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Sample records for austin bradford hill

  1. Assessing the association between homocysteine and cognition: reflections on Bradford Hill, meta-analyses, and causality.

    PubMed

    McCaddon, Andrew; Miller, Joshua W

    2015-10-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a recognized risk factor for cognitive decline and incident dementia in older adults. Two recent reports addressed the cumulative epidemiological evidence for this association but expressed conflicting opinions. Here, the evidence is reviewed in relation to Sir Austin Bradford Hill's criteria for assessing "causality," and the latest meta-analysis of the effects of homocysteine-lowering on cognitive function is critically examined. The meta-analysis included 11 trials, collectively assessing 22,000 individuals, that examined the effects of B vitamin supplements (folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin B6) on global or domain-specific cognitive decline. It concluded that homocysteine-lowering with B vitamin supplements has no significant effect on cognitive function. However, careful examination of the trials in the meta-analysis indicates that no conclusion can be made regarding the effects of homocysteine-lowering on cognitive decline, since the trials typically did not include individuals who were experiencing such decline. Further definitive trials in older adults experiencing cognitive decline are still urgently needed. PMID:26293664

  2. A supervised adverse drug reaction signalling framework imitating Bradford Hill's causality considerations.

    PubMed

    Reps, Jenna Marie; Garibaldi, Jonathan M; Aickelin, Uwe; Gibson, Jack E; Hubbard, Richard B

    2015-08-01

    Big longitudinal observational medical data potentially hold a wealth of information and have been recognised as potential sources for gaining new drug safety knowledge. Unfortunately there are many complexities and underlying issues when analysing longitudinal observational data. Due to these complexities, existing methods for large-scale detection of negative side effects using observational data all tend to have issues distinguishing between association and causality. New methods that can better discriminate causal and non-causal relationships need to be developed to fully utilise the data. In this paper we propose using a set of causality considerations developed by the epidemiologist Bradford Hill as a basis for engineering features that enable the application of supervised learning for the problem of detecting negative side effects. The Bradford Hill considerations look at various perspectives of a drug and outcome relationship to determine whether it shows causal traits. We taught a classifier to find patterns within these perspectives and it learned to discriminate between association and causality. The novelty of this research is the combination of supervised learning and Bradford Hill's causality considerations to automate the Bradford Hill's causality assessment. We evaluated the framework on a drug safety gold standard known as the observational medical outcomes partnership's non-specified association reference set. The methodology obtained excellent discrimination ability with area under the curves ranging between 0.792 and 0.940 (existing method optimal: 0.73) and a mean average precision of 0.640 (existing method optimal: 0.141). The proposed features can be calculated efficiently and be readily updated, making the framework suitable for big observational data. PMID:26116429

  3. Idiopathic environmental intolerance: Part 2: A causation analysis applying Bradford Hill's criteria to the psychogenic theory.

    PubMed

    Staudenmayer, Herman; Binkley, Karen E; Leznoff, Arthur; Phillips, Scott

    2003-01-01

    Toxicogenic and psychogenic theories have been proposed to explain idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI). Part 2 of this article is an evidence-based causality analysis of the psychogenic theory using an extended version of Bradford Hill's criteria. The psychogenic theory meets all of the criteria directly or indirectly and is characterised by a progressive research programme including double-blind, placebo-controlled provocation challenge studies. We conclude that IEI is a belief characterised by an overvalued idea of toxic attribution of symptoms and disability, fulfilling criteria for a somatoform disorder and a functional somatic syndrome. A neurobiological diathesis similar to anxiety, specifically panic disorder, is a neurobiologically plausible mechanism to explain triggered reactions to ambient doses of environmental agents, real or perceived. In addition, there is a cognitively mediated fear response mechanism characterised by vigilance for perceived exposures and bodily sensations that are subsequently amplified in the process of learned sensitivity. Implications for the assessment and treatment of patients are presented. PMID:15189047

  4. The role of causal criteria in causal inferences: Bradford Hill's "aspects of association"

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Andrew C

    2009-01-01

    As noted by Wesley Salmon and many others, causal concepts are ubiquitous in every branch of theoretical science, in the practical disciplines and in everyday life. In the theoretical and practical sciences especially, people often base claims about causal relations on applications of statistical methods to data. However, the source and type of data place important constraints on the choice of statistical methods as well as on the warrant attributed to the causal claims based on the use of such methods. For example, much of the data used by people interested in making causal claims come from non-experimental, observational studies in which random allocations to treatment and control groups are not present. Thus, one of the most important problems in the social and health sciences concerns making justified causal inferences using non-experimental, observational data. In this paper, I examine one method of justifying such inferences that is especially widespread in epidemiology and the health sciences generally – the use of causal criteria. I argue that while the use of causal criteria is not appropriate for either deductive or inductive inferences, they do have an important role to play in inferences to the best explanation. As such, causal criteria, exemplified by what Bradford Hill referred to as "aspects of [statistical] associations", have an indispensible part to play in the goal of making justified causal claims. PMID:19534788

  5. Statistical methods in epidemiology: Karl Pearson, Ronald Ross, Major Greenwood and Austin Bradford Hill, 1900-1945.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Anne; Magnello, M Eileen

    2002-01-01

    The tradition of epidemiological study through observation and the use of vital statistics dates back to the 18th century in Britain. At the close of the 19th century, however, a new and more sophisticated statistical approach emerged, from a base in the discipline of mathematics, which was eventually to transform the practice of epidemiology. This paper traces the evolution of that new analytical approach within English epidemiology through the work of four key contributors to its inception and establishment within the wider discipline. PMID:12134737

  6. Bradford Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Ronald

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of informetric distributions shows that generalized Leimkuhler functions give proper fits to a large variety of Bradford curves, including those exhibiting a Groos droop or a rising tail. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test is used to test goodness of fit, and least-square fits are compared with Egghe's method. (Contains 53 references.) (LRW)

  7. Austin Chalk boundaries bigger than Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Calhoun, J.

    1980-11-01

    The Austin Chalk is a carbonate limestone which has major outcropping near Austin, Texas. Around Austin, San Antonio, and San Marcos it finds its major expression in the so-called Balcones Escarpment, a jutting limestone promontory that divides the Texas hill country from the Black Gumbo Farmland to the east, and forms one of the longest, most noticeable geologic features in the state. The Chalk is known to run through the entire Gulf Coast Littoral - Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. A map shows the locations of the major uplifts, downwarps, fault zones, and tectonic belts in the Austin Chalk play.

  8. On the Unity of Bradford's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maia, M. J. F.; Maia, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that there is no ambiguity in Bradford's theory of distribution. Starting with two basic postulates laid down by Bradford, a mathematical expression is derived such that its curve agrees with the experimentally plotted data for periodicals in fields of applied geophysics and lubrication. Five references are listed. (Author/EJS)

  9. Obstetric audit: the Bradford way

    PubMed Central

    Lomas, Karen; Jaworskyj, Suzanne; Thomson, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound is widely used as a screening tool in obstetrics with the aim of reducing maternal and foetal morbidity. However, to be effective it is recommended that scanning services follow standard protocols based on national guidelines and that scanning practice is audited to ensure consistency. Bradford has a multi-ethnic population with one of the highest rates of birth defects in the UK and it requires an effective foetal anomaly screening service. We implemented a rolling programme of audits of dating scans, foetal anomaly scans and growth scans carried out by sonographers in Bradford. All three categories of scan were audited using measurable parameters based on national guidelines. Following feedback and re-training to address issues identified, re-audits of dating and foetal anomaly scans were carried out. In both cases, sonographers being re-audited had a marked improvement in their practice. Analysis of foetal abnormality detection rates showed that as a department, we were reaching the nationally agreed detection rates for the Fetal Anomaly Screening Programme auditable conditions. Audit has been shown to be a useful and essential process in achieving consistent scanning practices and high quality images and measurements.

  10. Woods and Russell, Hill, and the emergence of medical statistics.

    PubMed

    Farewell, Vern; Johnson, Tony

    2010-06-30

    In 1937, Austin Bradford Hill wrote Principles of Medical Statistics (Lancet: London, 1937) that became renowned throughout the world and is widely associated with the birth of modern medical statistics. Some 6 years earlier Hilda Mary Woods and William Thomas Russell, colleagues of Hill at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, wrote a similar book An Introduction to Medical Statistics (PS King and Son: London, 1931) that is little known today. We trace the origins of these two books from the foundations of early demography and vital statistics, and make a detailed examination of some of their chapters. It is clear that these texts mark a watershed in the history of medical statistics that demarcates the vital statistics of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries from the modern discipline. Moreover, we consider that the book by Woods and Russell is of some importance in the development of medical statistics and we describe and acknowledge their place in the history of this discipline. PMID:20535761

  11. Woods and Russell, Hill, and the emergence of medical statistics

    PubMed Central

    Farewell, Vern; Johnson, Tony

    2010-01-01

    In 1937, Austin Bradford Hill wrote Principles of Medical Statistics (Lancet: London, 1937) that became renowned throughout the world and is widely associated with the birth of modern medical statistics. Some 6 years earlier Hilda Mary Woods and William Thomas Russell, colleagues of Hill at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, wrote a similar book An Introduction to Medical Statistics (PS King and Son: London, 1931) that is little known today. We trace the origins of these two books from the foundations of early demography and vital statistics, and make a detailed examination of some of their chapters. It is clear that these texts mark a watershed in the history of medical statistics that demarcates the vital statistics of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries from the modern discipline. Moreover, we consider that the book by Woods and Russell is of some importance in the development of medical statistics and we describe and acknowledge their place in the history of this discipline. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:20535761

  12. Bradford's Law and the Literature of Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawani, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of separate data on the literature of tropical and subtropical agriculture, and the world literature of agricultural economics and rural socilogy, in relation to Bradford's law. (8 references) (Author/SJ)

  13. Bradford Hill's criteria, emerging zoonoses, and One Health.

    PubMed

    Asokan, G V; Asokan, Vanitha

    2016-09-01

    Zoonoses constitute more than 60% of infectious diseases and 75% of emerging infectious diseases. Inappropriate overemphasis of specialization of disciplines has ignored public health. Identifying the causes of disease and determining how exposures are related to outcomes in "emerging zoonoses" affecting multiple species are considered to be the hallmarks of public health research and practice that compels the adoption of "One Health". The interactions within and among populations of vertebrates in the causation and transmissions of emerging zoonotic diseases are inherently dynamic, interdependent, and systems based. Disease causality theories have moved from one or several agents causing disease in a single species, to one infectious agent causing disease in multiple species-emerging zoonoses. Identification of the causative pathogen components or structures, elucidating the mechanisms of species specificity, and understanding the natural conditions of emergence would facilitate better derivation of the causal mechanism. Good quality evidence on causation in emerging zoonoses affecting multiple species makes a strong recommendation under the One Health approach for disease prevention and control from diagnostic tests, treatment, antimicrobial resistance, preventive vaccines, and evidence informed health policies. In the tenets of One Health, alliances work best when the legitimate interests of the different partners combine to prevent and control emerging zoonoses. PMID:26589252

  14. Towards Informetrics: Haitun, Laplace, Zipf, Bradford and the Alvey Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, B. C.

    1984-01-01

    Review of recent developments in statistical theories for social sciences highlights Haitun's statistical distributions, Laplace's "Law of Succession" and distribution, Laplace and Bradford analysis of book-index data, inefficiency of frequency distribution analysis, Laws of Bradford and Zipf, natural categorization, and Bradford Law and household…

  15. Bradford College: Requiem for a College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Bradford College, located 35 miles north of Boston in Haverhill, Massachusetts, was exactly the type of institution in greatest jeopardy of closing. It was too small, with an enrollment that never exceeded five hundred students. Such institutions tend to have high attrition rates because they have limited numbers of courses, majors, facilities,…

  16. Die Informationsgewinnung im Rahmen der "Bradford"schen Streuungsregel (Bradford's Law) (The Gathering of Information within the Framework of Bradford's Law).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Hans-Reiner

    Designed to provide students of information science with an introduction to British librarian Samuel Clement Bradford's 1934 findings about the scattering of information, this reader on Bradford's Law begins by discussing its use in calculating search procedures in printed bibliographies as well as in databases. The following additional materials…

  17. "Doing Math" in Austin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Allen

    2004-01-01

    Since 1990, the January issue of "Teaching Pre K-8" has highlighted a school visit by the president of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. This article discusses Cathy Seeley's visit to a 6th grade classroom at the J. E. Pearce Middle School in Austin, Texas, where she participated in a math activity from the Connected Mathematics…

  18. Water quality of Lake Austin and Town Lake, Austin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, F.L.; Wells, F.C.; Shelby, W.J.; McPherson, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    Lake Austin and Town Lake are impoundments on the Colorado River in Travis County, central Texas, and are a source of water for municipal industrial water supplies, electrical-power generation, and recreation for more than 500,000 people in the Austin metropolitan area. Small vertical temperature variations in both lakes were attributed to shallow depths in the lakes and short retention times of water in the lakes during the summer months. The largest areal variations in dissolved oxygen generally occur in Lake Austin during the summer as a result of releases of water from below the thermocline in Lake Travis. Except for iron, manganese, and mercury, dissolved concentrations of trace elements in water collected from Lake Austin and Town Lake did not exceed the primary or secondary drinking water standards set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Little or no effect of stormwater runoff on temperature, dissolved oxygen, or minor elements could be detected in either Lake Austin or Town Lake. Little seasonal or areal variation was noted in nitrogen concentrations in Lake Austin or Town lake. Total phosphorus concentrations generally were small in both lakes. Increased concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were detected after storm runoff inflow in Town Lake, but not in Lake Austin; densities of fecal-coliform bacteria increased in Lake Austin and Town Lake, but were substantially greater in Town Lake than in Lake Austin. 18 refs., 38 figs., 59 tabs.

  19. 20. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FISH LADDER ON BRADFORD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FISH LADDER ON BRADFORD ISLAND AS IT ASCENDS FROM THE SOUTH END OF DAM/SPILLWAY; THE DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM/SPILLWAY IS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  20. 21. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER ON BRADFORD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER ON BRADFORD ISLAND THAT LEADS UP FROM POWERHOUSE #1 TOWARDS THE DAM/SPILLWAY; THE TOP OF POWERHOUSE #1 IS VISIBLE IN LEFT BACKGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  1. Austin Community College Benchmarking Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Community Coll., TX. Office of Institutional Effectiveness.

    Austin Community College contracted with MGT of America, Inc. in spring 1999 to develop a peer and benchmark (best) practices analysis on key indicators. These indicators were updated in spring 2002 using data from eight Texas community colleges and four non-Texas institutions that represent large, comprehensive, urban community colleges, similar…

  2. Trace fossils and paleoenvironments of lower and middle Austin Chalk (upper Cretaceous), north-central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, W.C. ); Reaser, D.F. )

    1990-09-01

    Outcrops of lower and middle Austin Chalk in the vicinity of Cedar Hill and Waxahachie, Texas (designated site of the Superconducting Super Collider), are profusely bioturbated. The lower Austin (Coniacian) disconformably overlies the Eagle Ford Shale (Turonian) and consists of about 60 m of medium- to thick-bedded indurated chalk with thin intervening marls. The middle Austin (Santonian) is composed of about 65 m of thick-bedded marl containing thin beds of argillaceous chalk. Both chalk and marl units are moderately to intensely bioturbated. However, ichnofossils are more conspicuous in chalks where multiple episodes of burrowing are recognizable. Early formed burrows (indistinct mottles) represent the initial softground Austin substrate. Later generations of well-preserved burrows record a post-compaction (dewatered) firmground substrate. No hardgrounds have been recognized. The abundance and diversity of ichnofossils in Austin strata are in marked contrast to the paucity of other megafauna, except large inoceramids. Planolites, Teichichnus, Thalassinoides, and Chondrites are the predominant ichnogenera in the lower Austin; these forms are superimposed on a background of nondiagnostic, irregularly shaped mottles. Some strata contain well-preserved J-, S-, T-, U-, Y-, and X-shaped traces having menicus fillings. These subhorizontal, endogenic, full-relief burrows are typically infilled with dark gray (pyritic) chalk. Locally, pyrite or Fe-oxide-filled vertical tubes are preserved. Many traces have been deformed by compaction. The middle Austin contains Planolites, Chondrites, Thalassinoides, Pseudobilobites, and both small- and large-diameter, sinuous, horizontal burrows. These ichnofossils are infilled with chalk or comminuted shells and are more resistant to weathering than the surrounding middle Austin marl. Intensely burrowed horizons occur in association with distinctive Fe-stained chalk beds.

  3. Born in Bradford, a cohort study of babies born in Bradford, and their parents: Protocol for the recruitment phase

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Pauline

    2008-01-01

    Background Bradford, one of the most deprived cities in the United Kingdom, has a wide range of public health problems associated with socioeconomic deprivation, including an infant mortality rate almost double that for England and Wales. Infant mortality is highest for babies of Pakistani origin, who comprise almost half the babies born in Bradford. The Born in Bradford cohort study aims to examine environmental, psychological and genetic factors that impact on health and development perinatally, during childhood and subsequent adult life, and those that influence their parents' health and wellbeing. This protocol outlines methods for the recruitment phase of the study. Methods Most Bradford women attend for antenatal care and give birth at the Bradford Royal Infirmary, which has approximately 5,800 births per year. Women are eligible for recruitment if they plan to give birth here. Babies born from March 2007 are eligible to participate, recruitment is planned to continue until 2010. Fathers of babies recruited are invited to participate. Women are usually recruited when they attend for a routine oral glucose tolerance test at 26–28 weeks gestation. Recruitment of babies is at birth. Fathers are recruited whenever possible during the antenatal period, or soon after the birth. The aim is to recruit 10,000 women, their babies, and the babies' fathers. At recruitment women have blood samples taken, are interviewed to complete a semi-structured questionnaire, weighed, and have height, arm circumference and triceps skinfold measured. Umbilical cord blood is collected at birth. Within two weeks of birth babies have their head, arm and abdominal circumference measured, along with subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness. Fathers self-complete a questionnaire at recruitment, have height and weight measured, and provide a saliva sample. Participants are allocated a unique study number. NHS numbers will be used to facilitate record linkage and access to routine data. A

  4. Austin Chalk trend, upper Gulf Coast, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Holifield, R.

    1982-01-01

    The application of innovative geologic and geophysical interpretations and of carefully tailored well completion techniques has created the opportunity for profitable, low-risk drilling programs in the Austin Chalk Formation of S. Texas. This discussion focuses on selected information that should be beneficial for exploration and development activities in the Austin Chalk. The Giddings field is discussed in some detail, since this field is the center of the greatest activity in the Austin Chalk trend.

  5. Bradford H. Hager Receives 2013 Inge Lehmann Medal: Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrovica, Jerry X.

    2014-01-01

    In the post-plate tectonics world, efforts to map the structure of Earth's interior broadened to include a growing preoccupation with the underlying dynamics. Students of global geophysics recognize the important role that previous recipients of the Inge Lehmann Medal played in this effort, but they would also understand the reasons that Bradford Hager of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology must be included in this honored list. Brad has been a central figure in mantle dynamics for the last 30 years, responsible for many fundamental advances in our understanding of mantle structure and flow and their connection to the geological record.

  6. Enough about Models and Abstractions, Let Your Therapeutic Soul Be Free: An Interview with Bradford Keeney.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englar-Carlson, Matt J.

    2003-01-01

    Presents an interview with Dr. Bradford Keeney, an internationally acclaimed teacher of psychotherapy and cultural healing practices who has spent three decades studying diverse healing cultures throughout the world. (Contains 10 references.) (GCP)

  7. Structural stratigraphy of Austin Chalk

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, K.P.; Friedman, M.

    1983-03-01

    The mechanical behavior (structural stratigraphy) of the Upper Cretaceous Austin Chalk is established from the study of fracture intensity along its outcrop trend from Dallas to San Antonio and westward to Langtry, Texas, and in the subsurface from the study of core and/or fracture identification logs from 39 wells. Three mechanical-stratigraphic units are recognized as: (1) an upper, fractured massive chalk corresponding to the Bid House Chalk Member, (2) a middle, ductile chalk-marl corresponding to the Dessau Chalk and Burditt Marl Members, and (3) a lower, fractured massive chalk corresponding to the Atco Chalk Member. Representative samples from these units were experimentally shortened dry, at 10, 17 34, and 70-MPa confining pressure, 24/sup 0/C (75/sup 0/F), and at 2.5 x 10/sup -4/ s/sup -1/ to determine if the relative mechanical behavior observed at the surface could be extrapolated into the subsurface at different simulated depths of burial. The experimentally determined ductilities do parallel those determined from outcrop and subsurface studies. Through multiple linear regression analyses of strength versus intrinsic rock properties and environmental parameters, it appears that first porosity and then smectite-content are most strongly correlated with strength. For low-porosity specimens (9 to 13.5%) smectite present in amounts as little as 1% by volume has the highest correlation with strength accounting for 83% of its variability. SEM photomicrographs show that the clays are smeared-out along the induced shear fracture surfaces where they are greatly reduced in grain-size. These observations suggest that the smectite acts mechanically as a soft-inclusion, localizing shear failure and correspondingly weakening the material.

