ASD participants, auditory processing performance improved and RSA increased following an intervention designed to improve auditory processing. PMID:23201146

  6. DSM-IV “criterion A” schizophrenia symptoms across ethnically different populations: evidence for differing psychotic symptom content or structural organization?

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Duncan; Thara, Rangaswamy; John, Sujit; Barrett, Robert; Loa, Peter; McGrath, John; Mowry, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    There is significant variation in the expression of schizophrenia across ethnically different populations, and the optimal structural and diagnostic representation of schizophrenia is contested. We contrasted both lifetime frequencies of DSM-IV criterion A (the core symptom criterion of the internationally recognized DSM classification system) symptoms and types/content of delusions and hallucinations in transethnic schizophrenia populations from Australia (n=776), India (n=504) and Sarawak, Malaysia (n=259), to elucidate clinical heterogeneity. Differences in both criterion A symptom composition and symptom content were apparent. Indian individuals with schizophrenia reported negative symptoms more frequently than other sites, whereas individuals from Sarawak reported disorganized symptoms more frequently. Delusions of control and thought broadcast, insertion or withdrawal were less frequent in Sarawak than Australia. Curiously, a subgroup of 20 Indian individuals with schizophrenia reported no lifetime delusions or hallucinations. These findings potentially challenge the long-held view in psychiatry that schizophrenia is fundamentally similar across cultural groups, with differences in only the content of psychotic symptoms, but equivalence in structural form. PMID:24981830

  7. Pharmacotherapy of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: time for a different paradigm?

    PubMed

    Rojas-Fernandez, C H; Lanctot, K L; Allen, D D; MacKnight, C

    2001-01-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia can occur in 60-80% of patients with Alzheimer's disease or other dementing illnesses, and are important in that they are a source of significant caregiver stress and often precipitate nursing home placement. These symptoms, namely, aggression, delusions, hallucinations, apathy, anxiety, and depression, are clinically managed with a variety of psychotropic drugs such as antipsychotics, antidepressants, antiepileptic drugs, and benzodiazepines. Various advances in the neuropathophysiology and pharmacotherapy must be considered in the optimal design of regimens for patients with these symptoms. PMID:11191740

  8. Late onset autistic symptoms and other fluctuating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Bussing, Regina; Siddiqi, Siraj; Janicke, David M; Harbert, Mary Jo; Trauner, Doris; Taylor, Tasha; Stein, Martin T

    2009-12-01

    Suzanna was born to a 26-year-old woman who used cocaine, alcohol, and cigarettes and experienced domestic violence throughout her pregnancy. Suzanna was placed in foster care with her current adoptive family after her birth. Her initial evaluation at 4 years revealed a global developmental delay (physical: 6 months; social and communication: 12 months). Improvements in development seemed to be in response to subsequent interventions. At 5 years, she had borderline intellectual functioning, an expressive or receptive language disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.Suzanna experienced an abrupt developmental decline at 6 1/2 years old. She lost cognitive abilities, and she no longer carried on conversations. Although she was no longer interactive with most people, she remained affectionate with her parents. Her mother thought that Suzanna had visual and auditory hallucinations. In addition, she developed encopresis and hand flapping. A neurological evaluation, including a test for Rett Syndrome, was negative. Her Full Scale IQ dropped from 73 to 50 with decreased adaptive functioning and clinically significant problems with hyperactivity, attention, and functional communication.Suzanna's development stabilized temporarily during an 18-month period. A second period of declining function included "zombie-like" behavior, anxiety, and hallucinations. Weekly sessions in child psychiatry included treatment with risperidone, methylphenidate, and supportive therapy for mother and child. After some clinical improvements in behavior, attention, and functioning, a psychological assessment confirmed the persistence of moderate mental retardation. A multidisciplinary team considered a diagnosis of childhood disintegrative disorder. PMID:19996905

  9. Beyond Intuition: Patient Fever Symptom Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Nancy J.; Peng, Claudia; Powers, John H.; Leidy, Nancy Kline; Miller-Davis, Claiborne; Rosenberg, Alice; VanRaden, Mark; Wallen, Gwenyth R.

    2013-01-01

    Context Fever is an important sign of inflammation recognized by health care practitioners and family caregivers. However, few empirical data obtained directly from patients exist to support many of the long-standing assumptions about the symptoms of fever. Many of the literature-cited symptoms, including chills, diaphoresis, and malaise, have limited scientific bases, yet they often represent a major justification for antipyretic administration. Objectives To describe the patient experience of fever symptoms for the preliminary development of a fever assessment questionnaire. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with 28 inpatients, the majority (86%) with cancer diagnoses, who had a recorded temperature of ≥38°C within approximately 12 hours before the interview. A semi-structured interview guide was used to elicit patient fever experiences. Thematic analyses were conducted by three independent research team members, and the data were verified through two rounds of consensus building. Results Eleven themes emerged. The participants reported experiences of feeling cold, weakness, warmth, sweating, nonspecific bodily sensations, gastrointestinal symptoms, headaches, emotional changes, achiness, respiratory symptoms, and vivid dreams/hallucinations. Conclusion Our data not only confirm long-standing symptoms of fever but also suggest new symptoms and a level of variability and complexity not captured by the existing fever literature. Greater knowledge of patients’ fever experiences will guide more accurate assessment of symptoms associated with fever and the impact of antipyretic treatments on patient symptoms in this common condition. Results from this study are contributing to the content validity of a future instrument that will evaluate patient outcomes related to fever interventions. PMID:23742739

  10. Synchrony of auditory brain responses predicts behavioral ability to keep still in children with autism spectrum disorder: Auditory-evoked response in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yuko; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Hasegawa, Chiaki; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Remijn, Gerard B; Oi, Manabu; Munesue, Toshio; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    The auditory-evoked P1m, recorded by magnetoencephalography, reflects a central auditory processing ability in human children. One recent study revealed that asynchrony of P1m between the right and left hemispheres reflected a central auditory processing disorder (i.e., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD) in children. However, to date, the relationship between auditory P1m right-left hemispheric synchronization and the comorbidity of hyperactivity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is unknown. In this study, based on a previous report of an asynchrony of P1m in children with ADHD, to clarify whether the P1m right-left hemispheric synchronization is related to the symptom of hyperactivity in children with ASD, we investigated the relationship between voice-evoked P1m right-left hemispheric synchronization and hyperactivity in children with ASD. In addition to synchronization, we investigated the right-left hemispheric lateralization. Our findings failed to demonstrate significant differences in these values between ASD children with and without the symptom of hyperactivity, which was evaluated using the Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule, Generic (ADOS-G) subscale. However, there was a significant correlation between the degrees of hemispheric synchronization and the ability to keep still during 12-minute MEG recording periods. Our results also suggested that asynchrony in the bilateral brain auditory processing system is associated with ADHD-like symptoms in children with ASD. PMID:27551667

  11. Menopausal symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Rymer, Janice; Morris, Edward P

    2000-01-01

    Definition Menopause begins one year after the last menstrual period. Symptoms often begin in the perimenopausal years. Incidence/prevalence In the United Kingdom the mean age for the menopause is 50 years 9 months. The median onset of the perimenopause is between 45.5 and 47.5 years. One Scottish survey (of 6096 women aged 45 to 54 years) found that 84% had experienced at least one of the classic menopausal symptoms, with 45% finding one or more symptoms a problem.1 InterventionsBeneficial:OestrogensTiboloneLikely to be beneficial:ProgestogensClonidineUnknown effectiveness:Phyto-oestrogensTestosteroneAntidepressants Aetiology/risk factors Urogenital symptoms of menopause are caused by decreased oestrogen concentrations, but the cause of vasomotor symptoms and psychological effects is complex and remains unclear. Prognosis Menopause is a physiological event. Its timing may be genetically determined. Although endocrine changes are permanent, menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, which are experienced by about 70% of women, usually resolve with time.2 However, some symptoms, such as genital atrophy, may remain the same or worsen. Aims To reduce or prevent menopausal symptoms, and to improve quality of life with minimum adverse effects. Outcomes Frequency and severity of vasomotor, urogenital, and psychological symptoms; quality of life. Methods Clinical Evidence search and appraisal December 1999. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews that met Clinical Evidence quality criteria. PMID:11118182

  12. Auditory perspective taking.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Eric; Brock, Derek

    2013-06-01

    Effective communication with a mobile robot using speech is a difficult problem even when you can control the auditory scene. Robot self-noise or ego noise, echoes and reverberation, and human interference are all common sources of decreased intelligibility. Moreover, in real-world settings, these problems are routinely aggravated by a variety of sources of background noise. Military scenarios can be punctuated by high decibel noise from materiel and weaponry that would easily overwhelm a robot's normal speaking volume. Moreover, in nonmilitary settings, fans, computers, alarms, and transportation noise can cause enough interference to make a traditional speech interface unusable. This work presents and evaluates a prototype robotic interface that uses perspective taking to estimate the effectiveness of its own speech presentation and takes steps to improve intelligibility for human listeners. PMID:23096077

  13. Prefrontal dopamine signaling and cognitive symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Nandakumar S.; Rodnitzky, Robert L.; Uc, Ergun

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is a common symptom of Parkinson’s disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The severity of these symptoms ranges from minor executive symptoms to frank dementia involving multiple domains. In the present review, we will concentrate on the aspects of cognitive impairment associated with prefrontal dopaminergic dysfunction seen in non-demented patients with PD. These symptoms include executive dysfunction and disorders of thought such as hallucinations and psychosis. Such symptoms may go on to predict dementia related to Parkinson’s disease, which involves amnestic dysfunction and is typically seen later in the disease. Cognitive symptoms are associated with dysfunction in cholinergic circuits in addition to the abnormalities in the prefrontal dopaminergic system. These circuits can be carefully studied and evaluated in Parkinson’s disease, and could be leveraged to treat difficult clinical problems related to cognitive symptoms of PD. PMID:23729617

  14. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26541581

  15. HIV Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Home > HIV/AIDS > What is HIV/AIDS? HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) HIV symptoms Photo courtesy of AIDS.gov More information ... and brain Return to top More information on HIV symptoms Explore other publications and websites Basic Information ...

  16. Auditory Processing Disorder in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... free publications Find organizations Related Topics Auditory Neuropathy Autism Spectrum Disorder: Communication Problems in Children Dysphagia Quick ... NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders 31 Center Drive, MSC ...

  17. Maps of the Auditory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Alyssa A; Barton, Brian

    2016-07-01

    One of the fundamental properties of the mammalian brain is that sensory regions of cortex are formed of multiple, functionally specialized cortical field maps (CFMs). Each CFM comprises two orthogonal topographical representations, reflecting two essential aspects of sensory space. In auditory cortex, auditory field maps (AFMs) are defined by the combination of tonotopic gradients, representing the spectral aspects of sound (i.e., tones), with orthogonal periodotopic gradients, representing the temporal aspects of sound (i.e., period or temporal envelope). Converging evidence from cytoarchitectural and neuroimaging measurements underlies the definition of 11 AFMs across core and belt regions of human auditory cortex, with likely homology to those of macaque. On a macrostructural level, AFMs are grouped into cloverleaf clusters, an organizational structure also seen in visual cortex. Future research can now use these AFMs to investigate specific stages of auditory processing, key for understanding behaviors such as speech perception and multimodal sensory integration. PMID:27145914

  18. Classroom Demonstrations of Auditory Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haws, LaDawn; Oppy, Brian J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents activities to help students gain understanding about auditory perception. Describes demonstrations that cover topics, such as sound localization, wave cancellation, frequency/pitch variation, and the influence of media on sound propagation. (CMK)

  19. Leiomyoma of External Auditory Canal.

    PubMed

    George, M V; Puthiyapurayil, Jamsheeda

    2016-09-01

    This article reports a case of piloleiomyoma of external auditory canal, which is the 7th case of leiomyoma of the external auditory canal being reported and the 2nd case of leiomyoma arising from arrectores pilorum muscles, all the other five cases were angioleiomyomas, arising from blood vessels. A 52 years old male presented with a mass in the right external auditory canal and decreased hearing of 6 months duration. Tumor excision done by end aural approach. Histopathological examination report was leiomyoma. It is extremely rare for leiomyoma to occur in the external auditory canal because of the non-availability of smooth muscles in the external canal. So it should be considered as a very rare differential diagnosis for any tumor or polyp in the ear canal. PMID:27508144

  20. The Hyperactivity of Efferent Auditory System in Patients with Schizophrenia: A Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions Study

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Suzaily; Abdul Rahman, Abdul Hamid; Sidek, Dinsuhaimi; Zakaria, Mohd. Normani

    2016-01-01

    Objective Electrophysiological studies, which are mostly focused on afferent pathway, have proven that auditory processing deficits exist in patients with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, reports on the suppressive effect of efferent auditory pathway on cochlear outer hair cells among schizophrenia patients are limited. The present, case-control, study examined the contralateral suppression of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) in patients with schizophrenia. Methods Participants were twenty-three healthy controls and sixteen schizophrenia patients with normal hearing, middle ear and cochlear outer hair cells function. Absolute non-linear and linear TEOAEs were measured in both ears by delivering clicks stimuli at 80 dB SPL and 60 dB SPL respectively. Subsequently, contralateral suppression was determined by subtracting the absolute TEOAEs response obtained at 60 dBpe SPL during the absence and presence of contralateral white noise delivered at 65 dB HL. No attention tasks were conducted during measurements. Results We found no significant difference in absolute TEOAEs responses at 80 dB SPL, in either diagnosis or ear groups (p>0.05). However, the overall contralateral suppression was significantly larger in schizophrenia patients (p<0.05). Specifically, patients with schizophrenia demonstrated significantly increased right ear contralateral suppression compared to healthy control (p<0.05). Conclusion The present findings suggest increased inhibitory effect of efferent auditory pathway especially on the right cochlear outer hair cells. Further studies to investigate increased suppressive effects are crucial to expand the current understanding of auditory hallucination mechanisms in schizophrenia patients. PMID:26766950

  1. Electrophysiological study of auditory development.

    PubMed

    Lippé, S; Martinez-Montes, E; Arcand, C; Lassonde, M

    2009-12-15

    Cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) testing, a non-invasive technique, is widely employed to study auditory brain development. The aim of this study was to investigate the development of the auditory electrophysiological signal without addressing specific abilities such as speech or music discrimination. We were interested in the temporal and spectral domains of conventional auditory evoked potentials. We analyzed cerebral responses to auditory stimulation (broadband noises) in 40 infants and children (1 month to 5 years 6 months) and 10 adults using high-density electrophysiological recording. We hypothesized that the adult auditory response has precursors that can be identified in infant and child responses. Results confirm that complex adult CAEP responses and spectral activity patterns appear after 5 years, showing decreased involvement of lower frequencies and increased involvement of higher frequencies. In addition, time-locked response to stimulus and event-related spectral pertubation across frequencies revealed alpha and beta band contributions to the CAEP of infants and toddlers before mutation to the beta and gamma band activity of the adult response. A detailed analysis of electrophysiological responses to a perceptual stimulation revealed general development patterns and developmental precursors of the adult response. PMID:19665050

  2. Touch activates human auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Schürmann, Martin; Caetano, Gina; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Jousmäki, Veikko; Hari, Riitta

    2006-05-01

    Vibrotactile stimuli can facilitate hearing, both in hearing-impaired and in normally hearing people. Accordingly, the sounds of hands exploring a surface contribute to the explorer's haptic percepts. As a possible brain basis of such phenomena, functional brain imaging has identified activations specific to audiotactile interaction in secondary somatosensory cortex, auditory belt area, and posterior parietal cortex, depending on the quality and relative salience of the stimuli. We studied 13 subjects with non-invasive functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to search for auditory brain areas that would be activated by touch. Vibration bursts of 200 Hz were delivered to the subjects' fingers and palm and tactile pressure pulses to their fingertips. Noise bursts served to identify auditory cortex. Vibrotactile-auditory co-activation, addressed with minimal smoothing to obtain a conservative estimate, was found in an 85-mm3 region in the posterior auditory belt area. This co-activation could be related to facilitated hearing at the behavioral level, reflecting the analysis of sound-like temporal patterns in vibration. However, even tactile pulses (without any vibration) activated parts of the posterior auditory belt area, which therefore might subserve processing of audiotactile events that arise during dynamic contact between hands and environment. PMID:16488157

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Olfactory Hallucinations and Associated Delusions: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kimhy, David

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory hallucinations (OH) are experienced by a substantial minority of people with schizophrenia, often leading to social anxiety, depression and suffering. Yet, despite their prevalence and clinical significance, OH in schizophrenia are under-researched and poorly understood, with scarce information about potential treatments. To address this gap in the literature, the author describes a case report of successfully using Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for psychosis (CBTp) to address OH, related delusions, as well as mood and social functioning difficulties in a male patient with schizophrenia. The results provide preliminary support for the feasibility and effectiveness of using CBTp to address OH and related delusions in individuals with schizophrenia. PMID:27052609

  4. Hippocampal temporal-parietal junction interaction in the production of psychotic symptoms: a framework for understanding the schizophrenic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wible, Cynthia G.

