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Sample records for australian coal industry

  1. Effective Communication and Training. A Guide for Workplace Trainers in the Australian Coal Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukin, Annabelle

    This guide is designed to help workplace trainers in Australia's coal industry improve coal miners' operator and general communication skills through a curriculum that integrates training in language, literacy, and numeracy. The following topics are discussed in the guide's seven sections: the changing workplace (changing work environment;…

  2. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  3. Coal industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  4. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  5. Coal industry annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  6. Australian open cut coal mine blasting practices and trends

    SciTech Connect

    Sengstock, G.W.; Kennedy, B.J.

    1995-12-31

    During the last two decades, many advances have been made in open cut coal mining technology as new mines have come on stream and old mines have faced increasingly difficult mining and operational conditions. The need for close control of operating costs has necessitated consideration of modified excavation methods. Mining systems now often include: truck/shovel prestripping ahead of dragline operations; dragline high walls of 50 meters; total pit depths in excess of 80 meters; mining of multiple coal seams, thin seams and thin partings; more focus on (and measurement of) excavation equipment productivity; and/or conformance to strict environmental limitations. To meet these challenging requirements, innovative explosive products, initiating explosives and delivery systems have been developed. Suitable blasting techniques such as throw blasting also assist coal mining operations to maintain competitiveness in a tough economic environment. This paper examines some of the changes in blasting practices in both open pit and strip mines throughout the Australian coal industry and considers some of the trends for the future.

  7. Psychological Distress and Pain Reporting in Australian Coal Miners

    PubMed Central

    Carlisle, Kristy N.; Parker, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Coal mining is of significant economic importance to the Australian economy. Despite this fact, the related workforce is subjected to a number of psychosocial risks and musculoskeletal injury, and various psychological disorders are common among this population group. Because only limited research has been conducted in this population group, we sought to examine the relationship between physical (pain) and psychological (distress) factors, as well as the effects of various demographic, lifestyle, and fatigue indicators on this relationship. Methods Coal miners (N = 231) participated in a survey of musculoskeletal pain and distress on-site during their work shifts. Participants also provided demographic information (job type, age, experience in the industry, and body mass index) and responded to questions about exercise and sleep quality (on- and off-shift) as well as physical and mental tiredness after work. Results A total of 177 workers (80.5%) reported experiencing pain in at least one region of their body. The majority of the sample population (61.9%) was classified as having low-level distress, 28.4% had scores indicating mild to moderate distress, and 9.6% had scores indicating high levels of distress. Both number of pain regions and job type (being an operator) significantly predicted distress. Higher distress score was also associated with greater absenteeism in workers who reported lower back pain. In addition, perceived sleep quality during work periods partially mediated the relationship between pain and distress. Conclusion The study findings support the existence of widespread musculoskeletal pain among the coal-mining workforce, and this pain is associated with increased psychological distress. Operators (truck drivers) and workers reporting poor sleep quality during work periods are most likely to report increased distress, which highlights the importance of supporting the mining workforce for sustained productivity. PMID:25516813

  8. Devolatilization and cracking characteristics of Australian lumpy coals

    SciTech Connect

    Byong-chul Kim; Sushil Gupta; Si-hyung Lee; Sung-man Kim; Veena Sahajwalla

    2008-01-15

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the devolatilization characteristics of five Australian coals in a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) reactor by varying the coal lump size and the temperature. The swelling ratio was measured after thermal treatment of coal lumps in a horizontal tube furnace at 1273 K while the cracks generated in the lumpy char samples were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Physical and chemical properties of coal and char samples were measured using CO{sub 2} gas adsorption, Hg porosimetry, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Under all the tested conditions, the total volatile yield of lumpy coals was found to be not influenced by either the temperature or particle size and was similar to that indicated in proximate coal analysis. However, as expected, the devolatilization rates were found to increase with increasing temperature as well as the increasing amount of volatiles present in the coal. The study further demonstrated that the effect of coal properties on the devolatilization rates of lumpy coals may not be significant as the rates decrease with increasing lump size, such that coal lumps with sizes more than 10 mm indicated similar orders of reaction rates. The apparent activation energy of coal lumps indicated a linear correlation with the stack height of the carbon crystallite of coals. The study demonstrated that the cracking and swelling behavior of coals was influenced by physical as well as chemical properties, particularly their modification during devolatilization conditions. The study showed that coals with low volatiles indicated high cracking which would increase further with increasing lump size in accordance with the size effect. The cracking tendency of coals appeared to have a reciprocal association with swelling tendency such that less swelling coals are more vulnerable to cracking. 33 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Coal conversion products industrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunkin, J. H.; Warren, D.

    1980-01-01

    Coal-based synthetic fuels complexes under development consideration by NASA/MSFC will produce large quantities of synthetic fuels, primarily medium BTU gas, which could be sold commercially to industries located in South Central Tennessee and Northern Alabama. The complexes would be modular in construction, and subsequent modules may produce liquid fuels or fuels for electric power production. Current and projected industries in the two states which have a propensity for utilizing coal-based synthetic fuels were identified, and a data base was compiled to support MFSC activities.

  10. Coal workers' pneumoconiosis: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Zosky, Graeme R; Hoy, Ryan F; Silverstone, Elizabeth J; Brims, Fraser J; Miles, Susan; Johnson, Anthony R; Gibson, Peter G; Yates, Deborah H

    2016-06-20

    Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is an untreatable but preventable lung disease arising from chronic inhalation of coal dust. Recent reports of CWP in Queensland, along with international data, suggest that there is a resurgence in pneumoconiosis. The prevalence of CWP varies considerably between countries. In Australia, there is no mandatory reporting system and no national data on the prevalence of CWP. The symptoms and manifestations of CWP vary depending on the composition of the inhaled dust, duration of exposure, stage of disease and host-related factors. CWP may develop into progressive massive fibrosis (PMF), which can be fatal. Radiological assessment should be performed according to evidence-based standards using the ILO (International Labour Office) International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses. As preventing exposure to coal dust prevents CWP, it is important to implement and enforce appropriate standards limiting exposure. In Australia, these standards currently vary between states and are not in keeping with international understanding of the levels of coal dust that cause disease. Longitudinal screening programs are crucial for monitoring the health of coal workers to identify individuals with early-stage disease and prevent progression from mild disease to PMF. We recommend: standardisation of coal dust exposure limits, with harmonisation to international regulations; implementation of a national screening program for at-risk workers, with use of standardised questionnaires, imaging and lung function testing; development of appropriate training materials to assist general practitioners in identifying pneumoconiosis; and a system of mandatory reporting of CWP to a centralised occupational lung disease register. PMID:27318401

  11. A Study of Adsorptive Characteristics of Australian Coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Y. P.; Tsai, L. L.

    2012-04-01

    Ever since the Kyoto Protocol, controlling carbon dioxide emission and reducing its content in atmosphere are very important environmental issues up to today. One of the effective methods for permanent sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 is to inject CO2 into deep, unminable coal seams and recover coal bed methane at the same time. CO2-ECBM technology had been proved to be very promising to meet the needs of both environment and energy. Beside other external environment factors, capacity of CO2 adsorption and CH4 desorption are the most influencing factors in selection of sites for the geological storage of CO2. Therefore, the objective of this study is to understand the relationship between gas adsorption and CO2 sequestration, by various experiments for the characterization of Australian of coals. Generally speaking, coal seam gas comprises mostly of CH4, CO2, C2H6, and N2. However, some of the Australian coals were reported with significant amount of CO2 up to 90%, which might strongly affect their capacity of CO2 capture and storage (CCS). High to medium volatile bituminous coals from Sydney Basin and Bowen Basin, southeast Australia were selected in this study. Experiments include maceral composition and vitrinite reflectance measurements, petrographic analysis, Proximate analysis, Ultimate analysis, specific surface area analysis as well as CO2 and CH4 adsorption experiments were performed. Parameters for difference adsorption functions (Langmuir, BET, D-R and D-A) were then calculated to fit their adsorption isotherms the best fitting curve can then be found. Among these adsorption functions, Langmuir is the most basic and commonly used function theory. The results of all experiments were synthesized to discuss the relations among each other, so as to establish the relationship between gas adsorption and coal characteristics.

  12. Understanding the behavior of Australian black coals in pressurized fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Stubington, J.F.; Wang, A.L.T.; Cui, Y.

    1999-07-01

    Ultimately, this study aims to predict the coal combustion efficiency in an industrial pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) for Australian black coals. This combustion efficiency depends predominantly upon the rate of elutriation of fine carbon particles, which is proportional to bed carbon loading in atmospheric experiments. The bed carbon loading is, in turn, dependent upon the rate of combustion of char particles within the PFBC. A novel batch-fed reactor has been designed, constructed and commissioned to enable separation and study of the mechanisms of coal devolatilization, char combustion and fine carbon particle elutriation in a PFBC and extraction of coal-specific parameters to describe these processes. The attrition and char combustion rates can only be determined experimentally and it is essential to match the environment around each coal particle, so that the results may be translated to the industrial scale. Therefore, the rig was designed for identical conditions of pressure, temperature, particle size and fluidizing velocity within the bed to those used industrially. The exhaust gas is analyzed continuously for oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons as a function of time after coal injection, allowing separation and identification of the devolatilization and char combustion stages as well as measurement of the combustion rates. The elutriated carbon particles undergo minimal freeboard combustion and are collected in a cyclone and an in-line filter over any period of time during the experiment, for subsequent analysis. The sand bed containing the rig for collection and characterization of the partially burnt char particles. The rig is mostly computer-controlled and the design was subjected to a hazards analysis before construction. Results from the rig will be used in a mathematical model to predict the performance of the coals in industrial-scale PFBC.