  8. Style of faults and associated fractures in Austin Chalk: northern extension of balcones fault zone, central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Reaser, D.F.; Collins, E.W.

    1988-09-01

    Distributions, geometries, and densities of faults and associated fractures in the Cretaceous Austin Chalk were studied in outcrop within the northernmost extension of the Balcones fault zone in Ellis and northern Hill Counties, Texas. Description of the fracture systems may be applicable to hydrocarbon exploration and production from this unit and to locating the proposed Dallas-Fort Worth Area Superconducting Super Collider site in Ellis County.

  9. Surface production facilities in the Austin chalk

    SciTech Connect

    Vadala, C.; Dornak, H.; McDonald, P.

    1983-01-01

    Development drilling in the Austin chalk primarily is centered in a 5-county area between Giddings and Caldwell, Texas. Latest statistics indicate that 182 producers currently are operating in the area with a projected total production of approx. 125,000 bopd and 400 MMcfd. Cumulative oil production stands at nearly 75 million bbl. Surface production facilities include pumping units, production batteries, compressor stations, processing plants, and pipeline gathering systems for both oil and gas. An overview and a discussion of these facilities, as they pertain to the Giddings field and the Austin Chalk, are presented.

  10. Austin chalk stimulation techniques and design

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, C.D.; Weber, D.; Garza, D.; Swaner, S.

    1982-01-01

    This study presents design completion techniques being used to stimulate the Austin Chalk Formation in the Giddings field and Gonzales County, Texas. As background information, a history of the Giddings field and development of the Austin Chalk is discussed. The main purpose is to consider factors affecting fracture treatment design, including fracture height, pump rates, types of fracturing fluids, proppant concentrations, and leak-off controls. This is to insure effective and successful stimulation treatment. Possible alternative design considerations for future fracture treatments also are discussed.

  11. Austin, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Austin, Texas, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  12. Day Care Dilemma. Austin: A Community Responds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Dale B.

    1987-01-01

    The community of Austin, Texas has several programs for after school day care for students with disabilities, including: Extend-A-Care, where nondisabled peers participate in play and care activities with disabled children; summer camps for autistic children sponsored by the Parks and Recreation Department; and summer camps operated by the Easter…

  13. Austin Community College Video Game Development Certificate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGoldrick, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The Video Game Development program is designed and developed by leaders in the Austin video game development industry, under the direction of the ACC Video Game Advisory Board. Courses are taught by industry video game developers for those who want to become video game developers. The program offers a comprehensive approach towards learning what's…

  14. Cultivating Community Schools: Austin's Grassroots Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, Walter P. Webb Middle School faced a crisis. One evening in January, the superintendent at the time held a meeting at the school in Austin, Texas, to let students, parents, teachers, and community members know that at the end of the academic year, their school would close. Thanks to a new state law focused on accountability, the…

  15. Favorable prices justify Austin Chalk plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mickey, V.

    1981-03-01

    The elements of economics required to justify new natural gas processing plants seem to come together in the Austin Chalk trend of south-central Texas. The Mapco pipeline which originates in the western overthrust belt and carries natural gas liquids to Mont Belvieu, Texas, provides a market for the liquids. With 110 rigs drilling in a 4-county area of the Chalk (Burleson, Lee, Fayette, and Brazos), natural gas reserves are being proven adequate to justify the many new plants being placed in the area. Natural gas liquids prices, which historically are closely correlated with crude oil prices, are reflecting the impact of partial decontrol of those prices. Improvements in natural gas processing technology allow for more energy-efficient plants with more control over the liquids products produced. The result is a hotbed of natural gas processing activity in the Austin Chalk trend.

  16. Austin Chalk stimulations require thorough planning

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, C.D.; Garza, D.; Swaner, S.; Weber, D.

    1982-08-01

    Considers the influence of fracture height, well site position, pump rates, types of fracture fluids, proppant concentrations, and leak-off controls. Careful attention to each of these factors can result in successful stimulation treatment and optimum production rates. The Austin Chalk trend stretches along the entire Gulf Coast from Mexico into Louisiana. Well position relative to faults and natural fractures in the Austin Chalk is the single most critical factor directly affecting productivity. Observations include: cross-linked fluids are necessary in most cases to achieve desired proppant concentration and distribution; there appears to be a relationship between fracture height and pump time; accurate estimates of fracture height are necessary to develop the desired propped fracture length; and leak-off in natural fractures potentially compromises well productivity.

  17. Austin chalk maintains brisk drilling pace

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    Horizontal drilling in the Cretaceous Austin chalk trend of South Texas continues to set a fast pace. The Texas Railroad Commission has issued nearly 900 permits to drill horizontal wells in the Pearsall field area alone from 1984 through February 1991. TRC issued 1,485 permits for horizontal wells statewide during that period, including 1,285 since Jan. 1, 1990. Statewide, operators have reported completion of 685 horizontal wells. That includes 472 in Pearsall field, where TRC has issued 882 permits, and 121 in Giddings field, where 305 permits have been issued. Frio County, site of Pearsall field, led Texas counties with 494 permits and 278 horizontal completions. Oil drilling and reentry work is under way in many areas, and horizontal Austin chalk gas/condensate completions have been reported in Dimmit and Burleson counties.

  18. New frac treatment boosts Austin Chalk productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, D.; Pierson, N.O.

    1986-09-01

    Wells drilled in the Central Texas Austin Chalk formation tend to deplete rapidly, with production rates declining to 10 bopd or less within months of completion. According to the authors, these wells can often be restored with a dendritic fracturing treatment. Production from 50 conventionally fraced chalk wells averaged only 6 bopd. After dendritic fracturing, average output increased to 61.2 bopd. Similar results were obtained from wells not previously treated.

  19. Characterization of the Austin Chalk producing trend

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.Y.; Poston, S.W.; Wu, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    Fracture patterns and reservoir dual characteristics are presented for a portion of the fractured Austin Chalk producing trend. The production histories of 1,235 wells from Giddings Field covering portions of Lee, Burleson, Washington, and Fayette counties were analyzed by decline curve analysis. Production of the average Austin Chalk well is usually characterized by an early rapid decline and a later slow decline. The average initial effective decline rate is about 90% per year, and lasts about six months to one year. For the later, less dramatic decline, the average is about 35% per year. Statistical results of well performance indicate no difficulty in finding oil in the Austin Chalk producing trend. However, areas of high fracture density must be encountered for a well to be profitable. A contour map of the iso-reserves was prepared for a better understanding of the fracture system and reservoir characteristics. Besides the general northeast-southwest production trend, the map shows anomalies in the fracture system and reservoir characteristics. A simple, rapid technique to estimate reservoir parameters directly from the double-decline behavior of log (rate) versus time curves is given. Values of flow capacity, storage capacity, dimensionless fracture storage parameter (..omega..), and dimensionless interporosity flow parameter (lambda) can be estimated by this technique.

  20. Austin chalk yields oil near basaltic cone

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-03

    This paper reports on the completion of a Cretaceous Austin chalk horizontal oil well near a basaltic cone in the Uvalde volcanic field area of Dimmit County, Tex. The well is the HDP Inc. 1 autumn Unit, about 9 miles northeast to Carrizo Springs HDP, which stands for horizontal development and production, of Palo Alto, Calif., drilled the well on a farmout from American Exploration Co., Houston. It initially pumped and flowed 1,600 b/d of oil without stimulation from openhole. HDP drilled about 1,500 ft of horizontal and deviated hole in Austin chalk B-1, the producing horizon. Production in late August was about 500 b/d of oil, pending determination of proration unit size and allowable. The well, in the greater Pearsall field Austin chalk play along the Dimmit-Savala county line, is the first horizontal chalk producer in Elaine field. The field has produced mainly from Escondido sand, Olmos sand and Anacacho limestone, all in the Upper Cretaceous.

  1. First report of Gymnosporangium sabinae, European pear rust, on Bradford pear in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bradford pear, Pyrus calleryana Decne., is well known as an ornamental plant for its flowers, leaf color in fall, and disease resistance, making it desirable as a street tree. In August and October 2008, the aecial stage of Gymnosporangium sabinae (Dicks.) G. Winter was collected on leaves of P. cal...

  2. Foundation trusts. Bradford: how the trust and the regulator finally fell out.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Helen

    2005-02-10

    Foundation regulator Bill Moyes gradually lost confidence in recovery plans put forward by Bradford Teaching Hospitals trust in a series of meetings last November and December. Papers released under the Freedom of Information Act show it accused the trust of not taking 'timely or appropriate action' to resolve the crisis, and not settling disputes with local PCTs. PMID:15736590

  3. Placing the Library at the Heart of Plagiarism Prevention: The University of Bradford Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Sarah; Costigan, Anne; O'hara, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Plagiarism is a vexing issue for Higher Education, affecting student transition, retention, and attainment. This article reports on two initiatives from the University of Bradford library aimed at reducing student plagiarism. The first initiative is an intensive course for students who have contravened plagiarism regulations. The second course…

  4. A Critical Commentary on Leimkuhler's 'Exact' Formulation of the Bradford Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, B. C.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that the application of Bradford's original formulation to Leimkuhler's choice of bibliographic citations more closely fits the statistical data than does his own. Operational research techniques are assailed as inadequate and wasteful to the needs and purposes of the social sciences. Six references are provided. (RAA)

  5. Citizenship and the Portuguese in Bradford: An Experience in Community Co-operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter-Fantini, Mary-Evelyn

    1989-01-01

    Describes the process by which 216 Portuguese applicants from Bradford, Ontario, became Canadian citizens. The success of the citizenship drive is attributed to cooperation among governmental, educational, and community organizations, and to the acknowledgement of the ethnocultural group's unique needs. (Author/CB)

  6. 78 FR 40427 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 183-Austin, Texas; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Samsung...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... Activity; Samsung Austin Semiconductor, LLC (Semiconductors); Austin, Texas Samsung Austin Semiconductor... authority to produce semiconductor memory devices for export within Subzone 183B. The current request...

  7. Bradford's law: identification of the core journals for neurosurgery and its subspecialties.

    PubMed

    Venable, Garrett T; Shepherd, Brandon A; Loftis, Christopher M; McClatchy, S Gray; Roberts, Mallory L; Fillinger, Meghan E; Tansey, James B; Klimo, Paul

    2016-02-01

    OBJECT Bradford's law describes the scatter of citations for a given subject or field. It can be used to identify the most highly cited journals for a field or subject. The objective of this study was to use currently accepted formulations of Bradford's law to identify core journals of neurosurgery and neurosurgical subspecialties. METHODS All original research publications from 2009 to 2013 were analyzed for the top 25 North American academic neurosurgeons from each subspecialty. The top 25 were chosen from a ranked career h-index list identified from previous studies. Egghe's formulation and the verbal formulation of Bradford's law were applied to create specific citation density zones and identify the core journals for each subspecialty. The databases were then combined to identify the core journals for all of academic neurosurgery. RESULTS Using Bradford's verbal law with 4 zone models, the authors were able to identify the core journals of neurosurgery and its subspecialties. The journals found in the most highly cited first zone are presented here as the core journals. For neurosurgery as a whole, the core included the following journals: Journal of Neurosurgery, Neurosurgery, Spine, Stroke, Neurology, American Journal of Neuroradiology, International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, and New England Journal of Medicine. The core journals for each subspecialty are presented in the manuscript. CONCLUSIONS Bradford's law can be used to identify the core journals of neurosurgery and its subspecialties. The core journals vary for each neurosurgical subspecialty, but Journal of Neurosurgery and Neurosurgery are among the core journals for each neurosurgical subspecialty. PMID:26339849

  8. Austin Peay State University: College and University Computing Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE/EFFECT, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Planning for information technology, computer services, computer hardware, administrative computing, academic computing, and office automation/networking at Austin Peay State University are described. (MLW)

  9. Breaking the Code: Austin's Gang Enigma. Austin Police Department Gang Suppression Unit Resource Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Police Dept., TX.

    This resource handbook provides facts about gangs in Austin (Texas) and suggests ways parents and the community can work to reduce the city's gang problem. Criminal street gangs are becoming one of the most serious crime problems in Texas today, with 38 major cities reporting the presence of gangs. Texas gangs are defined as social, delinquent,…

  10. Drilling and well completion of Austin Chalk

    SciTech Connect

    Coffman, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    This study describes U.S. Operating, Inc.'s experiences in drilling and well completion in the Austin Chalk zone of Lee County, Texas. This area's difficulties have included high pressure gas, lost circulation in low pressure zones, varying content of producing formations, varying grades and qualities of production in the same producing zones, and faulting. The potential for severe kicking is always present, and casing failures are common. Procedures for dealing with the expected kicks, lost circulation, difficult casing jobs, and variable production are described.

  11. Seismic and horizontal drilling unlock Austin Chalk

    SciTech Connect

    Kuich, N. )

    1990-09-01

    Giddings is a Texas field whose economic production is totally dependent on the development of natural fracture porosity. Matrix porosities and permeabilities in the Austin Chalk limestone, the primary objective, are incapable of maintaining commercial hydrocarbon production. This paper discusses how fracture identification from seismic data has been used as a successful prospecting tool in the area for over ten years. The advent of horizontal drilling technology now allows the development of multiple seismic fracture indicators in the same wellbore. These indicators often represent unique hydrocarbon accumulations.

  12. Stimulation techniques used in the Austin Chalk

    SciTech Connect

    Ely, J.; McDow, G. Turner, J.

    1982-01-01

    The object of this work is to discuss the most widely used stimulation techniques employed in the Austin Chalk formation in S. Texas. Although this trend has been explored for years and continues to be one of the most active in the country, there remains a difference of opinion over how to effectively stimulate this reservoir. Several schools of thought regarding types of fluids, additives, and general treating techniques are examined. The fracture geometry of various treatments as predicted by pre-treatment computer designs are compared to the parameters obtained from post-frac analysis.

  13. Increasing scientific confidence in adverse outcome pathways: Application of tailored Bradford-Hill considerations for evaluating weight of evidence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systematic consideration of scientific support is a critical element in developing and, ultimately, using adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for various regulatory applications. Though weight of evidence (WoE) analysis has been proposed as a basis for assessment of the maturity and...

  14. Austin Chalk (!) Petroleum System: Upper Cretaceous, Southeastern Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, W.C.; Katz, B.J.; Robison, V.D.

    1995-10-01

    The Austin Group (Coniacian-Santonian) is a sequence of interstratified chalk and marl deposited during a sea-level highstand as a transgressive unit. Austin Chalk deposition occurred on a southeastward-dipping carbonate ramp that exhibits distinctive onshore and offshore chalk lithofacies. Discrete intervals within offshore Austin lithofacies display good to excellent source rock potential. Organic carbon content ranges upward to 20.0 wt. % with generation potentials exceeding 45 mg HC/g of rock measured. Source potential increases basinward where offshore chalk units exhibit increases in both organic richness and net thickness. These organically rich units display an affinity for the Type II reference curve. Hydrogen index values typically exceed 300 mg HC/g TOC. Several geochemical indices suggest that the oil-window is located at relatively shallow depths (6,700 ft). Offshore chalks sourced onshore Austin reservoirs through lateral migration (along fractures and stylolites) which occurred during the middle Tertiary. Hydrocarbons may also have been sourced from the underlying Eagle Ford Shale (Turonian). Austin Shale reservoirs are characterized by low porosity/low permeability dual pore systems consisting of microporous matrix and fractures. Diagenesis (mechanical compaction, styloitization, and calcite cementation) has strongly modified Austin Chalk pore systems. Matrix porosity generally decreases with increasing depth because of progressive burial diagenesis. Austin reservoirs typically have two major sets of fractures; reservoir performance is related to fracture connectivity. Austin Chalk reservoirs are sealed by the overlying Taylor Marl (Campanian).

  15. Austin Collaborative for Mathematics Education 1999-2000 Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelder, Michelle

    The Austin Collaborative for Mathematics Education (ACME) is a districtwide initiative to improve mathematics education in all elementary and middle school classrooms in the Austin Independent School District, Texas (AISD). The initiative, funded by the National Science Foundation and the school district, provides long-term, high-quality…

  16. Out of the Ordinary: Incorporating Limits with Austin and Derrida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Emma

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to open up a re-examination of the relationship between thought and language by reference to two philosophers: John Austin and Jacques Derrida. While in traditional philosophical terms these thinkers stand far apart, recent work in the philosophy of education has highlighted the importance of Austin's work in a way that has…

  17. The cognitive determinants of performance on the Austin Maze.

    PubMed

    Crowe, S F; Barclay, L; Brennan, S; Farkas, L; Gould, E; Katchmarsky, S; Vayda, S

    1999-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate which abilities are measured by the Austin Maze. One hundred and eight university students were administered a battery of eight neuropsychological tests including, the Austin Maze, the Tower of London, the Wisconsin Card Sort Test, Block Design, the Visual Spatial Learning Test, Digit Span Backwards, the Brown-Peterson Task and the Wide Range Achievement Test of Reading. Results indicated that visuospatial ability and memory both significantly contributed to performance on the Austin Maze, but differed in the degree to which they explained the performance depending on which measure of maze performance was employed. It appears that visuospatial ability is measured in early trials of the Austin Maze when individuals are orienting themselves to the path. In later trials individuals must call upon visuospatial memory to consolidate the details of the path. Executive function and working memory were not found to be significantly implicated in performance on the Austin Maze. PMID:9989018

  18. Quest Learning and Assessment, UT Austin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Gerald; McDonald, Patsy; Hostetler, Rhonda

    2010-03-01

    Quest Learning & Assessment is an innovative web-based tool for instructors and students of math and science. Quest was created at The University of Texas at Austin to address educational challenges at one of the biggest universities in the country. It now serves a primary role in classes taught within UT's College of Natural Sciences. Quest covers subjects ranging from mathematics, chemistry, biology, physics, computer science and statistics. For instructors, Quest offers an easy way to create homework assignments, quizzes and exams with its extensive knowledge base. Since most questions have built-in variations Quest can create custom assignments for each student, which are automatically graded. Once solutions are available, students can read detailed explanations to questions and understand why their answer was correct or incorrect. Quest has graded over 30 million student responses and is now available to all education institutions.

  19. Evaluation of Austin Chalk from cores

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    To evaluate the economic and producing capacity of the Austin Chalk it is necessary to recognize the existence of 2 types of reservoirs, the matrix and the fracture reservoir. These 2 reservoirs are vastly different in their ability to store and produce hydrocarbons. A detailed definition of each and an understanding of their interdependence and interaction is necessary for a successful evaluation. The fracture reservoir can, in its natural state, have a very high permeability and capacity to transmit liquids or gas. It can have significant storage capacity. Matrix porosity and oil saturation indicate zones of matrix hydrocarbon accumulation. The permeability present would not flow significant amounts of fluid without the presence of a fracture system, either natural or artificially induced. Fractures must have sufficient permeability to reduce pressure in the fracture approaching well-bore flowing pressure.

  20. 75 FR 9438 - Samsung Austin Semiconductor, LLC, DRAM Fab 1, a Subsidiary of Samsung Electronics Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... Employment and Training Administration Samsung Austin Semiconductor, LLC, DRAM Fab 1, a Subsidiary of Samsung..., applicable to workers of Samsung Austin Semiconductor, LLC, a subsidiary of Samsung Electronics Corporation... Systems, Inc. were employed on-site at the Austin, Texas location of Samsung Austin Semiconductor, LLC,...

  1. Ichnology and paleosubstrates of Austin Chalk (Cretaceous) outcrops: Southern Dallas and Ellis Counties, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, W.C. ); Reaser, D.F. )

    1991-03-01

    Ichnofossils are abundant in outcrops of the Austin Chalk near Waxahachie, Texas (designated site of the Super-Conducting Super Collider). The abundance and diversity of ichnofossils in Austin strata contrast with the paucity of other macrofossils, except large inoceramids. The lower Austin Chalk (Coniacian) disconformably overlies the Eagle Ford Shale (Turonian). Planolites, Thalassinoides, and Chondrites are conspicuous in the lower Austin. Some lower Austin strata contain well-preserved burrows having menicus fillings. However, most lower Austin ichnofossils are poorly preserved and have compacted. The middle Austin Marl and upper Austin Chalk (Santonain) contain Planolites, Chondrites, Thalassinoides, and Pseudobilobites. Several thin, intensely burrowed, Fe-stained, horizons within the middle Austin represent omission surfaces having postomission Thalassinoides. The upper Austin disconformably underlies the Taylor Marl (Campanian). The Austin-Taylor contact is a Rhizocorallium-infested omission surface overlain by a condensed bed of phosphatic and pyritic bioclasts. Upper Austin occurrences of Rhizocorallium and Pseudobilobites are unique for North American Cretaceous chalks. Based on cross-cutting relationships and differences in morphology, diameter, and burrow-filling sediments, numerous ichnospecies of Thalassinoides are discernable throughout the Austin. Variations in preservation quality exhibited by successive generations of ichnofossils record progressive changes in substrate consistency. Earliest formed burrows have diffuse outlines representing an initial thixotropic (softground) Austin substrate. Subsequent generations of burrows have more distinct outlines recording a gradual increase in substrate firmness. Paleo-firmgrounds are common in Austin outcrops; evidence of hardgrounds is lacking. The Thalassinoides-dominated Austin ichnoassemblage represents an inner shelf paleoenvironment.