    2012-01-01

    A framework is described for understanding the schizophrenic syndrome at the brain systems level. It is hypothesized that over-activation of dynamic gesture and social perceptual processes in the temporal-parietal occipital junction (TPJ), posterior superior temporal sulcus (PSTS) and surrounding regions produce the syndrome (including positive and negative symptoms, their prevalence, prodromal signs, and cognitive deficits). Hippocampal system hyper-activity and atrophy have been consistently found in schizophrenia. Hippocampal activity is highly correlated with activity in the TPJ and may be a source of over-excitation of the TPJ and surrounding regions. Strong evidence for this comes from in-vivo recordings in humans during psychotic episodes. Many positive symptoms of schizophrenia can be reframed as the erroneous sense of a presence or other who is observing, acting, speaking, or controlling; these qualia are similar to those evoked during abnormal activation of the TPJ. The TPJ and PSTS play a key role in the perception (and production) of dynamic social, emotional, and attentional gestures for the self and others (e.g., body/face/eye gestures, audiovisual speech and prosody, and social attentional gestures such as eye gaze). The single cell representation of dynamic gestures is multimodal (auditory, visual, tactile), matching the predominant hallucinatory categories in schizophrenia. Inherent in the single cell perceptual signal of dynamic gesture representations is a computation of intention, agency, and anticipation or expectancy (for the self and others). Stimulation of the TPJ resulting in activation of the self representation has been shown to result a feeling of a presence or multiple presences (due to heautoscopy) and also bizarre tactile experiences. Neurons in the TPJ are also tuned, or biased to detect threat related emotions. Abnormal over-activation in this system could produce the conscious hallucination of a voice (audiovisual speech), a person

  5. Computational modelling of schizophrenic symptoms: basic issues.

    PubMed

    Tretter, F; an der Heiden, U; Rujescu, D; Pogarell, O

    2012-05-01

    Emerging "(computational) systems medicine" challenges neuropsychiatry regarding the development of heuristic computational brain models which help to explore symptoms and syndromes of mental disorders. This methodology of exploratory modelling of mental functions and processes and of their pathology requires a clear and operational definition of the target variable (explanandum). In the case of schizophrenia, a complex and heterogeneous disorder, single psychopathological key symptoms such as working memory deficiency, hallucination or delusion need to be defined first. Thereafter, measures of brain structures can be used in a multilevel view as biological correlates of these symptoms. Then, in order to formally "explain" the symptoms, a qualitative model can be constructed. In another step, numerical values have to be integrated into the model and exploratory computer simulations can be performed. Normal and pathological functioning is to be tested in computer experiments allowing the formulation of new hypotheses and questions for empirical research. However, the crucial challenge is to point out the appropriate degree of complexity (or simplicity) of these models, which is required in order to achieve an epistemic value that might lead to new hypothetical explanatory models and could stimulate new empirical and theoretical research. Some outlines of these methodological issues are discussed here, regarding the fact that measurements alone are not sufficient to build models. PMID:22565230

  6. An integrated network model of psychotic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Looijestijn, Jasper; Blom, Jan Dirk; Aleman, André; Hoek, Hans W; Goekoop, Rutger

    2015-12-01

    The full body of research on the nature of psychosis and its determinants indicates that a considerable number of factors are relevant to the development of hallucinations, delusions, and other positive symptoms, ranging from neurodevelopmental parameters and altered connectivity of brain regions to impaired cognitive functioning and social factors. We aimed to integrate these factors in a single mathematical model based on network theory. At the microscopic level this model explains positive symptoms of psychosis in terms of experiential equivalents of robust, high-frequency attractor states of neural networks. At the mesoscopic level it explains them in relation to global brain states, and at the macroscopic level in relation to social-network structures and dynamics. Due to the scale-free nature of biological networks, all three levels are governed by the same general laws, thereby allowing for an integrated model of biological, psychological, and social phenomena involved in the mediation of positive symptoms of psychosis. This integrated network model of psychotic symptoms (INMOPS) is described together with various possibilities for application in clinical practice. PMID:26432501

  7. Auditory nerve disease and auditory neuropathy spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Kaga, Kimitaka

    2016-02-01

    In 1996, a new type of bilateral hearing disorder was discerned and published almost simultaneously by Kaga et al. [1] and Starr et al. [2]. Although the pathophysiology of this disorder as reported by each author was essentially identical, Kaga used the term "auditory nerve disease" and Starr used the term "auditory neuropathy". Auditory neuropathy (AN) in adults is an acquired disorder characterized by mild-to-moderate pure-tone hearing loss, poor speech discrimination, and absence of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) all in the presence of normal cochlear outer hair cell function as indicated by normal distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and evoked summating potentials (SPs) by electrocochleography (ECoG). A variety of processes and etiologies are thought to be involved in its pathophysiology including mutations of the OTOF and/or OPA1 genes. Most of the subsequent reports in the literature discuss the various auditory profiles of patients with AN [3,4] and in this report we present the profiles of an additional 17 cases of adult AN. Cochlear implants are useful for the reacquisition of hearing in adult AN although hearing aids are ineffective. In 2008, the new term of Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorders (ANSD) was proposed by the Colorado Children's Hospital group following a comprehensive study of newborn hearing test results. When ABRs were absent and DPOAEs were present in particular cases during newborn screening they were classified as ANSD. In 2013, our group in the Tokyo Medical Center classified ANSD into three types by following changes in ABRs and DPOAEs over time with development. In Type I, there is normalization of hearing over time, Type II shows a change into profound hearing loss and Type III is true auditory neuropathy (AN). We emphasize that, in adults, ANSD is not the same as AN. PMID:26209259

  8. Plague Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  9. Psychology of auditory perception.

    PubMed

    Lotto, Andrew; Holt, Lori

    2011-09-01

    Audition is often treated as a 'secondary' sensory system behind vision in the study of cognitive science. In this review, we focus on three seemingly simple perceptual tasks to demonstrate the complexity of perceptual-cognitive processing involved in everyday audition. After providing a short overview of the characteristics of sound and their neural encoding, we present a description of the perceptual task of segregating multiple sound events that are mixed together in the signal reaching the ears. Then, we discuss the ability to localize the sound source in the environment. Finally, we provide some data and theory on how listeners categorize complex sounds, such as speech. In particular, we present research on how listeners weigh multiple acoustic cues in making a categorization decision. One conclusion of this review is that it is time for auditory cognitive science to be developed to match what has been done in vision in order for us to better understand how humans communicate with speech and music. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 479-489 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.123 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26302301

  10. Auditory Beat Stimulation and its Effects on Cognition and Mood States

    PubMed Central

    Chaieb, Leila; Wilpert, Elke Caroline; Reber, Thomas P.; Fell, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Auditory beat stimulation may be a promising new tool for the manipulation of cognitive processes and the modulation of mood states. Here, we aim to review the literature examining the most current applications of auditory beat stimulation and its targets. We give a brief overview of research on auditory steady-state responses and its relationship to auditory beat stimulation (ABS). We have summarized relevant studies investigating the neurophysiological changes related to ABS and how they impact upon the design of appropriate stimulation protocols. Focusing on binaural-beat stimulation, we then discuss the role of monaural- and binaural-beat frequencies in cognition and mood states, in addition to their efficacy in targeting disease symptoms. We aim to highlight important points concerning stimulation parameters and try to address why there are often contradictory findings with regard to the outcomes of ABS. PMID:26029120

  11. Olfactory Hallucinations without Clinical Motor Activity: A Comparison of Unirhinal with Birhinal Phantosmia

    PubMed Central

    Henkin, Robert I.; Potolicchio, Samuel J.; Levy, Lucien M.

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory hallucinations without subsequent myoclonic activity have not been well characterized or understood. Herein we describe, in a retrospective study, two major forms of olfactory hallucinations labeled phantosmias: one, unirhinal, the other, birhinal. To describe these disorders we performed several procedures to elucidate similarities and differences between these processes. From 1272, patients evaluated for taste and smell dysfunction at The Taste and Smell Clinic, Washington, DC with clinical history, neurological and otolaryngological examinations, evaluations of taste and smell function, EEG and neuroradiological studies 40 exhibited cyclic unirhinal phantosmia (CUP) usually without hyposmia whereas 88 exhibited non-cyclic birhinal phantosmia with associated symptomology (BPAS) with hyposmia. Patients with CUP developed phantosmia spontaneously or after laughing, coughing or shouting initially with spontaneous inhibition and subsequently with Valsalva maneuvers, sleep or nasal water inhalation; they had frequent EEG changes usually ipsilateral sharp waves. Patients with BPAS developed phantosmia secondary to several clinical events usually after hyposmia onset with few EEG changes; their phantosmia could not be initiated or inhibited by any physiological maneuver. CUP is uncommonly encountered and represents a newly defined clinical syndrome. BPAS is commonly encountered, has been observed previously but has not been clearly defined. Mechanisms responsible for phantosmia in each group were related to decreased gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) activity in specific brain regions. Treatment which activated brain GABA inhibited phantosmia in both groups. PMID:24961619

  12. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health.

    PubMed

    Basner, Mathias; Babisch, Wolfgang; Davis, Adrian; Brink, Mark; Clark, Charlotte; Janssen, Sabine; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2014-04-12

    Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health effects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in noise-induced hair-cell and nerve damage has substantially increased, and preventive and therapeutic drugs will probably become available within 10 years. Evidence of the non-auditory effects of environmental noise exposure on public health is growing. Observational and experimental studies have shown that noise exposure leads to annoyance, disturbs sleep and causes daytime sleepiness, affects patient outcomes and staff performance in hospitals, increases the occurrence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and impairs cognitive performance in schoolchildren. In this Review, we stress the importance of adequate noise prevention and mitigation strategies for public health. PMID:24183105

  13. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health

    PubMed Central

    Basner, Mathias; Babisch, Wolfgang; Davis, Adrian; Brink, Mark; Clark, Charlotte; Janssen, Sabine; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health effects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in noise-induced hair-cell and nerve damage has substantially increased, and preventive and therapeutic drugs will probably become available within 10 years. Evidence of the non-auditory effects of environmental noise exposure on public health is growing. Observational and experimental studies have shown that noise exposure leads to annoyance, disturbs sleep and causes daytime sleepiness, affects patient outcomes and staff performance in hospitals, increases the occurrence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and impairs cognitive performance in schoolchildren. In this Review, we stress the importance of adequate noise prevention and mitigation strategies for public health. PMID:24183105

  14. Etiological and Clinical Features of Childhood Psychotic Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Polanczyk, Guilherme; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise; Cannon, Mary; Ambler, Antony; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Houts, Renate; Odgers, Candice L.; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Context It has been reported that childhood psychotic symptoms are common in the general population and may signal neurodevelopmental processes that lead to schizophrenia. However, it is not clear whether these symptoms are associated with the same extensive risk factors established for adult schizophrenia. Objective To examine the construct validity of children’s self-reported psychotic symptoms by testing whether these symptoms share the risk factors and clinical features of adult schizophrenia. Design Prospective, longitudinal cohort study of a nationally representative birth cohort in Great Britain. Participants A total of 2232 twelve-year-old children followed up since age 5 years (retention, 96%). Main Outcome Measure Children’s self-reported hallucinations and delusions. Results Children’s psychotic symptoms are familial and heritable and are associated with social risk factors (eg, urbanicity); cognitive impairments at age 5; home-rearing risk factors (eg, maternal expressed emotion); behavioral, emotional, and educational problems at age 5; and comorbid conditions, including self-harm. Conclusions The results provide a comprehensive picture of the construct validity of children’s self-reported psychotic symptoms. For researchers, the findings indicate that children who have psychotic symptoms can be recruited for neuroscience research to determine the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. For clinicians, the findings indicate that psychotic symptoms in childhood are often a marker of an impaired developmental process and should be actively assessed. PMID:20368509

  15. Current understanding of auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Boo, Nem-Yun

    2008-12-01

    Auditory neuropathy is defined by the presence of normal evoked otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and absent or abnormal auditory brainstem responses (ABR). The sites of lesion could be at the cochlear inner hair cells, spiral ganglion cells of the cochlea, synapse between the inner hair cells and auditory nerve, or the auditory nerve itself. Genetic, infectious or neonatal/perinatal insults are the 3 most commonly identified underlying causes. Children usually present with delay in speech and language development while adult patients present with hearing loss and disproportionately poor speech discrimination for the degree of hearing loss. Although cochlear implant is the treatment of choice, current evidence show that it benefits only those patients with endocochlear lesions, but not those with cochlear nerve deficiency or central nervous system disorders. As auditory neuropathy is a disorder with potential long-term impact on a child's development, early hearing screen using both OAE and ABR should be carried out on all newborns and infants to allow early detection and intervention. PMID:19904452

  16. Individual differences in auditory abilities.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Gary R; Watson, Charles S; Gygi, Brian

    2007-07-01

    Performance on 19 auditory discrimination and identification tasks was measured for 340 listeners with normal hearing. Test stimuli included single tones, sequences of tones, amplitude-modulated and rippled noise, temporal gaps, speech, and environmental sounds. Principal components analysis and structural equation modeling of the data support the existence of a general auditory ability and four specific auditory abilities. The specific abilities are (1) loudness and duration (overall energy) discrimination; (2) sensitivity to temporal envelope variation; (3) identification of highly familiar sounds (speech and nonspeech); and (4) discrimination of unfamiliar simple and complex spectral and temporal patterns. Examination of Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores for a large subset of the population revealed little or no association between general or specific auditory abilities and general intellectual ability. The findings provide a basis for research to further specify the nature of the auditory abilities. Of particular interest are results suggestive of a familiar sound recognition (FSR) ability, apparently specialized for sound recognition on the basis of limited or distorted information. This FSR ability is independent of normal variation in both spectral-temporal acuity and of general intellectual ability. PMID:17614500

  17. A clinical overview of non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Modugno, Nicola; Lena, Francesco; Di Biasio, Francesca; Cerrone, Gloria; Ruggieri, Stefano; Fornai, Francesco

    2013-12-01

    Although Parkinson's disease (PD) is diagnosed on the basis of motor symptoms, including slowness of movement, tremor, rigidity and difficulties with balance and walking, now we are aware that non-motor symptoms are highly prevalent, since they can anticipate motor symptoms and can cause severe consequences. Several studies have shown that non-motor symptoms, such as depression, anxiety and apathy, psychosis (e.g., hallucinations, delusions), sleep disturbance, and pain may have a greater adverse impact on quality of life and health economics compared with motor symptoms. Non-motor symptoms can be divided into four domains: neuropsychiatric (e.g., depression, anxiety, apathy, hallucinations, dementia), autonomic (e.g., constipation, orthostatic hypotension, urinary changes, sweating abnormalities), sleep (e.g., insomnia, sleep fragmentation, excessive daytime sleepiness, rapid eye movement, sleep behavioural disorder, restless leg syndrome), and sensory dysfunction (e.g., pain, olfactory dysfunction). This review addresses diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. The causative mechanisms remain complex, since they reflect the widespread brainstem and cortical pathology of PD, with involvement of several neurotransmitters, including dopamine (DA), serotonin, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine. The diagnosis is often challenging, especially for psychiatric disorders, and in particular affective disorders, because somatic features of psychopathology may overlap with the movement disorder itself. Treatments used are limited and psychiatric drugs may not be as effective as in general population. Evidence based medicine is quite poor and it still requires well-designed clinical studies. PMID:24873924

  18. [Auditory synaptopathy/neuropathy: clinical findings and diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Walger, M; Foerst, A; Beutner, D; Streicher, B; Stürmer, K; Lang-Roth, R

    2011-05-01

    Auditory synaptopathy/neuropathy (AS/AN) is a special subtype of sensorineural hearing disorders with heterogeneous phenotypes and underestimated incidence. AS/AN generally develops in infancy, occasionally in adulthood. Symptoms include fluctuating, mostly bilateral hearing loss and abnormally reduced speech comprehension, especially in noisy environments. Within audiological assessments, patients with AS/AN present otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE; DPOAE) and cochlear microphonics (CM), absence of stapedius reflexes (SR) as well as absent or pathologically altered auditory evoked brainstem potentials (ABR). Children with AS/AN cannot be identified within OAE-based newborn hearing screening programs. Clinical findings, transtympanic electrocochleography (ECoG) and further diagnostic tools permit further identification of individual characteristics. In individual cases conventional amplification and the use of FM systems may improve hearing and communication skills. If these interventions, accompanied by intensive hearing, speech and language therapy are unsuccessful, cochlear implants (CI) or alternative forms of communication may be useful options for rehabilitation. PMID:21505928

