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  1. AusEinetter, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AusEinetter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This document comprises the two AusEinetter newsletters published in 1997. The first newletter describes the background and structure of Australia's Early Intervention Network for Mental Health in Young People (AusEinet) and discusses the necessity of early intervention for mental health issues in young people 5-25 years of age. The following…

  2. Energie aus der Tiefe: Geothermische Stromerzeugung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huenges, Ernst

    2004-11-01

    Die Erde birgt überall genug Wärme für die geothermische Erzeugung elektrischen Stroms, die allerdings Wassertemperaturen von über 150 °C braucht. So warme Gesteinsschichten liegen in Mitteleuropa in mindestens 4 km Tiefe. Ein Kraftwerk muss also beim Betrieb über tiefe Bohrungen Wasser durch das Tiefengestein zirkulieren und dort erhitzen. Von Natur aus ist das Gestein jedoch dafür meist zu wenig porös. Deshalb soll das Einpressen von Fluiden unter hohem Druck die natürlichen Risse im Reservoirgestein künstlich vergrößern. Diese Stimulationstechnik erprobte das GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam erfolgreich an einer 4309 m tiefen Bohrung im Geothermielabor Groß Schönebeck. Eine zweite Bohrung soll nun eine langfristige Wasserzirkulation im Untergrund erforschen. Funktioniert sie stabil, dann soll eine Demonstrationsanlage Strom erzeugen.

  3. Solarzellen aus Folien-Silizium: Neue Materialien der Photovoltaik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Giso

    2004-01-01

    Die Photovoltaik wird auf absehbare Zeit vor allem kristallines Silizium als Baumaterial nutzen, mit Tendenz zu billigeren, multikristallinen Wafern. Allerdings werden heutige Wafer aus großen Silizium-Blöcken gesägt, was viel Material verpulvert. Das treibt den Anteil des Wafers an den Gesamtkosten des Solarmoduls auf 50% hoch. Folien-Silizium nutzt dagegen durch eine andere Herstellungstechnik das Material viel besser aus und senkt so die Waferkosten erheblich. Im Wirkungsgrad können Solarzellen aus Folien-Silizium schon fast mit herkömmlichen Zellen konkurrieren. Ein weiterer Vorteil von Folien-Silizium: Es kann relativ problemlos in die Produktionslinien heutiger Solarzellen aus kristallinem Silizium eingegliedert werden. Allerdings sind die attraktivsten Herstellungsverfahren noch nicht serienreif.

  4. Vollautomatische Segmentierung der Prostata aus 3D-Ultraschallbildern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimann, Tobias; Simpfendörfer, Tobias; Baumhauer, Matthias; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    Diese Arbeit beschreibt ein modellbasiertes Verfahren zur Segmentierung der Prostata aus 3D-Ultraschalldaten. Kern der Methode ist ein statistisches Formmodell, das auf Beispieldaten der Prostata trainiert wird. Erster Schritt der Segmentierung ist ein evolutionärer Algorithmus, mit dem das Modell grob im zu segmentierenden Bild positioniert wird. Für die darauf folgende lokale Suche wurden mehrere Varianten des Algorithmus evaluiert, unter anderem Ausreißer-Unterdrückung, freie Deformation und Gewichtung der verwendeten Erscheinungsmodelle nach ihrer Zuverlässigkeit. Alle Varianten wurden auf 35 Ultraschallbildern getestet und mit manuellen Referenzsegmentierungen verglichen. Die beste Variante erreichte eine durchschnittliche Oberflächenabweichung von 1.1 mm.

  5. Das Lektin aus der Erbse Pisum sativum : Bindungsstudien, Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht und Rückfaltung aus Fragmenten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küster, Frank

    2002-11-01

    Das Lektin aus Pisum sativum, der Gartenerbse, ist Teil der Familie der Leguminosenlektine. Diese Proteine haben untereinander eine hohe Sequenzhomologie, und die Struktur ihrer Monomere, ein all-ß-Motiv, ist hoch konserviert. Dagegen gibt es innerhalb der Familie eine große Vielfalt an unterschiedlichen Quartärstrukturen, die Gegenstand kristallographischer und theoretischer Arbeiten waren. Das Erbsenlektin ist ein dimeres Leguminosenlektin mit einer Besonderheit in seiner Struktur: Nach der Faltung in der Zelle wird aus einem Loop eine kurze Aminosäuresequenz herausgeschnitten, so dass sich in jeder Untereinheit zwei unabhängige Polypeptidketten befinden. Beide Ketten sind aber stark miteinander verschränkt und bilden eine gemeinsame strukturelle Domäne. Wie alle Lektine bindet Erbsenlektin komplexe Oligosaccharide, doch sind seine physiologische Rolle und der natürliche Ligand unbekannt. In dieser Arbeit wurden Versuche zur Entwicklung eines Funktionstests für Erbsenlektin durchgeführt und seine Faltung, Stabilität und Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht charakterisiert. Um die spezifische Rolle der Prozessierung für Stabilität und Faltung zu untersuchen, wurde ein unprozessiertes Konstrukt in E. coli exprimiert und mit der prozessierten Form verglichen. Beide Proteine zeigen die gleiche kinetische Stabilität gegenüber chemischer Denaturierung. Sie denaturieren extrem langsam, weil nur die isolierten Untereinheiten entfalten können und das Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht bei mittleren Konzentrationen an Denaturierungsmittel auf der Seite der Dimere liegt. Durch die extrem langsame Entfaltung zeigen beide Proteine eine apparente Hysterese im Gleichgewichtsübergang, und es ist nicht möglich, die thermodynamische Stabilität zu bestimmen. Die Stabilität und die Geschwindigkeit der Assoziation und Dissoziation in die prozessierten bzw. nichtprozessierten Untereinheiten sind für beide Proteine gleich. Darüber hinaus konnte gezeigt werden, dass auch unter

  6. Triage of patients with AUS/FLUS on thyroid cytopathology: effectiveness of the multimodal diagnostic techniques.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyuk; Jeong, Dae Joon; Hahn, Soo Yeon; Shin, Jung Hee; Oh, Young Lyun; Ki, Chang-Seok; Kim, Jong-Won; Jang, Ju Young; Cho, Yoon Young; Chung, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sun Wook

    2016-05-01

    The management of patients with thyroid cytopathologic diagnosis of atypia (or follicular lesion) of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) is a complex clinical problem. The purpose of this study was to develop a practical triage scheme based on multiple diagnostic tests in general use. We performed a retrospective cohort study involving 15,335 consecutive patients with a referral diagnosis of thyroid nodule between April 2011 and March 2015 using an institutional database. We obtained 904 patients with an initial cytopathologic diagnosis of AUS/FLUS who underwent repeat fine-needle aspiration or core needle biopsy, 388 of whom had a corresponding histopathological diagnosis for excised index lesions. The diagnostic performance of ultrasound (US) findings, repeat biopsy, and BRAF(V) (600E) mutation in cytopathologic specimens were evaluated individually or as a set. Of the 388 resected AUS/FLUS cases, 338 (87.1%) were thyroid cancer. The positive likelihood ratios (LRs) for BRAF(V) (600E) mutation and repeat biopsy result of suspicious for malignant cell (SMC) or worse were 11.6 (95% CI = 1.7-77.8) and 13.7 (95% CI = 4.6-41.0), respectively. The absence of suspicious findings on US combined with cytologic result of less than SMC or negative BRAF(V) (600E) mutation produced negative LRs ranging from 0.06 to 0.15, corresponding to negative predictive values of over 90% in both primary and referral settings. For patients with AUS/FLUS cytopathology, clinical decision making can be guided by a simple triage scheme based on US findings, repeat biopsy, or BRAF(V) (600E) mutation. PMID:26775803

  7. Establishing the Aus-ROC Australian and New Zealand out-of-hospital cardiac arrest Epistry

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Janet; Smith, Karen; Walker, Tony; Grantham, Hugh; Hein, Cindy; Thorrowgood, Melanie; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Tony; Dicker, Bridget; Swain, Andy; Bailey, Mark; Bosley, Emma; Pemberton, Katherine; Cameron, Peter; Nichol, Graham; Finn, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a global health problem with low survival. Regional variation in survival has heightened interest in combining cardiac arrest registries to understand and improve OHCA outcomes. While individual OHCA registries exist in Australian and New Zealand ambulance services, until recently these registries have not been combined. The aim of this protocol paper is to describe the rationale and methods of the Australian Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (Aus-ROC) OHCA epidemiological registry (Epistry). Methods and analysis The Aus-ROC Epistry is designed as a population-based cohort study. Data collection started in 2014. Six ambulance services in Australia (Ambulance Victoria, SA Ambulance Service, St John Ambulance Western Australia and Queensland Ambulance Service) and New Zealand (St John New Zealand and Wellington Free Ambulance) currently contribute data. All OHCA attended by ambulance, regardless of aetiology or patient age, are included in the Epistry. The catchment population is approximately 19.3 million persons, representing 63% of the Australian population and 100% of the New Zealand population. Data are collected using Utstein-style definitions. Information incorporated into the Epistry includes demographics, arrest features, ambulance response times, treatment and patient outcomes. The primary outcome is ‘survival to hospital discharge’, with ‘return of spontaneous circulation’ as a key secondary outcome. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was independently sought by each of the contributing registries. Overarching ethics for the Epistry was provided by Monash University HREC (Approval No. CF12/3938—2012001888). A population-based OHCA registry capturing the majority of Australia and New Zealand will allow risk-adjusted outcomes to be determined, to enable benchmarking across ambulance providers, facilitate the identification of system-wide strategies associated with survival from OHCA, and

  8. Using NOAA/AVHRR based remote sensing data and PCR method for estimation of Aus rice yield in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizamuddin, Mohammad; Akhand, Kawsar; Roytman, Leonid; Kogan, Felix; Goldberg, Mitch

    2015-06-01

    Rice is a dominant food crop of Bangladesh accounting about 75 percent of agricultural land use for rice cultivation and currently Bangladesh is the world's fourth largest rice producing country. Rice provides about two-third of total calorie supply and about one-half of the agricultural GDP and one-sixth of the national income in Bangladesh. Aus is one of the main rice varieties in Bangladesh. Crop production, especially rice, the main food staple, is the most susceptible to climate change and variability. Any change in climate will, thus, increase uncertainty regarding rice production as climate is major cause year-to-year variability in rice productivity. This paper shows the application of remote sensing data for estimating Aus rice yield in Bangladesh using official statistics of rice yield with real time acquired satellite data from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor and Principal Component Regression (PCR) method was used to construct a model. The simulated result was compared with official agricultural statistics showing that the error of estimation of Aus rice yield was less than 10%. Remote sensing, therefore, is a valuable tool for estimating crop yields well in advance of harvest, and at a low cost.

  9. A nanosensor for in vivo selenol imaging based on the formation of AuSe bonds.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Cheng, Ranran; Liu, Xiaojun; Pan, Xiaohong; Kong, Fanpeng; Gao, Wen; Xu, Kehua; Tang, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Selenol is a key metabolite of Na2SeO3 and plays an important role in many physiological and pathological processes. The real-time monitoring of selenol is of scientific interest for understanding the anti-cancer mechanism of Na2SeO3. Based on selenol's ability to specifically break AuS bonds and form more stable AuSe bonds on the surfaces of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), we developed a novel near-infrared fluorescent nanosensor (Cy5.5-peptide-AuNPs) for detecting selenol. The nanosensor exhibited rapid response to selenol with high selectivity and sensitivity, and it was successfully used to image changes in the selenol level in HepG2 cells during Na2SeO3-induced apoptosis. Moreover, in vivo fluorescence imaging of selenol was obtained from H22 tumor-bearing mice injected with both the nanosensor and sodium selenite. The results showed that the tumor cell apoptosis induced by Na2SeO3 is correlated with high-level of selenol under hypoxic conditions. We believe that this nanosensor could serve as a powerful tool for monitoring selenol and exploring the physiological function of selenol in a variety of physiological and pathological contexts and that the probe-designed strategy will provide a new platform for research on relevant selenium chemistry. PMID:27043769

  10. Die Anfaenge der Melker Bibliothek - Neue Erkenntnisse zu Handschriften und Fragmenten aus der Zeit vor 1200

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaßner, Christine; Haidinger, Alois

    1996-04-01

    Untersuchung der zeitnahen Eintragungen in diese Handschrift gelang es, die Tätigkeit von zumindest drei wichtigen, im 12. Jahrhundert in Melk identifizierbaren, namentlich nicht bekannten Schreibern chronologisch zuzuordnen. Erstmals wurden die nur fragmentarisch als Makulatur in den Bucheinbänden erhaltenen Handschriften in die Untersuchung einbezogen, so dass für die Wende vom 12. zum 13. Jahrhundert ein Bücherbestand von 68 Handschriften erschlossen werden konnte. Besonders hervorzuheben ist, dass in der Sonderausstellung von 1996 und im Begleitband erstmals eingehend die Bedeutung der ältesten Melker Handschrift, Cod. 412 aus dem frühen 9. Jahrhundert mit naturwissenschaftlichen Texten des Beda Venerabilis, als Vorlage für drei weitere Handschriften diente: Vatikan, Cod. Vat. lat. 643, abgeschrieben wahrscheinlich in Melk, davon abhängig Zwettl, Cod. 296, und Klosterneuburg, Cod. 685. Die Abschriften der Melker Beda-Handschrift sind inhaltlich fast identisch, allerdings um den im Mittelalter fälschlicherweise Beda Venerabilis zugeschriebenen Sternbilderkatalog erweitert.

  11. Diagnostic Thyroidectomy May Be Preferable in Patients With Suspicious Ultrasonography Features After Cytopathology Diagnosis of AUS/FLUS in the Bethesda System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Sang; Kim, Hyeung Kyoo; Chang, Hojin; Kim, Seok Mo; Kim, Bup-Woo; Chang, Hang-Seok; Park, Cheong Soo

    2015-12-01

    Atypia/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) is a new category in the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC) for which repeat fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is recommended. The aim of this study was to identify specific ultrasonography and clinical predictors of malignancy in a subset of thyroid nodules associated with cytology diagnoses of AUS/FLUS.Between January 2011 and December 2102, 5440 patients underwent thyroid surgery at our institution. Of these, 213 patients were diagnosed AUS/FLUS at the preoperative cytopathology diagnosis. The frequency of FNAC and ultrasonography images was compared between patients with cancerous and benign tumors based on their final pathology.Of the 213 patients, 158 (74.2%) were diagnosed with thyroid carcinoma in their final pathology reports. In univariate and multivariate analyses, the frequency of FNAC was not significantly correlated with the cancer diagnosis. Hypoechogenicity (odds ratio 2.521, P = 0.007) and microcalcification (odds ratio 3.247, P = 0.005) were statistically correlated with cancer risk.Although AUS/FLUS in cytopathology is recommended for repeating FNAC in BSRTC, we proposed that thyroid nodules with ultrasonography findings that suggest the possibility of cancer should undergo thyroidectomy with diagnostic intent. PMID:26705204

  12. The Quintessential Bond of Modern Science. The Detection and Characterization of Diatomic Gold Sulfide, AuS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkin, Damian L.; Zhang, Ruohan; Steimle, Timothy; Pearlman, Bradley W.; Wyse, Ian A.; Varberg, Thomas D.

    2015-06-01

    The gold sulfur bond is becoming ever more important to a vast range of scientific endeavors. We have recorded the electronic spectrum of gas-phase AuS, at vibrational resolution, over the 440-740 nm wavelength range. By application of a synergy of production techniques, hot hollow-cathode sputtering source and cold laser ablation molecular beam source, excitation from both spin components of the inverted ^2Π ground state is possible. Excitation into four different excited electronic states involving approximately 100 red-degraded bands has been observed. The four excited states have been characterized as a^4σ1/2, A^2σ^+1/2, B^2σ^-1/2 and C^2Δ_i. The observed red-degraded vibronic bands where then globally analyzed to determine an accurate set of term energies and vibrational constants for the excited and ground electronic states. The electronic configurations from which these states arise will be discussed.

  13. AusEinetter, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AusEinetter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This publication contains the 1998 issues of the Australian Early Intervention Network for Mental Health in Young People newsletters for health professionals. The newsletters disseminate information about the national and local initiatives for intervention and prevention of mental health problems in young children and youth. Each issue also offers…

  14. AusEinetter, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AusEinetter, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This document contains issues eight and nine of the 1999 Australian Early Intervention Network for Mental Health in Young People newsletters for health professionals. The newsletters disseminate information about the national and local initiatives for intervention and prevention of mental health problems in young children and youth. The issues…

  15. The AusD Study: a population-based study of the determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration across a broad latitude range.

    PubMed

    Brodie, A M; Lucas, R M; Harrison, S L; van der Mei, I A F; Armstrong, B; Kricker, A; Mason, R S; McMichael, A J; Nowak, M; Whiteman, D C; Kimlin, M G

    2013-05-01

    Observational studies suggest that people with a high serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration may have reduced risk of chronic diseases such as osteoporosis, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. The AusD Study (A Quantitative Assessment of Solar UV Exposure for Vitamin D Synthesis in Australian Adults) was conducted to clarify the relationships between ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure, dietary intake of vitamin D, and serum 25(OH)D concentration among Australian adults residing in Townsville (19.3°S), Brisbane (27.5°S), Canberra (35.3°S), and Hobart (42.8°S). Participants aged 18-75 years were recruited from the Australian Electoral Roll between 2009 and 2010. Measurements were made of height, weight, waist:hip ratio, skin, hair, and eye color, blood pressure, and grip strength. Participants completed a questionnaire on sun exposure and vitamin D intake, together with 10 days of personal UV dosimetry and an associated sun-exposure and physical-activity diary that was temporally linked to a blood test for measurement of 25(OH)D concentration. Ambient solar UV radiation was also monitored at all study sites. We collected comprehensive, high-quality data from 1,002 participants (459 males, 543 females) assessed simultaneously across a range of latitudes and through all seasons. Here we describe the scientific and methodological issues considered in designing the AusD Study. PMID:23524036

  16. Lineare und verzweigte Blockcopolymere aus Polypeptiden und synthetischen Polymeren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukula, Hildegard

    2001-07-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Synthese und den Eigenschaften von linearen und verzweigten amphiphilen Polypeptid-Blockcopolymeren. Die Frage nach dem Einfluss der Topologie und Konformation der Blockcopolymere auf die supramolekularen und kolloidalen Eigenschaften bildete einen wichtigen Aspekt bei den Untersuchungen. Die Blockcopolymere wurden nach einem mehrstufigen Reaktionsschema durch Kombination von anionischer und ringöffnender Polymerisation von Aminosäuren-N-Carboxyanhydriden (NCA) synthetisiert. Die Untersuchung der Polypeptid-Blockcopolymere hinsichtlich ihres Aggregationsverhaltens in fester Phase sowie in verdünnter wässriger Lösung erfolgte mittels Streumethoden (SAXS, WAXS, DLS) sowie abbildender Methoden (TEM). Durch Einsatz der Blockcopolymere als polymere Stabilisatoren in der Emulsionspolymerisation wurden Oberflächen funktionalisierte Latizes erhalten. Als Beispiel für eine pharmazeutische Anwendung wurden bioverträgliche Polypeptid-Blockcopolymere als Wirkstoff-Trägersysteme in der Krebstherapie eingesetzt. This work describes the synthesis and characterization of linear and branched polypeptide block copolymers having amphiphilic character. The studies focused on the impact of the block copolymers' conformation and architecture on the supramolecular and colloidal properties. The polypeptide block copolymers were prepared in a multi-step process involving the anionic synthesis of (poly)amino-functional polymers (polystyrene and polybutadiene) which where used as macroinitiators for the ring-opening polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides (NCA) of protected a-aminoacids. Supramolecular structures of the block copolymers in the solid state as well as in diluted aqueous solution were investigated using scattering (SAXS, WAXS, DLS) and microscopic (TEM) methods. Both linear and branched polypeptide block copolymers were used as polymeric stabilizers in the emulsion polymerization of styrene to yield polypeptide-decorated latexes. Biocompatible block copolymers were used as drug-delivery systems in lymphatic cancer therapy.

  17. Mikro- und Nanokapseln aus Funktionspolymeren, Biopolymeren und Proteinen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüler, Corinna

    2001-03-01

    In dieser Arbeit wird die Beschichtung von kolloidalen Templaten mit Hilfe der Layer-by-layer Technik beschrieben. Mit ihr ist es möglich, die Oberfläche der Template mit sehr dünnen und gut definierten Filmen zu versehen. Durch Auflösung der Template werden Kapseln hergestellt, die je nach Zusammensetzung der Beschichtung unterschiedliche Eigenschaften aufweisen. In this thesis the coating of colloid templates using the layer-by-layer technique is described. The surface of the templates is modified with thin, well defined films. After dissolving the templates, hollow capsules with different properties are obtained.

  18. Persönlichkeitsentwicklung als ziel der Bildung: Aus der Sicht eines Psychologen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, Burger

    1990-06-01

    Personality, which is a term almost always used in a positive sense, does not exist from the moment of birth, but it develops under the influence of heredity and environment. Adolescence, which is seen as a transition from childhood to adulthood, raises difficulties in many modern industrialized countries as a result of the often arduous search for individual identity. In this context identity is seen as an interaction between heredity and environment. While developing his own personality, the young person has to maintain an integral existence vis-à-vis himself, society and life. Psychology defines the personality as the sum of numerous psychological characteristics, through which differences between people are revealed. The development of these characteristics is to be seen in the environment, maturation and actions of the individual. It can be subdivided into causes, conditions and processes. Finally the article discusses various aspects of the general question of education. The author concludes that the development of the personality should be an aim of education, but that this aim is presently unattainable because of a lack of clarity in the concept of education.

  19. Die Wirtschaftliche Bedeutung von Cyberphysical Systems aus der Sicht Eines Global Players

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beetz, Klaus

    Langfristiges und nachhaltiges Denken ist ein wichtiger Teil unserer Tradition. Nachhaltigkeit heißt für uns, in unseren Handlungen die Belange von Ökologie, Ökonomie und sozialer Verantwortung ausgewogen zu berücksichtigen.", sagte Peter Löscher, CEO von Siemens, im Januar 2010.

  20. Political Participation of Non-Citzens in Germany and Western Europe. (Beitrage aus dem Fachbereich Padagogik).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter, Lutz R.

    This paper compares the present social, economic, and political rights labor immigrants enjoy within the European Community (EC). Its focus is the current debate about the municipal suffrage of permanent residents. The dual relevance of the topic is obvious. EC bodies like the Commission, Council of Ministers, Political Council, and European…

  1. Materials Data on Ag3AuS2 (SG:1) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  2. Stabile Isotope als Tracer zur Bestimmung der Abstandsgeschwindigkeit in Trinkwassergewinnungsbrunnen aus Uferfiltrat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Geldern, Robert; Kolb, Angela; Baier, Alfons; Barth, Johannes A. C.

    2015-09-01

    A potential risk for drinking water wells that gain their water from bank filtration is contamination by pollutants from infiltrating river water. Natural occurring variations in the stable isotope ratio of the river water can be detected in observation wells and drinking water production wells. The flow velocity can then be assessed from the time shift of isotope events and best fit of the measured curves. The determination of the fluid velocity by means of stable isotopes were investigated at a study site in the vicinity of the city Volkach (Bavaria) between the River Main and riverbank drinking water wells. The results revealed a velocity of approx. 2.9 m per day, which results in an average flow time of about 50 days between the river and the drinking water wells. The isotope measurements of this study helped to better constrain earlier estimates of residence times and demonstrated the high potential of this method.

  3. Zweiwegintegration durch zweisprachige Bildung? Ergebnisse aus der Staatlichen Europa-Schule Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Gabriela

    2012-06-01

    While there is no simple recipe of how to respond to the multitude of languages present in many European schools, this article presents a promising alternative to monolingual education. The focus is on Staatliche Europa-Schule Berlin (SESB), a two-way immersion (TWI) model that unites children whose mother tongue is German with children whose mother tongue is another locally spoken language in one class and teaches them together in two languages. Thus in this model, offered by 17 primary schools and 13 secondary schools in Berlin, pupils learn in two languages from and with each other. Based on a largely quantitative, quasi-experimental study with 603 students, evidence is provided that there are a number of peace-linguistic benefits that can promote two-way social integration, besides fostering personal and societal multilingualism. This suggests that TWI education as practised in Berlin could serve as an educational model for other multilingual parts of Europe.

  4. Syllis onkylochaeta sp. n., ein korallenfressender Polychaet (Syllidae) aus dem Korallenaquarium des Löbbecke-Museums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann-Schröder, Gesa

    1991-03-01

    A new species of the genus Syllis is described feeding on a colony of corals of the genus Xenia (Xeniidae, Alcyonaria) in the coral aquarium of the Löbbecke Museum Düsseldorf. The origin of the corals is very probably Bali (Indonesia).

  5. Materials Data on K3AuSe13 (SG:13) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  6. Probleme bei der Nutzung von Offshore-Wind-energie aus Sicht des Naturschutzes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merck, Thomas; von Nordheim, Henning

    1999-12-01

    Permissions for wind parks of together more than 1000 wind mills have been asked for regarding only the German Exclusive Economical Zone (EEZ) of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Following the German Ordinance for Offshore Installations permission cannot be given if flora and fauna will be affected by the installation. Wind energy plants in the offshore area are a new technique and a thorough assessment of their effects on nature is impossible at the moment. Nevertheless, likely and possible effects could be deduced from experiences on land. Thus it has to be expected that roosting, feeding or migrating sea birds will be affected due to disturbance and collision. At least on a local scale the foundations will destroy the benthos but due to their effects on the hydrology and the sedimentation pattern they may change the composition of benthic communities on a larger scale as well. Furthermore they form an artificial hard substrate that serves as habitat for epibenthic flora and fauna not typically found in great parts of the German part of the North Sea. It should be feared that artificial magnetic and electric fields generated by the cable links will affect small and large scale orientation of fishes and marine mammals. Additional disturbances could arise from noise and vibrations released into the water column as well as from the shadows generated by the turning mills. Although these wind parks at least partly will be placed far off-shore a visual disturbance of the landscape has to be expected just as on land. In addition off-shore wind parks will increase the collision risk for ships and accidents may affect areas even far away from the wind park, e.g. by oil spills. In conclusion there is sufficient reason to assume a considerable risk that off-shore wind parks will affect the environment. So far only wind parks consisting of a few mills should be placed. They have to been seen as case studies to enable the necessary research on their effects on nature.

  7. Materials Data on Ag3AuS2 (SG:166) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  8. Materials Data on Ag3AuSe2 (SG:214) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  9. Welche Fragen konnen aus einer Gemeinsamen Interpretation der Befunde aus PISA and IGLU Fundiert Beantwortet Werden? (To Which Questions Does a Combined Interpretation of the Results Yielded by both PISA and IGLU Provide Well-Grounded Answers?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bos, Wilfried; Lankes, Eva-Maria; Prenzel, Manfred; Schwippert, Knut; Walther, Gerd; Valtin, Renate; Voss, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the International Survey on Reading Abilities in Primary School (IGLU) and its data on achievement in reading, mathematics, and natural science. Compares this data to that collected by the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Identifies achievement relevant correlations such as gender, migration background, socioeconomic…

  10. An obituary of Christoph Scheiner from the year 1650. (German Title: Ein Nachruf auf Christoph Scheiner aus dem Jahr 1650)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daxecker, Franz; Schaffenrath, Florian

    An obituary of the astronomer and Jesuit Christoph Scheiner (1573-1650) was discovered in Cracow in the year 2001. This discovery makes it now possible to fix Scheiner's year of birth to 1573. Scheiner had a controversy with Galileo Galilei about the priority of the discovery of sunspots. Scheiner remained a supporter of the geocentric system until his death in 1650. The obituary gives new insights into Scheiner's personality and the last years of his life.

  11. Elucidation of the Au-S bond in a passivated gold cluster through density functional theory calculations (abstract only).

    PubMed

    Sihelniková, L; Tvaroška, I

    2008-02-13

    Gold clusters are of increasing interest due to a number of already established as well as new potential applications in different fields of nanotechnology. The use of gold nanoparticles can be significantly extended by surface modifications, sulfidation being the most popular. The identifications of preferred adsorption geometries, bond formation, and binding energies are helpful tools for understanding the properties of these particles. This study is focused on a 38-atom gold cluster passivated with 3-hydroxypropanthiolate linkers. Starting from the re-optimized global minimum structure of a bare 38-atom gold cluster (Doye and Wales 1998 New J. Chem. 22 733-44) and aiming at a description of the passivated particle, density functional theory calculations (within the framework of the Amsterdam density functional calculation package ADF 2006.01 (ADF2006.01, SCM, Theoretical Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, http://www.scm.com)) were performed at the level of the generalized gradient approximation of Perdew and Wang from 1991, with triple-zeta Slater basis sets plus p- and f-polarization functions (TZ2P) for the 33 outermost electrons of each gold atom, and considering scalar relativistic effects. Using this methodology, the space around the gold cluster (with the distance of the S of the thiolate from the gold cluster surface in the range 2.3-2.6 Å) was examined to identify the most favourable absorption site for the thiolate linker. As a result, a 3D map was created and low energy areas corresponding to the potentially most favourable site for one 3-hydroxypropanthiolate linker on the gold cluster localized. Structures representing these areas were further optimized and consequently analysed using Mulliken population analysis to compare charge distribution over the tested structures, Mayer bond order analysis, as well as electron localization function/indicator bond formation analysis. The results obtained will be presented in comparison to ones available from studies of other research groups. PMID:21693876

  12. Die Bewertung von Textaufgaben - dargestellt an Beispielen aus dem Franzoesischunterricht (Grading Textbook Lessons -- Presented with Examples from Teaching French)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edener, Wilfried

    1975-01-01

    Explains and illustrates the term "textbook lesson," and mentions the considerations that have led to the recommended grading system. The chief aim is to achieve uniformity in grading. Offers recommendations for formulating and ordering lessons, grading criteria, awarding of points and key for computing points. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  13. Direkte Kontakte zu Deutschland aus und in der Ferne (Direct Contact with Germany from and at a Distance).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicke, Rainer E.

    This guide is a summary of ideas for enhancing the teaching of German through direct contact with Germany or German people without traveling abroad. The following ideas are highlighted: (1) correspondence (pen pals) with students in Germany; (2) audiotape recordings as an alternative to letter writing; (3) the exchange of videotape recordings with…

  14. Grundwassergefährdungspotenzial von Additiven in Wärmeträgerflüssigkeiten aus Erdwärmesonden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilieva, Dafina; Haderlein, Stefan B.; Morasch, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    The number of installed vertical borehole heat exchangers is continuing to grow continuously which increases the risk of a local groundwater contamination with heat exchanger fluids due to a system leakage. This study evaluates the groundwater pollution potential of organic additives applied in heat exchanger fluids. In the first step of the project a data survey was carried out to collect detailed information about the identity, frequency of use and concentrations of the applied additives. In total, 35 different additives were disclosed by producers and/or distributors of heat exchanger fluids. The additives were classified as corrosion inhibitors, alkalis, dyes, solvents, scentsflavours, defoamers, and surfactants. The groundwater pollution potential of the additives was assessed based on their frequency of usage in the declared fluids and on their environmental fate (mobility, persistence and aquatic toxicity). Based on our analysis, the corrosion inhibitors benzotriazole, tolyltriazole, 2-ethylhexanoate, benzoate and sebacate exhibit a potentially exhibit a significant risk for groundwater contamination.

  15. Grundwassergefährdungspotenzial von Additiven in Wärmeträgerflüssigkeiten aus Erdwärmesonden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilieva, Dafina; Haderlein, Stefan B.; Morasch, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    The number of installed vertical borehole heat exchangers is continuing to grow continuously which increases the risk of a local groundwater contamination with heat exchanger fluids due to a system leakage. This study evaluates the groundwater pollution potential of organic additives applied in heat exchanger fluids. In the first step of the project a data survey was carried out to collect detailed information about the identity, frequency of use and concentrations of the applied additives. In total, 35 different additives were disclosed by producers and/or distributors of heat exchanger fluids. The additives were classified as corrosion inhibitors, alkalis, dyes, solvents, scentsflavours, defoamers, and surfactants. The groundwater pollution potential of the additives was assessed based on their frequency of usage in the declared fluids and on their environmental fate (mobility, persistence and aquatic toxicity). Based on our analysis, the corrosion inhibitors benzotriazole, tolyltriazole, 2-ethylhexanoate, benzoate and sebacate exhibit a potentially exhibit a significant risk for groundwater contamination.