  2. Horizontal well drilled into deep, hot Austin chalk

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, D.; Johnson, M.; Godfrey, B.

    1995-04-03

    Bent-housing steerable downhole motors helped maintain course for a deep, hot, horizontal well in the Austin chalk. The Navasota Unit No. 1 was planned as a B zone, single downdip lateral, Austin chalk horizontal well with a maximum departure from vertical of 3,767 ft and a planned total depth (TD) of 17,342 ft measured depth (MD)/14,172 ft TVD. The Austin chalk was found significantly deeper in this well than planned, which resulted in an actual TD of 17,899 ft MD/14,993 ft TVD, the deepest (TVD) horizontal well in the Austin chalk to date. The well was spudded on August 6, 1994, and took 52 days to reach TD. The static bottom hole temperature was almost 350 F. The paper describes the well plan, drilling results, and the lateral section.

  3. Giddings Austin chalk enters deep lean-gas phase

    SciTech Connect

    Moritis, G.

    1995-12-25

    Deep lean gas is the latest phase in the growth of the Giddings field Austin chalk play. The first phase involved drilling vertical oil and gas wells. Next came the horizontal well boom in the shallower Austin chalk area, which is still continuing. And now this third phase places horizontal laterals in the Austen chalk at about 14,000--15,000 ft to produce lean gas. The article describes the producing wells and gas gathering.

  4. Late Cretaceous (Austin Group) volcanic deposits as a hydrocarbon trap

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, P.J.

    1994-09-01

    A Late Cretaceous submarine igneous extrusion occurs in the subsurface of southwestern Wilson County, Texas. The Coniacian-Santonian-aged (Austin Group) volcanic eruption discharged large volumes of magnetite-rich olivine nephelinite, that upon quenching, formed an extensive nontronitic clay layer. This clay deposit formed a trapping mechanism for hydrocarbons beneath the volcano; production from these features is normally attributed to the shoal-water carbonate facics developed on top of the volcano. The heat energy of the volcano may have thermally matured the calcareous sediments of the Austin Chalk contiguous with the volcano. The normally grayish-colored Austin Chalk in contact with the intrusive portion of the igneous material displays a greenish color suggesting thermal alteration. The overlying nontronite trapped the mobile hydrocarbons, and early emplacement may have preserved some of the original porosity and permeability of the Austin Chalk. Austin Chalk-aged volcanic deposits produce hydrocarbons from stratigraphic traps within the volcanic material, within the porous beachrock, and structurally within overlying sandstones. The intruded Austin Chalk also behaves as a reservoir because the original porosity and permeability is maintained through early emplacement of oil and the overlying volcanic clay prevents vertical migration. Marcefina Creek, discovered in 1980 from an {open_quotes}augen{close_quotes}-shaped seismic signature and an aerial magnetic survey, produces from the fractured chalk beneath the nontronitic clay layer. This field has produced over seven million bbl of oil from over 40 wells from fractured and porous rock beneath the volcano.

  5. Melamine and Cyanuric Acid do not interfere with Bradford and Ninhydrin assays for protein determination

    PubMed Central

    Field, Anjalie; Field, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    In the fall of 2007 pet food contaminated with melamine and cyanuric acid caused kidney stones in thousands of animals. In the summer of 2008, a more serious outbreak of adulterated dairy food caused the deaths of six infants and sickened about 290,000 children in China. In all cases, melamine was likely added to inflate the apparent protein content of the foods. To determine if we could measure protein without interference from melamine and cyanuric acid we tested these compounds in the Bradford and Ninhydrin assays, two common dye-based assays for protein, as well as by ammonia release, the most common assay used in the food industry. Neither compound was detected in the Ninhydrin and Bradford assays at concentrations of >100 μg/ml. The ammonia assay detected melamine but was inconclusive with respect to cyanuric acid. To develop an accurate test for food that would not detect either chemical as a protein, assays were run on cat food and reconstituted milk powder. The Bradford assay readily measured the protein content of each food, and importantly, the addition of melamine or cyanuric acid to reconstituted milk did not affect the readings. The protein concentrations obtained for reconstituted milk powder were as expected, but those for the cat food were 10 to 30-fold lower, due to its low solubility. We conclude that dye-binding assays can be employed to detect protein in food without interference from melamine and cyanuric acid, thus reducing the incentive to use them as additives. PMID:20228949

  6. Fabry-Perot observations of comet Austin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, David; Scherb, F.; Roesler, F. L.; Li, G.; Harlander, J.; Roberts, T. P. P.; Vandenberk, D.; Nossal, S.; Coakley, M.; Oliversen, Ronald J.

    1990-01-01

    Preliminary results of a program to observe Comet Austin (1990c1) from 16 April to 4 May and from 11 May to 27 May 1990 using the West Auxiliary of the McMath Solar Telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona were presetned. The observations were made with a 15 cm duel-etalon Fabry-Perot scanning and imaging spectrometer with two modes of operation: a high resolution mode with a velocity resolution of 1.2 km/s and a medium resolution mode with a velocity resolution 10 km/s. Scanning data was obtained with an RCA C31034A photomultiplier tube and imaging data was obtained with a Photometrics LN2 cooled CCD camera with a 516 by 516 Ford chip. The results include: (1) information on the coma outflow velocity from high resolution spectral profiles of (OI)6300 and NH2 emissions, (2) gaseous water production rates from medium resolution observation of (OI)6300, (3) spectra of H2O(+) emissions in order to study the ionized component of the coma, (4) spatial distribution of H2O(+) emission features from sequences of velocity resolved images (data cubes), and (5) spatial distribution of (OI)6300 and NH2 emissions from medium resolution images. The field of view on the sky was 10.5 arcminutes in diameter. In the imaging mode the CCD was binned 4 by 4 resulting in 7.6 sec power pixel and a subarray readout for a field of view of 10.5 min.

  7. Typical well nonexistent in Austin Chalk

    SciTech Connect

    Mickey, V.

    1981-11-01

    Discoveries of localized large-capacity reservoirs capable of sustaining high-rate production distinguish the current Austin Chalk play from past booms in the S.E. Texas trend. The chalk gained its reputation for high initial potentials with quick decline rates in the area of the Pearsall field in Frio County; this is southwest of the current focus of play in Burleson, Lee, Fayette, Washington, and Gonzales Counties. In this portion of the vast producing trend a different kind of rock exists - one that is highly fractured and gives up large amounts of hydrocarbons for a sustained period. An example of high-rate sustained production is in the Birch Creek area near Lake Somerville in Burleson County. Projected reserves should average 100,000 to 125,000 bbl/well. With varying amounts of associated gas from 400 MMCF to one billion cubic feet. Initial production tests on these wells range from 200 to 500 bopd and 200 MCFD to 3 MMCFD. After several months of production, the wells indicate capacity to hold up to initial performance.

  8. Upper cretaceous (Austin Group) volcanic deposits as a hydrocarbon trap

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, P.J.

    1994-12-31

    An Upper Cretaceous submarine igneous extrusion occurs in the subsurface of southwestern Wilson County, Texas. The Coniacian-Santonian-aged (Austin Group) volcanic eruption discharged large volumes of magnetite-rich olivine nephelinite that upon quenching formed an extensive nontronitic clay layer. This clay deposit formed a trapping mechanism for hydrocarbon beneath the volcano. Production from volcanic plugs is normally attributed to the shoal-water carbonate facies developed on top of the volcanic, the palagonite tuff ({open_quotes}serpentine{close_quotes}), and overlying sandstones. The heat energy of the volcano may have thermally matured the calcarous sediments of adjacent parts of the Austin Chalk. The normally grayish-colored suggesting thermal alteration. The overlying nontronite trapped mobile hydrocarbons, and this early emplacement of oil may have preserved some of the original porosity and permeability of the Austin Chalk. Austin Chalk-aged volcanic deposits produce hydrocarbons from stratigraphic traps within the volcanic material, within the porous beachrock, and structurally within overlying sandstones. The intruded Austin Chalk also behaves as a reservoir because the original porosity and permeability are maintained by early emplacement of oil and the overlying volcanic clay acts as a seal by preventing vertical migration. Marcelina Creek field, discovered in 1980 from an {open_quotes}augen{close_quotes}-shaped seismic signature and an aerial magnetic survey, produces from the fractured chalk beneath the nontronitic clay layer. This field has produced more than 15 million barrels of oil from more than 60 wells in fractured and porous rock beneath the volcano.

  9. Horizontal drilling in the Austin Chalk: Stratigraphic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, C.O. Jr. ); Bobigian, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Horizontal drilling has renewed interest in the Austin chalk in south-central Texas. Large fields on opposite sides of the San Marcos arch Giddings to the northeast and Pearsall to the southwest were active with vertical drilling 10 years ago. Giddings' 4,500 Austin wells produced 209 million BO and 934 bcfg of gas through 1988; Pearsall's 1,440 wells produced 57 million BO and 35 bcfg of gas. Most vertical wells were completed, 20% were economic successes, 40% were marginal, 40% were uneconomic due to uneven areal distribution of near-vertical fractures and small faults, which provide reservoirs in otherwise tight chalk. Horizontal drilling, led by Amoco in Giddings and Oryx in Pearsall, enhances the chances of encountering the fractures by drilling perpendicular to the fracture trend. Horizontal drilling requires preselection of the stratigraphic horizon to be penetrated. One must understand the variable Austin stratigraphy to choose the zone with the most brittle character and best matrix porosity, both reduced by increased clay content. Chalk 130 ft thick on the San Marcos arch thickens to 600 to 800 ft in central Giddings field where middle marl separates lower and upper chalk Northeastward only lower chalk is preserved beneath a post-Austin submarine channel. The Austin thickens to 300-500 ft in Pearsall field where middle member ash beds separate lower and upper chalk inhibiting vertical reservoir communication. Locally, on the Pearsall arch, ash is missing, lower chalk thickens, and upper chalk thins.

  10. Horizontal spacing, depletion, and infill potential in the Austin Chalk

    SciTech Connect

    Kyte, D.G.; Meehan, D.N.

    1996-12-31

    There have been more than 4500 laterals drilled in the Austin Chalk. This paper looks at estimated ultimate recoveries (EUR) on a barrels/acre basis for these Austin Chalk wells. Baffels/acre recoveries were computed by estimating ultimate per-well recoveries, drilled density and the impact of vertical production. The data were then analyzed for depletion and infill potential. Certain areas were selected for further study using an artificial neural network. The network was built and used to study the effects of parameters such as lateral length, first production date, structure of the Austin Chalk, etc. on these recoverable barrel/acre numbers. The methodology and regional results of the study are reviewed with detailed analyses shown in selected areas.

  11. Ground-water in the Austin area, Lander County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phoenix, David A.

    1949-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the State Engineer of Nevada, made a preliminary survey of ground-water conditions in the Austin area, Nev., during the period July 25 to 28, 1949. The purpose was to evaluate ground-water conditions with special reference to the quantity of ground water that might be available in the area--an adequate water supply has been a constant problem throughout the history of the Austin area. The investigation was made by the writer under the supervision of Thomas W. Robinson, district engineer, Ground Water Branch, U.S. Geological Survey. Material assistance was given in the field by local residents. Frank Bertrand, water commissioner, Thomas Peacock, county assessor, and George McGinnis, county commissioner, guided the writer to springs new utilized by the town of Austin and rendered other valuable field assistance.

  12. 76 FR 19515 - Public Notice for a Change in Use of Aeronautical Property at Bradford Regional Airport (BFD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Township, McKean County, PA. The property is currently depicted on the Airport Layout Plan of record as... area as land available for non-aeronautical use on the Airport Layout Plan (ALP). Documents reflecting... on the approved Bradford Airport Layout Plan (ALP). There is to be no sale or transfer of...

  13. Alternative manifestations of actor responses to urban flooding: case studies from Bradford and Glasgow.

    PubMed

    Cashman, A C

    2009-01-01

    Flooding processes are complex and can occur throughout urban areas sometimes with devastating consequences. Traditionally flood risks have been managed through a combination of structural defence measures, warnings and emergency measures. More recently they have included development controls and land zoning policies. When such measures fail, individuals, authorities and the economy have to cope with the consequences. There is a growing realization that the resilience of individuals and institutions to floods and the risks from flooding need to be addressed. In the past few years there has been what some have referred to as a paradigm shift in the way responses to flooding are being conceptualized and the way this affects actors and actions. Based on fieldwork including interviews this paper presents two examples of actor and institutional responses to flooding events from the cities of Bradford and Glasgow in the United Kingdom. PMID:19587405

  14. Treatment of burns casualties after fire at Bradford City football ground.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, D T; Roberts, A H; Barclay, T L; Dickson, W A; Settle, J A; Crockett, D J; Mossad, M G

    1985-01-01

    On 11 May 1985 the main stand of Bradford City Football Club caught fire. Within four minutes the stand was alight from end to end. Fifty three people were burnt to death and about 250 injured; 83 required admission to hospital, and 55 of these were treated by primary excision of their burns and skin grafting. In such disasters the help of staff from other hospitals and areas is essential. Patients should be assessed to see whether they have burns that will ultimately be fatal; if they have they should not be sent to regional burns units, where they would take up beds that could be used for patients with treatable burns. All districts should ensure that their plans for accidents in which burns injuries predominate are adequate. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:3929974

  15. Maternal and infant health of Eastern Europeans in Bradford, UK: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jessica; Kliner, Merav; Brierley, Shirley; Stroud, Laura

    2014-09-01

    This qualitative study aimed to investigate maternal and infant health needs within Eastern European populations in Bradford. Evidence suggested that migrants from Eastern Europe had poor maternal and child health and increased rates of infant mortality. Health visitors, community midwives and specialist voluntary workers were involved. Eleven interviews took place. They were semi-structured and analysed using a thematic approach. A number of health needs were identified in Eastern European populations, including high rates of smoking and poor diet. Wider determinants of health such as poverty and poor housing were cited as commonplace for Eastern European migrants. There were numerous cultural barriers to health, such as discrimination, mobility, cultural practices regarding age at pregnancy, and disempowerment of women. Lastly, access to health services was identified as a significant issue and this was impacting on staff working with this population. This study demonstrated the complexity and interaction of health and social factors and their influence on utilisation of health services. PMID:25286741

  16. 76 FR 12788 - Environmental Impact Statement for a Proposed Urban Rail system in Austin, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... University of Texas at Austin (UT) campus, the State Capitol Complex (Capitol), the central business district... Executive Education and Conference Center (Classroom 103 on first floor), 1900 University Avenue, Austin, TX... for Central Austin: A need for direct connectivity between Mueller Redevelopment, the University...

  17. Case Study: Austin Interfaith. Strong Neighborhoods, Strong Schools. The Indicators Project on Education Organizing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Elaine; Gold, Eva; Brown, Chris

    This report describes Austin, Texas' Austin Interfaith, which connects community institutions that can support families (e.g., schools, congregations, and civic organization) and builds the capacity of family members to participate fully in the economic system. Viewing schools as key neighborhood institutions, Austin Interfaith works directly with…

  18. Supporting and Rewarding Accomplished Teaching: Insights from Austin, Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lussier, David F.; Forgione, Pascal D., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the strategic compensation efforts of the Austin Independent School District (AISD) in Texas, which is piloting a system of supports and rewards for teachers and administrators. The article highlights the key components of this system, what it took to put a 4-year pilot program in place, and what results are emerging from…

  19. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, Henry Austin's Drawing c. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, Henry Austin's Drawing c. 1845 Restricted: Permission for use must be obtained in writing from Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library Yale University, New Haven, Conn. - Grove Street Cemetery Entrance, 227 Grove Street, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  20. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, Henry Austin's Drawing EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, Henry Austin's Drawing EAST SIDE ELEVATION Restricted: Permission for use must be obtained in writing from the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library Yale University, New Haven, Conn. - Willis Bristol House, 584 Chapel Street, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  1. Completion techniques for horizontal wells in the Pearsall Austin Chalk

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, C.D.; Handren, P.J. )

    1992-05-01

    Oryx Energy Co. used three basic completion techniques and various combinations of them to complete 20 horizontal wells in the Pearsall Austin Chalk. The completion method selected is based on a general set of guidelines. In this paper additionally, equipment selection and various types of workover operations are reviewed.

  2. Controls on fracture distribution in the Giddings Austin Chalk

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, D.T. )

    1990-09-01

    Fracture distribution in the Giddings Austin Chalk is controlled by both structure and the stratigraphy of the Austin Group. Parameters that most affect reservoir performance include fracture width, height, and spacing, as well as the number of fracture sets and their orientations. Lateral variance of these parameters is a function of structural position, while vertical change is related to stratigraphy. The Austin Chalk productive trend is thought to coincide with the hingeline of the Gulf Coast basin, where extension has been concentrated during subsidence of the basin. Fracturing is attributed to a number of mechanisms including normal faulting, bending over buried structures, gravity creep, differential compaction, and aquathermal pressuring. A change in structural style from faulting to flexure takes place from west to east across the Giddings field, accompanied by a change in fracture distribution. In the west, fractures develop only in close proximity to faults whereas in the east they are more widely distributed over broad warps. Stratigraphic controls include lithology, porosity, bed thickness, and ductility contrast between adjacent beds. The Austin Chalk consists of sparse biomicrite interbedded with marls, shales, and clay seams. In general, thin beds are more highly fractured than thick beds, and clean limestone is more highly fractured than marl or shale. Where the more ductile marls and clays exceed a critical thickness, fractures tend to terminate within individual chalk beds, resulting in barriers to vertical flow within the reservoir.

  3. Top of the hill.

    PubMed

    Lubell, Jennifer

    2009-08-24

    With healthcare reform the hottest topic in Washington (and at congressional town halls) this summer, it's no surprise President Barack Obama tops our 100 Most Powerful People in Healthcare ranking, joined by plenty of other power players on the Hill. "Clearly, the president is pushing hard on his goals to expand access to care, to reform health insurance and to control costs," says LifePoint's Bill Carpenter. PMID:19731430

  4. Nose Hill Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Vivian

    2008-01-01

    A Blackfoot woman, caught in the act of adultery, was condemned at this site to have her nose cut off as a penalty for her actions. People do not know her story. The tribe cast it on the ground. And so She, Nose Hill, was named. John Laurie Boulevard holds her mound in a circlet of asphalt, defining the map of her "terra incognita." She is a park…

  5. 'Columbia Hills' Oblique View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Spirit's Long Journey, Sol 450

    This perspective view of a three-dimensional terrain model shows the shape of the 'Columbia Hills' landscape where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has been working since mid-2004. North is toward the lower left. 'Husband Hill' is at the center, with the 'Inner Basin' behind it. This view is from images taken by the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor and processed into a three-dimensional terrain model by the U.S. Geological Survey.

    Spirit's Long Journey, Sol 450 More than 15 months after landing on Mars, NASA's Spirit rover is still going strong, having traveled a total of 4,276 meters (2.66 miles) as of martian day, or sol, 450 (April 8, 2005). This is a perspective view of the steepness of the 'Columbia Hills,' showing sites nicknamed 'Tennessee Valley,' 'Larry's Lookout,' 'Inner Basin,' 'Home Plate,' and the basin and summit beyond. This orbital view comprises images taken by the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor and processed by the U.S. Geological Survey as a three-dimensional terrain model.

  6. 'Columbia Hills' from Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This view of the 'Columbia Hills' in Gusev Crater was made by draping an image from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter (image E0300012 from that camera) over a digital elevation model that was derived from two Mars Orbiter Camera images (E0300012 and R0200357).

    This unique view is helpful to the rover team members as they plan the journey of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit to the base of the Columbia Hills and beyond. Spirit successfully completed a three-month primary mission, and so far remains healthy in an extended mission of bonus exploration. As of sol 135 (on May 21, 2004), Spirit sits approximately 680 meters (0.4 miles) away from its first target at the western base of the hills, a spot informally called 'West Spur.' The team estimates that Spirit will reach West Spur by sol 146 (June 1, 2004). Spirit will most likely remain there for about a week to study the outcrops and rocks associated with this location.

    When done there, Spirit will head approximately 620 meters (0.38 miles) to a higher-elevation location informally called 'Lookout Point.' Spirit might reach Lookout Point by around sol 165 (June 20, 2004). On the way, the rover will pass by and study ripple-shaped wind deposits that may reveal more information about wind processes on Mars.