  13. Environmental protecting effect of industrial coal briquette

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y.; Chen, L.

    1999-07-01

    This paper has analyzed the necessity of developing industrial coal briquette in China and introduced the present development of coal briquette and its environmental protecting effect in the country. The laboratory research shows that the rate of captured sulfur of coal briquette produced with calcium oxide as a capturing agent is up to 82%. Comparing with the combustion of raw coal, coal briquette produced in briquette cohesive agent made of magnesium oxide etc, can reduce the amount of sulfur dioxide by 78% and the amount of dust smoke by 29.3% when the coal briquette is burned in industrial boiler. When it is used as raw material of coal gasification, the amount of hydrogen sulfide in the gas generated by the gasification of mixed coal composed of 25% coal briquette and 75% lumps is lowered by 6.8% (volume ration) compared with that generated by the gasification of full lumps. Moreover, the sodium sulfocyanide is discovered in the boiler ashes and the amount of sodium sulfocyanide is up to 10% of the total (weight ration) when the boiler ashes are tested with x-ray diffractometer. The discovery shows that the coal briquette has the function of nitrogen fixation. The rate of captured sulfur of coal briquette which is briquetting at the front of industrial boiler and in which limestone is used as a capturing agent is up to 48% when it is burned in industrial boiler.

  14. Coal conversion products Industrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, D.; Dunkin, J.

    1980-01-01

    The synfuels economic evaluation model was utilized to analyze cost and product economics of the TVA coal conversion facilities. It is concluded that; (1) moderate yearly future escalations ( 6%) in current natural gas prices will result in medium-Btu gas becoming competitive with natural gas at the plant boundary; (2) utilizing DRI price projections, the alternate synfuel products, except for electricity, will be competitive with their counterparts; (3) central site fuel cell generation of electricity, utilizing MBG, is economically less attractive than the other synthetic fuels, given projected price rises in electricity produced by other means; and (4) because of estimated northern Alabama synfuels market demands, existing conventional fuels, infrastructure and industrial synfuels retrofit problems, a diversity of transportable synfuels products should be produced by the conversion facility.

  15. Continuing consolidation in the coal industry

    SciTech Connect

    Gaalaas, T.

    2006-08-15

    Extensive consolidation has occurred in the coal industry over the past decade. The greatest degree of consolidation has occurred in Northern Appalachia, the Illinois Basin, and the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin (PRB), which are the coal supply regions where most observers expect the greatest growth in coal production over the next decade. In addition to reducing the number of alternative suppliers, high level of concentration also tend to result in higher prices, more volatile spot markets, and lower levels of reliability. Therefore, coal-fired generators purchasing in these regions need to respond proactively and strategically to these market trends. 2 figs.

  16. Industrial unionism and the Oklahoma coal industry, 1870-1935

    SciTech Connect

    Sewall, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    This study traces the development of industrial unionism in Oklahoma's coal industry from the beginnings of the industry in 1870 to its decline in 1935. Chapter topics include the early years of the coal industry, life in the coal towns, and the series of strikes that occurred from 1894 to 1932. The study draws from both labor and management materials, but also from primary sources that reflect the role of both the state and federal governments during strikes. The study also utilizes the newspapers of the coal towns. They are a bountiful source on life in Oklahoma's coal towns. Study concludes that Oklahoma's coal towns were a perfect breeding ground for industrial unionism. Working in the most dangerous mines in the United States, the miners of Oklahoma turned to unionism in their efforts to improve working conditions and to secure a living wage. Above ground, the miners battled to break the company towns system. There the union achieved success in eliminating the company store and company housing, the two principal components of the company town system. At the same time, the miners created a union culture under which miners of all nationalities were welcome.

  17. 1982-1983 world coal industry report and directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The coal industry in Australia, Canada, China, West Germany, India, Poland, South Africa, the USSR, England, and the United States are reported. The directory listings for each country are a compilation of information from government ministries, coal boards, bureaus of mines, and individual coal mining companies. More than 100 individual coal mines are listed, along with such information as coal seam thickness, coal analysis, and major equipment. (JMT)

  18. Status and outlook of industrial coal briquetting technology in China

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.; Xu, Z.; Li, W.; Tian, B.

    1997-12-31

    Considering that the lump coal supply falls short of demands, great amounts of fine coal and slime are stockpiled, waste energy is extensive, and environmental pollution is serious, this paper summarizes the present situation of industrial coal briquetting technologies and their applications, and evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of several different coal briquette technologies widely used. The authors think that the energetic development of industrial coal briquetting technology is an effective and feasible option to fully utilize fine coal and slime, mitigate the contradiction between supply and demand for lump coal, reduce the production cost of users, as well as decrease and control environmental pollution caused by coal utilization. It is a practical solution for clean coal in China. At present, the research for developing industrial coal briquetting technologies is in the selection and adoption of suitable binders which need dry processing and can produce high strength and waterproof briquettes.

  19. Developments in coal dewatering in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, D.G.; Davis, J.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Australian coal industry is characterized by efficient fines recovery, and the climate does not dictate the use of thermal drying. With the increasing trend to underground mining and hence finer ROM coal, and market pressures for reduced product moistures, dewatering issues are assuming increasing importance in the Australian coal industry. The greatest potential gains in dewatering performance undoubtedly lie in the treatment of finely sized material. This paper examines the dewatering issues which have been recognized by the Australian coal industry, and describes current Australian research in this field.

  20. Dense medium cyclones on fine coal-The Australian experience

    SciTech Connect

    Kempnich, R.J.; Barneveld, S. Van; Lusan, A.

    1995-08-01

    Dense medium cyclones have been widely used to clean coarse coal (plus 30 mesh). Efficiency of separation, tolerance of near gravity material and separation density control being the primary advantage of the systems. Historically there has been a lack of accurate flexible density based processes available to treat fine material, in the size ranges less than 30 mesh. Spirals have found acceptance in cleaning fines in the size range minus 16 mesh plus 100 mesh, but are limited in their application due to process efficiency and separation density control. Conventional froth flotation also suffers from efficiency and product quality control, especially in the size ranges above 40 mesh. The fine coal dense medium has been the Holy Grail of coal preparation since the earliest dense medium developments by Dutch State Mines in the early 1950`s. The application of the technology has been significantly advanced by the 135 tph fine coal dense medium circuit commissioned at the CURRAGH Queensland Mining Pty Ltd, Blackwater, Queensland, Australia. The Curragh plant is not an R&D project and was built under a hard money turnkey contract. The data reported has been gathered during normal commissioning and production tuning of the circuits. This paper describes the circuit design and process control system implemented, discusses the commissioning experience and the optimisation of process parameters. There are a number of fundamental process parameters critical to achieving acceptable, stable separation efficiency. Effects of cyclone feed pressure and medium rheology on efficiency are discussed. The ability to recover and retain fine magnetite and control the level of non-magnetics in recirculation, were fundamental to achieving extremely low magnetite consumption. The experience at Curragh is a significant step forward and provides a foundation for future applications of fine coal dense medium technology.

  1. Deployment of self-contained self rescuers in Australian coal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, N.I.; Baafi, E.Y.; MacKenzie-Wood, P.

    1999-07-01

    In view of the recent mine disasters in the Australian coal mines, there has been a need to develop strategies to introduce SCSRs into coal mines to replace the approved filter self rescuers. A study was undertaken to evaluate the performances of the units in the normal Australian underground coal mine conditions. The study involved a laboratory and field trials at four underground coal mines using a total of 37 volunteers. These volunteers walked along the escape route at their respective mines on the first day carrying the SCSRs on their belts. The walk was repeated on a second day with the same subjects donning the SCSRs. The dynamic heart rates of each volunteer were monitored and statistically analyzed. The results of the study showed that the oxygen run out time of SCSRs could be predicted using the body weight, average heart rate and exercise rating of the subjects. The speed of travel, intensity of work and the individual habits (smoking, drinking, etc.) also influence oxygen consumption.

  2. Australians are not equally protected from industrial air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbie, B.; Green, D.

    2015-05-01

    Australian air pollution standards are set at national and state levels for a number of chemicals harmful to human health. However, these standards do not need to be met when ad hoc pollution licences are issued by state environment agencies. This situation results in a highly unequal distribution of air pollution between towns and cities, and across the country. This paper examines these pollution regulations through two case studies, specifically considering the ability of the regulatory regime to protect human health from lead and sulphur dioxide pollution in the communities located around smelters. It also considers how the proposed National Clean Air Agreement, once enacted, might serve to reduce this pollution equity problem. Through the case studies we show that there are at least three discrete concerns relating to the current licencing system. They are: non-onerous emission thresholds for polluting industry; temporal averaging thresholds masking emission spikes; and ineffective penalties for breaching licence agreements. In conclusion, we propose a set of new, legally-binding national minimum standards for industrial air pollutants must be developed and enforced, which can only be modified by more (not less) stringent state licence arrangements.

  3. Coking partially briquetted coal charge under industrial conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhorukov, V.I.; Bezdvernyi, G.N.; Kopeliovich, L.V.; Mishchikhin, V.G.; Berkutov, A.N.; Stepanov, Y.; Abramicheva, A.I.; Topchii, M.P.

    1982-01-01

    The partial briquetting of low grade coals ordinarily unsuitable for coking, has been found to allow use of these materials in the coking process under industrial conditions, with an improvement in coke quality. Coke oven capacity is increased. The binder used is medium temperature coal tar.