  19. Grouping of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia†

    PubMed Central

    van der Linde, Rianne M; Dening, Tom; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Objective A wide range of behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPSD) are common in dementia, and it has been suggested that groups of correlated symptoms should be studied together. Here, we describe the groups of BPSD that have been identified in the literature and how they have been used to study associations, burden, treatment and underlying biology. Methods The literature database PubMed was searched for articles that identified clusters or factors of BPSD or used previously defined symptom groups. Results Sixty-two studies were included. Generally, the following symptom groups were suggested: affective symptoms, including depression and anxiety; psychosis, including delusions and hallucinations; hyperactivity, including irritability and aggression; and euphoria. Symptoms that did not show consistent results include apathy, eating disturbances, night-time behaviour disturbances, disinhibition and aberrant motor behaviour. Symptom groups differed in their associations, treatment and biology. Conclusions Studies investigating symptom groups show relatively consistent results. Studying symptom groups allows similar symptoms to be studied together, which might strengthen results and may point to differences in their aetiology and treatment. However, a large amount of the individual variability of the symptoms could not be explained by the factors, and authors should carefully address their research question and hypotheses to decide if symptoms should be studied in groups or individually. Clinicians need to consider each symptom in its own right and also to be aware of the interrelations between them when assessing patients and developing strategies for treatment. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24677112

  20. Context effects on auditory distraction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sufen; Sussman, Elyse S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that sound context modulates the magnitude of auditory distraction, indexed by behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Participants were asked to identify tone duration, while irrelevant changes occurred in tone frequency, tone intensity, and harmonic structure. Frequency deviants were randomly intermixed with standards (Uni-Condition), with intensity deviants (Bi-Condition), and with both intensity and complex deviants (Tri-Condition). Only in the Tri-Condition did the auditory distraction effect reflect the magnitude difference among the frequency and intensity deviants. The mixture of the different types of deviants in the Tri-Condition modulated the perceived level of distraction, demonstrating that the sound context can modulate the effect of deviance level on processing irrelevant acoustic changes in the environment. These findings thus indicate that perceptual contrast plays a role in change detection processes that leads to auditory distraction. PMID:23886958

  1. Rare tumors of the internal auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Dazert, Stefan; Aletsee, Christoph; Brors, Dominik; Mlynski, Robert; Sudhoff, Holger; Hildmann, Henning; Helms, Jan

    2005-07-01

    The study was performed to identify the incidence and histology of rare tumors with growth restricted to the internal auditory canal (IAC) that are different from vestibular schwannoma (VS). Furthermore, the question was addressed whether a preoperative diagnosis would be possible in these cases. A series of 351 patients that were operated on for IAC tumors through a transtemporal or translabyrinthine approach was investigated retrospectively. Cases with a tumor entity other than VS were analyzed for symptoms, radiological diagnosis, intraoperative findings and postoperative histolopatology to determine if a differential diagnosis to the common VS can be established prior to surgery. In 15 out of 351 cases (4.3%), uncommon processes of the IAC were determined by histology (6 lipomas, 3 hemangiomas, 2 neurofibromas, 2 menigiomas, 1 facial neuroma and 1 case of bilateral malignant lymphoma). The symptoms and the clinical manifestations were typical for patients with VS so that a preoperative differential diagnosis was not possible in the majority of cases. An analysis of the operation reports revealed that in 10 out of the 15 cases the surgeon suspected an unusual tumor of the IAC during surgery. The results of the present investigation suggest that rare lesions of the IAC can be expected in less than 5% of the cases and that preoperative diagnosis of rare IAC tumors is difficult. Intraoperative findings such as adhesion to cranial nerves and consistency of the tumor often indicate unusual processes, but histological analysis of the removed tissue is essential for the definite diagnosis. PMID:15947938

  2. Alive with the sound of music: a case series on patients presenting with musical hallucinations in a general hospital.

    PubMed

    Kinson, Rochelle Melina; Lim, Wen Phei; Rahman, Habeebul

    2015-01-01

    Musical hallucinations are a rare phenomenon that renders appropriate identification and treatment a challenge. This case series describes three women who presented with hearing complex, familiar melodies in the absence of external stimuli on a background of hearing impairment. PMID:25716494

  3. Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Cerejeira, J.; Lagarto, L.; Mukaetova-Ladinska, E. B.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), also known as neuropsychiatric symptoms, represent a heterogeneous group of non-cognitive symptoms and behaviors occurring in subjects with dementia. BPSD constitute a major component of the dementia syndrome irrespective of its subtype. They are as clinically relevant as cognitive symptoms as they strongly correlate with the degree of functional and cognitive impairment. BPSD include agitation, aberrant motor behavior, anxiety, elation, irritability, depression, apathy, disinhibition, delusions, hallucinations, and sleep or appetite changes. It is estimated that BPSD affect up to 90% of all dementia subjects over the course of their illness, and is independently associated with poor outcomes, including distress among patients and caregivers, long-term hospitalization, misuse of medication, and increased health care costs. Although these symptoms can be present individually it is more common that various psychopathological features co-occur simultaneously in the same patient. Thus, categorization of BPSD in clusters taking into account their natural course, prognosis, and treatment response may be useful in the clinical practice. The pathogenesis of BPSD has not been clearly delineated but it is probably the result of a complex interplay of psychological, social, and biological factors. Recent studies have emphasized the role of neurochemical, neuropathological, and genetic factors underlying the clinical manifestations of BPSD. A high degree of clinical expertise is crucial to appropriately recognize and manage the neuropsychiatric symptoms in a patient with dementia. Combination of non-pharmacological and careful use of pharmacological interventions is the recommended therapeutic for managing BPSD. Given the modest efficacy of current strategies, there is an urgent need to identify novel pharmacological targets and develop new non-pharmacological approaches to improve the adverse outcomes associated with

  4. Effects of Auditory Input in Individuation Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Christopher W.; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2008-01-01

    Under many conditions auditory input interferes with visual processing, especially early in development. These interference effects are often more pronounced when the auditory input is unfamiliar than when the auditory input is familiar (e.g. human speech, pre-familiarized sounds, etc.). The current study extends this research by examining how…

  5. Feature Assignment in Perception of Auditory Figure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Melissa K.; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2012-01-01

    Because the environment often includes multiple sounds that overlap in time, listeners must segregate a sound of interest (the auditory figure) from other co-occurring sounds (the unattended auditory ground). We conducted a series of experiments to clarify the principles governing the extraction of auditory figures. We distinguish between auditory…

  6. A Population-Based Twin Study of Parentally Reported Tactile and Auditory Defensiveness in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, H. H.; Van Hulle, C. A.; Arneson, C. L.; Schreiber, J. E.; Gernsbacher, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    Some adults and children exhibit defensive behaviors to tactile or auditory stimulation. These symptoms occur not only in subsets of children with ADHD, autism, and Fragile X syndrome, but also in the apparent absence of accompanying disorders. Relatively little research explores the correlates and antecedents of sensory defensiveness. Using a…

  7. Rotavirus Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rotavirus Vaccine Program American Academy of Pediatrics Symptoms Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... PATH's Rotavirus Vaccine Program American Academy of Pediatrics Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

  8. Norovirus Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infection, National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology Symptoms Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Español: SÃntomas Prevent Dehydration Drink plenty of liquids to replace fluids that ...

  9. Sadness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia P; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2014-02-01

    Research shows that attention is ineluctably captured away from a focal visual task by rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards). The fundamental cognitive mechanisms underlying this effect have been the object of an increasing number of studies but their sensitivity to mood and emotions remains relatively unexplored despite suggestion of greater distractibility in negative emotional contexts. In this study, we examined the effect of sadness, a widespread form of emotional distress and a symptom of many disorders, on distraction by deviant sounds. Participants received either a sadness induction or a neutral mood induction by means of a mixed procedure based on music and autobiographical recall prior to taking part in an auditory-visual oddball task in which they categorized visual digits while ignoring task-irrelevant sounds. The results showed that although all participants exhibited significantly longer response times in the visual categorization task following the presentation of rare and unexpected deviant sounds relative to that of the standard sound, this distraction effect was significantly greater in participants who had received the sadness induction (a twofold increase). The residual distraction on the subsequent trial (postdeviance distraction) was equivalent in both groups, suggesting that sadness interfered with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound and back toward the target stimulus. We propose that this disengagement impairment reflected the monopolization of cognitive resources by sadness and/or associated ruminations. Our findings suggest that sadness can increase distraction even when distractors are emotionally neutral. PMID:24098923

  10. Early auditory enrichment with music enhances auditory discrimination learning and alters NR2B protein expression in rat auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinghong; Yu, Liping; Cai, Rui; Zhang, Jiping; Sun, Xinde

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the functional development of auditory system is substantially influenced by the structure of environmental acoustic inputs in early life. In our present study, we investigated the effects of early auditory enrichment with music on rat auditory discrimination learning. We found that early auditory enrichment with music from postnatal day (PND) 14 enhanced learning ability in auditory signal-detection task and in sound duration-discrimination task. In parallel, a significant increase was noted in NMDA receptor subunit NR2B protein expression in the auditory cortex. Furthermore, we found that auditory enrichment with music starting from PND 28 or 56 did not influence NR2B expression in the auditory cortex. No difference was found in the NR2B expression in the inferior colliculus (IC) between music-exposed and normal rats, regardless of when the auditory enrichment with music was initiated. Our findings suggest that early auditory enrichment with music influences NMDA-mediated neural plasticity, which results in enhanced auditory discrimination learning. PMID:18706452

  11. The beneficial effect of escitalopram on obsessive-compulsive-related musical hallucinations in elderly patients with hearing impairment: a case series.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Josef; Pashinian, Artashez; Weizman, Abraham; Poyurovsky, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Musical hallucinations (MHs), characterized by the hearing of tunes, melodies, or songs, is a relatively under-recognized phenomenon among elderly individuals with hearing impairment. In some patients, MHs represent a complex psychopathological phenomenon, hallucinatory in content and obsessive-compulsive (OC) in form, justifying trial with an antiobsessive agent. In the present case series, we describe our clinical experience with escitalopram in six (two men, four women; age 74-85 years) elderly individuals with OC-related MH and hearing impairment who did not respond to previous antipsychotic treatment. Switch to escitalopram (mean 12.5 mg) led to a substantial improvement in the MH symptom severity, as reflected in a decrease in the global score of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale adapted to OC-related MH (scores before escitalopram, 13.2±0.9; after 12 weeks of treatment, 7.8±2.8; P<0.01). Escitalopram was well tolerated, and the only detected side effects, nausea and headache, were mild and transient. If confirmed in controlled trials, escitalopram and probably other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may be a therapeutic option in elderly individuals with OC-related MH. PMID:24810250

  12. Transformations of consciousness. A cartography. I. The perception-hallucination continuum.

    PubMed

    Fischer, R

    1975-01-01

    Self-awareness emerges from the evolutionary transformation of material structures into magical, mythical and mental structures of consciousness. Western varieties of conscious states may be mapped on a perception-hallucination continuum of increasing ergotropic or hyper-arousal. These levels of subcortical arousal are cortically or cognitively interpreted as normal, creative, hyperhrenic, cataleptic and ecstatic states. During increasing hyper-arousal (characterized by EEG desynchronization): (1) the variability of the EEG amplitude decreases in introverts whereas in extroverts, it increases; (2) exteroception is transformed into an experience of interoception, while willed motor activity becomes increasingly impaired and ultimately inhibited, and (3) information processing during these hallucinatory states is preferentially shifted from the speech dominant and motor-coordinating or "major" toward the nonverbal, gestalt-perceiving, the non-dominant or "minor" cortical hemisphere. PMID:1230336

  13. Social functioning in patients with a psychotic disorder and first rank symptoms.

    PubMed

    Heering, Henriëtte D; van Haren, Neeltje E M

    2016-03-30

    There have been suggestions that a sense of self emerges through social interaction, which requires an intact capability to distinguish self from others. Here we investigated the contribution of first rank delusions and hallucinations, i.e. symptom expressions of a disturbed sense of self, to social functioning in patients with a psychotic disorder. Life-time and present-state positive symptom clusters (e.g. first rank delusions and hallucinations) and present-state negative symptoms were submitted to hierarchical multiple-regression analyses with (different domains of) social functioning as dependent variable. In addition to negative symptoms (β=-0.48), the life-time presence of first rank delusions is significantly negative associated with level of social functioning, in particular with the quality of interpersonal interactions, with a modest standardized regression coefficient (β=-0.14). We reconfirmed the well-established relationship between negative symptoms and social functioning, but the life-time presence of first rank delusions may also have an subtle ongoing effect on the quality of the interaction with others. We propose that the experience of first rank delusions may be an expression of enduring self-disturbances, leaving patients unsure on how to behave in social interactions. PMID:26892072

  14. Auditory Risk of Air Rifles

    PubMed Central

    Lankford, James E.; Meinke, Deanna K.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Finan, Donald S.; Stewart, Michael; Tasko, Stephen; Murphy, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize the impulse noise exposure and auditory risk for air rifle users for both youth and adults. Design Acoustic characteristics were examined and the auditory risk estimates were evaluated using contemporary damage-risk criteria for unprotected adult listeners and the 120-dB peak limit and LAeq75 exposure limit suggested by the World Health Organization (1999) for children. Study sample Impulses were generated by 9 pellet air rifles and 1 BB air rifle. Results None of the air rifles generated peak levels that exceeded the 140 dB peak limit for adults and 8 (80%) exceeded the 120 dB peak SPL limit for youth. In general, for both adults and youth there is minimal auditory risk when shooting less than 100 unprotected shots with pellet air rifles. Air rifles with suppressors were less hazardous than those without suppressors and the pellet air rifles with higher velocities were generally more hazardous than those with lower velocities. Conclusion To minimize auditory risk, youth should utilize air rifles with an integrated suppressor and lower velocity ratings. Air rifle shooters are advised to wear hearing protection whenever engaging in shooting activities in order to gain self-efficacy and model appropriate hearing health behaviors necessary for recreational firearm use. PMID:26840923

  15. Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…

  16. Regular patterns stabilize auditory streams.

    PubMed

    Bendixen, Alexandra; Denham, Susan L; Gyimesi, Kinga; Winkler, István

    2010-12-01

    The auditory system continuously parses the acoustic environment into auditory objects, usually representing separate sound sources. Sound sources typically show characteristic emission patterns. These regular temporal sound patterns are possible cues for distinguishing sound sources. The present study was designed to test whether regular patterns are used as cues for source distinction and to specify the role that detecting these regularities may play in the process of auditory stream segregation. Participants were presented with tone sequences, and they were asked to continuously indicate whether they perceived the tones in terms of a single coherent sequence of sounds (integrated) or as two concurrent sound streams (segregated). Unknown to the participant, in some stimulus conditions, regular patterns were present in one or both putative streams. In all stimulus conditions, participants' perception switched back and forth between the two sound organizations. Importantly, regular patterns occurring in either one or both streams prolonged the mean duration of two-stream percepts, whereas the duration of one-stream percepts was unaffected. These results suggest that temporal regularities are utilized in auditory scene analysis. It appears that the role of this cue lies in stabilizing streams once they have been formed on the basis of simpler acoustic cues. PMID:21218898

  17. Dynamics of auditory working memory

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Working memory denotes the ability to retain stimuli in mind that are no longer physically present and to perform mental operations on them. Electro- and magnetoencephalography allow investigating the short-term maintenance of acoustic stimuli at a high temporal resolution. Studies investigating working memory for non-spatial and spatial auditory information have suggested differential roles of regions along the putative auditory ventral and dorsal streams, respectively, in the processing of the different sound properties. Analyses of event-related potentials have shown sustained, memory load-dependent deflections over the retention periods. The topography of these waves suggested an involvement of modality-specific sensory storage regions. Spectral analysis has yielded information about the temporal dynamics of auditory working memory processing of individual stimuli, showing activation peaks during the delay phase whose timing was related to task performance. Coherence at different frequencies was enhanced between frontal and sensory cortex. In summary, auditory working memory seems to rely on the dynamic interplay between frontal executive systems and sensory representation regions. PMID:26029146

  18. Auditory processing and morphological anomalies in medial geniculate nucleus of Cntnap2 mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Truong, Dongnhu T; Rendall, Amanda R; Castelluccio, Brian C; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Fitch, R Holly

    2015-12-01

    Genetic epidemiological studies support a role for CNTNAP2 in developmental language disorders such as autism spectrum disorder, specific language impairment, and dyslexia. Atypical language development and function represent a core symptom of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with evidence suggesting that aberrant auditory processing-including impaired spectrotemporal processing and enhanced pitch perception-may both contribute to an anomalous language phenotype. Investigation of gene-brain-behavior relationships in social and repetitive ASD symptomatology have benefited from experimentation on the Cntnap2 knockout (KO) mouse. However, auditory-processing behavior and effects on neural structures within the central auditory pathway have not been assessed in this model. Thus, this study examined whether auditory-processing abnormalities were associated with mutation of the Cntnap2 gene in mice. Cntnap2 KO mice were assessed on auditory-processing tasks including silent gap detection, embedded tone detection, and pitch discrimination. Cntnap2 knockout mice showed deficits in silent gap detection but a surprising superiority in pitch-related discrimination as compared with controls. Stereological analysis revealed a reduction in the number and density of neurons, as well as a shift in neuronal size distribution toward smaller neurons, in the medial geniculate nucleus of mutant mice. These findings are consistent with a central role for CNTNAP2 in the ontogeny and function of neural systems subserving auditory processing and suggest that developmental disruption of these neural systems could contribute to the atypical language phenotype seen in autism spectrum disorder. PMID:26501174

  19. The Encoding of Auditory Objects in Auditory Cortex: Insights from Magnetoencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Jonathan Z.

