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Sample records for australian bread wheat

  1. Different mechanisms of adaptation to cyclic water stress in two South Australian bread wheat cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Izanloo, Ali; Condon, Anthony G.; Langridge, Peter; Tester, Mark; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    In the South Australian wheat belt, cyclic drought is a frequent event represented by intermittent periods of rainfall which can occur around anthesis and post-anthesis in wheat. Three South Australian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, Excalibur, Kukri, and RAC875, were evaluated in one greenhouse and two growth-room experiments. In the first growth-room experiment, where plants were subjected to severe cyclic water-limiting conditions, RAC875 and Excalibur (drought-tolerant) showed significantly higher grain yield under cyclic water availability compared to Kukri (drought-susceptible), producing 44% and 18% more grain compared to Kukri, respectively. In the second growth-room experiment, where plants were subjected to a milder drought stress, the differences between cultivars were less pronounced, with only RAC875 showing significantly higher grain yield under the cyclic water treatment. Grain number per spike and the percentage of aborted tillers were the major components that affected yield under cyclic water stress. Excalibur and RAC875 adopted different morpho-physiological traits and mechanisms to reduce water stress. Excalibur was most responsive to cyclic water availability and showed the highest level of osmotic adjustment (OA), high stomatal conductance, lowest ABA content, and rapid recovery from stress under cyclic water stress. RAC875 was more conservative and restrained, with moderate OA, high leaf waxiness, high chlorophyll content, and slower recovery from stress. Within this germplasm, the capacity for osmotic adjustment was the main physiological attribute associated with tolerance under cyclic water stress which enabled plants to recover from water deficit. PMID:18703496

  2. Bread matters: a national initiative to profile the genetic diversity of Australian wheat.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David; Wilcox, Stephen; Barrero, Roberto A; Fleury, Delphine; Cavanagh, Colin R; Forrest, Kerrie L; Hayden, Matthew J; Moolhuijzen, Paula; Keeble-Gagnère, Gabriel; Bellgard, Matthew I; Lorenc, Michał T; Shang, Catherine A; Baumann, Ute; Taylor, Jennifer M; Morell, Matthew K; Langridge, Peter; Appels, Rudi; Fitzgerald, Anna

    2012-08-01

    The large and complex genome of wheat makes genetic and genomic analysis in this important species both expensive and resource intensive. The application of next-generation sequencing technologies is particularly resource intensive, with at least 17 Gbp of sequence data required to obtain minimal (1×) coverage of the genome. A similar volume of data would represent almost 40× coverage of the rice genome. Progress can be made through the establishment of consortia to produce shared genomic resources. Australian wheat genome researchers, working with Bioplatforms Australia, have collaborated in a national initiative to establish a genetic diversity dataset representing Australian wheat germplasm based on whole genome next-generation sequencing data. Here, we describe the establishment and validation of this resource which can provide a model for broader international initiatives for the analysis of large and complex genomes. PMID:22681313

  3. 21 CFR 136.180 - Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. 136.180... § 136.180 Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods whole wheat bread, graham bread, entire wheat bread, whole wheat rolls, graham rolls, entire wheat rolls, whole wheat buns, graham...

  4. 21 CFR 136.180 - Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. 136.180... § 136.180 Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods whole wheat bread, graham bread, entire wheat bread, whole wheat rolls, graham rolls, entire wheat rolls, whole wheat buns, graham...

  5. 21 CFR 136.180 - Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. 136.180... § 136.180 Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods whole wheat bread, graham bread, entire wheat bread, whole wheat rolls, graham rolls, entire wheat rolls, whole wheat buns, graham...

  6. 21 CFR 136.180 - Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. 136.180... § 136.180 Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods whole wheat bread, graham bread, entire wheat bread, whole wheat rolls, graham rolls, entire wheat rolls, whole wheat buns, graham...

  7. 21 CFR 136.180 - Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. 136.180... § 136.180 Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods whole wheat bread, graham bread, entire wheat bread, whole wheat rolls, graham rolls, entire wheat rolls, whole wheat buns, graham...

  8. SENSORY ANALYSIS OF WHOLE WHEAT/SOY FLOUR BREADS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of dough formulation on wheat/soy bread taste and texture were studied in order to design a low cost, high protein bread which could help reduce hunger in the U.S. and abroad. Breads contained 0-40% defatted soy flour, 30-100% whole wheat flour and 0-30% white wheat flour and were prepa...

  9. Rising dough and baking bread at the Australian synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, S. C.; McCann, T.; Day, L.; Favaro, J.; Tuhumury, H.; Thompson, D.; Maksimenko, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat protein quality and the amount of common salt added in dough formulation can have a significant effect on the microstructure and loaf volume of bread. High-speed synchrotron micro-CT provides an ideal tool for observing the three dimensional structure of bread dough in situ during proving (rising) and baking. In this work, the synchrotron micro-CT technique was used to observe the structure and time evolution of doughs made from high and low protein flour and three different salt additives. These experiments showed that, as expected, high protein flour produces a higher volume loaf compared to low protein flour regardless of salt additives. Furthermore the results show that KCl in particular has a very negative effect on dough properties resulting in much reduced porosity. The hundreds of datasets produced and analysed during this experiment also provided a valuable test case for handling large quantities of data using tools on the Australian Synchrotron's MASSIVE cluster.

  10. FRIZZY PANICLE Drives Supernumerary Spikelets in Bread Wheat1

    PubMed Central

    Dobrovolskaya, Oxana; Pont, Caroline; Sibout, Richard; Martinek, Petr; Badaeva, Ekaterina; Murat, Florent; Chosson, Audrey; Watanabe, Nobuyoshi; Prat, Elisa; Gautier, Nadine; Gautier, Véronique; Poncet, Charles; Orlov, Yuriy L.; Krasnikov, Alexander A.; Bergès, Hélène; Salina, Elena; Laikova, Lyudmila; Salse, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) inflorescences, or spikes, are characteristically unbranched and normally bear one spikelet per rachis node. Wheat mutants on which supernumerary spikelets (SSs) develop are particularly useful resources for work towards understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying wheat inflorescence architecture and, ultimately, yield components. Here, we report the characterization of genetically unrelated mutants leading to the identification of the wheat FRIZZY PANICLE (FZP) gene, encoding a member of the APETALA2/Ethylene Response Factor transcription factor family, which drives the SS trait in bread wheat. Structural and functional characterization of the three wheat FZP homoeologous genes (WFZP) revealed that coding mutations of WFZP-D cause the SS phenotype, with the most severe effect when WFZP-D lesions are combined with a frameshift mutation in WFZP-A. We provide WFZP-based resources that may be useful for genetic manipulations with the aim of improving bread wheat yield by increasing grain number. PMID:25398545

  11. FRIZZY PANICLE drives supernumerary spikelets in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Dobrovolskaya, Oxana; Pont, Caroline; Sibout, Richard; Martinek, Petr; Badaeva, Ekaterina; Murat, Florent; Chosson, Audrey; Watanabe, Nobuyoshi; Prat, Elisa; Gautier, Nadine; Gautier, Véronique; Poncet, Charles; Orlov, Yuriy L; Krasnikov, Alexander A; Bergès, Hélène; Salina, Elena; Laikova, Lyudmila; Salse, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) inflorescences, or spikes, are characteristically unbranched and normally bear one spikelet per rachis node. Wheat mutants on which supernumerary spikelets (SSs) develop are particularly useful resources for work towards understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying wheat inflorescence architecture and, ultimately, yield components. Here, we report the characterization of genetically unrelated mutants leading to the identification of the wheat FRIZZY PANICLE (FZP) gene, encoding a member of the APETALA2/Ethylene Response Factor transcription factor family, which drives the SS trait in bread wheat. Structural and functional characterization of the three wheat FZP homoeologous genes (WFZP) revealed that coding mutations of WFZP-D cause the SS phenotype, with the most severe effect when WFZP-D lesions are combined with a frameshift mutation in WFZP-A. We provide WFZP-based resources that may be useful for genetic manipulations with the aim of improving bread wheat yield by increasing grain number. PMID:25398545

  12. Genetic diversity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Degewione, A; Alamerew, S

    2013-11-01

    Wheat is one most important cereal crops grown in Ethiopia. Yet, keeping in view insufficient information on exotic bread wheat genotypes is limiting the access to useful traits present among the genotypes in the Somali region of Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to assess the extent of genetic diversity among bread wheat genotypes. Twenty six bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes obtained from ICARDA-CIMMYT were tested at Gode and Kelafo research sites at three cropping seasons (2009/10, 2010/11 and 2011/12) under irrigation. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications. Ten agronomic traits were included in the study. The mean values, ranges and the coefficient of variation of the 10 characters indicated the existence of sufficient variability among genotypes. Multivariate techniques were used to classify 26 bread wheat genotypes. Principal component analysis showed that the first six principal components explained about 91.87% of the total variation. D2 analysis showed the 26 bread wheat genotypes grouped into six clusters. This made to become moderate diversity among the genotypes. The crosses between genotypes selected from cluster-III with cluster-VI and cluster V with cluster VI are expected to produce better genetic recombination and segregation in their progenies. Therefore, these bread wheat genotypes need to be crossed and selected to develop high yielding pure line variety. PMID:24511742

  13. Food label guide for whole wheat bread (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Whole grains, like the kind found in whole wheat bread, contain fiber and antioxidants such as Vitamin E and selenium, iron, magnesium, zinc and B vitamins. Fiber is a very beneficial nutrient that ...

  14. Wheat-based traditional flat breads of India.

    PubMed

    Parimala, K R; Sudha, M L

    2015-01-01

    Wheat forms the basic ingredient for various bakery and traditional products. Wheat-based flat breads are one of the traditional products prepared in different parts of the world. Different regions of the world have inherited different preparation methods since time immemorial, which has led to the existence of traditional flat breads'. Being traditional, only a few have been extensively studied scientifically. India, being the second largest producer of wheat, has a great saga of traditional flat breads with different tastes and texture. This review is a compiled information related to the research studies carried out on some of the wheat-based traditional flat breads of India namely chapati, puri, tandoori roti, parantha (whole-wheat flour based) and parotta, naan, bhatura, kulcha (refined wheat flour based) which indicates the magnitude of attention they have drawn among the food scientists. The review delves upon the developments and improvements brought about in the storage stability and realization of large-scale production of few of these flat breads which has helped considerably to cater to the growing demand in the domestic as well as international markets. The review also indicates the possibility and the tremendous scope available for technological developments for traditional flat breads. PMID:24915406

  15. Organoleptic and glycemic properties of chickpea-wheat composite breads.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Tasleem A; Al-Hassawi, Fatima; Al-Khulaifi, Fatima; Al-Rayyes, Ghanima; Waslien, Carol; Huffman, Fatma G

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence of obesity and type-2-diabetes requires dietary manipulation. It was hypothesized that wheat-legume-composite breads will reduce the spike of blood glucose and increase satiety. Four pan bread samples were prepared: White bread (WB) as standard, Whole-wheat bread (WWB), WWB supplemented with chickpea flour at 25 % (25%ChB) and 35 % (35%ChB) levels. These breads were tested in healthy female subjects for acceptability and for effect on appetite, blood glucose, and physical discomfort in digestion. The breads were rated >5.6 on a 9-point hedonic scale with WB significantly higher than all other breads. No difference in area under the curve (AUC) for appetite was found, but blood glucose AUC was reduced as follows: 35%ChB < WB and WWB, WB >25%ChB = WWB or 35%ChB. We conclude that addition of chickpea flour at 35 % to whole wheat produces a bread that is acceptable to eat, causing no physical discomfort and lowers the glycemic response. PMID:25829607

  16. Ancient hybridizations among the ancestral genomes of bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Marcussen, Thomas; Sandve, Simen R; Heier, Lise; Spannagl, Manuel; Pfeifer, Matthias; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Wulff, Brande B H; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Mayer, Klaus F X; Olsen, Odd-Arne

    2014-07-18

    The allohexaploid bread wheat genome consists of three closely related subgenomes (A, B, and D), but a clear understanding of their phylogenetic history has been lacking. We used genome assemblies of bread wheat and five diploid relatives to analyze genome-wide samples of gene trees, as well as to estimate evolutionary relatedness and divergence times. We show that the A and B genomes diverged from a common ancestor ~7 million years ago and that these genomes gave rise to the D genome through homoploid hybrid speciation 1 to 2 million years later. Our findings imply that the present-day bread wheat genome is a product of multiple rounds of hybrid speciation (homoploid and polyploid) and lay the foundation for a new framework for understanding the wheat genome as a multilevel phylogenetic mosaic. PMID:25035499

  17. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    SciTech Connect

    Stamo, Ilirjana; Ylli, Ariana; Dodbiba, Andon

    2007-04-23

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff.

  18. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamo, Ilirjana; Ylli, Ariana; Dodbiba, Andon

    2007-04-01

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff.

  19. Quality requirements of soft red winter wheat for making northern-style Chinese steamed bread

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flours of 19 soft red winter (SRW) wheat varieties having protein contents of 6.6 to 9.9% were used to determine the suitability of SRW wheat for making steamed bread and the influences of flour characteristics on the quality attributes of steamed bread. Fourteen varieties produced steamed bread of ...

  20. Making the Bread: Insights from Newly Synthesized Allohexaploid Wheat.

    PubMed

    Li, Ai-li; Geng, Shuai-Feng; Zhang, Lian-quan; Liu, Deng-cai; Mao, Long

    2015-06-01

    Bread wheat (or common wheat, Triticum aestivum) is an allohexaploid (AABBDD, 2n = 6x = 42) that arose by hybridization between a cultivated tetraploid wheat T. turgidum (AABB, 2n = 4x = 28) and the wild goatgrass Aegilops tauschii (DD, 2n = 2x = 14). Polyploidization provided niches for rigorous genome modification at cytogenetic, genetic, and epigenetic levels, rendering a broader spread than its progenitors. This review summarizes the latest advances in understanding gene regulation mechanisms in newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat and possible correlation with polyploid growth vigor and adaptation. Cytogenetic studies reveal persistent association of whole-chromosome aneuploidy with nascent allopolyploids, in contrast to the genetic stability in common wheat. Transcriptome analysis of the euploid wheat shows that small RNAs are driving forces for homoeo-allele expression regulation via genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. The ensuing non-additively expressed genes and those with expression level dominance to the respective progenitor may play distinct functions in growth vigor and adaptation in nascent allohexaploid wheat. Further genetic diploidization of allohexaploid wheat is not random. Regional asymmetrical gene distribution, rather than subgenome dominance, is observed in both synthetic and natural allohexaploid wheats. The combinatorial effects of diverged genomes, subsequent selection of specific gene categories, and subgenome-specific traits are essential for the successful establishment of common wheat. PMID:25747845

  1. Branching Shoots and Spikes from Lateral Meristems in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Miao, Fang; Yan, Liuling

    2016-01-01

    Wheat grain yield consists of three components: spikes per plant, grains per spike (i.e. head or ear), and grain weight; and the grains per spike can be dissected into two subcomponents: spikelets per spike and grains per spikelet. An increase in any of these components will directly contribute to grain yield. Wheat morphology biology tells that a wheat plant has no lateral meristem that forms any branching shoot or spike. In this study, we report two novel shoot and spike traits that were produced from lateral meristems in bread wheat. One is supernumerary shoot that was developed from an axillary bud at the axil of leaves on the elongated internodes of the main stem. The other is supernumerary spike that was generated from a spikelet meristem on a spike. In addition, supernumerary spikelets were generated on the same rachis node of the spike in the plant that had supernumerary shoot and spikes. All of these supernumerary shoots/spikes/spikelets found in the super wheat plants produced normal fertility and seeds, displaying huge yield potential in bread wheat. PMID:26986738

  2. Analytical methods for volatile compounds in wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Pico, Joana; Gómez, Manuel; Bernal, José; Bernal, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Bread aroma is one of the main requirements for its acceptance by consumers, since it is one of the first attributes perceived. Sensory analysis, crucial to be correlated with human perception, presents limitations and needs to be complemented with instrumental analysis. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry is usually selected as the technique to determine bread volatile compounds, although proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry begins also to be used to monitor aroma processes. Solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction and headspace analysis are the main options for the sample treatment. The present review focuses on the different sample treatments and instrumental alternatives reported in the literature to analyse volatile compounds in wheat bread, providing advantages and limitations. Usual parameters employed in these analytical methods are also described. PMID:26452307

  3. Wheat in the Mediterranean revisited – tetraploid wheat landraces assessed with elite bread wheat Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) panels recently developed for the assessment of genetic diversity in wheat are primarily based on elite varieties, mostly those of bread wheat. The usefulness of such SNP panels for studying wheat evolution and domestication has not yet been fully explored and ascertainment bias issues can potentially affect their applicability when studying landraces and tetraploid ancestors of bread wheat. We here evaluate whether population structure and evolutionary history can be assessed in tetraploid landrace wheats using SNP markers previously developed for the analysis of elite cultivars of hexaploid wheat. Results We genotyped more than 100 tetraploid wheat landraces and wild emmer wheat accessions, some of which had previously been screened with SSR markers, for an existing SNP panel and obtained publically available genotypes for the same SNPs for hexaploid wheat varieties and landraces. Results showed that quantification of genetic diversity can be affected by ascertainment bias but that the effects of ascertainment bias can at least partly be alleviated by merging SNPs to haplotypes. Analyses of population structure and genetic differentiation show strong subdivision between the tetraploid wheat subspecies, except for durum and rivet that are not separable. A more detailed population structure of durum landraces could be obtained than with SSR markers. The results also suggest an emmer, rather than durum, ancestry of bread wheat and with gene flow from wild emmer. Conclusions SNP markers developed for elite cultivars show great potential for inferring population structure and can address evolutionary questions in landrace wheat. Issues of marker genome specificity and mapping need, however, to be addressed. Ascertainment bias does not seem to interfere with the ability of a SNP marker system developed for elite bread wheat accessions to detect population structure in other types of wheat. PMID:24885044

  4. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Trittermann, Christine; Berger, Bettina; Roy, Stuart J.; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tester, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early “osmotic” phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions. PMID:26244554

  5. Identification of bitter compounds in whole wheat bread crumb.

    PubMed

    Bin, Qing; Peterson, Devin G

    2016-07-15

    Consumer acceptability of whole wheat foods is challenged by negative bitter flavour attributes. In this study, bitter compounds in whole wheat bread crumb were investigated. Utilising sensory-guided multi-dimensional fractionation techniques, the compounds with the highest bitterness intensity in the crumb were purified and identified by LC-MS-ToF and NMR techniques. The main bitter compounds were reported to be L-tryptophan, Wessely-Moser isomers apigenin-6-C-galactoside-8-C-arabinoside & apigenin-6-C-arabinoside-8-C-galactoside, and 9,12,13-trihydroxy-trans-10-octadecenoic acid (pinellic acid). Sensory recombination experiments of the bitter compounds formulated at the concentrations determined in expectorated saliva after bread mastication indicated pinellic acid had the greatest contribution to the bitterness perception of the crumb. Quantitative analysis of pinellic acid in the raw flour was reported to be inherently low compared to bread; the concentration increased more than 30-fold after flour hydration and baking. PMID:26948582

  6. Durum and soft wheat flours in sourdough and straight-dough bread-making.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Sgarbi, Elisa; Cirlini, Martina; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Chiavaro, Emma

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, the bread-making performance of durum wheat flour under straight-dough and sourdough procedures were compared to those offered by soft wheat flour by means of selected physical properties (colour, texture, water dynamics, crumb grain characteristic, bulk volume) immediately after baking and during a 5-day shelf-life. The use of sourdough process better preserved both crumb grain characteristic and moisture content of the breads during shelf-life, independently of the wheat flour used. The flour seemed to significantly affect the water dynamics in sourdough breads, being the dehydration process of crust and under-crust faster in durum wheat breads. On the other hand, increasing trend of crumb firmness during the shelf-life was slower in durum wheat breads than in those obtained with soft wheat flour. Initial colour parameters of crust and crumb appeared to less change during shelf-life if durum wheat flour was used. Thus, the final quality of breads after baking and along the shelf-life was significantly affected by both the type of flours and the bread-making process. The results reported herein showed that technological performances of durum wheat flour, especially when combined with sourdough processes, could be successfully exploited for the production of innovative products in the bread-making industry. PMID:26396371

  7. Anthocyanins in purple and blue wheat grains and in resulting bread: quantity, composition, and thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Bartl, Pavel; Albreht, Alen; Skrt, Mihaela; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Ošťádalová, Martina; Šmejkal, Karel; Vovk, Irena; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2015-01-01

    The anthocyanin composition of blue (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Skorpion) and purple wheat (Triticum aethiopicum JAKUBZ cv. Abyssinskaja arrasajta cv. Abyssinskaja arrasajta), cultivated in the Czech Republic, and of the prepared whole blue and purple wheat bread was determined. In blue and purple wheat, 19 and 26 anthocyanins, respectively, were tentatively identified by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The total content of anthocyanins determined in blue and purple wheat was 9.26 and 13.23 mgkg(-1), respectively. The breads were baked at 240 and 180 °C. Some significant differences in anthocyanins content were observed between breads prepared at different baking temperatures. The content of cyanidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside was determinated in starting material, whole meal flours and baked breads. These kinds of wheat are suitable for baking bread, since intake of anthocyanins may play an important role in the prevention of human diseases. PMID:26088282

  8. Structural and functional partitioning of bread wheat chromosome 3B.

    PubMed

    Choulet, Frédéric; Alberti, Adriana; Theil, Sébastien; Glover, Natasha; Barbe, Valérie; Daron, Josquin; Pingault, Lise; Sourdille, Pierre; Couloux, Arnaud; Paux, Etienne; Leroy, Philippe; Mangenot, Sophie; Guilhot, Nicolas; Le Gouis, Jacques; Balfourier, Francois; Alaux, Michael; Jamilloux, Véronique; Poulain, Julie; Durand, Céline; Bellec, Arnaud; Gaspin, Christine; Safar, Jan; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Rogers, Jane; Vandepoele, Klaas; Aury, Jean-Marc; Mayer, Klaus; Berges, Hélène; Quesneville, Hadi; Wincker, Patrick; Feuillet, Catherine

    2014-07-18

    We produced a reference sequence of the 1-gigabase chromosome 3B of hexaploid bread wheat. By sequencing 8452 bacterial artificial chromosomes in pools, we assembled a sequence of 774 megabases carrying 5326 protein-coding genes, 1938 pseudogenes, and 85% of transposable elements. The distribution of structural and functional features along the chromosome revealed partitioning correlated with meiotic recombination. Comparative analyses indicated high wheat-specific inter- and intrachromosomal gene duplication activities that are potential sources of variability for adaption. In addition to providing a better understanding of the organization, function, and evolution of a large and polyploid genome, the availability of a high-quality sequence anchored to genetic maps will accelerate the identification of genes underlying important agronomic traits. PMID:25035497

  9. Gamma radiation effects on commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agúndez-Arvizu, Z.; Fernández-Ramírez, M. V.; Arce-Corrales, M. E.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Meléndrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2006-04-01

    Gamma irradiation is considered to be an alternative method for food preservation to prevent food spoilage, insect infestation and capable of reducing the microbial load. In the present investigation, commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour was irradiated at 1.0 kGy using a 60C Gammabeam 651 PT irradiator facility. No changes were detected in moisture, protein and ashes in gamma irradiated samples as compared to those of non-irradiated samples. Slight radiation effects were observed in the alveogram values and farinograph properties; the falling number decreased 11%, the absorption as well as the mixing tolerance were practically unchanged by irradiation. An increase of 15% in the stability value and a 29% in the dough development time were observed. Also the deformation energy decreased 7% with no change at all in the tenacity/extensibility factor. Total aerobic, yeast and mold counts were reduced 96%, 25% and 75%; respectively by the irradiation process. The obtained results confirm that gamma irradiation is effective in reducing the microbial load in bread making wheat flour without a significant change in the physicochemical and baking properties.

  10. Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Refined and Whole Wheat Flour and Bread

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lilei; Nanguet, Anne-Laure; Beta, Trust

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of refined and whole wheat flour and their resultant bread were investigated to document the effects of baking. Total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were employed to determine the content of ethanol extractable phenolic compounds. HPLC was used to detect the presence of phenolic acids prior to their confirmation using LC-MS/MS. Whole wheat flour showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than refined flour (p < 0.05). There was a significant effect of the bread-making process with the TPC of whole wheat bread (1.50–1.65 mg/g) and white bread (0.79–1.03 mg/g) showing a respective reduction of 28% and 33% of the levels found in whole wheat and refined flour. Similarly, baking decreased DPPH radical scavenging capacity by 32% and 30%. ORAC values, however, indicated that baking increased the antioxidant activities of whole wheat and refined flour by 1.8 and 2.9 times, respectively. HPLC analysis showed an increase of 18% to 35% in ferulic acid after baking to obtain whole and refined wheat bread containing 330.1 and 25.3 µg/g (average), respectively. Whole wheat flour and bread were superior to refined flour and bread in in vitro antioxidant properties. PMID:26784470

  11. Identification and characterization of more than 4 million intervarietal SNPs across the group 7 chromosomes of bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kaitao; Lorenc, Michał T; Lee, Hong Ching; Berkman, Paul J; Bayer, Philipp Emanuel; Visendi, Paul; Ruperao, Pradeep; Fitzgerald, Timothy L; Zander, Manuel; Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Manoli, Sahana; Stiller, Jiri; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite being a major international crop, our understanding of the wheat genome is relatively poor due to its large size and complexity. To gain a greater understanding of wheat genome diversity, we have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms between 16 Australian bread wheat varieties. Whole-genome shotgun Illumina paired read sequence data were mapped to the draft assemblies of chromosomes 7A, 7B and 7D to identify more than 4 million intervarietal SNPs. SNP density varied between the three genomes, with much greater density observed on the A and B genomes than the D genome. This variation may be a result of substantial gene flow from the tetraploid Triticum turgidum, which possesses A and B genomes, during early co-cultivation of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. In addition, we examined SNP density variation along the chromosome syntenic builds and identified genes in low-density regions which may have been selected during domestication and breeding. This study highlights the impact of evolution and breeding on the bread wheat genome and provides a substantial resource for trait association and crop improvement. All SNP data are publically available on a generic genome browser GBrowse at www.wheatgenome.info. PMID:25147022

  12. Characterization of Proteins from Grain of Different Bread and Durum Wheat Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Žilić, Slađana; Barać, Miroljub; Pešić, Mirjana; Dodig, Dejan; Ignjatović-Micić, Dragana

    2011-01-01

    The classical Osborne wheat protein fractions (albumins, globulins, gliadins, and glutenins), as well as several proteins from each of the four subunits of gliadin using SDS-PAGE analyses, were determined in the grain of five bread (T. aestivum L.) and five durum wheat (T. durum Desf.) genotypes. In addition, content of tryptophan and wet gluten were analyzed. Gliadins and glutenins comprise from 58.17% to 65.27% and 56.25% to 64.48% of total proteins and as such account for both quantity and quality of the bread and durum wheat grain proteins, respectively. The ratio of gliadin/total glutenin varied from 0.49 to 1.01 and 0.57 to 1.06 among the bread and durum genotypes, respectively. According to SDS-PAGE analysis, bread wheat genotypes had a higher concentration of α + β + γ-subunits of gliadin (on average 61.54% of extractable proteins) than durum wheat (on average 55.32% of extractable proteins). However, low concentration of ω-subunit was found in both bread (0.50% to 2.53% of extractable proteins) and durum (3.65% to 6.99% of extractable proteins) wheat genotypes. On average, durum wheat contained significantly higher amounts of tryptophan and wet gluten (0.163% dry weight (d.w.) and 26.96% d.w., respectively) than bread wheat (0.147% d.w. and 24.18% d.w., respectively). PMID:22016634

  13. Influence of dextran-producing Weissella cibaria on baking properties and sensory profile of gluten-free and wheat breads.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Anika; Hager, Anna-Sophie; Zannini, Emanuele; Czerny, Michael; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-02-17

    Breads based on gluten-free buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and teff flours were produced with addition of 20% sourdough fermented with exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing Weissella cibaria MG1. Wheat bread was baked as a reference. Dough rheology, bread quality parameters and sensory properties of the sourdough-containing breads were compared to sourdough non-containing control breads of the respective flour. The specific volume remained unaffected by sourdough application. In buckwheat, sorghum, teff and wheat sourdough breads acidification increased crumb porosity compared to control breads. Crumb hardness was significantly reduced in buckwheat (-122%), teff (-29%), quinoa (-21%) and wheat sourdough breads (-122%). The staling rate was significantly reduced in buckwheat, teff and wheat sourdough breads. Water activity of the sourdough containing bread crumb was not influenced by the presence of EPS. Due to the presence of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and influence of acidification, the dough strength, AF, as measured by oscillation tests decreased significantly in sourdough-containing buckwheat, sorghum and wheat dough, but increased in sourdough-containing quinoa and teff dough. Microbial shelf-life was significantly prolonged neither for gluten-free sourdough nor for wheat sourdough breads. Scanning electron microscopy of control and sourdough bread crumbs did not show differences concerning structural starch features. In addition, the aroma of most bread was not improved by sourdough addition. PMID:24361837

  14. HARD RED SPRING WHEAT / C-TRIM 20 BREAD: FORMULATION, PROCESSING AND TEXTURE ANALYSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    C-TRIM, a beta-glucan-rich fraction, was added to Hard Red Spring wheat (HRSW) flour in order to increase soluble fiber content of bread to a minimum of 0.75 g / bread serving, the minimum required for health claim as established by the FDA. Two blends FGT1 (flour, 25% gluten, and 17% C-TRIM) and F...

  15. Transamidation of gluten proteins during the bread-making process of wheat flour to produce breads with less immunoreactive gluten.

    PubMed

    Heredia-Sandoval, Nina Gisella; Islas-Rubio, Alma Rosa; Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco; Calderón de la Barca, Ana María

    2014-08-01

    Due to an increasing incidence of celiac disease (CD) and other gluten-related disorders, different gluten-free breads have been developed using starches and additives as a substitute for gluten. Thus, patients miss not only the taste and aroma of wheat bread but also risk their sensitive intestines. Therefore, modifying gluten to avoid an immune response in CD and its application to baking is in progress. The aim of the study was to enzymatically modify gluten on wheat flour, during bread-making avoiding the use of additives, to reduce immunoreactivity, preserving its properties. Microbial transglutaminase (mTG) or chymotrypsin (ChT) was used to bind lysine or valine to gluten proteins in a model system. The best conditions were directly applied to wheat flour for bread-making with and without punching at 45 min. Subsequently, the rheological properties of the doughs, specific volume of the loaves, immunoreactive gluten content and modification of the extracted proteins were evaluated. ChT-treated breads presented a better appearance with a more homogeneous crumb, higher specific volume values (3.34-4.25 cm(3) g(-1)) and higher reactive gluten reduction (up to 71%) than the mTG-treated ones (1.23-2.66 cm(3) g(-1)) with only a 42% reactive gluten reduction. Thus, transpeptidation during bread-making is a promising technology, although it is necessary to improve the modification process to obtain the reactive gluten reduction required in breads for the treatment of CD patients and other gluten-related disorders. PMID:24917417

  16. Bread in the Economy of Qualities: The Creative Reconstitution of the Canada-UK Commodity Chain for Wheat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnan, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article traces the creative reconstitution of the Canada-UK wheat-bread commodity chain since the 1990s. In the mid-1990s, the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) and a British bakery, Warburtons, pioneered an innovative identity-preserved sourcing relationship that ties contracted prairie wheat growers to consumers of premium bread in the United…

  17. High Transferability of Homoeolog-Specific Markers between Bread Wheat and Newly Synthesized Hexaploid Wheat Lines.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Deying; Luo, Jiangtao; Li, Zenglin; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Lianquan; Ning, Shunzong; Yuan, Zhongwei; Zheng, Youliang; Hao, Ming; Liu, Dengcai

    2016-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) has a complex allohexaploid genome, which makes it difficult to differentiate between the homoeologous sequences and assign them to the chromosome A, B, or D subgenomes. The chromosome-based draft genome sequence of the 'Chinese Spring' common wheat cultivar enables the large-scale development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based markers specific for homoeologs. Based on high-confidence 'Chinese Spring' genes with known functions, we developed 183 putative homoeolog-specific markers for chromosomes 4B and 7B. These markers were used in PCR assays for the 4B and 7B nullisomes and their euploid synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) line that was newly generated from a hybridization between Triticum turgidum (AABB) and the wild diploid species Aegilops tauschii (DD). Up to 64% of the markers for chromosomes 4B or 7B in the SHW background were confirmed to be homoeolog-specific. Thus, these markers were highly transferable between the 'Chinese Spring' bread wheat and SHW lines. Homoeolog-specific markers designed using genes with known functions may be useful for genetic investigations involving homoeologous chromosome tracking and homoeolog expression and interaction analyses. PMID:27611704

  18. [Bread from the bioactivated wheat grain with the raised nutrition value].

    PubMed

    Ponomareva, E I; Alekhina, N N; Bakaeva, I A

    2016-01-01

    Bread from the bioactivated grain of wheat differs in high content of dietary fibers, minerals and vitamins compared to traditional types of bread, but, despite this, it has low protein and lysine content. The aim of the study was the development of bread with the raised nutritional value from the bioactivated wheat grain by use of flour from cake of wheat germ (6.5%). It has been established that the flour from wheat germ has protein biological value (77.4%) and the amino acid score according to lysine (100.3%) above 12 and 40.5%, respectively, compared with those from bioactivated wheat. During calculation of nutritive, biological and energy value of products from the bioactivated wheat grain it is revealed that the biological value of bread from wheat germ flour slightly exceeded the biological value of the bread without its addition and amounted to 70.80%, due to a high protein content and a balanced amino acid composition. The protein content in the test sample of bakery products was 19.0% higher than the control, phosphorus - 13.0%, zinc - 50.0%. PMID:27455607

  19. A novel highly differentially expressed gene in wheat endosperm associated with bread quality.

    PubMed

    Furtado, A; Bundock, P C; Banks, P M; Fox, G; Yin, X; Henry, R J

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of gene expression in developing wheat seeds was used to identify a gene, wheat bread making (wbm), with highly differential expression (~1000 fold) in the starchy endosperm of genotypes varying in bread making quality. Several alleles differing in the 5'-upstream region (promoter) of this gene were identified, with one present only in genotypes with high levels of wbm expression. RNA-Seq analysis revealed low or no wbm expression in most genotypes but high expression (0.2-0.4% of total gene expression) in genotypes that had good bread loaf volume. The wbm gene is predicted to encode a mature protein of 48 amino acids (including four cysteine residues) not previously identified in association with wheat quality, possibly because of its small size and low frequency in the wheat gene pool. Genotypes with high wbm expression all had good bread making quality but not always good physical dough qualities. The predicted protein was sulphur rich suggesting the possibility of a contribution to bread loaf volume by supporting the crossing linking of proteins in gluten. Improved understanding of the molecular basis of differences in bread making quality may allow more rapid development of high performing genotypes with acceptable end-use properties and facilitate increased wheat production. PMID:26011437

  20. A novel highly differentially expressed gene in wheat endosperm associated with bread quality

    PubMed Central

    Furtado, A.; Bundock, P. C.; Banks, P. M.; Fox, G.; Yin, X.; Henry, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of gene expression in developing wheat seeds was used to identify a gene, wheat bread making (wbm), with highly differential expression (~1000 fold) in the starchy endosperm of genotypes varying in bread making quality. Several alleles differing in the 5’-upstream region (promoter) of this gene were identified, with one present only in genotypes with high levels of wbm expression. RNA-Seq analysis revealed low or no wbm expression in most genotypes but high expression (0.2-0.4% of total gene expression) in genotypes that had good bread loaf volume. The wbm gene is predicted to encode a mature protein of 48 amino acids (including four cysteine residues) not previously identified in association with wheat quality, possibly because of its small size and low frequency in the wheat gene pool. Genotypes with high wbm expression all had good bread making quality but not always good physical dough qualities. The predicted protein was sulphur rich suggesting the possibility of a contribution to bread loaf volume by supporting the crossing linking of proteins in gluten. Improved understanding of the molecular basis of differences in bread making quality may allow more rapid development of high performing genotypes with acceptable end-use properties and facilitate increased wheat production. PMID:26011437

  1. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  2. Impact of Waxy, Partial Waxy, and Wildtype Wheat Starch Fraction Properties on Hearth Bread Characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen different wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)cultivars were selected to represent GBSS mutations: three each of wildtype, axnull, and bxnull, and two each of 2xnull and waxy. Starch and A- and B-granules were purified from wheat flour. Hearth bread loaves were produced from the flours using a smal...

  3. Impact of wheat grain selenium content variation on milling and bread baking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selenium (Se) is an essential nutrient associated with reduced cancer risk. High levels of Se can accumulate in wheat grain, but it is not clear if this impacts milling or baking. Low and high Se hard red winter wheat grain from the same cultivar was milled and used for bread-baking studies and Se a...

  4. Targeted introgression of stem rust Ug99 resistance from wheatgrasses into pasta and bread wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past 50 years, a number of stem rust resistance (Sr) genes have been transferred from several wheat-related grasses into durum (i.e. pasta) and bread wheat through chromosome translocations and additions. To utilize these genes for controlling the Ug99 races of the stem rust pathogen, we ini...

  5. Bran characteristics and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varietal variations in physical and compositional characteristics of bran and their associations with bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF) were investigated using bran obtained from roller milling of 18 wheat varieties. Bran was characterized for composition including protein, fat, ...

  6. Microbiological, Nutritional, and Sensory Quality of Bread Produced from Wheat and Potato Flour Blends

    PubMed Central

    Ijah, Udeme Joshua Josiah; Aduloju, Mercy Oluwayemisi; Aransiola, Sesan Abiodun

    2014-01-01

    Dehydrated uncooked potato (Irish and sweet) flour was blended by weight with commercial wheat flour at 0 to 10% levels of substitution to make bread. Comparative study of the microbial and nutritional qualities of the bread was undertaken. The total aerobic bacterial counts ranged from 3.0 × 105 cfu/g to 1.09 × 106 cfu/g while the fungal counts ranged from 8.0 × 101 cfu/g to 1.20 × 103 cfu/g of the sample. Coliforms were not detected in the bread. Bacteria isolated were species of Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus while fungi isolates were species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Mucor. The mean sensory scores (color, aroma, taste, texture, and general acceptability) were evaluated. The color of the bread baked from WF/IPF2 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5%) blend was preferred to WF (wheat flour, 100%) while WF/SPF1 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 100%) and WF/IPF1 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 90 : 10%) aroma were preferred to WF. However, the bread baked from WF, WF/IPF2 (wheat flour/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5%), and WF/SPF2 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 95 : 5%) was more acceptable than other blends. The use of hydrated potato flour in bread making is advantageous due to increased nutritional value, higher bread yield, and reduced rate of staling. PMID:26904642

  7. Analytical and sensory studies on the release of sodium from wheat bread crumb.

    PubMed

    Pflaum, Tabea; Konitzer, Katharina; Hofmann, Thomas; Koehler, Peter

    2013-07-01

    As a basis for sodium reduction, interactions between sodium and wheat bread ingredients and their impact on salt perception in bread crumb were examined. The theoretical sodium binding capacities of wheat proteins revealed that a maximum amount of 0.24% NaCl (based on flour) could be bound in bread crumb by ionic interactions between sodium ions and acidic amino acid side chains. However, the sodium binding capacities of wheat proteins, determined by a magnetic beads assay and a sodium-selective electrode, were only about 0.002% NaCl. They were negligible concerning the sensory perception of saltiness, as 0.075 and 0.3% NaCl were the lowest noticeable differences using bread containing 0 and 1% NaCl as a reference, respectively. Extracting bread crumb in a mastication simulator with ultrapure water, buffer solutions, and artificial and human saliva revealed that interactions between sodium and wheat bread ingredients were sufficiently weak to enable complete sodium extraction during simulated mastication. PMID:23799642

  8. Gene identification programs in bread wheat: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, Jaber; Naghavi, Mohammadreza; Rad, Sara Naseri; Yolmeh, Tahereh; Shirazi, Milaveh; Naderi, Ramin; Nasiri, Mojtaba; Ahmadi, Sayvan

    2013-01-01

    Seven ab initio web-based gene prediction programs (i.e., AUGUSTUS, BGF, Fgenesh, Fgenesh+, GeneID, Genemark.hmm, and HMMgene) were assessed to compare their prediction accuracy using protein-coding sequences of bread wheat. At both nucleotide and exon levels, Fgenesh+ was deduced as the superior program and BGF followed by Fgenesh were resided in the next positions, respectively. Conversely, at gene level, Fgenesh with the value of predicting more than 75% of all the genes precisely, concluded as the best ones. It was also found out that programs such as Fgenesh+, BGF, and Fgenesh, because of harboring the highest percentage of correct predictive exons appear to be much more applicable in achieving more trustworthy results, while using both GeneID and HMMgene the percentage of false negatives would be expected to enhance. Regarding initial exon, overall, the frequency of accurate recognition of 3' boundary was significantly higher than that of 5' and the reverse was true if terminal exon is taken into account. Lastly, HMMgene and Genemark.hmm, overall, presented independent tendency against GC content, while the others appear to be slightly more sensitive if GC-poor sequences are employed. Our results, overall, exhibited that to make adequate opportunity in acquiring remarkable results, gene finders still need additional improvements. PMID:24124688

  9. Evolution of the BBAA component of bread wheat during its history at the allohexaploid level.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huakun; Zhu, Bo; Qi, Bao; Gou, Xiaowan; Dong, Yuzhu; Xu, Chunming; Zhang, Bangjiao; Huang, Wei; Liu, Chang; Wang, Xutong; Yang, Chunwu; Zhou, Hao; Kashkush, Khalil; Feldman, Moshe; Wendel, Jonathan F; Liu, Bao

    2014-07-01

    Subgenome integrity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum; BBAADD) makes possible the extraction of its BBAA component to restitute a novel plant type. The availability of such a ploidy-reversed wheat (extracted tetraploid wheat [ETW]) provides a unique opportunity to address whether and to what extent the BBAA component of bread wheat has been modified in phenotype, karyotype, and gene expression during its evolutionary history at the allohexaploid level. We report here that ETW was anomalous in multiple phenotypic traits but maintained a stable karyotype. Microarray-based transcriptome profiling identified a large number of differentially expressed genes between ETW and natural tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum), and the ETW-downregulated genes were enriched for distinct Gene Ontology categories. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that gene expression differences between ETW and a set of diverse durum wheat (T. turgidum subsp durum) cultivars were distinct from those characterizing tetraploid cultivars per se. Pyrosequencing revealed that the expression alterations may occur to either only one or both of the B and A homoeolog transcripts in ETW. A majority of the genes showed additive expression in a resynthesized allohexaploid wheat. Analysis of a synthetic allohexaploid wheat and diverse bread wheat cultivars revealed the rapid occurrence of expression changes to the BBAA subgenomes subsequent to allohexaploidization and their evolutionary persistence. PMID:24989045

  10. Evolutionary history of the mitochondrial genome in Mycosphaerella populations infecting bread wheat, durum wheat and wild grasses.

    PubMed

    Torriani, Stefano F F; Brunner, Patrick C; McDonald, Bruce A

    2011-02-01

    Plant pathogens emerge in agro-ecosystems following different evolutionary mechanisms over different time scales. Previous analyses based on sequence variation at six nuclear loci indicated that Mycosphaerella graminicola diverged from an ancestral population adapted to wild grasses during the process of wheat domestication approximately 10,500 years ago. We tested this hypothesis by conducting coalescence analyses based on four mitochondrial loci using 143 isolates that included four closely related pathogen species originating from four continents. Pathogen isolates from bread and durum wheat were included to evaluate the emergence of specificity towards these hosts in M. graminicola. Although mitochondrial and nuclear genomes differed greatly in degree of genetic variability, their coalescence was remarkably congruent, supporting the proposed origin of M. graminicola through host tracking. The coalescence analysis was unable to trace M. graminicola host specificity through recent evolutionary time, indicating that the specificity towards durum or bread wheat emerged following the domestication of the pathogen on wheat. PMID:21145978

  11. Fine mapping and targeted SNP survey using rice-wheat gene colinearity in the region of the Bo1 boron toxicity tolerance locus of bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Collins, Nicholas C; Eastwood, Russell F; Sutton, Tim; Jefferies, Steven P; Langridge, Peter

    2007-08-01

    Toxicity due to high levels of soil boron (B) represents a significant limitation to cereal production in some regions, and the Bo1 gene provides a major source of B toxicity tolerance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). A novel approach was used to develop primers to amplify and sequence gene fragments specifically from the Bo1 region of the hexaploid wheat genome. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified were then used to generate markers close to Bo1 on the distal end of chromosome 7BL. In the 16 gene fragments totaling 19.6 kb, SNPs were observed between the two cultivars Cranbrook and Halberd at a low frequency (one every 613 bp). Furthermore, SNPs were distributed unevenly, being limited to only two genes. In contrast, RFLP provided a much greater number of genetic markers, with every tested gene identifying polymorphism. Bo1 previously known only as a QTL was located as a discrete Mendelian locus. In total, 28 new RFLP, PCR and SSR markers were added to the existing map. The 1.8 cM Bo1 interval of wheat corresponds to a 227 kb section of rice chromosome 6L encoding 21 predicted proteins with no homology to any known B transporters. The co-dominant PCR marker AWW5L7 co-segregated with Bo1 and was highly predictive of B tolerance status within a set of 94 Australian bread wheat cultivars and breeding lines. The markers and rice colinearity described here represent tools that will assist B tolerance breeding and the positional cloning of Bo1. PMID:17571251

  12. Glycaemic indices of three Sri Lankan wheat bread varieties and a bread-lentil meal.

    PubMed

    Hettiaratchi, U P K; Ekanayake, S; Welihinda, J

    2009-01-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) concept ranks individual foods and mixed meals according to the blood glucose response. Low-GI foods with a slow and prolonged glycaemic response are beneficial for diabetic people, and several advantages have been suggested also for non-diabetic individuals. The recent investigations imply an increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Sri Lanka. Thus, the present study was designed primarily to determine the glycaemic indices of some bread varieties in Sri Lanka as bread has become a staple diet among most of the urban people. A second objective was to observe the effects of macronutrients and physicochemical properties of starch on GI. Glycaemic responses were estimated according to FAO/WHO guidelines and both glucose and white bread were used as standards. Non-diabetic individuals aged 22-30 years (n=10) participated in the study. The test meals included white sliced bread, wholemeal bread, ordinary white bread and a mixed meal of wholemeal bread with lentil curry. The GI values (+/-standard error of the mean) of the meals were 77+/-6, 77+/-6, 80+/-4, 61+/-6, respectively (with glucose as the standard). The GI values of the bread varieties or the meal did not differ significantly (P >0.05). However, the meal can be categorized as a medium-GI food while the other bread varieties belong to the high-GI food group. A significant negative correlation was obtained with protein (P=0.042) and fat (P=0.039) contents of the food items and GI. Although the GI values of the foods are not significantly different, the inclusion of lentils caused the GI to decrease from a high-GI category to a medium-GI category. According to the present study, a ratio of 1.36 can be used to interconvert the GI values obtained with the two standards. PMID:19418328

  13. Use of fungal phytase to improve breadmaking performance of whole wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Haros, M; Rosell, C M; Benedito, C

    2001-11-01

    The possible use of phytase as a breadmaking improver has been tested in whole wheat breads by adding different amounts of fungal phytase. The effect of phytase addition on the fermentation stage and the final bread quality was analyzed. The phytase addition shortened the fermentation period, without affecting the bread dough pH. Regarding the whole wheat bread, a considerable increase of the specific bread volume, an improvement of the crumb texture, and the width/height ratio of the bread slice were obtained. An in vitro assay revealed that the improving effect of phytase on breadmaking might be associated with the activation of alpha-amylase, due to the release of calcium ions from calcium-phytate complexes promoted by phytase activity. As a conclusion, phytase offers excellent possibilities as a breadmaking improver, with two main advantages: first, the nutritional improvement produced by decreasing phytate content, and second, all the benefits produced by alpha-amylase addition can be obtained by adding phytase, which promotes the activation of endogenous alpha-amylase. PMID:11714342

  14. Hard Winter Wheat and Flour Properties in Relation to Breadmaking Quality of Straight-dough Bread: Flour Particle Size and Bread Crumb Grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Samples of 12 hard winter wheats and their flours that produced breads varying in crumb grain scores were studied for 38 quality parameters including: wheat physical and chemical characteristics; flour ash and protein content, starch damage, swelling power, pasting characteristics, and flour particl...

  15. Kinetics of sodium release from wheat bread crumb as affected by sodium distribution.

    PubMed

    Konitzer, Katharina; Pflaum, Tabea; Oliveira, Pedro; Arendt, Elke; Koehler, Peter; Hofmann, Thomas

    2013-11-13

    As a basis for sodium reduction in bread, the kinetics of sodium release from wheat bread crumb during chewing was investigated by three independent methods using two in-mouth techniques and a model mastication simulator, respectively. Complete sodium extraction in-mouth was achieved after 30 s. Using coarse-grained NaCl in breadmaking significantly accelerated sodium release and led to enhanced salt taste, allowing a sodium reduction in bread by 25% while maintaining taste quality. This salt taste enhancement by accelerated sodium delivery can be explained by the increasing contrast in sodium concentration, which is known to determine salt taste perception. For the first time, the resulting inhomogeneous salt distribution in bread prepared by using coarse-grained NaCl was visualized by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy using a sodium-selective, fluorescent dye. PMID:24134823

  16. Quality characteristics of bread produced from wheat, rice and maize flours.

    PubMed

    Rai, Sweta; Kaur, Amarjeet; Singh, Baljit; Minhas, K S

    2012-12-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) flour and maize (Zea mays) meal substitution in wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour, from 0 to 100% each, for the production of bread was investigated. The proximate analysis, pasting properties, bread making qualities of raw materials and sensory evaluation of the bread samples were determined. The pasting temperature increased with increased percentage of rice flour and maize meal. But the other pasting characters decreased with the higher proportion of rice flour. The baking absorption was observed to increase with higher level of maize meal but it decreased when level of rice flour was increased. Loaf weight (g) decreased with progressive increase in the proportion of maize meal but increased when rice flour incorporation was increased. Loaf volume, loaf height and specific volume decreased for progressively higher level of maize meal and rice flour. The sensory evaluation revealed that 25% replacement of wheat flour was found to be more acceptable than control sample. PMID:24293700

  17. Silencing of puroindoline a alters the kernel texture in transgenic bread wheat.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain hardness is an important end-use quality parameter of bread wheat, and one of the most important characters for quality improvement. The objective of this study was to further understand the function of puroindolines and the underlying mechanism in the formation of kernel texture. The highly...

  18. Fortifying Chapathis, an Asian Whole Wheat Unleavened Bread, using Corn Distillers Dried Grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chapathi, an unleavened whole wheat flat bread, is widely consumed in Southern Asia. To improve the nutritional qualities of this product, we have investigated fortifying chapathi with different levels of corn-based distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Food grade DDGS is an alternative sour...

  19. REGISTRATION OF W4909 AND W4910 BREAD WHEAT GERMPLASM LINES WITH HIGH SALINITY TOLERANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although variation in salt tolerance was observed among bread and durum wheat varieties, none of these cultivated crops were as tolerant as some wild annual and perennial Triticeae species. The most salt tolerant are species belonging to the genus Thinopyrum. Some of these species have been crossed...

  20. Analysis of the allohexaploid bread wheat genome (Triticum aestivum) using comparative whole genome shotgun sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The large 17 Gb allopolyploid genome of bread wheat is a major challenge for genome analysis because it is composed of three closely- related and independently maintained genomes, with genes dispersed as small “islands” separated by vast tracts of repetitive DNA. We used a novel comparative genomi...

  1. Genetic mapping analysis of bread-making quality traits in spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we assess the genetic architecture of bread-making quality traits in spring wheat. A mapping population derived from BR34 and Grandin, a soft x hard cross, was used to measure 20 end-use quality traits including six kernel characteristics, seven milling and flour traits, four dough mi...

  2. Volume, texture, and molecular mechanism behind the collapse of bread made with different levels of hard waxy wheat flours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physico-chemical properties of bread baked by partially replacing wild type wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) flour (15, 30, and 45%) with two waxy wheat flours having different dough properties were investigated. Substitution with waxy wheat flour resulted in higher loaf volume and softer loaves. Howeve...

  3. Effect of Partial Replacement of Wheat Flour with High Quality Cassava Flour on the Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, Sensory Quality, and Microbial Quality of Bread

    PubMed Central

    Eleazu, Chinedum; Eleazu, Kate; Aniedu, Chinyere; Amajor, John; Ikpeama, Ahamefula; Ebenzer, Ike

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, wheat flour was mixed with high quality cassava flour (HQCF) in several ratios: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40, and used to prepare 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) cassava bread, respectively. 100% wheat bread was prepared as a control (100% wheat bread). Five bread samples were prepared per group. Antioxidant assays [i.e., 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assay, reducing power assay] revealed that the bread samples had considerable antioxidant capacities. Substitution of wheat flour with HQCF at various concentrations resulted in dose dependent decreases in the mineral and protein contents of the resulting bread samples. The crude fiber content of the bread samples was minimal, while the carbohydrate content of the bread samples ranged from 43.86% to 48.64%. A 20% substitution of wheat flour with HQCF yielded bread samples with a general acceptability that was comparable to that of 100% wheat bread. The mean bacteria counts of the bread samples ranged from 2.0×103 CFU/mL to 1.4×104 CFU/mL, while the fungal counts ranged from 0 CFU/mL to 3×103 CFU/mL. There was a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the reducing powers of the bread samples (R2=0.871) and a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the flavonoid contents of the bread samples (R2=0.487). The higher microbial load of the NRCRI cassava bread samples indicates that these bread samples may have a shorter shelf life than the 100% wheat bread. The significant positive correlation between total flavonoid content and reducing power (R2=0.750) suggests that the flavonoids present in the lipophilic fractions of the bread samples could be responsible for the reductive capacities of the bread samples. PMID:25054110

  4. Proteomic analysis of middle and late stages of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain development

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Chen, Feng; Huo, Wang; Cui, Dangqun

    2015-01-01

    Proteomic approaches were applied in four grain developmental stages of the Chinese bread wheat Yunong 201 and its ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutant line Yunong 3114. 2-DE and tandem MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analyzed proteome characteristics during middle and late grain development of the Chinese bread wheat Yunong 201 and its EMS mutant line Yunong 3114 with larger grain sizes. We identified 130 differentially accumulated protein spots representing 88 unique proteins, and four main expression patterns displayed a dynamic description of middle and late grain formation. Those identified protein species participated in eight biochemical processes: stress/defense, carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis/assembly/degradation, storage proteins, energy production and transportation, photosynthesis, transcription/translation, signal transduction. Comparative proteomic characterization demonstrated 12 protein spots that co-accumulated in the two wheat cultivars with different expression patterns, and six cultivar-specific protein spots including serpin, small heat shock protein, β-amylase, α-amylase inhibitor, dimeric α-amylase inhibitor precursor, and cold regulated protein. These cultivar-specific protein spots possibly resulted in differential yield-related traits of the two wheat cultivars. Our results provide valuable information for dissection of molecular and genetics basis of yield-related traits in bread wheat and the proteomic characterization in this study could also provide insights in the biology of middle and late grain development. PMID:26442048

  5. Mechanical properties of cottage cheese-fortified wheat dough and loaf bread.

    PubMed

    Guemes-Vera, Norma; Gonzalez-Victoriano, Lizbeth; Soto-Simental, Sergio; Hernandez-Chavez, Juan Francisco; Reyes-Santamaria, Ma Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Milk whey and its derivatives are commonly used to fortify food products. A study was done on the effect of seven cottage cheese (sour/sweet whey mixture) inclusion concentrations (5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5 and 20 %) on the mechanical properties of white wheat bread dough using a texture analyser. Cottage cheese protein content was 10.05 %. Loaf bread made using the 7.5, 12.5 and 17.5 % cottage cheese concentrations showed crumb quality similar to the control in the 12.5 and 17.5 % treatments, but more open and less homogeneous in 7.5 % treatment. Cottage cheese concentration affected bread volume, with the higher concentrations lowering volume by up to 50 %, in response to increased water retention. Sensory analysis showed bread containing 7.5 % cottage cheese was not different from the control, with an 83.33 % acceptance rate. The 7.5 % concentration was optimum for white wheat loaf bread production since its mechanical and sensory properties were most similar to the control. PMID:25328228

  6. Optimization of durum wheat bread from a selenium-rich cultivar fortified with bran.

    PubMed

    Previtali, Maria Assunta; Mastromatteo, Marcella; Conte, Amalia; De Vita, Pasquale; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2016-02-01

    In this work the effect of bran addition (5 %, 10 %, 15 %, 20 %, 25 %, 30 %) on sensory, nutritional and mechanical properties of bread made from a durum wheat semolina enriched with selenium (cultivar PR22D89) was addressed; traditional and whole-meal bread from the same cultivar PR22D89, without any further bran addition, were also investigated for comparative purpose. In order to improve the durum wheat functional bread, different structuring agents (agar agar, gellan gum, guar seed flour, hydroxy-propyl-cellulose, modified food starch-CAPSUL® and tapioca starch) were firstly screened and then optimized. Sensory, textural and nutritional properties of bread were studied in each step. Results showed that bread from PR22D89 cultivar with addition of bran up to 30 % was completely accepted from the textural, nutritional and sensory points of view with proper utilization of guar seed flour or modified food-starch (2 %). PMID:27162413

  7. Cadmium Contents of Soils, Durum, and Bread Wheats in Harran Plain, Southeast Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büyükkılıç, Asuman; Mermut, Ahmet; Faz Cano, Angel; Carmona Garces, Doria

    2010-05-01

    Turkey is growing significant amount of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum - (Desf.)Husn) which is widely used for making pasta, spaghetti, noodles etc. Objective of this study were to: 1) determine Cd concentrations of the soils, durum and bread wheats grown in the Harran plain, southeast Turkey and 2) evaluate this element in terms of food safety. Soil samples from the selected 16 profiles, grains, roots, and leaves of durum and bread wheats were taken for analyses. Total Cd contents of the soils were below the threshold values. The soils in the northern part of the plain have more than 0.2 ppm of Cd. Carbonate and clay contents are > 15% and 40% respectively and have substantial amounts of Fe-oxy-hydroxides. Three phosphorus fertilizer samples, frequently used in the area, had > 2 ppm of Cd. As expected, the amounts of Cd in bread wheat were lower than durum wheat. However, the Cd contents in durum wheat grains in the area studied were < 50 ?g kg-1 which is less than those in Canada (> 100 ?g kg-1) and similar to the drum grains from Italy. Some samples in Italy even had 71 ?g kg-1. These were attributed to the presence of high amounts of carbonates, Fe-oxy-hydroxides, and clay in the soils we studied. In the surface soil, Zn contents were between 21.5 and 72.8 mg kg-1.This could be another reason for lower contents of Cd in our durum wheat. Our study confirms that durum wheat grown in the Harran plain southeast Turkey has a better quality, therefore advantageous; in terms of food safety from the standpoint of Cd contents.

  8. Phytate negatively influences wheat dough and bread characteristics by interfering with cross-linking of glutenin molecules

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of added phytate on dough properties and bread baking quality was studied to determine the role of phytate in the impaired functional properties of whole grain wheat flour for baking bread. Phytate addition to refined flour at a 1% level substantially increased mixograph mixing time, g...

  9. Mixture design of rice flour, maize starch and wheat starch for optimization of gluten free bread quality.

    PubMed

    Mancebo, Camino M; Merino, Cristina; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Gluten-free bread production requires gluten-free flours or starches. Rice flour and maize starch are two of the most commonly used raw materials. Over recent years, gluten-free wheat starch is available on the market. The aim of this research was to optimize mixtures of rice flour, maize starch and wheat starch using an experimental mixture design. For this purpose, dough rheology and its fermentation behaviour were studied. Quality bread parameters such as specific volume, texture, cell structure, colour and acceptability were also analysed. Generally, starch incorporation reduced G* and increased the bread specific volume and cell density, but the breads obtained were paler than the rice flour breads. Comparing the starches, wheat starch breads had better overall acceptability and had a greater volume than maize-starch bread. The highest value for sensorial acceptability corresponded to the bread produced with a mixture of rice flour (59 g/100 g) and wheat starch (41 g/100 g). PMID:26396377

  10. EFFECT OF PROTEIN COMPOSITION OF WHEAT FLOUR MILL STREAMS ON DOUGH RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND BREAD CRUMB CHARACTERISTICS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flour mill streams, obtained from three samples of Nekota, a hard red winter wheat, were used in this study. The objective was to assess the contribution of protein composition on dough rheological properties and bread crumb characteristics of bread made from the mill streams. Flour proteins were fr...