  16. Bienvenue aus Etats-Unis. Guide Pour Refugies. (Welcome to the United States. A Guidebook for Refugees).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Refugee Service Center.

    This guidebook provides French-speaking refugees being resettled in the United States with general information about what they will encounter and the services they can receive in their first months in the country. The book is distributed to overseas processing agencies, refugees overseas who have been approved for U.S. admission, and service…

  17. ASAS 095221-4329.8 und ASAS 123034-7703.9 - zwei R-CrB-Stern-Kandidaten aus der ASAS-Datenbank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huemmerich, Stefan

    2011-04-01

    During an examination of ASAS Misc-type objects, the stars ASAS 095221-4329.8 GSC 07706-00560, 09:52:21.38 -43:29:40.5) and ASAS 123034-7703.9 (GSC 09416-00380, 12:30:34.22 -77:03:52.7) - both of which show semi-regular variability - were found to exhibit significant obscuration events in their V-band lightcurves. Both stars are likely to be red giants undergoing fading events, possibly of DY Per-type. However, spectroscopy of both stars is needed for a conclusive classification. The corresponding entries in the International Variable Star Index (VSX) have been revised accordingly; variability type was set to "RCB:".

  18. A review of the Australian-New Zealand sector of the Southern Ocean over the last 30 ka (Aus-INTIMATE project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostock, H. C.; Barrows, T. T.; Carter, L.; Chase, Z.; Cortese, G.; Dunbar, G. B.; Ellwood, M.; Hayward, B.; Howard, W.; Neil, H. L.; Noble, T. L.; Mackintosh, A.; Moss, P. T.; Moy, A. D.; White, D.; Williams, M. J. M.; Armand, L. K.

    2013-08-01

    The Australia/New Zealand region of the Southern Ocean is influenced by several of the major global water masses of the oceans and is the prime entry point for cold deep waters into the Pacific basin. During the last glacial there was increased sea-ice extent around Antarctica (as far north as 55°S), as well as increased iceberg presence inferred from ice-rafted debris. Evidence from microfossil assemblages suggests that sea surface temperatures (SST) were up to 7 °C cooler, consistent with recent estimates of cooling for New Zealand derived from glacier modelling and other terrestrial proxies. The Subtropical Front (STF), Subantarctic Front (SAF) and Polar Front (PF) had migrated north, except where the position of the fronts were controlled bathymetrically. Despite the potential for iron fertilisation by increased dust input into the ocean during the glacial, there is limited evidence for higher total biological productivity in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. The altered oceanic circulation during the glacial also decreased nutrients in the surface waters and affected the outgassing of CO2. This contributed to an increased storage of CO2 in the deep waters and lowering of the carbonate lysocline. During the deglaciation, sea-ice retreat and SST increased rapidly at ˜18 ka, roughly synchronous with the reinvigoration of deep water circulation in the Southern Ocean and the release of CO2 stored in the deep waters. The gradient in carbon isotopes (δ13Cbenthic) between Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) and lower Circumpolar Deep Water (LCDW) was greatest at the start of the deglaciation, suggesting that the AAIW ventilation preceded LCDW ventilation, or there was a significant change in air-sea fractionation of δ13C. There was a slight enrichment in δ18Oplanktic, decrease in SSTs and a reduction in intermediate and deep water circulation between ˜14 and 12.5 ka BP during the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR), coincident with glacier advances in the New Zealand Southern Alps and other terrestrial records of cooling. Following the ACR, there was a second, more minor, release of deep water CO2, most likely related to reinvigoration of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). From 10 ka onwards the modern intermediate and deep water circulation was established. Air temperatures and SSTs reached a maximum in the early Holocene, with the STF located at its most southerly position, and there was a widespread retreat of Antarctic ice sheets to their modern position. A decline to modern SST and air temperatures in the mid to late Holocene followed. While millennial cycles overprinted on the SST and δ18Oplanktic records, may be the result of subtle changes in the position and strength of the westerly winds during the Holocene.

  19. Utopie: Eine Geschichte aus dem 15. Jahrhundert fur die Siebte Klasse, mit Ubungen (Utopia: A View of the 15th Century for the Seventh Class, with Exercises).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stott, Michael

    This German language textbook is intended for classroom use. The theme of the text relates to the Renaissance, and the narrative is based on Sir Thomas More's "Utopia" (1516) and relates to the experiences of its central character Raphael among the inhabitants of the strange island. Each chapter touches lightly on some thought provoking issue,…

  20. Philippus Feselius - Biographical notes on the unknown medicus of Kepler's Tertius Interveniens. (German Title: Philippus Feselius - Biographische Notizen zum unbekannten Medicus aus Keplers Tertius Interveniens)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas

    Until now, Philipp Feselius has been perceived only indirectly as Kepler's antagonist. Not much is known about his life besides his work as Baden private physician and his book against astrology which was cited intensely in Kepler's «Tertius Interveniens». This paper traces the stations of his career as a physician, about his presumable provenance and education in Strasbourg, his academic career in Tübingen, Strasbourg, Rostock and Padua, the doctorate in Basel in 1592, up to his employment, in 1599, as a court physician in Sulzburg and later in Durlach. Further hand-written and printed traces of Feselius are presented, and his social environment is investigated so that his personality becomes clearer, and relations can be established between his education and his writing against astrology.

  1. Bildung in der Strukturr Sozio-ökonomischer Entwicklung: Eine Analyse von Löngsschnittsdaten aus Afrika südlich der Sahara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Herbert

    1991-06-01

    The preparation for the World Conference on Education for All at the beginning of 1990 once again showed clearly the importance of education for development in the countries of the Third World. This article explores the systemic place of education in the process of development. With the help of factor analysis it treats the following individual questions: Is education, or basic education, an independent factor? Are the many development indicators determined by general factors? Is basic education one of these factors? An analysis is made of development indicators from 1960 to 1984 drawn from World Bank reports on 38 sub-Saharan African countries. Two sets of economic, demographic and educational data have been examined: the first relates to the year 1984 (or nearest available); the second contains two years, adding an earlier set from the nearest available date to 1960. The analysis of the later set reveals five factors: general modernization, population growth, economic development, pupil-teacher ratio, and food supply to the general population. Education is not an independent factor in this list. Using the data sets from both years, seven factors are revealed. After diagonal rotation these are: basic education, degree of urbanization, pupil-teacher ratio, average standard of living attained, economic growth, service sector, food production per head, population growth, and employment in modern sectors.

  2. Schwachstelle Sprachpraxis. Ueberlegungen und Vorschlaege zur sprachpraktischen Aus- und Weiterbildung des Englischlehrers (Weak Spot: Language Practice. Considerations and Suggestions concerning Language Practice in the Education and Continued Training of English Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoegel, Rolf

    1979-01-01

    Recommends foreign-language camps as a remedy for lack of practice in speaking. Relates experiences with a two-day camp at a youth hostel in North Germany, for 25 to 30 students from a teachers' college. Advantages of such camps are described and details of the program are given. (IFS/WGA)

  3. Dreissig Jahre Volksrepublik Polen. Aus den Thesen des Zentralkomitees der Polnischen Vereinigten Arbeiterpartei (Thirty years of the People's Republic of Poland. From the Theses of the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers' Party)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fremdsprachenunterricht, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Offers an overview of the development of the teaching of Russian in the People's Republic of Poland since its introduction in 1945 and the support of the periodical "Jezyk Rosyjski" (Russian Language) in the attainment of the goals set by the Ministry of Popular Education of the People's Republic of Poland. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  4. Is the incidence of heart attack still decreasing in Australia? Developing reliable methods for monitoring trends in myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease (AUS-MOCHA): a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Nedkoff, Lee; Knuiman, Matthew; Hobbs, Michael S T; Hung, Joseph; Mathur, Sushma; Beilby, John; Reynolds, Anna; Briffa, Tom G; Lopez, Derrick

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Accurate monitoring of acute coronary heart disease (CHD) is essential for understanding the effects of primary and secondary prevention and for planning of healthcare services. The ability to reliably monitor acute CHD has been affected by new diagnostic tests for myocardial infarction (MI) and changing clinical classifications and management of CHD. Our study will develop new and reliable methods for monitoring population trends in incidence, outcomes and health service usage for acute CHD and chest pain. Methods and analysis The study cohort of all CHD will be identified from the Western Australian Data Linkage System using state-wide data sets for emergency department presentation, hospitalisations and mortality data for 2002–2014. This core linked data set will be supplemented with data from hospital medical record reviews, pathology data and hospital pharmacy dispensing databases. The consistency over time of the coding of the different subgroups of CHD/chest pain (ST-elevation MI, non-ST elevation MI, unstable angina, stable angina, other CHD, non-CHD chest pain) in linked data will be assessed using these data sources, and an algorithm developed detailing groups in which temporal trends can be reliably measured. This algorithm will be used for measurement of trends in incidence and outcomes of acute CHD, and to develop further methods for monitoring acute CHD using unlinked and linked data with varying availability of hospitalisation history. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been obtained from the Human Research Ethics Committees of the WA Department of Health (#2016/23) and The University of Western Australia (RA/4/1/7230). Findings will be disseminated via publication in peer-reviewed journals, and presentation at national and international conferences. There will also be a strong platform for dissemination of new monitoring methods via collaboration with the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare which will assist with promotion of these methods at state and national levels. PMID:27558904

  5. Learning from History: The Nazi Era and the Holocaust in German Education = Lernen aus geschichte: Projekte zu Nationalsozialismus und Holocaust in schule und jugendar beit. [With CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkmann, Annette, Ed.; Ehmann, Annegret, Ed.; Milton, Sybil, Ed.; Rathenow, Hanns-Fred, Ed.; Wyrwoll, Regina, Ed.

    This project is the result of extensive research about the practical applications of "National Socialism and the Holocaust" in historical and political education in and outside schools and in educational work with young people. The multifaceted documentation, on CD-ROM, booklet and a Web site is aimed at a broad international and educational…

  6. Praxisorientierter Ansatz zur kartographischen Darstellung von Karst-Grundwasserressourcen. Erfahrungen aus dem SWISSKARST-Projekt A practical approach for mapping karst groundwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malard, Arnauld; Jeannin, Pierre-Yves; Sinreich, Michael; Weber, Eric; Vouillamoz, Jonathan; Eichenberger, Urs

    2014-12-01

    In spite of their abundant water resources, in Switzerland as well as in other countries, the location and extent of karst aquifers have not yet been systematically studied and documented - mainly due to the lack of systematic and dedicated approaches for their characterization. In the framework of a project aiming at documenting the karst aquifers in Switzerland (SWISSKARST Project) the pragmatic KARSYS approach has been developed to systematically assess the main characteristics of karst aquifers and karst systems. One part of this project deals with the development of a practical method for mapping 2D hydrogeological karst systems, which is designed to address both scientific and applied issues. A series of maps based on the approach is proposed to describe the main characteristics of karst groundwater systems resulting in a synthesized map which suitably combines all relevant information.

  7. "Weil Man da Uber Seine Probleme Reden Kann . . ." Partielle Geschlechtertrennung aus der Sicht der Schulerinnen und Schuler ("Because There, You can Talk about Your Problems . . ." Partial Separation by Gender from the Perspective of Male and Female Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biskup, Claudia; Pfister, Gertrud; Robke, Cathrin

    1998-01-01

    Examines the results of interviews with elementary school children that gauged the attitudes towards and reasons for a partial separation by gender. Proposes an occassional separation of girls and boys for special pedogogical intervention. Discusses the findings. (CMK)

  8. "Onkle Karl" aus Milwaukee: Deutsch-amerikanische Einwandererkultur im Spiegel der Jugendliteratur vor hundert Jahren (Uncle Carl from Milwaukee: German-American Newcomer Culture Reflected in Children's Literature a Hundred Years Ago).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Gerhard

    1998-01-01

    Examines a late nineteenth-century Milwaukee (Wisconsin) publication for children and young people as a reflection of German-American middle-class culture of the time, showing how the spirit of the 1848 revolution and the experience of the American Civil War shaped German-American intellectuals and how the ideals of freedom and equality dominated…

  9. Intensity Estimation of Spontaneous Facial Action Units Based on Their Sparsity Properties.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Fatemizadeh, Emad; Mahoor, Mohammad H

    2016-03-01

    Automatic measurement of spontaneous facial action units (AUs) defined by the facial action coding system (FACS) is a challenging problem. The recent FACS user manual defines 33 AUs to describe different facial activities and expressions. In spontaneous facial expressions, a subset of AUs are often occurred or activated at a time. Given this fact that AUs occurred sparsely over time, we propose a novel method to detect the absence and presence of AUs and estimate their intensity levels via sparse representation (SR). We use the robust principal component analysis to decompose expression from facial identity and then estimate the intensity of multiple AUs jointly using a regression model formulated based on dictionary learning and SR. Our experiments on Denver intensity of spontaneous facial action and UNBC-McMaster shoulder pain expression archive databases show that our method is a promising approach for measurement of spontaneous facial AUs. PMID:25861093

  10. The accuracy of preoperative axillary nodal staging in primary breast cancer by ultrasound is modified by nodal metastatic load and tumor biology.

    PubMed

    Dihge, Looket; Grabau, Dorthe A; Rasmussen, Rogvi W; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Rydén, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    Background The outcome of axillary ultrasound (AUS) with fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in the diagnostic work-up of primary breast cancer has an impact on therapy decisions. We hypothesize that the accuracy of AUS is modified by nodal metastatic burden and clinico-pathological characteristics. Material and methods The performance of AUS and AUS-guided FNAB for predicting nodal metastases was assessed in a prospective breast cancer cohort subjected for surgery during 2009-2012. Predictors of accuracy were included in multivariate analysis. Results AUS had a sensitivity of 23% and a specificity of 95%, while AUS-guided FNAB obtained 73% and 100%, respectively. AUS-FNAB exclusively detected macro-metastases (median four metastases) and identified patients with more extensive nodal metastatic burden in comparison with sentinel node biopsy. The accuracy of AUS was affected by metastatic size (OR 1.11), obesity (OR 2.46), histological grade (OR 4.43), and HER2-status (OR 3.66); metastatic size and histological grade were significant in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions The clinical utility of AUS in low-risk breast cancer deserves further evaluation as the accuracy decreased with a low nodal metastatic burden. The diagnostic performance is modified by tumor and clinical characteristics. Patients with nodal disease detected by AUS-FNAB represent a group for whom neoadjuvant therapy should be considered. PMID:27050668

  11. Magnitude of phonetic distinction predicts success at early word learning in native and non-native accents

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Paola; Best, Catherine T.; Kitamura, Christine; Mulak, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    Although infants perceptually attune to native vowels and consonants well before 12 months, at 13–15 months, they have difficulty learning to associate novel words that differ by their initial consonant (e.g., BIN and DIN) to their visual referents. However, this difficulty may not apply to all minimal pair novel words. While Canadian English (CE) 15-month-olds failed to respond to a switch from the newly learned word DEET to the novel non-word DOOT, they did notice a switch from DEET to DIT (Curtin et al., 2009). Those authors argued that early word learners capitalize on large phonetic differences, seen in CE DEET–DIT, but not on smaller phonetic differences, as in CE DEET–DOOT. To assess this hypothesis, we tested Australian English (AusE) 15-month-olds, as AusE has a smaller magnitude of phonetic difference in both novel word pairs. Two groups of infants were trained on the novel word DEET and tested on the vowel switches in DIT and DOOT, produced by an AusE female speaker or the same CE female speaker as in Curtin et al. (2009). If the size of the phonetic distinction plays a more central role than native accent experience in early word learning, AusE children should more easily recognize both of the unfamiliar but larger CE vowel switches than the more familiar but smaller AusE ones. The results support our phonetic-magnitude hypothesis: AusE children taught and tested with the CE-accented novel words looked longer to both of the switch test trials (DIT, DOOT) than same test trials (DEET), while those who heard the AusE-accented tokens did not notice either switch. Implications of our findings for models of early word learning are discussed. PMID:25324793

  12. Mentalitat und Intergenerationalitat als Rahmenbedingungen "Lebenslangen Lernens". Konzeptionelle Konsequenzen aus Ergebnissen einer Biografieanalytischen Mehrgenerationenstudie in Ostdeutschland (Mentality and Intergenerationality as Framework Conditions of "Life-Long Learning": Conceptual Consequences To Be Drawn from Results of a Biography-Analytical Multi-Generational Study Carried out in East Germany).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alheit, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a comprehensive qualitative multigenerational study carried out in East Germany. Shows that social orientations and attitudes remained practically unchanged between the generation of grandparents and grandchildren. Argues that educational processes throughout a life-span can only be understood if mental deep structures and…

  13. Schule in der Transformation--Transformation der Schule? Was man aus Gesprachen mit ehemaligen Schulern uber die Schule "zwischen zwei Diktaturen" erfahren kann (Schools in Transitions--Transformation of the School? What Can Be Learnt from Former Students Who Experienced Schooling under Two Dictatorial Regimes).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluchert, Gerhard; Leschinsky, Achim

    1998-01-01

    Addresses interviews that focused on former students' educations under two dictatorial regimes. All the interviewees took their school-leaving examinations between 1951 and 1954. Explains that the interviews are evaluated according to the preconditions, limits, and mechanisms of the school's influence on children and adolescents. (CMK)

  14. Intergenerationale Transmission von kulturellem Kapital unter Migrationsbedingungen: Zum Bildungserfolg von Kindern und Jugendlichen aus Migrantenfamilien in Deutschland (Intergenerational Transmission of Cultural Capital under the Conditions of Migration--On the Educational Achievement of Children and Adolescents from Migrant Families in Germany).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nauck, Bernhard; Diefenbach, Heike; Petri, Kornelia

    1998-01-01

    Examines the factors that lead to the existing ethnic inequalities within the German educational system. Analyzes, in relation to migration, the significance of the intergenerational transmission of education as cultural capital in combination with economic and social capital. Discusses the findings. (CMK)

  15. Allgemeine Sprachfaehigkeit und Fremdsprachenerwerb. Zur Struktur von Leistungsdimensionen und linguistischer Kompetenz des Fremdsprachenlerners (General Language Ability and Foreign Language Acquisition. On the Structure of Performance Dimensions and the Linguistic Competence of the Foreign Language Learner). Diskussions beitraege aus dem Institute fuer Bildungsforschung, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sang, Fritz; Vollmer, Helmut J.

    This study investigates the theoretical plausibility and empirical validity of the assumption that all performance in a foreign language can be traced back to a single factor, the general language ability factor. The theoretical background of this hypothesis is reviewed in detail. The concept of a unitary linguistic competence, interpreted as an…

  16. Pumpspeicherbecken im Karstgrundwasserleiter des Weißen Jura der Schwäbischen Alb. Erste Ergebnisse aus der geologischen und hydrogeologischen Erkundung für die Planfeststellung Pumped-storage hydroelectric power plant in the Jurassic karst aquifer of the swabian alb, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukum, Christoph; Köhler, Hans Joachim; Fernandez-Steeger, Tomas; Hennings, Sibylle; Azzam, Rafig

    2014-06-01

    Extensive geological and hydrogeological investigations have been undertaken for the planned pumped-storage hydroelectric power plant in "Blautal" (Swabian Alb, Germany) in order to characterise the Jurassic karst aquifer in which the lower reservoir will be constructed. The preferred option for the plant setup is to integrate the lower reservoir into the groundwater without sealing. Therefore, in order to reliably predict the impact of the pumped storage plant operations on the surrounding drinking water wells and groundwater dependent ecosystems, a comprehensive database has been developed to assess the hydraulic conditions of the karst aquifer. A large scale geological site investigation was carried out to characterise the rock mass and extensive hydraulic tests were performed in many boreholes. The results of the hydraulic characterisation were then implemented in a three dimensional flow model. In this paper, the first results of the geological and hydrogeological investigations are presented and discussed.

  17. Morphometric Analysis of Thyroid Follicular Cells with Atypia of Undetermined Significance

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Youngjin; Lee, Yoo Jin; Jung, Jiyoon; Lee, Youngseok; Won, Nam Hee; Chae, Yang Seok

    2016-01-01

    Background: Atypia of undetermined significance (AUS) is a category that encompasses a heterogeneous group of thyroid aspiration cytology. It has been reclassified into two subgroups based on the cytomorphologic features: AUS with cytologic atypia and AUS with architectural atypia. The nuclear characteristics of AUS with cytologic atypia need to be clarified by comparing to those observed in Hashimoto thyroiditis and benign follicular lesions. Methods: We selected 84 cases of AUS with histologic follow-up, 24 cases of Hashimoto thyroiditis, and 26 cases of benign follicular lesions. We also subcategorized the AUS group according to the follow-up biopsy results into a papillary carcinoma group and a nodular hyperplasia group. The differences in morphometric parameters, including the nuclear areas and perimeters, were compared between these groups. Results: The AUS group had significantly smaller nuclear areas than the Hashimoto thyroiditis group, but the nuclear perimeters were not statistically different. The AUS group also had significantly smaller nuclear areas than the benign follicular lesion group; however, the AUS group had significantly longer nuclear perimeters. The nuclear areas in the papillary carcinoma group were significantly smaller than those in the nodular hyperplasia group; however, the nuclear perimeters were not statistically different. Conclusions: We found the AUS group to be a heterogeneous entity, including histologic follow-up diagnoses of papillary carcinoma and nodular hyperplasia. The AUS group showed significantly greater nuclear irregularities than the other two groups. Utilizing these features, nuclear morphometry could lead to improvements in the accuracy of the subjective diagnoses made with thyroid aspiration cytology. PMID:27292152

  18. Identification of Action Units Related to Affective States in a Tutoring System for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padrón-Rivera, Gustavo; Rebolledo-Mendez, Genaro; Parra, Pilar Pozos; Huerta-Pacheco, N. Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Affect is an important element of the learning process both in the classroom and with educational technology. This paper presents analyses in relation to the identification of Action Units (AUs) related to affective states and their impact on learning with a tutoring system. To assess affect, a tool was devised to identify AUs on pictures of human…

  19. TÜV - Zertifizierungen in der Life Science Branche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaff, Peter; Gerbl-Rieger, Susanne; Kloth, Sabine; Schübel, Christian; Daxenberger, Andreas; Engler, Claus

    Life Sciences [1] (Lebenswissenschaften) sind ein globales Innovationsfeld mit Anwendungen der Bio- und Medizinwissenschaften, der Pharma-, Chemie-, Kosmetik- und Lebensmittelindustrie. Diese Branche zeichnet sich durch eine stark interdisziplinäre Ausrichtung aus, mit Anwendung wissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse und Einsatz von Ausgangsstoffen aus der modernen Biologie, Chemie und Humanmedizin sowie gezielter marktwirtschaftlich orientierter Arbeit.

  20. Neuropsychological Functioning of Siblings of Children with Autism, Siblings of Children with Developmental Language Delay, and Siblings of Children with Mental Retardation of Unknown Genetic Etiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilowsky, Tammy; Yirmiya, Nurit; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Shalev, Ruth S.

    2007-01-01

    Neuropsychological functioning of 30 siblings of children with autism (AU-S), 28 siblings of children with mental retardation of (MR-S), and 30 siblings of children with developmental language delay (DLD-S) was compared. Two siblings, both AU-S, received diagnoses of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). More siblings with cognitive disabilities…

  1. Homology modeling and dynamics study of aureusidin synthase--an important enzyme in aurone biosynthesis of snapdragon flower.

    PubMed

    Elumalai, Pavadai; Liu, Hsuan-Liang

    2011-08-01

    Aurones, a class of plant flavonoids, provide bright yellow color on some important ornamental flowers, such as cosmos, coreopsis, and snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus). Recently, it has been elucidated that aureusidin synthase (AUS), a homolog of plant polyphenol oxidase (PPO), plays a key role in the yellow coloration of snapdragon flowers. In addition, it has been shown that AUS is a chalcone-specific PPO specialized for aurone biosynthesis. AUS gene has been successfully demonstrated as an attractive tool to engineer yellow flowers in blue flowers. Despite these biological studies, the structural basis for the specificity of substrate interactions of AUS remains elusive. In this study, we performed homology modeling of AUS using Grenache PPO and Sweet potato catechol oxidase (CO). An AUS-inhibitor was then developed from the initial homology model based on the CO and subsequently validated. We performed a thorough study between AUS and PTU inhibitor by means of interaction energy, which indicated the most important residues in the active site that are highly conserved. Analysis of the molecular dynamics simulations of the apo enzyme and ligand-bound complex showed that complex is relatively stable than apo and the active sites of both systems are flexible. The results from this study provide very helpful information to understand the structure-function relationships of AUS. PMID:21470561

  2. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of latent, active and recombinantly expressed aurone synthase, a polyphenol oxidase, from Coreopsis grandiflora

    PubMed Central

    Molitor, Christian; Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Rompel, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Aurone synthase (AUS), a member of a novel group of plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), catalyzes the oxidative conversion of chalcones to aurones. Two active cgAUS1 (41.6 kDa) forms that differed in the level of phosphorylation or sulfation as well as the latent precursor form (58.9 kDa) were purified from the petals of Coreopsis grandiflora. The differing active cgAUS1 forms and the latent cgAUS1 as well as recombinantly expressed latent cgAUS1 were crystallized, resulting in six different crystal forms. The active forms crystallized in space groups P212121 and P1211 and diffracted to ∼1.65 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of active cgAUS1 with 1,4-resorcinol led to crystals belonging to space group P3121. The crystals of latent cgAUS1 belonged to space group P1211 and diffracted to 2.50 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of recombinantly expressed pro-AUS with the hexatungstotellurate(VI) salt Na6[TeW6O24] within the liquid–liquid phase separation zone significantly improved the quality of the crystals compared with crystals obtained without hexatungstotellurate(VI). PMID:26057806

  3. Kometen und Asteroiden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgeest, Ulf; Staude, Jakob; Hahn, Gerhard; Harris, Alan W.; Jaumann, Ralf; Köhler, Ulrich; Kührt, Ekkehard; Schulz, Rita; Neukum, Gerhard; Arnold, Gabriele; Keller, Horst Uwe; Denk, Tilmann; Müller, Thomas; Wulff, André; Maruhn, Nicolaus; Fischer, Daniel; Trieloff, Mario; Althaus, Tilmann

    Contents: Die Kleinkörper des Sonnensystems. Kern, Koma und Schweife. Ziele der Planetenforschung. ROSETTA: Naherkundung von Kometen. Asteroiden: Trümmer aus planetarer Urzeit. Kleinkörper im Infrarotweltall. Selbs beobachten! Apocalypse - not now! Meteoriten - Boten aus der Urzeit des Sonnensystems.

  4. Hormonsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spindler-Barth, Margarethe

    Hormone werden in spezialisierten Zellen gebildet, die häufig zu Drüsen zusammengefasst sind. Sie gelangen über die Blutbahn (endokrine Sekretion) bzw. durch Diffusion (parakrine oder autokrine Sekretion) zu ihrem Wirkort. Nach ihrer chemischen Struktur unterscheidet man Peptidhormone, also von Aminosäuren abgeleitete Hormone und Steroid hormone (S. 144, Tabelle 3). In einem vielzelligen Organismus dienen Hormone der Koordination und Regulation von zahlreichen Funktionen (Homöostase, Reproduktion, Verhalten). Hormonproduzierende Drüsen (Abb. 134) gehen aus jedem der drei Keimblätter hervor, z. B. Hypothalamus und Nebennierenmark aus dem Ektoderm, Nebennierenrinde und Gonaden aus dem Mesoderm, Schilddrüse und Inselgewebe (Pankreas) aus dem Entoderm. Häufig werden die Organe aus zwei unterschiedlichen Geweben (Nerven- und Epithelzellen) gebildet. Auffallend sind ferner Abwandlungen der ursprünglich epithelialen Anteile (z. B. Nebennierenrinde, Adenohypophyse).

  5. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of latent, active and recombinantly expressed aurone synthase, a polyphenol oxidase, from Coreopsis grandiflora

    SciTech Connect

    Molitor, Christian; Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Rompel, Annette

    2015-05-22

    Latent and active aurone synthase purified from petals of C. grandiflora (cgAUS1) were crystallized. The crystal quality of recombinantly expressed latent cgAUS1 was significantly improved by co-crystallization with the polyoxotungstate Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}] within the liquid–liquid phase-separation zone. Aurone synthase (AUS), a member of a novel group of plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), catalyzes the oxidative conversion of chalcones to aurones. Two active cgAUS1 (41.6 kDa) forms that differed in the level of phosphorylation or sulfation as well as the latent precursor form (58.9 kDa) were purified from the petals of Coreopsis grandiflora. The differing active cgAUS1 forms and the latent cgAUS1 as well as recombinantly expressed latent cgAUS1 were crystallized, resulting in six different crystal forms. The active forms crystallized in space groups P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and P12{sub 1}1 and diffracted to ∼1.65 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of active cgAUS1 with 1,4-resorcinol led to crystals belonging to space group P3{sub 1}21. The crystals of latent cgAUS1 belonged to space group P12{sub 1}1 and diffracted to 2.50 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of recombinantly expressed pro-AUS with the hexatungstotellurate(VI) salt Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}] within the liquid–liquid phase separation zone significantly improved the quality of the crystals compared with crystals obtained without hexatungstotellurate(VI)

  6. Artificial urinary sphincters for male stress urinary incontinence: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Cordon, Billy H; Singla, Nirmish; Singla, Ajay K

    2016-01-01

    The artificial urinary sphincter (AUS), which has evolved over many years, has become a safe and reliable treatment for stress urinary incontinence and is currently the gold standard. After 4 decades of existence, there is substantial experience with the AUS. Today AUS is most commonly placed for postprostatectomy stress urinary incontinence. Only a small proportion of urologists routinely place AUS. In a survey in 2005, only 4% of urologists were considered high-volume AUS implanters, performing >20 per year. Globally, ~11,500 AUSs are placed annually. Over 400 articles have been published regarding the outcomes of AUS, with a wide variance in success rates ranging from 61% to 100%. Generally speaking, the AUS has good long-term outcomes, with social continence rates of ~79% and high patient satisfaction usually between 80% and 90%. Despite good outcomes, a substantial proportion of patients, generally ~25%, will require revision surgery, with the rate of revision increasing with time. Complications requiring revision include infection, urethral atrophy, erosion, and mechanical failure. Most infections are gram-positive skin flora. Urethral atrophy and erosion lie on a spectrum resulting from the same problem, constant urethral compression. However, these two complications are managed differently. Mechanical failure is usually a late complication occurring on average later than infection, atrophy, or erosions. Various techniques may be used during revisions, including cuff relocation, downsizing, transcorporal cuff placement, or tandem cuff placement. Patient satisfaction does not appear to be affected by the need for revision as long as continence is restored. Additionally, AUS following prior sling surgery has comparable outcomes to primary AUS placement. Several new inventions are on the horizon, although none have been approved for use in the US at this point. PMID:27445509

  7. Ecological relevance of current water quality assessment unit designations in impaired rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Layhee, Megan J.; Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Mladenka, Greg; Van Every, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Managers often nest sections of water bodies together into assessment units (AUs) to monitor and assess water quality criteria. Ideally, AUs represent an extent of waters with similar ecological, watershed, habitat and land-use conditions and no overlapping characteristics with other waters. In the United States, AUs are typically based on political or hydrologic boundaries rather than on ecologically relevant features, so it can be difficult to detect changes in impairment status. Our goals were to evaluate if current AU designation criteria of an impaired water body in southeastern Idaho, USA that, like many U.S. waters, has three-quarters of its mainstem length divided into two AUs. We focused our evaluation in southeastern Idaho's Portneuf River, an impaired river and three-quarters of the river is divided into two AUs. We described biological and environmental conditions at multiple reaches within each AU. We used these data to (1) test if variability at the reach-scale is greater within or among AUs and, (2) to evaluate alternate AU boundaries based on multivariate analyses of reach-scale data. We found that some biological conditions had greater variability within an AU than between AUs. Multivariate analyses identified alternative, 2- and 3-group, AUs that reduced this variability. Our results suggest that the current AU designations in the mainstem Portneuf River contain ecologically distinct sections of river and that the existing AU boundaries should be reconsidered in light of the ecological conditions measured at the reach scale. Variation in biological integrity within designated AUs may complicate water quality and biological assessments, influence management decisions or affect where monitoring or mitigation resources are directed.