    Lookout Point will provide a great vantage point for scientists to remotely study the inner basin area of the Columbia Hills. This basin contains a broad range of interesting geological targets including the informally named 'Home Plate' and other possible layered outcrops. These features suggest that the hills contain rock layers. Spirit might investigate the layers to determine whether they are water-deposited sedimentary rock.

    Once at Lookout Point, Spirit will acquire 360-degree panoramic images of the entire area to help define the rover's next steps. Assuming the rover stays healthy, Spirit will eventually drive down into the basin to get an up

  7. Horizontal wells up odds for profit in Giddings Austin chalk

    SciTech Connect

    Maloy, W.T. )

    1992-02-17

    This paper reports on horizontal drilling in the Giddings field Austin chalk which has significantly improved average well recoveries and more than offset increased drilling costs. Although not the panacea originally promoted, horizontal drilling, in Giddings field, offers economic profits to the average investor. Economic analysis indicates that the typical investor is making money by earning returns in excess of market values. Field-wide development will, therefore, remain active unless oil prices or average well recoveries fall below $12/bbl or 112,000 bbl of oil equivalent (BOE), respectively. The application of technological innovation in the Giddings field may culminate in the drilling of over 2,000 horizontal Austin chalk wells, and has conceivably increased recoverable reserves by 400 million BOE.

  8. Cooperativity: over the Hill.

    PubMed

    Forsén, S; Linse, S

    1995-12-01

    Cooperativity, the ability of ligand binding at one site on a macromolecule to influence ligand binding at a different site on the same macromolecule, is a fascinating biological property that is often poorly explained in textbooks. The Hill coefficient is commonly used in biophysical studies of cooperative systems although it is not a quantitative measure of cooperativity. The free energy of interaction between binding sites (delta delta G) is a more stringent definition of cooperativity and provides a direct quantitative measure of how the binding of ligand at one site affects the ligand affinity of another site. PMID:8571449

  9. KISATCHIE HILLS WILDERNESS, LOUISIANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haley, Boyd R.; Ryan, George S.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Kisatchie Hills Wilderness, Louisiana indicated little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. There is insufficient data on oil and gas producing formations that underlie the area to evaluate the oil and gas resource potential. All the oil fields of Wilcox age are less than 40 acres in extent; therefore, closer spaced deeper wells might find additional fields in sediments of Wilcox age. Oil and natural gas have been produced from older reservoirs (Cretaceous age) to the northwest of the wilderness, and deeper wells might find oil and natural gas in sediments of Cretaceous and older age in the vicinity of the wilderness.

  10. Growing up with Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia in Bradford, UK: exploring patients experiences as a physiotherapist.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Lynne M; Horobin, Hazel E

    2014-04-01

    Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) is a condition which causes impaired mucociliary clearance, resulting in sputum retention and recurrent respiratory tract infections. Physiotherapy, in the form of airway clearance techniques and exercise is recommended to patients with PCD to facilitate sputum clearance. As children diagnosed with PCD develop into adults, understanding their experiences of growing up with this long-term condition and undertaking physiotherapy may help to provide insight to clinicians. No previous research has been published which explores the lived experiences of children and young people with PCD. The prevalence of PCD in Bradford in the North of the UK is unusually high, signifying the importance of understanding the experiences of this patient population. This qualitative study used Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis to allow the researcher, as a physiotherapist, to investigate the lived experiences of five paediatric patients with PCD. While patients' experiences are all unique, three themes emerged across the analysis of the interviews: (1) the experiences of day to day life with the symptoms and treatment burden of PCD; (2) participants' awareness of their own symptoms and knowledge of PCD; and (3) the development of mastery skills and devolution of management from the family to the growing child. The results from this study suggested that facilitation of disease acceptance, strategies to increase patient empowerment, the use of patient-centred communication and understanding the contextualisation of patients' experiences may all help to guide clinical practice. PMID:24156703

  11. Homing in on sweet spots in Cretaceous Austin chalk

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.E. ); Sonnenberg, F.P.

    1993-11-29

    In discussing the nature and causes of fracturing in the Cretaceous Austin chalk of south central Texas, many geologists and operators involved in horizontal drilling of the chalk consider regional rock stress as the probable main cause of the fractures. If Austin chalk fractures are mainly the result of regional extensional stress without localizing factors, then fractured sweet spots are randomly distributed and successful exploration is more or less a matter of luck, usually dependent upon the coincidental placement of a seismic line. But if local, deep-seated structure or basement topography are the main causes of sweet spots, then a successful exploration method would be to first delineate the basement paleo structure or topography and secondly, place a seismic line to confirm the delineated features. Finding localities of maximum fracturing and production would than be based on scientific logic rather than luck. It is the purpose of this article to present the results of an examination of these alternative causes for the Austin chalk fracturing in the hope of determining the most cost effective exploration method for the fractured chalk reservoir.

  12. Fracture detection techniques in the Georgetown and Austin Chalk formations

    SciTech Connect

    Julian, P.J.

    1982-09-01

    This study relates the success of detecting and analyzing naturally fractured systems in the Austin Chalk and Georgetown Formations from log evaluations. The Austin Chalk is composed principally of calcareous unicellular algal remains called cocospheres and their disunited, gearshaped, skeletal remains called cocoliths. The Georgetown Formation is a hard, dense, and finely brittle limestone. Both formations contain matrix porosity, but are dependent on open fracture systems for economical hydrocarbon production. Hence, defining and evaluating the developed fracture systems before setting an expensive casing string is important. The Dual Induction Log and the Compensated Neutron-Formation Density Log offers an economical method of evaluating these fracture systems. Case studies in Robertson, Milam, and Burleson Counties, Texas have shown that fracture systems near the wellbore can be detected. Attempts to determine the existence of hydrocarbons in fracture systems using logs were successful in the Austin Chalk and Georgetown Formations. Full core analyses were also successful in determining the existence of these fracture systems. However, obtaining core samples on all wells as a method of determining fracture systems is not recommended due to the high cost of coring.

  13. Lost Hills, California Interferogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This figure shows a comparison of interferograms from four different years mapping the rapid ground subsidence over the Lost Hills oil field in California. Lost Hills is located about 60 km (40 miles) northwest of Bakersfield in the San Joaquin Valley. The oilfield is about 1.5 km (1 mile) wide and 6 km (3.5 miles) long. Each interferogram was created using pairs of images taken by synthetic aperture radar that have been combined to measure surface deformation or changes that may have occurred in the time between when data for the two images were taken. The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellites (ERS-1 and ERS-2) in two months of each year shown (1995, 1996, 1998 and 1999) and were combined to produce these image maps of the apparent surface deformation, or changes. The interferometric measurements that show the changes, primarily vertical subsidence of the surface, are rendered in color with purple indicating no motion and the brightest red showing rapid subsidence. The white areas are where the radar measurements could not be obtained, mostly in the agricultural fields around the oilfields where plant growth or plowing altered the radar properties of the surface. These radar data show that parts of the oilfield were subsiding unusually rapidly, more than 3 centimenters (1.2 inches) a month, in 1995 and 1996. They also reveal that while the ground subsidence rate decreased in the center part of the oilfield, it increased in the northern part between 1995 and 1996 and 1998 and 1999. Subsidence maps like these combined with records of oil and water extraction and injection will help scientist understand how the rocks within an oilfield are behaving, leading to improvements in oilfield operations. For more information, read Radar Helps Monitor Oil Fields. Images courtesy Eric Fielding, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  14. Lost Hills, California Interferogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This figure shows a comparison of interferograms from four different years mapping the rapid ground subsidence over the Lost Hills oil field in California. Lost Hills is located about 60 km (40 miles) northwest of Bakersfield in the San Joaquin Valley. The oil field is about 1.5 km (1mile) wide and 6 km (3.5 miles) long.

    Each interferogram was created using pairs of images taken by synthetic aperture radar that have been combined to measure surface deformation or changes that may have occurred in the time between when data for the two images were taken. The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellites (ERS-1 and ERS-2) in two months of each year shown (1995, 1996, 1998 and 1999) and were combined to produce these image maps of the apparent surface deformation, or changes.

    The interferometric measurements that show the changes, primarily vertical subsidence of the surface, are rendered in color with purple indicating no motion and the brightest red showing rapid subsidence. The white areas are where the radar measurements could not be obtained, mostly in the agricultural fields around the oil fields where plant growth or plowing altered the radar properties of the surface.

    These radar data show that parts of the oil field were subsiding unusually rapidly, more than 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) a month, in 1995 and 1996. They also reveal that while the ground subsidence rate decreased in the center part of the oil field, it increased in the northern part between 1995 and 1996 and 1998 and 1999.

    Subsidence maps like these combined with records of oil and water extraction and injection will help scientist understand how the rocks within an oil field are behaving, leading to improvements in oil field operations.

  15. 19. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at door to stairwell - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  16. 18. View of the second floor of the Cherry Hill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. View of the second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at door - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  17. 15. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed showing posts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed showing posts looking towards the chute building - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  18. 20. View of second floor to the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View of second floor to the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at floor area - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  19. 14. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking towards chute building - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  20. 9. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking north, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking north, with chute building on the left - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  1. 3. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking southeast; parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking southeast; parking lot in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  2. 12. Partial view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Partial view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northwest showing office - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  3. 2. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking south; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking south; chute building is in background - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  4. 6. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northeast, with chute building to the right - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  5. 16. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking up at the trusses of the second floor - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  6. 21. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking towards window - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  7. 22. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at double doors - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  8. Evolution of the ultraviolet coma of comet Austin (1982g.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, P. D.; Ahearn, M. F.; Schleicher, D. G.; Festou, M. C.; Wallis, M. K.; Burton, W. M.; Hughes, D. W.; Keller, H. U.; Benvenuti, P.

    1984-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of comet Austin (1982) obtained in July 1982 at heliocentric distances ranging from 1.10 to 0.81 AU preperihelion with the IUE reveal that the comet is very similar in chemical composition and appearance to comet Bradfield (1979X). In addition, the derived H2O production rate is found to vary with heliocentric distance as r to the -3.6, similar to the r to the -3.7 behavior found for comet Bradfield. It is pointed out, however, that the limited sample rate precludes the observation of the short-term variations which could be produced by a rotating nonuniform cometary nucleus.

  9. Austin Children`s Museum ``Go Power`` project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Go Power, was conceived as an interactive exhibit and related set of activities designed to promote in children and families an understanding and appreciation of energy concepts. Planned in 1990, the project culminated its first phase of activities with colorful, interactive exhibit about the pathways and transformations of energy, on display at the Austin Children`s Museum between February 5th and June 6th, 1993. The project was supported by the US Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, the Lower Colorado River Authority and various local foundations and businesses. This report describes the process, product and outcomes of this project.

  10. The spectrum of Comet Austin from 910 to 1180 A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James C.; Cash, Webster; Cook, Timothy A.; Stern, S. Alan

    1991-01-01

    A spectrum of Comet Austin (1988 c1) has been obtained from 910 to 1180 A. Three bright emission lines were detected, including a forbidden oxygen line (1128 A), which are attributable to radiative pumping of neutral oxygen by solar Lyman-beta. The relative strengths of the observed features should prove to be a useful diagnostic of the physical conditions and radiation fields in cometary comae. In addition, the absence of strong spectral features from highly volatile species such as He, Ar, or N2 can be used to place constraints on the thermal environment under which the comet was formed and has been processed.

  11. Stimulation results in the Giddings (Austin Chalk) field

    SciTech Connect

    Meehan, D.N.

    1995-05-01

    So called ``water-fracs`` have obtained excellent results in the Austin Chalk formation of Giddings field. This inexpensive treatment uses high volumes of water but no proppant. The reasons the treatment is successful include imbibition, gravity drainage, skin damage removal, and repressurization of the reservoir to enhance recovery. Union Pacific Resources Co. (UPRC) has treated about 250 vertical and 150 horizontal wells with very high economic success rates. Incremental recoveries from horizontal well water fracs alone exceed 5 million bbl of oil equivalent (6 Mcf = 1 bbl).

  12. Austin Energy: Pumping System Improvement Project Saves Energy and Improves Performance at a Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-25

    This two-page performance spotlight describes how, in 2004, Austin Energy (the electric utility for the city of Austin, Texas) began saving about $1.2 million in energy and maintenance costs annually as a direct result of a pumping system efficiency proj

  13. Austin Energy: Pumping System Improvement Project Saves Energy and Improves Performance at a Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-25

    This two-page performance spotlight describes how, in 2004, Austin Energy (the electric utility for the city of Austin, Texas) began saving about $1.2 million in energy and maintenance costs annually as a direct result of a pumping system efficiency project.

  14. 78 FR 30332 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Austin Pharma, Llc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Austin Pharma, Llc... March 28, 2013, Austin Pharma, LLC., 811 Paloma Drive, Suite C, Round Rock, Texas 78665-2402,...

  15. 77 FR 30027 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Austin Pharma, LLC.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Austin Pharma, LLC... April 11, 2012, Austin Pharma, LLC., 811 Paloma Drive, Suite C, Round Rock, Texas 78665-2402,...

  16. Austin Community College Learning Resource Services Strategic Plan, 1992-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Community Coll., TX.

    Designed as a planning tool and a statement of philosophy and mission, this five-part strategic planning report provides information on the activities, goals, and review processes of the Learning Resource Services (LRS) at Austin Community College in Austin, Texas. The LRS combines library services, access to computer terminals, and other…

  17. Helium and argon abundance constraints and the thermal evolution of Comet Austin (1989c1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. A.; Green, James C.; Cash, Webster; Cook, Timothy A.

    1992-01-01

    Far-UV rocketborne spectrometer observations have established upper Ar and He abundance limits on Comet Austin. These limits indicate, relative to solar abundance, that Comet Austin is depleted in He/O and no more than 30-times enriched in Ar/O. Implications of these values for thermal conditions experienced during formation and evolution are discussed.

  18. Predicting Student Loan Default for the University of Texas at Austin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herr, Elizabeth; Burt, Larry

    2005-01-01

    During spring 2001, Noel-Levitz created a student loan default model for the University of Texas at Austin (UT Austin). The goal of this project was to identify students most likely to default, to identify as risk elements those characteristics that contributed to student loan default, and to use these risk elements to plan and implement targeted,…

  19. Local Government Support of a Child Voucher System: Austin/Travis County, Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Linda

    Data collected in Austin, Texas (Travis County) indicate that private day care centers operate at less than full capacity and that the most difficult problems of many day care providers are financial--parents' inability to pay the cost of care. Data further indicate that a large percentage of Austin families have incomes below $15,000 and that…

  20. The dust coma of Comet Austin (1989c1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campins, Humberto; Tegler, Stephen C.; Telesco, C. M.; Benson, C.

    1991-01-01

    Thermal-infrared (10 and 20 micron) images of Comet Austin were obtained on UT 30.6 Apr., 1.8, 2.8, and 3.6 May 1990. The NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center 20 pixel bolometer array at the NASA 3 meter Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii was used. The 10.8 micron (FWHM = 5.3 microns) maps were obtained with maximum dimensions of 113 arcsec (57,500 km) in RA and 45 arcsec (23,000 km) in declination, with a pixel size of 4.2 x 4.2 arcsec. A smaller, 45 x 18 arcsec, map was obtained in the 19.2 micron (FWHM = 5.2 microns) bandpass. At the time of these observations Comet Austin's heliocentric and geocentric distances were 0.7 and 0.5 AU respectively. The peak flux density (within the brightest pixel) was 23 + or - 2 Janskys for the first three dates and only marginally lower the last day; i.e., within the observational uncertainties no evidence was found for day-to-day variability like that observed in Comet Halley. A dynamical analysis of the morphology of the extended dust emission is used to constrain the size distribution and production rate of the dust particles. The results of this analysis are compared with similar studies carried out on comets P/Giacobini-Zinner, P/Brorsen-Metcalf, P/Halley, P/Tempel 2, and Wilson (1987).

  1. Outbreak of Rickettsia typhi infection - Austin, Texas, 2008.

    PubMed

    2009-11-20

    Murine typhus is a fleaborne rickettsial disease caused by the organism Rickettsia typhi. Symptoms include fever, headache, chills, vomiting, nausea, myalgia, and rash. Although murine typhus is endemic in southern Texas, only two cases had been reported during the past 10 years from Austin, located in central Texas. On August 8, 2008, the Austin/Travis County Department of Health and Human Services (ATCDHHS) contacted the Texas Department of State Health Services (TDSHS) concerning a cluster of 14 illnesses with serologic findings indicative of murine typhus. On August 12, 2008, TDSHS initiated an investigation with assistance from CDC to characterize the magnitude of the outbreak and assess potential animal reservoirs and peridomestic factors that might have contributed to disease. This report summarizes the clinical and environmental findings of that investigation. Thirty-three confirmed cases involved illness comparable to that associated with previous outbreaks of murine typhus. Illness ranged from mild to severe, with 73% of patients requiring hospitalization. Delayed diagnosis and administration of no or inappropriate antibiotics might have contributed to illness severity. Environmental investigation suggested that opossums and domestic animals likely played a role in the maintenance and spread of R. typhi; however, their precise role in the outbreak has not been determined. These findings underscore the need to increase awareness of murine typhus and communicate appropriate treatment and prevention measures through the distribution of typhus alerts before and throughout the peak vector season of March-November. PMID:19940832

  2. Long-slit ultraviolet spectroscopy of Comet Austin (1990 V)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sahnow, David J.; Feldman, Paul D.; Mccandliss, Stephan R.; Martinez, Mel E.

    1993-01-01

    The spatial distributions of the brightest features in the far-UV spectrum of Comet Austin were measured, and it is found that they are generally similar to those found for Comet Halley during two rocket observations in 1986. As in Halley, the CO profile can be fit to a radial outflow profile for a source whose size is smaller than the instrumental spatial resolution. Neither the shape nor the magnitude of the extended atomic carbon profiles, however, can be satisfactorily explained by the photodissociation of CO. No evidence is found for an extended source of CO in the coma; thus, suggestions that the additional carbon can come directly from grains are difficult to accept since Austin is a low-dust comet. The presence of the O I 1356 A feature implies that there is a photoelectron excitation source in the coma. The measured O I 1304 A distribution is consistent with H2O being the dominant source of oxygen in the coma. The atomic sulfur profile matches that expected for a daughter product of relatively short-lived parents.

  3. Infrared spectroscopy and photometry of Comet Austin 1990 V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanner, Martha S.; Russell, Ray W.; Lynch, David K.; Brooke, Timothy Y.

    1993-01-01

    3-micron and 10-micron spectra and IR photometry of the dynamically new Comet Austin 1990 V were obtained for March-May 1990. An unusual 9-11 micron emission feature 15-20 percent above the continuum is evident at 0.78 AU postperihelion. The shape, in particular a peak at 11.06 micron, differs from that seen in Halley and several other comets, suggesting a difference in the mineralogy of the silicate grains. The 3.1-7.7 micron spectrum at 0.35 AU shows no obvious feature; feature/continuum contrast of the 3.36 micron emission feature is less than about 5 percent. Based on the IR photometry and a dust model weighted toward small grains, the dust production rate on 6 May at 0.78 AU was about 3 x 10 exp 5 g/s. The corresponding dust/gas mass ratio was about 0.1, classifying Austin as a dust-poor comet. This designation refers only to the relative dust cross section, not to the total mass.

  4. Technology transfer and commercialization initiatives at TRI/Austin: Resources and examples

    SciTech Connect

    Matzkanin, G.A.; Dingus, M.L.

    1995-12-31

    Located at TRI/Austin, and operated under a Department of Defense contract, is the Nondestructive Testing Information Analysis Center (NTIAC). This is a full service Information Analysis Center sponsored by the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC), although services of NTIAC are available to other government agencies, government contractors, industry and academia. The principal objective of NTIAC is to help increase the productivity of the nation`s scientists, engineers, and technical managers involved in, or requiring, nondestructive testing by providing broad information analysis services of technical excellence. TRI/Austin is actively pursuing commercialization of several products based on results from outside funded R and D programs. As a small business, TRI/Austin has limited capabilities for large scale fabrication, production, marketing or distribution. Thus, part of a successful commercialization process involves making appropriate collaboration arrangements with other organizations to augment TRI/Austin`s capabilities. Brief descriptions are given here of two recent commercialization efforts at TRI/Austin.

  5. Soufriere Hills Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this ASTER image of Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat in the Caribbean, continued eruptive activity is evident by the extensive smoke and ash plume streaming towards the west-southwest. Significant eruptive activity began in 1995, forcing the authorities to evacuate more than 7,000 of the island's original population of 11,000. The primary risk now is to the northern part of the island and to the airport. Small rockfalls and pyroclastic flows (ash, rock and hot gases) are common at this time due to continued growth of the dome at the volcano's summit.

    This image was acquired on October 29, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is

  6. Hydrogen production rate from comet Austin 1982g

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, P.; Scherb, F.; Roesler, F. L.