  11. Use of fungal proteases and selected sourdough lactic acid bacteria for making wheat bread with an intermediate content of gluten.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Curiel, José Antonio; Nionelli, Luana; Vincentini, Olimpia; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Silano, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco; Coda, Rossana

    2014-02-01

    This study was aimed at combining the highest degradation of gluten during wheat flour fermentation with good structural and sensory features of the related bread. As estimated by R5-ELISA, the degree of degradation of immune reactive gluten was ca. 28%. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and RP-FPLC analyses showed marked variations of the protein fractions compared to the untreated flour. The comparison was also extended to in vitro effect of the peptic/tryptic-digests towards K562 and T84 cells. The flour with the intermediate content of gluten (ICG) was used for bread making, and compared to whole gluten (WG) bread. The chemical, structural and sensory features of the ICG bread approached those of the bread made with WG flour. The protein digestibility of the ICG bread was higher than that from WG flour. Also the nutritional quality, as estimated by different indexes, was the highest for ICG bread. PMID:24230474

  12. Characterization of chromosomal regions containing quantitive trait loci determining specificity towards bread and durum wheat cultivars in the fungal wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Specificity of the haploid, plant-pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola towards durum (tetraploid, genomes AABB) versus bread (AABBDD) wheat is well documented. To estimate the number of genes involved in host species specificity, we crossed an isolate of M. graminicola collected from bread w...

  13. Patterns of homoeologous gene expression shown by RNA sequencing in hexaploid bread wheat

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) has a large, complex and hexaploid genome consisting of A, B and D homoeologous chromosome sets. Therefore each wheat gene potentially exists as a trio of A, B and D homoeoloci, each of which may contribute differentially to wheat phenotypes. We describe a novel approach combining wheat cytogenetic resources (chromosome substitution ‘nullisomic-tetrasomic’ lines) with next generation deep sequencing of gene transcripts (RNA-Seq), to directly and accurately identify homoeologue-specific single nucleotide variants and quantify the relative contribution of individual homoeoloci to gene expression. Results We discover, based on a sample comprising ~5-10% of the total wheat gene content, that at least 45% of wheat genes are expressed from all three distinct homoeoloci. Most of these genes show strikingly biased expression patterns in which expression is dominated by a single homoeolocus. The remaining ~55% of wheat genes are expressed from either one or two homoeoloci only, through a combination of extensive transcriptional silencing and homoeolocus loss. Conclusions We conclude that wheat is tending towards functional diploidy, through a variety of mechanisms causing single homoeoloci to become the predominant source of gene transcripts. This discovery has profound consequences for wheat breeding and our understanding of wheat evolution. PMID:24726045

  14. Simultaneous editing of three homoeoalleles in hexaploid bread wheat confers heritable resistance to powdery mildew.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanpeng; Cheng, Xi; Shan, Qiwei; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Jinxing; Gao, Caixia; Qiu, Jin-Long

    2014-09-01

    Sequence-specific nucleases have been applied to engineer targeted modifications in polyploid genomes, but simultaneous modification of multiple homoeoalleles has not been reported. Here we use transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 (refs. 4,5) technologies in hexaploid bread wheat to introduce targeted mutations in the three homoeoalleles that encode MILDEW-RESISTANCE LOCUS (MLO) proteins. Genetic redundancy has prevented evaluation of whether mutation of all three MLO alleles in bread wheat might confer resistance to powdery mildew, a trait not found in natural populations. We show that TALEN-induced mutation of all three TaMLO homoeologs in the same plant confers heritable broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew. We further use CRISPR-Cas9 technology to generate transgenic wheat plants that carry mutations in the TaMLO-A1 allele. We also demonstrate the feasibility of engineering targeted DNA insertion in bread wheat through nonhomologous end joining of the double-strand breaks caused by TALENs. Our findings provide a methodological framework to improve polyploid crops. PMID:25038773

  15. Induced defence responses of contrasting bread wheat genotypes under differential salt stress imposition.

    PubMed

    Singh, Archana; Bhushan, Bharat; Gaikwad, Kishor; Yadav, O P; Kumar, Suresh; Rai, R D

    2015-02-01

    Plants, being sessile in nature, have developed mechanisms to cope with high salt concentrations in the soil. In this study, the effects of NaCl (50-200 mM) on expression of high-affinity potassium transporters (HKTs), antioxidant enzymes and their isozyme profiles were investigated in two contrasting bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes viz., HD2329 (salt-sensitive) and Kharchia65 (salt-tolerant). Kharchia65 can successfully grow in salt affected soils, while HD2329 cannot tolerate salt stress. Differential expression studies of two HKT genes (TaHKT2;1.1 and TaHKT2;3.1) revealed their up-regulated expression (-1.5-fold) in the salt-sensitive HD2329 and down-regulated (-5-fold) inducible expression in the salt-tolerant genotype (Kharchia65). Specific activity of antioxidant enzymes, viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) was found to be higher in the salt-tolerant genotype. Isozyme profile of two (POX and GR) antioxidant enzymes showed polymorphism between salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive genotypes. A new gene TaHKT2;3.1 was also identified and its expression profile and role in salt stress tolerance in wheat was also studied. Partial sequences of the TaHKT2;1.1 and TaHKT2;3.1 genes from bread wheat were submitted to the EMBL GenBank database. Our findings indicated that defence responses to salt stress were induced differentially in contrasting bread wheat genotypes which provide evidences for functional correlation between salt stress tolerance and differential biochemical and molecular expression patterns in bread wheat. PMID:26040114

  16. The origin of the B-genome of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Haider, N

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the origin of cultivated wheats would further their genetic improvement. The hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD) is believed to have originated through one or more rare hybridization events between Aegilops tauschii (DD) and the tetraploid T. turgidum (AABB). Progenitor of the A-genome of the tetraploid and hexaploid wheats has generally been accepted to be T. urartu. In spite of the large number of attempts and published reports about the origin of the B-genome in cultivated wheats, the donor of the B-genome is still relatively unknown and controversial and, hence, remains open. This genome has been found to be closely related to the S-genome of the Sitopsis section (Ae. speltoides, Ae. longissima, Ae. sharonensis, Ae. searsii, and Ae. bicornis) of the genus Aegilops L. Among Sitopsis species, the most positive evidence has been accumulated for Ae. speltoides as the progenitor of the B-genome. Therefore, one or more of the Sitopsis species were proposed frequently as the B-genome donor. Although several reviews have been written on the origin of the genomes of wheat over the years, this paper will attempt for the first time to review the immense literature on the subject, with a particular emphasis on the B-genome which has attracted a huge attention over some 100 years. The ambiguity and conflicting results in most of the methods employed in deducing the precise B-genome donor/s to bread wheat are also discussed. PMID:23755530

  17. Co-digestion of wheat and rye bread suspensions with source-sorted municipal biowaste

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chaoran; Mörtelmaier, Christoph; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Volatile fatty acid spectra of acidified WBS, RBS or FBS differ, but methanogenesis is similar. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Biogas improvement by co-digestion of wheat and rye bread. • Increased population density at high organic loading rates. • Less Pelotomaculum but increased numbers of Syntrophobacter and Smithella found in rye bread reactor. • Replacement of Methanosarcinales by acetate-oxidizers in rye bread co-digestion. • Increasing proportion of Methanomicrobiales in biowaste + rye bread reactor. - Abstract: Acidification of wheat bread (WBS), rye bread (RBS) and fresh biowaste suspensions (FBS), leading to lactate+acetate, lactate+acetate+n-buyrate, and acetate+propionate+n-butyrate, respectively, and biogas production as well as population dynamics were investigated. Co-fermentation of FBS (14 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} organic loading rate (OLR)) with WBS or RBS was stable up to an OLR of 22 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} and resulted in up to 3 times as much biogas. During co-fermentation at more than 20 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} OLR the total population increased more than 2-fold, but the originally low share of propionate-oxidizing bacteria significantly decreased. The proportion of methanogens also decreased. Whereas the proportion of Methanosarcinales to Methanomicrobiales in biowaste and biowaste+WBS remained constant, Methanosarcinales and in particular Methanosaeta spec. in the biowaste+RBS assay almost completely disappeared. Methanomicrobiales increased instead, indicating propionate oxidation via acetate cleavage to CO{sub 2} and hydrogen.

  18. Effect of amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) on the technological and sensory quality of bread wheat pasta.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Cristina S; Ribotta, Pablo D; Añón, María Cristina; León, Alberto E

    2014-03-01

    The technological and sensory quality of pasta made from bread wheat flour substituted with wholemeal amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) at four levels, 15, 30, 40 and 50% w/w was investigated. The quality of the resulted pasta was compared to that of control pasta made from bread wheat flour. The flours were analyzed for chemical composition and pasting properties. Cooking behavior, color, raw and cooked pasta texture, scanning electron microscopy and sensory evaluation were determined on samples. The pasta obtained from amaranth flour showed some detriment of the technological and sensory quality. So, a maximum substitution level of 30% w/w was defined. This is an equilibrium point between an acceptable pasta quality and the improved nutritional and functional properties from the incorporation of amaranth flour. PMID:23733824

  19. RAPD markers associated with drought tolerance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Pakniyat, H; Tavakol, E

    2007-09-15

    Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) were used to search genetic diversity and markers associated with drought tolerance in 20 bread wheat cultivars. These cultivars are extensively being used by farmers in Iran, 6 of them are known as drought tolerant. Initial screens involved growing 10 cultivars at seedling stage under drought conditions (-5 and -8 bar) exerted by PEG 6000 in a hydroponic experiment. These tests confirmed the tolerance of the 6 above mentioned cultivars. Thirty 10-mer RAPD primers were used for fingerprinting of the cultivars of which primers P6 (TCGGCGGTTC) and P7 (CTGCATCGTG) produced respectively a 920 and a 750 bp band present in drought tolerant (absent in others) cultivars. These bands may be associated with drought tolerance in bread wheat. PMID:19090135

  20. Resistance Potential of Bread Wheat Genotypes Against Yellow Rust Disease Under Egyptian Climate

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Amer F.; Hassan, Mohamed I.; Amein, Karam A.

    2015-01-01

    Yellow rust (stripe rust), caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of wheat in Egypt and worldwide. In order to identify wheat genotypes resistant to yellow rust and develop molecular markers associated with the resistance, fifty F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between resistant and susceptible bread wheat landraces were obtained. Artificial infection of Puccinia striiformis was performed under greenhouse conditions during two growing seasons and relative resistance index (RRI) was calculated. Two Egyptian bread wheat cultivars i.e. Giza-168 (resistant) and Sakha-69 (susceptible) were also evaluated. RRI values of two-year trial showed that 10 RILs responded with RRI value >6 <9 with an average of 7.29, which exceeded the Egyptian bread wheat cultivar Giza-168 (5.58). Thirty three RILs were included among the acceptable range having RRI value >2 <6. However, only 7 RILs showed RRI value <2. Five RILs expressed hypersensitive type of resistance (R) against the pathogen and showed the lowest Average Coefficient of Infection (ACI). Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) with eight simple sequence repeat (SSR), eight sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and sixteen random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers revealed that three SSR, three SRAP and six RAPD markers were found to be associated with the resistance to yellow rust. However, further molecular analyses would be performed to confirm markers associated with the resistance and suitable for marker-assisted selection. Resistant RILs identified in the study could be efficiently used to improve the resistance to yellow rust in wheat. PMID:26674020

  1. TaER Expression Is Associated with Transpiration Efficiency Traits and Yield in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jiacheng; Yang, Zhiyuan; Madgwick, Pippa J.; Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Parry, Martin A. J.; Hu, Yin-Gang

    2015-01-01

    ERECTA encodes a receptor-like kinase and is proposed as a candidate for determining transpiration efficiency of plants. Two genes homologous to ERECTA in Arabidopsis were identified on chromosomes 6 (TaER2) and 7 (TaER1) of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), with copies of each gene on the A, B and D genomes of wheat. Similar expression patterns were observed for TaER1 and TaER2 with relatively higher expression of TaER1 in flag leaves of wheat at heading (Z55) and grain-filling (Z73) stages. Significant variations were found in the expression levels of both TaER1 and TaER2 in the flag leaves at both growth stages among 48 diverse bread wheat varieties. Based on the expression of TaER1 and TaER2, the 48 wheat varieties could be classified into three groups having high (5 varieties), medium (27 varieties) and low (16 varieties) levels of TaER expression. Significant differences were also observed between the three groups varying for TaER expression for several transpiration efficiency (TE)- related traits, including stomatal density (SD), transpiration rate, photosynthetic rate (A), instant water use efficiency (WUEi) and carbon isotope discrimination (CID), and yield traits of biomass production plant-1 (BYPP) and grain yield plant-1 (GYPP). Correlation analysis revealed that the expression of TaER1 and TaER2 at the two growth stages was significantly and negatively associated with SD (P<0.01), transpiration rate (P<0.05) and CID (P<0.01), while significantly and positively correlated with flag leaf area (FLA, P<0.01), A (P<0.05), WUEi (P<0.05), BYPP (P<0.01) and GYPP (P<0.01), with stronger correlations for TaER1 than TaER2 and at grain-filling stage than at heading stage. These combined results suggested that TaER involved in development of transpiration efficiency -related traits and yield in bread wheat, implying a function for TaER in regulating leaf development of bread wheat and contributing to expression of these traits. Moreover, the results indicate

  2. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Single Nucleotide Variants in Longer-Kernel Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng; Zhu, Zibo; Zhou, Xiaobian; Yan, Yan; Dong, Zhongdong; Cui, Dangqun

    2016-01-01

    The transcriptomes of bread wheat Yunong 201 and its ethyl methanesulfonate derivative Yunong 3114 were obtained by next-sequencing technology. Single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the wheat strains were explored and compared. A total of 5907 and 6287 non-synonymous SNVs were acquired for Yunong 201 and 3114, respectively. A total of 4021 genes with SNVs were obtained. The genes that underwent non-synonymous SNVs were significantly involved in ATP binding, protein phosphorylation, and cellular protein metabolic process. The heat map analysis also indicated that most of these mutant genes were significantly differentially expressed at different developmental stages. The SNVs in these genes possibly contribute to the longer kernel length of Yunong 3114. Our data provide useful information on wheat transcriptome for future studies on wheat functional genomics. This study could also help in illustrating the gene functions of the non-synonymous SNVs of Yunong 201 and 3114. PMID:27551288

  3. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Single Nucleotide Variants in Longer-Kernel Bread Wheat.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Zhu, Zibo; Zhou, Xiaobian; Yan, Yan; Dong, Zhongdong; Cui, Dangqun

    2016-01-01

    The transcriptomes of bread wheat Yunong 201 and its ethyl methanesulfonate derivative Yunong 3114 were obtained by next-sequencing technology. Single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the wheat strains were explored and compared. A total of 5907 and 6287 non-synonymous SNVs were acquired for Yunong 201 and 3114, respectively. A total of 4021 genes with SNVs were obtained. The genes that underwent non-synonymous SNVs were significantly involved in ATP binding, protein phosphorylation, and cellular protein metabolic process. The heat map analysis also indicated that most of these mutant genes were significantly differentially expressed at different developmental stages. The SNVs in these genes possibly contribute to the longer kernel length of Yunong 3114. Our data provide useful information on wheat transcriptome for future studies on wheat functional genomics. This study could also help in illustrating the gene functions of the non-synonymous SNVs of Yunong 201 and 3114. PMID:27551288

  4. Heavy Metal Contents of Soils, Durum and Bread Wheats in Harran Plain, Southeast Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büyükkılıç Yanardaǧ, Asuman

    2013-04-01

    Soils are vital for regulating the biological effects and mobility of metals in nature. Iron and zinc are some of the essential nutrients for plants and animals, while other metals are potentially toxic such as lead and cadmium. Toxic heavy metals (HMs) can be taken up easily by organisms. HMs inputs to soil via the application of metal-contained fertilizers often exceed outputs in crops and drainage waters, thus toxic HMs content in many agricultural soils tends to be gradually increasing. Thus adverse human health effects due to soil-plant and plant-human transfer of HMs have been enhanced. HMs may cause harmful effects on human health due to the ingestion of food grain grown in soils. The objectives of this study were (1) to understand the chemistry of metals in soils for managing their agricultural and ecological impacts, (2) to identify metal uptakes of different genotypes of wheat. Concentrations of HMs (Cd, Zn, Ni, Mn, Cu, Mo, Pb) in wheat were investigated in different agricultural areas in Southeast, Turkey. The results showed that concentrations of HMs were in following order: Mn>Ni>Zn>Cu>Pb>Mo>Cd in surface and next to surface soil and Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb> Ni>Mo>Cd in wheat, respectively. HMs concentrations of several soil samples exceeded the permissible limits of Europe standard except for Ni and Mn. In addition, concentration of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb were higher in bread wheat than in durum wheat; however, concentration of Mn, Ni and Mo were higher in durum wheat than in bread wheat. Unusual amount of heavy metals found in some fertilizers used in the Southeast region of Turkey, it becomes an important subject to determine the amount of metals added to the soil every year. Heavy metals uptake by plants still remains to be an interest for researchers. As the heavy metals contents of plants were below the threshold levels, we conclude that the quality of wheat is high and it should receive attention in national and international markets. Keywords: Heavy Metals

  5. Antioxidant capacity and bioaccessibility of buckwheat-enhanced wheat bread phenolics.

    PubMed

    Szawara-Nowak, Dorota; Bączek, Natalia; Zieliński, Henryk

    2016-01-01

    The impact of an in vitro procedure that mimics the physiochemical changes occurring in gastric and small intestinal digestion on the antioxidant capacity and bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds from 16 types of buckwheat-enhanced wheat breads was assessed. The methodology was based on the Global Antioxidant Response (GAR) which combined bioaccessible antioxidant capacity of the soluble fraction from digestible portion measured by the standard Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assay and antioxidant capacity of the insoluble fraction from the undigested portion by the QUENCHER method. The bioaccessibility of the phenolics was measured in the soluble fraction with Folin-Cicalteu reagent and in the insoluble fraction by modified QUENCHER method. The studies showed almost 20-fold higher GAR values as compared to the antioxidant capacity of the respective undigested reference breads. The bioaccessible antioxidant capacity of soluble fraction from digestible portion increased significantly whereas the undigested residue displayed antioxidant capacity that accounted for up to 15 % of the GAR. The bioaccessible phenolics accounted for up to 90 % of the total phenolics after digestion and were highly correlated with GAR results of buckwheat-enriched wheat breads. Our results indicate that in vitro digestion is the crucial step that releases of high amount of phenolic antioxidants. The combination of QUENCHER assay with Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and Total Phenolic Content (TPC) assay estimated on Folin-Ciocalteu reagent has been useful for the determination of the bioaccessible antioxidant activity and phenolics of the soluble and insoluble fraction of buckwheat-enhanced wheat breads. PMID:26787981

  6. Utilization of a maltotetraose-producing amylase as a whole wheat bread improver: dough rheology and baking performance.

    PubMed

    Bae, Woosung; Lee, Sung Ho; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Lee, Suyong

    2014-08-01

    A maltotetraose-producing enzyme (G4-amylase) was utilized to improve the baking performance of whole-grain wheat flour. Whole-grain bread dough prepared with G4-amylase showed reduced water absorption and increased development time, while the dough stability was not affected. Also, the G4-amylase-treated samples exhibited lower Mixolab torque values than the control upon heating and cooling. Rheological measurements showed the decreased ratio of Rmax /E and increased tan δ, clearly demonstrating that the viscous characteristics of whole-grain bread dough became dominant with increasing levels of G4-amylase. The use of G4-amylase produced whole-grain wheat breads with a variety of maltooligosaccharides, primarily maltotetraose that positively contributed to the bread volume (1.2-fold higher than the control). Moreover, G4-amylase delayed the crumb firming of whole-grain wheat bread during a 7-d storage period, showing that it can function as an antiretrogradation agent to enhance the quality attributes of whole-grain wheat bread. PMID:25040090

  7. Analysis of the bread wheat genome using whole-genome shotgun sequencing.

    PubMed

    Brenchley, Rachel; Spannagl, Manuel; Pfeifer, Matthias; Barker, Gary L A; D'Amore, Rosalinda; Allen, Alexandra M; McKenzie, Neil; Kramer, Melissa; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Bolser, Dan; Kay, Suzanne; Waite, Darren; Trick, Martin; Bancroft, Ian; Gu, Yong; Huo, Naxin; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Sehgal, Sunish; Gill, Bikram; Kianian, Sharyar; Anderson, Olin; Kersey, Paul; Dvorak, Jan; McCombie, W Richard; Hall, Anthony; Mayer, Klaus F X; Edwards, Keith J; Bevan, Michael W; Hall, Neil

    2012-11-29

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a globally important crop, accounting for 20 per cent of the calories consumed by humans. Major efforts are underway worldwide to increase wheat production by extending genetic diversity and analysing key traits, and genomic resources can accelerate progress. But so far the very large size and polyploid complexity of the bread wheat genome have been substantial barriers to genome analysis. Here we report the sequencing of its large, 17-gigabase-pair, hexaploid genome using 454 pyrosequencing, and comparison of this with the sequences of diploid ancestral and progenitor genomes. We identified between 94,000 and 96,000 genes, and assigned two-thirds to the three component genomes (A, B and D) of hexaploid wheat. High-resolution synteny maps identified many small disruptions to conserved gene order. We show that the hexaploid genome is highly dynamic, with significant loss of gene family members on polyploidization and domestication, and an abundance of gene fragments. Several classes of genes involved in energy harvesting, metabolism and growth are among expanded gene families that could be associated with crop productivity. Our analyses, coupled with the identification of extensive genetic variation, provide a resource for accelerating gene discovery and improving this major crop. PMID:23192148

  8. Sodium exclusion QTL associated with improved seedling growth in bread wheat under salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Genc, Y; Oldach, K; Verbyla, A P; Lott, G; Hassan, M; Tester, M; Wallwork, H; McDonald, G K

    2010-09-01

    Worldwide, dryland salinity is a major limitation to crop production. Breeding for salinity tolerance could be an effective way of improving yield and yield stability on saline-sodic soils of dryland agriculture. However, this requires a good understanding of inheritance of this quantitative trait. In the present study, a doubled-haploid bread wheat population (Berkut/Krichauff) was grown in supported hydroponics to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with salinity tolerance traits commonly reported in the literature (leaf symptoms, tiller number, seedling biomass, chlorophyll content, and shoot Na(+) and K(+) concentrations), understand the relationships amongst these traits, and determine their genetic value for marker-assisted selection. There was considerable segregation within the population for all traits measured. With a genetic map of 527 SSR-, DArT- and gene-based markers, a total of 40 QTL were detected for all seven traits. For the first time in a cereal species, a QTL interval for Na(+) exclusion (wPt-3114-wmc170) was associated with an increase (10%) in seedling biomass. Of the five QTL identified for Na(+) exclusion, two were co-located with seedling biomass (2A and 6A). The 2A QTL appears to coincide with the previously reported Na(+) exclusion locus in durum wheat that hosts one active HKT1;4 (Nax1) and one inactive HKT1;4 gene. Using these sequences as template for primer design enabled mapping of at least three HKT1;4 genes onto chromosome 2AL in bread wheat, suggesting that bread wheat carries more HKT1;4 gene family members than durum wheat. However, the combined effects of all Na(+) exclusion loci only accounted for 18% of the variation in seedling biomass under salinity stress indicating that there were other mechanisms of salinity tolerance operative at the seedling stage in this population. Na(+) and K(+) accumulation appear under separate genetic control. The molecular markers wmc170 (2A) and cfd080 (6A) are expected to

  9. Evolution of the BBAA Component of Bread Wheat during Its History at the Allohexaploid Level[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huakun; Zhu, Bo; Qi, Bao; Gou, Xiaowan; Dong, Yuzhu; Xu, Chunming; Zhang, Bangjiao; Huang, Wei; Liu, Chang; Wang, Xutong; Yang, Chunwu; Zhou, Hao; Kashkush, Khalil; Feldman, Moshe; Wendel, Jonathan F.; Liu, Bao

    2014-01-01

    Subgenome integrity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum; BBAADD) makes possible the extraction of its BBAA component to restitute a novel plant type. The availability of such a ploidy-reversed wheat (extracted tetraploid wheat [ETW]) provides a unique opportunity to address whether and to what extent the BBAA component of bread wheat has been modified in phenotype, karyotype, and gene expression during its evolutionary history at the allohexaploid level. We report here that ETW was anomalous in multiple phenotypic traits but maintained a stable karyotype. Microarray-based transcriptome profiling identified a large number of differentially expressed genes between ETW and natural tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum), and the ETW-downregulated genes were enriched for distinct Gene Ontology categories. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that gene expression differences between ETW and a set of diverse durum wheat (T. turgidum subsp durum) cultivars were distinct from those characterizing tetraploid cultivars per se. Pyrosequencing revealed that the expression alterations may occur to either only one or both of the B and A homoeolog transcripts in ETW. A majority of the genes showed additive expression in a resynthesized allohexaploid wheat. Analysis of a synthetic allohexaploid wheat and diverse bread wheat cultivars revealed the rapid occurrence of expression changes to the BBAA subgenomes subsequent to allohexaploidization and their evolutionary persistence. PMID:24989045

  10. Berries reduce postprandial insulin responses to wheat and rye breads in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Törrönen, Riitta; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Sarkkinen, Essi; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu; Niskanen, Leo

    2013-04-01

    Starch in white wheat bread (WB) induces high postprandial glucose and insulin responses. For rye bread (RB), the glucose response is similar, whereas the insulin response is lower. In vitro studies suggest that polyphenol-rich berries may reduce digestion and absorption of starch and thereby suppress postprandial glycemia, but the evidence in humans is limited. We investigated the effects of berries consumed with WB or RB on postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Healthy females (n = 13-20) participated in 3 randomized, controlled, crossover, 2-h meal studies. They consumed WB or RB, both equal to 50 g available starch, with 150 g whole-berry purée or the same amount of bread without berries as reference. In study 1, WB was served with strawberries, bilberries, or lingonberries and in study 2 with raspberries, cloudberries, or chokeberries. In study 3, WB or RB was served with a mixture of berries consisting of equal amounts of strawberries, bilberries, cranberries, and blackcurrants. Strawberries, bilberries, lingonberries, and chokeberries consumed with WB and the berry mixture consumed with WB or RB significantly reduced the postprandial insulin response. Only strawberries (36%) and the berry mixture (with WB, 38%; with RB, 19%) significantly improved the glycemic profile of the breads. These results suggest than when WB is consumed with berries, less insulin is needed for maintenance of normal or slightly improved postprandial glucose metabolism. The lower insulin response to RB compared with WB can also be further reduced by berries. PMID:23365108

  11. Intake of whole-grain and fiber-rich rye bread versus refined wheat bread does not differentiate intestinal microbiota composition in Finnish adults with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lappi, Jenni; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa; de Vos, Willem M; Salonen, Anne

    2013-05-01

    Whole-grain (WG) foods rich in indigestible carbohydrates are thought to modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota. We investigated in a randomized, parallel, 2-arm 12-wk intervention whether consumption of WG and fiber-rich rye breads compared with refined wheat breads affected the microbiota composition in Finnish individuals aged 60 ± 6 y with metabolic syndrome. Fecal samples from 51 participants (25 males, 26 females) before and after the intervention were processed for the microbiota analysis using a phylogenetic microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reactions targeting the 16S rRNA gene. The intake of whole grains calculated from food records was higher in the group consuming rye breads (75 g) than in that consuming refined wheat breads (4 g; P < 0.001), confirmed by fasting plasma alkylrecorsinol concentrations, a biomarker of whole grain intake. The intestinal microbiota composition did not significantly differ between the groups after the intervention. However, we detected a 37% decrease of Bacteroidetes (P < 0.05) in parallel to a 53% decrease in the alkylrecorsinol concentration (P < 0.001) in the group consuming refined wheat breads. In this group, the abundance of bacteria related to Bacteroides vulgatus, B. plebeius, and Prevotella tannerae decreased, whereas that of bacteria related to Collinsella and members of the Clostridium clusters IV and XI increased. In a multivariate regression analysis, the abundance of Bacteroides spp. was best explained by different fat compounds among dietary variables, whereas the main sugar-converting butyrate-producers were mostly associated with the intake of whole- and refined-grain bread and fiber. Our results indicate that the quality of grains has a minor effect on the intestinal microbiota composition in participants with metabolic syndrome and suggest that the dietary influence on the microbiota involves other dietary components such as fat. PMID:23514765

  12. Differentiation of Bread Made with Whole Grain and Refined Wheat (T. aestivum) Flour Using LC/MS-based chromatographic Fingerprinting and Chemometric Approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fuzzy chromatography mass spectrometric (FCMS) fingerprinting method combined with chemometric analysis was established to diffrentiate between whole wheat (WW) flours and refined wheat (RW) flour, and the breads made from them. The chemical compositions of the bread samples were profiled using h...

  13. Gluten quality of bread wheat is associated with activity of RabD GTPases

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Adam M; Bhandari, Dhan G; Poole, Mervin; Napier, Johnathan A; Jones, Huw D; Lu, Chungui; Lycett, Grantley W

    2015-01-01

    In the developing endosperm of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), seed storage proteins are produced on the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and transported to protein bodies, specialized vacuoles for the storage of protein. The functionally important gluten proteins of wheat are transported by two distinct routes to the protein bodies where they are stored: vesicles that bud directly off the ER and transport through the Golgi. However, little is known about the processing of glutenin and gliadin proteins during these steps or the possible impact on their properties. In plants, the RabD GTPases mediate ER-to-Golgi vesicle transport. Available sequence information for Rab GTPases in Arabidopsis, rice, Brachypodium and bread wheat was compiled and compared to identify wheat RabD orthologs. Partial genetic sequences were assembled using the first draft of the Chinese Spring wheat genome. A suitable candidate gene from the RabD clade (TaRabD2a) was chosen for down-regulation by RNA interference (RNAi), and an RNAi construct was used to transform wheat plants. All four available RabD genes were shown by qRT-PCR to be down-regulated in the transgenic developing endosperm. The transgenic grain was found to produce flour with significantly altered processing properties when measured by farinograph and extensograph. SE-HPLC found that a smaller proportion of HMW-GS and large proportion of LMW-GS are incorporated into the glutenin macropolymer in the transgenic dough. Lower protein content but a similar protein profile on SDS-PAGE was seen in the transgenic grain. PMID:25047236

  14. PRODUCTION OF A NOVEL ROBERTSONIAN TRANSLOCATION FROM THINOPYRUM BESSARABICUM INTO BREAD WHEAT.

    PubMed

    Ghazali, S; Mirzaghaderi, G; Majdi, M

    2015-01-01

    Development of wheat-alien translocation lines will facilitate its practical utilization in wheat improvement. The objective of the present study was to produce compensating wheat--Thinopyrum bessarabicum whole arm Robertsonian translocations (RobTs) involving chromosomes 2B of wheat and 2E(b) of Th. bessarabicum through the mechanism of centric breakage-fusion. F2 population from crosses between DS2E(b)(2B) substitution line and bread wheat 'Roushan' (2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) as female parent were made. Forty one F2 lines (L1 to L41) were screened for their chromosome composition. Three 2E(b) specific PCR-based Landmark Unique Gene (PLUG) markers were used for screening F2 progeny derived from plants double-monosomic for chromosome 2B and 2E(b). Two Rob Ts (-5%) were observed among F2 plants. Homozygous translocation (T2E(b)S.2BL) with good plant vigor and full fertility were selected from F3 families. The T2E(b)S.2BL stock has longer awn than that of its parents. It is cytogenetically stable, and may be useful in wheat improvement. PMID:26841492

  15. Antioxidant, nutritional and functional characteristics of wheat bread enriched with ground flaxseed hulls.

    PubMed

    Sęczyk, Łukasz; Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz; Anders, Andrzej; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidant capacity, nutritional and functional quality of wheat bread supplemented with 1-5% flaxseed hull (FH) were studied. Analyses of the chemically-extractable fraction show that supplementation with 5% of FH increased (compared to control) phenolics content (by 93%), radicals scavenging ability (by 176%) and reducing power (by 220%). Furthermore, phenolic antioxidants were bioaccessible in vitro (samples after simulated digestion). Fortification had no significant influence on rapidly and slowly digestible starch, in vitro starch digestibility and values of expected glycemic index; however, a decrease (up to 8%) of relative proteins digestibility was determined. Enrichment decreased loaf volume and increased crumb hardness. The results from sensory evaluation show that the incorporation of FH had a slightly unfavorable effect on bread sensory properties but ensured satisfactory consumer acceptability. In view of these facts, it is concluded that flaxseed hulls may be a beneficial food additive. PMID:27507444

  16. Nutritional and technological quality of bread enriched with an intermediated pearled wheat fraction.

    PubMed

    Blandino, Massimo; Sovrani, Valentina; Marinaccio, Federico; Reyneri, Amedeo; Rolle, Luca; Giacosa, Simone; Locatelli, Monica; Bordiga, Matteo; Travaglia, Fabiano; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Arlorio, Marco

    2013-12-01

    A strategy to maximise the health benefits of wheat-based products enriched with refined flour and selected fractions of kernel, obtained by sequential pearling, has been tested. Five mixtures of refined commercial flour with an increasing replacement of a pearled wheat fraction were used to prepare bread and were compared with a control for the dough rheological properties (Mixolab® parameters), the bioactive compound content, deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination and the physical properties (volume, crust colour, instrumental crunchiness and crumb texture profile analysis parameters). The antioxidant and dietary fibre contents increased linearly as the flour was enriched with the pearled fraction. The dietary fibre, β-glucan, total phenolic, alkylresorcinol content and the antioxidant activity increased significantly at a replacement level of 10%, while the technological properties were not significantly different from those of the control. It has been shown that refined flour could be enriched through the addition of a selected wheat pearled fraction and the bioactive compound content of composite bread could be improved, while few rheological and technological differences could be obtained and the risk for DON contamination could be limited. PMID:23870994

  17. Quality assessment and consumer acceptability of bread from wheat and fermented banana flour.

    PubMed

    Adebayo-Oyetoro, Abiodun Omowonuola; Ogundipe, Oladeinde Olatunde; Adeeko, Kehinde Nojeemdeen

    2016-05-01

    Bread was produced from wheat flour and fermented unripe banana using the straight dough method. Matured unripe banana was peeled, sliced, steam blanched, dried and milled, and sieved to obtain flour. The flour was mixed with water and made into slurry and allowed to stand for 24 h after which it was divided into several portions and blended with wheat flour in different ratios. Proximate and mineral compositions as well as functional, pasting, and sensory characteristics of the samples were determined. The results of proximate analysis showed that crude fiber ranged between 1.95% and 3.19%, carbohydrate was between 49.70% and 52.98% and protein was 6.92% and 10.25%, respectively, while iron was between 27.07 mg/100 g and 29.30 mg/100 g. Swelling capacity of the experimental samples showed a significant difference from that of control. Peak viscosity ranged between 97.00RVU and 153.63RVU for experimental samples compared with 392.35RVU obtained for the control. Most of the sensory properties for the experimental samples were significantly different from the control. This study showed that bread with better quality and acceptability can be produced from wheat-unripe banana blends. PMID:27247766

  18. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure Analysis of European Hexaploid Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Nanna Hellum; Backes, Gunter; Stougaard, Jens; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj; Jahoor, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Progress in plant breeding is facilitated by accurate information about genetic structure and diversity. Here, Diversity Array Technology (DArT) was used to characterize a population of 94 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties of mainly European origin. In total, 1,849 of 7,000 tested markers were polymorphic and could be used for population structure analysis. Two major subgroups of wheat varieties, GrI and GrII, were identified using the program STRUCTURE, and confirmed by principal component analysis (PCA). These subgroups were largely separated according to origin; GrI comprised varieties from Southern and Eastern Europe, whereas GrII contained mostly modern varieties from Western and Northern Europe. A large proportion of the markers contributing most to the genetic separation of the subgroups were located on chromosome 2D near the Reduced height 8 (Rht8) locus, and PCR-based genotyping suggested that breeding for the Rht8 allele had a major impact on subgroup separation. Consistently, analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) suggested that different selective pressures had acted on chromosome 2D in the two subgroups. Our data provides an overview of the allele composition of bread wheat varieties anchored to DArT markers, which will facilitate targeted combination of alleles following DArT-based QTL studies. In addition, the genetic diversity and distance data combined with specific Rht8 genotypes can now be used by breeders to guide selection of crossing parents. PMID:24718292

  19. Gluten characteristics imparting bread quality in wheats differing for high molecular weight glutenin subunits at Glu D1 locus.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Devinder; Gupta, Raj Kumar

    2015-07-01

    High yielding genotypes differing for high molecular weight glutenin subunits at Glu D1 locus in national wheat programme of India were examined for bread loaf volume, gluten and protein contents, gluten strength, gluten index and protein-gluten ratio. Number of superior bread quality genotypes in four agro-climatically diverse zones of Indian plains was comparable in both categories of wheat i.e., 5 + 10 and 2 + 12. There wasn't any difference in average bread loaf volume and grain protein content either. 5 + 10 wheats showed better gluten strength and their gluten quality was also superior in the zones where protein content was high. 2 + 10 wheats exerted more gluten due to better protein-gluten ratio. Good bread making in 5 + 10 was derived by better gluten strength and also gluten quality in certain regions but bread quality in 2 + 12 wheats was channelized through higher gluten content as they were more efficient in extracting gluten from per unit protein. Difference in route to bread quality was apparent as gluten content and gluten strength were the key gluten attributes in 5 + 10 whereas protein content and gluten index were prominent in 2 + 12 types. Unlike 2 + 12, there was a ceiling in gluten harvest of 5 + 10 wheats as higher protein failed to deliver more gluten after some limit. PMID:26261410

  20. Fortification of Wheat Bread with 3-7% Defatted Soy Flour Improves Formulation, Organoleptic Characteristics, and Rat Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodi, Mohammad Reza; Mashayekh, Morteza; Entezari, Mohammad Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study designed to test effects of defatted soy-fortified wheat bread on the organoleptic properties as well as influences on rat growth rate. Methods: Defatted soy flour (DSF) was blended with wheat flour with extraction rate of 82-84% at 3, 7, and 7% levels plus 3% sugar. Bread produced with these blends compared with regular Taftoon bread and was tested for chemical and organoleptic characteristics. The organoleptic characteristics of blends consist of taste and flavor, crust texture, fragrance and aroma, appearance, bendability, and overall acceptability were determined through taste panel by 213 judges. Forty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly given codes and allocated to different groups via tables with random numbers to feed on three DSF-fortified bread blends and control bread for 30 days. Results: The blending of wheat flour with DSF altered the organoleptic properties of breads. Addition of DSF increased significantly the protein and ash content of the bread (P < 0.05). Organoleptic test indicates that the best formulation is between 3 and 7% fortifications of DSF blends. In biological evaluation, rats fed the control diet had the lowest body weight gain and their food efficiency ratio was significantly different (P < 0.05) in compare with 7% DSF-fortified blend. Conclusions: It was concluded that overall acceptability score significantly decreased with increasing DSF substitution level. Rats fed 7% DSF-fortified blend showed privileged food efficiency ratio. Then, the best formulation is between 3 and 7% DSF bread. This formulation can nourish all human at risk of malnutrition. PMID:24554990

  1. Effects of chickpea flour on wheat pasting properties and bread making quality.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, I; Ahmed, Abdelrahman R; Senge, B

    2014-09-01

    Pulses (pea, chickpea, lentil, bean) are an important source of food proteins. They contain high amounts of lysine, leucine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and arginine and provide well balanced essential amino acid profiles when consumed with cereals. The influence of partial substitution of wheat flour with chickpea flour at the levels of 10, 20 and 30 % was carried out to study their pasting properties and bread making quality. Pasting properties were determined using Micro Visco-Amylo-Graph Analyser and Farinograph. The pasting temperature increased with increase chickpea flour concentration and the temperature of pasting ranged between 62 to 66.5 °C. No peak of viscosity curve was found for pure chickpea flour and have higher pasting temperature than pure wheat flour. Chickpea flour addition increased the water absorption and dough development time (p < 0.05), Regarding dough stability, it appears that 10 % chickpea exhibited higher stability and resistance to mechanical mixing values than the control, while it decreased as the substitute level increases from 20 % to 30 %. The dough surface of the wheat dough and the blend with 10 % was classified as "normal", however the blend with 20 % and 30 % produced "sticky" dough surface. The presence of chickpea flour in dough affected bread quality in terms of volume, internal structure and texture. The color of crust and crumb got progressively darker as the level of chickpea flour substitution increased. While the substitution of wheat flour with 10 % chickpea flour gave loaves as similar as control. PMID:25190845

  2. Effect of lactic acid fermentation of lupine wholemeal on acrylamide content and quality characteristics of wheat-lupine bread.

    PubMed

    Bartkiene, Elena; Jakobsone, Ida; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Pugajeva, Iveta; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2013-11-01

    The effect of supplementing wheat flour at a level of 15% with lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) wholemeal fermented by different lactic acid bacteria on acrylamide content in bread crumb as well as on bread texture and sensory characteristics was analysed. The use of fermented lupine resulted in a lower specific volume and crumb porosity of bread on an average by 14.1% and 10.5%, respectively, while untreated lupine lowered the latter parameters at a higher level (30.8% and 20.7%, respectively). The addition of lupine resulted in a higher by 43.3% acrylamide content compared to wheat bread (19.4 µg/kg dry weight (d.w.)). Results showed that acrylamide was significantly reduced using proteolytic Lactobacillus sakei and Pediococcus pentosaceus 10 strains for lupine fermentation. Although the bread supplemented with lupine spontaneous sourdough had the lowest level of acrylamide (15.6 µg/kg d.w.), it had the malodorous flavour and was unacceptable to the consumers. The lactofermentation could increase the potential use of lupine as a food ingredient while reducing acrylamide formation and enriching bread with high quality proteins. PMID:23763660

  3. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Linkage Disequilibrium in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Tascioglu, Tulin; Metin, Ozge Karakas; Aydin, Yildiz; Sakiroglu, Muhammet; Akan, Kadir; Uncuoglu, Ahu Altinkut

    2016-08-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) gene pool was analyzed with 117 microsatellite markers scattered throughout A, B, and D genomes. Ninety microsatellite markers were giving 1620 polymorphic alleles in 55 different bread wheat genotypes. These genotypes were found to be divided into three subgroups based on Bayesian model and Principal component analysis. The highest polymorphism information content value for the markers resides on A genome was estimated for wmc262 marker located on 4A chromosome with the polymorphism information content value of 0.960. The highest polymorphism information content value (0.954) among the markers known to be located on B genome was realized for wmc44 marker located on 1B chromosome. The highest polymorphism information content value for the markers specific to D genome was found in gwm174 marker located on 5D chromosome with the polymorphism information content value of 0.948. The presence of linkage disequilibrium between 81 pairwise SSR markers reside on the same chromosome was tested and very limited linkage disequilibrium was observed. The results confirmed that the most distant genotype pairs were as follows Ceyhan-99-Behoth 6, Gerek 79-Douma 40989, and Karahan-99-Douma 48114. PMID:27048293

  4. Genetic analysis of carbon isotope discrimination and agronomic characters in a bread wheat cross.

    PubMed

    Ehdaie, B; Waines, J G

    1994-09-01

    Carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) has been suggested as a selection criterion to improve transpiration efficiency (W) in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Cultivars 'Chinese Spring' with low A (high W) and 'Yecora Rojo' with high Δ (low W) were crossed to develop F1, F2, BC1, and BC2 populations for genetic analysis of Δ and other agronomic characters under well-watered (wet) and water-stressed (dry) field conditions. Significant variation was observed among the generations for Δ only under the wet environment. Generation x irrigation interactions were not significant for Δ. Generation means analysis indicated that additive gene action is of primary importance in the expression of Δ under nonstress conditions. Dominance gene action was also detected for Δ, and the direction of dominance was toward higher values of Δ. The broad-sense and the narrow-sense heritabilities for Δ were 61 % and 57% under the wet conditions, but were 48% and 12% under the draughted conditions, respectively. The narrow-sense heritabilities for grain yield, above-ground dry matter, and harvest index were 36%, 39%, and 60% under the wet conditions and 21%, 44%, and 20% under dry conditions, respectively. The significant additive genetic variation and moderate estimate of the narrow-sense heritability observed for Δ indicated that selection under wet environments should be effective in changing Δ in spring bread wheat. PMID:24186257

  5. The Na(+) transporter, TaHKT1;5-D, limits shoot Na(+) accumulation in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Byrt, Caitlin Siobhan; Xu, Bo; Krishnan, Mahima; Lightfoot, Damien James; Athman, Asmini; Jacobs, Andrew Keith; Watson-Haigh, Nathan S; Plett, Darren; Munns, Rana; Tester, Mark; Gilliham, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has a major salt tolerance locus, Kna1, responsible for the maintenance of a high cytosolic K(+) /Na(+) ratio in the leaves of salt stressed plants. The Kna1 locus encompasses a large DNA fragment, the distal 14% of chromosome 4DL. Limited recombination has been observed at this locus making it difficult to map genetically and identify the causal gene. Here, we decipher the function of TaHKT1;5-D, a candidate gene underlying the Kna1 locus. Transport studies using the heterologous expression systems Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is a Na(+) -selective transporter. Transient expression in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplasts and in situ polymerase chain reaction indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is localised on the plasma membrane in the wheat root stele. RNA interference-induced silencing decreased the expression of TaHKT1;5-D in transgenic bread wheat lines which led to an increase in the Na(+) concentration in the leaves. This indicates that TaHKT1;5-D retrieves Na(+) from the xylem vessels in the root and has an important role in restricting the transport of Na(+) from the root to the leaves in bread wheat. Thus, TaHKT1;5-D confers the essential salinity tolerance mechanism in bread wheat associated with the Kna1 locus via shoot Na(+) exclusion and is critical in maintaining a high K(+) /Na(+) ratio in the leaves. These findings show there is potential to increase the salinity tolerance of bread wheat by manipulation of HKT1;5 genes. PMID:25158883

  6. Phytase activity of lactic acid bacteria and their impact on the solubility of minerals from wholemeal wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Cizeikiene, Dalia; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Bartkiene, Elena; Damasius, Jonas; Paskevicius, Algimantas

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determinate phytase activity of bacteriocins producing lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from spontaneous rye sourdough. The results show that the highest extracellular phytase activity produces Pediococcus pentosaceus KTU05-8 and KTU05-9 strains with a volumetric phytase activity of 32 and 54 U/ml, respectively, under conditions similar to leavening of bread dough (pH 5.5 and 30 °C). In vitro studies in simulated gastrointestinal tract media pH provide that bioproducts prepared with P. pentosaceus strains used in wholemeal wheat bread preparation increase solubility of iron, zinc, manganese, calcium and phosphorus average 30%. Therefore, P. pentosaceus KTU05-9 and KTU05-8 strains could be recommended to use as a starter for sourdough preparation for increasing of mineral bioavailability from wholemeal wheat bread. PMID:26397032

  7. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of bread and cracker products made from red or white wheat.

    PubMed

    Challacombe, Carolyn A; Seetharaman, Koushik; Duizer, Lisa M

    2011-01-01

    Whole grain consumption is being promoted due to a number of associated health benefits. However, whole grain consumption is below recommendations possibly due to the presence of characteristic flavors that consumers find unacceptable. The objective of this study was to investigate the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of products made from commercial whole grain flours produced from red or white wheats, and with fine or coarse bran particle sizes. Descriptive analysis and consumer acceptance panels were used to characterize both low (cracker) and intermediate (bread) moisture products made with the flours. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to correlate the descriptive and consumer data. Sensory differences in whole grain products made from red or white wheat with small or large bran particles sizes and product moisture contents were observed. Bran particle size had a greater effect on the sensory properties of the whole grain products, particularly within the cracker; conversely bran particle size had little influence on consumer acceptance. Red wheat products were found to be more acceptable than the white wheat products. However, a number of color × bran particle interactions were observed in both the descriptive and consumer data. PLS regression demonstrated that consumers could be divided into groupings based upon certain attributes and characteristics. PMID:22417450

  8. FIELD-BASED EVALUATION OF VERNALIZATION REQUIREMENT, PHOTOPERIOD RESPONSE AND EARLINESS PER SE IN BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vernalization requirement, photoperiod response and earliness per se (EPS) of bread wheat cultivars are often determined using controlled environments. However, use of non-field conditions may reduce the applicability of results for predicting field performance as well as increase the cost of evalu...

  9. Gradual Incorporation of Whole Wheat Flour into Bread Products for Elementary School Children Improves Whole Grain Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Renee A.; Sadeghi, Lelia; Schroeder, Natalia; Reicks, Marla M.; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Whole grain intake is associated with health benefits but current consumption by children is only about one-third of the recommended level. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of an innovative approach whereby the whole wheat content of bread products in school lunches was gradually increased to increase whole grain…

  10. Transcriptome-wide identification of bread wheat WRKY transcription factors in response to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Okay, Sezer; Derelli, Ebru; Unver, Turgay

    2014-10-01

    The WRKY superfamily of transcription factors was shown to be involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), one of the major crops largely cultivated and consumed all over the world. Drought is an important abiotic stress resulting in a considerable amount of loss in agronomical yield. Therefore, identification of drought responsive WRKY members in wheat has a profound significance. Here, a total of 160 TaWRKY proteins were characterized according to sequence similarity, motif varieties, and their phylogenetic relationships. The conserved sequences of the TaWRKYs were aligned and classified into three main groups and five subgroups. A novel motif in wheat, WRKYGQR, was identified. To putatively determine the drought responsive TaWRKY members, publicly available RNA-Seq data were analyzed for the first time in this study. Through in silico searches, 35 transcripts were detected having an identity to ten known TaWRKY genes. Furthermore, relative expression levels of TaWRKY16/TaWRKY16-A, TaWRKY17, TaWRKY19-C, TaWRKY24, TaWRKY59, TaWRKY61, and TaWRKY82 were measured in root and leaf tissues of drought-tolerant Sivas 111/33 and susceptible Atay 85 cultivars. All of the quantified TaWRKY transcripts were found to be up-regulated in root tissue of Sivas 111/33. Differential expression of TaWRKY16, TaWRKY24, TaWRKY59, TaWRKY61 and TaWRKY82 genes was discovered for the first time upon drought stress in wheat. These comprehensive analyses bestow a better understanding about the WRKY TFs in bread wheat under water deficit, and increased number of drought responsive WRKYs would contribute to the molecular breeding of tolerant wheat cultivars. PMID:24748053

  11. Selection and hydroponic growth of bread wheat cultivars for bioregenerative life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, V.; Feller, U.

    2013-08-01

    As part of the ESA-funded MELiSSA program, the suitability, the growth and the development of four bread wheat cultivars were investigated in hydroponic culture with the aim to incorporate such a cultivation system in an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Wheat plants can fulfill three major functions in space: (a) fixation of CO2 and production of O2, (b) production of grains for human nutrition and (c) production of cleaned water after condensation of the water vapor released from the plants by transpiration. Four spring wheat cultivars (Aletsch, Fiorina, Greina and CH Rubli) were grown hydroponically and compared with respect to growth and grain maturation properties. The height of the plants, the culture duration from germination to harvest, the quantity of water used, the number of fertile and non-fertile tillers as well as the quantity and quality of the grains harvested were considered. Mature grains could be harvested after around 160 days depending on the varieties. It became evident that the nutrient supply is crucial in this context and strongly affects leaf senescence and grain maturation. After a first experiment, the culture conditions were improved for the second experiment (stepwise decrease of EC after flowering, pH adjusted twice a week, less plants per m2) leading to a more favorable harvest (higher grain yield and harvest index). Considerably less green tillers without mature grains were present at harvest time in experiment 2 than in experiment 1. The harvest index for dry matter (including roots) ranged from 0.13 to 0.35 in experiment 1 and from 0.23 to 0.41 in experiment 2 with modified culture conditions. The thousand-grain weight for the four varieties ranged from 30.4 to 36.7 g in experiment 1 and from 33.2 to 39.1 g in experiment 2, while market samples were in the range of 39.4-46.9 g. Calcium levels in grains of the hydroponically grown wheat were similar to those from field-grown wheat, while potassium, magnesium

  12. Rope-Producing Strains of Bacillus spp. from Wheat Bread and Strategy for Their Control by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Pepe, Olimpia; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Greco, Teresa; Villani, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    Two types of white wheat bread (high- and low-type loaves) were investigated for rope spoilage. Thirty of the 56 breads tested developed rope spoilage within 5 days; the high-type loaves were affected by rope spoilage more than the low-type loaves. Sixty-one Bacillus strains were isolated from ropy breads and were characterized on the basis of their phenotypic and genotypic traits. All of the isolates were identified as Bacillus subtilis by biochemical tests, but molecular assays (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR assay, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis, and sequencing of the V3 region of 16S ribosomal DNA) revealed greater Bacillus species variety in ropy breads. In fact, besides strains of B. subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus, and isolates of Bacillus clausii and Bacillus firmus were also identified. All of the ropy Bacillus isolates exhibited amylase activity, whereas only 32.4% of these isolates were able to produce ropiness in bread slices after treatment at 96°C for 10 min. Strains of lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from sourdough were first selected for antirope activity on bread slices and then used as starters for bread-making experiments. Prevention of growth of approximately 104 rope-producing B. subtilis G1 spores per cm2 on bread slices for more than 15 days was observed when heat-treated cultures of Lactobacillus plantarum E5 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides A27 were added. Growth of B. subtilis G1 occurred after 7 days in breads started with Saccharomyces cerevisiae T22, L. plantarum E5, and L. mesenteroides A27. PMID:12676716

  13. Rope-producing strains of Bacillus spp. from wheat bread and strategy for their control by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Olimpia; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Greco, Teresa; Villani, Francesco

    2003-04-01

    Two types of white wheat bread (high- and low-type loaves) were investigated for rope spoilage. Thirty of the 56 breads tested developed rope spoilage within 5 days; the high-type loaves were affected by rope spoilage more than the low-type loaves. Sixty-one Bacillus strains were isolated from ropy breads and were characterized on the basis of their phenotypic and genotypic traits. All of the isolates were identified as Bacillus subtilis by biochemical tests, but molecular assays (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR assay, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis, and sequencing of the V3 region of 16S ribosomal DNA) revealed greater Bacillus species variety in ropy breads. In fact, besides strains of B. subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus, and isolates of Bacillus clausii and Bacillus firmus were also identified. All of the ropy Bacillus isolates exhibited amylase activity, whereas only 32.4% of these isolates were able to produce ropiness in bread slices after treatment at 96 degrees C for 10 min. Strains of lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from sourdough were first selected for antirope activity on bread slices and then used as starters for bread-making experiments. Prevention of growth of approximately 10(4) rope-producing B. subtilis G1 spores per cm(2) on bread slices for more than 15 days was observed when heat-treated cultures of Lactobacillus plantarum E5 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides A27 were added. Growth of B. subtilis G1 occurred after 7 days in breads started with Saccharomyces cerevisiae T22, L. plantarum E5, and L. mesenteroides A27. PMID:12676716

  14. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    PubMed Central

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A.; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A.; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O.; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A.

    2016-01-01

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05). PMID:26901186

  15. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-01-01

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05). PMID:26901186

  16. Comparison of homo- and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria for implementation of fermented wheat bran in bread.

    PubMed

    Prückler, Michael; Lorenz, Cindy; Endo, Akihito; Kraler, Manuel; Dürrschmid, Klaus; Hendriks, Karel; Soares da Silva, Francisco; Auterith, Eric; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Michlmayr, Herbert

    2015-08-01

    Despite its potential health benefits, the integration of wheat bran into the food sector is difficult due to several adverse technological and sensory properties such as bitterness and grittiness. Sourdough fermentation is a promising strategy to improve the sensory quality of bran without inducing severe changes to the bran matrix. Therefore, identification of species/strains with potential for industrial sourdough fermentations is important. We compared the effects of different representatives of species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on wheat bran. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Fructobacillus fructosus produced highly individual fermentation patterns as judged from carbohydrate consumption and organic acid production. Interestingly, fructose was released during all bran fermentations and possibly influenced the fermentation profiles of obligately heterofermentative species to varying degrees. Except for the reduction of ferulic acid by L. plantarum and L. pentosus, analyses of phenolic compounds and alkylresorcinols suggested that only minor changes thereof were induced by the LAB metabolism. Sensory analysis of breads baked with fermented bran did not reveal significant differences regarding perceived bitterness and aftertaste. We conclude that in addition to more traditionally used sourdough species such as L. sanfranciscensis and L. brevis, also facultatively heterofermentative species such as L. plantarum and L. pentosus possess potential for industrial wheat bran fermentations and should be considered in further investigations. PMID:25846933

  17. Transcriptome analysis of the Chinese bread wheat cultivar Yunong 201 and its ethyl methanesulfonate mutant line.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Wang, Shasha; Zhang, Xiangfen; Dong, Zhongdong; Chen, Feng; Cui, Dangqun

    2016-01-10

    Roche 454 next-generation sequencing was applied to obtain extensive information about the transcriptomes of the bread wheat cultivar Yunong 201 and its EMS mutant line Yunong 3114. Totals of 1.43 million and 1.44 million raw reads were generated, 14,432, 17,845 and 27,867 isotigs were constructed using the reads in Yunong 201, Yunong 3114 and their combination, respectively. Moreover, 29,042, 34,722, and 48,486 unigenes were generated in Yunong 201, Yunong 3114, and combined cultivars, respectively. A total of 50,382 and 59,891 unigenes from the Yunong 201 and Yunong 3114 were mapped on different chromosomes. Of all unigenes, 1363 DEGs were identified in Yunong 201 and Yunong 3114. qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the expression profiles of 40 candidate unigenes possibly related to abiotic stresses. The expression patterns of four annotated DEGs were also verified in the two wheat cultivars under abiotic stresses. This study provided useful information for further analysis of wheat functional genomics. PMID:26342963

  18. [Composition and potential contribution of iron, calcium and zinc of bread and pasta made with wheat and amaranth flours].

    PubMed

    Dyner, Luis; Drago, Silvina R; Piñeiro, Adriana; Sánchez, Hugo; González, Rolando; Villaamil, Edda; Valencia, Mirta E

    2007-03-01

    Amaranth, a traditional american crop that is nowadays given renewed importance, has good food potential value. The minerals contributed by the grain are quantitatively important. However, as the flour is obtained by total grinding of the grain, this process leads to the presence of anti-nutritional components, such as fitates, and therefore, the evaluation of the actual availability of the minerals of nutritional interest becomes necessary. The process of bread fermentation, plus the addition of fitases and enhancers of mineral availability such as citric and ascorbic acid, might improve mineral bioavailability. The objective of this work was to assess protein, ash, lipids and total dietary fiber content and evaluate the concentration and dialyzability of Fe, Zn and Ca (as mineral bioavailability indicator) in bread and pasta 100% wheat, and bread and pasta obtained by replacing 20% wheat flour (WF) with whole amaranth flour (WAF). Ascorbic acid (AA), citric acid (CA) and fitase were used as mineral bioavailability enhancers. The potential contribution of each mineral (PC) was calculated as each mineral concentration times its dialyzability. In 80:20 bread an increase of total dietary fiber and minerals, compared to 100% wheat products was observed. A maximum FePC in 80:20 bread was obtained with CA and fitase (0.55mg%). In pasta, the maximum effect was observed with CA (0.07 mg%). The CaPC was maximum in 80:20 pasta with CA (16.72 mg%). The greatest ZnPC was found in 80:20 bread with CA and fitase (0.40 mg%). The introduction of the WAF in fermented baked products with addition of CA and fitase allows to obtain nutritional advantages. PMID:17824202

  19. Production of low chlorogenic and caffeic acid containing sunflower meal protein isolate and its use in functional wheat bread making.

    PubMed

    Shchekoldina, Tatiana; Aider, Mohammed

    2014-10-01

    Sunflower meal protein isolate (SMPI) is a promising food additive in different matrices. However, the uses of SMPI are limited because of the presence of antinutritional compounds like polyphenolic substances. Chlorogenic and caffeic acids are the dominants polyphenolics in the SMPI. These substances cause significant changes of the colour of the meal, proteins and food matrices during their extraction and use as food additives. Moreover, these substances lower the nutritional value of the end product due to their interaction with some amino acids such as lysine and methionine. Thus, the removal of these substances is important to enable the use of the SMPI and meal in general in a greater extent in food applications and replacing more expensive protein sources such as soy proteins. The aim of this work was to study the production of functional bread by supplementing wheat flour with sunflower meal protein isolate (SMPI). SMPI with low content of chlorogenic and caffeic acid was usefully produced following alkaline extraction and purification with succinic acid. Purified SMPI showed well balanced amino acid profile and was characterized by high water and fat absorption capacities. It was incorporated to dough formula at 8-12 % of the total wheat flour. The results showed that production of bread supplemented with SMPI was technologically feasible. The supplemented bread had high mass volume and nutritional quality compared to the control bread. The optimal SMPI to incorporate into dough formula without significant alteration of the final bread colour was established at 10 %. This study will be helpful to find economic ways to enhance the nutritional quality of wheat bread and to improve the profitability of sunflower meal residue. PMID:25328173

  20. Effect of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers on the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat bread after storage.