  4. PROSPECTS FOR INCREASING THE DIRECT USE OF COAL IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a comprehensive evaluation of factors (environmental, technical, economic, and institutional) influencing solid coal use in industrial boilers. Trends in coal use, recent legislative warrants, and technical and logistic problems in coal use at industrial plants a...

  5. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: DRY BOTTOM INDUSTRIAL BOILERS FIRING PULVERIZED BITUMINOUS COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes and assesses the potential impact of air emissions, wastewater effluents, and solid wastes from the operation of dry bottom industrial boilers firing pulverized bituminous coal. Air emissions were characterized by a literature survey and field sampling. Signi...

  6. Preliminary assessment of coal-based industrial energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, performed by Mittelhauser Corp. and Resource Engineering, Inc. to identify the potential economic, environmental, and energy impacts of possible New Source Performance Standards for industrial steam generators on the use of coal and coal-derived fuels. A systems-level approach was used to take mine-mouth coal and produce a given quantity of heat input to a new boiler at an existing Chicago industrial-plant site. The technologies studied included post-combustion clean-up, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, solvent-refined coal liquids, substitute natural gas, and low-Btu gas. Capital and operating costs were prepared on a mid-1985 basis from a consistent set of economic guidelines. The cases studied were evaluated using three levels of air emission controls, two coals, two boiler sizes, and two operating factors. Only those combinations considered likely to make a significant impact on the 1985 boiler population were considered. The conclusions drawn in the report are that the most attractive applications of coal technology are atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion and post-combustion clean-up. Solvent-refined coal and probably substitute natural gas become competitive for the smaller boiler applications. Coal-derived low-Btu gas was found not to be a competitive boiler fuel at the sizes studied. It is recommended that more cases be studied to broaden the applicability of these results.

  7. Digging Deeper: Crisis Management in the Coal Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Barbara M.; Horsley, J. Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This study explores crisis management/communication practices within the coal industry through the lens of high reliability organization (HRO) concepts and sensemaking theory. In-depth interviews with industry executives and an analysis of an emergency procedures manual were used to provide an exploratory examination of the status of crisis…

  8. Coal combustion: Science and technology of industrial and utility applications

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.

    1988-01-01

    Despite the competition of oil and gas and the increasing importance of nuclear power, coal is still one of the main sources of energy in the world. In some regions of the world, the reserve of oil and natural gas is nearly depleted. The supply of such fuels relies on shipment from foreign countries, and may be vulnerable to political crisis, while coals are still abundant and easily available. Therefore, the technology of burning coal for energy, which seems rather old, has not lost its vitality and is in fact developing fast. Because of industry development, especially in developing countries, more and more coal is burned each year. If coal is not burned properly, it may pollute the environment and affect the ecological balance of the surrounding regions. Great attention has been paid to curb these issues, and significant progress has been achieved. Technology of desulfurization of flue gases, low nitrogen oxide coal burners, and also the technology of clean burning of coal by fluidized-bed combustion have all been developed and commercialized. Further improvements are under development. At the same time, new techniques have been used in the measurements and diagnoses of coal combustion. These new techniques facilitate more efficient and cleaner burning of coal. Although coal combustion is a very complicated physiochemical phenomenon, the use of the computer enables and pushes forward the theoretical analysis of coal combustion. Besides, the mathematical modelling of the coal combustion process is also a fast progressing field of research and encouraging results have been obtained by scientists throughout the world. This book compiles the papers presented in the conference on the subject of clean cool technology and fluidized-bed combustion.

  9. Coal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brant, Russell A.; Glass, Gary B.

    1983-01-01

    Principle work of 23 state geological surveys is summarized. Work includes mapping/estimating coal resources, centralizing data in National Coal Resources Data System through cooperative programs, exploration drilling, and others. Comments on U.S. Geological Survey activities, coal-related conferences/meetings, and industry research activities are…

  10. Development of Resource Sharing Networks. Study No. 6. Towards an Australian Industry Information Newwork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Library of Australia, Canberra.

    This report describes recent progress towards the provision of SDI services, current awareness bulletins, and retrospective search facilities to the potential users in Australian industry. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of periodical literature, reports, and patent literature. A list of information bulletins available from the…

  11. Innovation Agents: Vocational Education and Training Skills and Innovation in Australian Industries and Firms. Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Phillip; Marceau, Jane; Hall, Richard; Considine, Gillian

    2004-01-01

    This volume is a companion to "Innovation Agents: VET Skills and Innovation in Australian Industries and Firms. Volume 1". The detailed report of the project is contained in Volume 1 while Volume 2 contains the appendices: (1) Data tables for construction of the composite index of innovation; (2) Case study interview schedule; and (3) Case study…

  12. The joint Australia/Federal Republic of Germany feasibility study on the conversion of Australian coals into liquid fuels in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhausen, K. H.

    1982-08-01

    The IG hydrogenation process used commercially in Germany up to 1945, was improved. Pilot plants in Germany are presently under construction or in the start-up phase. A technical concept for the conversion of Australian bituminous coals and/or Australian brown coals into automotive fuels, using coal hydrogenation, gasification and Fisher-Tropsch synthesis was developed. Development of technology, consumption figures and of expenditure/investment for a complete plant, producing about 3 million tons of automotive fuels per year, was also attempted. The results show that standard automotive fuels are produced from bituminous coal, using a combination of high pressure coal hydrogenation and of Fisher-Tropsch synthesis, and from brown coal, using high pressure coal hydrogenation only. Under the assumption that crude oil prices increase 3% more rapidly than yearly inflation, and the raw material cost are staying at a low level, commercial plants are planned.

  13. Managing Scarce Water Resources in China's Coal Power Industry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Lijin; Fu, Xiaotian; Zhao, Zhongnan

    2016-06-01

    Coal power generation capacity is expanding rapidly in the arid northwest regions in China. Its impact on water resources is attracting growing concerns from policy-makers, researchers, as well as mass media. This paper briefly describes the situation of electricity-water conflict in China and provides a comprehensive review on a variety of water resources management policies in China's coal power industry. These policies range from mandatory regulations to incentive-based instruments, covering water withdrawal standards, technological requirements on water saving, unconventional water resources utilization (such as reclaimed municipal wastewater, seawater, and mine water), water resources fee, and water permit transfer. Implementing these policies jointly is of crucial importance for alleviating the water stress from the expanding coal power industry in China. PMID:26908125

  14. Managing Scarce Water Resources in China's Coal Power Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Lijin; Fu, Xiaotian; Zhao, Zhongnan

    2016-06-01

    Coal power generation capacity is expanding rapidly in the arid northwest regions in China. Its impact on water resources is attracting growing concerns from policy-makers, researchers, as well as mass media. This paper briefly describes the situation of electricity-water conflict in China and provides a comprehensive review on a variety of water resources management policies in China's coal power industry. These policies range from mandatory regulations to incentive-based instruments, covering water withdrawal standards, technological requirements on water saving, unconventional water resources utilization (such as reclaimed municipal wastewater, seawater, and mine water), water resources fee, and water permit transfer. Implementing these policies jointly is of crucial importance for alleviating the water stress from the expanding coal power industry in China.

  15. Factors influencing Australian construction industry apprentices' dietary behaviors.

    PubMed

    du Plessis, Karin

    2012-01-01

    To date there has been a theoretical and empirical gap in workplace-centered health promotion research-particularly as it applies to blue-collar men's diets. To begin addressing the paucity of research, five qualitative focus groups (N = 53) were conducted in Australian training colleges to explore the dietary behaviors of apprentices. Thematic analysis was used by the researcher who concludes that although some apprentices were health conscious and attempted to eat healthy foods, many had diets high in saturated fats and sugar. These types of diets are associated with increased risks for developing chronic disease and are associated with decreased life expectancy. As such it poses a serious challenge for health promoters. Apprentices' dietary practices were also found to be moderated by convenience, availability, and cost of foods in their environment. Their nutritional beliefs, significant others, colleagues in the workplace, and their body image also influence their food choices. PMID:21862566

  16. Industry Wage Survey: Bituminous Coal, January 1976-March 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Joseph C.

    Production and related workers in the nation's bituminous coal mines averaged $6.94 an hour in January 1976, which represents an increase of 110% since the Bureau of Labor Statistics' 1967 survey in the industry. Over the same period, the Hourly Earnings Index rose by 84% for private nonagricultural workers. Earnings for most of the 128,390…

  17. New petrochemical compositions for use in the coal industry

    SciTech Connect

    D.O. Safieva; E.V. Surov; O.G. Safiev

    2008-12-15

    Various aspects of the use of antifreezing agents in the coal industry are considered. It has been found that, unlike previously proposed compositions, these agents can be prepared based on the products of a single process, the vacuum distillation of fuel oil.

  18. EVALUATION OF LOW EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON INDUSTRIAL BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the second year's effort under EPA Contract 68-02-3127. The objective of the program is to conduct field evaluations of the distributed mixing burner (DMB) on two industrial size boilers. The DMB concept provides for controlled mixing of coal with combustion...