    1984-01-01

    Meaningful measurements with respect to the cometary Balmer-alpha (H-alpha) emission are difficult and require the use of special equipment. The first ground-based observations of H-alpha emission from a cometary hydrogen corona were conducted on comet Kohoutek 1973 XII with a large-aperture Fabry-Perot spectrometer installed at the McMath solar telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. The present investigation is concerned with the second ground-based observations of cometary H-alpha emission carried out during the apparition of comet Austin 1982g. A 150 mm dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer was employed in the experiment. Use was made of an observatory which is designed for the high spectral resolution study of faint extended sources such as interstellar and geocoronal emission lines. The investigation demonstrates that hydrogen production rates from comets as faint as about 7th magnitude can be routinely measured from the ground at minimal cost.

  7. Overview of computational control research at UT Austin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bong, Wie

    1989-01-01

    An overview of current research activities at UT Austin is presented to discuss certain technical issues in the following areas: (1) Computer-Aided Nonlinear Control Design: In this project, the describing function method is employed for the nonlinear control analysis and design of a flexible spacecraft equipped with pulse modulated reaction jets. INCA program has been enhanced to allow the numerical calculation of describing functions as well as the nonlinear limit cycle analysis capability in the frequency domain; (2) Robust Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) Compensator Synthesis: Robust control design techniques and software tools are developed for flexible space structures with parameter uncertainty. In particular, an interactive, robust multivariable control design capability is being developed for INCA program; and (3) LQR-Based Autonomous Control System for the Space Station: In this project, real time implementation of LQR-based autonomous control system is investigated for the space station with time-varying inertias and with significant multibody dynamic interactions.

  8. Nature and significance of Austin-Taylor unconformity on western margin of east Texas basin

    SciTech Connect

    Surles, M.A. Jr.

    1984-04-01

    The Taylor Marl unconformably overlies the Austin Chalk on the western margin of the East Texas basin. Along this contact, up to 275 ft (84 m) of upper Austin is missing in the Waco area and up to 450 ft (137 m) in Bell County. However, the Austin Chalk appears to have been more-or-less uniformly deposited throughout the study area. Apparently regional uplift caused a regression that terminated Austin deposition and was related to the erosion of the upper Chalk. While the unconformity is areally extensive, slightly angular, and accounts for a relatively long period of time, the mechanism of erosion that caused the unconformity is still uncertain. Erosion was terminated by the deposition of the lower Taylor Marl. Taylor A, the lowermost subdivision of the lower Taylor, was deposited in a near-shore environment that was highly variable. Of particular interest is the relationship of this unconformity to structure and probably to oil occurrence in the Austin Chalk in McLennan and Falls Counties. Major Austin fracturing, which apparently does not extend into the Taylor in Falls County, clearly indicates that structure in the Chalk, at least in part, antedates Taylor deposition. Oil occurrence in the Chalk is clearly related to fracturing and probably is localized by post-Austin-pre-Taylor fracture systems.

  9. Stratigraphic Relationships on Husband Hill, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, S. B.; Watters, W. A.; Squyres, S. W.

    2011-03-01

    We measure bedding plane orientations of outcrops on Cumberland Ridge in the Columbia Hills. Our measurements are consistent with the hypotheses that the outcrops (1) form a stratigraphic section, and (2) drape the Husband Hill edifice.

  10. Ethno-Specific Risk Factors for Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: Findings from the Born in Bradford Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Tomasina; Prady, Stephanie; Haith-Cooper, Melanie; Downe, Soo; Simpson, Nigel; Pickett, Kate

    2016-07-01

    Objectives Preterm birth (PTB) and small for gestational age (SGA) are major causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Previous studies indicated a range of risk factors associated with these poor outcomes, including maternal psychosocial and economic wellbeing. This paper will explore a range of psycho-social and economic factors in an ethnically diverse population. Methods The UK's Born in Bradford cohort study recruited pregnant women attending a routine antenatal appointment at 26-28 weeks' gestation at the Bradford Royal Infirmary (2007-2010). This analysis includes 9680 women with singleton live births who completed the baseline questionnaire. Data regarding maternal socio-demographic and mental health were recorded. Outcome data were collected prospectively, and analysed using multivariate regression models. The primary outcomes measured were: PTB (<37 weeks' gestation) and SGA (<10th customised centile). Results After adjustment for socio-demographic and medical factors, financial strain was associated with a 45 % increase in PTB (OR 1.45: 95 % CI 1.06-1.98). Contrary to expectation, maternal distress in Pakistani women was negatively associated with SGA (OR 0.65: CI 0.48-0.88). Obesity in White British women was protective for PTB (OR 0.67: CI 0.45-0.98). Previously recognized risk factors, such as smoking in pregnancy and hypertension, were confirmed. Conclusions This study confirms known risk factors for PTB and SGA, along with a new variable of interest, financial strain. It also reveals a difference in the risk factors between ethnicities. In order to develop appropriate targeted preventative strategies to improve perinatal outcome in disadvantaged groups, a greater understanding of ethno-specific risk factors is required. PMID:26983444

  11. 27 CFR 9.52 - Chalk Hill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chalk Hill. 9.52 Section 9... TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.52 Chalk Hill. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chalk Hill.” (b) Approved...

  12. 27 CFR 9.52 - Chalk Hill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chalk Hill. 9.52 Section 9... TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.52 Chalk Hill. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chalk Hill.” (b) Approved...

  13. 27 CFR 9.52 - Chalk Hill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chalk Hill. 9.52 Section 9... TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.52 Chalk Hill. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chalk Hill.” (b) Approved...

  14. 27 CFR 9.52 - Chalk Hill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chalk Hill. 9.52 Section 9... TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.52 Chalk Hill. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chalk Hill.” (b) Approved...

  15. 27 CFR 9.52 - Chalk Hill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chalk Hill. 9.52 Section 9... TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.52 Chalk Hill. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chalk Hill.” (b) Approved...

  16. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area (27 CFR 9.69). From the beginning point, the Rattlesnake Hills viticultural area... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rattlesnake Hills. 9.193... Rattlesnake Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Rattlesnake...

  17. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area (27 CFR 9.69). From the beginning point, the Rattlesnake Hills viticultural area... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rattlesnake Hills. 9.193... Rattlesnake Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Rattlesnake...

  18. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area (27 CFR 9.69). From the beginning point, the Rattlesnake Hills viticultural area... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rattlesnake Hills. 9.193... Rattlesnake Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Rattlesnake...

  19. 78 FR 64019 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Austin Pharma, LLC.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    .... By Notice dated May 14, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on May 22, 2013, 78 FR 30332... registration. On August 9, 2013, Austin Pharma, LLC., withdrew their request for the addition of...

  20. Municipal biosolid applications: Improving ecosystem services across urban, agricultural, and wildlife interfaces in Austin, Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our project encompasses emerging contaminants, ecosystem services, and urban-agriculture-wildlife interfaces. This seminal research collaboration between USDA-ARS Grassland, Soil, and Water Research Laboratory, The City of Austin Water Utility, and Texas Parks and Wildlife Environmental Contaminant...

  1. The Austin Chalk--Drilling and completion techniques-Marcelina Creek Field study

    SciTech Connect

    Betz, C.A.

    1982-09-01

    Exxon Company, U.S.A. has spent considerable time and effort learning how to minimize formation damage in the lost returns prone and clay sensitive Austin Chalk formation. To date, Exxon has successfully drilled 24 Austin Chalk wells in the Marcelina Creek Field in Wilson County, Texas, utilizing a variety of drilling and completion techniques in an effort to determine the optimum method of drilling and completing Austin Chalk wells. This paper describes these different techniques and reviews actual results. Although Exxon has not concluded which drilling and completion technique yields optimum Austin Chalk wells in this field, this paper attempts to develop a correlation between well productivity and the type of drilling and completion technique used.

  2. A unique Austin Chalk reservoir, Van field, Van Zandt County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, J.T. )

    1990-09-01

    Significant shallow oil production from the Austin Chalk was established in the Van field, Van Zandt County, in East Texas in the late 1980s. The Van field structure is a complexly faulted domal anticline created by salt intrusion. The Woodbine sands, which underlie the Austin Chalk, have been and continue to be the predominant reservoir rocks in the field. Evidence indicates that faults provided vertical conduits for migration of Woodbine oil into the Austin Chalk where it was trapped along the structural crest. The most prolific Austin Chalk production is on the upthrown side of the main field fault, as is the Woodbine. The Austin Chalk is a soft, white to light gray limestone composed mostly of coccoliths with some pelecypods. Unlike the Austin Chalk in the Giddings and Pearsall fields, the chalk at Van was not as deeply buried and therefore did not become brittle and susceptible to tensional or cryptic fracturing. The shallow burial in the Van field was also important in that it allowed the chalk to retain primary microporosity. The production comes entirely from this primary porosity. In addition to the structural position and underlying oil source from the Woodbine, the depositional environment and associated lithofacies are also keys to the reservoir quality in the Van field as demonstrated by cores from the upthrown and downthrown (less productive) sides of the main field fault. It appears that at the time of Austin Chalk deposition, the main field fault was active and caused the upthrown side to be a structural high and a more agreeable environment for benthonic organisms such as pelecypods and worms. The resulting bioturbation enhanced the reservoir's permeability enough to allow migration and entrapment of the oil. Future success in exploration for analogous Austin Chalk reservoirs will require the combination of a favorable environment of deposition, a nearby Woodbine oil source, and a faulted trap that will provide the conduit for migration.

  3. Positron research at the University of Texas at Austin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goktepeli, Sinan

    The objective of the research presented in this dissertation is to advance the applications of positron annihilation research. An intense positron beam facility was designed and constructed, and a method was developed to better analyze the defect structure of solids. The Texas Reactor-based Intense Positron beam facility (TRIP) was designed to provide a monoenergetic/monodirectional beam of at least 108 e +/sec on a sample. This increase in beam intensity will enhance many positron research techniques both in atomic physics and materials science. The TRIP facility, the result of a collaboration between UT Austin and UT Arlington, is being developed around the concept of multiple scattering of positrons from solid krypton. A large area copper source will be irradiated in a beam port of the 1 MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor at UT Austin. The source will form the bottom face of a cube with the remaining faces made of tungsten. All surfaces will be cooled down to 22 K and coated with krypton. The top face of the cube has a 1 cm diameter hole to allow for the passage of positrons. The fast beta particles emitted from the β+ decay of 64Cu will be moderated while passing through the krypton. The non- moderated positrons will lose their energy while interacting with the remaining walls. The positrons will be removed from the box by an electric field and electrostatically delivered to the sample. The work on the TRIP facility is ongoing. The results of early measurements at UT Arlington have shown that the facility will be able to achieve its goals. The method developed to better analyze the positron depth profiling (PDP) experiments uses the difference spectra of the measured Doppler broadened annihilation peaks. The difference spectra, which are obtained by subtracting the bulk peak shape from the peaks recorded for each incident positron energy, enhance the differences of the observed peaks, while removing the bulk annihilation term from the multi-state annihilation

  4. Load transfer with the Austin Moore cementless hip prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Keaveny, T M; Bartel, D L

    1993-03-01

    More than 1,300 Austin Moore hemiarthroplasties have been reviewed in the literature, with no reports of fracture of the stem. Many patients with these hip implants had good function. The lack of stem fractures in patients with good functions has not been explained and contrasts with stem fractures that have occurred in patients with cemented prostheses of other designs during the same time. We used three-dimensional finite-element analysis and free-body diagrams to explain the lack of fractures for this device by a description of the probable load-transfer mechanisms between the prosthesis and the bone. Results from our finite-element analysis indicate that, with good calcar-collar support, the stresses in the stem are small because the stem portion of the prosthesis and the bone are uncoupled and, consequently, do not share the resultant bending moment of the head and abductor forces. If the stem is coupled to the bone so that the resultant bending moment is shared, high stresses in the stem are predicted; such stresses are inconsistent with the complete absence of fractures of these prostheses. The results of the finite-element analysis further showed that loss of calcar-collar support with proximal fixation through the fenestrations resulted in high stresses in the stem and stress shielding of the proximal medial cortex. The uncoupled prosthesis also may be modeled with a free-body diagram as a three-force member loaded at the head, stem tip, and in the proximal region. With this model, it can be shown that the reaction force of the stem tip, and thus the peak bending stress in the stem, increases as calcar-collar support is decreased. If there is no calcar-collar support, proximal support must be provided by some combination of integration of bone in the fenestrations and wedging due to the lateral-medial taper of the device. Stresses in the stem are largest when there is no wedging, but high stresses develop in the cancellous bone in the fenestrations. When

  5. Cyclic sedimentation, synsedimentary volcanism, microfabrics, and fracture intensity in the Austin Chalk, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Hovorka, S.D. )

    1992-01-01

    Pelagic depositional environments of the Austin Chalk (Coniacian-Santonian) were influenced by sea-level variation, planktonic productivity, and allochthonous detrital input. Subtle differences in chalk facies influence fracture intensity, therefore imposing stratigraphic variability on hydrologic properties of the Austin Chalk. Variations in fracture intensity may affect ground-water flow through the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) site south of Dallas in the same way that they influence hydrocarbon production in South Texas. The lower Austin Chalk was deposited during transgression. Glauconitic sandstone is overlain by cyclic chalk containing chalk-filled channels. Meter-thick chalk/marl cycles have frequencies in the Milankovitch spectrum. Marl accumulated during episodes of decreased planktonic productivity. Maximum flooding is indicated by organic-rich marls in the upper part of the Lower Austin Chalk. Shallowing during deposition of the middle and upper Austin Chalk is indicated by increasing abundance of winnowed lag deposits and firm grounds, resulting in increased faunal diversity. Authigenic clay, a product of alteration of volcanic ash codeposited with the chalk and marl, increases ductility in the middle Austin Chalk. The stratigraphic distribution of authigenic clay corresponds to disseminated biotite, quartz, and feldspar phenocrysts in most samples of the middle Austing Chalk. Authigenic clay decreases porosity, influences porosity-permeability relationships, and provides a regionally traceable low SP log response that correlates with low fracture intensity.

  6. Horizontal technology helps spark Louisiana`s Austin chalk trend

    SciTech Connect

    Koen, A.D.

    1996-04-29

    A handful of companies paced by some of the most active operators in the US are pressing the limits of horizontal technology to ramp up Cretaceous Austin chalk exploration and development (E and D) across Louisiana. Companies find applications in Louisiana for lessons learned drilling horizontal wells to produce chalk intervals in Texas in Giddings, Pearsall, and Brookeland fields. Continuing advances in horizontal well technology are helping operators deal with deeper, hotter reservoirs in more complex geological settings that typify the chalk in Louisiana. Better horizontal drilling, completion, formation evaluation, and stimulation techniques have enabled operators to produce oil and gas from formations previously thought to be uneconomical. Most of the improved capabilities stem from better horizontal tools. Horizontal drilling breakthroughs include dual powered mud motors and retrievable whipstocks, key links in the ability to drill wells with more than one horizontal lateral. Better geosteering tools have enabled operators to maintain horizontal wellbores in desired intervals by signaling bit positions downhole while drilling. This paper reviews the technology and provides a historical perspective on the various drilling programs which have been completed in this trend. It also makes predictions on future drilling successes.

  7. Near-ultraviolet spectroscopy of Comet Austin (1989c1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valk, Jacobus H.; O'Dell, C. R.; Cochran, Anita L.; Cochran, William D.; Opal, Chet B. S.; Barker, Edwin S.

    1992-01-01

    Comet Austin (1989c1) was observed post-perihelion at a heliocentric distance near 1.25 AU. The wavelength range was from the atmospheric cutoff at 3000 to 4000 A. The coma spectra were calibrated into flux units and the contaminating sky spectrum and solar scattered light continuum were subtracted, leaving an ultraviolet spectrum of about 1.5-A resolution and excellent signal-to-noise ratio. The spectrum is dominated by emissions from OH, NH, CH, C3, and CN, some of the weaker emissions of which are seen here for the first time. More bands of CO(2+) were found than in any previous investigation and several intensity anomalies were noted; H2CO, OH(+), NCN, N(2+), and CN(+) may be present. Several emission features well above the noise level remain unidentified. The relative intensities of the OH and CN bands agree with the predictions of resonance fluorescence when one considers the potential effects of contamination by other molecules. The effects of the ozone absorption spectrum are not fully removed by the data-reduction process, although this does not affect these results.

  8. Fracture development and mechanical stratigraphy of Austin Chalk, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, K.; Friedman, M.; Spang, J.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanical stratigraphy of the Upper Cretaceous Austin Chalk is established from study of fracture intensity along its outcrop trend from Dallas to San Antonio and westward to Langtry, Texas, and in the subsurface from study of cores and/or fracture identification logs from 30 wells. Three mechanical-stratigraphic units are recognized. Representative samples from the three mechanical-stratigraphic units were experimentally shortened, dry, at 10, 17, 34, and 70 MPa confining pressure, at 24/sup 0/C, and at a strain rate of 2.5 x 10/sup -4/ sec/sup -1/ to determine if the relative mechanical behavior observed at the surface could be extrapolated into the subsurface at different simulated burial depths. SEM photomicrographs of undeformed specimens show that smectite and other clays are distributed as large (30 ..mu..m), discrete, amorphous, concentrated masses throughout the chalk. They are comminuted along the induced fracture surfaces where their grain size is 0.5 ..mu..m or less. These observations suggest that smectite acts as a soft-inclusion, localizing shear failure and corresponding weakening the material. 9 figures, 5 tables.

  9. Pressure build-up characteristics in Austin Chalk wells

    SciTech Connect

    Claycomb, E.

    1983-02-28

    Pressure build-up data collected from wells in the Giddings Austin Chalk field have been analyzed through use of techniques currently available to the petroleum industry. The slope of ..delta..T vs. ..delta..P, along with a Horner graph and knowledge of well history, should indicate which method of analysis is applicable. The operator should know what kind of stimulation, if any; was performed on the well and the degree of success. A Horner graph, along with a graph of ..delta..T vs. ..delta..P should be plotted as a matter of course. Information gained from proper analysis of build-up data may be used both in well diagnosis and in prediction of well performance. In well diagnosis, a pressure buildup-falloff test is one of the few means of analyzing a problem well. Properly analyzed build-up data will give estimates of average reservoir pressure, in situ permeability, and fracture length. These data will aid in fracture optimization, reserve prediction, and performance prediction.