    PubMed

    Eduardo, Maria; Svanberg, Ulf; Ahrné, Lilia

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers on the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat (ratio 40:10:50) reference bread during storage. Added hydrocolloids were carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and high methoxyl pectin (HM pectin) at a 3% level (w/w) and/or the emulsifiers diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides (DATEM), lecithin (LC), and monoglycerides (MG) at a 0.3% level (w/w). After 4 days of storage, composite breads with MG had comparatively lower crumb moisture while crumb density was similar in all breads. The reference bread crumb firmness was 33.4 N, which was reduced with an addition of DATEM (23.0 N), MG (29.8 N), CMC (24.6 N) or HM pectin (22.4 N). However, the CMC/DATEM, CMC/LC, and HM pectin/DATEM combinations further reduced crumb firmness to <20.0 N. The melting peak temperature was increased from 52 C to between 53.0 C and 57.0 C with added hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers. The melting enthalpy of the retrograded amylopectin was lower in composite bread with hydrocolloids and emulsifiers, 6.7-11.0 J/g compared to 20.0 J/g for the reference bread. These results show that emulsifiers in combination with hydrocolloids can improve the quality and extend the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat breads. PMID:27386112

  1. Improvement of Fatty Acid Profile and Studio of Rheological and Technological Characteristics in Breads Supplemented with Flaxseed, Soybean, and Wheat Bran Flours

    PubMed Central

    Osuna, Mariana B.; Judis, María A.; Romero, Ana M.; Avallone, Carmen M.; Bertola, Nora C.

    2014-01-01

    Functional breads constitute an interesting alternative as vehicle of new essential fatty acids sources. The aim of this study was to improve the fatty acids (FA) profile of bakery products, producing breads with low saturated fatty acid (SFA) content and with high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content, through partial substitution of wheat flour by other ingredients (soy flour, flax flour, and wheat bran) and to analyze the effect of this change on the technological, rheological, and sensorial characteristics of breads. Flaxseed flour (FF), soybeans flour (SF), or wheat bran (WB) was used to replace 50, 100, and 150 g kg−1 of wheat flour (WF) in breads. FF or SF produced a decrease in monounsaturated and SFA and an increase of PUFA in these breads. Furthermore, breads replaced with FF presented considerable increase in the content of n3 FA, while, SF or WB contributed to rise of linoleic and oleic FA, respectively. The substitution percentage increase of FF, SF, or WB to formulation produced changes in the colour, rheological, textural, and technological characteristics of breads. This replacement resulted in improved lipid profile, being breads with 50 g kg−1 SF, the better acceptance, baking features, and enhanced fatty acid profile. PMID:25478592

  2. Co-digestion of wheat and rye bread suspensions with source-sorted municipal biowaste.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaoran; Mörtelmaier, Christoph; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

    2015-06-01

    Acidification of wheat bread (WBS), rye bread (RBS) and fresh biowaste suspensions (FBS), leading to lactate+acetate, lactate+acetate+n-buyrate, and acetate+propionate+n-butyrate, respectively, and biogas production as well as population dynamics were investigated. Co-fermentation of FBS (14 kg m(-3) d(-1) organic loading rate (OLR)) with WBS or RBS was stable up to an OLR of 22 kg m(-3) d(-1) and resulted in up to 3 times as much biogas. During co-fermentation at more than 20 kg m(-3) d(-1) OLR the total population increased more than 2-fold, but the originally low share of propionate-oxidizing bacteria significantly decreased. The proportion of methanogens also decreased. Whereas the proportion of Methanosarcinales to Methanomicrobiales in biowaste and biowaste+WBS remained constant, Methanosarcinales and in particular Methanosaeta spec. in the biowaste+RBS assay almost completely disappeared. Methanomicrobiales increased instead, indicating propionate oxidation via acetate cleavage to CO2 and hydrogen. PMID:25843354

  3. An alternative method based on enzymatic fat hydrolysis to quantify volatile compounds in wheat bread crumb.

    PubMed

    Pico, Joana; Nozal, María Jesús; Gómez, Manuel; Bernal, José Luis

    2016-09-01

    An alternative method to quantify 40 volatile compounds in wheat bread crumb is proposed. It consists of a Soxhlet extraction with a mixture of dichloromethane and diethyl ether containing lipases and a subsequent concentration with Vigreux column. It is the first time that lipases are added to transform the fat into free fatty acids and glycerol, which elute at the end of the chromatogram after the analytes, avoiding problems in the chromatography due to fat residues, such as dirtiness in the injector, column clogging or overlapping peaks. The extract is most easily analysed by GC/MS, using a standard addition method to correct matrix effect. The method was fully validated, with extraction efficiencies between 70% and 100% and precision RSD lower than 15%. The method was applied to a commercial crumb, with acetoin, phenylethyl alcohol and acetic acid as highly abundant compounds, which are considered main volatiles in crumb. PMID:27041305

  4. Comparative genetic analyses of metric traits using diallel and factorial mating designs in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Virk, D S; Khehra, A S; Virk, P S; Dhillon, B S

    1985-05-01

    For studying the inheritance of metric traits, diallel cross and factorial mating designs are commonly used. Since factorial mating design is less restrictive in crossing plans, the genetic information drawn from it was compared with that from a diallel cross. The comparison was made using graphical, genetic components and combining ability analyses for grain yield, grain weight and spike length in a field experiment of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Analyses were made on a nine parent diallel cross and a 4 ♀ × 5 ♂ factorial mating design which was sampled from the diallel cross. In general, there was a high degree of agreement between the results obtained from factorial mating design and diallel cross analyses showing thereby that the former provides almost equivalent genetic information to the latter. PMID:24253828

  5. Screening of Bread Wheat Genotypes for Drought Tolerance Using Phenotypic and Proline Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Mwadzingeni, Learnmore; Shimelis, Hussein; Tesfay, Samson; Tsilo, Toi J.

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the leading constraints to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production globally. Breeding for drought tolerance using novel genetic resources is an important mitigation strategy. This study aimed to determine the level of drought tolerance among diverse bread wheat genotypes using agronomic traits and proline analyses and to establish correlation of proline content and agronomic traits under drought-stress conditions in order to select promising wheat lines for breeding. Ninety-six diverse genotypes including 88 lines from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)'s heat and drought nurseries, and eight local checks were evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions during 2014/15 and 2015/16 making four testing environments. The following phenotypic traits were collected after stress imposed during the heading to anthesis period: the number of days to heading (DTH), days to maturity (DTM), productive tiller number (TN), plant height (PH), spike length (SL), spikelet per spike (SPS), kernels per spike (KPS), thousand kernel weight (TKW) and grain yield (GY) and proline content (PC). Analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation coefficient, principal component and stress tolerance index were calculated. Genotypes with high yield performance under stressed and optimum conditions maintained high values for yield components. Proline content significantly increased under stress, but weakly correlated with agronomic traits under both optimal and water limited conditions. The positive correlation observed between grain yield and proline content under-drought stress conditions provides evidence that proline accumulation might ultimately be considered as a tool for effective selection of drought tolerant genotypes. The study selected 12 genotypes with high grain yields under drought stressed conditions and favorable adaptive traits useful for breeding. PMID:27610116

  6. Screening of Bread Wheat Genotypes for Drought Tolerance Using Phenotypic and Proline Analyses.

    PubMed

    Mwadzingeni, Learnmore; Shimelis, Hussein; Tesfay, Samson; Tsilo, Toi J

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the leading constraints to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production globally. Breeding for drought tolerance using novel genetic resources is an important mitigation strategy. This study aimed to determine the level of drought tolerance among diverse bread wheat genotypes using agronomic traits and proline analyses and to establish correlation of proline content and agronomic traits under drought-stress conditions in order to select promising wheat lines for breeding. Ninety-six diverse genotypes including 88 lines from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)'s heat and drought nurseries, and eight local checks were evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions during 2014/15 and 2015/16 making four testing environments. The following phenotypic traits were collected after stress imposed during the heading to anthesis period: the number of days to heading (DTH), days to maturity (DTM), productive tiller number (TN), plant height (PH), spike length (SL), spikelet per spike (SPS), kernels per spike (KPS), thousand kernel weight (TKW) and grain yield (GY) and proline content (PC). Analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation coefficient, principal component and stress tolerance index were calculated. Genotypes with high yield performance under stressed and optimum conditions maintained high values for yield components. Proline content significantly increased under stress, but weakly correlated with agronomic traits under both optimal and water limited conditions. The positive correlation observed between grain yield and proline content under-drought stress conditions provides evidence that proline accumulation might ultimately be considered as a tool for effective selection of drought tolerant genotypes. The study selected 12 genotypes with high grain yields under drought stressed conditions and favorable adaptive traits useful for breeding. PMID:27610116

  7. Effect of processing on phenolic composition of dough and bread fractions made from refined and whole wheat flour of three wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingjian; Luthria, Devanand; Fuerst, E Patrick; Kiszonas, Alecia M; Yu, Liangli; Morris, Craig F

    2014-10-29

    This study investigated the effect of breadmaking on the assay of phenolic acids from flour, dough, and bread fractions of three whole and refined wheat varieties. Comparison of the efficacy of two commonly used methods for hydrolysis and extraction of phenoilc acids showed that yields of total phenolic acids (TPA) were 5-17% higher among all varieties and flour types when samples were directly hydrolyzed in the presence of ascorbate and EDTA as compared to the method separating free, soluble conjugates and bound, insoluble phenolic acids. Ferulic acid (FA) was the predominant phenolic acid, accounting for means of 59 and 81% of TPA among all refined and whole wheat fractions, respectively. All phenolic acids measured were more abundant in whole wheat than in refined samples. Results indicated that the total quantified phenolic acids did not change significantly when breads were prepared from refined and whole wheat flour. Thus, the potential phytochemical health benefits of total phenolic acids appear to be preserved during bread baking. PMID:25286188

  8. Native and enzymatically modified wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) endogenous lipids in bread making: a focus on gas cell stabilization mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gerits, Lien R; Pareyt, Bram; Masure, Hanne G; Delcour, Jan A

    2015-04-01

    Lipopan F and Lecitase Ultra lipases were used in straight dough bread making to study how wheat lipids affect bread loaf volume (LV) and crumb structure setting. Lipase effects on LV were dose and dough piece weight dependent. The bread quality improving mechanisms exerted by endogenous lipids were studied in terms of gluten network strengthening, which indirectly stabilizes gas cells, and in terms of direct interfacial gas cell stabilization. Unlike diacetyl tartaric esters of mono- and diacylglycerols (DATEM, used as control), lipase use did not impact dough extensibility. The effect on dough extensibility was therefore related to its lipid composition at the start of mixing. Both lipases and DATEM strongly increase the levels of polar lipids in dough liquor and their availability for and potential accumulation at gas cell interfaces. Lipases form lysolipids that emulsify other lipids. We speculate that DATEM competes with (endogenous) polar lipids for interacting with gluten proteins. PMID:25442598

  9. A high-density, SNP-based consensus map of tetraploid wheat as a bridge to integrate durum and bread wheat genomics and breeding.

    PubMed

    Maccaferri, Marco; Ricci, Andrea; Salvi, Silvio; Milner, Sara Giulia; Noli, Enrico; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Casadio, Rita; Akhunov, Eduard; Scalabrin, Simone; Vendramin, Vera; Ammar, Karim; Blanco, Antonio; Desiderio, Francesca; Distelfeld, Assaf; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Fahima, Tzion; Faris, Justin; Korol, Abraham; Massi, Andrea; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria; Morgante, Michele; Pozniak, Curtis; N'Diaye, Amidou; Xu, Steven; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Consensus linkage maps are important tools in crop genomics. We have assembled a high-density tetraploid wheat consensus map by integrating 13 data sets from independent biparental populations involving durum wheat cultivars (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), cultivated emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum) and their ancestor (wild emmer, T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides). The consensus map harboured 30 144 markers (including 26 626 SNPs and 791 SSRs) half of which were present in at least two component maps. The final map spanned 2631 cM of all 14 durum wheat chromosomes and, differently from the individual component maps, all markers fell within the 14 linkage groups. Marker density per genetic distance unit peaked at centromeric regions, likely due to a combination of low recombination rate in the centromeric regions and even gene distribution along the chromosomes. Comparisons with bread wheat indicated fewer regions with recombination suppression, making this consensus map valuable for mapping in the A and B genomes of both durum and bread wheat. Sequence similarity analysis allowed us to relate mapped gene-derived SNPs to chromosome-specific transcripts. Dense patterns of homeologous relationships have been established between the A- and B-genome maps and between nonsyntenic homeologous chromosome regions as well, the latter tracing to ancient translocation events. The gene-based homeologous relationships are valuable to infer the map location of homeologs of target loci/QTLs. Because most SNP and SSR markers were previously mapped in bread wheat, this consensus map will facilitate a more effective integration and exploitation of genes and QTL for wheat breeding purposes. PMID:25424506

  10. Use of sourdough fermentation and mixture of wheat, chickpea, lentil and bean flours for enhancing the nutritional, texture and sensory characteristics of white bread.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Calasso, Maria; Campanella, Daniela; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-06-16

    This study aimed at investigating the addition of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours to wheat flour bread. Type I sourdough containing legumes or wheat-legume flours were prepared and propagated (back slopped) in laboratory, according to traditional protocols that are routinely used for making typical Italian breads. Based on kinetic of acidification and culture-dependent data, the wheat-legume sourdough was further characterized and selected for bread making. As determined by RAPD-PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA gene analyses, lactic acid bacteria in wheat-legume sourdough included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus fermentum, Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus coryneformis, Lactobacillus rossiae, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri and Lactobacillus paraplantarum. Two breads containing 15% (w/w) of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours were produced using selected wheat-legume sourdough (WLSB) and traditional wheat sourdough (WSB). Compared to wheat yeasted bread (WYB), the level of total free amino acids (FAA) was higher in WSB and WLSB. Phytase and antioxidant activities were the highest in WLSB. Compared to bread WYB, the addition of legume flours decreased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) (WYB versus WSB). However, the dough fermentation with WSLB favored an increase of IVPD. According to the levels of carbohydrates, dietary fibers and resistant starch, WSB and WLSB showed lower values of hydrolysis index (HI) compared to WYB. As showed by texture and image analyses and sensory evaluation of breads, a good acceptability was found for WSB and, especially, WLSB breads. PMID:24794619

  11. Transcriptome analysis during seed germination of elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar Jimai 20

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wheat seed germination directly affects wheat yield and quality. Although transcriptome and proteome analyses during seed germination have been reported in some crop plant species, dynamic transcriptome characterization during wheat seed germination has not been conducted. We performed the first comprehensive dynamic transcriptome analysis during different seed germination stages of elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar Jimai 20 using the Affymetrix Wheat Genome Array. Results A total of 61,703 probe sets representing 51,411 transcripts were identified during the five seed germination stages of Jimai 20, of which 2,825 differential expression probe sets corresponding to 2,646 transcripts with different functions were declared by ANOVA and a randomized variance model. The seed germination process included a rapid initial uptake phase (0–12 hours after imbibition [HAI]), a plateau phase (12–24 HAI), and a further water uptake phase (24–48 HAI), corresponding to switches from the degradation of small-molecule sucrose to the metabolism of three major nutrients and to photosynthesis. Hierarchical cluster and MapMan analyses revealed changes in several significant metabolism pathways during seed germination as well as related functional groups. The signal pathway networks constructed with KEGG showed three important genes encoding the phosphofructokinase family protein, with fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase, and UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase located at the center, indicating their pivotal roles in the glycolytic pathway, gluconeogenesis, and glycogenesis, respectively. Several significant pathways were selected to establish a metabolic pathway network according to their degree value, which allowed us to find the pathways vital to seed germination. Furthermore, 51 genes involved in transport, signaling pathway, development, lipid metabolism, defense response, nitrogen metabolism, and transcription regulation were analyzed by gene co

  12. Effect of Recurrent Selection on Drought Tolerance and Related Morpho-Physiological Traits in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    P, Ramya; Singh, Gyanendra Pratap; Jain, Neelu; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Sharma, Kavita; Kumar, Arun; Harikrishna; Prabhu, Kumble Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting wheat yield. A recurrent selection program was conducted to improve the drought tolerance and yield of bread wheat using drought tolerant advanced breeding lines from a drought tolerant x susceptible cross (HI 1500 x HUW 510). The parental lines were evaluated for yield, biomass and harvest index (HI) in addition to the drought adaptive traits like Canopy Temperature (CT), chlorophyll content and Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI). After three rounds of recurrent selection, the half sib progenies exhibited a marked reduction in CT, chlorophyll content and biomass; whereas improvement was noted for yield, HI and NDVI. Drought tolerance of the half-sib population appeared enhanced as indicated by drought indices and grain yield. Compared to base population, half-sibs showed better HI, grain filling and a significant (17.1%) increase in grain yield under water stress conditions. Cooler canopies and increased early vigour might have contributed to drought tolerance. A favourable combination of gibberellin sensitive and insensitive Rhtalleles was observed in the recombinant progenies. However, increased yield under water stress had a negative trade off in reduction of biomass. The study also identified potential lines with high yield and drought tolerance for subsequent varietal development for water limited areas. PMID:27300000

  13. Effect of Recurrent Selection on Drought Tolerance and Related Morpho-Physiological Traits in Bread Wheat.

    PubMed

    P, Ramya; Singh, Gyanendra Pratap; Jain, Neelu; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Sharma, Kavita; Kumar, Arun; Harikrishna; Prabhu, Kumble Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting wheat yield. A recurrent selection program was conducted to improve the drought tolerance and yield of bread wheat using drought tolerant advanced breeding lines from a drought tolerant x susceptible cross (HI 1500 x HUW 510). The parental lines were evaluated for yield, biomass and harvest index (HI) in addition to the drought adaptive traits like Canopy Temperature (CT), chlorophyll content and Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI). After three rounds of recurrent selection, the half sib progenies exhibited a marked reduction in CT, chlorophyll content and biomass; whereas improvement was noted for yield, HI and NDVI. Drought tolerance of the half-sib population appeared enhanced as indicated by drought indices and grain yield. Compared to base population, half-sibs showed better HI, grain filling and a significant (17.1%) increase in grain yield under water stress conditions. Cooler canopies and increased early vigour might have contributed to drought tolerance. A favourable combination of gibberellin sensitive and insensitive Rhtalleles was observed in the recombinant progenies. However, increased yield under water stress had a negative trade off in reduction of biomass. The study also identified potential lines with high yield and drought tolerance for subsequent varietal development for water limited areas. PMID:27300000

  14. A Major Locus for Chloride Accumulation on Chromosome 5A in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Genc, Yusuf; Taylor, Julian; Rongala, Jay; Oldach, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Chloride (Cl−) is an essential micronutrient for plant growth, but can be toxic at high concentrations resulting in reduced growth and yield. Although saline soils are generally dominated by both sodium (Na+) and Cl− ions, compared to Na+ toxicity, very little is known about physiological and genetic control mechanisms of tolerance to Cl− toxicity. In hydroponics and field studies, a bread wheat mapping population was tested to examine the relationships between physiological traits [Na+, potassium (K+) and Cl− concentration] involved in salinity tolerance (ST) and seedling growth or grain yield, and to elucidate the genetic control mechanism of plant Cl− accumulation using a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis approach. Plant Na+ or Cl− concentration were moderately correlated (genetically) with seedling biomass in hydroponics, but showed no correlations with grain yield in the field, indicating little value in selecting for ion concentration to improve ST. In accordance with phenotypic responses, QTL controlling Cl− accumulation differed entirely between hydroponics and field locations, and few were detected in two or more environments, demonstrating substantial QTL-by-environment interactions. The presence of several QTL for Cl− concentration indicated that uptake and accumulation was a polygenic trait. A major Cl− concentration QTL (5A; barc56/gwm186) was identified in three field environments, and accounted for 27–32% of the total genetic variance. Alignment between the 5A QTL interval and its corresponding physical genome regions in wheat and other grasses has enabled the search for candidate genes involved in Cl− transport, which is discussed. PMID:24893005

  15. Growth behavior studies of bread wheat plant exposed to municipal landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Mor, Suman; Kaur, Kamalpreet; Khaiwal, Ravindra

    2013-11-01

    Pot experiments were carried out to study the effect of different dilutions of leachate generated from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). Eight treatment groups with different concentrations (0-100%) of leachate were prepared and treatments were given to the plants till they reached complete vegetative phase (45 days). The growth performances of wheat plants were assessed in terms of various parameters such as shoot and root length, dry biomass and chlorophyll content. Plants treated with higher concentrations of leachate (75% and 100%) showed higher growth (2.5 and 6%) and 100% survival rate as compared to control. However, high shoot weight (0.028 and 0.030 gm) and high chlorophyll content (213 and 230%) was reported in 30 and 40% leachate treatment as compared to control. Some symptoms of stress (discoloration of leaf blade, wilting and yellowing of plants) were also observed in plants, which could be related to the presence of high concentration of salts in the leachate. The current study suggests that MSW landfill leachate is rich in nutrients and can be used as fertilizer but before its application, the salinity level and concentration of toxic metals present in leachate should be considered in accordance with the tolerance ability of any plant. PMID:24555341

  16. Combining ability analysis over F1-F 5 generations in diallel crosses of bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Bhullar, G S; Gill, K S; Khehra, A S

    1979-03-01

    Combining ability studies for grain yield and its primary component traits in diallel crosses involving seven diverse wheat cultivars of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) over generations F1-F5 are reported. The general and specific combining ability variances were significant in all generations for all the traits except specific combining ability variance for number of spikes per plant in the F5. The ratio of general to specific combining ability variances was significant for all the traits except grain yield in all the generations. This indicated an equal role of additive and non-additive gene effects in the inheritance of grain yield, and the predominance of the former for its component traits. The presence of significant specific combining ability variances in even the advanced generations may be the result of an additive x additive type of epistasis or evolutionary divergence among progenies in the same parental array. The relative breeding values of the parental varieties, as indicated by their general combining ability effects, did not vary much over the generations. The cheap and reliable procedure observed for making the choice of parents, selecting hybrids and predicting advanced generation (F5) bulk hybrid performance was the determination of breeding values of the parents on the relative performance of their F2 progeny bulks. PMID:24306488

  17. Effect of addition of thermally modified cowpea protein on sensory acceptability and textural properties of wheat bread and sponge cake.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Lydia; Euston, Stephen R; Ahmed, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the sensory acceptability and textural properties of leavened wheat bread and sponge cake fortified with cow protein isolates that had been denatured and glycated by thermal treatment. Defatted cowpea flour was prepared from cow pea beans and the protein isolate was prepared (CPI) and thermally denatured (DCPI). To prepare glycated cowpea protein isolate (GCPI) the cowpea flour slurry was heat treated before isolation of the protein. CPI was more susceptible to thermal denaturation than GCPI as determined by turbidity and sulphydryl groups resulting in greater loss of solubility. This is attributed to the higher glycation degree and higher carbohydrate content of GCPI as demonstrated by glycoprotein staining of SDS PAGE gels. Water absorption of bread dough was significantly enhanced by DCPI and to a larger extent GCPI compared to the control, resulting in softer texture. CPI resulted in significantly increased crumb hardness in baked bread than the control whereas DCPI or GCPI resulted in significantly softer crumb. Bread fortified with 4% DCPI or GCPI was similar to control as regards sensory and textural properties whereas 4% CPI was significantly different, limiting its inclusion level to 2%. There was a trend for higher sensory acceptability scores for GCPI containing bread compared DCPI. Whole egg was replaced by 20% by GCPI (3.5%) in sponge cake without affecting the sensory acceptability, whereas CPI and DCPI supplemented cakes were significantly different than the control. PMID:26471676

  18. Characterization of new allele influencing flowering time in bread wheat introgressed from Triticum militinae.

    PubMed

    Ivaničová, Zuzana; Jakobson, Irena; Reis, Diana; Šafář, Jan; Milec, Zbyněk; Abrouk, Michael; Doležel, Jaroslav; Järve, Kadri; Valárik, Miroslav

    2016-09-25

    Flowering time variation was identified within a mapping population of doubled haploid lines developed from a cross between the introgressive line 8.1 and spring bread wheat cv. Tähti. The line 8.1 carried introgressions from tetraploid Triticum militinae in the cv. Tähti genetic background on chromosomes 1A, 2A, 4A, 5A, 7A, 1B and 5B. The most significant QTL for the flowering time variation was identified within the introgressed region on chromosome 5A and its largest effect was associated with the VRN-A1 locus, accounting for up to 70% of phenotypic variance. The allele of T. militinae origin was designated as VRN-A1f-like. The effect of the VRN-A1f-like allele was verified in two other mapping populations. QTL analysis identified that in cv. Tähti and cv. Mooni genetic background, VRN-A1f-like allele incurred a delay of 1.9-18.6 days in flowering time, depending on growing conditions. Sequence comparison of the VRN-A1f-like and VRN-A1a alleles from the parental lines of the mapping populations revealed major mutations in the promoter region as well as in the first intron, including insertion of a MITE element and a large deletion. The sequence variation allowed construction of specific diagnostic PCR markers for VRN-A1f-like allele determination. Identification and quantification of the effect of the VRN-A1f-like allele offers a useful tool for wheat breeding and for studying fine-scale regulation of flowering pathways in wheat. PMID:26899284

  19. Comparison of the effects of different heat treatment processes on rheological properties of cake and bread wheat flours.

    PubMed

    Bucsella, Blanka; Takács, Ágnes; Vizer, Viktoria; Schwendener, Urs; Tömösközi, Sándor

    2016-01-01

    Dry and hydrothermal heat treatments are efficient for modifying the technological-functional and shelf-life properties of wheat milling products. Dry heat treatment process is commonly used to enhance the volume of cakes. Hydrothermal heat treatment makes wheat flours suitable as thickener agents. In this study, cake and bread wheat flours that differed in baking properties were exposed to dry (100 °C, 12 min) and hydrothermal (95 °C, 5 min, 5-20 l/h water) heat treatments. Rheological differences caused by the treatments were investigated in a diluted slurry and in a dough matrix. Dry heat treatment resulted in enhanced dough stability. This effect was significantly higher in the cake flour than the bread flour. Altered viscosity properties of the bread flour in the slurry matrix were also observed. The characteristics of hydrothermally treated samples showed matrix dependency: their viscosity increases in the slurry and decreases in the dough matrix. These results can support us to produce flour products with specific techno-functional properties. PMID:26213066

  20. Impact of the D genome and quantitative trait loci on quantitative traits in a spring durum by spring bread wheat cross

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Desirable agronomic traits are similar for common hexaploid (6X) bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = 6x = 42, genome, AABBDD) and tetraploid (4X) durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum, 2n = 4x = 28, genome, AABB). However, they are genetically isolated from each other due to an unequal number of ge...

  1. Sequencing chromosome 5D of Aegilops tauschii and comparison with its allopolyploid descendant bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Akpinar, Bala A; Lucas, Stuart J; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Budak, Hikmet

    2015-08-01

    Flow cytometric sorting of individual chromosomes and chromosome-based sequencing reduces the complexity of large, repetitive Triticeae genomes. We flow-sorted chromosome 5D of Aegilops tauschii, the D genome donor of bread wheat and sequenced it by Roche 454 GS FLX platform to approximately 2.2x coverage. Repetitive sequences represent 81.09% of the survey sequences of this chromosome, and Class I retroelements are the prominent type, with a particular abundance of LTR/Gypsy superfamily. Nonrepetitive sequences were assembled to cover 17.76% of the total chromosome regions. Up to 6188 nonrepetitive gene loci were predicted to be encoded by the 5D chromosome. The numbers and chromosomal distribution patterns of tRNA genes suggest abundance in tRNA(L) (ys) and tRNA(M) (et) species, while the nonrepetitive assembly reveals tRNA(A) (la) species as the most abundant type. A comparative analysis of the genomic sequences of bread wheat and Aegilops chromosome 5D indicates conservation of gene content. Orthologous unique genes, matching Aegilops 5D sequences, numbered 3730 in barley, 5063 in Brachypodium, 4872 in sorghum and 4209 in rice. In this study, we provide a chromosome-specific view into the structure and organization of the 5D chromosome of Ae. tauschii, the D genome ancestor of bread wheat. This study contributes to our understanding of the chromosome-level evolution of the wheat genome and presents a valuable resource in wheat genomics due to the recent hybridization of Ae. tauschii genome with its tetraploid ancestor. PMID:25516153

  2. Green Manure Addition to Soil Increases Grain Zinc Concentration in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A.; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H.; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg−1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg−1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg−1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)−1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)−1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs. PMID:24999738

  3. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs. PMID:24999738

  4. [Molecular marker mapping of the gene resistant to common bunt transferred from Aegilops cylindrica into bread wheat].

    PubMed

    Galaev, A V; Babaiants, L T; Sivolap, Iu M

    2006-01-01

    Introgression lines 5/55-91 and 378/2000 of bread wheat contain the gene of resistance to Tilletia caries (DC.) Tul. transferred from Aegilops cylindrica Host. Using bulked segregant analysis with ISSR and SSR PCR the lincage of microsatellite locus Xgwm 259 with the gene of common bunt resistance has been identified in F2 population of 378/2000 x Lutestens 23397. DNA mapping made it possible to localize this highly effective gene in the intercalary region of the long arm of wheat chromosome 1B at the distance of 7.6-8.5 cM of the microsatellite Xgwm 259 locus which thus can be used in wheat breeding for selection of genotype resistance to common bunt. PMID:16865982

  5. The effect of consumption of selenium enriched rye/wheat sourdough bread on the body's selenium status.

    PubMed

    Bryszewska, Malgorzata A; Ambroziak, Wojciech; Langford, Nicola J; Baxter, Malcolm J; Colyer, Alison; Lewis, D John

    2007-09-01

    The potential of selenium-enriched rye/wheat sourdough bread as a route for supplementing dietary selenium intakes is reported. In addition to their normal diets, 24 female volunteers (24 to 25 years old) were fed either selenium-enriched bread or non-enriched bread each day (68.02 and 0.84 microg selenium day(-1) respectively) for 4 weeks. The chemical form of the selenium in the bread had been characterised using HPLC-ICP-MS, which showed that 42% of the extractable selenium was present as selenomethionine. Plasma selenium levels and plasma platelet glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) activity were measured in the volunteers' blood over a 6-week period. A statistically significant difference (p = 0.001) was observed in the mean percentage change data, calculated from the plasma selenium level measurements for the enriched and control group, over the duration of the study. A comparable difference was not observed for the platelet GPx1 activity (p = 0.756), over the same period. Two weeks after cessation of the feeding stage, i.e., at t = 6 weeks, the mean percentage change value for the selenium plasma levels in the enriched group was still significantly elevated, suggesting that the absorbed selenium had been incorporated into the body's selenium reserves, and was then being slowly released back into the volunteers' blood. PMID:17721822

  6. Variations of the sensory profile of durum wheat Altamura PDO (protected designation of origin) bread during staling.

    PubMed

    Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Bilancia, Maria Teresa; Caponio, Francesco

    2007-04-01

    The typical sensory characteristics of Altamura PDO (protected designation of origin) bread are due to both the use of durum wheat remilled semolina and the prolonged sponge-dough method based on sourdough. In this paper the sensory properties of Altamura bread were evaluated during a period of 6 days from baking. A total number of 24 descriptors was considered. The obtained results indicated that during the whole storage period many of the desirable characters such as crust consistence, crumb elasticity, crumb cohesiveness, overall aroma, and sour aroma decreased, while the undesirable stale aroma and crumb consistence increased their intensity. In any case, after 4 days from the production crumb color, crumb grain, crumb elasticity, and crumb humidity did not vary significantly. PMID:17995813

  7. The Bo1-specific PCR marker AWW5L7 is predictive of boron tolerance status in a range of exotic durum and bread wheats.

    PubMed

    Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Langridge, Peter; Sutton, Tim

    2008-12-01

    High soil boron (B) constitutes a major soil problem in many parts of the world, particularly in low-rainfall areas and land under irrigation. Low accumulation of B in the shoot or grain of cereal crops is correlated with the maintenance of biomass production and grain yield under high B conditions, suggesting that this trait is an important component of field tolerance. A novel screening protocol to measure B accumulation in aerated and supported hydroponics was validated using a set of known and exotic bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.) accessions. Furthermore, B accumulation in two Triticum urartu Tumanian ex Gandilyan and 54 Triticum monococcum L. accessions was measured and showed considerable phenotypic variation. However, B accumulation in these lines was higher than that observed in the most tolerant durum or bread wheats. Mapping of high B tolerance in the durum population AUS14010/Yallaroi revealed a locus possibly allelic to Bo1, a major source of B toxicity tolerance previously identified in bread wheat. Here, we show that the Bo1-specific codominant PCR marker AWW5L7 is predictive of B tolerance status among exotic durum and bread wheat accessions. All tolerant durum accessions assayed carried very similar AWW5L7 marker fragments, indicating wide distribution of this allele among tolerant durum wheats. Three bread wheat accessions had tolerance that was independent of Bo1 and is probably located on chromosome 4A. These lines represent a valuable genetic resource for B toxicity tolerance breeding in wheat. PMID:19088810

  8. An intervarietal genetic linkage map of Indian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and QTL maps for some metric traits.

    PubMed

    Nalini, E; Bhagwat, S G; Jawali, N

    2007-06-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) exhibits very narrow genetic diversity and hence there is high relatedness among cultivated varieties. However, a population generated from an intervarietal cross, with the parents differing in a large number of traits, could lead to the generation of QTL maps which will be useful in practice. In this report a genetic linkage map of wheat is constructed using a cross between two Indian bread wheat varieties: Sonalika and Kalyansona. The linkage map consisted of 236 markers and spanned a distance of 3639 cM, with 1211.2 cM for the A genome, 1669.2 cM for the B genome, 192.4 cM for the D genome and 566.2 cM for unassigned groups. Linkage analysis defined 37 linkage groups of which 24 were assigned to 17 chromosomes. The genetic map was used to identify QTLs by composite internal mapping (CIM) for three metric traits, viz. culm length (CL), flag leaf length (FLL) and flag leaf breadth (FLB). Of 25 QTLs identified in this study, 15 have not been reported previously. Multitrait CIM (MCIM) analysis was carried out for traits that were significantly correlated such as FLB-FLL and CL-FLB-FLL. Detection of a large number of QTLs for the three traits analysed suggests that in parent cultivars that are not too diverse, the differences at genetic level detected as polymorphisms may be mostly associated with QTLs for the observed differences. PMID:17894910

  9. Comprehensive Identification and Bread-Making Quality Evaluation of Common Wheat Somatic Variation Line AS208 on Glutenin Composition

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lipu; Cao, Xinyou; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Yang; Yan, Yueming; Ye, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are important seed storage proteins in wheat (Triticum aestivum) that determine wheat dough elasticity and processing quality. Clarification of the defined effectiveness of HMW-GSs is very important to breeding efforts aimed at improving wheat quality. To date, there have no report on the expression silencing and quality effects of 1Bx20 and 1By20 at the Glu-B1 locus in wheat. A wheat somatic variation line, AS208, in which both 1Bx20 and 1By20 at Glu-B1 locus were silenced, was developed recently in our laboratory. Evaluation of agronomic traits and seed storage proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) indicated that AS208 was highly similar to its parental cultivar Lunxuan987 (LX987), with the exception that the composition and expression of HMW-GSs was altered. The 1Bx20 and 1By20 in AS208 were further identified to be missing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays. Based on the PCR results for HMW-GS genes and their promoters in AS208 compared with LX987, 1Bx20 and 1By20 were speculated to be deleted in AS208 during in vitro culture. Quality analysis of this line with Mixograph, Farinograph, and Extensograph instruments, as well as analysis of bread-making quality traits, demonstrated that the lack of the genes encoding 1Bx20 and 1By20 caused various negative effects on dough processing and bread-making quality traits, including falling number, dough stability time, mixing tolerance index, crude protein values, wet gluten content, bread size, and internal cell structure. AS208 can potentially be used in the functional dissection of other HMW-GSs as a plant material with desirable genetic background, and in biscuit making industry as a high-quality weak gluten wheat source. PMID:26765256

  10. Prebiotic Content of Bread Prepared with Flour from Immature Wheat Grain and Selected Dextran-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ventorino, Valeria; Cavella, Silvana; Fagnano, Massimo; Brugno, Rachele

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years the need to produce food with added value has fueled the search for new ingredients and health-promoting compounds. In particular, to improve the quality of bakery products with distinct nutritional properties, the identification of new raw materials, appropriate technologies, and specific microbial strains is necessary. In this study, different doughs were prepared, with 10% and 20% flour from immature wheat grain blended with type “0 America” wheat flour. Immature flour was obtained from durum wheat grains harvested 1 to 2 weeks after anthesis. Doughs were obtained by both the straight-dough and sourdough processes. Two selected exopolysaccharide-producing strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Leuconostoc lactis A95 and Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2, were used as starters. Immature flour contained 2.21 g/100 g (dry weight) of fructo-oligosaccharides. Twenty percent immature flour in dough resulted in a shorter leavening time (4.23 ± 0.03 h) than with the control and dough with 10% immature flour. The total titratable acidity of sourdough with 20% immature flour was higher (12.75 ± 0.15 ml 0.1 N NaOH) than in the control and sourdough with 10% immature wheat flour (9.20 ml 0.1 N NaOH). Molecular analysis showed that all samples contained three LAB species identified as L. lactis, L. curvatus, and Pediococcus acidilactici. A larger amount of exopolysaccharide was found in sourdough obtained with 20% immature flour (5.33 ± 0.032 g/kg), positively influencing the exopolysaccharide content of the bread prepared by the sourdough process (1.70 ± 0.03 g/kg). The addition of 20% immature flour also led to a greater presence of fructo-oligosaccharides in the bread (900 mg/100 g dry weight), which improved its nutritional characteristics. While bread volume decreased as the concentration of immature wheat flour increased, its mechanical characteristics (stress at a strain of 30%) were the same in all samples obtained with different percentages

  11. Comprehensive Identification and Bread-Making Quality Evaluation of Common Wheat Somatic Variation Line AS208 on Glutenin Composition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiyun; Wang, Ke; Xiao, Lele; Wang, Shunli; Du, Lipu; Cao, Xinyou; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Yang; Yan, Yueming; Ye, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are important seed storage proteins in wheat (Triticum aestivum) that determine wheat dough elasticity and processing quality. Clarification of the defined effectiveness of HMW-GSs is very important to breeding efforts aimed at improving wheat quality. To date, there have no report on the expression silencing and quality effects of 1Bx20 and 1By20 at the Glu-B1 locus in wheat. A wheat somatic variation line, AS208, in which both 1Bx20 and 1By20 at Glu-B1 locus were silenced, was developed recently in our laboratory. Evaluation of agronomic traits and seed storage proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) indicated that AS208 was highly similar to its parental cultivar Lunxuan987 (LX987), with the exception that the composition and expression of HMW-GSs was altered. The 1Bx20 and 1By20 in AS208 were further identified to be missing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays. Based on the PCR results for HMW-GS genes and their promoters in AS208 compared with LX987, 1Bx20 and 1By20 were speculated to be deleted in AS208 during in vitro culture. Quality analysis of this line with Mixograph, Farinograph, and Extensograph instruments, as well as analysis of bread-making quality traits, demonstrated that the lack of the genes encoding 1Bx20 and 1By20 caused various negative effects on dough processing and bread-making quality traits, including falling number, dough stability time, mixing tolerance index, crude protein values, wet gluten content, bread size, and internal cell structure. AS208 can potentially be used in the functional dissection of other HMW-GSs as a plant material with desirable genetic background, and in biscuit making industry as a high-quality weak gluten wheat source. PMID:26765256

  12. QTL conferring fusarium crown rot resistance in the elite bread wheat variety EGA Wylie.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhi; Kilian, Andrzej; Yan, Guijun; Liu, Chunji

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium crown rot (FCR) is one of the most damaging cereal diseases in semi-arid regions worldwide. The genetics of FCR resistance in the bread wheat (Triticum eastivum L.) variety EGA Wylie, the most resistant commercial variety available, was studied by QTL mapping. Three populations of recombinant inbred lines were developed with this elite variety as the resistant parent. Four QTL conferring FCR resistance were detected and resistance alleles of all of them were derived from the resistant parent EGA Wylie. One of these loci was located on the short arm of chromosome 5D (designated as Qcrs.cpi-5D). This QTL explains up to 31.1% of the phenotypic variance with an LOD value of 9.6. The second locus was located on the long arm of chromosome 2D (designated as Qcrs.cpi-2D) and explained up to 20.2% of the phenotypic variance with an LOD value of 4.5. Significant effects of both Qcrs.cpi-5D and Qcrs.cpi-2D were detected in each of the three populations assessed. Another two QTL (designated as Qcrs.cpi-4B.1 and Qcrs.cpi-4B.2, respectively) were located on the short arm of chromosome 4B. These two QTL explained up to 16.9% and 18.8% of phenotypic variance, respectively. However, significant effects of Qcrs.cpi-4B.1 and Qcrs.cpi-4B.2 were not detected when the effects of plant height was accounted for by covariance analysis. The elite characteristics of this commercial variety should facilitate the incorporation of the resistance loci it contains into breeding programs. PMID:24776887

  13. Characterization of the Bread Made with Durum Wheat Semolina Rendered Gluten Free by Sourdough Biotechnology in Comparison with Commercial Gluten-Free Products.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Durum wheat semolina was fermented with sourdough lactic acid bacteria and fungal proteases aiming at a complete gluten hydrolysis. The gluten-free (GF) semolina, added with naturally GF ingredients and structuring agents, was used to produce bread (rendered GF bread; rGFB) at industrial level. An integrated approach including the characterization of the main chemical, nutritional, structural, and sensory features was used to compare rGFB to a gluten-containing bread and to 5 commercial naturally GF breads. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for free amino acids (FAAs), organic acids, and ethanol analysis. A methanolic extract was used for determining total phenols and antioxidant activity. The bread characterization also included the analysis of dietary fibers, mycotoxins, vitamins, and heavy metals. Beyond chemical analysis, nutritional profile was evaluated considering the in vitro protein digestibility and the predicted glycemic index, while the instrumental texture profile analysis was performed to investigate the structure and the physical/mechanical properties of the baked goods. Beyond the huge potential of market expansion, the main advantages of durum wheat semolina rendered GF can be resumed in the high availability of FAAs, the high protein digestibility, the low starch hydrolysis index, and the better technological properties of bread compared to the commercial GF products currently present on the market. Vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber profiles are comparable to those of gluten-containing wheat bread. Also the sensory profile, determined by a panel test, can be considered the most similar to those of conventional baked goods, showing all the sourdough bread classic attributes. PMID:27505458

  14. Effects of uniquely processed cowpea and plantain flours on wheat bread properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of incorporating uniquely processed whole-seed cowpeas or plantain flours at 10 or 20 g/100 g in all-purpose flour on paste viscosity and bread-baking properties in model bread was determined. Flours from plantains processed as follows: unblanched plantains dried at 60 degrees C (PLC), so...

  15. Improvement of a headspace solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for the analysis of wheat bread volatile compounds.

    PubMed

    Raffo, Antonio; Carcea, Marina; Castagna, Claudia; Magrì, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    An improved method based on headspace solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS) was proposed for the semi-quantitative determination of wheat bread volatile compounds isolated from both whole slice and crust samples. A DVB/CAR/PDMS fibre was used to extract volatiles from the headspace of a bread powdered sample dispersed in a sodium chloride (20%) aqueous solution and kept for 60min at 50°C under controlled stirring. Thirty-nine out of all the extracted volatiles were fully identified, whereas for 95 other volatiles a tentative identification was proposed, to give a complete as possible profile of wheat bread volatile compounds. The use of an array of ten structurally and physicochemically similar internal standards allowed to markedly improve method precision with respect to previous HS-SPME/GC-MS methods for bread volatiles. Good linearity of the method was verified for a selection of volatiles from several chemical groups by calibration with matrix-matched extraction solutions. This simple, rapid, precise and sensitive method could represent a valuable tool to obtain semi-quantitative information when investigating the influence of technological factors on volatiles formation in wheat bread and other bakery products. PMID:26118802

  16. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota

    PubMed Central

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50–150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain. PMID:27597856

  17. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota.

    PubMed

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50-150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain. PMID:27597856

  18. Map-based cloning of leaf rust resistance gene Lr21 from the large and polyploid genome of bread wheat.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li; Brooks, Steven A; Li, Wanlong; Fellers, John P; Trick, Harold N; Gill, Bikram S

    2003-01-01

    We report the map-based cloning of the leaf rust resistance gene Lr21, previously mapped to a gene-rich region at the distal end of chromosome arm 1DS of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Molecular cloning of Lr21 was facilitated by diploid/polyploid shuttle mapping strategy. Cloning of Lr21 was confirmed by genetic transformation and by a stably inherited resistance phenotype in transgenic plants. Lr21 spans 4318 bp and encodes a 1080-amino-acid protein containing a conserved nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain, 13 imperfect leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), and a unique 151-amino-acid sequence missing from known NBS-LRR proteins at the N terminus. Fine-structure genetic analysis at the Lr21 locus detected a noncrossover (recombination without exchange of flanking markers) within a 1415-bp region resulting from either a gene conversion tract of at least 191 bp or a double crossover. The successful map-based cloning approach as demonstrated here now opens the door for cloning of many crop-specific agronomic traits located in the gene-rich regions of bread wheat. PMID:12807786

  19. Susceptibility of European bread and durum wheat cultivars to Tilletia indica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Representative European wheat cultivars were tested under quarantine containment for their susceptibility to Tilletia indica, the cause of Karnal bunt (or partial bunt) of wheat. Fifteen winter, 15 spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) and 11 durum wheat cultivars (Triticum durum) were inoculated by ‘boo...

  20. Staling of white wheat bread crumb and effect of maltogenic α-amylases. Part 1: Spatial distribution and kinetic modeling of hardness and resilience.

    PubMed

    Amigo, José Manuel; Del Olmo Alvarez, Arantxa; Engelsen, Merete Møller; Lundkvist, Henrik; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-10-01

    Bread staling is one of the most costly food deterioration processes. This study presents an in-depth, multivariate, statistical assessment of the differences in the staling process of white wheat bread as a function of storage time, usage of maltogenic α-amylases and spatial position in the loaf by texture measurements and non-linear fitting (Avrami). This study demonstrates the effects of anti-staling enzymes upon bread staling, where significant changes in the spatial staling kinetics occur. While the spatial development of staling is reduced in the outer crumb by anti-staling enzymes, the staling is retarded in the middle. The Avrami model suggests that this happens by two different competing mechanisms: one which increases the initial staling rate, and one which slows the convergence towards the limiting hardness. The two enzyme treated breads differed widely in early and ultimate resilience, despite the fact that they were adjusted to provide the same ultimate hardness. PMID:27132856

  1. Novel Structural and Functional Motifs in cellulose synthase (CesA) Genes of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Simerjeet; Dhugga, Kanwarpal S; Gill, Kulvinder; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is the primary determinant of mechanical strength in plant tissues. Late-season lodging is inversely related to the amount of cellulose in a unit length of the stem. Wheat is the most widely grown of all the crops globally, yet information on its CesA gene family is limited. We have identified 22 CesA genes from bread wheat, which include homoeologs from each of the three genomes, and named them as TaCesAXA, TaCesAXB or TaCesAXD, where X denotes the gene number and the last suffix stands for the respective genome. Sequence analyses of the CESA proteins from wheat and their orthologs from barley, maize, rice, and several dicot species (Arabidopsis, beet, cotton, poplar, potato, rose gum and soybean) revealed motifs unique to monocots (Poales) or dicots. Novel structural motifs CQIC and SVICEXWFA were identified, which distinguished the CESAs involved in the formation of primary and secondary cell wall (PCW and SCW) in all the species. We also identified several new motifs specific to monocots or dicots. The conserved motifs identified in this study possibly play functional roles specific to PCW or SCW formation. The new insights from this study advance our knowledge about the structure, function and evolution of the CesA family in plants in general and wheat in particular. This information will be useful in improving culm strength to reduce lodging or alter wall composition to improve biofuel production. PMID:26771740

  2. Novel Structural and Functional Motifs in cellulose synthase (CesA) Genes of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.)

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Simerjeet; Dhugga, Kanwarpal S.; Gill, Kulvinder; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is the primary determinant of mechanical strength in plant tissues. Late-season lodging is inversely related to the amount of cellulose in a unit length of the stem. Wheat is the most widely grown of all the crops globally, yet information on its CesA gene family is limited. We have identified 22 CesA genes from bread wheat, which include homoeologs from each of the three genomes, and named them as TaCesAXA, TaCesAXB or TaCesAXD, where X denotes the gene number and the last suffix stands for the respective genome. Sequence analyses of the CESA proteins from wheat and their orthologs from barley, maize, rice, and several dicot species (Arabidopsis, beet, cotton, poplar, potato, rose gum and soybean) revealed motifs unique to monocots (Poales) or dicots. Novel structural motifs CQIC and SVICEXWFA were identified, which distinguished the CESAs involved in the formation of primary and secondary cell wall (PCW and SCW) in all the species. We also identified several new motifs specific to monocots or dicots. The conserved motifs identified in this study possibly play functional roles specific to PCW or SCW formation. The new insights from this study advance our knowledge about the structure, function and evolution of the CesA family in plants in general and wheat in particular. This information will be useful in improving culm strength to reduce lodging or alter wall composition to improve biofuel production. PMID:26771740

  3. Size Exclusion HPLC of Protein Using a Narrow-Bore Column for Evaluation of Bread-Making Quality of Hard Spring Wheat Flours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate if a narrow-bore column (NBC) (300 x 4.5 mm i.d.) improved analyses of unreduced proteins in flour by size exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC) and subsequent evaluation of bread-making quality of hard spring wheat flours. Total protein extracts and sodium dodecyl...

  4. Relationships of Polymeric Proteins with Dough and Bread-making Quality in a Recombinant Inbred Population of Hard Red Spring Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) polymeric proteins is known to be associated with grain quality. In this study, our objective was to investigate the composition of polymeric proteins and their associations with dough mixing strength and bread-making characteristics in a segregating populat...

  5. Association of Size Exclusion HPLC of Endosperm Proteins with Dough Mixing and Bread-making Characteristics in a Recombinant Inbred Population of Hard Red Spring Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation of polymeric proteins is known to affect wheat end-use quality. This research aimed to investigate the composition of polymeric proteins and their associations with dough mixing strength and bread-making characteristics in a near-homogenous population of 139 recombinant inbred lines (RILs...

  6. Comparative transcriptional and proteomic profiling of bread wheat cultivar and its derived transgenic line over-expressing a low molecular weight glutenin subunit gene in the endosperm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have carried out a parallel transcriptional and proteomic comparison of seeds from a transformed bread wheat line that over-expresses a transgenic low molecular weight glutenin subunit gene relative to the corresponding non-transformed genotype. Proteomic analyses showed that, during seed develop...

  7. Effect of conventional milling on the nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of wheat types common in Ethiopia and a recovery attempt with bran supplementation in bread.

    PubMed

    Heshe, Genet Gebremedhin; Haki, Gulelat Desse; Woldegiorgis, Ashagrie Zewdu; Gemede, Habtamu Fekadu

    2016-07-01

    The effect of wheat flour refined milling on nutritional and antioxidant quality of hard and soft grown in Ethiopia was evaluated. Bread was prepared with the supplementation of the white wheat flour with different levels (0%, 10%, 20%, and 25%) of wheat bran. Whole (100% extraction) and white wheat (68% extraction) flours were analyzed for proximates, minerals, and antioxidants. Results indicated that at a low extraction rate (68%), the protein, fat, fiber, ash, iron, zinc, phosphorous, and antioxidant contents of the samples significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by milling. The TPC (total phenolic content) of the white wheat flours, which ranged from 3.34 to 3.49 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalent)/g, was significantly (P < 0.005) lower than those of the whole wheat flours, whose TPC ranged from 7.66 to 8.20 GAE/g). At 50 mg/mL, the DPPH (2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging effect of the wheat extracts decreased in the order of soft whole, hard whole, soft white, and hard white wheat flour, which was 90.39, 89.89, 75.80, and 57.57%, respectively. Moreover, the proximate and mineral contents of the bran-supplemented breads increased significantly (P < 0.05) with the bran level of the bread, and the highest values (protein, 12.0 g/100 g; fat, 2.6 g/100 g; fiber, 2.5 g/100 g; ash, 3.3 g/100 g; iron, 4.8 mg/100 g and zinc, 2.33 mg/100 g) were found in 25% bran supplemented bread. The sensory evaluation of bread showed that all the supplementation levels had a mean score above 4 for all preferences on a 7- point hedonic scale. The results indicated that refined milling at 68% extraction significantly reduces the nutritional and antioxidant activity of the wheat flours. Bread of good nutritional and sensory qualities can be produced from 10% and 20% bran supplementations. PMID:27386103

  8. Influence of texture on the perception of saltiness in wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Pflaum, Tabea; Konitzer, Katharina; Hofmann, Thomas; Koehler, Peter

    2013-11-13

    As a basis for sodium reduction in bread, the influence of crumb texture on the intensity of saltiness and the release of sodium ions during chewing was investigated. A coarse-pored bread crumb was created by extending the proofing time (90/120 min vs 20/40 min as control), whereas the omission of proofing resulted in a fine-pored crumb (0/0 min). A significantly faster sodium release from the coarse-pored bread compared to the fine-pored bread (constant sample weight) was measured in-mouth and in a mastication simulator. This explained the significantly enhanced salty taste of the 90/120 min bread. Corresponding experiments with constant sample volumes revealed a significantly enhanced saltiness despite similar amounts of extracted sodium during the first seconds of chewing. Therefore, saltiness was influenced both by the velocity of sodium release and by crumb texture. Appropriate modification of crumb texture thus leads to enhanced saltiness, suggesting a new strategy for salt reduction in bread. PMID:24138015

  9. Effect of ovary induction on bread wheat anther culture: ovary genotype and developmental stage, and candidate gene association.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Ana M; Sánchez-Díaz, Rosa A; Vallés, María P

    2015-01-01

    Ovary pre-conditioned medium and ovary co-culture increased the efficiency of green doubled haploid plant production in bread wheat anther culture. The positive effect of this medium led to a 6- and 11-fold increase in the numbers of embryos and green plants, respectively, having a greater effect on a medium-low responding cultivar. Ovary genotype and developmental stage significantly affected microspore embryogenesis. By the use of Caramba ovaries it was possible to reach a 2-fold increase in the number of embryos and green plants, and to decrease the rate of albinism. Mature ovaries from flowers containing microspores at a late binucleate stage raised the number of embryos and green plants by 25-46% as compared to immature ovaries (excised from flowers with microspores at a mid-late uninucleate stage). The highest numbers of embryos and green plants were produced when using mature Caramba ovaries. Ovaries from Galeón, Tigre, and Kilopondio cultivars successfully induced microspore embryogenesis at the same rate as Caramba ovaries. Moreover, Tigre ovaries raised the percentage of spontaneous chromosome doubling up to 71%. Attempts were made to identify molecular mechanisms associated to the inductive effect of the ovaries on microspore embryogenesis. The genes TAA1b, FLA26, and WALI6 associated to wheat microspore embryogenesis, the CGL1 gene involved in glycan biosynthesis or degradation, and the FER gene involved in the ovary signaling process were expressed and/or induced at different rates during ovary culture. The expression pattern of FLA26 and FER could be related to the differences between genotypes and developmental stages in the inductive effect of the ovary. Our results open opportunities for new approaches to increase bread wheat doubled haploid production by anther culture, and to identify the functional components of the ovary inductive effect on microspore embryogenesis. PMID:26150821

  10. Electrophoretic analysis of the high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits of Triticum monococcum, T. urartu, and the A genome of bread wheat (T. aestivum).

    PubMed

    Waines, J G; Payne, P I

    1987-05-01

    The high molecular weight (HMW) subunit composition of glutenin was analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in the A genome of 497 diploid wheats and in 851 landraces of bread wheat. The material comprised 209 accessions of wild Triticum monococcum ssp. boeoticum from Greece, Turkey, Lebanon, Armenia, Iraq, and Iran; 132 accessions of the primitive domesticate T. monococcum ssp. monococcum from many different germplasm collections; one accession of free-threshing T. monococcum ssp. sinskajae; 155 accessions of wild T. urartu from Lebanon, Turkey, Armenia, Iraq, and Iran; and landraces of T. aestivum, mainly from the Mediterranean area and countries bordering on the Himalayan Mountains. Four novel HMW glutenin sub-units were discovered in the landraces of bread wheat, and the alleles that control them were designated Glu-Ald through Glu-Alg, respectively. The HMW subunits of T. monococcum ssp. boeoticum have a major, "x" subunit of slow mobility and several, less prominent, "y" subunits of greater mobility, all of which fall within the mobility range of HMW subunits reported for bread wheat. In T. monococcum ssp. monococcum the range of the banding patterns for HMW subunits was similar to that of ssp. boeoticum. However, two accessions, while containing "y" subunits were null for "x" subunits. The single accession of Triticum monococcum ssp. sinskajae had a banding pattern similar to that of most ssp. boeoticum and ssp. monococcum accessions. The HMW subunit banding patterns of T. urartu accessions were distinct from those of T. monococcum. All of them contained one major "x" and most contained one major "y" subunit. In the other accessions a "y" subunit was not expressed. The active genes for "y" subunits, if transferred to bread wheat, may be useful in improving bread-making quality. PMID:24241459

  11. Selenium levels in breads from Sakarya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gülfen, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an important trace element for human and animal health. It accumulates in wheat and corn, which is consumed mostly as bread. The Turkish population consumes mainly white wheat, whole wheat (brown bread) and corn breads. In this study, samples of these breads were collected from six different bakeries in the city of Sakarya, and their selenium levels were determined by ICP-OES after a chemical digestion. It was found that average selenium levels in white wheat, whole wheat and corn breads were 1149, 1204 and 2023 µg/kg, respectively. The results are compared with daily recommended intake and upper tolerable levels for selenium. PMID:24779690

  12. Impact of amylases on biopolymer dynamics during storage of straight-dough wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Bosmans, Geertrui M; Lagrain, Bert; Fierens, Ellen; Delcour, Jan A

    2013-07-01

    When Bacillus stearothermophilus α-amylase (BStA), Pseudomonas saccharophila α-amylase (PSA), or Bacillus subtilis α-amylase (BSuA) was added to a bread recipe to impact bread firming, amylose crystal formation was facilitated, leading to lower initial crumb resilience. Bread loaves that best retained their quality were those obtained when BStA was used. The enzyme hindered formation of an extended starch network, resulting in less water immobilization and smaller changes in crumb firmness and resilience. BSuA led to extensive degradation of the starch network during bread storage with release of immobilized water, eventually resulting in partial structure collapse and poor crumb resilience. The most important effect of PSA was an increased bread volume, resulting in smaller changes in crumb firmness and resilience. A negative linear relation was found between NMR proton mobilities of water and biopolymers in the crumb and crumb firmness. The slope of that relation gave an indication of the strength of the starch network. PMID:23777249

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF QTLs ON CHROMOSOME 1B FOR GRAIN QUALITY TRAITS IN BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.).

    PubMed

    Shahzad, M; Khan, S H; Khan, A S; Sajjad, M; Rehman, A; Khan, A I

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed considering the importance of grain quality traits, genetic diversity and marker-trait association analysis in wheat. A significant amount of genetic diversity was found for various seed traits though the genotypes included in the study were found structured. The extent of polymorphism was high with a range of 2-13 alleles and average of 6.5 alleles per locus. Population structure was detected with 30 unlinked SSRs that divided the population of 92 genotypes in three sub-populations. Extensive LD extent was found on chromosome 1B with 42 SSRs specific for 1B chromosome. Marker-trait associations were determined using mixed linear model, where, population structure and kinship calculated on the basis of unlinked markers were covariated with 1B specific markers and traits data. Eight QTLs for five traits including protein, gluten contents, test weight bread and chapati making quality. Protein content, test weight, bread quality and Glu-B1 were found significantly associated with primers WMC419 (32 cM); WMC128 (30 cM), WMC419 (32 cM); WMC818 (17 cM) and WMC416 (44 cM), respectively. PMID:27281920

  14. Manufacture of gluten-free specialty breads and confectionery products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    People suffering from celiac disease, wheat allergies or wheat intolerances require breads not containing any wheat or related cereals like rye and barley. The manufacture of these so-called gluten-free breads is not well understood and much less literature is available than on wheat breads. On the ...