  19. From legitimate consumers to public relations pawns: the tobacco industry and young Australians

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To document the Australian tobacco industry's activities regarding youth smoking to support tobacco control. Method: 492 industry documents from primary and secondary websites were abstracted and analysed. Results: Australian legislation and rhetoric on youth and tobacco has changed dramatically over the last 50 years, from an unproblematic association of teenagers and smoking in the 1960s, through the industry's aggressive attacks and denials in the 1980s, to the 1990s, when industry became newly compliant with "societal expectations" and youth became a dominant bargaining issue in the industry's public relations strategy. The industry's current policy is to simultaneously blame others for underage smoking, frame the industry as socially responsible via voluntary marketing codes, youth access programmes, and school education, and market actively to young adults. Conclusions: The arbitrary distinction between 17 and 18 year olds is, particularly in Australia's dark market, a liability for tobacco control and an opportunity for the industry, which is attempting to claim the high moral ground traditionally occupied by tobacco control on the youth issue. The current review of Australia's Tobacco Advertising Prohibition Act of 1992 should prohibit all forms of industry communication targeting young people, including retail access and schools programmes and below-the-line marketing. Tobacco control advocacy should highlight the industry's attempts to use the youth issue in its own favour while laying the blame elsewhere. PMID:14645951

  20. Atmospheric radon, CO2 and CH4 dynamics in an Australian coal seam gas field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, D. R.; Santos, I. R.; Maher, D. T.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric radon (222Rn), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane concentrations (CH4) as well as carbon stable isotope ratios (δ13C) were used to gain insight into atmospheric chemistry within an Australian coal seam gas (CSG) field (Surat Basin, Tara region, Queensland). A˜3 fold increase in maximum 222Rn concentration was observed inside the gas field compared to outside of it. There was a significant relationship between maximum and average 222Rn concentrations and the number of gas wells within a 2 km to 4 km radius of the sampling sites (n = 5 stations; p < 0.05). We hypothesize that the radon relationship was a response to enhanced emissions within the gas field related to point sources (well heads, pipelines, etc.) and diffse soil sources due to changes in the soil structural and hydrological characteristics. A rapid qualitative assessment of CH4 and CO2 concentration, and carbon isotopes using a mobile cavity ring-down spectrometer system showed a widespread enrichment of both CH4 and CO2 within the production gas field. Concentrations of CH4 and CO2 were as high as 6.89 ppm and 541 ppm respectively compared average concentrations of 1.78 ppm (CH4) and 388 ppm (CO2) outside the gas field. The δ13C values showed distinct differences between areas inside and outside the production field with the δ13C value of the CH4 source within the field matching that of the methane in the CSG.

  1. Possibilities for dry adsorption of hydrocarbons in the coal industry

    SciTech Connect

    Peukert, W.

    1995-12-31

    For coal burning and gasification mostly inorganic waste gases like SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, H{sub 2}S, COS and others are relevant as emissions. During coal hydrogenation and pyrolysis substantial concentration of solid, liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons are generated besides other pollutants. The hydrocarbons may cover a wide range of different components with boiling points ranging from below {minus}100 C up to 600 C. Among the most dangerous species are polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with carcinogenic potential. The amount and composition of the hydrocarbons depend on the process under consideration. This paper describes both fundamentals and possibilities for dry collection of hydrocarbons in the coal industry. The evaluation of these processes require sophisticated measurement techniques for determination of gaseous components (e.g. GC-analysis) and modern techniques for characterization of adsorption processes of multi-component gas mixtures. Examples of realized fume treatment systems are given for anode baking systems and coke ovens.

  2. Development program to support industrial coal gasification. Quarterly report 1

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-15

    The Development Program to Support Industrial Coal Gasification is on schedule. The efforts have centered on collecting background information and data, planning, and getting the experimental program underway. The three principal objectives in Task I-A were accomplished. The technical literature was reviewed, the coals and binders to be employed were selected, and tests and testing equipment to be used in evaluating agglomerates were developed. The entire Erie Mining facility design was reviewed and a large portion of the fluidized-bed coal gasification plant design was completed. Much of the work in Task I will be experimental. Wafer-briquette and roll-briquette screening tests will be performed. In Task II, work on the fluidized-bed gasification plant design will be completed and work on a plant design involving entrained-flow gasifiers will be initiated.

  3. Wood/coal cofiring in industrial stoker boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.; Elder, W.W.; Freeman, M.C.

    1999-07-01

    Realizing that a significant reduction in the global emissions of fossil carbon dioxide may require the installation of a wide variety of control technologies, options for large and small boilers are receiving attention. With over 1,500 coal-fired stoker boilers in the US, biomass co-firing is of interest, which would also open markets for waste wood which is presently landfilled at significant costs ranging from $20--200/ton. While much cofiring occurs inside the fence, where industrial firms burn wastes in their site boilers, other opportunities exist. Emphasis has been placed on stoker boilers in the northeastern US, where abundant supplies of urban wood waste are generally known to exist. Broken pallets form a significant fraction of this waste. In 1997, the cofiring of a volumetric mixture of 30% ground broken pallet material and 70% coal was demonstrated successfully at the traveling-grate stoker boilerplant of the Pittsburgh Brewing Company. Fourteen test periods, with various wood/coal mixtures blended on site, and two extended test periods, using wood/coal mixtures blended at the coal terminal and transported by truck to the brewery, were conducted. The 30% wood/70% coal fuel was conveyed through the feed system without difficulty, and combusted properly on the grate while meeting opacity requirements with low SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. Efforts are underway to commercialize a wood/coal blend at the brewery, to identify specific urban wood supplies in the Pittsburgh region and to conduct a demonstration at a spreader stoker.

  4. Summary of mineral industry activities in Colorado. Part I: coal

    SciTech Connect

    Pascoe, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Coal production for 1981 was a record, with production at 19,701,496 tons of coal mined and reported to the Division of Mines. This was a 4.95% increase over 1980. Statewide Divisional efforts to support a practical type of health and safety training program while encouraging skill education appropriate to mining needs, saw extensive accomplishment in 1981. The Division gave direct or monetary support through training grant funds, largely used for reimbursed tuition from strategically located state vocational schools who taught on campus as well as at mine sites. Total miner training reported by area schools to the Division of Mines indicates that 8408 students received 86,251 hours of classroom and on-the-job training. It is hoped that the education and training programs throughout the state will be continued in an effort to educate both the new and old miners. We believe this is the best approach to the coal industry's never ending task of reducing both lost-time and fatal accidents. Coal mine certification in all categories totaled 780 certificates issued. This was a decrease from 1980, and will probably decrease again in 1982 with the initiation of the $25.00 fee for each examination. Coal mining activity is reported by district.

  5. The coal industry and its industrial relations. Some union/nonunion comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Hannah, R.; Mangum, G.

    1985-01-01

    This book addresses the following questions: how do product markets and labor markets interact in a labor intensive industry; how can a union whose members once mined 90 percent of the coal and now mines 40 percent, still dominate the industrial relations system of the industry, bargaining for member, nonmember, miners and management; how did a union which came into being to take wages out of competition eventually come to shield prices from competition as well and what is causing the erosion of that power; how can the environmental threats of an industry be compromised with its essential resource role; with all of its traditional markets dead or dying, how coal has survived through electric power generation; and what is the future of the industry.

  6. Australian influences on Elton Mayo: the construct of Revery in industrial society.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Mark A; Landy, Frank J; Mayocchi, Lisa

    2002-11-01

    Elton Mayo was born in Australia and spent most of his first 42 years living in that country. This article explores the Australian context in which he developed his views views of Australia compared with that of the United States during the time that Mayo developed his approach to psychology and the role of workers in industry. In addition, the social context in which Mayo established his career was shaped by significant political events in Australia. The construct of revery, which describes a specific state of consciousness, is central to Mayo's early theorizing and was developed by Mayo partly in reaction to political and industrial conflict occurring in Australia. PMID:12465617

  7. The role of coal in industrialization: A case study of Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Akarakiri, J.B. )

    1989-01-01

    Coal is a mineral matter found in layers or beds in sedimentary rocks. It is a very highly variable substance. In addition to the variations from lignite to bituminous and anthracite, there are vast differences in its heating value, amount of volatiles, sulfur, moisture and so on. The chemical and physical properties of coal make it an important industrial raw material. There is proven 639 million tonnes of coal reserves in Nigeria. This paper examines the potential and current role of coal in the industrialization of Nigeria. Industries are now dependent on fuel oil as a source of fuel because of its economic and technological advantages over coal. Coal is a source of industrial energy for the future after the known oil reserves might have been exhausted. In the short term, coal can be used as a material for chemicals, iron and steel production as well as a substitute for wood energy in the process of industrialization.

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions from Australian open-cut coal mines: contribution from spontaneous combustion and low-temperature oxidation.

    PubMed

    Day, Stuart J; Carras, John N; Fry, Robyn; Williams, David J

    2010-07-01

    Spontaneous combustion and low-temperature oxidation of waste coal and other carbonaceous material at open-cut coal mines are potentially significant sources of greenhouse gas emissions. However, the magnitude of these emissions is largely unknown. In this study, emissions from spontaneous combustion and low-temperature oxidation were estimated for six Australian open-cut coal mines with annual coal production ranging from 1.7 to more than 16 Mt. Greenhouse emissions from all other sources at these mines were also estimated and compared to those from spontaneous combustion and low-temperature oxidation. In all cases, fugitive emission of methane was the largest source of greenhouse gas; however, in some mines, spontaneous combustion accounted for almost a third of all emissions. For one mine, it was estimated that emissions from spontaneous combustion were around 250,000 t CO(2)-e per annum. The contribution from low-temperature oxidation was generally less than about 1% of the total for all six mines. Estimating areas of spoil affected by spontaneous combustion by ground-based surveys was prone to under-report the area. Airborne infrared imaging appears to be a more reliable method. PMID:19572109

  9. Economics of the coal industry east of the Mississippi, 1973-1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bhagwat, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    Government regulations on health, safety and environment have been poppular blamed for the declining productivity in U.S. coal mines since 1970. The stagnation in the coal industry east of the Mississippi is alleged to have been caused by this declining productivity and by the growth of cheaper and cleaner coal production west of the Mississippi. Economic evidence suggests, however, that productivity declines were more due to a relative lowering of labor costs in comparison with coal prices and due to work stoppages. The development of western coals fields was spurred by growth in local demand and had only a relatively small impact on coal production east of the Mississippi. Problems of the eastern coal industry are rooted mainly in slow economic growth in eastern U.S. which must be addressed in the long-term interests of the eastern coal industry. ?? 1987.