  8. Stemming the tide of mild to moderate post-prostatectomy incontinence: A retrospective comparison of transobturator male slings and the artificial urinary sphincter

    PubMed Central

    Hoy, Nathan Y.; Rourke, Keith F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The AUS remains the gold standard treatment for post-prostatectomy incontinence (PPI), although most patients with mild-moderate PPI prefer a sling without strong evidence of procedural equivalence. This study compares outcomes of 2 procedures for the treatment of mild-moderate PPI. Methods: A retrospective review of 124 patients (76 transobturator sling, 48 AUS) with mild-moderate PPI requiring intervention over an 8-year period. The primary outcome was continence. Secondary outcomes included global patient satisfaction, improvement, and complication rates. Mild to moderate incontinence was defined as requiring ≤5 pads/day. Results: There was no significant difference in age (66.2 vs. 68.1 years; p = 0.17) or prostate cancer characteristics for slings and AUS, respectively. AUS patients had higher Charlson comorbidity scores and were more likely to have previous radiotherapy. Median length of follow up was 24 months for slings and 42 months for AUS. There was no difference in continence rates, 88.2% vs. 87.5% (p = 0.79), rate of improvement, 94.7% vs. 95.8% (p = 1.00), or patient satisfaction, 93.4% vs. 91.7% (p = 0.73), for slings and AUS, respectively. Complication rates were equivalent (19.7% vs. 16.7%; p = 1.00), though a significantly higher proportion of complications with AUS were Clavien Grade 3 (0% vs. 75%; p = 0.006). Conclusions: For mild to moderate PPI there is no difference in continence, satisfaction, or improvement rates, between AUS and slings. AUS complications tend to be more severe. Our study supports the use of slings as first-line treatment for mild-moderate PPI. PMID:25210552

  9. Ecological relevance of current water quality assessment unit designations in impaired rivers.

    PubMed

    Layhee, Megan; Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Mladenka, Greg; Van Every, Lynn

    2015-12-01

    Managers often nest sections of water bodies together into assessment units (AUs) to monitor and assess water quality criteria. Ideally, AUs represent an extent of waters with similar ecological, watershed, habitat and land-use conditions and no overlapping characteristics with other waters. In the United States, AUs are typically based on political or hydrologic boundaries rather than on ecologically relevant features, so it can be difficult to detect changes in impairment status. Our goals were to evaluate if current AU designation criteria of an impaired water body in southeastern Idaho, USA that, like many U.S. waters, has three-quarters of its mainstem length divided into two AUs. We focused our evaluation in southeastern Idaho's Portneuf River, an impaired river and three-quarters of the river is divided into two AUs. We described biological and environmental conditions at multiple reaches within each AU. We used these data to (1) test if variability at the reach-scale is greater within or among AUs and, (2) to evaluate alternate AU boundaries based on multivariate analyses of reach-scale data. We found that some biological conditions had greater variability within an AU than between AUs. Multivariate analyses identified alternative, 2- and 3-group, AUs that reduced this variability. Our results suggest that the current AU designations in the mainstem Portneuf River contain ecologically distinct sections of river and that the existing AU boundaries should be reconsidered in light of the ecological conditions measured at the reach scale. Variation in biological integrity within designated AUs may complicate water quality and biological assessments, influence management decisions or affect where monitoring or mitigation resources are directed. PMID:26210354

  10. Nitric oxide reduces flow-induced superoxide production via cGMP-dependent protein kinase in thick ascending limbs

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Nancy J.; Garvin, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    We have shown that increased luminal flow induces O2− and nitric oxide (NO) production in thick ascending limbs (TALs). However, the interaction of flow-stimulated NO and O2− in TALs is unclear. We hypothesized that NO inhibits flow-induced O2− production in TALs via cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). We measured flow-stimulated O2− production in rat TALs using dihydroethidium in the absence and presence of l-arginine (0.3 mM), the substrate for NO synthase. The addition of l-arginine reduced flow-induced net O2− production from 68 ± 9 to 17 ± 4 AU/s (P < 0.002). The addition of the NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; 5 mM) in the presence of l-arginine stimulated production (l-arginine: 15 ± 4 AU/s vs. l-arginine + l-NAME: 63 ± 7 AU/s; P < 0.002). The guanylate cyclase inhibitor LY-83583 (10 μM) also enhanced flow-induced net O2− production in the presence of l-arginine (l-arginine: 7 ± 4 AU/s vs. l-arginine + LY-83583: 53 ± 7 AU/s; P < 0.01). In the presence of LY-83583, l-arginine only reduced flow-induced net O2− by 36% (LY-83583: 80 ± 7 AU/s vs. LY-83583 + l-arginine: 51 ± 3 AU/s; P < 0.006). The cGMP analog dibutyryl (db)-cGMP reduced flow-induced net O2− from 39 ± 9 to 7 ± 3 AU/s (P < 0.03). The PKG inhibitor KT-5823 (5 μM) partially restored flow-induced net O2− in the presence of l-arginine (l-arginine: 4 ± 4 AU/s vs. l-arginine + KT-5823: 32 ± 9 AU/s; P < 0.03) and db-cGMP (db-cGMP: 9 ± 7 AU/s vs. db-cGMP + KT-5823: 54 ± 5 AU/s; P < 0.01). Phosphodiesterase II inhibition had no effect on arginine-inhibited O2− production. We conclude that 1) NO reduces flow-stimulated O2− production, 2) this occurs primarily via the cGMP/PKG pathway, and 3) O2− scavenging by NO plays a minor role. PMID:19244401

  11. 77 FR 5291 - The Designation of Monir Chouka, also Known as Mounir Chouka, Also Known as Abu Adam, Also Known...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... Germany, also Known as Abu Adam aus Deutschland, as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to... Monir Chouka, also known as Mounir Chouka, also known as Abu Adam from Germany, also known as Abu...

  12. Aromen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salzer, Uwe-Jens; Krammer, Gerhard

    Aromen sind Zubereitungen/Mischungen aus Aromastoffen und/oder Aromaextrakten. Weiterhin gibt es Rauch- und Reaktionsaromen. Alle Einzelbestandteile können auch als Aroma bezeichnet werden, z. B. der Aromastoff Vanillin.

  13. Cloning and functional expression in E. coli of a polyphenol oxidase transcript from Coreopsis grandiflora involved in aurone formation☆

    PubMed Central

    Kaintz, Cornelia; Molitor, Christian; Thill, Jana; Kampatsikas, Ioannis; Michael, Claudia; Halbwirth, Heidi; Rompel, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidases are involved in aurone biosynthesis but the gene responsible for 4-deoxyaurone formation in Asteraceae was so far unknown. Three novel full-length cDNA sequences were isolated from Coreopsis grandiflora with sizes of 1.80 kb (cgAUS1) and 1.85 kb (cgAUS2a, 2b), encoding for proteins of 68–69 kDa, respectively. cgAUS1 is preferably expressed in young petals indicating a specific role in pigment formation. The 58.9 kDa AUS1 holoproenzyme, was recombinantly expressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. The enzyme shows only diphenolase activity, catalyzing the conversion of chalcones to aurones and was characterized by SDS–PAGE and shot-gun type nanoUHPLC–ESI-MS/MS. PMID:25109778

  14. Photovoltaik Hybrid-Solarzellen mit Nanopartikeln

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leute, Angelika

    2004-09-01

    Die organische Photovoltaik auf der Basis halbleitender Polymere bietet eine kostengünstige Alternative zu Solarzellen aus Silizium. Allerdings weisen die organischen Materialien relativ schlechte Ladungstransporteigenschaften auf. Hybrid-Solarzellen, in denen Polymere mit geeigneten anorganischen Halbleitern kombiniert sind, besitzen einerseits die praktischen Vorteile der Organik und andererseits die hohe Elektronenbeweglichkeit der anorganischen Materialien. Wissenschaftler der Technischen Universität Eindhoven haben kürzlich Hybrid-Solarzellen vorgestellt, die aus einem halbleitenden Polymer mit Zinkoxid-Nanopartikeln bestehen.

  15. Increased EMRSA-15 health-care worker colonization demonstrated in retrospective review of EMRSA hospital outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health care worker (HCW) colonization with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a documented cause of hospital outbreaks and contributes to ongoing transmission. At Royal Perth Hospital (RPH) it had been anecdotally noted that the increasing prevalence of EMRSA-15 appeared to be associated with increased HCW colonization compared with Aus2/3-EMRSA. Hence we compared HCW colonization rates during outbreaks of EMRSA-15 and Aus2/3-EMRSA at a single institution. Methods We performed a retrospective review of EMRSA-15 and Aus2/3-EMRSA outbreaks from 2000–2009 at RPH, a quaternary hospital in Western Australia. Outbreak files were reviewed and relevant data extracted. Results Ten EMRSA-15 outbreaks were compared with seven Aus2/3 outbreaks. The number of patients colonized was similar between EMRSA-15 and Aus2/3-EMRSA outbreaks (median 7 [range 3–20] and 11 [5–26], respectively; P = 0.07) but the number of HCWs colonized was significantly higher in EMRSA-15 outbreaks compared to Aus2/3-EMRSA outbreaks (median 4 [range 0–15] and 2 [1-3], respectively; P = 0.013). The percentage of HCWs colonized was also higher in EMRSA-15 outbreaks versus Aus2/3-EMRSA outbreaks (median 3.4% [range 0–5.5%] and 0.81% [0.56–2.2%], respectively; P = 0.013). Conclusions This study demonstrates a higher level of HCW colonization during EMRSA-15 outbreaks compared with Aus2/3-EMRSA outbreaks. This finding suggests that MRSA vary in their ability to colonize HCWs and contribute to outbreaks. MRSA type should be determined during outbreaks and future research should investigate the mechanisms by which EMRSA-15 contributes to increased HCW colonization. PMID:24588849

  16. Was wissen wir über Information?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelmann, Florian; Großmann, Christoph

    Der Begriff Information stammt aus dem Lateinischen. Von der Antike bis in das 20. Jahrhundert war Information ein kaum verwendetes und unspektakuläres Wort. ZEMANEK belegt diese Hypothese mit dem Verweis auf ein Häufigkeitswörterbuch der deutschen Sprache aus dem Jahre 1897. Dort kommt in ca. 11 Millionen Wörten nur 55 mal das Wort Information vor [Zemanek 1986, S. 19].

  17. Survey of cytopathologists and cytotechnologists for the clinical impact of the use of atypia or follicular lesion of undetermined significance

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, Aziza; Reynolds, Jordan P.; Kerr, Sarah E.; Jenkins, Sarah M.; Lackore, Kandace A.; Bernet, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Background: The cytologic diagnosis of atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) is controversial because of variation in how it is applied in practice, as well as uncertainty about patient management. We aimed to assess the percentage of thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNABs) with AUS/FLUS diagnoses in different North American and European practice settings (e.g. community, academic, etc.), assess whether patients were managed according to current guidelines, and determine patient outcomes. Materials and Methods: A detailed questionnaire survey was posted in secure websites used separately by cytopathologists and cytotechnologists. The questionnaire was posted from August 1 through December 31, 2013. Results: Endocrinologists and cytopathologists performed 51.7% and 37.1% of thyroid FNABs, respectively. The Bethesda reporting system for thyroid FNAB was used in 90% of practices. The rate of AUS/FLUS varied widely among institutions, with 46.1% of represented institutions reporting AUS/FLUS rates of 3–10%. The median follow-up rate of patients with an initial AUS/FLUS diagnosis was 70% (range, 10–100%). For the majority of represented institutions (86.4%), patients with initial AUS/FLUS diagnosis had follow-up with endocrinologists. Of repeat AUS/FLUS thyroid FNABs, a median of 52% was considered benign, and 18% were suspicious of or positive for malignancy (median, 10% and 7.5%, respectively). Conclusions: Reporting of the AUS/FLUS category varied widely among different institutions. The median follow-up rate was lower than published guidelines. The most common follow-up diagnosis was benign thyroid nodule. Improved standardization of cytologic criteria should be adopted to reduce such variation. PMID:26195986

  18. Evaluation of Abdominal Ultrasonography Mass Screening for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Yen-Po; Hu, Tsung-Hui; Cho, Po-Yuan; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Su, Wei-Wen; Fang, Yi-Jen; Chen, Shih-Tien; San, Hsiao-Ching; Chen, Hung-Pin; Liao, Chao-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Mass screening with abdominal ultrasonography (AUS) has been suggested as a tool to control adult hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in individuals, but its efficacy in reducing HCC mortality has never been demonstrated. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of reducing HCC mortality by mass AUS screening for HCC based on a program designed and implemented in the Changhua Community-based Integrated Screening (CHCIS) program with an efficient invitation scheme guided by the risk score. We invited 11,114 (27.0%) of 41,219 eligible Taiwanese subjects between 45 and 69 years of age who resided in an HCC high-incidence area to attend a risk score-guided mass AUS screening between 2008 and 2010. The efficacy of reducing HCC mortality was estimated. Of the 8,962 AUS screening attendees (with an 80.6% attendance rate), a total of 16 confirmed HCC cases were identified through community-based ultrasonography screening. Among the 16 screen-detected HCC cases, only two died from HCC, indicating a favorable survival. The cumulative mortality due to HCC (per 100,000) was considerably lower in the invited AUS group (17.26) compared with the uninvited AUS group (42.87) and the historical control group (47.51), yielding age- and gender-adjusted relative mortality rates of 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56-0.84) and 0.63 (95% CI: 0.52-0.77), respectively. Conclusion: The residents invited to community-based AUS screening for HCC, compared with those who were not invited, showed a reduction in HCC mortality by ∼31% among subjects aged 45-69 years who had not been included in the nationwide vaccination program against hepatitis B virus infection. (Hepatology 2014;59:1840–1849) PMID:24002724

  19. Anisotropic chemical pressure effects in single-component molecular metals based on radical dithiolene and diselenolene gold complexes.

    PubMed

    Yzambart, Gilles; Bellec, Nathalie; Nasser, Ghassan; Jeannin, Olivier; Roisnel, Thierry; Fourmigué, Marc; Auban-Senzier, Pascale; Íñiguez, Jorge; Canadell, Enric; Lorcy, Dominique

    2012-10-17

    On the basis of the reported radical neutral complex [Au(Et-thiazdt)(2)] (Et-thiazdt = N-ethyl-1,3-thiazoline-2-thione-4,5-dithiolate), a series of single-component conductors derived from [Au(Et-thiazdt)(2)], also noted as [AuS(4)(═S)(2)], has been developed, by replacing the outer sulfur atoms of the thiazoline-2-thione rings by oxygen atoms and/or by replacing the coordinating sulfur atoms by selenium atoms toward the corresponding diselenolene complexes. Comparison of the X-ray crystal structures and transport properties of the four isostructural complexes, noted as [AuS(4)(═S)(2)], [AuS(4)(═O)(2)], [AuSe(4)(═S)(2)], and [AuSe(4)(═O)(2)], shows that the oxygen substitution on the outer thiazoline ring actually decreases the conductivity by a factor of 100, despite a contracted unit cell volume reflecting a positive chemical pressure effect. On the other hand, the S/Se substitution increases the conductivity by a factor of 100, and the pressure needed to transform these semiconductors into the metallic state is shifted from 13 kbar in [AuS(4)(═S)(2)] to only ≈6 kbar in [AuSe(4)(═S)(2)]. Analysis of unit cell evolutions and ab initio band structure calculations demonstrates the strongly anisotropic nature of this chemical pressure effect and provides an explanation for the observed changes in conductivity. The greater sensitivity of these neutral single-component conductors to external pressure, as compared with "classical" radical salts, is also highlighted. PMID:23009033

  20. Usefulness of NRAS codon 61 mutation analysis and core needle biopsy for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules previously diagnosed as atypia of undetermined significance.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eun Kyung; Kim, Won Gu; Kim, Eui Young; Kwon, Hyemi; Choi, Yun Mi; Jeon, Min Ji; Baek, Jung Hwan; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Tae Yong; Shong, Young Kee; Choi, Jene; Song, Dong Eun; Kim, Won Bae

    2016-05-01

    A repeat fine needle aspiration (FNA) is recommended for thyroid nodules diagnosed as atypia of undetermined significance (AUS) in a previous cytology. We evaluated the utility of NRAS codon 61 (NRAS61) mutation analysis and core needle biopsy (CNB) for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules previously diagnosed as AUS. This study enrolled 236 patients who underwent both NRAS61 mutation analysis and CNB of thyroid nodules previously diagnosed as AUS at cytology. The NRAS61 mutation was detected in 36 nodules and was more frequently detected in the AUS and follicular neoplasm (FN)/suspicious for follicular neoplasm (SFN) categories, as determined by histological analysis of CNB, than in the benign group (p = 0.005). Sixty-one patients underwent surgery, and 29 nodules were finally diagnosed as malignant after surgery. Among 61 patients who underwent surgery, nodules with the NRAS61 mutation (42-65 %) had a significantly higher malignancy rate than nodules with wild-type NRAS61 (7-37 %, p = 0.038). The association between malignancy and the NRAS61 mutation was significant after adjusting for age, sex, nodule size, and histological diagnosis of CNB (p = 0.01). NRAS61 mutation analysis together with CNB could be helpful for arriving at a clinical decision in patients with thyroid nodules showing AUS in a previous cytology. PMID:26547216

  1. The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology: An experience of 1,382 cases in a community practice setting with the implication for risk of neoplasm and risk of malignancy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Howard Her-Juing; Rose, Crystal; Elsheikh, Tarik M

    2012-05-01

    The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) has provided a set of uniform diagnostic terminology including benign (B), atypia of undetermined significance (AUS), follicular neoplasm (FN), suspicious for malignancy (SM), malignancy (M), and nondiagnostic (ND) for the interpretation of thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA). We applied this terminology on our 1,382 thyroid aspirates in a community practice setting, which included 539 cases of B (39%), 376 cases of AUS (27.2%), 116 cases of FN (8.4%), 37 cases of malignant (2.7%), 36 cases of SM (2.6%), and 278 cases of ND (20.1%). Two hundred twenty-one cases (16%) of thyroid FNA had corresponding follow-up thyroidectomies. Each diagnostic category represented a unique association with risk of malignancy and risk of neoplasm. Based on histologic follow-up, the risk of neoplasm (including benign and malignant neoplasm) was B 14%, AUS 44%, FN 67%, SM 77%, and M 100% and the risk of malignancy was B 3%, AUS 6%, FN 22%, SM 56%, and M 100%. The classification and follow-up recommendation of TBSRTC are appropriate for each category. Both B and AUS are low-risk lesions with low probability of malignancy. FN predicts a higher rate for neoplasm but an intermediate rate for malignancy while SM carries a high risk for malignancy. PMID:21681976

  2. The Current Role of the Artificial Urinary Sphincter in Male and Female Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Islah, MAR; Cho, Sung Yong

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of the artificial urinary sphincter has affected the current surgical options for urinary incontinence. With its unique features, the artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) has been an attractive option for the treatment of urinary incontinence regardless of gender. The current paper discusses the indications, contraindications, types of devices, surgical approaches, outcomes, and complications of the AUS in the treatment of both male and female urinary incontinence. A PubMed review of the available literature was performed and articles reporting implantation of artificial urinary sphincters for urinary incontinence in both male and female patients were evaluated. There was a comparable satisfactory continence rate after the implantation of an AUS (59~97% in males vs. 60~92% in females). In comparison, there were some differences in the indications, contraindications, surgical approaches, outcomes, and complications of the AUS implanted for urinary incontinence in male and female patients. AUS implantation is a safe and effective surgical option for the treatment of urinary incontinence of various etiologies. Continuous evolution of the device has made it an attractive option for the treatment of both male and female urinary incontinence. PMID:23658862

  3. Alcohol Use Severity among Hispanic Emerging Adults in Higher Education: Understanding the Effect of Cultural Congruity

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Vaughan, Ellen L.; de Dios, Marcel A.; Castro, Yessenia; Roncancio, Angelica M.; Ojeda, Lizette

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying and understanding determinants of alcohol use behavior among Hispanic college students is an increasingly important public health issue, particularly during emerging adulthood. Studies examining ethnocultural determinants of alcohol use behavior among Hispanic college students have focused on direct associations with cultural orientation (e.g., acculturation and enculturation); yet there is a need for research that accounts for the complex interplay of other culturally relevant sociocultural factors. Objectives This study examined associations of behavioral acculturation, behavioral enculturation, and cultural congruity (perception of cultural fit between the values of the academic environment and the student's personal values) with alcohol use severity (AUS); and tested if gender moderated those associations. Methods A hierarchical linear regression and moderation analysis were conducted on a sample of 167 Hispanic emerging adults (ages 18 to 25) enrolled in college. Results All predictor variables entered in the regression model accounted for 20.9% of the variance in AUS. After controlling for demographic variables and depressive symptoms, behavioral acculturation and enculturation did not have a statistically significant association with AUS. Further, gender did not moderate either of these associations. Conversely, greater cultural congruity was associated with lower reports of AUS. A moderation analysis suggested that cultural congruity predicted lower reports of AUS among men, but not among women. Conclusions This was the first known study to examine the association of cultural congruity with alcohol use. Findings highlight the value of examining contextual factors of culture and moving beyond reductive measures of cultural orientation. PMID:26574656

  4. Methodik und Qualität statistischer Erhebungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krug, Walter; Schmidt, Jürgen; Wiegert, Rolf

    Kapitel 8 wirft einen Blick hinter die Kulissen statistischer Arbeit und ihrer Methoden, insbesondere auch hinter die der amtlichen Statistik: Wie kommen die Myriaden von Zahlen zustande, die heute aus statistischen Quellenwerken aller Art und aus Datenbanken abgerufen werden können? Dabei wird deutlich, welche Schwierigkeiten bei Erhebungen, insbesondere bei Stichprobenerhebungen, zu überwinden sind, wie man Antwortverweigerer kooperativer stimmt, wie sich auch aus kleinen Stichproben auf intelligente Weise verlässliche Ergebnisse erzielen lassen und wie Großstichproben auf europäischer Ebene harmonisiert werden. Am Beispiel des Zensus 2011 wird gezeigt, wie sich eine Kombination von Stichproben und Registerauswertungen als Ersatz für eine Volkszählung nutzen lässt. Mitglieder der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft waren daran kooperativ beteiligt.

  5. Wie entsteht Bewusstsein?: Einfache Modelle der Selbstwahrnehmung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Heinz Georg

    2003-07-01

    Was ist die funktionale Basis der Entstehung des Bewusstseins? Warum bringt dieses in der Evolution einen Vorteil? Diese Fragen werden anhand von drei Spielen untersucht, in denen die Spieler mathematisch modelliert sind. Im ersten Spiel lernt ein Spieler, seine Stellung in einer Hierarchie aus der Interaktion mit anderen zu erraten. Im zweiten Spiel macht ein Zuwachs des Gedächtnisses einen Spieler zum Gewinner: Das ermöglicht ihm einen Spiel entscheidenden Überblick über sein eigenes Verhalten und das seines Gegners. Im dritten Spiel müssen die Spieler die Farbe des Hutes auf dem eigenen Kopf aus der Reaktion des Gegners erraten. Hier ist die Fähigkeit von Vorteil, Inhalte aus dem Langzeit- und Kurzzeitgedächtnis im Geist abbilden und manipulieren zu können.

  6. Speaker and Accent Variation Are Handled Differently: Evidence in Native and Non-Native Listeners.

    PubMed

    Kriengwatana, Buddhamas; Terry, Josephine; Chládková, Kateřina; Escudero, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Listeners are able to cope with between-speaker variability in speech that stems from anatomical sources (i.e. individual and sex differences in vocal tract size) and sociolinguistic sources (i.e. accents). We hypothesized that listeners adapt to these two types of variation differently because prior work indicates that adapting to speaker/sex variability may occur pre-lexically while adapting to accent variability may require learning from attention to explicit cues (i.e. feedback). In Experiment 1, we tested our hypothesis by training native Dutch listeners and Australian-English (AusE) listeners without any experience with Dutch or Flemish to discriminate between the Dutch vowels /I/ and /ε/ from a single speaker. We then tested their ability to classify /I/ and /ε/ vowels of a novel Dutch speaker (i.e. speaker or sex change only), or vowels of a novel Flemish speaker (i.e. speaker or sex change plus accent change). We found that both Dutch and AusE listeners could successfully categorize vowels if the change involved a speaker/sex change, but not if the change involved an accent change. When AusE listeners were given feedback on their categorization responses to the novel speaker in Experiment 2, they were able to successfully categorize vowels involving an accent change. These results suggest that adapting to accents may be a two-step process, whereby the first step involves adapting to speaker differences at a pre-lexical level, and the second step involves adapting to accent differences at a contextual level, where listeners have access to word meaning or are given feedback that allows them to appropriately adjust their perceptual category boundaries. PMID:27309889

  7. Characterisation of a new stripe rust resistance gene Yr47 and its genetic association with the leaf rust resistance gene Lr52.

    PubMed

    Bansal, U K; Forrest, K L; Hayden, M J; Miah, H; Singh, D; Bariana, H S

    2011-05-01

    Two Iranian common wheat landraces AUS28183 and AUS28187 from the Watkins collection showed high levels of seedling resistance against Australian pathotypes of leaf rust and stripe rust pathogens. Chi-squared analyses of rust response segregation among F(3) populations derived from crosses of AUS28183 and AUS28187 with a susceptible genotype AUS27229 revealed monogenic inheritance of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance. As both genotypes produced similar leaf rust and stripe rust infection types, they were assumed to carry the same genes. The genes were temporarily named as LrW1 and YrW1. Molecular mapping placed LrW1 and YrW1 in the short arm of chromosome 5B, about 10 and 15 cM proximal to the SSR marker gwm234, respectively, and the marker cfb309 mapped 8-12 cM proximal to YrW1. LrW1 mapped 3-6 cM distal to YrW1 in two F(3) populations. AUS28183 corresponded to the accession V336 of the Watkins collection which was the original source of Lr52. Based on the genomic location and accession records, LrW1 was concluded to be Lr52. Because no other seedling stripe rust resistance gene has previously been mapped in chromosome 5BS, YrW1 was permanently named as Yr47. A combination of flanking markers gwm234 and cfb309 with phenotypic assays could be used to ascertain the presence of Lr52 and Yr47 in segregating populations. This investigation characterised a valuable source of dual leaf rust and stripe rust resistance for deployment in new wheat cultivars. Transfer of Lr52 and Yr47 into current Australian wheat backgrounds is in progress. PMID:21344185

  8. Speaker and Accent Variation Are Handled Differently: Evidence in Native and Non-Native Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Kriengwatana, Buddhamas; Terry, Josephine; Chládková, Kateřina; Escudero, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Listeners are able to cope with between-speaker variability in speech that stems from anatomical sources (i.e. individual and sex differences in vocal tract size) and sociolinguistic sources (i.e. accents). We hypothesized that listeners adapt to these two types of variation differently because prior work indicates that adapting to speaker/sex variability may occur pre-lexically while adapting to accent variability may require learning from attention to explicit cues (i.e. feedback). In Experiment 1, we tested our hypothesis by training native Dutch listeners and Australian-English (AusE) listeners without any experience with Dutch or Flemish to discriminate between the Dutch vowels /I/ and /ε/ from a single speaker. We then tested their ability to classify /I/ and /ε/ vowels of a novel Dutch speaker (i.e. speaker or sex change only), or vowels of a novel Flemish speaker (i.e. speaker or sex change plus accent change). We found that both Dutch and AusE listeners could successfully categorize vowels if the change involved a speaker/sex change, but not if the change involved an accent change. When AusE listeners were given feedback on their categorization responses to the novel speaker in Experiment 2, they were able to successfully categorize vowels involving an accent change. These results suggest that adapting to accents may be a two-step process, whereby the first step involves adapting to speaker differences at a pre-lexical level, and the second step involves adapting to accent differences at a contextual level, where listeners have access to word meaning or are given feedback that allows them to appropriately adjust their perceptual category boundaries. PMID:27309889

  9. Einführung in moderne analytische Verfahren mit ausgewählten Beispielen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadler, Richard; Gude, Thomas

    Die Lebensmittelanalytik hat während der letzten zehn bis fünfzehn Jahre in den meisten Bereichen fundamentale und fast "exponentielle" Fortschritte erzielt. Es gibt viele unterschiedliche, aber zusammenhängende Gründe für diese rasche Entwicklung. Deutliche Impulse kommen aus dem zunehmenden Aufwand für Qualitätssicherungsmaßnahmen, die aus Kosten- bzw. Wirtschaftlichkeitsgründen möglichst einfach und leicht durchzuführende Tests fordern.

  10. Aiding the environment: the Australian Development Agency's experience of implementing an environmental management system

    SciTech Connect

    Keen, Meg . E-mail: meg.keen@anu.edu.au; Sullivan, Marjorie

    2005-08-15

    Aid agencies, like commercial businesses, are increasingly concerned with incorporating sound environmental management into their operations. Different approaches are being used to integrate sustainability into development assistance to ensure that environmental impacts are assessed and managed. One approach being used by AusAID, the Australian aid agency, is to implement an environmental management system (EMS) across program and project areas. This paper examines how AusAID has adapted the EMS approach to suit aid agency operations, and some of the lessons from the Australian experience.

  11. Rice Root Architectural Plasticity Traits and Genetic Regions for Adaptability to Variable Cultivation and Stress Conditions1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Nitika; Raman, K. Anitha; Torres, Rolando O.; Audebert, Alain; Dardou, Audrey; Kumar, Arvind; Henry, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Future rice (Oryza sativa) crops will likely experience a range of growth conditions, and root architectural plasticity will be an important characteristic to confer adaptability across variable environments. In this study, the relationship between root architectural plasticity and adaptability (i.e. yield stability) was evaluated in two traditional × improved rice populations (Aus 276 × MTU1010 and Kali Aus × MTU1010). Forty contrasting genotypes were grown in direct-seeded upland and transplanted lowland conditions with drought and drought + rewatered stress treatments in lysimeter and field studies and a low-phosphorus stress treatment in a Rhizoscope study. Relationships among root architectural plasticity for root dry weight, root length density, and percentage lateral roots with yield stability were identified. Selected genotypes that showed high yield stability also showed a high degree of root plasticity in response to both drought and low phosphorus. The two populations varied in the soil depth effect on root architectural plasticity traits, none of which resulted in reduced grain yield. Root architectural plasticity traits were related to 13 (Aus 276 population) and 21 (Kali Aus population) genetic loci, which were contributed by both the traditional donor parents and MTU1010. Three genomic loci were identified as hot spots with multiple root architectural plasticity traits in both populations, and one locus for both root architectural plasticity and grain yield was detected. These results suggest an important role of root architectural plasticity across future rice crop conditions and provide a starting point for marker-assisted selection for plasticity. PMID:27342311

  12. Mol-Gastronomie Granulare Fleischgerichte und molekulares Kleben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilgis, Thomas A.

    2005-09-01

    Buletten, Fleischküchle oder Kebabs, Köstlichkeiten aus gehacktem Fleisch bestimmter Körnung, finden sich in allen Kulturen. Physikalisch ein großes Problem, denn zu Tisch dürfen diese Gebilde nicht auseinander brechen und zerfallen. Für ausreichend Bindung und Klebung muss also gesorgt werden.

  13. Physik gestern und heute: Visualisierung mit der Schlierenmethode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2006-07-01

    Der Name des österreichischen Forschers Ernst Mach ist heute noch mit der Schallgeschwindigkeit verbunden. Diese Auszeichnung resultiert aus Machs Untersuchungen, wie sich Projektile mit Überschallgeschwindigkeit durch die Luft bewegen. Gerade in jüngster Zeit hat die Anwendung derartiger Methoden durch technische Modifikationen wieder einen Aufschwung erfahren.