  15. Effect of multiple fortification on the bioavailability of minerals in wheat meal bread.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Anwaar; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Farooq, Umar; Akhtar, Saeed; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef

    2012-12-01

    Bioavailability of calcium, iron and zinc as calcium carbonate (CaCO3), ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) and zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) @ 1,000, 40 and 20 mg kg(-1) respectively from fortified bread of 72% extraction straight grade flour was assessed. Fortified bread diets were fed to 64 female Sprague-Dawley Albino rats for a period of 28 days. The retention of Ca, Fe and Zn was measured in plasma, femur and liver tissues of rats. The results showed that the feed intake and live body weight of the experimental animals increased significantly with the time period. The Ca levels in plasma and liver did not change significantly while in femur, Ca retention changed significantly with changing type of the fortificants. Similarly, the results for percent apparent absorption (AA) of Ca also remained unchanged (P < 0.05). The Fe and Zn levels were significantly higher in the plasma, liver and femur of rats fed Fe and Zn fortified bread. Interaction of Ca, Fe and Zn resulted in their decreased bioavailability. However Ca, Fe and Zn absorption was higher in the rats fed triple fortified diet compared with those fed unfortified bread diet. This negative interaction did not appear to be great enough to discourage multiple fortification of flour to address minerals malnutrition in the vulnerable groups. PMID:24293693

  16. The TaDREB3 transgene transferred by conventional crossings to different genetic backgrounds of bread wheat improves drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Shavrukov, Yuri; Baho, Manahil; Lopato, Sergiy; Langridge, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Drought tolerance of the wheat cultivar Bobwhite was previously enhanced by transformation with a construct containing the wheat DREB3 gene driven by the stress-inducible maize Rab17 promoter. Progeny of a single T2 transgenic line were used as pollinators in crosses with four elite bread wheat cultivars from Western Australia: Bonnie Rock, IGW-2971, Magenta and Wyalkatchem, with the aim of evaluating transgene performance in different genetic backgrounds. The selected pollinator line, BW8-9-10-3, contained multiple transgene copies, had significantly improved drought tolerance compared with wild-type plants and showed no growth and development penalties or abnormalities. A single hybrid plant was selected from each cross-combination for three rounds of backcrossing with the corresponding maternal wheat cultivar. The transgene was detected in all four F1 BC3 combinations, but stress-inducible transgene expression was found in only three of the four combinations. Under well-watered conditions, the phenotypes and grain yield components of the F2 BC3 transgene-expressing lines were similar to those of corresponding recurrent parents and null-segregants. Under severe drought conditions, the backcross lines demonstrated 12-18% higher survival rates than the corresponding control plants. Two from four F3 BC3 transgenic lines showed significantly higher yield (18.9% and 21.5%) than control plants under limited water conditions. There was no induction of transgene expression under cold stress, and therefore, no improvement of frost tolerance observed in the progenies of drought-tolerant F3 BC3 lines. PMID:25940960

  17. A genome-wide analysis of the auxin/indole-3-acetic acid gene family in hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Linyi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Han, Xiao; Zhang, Lei; Li, Xin; Zhan, Haixian; Ma, Jian; Luo, Peigao; Zhang, Wenping; Cui, Lei; Li, Xiaoyan; Chang, Zhijian

    2015-01-01

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family plays key roles in the primary auxin-response process and controls a number of important traits in plants. However, the characteristics of the Aux/IAA gene family in hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) have long been unknown. In this study, a comprehensive identification of the Aux/IAA gene family was performed using the latest draft genome sequence of the bread wheat “Chinese Spring.” Thirty-four Aux/IAA genes were identified, 30 of which have duplicated genes on the A, B or D sub-genome, with a total of 84 Aux/IAA sequences. These predicted Aux/IAA genes were non-randomly distributed in all the wheat chromosomes except for chromosome 2D. The information of wheat Aux/IAA proteins is also described. Based on an analysis of phylogeny, expression and adaptive evolution, we prove that the Aux/IAA family in wheat has been replicated twice in the two allopolyploidization events of bread wheat, when the tandem duplication also occurred. The duplicated genes have undergone an evolutionary process of purifying selection, resulting in the high conservation of copy genes among sub-genomes and functional redundancy among several members of the TaIAA family. However, functional divergence probably existed in most TaIAA members due to the diversity of the functional domain and expression pattern. Our research provides useful information for further research into the function of Aux/IAA genes in wheat. PMID:26483801

  18. Breads of Native cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sight and scent of a freshly baked loaf of bread has the romantic appeal that transcends all other culinary achievements of mankind! Bread, whether made of the flour of wheat, barley, rye, oats, millet, maize, sorghum, or rice, is a food enjoyed by people in all parts of the world. The virtually...

  19. Transformation of the US bread wheat Butte 86 and silencing of omega-5 gliadin genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complex groups of proteins determine the unique functional properties of wheat flour and are sometimes responsible for food intolerances and allergies in individuals that consume wheat products. Transgenic approaches can be used to explore the functions of different flour proteins, but are limited t...

  20. Resistance to Ug99 stem rust in six bread wheat cultivars maps to chromosome 6DS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 80% of wheat area worldwide is currently grown to varieties that are susceptible to the Ug99 race group of the stem rust fungus. Wheat lines Niini, Tinkio, Coni, Pfunye, Blouk and Ripper were resistant to Ug99 at the seedling and adult plant stages. We mapped stem rust resistance in populations...

  1. Postulation and mapping of seedling stripe rust resistance genes in Ethiopian bread wheat cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most important diseases of wheat worldwide. In Ethiopia, grain yield loss in wheat cultivars ranges from 30 to 69%. The use of resistant cultivars is the most economical and environmentally friendly method of controlling ...

  2. Poor Homologous Synapsis 1 Interacts with Chromatin but Does Not Colocalise with ASYnapsis 1 during Early Meiosis in Bread Wheat.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Kelvin H P; Able, Amanda J; Able, Jason A

    2012-01-01

    Chromosome pairing, synapsis, and DNA recombination are three key processes that occur during early meiosis. A previous study of Poor Homologous Synapsis 1 (PHS1) in maize suggested that PHS1 has a role in coordinating these three processes. Here we report the isolation of wheat (Triticum aestivum) PHS1 (TaPHS1), and its expression profile during and after meiosis. While the TaPHS1 protein has sequence similarity to other plant PHS1/PHS1-like proteins, it also possesses a unique region of oligopeptide repeat units. We show that TaPHS1 interacts with both single- and double-stranded DNA in vitro and provide evidence of the protein region that imparts the DNA-binding ability. Immunolocalisation data from assays conducted using antisera raised against TaPHS1 show that TaPHS1 associates with chromatin during early meiosis, with the signal persisting beyond chromosome synapsis. Furthermore, TaPHS1 does not appear to colocalise with the asynapsis protein (TaASY1) suggesting that these proteins are probably independently coordinated. Significantly, the data from the DNA-binding assays and 3-dimensional immunolocalisation of TaPHS1 during early meiosis indicates that TaPHS1 interacts with DNA, a function not previously observed in either the Arabidopsis or maize PHS1 homologues. As such, these results provide new insight into the function of PHS1 during early meiosis in bread wheat. PMID:22518114

  3. Iranian wheat flours from rural and industrial mills: Exploitation of the chemical and technology features, and selection of autochthonous sourdough starters for making breads.

    PubMed

    Pontonio, Erica; Nionelli, Luana; Curiel, José Antonio; Sadeghi, Alireza; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at describing the main chemical and technology features of eight Iranian wheat flours collected from industrial and artisanal mills. Their suitability for bread making was investigated using autochthonous sourdough starters. Chemical analyses showed high concentration of fibers and ash, and technology aptitude for making breads. As shown through 2-DE analyses, gliadin and glutenin subunits were abundant and varied among the flours. According to the back slopping procedure, type I sourdoughs were prepared from Iranian flours, and lactic acid bacteria were typed and identified. Strains of Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella cibaria, Weissella confusa, and Leuconostoc citreum were the most abundant. Based on the kinetics of growth and acidification, quotient of fermentation and concentration of total free amino acids, lactic acid bacteria were selected and used as sourdough mixed starters for bread making. Compared to spontaneous fermentation, sourdoughs fermented with selected and mixed starters favored the increase of the concentrations of organic acids and total free amino acids, the most suitable quotient of fermentation, and the most intense phytase and antioxidant activities. Although the high concentration of fibers, selected and mixed starters improved the textural features of the breads. This study might had contribute to the exploitation of the potential of Iranian wheat flours and to extend the use of sourdough, showing positive technology, nutritional and, probably, economic repercussions. PMID:25583343

  4. PCR-based isolation and identification of full-length low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit genes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Liu, Dongcheng; Jiang, Wei; Guo, Xiaoli; Yang, Wenlong; Sun, Jiazhu; Ling, Hongqing; Zhang, Aimin

    2011-12-01

    Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) are encoded by a multi-gene family and are essential for determining the quality of wheat flour products, such as bread and noodles. However, the exact role or contribution of individual LMW-GS genes to wheat quality remains unclear. This is, at least in part, due to the difficulty in characterizing complete sequences of all LMW-GS gene family members in bread wheat. To identify full-length LMW-GS genes, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method was established, consisting of newly designed conserved primers and the previously developed LMW-GS gene molecular marker system. Using the PCR-based method, 17 LMW-GS genes were identified and characterized in Xiaoyan 54, of which 12 contained full-length sequences. Sequence alignments showed that 13 LMW-GS genes were identical to those found in Xiaoyan 54 using the genomic DNA library screening, and the other four full-length LMW-GS genes were first isolated from Xiaoyan 54. In Chinese Spring, 16 unique LMW-GS genes were isolated, and 13 of them contained full-length coding sequences. Additionally, 16 and 17 LMW-GS genes in Dongnong 101 and Lvhan 328 (chosen from the micro-core collections of Chinese germplasm), respectively, were also identified. Sequence alignments revealed that at least 15 LMW-GS genes were common in the four wheat varieties, and allelic variants of each gene shared high sequence identities (>95%) but exhibited length polymorphism in repetitive regions. This study provides a PCR-based method for efficiently identifying LMW-GS genes in bread wheat, which will improve the characterization of complex members of the LMW-GS gene family and facilitate the understanding of their contributions to wheat quality. PMID:21830110

  5. Identification of new aquaporin genes and single nucleotide polymorphism in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Pandey, B; Sharma, P; Pandey, D M; Sharma, I; Chatrath, R

    2013-01-01

    Major facilitators of water movement through plant cell membranes include aquaporin proteins. Wheat is among the largest and most important cereal crops worldwide; however, unlike other model plants such as rice, maize and Arabidopsis, little has been reported on wheat major intrinsic proteins (MIPs). This study presents a comprehensive computational identification of 349 new wheat expressed sequence tags (ESTs), encoding 13 wheat aquaporin genes. Identified aquaporins consist of 6 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIP) and 1 TIP showing high sequence similarity with rice aquaporins. We also identified 4 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIP) and 2 SIP members that showed more divergence. Further, expression analysis of the aquaporin genes using the available EST information in UniGene revealed their transcripts were differentially regulated in various stress- and tissue-specific libraries. Allele specific Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) were designed using PIP as the target gene and validated on a core set of Indian wheat genotypes. A 3D theoretical model of the wheat aquaporin protein was built by homology modeling and could prove to be useful in the further functional characterization of this protein. Collectively with expression and bioinformatics analysis, our results support the idea that the genes identified in this study signify an important genetic resource providing potential targets to modify the water use properties of wheat. PMID:24250219

  6. An Evaluation of the Effects of the Australian Food and Health Dialogue Targets on the Sodium Content of Bread, Breakfast Cereals and Processed Meats

    PubMed Central

    Trevena, Helen; Neal, Bruce; Dunford, Elizabeth; Wu, Jason H. Y.

    2014-01-01

    The Australian Food and Health Dialogue set sodium reduction targets for three food categories (breads, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and processed meats) to be achieved by December, 2013. Sodium levels for 1849 relevant packaged foods on the shelves of Australian supermarkets between 2010 and 2013 were examined. Changes in mean sodium content were assessed by linear mixed models, and the significance of differences in the proportion of products meeting targets was determined using chi-squared or McNemar’s tests. The mean sodium level of bread products fell from 454 to 415 mg/100 g (9% lower, p < 0.001), and the proportion reaching target rose from 42% to 67% (p < 0.005). The mean sodium content of breakfast cereals also fell substantially from 316 to 237 mg/100 g (25% lower, p < 0.001) over the study period. The decline in mean sodium content of bacon/ham/cured meats from 1215 to 1114 mg/100 g (8% lower, p = 0.001) was smaller, but associated with a rise in the proportion meeting the target from 28% to 47%. Declines in mean sodium content did not appreciably differ between companies that did and did not make public commitments to the targets. These data show that the Australian food industry can reduce salt levels of processed foods and provide a strong case for broadening and strengthening of the Food and Health Dialogue (FHD) process. PMID:25244369

  7. Analysis of Quality-Related Parameters in Mature Kernels of Polygalacturonase Inhibiting Protein (PGIP) Transgenic Bread Wheat Infected with Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Masci, Stefania; Laino, Paolo; Janni, Michela; Botticella, Ermelinda; Di Carli, Mariasole; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Danieli, Pier Paolo; Lilley, Kathryn S; Lafiandra, Domenico; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2015-04-22

    Fusarium head blight, caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, has a detrimental effect on both productivity and qualitative properties of wheat. To evaluate its impact on wheat flour, we compared its effect on quality-related parameters between a transgenic bread wheat line expressing a bean polygalacturonase inhibiting protein (PGIP) and its control line. We have compared metabolic proteins, the amounts of gluten proteins and their relative ratios, starch content, yield, extent of pathogen contamination, and deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulation. These comparisons showed that Fusarium significantly decreases the amount of starch in infected control plants, but not in infected PGIP plants. The flour of PGIP plants contained also a lower amount of pathogen biomass and DON accumulation. Conversely, both gluten and metabolic proteins were not significantly influenced either by the transgene or by fungal infection. These results indicate that the transgenic PGIP expression reduces the level of infection, without changing significantly the wheat seed proteome and other quality-related parameters. PMID:25823882

  8. Production of thermo-alkali-stable xylanase by a novel polyextremophilic Bacillus halodurans TSEV1 in cane molasses medium and its applicability in making whole wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikash; Satyanarayana, T

    2014-06-01

    A high titre of thermo-alkali-stable xylanase was attained in cane molasses medium. When the culture variables for endoxylanase production were optimized [cane molasses 7 %, soluble alkaline extract of wheat bran (SAE-WB) 37 % and ammonium chloride 0.30 %], a 4.5-fold enhancement in xylanase production (69 U ml(-1)) was achieved as compared to that in the unoptimized medium (15 U ml(-1)). The enzyme titre attained in shake flasks could be sustained in a 7-l laboratory bioreactor. An activity band corresponding to 40 kDa was visualized on SDS-PAGE zymogram analysis. The enzyme has broad range of pH and temperature for activity with optima at 9.0 and 80 °C, and stable between pH 4.0 and 11.0 with 85 % retention of activity. It has T 1/2 of 40 and 15 min at 70 and 80 °C. The enzyme is halotolerant since it displays activity in the presence of salt up to 15 %, and remains 100 % active in the absence of salt. The supplementation of whole wheat dough with xylanase improves antistaling property, reducing sugar content, bread volume with prebiotic xylooligosaccharides in bread. This is the first report on xylanase production in cane molasses medium with SAE-WB as the inducer and its applicability in whole wheat bread making that improves human health. PMID:24297158

  9. Genetic variability in anthocyanin composition and nutritional properties of blue, purple, and red bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum) wheats.

    PubMed

    Ficco, Donatella B M; De Simone, Vanessa; Colecchia, Salvatore A; Pecorella, Ivano; Platani, Cristiano; Nigro, Franca; Finocchiaro, Franca; Papa, Roberto; De Vita, Pasquale

    2014-08-27

    Renewed interest in breeding for high anthocyanins in wheat (Triticum ssp.) is due to their antioxidant potential. A collection of different pigmented wheats was used to investigate the stability of anthocyanins over three crop years. The data show higher anthocyanins in blue-aleurone bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), followed by purple- and red-pericarp durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum), using cyanidin 3-O-glucoside as standard. HPLC of the anthocyanin components shows five to eight major anthocyanins for blue wheat extracts, compared to three anthocyanins for purple and red wheats. Delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside are predominant in blue wheat, with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-galactoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside in purple wheat. Of the total anthocyanins, 40-70% remain to be structurally identified. The findings confirm the high heritability for anthocyanins, with small genotype × year effects, which will be useful for breeding purposes, to improve the antioxidant potential of cereal-based foods. PMID:25130676

  10. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread

    PubMed Central

    Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230

  11. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-06-15

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230

  12. The Expression of TaRca2-α Gene Associated with Net Photosynthesis Rate, Biomass and Grain Yield in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Iqbal; Bachir, Daoura Goudia; Chen, Liang; Hu, Yin-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in activation of Rubisco by Rubisco activase can potentially enhance CO2 assimilation and photosynthetic efficiency in plants. The three homoeologous copies of TaRca2-α were identified on chromosomes 4AL, 4BS and 4DS (TaRca2-α-4AL, TaRca2-α-4BS, and TaRca2-α-4DS) in bread wheat. Expression patterns of the three copies at heading (Z55), anthesis (Z67) and grain-filling (Z73) stages were investigated through qRT-PCR analyses in a panel of 59 bread wheat genotypes and their effects on net photosynthesis rate (Pn), biomass plant-1 (BMPP) and grain yield plant-1 (GYPP) were further explored. Different but similar expression patterns were observed for the three copies of TaRca2-α at the three growth stages with highest expression at grain-filling stage. TaRca2-α-4BS expressed higher at the three stages than TaRca2-α-4AL and TaRca2-α-4DS. The 59 genotypes could be clustered into three groups as high (7 genotypes), intermediate (41 genotypes) and low (11 genotypes) expression based on the expression of the three copies of TaRca2-α at three growth stages. Significant variations (P<0.01) were observed among the three groups of bread wheat genotypes for Pn, BMPP and GYPP. Generally, the genotypes with higher TaRca2-α expression also showed higher values for Pn, BMPP and GYPP. The expressions of the three copies of TaRca2-α at heading, anthesis and grain-filling stages were positively correlated with Pn, BMPP and GYPP (P<0.01) with stronger association for TaRca2-α-4BS at grain-filling stage. These results revealed that the expression of TaRca2-α contribute substantially to Pn, BMPP and GYPP, and suggested that manipulating TaRca-α expression may efficiently improve Pn, BMPP and GYPP in bread wheat and detecting TaRca-α expression levels with emphasis on TaRca2-α-4BS may be a positive strategy for selection in improving photosynthetic efficiency and grain yield of bread wheat. PMID:27548477

  13. The Expression of TaRca2-α Gene Associated with Net Photosynthesis Rate, Biomass and Grain Yield in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Iqbal; Bachir, Daoura Goudia; Chen, Liang; Hu, Yin-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in activation of Rubisco by Rubisco activase can potentially enhance CO2 assimilation and photosynthetic efficiency in plants. The three homoeologous copies of TaRca2-α were identified on chromosomes 4AL, 4BS and 4DS (TaRca2-α-4AL, TaRca2-α-4BS, and TaRca2-α-4DS) in bread wheat. Expression patterns of the three copies at heading (Z55), anthesis (Z67) and grain-filling (Z73) stages were investigated through qRT-PCR analyses in a panel of 59 bread wheat genotypes and their effects on net photosynthesis rate (Pn), biomass plant-1 (BMPP) and grain yield plant-1 (GYPP) were further explored. Different but similar expression patterns were observed for the three copies of TaRca2-α at the three growth stages with highest expression at grain-filling stage. TaRca2-α-4BS expressed higher at the three stages than TaRca2-α-4AL and TaRca2-α-4DS. The 59 genotypes could be clustered into three groups as high (7 genotypes), intermediate (41 genotypes) and low (11 genotypes) expression based on the expression of the three copies of TaRca2-α at three growth stages. Significant variations (P<0.01) were observed among the three groups of bread wheat genotypes for Pn, BMPP and GYPP. Generally, the genotypes with higher TaRca2-α expression also showed higher values for Pn, BMPP and GYPP. The expressions of the three copies of TaRca2-α at heading, anthesis and grain-filling stages were positively correlated with Pn, BMPP and GYPP (P<0.01) with stronger association for TaRca2-α-4BS at grain-filling stage. These results revealed that the expression of TaRca2-α contribute substantially to Pn, BMPP and GYPP, and suggested that manipulating TaRca-α expression may efficiently improve Pn, BMPP and GYPP in bread wheat and detecting TaRca-α expression levels with emphasis on TaRca2-α-4BS may be a positive strategy for selection in improving photosynthetic efficiency and grain yield of bread wheat. PMID:27548477

  14. Transferable bread wheat EST-SSRs can be useful for phylogenetic studies among the Triticeae species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L Y; Ravel, C; Bernard, M; Balfourier, F; Leroy, P; Feuillet, C; Sourdille, P

    2006-08-01

    The genetic similarity between 150 accessions, representing 14 diploidand polyploid species of the Triticeae tribe, was investigated following the UPGMA clustering method. Seventy-three common wheat EST-derived SSR markers (EST-SSRs) that were demonstrated to be transferable across several wheat-related species were used. When diploid species only are concerned, all the accessions bearing the same genome were clustered together without ambiguity while the separation between the different sub-species of tetraploid as well as hexaploid wheats was less clear. Dendrograms reconstructed based on data of 16 EST-SSRs mapped on the A genome confirmed that Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum had closer relationships with Triticum urartu than with Triticum monococcum and Triticum boeoticum, supporting the evidence that T. urartu is the A-genome ancestor of polyploid wheats. Similarly, another tree reconstructed based on data of ten EST-SSRs mapped on the B genome showed that Aegilops speltoides had the closest relationship with T. aestivum and T. durum, suggesting that it was the main contributor of the B genome of polyploid wheats. All these results were expected and demonstrate thus that EST-SSR markers are powerful enough for phylogenetic analysis among the Triticeae tribe. PMID:16736140

  15. Effect of high molecular weight glutenin subunit composition in common wheat on dough properties and steamed bread quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steamed bread is a popular staple in Asia with different flour quality requirements from pan bread. Little is known about how glutenin characteristics affect steamed bread quality. This work investigated how deletions of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) influence gluten properties an...

  16. Whole-genome profiling and shotgun sequencing delivers an anchored, gene-decorated, physical map assembly of bread wheat chromosome 6A.

    PubMed

    Poursarebani, Naser; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Simková, Hana; Safář, Jan; Witsenboer, Hanneke; van Oeveren, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Mayer, Klaus F X; Stein, Nils; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2014-07-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most important staple food crop for 35% of the world's population. International efforts are underway to facilitate an increase in wheat production, of which the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) plays an important role. As part of this effort, we have developed a sequence-based physical map of wheat chromosome 6A using whole-genome profiling (WGP™). The bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig assembly tools fingerprinted contig (fpc) and linear topological contig (ltc) were used and their contig assemblies were compared. A detailed investigation of the contigs structure revealed that ltc created a highly robust assembly compared with those formed by fpc. The ltc assemblies contained 1217 contigs for the short arm and 1113 contigs for the long arm, with an L50 of 1 Mb. To facilitate in silico anchoring, WGP™ tags underlying BAC contigs were extended by wheat and wheat progenitor genome sequence information. Sequence data were used for in silico anchoring against genetic markers with known sequences, of which almost 79% of the physical map could be anchored. Moreover, the assigned sequence information led to the 'decoration' of the respective physical map with 3359 anchored genes. Thus, this robust and genetically anchored physical map will serve as a framework for the sequencing of wheat chromosome 6A, and is of immediate use for map-based isolation of agronomically important genes/quantitative trait loci located on this chromosome. PMID:24813060

  17. Segration distortion in bread wheat of a Thinopyrum intermedium 7E segment carrying Bdv3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow dwarf viruses (BYDV and CYDV), spread by aphid vectors, are among the most serious diseases of cereals worldwide. Wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium T7DS.7DL-7EL translocation lines P961341 and P98134 carry Bdv3 for resistance to YDV that originates on the long arm of chromosome 7E. To facilitate e...

  18. Impact of bran components on the quality of whole wheat bread

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole grains contain components, such as dietary fiber, starch, fat, antioxidant nutrients, minerals, vitamin, lignans, and phenolic compounds, which are beneficial to human health. Most of the beneficial components are found in the germ and bran as part of a wheat kernel, which are reduced in the ...

  19. Modeling Biomass Allocation and Grain Yield in Bread and Durum Wheat under Abiotic Stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry matter (DM) partitioning into stems, leaves, and seed of two wheat (Triticum aestivum and T. durum) genotypes (A and D, respectively) in response to multiple abiotic stresses were quantified and their impact on kernel weight (KW, mg kernel**-1) and grain yield (GY, Mg ha**-1) was evaluated in a ...

  20. Rheological, baking, and sensory properties of composite bread dough with breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Forst) and wheat flours.

    PubMed

    Bakare, Adegoke H; Osundahunsi, Oluwatooyin F; Olusanya, Joseph O

    2016-07-01

    The rheological (Pasting, farinograph, and alveograph) properties of wheat flour (WF) replaced with breadfruit four (05-40%) was analyzed. Baking and sensory qualities of the resulting bread were evaluated. Differences in baking properties of loaves produced under laboratory and industrial conditions were analyzed with t-test, whereas ANOVA was used for other analyses. Peak and final viscosities in the composite blends (CB) ranged from 109.20 to 114.06 RVU and 111.86 to 134.40 RVU, respectively. Dough stability decreased from 9.15 to 0.78 min, whereas farinograph water absorption increased 59.7-65.9%. Alveograph curve configuration ratio increased from 1.27 to 7.39, whereas specific volume (Spv) of the loaves decreased from 2.96 to 1.32 cm(3)/g. The Spv of WF loaves were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from that of the 5% CB, whereas production conditions had no significant effects on absorbed water (t = 0.532, df = 18 P = 0.3005), weight loss during baking (t = 0.865, df = 18, P = 0.199), and Spv (t = 0.828, df = 14.17, P = 0.211). The sensory qualities of the 5% blend were not significantly different from the WF. PMID:27386107

  1. Diversity trends in bread wheat in Italy during the 20th century assessed by traditional and multivariate approaches.

    PubMed

    Ormoli, Leonardo; Costa, Corrado; Negri, Stefano; Perenzin, Maurizio; Vaccino, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    A collection of 157 Triticum aestivum accessions, representative of wheat breeding in Italy during the 20(th) century, was assembled to describe the evolutionary trends of cultivated varieties throughout this period. The lines were cultivated in Italy, in two locations, over two growing seasons, and evaluated for several agronomical, morphological and qualitative traits. Analyses were conducted using the most common univariate approach on individual plant traits coupled with a correspondance multivariate approach. ANOVA showed a clear trend from old to new varieties, leading towards earliness, plant height reduction and denser spikes with smaller seeds. The average protein content gradually decreased over time; however this trend did not affect bread-making quality, because it was counterbalanced by a gradual increase of SDS sedimentation volume, achieved by the incorporation of favourable alleles into recent cultivars. Correspondence analysis allowed an overall view of the breeding activity. A clear-cut separation was observed between ancient lines and all the others, matched with a two-step gradient, the first, corresponding roughly to the period 1920-1940, which can be ascribed mostly to genetics, the second, from the 40s onward, which can be ascribed also to the farming practice innovations, such as improvement of mechanical devices and optimised use of fertilizers. PMID:25712271

  2. Diversity trends in bread wheat in Italy during the 20th century assessed by traditional and multivariate approaches

    PubMed Central

    Ormoli, Leonardo; Costa, Corrado; Negri, Stefano; Perenzin, Maurizio; Vaccino, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    A collection of 157 Triticum aestivum accessions, representative of wheat breeding in Italy during the 20th century, was assembled to describe the evolutionary trends of cultivated varieties throughout this period. The lines were cultivated in Italy, in two locations, over two growing seasons, and evaluated for several agronomical, morphological and qualitative traits. Analyses were conducted using the most common univariate approach on individual plant traits coupled with a correspondance multivariate approach. ANOVA showed a clear trend from old to new varieties, leading towards earliness, plant height reduction and denser spikes with smaller seeds. The average protein content gradually decreased over time; however this trend did not affect bread-making quality, because it was counterbalanced by a gradual increase of SDS sedimentation volume, achieved by the incorporation of favourable alleles into recent cultivars. Correspondence analysis allowed an overall view of the breeding activity. A clear-cut separation was observed between ancient lines and all the others, matched with a two-step gradient, the first, corresponding roughly to the period 1920–1940, which can be ascribed mostly to genetics, the second, from the 40s onward, which can be ascribed also to the farming practice innovations, such as improvement of mechanical devices and optimised use of fertilizers. PMID:25712271

  3. Role of Livelihood Capital in Reducing Climatic Vulnerability: Insights of Australian Wheat from 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Huai, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    In many agricultural countries, development of rural livelihood through increasing capital is a major regional policy to adapt to climate change. However, the role of livelihood capital in reducing climatic vulnerability is uncertain. This study assesses vulnerability and identifies the effects of common capital indicators on it, using Australian wheat as an example. We calculate exposure (a climate index) and sensitivity (a wheat failure index) to measure vulnerability and classify the resilient and sensitive cases, and express adaptive capacity through financial, human, natural, physical, and social capital indicators for 12 regions in the Australian wheat-sheep production zone from 1991-2010. We identify relationships between 12 indicators of five types of capital and vulnerability with t-tests and six logistic models considering the capital indicator itself, its first-order lag and its square as dependent variables to test the hypothesis that a high level of each capital metric results in low vulnerability. Through differing adaptive capacities between resilient and sensitive groups, we found that only four of the 12 (e.g., the access to finance, cash income level, total crop gross revenues, and family share of farm income) relate to vulnerability, which challenges the hypothesis that increasing capital reduces vulnerability. We conclude that further empirical reexaminations are required to test the relationships between capital measures and vulnerability under the sustainable livelihood framework (SLF). PMID:27022910

  4. Modeling Soil Organic Carbon Change across Australian Wheat Growing Areas, 1960–2010

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guocheng; Huang, Yao; Wang, Enli; Yu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in Australian wheat-growing areas were simulated from 1960 to 2010 using Agro-C, a calibrated and validated biogeophysical model. Previously published data from field measurements were used to parameterize the Agro-C model. Model simulations show a decreasing trend in SOC over the last 50 years, mainly attributable to relatively low organic carbon (C) inputs. The rate of decrease in SOC tended to slow in the last two decades due primarily to an increase in wheat yields, which resulted in an increase in C input. Overall, we estimate that Australian wheat-growing areas, covering an area of 15.09 million hectares (Mha), lost 156 (86–222, 95% confidence interval) Tg C in the topsoil (to 30 cm depth) from 1960 to 2010. Approximately 80% of the SOC loss occurred in the period between the 1960s and the 1980s. Spatially, the SOC loss in areas with relatively high temperature and low precipitation, such as Queensland, the northern part of New South Wales and Western Australia, was more significant than that in other areas. We suggest that the loss of SOC could be halted, or even reversed, with an additional input of organic C into the soil at a minimum rate of 0.4 Mg ha–1 yr–1. PMID:23696813

  5. Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate degradation by Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum ATCC 27919 improves mineral availability of high fibre rye-wheat sour bread.

    PubMed

    García-Mantrana, Izaskun; Monedero, Vicente; Haros, Monika

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this investigation was to develop baking products using Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum ATCC27919, a phytase producer, as a starter in sourdough for the production of whole rye-wheat mixed bread. This Bifidobacterium strain contributed to myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate) hydrolysis, resulting in breads with higher mineral availability as was predicted by the phytate/mineral molar ratios, which remained below the inhibitory threshold values for Ca and Zn intestinal absorption. The products with sourdough showed similar technological quality as their homologous without sourdough, with levels of acetic and d/l lactic acids in dough and bread baking significantly higher with the use of sourdough. The overall acceptability scores showed that breads with 25% of whole rye flour were highly accepted regardless of the inclusion of sourdough. This work emphasises that the in situ production of phytase during fermentation by GRAS/QPS microorganisms constitutes a strategy which is particularly appropriate for reducing the phytate contents in products for human consumption. PMID:25704711

  6. Long-term fungal inhibitory activity of water-soluble extract from Amaranthus spp. seeds during storage of gluten-free and wheat flour breads.

    PubMed

    Giuseppe Rizzello, Carlo; Coda, Rossana; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Carnevali, Paola; Gobbetti, Marco

    2009-05-31

    This study aimed at investigating the use of the water-soluble extract of amaranth seeds for extending the shelf-life of gluten-free and wheat flour breads. The antifungal activity of the amaranth water-soluble extract was shown by agar diffusion, conidia germination and dry biomass assays, using Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1 as the indicator fungus. The crude water-soluble extract had minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5 mg of peptides/ml and showed inhibition towards a large number of fungal species isolated from bakeries. Four novel antifungal peptides, encrypted in amaranth agglutinin sequences, were identified from the water-soluble extract by nano-Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionisation-Mass Spectra/Mass Spectra (nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS). The water-soluble extract of amaranth was used as an ingredient for the manufacture of gluten-free and wheat flour breads and the inhibitory activity was confirmed during long-term shelf-life under pilot plant conditions. The effect of the water-soluble extract on gluten-free bread rheology and sensory properties was also shown. PMID:19328576

  7. Mapping of adult plant stripe rust resistance genes in diploid A genome wheat species and their transfer to bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Chhuneja, Parveen; Kaur, Satinder; Garg, Tosh; Ghai, Meenu; Kaur, Simarjit; Prashar, M; Bains, N S; Goel, R K; Keller, Beat; Dhaliwal, H S; Singh, Kuldeep

    2008-02-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis West. f.sp. tritici, is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat worldwide. Forty genes for stripe rust resistance have been catalogued so far, but the majority of them are not effective against emerging pathotypes. Triticum monococcum and T. boeoticum have excellent levels of resistance to rusts, but so far, no stripe rust resistance gene has been identified or transferred from these species. A set of 121 RILs generated from a cross involving T. monococcum (acc. pau14087) and T. boeoticum (acc. pau5088) was screened for 3 years against a mixture of pathotypes under field conditions. The parental accessions were susceptible to all the prevalent pathotypes at the seedling stage, but resistant at the adult plant stage. Genetic analysis of the RIL population revealed the presence of two genes for stripe rust resistance, with one gene each being contributed by each of the parental lines. A linkage map with 169 SSR and RFLP loci generated from a set of 93 RILs was used for mapping these resistance genes. Based on phenotypic data for 3 years and the pooled data, two QTLs, one each in T. monococcum acc. pau14087 and T. boeoticum acc. pau5088, were detected for resistance in the RIL population. The QTL in T. monococcum mapped on chromosome 2A in a 3.6 cM interval between Xwmc407 and Xwmc170, whereas the QTL from T. boeoticum mapped on 5A in 8.9 cM interval between Xbarc151 and Xcfd12 and these were designated as QYrtm.pau-2A and QYrtb.pau-5A, respectively. Based on field data for 3 years, their R2 values were 14 and 24%, respectively. T. monococcum acc. pau14087 and three resistant RILs were crossed to hexaploid wheat cvs WL711 and PBW343, using T. durum as a bridging species with the objective of transferring these genes into hexaploid wheat. The B genome of T. durum suppressed resistance in the F1 plants, but with subsequent backcrossing one resistance gene could be transferred from one of the RILs to the hexaploid wheat

  8. Short, natural, and extended photoperiod response in BC2F4 lines of bread wheat with different photoperiod-1 (Ppd-1) alleles.

    PubMed

    Bentley, A R; Horsnell, R; Werner, C P; Turner, A S; Rose, G A; Bedard, C; Howell, P; Wilhelm, E P; Mackay, I J; Howells, R M; Greenland, A; Laurie, D A; Gosman, N

    2013-04-01

    Flowering is a critical period in the life cycle of flowering plant species, resulting in an irreversible commitment of significant resources. Wheat is photoperiod sensitive, flowering only when daylength surpasses a critical length; however, photoperiod insensitivity (PI) has been selected by plant breeders for >40 years to enhance yield in certain environments. Control of flowering time has been greatly facilitated by the development of molecular markers for the Photoperiod-1 (Ppd-1) homeoloci, on the group 2 chromosomes. In the current study, an allelic series of BC2F4 lines in the winter wheat cultivars 'Robigus' and 'Alchemy' was developed to elucidate the influence on flowering of eight gene variants from the B- and D-genomes of bread wheat and the A-genome of durum wheat. Allele effects were tested in short, natural, and extended photoperiods in the field and controlled environments. Across genetic background and treatment, the D-genome PI allele, Ppd-D1a, had a more potent effect on reducing flowering time than Ppd-B1a. However, there was significant donor allele effect for both Ppd-D1a and Ppd-B1a, suggesting the presence of linked modifier genes and/or additional sources of latent sensitivity. Development of Ppd-A1a BC2F4 lines derived from synthetic hexaploid wheat provided an opportunity to compare directly the flowering time effect of the A-genome allele from durum with the B- and D-genome variants from bread wheat for the first time. Analyses indicated that the reducing effect of Ppd-A1a is comparable with that of Ppd-D1a, confirming it as a useful alternative source of PI. PMID:23420880

  9. Whole-genome mapping of agronomic and metabolic traits to identify novel quantitative trait Loci in bread wheat grown in a water-limited environment.

    PubMed

    Hill, Camilla B; Taylor, Julian D; Edwards, James; Mather, Diane; Bacic, Antony; Langridge, Peter; Roessner, Ute

    2013-07-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint responsible for grain yield losses of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) in many parts of the world. Progress in breeding to improve complex multigene traits, such as drought stress tolerance, has been limited by high sensitivity to environmental factors, low trait heritability, and the complexity and size of the hexaploid wheat genome. In order to obtain further insight into genetic factors that affect yield under drought, we measured the abundance of 205 metabolites in flag leaf tissue sampled from plants of 179 cv Excalibur/Kukri F1-derived doubled haploid lines of wheat grown in a field experiment that experienced terminal drought stress. Additionally, data on 29 agronomic traits that had been assessed in the same field experiment were used. A linear mixed model was used to partition and account for nongenetic and genetic sources of variation, and quantitative trait locus analysis was used to estimate the genomic positions and effects of individual quantitative trait loci. Comparison of the agronomic and metabolic trait variation uncovered novel correlations between some agronomic traits and the levels of certain primary metabolites, including metabolites with either positive or negative associations with plant maturity-related or grain yield-related traits. Our analyses demonstrate that specific regions of the wheat genome that affect agronomic traits also have distinct effects on specific combinations of metabolites. This approach proved valuable for identifying novel biomarkers for the performance of wheat under drought and could facilitate the identification of candidate genes involved in drought-related responses in bread wheat. PMID:23660834

  10. Detection of 12.5% and 25% Salt Reduction in Bread in a Remote Indigenous Australian Community.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Emma; Clarke, Rozlynne; Jaenke, Rachael; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-03-01

    Food reformulation is an important strategy to reduce the excess salt intake observed in remote Indigenous Australia. We aimed to examine whether 12.5% and 25% salt reduction in bread is detectable, and, if so, whether acceptability is changed, in a sample of adults living in a remote Indigenous community in the Northern Territory of Australia. Convenience samples were recruited for testing of reduced-salt (300 and 350 mg Na/100 g) versus Standard (~400 mg Na/100 g) white and wholemeal breads (n = 62 for white; n = 72 for wholemeal). Triangle testing was used to examine whether participants could detect a difference between the breads. Liking of each bread was also measured; standard consumer acceptability questionnaires were modified to maximise cultural appropriateness and understanding. Participants were unable to detect a difference between Standard and reduced-salt breads (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using binomial probability). Further, as expected, liking of the breads was not changed with salt reduction (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using ANOVA). Reducing salt in products commonly purchased in remote Indigenous communities has potential as an equitable, cost-effective and sustainable strategy to reduce population salt intake and reduce risk of chronic disease, without the barriers associated with strategies that require individual behaviour change. PMID:26999196

  11. Detection of 12.5% and 25% Salt Reduction in Bread in a Remote Indigenous Australian Community

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Emma; Clarke, Rozlynne; Jaenke, Rachael; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Food reformulation is an important strategy to reduce the excess salt intake observed in remote Indigenous Australia. We aimed to examine whether 12.5% and 25% salt reduction in bread is detectable, and, if so, whether acceptability is changed, in a sample of adults living in a remote Indigenous community in the Northern Territory of Australia. Convenience samples were recruited for testing of reduced-salt (300 and 350 mg Na/100 g) versus Standard (~400 mg Na/100 g) white and wholemeal breads (n = 62 for white; n = 72 for wholemeal). Triangle testing was used to examine whether participants could detect a difference between the breads. Liking of each bread was also measured; standard consumer acceptability questionnaires were modified to maximise cultural appropriateness and understanding. Participants were unable to detect a difference between Standard and reduced-salt breads (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using binomial probability). Further, as expected, liking of the breads was not changed with salt reduction (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using ANOVA). Reducing salt in products commonly purchased in remote Indigenous communities has potential as an equitable, cost-effective and sustainable strategy to reduce population salt intake and reduce risk of chronic disease, without the barriers associated with strategies that require individual behaviour change. PMID:26999196

  12. Genomic prediction models for grain yield of spring bread wheat in diverse agro-ecological zones

    PubMed Central

    Saint Pierre, C.; Burgueño, J.; Crossa, J.; Fuentes Dávila, G.; Figueroa López, P.; Solís Moya, E.; Ireta Moreno, J.; Hernández Muela, V. M.; Zamora Villa, V. M.; Vikram, P.; Mathews, K.; Sansaloni, C.; Sehgal, D.; Jarquin, D.; Wenzl, P.; Singh, Sukhwinder

    2016-01-01

    Genomic and pedigree predictions for grain yield and agronomic traits were carried out using high density molecular data on a set of 803 spring wheat lines that were evaluated in 5 sites characterized by several environmental co-variables. Seven statistical models were tested using two random cross-validations schemes. Two other prediction problems were studied, namely predicting the lines’ performance at one site with another (pairwise-site) and at untested sites (leave-one-site-out). Grain yield ranged from 3.7 to 9.0 t ha−1 across sites. The best predictability was observed when genotypic and pedigree data were included in the models and their interaction with sites and the environmental co-variables. The leave-one-site-out increased average prediction accuracy over pairwise-site for all the traits, specifically from 0.27 to 0.36 for grain yield. Days to anthesis, maturity, and plant height predictions had high heritability and gave the highest accuracy for prediction models. Genomic and pedigree models coupled with environmental co-variables gave high prediction accuracy due to high genetic correlation between sites. This study provides an example of model prediction considering climate data along-with genomic and pedigree information. Such comprehensive models can be used to achieve rapid enhancement of wheat yield enhancement in current and future climate change scenario. PMID:27311707

  13. Genomic prediction models for grain yield of spring bread wheat in diverse agro-ecological zones.

    PubMed

    Saint Pierre, C; Burgueño, J; Crossa, J; Fuentes Dávila, G; Figueroa López, P; Solís Moya, E; Ireta Moreno, J; Hernández Muela, V M; Zamora Villa, V M; Vikram, P; Mathews, K; Sansaloni, C; Sehgal, D; Jarquin, D; Wenzl, P; Singh, Sukhwinder

    2016-01-01

    Genomic and pedigree predictions for grain yield and agronomic traits were carried out using high density molecular data on a set of 803 spring wheat lines that were evaluated in 5 sites characterized by several environmental co-variables. Seven statistical models were tested using two random cross-validations schemes. Two other prediction problems were studied, namely predicting the lines' performance at one site with another (pairwise-site) and at untested sites (leave-one-site-out). Grain yield ranged from 3.7 to 9.0 t ha(-1) across sites. The best predictability was observed when genotypic and pedigree data were included in the models and their interaction with sites and the environmental co-variables. The leave-one-site-out increased average prediction accuracy over pairwise-site for all the traits, specifically from 0.27 to 0.36 for grain yield. Days to anthesis, maturity, and plant height predictions had high heritability and gave the highest accuracy for prediction models. Genomic and pedigree models coupled with environmental co-variables gave high prediction accuracy due to high genetic correlation between sites. This study provides an example of model prediction considering climate data along-with genomic and pedigree information. Such comprehensive models can be used to achieve rapid enhancement of wheat yield enhancement in current and future climate change scenario. PMID:27311707

  14. Exopolysaccharides from co-cultures of Weissella confusa 11GU-1 and Propionibacterium freudenreichii JS15 act synergistically on wheat dough and bread texture.

    PubMed

    Tinzl-Malang, Saskia Katharina; Rast, Peter; Grattepanche, Franck; Sych, Janice; Lacroix, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    The storage of bread is limited by both physical (staling) and microbial (mainly fungal) spoilage. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and organic acids from propionibacteria (PAB) have been used to enhance texture and extend shelf-life of bakery products. In this study the functionality of EPS of Weissella confusa A3/2-1 (dextran), W. confusa F3/2-2 (dextran and levan), W. confusa 11GU-1 (dextran and ropy capsular polysaccharide) was evaluated in wheat bread. Two strains of Propionibacterium freudenreichii (Pf), shown to produce a heteropolysaccharide (Pf JS15) or a β-glucan (Pf DF30), were tested in single and mixed cultures with W. confusa (Wc). The EPS fermentates were prepared by batch fermentation of cereal- or malt-based medium using sucrose (Wc) or lactic acid (Pf) as carbon source. Incorporation of EPS from single culture fermentates and 1:1 Weissella-Propionibacterium fermentate mixtures revealed strong positive effects of dextran and ropy capsular polysaccharide produced by Wc 11GU-1 on bread staling retardation, with synergistic effects of EPS mixture from Wc 11GU-1 and Pf JS15. A co-fermentation of Wc 11GU-1 and Pf JS15 was developed to produce EPS together with antifungal organic acid mixture (acetate and propionate) in a single step process. The addition of 15% (w/w flour base) co-culture, yielding EPS, acetate and propionate concentrations of 1.5, 0.5 and 1g/kg dough, respectively, resulted in improved bread texture, increased loaf volume and decreased crumb firming during storage for 3days compared with control breads and breads supplemented with equivalent levels of chemical organic acids. Our data showed that EPS could compensate for the negative effects of chemical acetate and propionate in a concentration range exerting antifungal effects. The natural bioingredient produced by Wc 11GU-1 and Pf JS15 has potential for applications as antifungal, texture-building and anti-staling agent in breads, consistent with

  15. Effect of fiber fractions of prickly pear cactus (nopal) on quality and sensory properties of wheat bread rolls.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Arauza, Juan Carlos; Bárcenas, Diego Guadalupe; Ortega-Rivas, Enrique; Martínez, Jaime David Pérez; Hernández, Jaime Reyes; de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, José

    2015-05-01

    In this study the addition of total fiber (TF), insoluble fiber (IF), and soluble fiber (SF) from nopal to wheat flour used to make bread rolls was assessed. The rheological properties of dough as well as quality, texture, sensorial and physical characteristics of the crumb rolls produced were evaluated. The storage (23.50 MPa) and loss modulus (11.95 MPa) for SF-dough were the lowest indicating that a less visco-elastic behavior was obtained. Polarized light microscopy showed that a more homogeneous size and a better distribution of starch granules were developed into SF-dough. Crumb hardness (3.25-4.78 N) and chewiness (0.31-0.81 N) of SF-rolls were lower than the control experiment (3.99-5.81 N and 0.35-1.01 N respectively). Springiness for all treatments was constant (1.0) compared with the control (1.02-0.87) for 2 days of storage. The lowest cohesiveness values (0.24-014) were computed by IF treatment for a similar storage time. The specific crumb volume increased by 12.46, 9.03 and 1.10 % by the addition of SF, TF and IF respectively. The lowest rate of staling was shown by SF-rolls (0.199) and it was followed by TF (0.296), IF (0.381) and control (0.458) treatments. As a result, the highest scores on quality (9.3 out of 10) and sensorial attributes (from 8.9 up to 9.7) were assigned to SF-rolls. PMID:25892800

  16. Role of Livelihood Capital in Reducing Climatic Vulnerability: Insights of Australian Wheat from 1990–2010

    PubMed Central

    Huai, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    In many agricultural countries, development of rural livelihood through increasing capital is a major regional policy to adapt to climate change. However, the role of livelihood capital in reducing climatic vulnerability is uncertain. This study assesses vulnerability and identifies the effects of common capital indicators on it, using Australian wheat as an example. We calculate exposure (a climate index) and sensitivity (a wheat failure index) to measure vulnerability and classify the resilient and sensitive cases, and express adaptive capacity through financial, human, natural, physical, and social capital indicators for 12 regions in the Australian wheat–sheep production zone from 1991–2010. We identify relationships between 12 indicators of five types of capital and vulnerability with t-tests and six logistic models considering the capital indicator itself, its first-order lag and its square as dependent variables to test the hypothesis that a high level of each capital metric results in low vulnerability. Through differing adaptive capacities between resilient and sensitive groups, we found that only four of the 12 (e.g., the access to finance, cash income level, total crop gross revenues, and family share of farm income) relate to vulnerability, which challenges the hypothesis that increasing capital reduces vulnerability. We conclude that further empirical reexaminations are required to test the relationships between capital measures and vulnerability under the sustainable livelihood framework (SLF). PMID:27022910

  17. Extensive Pericentric Rearrangements in the Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotype “Chinese Spring” Revealed from Chromosome Shotgun Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian; Stiller, Jiri; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, You-Liang; Devos, Katrien M.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Liu, Chunji

    2014-01-01

    The bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotype “Chinese Spring” (“CS”) is the reference base in wheat genetics and genomics. Pericentric rearrangements in this genotype were systematically assessed by analyzing homoeoloci for a set of nonredundant genes from Brachypodium distachyon, Triticum urartu, and Aegilops tauschii in the CS chromosome shotgun sequence obtained from individual chromosome arms flow-sorted from CS aneuploid lines. Based on patterns of their homoeologous arm locations, 551 genes indicated the presence of pericentric inversions in at least 10 of the 21 chromosomes. Available data from deletion bin-mapped expressed sequence tags and genetic mapping in wheat indicated that all inversions had breakpoints in the low-recombinant gene-poor pericentromeric regions. The large number of putative intrachromosomal rearrangements suggests the presence of extensive structural differences among the three subgenomes, at least some of which likely occurred during the production of the aneuploid lines of this hexaploid wheat genotype. These differences could have significant implications in wheat genome research where comparative approaches are used such as in ordering and orientating sequence contigs and in gene cloning. PMID:25349265

  18. Implications of non-covalent interactions in zein-starch dough and bread quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major limitation in the production of wheat-free breads is the lack of protein functionality in non-wheat cereals. Breads made from non-wheat flours such as rice, maize, and sorghum must be made from thick batters and are of lower quality than wheat bread. The development of visco-elastic dough f...

  19. A whole-genome shotgun approach for assembling and anchoring the hexaploid bread wheat genome.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Jarrod A; Mascher, Martin; Buluç, Aydın; Barry, Kerrie; Georganas, Evangelos; Session, Adam; Strnadova, Veronika; Jenkins, Jerry; Sehgal, Sunish; Oliker, Leonid; Schmutz, Jeremy; Yelick, Katherine A; Scholz, Uwe; Waugh, Robbie; Poland, Jesse A; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Stein, Nils; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    Polyploid species have long been thought to be recalcitrant to whole-genome assembly. By combining high-throughput sequencing, recent developments in parallel computing, and genetic mapping, we derive, de novo, a sequence assembly representing 9.1 Gbp of the highly repetitive 16 Gbp genome of hexaploid wheat, Triticum aestivum, and assign 7.1 Gb of this assembly to chromosomal locations. The genome representation and accuracy of our assembly is comparable or even exceeds that of a chromosome-by-chromosome shotgun assembly. Our assembly and mapping strategy uses only short read sequencing technology and is applicable to any species where it is possible to construct a mapping population. PMID:25637298

  20. A whole-genome shotgun approach for assembling and anchoring the hexaploid bread wheat genome

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Jarrod A.; Mascher, Martin; Buluc, Aydin; Barry, Kerrie; Georganas, Evangelos; Session, Adam; Strnadova, Veronika; Jenkins, Jerry; Sehgal, Sunish; Oliker, Leonid; Schmutz, Jeremy; Yelick, Katherine A.; Scholz, Uwe; Waugh, Robbie; Poland, Jesse A.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.; Stein, Nils; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2015-01-31

    We report that polyploid species have long been thought to be recalcitrant to whole-genome assembly. By combining high-throughput sequencing, recent developments in parallel computing, and genetic mapping, we derive, de novo, a sequence assembly representing 9.1 Gbp of the highly repetitive 16 Gbp genome of hexaploid wheat, Triticum aestivum, and assign 7.1 Gb of this assembly to chromosomal locations. The genome representation and accuracy of our assembly is comparable or even exceeds that of a chromosome-by-chromosome shotgun assembly. Our assembly and mapping strategy uses only short read sequencing technology and is applicable to any species where it is possible to construct a mapping population.

  1. A whole-genome shotgun approach for assembling and anchoring the hexaploid bread wheat genome

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chapman, Jarrod A.; Mascher, Martin; Buluc, Aydin; Barry, Kerrie; Georganas, Evangelos; Session, Adam; Strnadova, Veronika; Jenkins, Jerry; Sehgal, Sunish; Oliker, Leonid; et al

    2015-01-31

    We report that polyploid species have long been thought to be recalcitrant to whole-genome assembly. By combining high-throughput sequencing, recent developments in parallel computing, and genetic mapping, we derive, de novo, a sequence assembly representing 9.1 Gbp of the highly repetitive 16 Gbp genome of hexaploid wheat, Triticum aestivum, and assign 7.1 Gb of this assembly to chromosomal locations. The genome representation and accuracy of our assembly is comparable or even exceeds that of a chromosome-by-chromosome shotgun assembly. Our assembly and mapping strategy uses only short read sequencing technology and is applicable to any species where it is possible tomore » construct a mapping population.« less

  2. Protein profiles and organoleptic properties of bread from wheat flour and full-fat or defatted fermented cocoa bean powder.

    PubMed

    Aremu, C Y; Agiang, M A; Ayatse, J O

    1995-12-01

    This study has shown that the protein in bread may be quantitatively increased significantly by addition of full-fat or defatted cocoa powder to white flour. The recipe in which white flour is incorporated with up to 10 percent defatted cocoa powder gives bread that is nearly as well accepted as white bread, but with a significantly higher protein content than the latter. However, organoleptic acceptability drops with increasing percentage of cocoa supplementation. The bitter taste of theobromine, which is normally present in high amounts in cocoa bean, is thought to be responsible for this problem of poor acceptability of high cocoa breads. This problem will have to be addressed in order to enhance the scope of increasing bread protein by cocoa supplementation. PMID:8882367

  3. Influence of water biscuit processing and kernel puffing on the phenolic acid content and the antioxidant activity of einkorn and bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Alyssa; Yilmaz, Volkan A; Brandolini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The whole meal flour of wheat is rich in phenolic acids, which provide a relevant antioxidant activity to food products. Aim of this research was to assess the influence of processing on phenolic acid content and antioxidant activity of whole meal flour water biscuits and puffed kernels of einkorn and bread wheat. To this end, the evolution of syringaldehyde, ferulic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, and caffeic acids was studied during manufacturing. Overall, from flour to water biscuit, the total soluble conjugated phenolic acids increased slightly in einkorn, while the insoluble bound phenolic acids decreased in all the accessions as a consequence of losses during the mixing step. In the puffed kernels, instead, the total soluble conjugated phenolic acids increased markedly, while the bound phenolics did not show any clear change, evidencing their high thermal stability. The antioxidant activity, measured by FRAP and ABTS, increased during processing and was highest under the most drastic puffing conditions. PMID:26787973

  4. Antifungal Activity of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Lactobacillus plantarum during Sourdough Fermentation: Identification of Novel Compounds and Long-Term Effect during Storage of Wheat Bread

    PubMed Central

    Coda, Rossana; Cassone, Angela; Rizzello, Carlo G.; Nionelli, Luana; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Gobbetti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the antifungal activity of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and sourdough lactic acid bacteria to extend the shelf life of wheat flour bread. The antifungal activity was assayed by agar diffusion, growth rate inhibition, and conidial germination assays, using Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1 as the indicator fungus. Sourdough fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum 1A7 (S1A7) and dough fermented by W. anomalus LCF1695 (D1695) were selected and characterized. The water/salt-soluble extract of S1A7 was partially purified, and several novel antifungal peptides, encrypted into sequences of Oryza sativa proteins, were identified. The water/salt-soluble extract of D1695 contained ethanol and, especially, ethyl acetate as inhibitory compounds. As shown by growth inhibition assays, both water/salt-soluble extracts had a large inhibitory spectrum, with some differences, toward the most common fungi isolated from bakeries. Bread making at a pilot plant was carried out with S1A7, D1695, or a sourdough started with a combination of both strains (S1A7-1695). Slices of the bread manufactured with S1A7-1695 did not show contamination by fungi until 28 days of storage in polyethylene bags at room temperature, a level of protection comparable to that afforded by 0.3% (wt/wt) calcium propionate. The effect of sourdough fermentation with W. anomalus LCF1695 was also assessed based on rheology and sensory properties. PMID:21441340

  5. Genome distribution of differential homoeologue contributions to leaf gene expression in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Harper, Andrea L; Trick, Martin; He, Zhesi; Clissold, Leah; Fellgett, Alison; Griffiths, Simon; Bancroft, Ian

    2016-05-01

    Using a combination of de novo transcriptome assembly, a newly developed 9495-marker transcriptome SNP genetic linkage map and comparative genomics approaches, we developed an ordered set of nonredundant transcripts for each of the subgenomes of hexaploid wheat: A (47 160 unigenes), B (59 663 unigenes) and D (40 588 unigenes). We used these as reference sequences against which to map Illumina mRNA-Seq reads derived from young leaf tissue. Transcript abundance was quantified for each unigene. Using a three-way reciprocal BLAST approach, 15 527 triplet sets of homoeologues (one from each genome) were identified. Differential expression (P < 0.05) was identified for 5248 unigenes, with 2906 represented at greater abundance than their two homoeologues and 2342 represented at lower abundance than their two homoeologues. Analysis of gene ontology terms revealed no biases between homoeologues. There was no evidence of genomewide dominance effects, rather the more highly transcribed individual genes were distributed throughout all three genomes. Transcriptome display tile plot, a visualization approach based on CMYK colour space, was developed and used to assess the genome for regions of skewed homoeologue transcript abundance. Extensive striation was revealed, indicative of many small regions of genome dominance (transcripts of homoeologues from one genome more abundant than the others) and many larger regions of genome repression (transcripts of homoeologues from one genome less abundant than the others). PMID:26442792

  6. The Introgression of RNAi Silencing of γ-Gliadins into Commercial Lines of Bread Wheat Changes the Mixing and Technological Properties of the Dough

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Giménez, María J.; Martín, Antonio; Barro, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    In the present work the effects on dough quality by the down-regulation of γ-gliadins in different genetic backgrounds of bread wheat were investigated. RNAi-mediated silencing of γ-gliadins was introgressed by conventional crossing into three commercial bread wheat lines (namely ‘Gazul’, ‘Podenco’ and ‘Arpain’), and along with the transgenic line A1152 (cv. Bobwhite) compared with their respective wild types. The protein fractions were quantified by RP-HPLC, whereas the technological and mixing properties were assessed by SDSS test and by the Mixograph instrument. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out for both the wild types and the transgenic lines, showing differences in the factors affecting the technological and mixing properties of the dough as a consequence of the reduction of the γ-gliadins. In transgenic lines, the α- and ω-gliadins, and total gliadins negatively affected the dough strength and tolerance to over-mixing, whereas the L/H ratio showed the opposite effect, positively influencing the dough quality. The increase of the SDSS volume in the transgenic lines of ‘Gazul’, ‘Podenco’ and ‘Arpain’ indicates increased gluten strength and quality respect to the wild types. SDSS volume was found to be positively influenced by the amount of glutenins, which were also increased in the transgenic lines. In addition, a positive effect was observed in the MT, PR1 and RBD in some of the transgenic lines of ‘Podenco’ and ‘Arpain’. In conclusion, the down-regulation of γ-gliadins resulted in stronger doughs and a better tolerance to over-mixing in some transgenic lines. Although the reduction of γ-gliadins seems not to have a direct effect on the mixing and bread-making properties, the compensatory effect on the synthesis of the other prolamins may result in stronger doughs with improved over-mixing resistance. PMID:23029328

  7. Molecular Characterization and Global Expression Analysis of Lectin Receptor Kinases in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ajay K.; Singh, Kashmir; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Lectin receptor kinases (LRKs) play a critical role in plants during development and stress conditions, but a comprehensive analysis at genome level is still not carried out in Triticum aestivum. Herein, we performed the genome wide identification, characterization and expression analysis of these genes in T. aestivum (TaLRK). In-total 263 TaLRK genes were identified, which were further classified into three groups based on the nature of lectin domain. We identified, two TaLRKs consisted of calcium-dependent lectin (C-LRK), while 84 legume-lectin (L-LRK) and 177 bulb-lectin (B-LRK) domains. The L-LRK and B-LRK genes were distributed throughout the genome of T. aestivum. Most of the TaLRKs were clustered as homologs, which were distributed either in proximity on same chromosome or on homoeologous chromosomes of A, B and D sub-genomes. A total of 9 and 58 duplication events were also predicted in L-LRK and B-LRK, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated conserved evolutionary relationship of homologous and orthologous genes from multiple plant species. Gene ontology analysis indicated TaLRKs role in binding, signaling and receptor activities. Most of the TaLRKs consisted of a trans-membrane domain and predicted to be localized in the plasma-membrane. A diverse expression pattern of TaLRK genes was found in various developmental stages and stress conditions. Some TaLRKs were found to be highly affected during a particular stress, which indicated a specialized role of each LRK gene in a specific stress condition. These results described various characteristic feature and expression pattern of TaLRK genes, which will pave the way for functional characterization in wheat. PMID:27111449

  8. QTL Characterization of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in CIMMYT Bread Wheat Line Soru#1

    PubMed Central

    He, Xinyao; Lillemo, Morten; Shi, Jianrong; Wu, Jirong; Bjørnstad, Åsmund; Belova, Tatiana; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Duveiller, Etienne; Singh, Pawan

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistant line Soru#1 was hybridized with the German cultivar Naxos to generate 131 recombinant inbred lines for QTL mapping. The population was phenotyped for FHB and associated traits in spray inoculated experiments in El Batán (Mexico), spawn inoculated experiments in Ås (Norway) and point inoculated experiments in Nanjing (China), with two field trials at each location. Genotyping was performed with the Illumina iSelect 90K SNP wheat chip, along with a few SSR and STS markers. A major QTL for FHB after spray and spawn inoculation was detected on 2DLc, explaining 15–22% of the phenotypic variation in different experiments. This QTL remained significant after correction for days to heading (DH) and plant height (PH), while another QTL for FHB detected at the Vrn-A1 locus on 5AL almost disappeared after correction for DH and PH. Minor QTL were detected on chromosomes 2AS, 2DL, 4AL, 4DS and 5DL. In point inoculated experiments, QTL on 2DS, 3AS, 4AL and 5AL were identified in single environments. The mechanism of resistance of Soru#1 to FHB was mainly of Type I for resistance to initial infection, conditioned by the major QTL on 2DLc and minor ones that often coincided with QTL for DH, PH and anther extrusion (AE). This indicates that phenological and morphological traits and flowering biology play important roles in resistance/escape of FHB. SNPs tightly linked to resistance QTL, particularly 2DLc, could be utilized in breeding programs to facilitate the transfer and selection of those QTL. PMID:27351632

  9. QTL Characterization of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in CIMMYT Bread Wheat Line Soru#1.

    PubMed

    He, Xinyao; Lillemo, Morten; Shi, Jianrong; Wu, Jirong; Bjørnstad, Åsmund; Belova, Tatiana; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Duveiller, Etienne; Singh, Pawan

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistant line Soru#1 was hybridized with the German cultivar Naxos to generate 131 recombinant inbred lines for QTL mapping. The population was phenotyped for FHB and associated traits in spray inoculated experiments in El Batán (Mexico), spawn inoculated experiments in Ås (Norway) and point inoculated experiments in Nanjing (China), with two field trials at each location. Genotyping was performed with the Illumina iSelect 90K SNP wheat chip, along with a few SSR and STS markers. A major QTL for FHB after spray and spawn inoculation was detected on 2DLc, explaining 15-22% of the phenotypic variation in different experiments. This QTL remained significant after correction for days to heading (DH) and plant height (PH), while another QTL for FHB detected at the Vrn-A1 locus on 5AL almost disappeared after correction for DH and PH. Minor QTL were detected on chromosomes 2AS, 2DL, 4AL, 4DS and 5DL. In point inoculated experiments, QTL on 2DS, 3AS, 4AL and 5AL were identified in single environments. The mechanism of resistance of Soru#1 to FHB was mainly of Type I for resistance to initial infection, conditioned by the major QTL on 2DLc and minor ones that often coincided with QTL for DH, PH and anther extrusion (AE). This indicates that phenological and morphological traits and flowering biology play important roles in resistance/escape of FHB. SNPs tightly linked to resistance QTL, particularly 2DLc, could be utilized in breeding programs to facilitate the transfer and selection of those QTL. PMID:27351632

  10. Genetic divergence for high-molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) in indigenous landraces and commercial cultivars of bread wheat of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Yasmeen, F; Khurshid, H; Ghafoor, A

    2015-01-01

    Wheat flour quality is an important consideration in the breeding and development of new cultivars. A strong association between high-molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and bread making quality has resulted in the widespread utilization of HMW-GS in wheat breeding. In this study, we analyzed 242 lines of wheat, including landraces from the provinces of Punjab and Baluchistan, as well as the commercial varieties of Pakistan, to determine allelic variation in the Glu-A1, Glu-B1, and Glu-D1 loci encoding HMW-GS. Higher genetic diversity was observed for HMW-GS in landraces from Baluchistan, followed by landraces collected from Punjab and then commercial varieties. Rare and uncommon subunits were observed in Glu-B1, whereas Glu-A1 was less polymorphic. However, Glu-B1 was the highest contributor to overall diversity (78%), with a total of 31 rare alleles, followed by Glu-D1 (20%) with the high quality 5+10 allele and other variants. Commercial cultivars possessed favorable alleles, potentially from indirect selection for wheat flour quality by the breeders; however, this indirect selection has decreased the pedigree base of commercial cultivars. The allelic combinations, including 2*, 5+10, and 17+18, showing high quality scores were frequent among landraces, indicating their usefulness in future crop improvement and breeding programs. PMID:25966257

  11. Tolerance of 42 bread wheat genotypes to drought stress after anthesis.

    PubMed

    Shahryari, Reza; Gurbanov, Elshad; Gadimov, Aladdin; Hassanpanah, Davoud

    2008-05-15

    The present research characterized yield and yield components of 42 wheat genotypes after terminal drought stress. The experiment was in twice replicated simple rectangular lattice design, conducted at irrigated and terminal stress conditions during 2006-2007. These study genotypes had significant differences for grain yield at level of 1%. Genotypes 4057, Viking/5/Gds/4.., Sabalan and 5041 respectively with 6.313, 6.159, 5.793 and 5.774 t ha(-1) had the highest yield and Gascogen has the lowest yield with 2.561 t ha(-1). Mean of total grain yield for under study genotypes was 5.628 t ha(-1) in non-stress and 3.305 t ha(-1) in drought stress conditions. Drought stress decreased amount of grain yield 2.323 t ha(-1) that was noticeable. Interaction of Genotype x environmental conditions was significant at probability level of 1% for grain yield. Yield of all genotypes in drought condition was lower than non-stress condition. Genotypes Viking/5/Gds/4/Anza/3/Pi.., Sabalan, 4061,4057 and 4041 had more yield in non-stress condition and MV17/Zrn, Sabalan, Saysonz and 4032 in stress condition. Stress intensity pay attention to total grain yield was 42%. Genotypes Viking/5/Gds/4/.. and Sabalan had high grain yield and was better than other genotypes and controls (Toos and Crosse Shahi), according to GMP, STI and MSTI. And had the most amount of stress tolerance index as compared with other genotypes confirms this subject. Correlation of yield with other traits was not significant in non-stress condition. In drought condition, correlation of grain yield with 1000 grain weight and total number of tillers per plant was positively significant. ANOVA showed significant differences between osmotic pressures for coleoptile length, between genotypes for mean and maximum coleoptile length and between interactions of genotypes x osmotic pressures for mean and maximum coleoptile length. Mean comparisons showed the highest total, mean and maximum coleoptile length in -7 bar PEG+I ml L

  12. Effect of mechanically damaged starch from wheat flour on the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread.