  10. Rocks of the Columbia Hills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Blaney, D.L.; Clark, B. C.; Crumpler, L.; Farrand, W. H.; Gorevan, S.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Hurowitz, J.; Kusack, A.; McSween, H.Y.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Ruff, S.W.; Wang, A.; Yen, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has identified five distinct rock types in the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater. Clovis Class rock is a poorly sorted clastic rock that has undergone substantial aqueous alteration. We interpret it to be aqueously altered ejecta deposits formed by impacts into basaltic materials. Wishstone Class rock is also a poorly sorted clastic rock that has a distinctive chemical composition that is high in Ti and P and low in Cr. Wishstone Class rock may be pyroclastic or impact in origin. Peace Class rock is a sedimentary material composed of ultramafic sand grains cemented by significant quantities of Mg- and Ca-sulfates. Peace Class rock may have formed when water briefly saturated the ultramafic sands and evaporated to allow precipitation of the sulfates. Watchtower Class rocks are similar chemically to Wishstone Class rocks and have undergone widely varying degrees of near-isochemical aqueous alteration. They may also be ejecta deposits, formed by impacts into Wishstone-rich materials and altered by small amounts of water. Backstay Class rocks are basalt/trachybasalt lavas that were emplaced in the Columbia Hills after the other rock classes were, either as impact ejecta or by localized volcanic activity. The geologic record preserved in the rocks of the Columbia Hills reveals a period very early in Martian history in which volcanic materials were widespread, impact was a dominant process, and water was commonly present. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Total hip arthroplasty for failed aseptic Austin Moore prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Bhosale, Pradeep; Suryawanshi, Ashish; Mittal, Amber

    2012-01-01

    Background: Though Austin Moore (AM) replacement prosthesis has fairly good short term results for intracapsular femoral neck fractures in the elderly, it still is a compromised option and has a high failure rate in the long run. The objective of the present retrospective study is to analyze the functional outcome, assess survivorship of revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) at mid to long term followup, and evaluate intraoperative difficulties faced during conversion of failed aseptic AM prosthesis to cemented THA. Materials and Methods: Eighty-nine cemented THA surgeries for failed AM prosthesis were performed between 1986 and 2005. AM failures were classified into seven groups on the basis of mode of failure. Infected failures were excluded from the study. There were 35 men and 54 women in the study group. The mean age was 68 years (range 57–91 years). Mean followup was 8 years (range 5–13 years). Results: Average Harris Hip Score improved from 65 preoperatively (range 42–73) to 87 (range 76–90) at 1 year postoperatively and to 86 (range 75–89) at the last followup. The overall complication rate was 4.5%. Conclusion: Conversion THA is an excellent treatment strategy for symptomatic failed AM hemiarthroplasty in terms of pain relief and restoration of function and mobility as near as possible to the preinjury level. Also, hemiarthroplasty should not be used in physically active patients, even in elderly individuals. Careful patient selection for hemiarthroplasty versus THA is vital and may decrease the incidence of complications and ameliorate the outcomes in the treatment of intracapsular femoral neck fractures. PMID:22719116

  12. A one-year psychological follow-up of the most severely burned victims of the Bradford fire.

    PubMed

    Khoosal, D I; Broad, J A; Smith, R J; Settle, J A

    1987-10-01

    The horrific disaster at the Valley Parade Football Stadium, Bradford, on 11 May 1985 left 53 people dead in the fire and many more seriously injured. This detailed study of five of the most seriously injured victims was started 3 weeks after the fire. Patients were interviewed and rating scales (Irritability Depression Anxiety Scale--IDA, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale--HDRS, Spielberger Anxiety Scale--STAI, Beck Depression Inventory--BDI, General Health Questionnaire--GHQ), were completed regularly, until the first anniversary of the disaster. Each victim showed some psychopathology over the study period. Depression and anxiety, the commonest reactions, were most troublesome at times of stress. While it is likely that the disaster itself predisposed the victims to these reactions, the contribution of the stressful events occurring around the time of the disaster cannot be ignored. These findings suggest that IDA, GHQ and STAI function as an effective screening triage for detecting those disaster victims who may need psychological help and support. PMID:3427501

  13. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Austin, Texas, metropolitan area, 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slade, R.M.; Dorsey, M.E.; Gordon, J.D.; Mitchell, R.N.; Gaylord, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains rainfall and runoff data collected during the 1979 water year for the Austin, Texas, metropolitan area. In 1975, the program was expanded to include the collection of water-quality data. In 1978, the program was expanded to include a groundwater resources study of the south Austin metropolitan area in the Balcones fault zone. The information will be useful in determining the extent to which progressive urbanization will affect the yeild and mode of occurrence of storm runoff. The major streams in the study area are the Colorado River, Onion Creek, Barton Creek, Walnut Creek, Bull Creek, Boggy Creek, Shoal Creek, Williamson Creek, Slaughter Creek, Bear Creek, and Waller Creek. Detailed rainfall-runoff computations are presented for eight storm periods during the 1979 water year. Water-quality data for sites in the Austin metropolitan area are also given in this report. (USGS)

  14. The Dust Environment of Comet Austin 1990 V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulle, M.; Bosio, S.; Cremonese, G.; Cristaldi, S.; Liller, W.; Pansecchi, L.

    1993-05-01

    We analyse 12 Schmidt plates concerning the dust tail of comet Austin 1990V taken at the Observatories of Catania, Cerro Tololo, ESO and Siding Spring during May and June, 1990. The absolute calibration of the images was performed by means of some standard fields of the Guide Star Photometric Catalogue I (Lasker et al. 1988) detected on the same plates containing the comet images. At the beginning of June the predicted Neck-Line Structure (Fulle & Pansecehi 1990) was detected and well observed as a streamer superimposed on the dust tail and an opposite sunward spike. We apply the inverse Monte- Carlo dust tail model (Fulle 1989) to two different sets of images, which provide results in reciprocal close agreement even if in the two sets the dust tail has a very different shape. We analyse dust grains of diameters between 10 μm and 10 cm ejected during the time interval -160 d < t < +60 d (days related to perihelion). The ejection velocity of millimeter-sized dust grains reaches its maximum value of 0.1 km s-1 at t = +10 d. The mass loss rate reaches a broad maximum of at least 3 l07 g s-1 a few days before perihelion. The power index of the time-averaged size distribution is -3.0±0.2. Strongly anisotropic dust ejections from the nucleus surface are incompatible with the observed shape of the dust tail. Further, the results of the photometry of the Neck-Line concerning the size dependence of the dust velocity and the observed length of the sunward spike indicate that the classical power index of the size dependence of the dust velocity u = -½ cannot account for all the observations. On the contrary, significantly higher index, u = -⅙, allows to reproduce very closely all the available data of the C/1990V dust tail. Also the size distribution and the mass loss rate given by the Neck- Line photometry agree with the results of the inverse Monte-Carlo model, thus supplying the first example of complete agreement between the two models. Although C/1990V was a new

  15. Bridging the Gap: Implementing School-to-Work Transition in Austin, Texas. Policy Research Project Report Number 103.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs.

    Recognizing the difficult time most youths face in finding a good job after high school graduation, the Austin (Texas) Independent School District developed strategies to improve the transition. A high level of collaborative activity was already underway in Austin between the school district and the community, but most programs had been started…

  16. 76 FR 16654 - Austin Western Railroad, L.L.C.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Capital Metropolitan Transportation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Austin Western Railroad, L.L.C.--Lease and Operation Exemption-- Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority Austin Western Railroad, L.L.C. (AWRR), a Class III rail carrier,...

  17. 6. Detail of pilaster cap. Aug. 10, 1936. Joseph Hill, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail of pilaster cap. Aug. 10, 1936. Joseph Hill, photographer, copied from small photo taken by survey member. - Jansonist Colony, Steeple Building, Main & Bishop Hill Streets, Bishop Hill, Henry County, IL

  18. 3. West and south elevations. Joseph Hill, photographer, copied from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. West and south elevations. Joseph Hill, photographer, copied from photo lent by Evelyn S. Craig. August 1936. - Jansonist Colony, Steeple Building, Main & Bishop Hill Streets, Bishop Hill, Henry County, IL

  19. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer August 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer August 1936 FIRST ORIGINAL STORE AND POSTOFFICE, COPY OF AN EARLY PHOTOGRAPH. LENT BY EVELYN S. CRAIG - Jansonist Colony, Colony Store & Post Office, Main & Bishop Hill Streets, Bishop Hill, Henry County, IL

  20. 7. Detail of balcony rail. August 1936. Joseph Hill, photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail of balcony rail. August 1936. Joseph Hill, photographer, copied from small photo taken by survey member. - Jansonist Colony, Steeple Building, Main & Bishop Hill Streets, Bishop Hill, Henry County, IL

  1. Report on the Black Hills Alliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joe

    1979-01-01

    A rally to save the Black Hills from coal- and uranium-greedy energy companies was held on July 6 and over 2,000 joined in a 15-mile walk on July 7 in Rapid City, South Dakota. The Black Hills Alliance, an Indian coalition concerned about energy development proposals in the Great Plains, sponsored the gathering. (NQ)

  2. Colleges as Shining Cities on a Hill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Kathleen Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes that the notion of America be reintroduced as the "shining city on a hill," that abiding image from American history. The image of the shining city on a hill captures the imagination because it reflects the abiding truth that people become fully human in society, not outside of it. People need one another to…

  3. Counseling Uses of the Hill Interaction Matrix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Robert E.

    While the Hill Interaction Matrix was developed as a research instrument to assess interview process, it is also generally useful in any undertaking requiring the evaluation of verbal interaction and, hence, can be used as an aid in modifying communication in order to increase its therapeutic effect. The Hill Interaction Matrix with accompanying…

  4. Glaciated appalachian plateau: till shadows on hills.

    PubMed

    Coates, D R

    1966-06-17

    North slopes are twice as steep as south slopes on the hills of central New York. This asymmetry is caused by unequal till thickness-3.6 meters on north slopes and 27.6 meters on south slopes. Previous workers interpreted the hills as being of bedrock sculptured by glacial erosion, with till 0.9 to 3 meters thick. PMID:17755398

  5. Ambient Air Pollution and Newborn Size and Adiposity at Birth: Differences by Maternal Ethnicity (the Born in Bradford Study Cohort)

    PubMed Central

    de Hoogh, Kees; Pedersen, Marie; Dadvand, Payam; Martinez, David; Hoek, Gerard; Petherick, Emily S.; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with reduced size of newborns; however, the modifying effect of maternal ethnicity remains little explored among South Asians. Objectives We investigated ethnic differences in the association between ambient air pollution and newborn’s size. Method Pregnant women were recruited between 2007 and 2010 for the Born in Bradford cohort study, in England. Exposures to particulate matter (≤ 10 μm, PM10; ≤ 2.5 μm, PM2.5), PM2.5 absorbance, and nitrogen oxides (NOx, NO2) were estimated using land-use regressions models. Using multivariate linear regression models, we evaluated effect modification by maternal ethnicity (“white British” or “Pakistani origin,” self-reported) on the associations of air pollution and birth weight, head circumference, and triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness. Results A 5-μg/m3 increase in mean third trimester PM2.5 was associated with significantly lower birth weight and smaller head circumference in children of white British mothers (–43 g; 95% CI: –76, –10 and –0.28 cm; 95% CI: –0.39, –0.17, respectively), but not in children of Pakistani origin (9 g; 95% CI: –17, 35 and –0.08 cm; 95% CI: –0.17, 0.01, respectively) (pint = 0.03 and < 0.001). In contrast, PM2.5 was associated with significantly larger triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses in children of Pakistani origin (0.17 mm; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.25 and 0.21 mm; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.29, respectively), but not in white British children (–0.02 mm; 95% CI: –0.14, 0.01 and 0.06 mm; 95% CI: –0.06, 0.18, respectively) (pint = 0.06 and 0.11). Patterns of associations for PM10 and PM2.5 absorbance according to ethnicity were similar to those for PM2.5, but associations of the outcomes with NO2 and NOx were mostly nonsignificant in both ethnic groups. Conclusions Our results suggest that associations of ambient PM exposures with newborn size and adiposity differ between white British and

  6. Solar Rossby Wave 'Hills' Identified As Supergranules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, P. E.; Hathaway, David H.; Cuntz, M.

    2007-01-01

    We explore the nature of 'hills' observed on the solar surface which had previously been attributed to Rossby waves. We investigate the sol ar hills phenomenon by analyzing the output from a synthetic model ba sed solely on the observed solar photospheric convection spectrum. We show that the characteristics of these hills can be explained by the corrugation of the surface produced by the radial flows of the conve ction. The hills in our simulations are dominated by supergranules, a well-known component of solar convection. Rossby waves have been predicted to exist within the Sun and may play an important role in the d ynamics of the solar interior, including the Sun's differential rotat ion and magnetic dynamo. Our study suggests, however, that the hills observed at the solar limb do not confirm the existence of solar Ross by waves.

  7. Layered Rocks in 'Columbia Hills'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This black-and-white image shows the first layered rocks scientists have seen close up in Gusev Crater, where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit landed Jan. 4, 2004. While Spirit's twin rover, Opportunity, reached the stadium-size Endurance Crater on the other side of Mars and began exploring its many layered outcrops in early May, Spirit traveled more than 3.5 kilometers (2.2 miles) to get to this layered bedrock in the 'Columbia Hills.' Scientists are planning to conduct a study of these rocks to determine if they are volcanic or sedimentary in origin, and if they have been chemically altered. Spirit's panoramic camera took this image on sol 217 (Aug. 13, 2004).

  8. Equal Partners. Austin Teenagers Learn To Expect Respect in Dating Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Mary M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Teen Dating Violence Project, a 24-week program in the Austin (Texas) schools that offers single sex support groups for young men and women involved in violent relationships. Learning to build equitable and respectful relationships often involves unlearning gender stereotypes, but the program shows that attitudes can change. (SLD)

  9. IMPACT: How ORE Findings Have Affected Decisions in Austin and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, David, Ed.; Ligon, Glynn, Ed.

    Over the years, findings of the Office of Research and Evaluation (ORE) of the Austin (Texas) Independent School District (AISD) have had a significant impact on decisions made in the district and sometimes beyond it. The ORE's impact in the AISD is reviewed in 16 areas. Some of the major findings are summarized: (1) ORE studies of retention in…

  10. Rejoinder to Austin, Humphreys, and Hulin: Critical Reanalysis of Barrett, Caldwell and Alexander.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Gerald V.; Alexander, Ralph A.

    1989-01-01

    Responds to Austin, Humphreys, and Hulin's (1989) critique of Barrett, Caldwell, and Alexander, suggesting that the burden of proof still rests on the advocates of the concept of dynamic criteria, and that empirical support is lacking for the existence of dynamic criteria as a simplex. Contrary evidence from educational, organizations, and…

  11. University of Texas at Austin Leads Way with Its Community College Graduate Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Roberto

    1993-01-01

    The University of Texas at Austin has established a highly successful graduate training program for community college administrators, with a high rate of participation by minorities and women. Aggressive fund raising, outreach, recruitment, leadership education, and quality faculty characterize the program. A number of distinguished administrators…

  12. Proceedings: National Conference on Bilingual Education (Austin, Texas, April 14-15, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Goals of the National Conference on Bilingual Education, held on April 14-15, 1972 in Austin, Texas, were to emphasize bilingual education interaction at the national level using outstanding consultants from throughout the United States and to exchange ideas among educators in existing programs. The conference was also organized to give bilingual…

  13. 76 FR 73587 - Foreign-Trade Zone 183-Austin, Tx; Site Renumbering Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 183--Austin, Tx; Site Renumbering Notice Foreign-Trade Zone 183 was approved by the Foreign-Trade Zones Board on December 23, 1991 (Board Order 550), and expanded... Camille.Evans@trade.gov or (202) 482-2350. Dated: November 22, 2011. Andrew McGilvray, Executive...

  14. Effective-stress-law behavior of Austin chalk rocks for deformation and fracture conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Warpinski, N.R.; Teufel, L.W.

    1994-08-01

    Austin chalk core has been tested to determine the effective law for deformation of the matrix material and the stress-sensitive conductivity of the natural fractures. For deformation behavior, two samples provided data on the variations of the poroelastic parameter, {alpha}, for Austin chalk, giving values around 0.4. The effective-stress-law behavior of a Saratoga limestone sample was also measured for the purpose of obtaining a comparison with a somewhat more porous carbonate rock. {alpha} for this rock was found to be near 0.9. The low {alpha} for the Austin chalk suggests that stresses in the reservoir, or around the wellbore, will not change much with changes in pore pressure, as the contribution of the fluid pressure is small. Three natural fractures from the Austin chalk were tested, but two of the fractures were very tight and probably do not contribute much to production. The third sample was highly conductive and showed some stress sensitivity with a factor of three reduction in conductivity over a net stress increase of 3000 psi. Natural fractures also showed a propensity for permanent damage when net stressed exceeded about 3000 psi. This damage was irreversible and significantly affected conductivity. {alpha} was difficult to determine and most tests were inconclusive, although the results from one sample suggested that {alpha} was near unity.

  15. Austin Community College Management Response to Employee Satisfaction Survey, Spring 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Community Coll., TX.

    Findings from an Employee Satisfaction Survey conducted in spring 2000 at Austin Community College (ACC) (Texas) indicate that: (1) staff in many areas need customer service training; (2) telephones are not used effectively by many offices; (3) many areas are not able to respond quickly to the needs of college staff; and (4) 18 highly used areas…

  16. Austin Community College Employee Satisfaction Survey, Spring 2000: Results and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oburn, Martha L.

    Austin Community College mailed an Employee Satisfaction Survey in spring 2000 to 2,903 employees. The survey form asked respondents to rate college-wide and/or campus services that they had requested or received during the past year in terms of promptness, quality, attitude and overall service. The overall survey return rate was 15.4%, but rates…

  17. AmeriFlux US-SP1 Slashpine-Austin Cary- 65yrs nat regen

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SP1 Slashpine-Austin Cary- 65yrs nat regen. Site Description - The ACMF site is a 67 hectare naturally regenerated Pinus palustris and Pinus elliottii mixed stand.

  18. Proceedings: International Ex-Students' Conference on Energy (Austin, Texas, April 26-30, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, Charles, Ed.

    This document contains the speeches, and subsequent discussion, presented at the International Ex-Student Conference on Energy held at the University of Texas at Austin, April 26-30, 1976. Speakers included technical experts and representatives from an oil exporting country and from developed and developing oil importing countries. Energy sources,…

  19. Reservoir fracture mapping using microearthquakes: Austin chalk, Giddings field, TX and 76 field, Clinton Co., KY

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, W.S.; Rutledge, J.T.; Fairbanks, T.D.

    1996-12-31

    Patterns of microearthquakes detected downhole defined fracture orientation and extent in the Austin chalk, Giddings field, TX and the 76 field, Clinton Co., KY. We collected over 480 and 770 microearthquakes during hydraulic stimulation at two sites in the Austin chalk, and over 3200 during primary production in Clinton Co. Data were of high enough quality that 20%, 31% and 53% of the events could be located, respectively. Reflected waves constrained microearthquakes to the stimulated depths at the base of the Austin chalk. In plan view, microearthquakes defined elongate fracture zones extending from the stimulation wells parallel to the regional fracture trend. However, widths of the stimulated zones differed by a factor of live between the two Austin chalk sites, indicating a large difference in the population of ancillary fractures. Post-stimulation production was much higher from the wider zone. At Clinton Co., microearthquakes defined low-angle, reverse-fault fracture zones above and below a producing zone. Associations with depleted production intervals indicated the mapped fractures had been previously drained. Drilling showed that the fractures currently contain brine. The seismic behavior was consistent with poroelastic models that predicted slight increases in compressive stress above and below the drained volume.

  20. Reservoir fracture mapping using microearthquakes: Austin chalk, Giddings field, TX and 76 field, Clinton Co., KY

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, W.S.; Rutledge, J.T.; Gardner, T.L.; Fairbanks, T.D.; Miller, M.E.; Schuessler, B.K.

    1996-11-01

    Patterns of microearthquakes detected downhole defined fracture orientation and extent in the Austin chalk, Giddings field, TX and the 76 field, Clinton Co., KY. We collected over 480 and 770 microearthquakes during hydraulic stimulation at two sites in the Austin chalk, and over 3200 during primary production in Clinton Co. Data were of high enough quality that 20%, 31% and 53% of the events could be located, respectively. Reflected waves constrained microearthquakes to the stimulated depths at the base of the Austin chalk. In plan view, microearthquakes defined elongate fracture zones extending from the stimulation wells parallel to the regional fracture trend. However, widths of the stimulated zones differed by a factor of five between the two Austin chalk sites, indicating a large difference in the population of ancillary fractures. Post-stimulation production was much higher from the wider zone. At Clinton Co., microearthquakes defined low-angle, reverse-fault fracture zones above and below a producing zone. Associations with depleted production intervals indicated the mapped fractures had been previously drained. Drilling showed that the fractures currently contain brine. The seismic behavior was consistent with poroelastic models that predicted slight increases in compressive stress above and below the drained volume.

  1. 76 FR 76810 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; Austin Straubel International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; Austin... Register 30 days before modifying the land-use assurance that requires the property to be used for an... of intent of waiver with respect to land. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)...

  2. A River Runs through It: Austin Youth River Watch Final Report 1993-94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Jeannine

    The City of Austin (Texas) provided funds for a supplementary educational activity to involve at-risk minority high school students in water quality issues. The program attempts to provide an interesting and authentic activity that also develops academic skills. Principal activities were testing river water for pollutants and the tutoring of…

  3. Austin Youth River Watch Program: 1992-93 Final Report. Publication Number 92.33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Jeannine

    The City of Austin (Texas) provides funds for an educational initiative to involve minority high school students in water quality issues and to reduce the dropout rate through positive role model interaction with academically successful students. Principal program activities were testing river water for pollutants and tutoring at-risk students by…

  4. Solar heating and cooling demonstration project at Radian Corporation, Austin, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar heating and cooling system located at the Radian Corporation, Austin, Texas, is discussed. A technical description of the solar system is presented. The costs of the major components and the cost of installing the system are described. Flow diagrams and photographs of the solar system are provided.

  5. The Research and Evaluation Agenda for the Austin Independent School District, 1991-92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    Evaluations and other major projects of the Austin (Texas) Independent School District (AISD) Office of Research and Evaluation for 1991-92 will focus on: (1) externally funded programs; (2) system-wide achievement testing; and (3) system-wide evaluation. Eight evaluations will assess the impact of programs and grants funded by federal or state…

  6. The Research and Evaluation Agenda for the Austin Independent School District 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    The proposed activities of the Office of Research and Evaluation of the Austin (Texas) Independent School District in 1990-91 are outlined. Evaluations and other major projects focus on: (1) externally funded projects; (2) systemwide achievement testing; and (3) systemwide evaluation. Twelve evaluations will assess the impact of programs and…

  7. 78 FR 68814 - Subzone 183B; Authorization of Production Activity; Samsung Austin Semiconductor, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... (78 FR 40427, 7-5-2013). The FTZ Board has determined that no further review of the activity is... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Subzone 183B; Authorization of Production Activity; Samsung Austin Semiconductor... notification of proposed export production activity to the Foreign- Trade Zones (FTZ) Board for its...