  14. Investigating the Impacts of Global Education Curriculum on the Values and Attitudes of Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeNobile, John; Kleeman, Grant; Zarkos, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Each year, World Vision and AusAID devote substantial resources to their educational programs. These initiatives include the production and dissemination of Global Education related instructional materials and the provision of professional learning for teachers. Given the substantial funds involved, it is important that we evaluate the…

  15. 22 CFR 126.16 - Exemption pursuant to the Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty between the United States and Australia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Explosives found at 27 CFR parts 447, 478, and 479, which are unaffected by the Defense Trade Cooperation... and USA Treaty Community//.” For example, for defense articles classified SECRET, the marking or identification shall be “//SECRET USML//REL AUS and USA Treaty Community//.” (ii) Unclassified defense...

  16. Unraveling the rich phenotypic and genetic diversity in rice for varietal improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) has two distinct varietal groups identified as the indica and japonica subspecies. With the advent of molecular markers the indica subspecies was divided into the indica and aus subpopulation groups and the japonica subspecies into the aromatic, tropical japon...

  17. Unraveling the rich phenotypic and genetic diversity in rice for varietal improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) has two distinct varietal groups identified as the indica and japonica subspecies. With the advent of molecular markers the indica subspecies was divided into the indica and aus subpopulation groups and the japonica subspecies into the aromatic, tropical japo...

  18. Kapselung sicherheitskritischer Funktionen in automobilen Steuergeräten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhard, Denis

    Die Kapselung von Software-Teilen von Fahrzeug-Software sicherheitskritischer Systeme ist derzeit nicht üblich. Es werden die Grundlagen der Kapslung beschrieben und abgegrenzt. Exemplarisch wird Speicherschutz hinsichtlich Anforderungen, Autosar-Spezifikationen und Anwendung untersucht. Aus den Unterschieden der Theorie von Kapselung und aktuellen Spezifikation lassen sich Spezifikationslücken bzw. Verbesserungspotentiale für Autosar ableiten.

  19. On Sources of the Word Length Effect in Young Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagl, Benjamin; Hawelka, Stefan; Wimmer, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how letter length, phoneme length, and consonant clusters contribute to the word length effect in 2nd- and 4th-grade children. They read words from three different conditions: In one condition, letter length increased but phoneme length did not due to multiletter graphemes (H"aus"-B"auch"-S"chach"). In…

  20. Katzenaugen und Sternsteine: Spielwiese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucke, Christian; Schlichting, Hans-Joachim

    2004-07-01

    Edelsteine vom Typ Chrysoberyll sind auch unter der Kurzbezeichnung Katzenauge bekannt. Im Chrysoberyll eingelagert sind feine, parallel angeordnete, metallisch glänzende Nadeln aus Rutil (Titandioxid). Auch Hohlkanäle und Risse durchziehen das Material. Lichtreflexion an diesen Einlagerungen und Kanälen erklärt das Lichtband, das dem Stein zu seinem Namen verhalf.

  1. Spanish is better than English for discriminating Portuguese vowels: acoustic similarity versus vowel inventory size

    PubMed Central

    Elvin, Jaydene; Escudero, Paola; Vasiliev, Polina

    2014-01-01

    Second language (L2) learners often struggle to distinguish sound contrasts that are not present in their native language (L1). Models of non-native and L2 sound perception claim that perceptual similarity between L1 and L2 sound contrasts correctly predicts discrimination by naïve listeners and L2 learners. The present study tested the explanatory power of vowel inventory size versus acoustic properties as predictors of discrimination accuracy when naïve Australian English (AusE) and Iberian Spanish (IS) listeners are presented with six Brazilian Portuguese (BP) vowel contrasts. Our results show that IS listeners outperformed AusE listeners, confirming that cross-linguistic acoustic properties, rather than cross-linguistic vowel inventory sizes, successfully predict non-native discrimination difficulty. Furthermore, acoustic distance between BP vowels and closest L1 vowels successfully predicted differential levels of difficulty among the six BP contrasts, with BP /e-i/ and /o-u/ being the most difficult for both listener groups. We discuss the importance of our findings for the adequacy of models of L2 speech perception. PMID:25400599

  2. A “Rice Diversity Panel” evaluated for genetic and agro-morphological variation between subpopulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since ancient times, Indica and Japonica have been recognized as the two major subspecies of Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.). First with isozymes and subsequently with DNA markers, five subpopulations indica, aus, temperate japonica, tropical japonica and aromatic/GroupV were identified. A “Rice Diver...

  3. Genetic structural analysis for germplasm accessions in the USDA Rice World Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is grouped into five genetic structures including indica, aus, aromatic, temperate japonica, and tropical japonica. A core collection having 1,785 accessions from 114 countries has been developed that is representative of the USDA rice world collection which includes over 18,000 accessions. The...

  4. MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF IMPORTED AND DOMESTIC BONELESS BEEF TRIM USED FOR GROUND BEEF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States imports lean boneless beef trim from Australia (AUS), New Zealand (NZL), and Uruguay (URY) to meet demand for ground beef production. The reported incidence of, and etiological agents responsible for, foodborne disease differ between these countries and the United States. Therefo...

  5. Incorporating Computer-Aided Software in the Undergraduate Chemical Engineering Core Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnaizy, Raafat; Abdel-Jabbar, Nabil; Ibrahim, Taleb H.; Husseini, Ghaleb A.

    2014-01-01

    Introductions of computer-aided software and simulators are implemented during the sophomore-year of the chemical engineering (ChE) curriculum at the American University of Sharjah (AUS). Our faculty concurs that software integration within the curriculum is beneficial to our students, as evidenced by the positive feedback received from industry…

  6. Praktikerporträts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herber, Kamilla; Kramer, Regine; Voigt, Bernd

    Wie vielfältig die beruflichen Möglichkeiten von MINT-Absolventen sind, zeigen die nachfolgenden Praktikerporträts. Aus sämtlichen Branchen und in den verschiedensten Positionen berichten die Praktiker über ihr Studium, die unterschiedlichsten Karrierewege und ihre Erfahrungen im Berufsleben.

  7. Curriculum Development for Teacher Education in the Southern Philippines: A Simultaneous Process of Professional Learning and Syllabus Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeegers, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects on the process of curriculum development in 21 tertiary education institutions in the Southern Philippines. Assisting capacity-building of the teaching profession is an ongoing need in developing countries, but rarely does it extend to pre-service education. In this study of one aspect of a three year AusAid-funded education…

  8. Die Evolution der Religiosität

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voland, Eckart

    Ein konsequent darwinischer Blick auf den Menschen bedeutet, auch im Denken, Fühlen und Handeln biologische Anpassungsgeschichte zu suchen, denn auch die psychischen und mentalen Eigenheiten des Homo sapiens unterliegen der natürlichen Selektion. Lässt sich die religiöse Lebenspraxis von Menschen daher auch aus einer Fitnessperspektive betrachten?

  9. Rowing the Weaves of Community Participation: Good Practices in Early Childhood Development (ECD) Program in Rural Central Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdillah, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the rural community participation within the context of an integrated early childhood development program initiated by the government of Indonesia in partnership with UNICEF and AusAID in Central Lombok (2008-2010). Based on purposive interviews with relevant stakeholders, as well as an analysis of past documents,…

  10. Morphogenetic Mechanisms in the Cyclic Regeneration of Hair Follicles and Deer Antlers from Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunyi; McMahon, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We have made comparisons between hair follicles (HFs) and antler units (AUs)—two seemingly unrelated mammalian organs. HFs are tiny and concealed within skin, whereas AUs are gigantic and grown externally for visual display. However, these two organs share some striking similarities. Both consist of permanent and cyclic/temporary components and undergo stem-cell-based organogenesis and cyclic regeneration. Stem cells of both organs reside in the permanent part and the growth centres are located in the temporary part of each respective organ. Organogenesis and regeneration of both organs depend on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Establishment of these interactions requires stem cells and reactive/niche cells (dermal papilla cells for HFs and epidermal cells for AUs) to be juxtaposed, which is achieved through destruction of the cyclic part to bring the reactive cells into close proximity to the respective stem cell niche. Developments of HFs and AUs are regulated by similar endocrine (particularly testosterone) and paracrine (particularly IGF1) factors. Interestingly, these two organs come to interplay during antlerogenesis. In conclusion, we believe that investigators from the fields of both HF and AU biology could greatly benefit from a comprehensive comparison between these two organs. PMID:24383056

  11. Improving Electrical Engineering Education at the American University of Sharjah through Continuous Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Nashash, Hasan; Khaliq, Abdul; Qaddoumi, Nasser; Al-Assaf, Yousef; Assaleh, Khaled; Dhaouadi, Rached; El-Tarhuni, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    The electrical engineering (ELE) program at the American University of Sharjah (AUS) is designed to fulfill the ABET criteria. Several assessment tools are used to qualitatively and quantitatively measure the level of achievement of the program's educational objectives and outcomes. These tools include alumni, employer, and graduate advisor…

  12. Population structure of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) assessed on a global scale using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is a major pest of livestock in the United States and worldwide. To assess the genetic variability in geographically distant stable flies, samples were obtained from four biogeographical regions: Nearctic, Neotropical, Palearctic, and Aus...

  13. Effect of microstructure on transformation-induced plasticity of silicon-containing low-alloy steel

    SciTech Connect

    Tomita, Yoshiyuki; Morioka, Kojiro

    1997-04-01

    Fe-0.6C-1.5Si-0.8Mn steel was studied to determine the effect of the microstructure on transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) of silicon-containing low-alloy steel. A remarkable increase in elongation through TRIP can develop in the steel subjected to the following heat treatments: (1) austemper combined with subcritical annealing (SA Aus-T): subcritical annealing at 993K followed by austempering at 673K and then light tempering (after austenitization at 1173K); (2) austemper coupled with interrupted quenching (IQ Aus-T): interrupted quenching at 533K followed by austempering at 673K and light tempering (after austenization at 1,173K). The SA Aus-T treatment produced the triple structures of carbide-free upper bainite, retained austenite ({gamma}R), and free ferrite. As a result of the IQ Aus-T treatment, the triple structures of carbide-free upper bainite, {gamma}R, and tempered martensite appeared. The results are described and microstructural factors in TRIP are discussed.

  14. Geschichtliche Entwicklung der Abdichtungstechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cziesielski, Erich

    Die Abdichtungstechnik mit industriell hergestellten Abdichtungsmaterialien ist relativ jung. Gleichwohl wurden aber auch schon im Altertum Bauwerke abgedichtet bzw. aus wasserundurchlässigem Beton (opus caementitium) hergestellt, wenn es darum ging, die erforderliche Wasserdichtigkeit im Bereich von Zisternen, Wasserleitungen, öffentlichen Bädern o.ä. zu erreichen.

  15. Physik im Beruf Physiker bei der Deutschen Börse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    Seine wissenschaftlichen Wirkungsstätten sind schnell aufgezählt: Basel, St. Petersburg, Berlin. Und wieder St. Petersburg. Mit seiner Arbeit ist das schon schwieriger.Insgesamt zählt man ungefähr 900 Arbeiten und zwanzig Bücher aus seiner Feder.

  16. “Rice Diversity Panel”: A Genetic Resource for Exploring Phenotype-Genotype Associations in O. sativa.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A “Rice Diversity Panel” comprised of 409 purified rice (Oryza sativa L.) accessions originating from 79 countries was fingerprinted with 36 SSR markers, 1,536 SNP markers and more recently with a 44,100 SNP array. These accessions grouped into five ancestral subpopulations, indica, aus, tropical ja...

  17. Rice Root Architectural Plasticity Traits and Genetic Regions for Adaptability to Variable Cultivation and Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Nitika; Raman, K Anitha; Torres, Rolando O; Audebert, Alain; Dardou, Audrey; Kumar, Arvind; Henry, Amelia

    2016-08-01

    Future rice (Oryza sativa) crops will likely experience a range of growth conditions, and root architectural plasticity will be an important characteristic to confer adaptability across variable environments. In this study, the relationship between root architectural plasticity and adaptability (i.e. yield stability) was evaluated in two traditional × improved rice populations (Aus 276 × MTU1010 and Kali Aus × MTU1010). Forty contrasting genotypes were grown in direct-seeded upland and transplanted lowland conditions with drought and drought + rewatered stress treatments in lysimeter and field studies and a low-phosphorus stress treatment in a Rhizoscope study. Relationships among root architectural plasticity for root dry weight, root length density, and percentage lateral roots with yield stability were identified. Selected genotypes that showed high yield stability also showed a high degree of root plasticity in response to both drought and low phosphorus. The two populations varied in the soil depth effect on root architectural plasticity traits, none of which resulted in reduced grain yield. Root architectural plasticity traits were related to 13 (Aus 276 population) and 21 (Kali Aus population) genetic loci, which were contributed by both the traditional donor parents and MTU1010. Three genomic loci were identified as hot spots with multiple root architectural plasticity traits in both populations, and one locus for both root architectural plasticity and grain yield was detected. These results suggest an important role of root architectural plasticity across future rice crop conditions and provide a starting point for marker-assisted selection for plasticity. PMID:27342311

  18. Offshore Teaching Practice in the Australia-Pacific Technical College: A Case Study in the South Pacific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates teaching practices at the Australia-Pacific Technical College (APTC), which comprise a unique official development assistance (ODA) program funded by the Government of Australia (GoA) and managed through the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAid) with the aim of training and equipping workers from the…

  19. Learning to Lead: A Social Justice Perspective on Understanding Elementary Teacher Leadership in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlee, Joanne; Scholes, Laura; Farrell, Ann; Davis, Julie; Cook, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Leadership in elementary education is currently recognized as a political imperative in Papua New Guinea (PNG), as the nation develops strategies towards equitable access to schooling. One recent initiative aimed at building educational leadership was an intensive Australian Leadership Award Fellowship (ALAF) program funded by AusAID, involving a…

  20. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Preschool Aged Children. Clinical Approaches to Early Intervention in Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazell, Philip

    The need for guidelines for early intervention of children experiencing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) was identified by the Australian Early Intervention Network (AusEinet). This document attempts to guide appropriate practice in the care of children and adolescents with ADHD. The guidelines are designed to provide information…

  1. Geographic description of genetic diversity and genetic relationships in the USDA Rice World Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) is structured into five genetic groups, indica, AUS, tropical japonica, temperate japonica and aromatic. Genetic characterization of a global rice collection could help better serve the global research community. Collecting worldwide rice germplasm started in ...

  2. Auf der Suche nach extrasolaren Transitplaneten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, René

    2010-06-01

    Planeten um andere Sonnen, die von der Erde aus gesehen einmal während ihres Orbits vor ihrem Zentralstern vorbeiziehen, eröffnen eine bis vor Kurzem ungeahnte Palette an Möglichkeiten zu ihrer Untersuchung. Nur: Wo am Himmel lassen sich diese Kandidaten für Sternbedeckungen eigentlich finden?

  3. Molekularbiologische Speziesdifferenzierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäde, Dietrich

    Der Speziesnachweis in Lebensmitteln dient der Analyse, aus welchen Tier- und Pflanzenarten die Erzeugnisse hergestellt wurden. Die Information darüber ist sowohl für den Gesundheitsschutz als auch für den Schutz vor Täuschungspraktiken und zur Information des Verbrauchers wichtig.

  4. Finite-precision arithmetic in singular-value decomposition architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Duryea, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The singular-value decomposition (SVD) is an important matrix algorithm that has many applications in signal processing. However, its use has been limited due to its computational complexity. Several architecture have been proposed to compute the SVD using arrays of parallel processors. This thesis derives requirements for the precision of arithmetic units (AUs) used in SVD arrays and compares the resource requirements of several architectures. The author's results are based on the assumption that he is operating on matrices of quantized data. Since the matrices have quantization errors, he shows that their singular values will have quantization errors as large as the data errors. To compute the number of bits needed in SVD AUs, it is required that the AUs have enough bits to keep the round-off errors of the SVD computation smaller than the quantization errors. The analysis shows that we need essentially the same number of bits for either the Hestenes of Jacobi SVD algorithms. Five SVD architectures, two linear structures and three quadratic arrays are described and their resource requirements are compared with floating point and CORDIC AUs. The comparison shows the total resource requirements of the linear designs to be lower than that of the quadratic arrays for all-size matrices.

  5. Computerunterstütztes Modellieren mit Musiknetzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levens, Ulla

    In der folgenden Ausführung geht es um eine Anwendung von Petri-Netzen im Bereich Musik. Ausgehend von der Implementierung einer speziellen Anwendung, dem Programmsystem ScoreSynth, wird das zugrundeliegende Konzept erläutert und anschließend an einem kleinen Beispiel veranschaulicht. Dieser Beitrag ist ein Auszug aus [Lev95b].

  6. Crystals: The Love Child Born from Art and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Noby

    2014-01-01

    Noby Leong is a PhD student in Chemistry at University of Adelaide working on the design of new drug delivery systems for medical applications. He's also a science communicator, part of the volunteer blogging community at RiAus and curator of his own blog "The Other Side of Science." In this article Noby shares the highs and lows…

  7. Magnus Strandqvist: 50th anniversary of his doctoral thesis.

    PubMed

    Kajanti, M J

    1994-01-01

    This article is dedicated to Magnus Strandqvist's famous doctoral thesis "Studien über die kumulative Wirkung der Röntgenstrahlen bei Fraktionierung. Erfahrungen aus dem Radiumhemmet an 280 Haut- und Lippenkarzinomen" published in Acta Radiologica in 1944. After a short biography of Strandqvist some central points of his work and their influence on future development of modern radiotherapy are presented. PMID:7993639

  8. An Investigation of the Teacher Advancement Program and Student Performance in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Ginger Madonna

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, the achievement gap between African-American and Caucasian students doubled in the state of Louisiana. Sixty-three percent of the public schools in an urban school district in southeastern Louisiana received an Academically Unacceptable Status (AUS) rating according to Louisiana accountability standards. In 2006, the Louisiana Board of…

  9. New GO-PEI-Au-L-Cys ZIC-HILIC composites: synthesis and selective enrichment of glycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Liang, Yu; Wu, Qi; Jiang, Hao; Yang, Kaiguang; Zhang, Lihua; Liang, Zhen; Peng, Xiaojun; Zhang, Yukui

    2014-06-01

    GO-PEI-Au-L-Cys composites were synthesized via loading gold nanoparticles on a GO surface using polyethylenimine as reducing and stabilizing reagents, followed by L-cysteine immobilization through an Au-S bond. The composites were applied as a kind of novel ZIC-HILIC material to achieve highly selective enrichment of glycopeptides from biological samples. PMID:24752239

  10. Unlocking the variation hidden in rice germplasm collections with genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated Asian rice (Oryza sativa) was domesticated from O. rufipogon (O. nivara). The O. sativa subspecies indica and japonica diverged in ancient times, and based on DNA markers, further subdivided into the five major subpopulations, aus, indica, aromatic, tropical japonica and temperate japoni...

  11. Differences between Children and Adults in the Recognition of Enjoyment Smiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Giudice, Marco; Colle, Livia

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the differences between 8-year-olds (n = 80) and adults (n = 80) in recognition of felt versus faked enjoyment smiles by using a newly developed picture set that is based on the Facial Action Coding System. The authors tested the effect of different facial action units (AUs) on judgments of smile authenticity. Multiple…

  12. Improved digital breast tomosynthesis images using automated ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xing; Yuan, Jie; Du, Sidan; Kripfgans, Oliver D.; Wang, Xueding; Carson, Paul L.; Liu, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) offers poor image quality along the depth direction. This paper presents a new method that improves the image quality of DBT considerably through the a priori information from automated ultrasound (AUS) images. Methods: DBT and AUS images of a complex breast-mimicking phantom are acquired by a DBT/AUS dual-modality system. The AUS images are taken in the same geometry as the DBT images and the gradient information of the in-slice AUS images is adopted into the new loss functional during the DBT reconstruction process. The additional data allow for new iterative equations through solving the optimization problem utilizing the gradient descent method. Both visual comparison and quantitative analysis are employed to evaluate the improvement on DBT images. Normalized line profiles of lesions are obtained to compare the edges of the DBT and AUS-corrected DBT images. Additionally, image quality metrics such as signal difference to noise ratio (SDNR) and artifact spread function (ASF) are calculated to quantify the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results: In traditional DBT image reconstructions, serious artifacts can be found along the depth direction (Z direction), resulting in the blurring of lesion edges in the off-focus planes parallel to the detector. However, by applying the proposed method, the quality of the reconstructed DBT images is greatly improved. Visually, the AUS-corrected DBT images have much clearer borders in both in-focus and off-focus planes, fewer Z direction artifacts and reduced overlapping effect compared to the conventional DBT images. Quantitatively, the corrected DBT images have better ASF, indicating a great reduction in Z direction artifacts as well as better Z resolution. The sharper line profiles along the Y direction show enhancement on the edges. Besides, noise is also reduced, evidenced by the obviously improved SDNR values. Conclusions: The proposed method provides great improvement on

  13. U.S. Geological Survey 2013 assessment of undiscovered resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations of the U.S. Williston Basin Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.

    2014-01-01

    The Upper Devonian Three Forks and Upper Devonian to Lower Mississippian Bakken Formations comprise a major United States continuous oil resource. Current exploitation of oil is from horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Member of the Bakken and upper Three Forks, with ongoing exploration of the lower Three Forks, and the Upper, Lower, and Pronghorn Members of the Bakken Formation. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated a mean of 3.65 billion bbl of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil resource within the Bakken Formation. The USGS recently reassessed the Bakken Formation, which included an assessment of the underlying Three Forks Formation. The Pronghorn Member of the Bakken Formation, where present, was included as part of the Three Forks assessment due to probable fluid communication between reservoirs. For the Bakken Formation, five continuous and one conventional assessment units (AUs) were defined. These AUs are modified from the 2008 AU boundaries to incorporate expanded geologic and production information. The Three Forks Formation was defined with one continuous and one conventional AU. Within the continuous AUs, optimal regions of hydrocarbon recovery, or “sweet spots,” were delineated and estimated ultimate recoveries were calculated for each continuous AU. Resulting undiscovered, technically recoverable resource estimates were 3.65 billion bbl for the five Bakken continuous oil AUs and 3.73 billion bbl for the Three Forks Continuous Oil AU, generating a total mean resource estimate of 7.38 billion bbl. The two conventional AUs are hypothetical and represent a negligible component of the total estimated resource (8 million barrels of oil).

  14. Phylogenetically Novel LuxI/LuxR-Type Quorum Sensing Systems Isolated Using a Metagenomic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nasuno, Eri; Fujita, Masaki J.; Nakatsu, Cindy H.; Kamagata, Yoichi; Hanada, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of research has been done to understand bacterial cell-to-cell signaling systems, but there is still a large gap in our current knowledge because the majority of microorganisms in natural environments do not have cultivated representatives. Metagenomics is one approach to identify novel quorum sensing (QS) systems from uncultured bacteria in environmental samples. In this study, fosmid metagenomic libraries were constructed from a forest soil and an activated sludge from a coke plant, and the target genes were detected using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based Escherichia coli biosensor strain whose fluorescence was screened by spectrophotometry. DNA sequence analysis revealed two pairs of new LuxI family N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone (AHL) synthases and LuxR family transcriptional regulators (clones N16 and N52, designated AubI/AubR and AusI/AusR, respectively). AubI and AusI each produced an identical AHL, N-dodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL), as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry. Phylogenetic analysis based on amino acid sequences suggested that AusI/AusR was from an uncultured member of the Betaproteobacteria and AubI/AubR was very deeply branched from previously described LuxI/LuxR homologues in isolates of the Proteobacteria. The phylogenetic position of AubI/AubR indicates that they represent a QS system not acquired recently from the Proteobacteria by horizontal gene transfer but share a more ancient ancestry. We demonstrated that metagenomic screening is useful to provide further insight into the phylogenetic diversity of bacterial QS systems by describing two new LuxI/LuxR-type QS systems from uncultured bacteria. PMID:22983963

  15. Systematics and phylogenetics of Indo-Pacific Luciolinae fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) and the description of new genera.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Lesly A; Lambkin, Christine L

    2013-01-01

    presented for the males and females. Certain females are characterised by the nature of their bursa plates. Australoluciola gen. nov. is proposed for ten species from Australia and New Guinea, seven transferred from Luciola and three new, with species keyed from males, all of which have an entire light organ in ventrite 7. Aus. anthracina (Olivier), Aus. aspera (Olivier), Aus. australis (F.), Aus. flavicollis (MacLeay), Aus. foveicollis (Olivier), Aus. nigra (Olivier) and Aus. orapallida (Ballantyne) are transferred from Luciola with males assigned to Aus. aspera(Olivier), and a lectotype designated for Luciola foveicollis Olivier; Aus. baduria sp. nov., Aus. fuscamagna sp. nov.,Aus. fuscaparva sp. nov., Aus. japenensis sp. nov. and Aus. pharusaurea sp. nov. are described. Females of Aus. australis and Aus. flavicollis have two pairs of wide bursa plates.  The bent-winged fireflies of New Guinea and Australia are removed from Pteroptyx Olivier and assigned to Medeopteryx gen. nov. and Trisinuata gen. nov. Medeopteryx gen. nov. is erected for 17 species including two new; all have ventrite 7 with an entire light organ, trisinuate posterior margin and short posterolateral projections; the following 14 species in which males have deflexed elytral apices are transferred from Pteroptyx Olivier: M. amilae (Satô), M. antennata (Olivier), M. corusca (Ballantyne), M. cribellata (Olivier), M. effulgens (Ballantyne), M. elucens (Ballantyne), M. flagrans (Ballantyne), M. fulminea (Ballantyne), M. hanedai (Ballantyne), M. platygaster (Lea), M. similisantennata(Ballantyne), M. sublustris (Ballantyne), M. tarsalis (Olivier), and M. torricelliensis (Ballantyne). M. clipeata sp. nov. is described. Two species without deflexed elytral apices include M. pupilla (Olivier) which is transferred from Luciola, and M. similispupillae sp. nov. A Lectotype is designated for Luciola pupilla (Olivier). Females of M. corusca(Ballantyne), M. cribellata (Olivier), M. effulgens (Ballantyne), and M

  16. Deep genetic divergence in giant red shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Risso, 1827) across a wide distributional range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, M. V.; Heras, S.; Maltagliati, F.; Roldán, M. I.

    2013-02-01

    The giant red shrimp, Aristaeomorpha foliacea, is a commercially important species in the Mediterranean Sea (MED), Mozambique Channel (MOZ), and north western Australia (AUS). 685 bp of the mitochondrial COI gene was sequenced in 317 individuals from six Mediterranean and two Indian Ocean localities. Genetic diversity estimates of Indian Ocean samples were higher than those of MED counterparts. AMOVA, phylogenetic tree, haplotype network and Bayesian assignment analyses detected three haplogroups, corresponding to MED, MOZ and AUS, separated by three and 38 mutational steps, respectively. Within MED shallow genetic divergence between populations was dependent on local oceanographical characteristics. Mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests provided a consistent indication of past population expansion in each region considered. Our results provide the first evidence of genetic structure in A. foliacea and suggest a scenario of allopatric speciation within the Indian Ocean that, however needs deeper examination.

  17. Regenerative Energieträger im Aufwind: Entwicklung der erneuerbaren Energien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, Harald

    2006-05-01

    2005 kam 4,6 % des deutschen Primär-Energieverbrauchs aus erneuerbaren Energiequellen, bei der Stromproduktion lag ihr Anteil bei 10,2 %. Wesentliche Ursache ist der Boom bei der Windkraft, die vor allem durch Offshore-Windparks auf See weiter ausbaubar ist. Die Wasserkraft lieferte in Deutschland traditionell einen großen Beitrag zur Stromerzeugung, doch ihr Ausbaupotenzial ist gering. Die Photovoltaik, die solar- und die geothermische Stromerzeugung spielen derzeit noch eine kleine Rolle. Den deutschen Bedarf an Wärmeenergie deckten 2004 die erneuerbaren Energien zu 5,4 %, vor allem aus Biomasse. Die solarthermische Wärmeerzeugung hat sich gegenüber 2000 mehr als verdoppelt. Im Straßenverkehr spielen biogene Kraftstoffe mit 5,4 % noch eine untergeordnete Rolle. Bis 2050 könnte in Deutschland der Anteil regenerativer Energien am Primär-Energieverbrauch die Fünfzigprozentmarke überschreiten.

  18. [Implementation of medical specialists brigades in the areas of Universal Health coverage: the Peruvian Ministry of Health experience, 2009-2010].

    PubMed

    Barzola-Cordero, Violeta; Llamosas, Ena; Echegaray, Ciro; Cuzco, María; Peralta, Felipe

    2011-06-01

    Peru has a high degree of inequity reflected in the distribution of morbidity and mortality, consistent with the inaccessibility to health care and human resource gap, especially in remote areas of the capital. The Peruvian Ministry of Health, recognizing the right of all people to quality health care, initiated the Universal Health Insurance (AUS), and in this context, increased access to specialized care in pilot AUS areas by brigades of specialist doctors. This article offers an approach to this strategy presents the management and implementation processes, a quantitative analysis with indicators of output / efficiency, and provides a qualitative look from the perspective of the members of the brigades. Its main findings reflect the lack of effective and efficient management, translated in the absence of: production goals, work plans, working partnerships with local stakeholders, monitoring and effective supervision, recurrent shortages of human and technological resources, and high costs. PMID:21845318

  19. Bewegungsapparat: Postcraniales Skelett und Muskulatur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Martin S.

    Der Bewegungsapparat bestimmt die Form des Wirbeltierkörpers. So lässt sich z. B. aus der Gestalt eines Fisches auf seine bevorzugt e Schwimmweise schließen (S. 61). Bei den aquatisch en Schädeltieren dominiert die Fortbewegung mit axialem Antrieb; bei den meisten Tetrapoda findet sich eine Kombination aus axialem Antrieb und Bewegung durch Gliedmaßen. Selbst beim höchst spezialisierten Gang, der bipeden Bewegung des Menschen, sind Torsionsbewegungen des Rumpfes noch maßgeblich und bestimmen auch die Grundform des menschlichen Körpers (z. B. die Taille). Obwohl die verschiedenen Antriebsmechanismen eine funktionelle Einheit bilden, werden im Folgenden das Axialskelett sowie der Schulter- und Beckengürtel mit den zugehörigen Extremitäten getrennt besprochen.

  20. Turbulenzübergang in der Rohrströmung: Die Lösung eines alten Rätsels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhardt, Bruno; Hof, Björn; Faisst, Holger

    2006-09-01

    Die Strömung von Flüssigkeiten und Gasen durch eine Röhre kann zwei Zustände annehmen. Einer ist laminar, also gleichmäßig geordnet, einer ist zeitlich-räumlich verwirbelt und turbulent. Mit dem Übergang zur Turbulenz nimmt der Strömungswiderstand drastisch zu. Vor etwa 120 Jahren beschrieb Osborne Reynolds bereits das Verhalten der Rohrströmung sehr genau. Er beobachtete, dass der Turbulenzübergang sehr empfindlich von äußeren Störungen abhängt, was bislang rätselhaft blieb. Dieses Rätsel konnte nun mit einer Kombination aus Computerstudien, Konzepten aus der nichtlinearen Dynamik und speziell entwickelten Experimenten gelöst werden.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of monitoring free flaps.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Shiva; Sharp, David; Jardim, Christopher; Batstone, Martin D

    2016-06-01

    Methods of free flap monitoring have become more sophisticated and expensive. This study aims to determine the cost of free flap monitoring and examine its cost effectiveness. We examined a group of patients who had had free flaps to the head and neck over a two-year period, and combined these results with costs obtained from business managers and staff. There were 132 free flaps with a success rate of 99%. The cost of monitoring was Aus $193/flap. Clinical monitoring during this time period cost Aus$25 476 and did not lead to the salvage of any free flaps. Cost equivalence is reached between monitoring and not monitoring only at a failure rate of 15.8%. This is to our knowledge the first study to calculate the cost of clinical monitoring of free flaps, and to examine its cost-effectiveness. PMID:27015730

  2. Gestaltung transparenter Geschäftsprozesse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Lars; Crespo, Isabel; Fleischmann, Jürgen

    Ein Geschäftsprozess beschreibt eine sich regelmäßig wiederholende Folge von Arbeitsschritten oder Tätigkeiten, um ein definiertes Ergebnis zu erzielen. Geschäftsprozesse besitzen daher immer ein definiertes Ziel, einen Auslöser und ein Ergebnis. In der Regel verlaufen Geschäftsprozesse abteilungs- und bereichsübergreifend. Zur Abbildung von Geschäftsprozessen sind daher Mitarbeiter aus verschiedenen Abteilungen/Bereichen einzubinden. Ein typisches Beispiel für einen Geschäftsprozess in produzierenden Unternehmen ist der Auftragsabwicklungsprozess. Der Kunde löst mit seinem Auftrag den Prozess aus, der als Ergebnis die Auslieferung eines Produktes zur Folge hat. Je nach Art des Geschäftsprozesses und Größe eines Unternehmens sind unterschiedlich viele Mitarbeiter an einem Prozess beteiligt.