    PubMed

    Ma, Sen; Li, Li; Wang, Xiao-Xi; Zheng, Xue-Ling; Bian, Ke; Bao, Qing-Dan

    2016-07-01

    The influence of damaged starch (DS) on the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread were investigated. Characterization of the farinographical properties showed that DS levels affected water absorption, development, weakness, falling number and gluten index. Flour viscosity profiles indicated that pasting temperatures increased, but peak viscosity, low viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback increased and then decreased with increasing amounts of DS. Compared to leavened dough, unleavened dough had significantly higher peak times, of T21 and T22, and was also affected by DS concentration. Steamed bread had a higher specific volume, relatively lower hardness, exhibited more whiteness, and a higher degree of gumminess and chewiness with higher DS levels. We compared two methods of making steamed bread and assessed the quality of the product. We found that an appropriate DS content improved the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread. This study provides the basis for future development and improvements to methods for making frozen dough products. PMID:26920275

  13. Diallel analysis to predict heterosis and combining ability for grain yield, yield components and bread-making quality in bread wheat (T. aestivum).

    PubMed

    Borghi, B; Perenzin, M

    1994-12-01

    Combining ability for grain yield, yield components, and several agronomic and qualitative traits, was studied in a seven-parent diallel cross. The 21 F1 hybrids and the seven parental cultivars were grown in replicated plot trials sown at normal seed density in three locations in the years 1992 and 1993. The effects of general combining ability (gca) were highly significant for all the traits measured with the exception of seeds per spikelet, while the specific combining ability (sca) effects were statistically significant for grain yield, plant height, heading time, for all the yield components, and for the Chopin alveographic parameters P and P/L ratio. For the majority of the traits measured gca was greater than sca. Standard heterosis (sh) for grain yield, i.e., the superiority of the hybrids over the best pure line cultivar(cv Eridano), was only 3.3%, confirming previous finding which indicate sh effects in the range of 10%. The most interesting hybrid derived from the cross Maestra x Golia revealed a yield level approaching that of the highest yielding cv Eridano but appeared more interesting because of its reduced plant height and superior bread-making quality, signifying a selling price 30% higher. It was concluded, therefore, that the first generation of hybrids, likely to appear on the market in the next few years, will be characterized by a yield potential only slightly superior to that of the best standard cvs but associated with other desirable traits, such as bread-making quality. PMID:24178113

  14. The Shutdown of Celiac Disease-Related Gliadin Epitopes in Bread Wheat by RNAi Provides Flours with Increased Stability and Better Tolerance to Over-Mixing

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Barro, Francisco; Rosell, Cristina M.

    2014-01-01

    Celiac disease is a food-sensitive enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of wheat gluten proteins and related proteins from barley, rye, and some varieties of oat. There are no interventional therapies and the only solution is a lifelong gluten-free diet. The down-regulation of gliadins by RNAi provides wheat lines with all the gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated (low-gliadin). The technological properties of doughs prepared from the low-gliadin lines indicated a general weakening effect, although some of the lines displayed similar properties to that of the wild-type lines. In contrast, the stability was increased significantly in some of the transgenic lines, indicating better tolerance to over-mixing. Results reported here are the first analyses of the mixing and bread-making quality of the wheat lines with all gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated. Flour from these lines may be an important breakthrough in the development of new products for the celiac community. These lines might be used directly or blended with other non-toxic cereals, as raw material for developing food products that can be safely tolerated by CD patients and others with gluten intolerance or gluten sensitivity, incrementing the range of available food products and enhancing their diet. PMID:24633046

  15. Regions of the bread wheat D genome associated with variation in key photosynthesis traits and shoot biomass under both well watered and water deficient conditions.

    PubMed

    Osipova, Svetlana; Permyakov, Alexey; Permyakova, Marina; Pshenichnikova, Tatyana; Verkhoturov, Vasiliy; Rudikovsky, Alexandr; Rudikovskaya, Elena; Shishparenok, Alexandr; Doroshkov, Alexey; Börner, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    A quantitative trait locus (QTL) approach was taken to reveal the genetic basis in wheat of traits associated with photosynthesis during a period of exposure to water deficit stress. The performance, with respect to shoot biomass, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf pigment content and the activity of various ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes and catalase, of a set of 80 wheat lines, each containing a single chromosomal segment introgressed from the bread wheat D genome progenitor Aegilops tauschii, was monitored in plants exposed to various water regimes. Four of the seven D genome chromosomes (1D, 2D, 5D, and 7D) carried clusters of both major (LOD >3.0) and minor (LOD between 2.0 and 3.0) QTL. A major QTL underlying the activity of glutathione reductase was located on chromosome 2D, and another, controlling the activity of ascorbate peroxidase, on chromosome 7D. A region of chromosome 2D defined by the microsatellite locus Xgwm539 and a second on chromosome 7D flanked by the marker loci Xgwm1242 and Xgwm44 harbored a number of QTL associated with the water deficit stress response. PMID:26374127

  16. Selecting wheat varieties for tortilla production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat flour tortillas are the second most consumed bread product behind white pan bread. Manufactured tortillas are formulated with highly viscoelastic hard red wheat flours selected and grown for bread making. However, the inherent properties of the bread making flours require costly reducing agent...

  17. Novel Bread Wheat Lines Enriched in Carotenoids Carrying Hordeum chilense Chromosome Arms in the ph1b Background

    PubMed Central

    Rey, María-Dolores; Calderón, María-Carmen; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Alós, Enriqueta; Prieto, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The use of crop wild relative species to improve major crops performance is well established. Hordeum chilense has a high potential as a genetic donor to increase the carotenoid content of wheat. Crosses between the 7Hch H. chilense substitution lines in wheat and the wheat pairing homoeologous1b (ph1b) mutant allowed the development of wheat-H. chilense translocation lines for both 7Hchα and 7Hchβ chromosome arms in the wheat background. These translocation lines were characterized by in situ hybridization and using molecular markers. In addition, reverse phase chromatography (HPLC) analysis was carried out to evaluate the carotenoid content and both 7Hchα∙7AL and 7AS∙7Hchβ disomic translocation lines. The carotenoid content in 7Hchα∙7AL and 7AS∙7Hchβ disomic translocation lines was higher than the wheat-7Hch addition line and double amount of carotenoids than the wheat itself. A proteomic analysis confirmed that the presence of chromosome 7Hch introgressions in wheat scarcely altered the proteomic profile of the wheat flour. The Psy1 (Phytoene Synthase1) gene, which is the first committed step in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, was also cytogenetically mapped on the 7Hchα chromosome arm. These new wheat-H. chilense translocation lines can be used as a powerful tool in wheat breeding programs to enrich the diet in bioactive compounds. PMID:26241856

  18. Functional relationships of phytoene synthase 1 alleles on chromosome 7A controlling flour colour variation in selected Australian wheat genotypes.

    PubMed

    Crawford, A C; Stefanova, K; Lambe, W; McLean, R; Wilson, R; Barclay, I; Francki, M G

    2011-06-01

    Flour colour measured as a Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) b* value is an important wheat quality attribute for a range of end-products, with genes and enzymes of the xanthophyll biosynthesis pathway providing potential sources of trait variation. In particular, the phytoene synthase 1 (Psy1) gene has been associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL) for flour b* colour variation. Several Psy1 alleles on chromosome 7A (Psy-A1) have been described, along with proposed mechanisms for influencing flour b* colour. This study sought to identify evolutionary relationships among known Psy-A1 alleles, to establish which Psy-A1 alleles are present in selected Australian wheat genotypes and establish their role in controlling variation for flour b* colour via QTL analysis. Phylogenetic analyses showed seven of eight known Psy-A1 alleles clustered with sequences from T. urartu, indicating the majority of alleles in Australian germplasm share a common evolutionary lineage. In this regard, Psy-A1a, Psy-A1c, Psy-A1e and Psy-A1p were common in Australian genotypes with flour b* colour ranging from white to yellow. In contrast Psy-A1s was found to be related to A. speltoides, indicating a possible A-B genome translocation during wheat polyploidisation. A new allele Psy-A1t (similar to Psy-A1s) was discovered in genotypes with yellow flour, with QTL analyses indicating Psy-A1t strongly influences flour b* colour in Australian germplasm. QTL LOD value maxima did not coincide with Psy-A1 gene locus in two of three populations and, therefore, Psy-A1a and Psy-A1p may not be involved in flour colour. Instead two other QTL were identified, one proximal and one distal to Psy-A1 in Australian wheat lines. Comparison of Psy-A1t and Psy-A1p predicted protein sequences suggests differences in putative sites for post-translational modification may influence enzyme activity and subsequent xanthophyll accumulation in the wheat endosperm. Psy-A1a and Psy-A1p were not involved in

  19. Erythropoietic response of anemic rats to enriched white bread and bread ash.

    PubMed

    Miller, J

    1976-01-01

    Iron-deficient rats were rehabilitated with diets supplying iron from white wheat bread, bread ash or ferrous sulfate as a standard. The relative biological value of iron in bread or its ash was greater when evaluated from red blood cell count than when estimated from hemoglobin concentration. Ash obtained by heating bread in a muffle furnace and reduced with hydrogen was more effective in stimulating blood cell production than could be accounted for by its iron content alone. PMID:1029817

  20. Impact of Wheat Bran Hydration Properties As Affected by Toasting and Degree of Milling on Optimal Dough Development in Bread Making.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Pieter J; Bogaerts, Silke; Hemdane, Sami; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2016-05-11

    The impact of the hydration capacity and hydration rate of wheat bran on optimal bread dough development and loaf volume was investigated using coarse bran, both native as well as after toasting, milling, presoaking, and combinations of the latter. It was found that toasting reduces bran's hydration rate, which, during mixing, results in a temporary excess of water in which dough development takes place inefficiently and hence requires additional time. This mechanism was further substantiated by the observation that delayed dough development can be counteracted by the presoaking of bran. Milling of bran increases its hydration rate and results in faster optimal dough development. Presoaking of nonmilled bran, however, did not result in faster dough development. Smaller bran particles do lead to faster dough development, probably due to increased proper contacts between flour particles. Optimal loaf volumes did not change upon milling and toasting. PMID:27092966

  1. Exploring the tertiary gene pool of bread wheat: sequence assembly and analysis of chromosome 5M(g) of Aegilops geniculata.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vijay K; Wang, Shichen; Danilova, Tatiana; Koo, Dal Hoe; Vrána, Jan; Kubaláková, Marie; Hribova, Eva; Rawat, Nidhi; Kalia, Bhanu; Singh, Narinder; Friebe, Bernd; Doležel, Jaroslav; Akhunov, Eduard; Poland, Jesse; Sabir, Jamal S M; Gill, Bikram S

    2015-11-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides a powerful tool for the discovery of important genes and alleles in crop plants and their wild relatives. Despite great advances in NGS technologies, whole-genome shotgun sequencing is cost-prohibitive for species with complex genomes. An attractive option is to reduce genome complexity to a single chromosome prior to sequencing. This work describes a strategy for studying the genomes of distant wild relatives of wheat by isolating single chromosomes from addition or substitution lines, followed by chromosome sorting using flow cytometry and sequencing of chromosomal DNA by NGS technology. We flow-sorted chromosome 5M(g) from a wheat/Aegilops geniculata disomic substitution line [DS5M(g) (5D)] and sequenced it using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 system at approximately 50 × coverage. Paired-end sequences were assembled and used for structural and functional annotation. A total of 4236 genes were annotated on 5M(g) , in close agreement with the predicted number of genes on wheat chromosome 5D (4286). Single-gene FISH indicated no major chromosomal rearrangements between chromosomes 5M(g) and 5D. Comparing chromosome 5M(g) with model grass genomes identified synteny blocks in Brachypodium distachyon, rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Chromosome 5M(g) -specific SNPs and cytogenetic probe-based resources were developed and validated. Deletion bin-mapped and ordered 5M(g) SNP markers will be useful to track 5M-specific introgressions and translocations. This study provides a detailed sequence-based analysis of the composition of a chromosome from a distant wild relative of bread wheat, and opens up opportunities to develop genomic resources for wild germplasm to facilitate crop improvement. PMID:26408103

  2. Effects of innovative and conventional sanitizing treatments on the reduction of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera defects on industrial durum wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Virgilio; Pitino, Iole; Pecorino, Biagio; Todaro, Aldo; Spina, Alfio; Lauro, Maria Rosaria; Tomaselli, Filippo; Restuccia, Cristina

    2016-10-17

    Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Hyphopichia burtonii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera are spoilage yeasts causing chalk mold defects on sliced bread packaged under modified atmosphere. The first objective of this study, carried out in a bread-making company for two consecutive years, was to genetically identify yeasts isolated from spoiled sliced bread in Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) and to determine the dominant species among identified strains. The second objective was to evaluate the effects of hydrogen peroxide and silver solution 12% (HPS) treatment in the leavening cells and cooling chambers, in comparison with the conventional Ortho-Phenylphenol (OPP) fumigating treatment, on the incidence of chalk defects of the commercialized products. One-hundred percent of the isolated yeasts were identified as S. fibuligera, while H. burtonii and W. anomalus were not detected. Concerning mean water activity (aw) and moisture content values, packaged bread samples were, respectively, included in the range 0.922-0.940 and 33.40-35.39%. S. fibuligera was able to grow in a wide range of temperature (11.5 to 28.5°C) and relative humidity (70.00 to 80.17%) in the processing environments, and product aw<0.94. Compared to OPP, the combined treatment with hydrogen peroxide and silver solution, in association with MAP, reduced to a negligible level yeast contamination of industrial sliced bread. The identification of the spoilage organisms and a comprehensive understanding of the combined effects of aw, pO2/pCO2 inside the packages, environmental conditions and sanitizing treatment on the growth behaviour is essential for future development of adequate preventive process strategies against chalk mold defects. PMID:27438909

  3. What Actually Confers Adaptive Capacity? Insights from Agro-Climatic Vulnerability of Australian Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Brett A.; Huai, Jianjun; Connor, Jeff; Gao, Lei; King, Darran; Kandulu, John; Zhao, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Vulnerability assessments have often invoked sustainable livelihoods theory to support the quantification of adaptive capacity based on the availability of capital—social, human, physical, natural, and financial. However, the assumption that increased availability of these capitals confers greater adaptive capacity remains largely untested. We quantified the relationship between commonly used capital indicators and an empirical index of adaptive capacity (ACI) in the context of vulnerability of Australian wheat production to climate variability and change. We calculated ACI by comparing actual yields from farm survey data to climate-driven expected yields estimated by a crop model for 12 regions in Australia’s wheat-sheep zone from 1991–2010. We then compiled data for 24 typical indicators used in vulnerability analyses, spanning the five capitals. We analyzed the ACI and used regression techniques to identify related capital indicators. Between regions, mean ACI was not significantly different but variance over time was. ACI was higher in dry years and lower in wet years suggesting that farm adaptive strategies are geared towards mitigating losses rather than capitalizing on opportunity. Only six of the 24 capital indicators were significantly related to adaptive capacity in a way predicted by theory. Another four indicators were significantly related to adaptive capacity but of the opposite sign, countering our theory-driven expectation. We conclude that the deductive, theory-based use of capitals to define adaptive capacity and vulnerability should be more circumspect. Assessments need to be more evidence-based, first testing the relevance and influence of capital metrics on adaptive capacity for the specific system of interest. This will more effectively direct policy and targeting of investment to mitigate agro-climatic vulnerability. PMID:25668192

  4. ASCORBIC ACID CONTROLS MYCOSPHAERELLA GRAMINICOLA IN BREAD AND DURUM WHEAT THROUGH DIRECT EFFECT ON THE PATHOGEN AND INDIRECT ACTION VIA PLANT DEFENCE.

    PubMed

    Somai-Jemmali, L; Magnin-Robert, M; Randoux, B; Siah, A; Tisserant, B; Halama, P; Reignault, Ph; Hamada, W

    2015-01-01

    Septoria tritici blotch (STB) caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola is one of the most devastating foliar diseases on wheat. Due to the emergence of fungicide-resistant M. graminicola strains and in an effort to reduce the impact of pesticides on the environment, considerable interest has been devoted to alternative control strategies. The use of natural products, especially through a defense-activating effect on the host, could be considered. Acid ascorbic (AA) is synthesized by plants and most animal cells with antioxidant properties. This study aimed at: (i) assessing the protective effect of an AA-based product on bread (BW) and durum (DW) wheat (Triticum aestivum and T. durum, respectively) susceptible cultivars against M. graminicola and (ii) investigating the mechanisms involved in wheat protection. Therefore, the foliar application of a formulated AA-based product (50 mg L-) on 3-week-old wheat plants reduced the infection level by more than 75% for both BW and DW. In vitro experiments revealed that AA induced a strong inhibition of spore germination (at 50 mg L.(-1)) and hyphal growth (at 16 mg L.(-1)) for both M. graminicola strains, infecting either BW or DW. Used as a preventive foliar spray on wheat leaves, microscopic observations revealed that AA inhibits in planta spore germination, hyphal growth, leaf penetration, substomatal colonization and eventually sporulation. Moreover, AA treatment also decreased fungal protease and cell wall degrading enzyme activities, putative pathogenicity determinants of M. graminicola. In addition to these effects on the fungus, AA induced defence reactions in both BW and DW. Indeed, in non-inoculated context, eliciting effect was observed on (i) stimulation of enzymatic activities such as lipoxygenase, peroxydase and catalase and (ii) transcript accumulation of genes encoding for pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins (chitinase class IV, peroxidase). In inoculated condition, accumulation of H2O2 and phenolic compounds

  5. Introgression of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance from Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis Eig) into bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf rust and stripe rust are devastating wheat diseases, causing significant yield losses in many regions of the world. The use of resistant varieties is the most efficient way to protect wheat crops from these diseases. Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis or AES), which is a diploid wild relati...

  6. Joint Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Analyses Reveal Changes in the Primary Metabolism and Imbalances in the Subgenome Orchestration in the Bread Wheat Molecular Response to Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Nussbaumer, Thomas; Warth, Benedikt; Sharma, Sapna; Ametz, Christian; Bueschl, Christoph; Parich, Alexandra; Pfeifer, Matthias; Siegwart, Gerald; Steiner, Barbara; Lemmens, Marc; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Buerstmayr, Hermann; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Kugler, Karl G.; Schweiger, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium head blight is a prevalent disease of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), which leads to considerable losses in yield and quality. Quantitative resistance to the causative fungus Fusarium graminearum is poorly understood. We integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics data to dissect the molecular response to the fungus and its main virulence factor, the toxin deoxynivalenol in near-isogenic lines segregating for two resistance quantitative trait loci, Fhb1 and Qfhs.ifa-5A. The data sets portrait rearrangements in the primary metabolism and the translational machinery to counter the fungus and the effects of the toxin and highlight distinct changes in the metabolism of glutamate in lines carrying Qfhs.ifa-5A. These observations are possibly due to the activity of two amino acid permeases located in the quantitative trait locus confidence interval, which may contribute to increased pathogen endurance. Mapping to the highly resolved region of Fhb1 reduced the list of candidates to few genes that are specifically expressed in presence of the quantitative trait loci and in response to the pathogen, which include a receptor-like protein kinase, a protein kinase, and an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase. On a genome-scale level, the individual subgenomes of hexaploid wheat contribute differentially to defense. In particular, the D subgenome exhibited a pronounced response to the pathogen and contributed significantly to the overall defense response. PMID:26438291

  7. Characterization of a Low-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunit Gene from Bread Wheat and the Corresponding Protein That Represents a Major Subunit of the Glutenin Polymer1

    PubMed Central

    Masci, Stefania; D'Ovidio, Renato; Lafiandra, Domenico; Kasarda, Donald D.

    1998-01-01

    Both high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) play the major role in determining the viscoelastic properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) flour. To date there has been no clear correspondence between the amino acid sequences of LMW-GS derived from DNA sequencing and those of actual LMW-GS present in the endosperm. We have characterized a particular LMW-GS from hexaploid bread wheat, a major component of the glutenin polymer, which we call the 42K LMW-GS, and have isolated and sequenced the putative corresponding gene. Extensive amino acid sequences obtained directly for this 42K LMW-GS indicate correspondence between this protein and the putative corresponding gene. This subunit did not show a cysteine (Cys) at position 5, in contrast to what has frequently been reported for nucleotide-based sequences of LMW-GS. This Cys has been replaced by one occurring in the repeated-sequence domain, leaving the total number of Cys residues in the molecule the same as in various other LMW-GS. On the basis of the deduced amino acid sequence and literature-based assignment of disulfide linkages, a computer-generated molecular model of the 42K subunit was constructed. PMID:9847089

  8. Fractal Bread.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbenshade, Donald H., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Develops the idea of fractals through a laboratory activity that calculates the fractal dimension of ordinary white bread. Extends use of the fractal dimension to compare other complex structures as other breads and sponges. (MDH)

  9. Haplotypes of the TaGS5-A1 Gene Are Associated with Thousand-Kernel Weight in Chinese Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shasha; Yan, Xuefang; Wang, Yongyan; Liu, Hongmei; Cui, Dangqun; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    In previous work, we cloned TaGS5 gene and found the association of TaGS5-A1 alleles with agronomic traits. In this study, the promoter sequence of the TaGS5-A1 gene was isolated from bread wheat. Sequencing results revealed that a G insertion was found in position -1925 bp of the TaGS5-A1 gene (Reference to ATG), which occurred in the Sp1 domain of the promoter sequence. Combined with previous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the TaGS5-A1 exon sequence, four genotypes were formed at the TaGS5-A1 locus and were designated as TaGS5-A1a-a, TaGS5-A1a-b, TaGS5-A1b-a, and TaGS5-A1b-b, respectively. Analysis of the association of TaGS5-A1 alleles with agronomic traits indicated that cultivars with the TaGS5-A1a-b allele possessed significantly higher thousand-kernel weight (TKW) and lower plant height than cultivars with the TaGS5-A1a-a allele, and cultivars with the TaGS5-A1b-b allele showed higher TKW than cultivars with the TaGS5-A1b-a allele. The differences of these traits between the TaGS5-A1a-a and TaGS5-A1a-b alleles were larger than those of the TaGS5-A1b-a and TaGS5-A1b-b alleles, suggesting that the -1925G insertion plays the more important role in TaGS5-A1a genotypes than in TaGS5-A1b genotypes. qRT-PCR indicated that TaGS5-A1b-b possessed the significantly highest expression level among four TaGS5-A1 haplotypes in mature seeds and further showed a significantly higher expression level than TaGS5-A1b-a at five different developmental stages of the seeds, suggesting that high expression of TaGS5-A1 was positively associated with high TKW in bread wheat. This study could provide a relatively superior genotype in view of TKW in wheat breeding programs and could also provide important information for dissection of the regulatory mechanism of the yield-related traits. PMID:27375643

  10. VIRULENCE AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF A WORLD-WIDE COLLECTION OF PUCCINIA TRITICINA FROM DURUM WHEAT COMPARED TO U.S. BREAD WHEAT RACES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina, has recently become more prevalent on durum wheat in Europe, North and South America. We determined the virulence specificities of P. triticina isolates from durum wheat from Argentina, Chile, Ethiopia, France, Mexico, Spain and the USA, and 10 representative...

  11. A high-density, SNP-based consensus map of tetraploid wheat as a bridge to integrate durum and bread wheat genomics and breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consensus linkage maps are important tools in crop genomics. We have assembled a high-density tetraploid wheat consensus map by integrating 13 datasets from independent biparental populations involving durum wheat cultivars (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), cultivated emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum...

  12. VIRULENCE AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF A WORLD-WIDE COLLECTION OF PUCCINIA TRITICINA FROM DURUM WHEAT COMPARED TO US BREAD WHEAT RACES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina, has recently become more prevalent on durum wheat in Europe, North and South America. We determined the virulence specificities of P. triticina isolates from durum wheat from Argentina, Chile, Ethiopia, France, Mexico, Spain and the USA, and 10 representative ...

  13. Can an increase in celiac disease be attributed to an increase in the gluten content of wheat as a consequence of wheat breading? A perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to assess the possibility that wheat breeding has been responsible for an increase in the gluten content of U.S. wheat cultivars and thereby responsible for an increase in the incidence of celiac disease, the available data from the 20th century has been analyzed. Although much of the infor...

  14. Introgression of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance from Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis Eig) into bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Millet, E; Manisterski, J; Ben-Yehuda, P; Distelfeld, A; Deek, J; Wan, A; Chen, X; Steffenson, B J

    2014-06-01

    Leaf rust and stripe rust are devastating wheat diseases, causing significant yield losses in many regions of the world. The use of resistant varieties is the most efficient way to protect wheat crops from these diseases. Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis or AES), which is a diploid wild relative of wheat, exhibits a high frequency of leaf and stripe rust resistance. We used the resistant AES accession TH548 and induced homoeologous recombination by the ph1b allele to obtain resistant wheat recombinant lines carrying AES chromosome segments in the genetic background of the spring wheat cultivar Galil. The gametocidal effect from AES was overcome by using an "anti-gametocidal" wheat mutant. These recombinant lines were found resistant to highly virulent races of the leaf and stripe rust pathogens in Israel and the United States. Molecular DArT analysis of the different recombinant lines revealed different lengths of AES segments on wheat chromosome 6B, which indicates the location of both resistance genes. PMID:25209724

  15. A Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism of TaGS5 Gene Revealed its Association with Kernel Weight in Chinese Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shasha; Zhang, Xiangfen; Chen, Feng; Cui, Dangqun

    2015-01-01

    TaGS5 genes were cloned from bread wheat and were physically mapped on 3AS and 3DS. Sequencing results revealed that a SNP was found in the sixth exon of TaGS5-A1 gene. The SNP resulted in amino acid change from alanine to serine at the 303 bp position of TaGS5-A1. These two alleles were designated as TaGS5-A1a (alanine at the 303 bp position) and TaGS5-A1b genes (serine at the 303-bp position). Analysis of association of TaGS5-A1 alleles with agronomic traits indicated that cultivars with TaGS5-A1b possessed wider kernel width and higher thousand-kernel weight, as well as significantly lower plant height, spike length, and internode length below spike than those of cultivars with TaGS5-A1a over 3 years. These trait differences between TaGS5-A1a and TaGS5-A1b genotypes were larger in landraces than in modern cultivars. This finding suggested that TaGS5 gene played an important role in modulating yield-related traits in the landraces, which possibly resulted from numerous superior genes gathering in modern cultivars after strong artificial selection. The preferred TaGS5-A1b haplotype underwent very strong positive selection in Chinese modern wheat breeding, but not in Chinese landraces. Expression analysis of the TaGS5-A1 gene indicated that TaGS5-A1b allele possessed significantly higher expression level than TaGS5-A1b allele in differently developmental seeds. This study could provide relatively superior genotype in view of agronomic traits in wheat breeding programs. Likewise, this study could offer important information for the dissection of molecular and genetic basis of yield-related traits. PMID:26779195

  16. Elucidation of defense-related signaling responses to spot blotch infection in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Sahu, Ranabir; Sharaff, Murali; Pradhan, Maitree; Sethi, Avinash; Bandyopadhyay, Tirthankar; Mishra, Vinod K; Chand, Ramesh; Chowdhury, Apurba K; Joshi, Arun K; Pandey, Shree P

    2016-04-01

    Spot blotch disease, caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana, is an important threat to wheat, causing an annual loss of ~17%. Under epidemic conditions, these losses may be 100%, yet the molecular responses of wheat to spot blotch remain almost uncharacterized. Moreover, defense-related phytohormone signaling genes have been poorly characterized in wheat. Here, we have identified 18 central components of salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET), and enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1) signaling pathways as well as the genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway in wheat. In time-course experiments, we characterized the reprogramming of expression of these pathways in two contrasting genotypes: Yangmai #6 (resistant to spot blotch) and Sonalika (susceptible to spot blotch). We further evaluated the performance of a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) by crossing Yangmai#6 and Sonalika (parents) and subsequent selfing to F10 under field conditions in trials at multiple locations. We characterized the reprogramming of defense-related signaling in these RILs as a consequence of spot blotch attack. During resistance to spot blotch attack, wheat strongly elicits SA signaling (SA biogenesis as well as the NPR1-dependent signaling pathway), along with WRKY33 transcription factor, followed by an enhanced expression of phenylpropanoid pathway genes. These may lead to accumulation of phenolics-based defense metabolites that may render resistance against spot blotch. JA signaling may synergistically contribute to the resistance. Failure to elicit SA (and possibly JA) signaling may lead to susceptibility against spot blotch infection in wheat. PMID:26932764

  17. TaRAR1 and TaSGT1 associate with TaHsp90 to function in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedling growth and stripe rust resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guan-Feng; Fan, Renchun; Wang, Xianping; Wang, Daowen; Zhang, Xiangqi

    2015-04-01

    RAR1 and SGT1 are important co-chaperones of Hsp90. We previously showed that TaHsp90.1 is required for wheat seedling growth, and that TaHsp90.2 and TaHsp90.3 are essential for resistance (R) gene mediated resistance to stripe rust fungus. Here, we report the characterization of TaRAR1 and TaSGT1 genes in bread wheat. TaRAR1 and TaSGT1 each had three homoeologs, which were located on wheat groups 2 and 3 chromosomes, respectively. Strong inhibition of seedling growth was observed after silencing TaSGT1 but not TaRAR1. In contrast, decreasing the expression of TaRAR1 or TaSGT1 could all compromise R gene mediated resistance to stripe rust fungus infection. Protein-protein interactions were found among TaRAR1, TaSGT1 and TaHsp90. The N-terminus of TaHsp90, the CHORD-I and CHORD-II domains of TaRAR1 and the CS domain of TaSGT1 may be instrumental for the interactions among the three proteins. Based on this work and our previous study on TaHsp90, we speculate that the TaSGT1-TaHsp90.1 interaction is important for maintaining bread wheat seedling growth. The TaRAR1-TaSGT1-TaHsp90.2 and TaRAR1-TaSGT1-TaHsp90.3 interactions are involved in controlling the resistance to stripe rust disease. The new information obtained here should aid further functional investigations of TaRAR1-TaSGT1-TaHsp90 complexes in regulating bread wheat growth and disease resistance. PMID:25697954

  18. Maize and resistant starch enriched breads reduce postprandial glycemic responses in rats.

    PubMed

    Brites, Carla M; Trigo, Maria J; Carrapiço, Belmira; Alviña, Marcela; Bessa, Rui J

    2011-04-01

    White wheat bread is a poor source of dietary fiber, typically containing less than 2%. A demand exists for the development of breads with starch that is slowly digestible or partially resistant to the digestive process. The utilization of maize flour and resistant starch is expected to reduce the release and absorption of glucose and, hence, lower the glycemic index of bread. This study was undertaken to investigate the hypothesis that a diet of maize bread, as produced and consumed in Portugal, would have beneficial metabolic effects on rats compared to white wheat bread. We also hypothesized that the effect of resistant starch on glycemic response could be altered by the use of different formulations and breadmaking processes for wheat and maize breads. Resistant starch (RS) was incorporated into formulations of breads at 20% of the inclusion rate of wheat and maize flours. Assays were conducted with male Wistar rats (n = 36), divided into four groups and fed either wheat bread, RS-wheat bread, maize bread, and RS-maize bread to evaluate feed intake, body weight gain, fecal pH, and postprandial blood glucose response (glycemic response). Blood triglycerides, total cholesterol concentrations, and liver weights were also determined. The maize bread group presented higher body weight gain and cholesterol level, lower fecal pH, and postprandial blood glucose response than the wheat bread group. The RS-wheat bread group showed significant reductions in feed intake, fecal pH, postprandial blood glucose response, and total cholesterol. The RS-maize group displayed significant reductions of body weight gain, fecal pH, and total cholesterol levels; however, for the glycemic response, only a reduction in fasting level was observed. These results suggest that maize bread has a lower glycemic index than wheat bread, and the magnitude of the effect of RS on glycemic response depends of type of bread. PMID:21530804

  19. Rht-1 and Ppd-D1 associations with height, GA sensitivity, and days to heading in a worldwide bread wheat collection.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Edward P; Boulton, Margaret I; Al-Kaff, Nadia; Balfourier, Francois; Bordes, Jacques; Greenland, Andy J; Powell, Wayne; Mackay, Ian J

    2013-09-01

    Reduced height (Rht)-1 and Photoperiod (Ppd) have major effects on the adaptability of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) to specific environments. Ppd-D1a is a photoperiod insensitive allele that reduces time to flowering. The gibberellin (GA) insensitive alleles Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b shorten plant stature and were important components of the 'green revolution'. Two additional Rht-B1 alleles were recently identified that contain a 160 or 197 bp insertion upstream of the coding region and may affect plant height or GA sensitivity Wilhelm et al. (Theor Appl Gen doi: 10.1007/s00122-013-2088-7 , 2013b). We determined the frequency of the five alleles in a worldwide core collection of 372 wheat accessions (372CC) and estimated their effects on height, days to heading, and GA sensitivity when the collection was grown in pots outdoors or in the glasshouse. This revealed that each allele was widespread geographically with frequencies ranging from 0.12 to 0.25. Ppd-D1a was associated with significant (p ≤ 0.05) reductions in days to heading and height relative to photoperiod sensitive Ppd-D1b. Relative to wild type, Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b each resulted in significant reductions in height (approximately 30 %) and GA sensitivity. The 160 and 197 bp alleles were associated with significant height reductions of 18 and 12 %, respectively, and with non-significant reductions in GA sensitivity relative to wild type. Two statistical methods were developed and used to estimate GA sensitivity of the 372CC accessions, but novel GA insensitive alleles were not identified. Further characterization of the Rht-B1 insertion alleles is required, but our results suggest these may enable fine adjustments in plant height. PMID:23722594

  20. Molecular Mapping of Adult-Plant Race-Specific Leaf Rust Resistance Gene Lr12 in Bread Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) gene Lr12 provides adult-plant race-specific resistance to leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina. It is completely linked or identical to Lr31, which confers seedling resistance only when the complementary gene Lr27 is also present. F2 and F2-derived F3 families were devel...

  1. Precisely mapping a major gene conferring resistance to Hessian fly in bread wheat using genotyping-by-sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background One of the reasons hard red winter wheat cultivar ‘Duster’ (PI 644016) is widely grown in the southern Great Plains is that it confers a consistently high level of resistance to biotype GP of Hessian fly (Hf). However, little is known about the genetic mechanism underlying Hf resistance i...

  2. Genetic characterization of Lophopyrum elongatum salt tolerance and associated ion regulation as expressed in bread wheat. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-07

    Lophopyrum elongatum is a highly salt-tolerant relative of wheat. Its salt tolerance is partially expressed in the amphiploid from a cross between wheat cv. Chinese Spring and L. elongatum. Genetic studies showed that the tolerance of gradually imposed salt stress is controlled by L. elongatum chromosomes 3E, 4E, 5E, and 7E and the tolerance of suddenly imposed salt stress by chromosomes 3E, 5E, 6E, and 7E. In wheat, rye, barley, and Dasypyrum, chromosomes of the same homoeologous groups, 3, 5, 6, and 7, were found to control the tolerance of these stress regimes. To gain insight into the physiological mechanisms of salt tolerance by wheat and L. elongatum, accumulation of Na and K, 20 protein amino acids, glycinebetaine, aminobutyrate, all TCA cycle intermediates, oxalate, glycerol-3-P, glyceraldehyde-3-P, pyruvate, lactate, ornithine, taurine, glucose, sucrose and other sugars was examined in the amphiploid and Chinese Spring by gas chromatography and H-NMR.

  3. Effects of post-anthesis fertilizer on the protein composition of the gluten polymer in a US bread wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both genetic and environmental factors influence the types and amounts of wheat proteins that link together to form polymers essential for flour quality. To understand how plant growth conditions might influence gluten polymer formation, protein fractions containing small and large polymers were se...

  4. SSH Analysis of Endosperm Transcripts and Characterization of Heat Stress Regulated Expressed Sequence Tags in Bread Wheat.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Suneha; Kumar, Ranjeet R; Dubey, Kavita; Singh, Jyoti P; Tiwari, Sachidanand; Kumar, Ashok; Smita, Shuchi; Mishra, Dwijesh C; Kumar, Sanjeev; Grover, Monendra; Padaria, Jasdeep C; Kala, Yugal K; Singh, Gyanendra P; Pathak, Himanshu; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Rai, Anil; Praveen, Shelly; Rai, Raj D

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the major problems in agriculturally important cereal crops, especially wheat. Here, we have constructed a subtracted cDNA library from the endosperm of HS-treated (42°C for 2 h) wheat cv. HD2985 by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). We identified ~550 recombinant clones ranging from 200 to 500 bp with an average size of 300 bp. Sanger's sequencing was performed with 205 positive clones to generate the differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Most of the ESTs were observed to be localized on the long arm of chromosome 2A and associated with heat stress tolerance and metabolic pathways. Identified ESTs were BLAST search using Ensemble, TriFLD, and TIGR databases and the predicted CDS were translated and aligned with the protein sequences available in pfam and InterProScan 5 databases to predict the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). We observed eight different types of post-translational modifications (PTMs) in the DEPs corresponds to the cloned ESTs-147 sites with phosphorylation, 21 sites with sumoylation, 237 with palmitoylation, 96 sites with S-nitrosylation, 3066 calpain cleavage sites, and 103 tyrosine nitration sites, predicted to sense the heat stress and regulate the expression of stress genes. Twelve DEPs were observed to have transmembrane helixes (TMH) in their structure, predicted to play the role of sensors of HS. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of randomly selected ESTs showed very high relative expression of HSP17 under HS; up-regulation was observed more in wheat cv. HD2985 (thermotolerant), as compared to HD2329 (thermosusceptible) during grain-filling. The abundance of transcripts was further validated through northern blot analysis. The ESTs and their corresponding DEPs can be used as molecular marker for screening or targeted precision breeding program. PTMs identified in the DEPs can be used to elucidate the thermotolerance mechanism of wheat-a novel step toward the development of "climate-smart" wheat

  5. On-farm dynamic management of genetic diversity: the impact of seed diffusions and seed saving practices on a population-variety of bread wheat

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Mathieu; Demeulenaere, Elise; Dawson, Julie C; Khan, Abdul Rehman; Galic, Nathalie; Jouanne-Pin, Sophie; Remoue, Carine; Bonneuil, Christophe; Goldringer, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Since the domestication of crop species, humans have derived specific varieties for particular uses and shaped the genetic diversity of these varieties. Here, using an interdisciplinary approach combining ethnobotany and population genetics, we document the within-variety genetic structure of a population-variety of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in relation to farmers’ practices to decipher their contribution to crop species evolution. Using 19 microsatellites markers, we conducted two complementary graph theory-based methods to analyze population structure and gene flow among 19 sub-populations of a single population-variety [Rouge de Bordeaux (RDB)]. The ethnobotany approach allowed us to determine the RDB history including diffusion and reproduction events. We found that the complex genetic structure among the RDB sub-populations is highly consistent with the structure of the seed diffusion and reproduction network drawn based on the ethnobotanical study. This structure highlighted the key role of the farmer-led seed diffusion through founder effects, selection and genetic drift because of human practices. An important result is that the genetic diversity conserved on farm is complementary to that found in the genebank indicating that both systems are required for a more efficient crop diversity conservation. PMID:23346224

  6. On-farm dynamic management of genetic diversity: the impact of seed diffusions and seed saving practices on a population-variety of bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Mathieu; Demeulenaere, Elise; Dawson, Julie C; Khan, Abdul Rehman; Galic, Nathalie; Jouanne-Pin, Sophie; Remoue, Carine; Bonneuil, Christophe; Goldringer, Isabelle

    2012-12-01

    Since the domestication of crop species, humans have derived specific varieties for particular uses and shaped the genetic diversity of these varieties. Here, using an interdisciplinary approach combining ethnobotany and population genetics, we document the within-variety genetic structure of a population-variety of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in relation to farmers' practices to decipher their contribution to crop species evolution. Using 19 microsatellites markers, we conducted two complementary graph theory-based methods to analyze population structure and gene flow among 19 sub-populations of a single population-variety [Rouge de Bordeaux (RDB)]. The ethnobotany approach allowed us to determine the RDB history including diffusion and reproduction events. We found that the complex genetic structure among the RDB sub-populations is highly consistent with the structure of the seed diffusion and reproduction network drawn based on the ethnobotanical study. This structure highlighted the key role of the farmer-led seed diffusion through founder effects, selection and genetic drift because of human practices. An important result is that the genetic diversity conserved on farm is complementary to that found in the genebank indicating that both systems are required for a more efficient crop diversity conservation. PMID:23346224

  7. The effects of walnut and pine leaves on bread wheat growth and frequence of common weed species in the East-Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Akkaya, Aydin; Dokuyucu, Tevrican; Kara, Rukiye; Dumlupinar, Ziya

    2006-07-01

    A field experiment was carried out to determine the effects of walnut (Juglans regia L.) and pine (Pinus sp.) leaves on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth and weed control, during 2001-02 and 2002-03 growing seasons in East Mediterranean region of Turkey. In this research, the treatments were: applications of ground walnut leaves (GWL) and ground pine leaves (GPL) at 19 g/m2 dose at Zadoks-11, applications of 200, 400 and 800 cc/m2 of walnut leaves extract (WLE2, WLE4 and WLE8 respectively), pine leaves extract (PLE2, PLE4 and PLE8 respectively), mixture extract of 200 cc walnut and 200 cc pine (ME), herbicide application (HA) at 8 g/m2 dose at Zadoks-21, and control (C) without any treatment. The results have indicated that the effects of treatments were significant for grain yield (GY), plant height (PH), flag leaf length (FLL), weed number per square meter (WN), but non significant for grain number per head (GN), grain weight per head (GW), 1000 grain weight (1000 GW), flag leaf width (FLW), head number per square meter (HN), vegetative period (VP), grain filling period (GFP) and days to maturity (DM). PMID:17402244

  8. Bioprocess for efficient production of recombinant Pichia anomala phytase and its applicability in dephytinizing chick feed and whole wheat flat Indian breads.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Swati; Satyanarayana, T

    2015-10-01

    The phytase of the yeast Pichia anomala (PPHY) is a suitable biocatalyst as a food and feed additive because of its adequate thermostability, acid stability, protease insensitivity and broad substrate spectrum. The cell-bound nature and low phytase titres are the main bottlenecks for its utility in food and feed industries. In this investigation, we have overcome the problems by constitutive secretory expression of PPHY under glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) promoter. A ~44-fold increase in rPPHY titre has been achieved after optimization of cultural variables by one-variable-at-a-time approach and two factorial statistical design. The use of GAP promoter makes the cultivation of the recombinant P. pastoris straight forward and eliminates the requirement of methanol for induction and hazards associated with its storage. Among metal-phytate complexes, Ca(2+) phytate is hydrolyzed more efficiently by rPPHY than Co(2+), Mn(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(3+) and Zn(2+) phytates. The enzyme is effective in dephytinizing whole wheat unleavened flat Indian breads (naan and tandoori) and different broiler feeds, thus mitigating anti-nutritional effects of phytates. PMID:26264930

  9. Spring Wheat Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common wheat, known as bread wheat, is one of major crops for human food consumption. It is further classified into spring and winter wheat based on the distinct growing seasons. Spring wheat is grown worldwide and usually planted in the spring and harvested in late summer or early fall. In this c...

  10. Whole-Genome Mapping of Agronomic and Metabolic Traits to Identify Novel Quantitative Trait Loci in Bread Wheat Grown in a Water-Limited Environment1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Camilla B.; Taylor, Julian D.; Edwards, James; Mather, Diane; Bacic, Antony; Langridge, Peter; Roessner, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint responsible for grain yield losses of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) in many parts of the world. Progress in breeding to improve complex multigene traits, such as drought stress tolerance, has been limited by high sensitivity to environmental factors, low trait heritability, and the complexity and size of the hexaploid wheat genome. In order to obtain further insight into genetic factors that affect yield under drought, we measured the abundance of 205 metabolites in flag leaf tissue sampled from plants of 179 cv Excalibur/Kukri F1-derived doubled haploid lines of wheat grown in a field experiment that experienced terminal drought stress. Additionally, data on 29 agronomic traits that had been assessed in the same field experiment were used. A linear mixed model was used to partition and account for nongenetic and genetic sources of variation, and quantitative trait locus analysis was used to estimate the genomic positions and effects of individual quantitative trait loci. Comparison of the agronomic and metabolic trait variation uncovered novel correlations between some agronomic traits and the levels of certain primary metabolites, including metabolites with either positive or negative associations with plant maturity-related or grain yield-related traits. Our analyses demonstrate that specific regions of the wheat genome that affect agronomic traits also have distinct effects on specific combinations of metabolites. This approach proved valuable for identifying novel biomarkers for the performance of wheat under drought and could facilitate the identification of candidate genes involved in drought-related responses in bread wheat. PMID:23660834

  11. Effect of Lactobacillus casei- casei and Lactobacillus reuteri on acrylamide formation in flat bread and Bread roll.

    PubMed

    Dastmalchi, Farnaz; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Faraji, Mohammad; Labbafi, Mohsen

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) contains lactobacillus (L.) casei- casei and L. reuteri on acrylamide formation and physicochemical properties of the Iranian flat bread named, Sangak, and Bread roll. Sangak and Bread roll were made with whole and white wheat flour, respectively. Whole-wheat flour had upper content of protein, sugar, ash, fiber, damaged starch and the activity of amylase than the white wheat flour. After 24 h of fermentation, the pH values of the sourdoughs made from whole-wheat flour (3.00, 2.90) were lower, in compared to sourdoughs prepared from white wheat flour (3.60, 3.58). In addition, in Sangak bread, glucose, and fructose were completely utilized after fermentation, but in bread roll, the reduced sugar levels increased after fermentation and baking that represent microorganisms cannot be activated and utilized sugars. Acrylamide formation was impacted by pH of sourdough and total reducing sugar (r = 0.915, r = 0.885 respectively). Bread roll and Sangak bread were fermented by L. casei- casei contained lowest acrylamide content, in two bread types (219.1, 104.3 μg/kg respectively). As an important result, the acrylamide content of Sangak bread in all cases was lower than in the Bread roll. PMID:27570278

  12. SSH Analysis of Endosperm Transcripts and Characterization of Heat Stress Regulated Expressed Sequence Tags in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Suneha; Kumar, Ranjeet R.; Dubey, Kavita; Singh, Jyoti P.; Tiwari, Sachidanand; Kumar, Ashok; Smita, Shuchi; Mishra, Dwijesh C.; Kumar, Sanjeev; Grover, Monendra; Padaria, Jasdeep C.; Kala, Yugal K.; Singh, Gyanendra P.; Pathak, Himanshu; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Rai, Anil; Praveen, Shelly; Rai, Raj D.

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the major problems in agriculturally important cereal crops, especially wheat. Here, we have constructed a subtracted cDNA library from the endosperm of HS-treated (42°C for 2 h) wheat cv. HD2985 by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). We identified ~550 recombinant clones ranging from 200 to 500 bp with an average size of 300 bp. Sanger's sequencing was performed with 205 positive clones to generate the differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Most of the ESTs were observed to be localized on the long arm of chromosome 2A and associated with heat stress tolerance and metabolic pathways. Identified ESTs were BLAST search using Ensemble, TriFLD, and TIGR databases and the predicted CDS were translated and aligned with the protein sequences available in pfam and InterProScan 5 databases to predict the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). We observed eight different types of post-translational modifications (PTMs) in the DEPs corresponds to the cloned ESTs-147 sites with phosphorylation, 21 sites with sumoylation, 237 with palmitoylation, 96 sites with S-nitrosylation, 3066 calpain cleavage sites, and 103 tyrosine nitration sites, predicted to sense the heat stress and regulate the expression of stress genes. Twelve DEPs were observed to have transmembrane helixes (TMH) in their structure, predicted to play the role of sensors of HS. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of randomly selected ESTs showed very high relative expression of HSP17 under HS; up-regulation was observed more in wheat cv. HD2985 (thermotolerant), as compared to HD2329 (thermosusceptible) during grain-filling. The abundance of transcripts was further validated through northern blot analysis. The ESTs and their corresponding DEPs can be used as molecular marker for screening or targeted precision breeding program. PTMs identified in the DEPs can be used to elucidate the thermotolerance mechanism of wheat—a novel step toward the development of

  13. Polymerization of wheat gluten and the changes of glutenin macropolymer (GMP) during the production of Chinese steamed bread.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang-Yu; Guo, Xiao-Na; Zhu, Ke-Xue

    2016-06-15

    Polymerization of gluten and the changes of glutenin macropolymer (GMP) during the production of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) were investigated, providing a theoretical basis to improve and regulate the quality of CSB. Protein extractability and free sulfhydryl (SH) contents increased to some degree during the dough preparation stage, but significantly (P<0.05) decreased during steaming. Remarkable protein aggregates were observed in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns. The microstructure study of the gas cell and the protein network by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) further revealed the formation of a continuous and three-dimensional gluten network. The loss and recovery of GMP wet weight during dough processing were significant (P<0.05). Glutenin depolymerization negatively correlated with GMP wet weight and the contents of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS). Gluten polymerization led to a decrease in G' and G″ of GMP while gluten depolymerization induced a slight recovery in G' and G″ of GMP. PMID:26868577

  14. Significance of Wheat Flour Dough Rheology to Gas Cell Structure Development in Bread and Other Baked Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engmann, Jan

    2008-07-01

    We discuss which rheological material functions of wheat flour dough are most relevant for structure development in baked products under common processing conditions. We consider the growth of gas cells during dough proofing (driven by yeast) and during baking, where the growth is driven by a combination of CO2 desorption, water and ethanol evaporation, and thermal expansion of gas. Attention is given to upper limits on biaxial extension rate and stress and the consequences for the required rheological material functions. The applicability of the "Considère criterion" to predict the probability of coalescence between gas cells and its effect on loaf aeration is briefly discussed.

  15. An Efficient Approach for the Development of Locus Specific Primers in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Its Application to Re-Sequencing of Genes Involved in Frost Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Babben, Steve; Perovic, Dragan; Koch, Michael; Ordon, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Recent declines in costs accelerated sequencing of many species with large genomes, including hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Although the draft sequence of bread wheat is known, it is still one of the major challenges to developlocus specific primers suitable to be used in marker assisted selection procedures, due to the high homology of the three genomes. In this study we describe an efficient approach for the development of locus specific primers comprising four steps, i.e. (i) identification of genomic and coding sequences (CDS) of candidate genes, (ii) intron- and exon-structure reconstruction, (iii) identification of wheat A, B and D sub-genome sequences and primer development based on sequence differences between the three sub-genomes, and (iv); testing of primers for functionality, correct size and localisation. This approach was applied to single, low and high copy genes involved in frost tolerance in wheat. In summary for 27 of these genes for which sequences were derived from Triticum aestivum, Triticum monococcum and Hordeum vulgare, a set of 119 primer pairs was developed and after testing on Nulli-tetrasomic (NT) lines, a set of 65 primer pairs (54.6%), corresponding to 19 candidate genes, turned out to be specific. Out of these a set of 35 fragments was selected for validation via Sanger's amplicon re-sequencing. All fragments, with the exception of one, could be assigned to the original reference sequence. The approach presented here showed a much higher specificity in primer development in comparison to techniques used so far in bread wheat and can be applied to other polyploid species with a known draft sequence. PMID:26565976

  16. Use of methylation filtration and C(0)t fractionation for analysis of genome composition and comparative genomics in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Bandopadhyay, Rajib; Rustgi, Sachin; Chaudhuri, Rajat Kanti; Khurana, Paramjit; Khurana, Jitendra Paul; Tyagi, Akhilesh Kumar; Balyan, Harindra Singh; Houben, Andreas; Gupta, Pushpendra Kumar

    2011-07-20

    We investigated the compositional and structural differences in sequences derived from different fractions of wheat genomic DNA obtained using methylation filtration and C(0)t fractionation. Comparative analysis of these sequences revealed large compositional and structural variations in terms of GC content, different structural elements including repeat sequences (e.g., transposable elements and simple sequence repeats), protein coding genes, and non-coding RNA genes. A correlation between methylation status [determined on the basis of selective inclusion/exclusion in methylation-filtered (MF) library] of different repeat elements and expression level was observed. The expression levels were determined by comparing MF sequences with expressed sequence tags (ESTs) available in the public domain. Only a limited overlap among MF, high C(0)t (HC), and ESTs was observed, suggesting that these sequences may largely either represent the low-copy non-transcribed sequences or include genes with low expression levels. Thus, these results indicated a need to study MF and HC sequences along with ESTs to fully appreciate complexity of wheat gene space. PMID:21777856

  17. Production of functional pita bread using date seed powder.

    PubMed

    Platat, Carine; Habib, Hosam M; Hashim, Isameldin Bashir; Kamal, Hina; AlMaqbali, Fatima; Souka, Usama; Ibrahim, Wissam H

    2015-10-01

    Functional foods represent a novel approach to prevent diet-related diseases. Due to its excellent nutritional and antioxidant properties, date seed was used to develop functional pita bread. Flour was replaced by 5, 10, 15 and 20 % date seed powder. Regular and whole wheat pita breads were the references. Results clearly showed that date seed powder containing bread contained comparable dietary fibers levels as in whole wheat bread and higher levels of flavonoids and phenolics. Date seed powder containing breads were particularly rich in flavan-3-ols whereas reference breads did not contain any of them and only a limited amount of other phenolic compounds. They also exhibited a much higher antioxidant capacity. Additionally, compared to regular bread, acrylamide level was significantly lower in 5 % date seed powder containing bread, and lower in all date seed powder containing breads compared to whole wheat bread. Date seed powder supplemented bread appears as a promising functional ingredient to prevent chronic diseases. PMID:26396382

  18. Quality of bread supplemented with mushroom mycelia.

    PubMed

    Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Lin, Li-Yun; Chen, Chiao-Pei; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2013-05-01

    Mushroom mycelia of Antrodia camphorata, Agaricus blazei, Hericium erinaceus and Phellinus linteus were used to substitute 5% of wheat flour to make bread. Bread quality, including specific volume, colour property, equivalent umami concentration (EUC), texture profile analysis, sensory evaluation and functional components, was analysed. Mycelium-supplemented bread was smaller in loaf volume and coloured, and had lower lightness and white index values. White bread contained the lowest amounts of free umami amino acids and umami 5'-nucleotides and showed the lowest EUC value. Incorporating 5% mushroom mycelia into the bread formula did not adversely affect the texture profile of the bread. However, incorporating 5% mushroom mycelia into the bread formula did lower bread's acceptability. After baking, mycelium-supplemented bread still contained substantial amounts of γ-aminobutyric acid and ergothioneine (0.23-0.86 and 0.79-2.10 mg/g dry matter, respectively). Overall, mushroom mycelium could be incorporated into bread to provide its beneficial health effects. PMID:23265457

  19. Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Grain Protein Concentration Is Related to Early Post-Flowering Nitrate Uptake under Putative Control of Plant Satiety Level.