  10. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; When, C.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report covers the activity during the period from 2 June 1991 to 1 June 1992. The major areas of work include: the combustor sub-scale and full size testing, cleanup, coal fuel specification and processing, the Hot End Simulation rig and design of the engine parts required for use with the coal-fueled combustor island. To date Solar has demonstrated: Stable and efficient combustion burning coal-water mixtures using the Two Stage Slagging Combustor; Molten slag removal of over 97% using the slagging primary and the particulate removal impact separator; and on-site preparation of CWM is feasible. During the past year the following tasks were completed: The feasibility of on-site CWM preparation was demonstrated on the subscale TSSC. A water-cooled impactor was evaluated on the subscale TSSC; three tests were completed on the full size TSSC, the last one incorporating the PRIS; a total of 27 hours of operation on CWM at design temperature were accumulated using candle filters supplied by Refraction through Industrial Pump Filter; a target fuel specification was established and a fuel cost model developed which can identify sensitivities of specification parameters; analyses of the effects of slag on refractory materials were conducted; and modifications continued on the Hot End Simulation Rig to allow extended test times.

  11. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G.

    1995-11-01

    Under US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) support, the development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 at the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment.

  12. Non traditional uses of coal ash: Steel industry applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hauke, D.

    1997-09-01

    Coal fly ash is used by the steel industry as an insulating cover to retain heat in ladles of molten steel and as a slag foamer in electric arc furnaces (EAFs) to prolong the life of consumable components and to aid extraction of impurities from the molten steel. The fly ashes that are used in the steel industry are generated from stoker boilers and have a relatively wide particle-size distribution. The powder-type materials used by steel mills to insulate ladles of molten metal include rice hull ash, a heat treated montmorillonite clay mineral (calcined clay), a fly ash from a stoker boiler called LadleJacket, and coke breeze. These ladle insulators should be flowable, coarse, and have a wide particle-size distribution. A study to compare the insulating characteristics of ladle insulators, conducted by the American Foundrymen`s Society Cast Metals Institute, indicated that the ladle insulated with LadleJacket exhibited a lower rate of heat loss than either the rice hull ash or calcined clay. To prolong the life of carbon electrodes and refractory in EAFs and to promote extraction of contaminants from the steel, carbon-based ingredients are injected into the slag to cause it to foam. Typically, high-carbon products such as coke breeze (coke fines) are used as slag foamers. A new product called Carbon Plus, which is a coarse, high-carbon fly ash from a coal-fired stoker boiler, is now being used as a slag foamer in the steel industry.

  13. ISO 9000 and its effects on the coal industry

    SciTech Connect

    Vardys, R.K.

    1996-12-31

    It is asserted that organizations that do not implement a formal quality program by the year 2000 will not survive. The ISO 9000 quality management standards provide the model for many companies that have determined a quality program is vital not only for their survival, but their growth, in an increasingly competitive business environment. The U.S. coal industry has been hit hard with utility de-regulation and global competition. More emphasis is being placed on bold cost savings measures by utilities and coal producers alike. These measures range from subcontracting analytical work to subcontracting power plant maintenance. Unfortunately, quality management systems are still seen as an expense instead of a cost saving measure and are not being addressed by those who most desperately need quality management systems. What must be understood is that through the implementation of a quality management program, companies can recover costs that were previously accepted as unrecoverable. Prevention costs (documentation, internal auditing, training, management review, etc.) will increase slightly, due to an increased emphasis on a quality management system, but, a net savings is realized through a decrease in failure costs, e.g., waste, scrap, meetings to discuss failures/place blame, worry, re-work, client loss, client doubt, etc.

  14. Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Thermal Technologies in the Australian Minerals Processing and Extractive Metallurgical Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eglinton, Thomas; Hinkley, Jim; Beath, Andrew; Dell'Amico, Mark

    2013-12-01

    The Australian minerals processing and extractive metallurgy industries are responsible for about 20% of Australia's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This article reviews the potential applications of concentrated solar thermal (CST) energy in the Australian minerals processing industry to reduce this impact. Integrating CST energy into these industries would reduce their reliance upon conventional fossil fuels and reduce GHG emissions. As CST technologies become more widely deployed and cheaper, and as fuel prices rise, CST energy will progressively become more competitive with conventional energy sources. Some of the applications identified in this article are expected to become commercially competitive provided the costs for pollution abatement and GHG mitigation are internalized. The areas of potential for CST integration identified in this study can be classed as either medium/low-temperature or high-temperature applications. The most promising medium/low-grade applications are electricity generation and low grade heating of liquids. Electricity generation with CST energy—also known as concentrated solar power—has the greatest potential to reduce GHG emissions out of all the potential applications identified because of the 24/7 dispatchability when integrated with thermal storage. High-temperature applications identified include the thermal decomposition of alumina and the calcination of limestone to lime in solar kilns, as well as the production of syngas from natural gas and carbonaceous materials for various metallurgical processes including nickel and direct reduced iron production. Hybridization and integration with thermal storage could enable CST to sustain these energy-intensive metallurgical processes continuously. High-temperature applications are the focus of this paper.

  15. The research of distributed interactive simulation based on HLA in coal mine industry inherent safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Zhi-Wu

    2010-08-01

    To solve the inherent safety problem puzzling the coal mining industry, analyzing the characteristic and the application of distributed interactive simulation based on high level architecture (DIS/HLA), a new method is proposed for developing coal mining industry inherent safety distributed interactive simulation adopting HLA technology. Researching the function and structure of the system, a simple coal mining industry inherent safety is modeled with HLA, the FOM and SOM are developed, and the math models are suggested. The results of the instance research show that HLA plays an important role in developing distributed interactive simulation of complicated distributed system and the method is valid to solve the problem puzzling coal mining industry. To the coal mining industry, the conclusions show that the simulation system with HLA plays an important role to identify the source of hazard, to make the measure for accident, and to improve the level of management.

  16. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance studies of coalified gymnosperm xylem tissue from Australian brown coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H. E., III; Bates, A.L.; Verheyen, T.V.

    1989-01-01

    We report here on the use of solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to contrast the average chemical composition of modern degraded gymnosperm woods with fossil gymnosperm woods from Australian brown coals (Miocene). We first established the quantitative nature of the NMR techniques for these samples so that the conventional solid-state 13C NMR spectra and the dipolar dephasing NMR spectra could be used with a high degree of reliability to depict average chemical compositions. The NMR results provide some valuable insights about the early coalification of xylem tissue from gymnosperms. Though the cellulosic components of wood are degraded to varying degrees during peatification and ensuing coalification, it is unlikely that they play a major role in the formation of aromatic structures in coalified woods. The NMR data show that gynmosperm lignin, the primary aromatic contribution to the coal, is altered in part by demethylation of guaiacyl-units to catechol-like structures. The dipolar dephasing NMR data indicate that the lignin also becomes more cross-linked or condensed. ?? 1989.

  17. An Inter-Industry Comparison of VET in Australian SMEs: Inter-Industry Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Janice

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the extent and nature of Vocational Education and Training (VET) vis-a-vis other forms of training in three size categories of small-to-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) from two industry sectors. Design/methodology/approach: The longitudinal panel data employed in this paper are drawn…

  18. An Australian study to evaluate worker exposure to chrysotile in the automotive service industry.

    PubMed

    Yeung, P; Patience, K; Apthorpe, L; Willcocks, D

    1999-07-01

    A study was conducted in Sydney, Australia, in 1996 to investigate the current exposure levels, control technologies, and work practices in five service garages (four car and one bus), three brake bonding workshops, and one gasket processing workshop. This study formed part of the assessment of chrysotile as a priority existing chemical under the Australian National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme. A total of 68 (11 personal and 57 area) air samples were collected, in accordance with the Australian standard membrane filter method. Fiber concentrations were determined by the traditional phase contrast microscopy (PCM) method and 16 selected samples were analyzed by the more powerful transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Chrysotile exposure of car mechanics measured by PCM was typically below the reportable detection limit of 0.05 f/mL, irrespective of whether disc brake, drum brake, or clutch was being serviced. These low levels can be attributed to the wet cleaning or aerosol spray methods used in recent years to replace the traditional compressed air jet cleaning. In the three brake shoe relining workshops, task-specific exposure reached up to 0.16 f/mL in the processes of cutting and radius grinding. TEM results were generally higher, due to its higher resolution power. The median diameter on samples taken from the service garages (passenger cars), as determined by TEM, was 0.5-1.0 micron; and was between 0.2-0.5 micron for the brake bonding and gasket processing workshops, while that for the bus service depot was 0.1-0.2 micron. Most of the respirable fibers (84%, mainly forsterite) from the bus service depot were below 0.2 micron in diameter which is the resolution limit of PCM. In the brake bonding and gasket cutting workshops, 34 percent and 44 percent of the chrysotile fibers were below 0.2 micron in diameter. PMID:10461401

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Australian coals. I. Angularly fused pentacyclic tri- and tetraaromatic components of Victorian brown coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaffee, Alan L.; Johns, R. B.