    2014-01-01

    Auditory objects, like their visual counterparts, are perceptually defined constructs, but nevertheless must arise from underlying neural circuitry. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of the neural responses of human subjects listening to complex auditory scenes, we review studies that demonstrate that auditory objects are indeed neurally represented in auditory cortex. The studies use neural responses obtained from different experiments in which subjects selectively listen to one of two competing auditory streams embedded in a variety of auditory scenes. The auditory streams overlap spatially and often spectrally. In particular, the studies demonstrate that selective attentional gain does not act globally on the entire auditory scene, but rather acts differentially on the separate auditory streams. This stream-based attentional gain is then used as a tool to individually analyze the different neural representations of the competing auditory streams. The neural representation of the attended stream, located in posterior auditory cortex, dominates the neural responses. Critically, when the intensities of the attended and background streams are separately varied over a wide intensity range, the neural representation of the attended speech adapts only to the intensity of that speaker, irrespective of the intensity of the background speaker. This demonstrates object-level intensity gain control in addition to the above object-level selective attentional gain. Overall, these results indicate that concurrently streaming auditory objects, even if spectrally overlapping and not resolvable at the auditory periphery, are individually neurally encoded in auditory cortex, as separate objects. PMID:24841996

  20. Finding the missing-stimulus mismatch negativity (MMN) in early psychosis: altered MMN to violations of an auditory gestalt.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Erica D; Ells, Emma M L; Campbell, Debra J; Abriel, Shelagh C; Tibbo, Philip G; Salisbury, Dean F; Fisher, Derek J

    2015-08-01

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) is an EEG-derived event-related potential (ERP) elicited by any violation of a predicted auditory 'rule', regardless of whether one is attending to the stimuli, and is thought to reflect updating of the stimulus context. Chronic schizophrenia patients exhibit robust MMN deficits, while MMN reduction in first-episode and early phase psychosis is significantly less consistent. Traditional two-tone "oddball" MMN measures of sensory information processing may be considered too simple for use in early phase psychosis in which pathology has not progressed fully, and a paradigm that probes higher order processes may be more appropriate for elucidating auditory change detection deficits. This study investigated whether MMN deficits could be detected in early phase psychosis (EP) patients using an abstract 'missing stimulus' pattern paradigm (Salisbury, 2012). The stimuli were 400 groups of six tones (1000Hz, 50ms duration, 330ms stimulus onset asynchrony), which was presented with an inter-trial interval of 750ms. Occasionally a group contained a deviant, meaning that it was missing either the 4th or 6th tone (50 trials each). EEG recordings of 13 EP patients (≤5year duration of illness) and 15 healthy controls (HC) were collected. Patients and controls did not significantly differ on age or years of education. Analyses of MMN amplitudes elicited by missing stimuli revealed amplitude reductions in EP patients, suggesting that these deficits are present very early in the progression of the illness. While there were no correlations between MMN measures and measures such as duration of illness, medication dosage or age, MMN amplitude reductions were correlated with positive symptomatology (i.e. auditory hallucinations). These findings suggest that MMNs elicited by the 'missing stimulus' paradigm are impaired in psychosis patients early in the progression of illness and that previously reported MMN-indexed deficits related to auditory

  1. Finding the missing-stimulus mismatch negativity (MMN) in early psychosis: Altered MMN to violations of an auditory gestalt

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Erica D.; Ells, Emma M.L.; Campbell, Debra J.; Abriel, Shelagh C.; Tibbo, Philip G.; Salisbury, Dean F.; Fisher, Derek J.

    2016-01-01

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) is an EEG-derived event-related potential (ERP) elicited by any violation of a predicted auditory ‘rule’, regardless of whether one is attending to the stimuli, and is thought to reflect updating of the stimulus context. Chronic schizophrenia patients exhibit robust MMN deficits, while MMN reduction in first-episode and early phase psychosis is significantly less consistent. Traditional two-tone “oddball” MMN measures of sensory information processing may be considered too simple for use in early phase psychosis in which pathology has not progressed fully, and a paradigm that probes higher order processes may be more appropriate for elucidating auditory change detection deficits. This study investigated whether MMN deficits could be detected in early phase psychosis (EP) patients using an abstract ‘missing stimulus’ pattern paradigm (Salisbury, 2012). The stimuli were 400 groups of six tones (1000 Hz, 50 ms duration, 330 ms stimulus onset asynchrony), which was presented with an inter-trial interval of 750 ms. Occasionally a group contained a deviant, meaning that it was missing either the 4th or 6th tone (50 trials each). EEG recordings of 13 EP patients (≤5 year duration of illness) and 15 healthy controls (HC) were collected. Patients and controls did not significantly differ on age or years of education. Analyses of MMN amplitudes elicited by missing stimuli revealed amplitude reductions in EP patients, suggesting that these deficits are present very early in the progression of the illness. While there were no correlations between MMN measures and measures such as duration of illness, medication dosage or age, MMN amplitude reductions were correlated with positive symptomatology (i.e. auditory hallucinations). These findings suggest that MMNs elicited by the ‘missing stimulus’ paradigm are impaired in psychosis patients early in the progression of illness and that previously reported MMN-indexed deficits related

  2. Correlates of transient versus persistent psychotic symptoms among dependent methamphetamine users.

    PubMed

    McKetin, Rebecca; Gardner, Jonathon; Baker, Amanda L; Dawe, Sharon; Ali, Robert; Voce, Alexandra; Leach, Liana S; Lubman, Dan I

    2016-04-30

    This study examined correlates of transient versus persistent psychotic symptoms among people dependent on methamphetamine. A longitudinal prospective cohort study of dependent methamphetamine users who did not meet DSM-IV criteria for lifetime schizophrenia or mania. Four non-contiguous one-month observation periods were used to identify participants who had a) no psychotic symptoms, (n=110); (b) psychotic symptoms only when using methamphetamine (transient psychotic symptoms, n=85); and, (c) psychotic symptoms both when using methamphetamine and when abstaining from methamphetamine (persistent psychotic symptoms, n=37). Psychotic symptoms were defined as a score of 4 or greater on any of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale items of suspiciousness, hallucinations or unusual thought content. Relative no psychotic symptoms, both transient and persistent psychotic symptoms were associated with childhood conduct disorder and comorbid anxiety disorders. Earlier onset methamphetamine use and being male were more specifically related to transient psychotic symptoms, while a family history of a primary psychotic disorder and comorbid major depression were specifically related to persistent psychotic symptoms. We conclude that there are overlapping but also distinct clinical correlates of transient versus persistent psychotic symptoms, suggesting potentially heterogeneous etiological pathways underpinning the psychotic phenomena seen amongst people who use methamphetamine. PMID:27086229

  3. [Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease: cognition and behavior].

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Anne Marie; Czernecki, Virginie

    2013-09-01

    Although the diagnosis of Parkinson disease is based on motor symptoms, it is now well known that non-motor symptoms are an integral part of this pathology, involving in fact multiple systems. These non-motor symptoms affect large population of patients and can appear sometimes before the motor disorders. The non-motor symptoms include mainly neuropsychological difficulties, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and autonomic disorders, but involve also pain and sleep disturbances for example. Depression may occur at any stage of the disease, and consists in major depressive disorder, minor depressive disorder, and dysthymia. During the course of the disease, 50% of patients experience anxiety. Apathy is present in up to 30-40% of patients, due to loss of motivation, appearing in emotional, intellectual and behavioral domains. Dopamine dysregulation syndrome and impulse control disorders are not rare, and in relation with dopaminergic therapies. Impulse control disorders include pathological gambling, hyper sexuality, compulsive shopping, and eating disorder. Visual hallucinations can occur in 30% of patients, mostly induced by dopaminergic therapies. Often, they have deeper impact on the quality of life than the motor symptoms themselves, which stay the focus of attention during consulting. Identifying those can help in providing better care with a positive impact on the quality of life of the patients. PMID:24026132

  4. Acquired auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder after an attack of chikungunya: case study.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Prashanth

    2016-01-01

    Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) is a retrocochlear disorder in which the cochlear functioning is normal but the transmission in the auditory neural pathway is affected. The present study reports of a 14-year-old teenager with acquired ANSD after an attack of chikungunya. He reported symptoms of difficulty in understanding speech, tinnitus and vertigo when exposed to loud sounds. The audiological characteristics suggested auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder with raising audiogram configuration. The results of tinnitus evaluation showed low-pitched tinnitus and it was persistent causing significant handicap to him based on self report tinnitus handicap questionnaire results. The results of depression, anxiety and stress scale also suggested symptoms of mild depression and anxiety. Chikungunya virus is suspected to be neurotropic in nature which can damage auditory nerve cells and may have caused ANSD. The result also shows presence of tullio's phenomenon and absence of cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials suggesting damage to the vestibular neuronal system. The possible pathophysiology of chikungunya virus causing ANSD and vestibular symptoms needs to be explored further in future studies. PMID:25728940

  5. Conceptual priming for realistic auditory scenes and for auditory words.

    PubMed

    Frey, Aline; Aramaki, Mitsuko; Besson, Mireille

    2014-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted using both behavioral and Event-Related brain Potentials methods to examine conceptual priming effects for realistic auditory scenes and for auditory words. Prime and target sounds were presented in four stimulus combinations: Sound-Sound, Word-Sound, Sound-Word and Word-Word. Within each combination, targets were conceptually related to the prime, unrelated or ambiguous. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to judge whether the primes and targets fit together (explicit task) and in Experiment 2 they had to decide whether the target was typical or ambiguous (implicit task). In both experiments and in the four stimulus combinations, reaction times and/or error rates were longer/higher and the N400 component was larger to ambiguous targets than to conceptually related targets, thereby pointing to a common conceptual system for processing auditory scenes and linguistic stimuli in both explicit and implicit tasks. However, fine-grained analyses also revealed some differences between experiments and conditions in scalp topography and duration of the priming effects possibly reflecting differences in the integration of perceptual and cognitive attributes of linguistic and nonlinguistic sounds. These results have clear implications for the building-up of virtual environments that need to convey meaning without words. PMID:24378910

  6. Auditory spatial processing in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Golden, Hannah L; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Yong, Keir X X; Downey, Laura E; Schott, Jonathan M; Mummery, Catherine J; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    The location and motion of sounds in space are important cues for encoding the auditory world. Spatial processing is a core component of auditory scene analysis, a cognitively demanding function that is vulnerable in Alzheimer's disease. Here we designed a novel neuropsychological battery based on a virtual space paradigm to assess auditory spatial processing in patient cohorts with clinically typical Alzheimer's disease (n = 20) and its major variant syndrome, posterior cortical atrophy (n = 12) in relation to healthy older controls (n = 26). We assessed three dimensions of auditory spatial function: externalized versus non-externalized sound discrimination, moving versus stationary sound discrimination and stationary auditory spatial position discrimination, together with non-spatial auditory and visual spatial control tasks. Neuroanatomical correlates of auditory spatial processing were assessed using voxel-based morphometry. Relative to healthy older controls, both patient groups exhibited impairments in detection of auditory motion, and stationary sound position discrimination. The posterior cortical atrophy group showed greater impairment for auditory motion processing and the processing of a non-spatial control complex auditory property (timbre) than the typical Alzheimer's disease group. Voxel-based morphometry in the patient cohort revealed grey matter correlates of auditory motion detection and spatial position discrimination in right inferior parietal cortex and precuneus, respectively. These findings delineate auditory spatial processing deficits in typical and posterior Alzheimer's disease phenotypes that are related to posterior cortical regions involved in both syndromic variants and modulated by the syndromic profile of brain degeneration. Auditory spatial deficits contribute to impaired spatial awareness in Alzheimer's disease and may constitute a novel perceptual model for probing brain network disintegration across the Alzheimer's disease

  7. Auditory system of fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yuki; Kamikouchi, Azusa

    2016-08-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is an invaluable model for auditory research. Advantages of using the fruit fly include its stereotyped behavior in response to a particular sound, and the availability of molecular-genetic tools to manipulate gene expression and cellular activity. Although the receiver type in fruit flies differs from that in mammals, the auditory systems of mammals and fruit flies are strikingly similar with regard to the level of development, transduction mechanism, mechanical amplification, and central projections. These similarities strongly support the use of the fruit fly to study the general principles of acoustic information processing. In this review, we introduce acoustic communication and discuss recent advances in our understanding on hearing in fruit flies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:26560238

  8. Psychophysiological responses to auditory change.

    PubMed

    Chuen, Lorraine; Sears, David; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive characterization of autonomic and somatic responding within the auditory domain is currently lacking. We studied whether simple types of auditory change that occur frequently during music listening could elicit measurable changes in heart rate, skin conductance, respiration rate, and facial motor activity. Participants heard a rhythmically isochronous sequence consisting of a repeated standard tone, followed by a repeated target tone that changed in pitch, timbre, duration, intensity, or tempo, or that deviated momentarily from rhythmic isochrony. Changes in all parameters produced increases in heart rate. Skin conductance response magnitude was affected by changes in timbre, intensity, and tempo. Respiratory rate was sensitive to deviations from isochrony. Our findings suggest that music researchers interpreting physiological responses as emotional indices should consider acoustic factors that may influence physiology in the absence of induced emotions. PMID:26927928

  9. Adaptation to delayed auditory feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, D. I.; Lackner, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Delayed auditory feedback disrupts the production of speech, causing an increase in speech duration as well as many articulatory errors. To determine whether prolonged exposure to delayed auditory feedback (DAF) leads to adaptive compensations in speech production, 10 subjects were exposed in separate experimental sessions to both incremental and constant-delay exposure conditions. Significant adaptation occurred for syntactically structured stimuli in the form of increased speaking rates. After DAF was removed, aftereffects were apparent for all stimulus types in terms of increased speech rates. A carry-over effect from the first to the second experimental session was evident as long as 29 days after the first session. The use of strategies to overcome DAF and the differences between adaptation to DAF and adaptation to visual rearrangement are discussed.

  10. The human auditory evoked response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Figures are presented of computer-averaged auditory evoked responses (AERs) that point to the existence of a completely endogenous brain event. A series of regular clicks or tones was administered to the ear, and 'odd-balls' of different intensity or frequency respectively were included. Subjects were asked either to ignore the sounds (to read or do something else) or to attend to the stimuli. When they listened and counted the odd-balls, a P3 wave occurred at 300msec after stimulus. When the odd-balls consisted of omitted clicks or tone bursts, a similar response was observed. This could not have come from auditory nerve, but only from cortex. It is evidence of recognition, a conscious process.