    PubMed

    Taulemesse, François; Le Gouis, Jacques; Gouache, David; Gibon, Yves; Allard, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The strong negative correlation between grain protein concentration (GPC) and grain yield (GY) in bread wheat complicates the simultaneous improvement of these traits. However, earlier studies have concluded that the deviation from this relationship (grain protein deviation or GPD) has strong genetic basis. Genotypes with positive GPD have an increased ability to uptake nitrogen (N) during the post-flowering period independently of the amount of N taken up before flowering, suggesting that genetic variability for N satiety could enable the breakage of the negative relationship. This study is based on two genotypes markedly contrasted for GPD grown under semi-hydroponic conditions differentiated for nitrate availability both before and after flowering. This allows exploration of the genetic determinants of post-flowering N uptake (PANU) by combining whole plant sampling and targeted gene expression approaches. The results highlights the correlation (r² = 0.81) with GPC of PANU occurring early during grain development (flowering-flowering + 250 degree-days) independently of GY. Early PANU was in turn correlated (r² = 0.80) to the stem-biomass increment after flowering through its effect on N sink activity. Differences in early PANU between genotypes, despite comparable N statuses at flowering, suggest that genetic differences in N satiety could be involved in the establishment of the GPC. Through its strong negative correlation with genes implied in N assimilation, root nitrate concentration appears to be a good marker for evaluating instantaneous plant N demand, and may provide valuable information on the genotypic N satiety level. This trait may help breeders to identify genotypes having high GPC independently of their GY. PMID:26886933

  20. Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Grain Protein Concentration Is Related to Early Post-Flowering Nitrate Uptake under Putative Control of Plant Satiety Level

    PubMed Central

    Taulemesse, François; Le Gouis, Jacques; Gouache, David; Gibon, Yves; Allard, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The strong negative correlation between grain protein concentration (GPC) and grain yield (GY) in bread wheat complicates the simultaneous improvement of these traits. However, earlier studies have concluded that the deviation from this relationship (grain protein deviation or GPD) has strong genetic basis. Genotypes with positive GPD have an increased ability to uptake nitrogen (N) during the post-flowering period independently of the amount of N taken up before flowering, suggesting that genetic variability for N satiety could enable the breakage of the negative relationship. This study is based on two genotypes markedly contrasted for GPD grown under semi-hydroponic conditions differentiated for nitrate availability both before and after flowering. This allows exploration of the genetic determinants of post-flowering N uptake (PANU) by combining whole plant sampling and targeted gene expression approaches. The results highlights the correlation (r² = 0.81) with GPC of PANU occurring early during grain development (flowering–flowering + 250 degree-days) independently of GY. Early PANU was in turn correlated (r² = 0.80) to the stem-biomass increment after flowering through its effect on N sink activity. Differences in early PANU between genotypes, despite comparable N statuses at flowering, suggest that genetic differences in N satiety could be involved in the establishment of the GPC. Through its strong negative correlation with genes implied in N assimilation, root nitrate concentration appears to be a good marker for evaluating instantaneous plant N demand, and may provide valuable information on the genotypic N satiety level. This trait may help breeders to identify genotypes having high GPC independently of their GY. PMID:26886933

  1. Delimitation of the Earliness per se D1 (Eps-D1) flowering gene to a subtelomeric chromosomal deletion in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    PubMed Central

    Zikhali, Meluleki; Wingen, Luzie U.; Griffiths, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Earliness per se (Eps) genes account for the variation in flowering time when vernalization and photoperiod requirements are satisfied. Genomics and bioinformatics approaches were used to describe allelic variation for 40 Triticum aestivum genes predicted, by synteny with Brachypodium distachyon, to be in the 1DL Eps region. Re-sequencing 1DL genes revealed that varieties carrying early heading alleles at this locus, Spark and Cadenza, carry a subtelomeric deletion including several genes. The equivalent region in Rialto and Avalon is intact. A bimodal distribution in the segregating Spark X Rialto single seed descent (SSD) populations enabled the 1DL QTL to be defined as a discrete Mendelian factor, which we named Eps-D1. Near isogenic lines (NILs) and NIL derived key recombinants between markers flanking Eps-D1 suggest that the 1DL deletion contains the gene(s) underlying Eps-D1. The deletion spans the equivalent of the Triticum monoccocum Eps-A m 1 locus, and hence includes MODIFIER OF TRANSCRIPTION 1 (MOT1) and FTSH PROTEASE 4 (FTSH4), the candidates for Eps-A m 1. The deletion also contains T. aestivum EARLY FLOWERING 3-D1 (TaELF3-D1) a homologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock gene EARLY FLOWERING 3. Eps-D1 is possibly a homologue of Eps-B1 on chromosome 1BL. NILs carrying the Eps-D1 deletion have significantly reduced total TaELF3 expression and altered TaGIGANTEA (TaGI) expression compared with wild type. Altered TaGI expression is consistent with an ELF3 mutant, hence we propose TaELF3-D1 as the more likely candidate for Eps-D1. This is the first direct fine mapping of Eps effect in bread wheat. PMID:26476691

  2. Selection of parents for crossing based on genotyping and phenotyping for stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) resistance and agronomic traits in bread wheat breeding.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Irfaq; Khan, Mir Ajab; Khan, Abdul Jabbar; Khattak, Gul Sanat Shah; Mohammad, Tila; Ahmad, Mushtaq

    2011-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm consisting of 45 genotypes were clustered phenotypically using ten morphological traits and Area Under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC) as measure of stripe rust resistance. The clustering was ratified by using twenty three molecular markers (SSR, EST and STS) linked to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) resistant QTLs. The aim was to asses the extent of genetic variability among the genotypes in order to select the parents for crossing between the resistant and susceptible genotypes with respect to stripe rust. The Euclidian dissimilarity values resulted from phenotypic data regarding morphological traits and AUDPC were used to construct a dendrogram for clustering the accessions. Using un-weighted pair group method with arithmetic means, another dendrogram resulted from the similarity coefficient values was used to distinguish the genotypes with respect to stripe rust. Clustering based on phenotypic data produced two major groups and five clusters (with Euclidian dissimilarity ranging from 244 to 16.16) whereas genotypic data yielded two major groups and four clusters (with percent similarity coefficient values ranging from 0.1 to 46.0) to separate the gene pool into highly resistant, resistant, moderately resistant, moderately susceptible and susceptible genotypes. With few exceptions, the outcome of both type of clustering was almost similar and resistant as well as susceptible genotypes came in the same clusters of molecular genotyping as yielded by phenotypic clustering. As a result seven genotypes (Bakhtawar-92, Frontana, Saleem 2000, Tatara, Inqilab-91, Fakhre Sarhad and Karwan) of diverse genetic background were selected for pyramiding stripe rust resistant genes as well as some other agronomic traits after hybridization. PMID:22329159

  3. Characterization of the multigene family TaHKT 2;1 in bread wheat and the role of gene members in plant Na+ and K+ status

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A member of the TaHKT2;1 multigene family was previously identified as a Na+ transporter with a possible role in root Na+ uptake. In the present study, the existing full-length cDNA of this member was used as a basis to query the International Wheat Genome Survey Sequence to identify all members of the TaHKT2;1 family. Individual TaHKT2;1 genes were subsequently studied for gene and predicted protein structures, promoter variability, tissue expression and their role in Na+ and K+ status of wheat. Results Six TaHKT2;1 genes were characterized which included four functional genes (TaHKT2;1 7AL-1, TaHKT2;1 7BL-1, TaHKT2;1 7BL-2 and TaHKT2;1 7DL-1) and two pseudogenes (TaHKT2;1 7AL-2 and TaHKT2;1 7AL-3), on chromosomes 7A, 7B and 7D of hexaploid wheat. Variability in protein domains for cation specificity and in cis-regulatory elements for salt response in gene promoters, were identified amongst the functional TaHKT2;1 members. The functional genes were expressed under low and high NaCl conditions in roots and leaf sheaths, but were down regulated in leaf blades. Alternative splicing events were evident in TaHKT2;1 7AL-1. Aneuploid lines null for each functional gene were grown in high NaCl nutrient solution culture to identify potential role of each TaHKT2;1 member. Aneuploid lines null for TaHKT2;1 7AL-1, TaHKT2;1 7BL-1 and TaHKT2;1 7BL-2 showed no difference in Na+ concentration between Chinese Spring except for higher Na+ in sheaths. The same aneuploid lines had lower K+ in roots, sheath and youngest fully expanded leaf but only under high (200 mM) NaCl in the external solution. There was no difference in Na+ or K+ concentration for any treatment between aneuploid line null for the TaHKT2;1 7DL-1 gene and Chinese Spring. Conclusions TaHKT2;1 is a complex family consisting of pseudogenes and functional members. TaHKT2;1 genes do not have an apparent role in controlling root Na+ uptake in bread wheat seedlings under experimental conditions in this study

  4. Morpho-physiolological and qualitative traits of a bread wheat collection spanning a century of breeding in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Laino, Paolo; Limonta, Margherita; Gerna, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Evaluation and characterization are crucial steps in the exploitation of germplasm collections. The Sant’Angelo Lodigiano unit of the Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria (CREA) maintains a broad collection of Triticum spp, including more than 4000 genotypes of T. aestivum. Such collection represents a wide source of genetic variability for many agronomic and qualitative traits, extremely useful in modern breeding programs. The collection size, however, makes very difficult its management as a whole. A reduced subset, representing the process of wheat breeding in Italy during the last hundred years, was hence identified for an in-depth characterization. The lines were cropped in two locations over two growing seasons, and analyzed using 16 morpho-agronomic and qualitative descriptors. Most of the analysed characters showed a broad variation throughout the collection, allowing to follow the plant ideotype changes across the breeding progress in Italy during the 20th century. PMID:26379457

  5. Morpho-physiolological and qualitative traits of a bread wheat collection spanning a century of breeding in Italy.

    PubMed

    Laino, Paolo; Limonta, Margherita; Gerna, Davide; Vaccino, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation and characterization are crucial steps in the exploitation of germplasm collections. The Sant'Angelo Lodigiano unit of the Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l'analisi dell'economia agraria (CREA) maintains a broad collection of Triticum spp, including more than 4000 genotypes of T. aestivum. Such collection represents a wide source of genetic variability for many agronomic and qualitative traits, extremely useful in modern breeding programs. The collection size, however, makes very difficult its management as a whole. A reduced subset, representing the process of wheat breeding in Italy during the last hundred years, was hence identified for an in-depth characterization. The lines were cropped in two locations over two growing seasons, and analyzed using 16 morpho-agronomic and qualitative descriptors. Most of the analysed characters showed a broad variation throughout the collection, allowing to follow the plant ideotype changes across the breeding progress in Italy during the 20th century. PMID:26379457

  6. Variance components, heritability and correlation analysis of anther and ovary size during the floral development of bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zifeng; Chen, Dijun; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2015-06-01

    Anther and ovary development play an important role in grain setting, a crucial factor determining wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield. One aim of this study was to determine the heritability of anther and ovary size at different positions within a spikelet at seven floral developmental stages and conduct a variance components analysis. Relationships between anther and ovary size and other traits were also assessed. The thirty central European winter wheat genotypes used in this study were based on reduced height (Rht) and photoperiod sensitivity (Ppd) genes with variable genetic backgrounds. Identical experimental designs were conducted in a greenhouse and field simultaneously. Heritability of anther and ovary size indicated strong genetic control. Variance components analysis revealed that anther and ovary sizes of floret 3 (i.e. F3, the third floret from the spikelet base) and floret 4 (F4) were more sensitive to the environment compared with those in floret 1 (F1). Good correlations were found between spike dry weight and anther and ovary size in both greenhouse and field, suggesting that anther and ovary size are good predictors of each other, as well as spike dry weight in both conditions. Relationships between spike dry weight and anther and ovary size at F3/4 positions were stronger than at F1, suggesting that F3/4 anther and ovary size are better predictors of spike dry weight. Generally, ovary size showed a closer relationship with spike dry weight than anther size, suggesting that ovary size is a more reliable predictor of spike dry weight. PMID:25821074

  7. Association Analysis of Grain-setting Rates in Apical and Basal Spikelets in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Guo, Jie; Zhang, Yong; Shi, Weiping; Zhang, Boqiao; Zhang, Jingjuan; Xu, Yanhao; Cheng, Xiaoming; Cheng, Kai; Zhang, Xueyong; Hao, Chenyang; Cheng, Shunhe

    2015-01-01

    The rates of grain-setting in apical and basal spikelets in wheat directly affect the kernel number per spike (KNPS). In this study, 220 wheat lines from 18 Chinese provinces and five foreign countries were used as a natural population. Phenotypic analysis showed differences in grain-setting rates between apical and basal spikelets. The broad-sense heritability of grain-setting rate in apical spikelets (18.7-21.0%) was higher than that for basal spikelets (9.4-16.4%). Significant correlations were found between KNPS and grain numbers in apical (R (2) = 0.40-0.45, P < 0.01) and basal (R (2) = 0.41-0.56, P < 0.01) spikelets. Seventy two of 106 SSR markers were associated with grain setting, 32 for apical spikelets, and 34 for basal spikelets. The SSR loci were located on 17 chromosomes, except 3A, 3D, 4A, and 7D, and explained 3.7-22.9% of the phenotypic variance. Four markers, Xcfa2153-1A 202 , Xgwm186-5A 118 , Xgwm156-3B 319 , and Xgwm537-7B 210 , showed the largest effects on grain numbers in apical and basal spikelets. High grain numbers in apical and basal spikelets were associated with elite alleles. Ningmai 9, Ning 0569, and Yangmai 18 with high grain-setting rates carried larger numbers of favorable alleles. Comparison of grain numbers in basal and apical spikelets of 35 Yangmai and Ningmai lines indicated that the Ningmai lines had better grain-setting rates (mean 21.4) than the Yangmai lines (16.5). PMID:26635852

  8. TEF-7A, a transcript elongation factor gene, influences yield-related traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jun; Liu, Hong; Wang, Yuquan; Wang, Lanfen; Chang, Xiaoping; Jing, Ruilian; Hao, Chenyang; Zhang, Xueyong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, TaTEF-7A, a member of the transcript elongation factor gene family, and its flanking sequences were isolated. TaTEF-7A was located on chromosome 7A and was flanked by markers Xwmc83 and XP3156.3. Subcellular localization revealed that TaTEF-7A protein was localized in the nucleus. This gene was expressed in all organs, but the highest expression occurred in young spikes and developing seeds. Overexpression of TaTEF-7A in Arabidopsis thaliana produced pleiotropic effects on vegetative and reproductive development that enhanced grain length, silique number, and silique length. No diversity was found in the coding region of TaTEF-7A, but 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms and Indels were detected in the promoter regions of different cultivars. Markers based on sequence variations in the promoter regions (InDel-629 and InDel-604) were developed, and three haplotypes were identified based on those markers. Haplotype–trait association analysis of the Chinese wheat mini core collection revealed that TaTEF-7A was significantly associated with grain number per spike. Phenotyping of near-isogenic lines (NILs) confirmed that TaTEF-7A increases potential grain yield and yield-related traits. Frequency changes in favoured haplotypes gradually increased in cultivars released in China from the 1940s. Geographic distributions of favoured haplotypes were characterized in six major wheat production regions worldwide. The presence of Hap-7A-3, the favoured haplotype, showed a positive correlation with yield in a global set of breeding lines. These results suggest that TaTEF-7A is a functional regulatory factor for grain number per spike and provide a basis for marker-assisted selection. PMID:25056774

  9. Influence of a fertilizer solution on yield and quality of bread wheat in Guadalquivir Valley (Córdoba, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concepción Benítez, M.; González, José Luis; Tejada, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The use of by-products of food industries in agricultural practices has become a routine over the last few decades. The addition of beet vinasse, by-products of the two sep olive mill process and by-products of defatted sunflower flour, etc., to soils is a common agricultural practice, since sensible use has been reported to improve the physical, chemical and biological aspects of the soil and to increase harvest yield, and in many cases harvest quality Previous research carried out by the authors (Ordóñez et al., 2001) examined a process whereby a protein concentrate is obtained from defatted sunflower flour. In this process, floating liquid phosphorus, potassium contents and smaller amounts of humic substances and nitrogen are obtained. The potential application of this solution as a fertiliser has been evaluated on rye grass, confirming that its effects are comparable to those produced by a nutritional solution in terms of phosphorus and potassium foliar levels. The experiment was performed on soil classified as Typic Haploxererts located in the Middle Valley of the river Guadalquivir Cajeme wheat (Triticum aestivum var) variety was used at a dose of 180 kg seeds / ha. For both crop, four fertiliser treatments were applied in triplicate to randomly distributed 7 x 8 m plots. The greatest positive effect of applying the experimental phospho-potassic solution was found for the leaf levels of K, in maturity; this influence was most significant when the highest dosage of said solution. With reference to the levels of N, P and K in wheat grain, the levels of potassium were significantly different for all the fertilising treatments, and the plot fertilised with the highest dosage of the experimental phospho-potassic solution presented the highest values. As for the data obtained for harvest yield and quality, the addition of the experimental solution was observed to have a significantly positive influence (but only in the highest dosages) on the production levels.

  10. Detection of two major grain yield QTL in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under heat, drought and high yield potential environments.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Dion; Reynolds, Matthew; Mullan, Daniel; Izanloo, Ali; Kuchel, Haydn; Langridge, Peter; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2012-11-01

    A large proportion of the worlds' wheat growing regions suffers water and/or heat stress at some stage during the crop growth cycle. With few exceptions, there has been no utilisation of managed environments to screen mapping populations under repeatable abiotic stress conditions, such as the facilities developed by the International Wheat and Maize Improvement Centre (CIMMYT). Through careful management of irrigation and sowing date over three consecutive seasons, repeatable heat, drought and high yield potential conditions were imposed on the RAC875/Kukri doubled haploid population to identify genetic loci for grain yield, yield components and key morpho-physiological traits under these conditions. Two of the detected quantitative trait loci (QTL) were located on chromosome 3B and had a large effect on canopy temperature and grain yield, accounting for up to 22 % of the variance for these traits. The locus on chromosome arm 3BL was detected under all three treatments but had its largest effect under the heat stress conditions, with the RAC875 allele increasing grain yield by 131 kg ha(-1) (or phenotypically, 7 % of treatment average). Only two of the eight yield QTL detected in the current study (including linkage groups 3A, 3D, 4D 5B and 7A) were previously detected in the RAC875/Kukri doubled haploid population; and there were also different yield components driving grain yield. A number of discussion points are raised to understand differences between the Mexican and southern Australian production environments and explain the lack of correlation between the datasets. The two key QTL detected on chromosome 3B in the present study are candidates for further genetic dissection and development of molecular markers. PMID:22772727

  11. Impacts of IOD, ENSO and ENSO Modoki on the Australian Winter Wheat Yields in Recent Decades

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chaoxia; Yamagata, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Impacts of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), two different types of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO): canonical ENSO and ENSO Modoki, on the year-to-year winter wheat yield variations in Australia have been investigated. It is found that IOD plays a dominant role in the recent three decades; the wheat yield is reduced (increased) by −28.4% (12.8%) in the positive (negative) IOD years. Although the canonical ENSO appears to be responsible for the wheat yield variations, its influences are largely counted by IOD owing to their frequent co-occurrence. In contrast, the ENSO Modoki may have its distinct impacts on the wheat yield variations, but they are much smaller compared to those of IOD. Both the observed April-May and the predicted September-November IOD indices by the SINTEX-F ocean-atmosphere coupled model initialized on April 1st just before the sowing season explain ~15% of the observed year-to-year wheat yield variances. The present study may lead to a possible scheme for predicting wheat yield variations in Australia in advance by use of simple climate mode indices. PMID:26615881

  12. Impacts of IOD, ENSO and ENSO Modoki on the Australian Winter Wheat Yields in Recent Decades.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chaoxia; Yamagata, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Impacts of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), two different types of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO): canonical ENSO and ENSO Modoki, on the year-to-year winter wheat yield variations in Australia have been investigated. It is found that IOD plays a dominant role in the recent three decades; the wheat yield is reduced (increased) by -28.4% (12.8%) in the positive (negative) IOD years. Although the canonical ENSO appears to be responsible for the wheat yield variations, its influences are largely counted by IOD owing to their frequent co-occurrence. In contrast, the ENSO Modoki may have its distinct impacts on the wheat yield variations, but they are much smaller compared to those of IOD. Both the observed April-May and the predicted September-November IOD indices by the SINTEX-F ocean-atmosphere coupled model initialized on April 1st just before the sowing season explain ~15% of the observed year-to-year wheat yield variances. The present study may lead to a possible scheme for predicting wheat yield variations in Australia in advance by use of simple climate mode indices. PMID:26615881

  13. Impacts of IOD, ENSO and ENSO Modoki on the Australian Winter Wheat Yields in Recent Decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chaoxia; Yamagata, Toshio

    2015-11-01

    Impacts of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), two different types of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO): canonical ENSO and ENSO Modoki, on the year-to-year winter wheat yield variations in Australia have been investigated. It is found that IOD plays a dominant role in the recent three decades; the wheat yield is reduced (increased) by -28.4% (12.8%) in the positive (negative) IOD years. Although the canonical ENSO appears to be responsible for the wheat yield variations, its influences are largely counted by IOD owing to their frequent co-occurrence. In contrast, the ENSO Modoki may have its distinct impacts on the wheat yield variations, but they are much smaller compared to those of IOD. Both the observed April-May and the predicted September-November IOD indices by the SINTEX-F ocean-atmosphere coupled model initialized on April 1st just before the sowing season explain ~15% of the observed year-to-year wheat yield variances. The present study may lead to a possible scheme for predicting wheat yield variations in Australia in advance by use of simple climate mode indices.

  14. Detection of QTLs for traits associated with pre-harvest sprouting resistance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Liangzi; Hayashi, Kazuki; Tokui, Mayumi; Mori, Masahiko; Miura, Hideho; Onishi, Kazumitsu

    2016-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is one of the serious problems for wheat production, especially in rainy regions. Although seed dormancy is the most critical trait for PHS resistance, the control of heading time should also be considered to prevent seed maturation during unfavorable conditions. In addition, awning is known to enhance water absorption by the spike, causing PHS. In this study, we conducted QTL analysis for three PHS resistant related traits, seed dormancy, heading time and awn length, by using recombinant inbred lines from ‘Zenkouji-komugi’ (high PHS resistance) × ‘Chinese Spring’ (weak PHS resistance). QTLs for seed dormancy were detected on chromosomes 1B (QDor-1B) and 4A (QDor-4A), in addition to a QTL on chromosome 3A, which was recently cloned as TaMFT-3A. In addition, the accumulation of the QTLs and their epistatic interactions contributed significantly to a higher level of dormancy. QDor-4A is co-located with the Hooded locus for awn development. Furthermore, an effective QTL, which confers early heading by the Zenkouji-komugi allele, was detected on the short arm of chromosome 7B, where the Vrn-B3 locus is located. Understanding the genetic architecture of traits associated with PHS resistance will facilitate the marker assisted selection to breed new varieties with higher PHS resistance. PMID:27162497

  15. The Genetic Control of Grain Protein Content under Variable Nitrogen Supply in an Australian Wheat Mapping Population

    PubMed Central

    Mahjourimajd, Saba; Taylor, Julian; Rengel, Zed; Khabaz-Saberi, Hossein; Kuchel, Haydn; Okamoto, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variation has been observed in both protein concentration in wheat grain and total protein content (protein yield). Here we describe the genetic analysis of variation for grain protein in response to nitrogen (N) supply and locate significant genomic regions controlling grain protein components in a spring wheat population. In total, six N use efficiency (NUE) field trials were carried out for the target traits in a sub-population of doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between two Australian varieties, RAC875 and Kukri, in Southern and Western Australia from 2011 to 2013. Twenty-four putative Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for protein-related traits were identified at high and low N supply and ten QTL were identified for the response to N for the traits studied. These loci accounted for a significant proportion of the overall effect of N supply. Several of the regions were co-localised with grain yield QTL and are promising targets for further investigation and selection in breeding programs. PMID:27438012

  16. The Genetic Control of Grain Protein Content under Variable Nitrogen Supply in an Australian Wheat Mapping Population.

    PubMed

    Mahjourimajd, Saba; Taylor, Julian; Rengel, Zed; Khabaz-Saberi, Hossein; Kuchel, Haydn; Okamoto, Mamoru; Langridge, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variation has been observed in both protein concentration in wheat grain and total protein content (protein yield). Here we describe the genetic analysis of variation for grain protein in response to nitrogen (N) supply and locate significant genomic regions controlling grain protein components in a spring wheat population. In total, six N use efficiency (NUE) field trials were carried out for the target traits in a sub-population of doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between two Australian varieties, RAC875 and Kukri, in Southern and Western Australia from 2011 to 2013. Twenty-four putative Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for protein-related traits were identified at high and low N supply and ten QTL were identified for the response to N for the traits studied. These loci accounted for a significant proportion of the overall effect of N supply. Several of the regions were co-localised with grain yield QTL and are promising targets for further investigation and selection in breeding programs. PMID:27438012

  17. Effect of supplementation on physicochemical, sensory and nutritional characteristics of bread.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Shfali; Jood, Sudesh

    2002-01-01

    Supplementation of wheat flour with soy flour (full fat and defatted) at 5, 10, 15 and 20% levels was carried out to test the effect on physico-chemical, sensory, nutritional evaluation and shelf life of breads. Adding 10% of soy flour (full fat and defatted) produced breads with good baking and organoleptic characteristics. However, at 15 and 20% levels they were less acceptable. The better breads were further investigated for various nutritional parameters and shelf life. Full fat and defatted soy flour (10%) supplemented bread exhibited 13.66 and 13.81% protein, and 3.02 and 3.05 g/100 g protein total lysine contents as compared to control (wheat) bread (11.47% protein and 2.36 g/100 g protein total lysine). Other nutrients are also increased in supplemented breads as compared to wheat bread. However, for storage, defatted soy supplemented bread exhibited better shelf life than the full fat version. PMID:12617282

  18. Influence of management and environment on Australian wheat: information for sustainable intensification and closing yield gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, B. A.; King, D.; Zhao, G.

    2014-04-01

    In the future, agriculture will need to produce more, from less land, more sustainably. But currently, in many places, actual crop yields are below those attainable. We quantified the ability for agricultural management to increase wheat yields across 179 Mha of potentially arable land in Australia. Using the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM), we simulated the impact on wheat yield of 225 fertilization and residue management scenarios at a high spatial, temporal, and agronomic resolution from 1900 to 2010. The influence of management and environmental variables on wheat yield was then assessed using Spearman’s non-parametric correlation test with bootstrapping. While residue management showed little correlation, fertilization strongly increased wheat yield up to around 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1. However, this effect was highly dependent on the key environment variables of rainfall, temperature, and soil water holding capacity. The influence of fertilization on yield was stronger in cooler, wetter climates, and in soils with greater water holding capacity. We conclude that the effectiveness of management intensification to increase wheat yield is highly dependent upon local climate and soil conditions. We provide context-specific information on the yield benefits of fertilization to support adaptive agronomic decision-making and contribute to the closure of yield gaps. We also suggest that future assessments consider the economic and environmental sustainability of management intensification for closing yield gaps.

  19. Using alternative flours as partial replacement of barbari bread formulation (traditional Iranian bread).

    PubMed

    Pourafshar, Shirin; Rosentrater, Kurt A; Krishnan, Padmanaban G

    2015-09-01

    Wheat flour is used in most of breads because of its nutrient components and high availability, but different problems are associated with this flour, such as allergies and loss of nutrient components due to milling and refining. In this study, five flours were used (20 %) in combination with wheat flour (80 %).to produce traditional Iranian Barbari bread. These included amaranth, barley, DDGS, rye and oat. Compositional measurements of moisture, fat, fiber, protein and ash content were taken. Physical tests were done to understand the changes in color, thickness, and texture. Results showed that the gluten content of each flour had a significant effect on the texture and thickness of the bread. Bread made with rye flour had the highest L* and that made with oat flour had the highest a*. As for b*, the highest was for the bread made with DDGS. It was also determined that bread made with 20 % DDGS and 80 % wheat flour had the highest fiber and moisture content, while that made with amaranth had the highest ash content, and that with rye had the highest fat. Adding different flours to wheat changed the physical and chemical attributes of final producst significantly. PMID:26344982

  20. Factors affecting quality of batter-based gluten-free bread

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While wheat bread has been extensively studied, the quality basis for gluten-free bread remains controversial. Common gluten-free breads are prepared from soft batters, and in such systems, intact and damaged starch, pentosans, added hydrocolloids like xanthan gum and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (...

  1. Composition and Palatability of Breads Made with Ground Soybean Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Barbara P.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Ground soy products made from whole soybeans were used in bread as substitutes for 12 percent of the wheat flour to demonstrate that home-prepared soy products can be used to bake palatable breads and supplement their protein content. (Author/SK)

  2. Physico-chemical aspects of leavened gluten-free breads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For wheat breads, there is wide consensus that gluten is the relevant component in determining breadmaking quality. For gluten-free bread, intact and damaged starch, hemicelluloses, added hydrocolloids, proteins and lipids all have been shown to have some impact. However, their individual contributi...

  3. Some Middle Eastern Breads, their Characteristics and their Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Middle Eastern countries, there are many traditional products which are made from wheat; bread is the most important one, and it is eaten with almost every kind of food. The goals of this study are to 1) in general, review major types of breads in the Middle East, and 2) specifically discuss Pers...

  4. RICE BREAD QUALITY AS AFFECTED BY YEAST AND BRAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole rice bread (WRB) has been developed in our laboratory for people suffering from Celiac disease and other food allergies. The WRB has texture and related qualities comparable with white or whole wheat breads. This paper reports the results of three levels of yeast, defatted rice bran on the t...

  5. Enhancing arabic bread quality and shelf life stability using bread improvers.

    PubMed

    Aleid, S M; Al-Hulaibi, A A; Ghoush, M Abu; Al-Shathri, A A

    2015-08-01

    Arabic breads is produced mainly from hard red winter wheat (HRWW) and have relatively little crumb, dense texture, form pocket and are often round with golden brown crust color. The objectives of this research were to investigate the effect of different bread improvers combinations addition in enhancing the quality parameters of Arabic bread. Therefore, the ability of Arabic bread for rolling, folding and overall quality were evaluated during the Arabic bread storage period for 2 days. It was found that there was significant effect of bread improvers combinations (Arabic gum "AG" * Mongglycerides "MG" *alpha-amylase) addition on the ability of Arabic bread for rolling and folding on the second day (P ≤ 0.1). The highest white Arabic bread quality was obtained significantly from addition of low AG, high of MG and high alpha-amylase combination and high AG, low of MG and high alpha-amylase combination. While, low of AG, high of MG and low alpha-amylase combination and high of AG, high of MG and low alpha-amylase combination significantly exhibited the highest overall quality for the Arabic bread made from whole flour. PMID:26243897

  6. Three Putative Types of El Niño Revealed by Spatial Variability in Impact on Australian Wheat Yield.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potgieter, A. B.; Hammer, G. L.; Meinke, H.; Stone, R. C.; Goddard, L.

    2005-05-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon significantly impacts rainfall and ensuing crop yields in many parts of the world. In Australia, El Niño events are often associated with severe drought conditions. However, El Niño events differ spatially and temporally in their manifestations and impacts, reducing the relevance of ENSO-based seasonal forecasts. In this analysis, three putative types of El Niño are identified among the 24 occurrences since the beginning of the twentieth century. The three types are based on coherent spatial patterns (“footprints”) found in the El Niño impact on Australian wheat yield. This bioindicator reveals aligned spatial patterns in rainfall anomalies, indicating linkage to atmospheric drivers. Analysis of the associated ocean-atmosphere dynamics identifies three types of El Niño differing in the timing of onset and location of major ocean temperature and atmospheric pressure anomalies. Potential causal mechanisms associated with these differences in anomaly patterns need to be investigated further using the increasing capabilities of general circulation models. Any improved predictability would be extremely valuable in forecasting effects of individual El Niño events on agricultural systems.

  7. RICE BREAD FOR PEOPLE WITH CELIAC DISEASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This technical bulletin was written to describe new process to make whole rice bread (WRB) for Celiacs, a disease caused by proteins found in wheat, barley and rye. The rice is free of these proteins and hence an ideal grain to develop foods for Celiacs. Absence of these proteins, however make it ...

  8. Wheat Quality Council, Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee, 2014 Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eleven experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to five locations in 2014 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Spr...

  9. Novel microRNAs uncovered by deep sequencing of small RNA transcriptomes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brachypodium distachyon is a promising model for studying temperate grasses, most importantly wheat. Small RNA (smRNAs), especially 21 nt and 24 nt smRNAs, play essential roles in plant development and physiology. We performed seep sequencing of smRNA repertoires in Brachypodium and wheat and found ...

  10. Dough properties and bread-making quality-related characteristics of Yumechikara near-isogenic wheat lines carrying different Glu-B3 alleles

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Miwako; Maruyama-Funatsuki, Wakako; Ikeda, Tatsuya M.; Nishio, Zenta; Nagasawa, Koichi; Tabiki, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the relationships of three allelic variations in Glu-B3 (ab, g, and h) with dough properties and bread-making quality-related characteristics using near-isogenic lines (NILs) of ‘Yumechikara’ that commonly carry Glu-A1a, Glu-B1b, Glu-D1d, Glu-A3f, Glu-B3ab and Glu-D3a. Measurement of peak time (PT) in a 2-g mixograph indicated that Glu-B3g was the most effective for a strong dough property, followed by Glu-B3ab, with Glu-B3h being the least effective. The results of measurement of mixing time during bread-making were similar to those for PTs, i.e., the lines carrying Glu-B3g showed the longest mixing time, followed by those of Glu-B3ab, and those of Glu-B3h showed the shortest mixing time. Since two parameters of bread-making quality, loaf volume (LV) and specific loaf volume (SLV), were affected by flour protein contents in all groups of the Glu-B3 genotype, we compared the effects of the three Glu-B3 alleles on those parameters using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to remove the effect of protein content. The results indicated that the Glu-B3h group showed the largest SLV, followed by the Glu-B3ab group, and the Glu-B3g group showed the smallest SLV. These results suggest that the introduction of Glu-B3h into ‘Yumechikara’ makes it possible to breed varieties with good bread-making quality-related characteristics. PMID:26175621

  11. Bread in a Bag. Teacher's Packet. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This unit is designed to familiarize students in grades 3-6 with wheat production; teach them the nutritional value of wheat products and their role in a well-balanced diet; and give then an easy, hands-on experience in bread making with a nominal amount of cleanup for teachers. The kit suggests that in the first week, teachers discuss wheat…

  12. High insoluble fibre content increases in vitro starch digestibility in partially baked breads.

    PubMed

    Ronda, Felicidad; Rivero, Pablo; Caballero, Pedro A; Quilez, Joan

    2012-12-01

    Wheat breads prepared from frozen partially baked breads were characterized by their content of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and slowly digestible starch (SDS) by the in vitro starch digestibility method developed by Englyst. Breads with different contents and types of fibre and breads prepared with different fermentation processes were studied. Bread with inulin and with a double fermentation had the lowest RDS content of 58.8 ± 1.7 and 60.0 ± 1.9 (% dry matter), respectively. Wheat bran bread, seeded bread, triple fermentation white bread and baguette-type bread showed values of RDS between 63.1 ± 1.7 and 65.7 ± 1.7 with no significant differences between them (p < 0.05). The fraction of SDS was higher in wheat breads than in breads with added fibre. The highest values of the starch digestive rate index (SDRI) were obtained by the three types of breads with added fibre, which ranged from 91.8 ± 3.5 to 95.8 ± 3.5 versus 80.2 ± 3.5 to 87.5 ± 3.5 for white wheat breads. A significant (p < 0.01) positive linear correlation between the insoluble fibre content and SDRI was obtained (R² = 0.96). Insoluble fibre dilutes and disrupts gluten network and probably weakens the interaction between gluten and starch, which protects starch from digestive enzymes action. Scanning electronic microscopy microstructure of bread crumbs corroborated this statement. PMID:22621760

  13. A novel Robertsonian translocation event leads to transfer of a stem rust resistance gene (Sr52) effective against race Ug99 from Dasypyrum villosum into bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Qi, L L; Pumphrey, M O; Friebe, Bernd; Zhang, P; Qian, C; Bowden, R L; Rouse, M N; Jin, Y; Gill, B S

    2011-06-01

    Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn.) (the causal agent of wheat stem rust) race Ug99 (also designated TTKSK) and its derivatives have defeated several important stem rust resistance genes widely used in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production, rendering much of the worldwide wheat acreage susceptible. In order to identify new resistance sources, a large collection of wheat relatives and genetic stocks maintained at the Wheat Genetic and Genomic Resources Center was screened. The results revealed that most accessions of the diploid relative Dasypyrum villosum (L.) Candargy were highly resistant. The screening of a set of wheat-D. villosum chromosome addition lines revealed that the wheat-D. villosum disomic addition line DA6V#3 was moderately resistant to race Ug99. The objective of the present study was to produce and characterize compensating wheat-D. villosum whole arm Robertsonian translocations (RobTs) involving chromosomes 6D of wheat and 6V#3 of D. villosum through the mechanism of centric breakage-fusion. Seven 6V#3-specific EST-STS markers were developed for screening F(2) progeny derived from plants double-monosomic for chromosomes 6D and 6V#3. Surprisingly, although 6D was the target chromosome, all recovered RobTs involved chromosome 6A implying a novel mechanism for the origin of RobTs. Homozygous translocations (T6AS·6V#3L and T6AL·6V#3S) with good plant vigor and full fertility were selected from F(3) families. A stem rust resistance gene was mapped to the long arm 6V#3L in T6AS·6V#3L and was designated as Sr52. Sr52 is temperature-sensitive and is most effective at 16°C, partially effective at 24°C, and ineffective at 28°C. The T6AS·6V#3L stock is a new source of resistance to Ug99, is cytogenetically stable, and may be useful in wheat improvement. PMID:21437597

  14. Development and analysis of composite flour bread.

    PubMed

    Menon, Lakshmi; Majumdar, Swarnali Dutta; Ravi, Usha

    2015-07-01

    The study elucidates the effect of utilizing cereal-pulse-fruit seed composite flour in the development and quality analysis of leavened bread. The composite flour was prepared using refined wheat flour (WF), high protein soy flour (SF), sprouted mung bean flour (MF) and mango kernel flour (MKF). Three variations were formulated such as V-I (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 85:5:5:5), V-II (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 70:10:10:10), and V-III (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 60:14:13:13). Pertinent functional, physico-chemical and organoleptic attributes were studied in composite flour variations and their bread preparations. Physical characteristics of the bread variations revealed a percentage decrease in loaf height (14 %) and volume (25 %) and 20 % increase in loaf weight with increased substitution of composite flour. The sensory evaluation of experimental breads on a nine-point hedonic scale revealed that V-I score was 5 % higher than the standard bread. Hence, the present study highlighted the nutrient enrichment of bread on incorporation of a potential waste material mango kernel, soy and sprouted legume. Relevant statistical tests were done to analyze the significance of means for all tested parameters. PMID:26139880

  15. Changes in abundance of an abscisic acid-responsive, early cysteine-labeled metallothionein transcript during pollen embryogenesis in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Reynolds, T L; Crawford, R L

    1996-12-01

    A clone for an embryoid-abundant, early cysteine-labeled metallothionein (EcMt) gene has been isolated from a wheat pollen embryoid cDNA library. The transcript of this gene was only expressed in embryogenic microspores, pollen embryoids, and developing zygotic embryos of wheat. Accumulation of the EcMt mRNA showed a direct and positive correlation with an increase of the plant hormone, abscisic acid (ABA) in developing pollen embryoids. Treating cultures with an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, fluridone, suppressed not only ABA accumulation but also the appearance of the EcMt gene transcript and the ability of microspores to form embryoids. These results suggest that the EcMt gene may act as a molecular marker for pollen embryogenesis because ABA biosynthesis is accompanied by the increased expression of the EcMt transcript that coincides with the differentiation of pollen embryoids in wheat anther cultures. PMID:8980534

  16. The adult plant rust resistance loci Lr34/Yr18 and Lr46/Yr29 are important determinants of partial resistance to powdery mildew in bread wheat line Saar.

    PubMed

    Lillemo, M; Asalf, B; Singh, R P; Huerta-Espino, J; Chen, X M; He, Z H; Bjørnstad, A

    2008-05-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici is a major disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that can be controlled by resistance breeding. The CIMMYT bread wheat line Saar is known for its good level of partial and race non-specific resistance, and the aim of this study was to map QTLs for resistance to powdery mildew in a population of 113 recombinant inbred lines from a cross between Saar and the susceptible line Avocet. The population was tested over 2 years in field trials at two locations in southeastern Norway and once in Beijing, China. SSR markers were screened for association with powdery mildew resistance in a bulked segregant analysis, and linkage maps were created based on selected SSR markers and supplemented with DArT genotyping. The most important QTLs for powdery mildew resistance derived from Saar were located on chromosomes 7DS and 1BL and corresponded to the adult plant rust resistance loci Lr34/Yr18 and Lr46/Yr29. A major QTL was also located on 4BL with resistance contributed by Avocet. Additional QTLs were detected at 3AS and 5AL in the Norwegian testing environments and at 5BS in Beijing. The population was also tested for leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina) and stripe rust (caused by P. striiformis f. sp. tritici) resistance and leaf tip necrosis in Mexico. QTLs for these traits were detected on 7DS and 1BL at the same positions as the QTLs for powdery mildew resistance, and confirmed the presence of Lr34/Yr18 and Lr46/Yr29 in Saar. The powdery mildew resistance gene at the Lr34/Yr18 locus has recently been named Pm38. The powdery mildew resistance gene at the Lr46/Yr29 locus is designated as Pm39. PMID:18347772

  17. Quality Characteristics of Wholemeal Flour and Bread from Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L subsp. durum Desf.) after Field Treatment with Plant Water Extracts.

    PubMed

    Carrubba, Alessandra; Comparato, Andrea; Labruzzo, Andrea; Muccilli, Serena; Giannone, Virgilio; Spina, Alfio

    2016-09-01

    The use of selected plant water extracts to control pests and weeds is gaining growing attention in organic and sustainable agriculture, but the effects that such extracts may exert on the quality aspects of durum wheat are still unexplored. In 2014, 5 plant water extracts (Artemisia arborescens, Euphorbia characias, Rhus coriaria, Thymus vulgaris, Lantana camara) were prepared and distributed on durum wheat cv Valbelice to evaluate their potential herbicidal effects. After crop harvesting, the major physicochemical and technological parameters of wholemeal flours obtained from each treatment were measured and compared with those from chemical weeding and untreated controls. A baking test was also performed to evaluate the breadmaking quality. In wholemeal flours obtained after the treatment with plant extracts protein and dry gluten content were higher than in control and chemical weeding. Wholemeal flours obtained after chemical weeding reached the highest Mixograph parameters, and that from durum wheat treated with R. coriaria extract demonstrated a very high α-amylase activity. We concluded that the treatments with plant water extracts may influence many quality traits of durum wheat. This occurrence must be taken into account in overall decisions concerning the use of plant extracts in pest and weed management practice. PMID:27442951

  18. Isolation of ABA-responsive mutants in allohexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): Drawing connections to grain dormancy, preharvest sprouting, and drought tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the isolation of Wheat ABA-responsive mutants (Warm) in Chinese spring background of allohexaploid Triticum aestivum. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is required for the induction of seed dormancy, the induction of stomatal closure and drought tolerance, and is associated...

  19. Grain dormancy loss is associated with changes in ABA and GA sensitivity and hormone accumulation in bread wheat, Triticum aestivum (L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge about the hormonal control of seed dormancy and dormancy loss is essential in wheat, because low seed dormancy at maturity is associated with the problem of preharvest sprouting (PHS) when rain occurs before harvest. Low GA (gibberellin) hormone sensitivity and high ABA (abscisic acid) sen...

  20. The impact of vernalization requirement, photoperiod sensitivity, and earliness per se on grain protein content of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In wheat, a shorter pre-anthesis phase is often associated with increased grain protein content (GPC) but decreased grain yield. Cultivar differences in pre-anthesis development are mainly determined by vernalization requirement, photoperiod sensitivity and earliness per se. This research examines w...

  1. Size exclusion HPLC of protein using a micro-bore column for evaluation of bread-making quality of hard spring wheat flours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variations in quantity and quality of wheat flour protein have significant associations with flour quality characteristics and development of rapid analytical method to analyze molecular weight distributions of flour protein is highly expected to enhance characterization of protein for flour quality...

  2. Nutritional, amylolytic enzymes inhibition and antioxidant properties of bread incorporated with Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge C; Moguel-Ordoñez, Yolanda B; Matus-Basto, Angel J; Segura-Campos, Maira R

    2015-01-01

    Wheat bread with sucrose content replaced with different levels of stevia extract was compared with traditional wheat bread. The ability to reduce glucose intake was highlighted by performing enzymatic assays using α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was measured by determining the scavenging effect on α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical. In comparison with the control, the bread with stevia extract was softer and had lower microbial growth during the shelf-life study. The sensory test showed that the substitution of 50% stevia extract was more acceptable when comparing with all the quality characteristics. Regarding the nutritional contribution, the content of dietary fiber and digestible carbohydrates in the bread with stevia extract was higher and lower respectively, so caloric intake was significantly reduced. The results showed that the biological properties of Stevia rebaudiana extract were retained after the bread making process and that the proposed bread could be suitable as functional food in human nutrition. PMID:26299814

  3. In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Acids from a Commercial Aleurone-Enriched Bread Compared to a Whole Grain Bread.

    PubMed

    Dall'Asta, Margherita; Bresciani, Letizia; Calani, Luca; Cossu, Marta; Martini, Daniela; Melegari, Camilla; Del Rio, Daniele; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Brighenti, Furio; Scazzina, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Wheat aleurone, due to its potentially higher bioaccessibility and bioavailability of micronutrients and phenolic acids, could represent a useful ingredient in the production of commonly consumed cereal-based food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids both from an aleurone-enriched bread and from a whole grain bread. The two bread samples were firstly characterized for the phenolic acid content. An in vitro digestion was then performed in order to evaluate the release of phenolic acids. The results obtained suggest that the bioaccessibility of the phenolic acids in the aleurone-enriched bread is higher than in the whole grain bread. These in vitro results suggest the potential use of aleurone in the production of foods, and this may represent an attractive possibility to vehicle nutritionally interesting components to consumers. PMID:26771635

  4. In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Acids from a Commercial Aleurone-Enriched Bread Compared to a Whole Grain Bread

    PubMed Central

    Dall’Asta, Margherita; Bresciani, Letizia; Calani, Luca; Cossu, Marta; Martini, Daniela; Melegari, Camilla; Del Rio, Daniele; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Brighenti, Furio; Scazzina, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Wheat aleurone, due to its potentially higher bioaccessibility and bioavailability of micronutrients and phenolic acids, could represent a useful ingredient in the production of commonly consumed cereal-based food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids both from an aleurone-enriched bread and from a whole grain bread. The two bread samples were firstly characterized for the phenolic acid content. An in vitro digestion was then performed in order to evaluate the release of phenolic acids. The results obtained suggest that the bioaccessibility of the phenolic acids in the aleurone-enriched bread is higher than in the whole grain bread. These in vitro results suggest the potential use of aleurone in the production of foods, and this may represent an attractive possibility to vehicle nutritionally interesting components to consumers. PMID:26771635

  5. Quality characteristics of bread and cookies enriched with debittered Moringa oleifera seed flour.

    PubMed

    Ogunsina, B S; Radha, C; Indrani, D

    2011-03-01

    The effects of replacing wheat flour with 0-15% debittered moringa seed (DBMS) flour on the dough rheology of wheat flour and physical, sensory and chemical properties of bread were studied. Incorporation of an increasing amount of DBMS from 0 to 15% decreased farinograph water absorption, dough stability, amylograph peak viscosity and overall quality of bread. The bread with 10% DBMS had a typical moringa seed taste and was acceptable. Addition of combination of additives improved the dough strength and quality of bread with 10% DBMS flour. Replacement of wheat flour with 10%, 20% and 30% DBMS grits was found to affect cookies quality. Cookies with 20% DBMS grits had the nutty taste of moringa seeds and were acceptable. Bread with 10% DBMS flour and cookies with 20% DBMS grits had more protein, iron and calcium. Incorporating moringa seeds in baked foods may be exploited as a means of boosting nutrition in Africa and Asia where malnutrition is prevalent. PMID:21118057

  6. Cross-genome map based dissection of a nitrogen use efficiency ortho-metaQTL in bread wheat unravels concerted cereal genome evolution.

    PubMed

    Quraishi, Umar Masood; Abrouk, Michael; Murat, Florent; Pont, Caroline; Foucrier, Séverine; Desmaizieres, Gregory; Confolent, Carole; Rivière, Nathalie; Charmet, Gilles; Paux, Etienne; Murigneux, Alain; Guerreiro, Laurent; Lafarge, Stéphane; Le Gouis, Jacques; Feuillet, Catherine; Salse, Jerome

    2011-03-01

    Monitoring nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in plants is becoming essential to maintain yield while reducing fertilizer usage. Optimized NUE application in major crops is essential for long-term sustainability of agriculture production. Here, we report the precise identification of 11 major chromosomal regions controlling NUE in wheat that co-localise with key developmental genes such as Ppd (photoperiod sensitivity), Vrn (vernalization requirement), Rht (reduced height) and can be considered as robust markers from a molecular breeding perspective. Physical mapping, sequencing, annotation and candidate gene validation of an NUE metaQTL on wheat chromosome 3B allowed us to propose that a glutamate synthase (GoGAT) gene that is conserved structurally and functionally at orthologous positions in rice, sorghum and maize genomes may contribute to NUE in wheat and other cereals. We propose an evolutionary model for the NUE locus in cereals from a common ancestral region, involving species specific shuffling events such as gene deletion, inversion, transposition and the invasion of repetitive elements. PMID:21251102

  7. Comparative genomics of Australian isolates of the wheat stem rust pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici reveals extensive polymorphism in candidate effector genes.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Garnica, Diana P; Karaoglu, Haydar; Sperschneider, Jana; Nemri, Adnane; Xu, Bo; Mago, Rohit; Cuomo, Christina A; Rathjen, John P; Park, Robert F; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Dodds, Peter N

    2014-01-01

    The wheat stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) is one of the most destructive pathogens of wheat. In this study, a draft genome was built for a founder Australian Pgt isolate of pathotype (pt.) 21-0 (collected in 1954) by next generation DNA sequencing. A combination of reference-based assembly using the genome of the previously sequenced American Pgt isolate CDL 75-36-700-3 (p7a) and de novo assembly were performed resulting in a 92 Mbp reference genome for Pgt isolate 21-0. Approximately 13 Mbp of de novo assembled sequence in this genome is not present in the p7a reference assembly. This novel sequence is not specific to 21-0 as it is also present in three other Pgt rust isolates of independent origin. The new reference genome was subsequently used to build a pan-genome based on five Australian Pgt isolates. Transcriptomes from germinated urediniospores and haustoria were separately assembled for pt. 21-0 and comparison of gene expression profiles showed differential expression in ∼10% of the genes each in germinated spores and haustoria. A total of 1,924 secreted proteins were predicted from the 21-0 transcriptome, of which 520 were classified as haustorial secreted proteins (HSPs). Comparison of 21-0 with two presumed clonal field derivatives of this lineage (collected in 1982 and 1984) that had evolved virulence on four additional resistance genes (Sr5, Sr11, Sr27, SrSatu) identified mutations in 25 HSP effector candidates. Some of these mutations could explain their novel virulence phenotypes. PMID:25620970

  8. Comparative genomics of Australian isolates of the wheat stem rust pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici reveals extensive polymorphism in candidate effector genes

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Narayana M.; Garnica, Diana P.; Karaoglu, Haydar; Sperschneider, Jana; Nemri, Adnane; Xu, Bo; Mago, Rohit; Cuomo, Christina A.; Rathjen, John P.; Park, Robert F.; Ellis, Jeffrey G.; Dodds, Peter N.

    2015-01-01

    The wheat stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) is one of the most destructive pathogens of wheat. In this study, a draft genome was built for a founder Australian Pgt isolate of pathotype (pt.) 21-0 (collected in 1954) by next generation DNA sequencing. A combination of reference-based assembly using the genome of the previously sequenced American Pgt isolate CDL 75-36-700-3 (p7a) and de novo assembly were performed resulting in a 92 Mbp reference genome for Pgt isolate 21-0. Approximately 13 Mbp of de novo assembled sequence in this genome is not present in the p7a reference assembly. This novel sequence is not specific to 21-0 as it is also present in three other Pgt rust isolates of independent origin. The new reference genome was subsequently used to build a pan-genome based on five Australian Pgt isolates. Transcriptomes from germinated urediniospores and haustoria were separately assembled for pt. 21-0 and comparison of gene expression profiles showed differential expression in ∼10% of the genes each in germinated spores and haustoria. A total of 1,924 secreted proteins were predicted from the 21-0 transcriptome, of which 520 were classified as haustorial secreted proteins (HSPs). Comparison of 21-0 with two presumed clonal field derivatives of this lineage (collected in 1982 and 1984) that had evolved virulence on four additional resistance genes (Sr5, Sr11, Sr27, SrSatu) identified mutations in 25 HSP effector candidates. Some of these mutations could explain their novel virulence phenotypes. PMID:25620970

  9. Utilization of deletion bins to anchor and order sequences along the wheat 7B chromosome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has a large, complex and highly repetitive genome which is challenging to assemble into high quality pseudo-chromosomes. As part of the international effort to sequence the hexaploid bread wheat genome by the international wheat genome sequencing consortium (IWGSC)...

  10. Objective Image Analysis for Bread Quality Characteristics Using C-Cell Instrument

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bread volume, crumb grain, crumb texture, and crumb color are the most important quality factors evaluated in wheat-based bread products. Each of these factors can be estimated by using separate instruments or by experienced baking experts. The objective of this study was to investigate the potentia...

  11. HARD SPRING WHEAT TECHNICAL COMMITTEE 2007 CROP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twelve experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to five locations in 2007 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Samples of wheat were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA Hard Red Spri...

  12. Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee 2009 Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen hard spring wheat lines that were developed by breeders throughout the spring wheat region of the U. S. were grown at up to five locations in 2009 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Samples of wheat were milled at the USDA Hard Red ...

  13. Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee, 2008 Crop.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eleven hard spring wheat lines that were developed by breeders throughout the spring wheat region of the U. S. were grown at up to five locations in 2008 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Samples of wheat were milled at the USDA Hard Red Sp...

  14. [Influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Gapparov, M M; Plotnikova, O A; Zykina, V V; Shlelenko, L A; Tiurina, O E; Rabotkin, Iu V

    2009-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It was shown that consumption of breads with use of barley and buckwheat flours is accompanied less marked postprandial glycaemic reaction in compared with standard loading of carbohydrates (wheat bread). Also it was noted greater increase of postprandial glycaemia in consumption of bread with use of barley flakes in compared with consumption of wheat bread inclusive equivalent amount of carbohydrates. PMID:19999818

  15. Targeting of prolamins by RNAi in bread wheat: effectiveness of seven silencing-fragment combinations for obtaining lines devoid of coeliac disease epitopes from highly immunogenic gliadins.

    PubMed

    Barro, Francisco; Iehisa, Julio C M; Giménez, María J; García-Molina, María D; Ozuna, Carmen V; Comino, Isabel; Sousa, Carolina; Gil-Humanes, Javier

    2016-03-01

    Gluten proteins are responsible for the viscoelastic properties of wheat flour but also for triggering pathologies in susceptible individuals, of which coeliac disease (CD) and noncoeliac gluten sensitivity may affect up to 8% of the population. The only effective treatment for affected persons is a strict gluten-free diet. Here, we report the effectiveness of seven plasmid combinations, encompassing RNAi fragments from α-, γ-, ω-gliadins, and LMW glutenin subunits, for silencing the expression of different prolamin fractions. Silencing patterns of transgenic lines were analysed by gel electrophoresis, RP-HPLC and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), whereas gluten immunogenicity was assayed by an anti-gliadin 33-mer monoclonal antibody (moAb). Plasmid combinations 1 and 2 downregulated only γ- and α-gliadins, respectively. Four plasmid combinations were highly effective in the silencing of ω-gliadins and γ-gliadins, and three of these also silenced α-gliadins. HMW glutenins were upregulated in all but one plasmid combination, while LMW glutenins were downregulated in three plasmid combinations. Total protein and starch contents were unaffected regardless of the plasmid combination used. Six plasmid combinations provided strong reduction in the gluten content as measured by moAb and for two combinations, this reduction was higher than 90% in comparison with the wild type. CD epitope analysis in peptides identified in LC-MS/MS showed that lines from three plasmid combinations were totally devoid of CD epitopes from the highly immunogenic α- and ω-gliadins. Our findings raise the prospect of breeding wheat species with low levels of harmful gluten, and of achieving the important goal of developing nontoxic wheat cultivars. PMID:26300126

  16. Comparative phosphoproteome analysis of the developing grains in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under well-watered and water-deficit conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Ma, Cao-Ying; Lv, Dong-Wen; Zhen, Shou-Min; Li, Xiao-Hui; Yan, Yue-Ming

    2014-10-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum), one of the most important cereal crops, is often threatened by drought. In this study, water deficit significantly reduced the height of plants and yield of grains. To explore further the effect of drought stress on the development and yield of grains, we first performed a large scale phosphoproteome analysis of developing grains in wheat. A total of 590 unique phosphopeptides, representing 471 phosphoproteins, were identified under well-watered conditions. Motif-X analysis showed that four motifs were enriched, including [sP], [Rxxs], [sDxE], and [sxD]. Through comparative phosphoproteome analysis between well-watered and water-deficit conditions, we found that 63 unique phosphopeptides, corresponding to 61 phosphoproteins, showed significant changes in phosphorylation level (≥2-fold intensities). Functional analysis suggested that some of these proteins may be involved in signal transduction, embryo and endosperm development of grains, and drought response and defense under water-deficit conditions. Moreover, we also found that some chaperones may play important roles in protein refolding or degradation when the plant is subjected to water stress. These results provide a detailed insight into the stress response and defense mechanisms of developmental grains at the phosphoproteome level. They also suggested some potential candidates for further study of transgenosis and drought stress as well as incorporation into molecular breeding for drought resistance. PMID:25145454

  17. Additive-dominance genetic model analyses for late-maturity alpha-amylase activity in a bread wheat factorial crossing population.

    PubMed

    Rasul, Golam; Glover, Karl D; Krishnan, Padmanaban G; Wu, Jixiang; Berzonsky, William A; Ibrahim, Amir M H

    2015-12-01

    Elevated level of late maturity α-amylase activity (LMAA) can result in low falling number scores, reduced grain quality, and downgrade of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) class. A mating population was developed by crossing parents with different levels of LMAA. The F2 and F3 hybrids and their parents were evaluated for LMAA, and data were analyzed using the R software package 'qgtools' integrated with an additive-dominance genetic model and a mixed linear model approach. Simulated results showed high testing powers for additive and additive × environment variances, and comparatively low powers for dominance and dominance × environment variances. All variance components and their proportions to the phenotypic variance for the parents and hybrids were significant except for the dominance × environment variance. The estimated narrow-sense heritability and broad-sense heritability for LMAA were 14 and 54%, respectively. High significant negative additive effects for parents suggest that spring wheat cultivars 'Lancer' and 'Chester' can serve as good general combiners, and that 'Kinsman' and 'Seri-82' had negative specific combining ability in some hybrids despite of their own significant positive additive effects, suggesting they can be used as parents to reduce LMAA levels. Seri-82 showed very good general combining ability effect when used as a male parent, indicating the importance of reciprocal effects. High significant negative dominance effects and high-parent heterosis for hybrids demonstrated that the specific hybrid combinations; Chester × Kinsman, 'Lerma52' × Lancer, Lerma52 × 'LoSprout' and 'Janz' × Seri-82 could be generated to produce cultivars with significantly reduced LMAA level. PMID:26403988

  18. The effect of fermentation and addition of vegetable oil on resistant starch formation in wholegrain breads.

    PubMed

    Buddrick, Oliver; Jones, Oliver A H; Hughes, Jeff G; Kong, Ing; Small, Darryl M

    2015-08-01

    Resistant starch has potential health benefits but the factors affecting its formation in bread and baked products are not well studied. Here, the formation of resistant starch in wholemeal bread products was evaluated in relation to the processing conditions including fermentation time, temperature and the inclusion of palm oil as a vitamin source. The effects of each the factor were assessed using a full factorial design. The impact on final starch content of traditional sourdough fermentation of wholemeal rye bread, as well as the bulk fermentation process of wheat and wheat/oat blends of wholemeal bread, was also assessed by enzyme assay. Palm oil content was found to have a significant effect on the formation of resistant starch in all of the breads while fermentation time and temperature had no significant impact. Sourdough fermentation of rye bread was found to have a greater impact on resistant starch formation than bulk fermentation of wheat and wheat blend breads, most likely due the increased organic acid content of the sourdough process. PMID:25766816

  19. Properties of Bread Dough with Added Fiber Polysaccharides and Phenolic Antioxidants: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sivam, Anusooya S; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Quek, SiewYoung; Perera, Conrad O

    2010-01-01

    During breadmaking, different ingredients are used to ensure the development of a continuous protein network that is essential for bread quality. Interests in incorporating bioactive ingredients such as dietary fiber (DF) and phenolic antioxidants into popular foods such as bread have grown rapidly, due to the increased consumer health awareness. The added bioactive ingredients may or may not promote the protein cross-links. Appropriate cross-links among wheat proteins, fiber polysaccharides, and phenolic antioxidants could be the most critical factor for bread dough enhanced with DF and phenolic antioxidants. Such cross-links may influence the structure and properties of a bread system during baking. This article presents a brief overview of our current knowledge of the fate of the key components (wheat proteins, fibers, and phenolic antioxidants) and how they might interact during bread dough development and baking. PMID:21535512

  20. Texturized pinto bean protein fortification in straight dough bread formulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pinto beans were milled and then air-classified to obtain a raw high protein fraction (RHPF) followed by extrusion to texturize the protein fraction. The texturized high protein fraction (THPF) was then milled to obtain flour, and combined with wheat flour at 5%, 10%, and 15% levels to make bread. A...