  3. Impact of biting midges on residential property values in Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, Jay; Dale, Pat E; Sipe, Neil G; Daniels, Peter

    2006-03-01

    Biting midges (Culicoides spp.) are an important environmental health issue in Hervey Bay, an area of rapid population growth in Australia. It is also the gateway to a World Heritage area (Great Sandy Strait) and a destination for tourists. The spread of housing developments into suburbs close to midge breeding habitats has led to a problem for the local government responsible for managing biting insects in its area. Suburbs with a severe biting midge problem were found to have significantly lower residential property values than less affected suburbs. The gross reduction in value in due to the midge problem was estimated to range from more than AUS dollar 25 million, based on actual sale price, to more than AUS dollar 55 million, based on the perceptions of the most severely affected residents. PMID:16646336

  4. Trends in der IT-Sicherheit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Claudia

    Ich möchte Ihnen einen Überblick geben über Trends, Challenges, offene Fragestellungen sowie Lösungsansätze aus dem Bereich der IT-Sicherheit. Meine Vorredner haben mir schon eine wunderbare Basis dafür geschaffen, indem sie wichtige Trends im Bereich IT bereits angesprochen haben. Deshalb werde ich auf diese Trends, nämlich das Internet of Things and Services nur noch einmal kurz eingehen, um daran dann die IT-Sicherheitsthemen, die sich aus diesen IT-Trends ergeben, zu skizzieren und anschließend Lösungen vorstellen, die insbesondere im Forschungsumfeld entwickelt werden, aber schon reif sind, auch in die unternehmerische Praxis übernommen zu werden.

  5. Intelligente Objekte - Klein, Vernetzt, Sensitiv, acatech BEZIEHT POSITION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schon im Juni 2005 stand das Thema auf der Tagesordnung - beim acatech Symposium in Berlin zum Thema Computer in der Alltagswelt - Chancen für Deutschland?" unter der Leitung von Prof. Dr. Dieter Spath. Zum einen ging es darum, in wieweit Intelligente Objekte bereits Alltag und Wirtschaftsleben durchdringen. Zum andern um die Chancen für Deutschland, die der große Wachstumsmarkt der so genannten Ambient Intelligence" bietet. Die Beiträge dieses Symposiums analysierten insbesondere die Marktmöglichkeiten aus Sicht der Wirtschaft und die Rahmenbedingungen aus Sicht von Politik und Gesellschaft. Darüber hinaus wurden die Themen Sicherheit, die Etablierung von Anwendungen und die Integration des neuen Wissensgebietes in die Ausbildung diskutiert.

  6. Joint Patch and Multi-label Learning for Facial Action Unit Detection

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kaili; Chu, Wen-Sheng; De la Torre, Fernando; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Zhang, Honggang

    2016-01-01

    The face is one of the most powerful channel of nonverbal communication. The most commonly used taxonomy to describe facial behaviour is the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). FACS segments the visible effects of facial muscle activation into 30+ action units (AUs). AUs, which may occur alone and in thousands of combinations, can describe nearly all-possible facial expressions. Most existing methods for automatic AU detection treat the problem using one-vs-all classifiers and fail to exploit dependencies among AU and facial features. We introduce joint-patch and multi-label learning (JPML) to address these issues. JPML leverages group sparsity by selecting a sparse subset of facial patches while learning a multi-label classifier. In four of five comparisons on three diverse datasets, CK+, GFT, and BP4D, JPML produced the highest average F1 scores in comparison with state-of-the art. PMID:27382243

  7. Screening and predicting posttraumatic stress and depression in children following single-incident trauma.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Reginald D V; Ellis, Alicia A; Nehmy, Thomas J; Ball, Shelley-Anne

    2010-01-01

    Three screening methods to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms in children following single-incident trauma were tested. Children and adolescents (N = 90; aged 7-17 years) were assessed within 4 weeks of an injury that led to hospital treatment and followed up 3 and 6 months later. Screening methods were adapted from existing instruments and examined (a) an Australian version of the Screening Tool for Predictors of PTSD (STEPP-AUS), (b) an abbreviated measure of initial PTSD severity, and (c) an abbreviated measure of initial maladaptive trauma-specific beliefs. The STEPP-AUS correctly identified 89% of the children who developed PTSD at 6-month follow-up and the 69% of children who were non-PTSD. Predictive performance of the others instruments was generally poor, and no instrument consistently predicted subclinical levels of depression. PMID:20589569

  8. Osteognathostomata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultze, Hans-Peter

    Noch häufig, vor allem im englischen Sprachraum, wird für die fischartigen Wirbeltiere mit Knochenskelett, also die Actinopterygii und Sarcopterygii, der Begriff "Osteichthyes" (Knochenfische) verwendet. Da sich jedoch aus einem Subtaxon der Sarcopterygier die Tet rapoda entwickelten (S. 322), würde diese Gruppierung ein paraphyletisches Taxon darstellen. Hier wird daher dem Vorschlag W. Hennigs (1983) gefolgt und die Schwestergruppe der Chondrichthyes Osteognathostomata genannt: Sie enthält alle weiteren kiefertragenden Wirbeltiere mit Knochenskelett (Name!) (Abb. 201). Die Sarcopterygii umfassen demnach verschiedene fossile Gruppen, die rezenten Reliktgruppen der Dipnoi (Lungenfische) und Actinistia (Hohlstachler) sowie die Tetrapoda und ihre Stammgruppenvertreter. (Neuerdings wird in der Literatur aus denselben Gründen einer konsequent phylogenetischen Systematisierung wieder die Gruppierung Osteichthyes, aber unter Einschluss der Tetrapoda, verwendet!).

  9. Musik einpacken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loos, Andreas

    Wer schon einmal Nudeln selbst gemacht hat, der weiß: Frische Pasta kann ganz schön pappen. Das ist ein Problem für die Nudelindustrie, denn es ist nicht leicht, mit unregelmäßigen und klebrigen Nudel-Klumpen 500-Gramm-Beutel genau zu füllen. Einige Hersteller verwenden daher "Teilmengenwaagen". Die besitzen bis zu hundert kleineWaagschalen, die über ein Förderband mit jeweils ungefähr 50 Gramm Nudel-Klumpen befüllt werden. Dann kommt Mathematik ins Spiel: Ein Computer wählt die zehn Waagschalen aus, deren Inhalt zusammen die 500 Gramm genau erreicht, und leert sie in einen Beutel aus.

  10. Complexity of indica-japonica varietal differentiation in Bangladesh rice landraces revealed by microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mumu; Zhu, Zuofeng; Tan, Lubin; Liu, Fengxia; Fu, Yongcai; Sun, Chuanqing; Cai, Hongwei

    2013-01-01

    To understand the genetic diversity and indica-japonica differentiation in Bangladesh rice varieties, a total of 151 accessions of rice varieties mostly Bangladesh traditional varieties including Aus, Boro, broadcast Aman, transplant Aman and Rayada varietal groups were genotyped using 47 rice nuclear SSRs. As a result, three distinct groups were detected by cluster analysis, corresponding to indica, Aus and japonica rice. Among deepwater rice varieties analyzed some having particular morphological features that mainly corresponded to the japonica varietal group. Some small seeded and aromatic varieties from Bangladesh also corresponded to the japonica varietal group. This research for the first time establishes that the japonica varietal group is a prominent component of traditional varieties in Bangladesh, particularly in deepwater areas. PMID:23853518

  11. Implementierungstechniken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippe, Wolfram-Manfred

    Die klassische Technik zur Implementierung funktionaler und applikativer Sprachen ist die des Interpretierens. Stammvater aller Interpretierer ist der in Kapitel 3.2.2.12 vorgestellte Interpretierer von McCarthy. Das Hauptproblem aller Implementierungstechniken, die Bindung von Werten an Namen, wird bei ihm durch das Konzept der Assoziationsliste (A-Liste) realisiert. Die Elemente dieser Liste sind Paare, deren 1. Komponente aus einem Namen und deren 2. Komponenete aus einem Wert besteht. Anschaulich kann man sich die A-Liste als einen Keller vorstellen, in den bei jeder Bindung eines Wertes an einen Namen, z.B. bei einer Funktions-Deklaration (Label-Deklaration) oder einer Funktionsapplikation, das entsprechende Paar gespeichert wird.

  12. The 5-tiered categorization system for reporting cytology is sufficient for management of patients with thyroid nodules compared to the 6-tiered Bethesda system.

    PubMed

    Koh, Jieun; Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young; Yoon, Jung Hyun

    2016-08-01

    To analyze whether the 5-tiered categorization system without the atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) category is sufficient compared to the 6-tiered Bethesda system. This IRB-approved retrospective study was waived informed consent. The pre-Bethesda period was from March 2008 to December 2008 and the Bethesda period was from January 2012 to January 2013. Of 4677 nodules ≥10 mm with initial ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration, 2553 nodules were from the pre-Bethesda period and 1754 nodules were from the Bethesda period. The utilization and malignancy rates of each category were compared between the two periods. The utilization rate of the benign category decreased from 67.7 % in the pre-Bethesda period to 60.0 % in the Bethesda period (p = 0.001). In the pre-Bethesda period, the malignancy rates of the non-diagnostic, benign, suspicious follicular neoplasm/Hürthle cell neoplasm, suspicious for malignancy, and malignancy categories were 3.8, 1.9, 25, 78.8, and 99.7 %, respectively. The malignancy rate of the benign category decreased from 1.9 to 0.3 % after the Bethesda system (p < 0.001). The utilization and malignancy rates of the AUS/FLUS category were 7 and 22.8 %. When the AUS/FLUS category was included in the benign category, the malignancy rate became 2.6 % which was not significantly different from 1.9 % in the pre-Bethesda period (p = 0.189). The malignancy rates of other categories were not significantly different. The 5-tiered categorization system without the AUS/FLUS category for reporting cytology was sufficient for management of patients with thyroid nodules compared to the 6-tiered categorization of the Bethesda system. PMID:26758996

  13. Physik gestern und heute Von der Metallstange zum Hochenergielaser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2002-05-01

    Im Mai 1752 wurde in Marly bei Paris auf Anregung des amerikanischen Forschers und Politikers Benjamin Franklin erstmals die elektrische Natur des Blitzes nachgewiesen. Damals beschrieb Franklin auch eine technische Vorrichtung, die als Schutz von Gebäuden vor Blitzschlägen dienen sollte: den Blitzableiter. Diese aus heutiger Sicht scheinbar triviale Vorrichtung wurde aber keineswegs unmittelbar akzeptiert. Und bis heute ist die Forschung zum Schutz von Einrichtungen vor Blitzschlägen nicht abgeschlossen.

  14. Changes in and Efficacies of Indications for Invasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Cytogenomic Abnormalities: 13 Years of Experience in a Single Center

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jinlai; Matarese, Chelsea; Crivello, Julianna; Wilcox, Katherine; Wang, Dongmei; DiAdamo, Autumn; Xu, Fang; Li, Peining

    2015-01-01

    Background Because the future application of cell-free fetal DNA screening is expected to dramatically improve the diagnostic yield and reduce unnecessary invasive procedures, it is time to summarize the indications of invasive prenatal diagnosis. This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the changes and efficacies of indications of invasive procedures for detecting cytogenomic abnormalities from 2000 to 2012. Material/Methods From our regional obstetric unit, 7818 invasive procedures were referred by indications of advance maternal age (AMA), abnormal ultrasound findings (aUS), abnormal maternal serum screening (aMSS), and family history (FH). Chromosome, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analyses were performed on chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and amniotic fluid (AF) specimens at the Yale Cytogenetics Laboratory. The abnormal findings from single or combined indications were compared to evaluate the diagnostic yield. Results The annual caseload declined by 57.2% but the diagnostic yield increased from 7.2% to 13.4%. Chromosomal and genomic abnormalities were detected in 752 cases (9.6%, 752/7818) and 12 cases (4%, 12/303), respectively. Significantly decreased AMA referrals and increased aUS and aMSS referrals were noted. The top 3 indications by diagnostic yield were AMA/aUS (51.4% for CVS, 24.2% for AF), aUS (34.7% for CVS, 14.5% for AF), and AMA/aMSS (17.8% for CVS, 9.9% for AF). Conclusions Over a period of 13 years, the indication of aMSS and aUS were increasing while AMA was decreasing for prenatal diagnosis of cytogenomic abnormalities, and there was a continuous trend of reduced invasive procedures. Prenatal evaluation using AMA/aUS was the most effective in detecting chromosomal abnormalities, but better indications for genomic abnormalities are needed. PMID:26143093

  15. Wirkstoffe, Medikamente und Mathematische Bildverarbeitung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Günter J.; Lorenz, Dirk A.; Maaß, Peter; Preckel, Hartwig; Trede, Dennis

    Die Entwicklung neuer Medikamente ist langwierig und teuer. Der erste Schritt ist hierbei die Suche nach neuen Wirkstoffkandidaten, die für die Behandlung bislang schwer therapierbarer Krankheiten geeignet sind. Hierfür stehen der Pharma- und Biotechnologieindustrie riesige Substanzbibliotheken zur Verfügung. In diesen Bibliotheken werden die unterschiedlichsten Substanzen gesammelt, die entweder synthetisch hergestellt oder aus Pilzen, Bakterienkulturen und anderen Lebewesen gewonnen werden können.

  16. Web-based Recruiting for a Survey on Knowledge and Awareness of Cervical Cancer Prevention Among Young Women Living in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Miyagi, Etsuko; Motoki, Yoko; Asai-Sato, Mikiko; Taguri, Masataka; Morita, Satoshi; Hirahara, Fumiki; Wark, John D.; Garland, Suzanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Cervical cancer (CC) incidence and mortality among young women have been increasing in Japan. To develop effective measures to combat this, we assessed the feasibility of using a social networking site (SNS) to recruit a representative sample of young women to conduct a knowledge and attitude study about CC prevention via an internet-based questionnaire. Methods From July 2012 to March 2013, advertising banners targeting women aged 16 to 35 years in Kanagawa Prefecture were placed on Facebook in a similar manner as an Australian (AUS) study conducted in 16- to 25-year-olds in 2010 and on a homepage to advertise our CC advocacy activities. Eligible participants were emailed instructions for accessing our secure Web site where they completed an online survey including demographics, awareness, and knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and CC. Data for the study population were compared with the general Japanese population and the AUS study. Results Among 394 women who expressed interest, 243 (62%) completed the survey, with 52% completing it via Facebook. Women aged 26 to 35 years, living in Yokohama City, with an education beyond high school, were overrepresented. Participants had high awareness and knowledge of HPV and CC, comparable with the AUS study participants. However, the self-reported HPV vaccination rate (22% among participants aged 16–25 years) and the recognition rate of the link between smoking and CC (31%) were significantly lower than in the AUS study (58% and 43%, respectively) (P < 0.05). Significant predictors of high knowledge scores about HPV included awareness of HPV vaccine (P < 0.001) and self-reported HPV vaccination (P < 0.05). Conclusions The SNS and homepage are efficient methods to recruit young women into health surveys, which can effectively be performed online. A nationwide survey using SNSs would be an appropriate next step to better understand the current lack of uptake of the national HPV vaccine program by young women

  17. Traits and QTLs for development of dry direct-seeded rainfed rice varieties.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Nitika; Torres, Rolando O; Sta Cruz, Ma Teresa; Maturan, Paul Cornelio; Jain, Rajinder; Kumar, Arvind; Henry, Amelia

    2015-01-01

    The development of rice varieties for dry direct-seeded conditions can be accelerated by selecting suitable traits. In the present investigation, traits hypothesized to be important for direct-seeded conditions in rainfed systems, including seedling emergence, early vegetative vigour, nutrient uptake, nodal root number, and root hair length and density, were characterized to study the genetic control of these traits and their relationship with grain yield under seedling- and reproductive-stage drought stress. Two BC₂F₄ mapping populations derived from crosses of Aus276, a drought-tolerant aus variety, with MTU1010 and IR64, high-yielding indica mega-varieties, were developed and studied to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that showed large and consistent effects. A total of 26 QTLs associated with 23 traits and 20 QTLs associated with 13 traits were mapped in the Aus276/3*IR64 and Aus276/3*MTU1010 populations, respectively. qGY₆.₁, qGY₁₀.₁, qGY₁.₁, and qEVV₉.₁ were found to be effective in both populations under a wide range of conditions. QTLs for several seedling-stage traits co-located with QTLs for grain yield, including early vegetative vigour and root hair length. On chromosome 5, several QTLs for nutrient uptake co-located with QTLs for root hair density and nematode gall rating. Six lines were selected from both populations based on grain yield and the presence of QTLs, and these lines typically showed improved seedling-stage traits (nodal root number, dry shoot weight, and root hair length and density). The co-located QTLs identified here can be used in research aimed at increasing the yield and adaptability of rainfed rice to direct-seeded conditions. PMID:25336682

  18. Traits and QTLs for development of dry direct-seeded rainfed rice varieties

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Nitika; Torres, Rolando O.; Sta Cruz, Ma. Teresa; Maturan, Paul Cornelio; Jain, Rajinder; Kumar, Arvind; Henry, Amelia

    2015-01-01

    The development of rice varieties for dry direct-seeded conditions can be accelerated by selecting suitable traits. In the present investigation, traits hypothesized to be important for direct-seeded conditions in rainfed systems, including seedling emergence, early vegetative vigour, nutrient uptake, nodal root number, and root hair length and density, were characterized to study the genetic control of these traits and their relationship with grain yield under seedling- and reproductive-stage drought stress. Two BC2F4 mapping populations derived from crosses of Aus276, a drought-tolerant aus variety, with MTU1010 and IR64, high-yielding indica mega-varieties, were developed and studied to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that showed large and consistent effects. A total of 26 QTLs associated with 23 traits and 20 QTLs associated with 13 traits were mapped in the Aus276/3*IR64 and Aus276/3*MTU1010 populations, respectively. qGY6.1, qGY10.1, qGY1.1, and qEVV9.1 were found to be effective in both populations under a wide range of conditions. QTLs for several seedling-stage traits co-located with QTLs for grain yield, including early vegetative vigour and root hair length. On chromosome 5, several QTLs for nutrient uptake co-located with QTLs for root hair density and nematode gall rating. Six lines were selected from both populations based on grain yield and the presence of QTLs, and these lines typically showed improved seedling-stage traits (nodal root number, dry shoot weight, and root hair length and density). The co-located QTLs identified here can be used in research aimed at increasing the yield and adaptability of rainfed rice to direct-seeded conditions. PMID:25336682

  19. Slings in iatrogenic male incontinence: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Fabrizio; Schenone, M.; Giberti, C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The increasing number of prostatectomies entails an increasing number of patients suffering from iatrogenic incontinence despite improved surgical techniques. The severity of this problem often requires invasive treatments such as periurethral injection of bulking agents, artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) implantation, and sub-urethral sling positioning. The artificial urethral sphincter has represented, until today, the gold standard but, in the recent years, sling systems have been investigated as minimally invasive alternative options. Today, three different sling procedures are commonly performed: bone-anchored, readjustable, and trans-obturator slings systems. The aim of this review is to critically report the current status of sling systems in the treatment of iatrogenic male incontinence. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and PubMed databases were searched and all articles between 1974 and 2009 were evaluated. Results: With regard to bone-anchored, readjustable, and trans-obturator slings systems, cure rates ranged between 58.0% and 86.0%, 55.5% and 73.0%, and 40.0% and 63.0%, respectively, while major complication rates ranged between 0 and 14.5%, 10.0 and 22.2%, and 0 and 10.0%, respectively. Conclusions: Suburethral slings are the only alternative techniques which can be favorably compared with the AUS, showing more advantages with respect to AUS implantations which are mainly represented by a quick and less invasive approach, low morbidity, and low costs. In spite of the difficulty in identifying the most effective sling procedure, overall, sling systems can be recommended for patients with persistent mild or moderate incontinence. However, the indication can also be extended to patients with severe incontinence, after appropriate counseling, allowing AUS implantation in the event of sling failure. PMID:20877609

  20. Physikgeschichte Das Rätsel bleibt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter

    2002-05-01

    Die jüngst erfolgte Veröffentlichung von Dokumenten aus dem Privatarchiv der Familie Bohr [1] über den geheimnisumwitterten Besuch von Werner Heisenberg in Kopenhagen im September 1941 hat in den deutschen Medien große Resonanz gefunden [2]. Tatsächlich verraten uns die jetzt veröffentlichten Dokumente sehr viel mehr über die Zeit ihres Entstehens als über den Besuch selbst.

  1. The Power of Inbreeding: NGS-Based GWAS of Rice Reveals Convergent Evolution during Rice Domestication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongru; Xu, Xun; Vieira, Filipe Garrett; Xiao, Yunhua; Li, Zhikang; Wang, Jun; Nielsen, Rasmus; Chu, Chengcai

    2016-07-01

    Low-coverage whole-genome sequencing is an effective strategy for genome-wide association studies in humans, due to the availability of large reference panels for genotype imputation. However, it is unclear whether this strategy can be utilized in other species without reference panels. Using simulations, we show that this approach is even more relevant in inbred species such as rice (Oryza sativa L.), which are effectively haploid, allowing easy haplotype construction and imputation-based genotype calling, even without the availability of large reference panels. We sequenced 203 rice varieties with well-characterized phenotypes from the United States Department of Agriculture Rice Mini-Core Collection at an average depth of 1.5× and used the data for mapping three traits. For the first two traits, amylose content and seed length, our approach leads to direct identification of the previously identified causal SNPs in the major-effect loci. For the third trait, pericarp color, an important trait underwent selection during domestication, we identified a new major-effect locus. Although known loci can explain color variation in the varieties of two main subspecies of Asian domesticated rice, japonica and indica, the new locus identified is unique to another domesticated rice subgroup, aus, and together with existing loci, can fully explain the major variation in pericarp color in aus. Our discovery of a unique genetic basis of white pericarp in aus provides an example of convergent evolution during rice domestication and suggests that aus may have a domestication history independent of japonica and indica. PMID:27179918

  2. Meyers Großer Sternenatlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunier, Serge; Fujii, Akira

    Unendliche Weiten mal ganz aus der Nähe betrachtet. Meyers Großer Sternenatlas ist ein außergewöhnlicher Bildband über den Sternenhimmel, der die Sternbilder erstmals im gleichen Größenverhältnis zeigt, wie sie am Himmel erscheinen. Die sensationellen Astrofotos und aktuellen Aufnahmen des Hubble-Weltraumteleskops werden Gelegenheitsbeobachter und Hobbyastronomen gleichermaßen begeistern.

  3. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Monterey Formation, San Joaquin Basin Province, California, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Lillis, Paul G.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Whidden, Katherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed mean volumes of 21 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 27 billion cubic feet of gas, and 1 million barrels of natural gas liquids in two assessment units (AUs) that may contain continuous oil resources. Mean volumes of oil for the individual assessment units are 14 MMBO in the Monterey Buttonwillow AU and 7 MMBO in the Monterey Maricopa AU.

  4. Physik gestern und heute Vom Arbeitshaus zur Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In der letzten Ausgabe stellten wir einige Arbeiten des Grafen von Rumford vor. Unter seinen vielfältigen Entwicklungen findet sich auch die Beschreibung eines der ersten Photometer. Diese Arbeiten aus dem Jahre 1792 führten letztlich zu einer Definition der Lichtstärke, die lange Zeit gebräuchlich war. Rumfords Konzept der Standardkerze findet sich heute unter anderem in der Astronomie wieder.

  5. Revisiting the S-Au(111) interaction: Static or Dynamic?

    SciTech Connect

    Biener, M M; Biener, J; Friend, C M

    2004-08-17

    The chemical inertness typically observed for Au does not imply a general inability to form stable bonds with non-metals but is rather a consequence of high reaction barriers. The Au-S interaction is probably the most intensively studied interaction of Au surfaces with non-metals as, for example, it plays an important role in Au ore formation, and controls the structure and dynamics of thiol-based self-assembled-monolayers (SAMs). In recent years a quite complex picture of the interaction of sulfur with Au(111) surfaces emerged, and a variety of S-induced surface structures was reported under different conditions. The majority of these structures were interpreted in terms of a static Au surface, where the positions of the Au atoms remain essentially unperturbed. Here we demonstrate that the Au(111) surface exhibits a very dynamic character upon interaction with adsorbed sulfur: low sulfur coverages modify the surface stress of the Au surface leading to lateral expansion of the surface layer; large-scale surface restructuring and incorporation of Au atoms into a growing two-dimensional AuS phase were observed with increasing sulfur coverage. These results provide new insight into the Au-S surface chemistry, and reveal the dynamic character of the Au(111) surface.

  6. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.10 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Both conventional oil and gas resources and continuous (unconventional) gas resources are present in the UticaLower Paleozoic TPS. Conventional oil and gas resources in the Utica-Lower Paleozoic TPS were assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2002 in the following assessment units (AU): (1) the Lower Paleozoic Carbonates in Thrust Belt AU, (2) the Knox Unconformity AU, (3) the Black River-Trenton Hydrothermal Dolomite AU, and (4) the Lockport Dolomite AU. The total estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources for these four AUs, at a mean value, was about 46 million barrels of oil (MMBO) and about 3 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG), respectively. In contrast, continuous (unconventional) gas resources in the TPS were assessed by the USGS in 2002 in four AUs associated with the “Clinton” sandstone, Medina sandstone, Medina Group sandstones, Tuscarora Sandstone, and sandstones in the Queenston Shale. The total estimated undiscovered gas for these four AUs, at a mean value, was about 26.8 TCFG. A hypothetical Utica Shale AU for oil(?) and continuous gas is identified in this report. In 2012, the Utica Shale was recognized by the USGS as a continuous AU and was assessed by Kirschbaum and others (2012).

  7. Gestresste Haut? - Aktueller Stand molekularer psychosomatischer Zusammenhänge und ihr Beitrag zu Ursachen und Folgen dermatologischer Erkrankungen.

    PubMed

    Peters, Eva M J

    2016-03-01

    In den 70er Jahren des vergangenen Jahrhunderts wurde zum ersten Mal ein pathogenetisch relevanter Zusammenhang zwischen Stress, im Sinne von psychosozialem Stress, und Krankheit am Beispiel von viralen Erkrankungen der Schleimhäute (wie Rhinovirus-, Coxsackie-Infektion) nachgewiesen. Seither nehmen Publikationen, die diese Zusammenhänge bis auf die molekulare Ebene erforschen, jährlich zu. Dennoch sind die Evidenzen für einen Einfluss von psychosozialer Belastung auf chronisch-entzündliche Hauterkrankungen und auf Hauttumoren wenig bekannt. In diesem Beitrag fassen wir die aktuellen Erkenntnisse aus Epidemiologie, Psychoneuroimmunologie und molekularer Psychosomatik narrativ zusammen. Sie belegen die vielfältigen krankheitsrelevanten Interaktionen zwischen endokrinem System, Nervensystem und Immunsystem. Im Fokus stehen stressinduzierte Verschiebungen in der Immunbalance bei ausgewählten Erkrankungen wie Neurodermitis, Psoriasis oder malignem Melanom. Ziel dieses Beitrages ist die Vermittlung psychosomatischen Grundlagenwissens bei chronischen Dermatosen. Dies reicht von der Ätiologie über die Symptomatik bis zu den therapeutischen Optionen. Besonderes Augenmerk liegt dabei auf den zugrunde liegenden molekularen Zusammenhängen sowohl aus der somatopsychischen als auch aus der psychosomatischen Perspektive. PMID:26972186

  8. Cost-effectiveness analysis of population-based screening of hepatocellular carcinoma: Comparing ultrasonography with two-stage screening

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ming-Jeng; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Chen, Chi-Ling; Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Lin, Yu-Min; Liao, Chao-Sheng; Chang, Hung-Chuen; Lin, Yueh-Shih; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the cost-effectiveness of two population-based hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening programs, two-stage biomarker-ultrasound method and mass screening using abdominal ultrasonography (AUS). METHODS: In this study, we applied a Markov decision model with a societal perspective and a lifetime horizon for the general population-based cohorts in an area with high HCC incidence, such as Taiwan. The accuracy of biomarkers and ultrasonography was estimated from published meta-analyses. The costs of surveillance, diagnosis, and treatment were based on a combination of published literature, Medicare payments, and medical expenditure at the National Taiwan University Hospital. The main outcome measure was cost per life-year gained with a 3% annual discount rate. RESULTS: The results show that the mass screening using AUS was associated with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of USD39825 per life-year gained, whereas two-stage screening was associated with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of USD49733 per life-year gained, as compared with no screening. Screening programs with an initial screening age of 50 years old and biennial screening interval were the most cost-effective. These findings were sensitive to the costs of screening tools and the specificity of biomarker screening. CONCLUSION: Mass screening using AUS is more cost effective than two-stage biomarker-ultrasound screening. The most optimal strategy is an initial screening age at 50 years old with a 2-year inter-screening interval. PMID:27022228

  9. Multilocus comparative phylogeography of two aristeid shrimps of high commercial interest (Aristeus antennatus and Aristaeomorpha foliacea) reveals different responses to past environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Maria Victoria; Heras, Sandra; Viñas, Jordi; Maltagliati, Ferruccio; Roldán, Maria Inés

    2013-01-01

    Phylogeographical studies can reveal hidden patterns in the evolutionary history of species. Comparative analyses of closely related species can further help disentangle the relative contributions of processes responsible for such patterns. In this work, the phylogeography of two aristeid species, Aristeus antennatus and Aristaeomorpha foliacea, was compared through multiple genetic markers. These marine shrimp species are of high commercial importance, and are exploited in the Mediterranean Sea (MED) and in Mozambique Channel (MOZ) where they occur in partial sympatry. Aristeus antennatus (N = 50) from Western and Eastern Mediterranean (WM and EM, respectively), Atlantic Ocean (AO) and MOZ, and Aristaeomorpha foliacea (N = 40) from WM, EM, MOZ North-Western Australia (AUS) were analyzed with two nuclear genes (PEPCK and NaK) and one mitochondrial (COI) gene. Within the study area differences were found between the two species in their phylogeographical patterns, suggesting distinct responses to environmental changes. Monophyly of Aristeus antennatus was found across its distributional range. This pattern contrasted by a deep evolutionary split within Aristaeomorpha foliacea where genetic diversity followed geography distinguishing MED-MOZ and AUS. We propose that the AUS lineage of A. foliacea warrants consideration as a distinct species, with consequent implications in systematics and resource management. PMID:23516594

  10. Modular System for Neutronics Calculations of Fission Reactors, Fusion Blankets, and Other Systems.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-07-23

    AUS is a neutronics code system which may be used for calculations of a wide range of fission reactors, fusion blankets and other neutron applications. The present version, AUS98, has a nuclear cross section library based on ENDF/B-VI and includes modules which provide for reactor lattice calculations, one-dimensional transport calculations, multi-dimensional diffusion calculations, cell and whole reactor burnup calculations, and flexible editing of results. Calculations of multi-region resonance shielding, coupled neutron and photon transport, energymore » deposition, fission product inventory and neutron diffusion are combined within the one code system. The major changes from the previous release, AUS87, are the inclusion of a cross-section library based on ENDF/B-VI, the addition of the POW3D multi-dimensional diffusion module, the addition of the MICBURN module for controlling whole reactor burnup calculations, and changes to the system as a consequence of moving from IBM mainframe computers to UNIX workstations.« less

  11. Extremophile microbiomes in acidic and hypersaline river sediments of Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shipeng; Peiffer, Stefan; Lazar, Cassandre Sara; Oldham, Carolyn; Neu, Thomas R; Ciobota, Valerian; Näb, Olga; Lillicrap, Adam; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Küsel, Kirsten

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the microbial community compositions in two sediment samples from the acidic (pH ∼3) and hypersaline (>4.5% NaCl) surface waters, which are widespread in Western Australia. In West Dalyup River, large amounts of NaCl, Fe(II) and sulfate are brought by the groundwater into the surface run-off. The presence of K-jarosite and schwertmannite minerals in the river sediments suggested the occurrence of microbial Fe(II) oxidation because chemical oxidation is greatly reduced at low pH. 16S rRNA gene diversity analyses revealed that sequences affiliated with an uncultured archaeal lineage named Aplasma, which has the genomic potential for Fe(II) oxidation, were dominant in both sediment samples. The acidophilic heterotrophs Acidiphilium and Acidocella were identified as the dominant bacterial groups. Acidiphilium strain AusYE3-1 obtained from the river sediment tolerated up to 6% NaCl at pH 3 under oxic conditions and cells of strain AusYE3-1 reduced the effects of high salt content by forming filamentous structure clumping as aggregates. Neither growth nor Fe(III) reduction by strain AusYE3-1 was observed in anoxic salt-containing medium. The detection of Aplasma group as potential Fe(II) oxidizers and the inhibited Fe(III)-reducing capacity of Acidiphilium contributes to our understanding of the microbial ecology of acidic hypersaline environments. PMID:26524974

  12. Die grünende IT - Wie die Computerindustrie das Energiesparen neu erfand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Greiner, Wilhelm

    Die IT-Branche hat ihr grünes Gewissen entdeckt. In der jetzigen Verbreitung und Intensität ist dieses Phänomen noch recht neu - lange Zeit schien die Informationstechnik in puncto Umweltverträglichkeit und Energieverbrauch eine "weiße Weste" zu haben. Schließlich läuft ein PC mit Strom und nicht mit - sagen wir mal - einem Dieselmotor: Beim Booten eines Computers schießt nicht erst eine dunkelgraue Rauchwolke aus dem Auspuff, die Lärmerzeugung beschränkt sich auf das Surren des Lüfters, zum Tanken fahren muss man mit ihm auch nicht, und die Produktion der Komponenten erfolgt… ja, wo eigentlich? Irgendwo in der "dritten Welt", in Fernost oder in Mexiko. So sind die umweltschädlichen Aspekte der Produktion von Leiterplatten und sonstigen Bauteilen aus den Augen, aus dem Sinn und bestenfalls sporadisch Gegenstand eines kritischen Greenpeace-Berichts1, der im Überangebot der Medienlandschaft untergeht.