  11. Sensitivity to Auditory Velocity Contrast.

    PubMed

    Locke, Shannon M; Leung, Johahn; Carlile, Simon

    2016-01-01

    A natural auditory scene often contains sound moving at varying velocities. Using a velocity contrast paradigm, we compared sensitivity to velocity changes between continuous and discontinuous trajectories. Subjects compared the velocities of two stimulus intervals that moved along a single trajectory, with and without a 1 second inter stimulus interval (ISI). We found thresholds were threefold larger for velocity increases in the instantaneous velocity change condition, as compared to instantaneous velocity decreases or thresholds for the delayed velocity transition condition. This result cannot be explained by the current static "snapshot" model of auditory motion perception and suggest a continuous process where the percept of velocity is influenced by previous history of stimulation. PMID:27291488

  12. Sensitivity to Auditory Velocity Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Shannon M.; Leung, Johahn; Carlile, Simon

    2016-01-01

    A natural auditory scene often contains sound moving at varying velocities. Using a velocity contrast paradigm, we compared sensitivity to velocity changes between continuous and discontinuous trajectories. Subjects compared the velocities of two stimulus intervals that moved along a single trajectory, with and without a 1 second inter stimulus interval (ISI). We found thresholds were threefold larger for velocity increases in the instantaneous velocity change condition, as compared to instantaneous velocity decreases or thresholds for the delayed velocity transition condition. This result cannot be explained by the current static “snapshot” model of auditory motion perception and suggest a continuous process where the percept of velocity is influenced by previous history of stimulation. PMID:27291488

  13. Modulation of auditory and visual processing by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol: an FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Winton-Brown, Toby T; Allen, Paul; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Bhattacharrya, Sagnik; Borgwardt, Stefan J; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Crippa, Jose A; Seal, Marc L; Martin-Santos, Rocio; Ffytche, Dominic; Zuardi, Antonio W; Atakan, Zerrin; McGuire, Philip K

    2011-06-01

    Although the effects of cannabis on perception are well documented, little is known about their neural basis or how these may contribute to the formation of psychotic symptoms. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the effects of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) during visual and auditory processing in healthy volunteers. In total, 14 healthy volunteers were scanned on three occasions. Identical 10 mg THC, 600 mg CBD, and placebo capsules were allocated in a balanced double-blinded pseudo-randomized crossover design. Plasma levels of each substance, physiological parameters, and measures of psychopathology were taken at baseline and at regular intervals following ingestion of substances. Volunteers listened passively to words read and viewed a radial visual checkerboard in alternating blocks during fMRI scanning. Administration of THC was associated with increases in anxiety, intoxication, and positive psychotic symptoms, whereas CBD had no significant symptomatic effects. THC decreased activation relative to placebo in bilateral temporal cortices during auditory processing, and increased and decreased activation in different visual areas during visual processing. CBD was associated with activation in right temporal cortex during auditory processing, and when contrasted, THC and CBD had opposite effects in the right posterior superior temporal gyrus, the right-sided homolog to Wernicke's area. Moreover, the attenuation of activation in this area (maximum 61, -15, -2) by THC during auditory processing was correlated with its acute effect on psychotic symptoms. Single doses of THC and CBD differently modulate brain function in areas that process auditory and visual stimuli and relate to induced psychotic symptoms. PMID:21412224

  14. A differentiating empirical linguistic analysis of dreamer activity in reports of EEG-controlled REM-dreams and hypnagogic hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Speth, Jana; Frenzel, Clemens; Voss, Ursula

    2013-09-01

    We present Activity Analysis as a new method for the quantification of subjective reports of altered states of consciousness with regard to the indicated level of simulated motor activity. Empirical linguistic activity analysis was conducted with dream reports conceived immediately after EEG-controlled periods of hypnagogic hallucinations and REM-sleep in the sleep laboratory. Reports of REM-dreams exhibited a significantly higher level of simulated physical dreamer activity, while hypnagogic hallucinations appear to be experienced mostly from the point of passive observer. This study lays the groundwork for clinical research on the level of simulated activity in pathologically altered states of subjective experience, for example in the REM-dreams of clinically depressed patients, or in intrusions and dreams of patients diagnosed with PTSD. PMID:23933138

  15. Demodulation processes in auditory perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feth, Lawrence L.

    1994-08-01

    The long range goal of this project is the understanding of human auditory processing of information conveyed by complex, time-varying signals such as speech, music or important environmental sounds. Our work is guided by the assumption that human auditory communication is a 'modulation - demodulation' process. That is, we assume that sound sources produce a complex stream of sound pressure waves with information encoded as variations ( modulations) of the signal amplitude and frequency. The listeners task then is one of demodulation. Much of past. psychoacoustics work has been based in what we characterize as 'spectrum picture processing.' Complex sounds are Fourier analyzed to produce an amplitude-by-frequency 'picture' and the perception process is modeled as if the listener were analyzing the spectral picture. This approach leads to studies such as 'profile analysis' and the power-spectrum model of masking. Our approach leads us to investigate time-varying, complex sounds. We refer to them as dynamic signals and we have developed auditory signal processing models to help guide our experimental work.

  16. Auditory learning: a developmental method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yilu; Weng, Juyang; Hwang, Wey-Shiuan

    2005-05-01

    Motivated by the human autonomous development process from infancy to adulthood, we have built a robot that develops its cognitive and behavioral skills through real-time interactions with the environment. We call such a robot a developmental robot. In this paper, we present the theory and the architecture to implement a developmental robot and discuss the related techniques that address an array of challenging technical issues. As an application, experimental results on a real robot, self-organizing, autonomous, incremental learner (SAIL), are presented with emphasis on its audition perception and audition-related action generation. In particular, the SAIL robot conducts the auditory learning from unsegmented and unlabeled speech streams without any prior knowledge about the auditory signals, such as the designated language or the phoneme models. Neither available before learning starts are the actions that the robot is expected to perform. SAIL learns the auditory commands and the desired actions from physical contacts with the environment including the trainers. PMID:15940990

  17. Behavioral Dependence of Auditory Cortical Responses

    PubMed Central

    Osmanski, Michael S.; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2015-01-01

    Neural responses in the auditory cortex have historically been measured from either anesthetized or awake but non-behaving animals. A growing body of work has begun to focus instead on recording from auditory cortex of animals actively engaged in behavior tasks. These studies have shown that auditory cortical responses are dependent upon the behavioral state of the animal. The longer ascending subcortical pathway of the auditory system and unique characteristics of auditory processing suggest that such dependencies may have a more profound influence on cortical processing in auditory system compared to other sensory systems. It is important to understand the nature of these dependencies and their functional implications. In this article, we review the literature on this topic pertaining to cortical processing of sounds. PMID:25690831

  18. [Auditory evoked potentials: basics and clinical applications].

    PubMed

    Radeloff, A; Cebulla, M; Shehata-Dieler, W

    2014-09-01

    Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) are elicited at various levels of the auditory system following acoustic stimulation. Electrocochleography is a technique for recording AEPs of the inner ear. The recording is performed by means of a needle electrode placed on the promontory or non-invasive with tympanic membrane or ear canal electrodes. Clinically, electrocochleography is used for the diagnosis of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) and endolymphatic hydrops. According to their latencies, AEPs of the central auditory pathway are subdivided into early, middle and late (cortical) AEPs. These AEPs are recorded via surface scalp electrodes. Normally, the larger EEG masks AEPs. For unmasking the AEP, several techniques are applied. Early AEPs or auditory brainstem responses (ABR) are the most widely used AEPs for functional evaluation of the auditory pathway. In contrast to otoacoustic emissions, early AEPs can detect ANSD. Thus, they are more suitable for hearing screening in newborns. For this purpose automated procedures are implemented. PMID:25152975

  19. Phonological Processing in Human Auditory Cortical Fields

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Herron, Timothy J.; Cate, Anthony D.; Kang, Xiaojian; Yund, E. W.

    2011-01-01

    We used population-based cortical-surface analysis of functional magnetic imaging data to characterize the processing of consonant–vowel–consonant syllables (CVCs) and spectrally matched amplitude-modulated noise bursts (AMNBs) in human auditory cortex as subjects attended to auditory or visual stimuli in an intermodal selective attention paradigm. Average auditory cortical field (ACF) locations were defined using tonotopic mapping in a previous study. Activations in auditory cortex were defined by two stimulus-preference gradients: (1) Medial belt ACFs preferred AMNBs and lateral belt and parabelt fields preferred CVCs. This preference extended into core ACFs with medial regions of primary auditory cortex (A1) and the rostral field preferring AMNBs and lateral regions preferring CVCs. (2) Anterior ACFs showed smaller activations but more clearly defined stimulus preferences than did posterior ACFs. Stimulus preference gradients were unaffected by auditory attention suggesting that ACF preferences reflect the automatic processing of different spectrotemporal sound features. PMID:21541252

  20. Auditory sequence analysis and phonological skill.

    PubMed

    Grube, Manon; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Cooper, Freya E; Turton, Stuart; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2012-11-01

    This work tests the relationship between auditory and phonological skill in a non-selected cohort of 238 school students (age 11) with the specific hypothesis that sound-sequence analysis would be more relevant to phonological skill than the analysis of basic, single sounds. Auditory processing was assessed across the domains of pitch, time and timbre; a combination of six standard tests of literacy and language ability was used to assess phonological skill. A significant correlation between general auditory and phonological skill was demonstrated, plus a significant, specific correlation between measures of phonological skill and the auditory analysis of short sequences in pitch and time. The data support a limited but significant link between auditory and phonological ability with a specific role for sound-sequence analysis, and provide a possible new focus for auditory training strategies to aid language development in early adolescence. PMID:22951739

  1. Review of auditory subliminal psychodynamic activation experiments.

    PubMed

    Fudin, R; Benjamin, C

    1991-12-01

    Subliminal psychodynamic activation experiments using auditory stimuli have yielded only a modicum of support for the contention that such activation produces predictable behavioral changes. Problems in many auditory subliminal psychodynamic activation experiments indicate that those predictions have not been tested adequately. The auditory mode of presentation, however, has several methodological advantages over the visual one, the method used in the vast majority of subliminal psychodynamic activation experiments. Consequently, it should be considered in subsequent research in this area. PMID:1805167

  2. Auditory, Visual, and Auditory-Visual Perception of Vowels by Hearing-Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Zarita Caplan; Erber, Norman P.

    1982-01-01

    Vowels were presented through auditory, visual, and auditory-visual modalities to 18 hearing impaired children (12 to 15 years old) having good, intermediate, and poor auditory word recognition skills. All the groups had difficulty with acoustic information and visual information alone. The first two groups had only moderate difficulty identifying…

  3. The Effects of Auditory Stimulation on Auditory Processing Disorder: A Summary of the Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Swain, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    The study's purpose is to determine the efficacy of the Tomatis Method of auditory stimulation as a therapeutic intervention for Auditory Processing Disorders (APD). Forty-one subjects (18 females, 23 males; 4.3-19.8 years old) were evaluated for APD. Performance on standardized tests indicated weaknesses with auditory processing skills. Each…

  4. Seeing the song: left auditory structures may track auditory-visual dynamic alignment.

    PubMed

    Mossbridge, Julia A; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Auditory and visual signals generated by a single source tend to be temporally correlated, such as the synchronous sounds of footsteps and the limb movements of a walker. Continuous tracking and comparison of the dynamics of auditory-visual streams is thus useful for the perceptual binding of information arising from a common source. Although language-related mechanisms have been implicated in the tracking of speech-related auditory-visual signals (e.g., speech sounds and lip movements), it is not well known what sensory mechanisms generally track ongoing auditory-visual synchrony for non-speech signals in a complex auditory-visual environment. To begin to address this question, we used music and visual displays that varied in the dynamics of multiple features (e.g., auditory loudness and pitch; visual luminance, color, size, motion, and organization) across multiple time scales. Auditory activity (monitored using auditory steady-state responses, ASSR) was selectively reduced in the left hemisphere when the music and dynamic visual displays were temporally misaligned. Importantly, ASSR was not affected when attentional engagement with the music was reduced, or when visual displays presented dynamics clearly dissimilar to the music. These results appear to suggest that left-lateralized auditory mechanisms are sensitive to auditory-visual temporal alignment, but perhaps only when the dynamics of auditory and visual streams are similar. These mechanisms may contribute to correct auditory-visual binding in a busy sensory environment. PMID:24194873

  5. Effects of Methylphenidate (Ritalin) on Auditory Performance in Children with Attention and Auditory Processing Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillery, Kim L.; Katz, Jack; Keller, Warren D.

    2000-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined effects of methylphenidate (Ritalin) on auditory processing in 32 children with both attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and central auditory processing (CAP) disorder. Analyses revealed that Ritalin did not have a significant effect on any of the central auditory processing measures, although…

  6. Seeing the Song: Left Auditory Structures May Track Auditory-Visual Dynamic Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Mossbridge, Julia A.; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Auditory and visual signals generated by a single source tend to be temporally correlated, such as the synchronous sounds of footsteps and the limb movements of a walker. Continuous tracking and comparison of the dynamics of auditory-visual streams is thus useful for the perceptual binding of information arising from a common source. Although language-related mechanisms have been implicated in the tracking of speech-related auditory-visual signals (e.g., speech sounds and lip movements), it is not well known what sensory mechanisms generally track ongoing auditory-visual synchrony for non-speech signals in a complex auditory-visual environment. To begin to address this question, we used music and visual displays that varied in the dynamics of multiple features (e.g., auditory loudness and pitch; visual luminance, color, size, motion, and organization) across multiple time scales. Auditory activity (monitored using auditory steady-state responses, ASSR) was selectively reduced in the left hemisphere when the music and dynamic visual displays were temporally misaligned. Importantly, ASSR was not affected when attentional engagement with the music was reduced, or when visual displays presented dynamics clearly dissimilar to the music. These results appear to suggest that left-lateralized auditory mechanisms are sensitive to auditory-visual temporal alignment, but perhaps only when the dynamics of auditory and visual streams are similar. These mechanisms may contribute to correct auditory-visual binding in a busy sensory environment. PMID:24194873

  7. Corticofugal modulation of peripheral auditory responses

    PubMed Central

    Terreros, Gonzalo; Delano, Paul H.

    2015-01-01

    The auditory efferent system originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the medial geniculate body (MGB), inferior colliculus (IC), cochlear nucleus (CN) and superior olivary complex (SOC) reaching the cochlea through olivocochlear (OC) fibers. This unique neuronal network is organized in several afferent-efferent feedback loops including: the (i) colliculo-thalamic-cortico-collicular; (ii) cortico-(collicular)-OC; and (iii) cortico-(collicular)-CN pathways. Recent experiments demonstrate that blocking ongoing auditory-cortex activity with pharmacological and physical methods modulates the amplitude of cochlear potentials. In addition, auditory-cortex microstimulation independently modulates cochlear sensitivity and the strength of the OC reflex. In this mini-review, anatomical and physiological evidence supporting the presence of a functional efferent network from the auditory cortex to the cochlear receptor is presented. Special emphasis is given to the corticofugal effects on initial auditory processing, that is, on CN, auditory nerve and cochlear responses. A working model of three parallel pathways from the auditory cortex to the cochlea and auditory nerve is proposed. PMID:26483647

  8. Bat's auditory system: Corticofugal feedback and plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suga, Nobuo

    2001-05-01

    The auditory system of the mustached bat consists of physiologically distinct subdivisions for processing different types of biosonar information. It was found that the corticofugal (descending) auditory system plays an important role in improving and adjusting auditory signal processing. Repetitive acoustic stimulation, cortical electrical stimulation or auditory fear conditioning evokes plastic changes of the central auditory system. The changes are based upon egocentric selection evoked by focused positive feedback associated with lateral inhibition. Focal electric stimulation of the auditory cortex evokes short-term changes in the auditory cortex and subcortical auditory nuclei. An increase in a cortical acetylcholine level during the electric stimulation changes the cortical changes from short-term to long-term. There are two types of plastic changes (reorganizations): centripetal best frequency shifts for expanded reorganization of a neural frequency map and centrifugal best frequency shifts for compressed reorganization of the map. Which changes occur depends on the balance between inhibition and facilitation. Expanded reorganization has been found in different sensory systems and different species of mammals, whereas compressed reorganization has been thus far found only in the auditory subsystems highly specialized for echolocation. The two types of reorganizations occur in both the frequency and time domains. [Work supported by NIDCO DC00175.

  9. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the External Auditory Canal: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Boamah, Harry; Knight, Glenn; Taylor, Joseph; Palka, Kevin; Ballard, Billy

    2011-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the temporal bone and external auditory canal is a rare tumor with a reported incidence of between 1 to 6 cases per million population per year. Because squamous cell carcinoma of the temporal bone and auditory canal is so rare, developing an adequate tumor staging system and treatment has been difficult. We present a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal in 65-year-old Hispanic female who presented with a 6-month history of right ear pain, 3-month history of serosanguineous right ear drainage, and symptoms of facial paralysis. Due to the extensive spread of her tumor into the middle ear at the time of diagnosis, her tumor was deemed unresectable and she received palliative chemotherapy and radiation therapy and was sent to Alice Hospice and died several weeks later. PMID:22937370

  10. Associations between specific psychotic symptoms and specific childhood adversities are mediated by attachment styles: an analysis of the National Comorbidity Survey.