    1983-12-01

    Analysis of the tri- and tetraaromatic hydrocarbon fractions of a brown coal sample from the Latrobe Valley, Victoria, Australia indicate the predominance of pentacyclic hydroaromatic components. Many of these have not been previously reported in the literature, but are obviously diagenetically related to triterpenoids naturally occurring in the biosphere. The components whose molecular structures have been confirmed, together with those for which tentative structural assignments are given, offer strong support for a theory of progressive diagenetic aromatization of C-3 oxygenated triterpenoids, commencing from ring A. Other compounds present in smaller amounts suggest that 1,2-methyl shift reactions also occur prior to or during aromatization. There is a notable absence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) which can be diagenetically related to the steroid or extended-side-chain hopane skeletons.

  20. Productivity, job satisfaction, and health and safety in the coal industry: the participatory alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This is a conference which presents results and ideas on workplace participation in the coal industry. It discusses the theory of the quality circle groups for developing their own production rates and design goals. It presents the results of different coal company participation in this idea and how to implement this option. Individual topics are entered into the Data Base as separate items.

  1. Studies of angiospermous woods in Australian brown coal by nuclear magnetic resonance and analytical pyrolysis: new insight into early coalification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, P.G.; Wilson, M.A.; Vassalo, M.; Lerch, H. E., III

    1990-01-01

    Many Tertiary coals contain abundant fossilized remains of angiosperms that often dominated some ancient peat-swamp environments; modern analogs of which can be found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Comparisons of angiospermous woods from Australian brown coal with similar woods buried in modern peat swamps of Indonesia have provided some new insights into coalification reactions. These comparisons were made by using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (py-gc-ms), two modern techniques especially suited for detailed structural evaluation of the complex macromolecules in coal. From these studies, we conclude that the earliest transformation (peatification) of organic matter in angiospermous wood is the degradation of cellulosic components. The efficiency of removal of cellulosic components in the wood varies considerably in peat, which results in variable levels of cellulose in peatified wood. However, the net trend is towards eventual removal of the cellulose. The angiospermous lignin that becomes enriched in wood as a result of cellulose degradation also is modified by coalifications reactions; this modification, however, does not involve degradation and removal. Rather, the early coalification process transforms the lignin phenols (guaiacyl and syringyl) to eventually yield the aromatic structures typically found in brown coal. One such transformation, which is determined from the NMR data, involves the cleavage of aryl ether bonds that link guaiacyl and syringyl units in lignin and leads to the formation of free lignin phenols. Another transformation, which is also determined from the NMR data, involves the loss of methoxyl groups, probably via demethylation, to produce catechol-like structures. Coincident with ether-cleavage and demethylation, the aromatic rings derived from lignin phenols become more carbon-substituted and cross-linked, as determined by dipolar

  2. Upgrading selected Czech coals for home and industrial heating

    SciTech Connect

    Musich, M.A.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    The Czech Republic has large coal reserves, particularly brown coal and lignite, and to a lesser extent, bituminous coal. Concurrent with the recent political changes, there has been a reassessment of the role of coal for electrical and heating energy in the future economy, owing to the large dependence on brown coal and lignite and the implementation of more stringent environmental regulations. These coals have a relatively high sulfur content, typically 1-3 wt%, and ash content, leading to significant SO{sub 2} and other gaseous and particulate emissions. Some of the bituminous coals also exhibit high ash content. Against this background, the Energy & Environmental Research Center, on behalf of the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy, undertook a project on upgrading Czech coals to achieve desired fuel properties. The purpose of the project was to assist the city of Usti nad Labem in Northern Bohemia in developing cost-effective alternatives for reducing environmental emissions from district and home heating systems.

  3. Enrichment of Radon and Carbon Dioxide in the Open Atmosphere of an Australian Coal Seam Gas Field

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric radon (222Rn) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were used to gain insight into fugitive emissions in an Australian coal seam gas (CSG) field (Surat Basin, Tara region, Queensland). 222Rn and CO2 concentrations were observed for 24 h within and outside the gas field. Both 222Rn and CO2 concentrations followed a diurnal cycle with night time concentrations higher than day time concentrations. Average CO2 concentrations over the 24-h period ranged from ∼390 ppm at the control site to ∼467 ppm near the center of the gas field. A ∼3 fold increase in maximum 222Rn concentration was observed inside the gas field compared to outside of it. There was a significant relationship between maximum and average 222Rn concentrations and the number of gas wells within a 3 km radius of the sampling sites (n = 5 stations; p < 0.05). A positive trend was observed between CO2 concentrations and the number of CSG wells, but the relationship was not statistically significant. We hypothesize that the radon relationship was a response to enhanced emissions within the gas field related to both point (well heads, pipelines, etc.) and diffuse soil sources. Radon may be useful in monitoring enhanced soil gas fluxes to the atmosphere due to changes in the geological structure associated with wells and hydraulic fracturing in CSG fields. PMID:23444905

  4. Solid-liquid separation for liquefied coal industries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tiller, F.M.; Leu, W.

    1984-07-01

    This book has been written for engineers concerned with separation processes related to liquefied coal slurries. Difficulties in removing mineral residues and unconverted carbon represent a major obstacle to economic production of liquefied coal products. Reactor slurries in which hydrogenation has been used to upgrade coal generally contain 5 to 10 weight percents of solids which must be removed. Various kinds of equipment employed for particulate removal include rotary drum pressure, candle, and leaf filters, solid bowl centrifuges, hydrocyclones, and critical solvent de-ashers. Although emphasis has been given to filtration of solvent refined coal, much of the material is of a fundamental character and is applicable to other fields. Analysis of filtration data requires an understanding of the principles of frictional flow through compressible beds of particulates. Much of the analysis appearing in the literature must be carefully evaluated as errors and misinterpretations abound.

  5. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  6. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1990-07-01

    The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. This quarter, work was centered on design, fabrication, and testing of the combustor, cleanup, fuel specifications, and hot end simulation rig. 2 refs., 59 figs., 29 tabs.

  7. Statistical modeling of spontaneous combustion in industrial-scale coal stockpiles

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdeniz, H

    2009-07-01

    Companies consuming large amounts of coal should work with coal stocks in order to not face problems due to production delays. The industrial-scale stockpiles formed for the aforementioned reasons cause environmental problems and economic losses for the companies. This study was performed in a coal stock area of a large company in Konya, which uses large amounts of coal in its manufacturing units. The coal stockpile with 5 m width, 10 m length, 3 m height, and having 120 tons of weight was formed in the coal stock area of the company. The inner temperature data of the stockpile was recorded by 17 temperature sensors placed inside the stockpile at certain points. Additionally, the data relating to the air temperature, air humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, and wind direction that are the parameters affecting the coal stockpile were also recorded. A statistical model applicable for a spontaneous combustion event was developed during this study after applying multi-regression analyses to the data recorded in the stockpile during the spontaneous combustion event. The correlation coefficients obtained by the developed statistical model were measured approximately at a 0.95 level. Thus, the prediction of temperature variations influential in the spontaneous combustion event of the industrial-scale coal stockpiles will be possible.

  8. Do coal consumption and industrial development increase environmental degradation in China and India?

    PubMed

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Farhani, Sahbi; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2015-03-01

    The present study is aimed to explore the relationship between coal consumption, industrial production, and CO2 emissions in China and India for the period of 1971-2011. The structural break unit root test and cointegrating approach have been applied. The direction of causal relationship between the variables is investigated by applying the VECM Granger causality test. Our results validate the presence of cointegration among the series in both countries. Our results also validate the existence of inverted U-shaped curve between industrial production and CO2 emissions for India, but for China, it is a U-shaped relationship. Coal consumption adds in CO2 emissions. The causality analysis reveals that industrial production and coal consumption Granger cause CO2 emissions in India. In the case of China, the feedback effect exists between coal consumption and CO2 emissions. Due to the importance of coal in China and India, any reduction in coal consumption will negatively affect their industrial value added as well as economic growth. PMID:25277709

  9. At the Heart of the Industrial Boom: Australian Snubfin Dolphins in the Capricorn Coast, Queensland, Need Urgent Conservation Action

    PubMed Central

    Cagnazzi, Daniele; Parra, Guido J.; Westley, Shane; Harrison, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    The recent industrial boom along the Australian coastline has increased concerns about the long term conservation of snubfin dolphins along the Queensland coast. National assessment of the conservation status and management of the Australian snubfin dolphin is currently hindered by the lack of adequate biological and ecological information throughout most of its range. In response to the issue of determining the conservation status of species with broad ranges, the IUCN has provided a framework for assessing the threatened status of regional populations. In this study we assessed the conservation status of a small geographically isolated population of snubfin dolphins living in the Fitzroy River region, Queensland, Australia, against the IUCN criteria for regional populations. A review of all available sightings data and stranding information indicates that this is the southernmost resident population of snubfin dolphins in Australian waters. The Fitzroy River snubfin dolphin population is composed of less than 100 individuals, with a representative range and core area of less than 400 and 300 km2 respectively. The area most often used by snubfin dolphins within the representative range and core area was estimated to be about 292 and 191 km2, respectively. A decrease in representative range, core area and preferred habitat between 14 and 25% is projected to occur if a planned industrial port development were to occur. These results are robust to uncertainty and considering the low level of formal protection and future threats, a classification of this subpopulation under the IUCN Red List as “Endangered” is appropriate. PMID:23437225

  10. Estimates and Predictions of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis Cases among Redeployed Coal Workers of the Fuxin Mining Industry Group in China: A Historical Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Liu, Hongbo; Zhai, Guojiang; Wang, Qun; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Mengcang; Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Yi, Hongbo; Li, Yuting; Zhai, Yuhan; Sheng, Yang; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This research was aimed at estimating possible Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) cases as of 2012, and predicting future CWP cases among redeployed coal workers from the Fuxin Mining Industry Group. This study provided the scientific basis for regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis and labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted mines. The study cohort included 19,116 coal workers. The cumulative incidence of CWP was calculated by the life-table method. Possible CWP cases by occupational category were estimated through the average annual incidence rate of CWP and males' life expectancy. It was estimated that 141 redeployed coal workers might have suffered from CWP as of 2012, and 221 redeployed coal workers could suffer from CWP in the future. It is crucial to establish a set of feasible and affordable regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis as well as labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted coal mines in China. PMID:26845337