  13. Isomorphism and solid solutions among Ag- and Au-selenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palyanova, Galina A.; Seryotkin, Yurii V.; Kokh, Konstantin A.; Bakakin, Vladimir V.

    2016-09-01

    Au-Ag selenides were synthesized by heating stoichiometric mixtures of elementary substances of initial compositions Ag2-xAuxSe with a step of x=0.25 (0≤x≤2) to 1050 °C and annealing at 500 °C. Scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, electron microprobe analysis and X-ray powder diffraction methods have been applied to study synthesized samples. Results of studies of synthesized products revealed the existence of three solid solutions with limited isomorphism Ag↔Au: naumannite Ag2Se - Ag1.94Au0.06Se, fischesserite Ag3AuSe2 - Ag3.2Au0.8Se2 and gold selenide AuSe - Au0.94Ag0.06Se. Solid solutions and AgAuSe phases were added to the phase diagram of Ag-Au-Se system. Crystal-chemical interpretation of Ag-Au isomorphism in selenides was made on the basis of structural features of fischesserite, naumannite, and AuSe.

  14. Impact of the Multi-Gene ThyroSeq Next-Generation Sequencing Assay on Cancer Diagnosis in Thyroid Nodules with Atypia of Undetermined Significance/Follicular Lesion of Undetermined Significance Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Carty, Sally E.; Chiosea, Simon I.; Coyne, Christopher; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar; Ferris, Robert L.; Gooding, William E.; LeBeau, Shane O.; Ohori, N. Paul; Seethala, Raja R.; Tublin, Mitchell E.; Yip, Linwah; Nikiforova, Marina N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is a common approach to evaluate thyroid nodules. It offers definitive diagnosis of a benign or malignant nodule in the majority of cases. However, 10–25% of nodules yield one of three indeterminate cytologic diagnoses, leading to suboptimal management of these patients. Atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undermined significance (AUS/FLUS) is a common indeterminate diagnosis, with the cancer risk ranging from 6% to 48%. This study assessed whether a multi-gene next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay can offer significant improvement in diagnosis in AUS/FLUS nodules. Methods: From May 2014 to March 2015, 465 consecutive FNA samples with the cytologic diagnosis of AUS/FLUS underwent prospective molecular testing using the ThyroSeq v2.1 panel. The panel included 14 genes analyzed for point mutations and 42 types of gene fusions occurring in thyroid cancer. In addition, eight genes were assessed for expression in order to evaluate the cell composition of FNA samples. Ninety-eight (21%) of these nodules had definitive surgical (n = 96) or nonsurgical (n = 2) follow-up and were used to determine the assay performance. Results: Among 465 AUS/FLUS nodules, three were found to be composed of parathyroid cells and 462 of thyroid follicular cells. Of the latter, 31 (6.7%) were positive for mutations. The most frequently mutated genes were NRAS and HRAS, and overall point mutations in seven different genes and five types of gene fusions were identified in these nodules. Among 98 nodules with known outcome, histologic analysis revealed 22 (22.5%) cancers. ThyroSeq v2.1 was able to classify 20/22 cancers correctly, showing a sensitivity of 90.9% [confidence interval (CI) 78.8–100], specificity of 92.1% [CI 86.0–98.2], positive predictive value of 76.9% [CI 60.7–93.1], and negative predictive value of 97.2% [CI 78.8–100], with an overall accuracy of 91.8% [CI 86.4–97.3]. Conclusions: The

  15. Atomic structure of a peptide coated gold nanocluster identified using theoretical and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Li, Xu; Gao, Liang; Zhai, Jiao; Liu, Ru; Gao, Xueyun; Wang, Dongqi; Zhao, Lina

    2016-06-01

    Peptide coated gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) have a precise molecular formula and atomic structure, which are critical for their unique applications in targeting specific proteins either for protein analysis or drug design. To date, a study of the crystal structure of peptide coated AuNCs is absent primarily due to the difficulty of obtaining their crystalline phases in an experiment. Here we study a typical peptide coated AuNC (Au24Peptide8, Peptide = H2N-CCYKKKKQAGDV-COOH, Anal. Chem., 2015, 87, 2546) to figure out its atomic structure and electronic structure using a theoretical method for the first time. In this work, we identify the explicit configuration of the essential structure of Au24Peptide8, Au24(Cys-Cys)8, using density functional theory (DFT) computations and optical spectroscopic experiments, where Cys denotes cysteine without H bonded to S. As the first multidentate ligand binding AuNC, Au24(Cys-Cys)8 is characterized as a distorted Au13 core with Oh symmetry covered by two Au(Cys-Cys) and three Au3(Cys-Cys)2 staple motifs in its atomic structure. The most stable configuration of Au24(Cys-Cys)8 is confirmed by comparing its UV-vis absorption spectrum from time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) calculations with optical absorption measurements, and these results are consistent with each other. Furthermore, we carry out frontier molecular orbital (FMO) calculations to elucidate that the electronic structure of Au24(Cys-Cys)8 is different from that of Au24(SR)20 as they have a different Au/S ratio, where SR represents alkylthiolate. Importantly, the different ligand coatings, Cys-Cys and SR, in Au24(Cys-Cys)8 and Au24(SR)20 cause the different Au/S ratios in the coated Au24. The reason is that the Au/S ratio is crucial in determining the size of the Au core of the ligand protected AuNC, and the size of the Au core corresponds to a specific electronic structure. By the adjustment of ligand coatings from alkylthiolate to peptide, the Au/S ratio

  16. Identification and mapping of stable QTL with main and epistasis effect on rice grain yield under upland drought stress

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Drought is one of the most important abiotic stresses that cause drastic reduction in rice grain yield (GY) in rainfed environments. The identification and introgression of QTL leading to high GY under drought have been advocated to be the preferred breeding strategy to improve drought tolerance of popular rice varieties. Genetic control of GY under reproductive-stage drought stress (RS) was studied in two BC1F4 mapping populations derived from crosses of Kali Aus, a drought-tolerant aus cultivar, with high-yielding popular varieties MTU1010 and IR64. The aim was to identify QTL for GY under RS that show a large and consistent effect for the trait. Bulk segregant analysis (BSA) was used to identify significant markers putatively linked with high GY under drought. Results QTL analysis revealed major-effect GY QTL: qDTY 1.2 , qDTY 2.2 and qDTY 1.3 , qDTY 2.3 (DTY; Drought grain yield) under drought consistently over two seasons in Kali Aus/2*MTU1010 and Kali Aus/2*IR64 populations, respectively. qDTY 1.2 and qDTY 2.2 explained an additive effect of 288 kg ha−1 and 567 kg ha−1 in Kali Aus/2*MTU1010, whereas qDTY 1.3 and qDTY 2.3 explained an additive effect of 198 kg ha−1 and 147 kg ha−1 in Kali Aus/2*IR64 populations, respectively. Epistatic interaction was observed for DTF (days to flowering) between regions on chromosome 2 flanked by markers RM154–RM324 and RM263–RM573 and major epistatic QTL for GY showing interaction between genomic locations on chromosome 1 at marker interval RM488–RM315 and chromosome 2 at RM324–RM263 in 2012 DS and 2013 DS RS in Kali Aus/2*IR64 mapping populations. Conclusion The QTL, qDTY 1.2 , qDTY 1.3 , qDTY 2.2 , and qDTY 2.3, identified in this study can be used to improve GY of mega varieties MTU1010 and IR64 under different degrees of severity of drought stress through marker-aided backcrossing and provide farmers with improved varieties that effectively combine high yield potential with good yield

  17. Atomic structure of a peptide coated gold nanocluster identified using theoretical and experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Li, Xu; Gao, Liang; Zhai, Jiao; Liu, Ru; Gao, Xueyun; Wang, Dongqi; Zhao, Lina

    2016-06-01

    Peptide coated gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) have a precise molecular formula and atomic structure, which are critical for their unique applications in targeting specific proteins either for protein analysis or drug design. To date, a study of the crystal structure of peptide coated AuNCs is absent primarily due to the difficulty of obtaining their crystalline phases in an experiment. Here we study a typical peptide coated AuNC (Au24Peptide8, Peptide = H2N-CCYKKKKQAGDV-COOH, Anal. Chem., 2015, 87, 2546) to figure out its atomic structure and electronic structure using a theoretical method for the first time. In this work, we identify the explicit configuration of the essential structure of Au24Peptide8, Au24(Cys-Cys)8, using density functional theory (DFT) computations and optical spectroscopic experiments, where Cys denotes cysteine without H bonded to S. As the first multidentate ligand binding AuNC, Au24(Cys-Cys)8 is characterized as a distorted Au13 core with Oh symmetry covered by two Au(Cys-Cys) and three Au3(Cys-Cys)2 staple motifs in its atomic structure. The most stable configuration of Au24(Cys-Cys)8 is confirmed by comparing its UV-vis absorption spectrum from time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) calculations with optical absorption measurements, and these results are consistent with each other. Furthermore, we carry out frontier molecular orbital (FMO) calculations to elucidate that the electronic structure of Au24(Cys-Cys)8 is different from that of Au24(SR)20 as they have a different Au/S ratio, where SR represents alkylthiolate. Importantly, the different ligand coatings, Cys-Cys and SR, in Au24(Cys-Cys)8 and Au24(SR)20 cause the different Au/S ratios in the coated Au24. The reason is that the Au/S ratio is crucial in determining the size of the Au core of the ligand protected AuNC, and the size of the Au core corresponds to a specific electronic structure. By the adjustment of ligand coatings from alkylthiolate to peptide, the Au/S ratio

  18. General synthetic approach to heterostructured nanocrystals based on noble metals and I-VI, II-VI, and I-III-VI metal chalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Minghui; Zeng, Hua Chun

    2014-08-19

    Solid metal precursors (alloys or monometals) can serve both as a starting template and as a source material for chemical transformation to metal chalcogenides. Herein, we develop a simple solution-based strategy to obtain highly monodisperse noble-metal-based heterostructured nanocrystals from such precursor seeds. By utilizing chemical and structural inhomogeneity of these metal seeds, in this work, we have synthesized a total of five I-VI (Ag2S, Ag2Se, Ag3AuS2, Ag3AuSe2, and Cu9S5), three II-VI (CdS, CdSe, and CuSe), and four I-III-VI (AgInS2, AgInSe2, CuInS2, and CuInSe2) chalcogenides, together with their fifteen associated heterodimers (Au-Ag2S, Au-Ag2Se, Au-Ag3AuS2, Au-Ag3AuSe2, Au-AgInS2, Au-AgInSe2, Au-CdS, Au-CdSe, Ag-Ag2S, Ag-AgInS2, Au-Cu9S5, Au-CuInS2, Au-CuSe, Au-CuInSe2, and Pt-AgInS2) to affirm the process generality. Briefly, by adding elemental sulfur or selenium to AuAg alloy seeds and tuning the reaction conditions, we can readily obtain phase-pure Au-Ag2S, Au-Ag2Se, Au-Ag3AuS2, and Au-Ag3AuSe2 heterostructures. Similarly, we can also fabricate Au-AgInS2 and Au-AgInSe2 heterostructures from the AuAg seeds by adding sulfur/selenium and indium precursors. Furthermore, by partial or full conversion of Ag seeds, we can prepare both single-phase Ag chalcogenide nanocrystals and Ag-based heterostructures. To demonstrate wide applicability of this strategy, we have also synthesized Au-based binary and ternary Cu chalcogenide (Au-Cu9S5, Au-CuSe, Au-CuInS2, and Au-CuInSe2) heterostructures from alloy seeds of AuCu and Pt chalcogenides (e.g., Pt-AgInS2) from alloy seeds of PtAg. The structure and composition of the above products have been confirmed with X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods. A kinetic investigation of the formation mechanism of these heterostructures is brought forward using Au-AgInS2 and Ag-CuInS2 as model examples. PMID

  19. Aurone synthase is a catechol oxidase with hydroxylase activity and provides insights into the mechanism of plant polyphenol oxidases.

    PubMed

    Molitor, Christian; Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Rompel, Annette

    2016-03-29

    Tyrosinases and catechol oxidases belong to the family of polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). Tyrosinases catalyze theo-hydroxylation and oxidation of phenolic compounds, whereas catechol oxidases were so far defined to lack the hydroxylation activity and catalyze solely the oxidation of o-diphenolic compounds. Aurone synthase from Coreopsis grandiflora (AUS1) is a specialized plant PPO involved in the anabolic pathway of aurones. We present, to our knowledge, the first crystal structures of a latent plant PPO, its mature active and inactive form, caused by a sulfation of a copper binding histidine. Analysis of the latent proenzyme's interface between the shielding C-terminal domain and the main core provides insights into its activation mechanisms. As AUS1 did not accept common tyrosinase substrates (tyrosine and tyramine), the enzyme is classified as a catechol oxidase. However, AUS1 showed hydroxylase activity toward its natural substrate (isoliquiritigenin), revealing that the hydroxylase activity is not correlated with the acceptance of common tyrosinase substrates. Therefore, we propose that the hydroxylase reaction is a general functionality of PPOs. Molecular dynamics simulations of docked substrate-enzyme complexes were performed, and a key residue was identified that influences the plant PPO's acceptance or rejection of tyramine. Based on the evidenced hydroxylase activity and the interactions of specific residues with the substrates during the molecular dynamics simulations, a novel catalytic reaction mechanism for plant PPOs is proposed. The presented results strongly suggest that the physiological role of plant catechol oxidases were previously underestimated, as they might hydroxylate their--so far unknown--natural substrates in vivo. PMID:26976571

  20. Halorubrum chaoviator sp. nov., a haloarchaeon isolated from sea salt in Baja California, Mexico, Western Australia and Naxos, Greece.

    PubMed

    Mancinelli, Rocco L; Landheim, Ragnhild; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer, Marion; Gruber, Claudia; Legat, Andrea; Ventosa, Antonio; Radax, Christian; Ihara, Kunio; White, Melisa R; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    2009-08-01

    Three halophilic isolates, strains Halo-G*T, AUS-1 and Naxos II, were compared. Halo-G* was isolated from an evaporitic salt crystal from Baja California, Mexico, whereas AUS-1 and Naxos II were isolated from salt pools in Western Australia and the Greek island of Naxos, respectively. Halo-G*T had been exposed previously to conditions of outer space and survived 2 weeks on the Biopan facility. Chemotaxonomic and molecular comparisons suggested high similarity between the three strains. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the strains clustered with Halorubrum species, showing sequence similarities of 99.2-97.1%. The DNA-DNA hybridization values of strain Halo-G*T and strains AUS-1 and Naxos II are 73 and 75%, respectively, indicating that they constitute a single species. The DNA relatedness between strain Halo-G*T and the type strains of 13 closely related species of the genus Halorubrum ranged from 39 to 2%, suggesting that the three isolates constitute a different genospecies. The G+C content of the DNA of the three strains was 65.5-66.5 mol%. All three strains contained C20C20 derivatives of diethers of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglyceromethylphosphate and phosphatidylglycerolsulfate, together with a sulfated glycolipid. On the basis of these results, a novel species that includes the three strains is proposed, with the name Halorubrum chaoviator sp. nov. The type strain is strain Halo-G*T (=DSM 19316T=NCIMB 14426T=ATCC BAA-1602T). PMID:19567575

  1. Core Needle Biopsy Is a More Conclusive Follow-up Method Than Repeat Fine Needle Aspiration for Thyroid Nodules with Initially Inconclusive Results: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pyo, Jung-Soo; Sohn, Jin Hee; Kang, Guhyun

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the appropriate management of thyroid nodules with prior non-diagnostic or atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: This study included 4,235 thyroid nodules from 26 eligible studies. We investigated the conclusive rate of follow-up core needle biopsy (CNB) or repeat fine needle aspiration (rFNA) after initial fine needle aspiration (FNA) with non-diagnostic or AUS/FLUS results. A diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) review was performed to determine the diagnostic role of the follow-up CNB and to calculate the area under the curve (AUC) on the summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve. Results: The conclusive rates of follow-up CNB and rFNA after initial FNA were 0.879 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.801 to 0.929) and 0.684 (95% CI, 0.627 to 0.736), respectively. In comparison of the odds ratios of CNB and rFNA, CNB had more frequent conclusive results than rFNA (odds ratio, 5.707; 95% CI, 2.530 to 12.875). Upon subgroup analysis, follow-up CNB showed a higher conclusive rate than rFNA in both initial non-diagnostic and AUS/FLUS subgroups. In DTA review of followup CNB, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.94 (95% CI, 0.88 to 0.97) and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.91), respectively. The AUC for the SROC curve was 0.981, nearing 1. Conclusions: Our results show that CNB has a higher conclusive rate than rFNA when the initial FNA produced inconclusive results. Further prospective studies with more detailed criteria are necessary before follow-up CNB can be applied in daily practice. PMID:27077724

  2. Diagnostic value of BRAFV600E-mutation analysis in fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xingyun; Jiang, Xiaoxia; Xu, Xin; Wang, Weibin; Teng, Xiaodong; Shao, Anwen; Teng, Lisong

    2016-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a reliable method for preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules; however, about 10%–40% nodules are classified as indeterminate. The BRAFV600E mutation is the most promising marker for thyroid FNA. This meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the diagnostic value of BRAFV600E analysis in thyroid FNA, especially the indeterminate cases. Systematic searches were performed in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Ovid, Elsevier, and the Cochrane Library databases for relevant studies prior to June 2015, and a total of 88 studies were ultimately included in this meta-analysis. Compared with FNA cytology, the synergism of BRAFV600E testing increased the diagnostic sensitivity from 81.4% to 87.4% and decreased the false-negative rate from 8% to 5.2%. In the indeterminate group, the mutation rate of BRAFV600E was 23% and varied in different subcategories (43.2% in suspicious for malignant cells [SMC], 13.77% in atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance [AUS/FLUS], and 4.43% in follicular neoplasm/suspicious for follicular neoplasm [FN/SFN]). The sensitivity of BRAFV600E analysis was higher in SMC than that in AUS/FLUS and FN/SFN cases (59.4% vs 40.1% vs 19.5% respectively), while specificity was opposite (86.1% vs 99.5% vs 99.7% respectively). The areas under the summary receiver-operating characteristic curve also confirmed the diagnostic value of BRAFV600E testing in SMC and AUS/FLUS rather than FN/SFN cases. Therefore, BRAFV600E analysis can improve the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid FNA, especially indeterminate cases classified as SMC, and select malignancy to guide the extent of surgery. PMID:27175084

  3. Spontaneous gradual accumulation of hexagonally-aligned nano-silica on gold nanoparticles embedded in stabilized zirconia: a pathway from catalytic to NH3-sensing performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plashnitsa, Vladimir V.; Elumalai, Perumal; Fujio, Yuki; Kawaguchi, Toshikazu; Miura, Norio

    2011-05-01

    The present study highlights the influence of nano-impurities on the catalytic/sensing performance of nano-structured Au sensing-electrodes (SEs) housed in a quartz reactor and operated at high temperature over a long period of time. The planar sensor, made from a nano-structured Au-SE on a polished-polycrystalline (pp) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate exhibited initially negligible electromotive force (emf) response to each of the examined gases (CO, CH4, C3H8, C3H6, NOx and NH3; 400 ppm each) at 700 °C in the presence of 5 vol.% oxygen and 5 vol.% water vapor. Such a poor emf response was attributed to the excellent gas-phase oxidation/reduction ability of Au nanoparticles embedded in the YSZ substrate at high temperature. The response of the planar sensor made up of nano-structured Au-SE was monitored for about 75 days at 700 °C. As a result of this long-term monitoring, we detected the appearance of highly sensitive and selective NH3 gas-sensing properties after 45-75 days of sensor operation. Detailed observation of the morphology and composition of the as-fabricated nano-structured Au-SE after 75 days operation at 700 °C revealed the gradual accumulation of hexagonally-aligned SiO2 nano-impurities on the surface of the Au nanoparticles. The NH3 sensing mechanism of the YSZ-based sensor using the spontaneously-formed composite (nano-Au + nano-SiO2)-SE is therefore proposed to be based on a strong acid-base interaction between gaseous NH3 and SiO2 nano-impurities, followed by spillover of adsorbed NH3 towards the nano-Au/pp-YSZ interface.

  4. Aurone synthase is a catechol oxidase with hydroxylase activity and provides insights into the mechanism of plant polyphenol oxidases

    PubMed Central

    Molitor, Christian; Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosinases and catechol oxidases belong to the family of polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). Tyrosinases catalyze the o-hydroxylation and oxidation of phenolic compounds, whereas catechol oxidases were so far defined to lack the hydroxylation activity and catalyze solely the oxidation of o-diphenolic compounds. Aurone synthase from Coreopsis grandiflora (AUS1) is a specialized plant PPO involved in the anabolic pathway of aurones. We present, to our knowledge, the first crystal structures of a latent plant PPO, its mature active and inactive form, caused by a sulfation of a copper binding histidine. Analysis of the latent proenzyme’s interface between the shielding C-terminal domain and the main core provides insights into its activation mechanisms. As AUS1 did not accept common tyrosinase substrates (tyrosine and tyramine), the enzyme is classified as a catechol oxidase. However, AUS1 showed hydroxylase activity toward its natural substrate (isoliquiritigenin), revealing that the hydroxylase activity is not correlated with the acceptance of common tyrosinase substrates. Therefore, we propose that the hydroxylase reaction is a general functionality of PPOs. Molecular dynamics simulations of docked substrate–enzyme complexes were performed, and a key residue was identified that influences the plant PPO’s acceptance or rejection of tyramine. Based on the evidenced hydroxylase activity and the interactions of specific residues with the substrates during the molecular dynamics simulations, a novel catalytic reaction mechanism for plant PPOs is proposed. The presented results strongly suggest that the physiological role of plant catechol oxidases were previously underestimated, as they might hydroxylate their—so far unknown—natural substrates in vivo. PMID:26976571

  5. Halorubrum chaoviator sp. nov., a haloarchaeon isolated from sea salt in Baja California, Mexico, Western Australia and Naxos, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Mancinelli, Rocco L.; Landheim, Ragnhild; Sanchez-Porro, Cristina; Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer, Marion; Gruber, Claudia; Legat, Andrea; Ventosa, Antonio; Radax, Christian; Ihara, Kunio; White, Melisa R.; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    2011-01-01

    Three halophilic isolates, strains Halo-G*T, AUS-1 and Naxos II, were compared. Halo-G* was isolated from an evaporitic salt crystal from Baja California, Mexico, whereas AUS-1 and Naxos II were isolated from salt pools in Western Australia and the Greek island of Naxos, respectively. Halo-G*T had been exposed previously to conditions of outer space and survived 2 weeks on the Biopan facility. Chemotaxonomic and molecular comparisons suggested high similarity between the three strains. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the strains clustered with Halorubrum species, showing sequence similarities of 99.2–97.1 %. The DNA–DNA hybridization values of strain Halo-G*T and strains AUS-1 and Naxos II are 73 and 75 %, respectively, indicating that they constitute a single species. The DNA relatedness between strain Halo-G*T and the type strains of 13 closely related species of the genus Halorubrum ranged from 39 to 2 %, suggesting that the three isolates constitute a different genospecies. The G+C content of the DNA of the three strains was 65.5–66.5 mol%. All three strains contained C20C20 derivatives of diethers of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglyceromethylphosphate and phosphatidylglycerolsulfate, together with a sulfated glycolipid. On the basis of these results, a novel species that includes the three strains is proposed, with the name Halorubrum chaoviator sp. nov. The type strain is strain Halo-G*T (=DSM 19316T =NCIMB 14426T =ATCC BAA-1602T). PMID:19567575

  6. Die Welt des Herrn Kuhn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Daniela

    Eines Morgens erwachte Herr Kuhn fröstelnd und staunte darüber, dass es in seinerWohnung eiskalt war. Dennoch quälte er sich aus seiner kuscheligen Bettdecke heraus und schlurfte ins Bad. "Hoffentlich wird wenigstens das Wasser warm", dachte er sich, als er den Wasserhahn betätigte - aber es kam nicht nur kein warmesWasser, außer einem unheilvollen Gluckser kam gar nichts aus der Leitung. "Dann werde ich wohl mal den Klempner anrufen", sprach er sich leise in den Bart und griff zu seinem Handy - doch das Netz war tot! Herr Kuhn begann nun, sich ernsthaft Sorgen zu machen, "Oje, was ist denn heute nur los? Ist irgendetwas Schlimmes passiert?" Um einen besseren Überblick über die Lage zu bekommen und sich austauschen zu können, brannte er nun förmlich darauf, rauszugehen und zur Arbeit zu fahren. An anderen Tagen, die er frisch geduscht und mit Kaffee und Marmeladen-Brot begann, war er selten so motiviert. So ging er also nun mit leerem Magen aus dem Haus. Hätte er den Versuch unternommen, sein tägliches Marmeladenbrot zuzubereiten, und dafür den Kühlschrank geöffnet, um das Marmeladenglas herauszunehmen, wäre ihm aufgefallen, dass auch die Stromversorgung Störungen unterworfen war, unschön zu erkennen an den ersten grünen, felligen Inseln auf seinem Lieblingskäse.

  7. Combined use of conventional smear and liquid-based preparation versus conventional smear for thyroid fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Yeon; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwon, Hyeong Ju; Song, Mi Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the diagnostic utility of the combined conventional smear (CS) and liquid-based preparation (LBP) compared to CS with respect to the non-diagnostic rate, the atypia of undetermined significance (AUS) or follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS) rate, and the diagnostic performances for malignancy. This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board, and the need to obtain informed consent was waived. In our institution, thyroid FNAs were processed with CS before October 2012, and LBP has been used in combination with CS after October 2012. On-site evaluation for the adequacy of CS was not performed. This study included nodules 5 mm or larger with FNAs performed by faculties: 811 nodules in 773 patients for CS, and 926 nodules in 894 patients for combined CS and LBP. Nodules with surgery or either benign or malignancy cytology on initial or repeat FNA were regarded to have the reference standards needed to calculate diagnostic performances. The proportion of Bethesda categories and diagnostic performances were compared between the two groups with z test. The non-diagnostic rate, the AUS or FLUS rate, and the diagnostic performances for malignancy were similar (All P > 0.05). The follicular neoplasm (FN) or suspicious for FN rate decreased from 1.2 to 0.3 % (P = 0.034). The benign rate increased from 51.4 to 57.0 % (P = 0.019). Combined CS and LBP decreased FN or suspicious for FN diagnoses, and increased benign diagnoses compared to CS with comparable non-diagnostic rates and AUS or FLUS rates, and comparable diagnostic performances. PMID:26714459

  8. Vom Urknall zum Durchknall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unzicker, Alexander

    Lautstarker Applaus erhob sich im Salon III/IV des Marriott-Hotels von Crystal City im amerikanischen Bundesstaat Virginia. In dem überfüllten Konferenzraum starrten alle wie gebannt auf die Leinwand, wo nicht mehr zu sehen war als ein nüchternes Diagramm aus zahlreichen Punkten und einer geschwungenen Kurve. Nureine eigenartige Personengruppe konnte sich davon zu Emotionen hinreißen lassen - Physiker auf der Jahrestagung der Astronomischen Gesellschaft, die ihren Begeisterungssturm noch minutenlang fortsetzten. Was war geschehen? Die im Diagramm aufgetragenen Daten bestätigten mit einer nie da gewesenen Genauigkeit ein fundamentales Naturgesetz zur Wärmeabstrahlung von heißen Körpern. 1900 von Max Planck entdeckt, leuchtete es nun in geradezu mathematischer Reinheit auf. Noch sensationeller war der Ursprung der Daten - Mikrowellensignale verschiedener Frequenzen, die nicht aus einem irdischen Labor stammten, sondern von einem heißen Urzustand des Universums! Ein Feuerball aus Wasserstoff und Helium, noch ohne jegliche Strukturen, die irgendwann Leben ermöglichen sollten, ließ damals seinem Licht freien Lauf. Mehr als zehn Milliarden Jahre war es bis zu den Detektoren des vom Menschen gebauten Satelliten COBE unterwegs, der wenige Tage zuvor die Daten übertragen hatte. Wenn ich das alles wie einen Film in meiner Vorstellung ablaufen lasse, bekomme ich immer eine Gänsehaut, als würde ich die inzwischen extrem abgekühlte Strahlung tatsächlich spüren. Ihre Gleichverteilung im Raum macht uns auch deutlich, dass wir uns nicht einbilden dürfen, an einem besonderen Ort im Universum zu leben - intelligente Aliens könnten sich seitdem überall entwickelt haben! Sollten sie - was nicht wahrscheinlich ist - uns wirklich von Zeit zu Zeit über die Schulter schauen, dann hätten sie an jenem Nachmittag des 13. Januar 1990, als der Vortrag stattfand, bestimmt anerkennend mit ihrem großen Kopf genickt.