  1. Physical and sensory properties of all-barley and all-oat breads with additional hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) β-glucan.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yookyung; Yokoyama, Wallace H

    2011-01-26

    Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) is a substituted cellulose that reduces serum cholesterol at modest intake levels. HPMC has also been used for decades in gluten-free breads at a level to optimize loaf volume. Because consumers resist the consumption of whole wheat breads, the sensory and physical properties of all oat and barley breads incorporating HPMC were evaluated. Oat and barley also contain β-glucan, a glucose polymer similar to HPMC that also lowers cholesterol. The textural and sensory properties of the breads were determined by instrumental and chemical methods and sensory panels. HPMC increased the loaf volume of the breads by up to 2 times and decreased hardness immediately after baking and after up to 3 days of storage. Barley bread with HPMC was rated the highest in overall acceptability by sensory panelists compared to oat and wheat breads with or without HPMC. PMID:21189014

  2. Protein and Quality Characterization of Triticale Translocation Lines in Bread Making

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) from the Glu-Did locus of wheat into triticale restores the genetic constitution of storage protein loci to that of wheat and subsequently improves the bread making quality of triticale. One means to achieve such restoration of the gen...

  3. Okra-gum fortified bread: formulation and quality.

    PubMed

    Alamri, Mohammed S

    2014-10-01

    Freeze-dried okra extract was added to Hard Red Spring (HRS) wheat flour intended for high soluble-fiber bread. Seedless okra pods were blended in 0.05 M NaOH solution and the extract (OE) was freeze-dried at pH 7. SE-HPLC of OE showed the presence of covalently bound peptides. Okra extract powder (OE) 4, 7, 10, and 13 % was used to replace wheat flour in preparing four bread formulations. Although Farinograph water absorption was increased up to 4.4 % due to OE addition, the dough mixing Tolerance (MIT) was also increased. In the presence of OE, bread loaf volume was lower and freezable water was higher. Overall, bread firmness was lower at lower storage temperature, but higher OE increased firmness, due to water migration from crumb to crust. Color was darker for both crust and crumb. The bread melting temperature shifted to lower values at higher OE content as shown by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). The test indicated that the properties of the blends were similar around the glass transition region. Dynamic rheology of the blends revealed weaker visco-elastic behavior compared to the control. The magnitude of the complex moduli for the 4 % OE was independent of frequency, while the remaining blends were frequency dependent. PMID:25328176

  4. From genome to gene: a new epoch for wheat research?

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Shubin; Xia, Guangmin

    2015-06-01

    Genetic research for bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), a staple crop around the world, has been impeded by its complex large hexaploid genome that contains a high proportion of repetitive DNA. Recent advances in sequencing technology have now overcome these challenges and led to genome drafts for bread wheat and its progenitors as well as high-resolution transcriptomes. However, the exploitation of these data for identifying agronomically important genes in wheat is lagging behind. We review recent wheat genome sequencing achievements and focus on four aspects of strategies and future hotspots for wheat improvement: positional cloning, 'omics approaches, combining forward and reverse genetics, and epigenetics. PMID:25887708

  5. Histograms and Raisin Bread

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1975-01-01

    Describes various elementary school activities using a loaf of raisin bread to promote inquiry skills. Activities include estimating the number of raisins in the loaf by constructing histograms of the number of raisins in a slice. (MLH)

  6. Phenolics in the Bran of Waxy Wheat and Triticale Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was designed to determine total phenolic acid contents (TPC) and compositions of bran from newly developed near-isogenic waxy wheat and triticale translocation lines. Two sets of near-isogenic waxy wheats, Svevo (durum) and N11 (bread wheat), consisting of partial and waxy null li...

  7. Characterization of stem rust resistance in wheat cultivar 'Gage'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum spp.) stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn. (Pgt), re-emerged as a devastating disease of wheat because of virulent race Ug99 (TTKSK). Many bread wheat (T. aestivum L.) cultivars grown in North America are susceptible to Ug99 or its derivative races ...

  8. Respiratory symptoms and sensitization in bread and cake bakers.

    PubMed

    Smith, T A; Smith, P W

    1998-07-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between exposure to wheat flour, soya flour and fungal amylase and the development of work-related symptoms and sensitization in bread and cake bakery employees who have regular exposure to these substances. The study populations consisted of 394 bread bakery workers and 77 cake bakery workers whose normal jobs involved the sieving, weighing and mixing of ingredients. The groups were interviewed with the aim of identifying the prevalence, nature and pattern of any work-related respiratory symptoms. They were also skin-prick tested against the common bakery sensitizing agents, i.e., wheat flour, soya flour, rice flour and fungal amylase. The results of personal sampling for sieving, weighing and mixing operations at the bakeries from which the study groups were taken were collated in order to determine typical exposures to total inhalable dust from the ingredients, expressed as 8 hour time-weighted average exposures. Data from the health surveillance and collated dust measurements were compared with the aim of establishing an exposure-response relationship for sensitization. The prevalence of work-related symptoms in bread bakery and cake bakery ingredient handlers was 20.4% and 10.4% respectively. However, in a large proportion of those reporting symptoms in connection with work, the symptoms were intermittent and of short duration. It is considered that the aetiology of such symptoms is likely to be due to a non-specific irritant effect of high total dust levels, rather than allergy. None of the cake bakers and only 3.1% of the bread bakers had symptoms which were thought to be due to allergy to baking ingredients. Using skin-prick testing as a marker of sensitization, the prevalence of positive tests to wheat flour was 6% for the bread bakers and 3% for the cake bakers. Comparable prevalences for soya flour were 7% and 1% respectively. However, the prevalence of positive skin-prick tests to fungal amylase

  9. Application of machine vision to pup loaf bread evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayas, Inna Y.; Chung, O. K.

    1996-12-01

    Intrinsic end-use quality of hard winter wheat breeding lines is routinely evaluated at the USDA, ARS, USGMRL, Hard Winter Wheat Quality Laboratory. Experimental baking test of pup loaves is the ultimate test for evaluating hard wheat quality. Computer vision was applied to developing an objective methodology for bread quality evaluation for the 1994 and 1995 crop wheat breeding line samples. Computer extracted features for bread crumb grain were studied, using subimages (32 by 32 pixel) and features computed for the slices with different threshold settings. A subsampling grid was located with respect to the axis of symmetry of a slice to provide identical topological subimage information. Different ranking techniques were applied to the databases. Statistical analysis was run on the database with digital image and breadmaking features. Several ranking algorithms and data visualization techniques were employed to create a sensitive scale for porosity patterns of bread crumb. There were significant linear correlations between machine vision extracted features and breadmaking parameters. Crumb grain scores by human experts were correlated more highly with some image features than with breadmaking parameters.

  10. Physico-chemical and nutritional properties of cereal-pulse blends for bread making.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Shfali; Jood, Sudesh

    2002-01-01

    Supplementation of soy (full fat and defatted) and barley flours to wheat flour at 51 10, 15 and 20% levels were carried out to see their effect on physico-chemical and nutritional properties of blends for bread making. The gluten content and sedimentation value of flour blends decreased and water absorption capacity increased with increase in the level of soybean and barley flour separately and in combinations to bread flour. All the blends at 20% levels were found nutritionally superior but breads prepared from them found organoleptically unacceptable. However, addition of 15% barley flour, 10% full fat soy flour, 10% defatted soy flour, 15% full fat soy flour + barley flour and 15% defatted soy flour + barley flour to wheat flour not only increased the total protein, glutelin (protein fraction), total lysine, dietary fibre and beta-glucan contents of cereal-pulse blends for bread making, but could also produce a product of acceptable quality. PMID:12418802

  11. The contribution of glutenin macropolymer depolymerization to the deterioration of frozen steamed bread dough quality.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Lee, Tung-Ching; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu

    2016-11-15

    Depolymerization of glutenin macropolymers (GMP) widely exists in the frozen dough with little effort in elucidating its effects on steamed bread quality. To clarify this, GMP was fractionated from wheat flour and reconstituted to yeast and chemical leavened dough (YLD/CLD). Results showed that with supplementary GMP fraction, depolymerization degree was alleviated in frozen dough. The bread quality loss from freezing was partially counteracted along with better preserved GMP content. Both of dough elasticity and gas retention capability were enhanced in GMP-enriched frozen dough. Gassing power in frozen YLD decreased while remained constant in CLD. Addition of GMP did not affect the gassing power, which allowed interpreting the improved bread qualities from the enhanced dough elasticity and gas retention capability. Based on the improved facts of frozen steamed bread dough quality with additional GMP fractions, this study revealed the pivotal role of GMP depolymerization on the frozen steamed bread dough quality. PMID:27283603

  12. Bread enriched with green coffee extract has chemoprotective and antigenotoxic activities in human cells.

    PubMed

    Glei, Michael; Kirmse, Annett; Habermann, Nina; Persin, Christoph; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice L

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that bread supplemented with functional ingredients was more chemoprotective than nonsupplemented bread. Here we investigated components of a German wheat bread supplemented with green coffee antioxidants (GC) to assess basic biological activities in human cells in culture. We analyzed chlorogenic acid (ChA) in the bread and determined antioxidative activities. Human colon (HT29) and liver (HepG2) cells were incubated with GC and with aqueous extracts of freeze-dried breads, after which cell survival (4' ,6-diamino-2- phenylindole dihydrochloride assay) and H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage (comet assay) were determined. GC and supplemented bread contained 7- and 880-fold more ChA than normal bread and were significantly more antioxidative (ferric reducing ability of plasma assay, 2.9- and 265-fold; Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay, 1.3- and 24-fold, respectively). Treatment of cells for 24 to 72 h with the samples resulted in a significant inhibition of cell survival in a dose-dependent manner. HepG2 liver cells were more susceptible than HT29 colon cells. No genotoxicity or cytotoxicity was observed after treatment of cells with GC, ChA, or the bread samples. H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage was reduced significantly after treatment with GC, ChA, and supplemented bread. In conclusion, the supplementation of bread with GC improves the chemoprotective property of normal bread under these in vitro cell culture conditions. Supplementation also increases ChA content and antioxidative capacity. The treatment of the cells with supplemented bread increases resistance of colon and liver cells against H(2)O(2), a source of oxidative stress. PMID:17474864

  13. Effects of hydrocolloids as texture improver in coriander bread.

    PubMed

    Das, Lipi; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

    2015-06-01

    An attempt was made to study the effects of hydrocolloids on loaf weight, volume, crumb grain characteristics, crumb moisture, firmness and dough rheological properties on 3.0 % coriander leaf supplemented breads. Carrageenan (CA), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), guar gum (GG) and xanthan gum (XG) were added in the proportions of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 % w/w of 100 g wheat flour. Addition of hydrocolloid increased the loaf volume and decreased the average cell area. An inverse relationship was observed between specific volume and average cell area. XG showed uniform change in crumb moisture on storage at all levels of substitution. However highest loss of moisture occurred in bread samples supplemented with GG. Crumb firming kinetics using Avrami's model showed slower firming rates for GG and CMC. High complex modulus (G*) values were observed in breads with 0.75 and 1.0 % XG. PMID:26028750

  14. Gamma radiation influence on technological characteristics of wheat flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Christian A. H. M.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. d.

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed at determining the influence of gamma radiation on technological characteristics of wheat (Triticum sativum) flour and physical properties of pan breads made with this flour. The bread formulation included wheat flour, water, milk, salt, sugar, yeast and butter. The α-amylase activity of wheat flour irradiated with 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a Gammacell 220 (AECL), one day, five days and one month after irradiation was evaluated. Deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with the irradiated flour were also determined. The enzymatic activity increased—reduction of falling number time—as radiation dose increased, their values being 397 s (0 kGy), 388 s (1 kGy), 343 s (3 kGy) and 293 s (9 kGy) respectively, remaining almost constant over the period of one month. Pan breads prepared with irradiated wheat flour showed increased weight. Texture analysis showed that bread made of irradiated flour presented an increase in maximum deformation force. The results indicate that wheat flour ionizing radiation processing may confer increased enzymatic activity on bread making and depending on the irradiation dose, an increase in weight, height and deformation force parameters of pan breads made of it.

  15. Physical and molecular changes during the storage of gluten-free rice and oat bread.

    PubMed

    Hager, Anna-Sophie; Bosmans, Geertrui M; Delcour, Jan A

    2014-06-18

    Gluten-free bread crumb generally firms more rapidly than regular wheat bread crumb. We here combined differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), texture analysis, and time-domain proton nuclear magnetic resonance (TD (1)H NMR) to investigate the mechanisms underlying firming of gluten-free rice and oat bread. The molecular mobility of water and biopolymers in flour/water model systems and changes thereof after heating and subsequent cooling to room temperature were investigated as a basis for underpinning the interpretation of TD (1)H NMR profiles of fresh crumb. The proton distributions of wheat and rice flour/water model systems were comparable, while that of oat flour/water samples showed less resolved peaks and an additional population at higher T2 relaxation times representing lipid protons. No significant crumb moisture loss during storage was observed for the gluten-free bread loaves. Crumb firming was mainly caused by amylopectin retrogradation and water redistribution within bread crumb. DSC, texture, and TD (1)H NMR data correlated well and showed that starch retrogradation and crumb firming are much more pronounced in rice flour bread than in oat flour bread. PMID:24863875

  16. Selection of the Australian indicator region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Each Australian state was examined for the availability of LANDSAT data, area, yield, and production characteristics, statistics, crop calendars, and other ancillary data. Agrophysical conditions that could influence labeling and classification accuracies were identified in connection with the highest producing states as determined from available Australian crop statistics. Based primarily on these production statistics, Western Australia and New South Wales were selected as the wheat indicator region for Australia. The general characteristics of wheat in the indicator region, with potential problems anticipated for proportion estimation are considered. The varieties of wheat, the diseases and pests common to New South Wales, and the wheat growing regions of both states are examined.

  17. Consumer perception of bread quality.

    PubMed

    Gellynck, Xavier; Kühne, Bianka; Van Bockstaele, Filip; Van de Walle, Davy; Dewettinck, Koen

    2009-08-01

    Bread contains a wide range of important nutritional components which provide a positive effect on human health. However, the consumption of bread is declining during the last decades. This is due to factors such as changing eating patterns and an increasing choice of substitutes like breakfast cereals and fast foods. The aim of this study is to investigate consumer's quality perception of bread towards sensory, health and nutrition attributes. Four consumer segments are identified based on these attributes. The different consumer segments comprise consumers being positive to all three quality aspects of bread ("enthusiastic") as wells as consumers perceiving bread strongly as "tasteless", "non-nutritious" or "unhealthy". Moreover, factors are identified which influence the consumers' quality perception of bread. The results of our study may help health professionals and policy makers to systematically inform consumers about the positive effects of bread based on its components. Furthermore, firms can use the results to build up tailor-made marketing strategies. PMID:19447521

  18. Physical and sensory properties of all-barley and all-oat breads with additional hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) ß-glucan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) is a substituted cellulose that reduces serum cholesterol at modest intake levels. HPMC has also been used for decades in gluten-free breads at a level to optimize loaf volume. Because consumers resist the consumption of whole wheat breads, we evaluated the sen...

  19. Bread Baking Contest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchette, Amy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a classroom project in which elementary students bake homemade bread to learn about the settlement period in Canadian history and the early history of the students' community. Maintains that students learn to compare the lifestyle of the past with the present. (CFR)

  20. Nutritional, Health, and Technological Functionality of Lupin Flour Addition to Bread and Other Baked Products: Benefits and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Villarino, C B J; Jayasena, V; Coorey, R; Chakrabarti-Bell, S; Johnson, S K

    2016-01-01

    Lupin is an undervalued legume despite its high protein and dietary fiber content and potential health benefits. This review focuses on the nutritional value, health benefits, and technological effects of incorporating lupin flour into wheat-based bread. Results of clinical studies suggest that consuming lupin compared to wheat bread and other baked products reduce chronic disease risk markers; possibly due to increased protein and dietary fiber and bioactive compounds. However, lupin protein allergy has also been recorded. Bread quality has been improved when 10% lupin flour is substituted for refined wheat flour; possibly due to lupin-wheat protein cross-linking assisting bread volume and the high water-binding capacity (WBC) of lupin fiber delaying staling. Above 10% substitution appears to reduce bread quality due to lupin proteins low elasticity and the high WBC of its dietary fiber interrupting gluten network development. Gaps in understanding of the role of lupin flour in bread quality include the optimal formulation and processing conditions to maximize lupin incorporation, role of protein cross-linking, antistaling functionality, and bioactivity of its γ-conglutin protein. PMID:25675266

  1. PRECEDING AFFECTS CADMIUM AND ZINC OF WHEAT GROWN IN SALINE SOILS OF CENTRAL IRAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhanced Cd concentrations in wheat grain produced on saline soils of central Iran have been recently reported. Considering that wheat bread is a major dietary component for the Iranian people, finding some practical approaches to decrease Cd concentration in wheat grain were investigated. Thus, the...

  2. VIRULENCE PHENOTYPES OF A WORLD-WIDE COLLECTION OF PUCCINIA TRITICINA FROM DURUM WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collections of Puccinia triticina from durum wheat from Argentina, Chile, Ethiopia, France, Mexico, Spain and the U.S., and representative isolates of leaf rust from bread wheat from the United States, were tested for virulence phenotypes on 35 near-isogenic lines of Thatcher wheat. Virulence on Lr1...

  3. Reduction of toxic gliadin content of wholegrain bread by the enzyme caricain.

    PubMed

    Buddrick, Oliver; Cornell, Hugh J; Small, Darryl M

    2015-03-01

    Increasingly the number of individuals being diagnosed with some form of sensitivity to the proteins in wheat grains represents a cause for concern. Currently, the treatment is dietary withdrawal of gluten, but commercial gluten-free bread presents some undesirable properties. The objective of this study has been to assess the ability of the enzyme caricain (from papaya latex) to detoxify gliadin in whole wheat flour and develop bread suitable for coeliacs and gluten intolerant individuals. Ion exchange chromatography was used to enrich the caricain in papaya latex and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kit was used for the analysis of gliadin residues in the baked bread. The partially purified enzyme was found to be more effective in reducing gliadin content than the crude papain and the resultant loaves had acceptable crumb and crust characteristics. Caricain appears to be capable of detoxifying gliadin and has the potential to mitigate the problems confronting coeliacs. PMID:25306355

  4. A whole-genome, radiation hybrid map of wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Generating a reference sequence of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a challenging task because of its large, highly repetitive and allopolyploid genome. Ordering of BAC- and NGS-based contigs in ongoing wheat genome-sequencing projects primarily uses recombination and comparative genomics-base...

  5. Effect of allelic variations at the Glu-D1, Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Pinb-D1 loci on flour characteristics and bread loaf volume

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Doubled haploid wheat lines developed from a cross between Keumkang, a hard white winter wheat, and Olgeuru, soft red winter wheat were used to determine the effects of allelic variation in Glu-D1, Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Pinb-D1 loci on physiochemical properties of flour and bread loaf volume. Variation...

  6. Bread enriched with quinoa leaves - the influence of protein-phenolics interactions on the nutritional and antioxidant quality.

    PubMed

    Swieca, Michał; Sęczyk, Lukasz; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Dziki, Dariusz

    2014-11-01

    This paper investigates the functional and potential biological properties of bread fortified with quinoa leaves (QL) in the light of protein-phenolic interactions. The addition of QL changed the textural properties of bread crumb. With the replacement of wheat flour by QL (1-5%), a linear increase in crumb hardness, cohesiveness and gumminess was observed. Fortification positively affected antioxidant properties and phenolic contents; however, in some cases experimental values were significantly lower than those predicted. The QL addition affected nutrient content and digestibility. The starch digestibility of the bread investigated in this study was inversely proportional to the percentage content of QL (the changes in protein digestibility were not so pronounced). Increasing peak areas of extracts obtained after digestion of fortified bread and the significant reduction of free amino groups confirm the presence of interactions between phenolics and proteins. The quality of fortified bread is strongly affected by phenolic compounds and food matrix interactions. PMID:24874357

  7. Yeast leavened banana-bread: formulation, processing, color and texture analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banana powder (BP) was added to Hard Red Spring Wheat flour (HRSW) intended for yeast-leavened bread formulation. Five different formulations containing 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% BP were prepared with varying amounts of base flour, while vital gluten was maintained at 25% in all blends. Based on the...

  8. Improved viscoelastic zein-starch doughs for leavened gluten-free breads: Their rheology and microstructure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by protein sequences in wheat, rye and barley. Permitted gluten-free grains include rice, maize and sorghum. Traditional gluten-free breads are made from soft, batter-like doughs based on these gluten-free grains, and are often of very poor quali...

  9. Breaking the Bread of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mineo, Thomas M.; Royce, Christine A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes Bishop Hannan High School's (Pennsylvania) retreat program, in which students learn to develop a spiritual element in their lives. Discusses the theme, "The Bread of Life," and how the process of baking bread for communion helped unite and nourish students. Reports that, through a variety of fellowship activities, students gained a sense…

  10. Registration of a hard red winter wheat genetic stock homozygous for ph1b for facilitating alien introgression for crop improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild relatives of bread wheat, Triticum aestivum L. are an important source for disease and pest resistance that can be exploited in wheat improvement. However, in wheat/alien species hybrids the pairing homoeologous gene, Ph1, suppresses the pairing and recombination of wheat and alien chromosomes,...

  11. New durum wheat with soft kernel texture: end-use quality analysis of the Hardness locus in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class. Durum wheat has limited demand and culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture which precludes conventional milling. ‘Soft Svevo’, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture comparable to a soft whit...

  12. New durum wheat with soft kernel texture: milling performance and end-use quality analysis of the Hardness locus in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class. Durum wheat has limited demand and culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture which preclude conventional milling. ‘Soft Svevo’, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture comparable to a soft white...

  13. Biotechnological production of vitamin B2-enriched bread and pasta.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Menga, Valeria; Digesu, Anna Maria; De Vita, Pasquale; van Sinderen, Douwe; Cattivelli, Luigi; Fares, Clara; Spano, Giuseppe

    2011-07-27

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were obtained from durum wheat flour samples and screened for roseoflavin-resistant variants to isolate natural riboflavin-overproducing strains. Two riboflavin-overproducing strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated as described above were used for the preparation of bread (by means of sourdough fermentation) and pasta (using a prefermentation step) to enhance their vitamin B2 content. Pasta was produced from a monovarietal semolina obtained from the durum wheat cultivar PR22D89 and, for experimental purposes, from a commercial remilled semolina. Several samples were collected during the pasta-making process (dough, extruded, dried, and cooked pasta) and tested for their riboflavin content by a high-performance liquid chromatography method. The applied approaches resulted in a considerable increase of vitamin B2 content (about 2- and 3-fold increases in pasta and bread, respectively), thus representing a convenient and efficient food-grade biotechnological application for the production of vitamin B2-enriched bread and pasta. This methodology may be extended to a wide range of cereal-based foods, feed, and beverages. Additionally, this work exemplifies the production of a functional food by a novel biotechnological exploitation of LAB in pasta-making. PMID:21678896

  14. Effect of commercial rye whole-meal bread on postprandial blood glucose and gastric emptying in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Jönsson, Jenny Maria; Lindstedt, Sandra; Björgell, Ola; Darwich, Gassan; Almér, Lars-Olof

    2009-01-01

    Background The intake of dietary fibre has been shown to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of commercial rye whole-meal bread containing whole kernels and white wheat bread on the rate of gastric emptying and postprandial glucose response in healthy subjects. Methods Ten healthy subjects took part in a blinded crossover trial. Blood glucose level and gastric emptying rate (GER) were determined after the ingestion of 150 g white wheat bread or 150 g whole-meal rye bread on two different occasions after fasting overnight. The GER was measured using real-time ultrasonography, and was calculated as the percentage change in antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after completing the meal. Results No statistically significant difference was found between the GER values or the blood glucose levels following the two meals when evaluated with the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test. Conclusion The present study revealed no difference in postprandial blood glucose response or gastric emptying after the ingestion of rye whole-meal bread compared with white wheat bread. Trial registration NCT00779298 PMID:19531257

  15. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of Stevia rebaudiana extracts (Var. Morita) and their incorporation into a potential functional bread.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ruiz, J C; Moguel-Ordoñez, Y B; Matus-Basto, A J; Segura-Campos, M R

    2015-12-01

    In this study a new wheat bread was designed whose sugars were replaced with S. rebaudiana Bertoni aqueous extract. The impact of the S. rebaudiana Bertoni aqueous extract on nutritional and sensory quality, its ability to reduce sugar intake and its antioxidant properties were investigated. Functional bread with 50 % of sugars replaced with S. rebaudiana extract was compared with traditional wheat bread. The extract demonstrated alpha amylase (IC50 = 198.40 μg/mL) glucosidase (596.77 μg/mL) inhibition. The radical scavenging activity exhibited an IC50 value of 335.94 mg/mL. In comparison with the control, the bread with stevia extract was softer and had lower microbial growth during the shelf-life study. The sensory test showed that the substitution of 50 % stevia extract was more acceptable when comparing with all quality characteristics. Regarding the nutritional contribution, the content of dietary fiber and digestible carbohydrates in the bread with stevia extract was higher and lower respectively, so caloric intake was significantly reduced. The results showed that the biological properties of S. rebaudiana extract were retained after the bread making process and that the proposed bread is suitable as functional food in human nutrition. PMID:26604361

  16. Development of gluten-free bread using tartary buckwheat and chia flour rich in flavonoids and omega-3 fatty acids as ingredients.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Lara; Lukšič, Lea; Molinari, Romina; Kreft, Ivan; Bonafaccia, Giovanni; Manzi, Laura; Merendino, Nicolò

    2014-12-15

    In this study, chia seed flour, which is rich in omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid, and common and tartary buckwheat flour, which has a high antioxidant activity, were integrated into different types of bread with the aim of improving their nutritional value and healthy features. Our results indicate that bread made with chia and tartary buckwheat flour was more acceptable in many nutritional aspects compared to the control (common wheat bread); it contained a higher amount of protein (20%), insoluble dietary fibres (74%), ash (51%), and alpha-linolenic acid (67.4%). Moreover, this bread possessed lower energy (14%) and carbohydrate contents (24%) compared to the control. Tartary buckwheat also improved the total antioxidant capacity of the bread (about 75%) and provided a considerable amount of flavonoids, which are healthy non-nutritional compounds. Overall, chia and tartary buckwheat represent excellent raw materials for the formulation of gluten-free bread with high nutritional value. PMID:25038671

  17. Breads enriched with guava flour as a tool for studying the incorporation of phenolic compounds in bread melanoidins.

    PubMed

    Alves, Genilton; Perrone, Daniel

    2015-10-15

    In the present study we aimed at studying, for the first time, the incorporation of phenolic compounds into bread melanoidins. Fermentation significantly affected the phenolics profile of bread doughs. Melanoidins contents continuously increased from 24.1 mg/g to 71.9 mg/g during baking, but their molecular weight decreased at the beginning of the process and increased thereafter. Enrichment of white wheat bread with guava flour increased the incorporation of phenolic compounds up to 2.4-fold. Most phenolic compounds showed higher incorporation than release rates during baking, leading to increases from 3.3- to 13.3-fold in total melanoidin-bound phenolics. Incorporation patterns suggested that phenolic hydroxyls, but not glycosidic bonds of melanoidin-bound phenolics are cleaved during thermal processing. Antioxidant capacity of bread melanoidins increased due to enrichment with guava flour and increasing baking periods and was partially attributed to bound phenolics. Moreover, FRAP assay was more sensitive to measure this parameter than TEAC assay. PMID:25952842

  18. Association of puroindoline b-2 variants with grain traits, yield components and flag leaf size in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties of Yellow and Huai Valley of China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 169 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties (landraces and cultivars) were used to asses the relationship between Puroindoline D1 alleles and Puroindoline b-B2 variants and grain hardness, other grain traits, grain yield components, and flag leaf size. Results indicated that the average SK...

  19. Quantitative Trait Loci Influencing End-use Quality Traits of Hard Red Spring Wheat Breeding Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat end-product quality is determined by a complex group of traits including dough visco-elastic characteristics and bread-making properties. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and analysis were conducted for endosperm texture and polymeric proteins, dough mixing strength and bread-making prop...

  20. Development of sourdough fermented date seed for improving the quality and shelf life of flat bread: study with univariate and multivariate analyses.

    PubMed

    Habibi Najafi, Mohammad B; Pourfarzad, Amir; Zahedi, Hoda; Ahmadian-Kouchaksaraie, Zahra; Haddad Khodaparast, Mohammad H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of a novel sourdough system prepared by wheat flour supplemented by combination of pulverized date seed, Lactobacillus plantarum, and/or Lactobacillus brevis as well as Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the sourdough characteristics, quality, sensory, texture, shelf life and image properties of Barbari flat bread. The highest sourdough acidity and bread specific volume was obtained with co-culture of Lb. plantarum + Lb. brevis + S. cerevisiae. The results suggest that fermentation is a potential bioprocessing technology for improving sensory aspects of bread supplemented with pulverized date seed, as a dietary fiber resource. Texture analysis of bread samples during 7 days of storage indicated that the presence of pulverized date seed in sourdough was able to diminish bread staling. The interaction of baker's yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has led to increase the particle average size of bread crumb and decrease the area fraction than the LAB samples. It was observed that all treatments of sourdough Barbari breads had higher cell wall thickness than the control Barbari bread. Avrami non-linear regression equation was chosen as useful mathematical model to properly study bread hardening kinetics. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) allowed discriminating among sourdough and bread specialties. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were applied to determine the relationships between sensory and instrumental data. PMID:26787943

  1. Durum wheat and allelopathy: toward wheat breeding for natural weed management

    PubMed Central

    Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Iannucci, Anna; Papa, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Wheat-derived foodstuffs represent about one-fifth of the calories consumed by humans worldwide. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops throughout the world, and it has been extensively studied for its allelopathic potential. In contrast, for allelopathy in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), our knowledge is partial and fragmentary. Through highlighting recent advances in using allelopathy as a crop-breeding tool, we provide an overview of allelopathy in Triticum spp., to stimulate further coordinated breeding-oriented studies, to favor allelopathy exploitation for the sustainable cultivation of wheat, and in particular, to achieve improved biological weed control. PMID:24065979

  2. Influence of doum (Hyphaene thebaica L.) flour addition on dough mixing properties, bread quality and antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Aboshora, Waleed; Lianfu, Zhang; Dahir, Mohammed; Qingran, Meng; Musa, Abubakr; Gasmalla, Mohammed A A; Omar, Khamis Ali

    2016-01-01

    In this covenant of functional foods, the world seeks for new healthier food products with appropriate proportions of bioactive constituents such as fiber, mineral elements, phenols and flavonoids. The doum fruit has good nutritional and pharmaceutical properties; therefore, its incorporation in breads could be beneficial in improving human health. In the current study, partial substitution of wheat flour (WF) with doum fruit flour (DFF) at levels of 5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % were carried out to investigate the dough viscoelastic properties, baking performance, proximate compositions and antioxidant properties of the breads. Partial substitution of WF with DFF increased the water absorption and developing time of dough (P ≤ 0.05), while, the dough extensibility, resistance to extension and the deformation energy were reduced. Bread supplemented with DFF resulted in a reduction in quality in terms of specific loaf volume, conferred softness, hardness, cohesiveness and gumminess to the bread crumbs. DFF up to 15 % could partially replace WF in bread; increase its nutritional value in terms of fiber content and minerals, with only a small depreciation in the bread quality. Sensory evaluation showed that breads supplemented up to 15 % DFF were acceptable to the panelists and there was no significant difference in terms of taste, texture and overall acceptability compared to the control. The incorporation of DFF increased the total phenolic contents, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant properties compared to the control (for both flour and bread). PMID:26787978

  3. Global Change -- What Future for Wheat?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain yield and quality in cereals are often strongly influenced by flowering date. Ecophysiological models of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) simulate the number of days to heading or anthesis by assuming that an intrinsic rate of development is modified by vernalization and photoperiodism. Cul...

  4. Registration of ‘UI Darwin’ Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘UI Darwin’ (PI 639953) is a hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed by the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station and released in February 2006. UI Darwin, named for English naturalist Charles Darwin, was released for selected improvements in bread quality relative to hard white wi...

  5. Prevalence and importance of sensitivity to the Stagonospora nodorum necrotrophic effector SnTox3, in current Western Australian wheat cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stagonospora nodorum is a major pathogen of wheat in many parts of the world and particularly in Western Australia. The pathosystem is characterised by interactions of multiple pathogen necrotrophic effectors (NEs) (formerly host-specific toxins) with corresponding dominant host sensitivity loci. T...

  6. A multistrategic approach in the development of sourdough bread targeted towards blood pressure reduction.

    PubMed

    Peñas, E; Diana, M; Frias, J; Quílez, J; Martínez-Villaluenga, C

    2015-03-01

    Rising prevalence of hypertension is pushing food industry towards the development of innovative food products with antihypertensive effects. The aim was to study the effect of reduced sodium content and 21% addition of wholemeal wheat sourdough (produced by Lactobacillus brevis CECT 8183 and protease) on proximate composition, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and peptide content of wheat bread. Angiotensin converting enzyme I (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities were also evaluated. Sodium replacement by potassium salt did not affect chemical composition and biological activities of bread. In contrast, GABA and peptides <3 kDa contents in sourdough bread (SDB) were 7 and 3 times higher, respectively, than the observed in control. ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the peptide fraction < 3 kDa from SDB was 1.7 and 2.6-3.0 times higher than control. Therefore, the combination of reduced sodium content with enriched concentrations of bioactive compounds in bread making may provide interesting perspectives for development of innovative breads towards blood pressure reduction. PMID:25638256

  7. [Use of flour of pejibaye fruit (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K.) in bread making].

    PubMed

    Tracy, M

    1987-03-01

    Trial were conducted in Costa Rica in 1984 and 1985, to determine the possibility of substituting pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K.) meal for wheat flour in bread. Utilization in three distinct mixtures was examined: 90:10, 85:15 and 80:20 percentage of wheat flour to percentage of pejibaye meal, respectively. The breads were made, and dough analyses were conducted at "Molinos de Costa Rica, S.A.", the country's principal flour mill. Chemical analyses were carried out at the University of Costa Rica. Results indicate a marked inverse relationship between both initial dough development time and dough strength maintenance, and the content of pejibaye meal present in the flour mixture. Consequent problems with sufficient dough expansion preclude utilization of this fruit meal for bread-making in proportions significantly greater than 10% of the total composite flour. The above-mentioned findings reflect the high nutritional value of the pejibaye fruit. Although the protein content is inversely correlated with the amount of pejibaye meal in the mixture, vitamin A and fat contents are positively correlated. This fact demonstrates that the utilization of pejibaye meal in bread-making may well be in some ways considered as a form of nutritional enrichment. As a final conclusion drawn from the results of analyses of the trials and sensory observations, the 90% wheat flour with 10% pejibaye meal mixture apparently was the optimum substitution level of the breads examined. The potential macroeconomic ramifications on the Costa Rican economy of producing and utilizing pejibaye meal in bread-making, are highly favorable. PMID:3454612

  8. [Nebraska 4-H Wheat Science School Enrichment Project, Teacher/Leader Guides 213-222 and 227.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Inst. of Agriculture and Natural Resources.

    Through the 4-H Wheat Science project, students learn the importance of wheat from the complete process of growing wheat to the final product of bread. The curriculum is designed to include hands-on experiences in science, consumer education, nutrition, production economics, vocabulary, and applied mathematics. Teachers can select those units out…

  9. Dough performance, quality and shelf life of flat bread supplemented with fractions of germinated date seed.

    PubMed

    Hejri-Zarifi, Sudiyeh; Ahmadian-Kouchaksaraei, Zahra; Pourfarzad, Amir; Khodaparast, Mohammad Hossein Haddad

    2014-12-01

    Germinated palm date seeds were milled into two fractions: germ and residue. Dough rheological characteristics, baking (specific volume and sensory evaluation), and textural properties (at first day and during storage for 5 days) were determined in Barbari flat bread. Germ and residue fractions were incorporated at various levels ranged in 0.5-3 g/100 g of wheat flour. Water absorption, arrival time and gelatination temperature were decreased by germ fraction but accompanied by an increasing effect on the mixing tolerance index and degree of softening in most levels. Although improvement in dough stability was monitored but specific volume of bread was not affected by both fractions. Texture analysis of bread samples during 5 days of storage indicated that both fractions of germinated date seeds were able to diminish bread staling. Avrami non-linear regression equation was chosen as useful mathematical model to properly study bread hardening kinetics. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) allowed discriminating among dough and bread specialties. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were applied to determine the relationships between sensory and instrumental data. PMID:25477644

  10. Determination of the Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Toasted Bread Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rashdan, Amal; Helaleh, Murad I. H.; Nisar, A.; Ibtisam, A.; Al-Ballam, Zainab

    2010-01-01

    Concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in eighteen baked bread samples using gas oven toasting were evaluated in this study. Samples were classified into the following categories: (1) bread baked from white wheat flour, (2) bread baked from brown wheat flour, and (3) sandwich bread baked from white wheat flour. Analysis was performed by GC-MS after Soxhlet extraction of the sample and clean up of the extract. The levels of B[a]P was not detected in ten of eighteen samples. In the rest of the samples, B[a]P are varied from 2.83 to 16.54 μg/kg. B[a]A, CHR, B[b]FA, B[k] FA, IP, DB[a,h]A, and B[ghi]P concentrations were found to be less than 10.0 μg/kg. However, B[a]P are not detected in original white and brown wheat flour. The total PAHs were varied in the range 1.06–44.24 μg/kg and 3.08–278.66 μg/kg for H-PAH and L-PAH, respectively. Reproducibility and repeatability of the proposed method was calculated and presented in terms of recovery and relative standard deviations (RSD, %). Recoveries were varied from 72.46% to 99.06% with RSD ± 0.28–15.01% and from 82.39% to 95.01% with RSD ±1.91–13.01% for repeatability and reproducibility, respectively. Different commercialized samples of toasted bread were collected and analyzed. PMID:20862370

  11. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Cianferoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker’s asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to

  12. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Cianferoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker's asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to

  13. Identification of chromosomes responsible for crown rot resistance in durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crown rot (CR), caused by Fusarium species, is the most serious biotic threat to the Australian wheat industry. Compared with common wheat (2n=6x=42), durum wheat (2n=4x=28) is more susceptible to CR. In an effort to understand the genetics of CR resistance in durum wheat, we have analysed three set...

  14. Comparison of postprandial phenolic acid excretions and glucose responses after ingestion of breads with bioprocessed or native rye bran.

    PubMed

    Lappi, Jenni; Aura, Anna-Marja; Katina, Kati; Nordlund, Emilia; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa

    2013-06-01

    Rye bran contains a high amount of phenolic acids with potential health promoting effects. However, due to binding to dietary fibre, the phenolic acids are poorly absorbed in human body. We used bioprocessing with enzymes and yeast to release phenolic acids from the fibre complex and studied the effect of bioprocessing on absorption of phenolic acids in healthy humans. White wheat breads fortified with bioprocessed or native rye bran, and wholegrain rye bread and white wheat bread as controls were served to 15 subjects in a randomized order in the cross-over design. Urine was collected at the basal state and over 24 hours in four-, eight-, and twelve-hour periods and analyzed for phenolic acids and their metabolites with gas chromatography. A total of six blood samples were taken over four hours to study the effect of the bread ingestion on postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Bioprocessing of rye bran increased the proportion of free ferulic acid (FA) and soluble arabinoxylan in the bread. Ingestion of the white wheat bread fortified with bioprocessed rye bran increased (p < 0.001) urinary excretion of FA particularly during the first four hours, indicating increased absorption of FA from the small intestine. The postprandial glucose and insulin responses were similar between these breads. Bioprocessing of rye bran did not affect excretion of benzoic, phenylpropionic, and phenylacetic acid metabolites. As a conclusion, bioprocessed rye bran as compared with native rye bran increased absorption of FA from the small intestine, but did not improve postprandial glucose and insulin responses. PMID:23674066

  15. Genetic Basis for Variation in Wheat Grain Yield in Response to Varying Nitrogen Application

    PubMed Central

    Mahjourimajd, Saba; Taylor, Julian; Sznajder, Beata; Timmins, Andy; Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Rengel, Zed; Khabaz-Saberi, Hossein; Kuchel, Haydn; Okamoto, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a major nutrient needed to attain optimal grain yield (GY) in all environments. Nitrogen fertilisers represent a significant production cost, in both monetary and environmental terms. Developing genotypes capable of taking up N early during development while limiting biomass production after establishment and showing high N-use efficiency (NUE) would be economically beneficial. Genetic variation in NUE has been shown previously. Here we describe the genetic characterisation of NUE and identify genetic loci underlying N response under different N fertiliser regimes in a bread wheat population of doubled-haploid lines derived from a cross between two Australian genotypes (RAC875 × Kukri) bred for a similar production environment. NUE field trials were carried out at four sites in South Australia and two in Western Australia across three seasons. There was genotype-by-environment-by-treatment interaction across the sites and also good transgressive segregation for yield under different N supply in the population. We detected some significant Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) associated with NUE and N response at different rates of N application across the sites and years. It was also possible to identify lines showing positive N response based on the rankings of their Best Linear Unbiased Predictions (BLUPs) within a trial. Dissecting the complexity of the N effect on yield through QTL analysis is a key step towards elucidating the molecular and physiological basis of NUE in wheat. PMID:27459317

  16. Genetic Basis for Variation in Wheat Grain Yield in Response to Varying Nitrogen Application.

    PubMed

    Mahjourimajd, Saba; Taylor, Julian; Sznajder, Beata; Timmins, Andy; Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Rengel, Zed; Khabaz-Saberi, Hossein; Kuchel, Haydn; Okamoto, Mamoru; Langridge, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a major nutrient needed to attain optimal grain yield (GY) in all environments. Nitrogen fertilisers represent a significant production cost, in both monetary and environmental terms. Developing genotypes capable of taking up N early during development while limiting biomass production after establishment and showing high N-use efficiency (NUE) would be economically beneficial. Genetic variation in NUE has been shown previously. Here we describe the genetic characterisation of NUE and identify genetic loci underlying N response under different N fertiliser regimes in a bread wheat population of doubled-haploid lines derived from a cross between two Australian genotypes (RAC875 × Kukri) bred for a similar production environment. NUE field trials were carried out at four sites in South Australia and two in Western Australia across three seasons. There was genotype-by-environment-by-treatment interaction across the sites and also good transgressive segregation for yield under different N supply in the population. We detected some significant Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) associated with NUE and N response at different rates of N application across the sites and years. It was also possible to identify lines showing positive N response based on the rankings of their Best Linear Unbiased Predictions (BLUPs) within a trial. Dissecting the complexity of the N effect on yield through QTL analysis is a key step towards elucidating the molecular and physiological basis of NUE in wheat. PMID:27459317

  17. Rye Bread Consumption in Early Life and Reduced Risk of Advanced Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Torfadottir, Johanna E.; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A.; Mucci, Lorelei; Stampfer, Meir; Kasperzyk, Julie L.; Fall, Katja; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Aspelund, Thor; Olafsson, Orn; Harris, Tamara B.; Jonsson, Eirikur; Tulinius, Hrafn; Adami, Hans-Olov; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether consumption of whole-grain; rye bread, oatmeal, and whole-wheat bread, during different periods of life, is associated with risk of prostate cancer (PCa). Methods In 2002 to 2006, 2,268 men, aged 67-96 years, reported their dietary habits in the AGES-Reykjavik cohort study. Dietary habits were assessed for early-, mid- , and current life using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Through linkage to cancer- and mortality registers, we retrieved information on PCa diagnosis and mortality through 2009. We used regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs) for PCa according to whole grain consumption, adjusted for possible confounding factors including fish-, fish liver oil-, meat-, and milk intake. Results Of the 2,268 men, 347 had or were diagnosed with PCa during follow-up, 63 with advanced disease (stage 3+ or died of PCa). Daily rye bread consumption in adolescence (vs. less than daily) was associated with a decreased risk of PCa diagnosis (OR = 0.76, 95% Confidence interval (CI): 0.59-0.98), and of advanced PCa (OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.27-0.84). High intake of oatmeal in adolescence (≥5 vs. ≤4 times/ week) was not significantly associated with risk of PCa diagnosis (OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.77-1.27) nor advanced PCa (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.37-1.20). Mid-, and late life consumption of rye bread, oatmeal, or whole-wheat bread was not associated with PCa risk. Conclusion Our results suggest that rye bread consumption in adolescence may be associated with reduced risk of PCa, particularly advanced disease. PMID:22527172

  18. Kinetics of bread crumb hydration as related to porous microstructure.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Vincent; Monnet, Anne-Flore; Jourdren, Solenne; Panouillé, Maud; Chappard, Christine; Souchon, Isabelle

    2016-08-10

    During oral processing and throughout the digestion process, hydration mechanisms have a key influence on the functional properties of food. This is the case with bread, for which hydration may affect the kinetics of starch hydrolysis as well as taste, aroma and texture perceptions. In this context, the aim of the present study is to understand how crumb porous micro-architecture impacts hydration kinetics. Four types of French baguettes were considered, varying in structure and/or compositions. An experimental set-up was developed for the real-time measurement of water uptake in crumb samples. Mathematical models were then fitted to extract quantitative parameters of use for the description and the understanding of experimental observations. Finally, bread crumb samples were analyzed before and after hydration through X-ray micro-computed tomography for the assessment of crumb micro-architectural properties. Distinct hydration behaviors were observed for the four types of bread. Higher hydration rates and capacities were reported for industrial baguettes (highest porosity) compared to denser semi-industrial, whole wheat and traditional baguettes. However, crumb porosity alone is not sufficient to predict hydration behavior. This study made it possible to point out the importance of capillary action in crumb hydration mechanisms, with a strong role of cells with diameters of 2 mm and below. The high density of these small cells generates high interconnection probabilities that may have an impact both on crumb hydration duration and capacity. As a consequence, accounting for microstructural features resulting from bread formulation may provide useful leverages for the control of functional properties. PMID:27466974

  19. Dwarfing Genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b Are Associated with Both Type I FHB Susceptibility and Low Anther Extrusion in Two Bread Wheat Populations.

    PubMed

    He, Xinyao; Singh, Pawan K; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Singh, Sukhwinder; Lillemo, Morten; Duveiller, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    It has been well documented that dwarfing genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b are associated with Type I susceptibility to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat; but the underlying mechanism has not been well delineated. Anther extrusion (AE) has also been related to Type I resistance for initial FHB infection, where high AE renders FHB resistance. In this study, two doubled haploid populations were used to investigate the impact of the two dwarfing genes on FHB resistance and AE, and to elucidate the role of AE in Rht-mediated FHB susceptibility. Both populations were derived by crossing the FHB susceptible cultivar 'Ocoroni F86' (Rht-B1a/Rht-D1b) with an FHB resistant variety (Rht-B1b/Rht-D1a), which was 'TRAP#1/BOW//Taigu derivative' in one population (the TO population) and 'Ivan/Soru#2' in the other (the IO population). Field experiments were carried out from 2010 to 2012 in El Batán, Mexico, where spray inoculation was adopted and FHB index, plant height (PH), and AE were evaluated, with the latter two traits showing always significantly negative correlations with FHB severity. The populations were genotyped with the DArTseq GBS platform, the two dwarfing genes and a few SSRs for QTL analysis, and the results indicated that Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b collectively accounted for 0-41% of FHB susceptibility and 13-23% of reduced AE. It was also observed that three out of the four AE QTL in the TO population and four out of the five AE QTL in the IO population were associated with FHB resistance. Collectively, our results demonstrated the effects of Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b on Type I FHB susceptibility and reducing AE, and proposed that their impacts on Type I FHB susceptibility may partly be explained by their effects on reducing AE. The implication of the relationship between the two dwarfing genes and AE for hybrid wheat breeding was also discussed. PMID:27606928

  20. Physical mapping of a large plant genome using global high-information-content-fingerprinting: the distal region of the wheat ancestor Aegilops tauschii chromosome 3DS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical maps employing libraries of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones are essential for comparative genomics and sequencing of large and repetitive genomes such as those of the hexaploid bread wheat. The diploid ancestor of wheat genome, Aegilops tauschii, is used as a resource for wheat...

  1. Non-Starch Polysaccharides in Wheat Flour Wire-Cut Cookie Making

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-starch polysaccharides in wheat flour have significant capacity to affect the processing quality of dough and the finished quality of wheat products. Most research has focused on the effects of arabinoxylans (AX) in bread making. We found that water-extractable arabinoxylan and arabinogalactan...

  2. Flour, dough, and baking quality attributes of hard red spring wheat cultivars grown in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The State of North Dakota is number one in the production of hard red spring wheat (HRSW) with approximately 7 million acres devoted to this crop. HRSW has superior characteristics for bread baking, and is used in blends with other wheat to improve the quality of the final flour. Nineteen different ...

  3. Registration of isogenic HMW-GS Ax1 protein deficient lines of an elite wheat variety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of isogenic wheat lines deficient in high-molecular weight subunit (HMW-GS) proteins encoded on the A-genome of an elite variety of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by USDA-ARS at the Western Regional Research Center in Albany, CA. This set of A-genome encoded HMW-GS defi...

  4. Rewiring the wheat reproductive system to harness heterosis for the next wave of yield improvements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bread wheat (hexaploid Triticum aestivum) provides an extraordinary ten-thousand-year story of a new species, established by early farmers, selecting for simple agronomical traits to facilitate efficient and plentiful grain harvest. The genetic changes underlying wheat domestication over thousands ...

  5. Ozone gas affects the physical and chemical properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ozone can oxidize hydroxyl groups present at C2, C3, and C6 positions on the starch molecule and affect its physicochemical properties. In this experiment, bread wheat flour and isolated wheat starch were treated with ozone gas (1,500 ppm, gas flow rate 2.5 L/minutes) for 45 minutes and 30 minutes, ...

  6. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of multiple polyphenol oxidase genes in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum) kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.10.31) is a major cause of discoloring in raw dough containing wheat flour. Minimization of PPO activity has proven difficult because bread wheat is genetically complex, composed of the genomes of three grass species. The PPO-A1 and PPO-D1 genes, on chromosomes 2A and...

  7. New DNA Markers for High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunits in Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    End-use quality is one of the priorities of modern wheat breeding. Even though quality is a complex trait, high molecular weight (HMW) glutenins play a major role in determining the bread making quality of wheat. DNA markers developed from the sequences of HMW glutenin genes were reported in several...

  8. SIMPLE SEQUENCE REPEAT DIVERSITY OF A WORLD-WIDE COLLECTION OF PUCCINIA TRITICINA FROM DURUM WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isolates of Puccinia triticina collected from durum wheat from Argentina, Chile, Ethiopia, France, Mexico, Spain, and the USA were analyzed with eleven SSR markers in order to determine the genetic relationship between isolates. These isolates were also compared with P. triticina from bread wheat fr...

  9. Advances in gluten-free bread technology.

    PubMed

    Ngemakwe, P H Nitcheu; Le Roes-Hill, M; Jideani, V A

    2015-06-01

    The unattractive appearance of gluten-free bread still remains a challenge in gluten-free breadmaking. In response to this, additives such as dairy products, soya and eggs have been used to improve the quality of gluten-free bread, but with limited success. In recent years, enzymes (transglutaminase and cyclodextrinase) and hydrocolloids (carboxymethylcellulose and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose) have become the main focus for the improvement of gluten-free bread. Transglutaminase has been shown to improve the dough viscoelasticity and decrease crumb hardness (6.84-5.73 N) of the resulting bread. Cyclodextrinase also enhances dough viscoelasticity, resulting in an improvement of 53% in shape index and crumb firmness. Similarly, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose improves gas retention and water absorption of dough and reduces crumb hardening rate of the resulting bread, while carboxymethylcellulose significantly increases dough elasticity (60-70 BU) and bread volume (230-267 cm(3)/100 g bread). PMID:24837594

  10. Wheat breadmaking properties in dependance on wheat enzymes status and climate conditions.

    PubMed

    Tomić, Jelena; Torbica, Aleksandra; Popović, Ljiljana; Hristov, Nikola; Nikolovski, Branislava

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate albumins profile, proteolytic and amylolytic activity level and baking performance of wheat varieties grown in two production years with different climate conditions (2011 and 2012) in four locations. The results of ANOVA showed that variety, location, production year, and their interactions all had significant effects on all tested wheat quality parameters. The enzymatic activity and specific bread volume were mainly influenced by the variety. The samples from 2012 production year, had the lower values of albumin content, proteolytic and amylolytic activity, and bread specific volume. The correlation analysis, performed for 2011 production year, showed that albumin fraction (15-30 kDa) and proteolytic activity were negatively correlated with bread specific volume indicating the role of this fraction on lowering the crucial bread quality parameter. In 2012 production year, albumin fractions (5-15 kDa; 50-65 kDa) showed the most correlations, especially with parameters of bread quality. PMID:26776009

  11. [Integral bread development with soybean, chia, linseed, and folic acid as a functional food for women].

    PubMed

    Justo, Mayela Bautista; Alfaro, Alejandra Denisse Castro; Aguilar, Ernesto Camarena; Wrobel, Katarzyna; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Guzmán, Guadalupe Alanís; Sierra, Zeferino Gamiño; Zanella, Victor Da Mota

    2007-03-01

    Six bread formulations were developed, using different proportions of whole-wheat flour, chia seeds and flaxseed flour. All of our formulations were added with folic acid. Sensorial and texture evaluations were performed, showing good acceptance of the products. Proximal chemical analysis was carried out; in addition, the following parameters were determined: calcium, phosphorus, total dietary fiber, folic acid, water hydration capacity, Glucose Dialysis Retardation Index (GDRI) and fatty acids. The results obtained showed higher protein levels in the developed breads (23.23-30.24 (g/100g dry matter) as compared to a control (21.00% of proteins in bread elaborated without chia or flaxseed). Furthermore, the breads contained 10.07-12.15 of lipids (g/100g dry matter) (linoleic acid: 2.43-4.05%; linolenic acid: 1.12-4.46 %; oleic acid: 2.93-6.13 %), GDRI values were between 89.1 and 98.1 % and folic acid was in the range 699.44 - 991.3 (microg/100g dry matter). The same parameters were determined in the chia seed and in the flaxseed flour. It was concluded that; due to their high levels of protein, insaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6), dietary fiber and folic acid, these breads have a high nutritional value, so they could have special benefits for woman. PMID:17824203

  12. Bread enriched in lycopene and other bioactive compounds by addition of dry tomato waste.

    PubMed

    Nour, Violeta; Ionica, Mira Elena; Trandafir, Ion

    2015-12-01

    The tomato processing industry generates high amounts of waste, mainly tomato skins and seeds, which create environmental problems. These residues are attractive sources of valuable bioactive components and pigments. A relatively simple recovery technology could consist of production of powders to be directly incorporated into foods. Tomato waste coming from a Romanian tomato processing unit were analyzed for the content of several bioactive compounds like ascorbic acid, β-carotene, lycopene, total phenolics, mineral and trace elements. In addition, its antioxidant capacity was assayed. Results revealed that tomato waste (skins and seeds) could be successfully utilized as functional ingredient for the formulation of antioxidant rich functional foods. Dry tomato processing waste were used to supplement wheat flour at 6 and 10 % levels (w/w flour basis) and the effects on the bread's physicochemical, baking and sensorial characteristics were studied. The following changes were observed: increase in moisture content, titratable acidity and bread crumb elasticity, reduction in specific volume and bread crumb porosity. The addition of dry tomato waste at 6 % resulted in bread with good sensory characteristics and overall acceptability but as the amount of dry tomato waste increased to 10 %, bread was less acceptable. PMID:26604402

  13. Neural network classification technique and machine vision for bread crumb grain evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayas, Inna Y.; Chung, O. K.; Caley, M.

    1995-10-01

    Bread crumb grain was studied to develop a model for pattern recognition of bread baked at Hard Winter Wheat Quality Laboratory (HWWQL), Grain Marketing and Production Research Center (GMPRC). Images of bread slices were acquired with a scanner in a 512 multiplied by 512 format. Subimages in the central part of the slices were evaluated by several features such as mean, determinant, eigen values, shape of a slice and other crumb features. Derived features were used to describe slices and loaves. Neural network programs of MATLAB package were used for data analysis. Learning vector quantization method and multivariate discriminant analysis were applied to bread slices from what of different sources. A training and test sets of different bread crumb texture classes were obtained. The ranking of subimages was well correlated with visual judgement. The performance of different models on slice recognition rate was studied to choose the best model. The recognition of classes created according to human judgement with image features was low. Recognition of arbitrarily created classes, according to porosity patterns, with several feature patterns was approximately 90%. Correlation coefficient was approximately 0.7 between slice shape features and loaf volume.

  14. Development of high amylose wheat through TILLING

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Wheat (Triticum spp.) is an important source of food worldwide and the focus of considerable efforts to identify new combinations of genetic diversity for crop improvement. In particular, wheat starch composition is a major target for changes that could benefit human health. Starches with increased levels of amylose are of interest because of the correlation between higher amylose content and elevated levels of resistant starch, which has been shown to have beneficial effects on health for combating obesity and diabetes. TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes) is a means to identify novel genetic variation without the need for direct selection of phenotypes. Results Using TILLING to identify novel genetic variation in each of the A and B genomes in tetraploid durum wheat and the A, B and D genomes in hexaploid bread wheat, we have identified mutations in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in starch branching enzyme IIa genes (SBEIIa). Combining these new alleles of SBEIIa through breeding resulted in the development of high amylose durum and bread wheat varieties containing 47-55% amylose and having elevated resistant starch levels compared to wild-type wheat. High amylose lines also had reduced expression of SBEIIa RNA, changes in starch granule morphology and altered starch granule protein profiles as evaluated by mass spectrometry. Conclusions We report the use of TILLING to develop new traits in crops with complex genomes without the use of transgenic modifications. Combined mutations in SBEIIa in durum and bread wheat varieties resulted in lines with significantly increased amylose and resistant starch contents. PMID:22584013

  15. Ancestral QTL Alleles from Wild Emmer Wheat Improve Drought Resistance and Productivity in Modern Wheat Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Merchuk-Ovnat, Lianne; Barak, Vered; Fahima, Tzion; Ordon, Frank; Lidzbarsky, Gabriel A.; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2016-01-01

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum) and bread (T. aestivum) wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4) were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690–710 mm) and water-limited (290–320 mm) conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS), and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS). In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass—specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background), under both treatments (2BS QTL), and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL). The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance. PMID:27148287

  16. Exposure of consumers to deoxynivalenol from consumption of white bread in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Ámbrus, A; Szeitznė-Szabó, M; Zentai, A; Sali, J; Szabó, I J

    2011-02-01

    In view of the frequent occurrence of mycotoxins in cereals, a study was initiated to assess the exposure of the Hungarian adult population. Consumption data for 1360 individuals, based on a 3-day questionnaire, indicated that white bread accounted for the major intake of cereal-based products. Various cereal products were analysed for 16 mycotoxins by a LC/MS/MS multi-toxin method with LOD of 16 µg kg⁻¹ and LOQ of 50 µg kg⁻¹. Deoxynivalenol (DON) was most frequently detected, but no acetyl-deoxynivalenol was present in detectable concentrations. Consumer exposure was calculated with standard Monte Carlo probabilistic modelling and point estimates, taking into account bread consumption and DON contamination in independently taken wheat flour and wheat grain samples. Over 55% of cases the DON intake were below 15% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 1 µg/(kg bw)/day. However, in 5-15% of cases, the intake from bread consumption alone exceeded the PMTDI. Wheat grain data led to the higher percentage. Intakes estimated from both data sets were at or below the acute reference dose (ARfD) of 8 µg/(kg bw)/day in 99.94-99.97% of cases. PMID:21253986

  17. Impact of ancient cereals, pseudocereals and legumes on starch hydrolysis and antiradical activity of technologically viable blended breads.