    PubMed

    Sitko, Katarzyna; Bentall, Richard P; Shevlin, Mark; O'Sullivan, Noreen; Sellwood, William

    2014-07-30

    Accumulated evidence over the past decade consistently demonstrates a relationship between childhood adversity and psychosis in adulthood. There is some evidence of specific associations between childhood sexual abuse and hallucinations, and between insecure attachment and paranoia. Data from the National Comorbidity Survey were used in assessing whether current attachment styles influenced the association between adverse childhood experiences and psychotic symptoms in adulthood. Hallucinations and paranoid beliefs were differentially associated with sexual abuse (rape and sexual molestation) and neglect, respectively. Sexual abuse and neglect were also associated with depression. The relationship between neglect and paranoid beliefs was fully mediated via anxious and avoidant attachment. The relationship between sexual molestation and hallucinations was independent of attachment style. The relationship between rape and hallucinations was partially mediated via anxious attachment; however this effect was no longer present when depression was included as a mediating variable. The findings highlight the importance of addressing and understanding childhood experiences within the context of current attachment styles in clinical interventions for patients with psychosis. PMID:24726818

  11. The role of sleep dysfunction in the occurrence of delusions and hallucinations: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Sarah; Sheaves, Bryony; Freeman, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep dysfunction is extremely common in patients with schizophrenia. Recent research indicates that sleep dysfunction may contribute to psychotic experiences such as delusions and hallucinations. Objectives The review aims to evaluate the evidence for a relationship between sleep dysfunction and individual psychotic experiences, make links between the theoretical understanding of each, and highlight areas for future research. Method A systematic search was conducted to identify studies investigating sleep and psychotic experiences across clinical and non-clinical populations. Results 66 papers were identified. This literature robustly supports the co-occurrence of sleep dysfunction and psychotic experiences, particularly insomnia with paranoia. Sleep dysfunction predicting subsequent psychotic experiences receives support from epidemiological surveys, research on the transition to psychosis, and relapse studies. There is also evidence that reducing sleep elicits psychotic experiences in non-clinical individuals, and that improving sleep in individuals with psychosis may lessen psychotic experiences. Anxiety and depression consistently arise as (partial) mediators of the sleep and psychosis relationship. Conclusion Studies are needed that: determine the types of sleep dysfunction linked to individual psychotic experiences; establish a causal connection between sleep and psychotic experiences; and assess treatments for sleep dysfunction in patients with non-affective psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:26407540

  12. Sorafenib-Induced Thyroid Storm; Ceftaroline-Induced Eosinophilic Pneumonia; Imatinib-Induced Osteonecrosis of the Tibia; Visual and Auditory Hallucinations With Citalopram

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: mmancano@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested. This feature is provided by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in cooperation with the FDA’s MedWatch program and Temple University School of Pharmacy. ISMP is an FDA MedWatch partner. PMID:24623865

  13. Towards a functional neuroanatomy of conscious perception and its modulation by volition: implications of human auditory neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed Central

    Silbersweig, D A; Stern, E

    1998-01-01

    Conscious sensory perception and its modulation by volition are integral to human mental life. Functional neuroimaging techniques provide a direct means of identifying and characterizing in vivo the systems-level patterns of brain activity associated with such mental functions. In a series of positron emission tomography activation experiments, we and our colleagues have examined a range of normal and abnormal auditory states that, when contrasted, provide dissociations relevant to the question of the neural substrates of sensory awareness. These dissociations include sensory awareness in the presence and absence of external sensory stimuli, the transition from sensory unawareness to awareness (or vice versa) in the presence of sensory stimuli, and sensory awareness with and without volition. The auditory states studied include hallucinations, mental imagery, cortical deafness modulated by attention, and hearing modulated by sedation. The results of these studies highlight the distributed nature of the functional neuroanatomy that is sufficient, if not necessary, for sensory awareness. The probable roles of unimodal association (as compared with primary) cortices, heteromodal cortices, limbic/paralimbic regions and subcortical structures (such as the thalamus) are discussed. In addition, interactions between pre- and post-rolandic regions are examined in the context of top-down, volitional modulation of sensory awareness. PMID:9854260

  14. Auditory Association Cortex Lesions Impair Auditory Short-Term Memory in Monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Michael; D'Amato, Michael R.; Rodman, Hillary R.; Gross, Charles G.

    1990-01-01

    Monkeys that were trained to perform auditory and visual short-term memory tasks (delayed matching-to-sample) received lesions of the auditory association cortex in the superior temporal gyrus. Although visual memory was completely unaffected by the lesions, auditory memory was severely impaired. Despite this impairment, all monkeys could discriminate sounds closer in frequency than those used in the auditory memory task. This result suggests that the superior temporal cortex plays a role in auditory processing and retention similar to the role the inferior temporal cortex plays in visual processing and retention.

  15. Auditory Processing Disorders: An Overview. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciocci, Sandra R.

    This digest presents an overview of children with auditory processing disorders (APDs), children who can typically hear information but have difficulty attending to, storing, locating, retrieving, and/or clarifying that information to make it useful for academic and social purposes. The digest begins by describing central auditory processing and…

  16. Auditory Processing Disorder and Foreign Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veselovska, Ganna

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at exploring various strategies for coping with the auditory processing disorder in the light of foreign language acquisition. The techniques relevant to dealing with the auditory processing disorder can be attributed to environmental and compensatory approaches. The environmental one involves actions directed at creating a…

  17. Auditory and visual evoked potentials during hyperoxia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. B. D.; Strawbridge, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental study of the auditory and visual averaged evoked potentials (AEPs) recorded during hyperoxia, and investigation of the effect of hyperoxia on the so-called contingent negative variation (CNV). No effect of hyperoxia was found on the auditory AEP, the visual AEP, or the CNV. Comparisons with previous studies are discussed.

  18. Changing Auditory Time with Prismatic Goggles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnani, Barbara; Pavani, Francesco; Frassinetti, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the spatial organization of auditory time and the effects of the manipulation of spatial attention on such a representation. In two experiments, we asked 28 adults to classify the duration of auditory stimuli as "short" or "long". Stimuli were tones of high or low pitch, delivered left or right of the…

  19. Auditory-Oral Matching Behavior in Newborns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xin; Striano, Tricia; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five newborn infants were tested for auditory-oral matching behavior when presented with the consonant sound /m/ and the vowel sound /a/--a precursor behavior to vocal imitation. Auditory-oral matching behavior by the infant was operationally defined as showing the mouth movement appropriate for producing the model sound just heard (mouth…

  20. Auditory Integration Training: One Clinician's View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madell, Jane R.

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses issues related to auditory integration training (AIT), a developing treatment for children with auditory disorders. It presents preliminary data indicating that word recognition scores in the presence of competing noise improves for children with a variety of disorders who have been treated with AIT. (Author/DB)

  1. Further Evidence of Auditory Extinction in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Rebecca Shisler; Basilakos, Alexandra; Love-Myers, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Preliminary research ( Shisler, 2005) suggests that auditory extinction in individuals with aphasia (IWA) may be connected to binding and attention. In this study, the authors expanded on previous findings on auditory extinction to determine the source of extinction deficits in IWA. Method: Seventeen IWA (M[subscript age] = 53.19 years)…

  2. Diderot Reconsidered: Visual Impairment and Auditory Compensation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews two models for auditory compensation attending visual loss--structural and strategic. The paper concludes that it is not clear to what extent differences in auditory processing represent variations in underlying capacity, the development of strategies, attentional activation, or multiple factors. Previous dismissals of…

  3. The Auditory Analysis Test: An Initial Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosner, Jerome; Simon, Dorothea P.

    A new test for auditory perception (Auditory Analysis Test) was given to 284 kindergarten through grade 6 children. The instrument, consisting of 40 items, asks the testee to repeat a spoken word, then to repeat it again without certain specified phonemic elements--such as a beginning, ending or medially-positioned sound. Seven categories of item…

  4. Auditory Learning Materials for Special Education: Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Marsha C.; O'Connor, Phyllis

    The catalog (developed by the Great Lakes Region Special Education Instructional Materials Center) provides information on more than 100 auditory learning materials for use in special education. Described in the first section of the catalog are procedures used to evaluate and classify auditory instructional materials, including a list of…

  5. Neural circuits in auditory and audiovisual memory.

    PubMed

    Plakke, B; Romanski, L M

    2016-06-01

    Working memory is the ability to employ recently seen or heard stimuli and apply them to changing cognitive context. Although much is known about language processing and visual working memory, the neurobiological basis of auditory working memory is less clear. Historically, part of the problem has been the difficulty in obtaining a robust animal model to study auditory short-term memory. In recent years there has been neurophysiological and lesion studies indicating a cortical network involving both temporal and frontal cortices. Studies specifically targeting the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in auditory working memory have suggested that dorsal and ventral prefrontal regions perform different roles during the processing of auditory mnemonic information, with the dorsolateral PFC performing similar functions for both auditory and visual working memory. In contrast, the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC), which contains cells that respond robustly to auditory stimuli and that process both face and vocal stimuli may be an essential locus for both auditory and audiovisual working memory. These findings suggest a critical role for the VLPFC in the processing, integrating, and retaining of communication information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26656069

  6. Informing the Symptom Profile of Complicated Grief

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Naomi M.; Wall, Melanie M.; Keshaviah, Aparna; Dryman, M. Taylor; LeBlanc, Nicole J.; Shear, M. Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Background Complicated Grief (CG) is under consideration as a new diagnosis in DSM5. We sought to add empirical support to the current dialogue by examining the commonly used Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG) scale completed by 782 bereaved individuals. Methods We employed IRT analyses, factor analyses, and sensitivity and specificity analyses utilizing our full sample (n=782), and also compared confirmed CG cases (n=288) to non-cases (n=377). Confirmed CG cases were defined as individuals bereaved at least 6 months who were seeking care for CG, had an ICG ≥ 30, and received a structured clinical interview for CG by a certified clinician confirming CG as their primary illness. Non-cases were bereaved individuals who did not present with CG as a primary complaint (including those with depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders and controls) and had an ICG<25. Results IRT analyses provided guidance about the most informative individual items and their association with CG severity. Factor analyses demonstrated a single factor solution when the full sample was considered, but within CG cases, six symptom clusters emerged: 1) yearning and preoccupation with the deceased, 2) anger and bitterness, 3) shock and disbelief, 4) estrangement from others, 5) hallucinations of the deceased, and 6) behavior change, including avoidance and proximity seeking. The presence of at least one symptom from three different symptom clusters optimized sensitivity (94.8%) and specificity (98.1%). Conclusions These data, derived from a diverse and predominantly clinical help seeking population, add an important perspective to existing suggestions for DSM5 criteria for CG. PMID:21284064

  7. [Psychotherapy of positive symptoms in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia psychosis].

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, G; Klingberg, S

    2003-01-01

    While the treatment of positive symptoms of patients with schizophrenic psychosis appeared until recently to be solely pharmacotherapeutic, new research findings show the efficacy of cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy (CBT) on positive symptoms in chronic psychotic patients. In addition, the effectiveness even in acute and recent-onset psychosis could be shown in some studies. The effects of CBT and standard care in psychosis compared to standard care alone and to other psychosocial interventions plus standard care are reviewed. The results of several studies and one meta-analysis show that CBT in schizophrenia patients has a direct effect on psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations as well as on relapse prevention. In routine settings,however,CBT has until now only rarely been delivered to these patients. In so-called large pragmatic trials, which might be subsumed as phase IIIb studies, the effects are tested. The therapeutic approach with the components of CBT for psychosis are described: building a therapeutic relationship, cognitive-behavioural coping strategies, developing an understanding of the experience of psychosis,working on hallucinations and delusions, addressing negative self-evaluations, anxiety, and depression,managing risk of relapse and social disability. Further clinical implications are described (capability of learning the therapeutic strategies, deliverability in broader clinical settings, acceptability by patients, combination with atypical neuroleptic drugs,and treatment of choice in risk populations). PMID:12596031

  8. Auditory-pupillary responses in deaf subjects.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Naoharu; Otsuka, Koji; Ogawa, Yasuo; Shimizu, Shigetaka; Hayashi, Mami; Ichimura, Akihide; Suzuki, Mamoru

    2010-01-01

    Pupillary dilation in response to sound stimuli is well established and is generally considered to represent a startle reflex to sound. We believe that the auditory-pupillary response represents not only a simple startle reflex to sound stimuli but also represents a reaction to stimulation of other sense organs, such as otolith organs. Eight young healthy volunteers without a history of hearing and equilibrium problems and 12 subjects with bilateral deafness participated in this study. Computer pupillography was used to analyze the auditory-pupillary responses of both eyes in all subjects. We found that auditory-pupillary responses occurred even in subjects with bilateral deafness and that this response was comparable to those of normal subjects. We propose that the auditory-pupillary response also relates to vestibular function. Thus, assessing the auditory-pupillary response may be useful for evaluating the vestibulo-autonomic response in patients with peripheral disequilibrium. PMID:20826936

  9. Revisiting the Basic Symptom Concept: Toward Translating Risk Symptoms for Psychosis into Neurobiological Targets

    PubMed Central

    Schultze-Lutter, Frauke; Debbané, Martin; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Wood, Stephen J.; Raballo, Andrea; Michel, Chantal; Schmidt, Stefanie J.; Kindler, Jochen; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Uhlhaas, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    In its initial formulation, the concept of basic symptoms (BSs) integrated findings on the early symptomatic course of schizophrenia and first in vivo evidence of accompanying brain aberrations. It argued that the subtle subclinical disturbances in mental processes described as BSs were the most direct self-experienced expression of the underlying neurobiological aberrations of the disease. Other characteristic symptoms of psychosis (e.g., delusions and hallucinations) were conceptualized as secondary phenomena, resulting from dysfunctional beliefs and suboptimal coping styles with emerging BSs and/or concomitant stressors. While BSs can occur in many mental disorders, in particular affective disorders, a subset of perceptive and cognitive BSs appear to be specific to psychosis and are currently employed in two alternative risk criteria. However, despite their clinical recognition in the early detection of psychosis, neurobiological research on the aetiopathology of psychosis with neuroimaging methods has only just begun to consider the neural correlate of BSs. This perspective paper reviews the emerging evidence of an association between BSs and aberrant brain activation, connectivity patterns, and metabolism, and outlines promising routes for the use of BSs in aetiopathological research on psychosis. PMID:26858660

  10. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization.