  9. Three Plate Reconstruction in the Eastern Indian Ocean: New Constraints on Wharton and Australian-Antarctic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, J.; Dyment, J.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the continuous seismicity and repeated occurrence of major earthquakes in Sumatra and the neighboring area requires detailed constrains on the subducting plate. In this study we analyze the past plate kinematics evolution of the Wharton basin, eastern Indian Ocean through a three plate reconstruction involving Australia (AUS), Antarctica (ANT), and India (IND). We compile marine magnetic identifications in the Australian-Antarctic Basin [1,2], the Crozet and Central Indian basins (Yatheesh et al, in prep.) and the Wharton Basin [3]. The Wharton Basin is characterized by an extinct spreading center dated by anomaly 18 (38 Ma). The southern flank of the basin exhibits a continuous sequence of anomalies 20n (42 Ma) to 34n (84 Ma), whereas the northern flank lacks some of the older anomalies because a significant part has been subducted in the Sunda Trench. The three-plate reconstructions have provided set of rotation parameters describing the evolution of IND-AUS. Using these parameters, we have reconstructed the missing isochrons of the northern flank and the detailed geometry of the subducted part of the Wharton basin. Such an exercise provides useful constraints on the age and structure of the plate in subduction under Indonesia. As a byproduct, the three plate reconstruction provided set of rotation parameters for AUS-ANT as well, which constrains the conjugate fit between the basins. Previous studies [1,2,4,5] have achieved such a fit on the base of ill-defined fracture zones. We consider the well-defined fracture zones from the Crozet, Central Indian, and Wharton basins, but avoid using the poor fracture zone imprints from the Australian-Antarctic Basin. As a result from this approach, we conclude that the relative motion of AUS with respect to ANT initially followed a north-south direction, then changed to northwest-southeast at anomaly 32ny, and reverted to northeast southwest at anomaly 24no prior to the establishment of the Southeast Indian

  10. Anbindung des SISIS-SunRise-Bibliothekssystems an das zentrale Identitätsmanagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebner, Ralf; Pretz, Edwin

    Wir berichten über Konzepte und Implementierungen zur Datenprovisionierung aus den Personenverwaltungssystemen der Technischen Universität München (TUM) über das zentrale Metadirectory am Leibniz-Rechenzentrum (LRZ) in das SISIS-SunRise-Bibliothekssystem der Universitätsbibliothek der TUM (TUB). Es werden drei Implementierungsvarianten diskutiert, angefangen von der Generierung und Übertragung einfacher CSV-Dateien über ein OpenLDAP-basiertes Konzept als Backend für die SISIS-Datenbank bis zur endgültigen Implementierung mit dem OCLC IDM Connector.

  11. Validation of the Extend Suite of MOD09 and SMAC Processed Reflectance Products for Australian Terrestrial Supersites: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broomhall, M. A.; Chedzey, H. C.; McAtee, B.; Fearns, P.; Lynch, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Australian Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) brings together ecosystem scientists allowing them to collect, contribute, store, integrate data and collaborate across numerous disciplines. The TERN AusCover Facility comprises a national expert network that provides remote sensing data such as satellite-derive biophysical products, advanced remote sensing products and ground-validation information free and online to the research community. TERN and AusCover have collected in situ data for a number of 5 km x 5 km supersites from nearly every state and territory in Australia. These data include spectrophotometer data, sun photometer and ozonometer data, airborne and terrestrial LIDAR data and airborne hyperspectral data. As part of the AusCover facility and in conjunction with Landgate, Western Australia, Curtin University has modified the atmospheric correction and surface reflectance processing scheme from Landgate to process 12 extra MODIS bands to surface reflectance, thus providing 19 bands. This processing scheme uses the Simple Method for Atmospheric Correction (SMAC) to produce reflectance data. Until recently, only the first 7 MODIS bands were available with the MODIS institutional algorithm for surface reflectance, MOD09, but this has altered to now also provide 9 extra bands. MOD09 is based around 6S to produce reflectance data. This case study makes use of hyperspectral airborne data captured over the Credo TERN supersite to compare the surface reflectance products from MOD09 and the SMAC-based 19-band reflectance process. This work required validating the airborne data against a set in situ reflectance measurements of large calibration targets. The validated airborne data were resampled spatially and spectrally to MODIS bands and both the airborne and MODIS data were mapped to the same spatial grid. Direct pixel comparisons have been made between the airborne data and the two algorithms, and between the algorithms themselves. The algorithms

  12. Detection of interstellar pick-up hydrogen in the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloeckler, G.; Geiss, J.; Balsiger, H.; Fisk, L. A.; Galvin, A. B.; Ipavich, F. M.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Von Steiger, R.; Wilken, B.

    1993-01-01

    Interstellar hydrogen ionized primarily by the solar wind has been detected by the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer instrument on the Ulysses spacecraft at a distance of 4.8 AUs from the sun. This 'pick-up' hydrogen is identified by its distinct velocity distribution function, which drops abruptly at twice the local solar wind speed. From the measured fluxes of pick-up protons and singly charged helium, the number densities of neutral hydrogen and helium in the distant regions of the solar system are estimated to be 0.077 +/- 0.015 and 0.013 +/- 0.003 per cu cm, respectively.

  13. XAFS study on structural order in highly monodispersed thiol-stabilized Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Liu, W.; Yang, L.; Huang, T.; Jiang, Y.; Yao, T.; Wei, S.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the influence of thiol on nanoparticle size and structure is essential for the fundamental and applied researches. Here, using x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, we investigate the structural order of Au nanoparticles (NPs) in the protection of thiol ligands with different contents. We found that besides protecting Au NPs against aggregation and growth, thiolates can effectively eliminate the dangling bonds of unsaturated Au atoms, and thus increase the structural order. This work enriches our knowledge of Au-S interface interaction and guides the way towards preparing size-controllable nanoparticles with specific physical/chemical properties.

  14. Carl Friedrich Gauss - General Theory of Terrestrial Magnetism - a revised translation of the German text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassmeier, K.-H.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    2014-02-01

    This is a translation of the Allgemeine Theorie des Erdmagnetismus published by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1839 in the Resultate aus den Beobachtungen des Magnetischen Vereins im Jahre 1838. The current translation is based on an earlier translation by Elizabeth Juliana Sabine published in 1841. This earlier translation has been revised, corrected, and extended. Numerous biographical comments on the scientists named in the original text have been added as well as further information on the observational material used by Carl Friedrich Gauss. An attempt is made to provide a readable text to a wider scientific community, a text laying the foundation of today's understanding of planetary magnetic fields.

  15. The CSM testbed matrix processors internal logic and dataflow descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regelbrugge, Marc E.; Wright, Mary A.

    1988-01-01

    This report constitutes the final report for subtask 1 of Task 5 of NASA Contract NAS1-18444, Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM) Research. This report contains a detailed description of the coded workings of selected CSM Testbed matrix processors (i.e., TOPO, K, INV, SSOL) and of the arithmetic utility processor AUS. These processors and the current sparse matrix data structures are studied and documented. Items examined include: details of the data structures, interdependence of data structures, data-blocking logic in the data structures, processor data flow and architecture, and processor algorithmic logic flow.

  16. Optionsbewertung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenmakers, John

    Seitdem es auf dieser Welt Geld gibt, wird damit gerechnet. Mathematik und Geld sind von daher eng miteinander verknüpft. Dabei sind die Anforderungen an die Rechenkünste gestiegen: Das Einmaleins reicht längst nicht mehr aus, schon gar nicht, wenn es um die Bewertung von Portfolios und komplizierten Finanzkonstrukten (Derivaten) geht. Mathematiker helfen der Finanzindustrie und arbeiten eng mit Banken und Versicherungen zusammen. Sie entwickeln Modelle und Programme, mit denen sich mittels mathematischer Verfahren Risiken und Absicherungsstrategien kompliziert strukturierter Finanzprodukte besser einschätzen lassen.

  17. Von Ringplaneten und schwarzen Löchern. Die Top-Themen der Astronomie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Hans-Ulrich

    Die spannendsten Monatsthemen der letzten Jahre. Wie alt ist das Universum? Woher kommen die Sterne? Beeinflusst der Mond das irdische Leben? Fast jeder mag sich diese und ähnliche Fragen schon einmal gestellt haben. Kurzweilig berichtet Hans-Ulrich Keller von alten Weisheiten und neuen Erkenntnissen aus der Wissenschaft. Mit vielen farbigen Bildern und Illustrationen sind diese "astronomischen Kurzgeschichten" Lesevergnügen und Informationsquelle zugleich. In über 20 Artikeln erfahren Sie z. B. etwas über: Das feurige Schicksal unseres Sonnensystems. Das Rätsel der dunklen Materie. Die Suche nach außerirdischen Intelligenzen.

  18. Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften> " Jahrgang 1990 Sitzungsber.Heidelberg 90 " "Gott hat die Natur einfältig gemacht, sie aber suchen viel Künste"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehe, Horst

    Der Aufsatz demonstriert anhand ausgiebig kommentierter zeitgenössischer Zeugnisse Goethes Reaktion auf die Arbeiten Fraunhofers, insbesondere auf die Entdeckung der dunklen Linien im Sonnenspektrum. Den Fehlurteilen Goethes werden dabei die Urteile zeitgenössischer Physiker wie Chladni und J.F.W. Herschel gegenübergestellt. Bislang noch ungedruckte Dokumente aus dem Weimarer Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv belegen, daß sich Goethe nicht nur literarisch mit Fraunhofer beschäftigte, sondern daß er auch dessen Versuche mit Hilfe des Jenaer Universitätsmechanikers Körner getreulich zu wiederholen suchte.

  19. Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften¬Jahrgang 1990 Sitzungsber.Heidelberg 90¬"Gott hat die Natur einfältig gemacht, sie aber suchen viel Künste"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehe, Horst

    Der Aufsatz demonstriert anhand ausgiebig kommentierter zeitgenössischer Zeugnisse Goethes Reaktion auf die Arbeiten Fraunhofers, insbesondere auf die Entdeckung der dunklen Linien im Sonnenspektrum. Den Fehlurteilen Goethes werden dabei die Urteile zeitgenössischer Physiker wie Chladni und J.F.W. Herschel gegenübergestellt. Bislang noch ungedruckte Dokumente aus dem Weimarer Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv belegen, daß sich Goethe nicht nur literarisch mit Fraunhofer beschäftigte, sondern daß er auch dessen Versuche mit Hilfe des Jenaer Universitätsmechanikers Körner getreulich zu wiederholen suchte.

  20. Terror mit Atomwaffen: reale Gefahr? Nukleare und Radiologische Waffen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigel, Gert G.

    2006-01-01

    Können Terroristen sich nukleare Massenvernichtungswaffen beschaffen? Dazu müssten sie ausreichende Mengen an waffenfähigem, spaltbarem Material stehlen. Selbst der Bau einer primitiven Atombombe erfordert einen hohen technischen Aufwand und Spezialisten. Wahrscheinlicher ist deshalb der Diebstahl einer kleinen taktischen Kernwaffe. Alternativ könnten Terroristen sich radioaktives Material aus zivilen Quellen beschaffen und daraus eine Schmutzige Bombe bauen. Eine solche radiologische Waffe wäre keine echte Massenvernichtungswaffe, doch ihre psychologische Wirkung könnte stark sein. Das macht sie für Terroristen attraktiv, weswegen diese Gefahr ernst genommen werden muss.

  1. A modified form of conjugate gradient method for unconstrained optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghani, Nur Hamizah Abdul; Rivaie, Mohd.; Mamat, Mustafa

    2016-06-01

    Conjugate gradient (CG) methods have been recognized as an interesting technique to solve optimization problems, due to the numerical efficiency, simplicity and low memory requirements. In this paper, we propose a new CG method based on the study of Rivaie et al. [7] (Comparative study of conjugate gradient coefficient for unconstrained Optimization, Aus. J. Bas. Appl. Sci. 5(2011) 947-951). Then, we show that our method satisfies sufficient descent condition and converges globally with exact line search. Numerical results show that our proposed method is efficient for given standard test problems, compare to other existing CG methods.

  2. Limits of quantitation - Yet another suggestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Jill; Wysoczanski, Artur; Voigtman, Edward

    2014-06-01

    The work presented herein suggests that the limit of quantitation concept may be rendered substantially less ambiguous and ultimately more useful as a figure of merit by basing it upon the significant figure and relative measurement error ideas due to Coleman, Auses and Gram, coupled with the correct instantiation of Currie's detection limit methodology. Simple theoretical results are presented for a linear, univariate chemical measurement system with homoscedastic Gaussian noise, and these are tested against both Monte Carlo computer simulations and laser-excited molecular fluorescence experimental results. Good agreement among experiment, theory and simulation is obtained and an easy extension to linearly heteroscedastic Gaussian noise is also outlined.

  3. The influence of gold(i) on the mechanism of thiolate, disulfide exchange.

    PubMed

    Garusinghe, Gamage S P; Bessey, S Max; Bruce, Alice E; Bruce, Mitchell R M

    2016-07-28

    The mechanism of gold(i)-thiolate, disulfide exchange was investigated by using initial-rate kinetic studies, 2D ((1)H-(1)H) ROESY NMR spectroscopy, and electrochemical/chemical techniques. The rate law for exchange is overall second order, first order in gold(i)-thiolate and disulfide. 2D NMR experiments show evidence of association between gold(i)-thiolate and disulfide. Electrochemical/chemical investigations do not show evidence of free thiolate and are consistent with a mechanism involving formation of a [Au-S, S-S], four-centered metallacycle intermediate during gold(i)-thiolate, disulfide exchange. PMID:27353236

  4. Doktor Johannes Häringshauser - Was seine Bücher über ihn erzählen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feola, Vittoria

    2009-06-01

    Die Bibliothek des Dr. Johannes Häringshauser (1603-1642) weist ihren Besitzer als Arzt und Gelehrten mit großem geistigen Horizont aus. Hervorzuheben ist sein Interesse für Astronomie und Astrologie. Neben Werken, die unmittelbar mit seinen Studien in Wien und Padua und den Erfordernissen eines Arztes in Zusammenhang zu bringen sind (Klassiker der Heilkunde genauso wie aktuelle medizinische Publikationen), wird in seiner Büchersammlung eine reiche Palette an Themen abgedeckt: Theologie, Philosophie, Philologie, Politik, Geschichte und Länderkunde.

  5. Herausforderungen durch die deutsche Wiedervereinigung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stäglin, Reiner

    Die Wiedervereinigung stellte auch die Statistik vor große Aufgaben. Die als Organ der staatlichen Planung staatsnah orientierte Statistik der DDR musste auf das zur Neutralität und wissenschaftlichen Unabhängigkeit verpflichtete System der Bundesrepublik umgestellt werden. Ebenso verlangten die Universitäten eine Neuorientierung. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft hat sich vor allem dreier Aufgaben mit großem Engagement, aber auch mit Bedachtsamkeit angenommen: Aufnahme und Integration der Statistiker aus den neuen Bundesländern in die Gesellschaft, Begleitung der Neuausrichtung des Faches Statistik an deren Hochschulen und Sicherung sowie Nutzung von Datenbeständen der ehemaligen DDR.

  6. Kopf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldschmid, Alfred; Maier, Wolfgang; Olsson, Lennart; Piekarski, Nadine

    Die Evolution des Wirbeltierkopfes ist ein klassisches Problemfeld der vergleichend en Morphologie. Bereits J.W. von Goethe (1749-1832) und L. Oken (1779-1851) vertraten die Idee eines aus Segmenten bestehenden Schädels. Die Segmente sollten umgewandelten Wirbeln entsprechen; später wurden auch die Hirnnerven den segmentalen Spinalnerven des Rumpfes gleichgesetzt — Vorstellungen, die vor allem gegen Ende des 19. Jh. auf massive Ablehnung stießen. Die moderne Entwicklungsbiologie zei gt jedoch, dass zumindest Teile des Kopfes in ihrer Entwicklung eine deutliche Segmentierung aufweisen.

  7. Mathematik semantologisch verstehen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wille, Rudolf

    Um zu verstehen, was Mathematik ist und bedeutet, reicht es nicht aus, mathematisches Denken und Wissen vielseitig zu erwerben. Hinzukommen muss stets ein angemessenes Verständnis der jeweiligen Bedeutungen mathematischer Denkformen, die in der aktual-realen Welt wirksam werden können. Beim Mathematik-Verstehen sollte es vor allem um ein Vermitteln des Selbstverständnisses der Mathematik, um ein Reflektieren des Bezugs der Mathematik zur realen Welt und um ein Beurteilen von Sinn, Bedeutung und Zusammenhang des Mathematischen in der Welt gehen.

  8. Durch Raum und Zeit reisen - Eine Theorie gibt Antworten auf alte Fragen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonne, Bernd; Weiß, Reinhard

    2013-07-01

    Im Rahmen der Relativitätstheorie, sei es die spezielle oder auch allgemeine, kommt man zwangsläufig auf die Fragestellung, ob Zeitreisen möglich sind oder nicht. Es gibt darüber sehr viele Veröffentlichungen, da dieses Thema offensichtlich viele Leute beschäftigt: Naturwissenschaftler, Philosophen, Filmautoren. Wir wollen hier nur einige grundlegende Fragestellungen aufgreifen: Kann man in die Zukunft reisen? Gibt es Reisen mit Überlichtgeschwindigkeit? Wie sieht es aus mit Reisen in die Vergangenheit? Wir unterschieden dabei zwischen mathematischen, physikalischen und technischen Lösungen, die Zeitreisen entweder erlauben oder unmöglich machen.

  9. Sandsturm kontra Wassersturm: Physik im Alltag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Andreas

    2006-07-01

    Sandstürme ereignen sich oft, Wasserstürme hingegen so gut wie nie. Eine Abschätzung zeigt, dass man beim Herauslösen eines Wassertropfens beispielsweise aus dem Meer eine sehr große Kraft benötigt und sehr viel Arbeit verrichten muss. Das scheint die Erklärung zu sein. Führt man eine entsprechende Energiebetrachtung durch, so könnte es durchaus Wasserstürme geben. Diese Überlegung ist zwar mathematisch richtig, aber unvollständig.

  10. Elektrotechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böge, Gert

    Ursprünglicher Sitz der Elektrizität ist das Atom. Das Wasserstoffatom z.B. besteht aus einem Proton als Kern und einem Elektron, das diesen Kern auf einer bestimmten Bahn umkreist. Das Proton bezeichnet man als elektrisch positiv, - das Elektron als negativ geladen. Zwischen beiden befindet sich die "Elektrizität“ in Form eines besonderen Raumzustandes, der als elektrisches Feld bezeichnet wird. Normalerweise erscheint ein Stoff nach außen hin elektrisch neutral, weil ebenso viele positive wie negative Ladungen in ihm enthalten sind.

  11. Vom magnetischen Bakterium zur Brieftaube: Geo-Biomagnetismus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winklhofer, Michael

    2004-05-01

    Die Fähigkeit, das Erdmagnetfeld wahrzunehmen und sich an ihm zu orientieren, ist im Tierreich weit verbreitet. Durch welche physikalischen Mechanismen magnetische Sinnesreize in Nervensignale umgesetzt werden, ist jedoch weitgehend ungeklärt. Bei magnetotaktischen Bakterien üben zum Beispiel biogene ferrimagnetische Kristalle als mikroskopische Kompassnadeln ein Drehmoment auf die Zelle aus. Magnetit findet sich im Gewebe zahlreicher Tiere. Doch erst bei zwei Arten, der Brieftaube und der Regenbogenforelle, konnten auch entsprechende Sinneszellen gefunden werden. Diese unterscheiden sich allerdings in ihren magnetischen Eigenschaften fundamental voneinander. Die Identifizierung der physikalischen Mechanismen des Geo-Biomagnetismus bleibt eine Herausforderung für Biophysik und Sinnesphysiologie.

  12. Real-time safety surveillance of seasonal influenza vaccines in children, Australia, 2015.

    PubMed

    Pillsbury, Alexis; Cashman, Patrick; Leeb, Alan; Regan, Annette; Westphal, Darren; Snelling, Tom; Blyth, Christopher; Crawford, Nigel; Wood, Nicholas; Macartney, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Increased febrile reactions in Australian children from one influenza vaccine brand in 2010 diminished confidence in influenza immunisation, highlighting the need for improved vaccine safety surveillance. AusVaxSafety, a national vaccine safety surveillance system collected adverse events in young children for 2015 influenza vaccine brands in real time through parent/carer reports via SMS/email. Weekly cumulative data on 3,340 children demonstrated low rates of fever (4.4%) and medical attendance (1.1%). Fever was more frequent with concomitant vaccination. PMID:26536867

  13. Zuschauer beim Berlin-Marathon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hougardy, Stefan; Kirchner, Stefan; Zelke, Mariano

    Jedes Computerprogramm, sei es ein Betriebssystem, eine Textverarbeitung oder ein Computerspiel, ist aus einer Vielzahl von Algorithmen zusammen gesetzt. Ein Algorithmus ist eine Art Rechenvorschrift, die Daten als Eingabe entgegennimmt und daraus ein Ergebnis berechnet. Um beispielsweise die Anzeige desMauszeigers auf dem Bildschirm zu steuern, erhält der dafür zuständige Algorithmus die letzte Position des Mauszeigers und die Bewegung der Maus auf dem Schreibtisch als Eingabe. Daraus wird die neue Position des Mauszeigers berechnet, sie bildet die Ausgabe des Algorithmus.

  14. Nanomechanics of bidentate thiolate ligands on gold surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zoloff Michoff, Martin E; Ribas-Arino, Jordi; Marx, Dominik

    2015-02-20

    The effect of the chain length separating sulfur atoms in bidentate thiols attached to defective gold surfaces on the rupture of the respective molecule-gold junctions has been studied computationally. Thermal desorption always yields cyclic disulfides. In contrast, mechanochemical desorption leads to cyclic gold complexes, where metal atoms are extracted from the surface and kept in tweezer-like arrangements by the sulfur atoms. This phenomenon is rationalized in terms of directional mechanical manipulation of Au-Au bonds and Au-S coordination numbers. Moreover, the flexibility of the chain is shown to crucially impact on the mechanical strength of the junction. PMID:25763962

  15. Keller oder Dach zuerst?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megow, Nicole

    Komplexe Planungsaufgaben entstehen in vielen Bereichen wie z. B. in der Produktion und Logistik, der Bauplanung oder allgemein im Projektmanagement. Typischerweise werden umfangreiche Projekte in viele einzelne Teilaufgaben zerlegt, die dann zeitlich geplant werden. Das heißt, es wird genau bestimmt wann bzw. in welcher Reihenfolge Aufgaben mit welchen Ressourcen durchgeführt warden sollen. Bei der Planung müssen verschiedenste Reihenfolgeabhängigkeiten zwischen den Vorgängen berücksichtigt werden. Diese Abhängigkeiten können technischer Natur sein oder werden aus sicherheitsrelevanten oder wirtschaftlichen Gründen festgelegt.

  16. Geschichtlicher Überblick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bölke, Klaus-Peter

    Die Nachweise einer schadlosen Ableitung von Abwässern lassen sich bis weit in die Vergangenheit zurückverfolgen. Sie waren bereits zur damaligen Zeit eine Forderung zur Pflege der öffentlichen Reinlichkeit. Der Kanalisationsbau ist auch immer ein Ausdruck der Kultur eines Volkes gewesen. So kann festgestellt werden, dass im Zusammenhang mit der Hochkultur eines Volkes auch der Kanalbau ein vorherrschendes Thema war. Der Kanalbau steht auch in einem engen Zusammenhang mit dem Wasserleitungsbau. Es ist nur logisch, dass dort wo Wasser teilweise aus großer Entfernung herangeführt worden ist, dieses dann nach Gebrauch auch wieder schadlos beseitigt werden musste.

  17. VLBI Water Maser Proper Motion Measurements in Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrelles, J. M.; Patel, N.; Gómez, J. F.; Anglada, G.; Uscanga, L.

    We review some of the recent water maser proper motion measurements in star-forming regions performed through VLBI multi-epoch observations. These observations are starting to reveal exciting perspectives, providing the full kinematics of the gas within the outflows/circumstellar disks around YSOs at scales of AUs, discovering new phenomena (e.g., isotropic mass ejections, watermaser "micro-structures" exhibiting remarkable coherent and well ordered spatio-kinematical behavior at AU scale), and opening new, puzzling questions related to the early stellar evolution.

  18. Vlbi Water Maser Proper Motion Measurements in Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrelles, J. M.; Patel, N.; Gómez, J. F.; Anglada, G.; Uscanga, L.

    2005-01-01

    We review some of the recent water maser proper motion measurements in star-forming regions performed through VLBI multi-epoch observations. These observations are starting to reveal exciting perspectives, providing the full kinematics of the gas within the outflows/circumstellar disks around YSOs at scales of AUs, discovering new phenomena (e.g., isotropic mass ejections, water maser "micro-structures" exhibiting remarkable coherent and well ordered spatio-kinematical behavior at AU scale), and opening new, puzzling questions related to the early stellar evolution.

  19. Influence of the S-Au Bond Strength on the Magnetic Behavior of S-Capped Au Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, María J. Rodríguez; Rivas, José; López-Quintela, M. Arturo; Mosquera, Antonio Mouriño; Torneiro, Mercedes

    Recently, large permanent atomic magnetic moments have been found in Au nanoparticles capped with thiols. It is assumed that the formation of localized Au-S bonds at the particle surface induces the damping of the surface plasmon resonance and the appearance of a ferromagnetic-like behavior. In this work we will show for the first time that thioethers can also induce both phenomena, i.e., the damping of the plasmon band and the appearance of permanent magnetic moments. Furthermore, we have studied the influence of the Au-S bond strength on both phenomena using two different synthesized thioether ligands. It will be shown that, although both ligands can induce a complete damping of the plasmon band, only with one of the ligands (the one corresponding to the stronger S-Au bond) the appearance of a ferromagnetic-like order is observed. This is an indication of the extreme sensitivity of the magnetism on the strength of the charge transfer at the S-Au bond.

  20. Linker Dependent Bond Rupture Force Measurements in Single-Molecule Junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Frei M.; Hybertsen M.; Aradhya S.V.; Venkataraman L.

    2012-02-16

    We use a modified conducting atomic force microscope to simultaneously probe the conductance of a single-molecule junction and the force required to rupture the junction formed by alkanes terminated with four different chemical link groups which vary in binding strength and mechanism to the gold electrodes. Molecular junctions with amine, methylsulfide, and diphenylphosphine terminated molecules show clear conductance signatures and rupture at a force that is significantly smaller than the measured 1.4 nN force required to rupture the single-atomic gold contact. In contrast, measurements with a thiol terminated alkane which can bind covalently to the gold electrode show conductance and force features unlike those of the other molecules studied. Specifically, the strong Au-S bond can cause structural rearrangements in the electrodes, which are accompanied by substantial conductance changes. Despite the strong Au-S bond and the evidence for disruption of the Au structure, the experiments show that on average these junctions also rupture at a smaller force than that measured for pristine single-atom gold contacts.

  1. Genomic sequences of Australian bluetongue virus prototype serotypes reveal global relationships and possible routes of entry into Australia.

    PubMed

    Boyle, David B; Bulach, Dieter M; Amos-Ritchie, Rachel; Adams, Mathew M; Walker, Peter J; Weir, Richard

    2012-06-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp.). It causes disease mainly in sheep and occasionally in cattle and other species. BTV has spread into northern Europe, causing disease in sheep and cattle. The introduction of new serotypes, changes in vector species, and climate change have contributed to these changes. Ten BTV serotypes have been isolated in Australia without apparent associated disease. Simplified methods for preferential isolation of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and template preparation enabled high-throughput sequencing of the 10 genome segments of all Australian BTV prototype serotypes. Phylogenetic analysis reinforced the Western and Eastern topotypes previously characterized but revealed unique features of several Australian BTVs. Many of the Australian BTV genome segments (Seg-) were closely related, clustering together within the Eastern topotypes. A novel Australian topotype for Seg-5 (NS1) was identified, with taxa spread across several serotypes and over time. Seg-1, -2, -3, -4, -6, -7, -9, and -10 of BTV_2_AUS_2008 were most closely related to the cognate segments of viruses from Taiwan and Asia and not other Australian viruses, supporting the conclusion that BTV_2 entered Australia recently. The Australian BTV_15_AUS_1982 prototype was revealed to be unusual among the Australian BTV isolates, with Seg-3 and -8 distantly related to other BTV sequences from all serotypes. PMID:22514341

  2. The Relationship Between Soil Air Filled Porosity and Soil Methane Oxidation is Almost Identical in Both Dry and Wet Temperate Eucalypt Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fest, B. J.; Wardlaw, T.; Hinko-Najera, N.; Arndt, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of the temporal variation in soil methane (CH4) exchange in temperate evergreen eucalypt forests in south-eastern Australia we measured soil CH4 exchange in high temporal resolution (every 2 hours or less) over two consecutive years (Wombat State Forest, Victoria, AUS) and over one year (Warra, Tasmania, AUS) in two temperate Eucalyptus obliqua (L. Her) forests with contrasting annual precipitation (Wombat State Forest = 870 mm yr-1, Warra = 1700 mm yr-1). Both forests were continuous CH4 sinks with the Victorian site having a sink strength of -1.79 kg CH4 ha-1 yr-1 and the Tasmanian site having a sink strength of -3.83 kg CH4 ha-1 yr-1. Our results show that CH4 uptake was strongly controlled by soil moisture at both sites and explained up to 90% of the temporal variability in CH4 uptake. Furthermore, when soil moisture was expressed as soil air filled porosity (AFP) we were able to predict the CH4 uptake of one site by the linear regression between AFP and CH4 uptake from the other site. Soil temperature only had an apparent control over seasonal variation in CH4 uptake during periods when soil moisture and soil temperature were closely correlated. The fluctuation of the generally low soil nitrogen levels did not influence soil CH4 uptake at either site.

  3. The Structure of Dithiol Monolayers on Au(111).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, M. C.; Macdairmid, A. R.; Banks, J. T.

    2003-03-01

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and contact angle measurements, we have studied the properties of Dithiothreitol (DTT) and Dithioerythritol (DTE) monolayers adsorbed on Au(111). DTT and DTE are both O-H functionalized α - ω dithiols. DTT is a chiral form whereas DTE is achiral. For comparison we have also studied the structure of octanethiol (n-alkanethiol, n = 8) SAMs. Octanethiol forms the characteristic close packed 3x3 monolayer with c(4x2) superstructure. In contrast, STM measurements of DTT films indicate much of the layer is disordered, however regions with local c(23x3) symmetry are observed. AES indicates the sulphur coverage for both DTT and octanethiol films are similar. AES studies involving Ellman's reagent, a marker species, also suggest a significant fraction of the DTT molecules in the adlayer bind to the gold via two Au-S bonds. Based on these results, we propose a structural model in which the majority of DTT molecules bind to the gold surface via two Au-S bonds and the distance between these two bonds is 3 times the underlying Au lattice spacing. Any differences between DTT and DTE layers due to differences in molecular structure will also be discussed.

  4. Suchmaschinen und Informationsqualität: Status quo, Problemfelder, Entwicklungstendenzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maaß, Christian; Gräfe, Gernot

    Das Thema Informationsqualität wird in den vorangegangenen Beiträgen umfangreich betrachtet. Die dabei geführte Diskussion zielt vordergründig auf organisatorische Dimensionen der Datenqualität, die strukturierte Datenanalyse oder Datenmanagementprozesse im Unternehmen ab. Dabei liegt ein Gro?teil der zur Unterstützung von Entscheidungsprozessen herangezogenen Informationen in Datenbanksystemen bzw. in einem Data Warehouse vor. Auf Basis verschiedener Analysetools (z. B. Online-Analytical-Processing) lassen sich diese Informationen dann systematisch auswerten. Allerdings können Entscheidungen nicht allein aufgrund der unternehmensintern vorliegenden Informationen getroffen werden. Vielmehr gilt es auch die aus der Unternehmensumwelt relevanten Informationen zu verarbeiten, die zum Teil über das Internet zugänglich sind. Im Gegensatz zu unternehmensinternen Datenbanksystemen handelt es sich beim Internet um ein schwach strukturiertes und offenes Netzwerk, weshalb die im Unternehmenskontext eingesetzten Analysetools kaum weiterhelfen, um Informationen mit hoher Qualität herauszufiltern. In dieser Situation spielen Suchmaschinen eine wichtige Rolle, um Informationen zu identifizieren und anhand verschiedener Kriterien in Form einer Suchergebnisseite zu sortieren. Konservative Schätzungen gehen davon aus, dass über Suchmaschinen zwischen 70 und 85 Prozent aller Informationsrecherchen im Internet erfolgen [Förster & Kreuz 2002, S. 68]. Teilweise beziffert man diesen Wert sogar auf über 90 Prozent [Schulz et al. 2005, S. 20]. Ungeachtet dieser herausragenden Stellung von Suchmaschinen kann konstatiert werden, dass die Qualität der Suchergebnisse oftmals nur gering ist.