    PubMed

    Collar, Concha; Jiménez, Teresa; Conte, Paola; Fadda, Costantino

    2014-11-26

    Wheat flour replacement from 22.5% up to 45% by incorporation of ternary blends of teff (T), green pea (GP) and buckwheat (BW) flours provided technologically viable and acceptable sensory rated multigrain breads with superior nutritional value compared to the 100% wheat flour (WT) counterparts. Blended breads exhibited superior nutritional composition, larger amounts of bioaccessible polyphenols, higher anti-radical activity, and lower and slower starch digestibility. Simultaneous lower rapidly digestible starch (57.1%) and higher slowly digestible starch (12.9%) and resistant starch (2.8%) contents (g per 100g fresh bread), considered suitable nutritional trends for dietary starch fractions, were met by the blend formulated 7.5% T, 15% GP, 15% BK. The associated mixture that replaced 37.5% WT, showed a rather lower extent and slower rate of starch hydrolysis with medium-low values for C∞, and H90, and lowest k, and intermediate expected Glycaemic Index (86). All multigrain breads can be labelled as source of dietary fibre (≥ 3 g dietary fibre/100g bread). PMID:25256469

  18. Estimation of the bio-accessible fraction of Cr, As, Cd and Pb in locally available bread using on-line continuous leaching method coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lamsal, Ram P; Beauchemin, Diane

    2015-03-31

    A previously developed, efficient and simple on-line leaching method was used to assess the maximum bio-accessible fraction (assuming no synergistic effect from other food and beverage) of potentially toxic elements (Cr, As, Cd and Pb) in whole wheat brown and white bread samples. Artificial saliva, gastric juice and intestinal juice were successively pumped into a mini-column, packed with bread (maintained at 37 °C) connected on-line to the nebulizer of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) instrument equipped with a collision-reaction interface (CRI) using hydrogen as reaction gas to minimize carbon- and chlorine-based polyatomic interferences. In contrast to the conventional batch method to which it was compared, this approach provides real-time monitoring of potentially toxic elements that are continuously released during leaching. Mass balance for both methods was verified at the 95% confidence level. Results obtained from the whole wheat brown and white bread showed that the majority of Cr, Cd and Pb was leached by gastric juice but, in contrast, the majority of As was leached by saliva. While there was higher total content for elements in whole wheat bread than in white bread, a higher percentage of elements were bio-accessible in white bread than in whole wheat bread. Both the on-line and batch methods indicate that 40-98% of toxic elements in bread samples are bio-accessible. While comparison of total analyte concentrations with provisional tolerable daily intake values may indicate some serious health concern for children, when accounting for the bio-accessibility of these elements, bread consumption is found to be safe for all ages. PMID:25813023

  19. Tracing transgenic maize as affected by breadmaking process and raw material for the production of a traditional maize bread, broa.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Telmo J R; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2013-05-01

    Broa is a maize bread highly consumed and appreciated, especially in the north and central zones of Portugal. In the manufacturing of broa, maize flour and maize semolina might be used, besides other cereals such as wheat and rye. Considering the needs for genetically modified organism (GMO) traceability in highly processed foods, the aim of this work was to assess DNA degradation, DNA amplification and GMO quantification along breadmaking process of broa. DNA degradation was noticed by its decrease of integrity after dough baking and in all parts of bread sampling. The PCR amplification results of extracted DNA from the three distinct maize breads (broa 1, 2 and 3) showed that sequences for maize invertase gene and for events MON810 and TC1507 were easily detected with strong products. Real-time PCR revealed that quantification of GMO was feasible in the three different breads and that sampling location of baked bread might have a limited influence since the average quantitative results of both events after baking were very close to the actual values in the case of broa 1 (prepared with maize semolina). In the other two maize breads subjected to the same baking treatment, the contents of MON810 maize were considerably underestimated, leading to the conclusion that heat-processing was not the responsible parameter for that distortion, but the size of particle and mechanical processing of raw maize play also a major role in GMO quantification. PMID:23265541

  20. Influence of sourdough on in vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycemic indices of gluten-free breads.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Anika; Hager, Anna-Sophie; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-03-01

    Gluten-free flours (buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and teff) were fermented using obligate heterofermentative strain Weissella cibaria MG1 (Wc) and facultative heterofermentative Lactobacillus plantarum FST1.7 (Lp). Starch hydrolysis of breads with and without sourdough (controls) was analyzed in vitro using enzymatic digestion followed by dialysis (10-11 kDa). Hydrolysis indices as well as predicted glycemic indices (pGI) were calculated from reducing sugars released into the dialysate. Amounts of resistant starch (RS; % of total starch) were determined by enzymatic digestion. Upon sourdough addition, RS significantly decreased in buckwheat (Wc 1.28%, Lp 1.44%) and teff sourdough breads (Wc 0.87%, Lp 0.98%) in comparison to their controls (2.01% and 1.92%, respectively). However, no correlation was found with starch hydrolysis. Predicted GIs were reduced upon sourdough addition in wheat (ctrl 100; Wc 85; Lp 76) in comparison to control breads. This was not the case in most gluten-free breads with the exception of sorghum (ctrl 72; Lp 69) and teff sourdough breads (ctrl 74; Lp 68). In contrast, increased pGIs were found in quinoa (ctrl 95; Wc 106; Lp 103) and buckwheat sourdough breads (ctrl 80; Wc 89; Lp 86). PMID:24492829

  1. Rheological, physico-sensory, nutritional and storage characteristics of bread enriched with roller milled fractions of black gram (Phaseolus mungo L.).

    PubMed

    Indrani, D; Sakhare, Suresh D; Milind; Inamdar, Aashitosh A

    2015-08-01

    Black gram grains were fractionated using roller flour mill. Effect of combination of additives (CA) namely dry gluten powder, sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate, fungal α-amylase on the rheological and bread making characteristics of wheat flour partly replaced with roller milled fractions of black gram was studied. With increase in the addition of straight run flour (SRF), protein rich fraction (PRF), protein and fiber rich fraction (P&FRF) from 0 to 20 %, fiber rich fraction, FRF (0-15 %), the farinograph water absorption increased and dough stability decreased; amylograph pasting temperature increased and peak viscosity decreased; bread volume decreased and crumb firmness value increased indicating adverse effect of these fractions on the rheological and bread making characteristics of wheat flour. Sensory evaluation showed that breads were acceptable only up to the level of 15 % for SRF, PRF & P&FRF and 10 % for FRF. However, when CA containing dry gluten powder, sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate and fungal α-amylase was incorporated the overall quality of the products improved. Use of these fractions increased the protein and fiber contents of bread by 1.24-1.66 and 1.48-3.79 times respectively. The results showed that possibility of utilising roller milled black gram fractions along with CA to improve the taste, texture and nutritional quality of bread. PMID:26243951

  2. Synergistic effect of Aspergillus tubingensis CTM 507 glucose oxidase in presence of ascorbic acid and alpha amylase on dough properties, baking quality and shelf life of bread.

    PubMed

    Kriaa, Mouna; Ouhibi, Rabeb; Graba, Héla; Besbes, Souhail; Jardak, Mohamed; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2016-02-01

    The impact of Aspergillus tubingensis glucose oxidase (GOD) in combination with α-amylase and ascorbic acid on dough properties, qualities and shelf life of bread was investigated. Regression models of alveograph and texture parameters of dough and bread were adjusted. Indeed, the mixture of GOD (44 %) and ascorbic acid (56 %) on flour containing basal improver showed its potential as a corrective action to get better functional and rheological properties of dough and bread texture. Furthermore, wheat flour containing basal additives and enriched with GOD (63.8 %), ascorbic acid (32 %) and α- amylase (4.2 %) led to high technological bread making parameters, to decrease the crumb firmness and chewiness and to improve elasticity, adhesion, cohesion and specific volume of bread. In addition to that, the optimized formulation addition significantly reduced water activity and therefore decreased bread susceptibility to microbial spoilage. These findings demonstrated that GOD could partially substitute not only ascorbic acid but also α-amylase. The generated models allowed to predict the behavior of wheat flour containing additives in the range of values tested and to define the additives formula that led to desired rheological and baking qualities of dough. This fact provides new perspectives to compensate flour quality deficiencies at the moment of selecting raw materials and technological parameters reducing the production costs and facilitating gluten free products development. Graphical abstractᅟ. PMID:27162406

  3. Medical nutrition therapy: use of sourdough lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients in gluten free bread.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Elke K; Moroni, Alice; Zannini, Emanuele

    2011-08-30

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disease, triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingesting gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. Currently, the estimated prevalence of CD is around 1 % of the population in the western world and medical nutritional therapy (MNT) is the only accepted treatment for celiac disease. To date, the replacement of gluten in bread presents a significant technological challenge for the cereal scientist due to the low baking performance of gluten free products (GF). The increasing demand by the consumer for high quality gluten-free (GF) bread, clean labels and natural products is rising. Sourdough has been used since ancient times for the production of rye and wheat bread, its universal usage can be attributed to the improved quality, nutritional properties and shelf life of sourdough based breads. Consequently, the exploitation of sourdough for the production of GF breads appears tempting. This review will highlight how sourdough LAB can be an efficient cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients to enhance the quality of gluten free bread. PMID:21995616

  4. Medical nutrition therapy: use of sourdough lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients in gluten free bread

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disease, triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingesting gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. Currently, the estimated prevalence of CD is around 1 % of the population in the western world and medical nutritional therapy (MNT) is the only accepted treatment for celiac disease. To date, the replacement of gluten in bread presents a significant technological challenge for the cereal scientist due to the low baking performance of gluten free products (GF). The increasing demand by the consumer for high quality gluten-free (GF) bread, clean labels and natural products is rising. Sourdough has been used since ancient times for the production of rye and wheat bread, its universal usage can be attributed to the improved quality, nutritional properties and shelf life of sourdough based breads. Consequently, the exploitation of sourdough for the production of GF breads appears tempting. This review will highlight how sourdough LAB can be an efficient cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients to enhance the quality of gluten free bread. PMID:21995616

  5. Wheat domestication: lessons for the future.

    PubMed

    Charmet, Gilles

    2011-03-01

    Wheat was one of the first crops to be domesticated more than 10,000 years ago in the Middle East. Molecular genetics and archaeological data have allowed the reconstruction of plausible domestication scenarios leading to modern cultivars. For diploid einkorn and tetraploid durum wheat, a single domestication event has likely occurred in the Karacadag Mountains, Turkey. Following a cross between tetraploid durum and diploid T. tauschii, the resultant hexaploid bread wheat was domesticated and disseminated around the Caucasian region. These polyploidisation events facilitated wheat domestication and created genetic bottlenecks, which excluded potentially adaptive alleles. With the urgent need to accelerate genetic progress to confront the challenges of climate change and sustainable agriculture, wild ancestors and old landraces represent a reservoir of underexploited genetic diversity that may be utilized through modern breeding methods. Understanding domestication processes may thus help identifying new strategies. PMID:21377616

  6. The effect of sourdough and calcium propionate on the microbial shelf-life of salt reduced bread.

    PubMed

    Belz, Markus C E; Mairinger, Regina; Zannini, Emanuele; Ryan, Liam A M; Cashman, Kevin D; Arendt, Elke K

    2012-10-01

    The consumption of low-salt bread represents an efficient way to improve public health by decreasing cardiovascular health issues related to increased intakes of sodium chloride (NaCl). The reduction of NaCl influences the bread quality characteristics, in particular the shelf-life. Calcium propionate (CP) is commonly used in bread as an antifungal agent. Alternatively, sourdough can be used as a natural preservative. This work addresses the feasibility of NaCl reduction in wheat bread focussing on shelf-life and the compensation using sourdough as well as chemical preservatives. The impact of NaCl reduction and the addition of preservative agents in conjunction with different NaCl concentrations on the shelf-life of bread were tested under 'environmental' conditions in a bakery as well as using challenge tests against selected fungi. The challenge tests were performed using fungi commonly found in the bakery environment such as Penicillium expansum, Fusarium culmorum and Aspergillus niger. NaCl reduction decreased the shelf-life by 1-2 days. The addition of sourdough with antifungal activity prolonged the shelf-life to 12-14 days whereas the addition of 0.3 % calcium propionate prolonged the shelf-life to 10-12 days only. The fungal challenge tests revealed differences in the determined shelf-life between the different fungi based on their resistance. Similar antifungal performance was observed in sourdough breads and calcium propionate breads when tested against the different indicator moulds. The findings of this study indicate that addition of sourdough fermented using a specifically selected antifungal Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 19280 can replace the chemical preservative calcium propionate addition and compensate for the reduced level and, therefore, guarantee the product safety of low-salt bread. PMID:22569634

  7. Isolation and characterization of EMS-induced Dy10 and Ax1 high molecular weight glutenin subunit deficient mutant lines of elite hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Summit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mixing properties of the dough are critical in the production of bread and other food products derived from wheat. The high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are major determinants of wheat dough processing qualities. The different alleles of the HMW-GS genes in hexaploid wheat vary ...

  8. Evaluation and characterization of high-molecular weight 1D glutenin subunits from Aegilops tauschii in synthetic hexaploid wheats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high-molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are major determinants of end-use quality. The objective of this study was to determine the 1Dx and 1Dy HMW subunits present in 44 synthetic hexaploid wheats (SHW) derived by crossing Langdon durum (T. turgidum ...

  9. BAC Libraries from Wheat Chromosome 7D – Efficient Tool for Positional Cloning of Aphid Resistance Genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Positional cloning in bread wheat is a tedious task due to its huge genome size (~17 Gbp) and polyploid character. BAC libraries represent an essential tool for positional cloning. However, wheat BAC libraries comprise more than million clones, which make their screening very laborious. Here we pres...

  10. A BAC-based physical map of Brachypodium distachyon and its comparative analysis with rice and wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wheat high molecular weight (HMW)-glutenins are important seed storage proteins that determine bread-making quality in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum). In this study, detailed comparative sequence analyses of large orthologous HMW-glutenin genomic regions from eight grass species, represent...

  11. Development of a wheat-thinopyrum intermedium robertsonian translocation stock with Sr44 resistance to stem rust (Ug99)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem rust of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis Pers. F. is one of the most important threats of wheat production. A new stem rust race Ug99 is virulent to most of the resistant genes deployed in cultivars. New genes for Ug99 resistance can be transferred to wh...

  12. Stably Expressed D Genome-derived HMW Glutenin Subunit Genes Transformed Into Different Durum Wheat Genotypes Change Dough Mixing Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The glutenin subunits 1Dx5 and 1Dy10 are encoded by chromosome 1D and associated with higher dough strength in hexaploid bread wheats. In order to study the effects of their expression in different durum wheat genotypes, four cultivars commonly grown in the Mediterranean area were co-transformed, vi...

  13. Quantification of genetic relationships among A genomes of wheats.

    PubMed

    Brandolini, A; Vaccino, P; Boggini, G; Ozkan, H; Kilian, B; Salamini, F

    2006-04-01

    The genetic relationships of A genomes of Triticum urartu (Au) and Triticum monococcum (Am) in polyploid wheats are explored and quantified by AFLP fingerprinting. Forty-one accessions of A-genome diploid wheats, 3 of AG-genome wheats, 19 of AB-genome wheats, 15 of ABD-genome wheats, and 1 of the D-genome donor Ae. tauschii have been analysed. Based on 7 AFLP primer combinations, 423 bands were identified as potentially A genome specific. The bands were reduced to 239 by eliminating those present in autoradiograms of Ae. tauschii, bands interpreted as common to all wheat genomes. Neighbour-joining analysis separates T. urartu from T. monococcum. Triticum urartu has the closest relationship to polyploid wheats. Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccum and T. turgidum subsp. durum lines are included in tightly linked clusters. The hexaploid spelts occupy positions in the phylogenetic tree intermediate between bread wheats and T. turgidum. The AG-genome accessions cluster in a position quite distant from both diploid and other polyploid wheats. The estimates of similarity between A genomes of diploid and polyploid wheats indicate that, compared with Am, Au has around 20% higher similarity to the genomes of polyploid wheats. Triticum timo pheevii AG genome is molecularly equidistant from those of Au and Am wheats. PMID:16699549

  14. Nutritional evaluation of wheat-fenugreek blends for product making.

    PubMed

    Hooda, Shalini; Jood, Sudesh

    2004-01-01

    Wheat flour was separately substituted with fenugreek flour (raw, soaked, and germinated) at 5-20% levels for product making. Nutrient analysis of the blends, product development, and their acceptability were carried out. Replacement of wheat flour with fenugreek flour increased the protein, fat, lysine, minerals, and dietary fibre contents proportionately to the level of substitution. Among the composite flours, the blends containing germinated fenugreek flour were found superior in nutritional quality compared to others. However, products, viz., bread, biscuits, noodles, and macaroni prepared from the wheat-fenugreek blends at 10, 15, and 20% levels, were found organoleptically acceptable. PMID:15678723

  15. Influence of particle size on bioprocess induced changes on technological functionality of wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Coda, Rossana; Kärki, Ilona; Nordlund, Emilia; Heiniö, Raija-Liisa; Poutanen, Kaisa; Katina, Kati

    2014-02-01

    Wheat bran is nutritionally an important source of dietary fibre, vitamins and minerals, but its negative influence on dough rheology, texture and sensory quality of bread limits its use in bread baking. The current study aimed at improving the technological functionality of bran by bioprocessing Wheat bran of different particle size (750, 400, 160, 50 μm) was fermented 8 h or 24 h with Lactobacillus brevis E95612 and Kazachstania exigua C81116 with or without addition of enzyme mixture with various carbohydrase activities. Kinetics of growth and acidification showed that the growth of the starters was enhanced in the presence of enzymes in bran having particle size of 160 and 50 μm. Fermentation was critical to improve dough stability and volume of bran enriched breads, whereas addition of enzymes had the most significant effect in improving bread shelf-life. Wheat bread containing 160 μm bran fermented 8 h with enzymes had mild flavour, the highest volume and shelf-life. Reduction of particle size increased perceived smoothness of mouthfeel but provided darker colour in bran-containing breads. The short 8 h bioprocessing, with or without enzymes did not increase pungent flavour or bitter aftertaste in comparison with the native bran. PMID:24230475

  16. Effect of black tea on antioxidant, textural, and sensory properties of Chinese steamed bread.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Sakulnak, Ratchaneekorn; Wang, Sunan

    2016-03-01

    Black tea is rich in phenolic antioxidants and has various health benefits. Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is a traditional food produced through steaming of fermented dough. Black tea extracts were incorporated into northern style CSB formulation at varying concentrations up to 175mg gallic acid equivalent/gram of wheat flour. Gelatinization properties of wheat flour were not affected by the black tea addition. Rheological analysis of wheat flour showed that black tea increased pasting viscosity, consistency index of flow curves, and storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) during dynamic oscillation. Black tea incorporation increased the antioxidant activity as measured by chemical assays, had little effect on textural properties, and increased the darkness of CSB. Sensory evaluation showed a good overall acceptance of black tea fortified CSB. PMID:26471674

  17. Rheological and Quality Characteristics of Taftoon Bread as Affected by Salep and Persian Gums

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, R.; Hamidi Esfehani, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Effects of salep gum at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/w flour basis) and the Persian gum at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, and 3% (w/w flour basis) and combination of the two gums at concentrations of 0.5% + 0.5%, 0.75% + 0.25%, and 0.25% + 0.75% on rheological properties of the wheat flour dough and quality of Taftoon bread were studied with regard to retardation of staling. Rheological (farinograph and extensograph) characteristics, staling, and organoleptic evaluations were performed on the dough and the resulting Taftoon bread. Statistical results showed that the salep gum at 5% and Persian gum at 3% (w/w flour basis) had a significant effect on the dough properties. Salep and Persian gums when each separately added increased and decreased dough water absorption, respectively. Both hydrocolloids increased the dough resistance to extension and decreased its extensibility. Persian gum shows dual nature in water absorption and some other baking properties. Textural studies revealed that addition of 5% salep gum (w/w flour basis) reduced the bread crumb firmness and delayed the staling process of the Taftoon bread. X-ray diffraction study also confirmed this result. PMID:26904649

  18. Acceptability of complementary foods and breads prepared from zinc-fortified cereal flours among young children and adults in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Aaron, G J; Lo, N Ba; Hess, S Y; Guiro, A T; Wade, S; Ndiaye, N F; Guinard, J-X; Brown, K H

    2011-01-01

    We completed a series of studies to assess the acceptability of zinc-fortified, cereal-based complementary foods and zinc-fortified wheat breads. Young children and their caregivers completed acceptability tests with complementary foods fortified with iron only (60 mg iron as ferrous fumarate per kilogram cereal flour), or the same level of iron and zinc (240 mg zinc as zinc oxide per kilogram cereal flour), and the caregivers completed triangle taste tests to compare the same products. A separate group of adult participants completed acceptability tests with wheat breads fortified with iron and folic acid (15 mg iron as ferrous fumarate per kilogram flour and 1.5 mg folic acid per kilogram flour) or the same levels of iron-folic acid and 2 levels of zinc (63 mg zinc or 126 mg zinc as zinc oxide per kilogram flour). Finally, a threshold test was administered to another group of adult participants to compare nonfortified wheat bread to breads fortified with zinc in 80 mg increments ranging from 80 to 400 mg zinc as zinc oxide per kilogram flour. All products were acceptable when compared to non-zinc-fortified equivalents, and were well liked by the respective participants. For the triangle tests, caregivers were not able to detect significant differences between products. For threshold tests, adult participants detected differences in breads prepared from fortified wheat flour at 80 mg, 160 mg, and 320 mg zinc per kilogram flour, but not at 240 mg and 400 mg zinc per kilogram flour, respectively, when compared to nonfortified bread equivalents. Zinc fortification of cereal flours in the ranges of fortification that were tested does not adversely affect the acceptability of complementary foods and breads prepared from these flours. Practical Application: Fortification of staple food products is a low-cost approach to deliver additional micronutrients (including zinc) to large segments of a population. Determining the acceptability of products fortified with zinc is

  19. The gene Sr33, an ortholog of barley Mla genes, encodes resistance to wheat stem rust race Ug99.

    PubMed

    Periyannan, Sambasivam; Moore, John; Ayliffe, Michael; Bansal, Urmil; Wang, Xiaojing; Huang, Li; Deal, Karin; Luo, Mingcheng; Kong, Xiuying; Bariana, Harbans; Mago, Rohit; McIntosh, Robert; Dodds, Peter; Dvorak, Jan; Lagudah, Evans

    2013-08-16

    Wheat stem rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, afflicts bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). New virulent races collectively referred to as "Ug99" have emerged, which threaten global wheat production. The wheat gene Sr33, introgressed from the wild relative Aegilops tauschii into bread wheat, confers resistance to diverse stem rust races, including the Ug99 race group. We cloned Sr33, which encodes a coiled-coil, nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat protein. Sr33 is orthologous to the barley (Hordeum vulgare) Mla mildew resistance genes that confer resistance to Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. The wheat Sr33 gene functions independently of RAR1, SGT1, and HSP90 chaperones. Haplotype analysis from diverse collections of Ae. tauschii placed the origin of Sr33 resistance near the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. PMID:23811228

  20. 21 CFR 136.160 - Raisin bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Raisin bread, rolls, and buns. 136.160 Section 136....160 Raisin bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods raisin bread, raisin rolls, and raisin buns... of ingredients prescribed for bread, rolls or buns by § 136.110, except that: (1) Not less than...

  1. 21 CFR 136.130 - Milk bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Milk bread, rolls, and buns. 136.130 Section 136....130 Milk bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods milk bread, milk rolls, and milk buns conforms... ingredients prescribed for bread, rolls or buns by § 136.110 except that: (1) The only moistening...

  2. 21 CFR 136.160 - Raisin bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Raisin bread, rolls, and buns. 136.160 Section 136....160 Raisin bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods raisin bread, raisin rolls, and raisin buns... of ingredients prescribed for bread, rolls or buns by § 136.110, except that: (1) Not less than...

  3. 21 CFR 136.130 - Milk bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Milk bread, rolls, and buns. 136.130 Section 136....130 Milk bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods milk bread, milk rolls, and milk buns conforms... ingredients prescribed for bread, rolls or buns by § 136.110 except that: (1) The only moistening...

  4. 21 CFR 136.160 - Raisin bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Raisin bread, rolls, and buns. 136.160 Section 136....160 Raisin bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods raisin bread, raisin rolls, and raisin buns... of ingredients prescribed for bread, rolls or buns by § 136.110, except that: (1) Not less than...

  5. 21 CFR 136.160 - Raisin bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Raisin bread, rolls, and buns. 136.160 Section 136....160 Raisin bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods raisin bread, raisin rolls, and raisin buns... of ingredients prescribed for bread, rolls or buns by § 136.110, except that: (1) Not less than...

  6. 21 CFR 136.130 - Milk bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Milk bread, rolls, and buns. 136.130 Section 136....130 Milk bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods milk bread, milk rolls, and milk buns conforms... ingredients prescribed for bread, rolls or buns by § 136.110 except that: (1) The only moistening...

  7. 21 CFR 136.160 - Raisin bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Raisin bread, rolls, and buns. 136.160 Section 136....160 Raisin bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods raisin bread, raisin rolls, and raisin buns... of ingredients prescribed for bread, rolls or buns by § 136.110, except that: (1) Not less than...

  8. Breadings - What they are and how they are used

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three themes form the basis of this chapter for the Book of Batters and Breadings in Food Processing, 2nd edition published by AACC International. The first is the functional attributes of breadings - the relationships among physical characteristics of a breading to create breaded or "coated" foods...

  9. BREAD LOAF ROADLESS AREA, VERMONT.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, John F.; Bitar, Richard F.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of mineral-resource survey the Bread Loaf Roadless Area, Vermont, is considered to have probable resource potential for the occurrence of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits of copper, zinc, and lead, particularly in the north and northeastern section of the roadless area. Nonmetallic commodities include minor deposits of sand and gravel, and abundant rock suitable for crushing. However, large amounts of these materials in more accessible locations are available outside the roadless area. A possibility exists that oil or natural gas resources may be present at great depth.

  10. Palatable and bio-functional wheat/rice products developed from pre-germinated brown rice of super-hard cultivar EM10.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Satoh, Hikaru; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2010-01-01

    It became possible to produce high-quality and bio-functional wheat/rice bread and wheat/rice noodles by blending, pre-germinated and cooked brown rice of a super-hard cultivar with wheat flour. Super-hard rice (SHR) is not suitable for table rice because of its low palatability. Nevertheless, it was found to be suitable as a blending material for bread-making or noodle-making due to its hard texture and high content of resistant starch. We developed a novel rapid germination method to improve the quality and to save the time needed for germination. By blending pre-germinated and cooked SHR (30% w/w on a dry basis) as a rice gel with wheat flour (70% w/w on a dry basis), the bread became very soft and any hardening after bread-making was markedly retarded. Similarly, blending pre-germinated and cooked SHR as cooked a rice gel with wheat flour gave high-quality noodles with a similar texture to that of durum semolina noodles. The resistant starch of the SHR-blended bread and noodles was also markedly increased. White waxy rice (9%) soaked and cooked with the pre-germinated brown rice of SHR (21%) produced a rice gel that was very useful as a material for bread-making and noodle-making by blending with wheat flour (70%) to prepare soft, tasty and bio-functional wheat/rice bread and wheat/rice noodles. PMID:20530881

  11. Inclusion of ancient Latin-American crops in bread formulation improves intestinal iron absorption and modulates inflammatory markers.

    PubMed

    Laparra, José Moisés; Haros, Monika

    2016-02-01

    This study compares iron (Fe) absorption in Fe-deficient animals from bread formulations prepared by substitution of white wheat flour (WB) by whole wheat flour (WWB), amaranth flour (Amaranthus hypochondriacus, 25%) (AB) and quinoa flour (Chenopodium quinoa, 25%) (QB), or chia flour (Salvia hispanica L, 5%) (ChB). Hematological parameters of Fe homeostasis, plasmatic active hepcidin peptide production (LC coupled to Ms/Ms), and liver TfR-2 and IL-6 expression (RT-qPCR) were determined. The different bread formulations increased Fe content between 14% and 83% relative to white bread. Only animals fed with WWB, AB and ChB increased haemoglobin concentrations significantly. Feeding the different bread formulations did not increase hepcidin levels, but down-regulated transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) (apart from WWB) and IL-6 (apart from QB) expression levels. Only AB and ChB had a significant influence on Fe bioavailability at the investigated level of substitution. The potential contribution of these flours would not differ considerably from that of WWB. PMID:26787109

  12. Australian Extinctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…

  13. Effects of the Addition of Ecklonia cava Powder on the Selected Physicochemical and Sensory Quality of White Pan Bread.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Ho; Choi, Dong Won

    2013-12-01

    Physicochemical properties and consumer perception of white pan bread as influenced by the addition of Ecklonia cava powder (ECP) were investigated. Freeze-dried Ecklonia cava were ground, sieved through a laboratory sieve and a fraction with particles less than 250 μm was used. Amount of ECP added (0~3%) to the bread was found to affect the bread quality significantly (P<0.05). pH, bread height, and volume of the control was significantly higher than others (P<0.05) and decreased significantly (P<0.05) with the addition of ECP. Moisture content showed no significant differences (P>0.05). There were distinctive color changes with the addition of the powder: L*- and a*-values decreased but b*-value increased significantly (P<0.05). The hardness of bread was found to increase but both cohesiveness and springiness showed a reverse trend with the addition of the powder. Consumer acceptance test indicated that ECP content 1% on wheat flour could be the recommended supplementation level for the consumers without sacrificing sensory quality. PMID:24551832

  14. Application of model bread baking in the examination of arabinoxylan-protein complexes in rye bread.

    PubMed

    Buksa, Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    The changes in molecular mass of arabinoxylan (AX) and protein caused by bread baking process were examined using a model rye bread. Instead of the normal flour, the dough contained starch, water-extractable AX and protein which were isolated from rye wholemeal. From the crumb of selected model breads, starch was removed releasing AX-protein complexes, which were further examined by size exclusion chromatography. On the basis of the research, it was concluded that optimum model mix can be composed of 3-6% AX and 3-6% rye protein isolate at 94-88% of rye starch meaning with the most similar properties to low extraction rye flour. Application of model rye bread allowed to examine the interactions between AX and proteins. Bread baked with a share of AX, rye protein and starch, from which the complexes of the highest molar mass were isolated, was characterized by the strongest structure of the bread crumb. PMID:27185141

  15. Maillard reaction products in bread: A novel semi-quantitative method for evaluating melanoidins in bread.

    PubMed

    Helou, Cynthia; Jacolot, Philippe; Niquet-Léridon, Céline; Gadonna-Widehem, Pascale; Tessier, Frédéric J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the methods currently in use and to develop a new protocol for the evaluation of melanoidins in bread. Markers of the early and advanced stages of the Maillard reaction were also followed in the crumb and the crust of bread throughout baking, and in a crust model system. The crumb of the bread contained N(ε)-fructoselysine and N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine but at levels 7 and 5 times lower than the crust, respectively. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural was detected only in the crust and its model system. The available methods for the semi-quantification of melanoidins were found to be unsuitable for their analysis in bread. Our new method based on size exclusion chromatography and fluorescence measures soluble fluorescent melanoidins in bread. These melanoidin macromolecules (1.7-5.6 kDa) were detected intact in both crust and model system. They appear to contribute to the dietary fibre in bread. PMID:26213055

  16. Ultrasonic analysis to discriminate bread dough of different types of flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Álvarez, J.; Rosell, C. M.; García-Hernández, M. J.; Chávez, J. A.; Turó, A.; Salazar, J.

    2012-12-01

    Many varieties of bread are prepared using flour coming from wheat. However, there are other types of flours milled from rice, legumes and some fruits and vegetables that are also suitable for baking purposes, used alone or in combination with wheat flour. The type of flour employed strongly influences the dough consistency, which is a relevant property for determining the dough potential for breadmaking purposes. Traditional methods for dough testing are relatively expensive, time-consuming, off-line and often require skilled operators. In this work, ultrasonic analysis are performed in order to obtain acoustic properties of bread dough samples prepared using two different types of flour, wheat flour and rice flour. The dough acoustic properties can be related to its viscoelastic characteristics, which in turn determine the dough feasibility for baking. The main advantages of the ultrasonic dough testing can be, among others, its low cost, fast, hygienic and on-line performance. The obtained results point out the potential of the ultrasonic analysis to discriminate doughs of different types of flour.

  17. Influence of ingredients and chemical components on the quality of Chinese steamed bread.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan

    2014-11-15

    Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is a staple food in China since ancient time. The basic ingredients include wheat flour, yeast/sourdough, and water. Current consumer trends urge the production of CSB on a large scale as well as the formulation of healthier CSB with specific nutritional benefits. This requires a better definition of the relationship between the properties of ingredients/chemical components and CSB quality. This review summarises the recent advances in understanding the roles of basic and optional ingredients and their chemical components in the appearance, textural, sensory, and shelf-life properties of CSB, and provides suggestions for further research to match the current trends. PMID:24912711

  18. [The alien genetic variability for amelioration of wheat grain quality characteristics].

    PubMed

    Rybalka, O I

    2008-01-01

    The alien germplasm presented by different wild wheat relatives such as Ae. umbellulata (UU, 2n = 14), Ae. cylindrica (CCDD, 2n = 28), Ae. tauschii (DD, 2n = 14), Ae. ventricosa (DDUnUn, 2n = 28), Ae. variabilis (UUSS, 2n = 28), T. palmovae (AADD, 2n = 28) was involved into interspecific crosses with T. aestivum to produce transfers of exotic Gli/Glu-alleles to cultivated bread wheat varieties. The array of novel exotic Gli/Glu-alleles was introduced into cultivated wheat genome. Considerable negative as well as positive influence of some exotic alleles on bread-making quality characters or endosperm texture was observed. The original interspecific material with improved quality characteristics was recommended to be applied for wheat breeding. PMID:19140427

  19. Home-Made Breads [and] Home-Baked Breads for Busy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, John

    This packet contains two lesson plans for a class on making bread to be taught in an adult literacy program. Developed by a teacher who has taught the classes to 175 people, the lesson plans each contain complete directions for working with students while baking bread. One lesson plan is for experienced home bakers, and the other is a simpler…

  20. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Studies Of Wheat In The Mid Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olinger, Jill M.; Griffiths, Peter R.

    1989-12-01

    Official grain standards of the United States state that wheat may be divided into seven classes which are: Durum, Red Durum, Hard Red Spring, Hard Red Winter, Soft Red Winter, White, and Mixed.1 Most end uses of wheat involve converting the grain into flour through one of a variety of grinding methods. The quality of wheat-based products is often very dependent upon the type or class of wheat which was used to make the flour. Pasta products, for example, are made almost exclusively from the flour of durum wheats, which are the hardest of the wheats listed above. The highest quality breads are produced using flour from wheats classed as hard, whereas cakes, cookies and pastries are considered best when flour from wheats classed as soft are used. It is obvious then that the capability of determining the class of a particular wheat, especially with respect to hardness, is of economic importance to growers, processors, and merchants of wheat and wheat products. Hardness has been measured in many different ways 2-5 but, as of yet, no one method has become the method of choice. This paper reports on the use of principal components analysis (PCA) of mid infrared diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra of diluted ground wheats to aid in the classification of those wheats with respect to their hardness. The theory and mathematics involved in a principal component analysis have been described elsewhere.9

  1. Effects of Unfermented and Fermented Whole Grain Rye Crisp Breads Served as Part of a Standardized Breakfast, on Appetite and Postprandial Glucose and Insulin Responses: A Randomized Cross-over Trial

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Daniel P; Lee, Isabella; Risérus, Ulf; Langton, Maud; Landberg, Rikard

    2015-01-01

    Background Whole grain rye products have been shown to increase satiety and elicit lower postprandial insulin response without a corresponding change in glucose response compared with soft refined wheat bread. The underlying mechanisms for these effects have not been fully determined The primary aim of the study was to investigate if whole grain rye crisp bread compared to refined wheat crisp bread, elected beneficial effects on appetite and postprandial insulin response, similarly as for other rye products. Methods In a randomized cross-over trial, 23 healthy volunteers, aged 27-70 years, BMI 18-31.4 kg/m2, were served a standardized breakfast with unfermented whole grain rye crisp bread (uRCB), fermented whole grain rye crisp bread (RCB) or refined wheat crisp bread (WCB), Appetite was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS) until 4 h after breakfast. Postprandial glucose and insulin were measured at 0-230 min. Breads were chemically characterized including macronutrients, energy, dietary fiber components, and amino acid composition, and microstructure was characterized with light microscopy. Results Reported fullness was 16% higher (P<0.001), and hunger 11% and 12% lower (P<0.05) after ingestion of uRCB and RCB, respectively, compared with WCB. Postprandial glucose response did not differ significantly between treatments. Postprandial insulin was 10% lower (P<0.007) between 0-120 min but not significantly lower between 0-230 min for RCB compared with WCB. uRCB induced 13% (P<0.002) and 17% (P<0.001) lower postprandial insulin response between 0-230 min compared with RCB and WCB respectively. Conclusion Whole grain rye crisp bread induces higher satiety and lower insulin response compared with refined wheat crisp bread. Microstructural characteristics, dietary fiber content and composition are probable contributors to the increased satiety after ingestion of rye crisp breads. Higher insulin secretion after ingestion of RCB and WCB compared with uRCB may be

  2. Application of Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM19280 in gluten-free sourdough bread to improve the microbial shelf life.

    PubMed

    Axel, Claudia; Röcker, Bettina; Brosnan, Brid; Zannini, Emanuele; Furey, Ambrose; Coffey, Aidan; Arendt, Elke K

    2015-05-01

    The present study investigated the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM19280 as a starter culture for gluten-free quinoa sourdough bread under pilot-plant conditions to extend the microbial shelf life. Challenge tests against environmental moulds were conducted and a negative control with non-antifungal strain, L. amylovorus DSM20531(T), as well as a chemically acidified and a non-acidified control were included. Organic acid production, antifungal metabolites, carbohydrates changes during fermentation and bread quality were compared to wheat counterparts. The application of quinoa sourdough fermented with the antifungal L. amylovorus DSM19280 extended the mould free shelf life by 4 days compared to the non-acidified control. No significant difference in lactic acid production was found between the lactobacilli strains. HPLC-UV/DAD was used to quantify antifungal compounds. The concentration of 4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid, phloretic acid, 3-phenyllactic acid and hydroferulic acid were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in the quinoa sourdough fermented with the antifungal L. amylovorus DSM19280 when compared to the non-antifungal strain, thus indicating their contribution to the antifungal activity. Evaluation of bread characteristics such as specific volume or crumb hardness, revealed that the addition of L. amylovorus fermented sourdough also improved bread quality. In conclusion, the combination of quinoa flour fermented with the antifungal L. amylovorus DSM19280 serves a great potential biopreservative ingredient to produce gluten-free breads with an improved nutritional value, better bread quality and higher safety due to an extended shelf life, and therefore meeting consumer needs for good quality and preservatives-free food products. PMID:25583336

  3. Homologous haplotypes, expression, genetic effects and geographic distribution of the wheat yield gene TaGW2

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background TaGW2-6A, cloned in earlier research, strongly influences wheat grain width and TKW. Here, we mainly analyzed haplotypes of TaGW2-6B and their effects on TKW and interaction with haplotypes at TaGW2-6A. Results About 2.9 kb of the promoter sequences of TaGW2-6B and TaGW2-6D were cloned in 34 bread wheat cultivars. Eleven SNPs were detected in the promoter region of TaGW2-6B, forming 4 haplotypes, but no divergence was detected in the TaGW2-6D promoter or coding region. Three molecular markers including CAPS, dCAPS and ACAS, were developed to distinguish the TaGW2-6B haplotypes. Haplotype association analysis indicated that TaGW2-6B has a stronger influence than TaGW2-6A on TKW, and Hap-6B-1 was a favored haplotype increasing grain width and weight that had undergone strong positive selection in global wheat breeding. However, clear geographic distribution differences for TaGW2-6A haplotypes were found; Hap-6A-A was favored in Chinese, Australian and Russian cultivars, whereas Hap-6A-G was preferred in European, American and CIMMYT cultivars. This difference might be caused by a flowering and maturity time difference between the two haplotypes. Hap-6A-A is the earlier type. Haplotype interaction analysis between TaGW2-6A and TaGW2-6B showed additive effects between the favored haplotypes. Hap-6A-A/Hap-6B-1 was the best combination to increase TKW. Relative expression analysis of the three TaGW2 homoeologous genes in 22 cultivars revealed that TaGW2-6A underwent the highest expression. TaGW2-6D was the least expressed during grain development and TaGW2-6B was intermediate. Diversity of the three genes was negatively correlated with their effect on TKW. Conclusions Genetic effects, expression patterns and historic changes of haplotypes at three homoeologous genes of TaGW2 influencing yield were dissected in wheat cultivars. Strong and constant selection to favored haplotypes has been found in global wheat breeding during the past century. This research

  4. Turning Bread into Rocks: A Multisensory Unit Opener.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Shaw

    2000-01-01

    Presents an earth science activity on rocks to demonstrate the vital links between minerals and rocks. Uses different kinds of breads to demonstrate that rocks, like breads, are composed of various ingredients in different proportions. (ASK)

  5. Agricultural impacts: Europe's diminishing bread basket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinke, Holger

    2014-07-01

    Global demand for wheat is projected to increase significantly with continuing population growth. Currently, Europe reliably produces about 29% of global wheat supply. However, this might be under threat from climate change if adaptive measures are not taken now.

  6. Optimization of lactic ferment with quinoa flour as bio-preservative alternative for packed bread.

    PubMed

    Dallagnol, Andrea Micaela; Pescuma, Micaela; Rollán, Graciela; Torino, María Inés; de Valdez, Graciela Font

    2015-05-01

    The consumers' demand for food with high nutritional quality and free of chemical additives increases the need to look for new products and preservation strategies. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is an Andean pseudocereal highly appreciated because of its nutritional properties. Moreover, it is an optimal substrate for growing and production of improved amounts of antifungal compounds by Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 778. The aim of this work was to optimize a lactic ferment for packaged breads with improved nutritional value and prolonged shelf life by applying a statistical experimental design model. The addition of 30 % quinoa to the wheat semiliquid ferment (QWF) could highly improve the amino acids release (4.3 g/L) during fermentation. Moreover, this quinoa proportion was sufficient to obtain the same concentration of the antifungal compounds, phenyllactic and hydroxiphenyllactic acids (PLA and OH-PLA) as with 100 % quinoa (ca. 36 and 51 mg/L, respectively). Statistical model analysis showed that citrate and skimmed milk enhanced significantly all evaluated parameters specially PLA (ca. 71 mg/L), HO-PLA (ca. 75 mg/L), and lactate (27 g/L) with a p value <0.005. The synergic effects of higher antifungal compounds production, acid release, and pH decrease allowed lowering the amount (about 50 %) of the chemical preservative calcium propionate commonly added to bread. Moreover, these breads show increased shelf life. PMID:25758954

  7. Relationship of molecular weight distribution profile of unreduced gluten protein extracts with quality characteristics of bread.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Nisha; Dangi, Priya; Khatkar, B S

    2016-11-01

    A statistical correlation was established among the molecular weight distribution patterns of unreduced gluten proteins and physicochemical, rheological and bread-making quality characteristics of wheat varieties. Size exclusion chromatography fractionated the gluten proteins apparently into five peaks. Peak I signified glutenins (30-130kDa), peak II as gliadins (20-55kDa), peak III as very low molecular weight monomeric gliadins (10-28kDa), peak IV and V, collectively, as albumins and globulins (<10kDa). Peaks I and II had appreciable effects on dough development time (r=0.830(∗∗) and r=-0.930(∗∗)) and dough stability (r=0.901(∗∗) and r=-0.979(∗∗)). Peak I was associated with R/E ratio (r=0.745(∗∗)), gluten index (r=0.959(∗∗)), and gliadin/glutenin ratio (r=-0.952(∗∗)), while peak II influenced inversely as expected. Peak I exhibited positive statistical significance with bread loaf volume (r=0.848(∗∗)); however, peak II had negative (r=-0.818(∗∗)) impact. Bread firmness increased with increment in peak II (r=0.625(∗∗)), and decreased with accretion in peak I (r=-0.623(∗∗)). PMID:27211654

  8. Endogenous and enhanced oxidative cross-linking in wheat flour mill streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The oxidative cross-linking of arabinoxylan and protein polymers is partially responsible for variation in end-use quality of wheat flour; specifically, differences in batter viscosity as well as variation in bread and cookie quality. A better understanding of the variation in oxidative cross-linkin...

  9. Assessing the gluten content in wheat as an expression of the nutrition deficit, through beta distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pîslea, Daniela; Boldea, Marius; Sala, Florin

    2013-10-01

    The laboratory analysis of the gluten content of wheat in relation to the doses of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium used for fertilizing the soil reveals positive correlation between the two variables. The gluten content in wheat grains is an extremely important quality index in bread manufacturing. One of the farmers' objectives is to obtain high values of this index. The quality of bread manufacturing products is very sensitive to any changes in the percentage share of this indicator. The minimum limit of gluten accepted for bread manufacturing is 26%; even a small variation, of one percentage, of gluten, over this limit, changes the quality of the wheat yield, with considerable effects on the quality of bread. Therefore, farmers are interested in using crop technologies and especially fertilization in order to obtain wheat with high gluten content. Of the nutritive macronutrients, nitrogen plays a significant role in ensuring high gluten content. The definition domain of the measurements is (0;1). This ratio is not constant, but it has a tendency towards a certain medium value, depending on the chemical fertilizers, on fertilization. It follows that the statistic distribution which evaluates the phenomenon is the beta distribution.

  10. Distribution of total, water-unextactable, and water-extractable arabinoxylans in wheat flour mill streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arabinoxylans are a minor but important constituent in wheat that affects bread quality, foam stability, batter viscosity, and sugar snap cookie diameter. Therefore, it is important to determine the distribution of arabinoxylans in flour mill streams in order to better formulate flour blends. Thirty...

  11. A WHEAT DNA FRAGMENT EXHIBITS REDUCED POLLEN TRANSMISSION IN TRANSGENIC MAIZE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An 8.2 kb fragment of wheat genomic DNA containing the Glu1-Dx5 gene has been transferred to maize using biolistic transformation. The Glu1-Dx5 gene encodes the 1Dx5 high molecular weight glutenin subunit, a seed storage protein associated with good bread making properties. The transgenic maize plan...

  12. Genetic and epigenetic changes in somatic hybrid introgression lines between wheat and tall wheatgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broad phenotypic variations were induced in derivatives of an asymmetric somatic hybridization of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum Podp); however, how did these variations happened was unknown. We explored the nature of these variations by cytogenetic assays ...

  13. Influence of instrument rigidity and specimen geometry on calculations of compressive strength properties of wheat endosperm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endosperm texture is one of the most important quality features in wheat that defines milling energy requirements and the suitability of flour or semolina for the various food products such as pan breads, crackers, cakes, and pastas. Rooted in low molecular weight proteins known as puroindolines a a...

  14. Breeding and Characterization of Hexaploid Wheats with Nil Levels of Grain Polyphenol Oxidase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is a ubiquitous enzyme in plants, responsible for many browning reactions and reduction of food product quality. In common (bread) wheat, PPO occurs in the external layers of grain, often is carried into flour via milling, and can be responsible for the discoloration of whe...

  15. Protein and quality characterization of complete and partial near isogenic lines of waxy wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate protein composition and its effects on flour quality and physical dough test parameters using waxy wheat near-isogenic lines. Partial waxy (single and double nulls) and waxy (null at all three waxy loci, Wx-A1, Wx-B1, and Wx-D1) lines of N11 set (bread whe...

  16. Simulation-Based Analysis of Effects of Vrn and Ppd Loci on Flowering in Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain yield and quality in cereals are often strongly influenced by flowering date. Ecophysiological models of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) simulate the number of days to heading or anthesis by assuming that an intrinsic rate of development is modified by vernalization and photoperiodism. Cul...

  17. 21 CFR 136.130 - Milk bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk bread, rolls, and buns. 136.130 Section 136....130 Milk bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods milk bread, milk rolls, and milk buns conforms... permitted in the preparation of the dough is milk or, as an alternative, a combination of dairy products...

  18. 21 CFR 136.130 - Milk bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Milk bread, rolls, and buns. 136.130 Section 136....130 Milk bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods milk bread, milk rolls, and milk buns conforms... permitted in the preparation of the dough is milk or, as an alternative, a combination of dairy products...

  19. Everyone Eats Bread: A Multicultural Unit for First Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanus, Betty J.; Kerst, Catherine H.

    This multicultural teaching unit was developed and tested with the first grade classes of Glenhaven Elementary School, Wheaton, Maryland. The lessons focus on bread as a common food in the world but explores the many types of bread and its symbolism. The unit is divided into four parts. Part 1, "Introduction to Bread," contains lessons on the…

  20. BreadNet: An On-Line Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan

    1987-01-01

    Describes BreadNet, a computer network linking Middlebury College English teachers, their associates, and students. Network extends to rural English teachers and their K-8 students. BreadNet used for student pen pal program, teacher teleconferencing, information access. Also describes BreadNet's problems and future possibilities. (TES)

  1. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  2. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen raw breaded shrimp. 161.175 Section 161.175... § 161.175 Frozen raw breaded shrimp. (a) Frozen raw breaded shrimp is the food prepared by coating one... food tests not less than 50 percent of shrimp material as determined by the method prescribed...

  3. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen raw breaded shrimp. 161.175 Section 161.175... § 161.175 Frozen raw breaded shrimp. (a) Frozen raw breaded shrimp is the food prepared by coating one... food tests not less than 50 percent of shrimp material as determined by the method prescribed...

  4. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen raw breaded shrimp. 161.175 Section 161.175... § 161.175 Frozen raw breaded shrimp. (a) Frozen raw breaded shrimp is the food prepared by coating one... food tests not less than 50 percent of shrimp material as determined by the method prescribed...

  5. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  6. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen raw breaded shrimp. 161.175 Section 161.175... § 161.175 Frozen raw breaded shrimp. (a) Frozen raw breaded shrimp is the food prepared by coating one... food tests not less than 50 percent of shrimp material as determined by the method prescribed...

  7. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  8. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  9. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  10. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw breaded shrimp. 161.175 Section 161.175... § 161.175 Frozen raw breaded shrimp. (a) Frozen raw breaded shrimp is the food prepared by coating one... food tests not less than 50 percent of shrimp material as determined by the method prescribed...

  11. 21 CFR 136.110 - Bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bread, rolls, and buns. 136.110 Section 136.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION BAKERY PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Bakery Products § 136.110 Bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Bread, white...

  12. Eat Wheat!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  13. Wheat Newsletter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review was written for readers of the Annual Wheat Newsletter, Volume 53. It summarizes activities on wheat research during 2006 at the U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory (USGMRL). The article includes technical abstracts of research accomplishments from the Grain Quality and Structure ...

  14. An improved course of glycaemia after a bread based breakfast is associated with beneficial effects on acute and semi-acute markers of appetite.

    PubMed

    Ekström, Linda M N K; Björck, Inger M E; Östman, Elin M

    2016-02-17

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is rapidly increasing all over the world and a diet promoting reduced glycaemic excursions in the postprandial phase may help to prevent the disease. In the present study guar gum (GG) and whole grain rye flour or high amylose maize starch (HAM) was combined to design bread products giving low and sustained glycaemia. A meal study was performed with young, healthy subjects and in addition to glucose and insulin, also subjective appetite ratings and biomarkers of appetite, voluntary energy intake at a second meal and markers of fermentation were studied. The combination of GG and rye was superior with improvements in subjective appetite whereas both test products lead to improvements in biomarkers of appetite compared to the white wheat bread reference. The inclusion of GG, rye and/or HAM in bread products show great potential in lowering risk factors associated with insulin resistance and improving acute and semi-acute appetite. PMID:26762720

  15. Cytological characteristics of F2 hybrids between Triticum aestivum L. and T. durum Desf. with reference to wheat breeding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han-Yan; Liu, Deng-Cai; Yan, Ze-Hong; Wei, Yu-Ming; Zheng, You-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Cytological and agronomic characteristics of a F2 population from Triticum aestivum L. x T. durum Desf. hybrids were analyzed plant by plant. Means of morphologic traits in the F2 population were similar to those of the low-value parent. On average, F2 hybrids had 36.54 chromosomes per plant, indicating that each gamete lost 2.73 chromosomes at meiosis of the F1 generation. More than half of plants had 36-39 chromosomes, so male gametes with 19-21 chromosomes seemed to be superior to the others. The distribution frequency of chromosomes in this study differed from that in a previous report, where a different tetraploid wheat was used. This shows that a different breeding strategy may need to be taken when exploiting a different tetraploid wheat. According to our results, some plants with 42 chromosomes, having all the wheat A, B and D chromosomes, would appear in the F3 population, which provides a chance to obtain stable bread wheat lines from the self-pollinated progenies. Alternatively, the desirable individuals of the F2 population were backcrossed to bread wheat, which is very useful and efficient for the improvement of bread wheat by exploiting desirable genes in durum wheat. PMID:16278508

  16. Draft genome of the wheat A-genome progenitor Triticum urartu.

    PubMed

    Ling, Hong-Qing; Zhao, Shancen; Liu, Dongcheng; Wang, Junyi; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Chi; Fan, Huajie; Li, Dong; Dong, Lingli; Tao, Yong; Gao, Chuan; Wu, Huilan; Li, Yiwen; Cui, Yan; Guo, Xiaosen; Zheng, Shusong; Wang, Biao; Yu, Kang; Liang, Qinsi; Yang, Wenlong; Lou, Xueyuan; Chen, Jie; Feng, Mingji; Jian, Jianbo; Zhang, Xiaofei; Luo, Guangbin; Jiang, Ying; Liu, Junjie; Wang, Zhaobao; Sha, Yuhui; Zhang, Bairu; Wu, Huajun; Tang, Dingzhong; Shen, Qianhua; Xue, Pengya; Zou, Shenhao; Wang, Xiujie; Liu, Xin; Wang, Famin; Yang, Yanping; An, Xueli; Dong, Zhenying; Zhang, Kunpu; Zhang, Xiangqi; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Dvorak, Jan; Tong, Yiping; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Li, Zhensheng; Wang, Daowen; Zhang, Aimin; Wang, Jun

    2013-04-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD) is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed food crops in the world. However, the complex polyploid nature of its genome makes genetic and functional analyses extremely challenging. The A genome, as a basic genome of bread wheat and other polyploid wheats, for example, T. turgidum (AABB), T. timopheevii (AAGG) and T. zhukovskyi (AAGGA(m)A(m)), is central to wheat evolution, domestication and genetic improvement. The progenitor species of the A genome is the diploid wild einkorn wheat T. urartu, which resembles cultivated wheat more extensively than do Aegilops speltoides (the ancestor of the B genome) and Ae. tauschii (the donor of the D genome), especially in the morphology and development of spike and seed. Here we present the generation, assembly and analysis of a whole-genome shotgun draft sequence of the T. urartu genome. We identified protein-coding gene models, performed genome structure analyses and assessed its utility for analysing agronomically important genes and for developing molecular markers. Our T. urartu genome assembly provides a diploid reference for analysis of polyploid wheat genomes and is a valuable resource for the genetic improvement of wheat. PMID:23535596

  17. Bread consumption patterns in a Swedish national dietary survey focusing particularly on whole-grain and rye bread

    PubMed Central

    Sandvik, Pernilla; Kihlberg, Iwona; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Marklinder, Ingela; Nydahl, Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    Background Bread types with high contents of whole grains and rye are associated with beneficial health effects. Consumer characteristics of different bread consumption patterns are however not well known. Objective To compare bread consumption patterns among Swedish adults in relation to selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors. For selected consumer groups, the further aim is to investigate the intake of whole grains and the context of bread consumption, that is, where and when it is consumed. Design Secondary analysis was performed on bread consumption data from a national dietary survey (n=1,435). Respondents were segmented into consumer groups according to the type and amount of bread consumed. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to study how selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors were associated with the consumer groups. Selected consumption groups were compared in terms of whole-grain intake and consumption context. Consumption in different age groups was analysed more in detail. Results One-third of the respondents consumed mainly white bread. Socio-demographic, geographic, and healthy-lifestyle-related factors were associated with the bread type consumed. White bread consumption was associated with younger age groups, less education, children in the family, eating less fruit and vegetables, and more candy and snacks; the opposite was seen for mainly whole-grain bread consumers. Older age groups more often reported eating dry crisp bread, whole-grain bread, and whole-grain rye bread with sourdough whereas younger respondents reported eating bread outside the home, something that also mainly white bread eaters did. Low consumers of bread also consumed less whole grain in total. Conclusions Traditional bread consumption structures were observed, as was a transition among young consumers who more often consumed fast food bread and bread outside the home, as well as less rye and whole

  18. Variation in susceptibility to Wheat dwarf virus among wild and domesticated wheat.

    PubMed

    Nygren, Jim; Shad, Nadeem; Kvarnheden, Anders; Westerbergh, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the variation in plant response in host-pathogen interactions between wild (Aegilops spp., Triticum spp.) and domesticated wheat (Triticum spp.) and Wheat dwarf virus (WDV). The distribution of WDV and its wild host species overlaps in Western Asia in the Fertile Crescent, suggesting a coevolutionary relationship. Bread wheat originates from a natural hybridization between wild emmer wheat (carrying the A and B genomes) and the wild D genome donor Aegilops tauschii, followed by polyploidization and domestication. We studied whether the strong selection during these evolutionary processes, leading to genetic bottlenecks, may have resulted in a loss of resistance in domesticated wheat. In addition, we investigated whether putative fluctuations in intensity of selection imposed on the host-pathogen interactions have resulted in a variation in susceptibility to WDV. To test our hypotheses we evaluated eighteen wild and domesticated wheat taxa, directly or indirectly involved in wheat evolution, for traits associated with WDV disease such as leaf chlorosis, different growth traits and WDV content. The plants were exposed to viruliferous leafhoppers (Psammotettix alienus) in a greenhouse trial and evaluated at two time points. We found three different plant response patterns: i) continuous reduction in growth over time, ii) weak response at an early stage of plant development but a much stronger response at a later stage, and iii) remission of symptoms over time. Variation in susceptibility may be explained by differences in the intensity of natural selection, shaping the coevolutionary interaction between WDV and the wild relatives. However, genetic bottlenecks during wheat evolution have not had a strong impact on WDV resistance. Further, this study indicates that the variation in susceptibility may be associated with the genome type and that the ancestor Ae. tauschii may be useful as genetic resource for the improvement of WDV resistance in wheat. PMID

  19. Variation in Susceptibility to Wheat dwarf virus among Wild and Domesticated Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Nygren, Jim; Shad, Nadeem; Kvarnheden, Anders; Westerbergh, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the variation in plant response in host-pathogen interactions between wild (Aegilops spp., Triticum spp.) and domesticated wheat (Triticum spp.) and Wheat dwarf virus (WDV). The distribution of WDV and its wild host species overlaps in Western Asia in the Fertile Crescent, suggesting a coevolutionary relationship. Bread wheat originates from a natural hybridization between wild emmer wheat (carrying the A and B genomes) and the wild D genome donor Aegilops tauschii, followed by polyploidization and domestication. We studied whether the strong selection during these evolutionary processes, leading to genetic bottlenecks, may have resulted in a loss of resistance in domesticated wheat. In addition, we investigated whether putative fluctuations in intensity of selection imposed on the host-pathogen interactions have resulted in a variation in susceptibility to WDV. To test our hypotheses we evaluated eighteen wild and domesticated wheat taxa, directly or indirectly involved in wheat evolution, for traits associated with WDV disease such as leaf chlorosis, different growth traits and WDV content. The plants were exposed to viruliferous leafhoppers (Psammotettix alienus) in a greenhouse trial and evaluated at two time points. We found three different plant response patterns: i) continuous reduction in growth over time, ii) weak response at an early stage of plant development but a much stronger response at a later stage, and iii) remission of symptoms over time. Variation in susceptibility may be explained by differences in the intensity of natural selection, shaping the coevolutionary interaction between WDV and the wild relatives. However, genetic bottlenecks during wheat evolution have not had a strong impact on WDV resistance. Further, this study indicates that the variation in susceptibility may be associated with the genome type and that the ancestor Ae. tauschii may be useful as genetic resource for the improvement of WDV resistance in wheat. PMID

  20. Metabolomics reveals differences in postprandial responses to breads and fasting metabolic characteristics associated with postprandial insulin demand in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Moazzami, Ali A; Shrestha, Aahana; Morrison, David A; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu

    2014-06-01

    Changes in serum metabolic profile after the intake of different food products (e.g., bread) can provide insight into their interaction with human metabolism. Postprandial metabolic responses were compared after the intake of refined wheat (RWB), whole-meal rye (WRB), and refined rye (RRB) breads. In addition, associations between the metabolic profile in fasting serum and the postprandial concentration of insulin in response to different breads were investigated. Nineteen postmenopausal women with normal fasting glucose and normal glucose tolerance participated in a randomized, controlled, crossover meal study. The test breads, RWB (control), RRB, and WRB, providing 50 g of available carbohydrate, were each served as a single meal. The postprandial metabolic profile was measured using nuclear magnetic resonance and targeted LC-mass spectrometry and was compared between different breads using ANOVA and multivariate models. Eight amino acids had a significant treatment effect (P < 0.01) and a significant treatment × time effect (P < 0.05). RWB produced higher postprandial concentrations of leucine (geometric mean: 224; 95% CI: 196, 257) and isoleucine (mean ± SD: 111 ± 31.5) compared with RRB (geometric mean: 165; 95% CI: 147, 186; mean ± SD: 84.2 ± 22.9) and WRB (geometric mean: 190; 95% CI: 174, 207; mean ± SD: 95.8 ± 17.3) at 60 min respectively (P < 0.001). In addition, 2 metabolic subgroups were identified using multivariate models based on the association between fasting metabolic profile and the postprandial concentration of insulin. Women with higher fasting concentrations of leucine and isoleucine and lower fasting concentrations of sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines had higher insulin responses despite similar glucose concentration after all kinds of bread (cross-validated ANOVA, P = 0.048). High blood concentration of branched-chain amino acids, i.e., leucine and isoleucine, has been associated with the increased risk of diabetes, which