  8. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Arabic at the University of Texas at Austin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abboud, Victorine

    A computer-assisted instructional program to teach the Arabic writing system and elementary vocabulary and comprehension, which was developed at the Center for Middle Eastern Studies at The University of Texas at Austin in cooperation with the university's College of Liberal Arts, is described. Among the benefits of the computer-assisted approach…

  9. 75 FR 8742 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, TX... were recovered from a large Caddo occupation site dating to approximately A.D. 1200-1400....

  10. Information Sharing during the University of Texas at Austin Active Shooter/Suicide Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egnoto, Michael J.; Griffin, Darrin J.; Svetieva, Elena; Winslow, Luke

    2016-01-01

    Emergency response systems can be improved by investigating the motives and manner in which people share information during an active shooter crisis. This article analyzed survey data collected from undergraduate participants at The University of Texas at Austin who were enrolled during the fall of 2010 when an active shooter event occurred on…

  11. Drilling and production aspects of horizontal wells in the Austin Chalk

    SciTech Connect

    Sheikholeslami, B.A.; Scholhman, B.W.; Seidel, F.A.; Button, D.M. )

    1991-07-01

    This paper discusses testing of horizontal technology for use in the highly fractured Giddings oil field. Three short-and seven medium-radius wells were drilled successfully in the Austin Chalk formation. The paper discusses well plans, bottomhole assemblies, trajectory control, telemetry, mud systems, hydraulics, hole cleaning, casing design, cementing, problems encountered, formation evaluation, completions, and reservoir response.

  12. Assessment of fracture-induced anisotropy in the Austin Chalk Formation (Upper Cretaceous), central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.A. )

    1990-05-01

    This study relates geophysical and geological data to the detection of fractures and their influence on the movement of fluid in the Atco Member of the Austin Chalk in central Texas. In areas of production, the Austin Chalk has very low matrix permeabilities, with hydrocarbons confined to zones of near-vertical, stress-aligned fractures. Horizontal drilling has been estimated to increase per well reserves in the Austin Chalk from 75,000 bbl and 82 mmcf to 500,000 bbl and 500 mmcf. The objective of deviated wells in the Austin Chalk is to intersect at right angles as many of the hydrocarbon-prone fracture zones as possible. Therefore, the detection and description of these fracture zones prior to drilling is critical. Fractures have been proven to influence the velocities of shear waves. To assess shear wave velocities in different directions, several shear wave refraction and three-component vertical seismic profiles have been acquired. These data provided a measure of the fracture-induced shear wave anisotropy and an indication of the dominant fracture trend. Other data, including azimuthal resistivity surveys, cores, and aerial photographs, provided additional control for evaluating the fractures. The final phase of the study compares the geophysical and geological interpretations to the result of shallow groundwater pumping tests. The pumping tests have been conducted in vertical boreholes and were designed to evaluate the influence of the fracturing on fluid movement.

  13. Faculty Productivity and Costs at the University of Texas at Austin: A Preliminary Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder, Richard; Matgouranis, Christopher; Robe, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    In this report, the authors examine recently released preliminary data concerning faculty compensation, teaching loads and external research grant awards at one of the nation's largest college campuses, The University of Texas at Austin. The authors use these data to assess faculty productivity (in terms of both teaching and research), and their…

  14. On Research-Minded Practitioners: A Response to McBeath and Austin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaffe, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    McBeath and Austin define the concept of research-minded practitioners, describe the organizational contexts, structures, and strategies for supporting this type of practitioner. Further, the authors propose a research agenda to establish effective organizational development strategies to support research-minded practitioners, align their efforts…

  15. A Historiography of Founding Fathers? Sarah Austin (1793-1867) and English Comparative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joyce

    2002-01-01

    Notes a lack of recognition for Sarah Austin, an English educationist, who translated the work of Victor Cousins, a French comparative educationist. Male educationists were promoted as founding fathers of education history in the 19th century. Discusses social and women's politics as factors in considering female educators of value in comparative…

  16. A comparison of South Asian specific and established BMI thresholds for determining obesity prevalence in pregnancy and predicting pregnancy complications: Findings from the Born in Bradford cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Maria; Santorelli, Gillian; Lawlor, Debbie A; Farrar, Diane; Tuffnell, Derek; Bhopal, Raj; Wright, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe how maternal obesity prevalence varies by established international and South Asian specific BMI cut-offs in women of Pakistani origin and investigate whether different BMI thresholds can help to identify women at risk of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. Design Prospective bi-ethnic birth cohort study (The Born in Bradford Cohort). Setting Bradford, a deprived city in the North of the UK. Participants 8,478 South Asian and White British pregnant women participating in the Born in Bradford cohort study Main outcome measures Maternal obesity prevalence; prevalence of known obesity related adverse pregnancy outcomes: mode of birth, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), gestational diabetes, macrosomia, pre-term births. Results Application of South Asian BMI cut-offs increased prevalence of obesity in Pakistani women from 18.8% (95% CI 17.6 to 19.9) to 30.9% (95% CI 29.5 to 32.2). With the exception of pre-term births, there was a positive linear relationship between BMI and prevalence of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes, across almost the whole BMI distribution. Risk of gestational diabetes and HDP increased more sharply in Pakistani women after a BMI threshold of at least 30kg/m2, but there was no evidence of a sharp increase in any risk factors at the new, lower thresholds suggested for use in South Asian women. BMI was a good single predictor of outcomes (Area Under the Receiver Operating Curve: 0.596 to 0.685 for different outcomes); prediction was more discriminatory and accurate with BMI as a continuous variable than as a binary variable for any possible cut-point. Conclusion Applying the new South Asian threshold to pregnant women would markedly increase those referred for monitoring and lifestyle advice. However, our results suggest that lowering the BMI threshold in South Asian women would not improve the predictive ability for identifying those at risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:23797188

  17. Descent from the Summit of 'Husband Hill'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Descent from the Summit of 'Husband Hill' (QTVR)

    In late November 2005 while descending 'Husband Hill,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took the most detailed panorama so far of the 'Inner Basin,' the rover's next target destination. Spirit acquired the 405 individual images that make up this 360-degree view of the surrounding terrain using five different filters on the panoramic camera. The rover took the images on Martian days, or sols, 672 to 677 (Nov. 23 to 28, 2005 -- the Thanksgiving holiday weekend).

    This image is an approximately true-color rendering using camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters. Seams between individual frames have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

    'Home Plate,' a bright, semi-circular feature scientists hope to investigate, is harder to discern in this image than in earlier views taken from higher up the hill. Spirit acquired this more oblique view, known as the 'Seminole panorama,' from about halfway down the south flank of Husband Hill, 50 meters (164 feet) or so below the summit. Near the center of the panorama, on the horizon, are 'McCool Hill' and 'Ramon Hill,' named, like Husband Hill, in honor of the fallen astronauts of the space shuttle Columbia. Husband Hill is visible behind the rover, on the right and left sides of the panorama. An arc of rover tracks made while avoiding obstacles and getting into position to examine rock outcrops can be traced over a long distance by zooming in to explore the panorama in greater detail.

    Spirit is now significantly farther downhill toward the center of this panorama, en route to Home Plate and other enigmatic soils and outcrop rocks in the quest to uncover the history of Gusev Crater and the 'Columbia Hills.'

  18. Dynamic depositional and early diagenetic processes in a deep-water shelf setting, upper cretaceous Austin Chalk, North Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Hovorka, S.D.; Nance, H.S.

    1994-12-31

    The Austin Chalk of north Texas was deposited on a deep-water shelf north of the Sea Marcos Platform during a worldwide Coniacian and Santonian sea-level highstand. Transgressive (lowermost lower Austin Chalk), highstand (uppermost lower Austin Chalk), and regressive (middle and upper Austin Chalk) phases of cyclic chalk and marl sedimentation are recognized in excavations and tunnels created in Ellis County for the Superconducting Super Collider provide new evidence of sediment transport during Austin Chalk deposition. During transgression, bottom currents syndepositionally reworked nannoplankton oozes, incising channels as much as 120 ft across and 8 ft deep. Weakly burrowed channel fills having preservation of fine lamination document rapid infilling. Channel fills are composed of pyritized and carbonized wood and Inoceramus lag deposits, pellets, echinoderm fragments, and globigerinid grainstones, and coccolith ooze. During maximum highstand, bottom reworking was suppressed. Detrital content of highstand marls is low (>20 percent); organic content is high (1.4 to 3.5 percent). Coccolith preservation is excellent because of minimal diagenetic alteration. Regression is marked by resumed channel cutting and storm-bed winnowing in the middle and upper Austin Chalk. Suppressed resistivity log response and recessive weathering characteristics of the middle Austin Chalk are not primarily related to depositional environment but rather to increased input of volcanic ash during the accumulation of this interval. Early stabilization of ash produced clay-coated microfabrics in sediments that are otherwise similar to the transgressive deposits.

  19. A SYMPLECTIC INTEGRATOR FOR HILL'S EQUATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Thomas; Barnes, Rory; Perrine, Randall P.; Richardson, Derek C.

    2010-02-15

    Hill's equations are an approximation that is useful in a number of areas of astrophysics including planetary rings and planetesimal disks. We derive a symplectic method for integrating Hill's equations based on a generalized leapfrog. This method is implemented in the parallel N-body code, PKDGRAV, and tested on some simple orbits. The method demonstrates a lack of secular changes in orbital elements, making it a very useful technique for integrating Hill's equations over many dynamical times. Furthermore, the method allows for efficient collision searching using linear extrapolation of particle positions.

  20. Hill-Climbing Attacks and Robust Online Signature Verification Algorithm against Hill-Climbing Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Daigo

    Attacks using hill-climbing methods have been reported as a vulnerability of biometric authentication systems. In this paper, we propose a robust online signature verification algorithm against such attacks. Specifically, the attack considered in this paper is a hill-climbing forged data attack. Artificial forgeries are generated offline by using the hill-climbing method, and the forgeries are input to a target system to be attacked. In this paper, we analyze the menace of hill-climbing forged data attacks using six types of hill-climbing forged data and propose a robust algorithm by incorporating the hill-climbing method into an online signature verification algorithm. Experiments to evaluate the proposed system were performed using a public online signature database. The proposed algorithm showed improved performance against this kind of attack.

  1. Europa Ridges, Hills and Domes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This moderate-resolution view of the surface of one of Jupiter's moons, Europa, shows the complex icy crust that has been extensively modified by fracturing and the formation of ridges. The ridge systems superficially resemble highway networks with overpasses, interchanges and junctions. From the relative position of the overlaps, it is possible to determine the age sequence for the ridge sets. For example, while the 8-kilometer-wide (5-mile) ridge set in the lower left corner is younger than most of the terrain seen in this picture, a narrow band cuts across the set toward the bottom of the picture, indicating that the band formed later. In turn, this band is cut by the narrow 2- kilometer-wide (1.2-mile) double ridge running from the lower right to upper left corner of the picture. Also visible are numerous clusters of hills and low domes as large as 9 kilometers (5.5 miles) across, many with associated dark patches of non-ice material. The ridges, hills and domes are considered to be ice-rich material derived from the subsurface. These are some of the youngest features seen on the surface of Europa and could represent geologically young eruptions.

    This area covers about 140 kilometers by 130 kilometers (87 miles by 81 miles) and is centered at 12.3 degrees north latitude, 268 degrees west longitude. Illumination is from the east (right side of picture). The resolution is about 180 meters (200 yards) per pixel, meaning that the smallest feature visible is about a city block in size. The picture was taken by the Solid State Imaging system on board the Galileo spacecraft on February 20, 1997, from a distance of 17,700 kilometers (11,000 miles) during its sixth orbit around Jupiter.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington D.C. This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web Galileo mission home page at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  2. Inside Beacon Hill: Bertrand Russell as Schoolmaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jespersen, Shirley

    1987-01-01

    The author describes the life and theories of Bertrand Russell, founder of Beacon Hill School. Russell's educational theories centered on the personal autonomy of the student and democratization of the learning process. (CH)

  3. Exploring Hill Ciphers with Graphing Calculators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Dennis

    1998-01-01

    Explains how to code and decode messages using Hill ciphers which combine matrix multiplication and modular arithmetic. Discusses how a graphing calculator can facilitate the matrix and modular arithmetic used in the coding and decoding procedures. (ASK)

  4. The Igwisi Hills extrusive 'kimberlites'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, A. M.; Donaldson, C. H.; Dawson, J. B.; Brown, R. W.; Ridley, W. I.

    1975-01-01

    The petrography and mineral chemistry of volcanic rocks from the Igwisi Hills in Tanzania are discussed. There is considerable evidence to suggest that the Igwisi rocks are extrusive kimberlites: a two-component nature with high P-T minerals in a low P-T matrix; the presence of chrome pyrope, Al enstatite, chrome diopside, chromite and olivine; a highly oxidized, volatile-rich matrix with serpentine, calcite, magnetite, perovskite; high Sr, Zr, and Nb contents; occurrence in a narrow isolated vent within a stable shield area. The Igwisi rocks differ from kimberlite in the lack of magnesian ilmenite, the scarcity of matrix phlogopite, and the overall low alkali content. They apparently contain material from phlogopite-bearing garnet peridotites with a primary mineral assemblage indicative of equilibrium at upper mantle temperatures and pressures. This primary assemblage was brought rapidly to the surface in a gas-charged, carbonate-rich fluid. Rapid upward transport, extrusion, and rapid cooling have tended to prevent reaction between inclusions and the carbonate-rich matrix that might otherwise have yielded a more typical kimberlite.

  5. Oblique View of Columbia Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This perspective view looking toward the northeast shows part of the Columbia Hills range inside Gusev Crater. At the center is the winter campaign site of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit.

    On its 805th Martian day, or sol, (April 8, 2006), Spirit was parked on a slope tilting 11 degrees to the north to maximize sunlight on the solar panels during the southern winter season. Science observations were formulated to take advantage of the long time during which the rover was parked. The plan focused on two tasks: tracking atmospheric and surface dynamics by periodically surveying the surface and atmosphere; and extensively examining surrounding terrains, rocks and soils using the panoramic camera and the miniature thermal emission spectrometer, coupled with long duration measurements using the alpha particle X-ray and Moessbauer spectrometers of rock and soil targets. For reference, the feature known as 'Home Plate' is approximately 90 meters (295 feet) wide.

    An image from Mars Global Surveyor's Mars Orbital Camera, catalogued as E03_00012 and courtesy Malin Space Science Systems, was used as the base image for this figure. The perspective was generated using elevation data generated from analyses of the camera's stereo images by the U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Ariz.

  6. Soufriere Hills, Montserrat, West Indies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Volcanic activity on the West Indian island of Montserrat has remained high for several years-the current activity started in 1995. However, remote sensing of the island has been difficult because of frequent cloud cover. The International Space Station crew flew north of the island on a clear day in early July (July 9, 2001) and recorded a vigorous steam plume emanating from the summit of Soufriere Hills. The image also reveals the extensive volcanic mud flows (lahars) and new deltas built out from the coast from the large amounts of volcanic debris delivered downstream by the rivers draining the mountain. As a small island (only 13 x 8 km), all of Montserrat has been impacted by the eruptions. Sources of Information: Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program Italy's Volcanoes Montserrat Volcano Observatory Digital photograph number ISS002-E-9309 was taken on 9 July 2001 from Space Station Alpha and was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  7. Banishing Bradford Pears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Cynthia; Cook, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Role-play provides fifth-grade students with the opportunity to develop meaningful connections to environmental science concepts and understand how those concepts relate to their community. Role-play also builds students' communication skills and increases their understanding of the attitudes of science. By participating in role-play, teachers…

  8. Challenge College, Bradford

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flecknoe, Mervyn

    2004-01-01

    What can you expect from a school in an area of high crime where 50 percent of the pupils take free school meals and which operates on a site that cannot be accessed from its main catchment area? In this article, the author shares his experience when he visited Challenge College. A low wall separates Challenge College from the area where most of…

  9. Drought in the Black Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Color-Coded Map

    Despite good rainfall and record-setting snowstorms in the spring of 2005, most of northeastern Wyoming, the Black Hills, and western South Dakota remain in the midst of a severe drought. This set of images and maps from NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) contrast the appearance of the Black Hills region of northwestern South Dakota on July 12, 2000 (left column), with views acquired four years later, on July 14, 2004 (right column). The natural-color images along the top are from MISR's nadir (downward-looking) camera. The browning that appears in 2004 compared with 2000 indicates that the vigor of green vegetation was significantly diminished in 2004.

    The color-coded maps (along the bottom) provide a quantitative measurement of the sunlight reflected from these surfaces, and the loss of sunlight-absorbing vegetation between the 2000 and 2004 dates. As the vegetation faded with the drought, the albedo at the surface increased. Albedo measures the fraction of incident sunlight that is reflected by a surface, and can vary between zero (if all the incident sunlight is absorbed and none is reflected) and one (if all sunlight is reflected and none is absorbed). Dense forest has a low albedo; bright desert, snow and clouds, have a high albedo. Here, albedo is provided for the wavelengths of sunlight that plants use for photosynthesis (400 - 700 nanometers). This measurement is known as the albedo for Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR). Surfaces with greater absorption of PAR appear here in blue hues, whereas surfaces with lower absorption appear as green, yellow, orange or red. Black pixels indicate areas where albedo could not be derived, usually due to the presence of clouds. In July 2004, low albedo areas (blue pixels) are notably reduced in extent, and higher albedo areas (yellow, orange and red pixels) have increased.

    Because incoming sunlight is

  10. Bunker Hill Sediment Characterization Study

    SciTech Connect

    Neal A. Yancey; Debby F. Bruhn

    2009-12-01

    The long history of mineral extraction in the Coeur d’Alene Basin has left a legacy of heavy metal laden mine tailings that have accumulated along the Coeur d’Alene River and its tributaries (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001; Barton, 2002). Silver, lead and zinc were the primary metals of economic interest in the area, but the ores contained other elements that have become environmental hazards including zinc, cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel, and copper. The metals have contaminated the water and sediments of Lake Coeur d’Alene, and continue to be transported downstream to Spokane Washington via the Spokane River. In 1983, the EPA listed the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex on the National Priorities List. Since that time, many of the most contaminated areas have been stabilized or isolated, however metal contaminants continue to migrate through the basin. Designation as a Superfund site causes significant problems for the economically depressed communities in the area. Identification of primary sources of contamination can help set priorities for cleanup and cleanup options, which can include source removal, water treatment or no action depending on knowledge about the mobility of contaminants relative to water flow. The mobility of contaminant mobility under natural or engineered conditions depends on multiple factors including the physical and chemical state (or speciation) of metals and the range of processes, some of which can be seasonal, that cause mobilization of metals. As a result, it is particularly important to understand metal speciation (National Research Council, 2005) and the link between speciation and the rates of metal migration and the impact of natural or engineered variations in flow, biological activity or water chemistry.

  11. Occurrence of oil in the Austin Chalk at Van field, Van Zandt County, Texas: A unique geologic setting

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, J.T.; Carrington, D.B. )

    1990-09-01

    The Austin Chalk is buried to a depth of only 2,100-2,500 ft and has retained primary microporosity unlike the typical deep fractured chalk reservoirs. The Van structure is a complexly faulted domal anticline created by salt intrusion and is approximately 2,000 ft higher than surrounding structures in the area. A major northwest-dipping fault acts as the primary trapping mechanism. The field has produced 0.5 billion BO from thick Woodbine sands since its discovery in 1929. Occurrence of oil in the Austin Chalk has been known since the field discovery, but prior completions were low rate oil producers. Recent development of a large fracture stimulation technique has resulted in increased production rates of up to 300 BOPD. The Austin Chalk reservoir limits were determined by isopaching feet of minimum productive resistivity having porosity above a cutoff value. The resistivity/porosity isopach showed a direct correlation between Austin Chalk productivity and the Austin Chalk structure and faulting pattern. Structural evidence along with oil typing indicate that the oil in the Austin Chalk has migrated upward along fault planes and through fault juxtaposition from the Woodbine sands 200 ft below the Austin Chalk. Thin-section and scanning electron microscopy work performed on conventional cores showed that the Van Austin Chalk formation is a very fine grained limestone composed primarily of coccoliths. Various amounts of detrital illite clay are present in the coccolith matrix. All effective porosity is micro-intergranular and ranges from 15 to 35%. Based on the core analyses, the main porosity reducing agent and therefore control on reservoir quality is the amount of detrital clay present filling the micropores. Permeability is very low with values ranging from 0.01 to 1.5 md. There is no evidence of significant natural fractures in the core. Artificial fractures are therefore required to create the permeability needed to sustain commercial production rates.