  5. The role of fine-needle aspiration in the thyroid nodules of elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Maurizio; Straccia, Patrizia; Lombardi, Celestino Pio; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Larocca, Luigi Maria; Fadda, Guido

    2016-01-01

    We assess the role of thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology(FNAC) in our series of elderly patients. The growing subset of people aged older than 70 years has shown an increased incidence of thyroid diseases which need to be studied in order to reduce the percentage of surgical treatments in patients with higher likelihood of co-morbidities and associated life risk. We compared Follicular/Indeterminate Neoplasms(FN) and suspicious of malignancy(SM) with pediatric and adult cohorts. We discussed the role of immunocytochemistry-ICC to refine diagnoses. Four hundred and eighty out of 3539FNACs(13.5%) in elderly patients, were surgical followed-up. They included: 35Inadequate, 188benign(BL), 164FN/AUS, 49SM and 44positive for malignancy (PM). All PM and 95.7%BL were histological confirmed. The malignant rate was 24.3% mostly diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinomas. An ICC panel (HBME-1 and Galectin-3) was carried out on liquid based cytology (LBC) and performed on FN/AUS, SM and PM. We found concordant positive ICC in 69.3%malignancies and concordant negative ICC in 97.6%benign follicular adenomas. Among FNs, 42.9%malignant histologic cases had concordant positivity whilst 97.4%benign histology had negative panel. Thyroid FNAC shows high feasibility in elderly patients. ICC helps in reducing the number of useless thyroidectomies and providing a more adequate clinical and/or surgical selection in elderly patients. PMID:26919251

  6. Yield Loss Caused by Pratylenchus thornei on Wheat in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Julie M.; Davies, Kerrie A.; Hancock, Trevor W.; Fisher, John M.

    1999-01-01

    A two-year field trial with 130 plots was conducted at Tanunda, South Australia. Ten cereal cultivars differing in susceptibility to Pratylenchus thornei, two poor host crops (non-leguminous), and a bare fallow treatment were used to manipulate the numbers of nematodes in the plots in the first year. Initial and final densities were determined for each plot and varied from 0 to 9,400 nematodes/200 g oven-dried soil at the beginning of the second year. A highly susceptible wheat cultivar, Warigal, and two wheat lines known to have some resistance to P. thornei, GS50A and AUS4930, were planted in the second year. High densities of P. thornei caused more extensive lesions and severe cortical degradation in roots of Warigal than in GS50A or AUS4930. There was a significant linear relationship between initial density of P. thornei and Warigal grain yield (t/ha), with the estimated regression equation Y = 1.86 - 0.0000557x, where Y is the grain yield in t/ha and x is the number of P. thornei/200 g oven-dried soil. High initial densities (9,000 P. thornei/200 g oven-dried soil) caused up to 27% yield loss of this commercial Australian wheat. In contrast, the yield of the two resistant lines was not affected by initial density, suggesting that both were tolerant as well as resistant in the field. PMID:19270909

  7. How reliable is the ReaxFF Potential for Describing the Structure of Alkanethiols on Gold? A Molecular Dynamics Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasumathi, V.; Cordeiro, Maria Natalia D. S.

    2014-03-01

    The structures of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of short (methyl) and long (hexyl) chain alkyl thiols on the clean gold (111) surface were modelled using for the Au-S interactions either the reactive ReaxFF potential or the well known non-reactive Morse potential, while for the Au-Au interactions either the ReaxFF potential or an embedded-atom method (EAM). Analysis of the MD trajectories of possible SAM structures suggests that disordering of interfacial Au atoms is definitely driven by the gold-sulphur interactions. Our MD results reveal a novel structure where two methanethiol molecules are bound to a gold adatom that has been lifted from the surface at 300 K, and the same kind of RS-Au-SR motif was also observed for hexanethiol at 600 K but not at 300 K. What is more, the above motif is only observed for the reactive ReaxFF potential. Moreover, these results are in clear agreement with recent experiments and more costly first principles-based MD simulations. These findings strongly support the use of reactive potentials such as ReaxFF for gathering an accurate description of Au-S interactions in inexpensive classical MD simulations.

  8. Physiographic and land cover attributes of the Puget Lowland and the active streamflow gaging network, Puget Sound Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, Christopher; Sevier, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Geospatial information for the active streamflow gaging network in the Puget Sound Basin was compiled to support regional monitoring of stormwater effects to small streams. The compilation includes drainage area boundaries and physiographic and land use attributes that affect hydrologic processes. Three types of boundaries were used to tabulate attributes: Puget Sound Watershed Characterization analysis units (AU); the drainage area of active streamflow gages; and the catchments of Regional Stream Monitoring Program (RSMP) sites. The active streamflow gaging network generally includes sites that represent the ranges of attributes for lowland AUs, although there are few sites with low elevations (less than 60 meters), low precipitation (less than 1 meter year), or high stream density (greater than 5 kilometers per square kilometers). The active streamflow gaging network can serve to provide streamflow information in some AUs and RSMP sites, particularly where the streamflow gage measures streamflow generated from a part of the AU or that drains to the RSMP site, and that part of the AU or RSMP site is a significant fraction of the drainage area of the streamgage. The maximum fraction of each AU or RSMP catchment upstream of a streamflow gage and the maximum fraction of any one gaged basin in an AU or RSMP along with corresponding codes are provided in the attribute tables.

  9. The effect of heat treatment on the gouging abrasion resistance of alloy white cast irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Are, I. R. S.; Arnold, B. K.

    1995-02-01

    A series of heat treatments was employed to vary the microstructure of four commercially important alloy white cast irons, the wear resistance of which was then assessed by the ASTM jaw-crusher gouging abrasion test. Compared with the as-cast condition, standard austenitizing treatments produced a substantial increase in hardness, a marked decrease in the retained aus-tenite content in the matrix, and, in general, a significant improvement in gouging abrasion resistance. The gouging abrasion resistance tended to decline with increasing austenitizing tem-perature, although the changes in hardness and retained austenite content varied, depending on alloy composition. Subcritical heat treatment at 500 ° following hardening reduced the retained austenite content to values less than 10 pct, and in three of the alloys it caused a significant fall in both hardness and gouging abrasion resistance. The net result of the heat treatments was the development of optimal gouging abrasion resistance at intermediate levels of retained aus-tenite. The differing responses of the alloys to both high-temperature austenitizing treatments and to subcritical heat treatments at 500 ° were related to the effects of the differing carbon and alloying-element concentrations on changes in the M s temperature and secondary carbide precipitation.

  10. Bewertung und Verbesserung der Zuverlässigkeit von mikroelektronischen Komponenten in mechatronischen Systemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunderlich, Hans-Joachim; Elm, Melanie; Kochte, Michael

    In den letzten Jahrzehnten hat der Anteil der informationsverarbeitenden Komponenten an den Herstellungskosten mechatronischer Systeme rapide zugenommen. In den 70er Jahren machte die Informationsverarbeitung noch ca. 15% des Systems aus. Zu Beginn dieses Jahrtausends sind es bereits über 60% [8.9], wie auch aus Abb. 8.1 hervorgeht. Dieser Zuwachs in den Herstellungskosten ist auf die Zunahme der durch die Informationsverarbeitung realisierten Funktionen zurückzuführen. Sehr deutlich ist diese Zunahme im Automobil zu beobachten. Während das Antiblockiersystem und die digitale Motorsteuerung schon seit Jahren zum Standard gehören, werden nun zunehmend auch Fahrerassistenz- und Infotainmentsysteme ins Kraftfahrzeug integriert. Bei diesen Systemen beginnt die Grenze zwischen klassischer Sicherheits- und Komfortfunktion zu verschwimmen. Die Bandbreite möglichen Fehlverhaltens reicht vom Ausfall des Navigationssystems über Störungen der Zentralverriegelung bis hin zum automatischen Einleiten von Bremsmanövern bei hohen Geschwindigkeiten. Entsprechend ergeben sich hier hohe Anforderungen an die Zuverlässigkeit dieser Systeme.

  11. Über die Methode der physikalischen Naturbeschreibung [33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenn es zu den Aufgaben der Philosophie und der wissensehaftlicher Theologie gehört, das Warum und Wie unserer Existenz und ihrer Umwelt zu ergründen, so muss als ihr Ausgangspunkt eine vollständige und möglichst übersichtliche Beschreibung unserer Empfindungen vorliegen. Einen Teil dieser Empfindungen fassen wir unter dem Namen Sinnesempfindungen zusammen. Ob ein solcher Aussehnitt genau abgegrenzt werden kann, soll hier nicht untersucht werden. Es kann sogar mit gewisser Berechtigung behauptet werden, dass eine Unterteilung gar nicht streng durchführbar ist. Der schon in der Philosophie der Antike uns entgegentretende Gedanke, dass die Welt nur in ihrer Gesamtheit rerständlich sein kann, kommt sicherlich der Wahrheit näher als die philosophischen Systeme des verflossenen Jahrhunderts, welche glaubten, dass alies aus unseren materialistischen Erkenntnissen heraus erklärt werden könne. Die Entstehung dieser Systeme, ich denke z. Â. an den Monisimis Haeckels, erklärt sich aus der Hybris, welche die Reaktion der Philosophie auf die bedeutenden Erfolge der exakten Naturwissenschaften war. Die ebenfalls nicht zu imterschätzenden Fortschritte unserer heutigen Kenntnisse auf diesem Gebiete zwingen din Naturforschung eher zu einer immer steigenden Bescheidenheit den "Welträtseln" gegenüber, deren letzte Konsequenz vielleicht darin liegen wird, dass sie die eingangs der Philosophie und Theologie zugewiesene Aufgabe als unlosbar bezeichnen muss..

  12. Self-reported ability assessment in rock climbing.

    PubMed

    Draper, Nick; Dickson, Tabitha; Blackwell, Gavin; Fryer, Simon; Priestley, Sefton; Winter, David; Ellis, Greg

    2011-05-01

    Level of ability within rock climbing is generally expressed in terms of a "best ascent", rated using various grading systems within the sport. The most common method of obtaining this information is via self-report. The aim of this study was to examine the validity of self-reported climbing grades. Twenty-nine competitive rock climbers (17 males, 12 females) were first asked to report their current (defined as within the last 12 months) best on-sight lead ascent grade (Aus/NZ). The participants then climbed a specifically designed indoor route, under on-sight conditions (one attempt, no route practice or preview), to obtain an assessed grade. The route increased in difficulty, and was such that the distance achieved by the climber corresponded to a particular grade. The mean (±standard deviation) self-reported and assessed grade was 22.6 ± 3.4 and 22.0 ± 3.0 (Aus/NZ) respectively. Despite slight over- and underestimations in males and females respectively, there was no statistically significant difference between self-reported and assessed on-sight climbing grades. The results of this study suggest that self-reported climbing grades provide a valid and accurate reflection of climbing ability. PMID:21491325

  13. Herschel und die Zukunft der Fern-Infrarot-Astronomie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linz, Hendrik

    2015-06-01

    Schon lange ist die beobachtende Astronomie den engen Grenzen des optisch Sichbaren entwachsen und hat fast alle Bereiche des elektromagnetischen Spektrums für sich dienstbar gemacht. Im sogenannten nahen und mittleren Infrarot (Wellenlängen zwischen 1-30 μm) sowie im Millimeter- und Radio-Regime (Wellenlängen zwischen 1 mm und 10 m) ist die Erdatmosphäre relativ gut durchlässig für elektromagnetische Signale oder hat zumindest eine Vielzahl von spektral begrenzten Transmissionsfenstern, die astronomische Beobachtungen zumindest von höheren Bergen aus möglich machen. Allerdings ist das sogenannte Ferne Infrarot (FIR, 30-300 μm Wellenlänge) von der Erde aus fast völlig unzugänglich für astronomische Beobachtungen. Selbst für die besten Beobachtungsplätze der Erde bleibt die atmosphärische Transmission durch die immense Wasserdampf- Absorption auf ein absolutes Minimum beschränkt. Jedoch erlaubt uns das FIR Zugang zu Informationen, die sehr nützlich sind für die astrophysikalische Forschung und komplementär zu anderen Wellenlängen-Bereichen.

  14. Reusable launch vehicles, enabling technology for the development of advanced upper stages and payloads

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, John D.

    1998-01-15

    In the near future there will be classes of upper stages and payloads that will require initial operation at a high-earth orbit to reduce the probability of an inadvertent reentry that could result in a detrimental impact on humans and the biosphere. A nuclear propulsion system, such as was being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program, is an example of such a potential payload. This paper uses the results of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) study to demonstrate the potential importance of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to test and implement an advanced upper stage (AUS) or payload in a safe orbit and in a cost effective and reliable manner. The RLV is a horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing (HTHL), two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle. The results of the study shows that an HTHL is cost effective because it implements airplane-like operation, infrastructure, and flight operations. The first stage of the TSTO is powered by Rocket-Based-Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines, the second stage is powered by a LOX/LH rocket engine. The TSTO is used since it most effectively utilizes the capability of the RBCC engine. The analysis uses the NASA code POST (Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories) to determine trajectories and weight in high-earth orbit for AUS/advanced payloads. Cost and reliability of an RLV versus current generation expandable launch vehicles are presented.

  15. Realistic Facial Expression of Virtual Human Based on Color, Sweat, and Tears Effects

    PubMed Central

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Mohamed, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry) and blushing (anger and happiness) is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs) of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics. PMID:25136663

  16. The origin of the transition voltage of gold-alkanedithiol-gold molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, An; Wang, Minglang; Wang, Hao; Sun, Hantao; Hou, Shimin; Liao, Jianhui

    2016-02-01

    We studied the origin of the transition voltage of octanedithiol (C8DT) molecules sandwiched between two gold electrodes. Au-C8DT-Au molecular junctions were fabricated using the feedback controlled electromigration technique. The conductance measurement and the inelastic electron tunneling spectrum validate that the observed current-voltage characteristics indeed originate from the C8DT molecule in the junction. The transition voltage of Au-C8DT-Au junctions is determined to be about 0.95 V, which cannot be interpreted using the energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital or lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the alkyl chain and the Fermi level of electrodes. Instead, we relate the measured transition voltage to the Au-S bonds, which are about 1.4 eV below the gold Fermi level. Our interpretation is supported by the ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and first-principles quantum transport simulations. These findings provide convincing evidence that the Au-S occupied states play a significant role in the charge transport of Au-alkanedithiol-Au molecular devices.

  17. A Method to Quantify and Compare Clinicians’ Assessments of Patient Understanding during Counseling of Standardized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Michael H.; Kuruvilla, Pramita; Eskra, Kerry L.; Christopher, Stephanie A.; Brienza, Rebecca S.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES to introduce a method for quantifying clinicians’ use of assessment of understanding (AU) questions, and to examine medicine residents’ AU usage during counseling of standardized patients about prostate or breast cancer screening. METHODS Explicit-criteria abstraction was done on 86 transcripts, using a data dictionary for 4 AU types. We also developed a procedure for estimating the “load” of informational content for which the clinician has not yet assessed understanding. RESULTS Duplicate abstraction revealed reliability κ=0.96. Definite criteria for at least one AU were found in 68/86 transcripts (79%). Of these, 2 transcripts contained a request for a teach-back (“what is your understanding of this?”), 2 contained an open-ended AU, 46 (54%) contained only a close-ended AU, and 18 (21%) only contained an “OK?” question. The load calculation identified long stretches of conversation without an AU. CONCLUSION Many residents’ transcripts lacked AUs, and included AUs were often ineffectively phrased or inefficiently timed. Many patients may not understand clinicians, and many clinicians may be unaware of patients’ confusion. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS Effective AU usage is important enough to be encouraged by training programs and targeted by population-scale quality improvement programs. This quantitative method should be useful in population-scale measurement of AU usage. PMID:19380210

  18. Realistic facial expression of virtual human based on color, sweat, and tears effects.

    PubMed

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Mohamed, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry) and blushing (anger and happiness) is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs) of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics. PMID:25136663

  19. Gold nanoparticles with different capping systems: an electronic and structural XAS analysis.

    PubMed

    López-Cartes, C; Rojas, T C; Litrán, R; Martínez-Martínez, D; de la Fuente, J M; Penadés, S; Fernández, A

    2005-05-12

    Gold nanoparticles (NPs) have been prepared with three different capping systems: a tetralkylammonium salt, an alkanethiol, and a thiol-derivatized neoglycoconjugate. Also gold NPs supported on a porous TiO(2) substrate have been investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to determine the electronic behavior of the different capped/supported systems regarding the electron/hole density of d states. Surface and size effects, as well as the role of the microstructure, have been also studied through an exhaustive analysis of the EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) data. Very small gold NPs functionalized with thiol-derivatized molecules show an increase in d-hole density at the gold site due to Au-S charge transfer. This effect is overcoming size effects (which lead to a slightly increase of the d-electron density) for high S:Au atomic ratios and core-shell microstructures where an atomically abrupt Au-S interface likely does not exist. It has been also shown that thiol functionalization of very small gold NPs is introducing a strong distortion as compared to fcc order. To the contrary, electron transfer from reduced support oxides to gold NPs can produce a higher increase in d-electron density at the gold site, as compared to naked gold clusters. PMID:16852039

  20. Echtzeit-Ultraschallsimulation auf Grafik-Prozessoren mit CUDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichl, Tobias; Passenger, Josh; Acosta, Oscar; Salvado, Olivier

    Trotz der zunehmenden Verbreitung jüngerer bildgebender Verfahren bleibt medizinischer Ultraschall (US) weiterhin ein wichtiges Hilfsmittel bei chirurgischen Eingriffen und der klinischen Diagnose. Viele US-gestützte medizinische Prozeduren erfordern allerdings ausgiebiges Training, so dass es wünschenswert ist, eine realistische Simulation von US-Bildern zur Verfügung zu stellen. Im Gegensatz zu früheren Ansätzen simulieren wir solche Bilder auf der "Graphics Processing Unit“. Wir erweitern hierzu eine Methode, die von Wein et al. für die Abschätzung von US-Reflexionen aus Daten der Computertomographie (CT) vorgeschlagen wurde, zu einer leichter zu berechnenden Form. Zusätzlich schätzen wir die US-Absorption aus den CT-Daten ab. Mit Hilfe von NVIDIAs "Compute Unified Device Architecture“ (CUDA) simulieren wir Reflexion, Verschattung, Rauschen und radiale Unschärfe, ausgehend von unbearbeiteten CT-Daten in Echtzeit und ohne Vorausberechnung.

  1. Nonverbal Social Withdrawal in Depression: Evidence from manual and automatic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Jeffrey M.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Mahoor, Mohammad H.; Mavadati, S. Mohammad; Hammal, Zakia; Rosenwald, Dean P.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between nonverbal behavior and severity of depression was investigated by following depressed participants over the course of treatment and video recording a series of clinical interviews. Facial expressions and head pose were analyzed from video using manual and automatic systems. Both systems were highly consistent for FACS action units (AUs) and showed similar effects for change over time in depression severity. When symptom severity was high, participants made fewer affiliative facial expressions (AUs 12 and 15) and more non-affiliative facial expressions (AU 14). Participants also exhibited diminished head motion (i.e., amplitude and velocity) when symptom severity was high. These results are consistent with the Social Withdrawal hypothesis: that depressed individuals use nonverbal behavior to maintain or increase interpersonal distance. As individuals recover, they send more signals indicating a willingness to affiliate. The finding that automatic facial expression analysis was both consistent with manual coding and revealed the same pattern of findings suggests that automatic facial expression analysis may be ready to relieve the burden of manual coding in behavioral and clinical science. PMID:25378765

  2. Using artificial neural network and satellite data to predict rice yield in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhand, Kawsar; Nizamuddin, Mohammad; Roytman, Leonid; Kogan, Felix; Goldberg, Mitch

    2015-09-01

    Rice production in Bangladesh is a crucial part of the national economy and providing about 70 percent of an average citizen's total calorie intake. The demand for rice is constantly rising as the new populations are added in every year in Bangladesh. Due to the increase in population, the cultivation land decreases. In addition, Bangladesh is faced with production constraints such as drought, flooding, salinity, lack of irrigation facilities and lack of modern technology. To maintain self sufficiency in rice, Bangladesh will have to continue to expand rice production by increasing yield at a rate that is at least equal to the population growth until the demand of rice has stabilized. Accurate rice yield prediction is one of the most important challenges in managing supply and demand of rice as well as decision making processes. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is used to construct a model to predict Aus rice yield in Bangladesh. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)-based remote sensing satellite data vegetation health (VH) indices (Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) and Temperature Condition Index (TCI) are used as input variables and official statistics of Aus rice yield is used as target variable for ANN prediction model. The result obtained with ANN method is encouraging and the error of prediction is less than 10%. Therefore, prediction can play an important role in planning and storing of sufficient rice to face in any future uncertainty.

  3. Datenintegration und Deduplizierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleiholder, Jens; Schmid, Joachim

    In Unternehmen liegen viele Daten heutzutage immer seltener vollständig an einem einzigen physikalischen Ort vor, sondern sind weltweit verteilt. Dies liegt zum einen an der immer besser gewordenen Infrastruktur, die eine solche Verteilung auf einfache Art und Weise ermöglicht, und zum anderen an der Tatsache, dass viele Unternehmen weltweit tätig sind. So fallen Daten weltweit an, werden aber jeweils lokal - vor Ort - gespeichert. Daher müssen oft mehrere Datenquellen genutzt werden, um einen aktuellen, vollständigen und genauen Überblick über die vorhandenen Daten zu gewinnen. Datenintegration hilft, indem sie Daten aus mehreren Quellen zusammenführt und einheitlich darstellt. Diese integrierten Daten können genutzt werden, um sich einen Überblick über das Unternehmen zu verschaffen, z.B. wenn Unternehmen fusionieren und nur noch eine Kundendatenbank bestehen bleiben soll, oder wenn zu einem Kunden die Daten aus den verschiedenen Fachabteilungen zusammengeführt werden sollen. Anhand eines solchen Beispiels, der Integration von Kundendaten zu Kfz- und Lebensversicherungen erläutern wir im Folgenden einzelne Techniken.

  4. Herstellung eines federelastischen Spangutes geringer Dichte als Matrix für Schüttdämmstoffe, für plattenförmige Dämmstoffe und leichte Spanplatten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tröger, Johannes; Groß, Lucia

    Klimaschutz und die ständig steigenden Energiekosten erfordern eine kontinuierliche Verbesserung der Dämmstoffe. Eine Alternative zur relativ kostenaufwändigen Wärmedämmung durch Platten bzw. Matten auf Basis von mineralischen Stoffen, ist der Einsatz von schütt-bzw. einblasbaren Dämmstoffpartikeln. Späne aus Holz und andere Dämmstoffe aus nachwachsenden Rohstoffen waren schon vor dem ersten Weltkrieg die gebräuchlichsten Dämmstoffe überhaupt. Seit etwa fünfzehn Jahren werden u.a. für den Holzhausbau im zunehmenden Maße auch Fräs-, Säge und Hobelspäne für Wärmedämmzwecke eingesetzt [1], [2], [3]. Hervorzuheben ist der ökologische Aspekt dieser Dämmstoffe durch die Bindung von CO2 und den sinkenden Heizenergiebedarf. Die bisherige Philosophie bei der Gewinnung von Dämmstoffspänen beruhte darauf, anfallendes Spangut stofflich weiter zu nutzen. Die Recyclingspäne sollten dabei sowohl die Setzungssicherheit als auch eine möglichst gute Wärmedämmung gewährleisten.

  5. A system for telephone and secure email consultations, with automatic billing.

    PubMed

    Rutland, Jonathan; Marie, Catherine; Rutland, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    Doctors have traditionally provided medical advice during face-to-face consultations. A new remote consultation service has been developed based on an interactive voice response system and Internet-based technologies. If the doctor is unavailable, a return call can be requested at a mutually convenient time. The patient's credit card is billed automatically. All that is required of the doctor and patient is access to any telephone. A dial-in dictation and transcription facility allows documentation. The service was launched in late 2003. After six months, there were approximately 55 doctors registered in five Australian states and approximately 500 patients registered. Two hundred and fifty consultations were selected randomly for analysis. Of these, 84% were conducted by telephone and 16% by email. The mean fees charged were AUS$17.11 for telephone and AUS$12.93 for email consultations. The mean duration of telephone consultations was 4.3 min. Call duration ranged from a few seconds to 20.5 min. PMID:15603623

  6. Wie verstehen Schülerinnen und Schüler den Begriff der Unendlichkeit?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimmöller, Tabea

    Wie Hilbert bereits feststellte, wirkt die Idee der Unendlichkeit, wie keine andere, schon seit Zeiten sehr anregend und fruchtbar auf den Verstand und bewegt das Gemüt der Menschen. Der Begriff der Unendlichkeit bedarf aber auch, wie kein anderer, der Aufklärung, denn mit ihm eröffnet sich ein weites Feld, welches nicht nur aus vielen verschiedenen Definitionen besteht, sondern auch aus völlig unterschiedlichen Disziplinen. Physiker suchen immer dringender nach einer "Theorie für Alles" oder einer "Weltformel", Kosmologen beschäftigen sich unter anderem mit der Ewigkeit des Universums, Theologen interessiert eher die Unendlichkeit Gottes, Philosophen diskutieren unter anderem Grenzfragen zwischen Naturwissenschaft und Philosophie und die Mathematiker versuchen den Paradoxien des Unendlichen einen Sinn zu geben. Und so wird ersichtlich, dass nichts abstrakter ist als das Unendliche: Obwohl die Unendlichkeit für die unterschiedlichsten Wissenschaften von großer Bedeutung ist, "[ist] in der Wirklichkeit das Unendliche nirgends zu finden, [egal] was für Erfahrungen und Beobachtungen und welcherlei Wissenschaft wir auch heranziehen".

  7. Sternbilder und ihre Mythen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasching, Gerhard

    Die Sternbilder, die seit alters her die Menschen in ihren Bann gezogen haben, und die damit verbundenen Mythen werden in zweifacher Weise vorgestellt. Erstens ist es die Absicht, dem Leser zu helfen, sich am Sternenhimmel zurechtzufinden, und zweitens will es ihm die Vielfalt der Bilder vermitteln, die damit verbunden sind. Am Anfang des Buches stehen die prächtigen Erzählungen aus Ovids Metamorphosen. Dann ist vom Sternenhimmel im Jahreskreis die Rede, um den Leser anzuregen, diesen fast unendlichen Bilderreichtum sich selbst durch eigene Beobachtungen zu erschließen. Ein umfangreicher Abschnitt behandelt die einzelnen Sternbilder und das hierzu überlieferte Wissen. Sternkarten und alte Kupferstiche aus dem Bestand der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek zeigen, wie man sich in früheren Jahrhunderten den Sternenhimmel vorgestellt hat. Sternsagen und Mythen werden erzählt und auch das ptolemäische und das kopernikanische Weltsystem werden einander gegenübergestellt. Ausführliche Sachverzeichnisse mit über 3000 Suchbegriffen erleichtern den Zugang zu Stern- und Sternbildnamen und zur Mythologie.

  8. Two separate gene clusters encode the biosynthetic pathway for the meroterpenoids, austinol and dehydroaustinol in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Hsien-Chun; Entwistle, Ruth; Guo, Chun-Jun; Ahuja, Manmeet; Szewczyk, Edyta; Hung, Jui-Hsiang; Chiang, Yi-Ming; Oakley, Berl R.; Wang, Clay C. C.

    2012-01-01

    Meroterpenoids are a class of fungal natural products that are produced from polyketide and terpenoid precursors. An understanding of meroterpenoid biosynthesis at the genetic level should facilitate engineering of second-generation molecules and increasing production of first-generation compounds. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans has previously been found to produce two meroterpenoids, austinol and dehydroaustinol. Using targeted deletions that we created, we have determined that, surprisingly, two separate gene clusters are required for meroterpenoid biosynthesis. One is a cluster of four genes including a polyketide synthase gene, ausA. The second is a cluster of ten additional genes including a prenyltransferase gene, ausN, located on a separate chromosome. Chemical analysis of mutant extracts enabled us to isolate 3,5-dimethylorsellinic acid and ten additional meroterpenoids that are either intermediates or shunt products from the biosynthetic pathway. Six of them were identified as novel meroterpenoids in this study. Our data, in aggregate, allow us to propose a complete biosynthetic pathway for the A. nidulans meroterpenoids. PMID:22329759

  9. Luminescent Gold Nanoparticles with Size-Independent Emission.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinbin; Duchesne, Paul N; Yu, Mengxiao; Jiang, Xingya; Ning, Xuhui; Vinluan, Rodrigo D; Zhang, Peng; Zheng, Jie

    2016-07-25

    Size-independent emission has been widely observed for ultrasmall thiolated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) but our understanding of the photoluminescence mechanisms of noble metals on the nanoscale has remained limited. Herein, we report how the emission wavelength of a AuNP and the local binding geometry of a thiolate ligand (glutathione) on the AuNP are correlated, as these AuNPs emit at different wavelengths in spite of their identical size (ca. 2.5 nm). By using circular dichroism, X-ray absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy, we found that a high Au-S coordination number (CN) and a high surface coverage resulted in strong Au(I) -ligand charge transfer, a chiral conformation, and 600 nm emission, whereas a low Au-S CN and a low surface coverage led to weak charge transfer, an achiral conformation, and 810 nm emission. These two size-independent emissions can be integrated into one single 2.5 nm AuNP by fine-tuning of the surface coverage; a ratiometric pH response was then observed owing to strong energy transfer between two emission centers, opening up new possibilities for the design of ultrasmall ratiometric pH nanoindicators. PMID:27348584

  10. Edelgase als Tracer für Wechselwirkungen von Krusten- und Mantelfluiden mit diamantführenden Gesteinen des östlichen Baltischen Schildes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersberg, Thomas

    2001-11-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden anhand der Edelgaszusammensetzung von Kimberliten und Lamproiten sowie ihrer gesteinsbildenden Minerale die Wechselwirkungen dieser Gesteine mit Fluiden diskutiert. Die untersuchten Proben stammen vom östlichen Baltischen Schild, vom Kola-Kraton (Poria Guba und Kandalaksha) und vom karelischen Kraton (Kostamuksha). Edelgasanalysen nach thermischer oder mechanischer Gasextraktion von 23 Gesamtgesteinsproben und 15 Mineralseparaten ergeben folgendes Bild: Helium- und Neon-Isotopendaten der Fluideinschlüsse von Lamproiten aus Kostamuksha lassen auf den Einfluss einer fluiden Phase krustaler Herkunft schliessen. Diese Wechselwirkungen fanden wahrscheinlich schon während des Magmenaufstiegs statt, denn spätere Einflüsse krustaler Fluide auf die Lamproite und ihr Nebengestein (Quarzit) sind gering, wie anhand der C/36Ar-Zusammensetzung gezeigt wird. Auch sind die mit verschiedenen Datierungsmethoden (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, K-Ar) an Mineralseparaten und teilweise an Gesamtgestein ermittelten Alter konsistent und machen eine metamorphe Überprägung unwahrscheinlich. Aufgrund der Verteilung der primordialen Edelgasisotope zwischen Fluideinschlüssen und Gesteinsmatrix ist ein langsamer Magmenaufstieg anzunehmen, was die Möglichkeit der Kontamination mit einem krustalen Fluid während des Magmenaufstiegs erhöht. Die Gasextraktion aus Mineralseparaten erfolgte thermisch, wodurch eine Freisetzung der Gase ausschließlich aus Fluideinschlüssen nicht möglich ist. Hierbei zeigen Amphibol und Klinopyroxen, separiert aus Kostamuksha-Lamproiten, in ihrer Neon-Isotopenzusammensetzung im Vergleich zur krustalen Zusammensetzung (Kennedy et al., 1990) ein leicht erhöhtes Verhältnis von 20Ne/22Ne, was ein Hinweis auf Mantel-Neon sein könnte. Kalifeldspäte, Quarz und Karbonate enthalten dagegen nur Neon krustaler Zusammensetzung. Phlogopite haben sehr kleine Verhältnisse von 20Ne/22Ne und 21Ne/22Ne, zurückzuführen auf in-situ-Produktion von 22Ne