  11. Estimates and Predictions of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Cases among Redeployed Coal Workers of the Fuxin Mining Industry Group in China: A Historical Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bing; Liu, Hongbo; Zhai, Guojiang; Wang, Qun; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Mengcang; Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Yi, Hongbo; Li, Yuting; Zhai, Yuhan; Sheng, Yang; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This research was aimed at estimating possible Coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) cases as of 2012, and predicting future CWP cases among redeployed coal workers from the Fuxin Mining Industry Group. This study provided the scientific basis for regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis and labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted mines. The study cohort included 19,116 coal workers. The cumulative incidence of CWP was calculated by the life-table method. Possible CWP cases by occupational category were estimated through the average annual incidence rate of CWP and males’ life expectancy. It was estimated that 141 redeployed coal workers might have suffered from CWP as of 2012, and 221 redeployed coal workers could suffer from CWP in the future. It is crucial to establish a set of feasible and affordable regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis as well as labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted coal mines in China. PMID:26845337

  12. Response of an industrial coal flotation circuit to changing reagent dosages

    SciTech Connect

    Suardini, P.J.; Kawatra, S.K.

    1995-10-01

    A number of on-stream coal slurry analyzers are presently being developed and commercialized for measuring ash and solids in coal process streams, particularly around flotation circuits. The eventual goal of these efforts is to develop on-line quality control systems for flotation circuits and other fine-coal cleaning operations. As part of this on-line monitoring and control effort, it is important to gain a better understanding of the response of industrial flotation circuits to changing operating conditions. This paper summarizes the results from a detailed sampling program performed at an industrial coal flotation circuit in western Pennsylvania. The testing focused on evaluating the response of the circuit to changes in reagent dosages, operating conditions sand feed compositions. The testing indicated that it is desirable to maintain high collector-to-frother ratios to enhance coarse particle flotation. The recovery of fine impurity particles was also proportional to water recovery, due to hydraulic entrainment.

  13. Guide to federal export assistance activities applicable to the US coal and coal technologies industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The federal government provides a complete range of programs and services that can assist United States (US) coal and coal-technology firms as they expand into the foreign marketplace. These programs cover the spectrum of business export needs, which include: providing assistance in identifying target markets, locating specific business opportunities and foreign joint-venture partners, arranging business appointments, organizing trade missions, sponsoring feasibility studies, conducting trade analyses, providing financing, insuring investments, and providing in-country training and assistance. Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE), this Guide has been developed to address this problem. It is intended to provide coal and coal technology firms with a single reference source for identifying US government agencies, programs, and contacts that might aid in exporting. The Guide contains an in-depth discussion of the eight major agencies offering export assistance: the Agency for International Development (AID), the Departments of Commerce (DOC) and State (DOS), the Export-Import Bank (Eximbank), the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), the Small Business Administration (SBA), the Trade and Development Program (TDP), and the Office of the US Trade Representative (USTR). In addition, this guide identifies pertinent activities performed by other federal agencies that might assist coal and coal-technologies exporters, including the Departments of Defense (DOD), Education, Energy (DOE), and Labor (DOL).

  14. Abandoned coal mining sites: using ecotoxicological tests to support an industrial organic sludge amendment.

    PubMed

    Chiochetta, Claudete G; Radetski, Marilice R; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Tischer, Vinícius; Tiepo, Erasmo N; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2013-11-01

    The different stages involved in coal mining-related activities result in a degraded landscape and sites associated with large amounts of dumped waste material. Remediation of these contaminated soils can be carried out by application of industrial organic sludge if the concerns regarding the potential negative environmental impacts of this experimental practice are properly addressed. In this context, the objective of this study was to use ecotoxicological tests to determine the quantity of organic industrial sludge that is required as a soil amendment to restore soil production while avoiding environmental impact. Chemical analysis of the solids (industrial sludge and soil) and their leachates was carried out as well as a battery of ecotoxicity tests on enzymes (hydrolytic activity), bacteria, algae, daphnids, earthworms, and higher plants, according to standardized methodologies. Solid and leachate samples of coal-contaminated soil were more toxic than those of industrial sludge towards enzyme activity, bacteria, algae, daphnids, and earthworms. In the case of the higher plants (lettuce, corn, wild cabbage, and Surinam cherry) the industrial sludge was more toxic than the coal-contaminated soil, and a soil/sludge mixture (66:34% dry weight basis) had a stimulatory effect on the Surinam cherry biomass. The ecotoxicological assessment of the coal-contaminated soil remediation using sludge as an amendment is very important to determine application rates that could promote a stimulatory effect on agronomic species without negatively affecting the environment. PMID:23114837

  15. How Programme Teams Progress Agricultural Innovation in the Australian Dairy Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettle, Ruth; Brightling, Pauline; Hope, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article outlines the emergence of programme teams in the Australian dairy farm sector as a response to counter weaknesses in the institutional environment for agricultural innovation which favours technology adoption/diffusion approaches. Design/methodology/approach: The strengths, weaknesses and risks of different approaches to…

  16. The changing structure of the US coal industry: An update, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-29

    Section 205(a)(2) of the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 requires the Administrator of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to carry out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program that will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information relevant to energy resources, reserves, production, demand, technology, and related economic and statistical information. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of changes in the structure of the US coal industry between 1976 and 1991. The structural elements examined include the number of mines, average mine size, the size distribution of mines, and the size distribution of coal firms. The report measures changes in the market shares of the largest coal producers at the national level and in various regions. The Central Appalachian low-sulfur coal market is given special attention, and the market for coal reserves is examined. A history of mergers in the coal industry is presented, and changes in the proportions of US coal output that are produced by various types of companies, including foreign-controlled firms, are described. Finally, the impact of post-1991 mergers on the structure of the industry is estimated. The legislation that created the EIA vested the organization with an element of statutory independence. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA`s responsibility is to provide timely, high-quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of deliberations by both public and private decisionmakers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration.

  17. Liquid Fuels from Coal: From R&D to an Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swabb, L. E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Government support of coal liquefaction Research and Development has created the conditions that make possible the development of needed technology. With the proper government incentives, pioneer plants will lead to lower costs, and this, plus rising prices, will create the conditions necessary to develop a multi-plant industry. (Author/MA)

  18. EVALUATION OF LOW EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. THIRD ANNUAL REPORT (1981)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the third year's effort under EPA Contract 68-02-3127. The objective of the program is to conduct a field evaluation of the distributed mixing burner (DMB) on an industrial size boiler. The DMB concept provides for controlled mixing of coal with combustion a...

  19. REVIEW OF CONCURRENT MASS EMISSION AND OPACITY MEASUREMENTS FOR COAL-BURNING UTILITY AND INDUSTRIAL BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of concurrent particulate emissions and opacity measurements based on visual observations and/or in-stack transmissometry for more than 400 compliance, acceptance, or experimental tests on coal-fired utility and industrial boilers. The sampling, which inc...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A COAL/WATER SLURRY FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and analyses for a 7.6 kg/s (60,000 lb/hr) watertube industrial boiler firing a coal/water slurry. Measurements included continuous monitoring of flue gas; quantitation of semivolatile organics and 73 trace elements;...

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A COAL/WATER SLURRY FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and analyses for a 7.6 kg/s (60,000 lb/hr) watertube industrial boiler firing a coal/water slurry. Measurements included continuous monitoring of flue gas; quantitation of semivolatile organics and 73 trace elements;...

  2. Coal-fired boiler costs for industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzius, S.C.; Barnes, R.W.

    1982-04-01

    Several of the current sources of information provide data on coal-fired steam boiler costs. As published, these data give widely varying and possibly inconsistent conclusions. This study was undertaken to determine the extent to which the differences in the various sets of published data bases could be resolved and, if possible, to arrive at more reliable cost correlations to be used in Oak Ridge Energy Demand Models. Our principal finding is that it is indeed possible to restate the costs within each data base on a more consistent basis. When this is done, reasonable engineering correlations of all the cost data versus steam plant capacity can be made over the 10,000 to 5000,000 lb/hr range.

  3. Industrial pulverized coal low NO{sub x} burner. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-23

    The objective of Phase 1 of this program is to develop a novel low NO{sub x} pulverized coal burner, which offers near-term commercialization potential, uses preheated combustion air of up to 1000{degree}F, and which can be applied to high-temperature industrial heating furnaces, chemical process furnaces, fired heaters, and boilers. In the low NO{sub x} coal burner concept, the flue gas is recycled to the burner by jet pump action provided by the momentum of the primary air flow. The recycled flue gas is used to convey the pulverized coal to the jet pump where mixing with the primary air takes place. Ignition occurs downstream of the jet mixing section. The recycled flue gas is at high temperature. When the pulverized coal is entrained, it is heated by conduction from the flue gas. The coal is pyrolyzed to a large extent before being mixed with the primary air. These pyrolysis products are the source of energy for the downstream flame. In this process, the fuel nitrogen associated with pyrolysis products can be converted to molecular nitrogen in the pyrolysis flame if the oxygen is held to substoichiometric concentrations based upon the burning species (pyrolysis products and some char). Pyrolysis products combustion is believed to be the primary source of NO{sub x} emissions in coal combustors. Progress is described.