    PubMed

    Gori, Monica; Vercillo, Tiziana; Sandini, Giulio; Burr, David

    2014-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014). To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds before and after training, either with tactile feedback, verbal feedback, or no feedback. Audio thresholds were first measured with a spatial bisection task: subjects judged whether the second sound of a three sound sequence was spatially closer to the first or the third sound. The tactile feedback group underwent two audio-tactile feedback sessions of 100 trials, where each auditory trial was followed by the same spatial sequence played on the subject's forearm; auditory spatial bisection thresholds were evaluated after each session. In the verbal feedback condition, the positions of the sounds were verbally reported to the subject after each feedback trial. The no feedback group did the same sequence of trials, with no feedback. Performance improved significantly only after audio-tactile feedback. The results suggest that direct tactile feedback interacts with the auditory spatial localization system, possibly by a process of cross-sensory recalibration. Control tests with the subject rotated suggested that this effect occurs only when the tactile and acoustic sequences are spatially congruent. Our results suggest that the tactile system can be used to recalibrate the auditory sense of space. These results encourage the possibility of designing rehabilitation programs to help blind persons establish a robust auditory sense of space, through training with the tactile modality. PMID:25368587

  11. A Brain System for Auditory Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Sabine; Gander, Phillip E.; Barascud, Nicolas; Halpern, Andrea R.; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    The brain basis for auditory working memory, the process of actively maintaining sounds in memory over short periods of time, is controversial. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in human participants, we demonstrate that the maintenance of single tones in memory is associated with activation in auditory cortex. In addition, sustained activation was observed in hippocampus and inferior frontal gyrus. Multivoxel pattern analysis showed that patterns of activity in auditory cortex and left inferior frontal gyrus distinguished the tone that was maintained in memory. Functional connectivity during maintenance was demonstrated between auditory cortex and both the hippocampus and inferior frontal cortex. The data support a system for auditory working memory based on the maintenance of sound-specific representations in auditory cortex by projections from higher-order areas, including the hippocampus and frontal cortex. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In this work, we demonstrate a system for maintaining sound in working memory based on activity in auditory cortex, hippocampus, and frontal cortex, and functional connectivity among them. Specifically, our work makes three advances from the previous work. First, we robustly demonstrate hippocampal involvement in all phases of auditory working memory (encoding, maintenance, and retrieval): the role of hippocampus in working memory is controversial. Second, using a pattern classification technique, we show that activity in the auditory cortex and inferior frontal gyrus is specific to the maintained tones in working memory. Third, we show long-range connectivity of auditory cortex to hippocampus and frontal cortex, which may be responsible for keeping such representations active during working memory maintenance. PMID:27098693

  12. Vision contingent auditory pitch aftereffects.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Wataru; Kobayashi, Maori; Hidaka, Souta; Sugita, Yoichi

    2013-08-01

    Visual motion aftereffects can occur contingent on arbitrary sounds. Two circles, placed side by side, were alternately presented, and the onsets were accompanied by tone bursts of high and low frequencies, respectively. After a few minutes of exposure to the visual apparent motion with the tones, a circle blinking at a fixed location was perceived as a lateral motion in the same direction as the previously exposed apparent motion (Teramoto et al. in PLoS One 5:e12255, 2010). In the present study, we attempted to reverse this contingency (pitch aftereffects contingent on visual information). Results showed that after prolonged exposure to the audio-visual stimuli, the apparent visual motion systematically affected the perceived pitch of the auditory stimuli. When the leftward apparent visual motion was paired with the high-low-frequency sequence during the adaptation phase, a test tone sequence was more frequently perceived as a high-low-pitch sequence when the leftward apparent visual motion was presented and vice versa. Furthermore, the effect was specific for the exposed visual field and did not transfer to the other side, thus ruling out an explanation in terms of simple response bias. These results suggest that new audiovisual associations can be established within a short time, and visual information processing and auditory processing can mutually influence each other. PMID:23727883

  13. Auditory target detection in reverberation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, Patrick M.; Freyman, Richard L.; Balakrishnan, Uma

    2004-04-01

    Measurements and theoretical predictions of auditory target detection in simulated reverberant conditions are reported. The target signals were pulsed 13-octave bands of noise and the masker signal was a continuous wideband noise. Target and masker signals were passed through a software simulation of a reverberant room with a rigid sphere modeling a listener's head. The location of the target was fixed while the location of the masker was varied in the simulated room. Degree of reverberation was controlled by varying the uniform acoustic absorption of the simulated room's surfaces. The resulting target and masker signals were presented to the listeners over headphones in monaural-left, monaural-right, or binaural listening modes. Changes in detection performance in the monaural listening modes were largely predictable from the changes in target-to-masker ratio in the target band, but with a few dB of extra masking in reverberation. Binaural detection performance was generally well predicted by applying Durlach's [in Foundations of Modern Auditory Theory (Academic, New York, 1972)] equalization-cancellation theory to the direct-plus-reverberant ear signals. Predictions in all cases were based on a statistical description of room acoustics and on acoustic diffraction by a sphere. The success of these detection models in the present well-controlled reverberant conditions suggests that they can be used to incorporate listening mode and source location as factors in speech-intelligibility predictions.

  14. Auditory midbrain implant: a review.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hubert H; Lenarz, Minoo; Lenarz, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    The auditory midbrain implant (AMI) is a new hearing prosthesis designed for stimulation of the inferior colliculus in deaf patients who cannot sufficiently benefit from cochlear implants. The authors have begun clinical trials in which five patients have been implanted with a single shank AMI array (20 electrodes). The goal of this review is to summarize the development and research that has led to the translation of the AMI from a concept into the first patients. This study presents the rationale and design concept for the AMI as well a summary of the animal safety and feasibility studies that were required for clinical approval. The authors also present the initial surgical, psychophysical, and speech results from the first three implanted patients. Overall, the results have been encouraging in terms of the safety and functionality of the implant. All patients obtain improvements in hearing capabilities on a daily basis. However, performance varies dramatically across patients depending on the implant location within the midbrain with the best performer still not able to achieve open set speech perception without lip-reading cues. Stimulation of the auditory midbrain provides a wide range of level, spectral, and temporal cues, all of which are important for speech understanding, but they do not appear to sufficiently fuse together to enable open set speech perception with the currently used stimulation strategies. Finally, several issues and hypotheses for why current patients obtain limited speech perception along with several feasible solutions for improving AMI implementation are presented. PMID:19762428

  15. Auditory Midbrain Implant: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hubert H.; Lenarz, Minoo; Lenarz, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The auditory midbrain implant (AMI) is a new hearing prosthesis designed for stimulation of the inferior colliculus in deaf patients who cannot sufficiently benefit from cochlear implants. The authors have begun clinical trials in which five patients have been implanted with a single shank AMI array (20 electrodes). The goal of this review is to summarize the development and research that has led to the translation of the AMI from a concept into the first patients. This study presents the rationale and design concept for the AMI as well a summary of the animal safety and feasibility studies that were required for clinical approval. The authors also present the initial surgical, psychophysical, and speech results from the first three implanted patients. Overall, the results have been encouraging in terms of the safety and functionality of the implant. All patients obtain improvements in hearing capabilities on a daily basis. However, performance varies dramatically across patients depending on the implant location within the midbrain with the best performer still not able to achieve open set speech perception without lip-reading cues. Stimulation of the auditory midbrain provides a wide range of level, spectral, and temporal cues, all of which are important for speech understanding, but they do not appear to sufficiently fuse together to enable open set speech perception with the currently used stimulation strategies. Finally, several issues and hypotheses for why current patients obtain limited speech perception along with several feasible solutions for improving AMI implementation are presented. PMID:19762428

  16. High resolution auditory perception system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Iftekhar; Ghatol, Ashok

    2005-04-01

    Blindness is a sensory disability which is difficult to treat but can to some extent be helped by artificial aids. The paper describes the design aspects of a high resolution auditory perception system, which is designed on the principle of air sonar with binaural perception. This system is a vision substitution aid for enabling blind persons. The blind person wears ultrasonic eyeglasses which has ultrasonic sensor array embedded on it. The system has been designed to operate in multiresolution modes. The ultrasonic sound from the transmitter array is reflected back by the objects, falling in the beam of the array and is received. The received signal is converted to a sound signal, which is presented stereophonically for auditory perception. A detailed study has been done as the background work required for the system implementation; the appropriate range analysis procedure, analysis of space-time signals, the acoustic sensors study, amplification methods and study of the removal of noise using filters. Finally the system implementation including both the hardware and the software part of it has been described. Experimental results on actual blind subjects and inferences obtained during the study have also been included.

  17. Neural Hyperactivity of the Central Auditory System in Response to Peripheral Damage

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yi; Song, Qiang; Li, Xinyi; Li, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    It is increasingly appreciated that cochlear pathology is accompanied by adaptive responses in the central auditory system. The cause of cochlear pathology varies widely, and it seems that few commonalities can be drawn. In fact, despite intricate internal neuroplasticity and diverse external symptoms, several classical injury models provide a feasible path to locate responses to different peripheral cochlear lesions. In these cases, hair cell damage may lead to considerable hyperactivity in the central auditory pathways, mediated by a reduction in inhibition, which may underlie some clinical symptoms associated with hearing loss, such as tinnitus. Homeostatic plasticity, the most discussed and acknowledged mechanism in recent years, is most likely responsible for excited central activity following cochlear damage. PMID:26881094

  18. Developmental Trajectories of Auditory Cortex Synaptic Structures and Gap-Prepulse Inhibition of Acoustic Startle Between Early Adolescence and Young Adulthood in Mice.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Caitlin E; Erickson, Susan L; Fish, Kenneth N; Thiels, Edda; Penzes, Peter; Sweet, Robert A

    2016-05-01

    Cortical excitatory and inhibitory synapses are disrupted in schizophrenia, the symptoms of which often emerge during adolescence, when cortical excitatory synapses undergo pruning. In auditory cortex, a brain region implicated in schizophrenia, little is known about the development of excitatory and inhibitory synapses between early adolescence and young adulthood, and how these changes impact auditory cortex function. We used immunohistochemistry and quantitative fluorescence microscopy to quantify dendritic spines and GAD65-expressing inhibitory boutons in auditory cortex of early adolescent, late adolescent, and young adult mice. Numbers of spines decreased between early adolescence and young adulthood, during which time responses increased in an auditory cortex-dependent sensory task, silent gap-prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (gap-PPI). Within-bouton GAD65 protein and GAD65-expressing bouton numbers decreased between late adolescence and young adulthood, a delay in onset relative to spine and gap-PPI changes. In mice lacking the spine protein kalirin, there were no significant changes in spine number, within-bouton GAD65 protein, or gap-PPI between adolescence and young adulthood. These results illustrate developmental changes in auditory cortex spines, inhibitory boutons, and auditory cortex function between adolescence and young adulthood, and provide insights into how disrupted adolescent neurodevelopment could contribute to auditory cortex synapse pathology and auditory impairments. PMID:25759333

  19. Relationship between Sympathetic Skin Responses and Auditory Hypersensitivity to Different Auditory Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Fumi; Iwanaga, Ryoichiro; Chono, Mami; Fujihara, Saori; Tokunaga, Akiko; Murata, Jun; Tanaka, Koji; Nakane, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Goro

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Auditory hypersensitivity has been widely reported in patients with autism spectrum disorders. However, the neurological background of auditory hypersensitivity is currently not clear. The present study examined the relationship between sympathetic nervous system responses and auditory hypersensitivity induced by different types of auditory stimuli. [Methods] We exposed 20 healthy young adults to six different types of auditory stimuli. The amounts of palmar sweating resulting from the auditory stimuli were compared between groups with (hypersensitive) and without (non-hypersensitive) auditory hypersensitivity. [Results] Although no group × type of stimulus × first stimulus interaction was observed for the extent of reaction, significant type of stimulus × first stimulus interaction was noted for the extent of reaction. For an 80 dB-6,000 Hz stimulus, the trends for palmar sweating differed between the groups. For the first stimulus, the variance became larger in the hypersensitive group than in the non-hypersensitive group. [Conclusion] Subjects who regularly felt excessive reactions to auditory stimuli tended to have excessive sympathetic responses to repeated loud noises compared with subjects who did not feel excessive reactions. People with auditory hypersensitivity may be classified into several subtypes depending on their reaction patterns to auditory stimuli. PMID:25140103

  20. AUDITORY CORTICAL PLASTICITY: DOES IT PROVIDE EVIDENCE FOR COGNITIVE PROCESSING IN THE AUDITORY CORTEX?

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Dexter R. F.

    2007-01-01

    The past 20 years have seen substantial changes in our view of the nature of the processing carried out in auditory cortex. Some processing of a cognitive nature, previously attributed to higher order “association” areas, is now considered to take place in auditory cortex itself. One argument adduced in support of this view is the evidence indicating a remarkable degree of plasticity in the auditory cortex of adult animals. Such plasticity has been demonstrated in a wide range of paradigms, in which auditory input or the behavioural significance of particular inputs is manipulated. Changes over the same time period in our conceptualization of the receptive fields of cortical neurons, and well-established mechanisms for use-related changes in synaptic function, can account for many forms of auditory cortical plasticity. On the basis of a review of auditory cortical plasticity and its probable mechanisms, it is argued that only plasticity associated with learning tasks provides a strong case for cognitive processing in auditory cortex. Even in this case the evidence is indirect, in that it has not yet been established that the changes in auditory cortex are necessary for behavioural learning and memory. Although other lines of evidence provide convincing support for cognitive processing in auditory cortex, that provided by auditory cortical plasticity remains equivocal. PMID:17303356

  1. Auditory midbrain processing is differentially modulated by auditory and visual cortices: An auditory fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Patrick P; Zhang, Jevin W; Fan, Shu-Juan; Sanes, Dan H; Wu, Ed X

    2015-12-01

    The cortex contains extensive descending projections, yet the impact of cortical input on brainstem processing remains poorly understood. In the central auditory system, the auditory cortex contains direct and indirect pathways (via brainstem cholinergic cells) to nuclei of the auditory midbrain, called the inferior colliculus (IC). While these projections modulate auditory processing throughout the IC, single neuron recordings have samples from only a small fraction of cells during stimulation of the corticofugal pathway. Furthermore, assessments of cortical feedback have not been extended to sensory modalities other than audition. To address these issues, we devised blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigms to measure the sound-evoked responses throughout the rat IC and investigated the effects of bilateral ablation of either auditory or visual cortices. Auditory cortex ablation increased the gain of IC responses to noise stimuli (primarily in the central nucleus of the IC) and decreased response selectivity to forward species-specific vocalizations (versus temporally reversed ones, most prominently in the external cortex of the IC). In contrast, visual cortex ablation decreased the gain and induced a much smaller effect on response selectivity. The results suggest that auditory cortical projections normally exert a large-scale and net suppressive influence on specific IC subnuclei, while visual cortical projections provide a facilitatory influence. Meanwhile, auditory cortical projections enhance the midbrain response selectivity to species-specific vocalizations. We also probed the role of the indirect cholinergic projections in the auditory system in the descending modulation process by pharmacologically blocking muscarinic cholinergic receptors. This manipulation did not affect the gain of IC responses but significantly reduced the response selectivity to vocalizations. The results imply that auditory cortical

  2. A Comparison of Three Auditory Discrimination-Perception Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenke, Karl

    1978-01-01

    Comparisons were made between scores of 52 third graders on three measures of auditory discrimination: Wepman's Auditory Discrimination Test, the Goldman-Fristoe Woodcock (GFW) Test of Auditory Discrimination, and the Kimmell-Wahl Screening Test of Auditory Perception (STAP). (CL)

  3. Auditory Memory Distortion for Spoken Prose

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Joanna L.; Hubbard, Timothy L.; Ferrandino, Blaise; Brigante, Ryan; Wright, Jamie M.; Rypma, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Observers often remember a scene as containing information that was not presented but that would have likely been located just beyond the observed boundaries of the scene. This effect is called boundary extension (BE; e.g., Intraub & Richardson, 1989). Previous studies have observed BE in memory for visual and haptic stimuli, and the present experiments examined whether BE occurred in memory for auditory stimuli (prose, music). Experiments 1 and 2 varied the amount of auditory content to be remembered. BE was not observed, but when auditory targets contained more content, boundary restriction (BR) occurred. Experiment 3 presented auditory stimuli with less content and BR also occurred. In Experiment 4, white noise was added to stimuli with less content to equalize the durations of auditory stimuli, and BR still occurred. Experiments 5 and 6 presented trained stories and popular music, and BR still occurred. This latter finding ruled out the hypothesis that the lack of BE in Experiments 1–4 reflected a lack of familiarity with the stimuli. Overall, memory for auditory content exhibited BR rather than BE, and this pattern was stronger if auditory stimuli contained more content. Implications for the understanding of general perceptual processing and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:22612172

  4. Auditory memory distortion for spoken prose.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Joanna L; Hubbard, Timothy L; Ferrandino, Blaise; Brigante, Ryan; Wright, Jamie M; Rypma, Bart

    2012-11-01

    Observers often remember a scene as containing information that was not presented but that would have likely been located just beyond the observed boundaries of the scene. This effect is called boundary extension (BE; e.g., Intraub & Richardson, 1989). Previous studies have observed BE in memory for visual and haptic stimuli, and the present experiments examined whether BE occurred in memory for auditory stimuli (prose, music). Experiments 1 and 2 varied the amount of auditory content to be remembered. BE was not observed, but when auditory targets contained more content, boundary restriction (BR) occurred. Experiment 3 presented auditory stimuli with less content and BR also occurred. In Experiment 4, white noise was added to stimuli with less content to equalize the durations of auditory stimuli, and BR still occurred. Experiments 5 and 6 presented trained stories and popular music, and BR still occurred. This latter finding ruled out the hypothesis that the lack of BE in Experiments 1-4 reflected a lack of familiarity with the stimuli. Overall, memory for auditory content exhibited BR rather than BE, and this pattern was stronger if auditory stimuli contained more content. Implications for the understanding of general perceptual processing and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:22612172

  5. Auditory Efferent System Modulates Mosquito Hearing.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Marta; Seifert, Marvin; Spalthoff, Christian; Warren, Ben; Weiss, Lukas; Giraldo, Diego; Winkler, Margret; Pauls, Stephanie; Göpfert, Martin C