  12. Austin's Home Performance with Energy Star Program: Making a Compelling Offer to a Financial Institution Partner

    SciTech Connect

    Zimring, Mark

    2011-03-18

    Launched in 2006, over 8,700 residential energy upgrades have been completed through Austin Energy's Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program. The program's lending partner, Velocity Credit Union (VCU) has originated almost 1,800 loans, totaling approximately $12.5 million. Residential energy efficiency loans are typically small, and expensive to originate and service relative to larger financing products. National lenders have been hesitant to deliver attractive loan products to this small, but growing, residential market. In response, energy efficiency programs have found ways to partner with local and regional banks, credit unions, community development finance institutions (CDFIs) and co-ops to deliver energy efficiency financing to homeowners. VCU's experience with the Austin Energy HPwES program highlights the potential benefits of energy efficiency programs to a lending partner.

  13. Austin Chalk: cross-link gel water, slick water fracs common in Giddings field

    SciTech Connect

    Mickey, V.

    1981-05-01

    Of the approx. 600 wells drilled in the Giddings field, Austin Chalk trend in the last year, most were probably completed by cross-link gel fracs or slick water fracs. Although open hole completions are not uncommon in the chalk, they are not really practical in most situations, given the 600 to 800 ft of gross pay usually encountered in the Austin Chalk trend. Most of the open hole completions occur when an operator takes a kick while drilling and decides to drop a mud pill over the zone, run casing above it, cement it in and produce the interval open hole. Chalk wells are subject to kick at any time during drilling because of natural fracturing systems throughout the trend. Mud weights are generally fairly light for faster drilling, approx. 9.4 to 9.8 lb, depending on the particular area.

  14. Drilling and production aspects of horizontal wells in the Austin Chalk

    SciTech Connect

    Sheikholeslami, B.A.; Schlottman, B.W.; Siedel, F.A.; Button, D.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Since 1984, Amoco has pursued horizontal completions within the Burleson, Lee, and Fayette county areas of the Austin Chalk trend in central Texas. To date, two different drilling methods have been based to drill ten horizontal wells, which have been successfully completed and are presently producing. With use of both the short- and medium-radius drilling methods, significant cost reductions were realized and well performance was defined and optimized during the program. The program's overall success was directly attributable to the cooperative efforts of a team of drillers, reservoir engineers, and geologists. The drilling methods used by Amoco and the results of horizontal drilling in the Austin Chalk give production data that compare horizontal well performance against offset vertical well performance, which in this program resulted in horizontal/vertical well production ratios of 2.5 to 7. In addition, a significant relationship between length of horizontal well bore and production ratios was observed.

  15. Microwave detection of hydrogen sulphide and methanol in Comet Austin (1989c1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Colom, P.; Crovisier, J.; Despois, D.; Paubert, G.

    1991-03-01

    Spectroscopic observations of Comet Austin (1989c1) at millimeter wavelengths are reported. The rotational transitions of hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde were detected. Hydrogen sulfide and methanol, neither of which has previously been detected in a comet, were identified. The presence of hydrogen sulfide places severe constraints on the formation of cometary nuclei, whereas that of methanol supports the hypothesis that cometary nuclei have retained, at least in part, some primitive material originating from the solar nebula.

  16. Austin Chalk fracture mapping using frequency data derived from seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najmuddin, Ilyas Juzer

    Frequency amplitude spectra derived from P-wave seismic data can be used to derive a fracture indicator. This fracture indicator can be used to delineate fracture zones in subsurface layers. Mapping fractures that have no vertical offset is difficult on seismic sections. Fracturing changes the rock properties and therefore the attributes of the seismic data reflecting off the fractured interface and data passing through the fractured layers. Fractures have a scattering effect on seismic energy reflected from the fractured layer. Fractures attenuate amplitudes of higher frequencies in seismic data preferentially than lower frequencies. The amplitude spectrum of the frequencies in the seismic data shifts towards lower frequencies when a spectrum from a time window above the fractured layer is compared with one below the fractured layer. This shift in amplitudes of frequency spectra can be derived from seismic data and used to indicate fracturing. A method is developed to calculate a parameter t* to measure this change in the frequency spectra for small time windows (100ms) above and below the fractured layer. The Austin Chalk in South Central Texas is a fractured layer, and it produces hydrocarbons from fracture zones with the layer (Sweet Spots). 2D and 3D P-wave seismic data are used from Burleson and Austin Counties in Texas to derive the t* parameter. Case studies are presented for 2D data from Burleson County and 3D data from Austin County. The t* parameter mapped on the 3D data shows a predominant fracture trend parallel to strike. The fracture zones have a good correlation with the faults interpreted on the top of Austin Chalk reflector. Production data in Burleson County (Giddings Field) is a proxy for fracturing. Values of t* mapped on the 2D data have a good correlation with the cumulative production map presented in this study.

  17. Seismic characterization of fracture orientation in the Austin Chalk using azimuthal P-wave AVO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shuhail, Abdullatif Adulrahman

    The Austin Chalk is a naturally fractured reservoir. Horizontal drilling, to intersect more fractures, is the most efficient method to develop this reservoir. Information about the predominant fracture orientation in the subsurface is essential before horizontal drilling. This information may be provided by cores, well logs, outcrop, or seismic data. In this study, I apply the azimuthal P-wave AVO method suggested by Ruger and Tsvankin (1997) on 2-D P-wave seismic data in Gonzales County, Texas, in order to determine the fracture azimuth in the Austin Chalk. The data also include oil production from horizontal wells and various types of well logs from vertical wells in the study area. The raw seismic data was imaged through a processing sequence that preserved the relative changes of amplitudes with offset. The stacked sections of some seismic lines showed that the top of the Austin Chalk reflector is laterally inconsistent. This is interpreted as an indication of fractured zones in the subsurface. This interpretation was strengthened by well logs that indicated fracturing in nearby wells. The AVO gradient of every CDP in a seismic line was determined. The median AVO gradient of all the CDPs in a seismic line was chosen to represent the whole line. The median AVO gradients of the lines and their corresponding line azimuths were used repeatedly to solve the azimuthal AVO equation, of Ruger and Tsvankin (1997), for the fracture azimuth using a combination of three different lines every time. The resultant fracture-azimuth solutions clustered about two, nearly perpendicular, azimuths: N58E and S31E. To resolve the inherently ambiguous solutions, the results from the production and well log data were used. Since the production and well log data indicated the presence of NE-trending fractures, I chose the N58E direction as the fracture azimuth. This result agreed with the results of other studies in surrounding areas, using different methods, about the fracture azimuth

  18. Application of thematic mapper imagery to oil exploration in Austin Chalk, central Gulf Coast basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, W.M.

    1988-02-01

    One of the newest major oil plays in the Gulf Coast basin, the Austin Chalk reportedly produces in three belts: an updip belt, where production is from fractured chalk in structurally high positions along faults above 7000 ft; a shallow downdip belt, where the chalk is uniformly saturated with oil from 7000 to 9000 ft; and a deeper downdip belt saturated with gas and condensate below 9000 ft. The updip fields usually occur on the southeastern, upthrown side of the Luling, Mexia, and Charlotte fault zones. Production is from fractures that connect the relatively sparse matrix pores with more permeable fracture systems. The fractures resulted from regional extensional stress during the opening of the Gulf Coast basin on the divergent margin of the North American plate during the Laramide orogeny. The fractures are more common in the more brittle chalk than in the overlying Navarro and underlying Eagle Ford shales, which are less brittle. The oil in the updip traps in the chalk may have been generated in place downdip, and migrated updip along the extension fractures into the updip traps during or after the Laramide orogeny. A fairway of previously unmapped updip faults and drag folds has been mapped using Thematic Mapper imagery and seismic, structural, and resistivity maps near the Nixon field, Burleson County, Texas. This fairway, prospective for oil from the Austin Chalk, contains wells reported to produce from the Austin Chalk which lie along lineaments and linear features on the Thematic Mapper imagery and faults in the seismic and structure maps.

  19. Horizontal exploitation of the Upper Cretaceous Austin Chalk of south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Borkowski, R.; Hand, L.; Dickerson, D.; Bird, S. )

    1990-05-01

    Horizontal drilling in the fractured Austin Chalk of south Texas has proven to be a viable technology for exploiting reserve opportunities in mature trends as well as in frontier areas. To date, the results of an interdisciplinary approach to the regional analysis of structure and stress regimes combined with studies of the depositional characteristics of the Austin Chalk and Eagleford Shale have been a success. Productive characteristics of the Austin Chalk indicate the influence of regional fractures on the preferential flow direction and partitioning in the Pearsall field area of the trend. Well bore orientation and inclination are designed such that multiple fracture swarms at several stratigraphic horizons are intersected with a single horizontal well bore. As a result of the greater frequency of fracture contacts with the well bore, there is a significant increase in the ultimate recovery of hydrocarbons in place. Conventional vertical drilling techniques are frequently ineffective at encountering these laterally partitioned fracture sets, resulting in lower volumes of recoverable hydrocarbons. Additionally, horizontal well bores may increase ultimate recovery of hydrocarbons by lowering the pressure gradient to the well bore and maximizing the reservoir energy.

  20. Home Performance with ENERGY STAR: Utility Bill Analysis on Homes Participating in Austin Energy's Program

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D.; Mosey, G.; Plympton, P.; Dagher, L.

    2007-07-01

    Home Performance with ENERGY STAR (HPwES) is a jointly managed program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This program focuses on improving energy efficiency in existing homes via a whole-house approach to assessing and improving a home's energy performance, and helping to protect the environment. As one of HPwES's local sponsors, Austin Energy's HPwES program offers a complete home energy analysis and a list of recommendations for efficiency improvements, along with cost estimates. To determine the benefits of this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collaborated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct a statistical analysis using energy consumption data of HPwES homes provided by Austin Energy. This report provides preliminary estimates of average savings per home from the HPwES Loan Program for the period 1998 through 2006. The results from this preliminary analysis suggest that the HPwES program sponsored by Austin Energy had a very significant impact on reducing average cooling electricity for participating households. Overall, average savings were in the range of 25%-35%, and appear to be robust under various criteria for the number of households included in the analysis.

  1. Geohydrologic and water-quality characterization of a fractured-bedrock test hole in an area of Marcellus shale gas development, Bradford County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, Dennis W.; Williams, John H.; Hand, Kristen L.; Behr, Rose-Anna; Markowski, Antonette K.

    2013-01-01

    Open-File Miscellaneous Investigation 13–01.1 presents the results of geohydrologic investigations on a 1,664-foot-deep core hole drilled in the Bradford County part of the Gleason 7.5-minute quadrangle in north-central Pennsylvania. In the text, the authors discuss their methods of investigation, summarize physical and analytical results, and place those results in context. Four appendices include (1) a full description of the core in an Excel worksheet; (2) water-quality and core-isotope analytical results in Excel workbooks; (3) geophysical logs in LAS and PDF files, and an Excel workbook containing attitudes of bedding and fractures calculated from televiewer logs; and (4) MP4 clips from the downhole video at selected horizons.

  2. Matching, maximizing, and hill-climbing

    PubMed Central

    Hinson, John M.; Staddon, J. E. R.

    1983-01-01

    In simple situations, animals consistently choose the better of two alternatives. On concurrent variable-interval variable-interval and variable-interval variable-ratio schedules, they approximately match aggregate choice and reinforcement ratios. The matching law attempts to explain the latter result but does not address the former. Hill-climbing rules such as momentary maximizing can account for both. We show that momentary maximizing constrains molar choice to approximate matching; that molar choice covaries with pigeons' momentary-maximizing estimate; and that the “generalized matching law” follows from almost any hill-climbing rule. PMID:16812350

  3. Ruemker Hills - A lunar volcanic dome complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. I.

    1974-01-01

    The Ruemker Hills, a volcanic dome-flow complex in the northern Oceanus Procellarum, is characterized by overlapping plains-forming units with lobate scarps, volcanic domes, a 60-km ring, and a scarp which separates the plateau from surrounding mare materials. Plains-forming units are interpreted as fluid volcanic flows, and domes as viscous extrusions. One dome may be a stratovolcano. The ring system is discordant with regional structural trends and probably has a local origin. The Ruemker Hills is the closest lunar analog to the large Martian shield structures revealed on the Mariner 9 photographs of Mars.

  4. Variability in surface moisture content along a hillslope transect: Rattlesnake Hill, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Famiglietti, J. S.; Rudnicki, J. W.; Rodell, M.

    1998-09-01

    Surface soil moisture content exhibits a high degree of spatial and temporal variability. The purpose of this study was (a) to characterize variations in moisture content in the 0-5 cm surface soil layer along a hillslope transect by means of intensive sampling in both space and time; and (b) to make inferences regarding the environmental factors that influence this variability. Over a period of seven months, soil moisture content was measured (gravimetric method) on a near-daily basis at 10 m intervals along a 200 m downslope transect at the Rattlesnake Hill field site in Austin, Texas. Results indicate that significant variability in soil moisture content exists along the length of the transect; that variability decreases with decreasing transectmean moisture content as the hillslope dries down following rain events; and that the dominant influences on moisture content variability are dependent upon the moisture conditions on the hillslope. While topographic and soil attributes operate jointly to redistribute soil water following storm events, under wet conditions, variability in surface moisture content is most strongly influenced by porosity and hydraulic conductivity, and under dry conditions, correlations are strongest to relative elevation, aspect and clay content. Consequently, the dominant influence on soil moisture variability gradually changes from soil heterogeneity to joint control by topographic and soil properties as the transect dries following significant rain events.

  5. 3. GENERAL VIEW DOWN EAST HILLS DRIVE, BUILDING 20 (ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW DOWN EAST HILLS DRIVE, BUILDING 20 (ONE BEDROOM) AND BUILDING 21 (TWO/THREE BEDROOM); ACTIVITY CENTER IN REAR, FACING NORTHEAST. - Aluminum City Terrace, East Hill Drive, New Kensington, Westmoreland County, PA

  6. OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP BUILDINGS, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. THE FUNCTION OF THE FLAT AREA AT CENTER RIGHT IS UNKNOWN. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  7. Hill-Burton Free and Reduced Cost Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hill-Burton Spanish Brochure (PDF - 83 KB) HHS Poverty Guidelines HHS Spanish Poverty Guidelines (PDF - 32 KB) Spanish Inquiry Letter (PDF - ... income is at or below the current HHS Poverty Guidelines . You may be eligible for Hill-Burton ...

  8. 1. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW OF ROUND HILL ROAD BRIDGE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW OF ROUND HILL ROAD BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST, CA. 1940. CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. - Merritt Parkway, Round Hill Road Bridge, Spanning Merritt Parkway at 3.5 mile mark, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  9. The House on the Hill Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author suggests a classroom challenge that will engage students in designing a house on the hill. He suggests teachers ask a local builder to come to the school to discuss the kinds of concerns that must be dealt with when building homes in cold environments. The use of dioramas and cardboard scale models would be very useful…

  10. Ocean Hill-Brownsville, 40 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    Forty years ago--on May 9, 1968--the local school board in Brooklyn's black ghetto of Ocean Hill-Brownsville sent telegrams to 19 unionized educators, informing them that their employment in the district was terminated. Eighteen were white. One black teacher was mistakenly included on the list, but reinstated almost immediately after the error was…

  11. Reading Probe Will Continue on Capitol Hill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2007-01-01

    The recent wrap-up of an intensive, two-year examination of the federal Reading First initiative is not expected to halt debate over the program. Given the broad agreement in seven federal reports that serious problems occurred in the oversight of the program's implementation, the findings have sparked interest on Capitol Hill, as lawmakers…

  12. McGraw-Hill Authoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, A. Wayne

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the McGraw-Hill Interactive Authoring System which allows authors to create computer-based courses with or without interactive video. Use of the program requires no programming skills and authors do not need to learn a special language. The system's operation, performance, ease of use, documentation, and management are considered. (JN)

  13. ENHANCED REMEDIATION DEMONSTRATIONS AT HILL AFB: INTRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nine enhanced aquifer remediation technologies were demonstrated side-by-side at a Hill Air Force Base Chemical Disposal Pit/Fire Training Area site. The demonstrations were performed inside 3 x 5 m cells isolated from the surrounding shallow aquifer by steel piling. The site w...

  14. General Education at UNC-Chapel Hill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalin, Jay; Robinson, Jenna Ashley

    2013-01-01

    The general education program at UNC-Chapel Hill has abandoned the concept of a core curriculum. Instead, students choose their "required" classes from lists of thousands of courses that may be as narrow and idiosyncratic as Love, Sex and Marriage in Soviet Culture (RUSS 277) or The Gardens, Shrines and Temples of Japan (ASIA 586).…

  15. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area (27 CFR 9.69). From the beginning point, the Rattlesnake Hills viticultural area boundary line— (2) Proceeds straight eastward, crossing onto the Elephant Mountain map, to the 2,192-foot...) Yakima East Quadrangle, Washington—Yakima Co., 1953, photorevised 1985; (2) Elephant Mountain...

  16. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area (27 CFR 9.69). From the beginning point, the Rattlesnake Hills viticultural area boundary line— (2) Proceeds straight eastward, crossing onto the Elephant Mountain map, to the 2,192-foot...) Yakima East Quadrangle, Washington—Yakima Co., 1953, photorevised 1985; (2) Elephant Mountain...

  17. 27 CFR 9.121 - Warren Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 1968 and 1973). (c) Boundary—(1) General. The Warren Hills viticultural area is located in Warren County, New Jersey. The beginning point of the following boundary description is the junction of the...). (2) Boundary Description. (i) From the beginning point, the boundary goes northeastward along...

  18. Tail prepivoting for the Hill estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, Margarida; Moreira Freitas, Ana Cristina; Milhazes Freitas, Jorge

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that prepivoting reduces level error of confidence sets. We adapt this method to the context of the tail index estimation, introducing a procedure that we call tail prepivoting. We apply this procedure to the Hill estimator and establish its consistency.

  19. Chapel Hill, Berkeley Head Graduate Rankings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provides lists ranking the 25 largest producers of bachelor's, certified bachelor's, master's, and doctoral graduates in chemistry. University of North Carolina (Chapel Hill) is the nation's largest producer of bachelor's degree chemistry graduates while the University of California (Berkeley) is the largest producer of Ph.D. chemistry graduates.…

  20. Jesse Stuart: Lessons from the Kentucky Hills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Lu

    1986-01-01

    Highlights events in the life of Jesse Stuart, who began his teaching career at the age of 17 in a remote one-room school in the Kentucky hills and went on to become widely recognized as teacher, lecturer, and significant regional writer. Emphasizes Stuart's love of teaching and his personal values. (JHZ)

  1. An Unlikely Student Hits Capitol Hill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Todd Sollar, a laid-off autoworker from Ohio who is studying for an associate degree in engineering at Sinclair Community College, in Dayton, OH, went to Capitol Hill to help educate lawmakers about the importance of including support for community colleges in the economic-stimulus bill. Mr. Sollar came to Washington with Sinclair's president, and…

  2. 27 CFR 9.197 - Clements Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... viticultural area is located in San Joaquin County, California, and is entirely within the Lodi viticultural area (27 CFR 9.107). The Clements Hills viticultural areas boundary is as follows— (1) The beginning... 9.3 miles on Liberty Road to its junction with the San Joaquin-Amador County line, north of...

  3. 27 CFR 9.197 - Clements Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... viticultural area is located in San Joaquin County, California, and is entirely within the Lodi viticultural area (27 CFR 9.107). The Clements Hills viticultural areas boundary is as follows— (1) The beginning... 9.3 miles on Liberty Road to its junction with the San Joaquin-Amador County line, north of...

  4. 27 CFR 9.197 - Clements Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... viticultural area is located in San Joaquin County, California, and is entirely within the Lodi viticultural area (27 CFR 9.107). The Clements Hills viticultural areas boundary is as follows— (1) The beginning... 9.3 miles on Liberty Road to its junction with the San Joaquin-Amador County line, north of...

  5. 27 CFR 9.197 - Clements Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... viticultural area is located in San Joaquin County, California, and is entirely within the Lodi viticultural area (27 CFR 9.107). The Clements Hills viticultural areas boundary is as follows— (1) The beginning... 9.3 miles on Liberty Road to its junction with the San Joaquin-Amador County line, north of...

  6. 27 CFR 9.197 - Clements Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... viticultural area is located in San Joaquin County, California, and is entirely within the Lodi viticultural area (27 CFR 9.107). The Clements Hills viticultural areas boundary is as follows— (1) The beginning... 9.3 miles on Liberty Road to its junction with the San Joaquin-Amador County line, north of...

  7. 78 FR 65962 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Forest Service Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of cancellation of meeting of the Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board. SUMMARY: The U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Black Hills National Forest cancelled the October 16, 2013 meeting of the...

  8. 77 FR 22755 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board AGENCY: USDA Forest Service. ACTION: Notice of cancellation of meetings of the Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board. SUMMARY: The U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Black Hills National Forest was required...

  9. View of south boundary of Easter Hill project site, former ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south boundary of Easter Hill project site, former right of way for Hoffman Boulevard. Note reconstructed Easter Hill Building No. 6 at rear. Looking east - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  10. 27 CFR 9.169 - Red Hills Lake County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Hills Lake County. 9... Red Hills Lake County. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Hills Lake County”. (b) Approved Map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Red...