    2016-08-01

    The performance of vertebrate ears is controlled by auditory efferents that originate in the brain and innervate the ear, synapsing onto hair cell somata and auditory afferent fibers [1-3]. Efferent activity can provide protection from noise and facilitate the detection and discrimination of sound by modulating mechanical amplification by hair cells and transmitter release as well as auditory afferent action potential firing [1-3]. Insect auditory organs are thought to lack efferent control [4-7], but when we inspected mosquito ears, we obtained evidence for its existence. Antibodies against synaptic proteins recognized rows of bouton-like puncta running along the dendrites and axons of mosquito auditory sensory neurons. Electron microscopy identified synaptic and non-synaptic sites of vesicle release, and some of the innervating fibers co-labeled with somata in the CNS. Octopamine, GABA, and serotonin were identified as efferent neurotransmitters or neuromodulators that affect auditory frequency tuning, mechanical amplification, and sound-evoked potentials. Mosquito brains thus modulate mosquito ears, extending the use of auditory efferent systems from vertebrates to invertebrates and adding new levels of complexity to mosquito sound detection and communication. PMID:27476597

  6. Functional imaging of auditory scene analysis.

    PubMed

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Dykstra, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    Our auditory system is constantly faced with the task of decomposing the complex mixture of sound arriving at the ears into perceptually independent streams constituting accurate representations of individual sound sources. This decomposition, termed auditory scene analysis, is critical for both survival and communication, and is thought to underlie both speech and music perception. The neural underpinnings of auditory scene analysis have been studied utilizing invasive experiments with animal models as well as non-invasive (MEG, EEG, and fMRI) and invasive (intracranial EEG) studies conducted with human listeners. The present article reviews human neurophysiological research investigating the neural basis of auditory scene analysis, with emphasis on two classical paradigms termed streaming and informational masking. Other paradigms - such as the continuity illusion, mistuned harmonics, and multi-speaker environments - are briefly addressed thereafter. We conclude by discussing the emerging evidence for the role of auditory cortex in remapping incoming acoustic signals into a perceptual representation of auditory streams, which are then available for selective attention and further conscious processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Human Auditory Neuroimaging. PMID:23968821

  7. Auditory motion processing after early blindness

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fang; Stecker, G. Christopher; Fine, Ione

    2014-01-01

    Studies showing that occipital cortex responds to auditory and tactile stimuli after early blindness are often interpreted as demonstrating that early blind subjects “see” auditory and tactile stimuli. However, it is not clear whether these occipital responses directly mediate the perception of auditory/tactile stimuli, or simply modulate or augment responses within other sensory areas. We used fMRI pattern classification to categorize the perceived direction of motion for both coherent and ambiguous auditory motion stimuli. In sighted individuals, perceived motion direction was accurately categorized based on neural responses within the planum temporale (PT) and right lateral occipital cortex (LOC). Within early blind individuals, auditory motion decisions for both stimuli were successfully categorized from responses within the human middle temporal complex (hMT+), but not the PT or right LOC. These findings suggest that early blind responses within hMT+ are associated with the perception of auditory motion, and that these responses in hMT+ may usurp some of the functions of nondeprived PT. Thus, our results provide further evidence that blind individuals do indeed “see” auditory motion. PMID:25378368

  8. Auditory memory function in expert chess players

    PubMed Central

    Fattahi, Fariba; Geshani, Ahmad; Jafari, Zahra; Jalaie, Shohreh; Salman Mahini, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chess is a game that involves many aspects of high level cognition such as memory, attention, focus and problem solving. Long term practice of chess can improve cognition performances and behavioral skills. Auditory memory, as a kind of memory, can be influenced by strengthening processes following long term chess playing like other behavioral skills because of common processing pathways in the brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the auditory memory function of expert chess players using the Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test. Methods: The Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test was performed for 30 expert chess players aged 20-35 years and 30 non chess players who were matched by different conditions; the participants in both groups were randomly selected. The performance of the two groups was compared by independent samples t-test using SPSS version 21. Results: The mean score of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test between the two groups, expert chess players and non-chess players, revealed a significant difference (p≤ 0.001). The difference between the ears scores for expert chess players (p= 0.023) and non-chess players (p= 0.013) was significant. Gender had no effect on the test results. Conclusion: Auditory memory function in expert chess players was significantly better compared to non-chess players. It seems that increased auditory memory function is related to strengthening cognitive performances due to playing chess for a long time. PMID:26793666

  9. Spatial auditory processing in pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.

    Given the biological importance of sound for a variety of activities, pinnipeds must be able to obtain spatial information about their surroundings thorough acoustic input in the absence of other sensory cues. The three chapters of this dissertation address spatial auditory processing capabilities of pinnipeds in air given that these amphibious animals use acoustic signals for reproduction and survival on land. Two chapters are comparative lab-based studies that utilized psychophysical approaches conducted in an acoustic chamber. Chapter 1 addressed the frequency-dependent sound localization abilities at azimuth of three pinniped species (the harbor seal, Phoca vitulina, the California sea lion, Zalophus californianus, and the northern elephant seal, Mirounga angustirostris). While performances of the sea lion and harbor seal were consistent with the duplex theory of sound localization, the elephant seal, a low-frequency hearing specialist, showed a decreased ability to localize the highest frequencies tested. In Chapter 2 spatial release from masking (SRM), which occurs when a signal and masker are spatially separated resulting in improvement in signal detectability relative to conditions in which they are co-located, was determined in a harbor seal and sea lion. Absolute and masked thresholds were measured at three frequencies and azimuths to determine the detection advantages afforded by this type of spatial auditory processing. Results showed that hearing sensitivity was enhanced by up to 19 and 12 dB in the harbor seal and sea lion, respectively, when the signal and masker were spatially separated. Chapter 3 was a field-based study that quantified both sender and receiver variables of the directional properties of male northern elephant seal calls produce within communication system that serves to delineate dominance status. This included measuring call directivity patterns, observing male-male vocally-mediated interactions, and an acoustic playback study

  10. Auditory connections and functions of prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Plakke, Bethany; Romanski, Lizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    The functional auditory system extends from the ears to the frontal lobes with successively more complex functions occurring as one ascends the hierarchy of the nervous system. Several areas of the frontal lobe receive afferents from both early and late auditory processing regions within the temporal lobe. Afferents from the early part of the cortical auditory system, the auditory belt cortex, which are presumed to carry information regarding auditory features of sounds, project to only a few prefrontal regions and are most dense in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). In contrast, projections from the parabelt and the rostral superior temporal gyrus (STG) most likely convey more complex information and target a larger, widespread region of the prefrontal cortex. Neuronal responses reflect these anatomical projections as some prefrontal neurons exhibit responses to features in acoustic stimuli, while other neurons display task-related responses. For example, recording studies in non-human primates indicate that VLPFC is responsive to complex sounds including vocalizations and that VLPFC neurons in area 12/47 respond to sounds with similar acoustic morphology. In contrast, neuronal responses during auditory working memory involve a wider region of the prefrontal cortex. In humans, the frontal lobe is involved in auditory detection, discrimination, and working memory. Past research suggests that dorsal and ventral subregions of the prefrontal cortex process different types of information with dorsal cortex processing spatial/visual information and ventral cortex processing non-spatial/auditory information. While this is apparent in the non-human primate and in some neuroimaging studies, most research in humans indicates that specific task conditions, stimuli or previous experience may bias the recruitment of specific prefrontal regions, suggesting a more flexible role for the frontal lobe during auditory cognition. PMID:25100931

  11. Patient experience of sexual hallucinations after propofol-induced painless abortion may lead to violence against medical personnel.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiyong; Yi, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Painless abortion is an outpatient surgical procedure performed under general anesthesia, which requires an appropriate anesthetic reagent that must be safe, comfortable for the patient, and highly controllable. At present, fentanyl and propofol are first-choice anesthetic reagents in clinical applications. However, both have various side effects, including the inhibition of respiration and circulation and the occurrence of postoperative sexual fantasies and amorous behavior. In this report, we will demonstrate three cases of allegations of assault and violence caused by sexual hallucinations in patients who were anesthetized with propofol and fentanyl during painless abortion surgery. PMID:27017209

  12. Visual Hallucinations as Incidental Negative Effects of Virtual Reality on Parkinson's Disease Patients: A Link with Neurodegeneration?

    PubMed Central

    Pedroli, Elisa; Bulla, Daniel; Cimolin, Veronica; Thomas, Astrid; Mauro, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    We followed up a series of 23 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who had performed an immersive virtual reality (VR) protocol eight years before. On that occasion, six patients incidentally described visual hallucinations (VH) with occurrences of images not included in the virtual environment. Curiously, in the following years, only these patients reported the appearance of VH later in their clinical history, while the rest of the group did not. Even considering the limited sample size, we may argue that VR immersive systems can induce unpleasant effects in PD patients who are predisposed to a cognitive impairment. PMID:26064775

  13. Causal contribution of primate auditory cortex to auditory perceptual decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Tsunada, Joji; Liu, Andrew S.K.; Gold, Joshua I.; Cohen, Yale E.

    2015-01-01

    Auditory perceptual decisions are thought to be mediated by the ventral auditory pathway. However, the specific and causal contributions of different brain regions in this pathway, including the middle-lateral (ML) and anterolateral (AL) belt regions of the auditory cortex, to auditory decisions have not been fully identified. To identify these contributions, we recorded from and microstimulated ML and AL sites while monkeys decided whether an auditory stimulus contained more low-frequency or high-frequency tone bursts. Both ML and AL neural activity was modulated by the frequency content of the stimulus. However, only the responses of the most stimulus-sensitive AL neurons were systematically modulated by the monkeys’ choices. Consistent with this observation, microstimulation of AL—but not ML—systematically biased the monkeys’ behavior toward the choice associated with the preferred frequency of the stimulated site. Together, these findings suggest that AL directly and causally contributes sensory evidence used to form this auditory decision. PMID:26656644

  14. Molecular study of patients with auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Guilherme Machado De; Ramos, Priscila Zonzini; Castilho, Arthur Menino; Guimarães, Alexandre Caixeta; Sartorato, Edi Lúcia

    2016-07-01

    Auditory neuropathy is a type of hearing loss that constitutes a change in the conduct of the auditory stimulus by the involvement of inner hair cells or auditory nerve synapses. It is characterized by the absence or alteration of waves in the examination of brainstem auditory evoked potentials, with otoacoustic and/or cochlear microphonic issues. At present, four loci associated with non‑syndromic auditory neuropathy have been mapped: Autosomal recessive deafness‑9 [DFNB9; the otoferlin (OTOF) gene] and autosomal recessive deafness‑59 [DFNB59; the pejvakin (PJVK) gene], associated with autosomal recessive inheritance; the autosomal dominant auditory neuropathy gene [AUNA1; the diaphanous‑3 (DIAPH3) gene]; and AUNX1, linked to chromosome X. Furthermore, mutations of connexin 26 [the gap junction β2 (GJB2) gene] have also been associated with the disease. OTOF gene mutations exert a significant role in auditory neuropathy. In excess of 80 pathogenic mutations have been identified in individuals with non‑syndromic deafness in populations of different origins, with an emphasis on the p.Q829X mutation, which was found in ~3% of cases of deafness in the Spanish population. The identification of genetic alterations responsible for auditory neuropathy is one of the challenges contributing to understand the molecular bases of the different phenotypes of hearing loss. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate molecular changes in the OTOF gene in patients with auditory neuropathy, and to develop a DNA chip for the molecular diagnosis of auditory neuropathy using mass spectrometry for genotyping. Genetic alterations were investigated in 47 patients with hearing loss and clinical diagnosis of auditory neuropathy, and the c.35delG mutation in the GJB2 gene was identified in three homozygous patients, and the heterozygous parents of one of these cases. Additionally, OTOF gene mutations were tracked by complete sequencing of 48 exons, although these results

  15. Functional organization of the mammalian auditory midbrain.

    PubMed

    Ono, Munenori; Ito, Tetsufumi

    2015-11-01

    The inferior colliculus (IC) is a critical nexus between the auditory brainstem and the forebrain. Parallel auditory pathways that emerge from the brainstem are integrated in the IC. In this integration, de-novo auditory information processed as local and ascending inputs converge via the complex neural circuit of the IC. However, it is still unclear how information is processed within the neural circuit. The purpose of this review is to give an anatomical and physiological overview of the IC neural circuit. We address the functional organization of the IC where the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs interact to shape the responses of IC neurons to sound. PMID:26362672

  16. PTSD: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature PTSD Symptoms, Diagnosis , Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table ... Symptoms As with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), PTSD symptoms can be very subtle. "For example, some ...

  17. Auditory display for the blind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A system for providing an auditory display of two-dimensional patterns as an aid to the blind is described. It includes a scanning device for producing first and second voltages respectively indicative of the vertical and horizontal positions of the scan and a further voltage indicative of the intensity at each point of the scan and hence of the presence or absence of the pattern at that point. The voltage related to scan intensity controls transmission of the sounds to the subject so that the subject knows that a portion of the pattern is being encountered by the scan when a tone is heard, the subject determining the position of this portion of the pattern in space by the frequency and interaural difference information contained in the tone.

  18. Survival of auditory hair cells.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Michelle L; Pereira, Fred A

    2015-07-01

    The inability of mammals to regenerate auditory hair cells creates a pressing need to understand the means of enhancing hair cell survival following insult or injury. Hair cells are easily damaged by noise exposure, by ototoxic medications and as a consequence of aging processes, all of which lead to progressive and permanent hearing impairment as hair cells are lost. Significant efforts have been invested in designing strategies to prevent this damage from occurring since permanent hearing loss has a profound impact on communication and quality of life for patients. In this mini-review, we discuss recent progress in the use of antioxidants, anti-inflammatories and apoptosis inhibitors to enhance hair cell survival. We conclude by clarifying the distinction between protection and rescue strategies and by highlighting important areas of future research. PMID:25743696

  19. Neuromechanistic Model of Auditory Bistability

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, James; Sussman, Elyse; Rinzel, John

    2015-01-01

    Sequences of higher frequency A and lower frequency B tones repeating in an ABA- triplet pattern are widely used to study auditory streaming. One may experience either an integrated percept, a single ABA-ABA- stream, or a segregated percept, separate but simultaneous streams A-A-A-A- and -B---B--. During minutes-long presentations, subjects may report irregular alternations between these interpretations. We combine neuromechanistic modeling and psychoacoustic experiments to study these persistent alternations and to characterize the effects of manipulating stimulus parameters. Unlike many phenomenological models with abstract, percept-specific competition and fixed inputs, our network model comprises neuronal units with sensory feature dependent inputs that mimic the pulsatile-like A1 responses to tones in the ABA- triplets. It embodies a neuronal computation for percept competition thought to occur beyond primary auditory cortex (A1). Mutual inhibition, adaptation and noise are implemented. We include slow NDMA recurrent excitation for local temporal memory that enables linkage across sound gaps from one triplet to the next. Percepts in our model are identified in the firing patterns of the neuronal units. We predict with the model that manipulations of the frequency difference between tones A and B should affect the dominance durations of the stronger percept, the one dominant a larger fraction of time, more than those of the weaker percept—a property that has been previously established and generalized across several visual bistable paradigms. We confirm the qualitative prediction with our psychoacoustic experiments and use the behavioral data to further constrain and improve the model, achieving quantitative agreement between experimental and modeling results. Our work and model provide a platform that can be extended to consider other stimulus conditions, including the effects of context and volition. PMID:26562507

  20. Central auditory testing and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Welsh, L W; Welsh, J J; Healy, M P

    1980-06-01

    A group of dyslexic pupils with normal end organ function was studied by a central auditory battery to determine whether a hearing disability existed. The clinical features of dyslexia are presented with emphasis on the psychological developmental and functional disorders associated with this reading problem. The central battery of Willeford was selected as the test medium and the results of the 77 dyslexic students were compared to the normative data. The model proposed by Sparks, et al., is accepted as the mechanism for dichotic audition. Reference is made to the organic basis of reading disorders from lesion in the calcarine area to the angular gyrus. The competing sentence test, binaural fusion, rapidly alternating speech perception, and filtered speech are described in detail and are organic foundation for the study. The authors indentified a high rate of failure in this investigation. Over 50% of the dyslexic students failed two of the four tests, and each of the 77 failed at least one component. The most sensitive tests were binaural fusion and filtered speech with less variation from the norm in the remaining two components. The effect of maturation in central audition was measured in each of the four tests. The data suggest: 1. the scores are lower in the early ages in each test; 2. that rapidly alternating speech and competing sentences approach the normal range albeit somewhat delayed; and 3. that binaural fusion and filtered speech improve in score somewhat but rather moderately and never approach the normal range. Based upon the central auditory data and in conjunction with the anatomical pathways of vision, the authors suggest the site of lesion to be in the temporo-parietal cortex and the association fibers. PMID:7382713