  4. Analysis of the holistic impact of the Hydrogen Economy on the coal industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusk, Shannon Perry

    As gas prices soar and energy demand continues to grow amidst increasingly stringent environmental regulations and an assortment of global pressures, implementing alternative energy sources while considering their linked economic, environmental and societal impacts becomes a more pressing matter. The Hydrogen Economy has been proposed as an answer to meeting the increasing energy demand for electric power generation and transportation in an environmentally benign way. Based on current hydrogen technology development, the most practical feedstock to fuel the Hydrogen Economy may prove to be coal via hydrogen production at FutureGen plants. The planned growth of the currently conceived Hydrogen Economy will cause dramatic impacts, some good and some bad, on the economy, the environment, and society, which are interlinked. The goal of this research is to provide tools to inform public policy makers in sorting out policy options related to coal and the Hydrogen Economy. This study examines the impact of a transition to a Hydrogen Economy on the coal industry by creating FutureGen penetration models, forecasting coal MFA's which clearly provide the impact on coal production and associated environmental impacts, and finally formulating a goal programming model that seeks the maximum benefit to society while analyzing the trade-offs between environmental, social, and economical concerns related to coal and the Hydrogen Economy.

  5. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; McGowan, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    The development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 and the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment. Economics may one day dictate that it makes sense to replace oil or natural gas with coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn these fuels. The objective of the current program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of this overall objective, the following specific areas were targeted: A coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb/MBtu; Achieving combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and Calculating economic payback periods as a function of key variables. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components; (2) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC burner; (3) Installation and testing of a HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application; (4) Economic evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications; and (5) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions. This paper will summarize the latest key experimental results (Task 3) and the economic evaluation (Task 4) of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. The mine management professions in the twentieth-century Scottish coal mining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Perchard, A.

    2007-07-01

    This book seeks to redress the exclusion of colliery managers and other mining professionals from the history of British, and particularly Scottish, coal industries. This is accomplished by examining these groups within the most crucial period of their ascendancy in the Scottish coal mining industry, 1930-1966. This work seeks to place such persons within their context and to examine their roles, statuses and behaviours through their relationships with employees and the execution of their functions, also examining their terms and conditions of employment, the outlook of their professional associations, and that of their union. Through all this, Dr. Perchard illustrates how this growing consciousness amongst managerial employees in the industry was accompanied by an intense public discussion, within the mining professions, over their future shape, principles and occupational standards.

  7. Sources and Distribution of Trace Elements in Soils Near Coal-Related Industries.

    PubMed

    Shangguan, Yuxian; Wei, Yuan; Wang, Linquan; Hou, Hong

    2016-04-01

    The degree of contamination of soil and the potential ecological risks associated with five different coal-burning industries were assessed in Shanxi Province, China. Results showed that the trace element concentrations in soil close to the coal industries were higher than those in the background soils, and the enrichment factors were >1. The potential ecological risk indexes ranged from 99 to 328 for the five coal-related industries. Results also illustrated that the trace elements were transported through the atmosphere. Concentrations of B, Hg, Mo, Pb, Se, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, Zn, and Mn were high in the area around the steel plant. Principal component analysis and redundancy analysis indicated that the sources of Se, Mo, Hg, Cd, As, Cr, B, Ni, and Cu were mainly anthropogenic, whereas Pb, V, Cu, Zn, and Mn were from natural sources. The soil Hg and Se contents were simulated by an artificial neural network model, which showed that Hg and Se in soils were from atmospheric deposits and their spatial distributions were related to the dominant wind direction. The potential ecological risk from Hg was much higher (one order of magnitude) than that from the other trace elements, which highlights the fact that it deserves urgent attention. Control of emissions from the burning of coal and other raw materials (such as iron and phosphate ores) should also be prioritized. PMID:26428004

  8. Early opportunities of CO₂ geological storage deployment in coal chemical industry in China

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Shengnan; Dahowski, R. T.; Davidson, C. L.

    2014-12-31

    Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is regarded as a promising option for climate change mitigation; however, the high capture cost is the major barrier to large-scale deployment of CCS technologies. High-purity CO₂ emission sources can reduce or even avoid the capture requirements and costs. Among these high-purity CO₂ sources, certain coal chemical industry processes are very important, especially in China. In this paper, the basic characteristics of coal chemical industries in China is investigated and analyzed. As of 2013 there were more than 100 coal chemical plants in operation. These emission sources together emit 430 million tons CO₂more » per year, of which about 30% are emit high-purity and pure CO₂ (CO₂ concentration >80% and >98.5% respectively). Four typical source-sink pairs are chosen for techno-economic evaluation, including site screening and selection, source-sink matching, concept design, and economic evaluation. The technical-economic evaluation shows that the levelized cost of a CO₂ capture and aquifer storage project in the coal chemistry industry ranges from 14 USD/t to 17 USD/t CO₂. When a 15USD/t CO₂ tax and 20USD/t for CO₂ sold to EOR are considered, the levelized cost of CCS project are negative, which suggests a benefit from some of these CCS projects. This might provide China early opportunities to deploy and scale-up CCS projects in the near future.« less

  9. Early opportunities of CO₂ geological storage deployment in coal chemical industry in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Shengnan; Dahowski, R. T.; Davidson, C. L.

    2014-12-31

    Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is regarded as a promising option for climate change mitigation; however, the high capture cost is the major barrier to large-scale deployment of CCS technologies. High-purity CO₂ emission sources can reduce or even avoid the capture requirements and costs. Among these high-purity CO₂ sources, certain coal chemical industry processes are very important, especially in China. In this paper, the basic characteristics of coal chemical industries in China is investigated and analyzed. As of 2013 there were more than 100 coal chemical plants in operation. These emission sources together emit 430 million tons CO₂ per year, of which about 30% are emit high-purity and pure CO₂ (CO₂ concentration >80% and >98.5% respectively). Four typical source-sink pairs are chosen for techno-economic evaluation, including site screening and selection, source-sink matching, concept design, and economic evaluation. The technical-economic evaluation shows that the levelized cost of a CO₂ capture and aquifer storage project in the coal chemistry industry ranges from 14 USD/t to 17 USD/t CO₂. When a 15USD/t CO₂ tax and 20USD/t for CO₂ sold to EOR are considered, the levelized cost of CCS project are negative, which suggests a benefit from some of these CCS projects. This might provide China early opportunities to deploy and scale-up CCS projects in the near future.

  10. Microcomputer based simulation of coal preparation plants: a planning and performance analysis tool for operating personnel in the coal industry

    SciTech Connect

    Chaves, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    The performance of a coal preparation plant can be simulated using an existing process simulation program and a large mainframe computer. Large computers, however, are not common in a preparation plant environment. The objective of this study was to transfer the simulation technology from a large scale mainframe computer environment to a small scale microcomputer environment. This was accomplished by logically decomposing and physically restructuring the existing program; adding interactive data entry/revision modules; providing a series of modules to control the execution of the individual programs; and adding the facility to review summary output on-line. The completed project was assessed by representatives from industry, government, and academia. The assessors state that the microcomputer based simulator is a valuable planning and analysis tool for design and operations engineers in the coal industry. The simulator created during this project utilized the microcomputer technolgy which was available in 1981-1982. Since that time, technological advances in the field of microcomputers have appeared in the marketplace. These advances involve extended memory capacities, higher density storage disks and faster execution times.

  11. Partners in health: Injury prevention and the coal mining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hoerner, E.F.

    1996-12-31

    It is necessary to solve many of the work-related problems and areas of concern that are present in the mining industry. An overview of concerns and how to attack the problems is discussed. Some of the worker`s injury problems, such as back pain syndromes, are by no means unique to the industry. However, other problems such as bolter shoulder syndrome problems, are job specific and need biomechanical investigation to determine specific causal relation of job task to injury. The goal would be defined as twofold. The primary goal is to identify the specific job contribution to high risk occupations, and secondly, to implement a total work force injury prevention program. These goals are discussed.

  12. [Emission characteristics of PM10 from coal-fired industrial boiler].

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Li, Xing-Hua; Duan, Lei; Zhao, Meng; Duan, Jing-Chun; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2009-03-15

    Through ELPI (electrical low-pressure impactor) based dilution sampling system, the emission characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 was studied experimentally at the inlet and outlet of dust catchers at eight different coal-fired industrial boilers. Results showed that a peak existed at around 0.12-0.20 microm of particle size for both number size distribution and mass size distribution of PM10 emitted from most of the boilers. Chemical composition analysis indicated that PM2.5 was largely composed of organic carbon, elementary carbon, and sulfate, with mass fraction of 3.7%-21.4%, 4.2%-24.6%, and 1.5%-55.2% respectively. Emission factors of PM10 and PM2.5 measured were 0.13-0.65 kg x t(-1) and 0.08-0.49 kg x t(-1) respectively for grate boiler using raw coal, and 0.24 kg x t(-1) and 0.22 kg x t(-1) for chain-grate boiler using briquette. In comparison, the PM2.5 emission factor of fluidized bed boiler is 1.14 kg x t(-1), much her than that of grate boiler. Due to high coal consumption and low efficiency of dust separator, coal-fired industrial boiler may become the most important source of PM10, and should be preferentially controlled in China. PMID:19432307

  13. Leading at the Coal-Face: The World as Experienced by Subject Coordinators in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Dale; Cohen, Lynne; Campbell-Evans, Glenda; Chang, Paul; Macdonald, Ian; McDonald, Jacquie

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on nationally funded research into the role, capabilities, challenges and professional development needs of subject coordinators in Australian higher education. The second of three data collection phases involved a multi-institutional survey of staff in the role of subject coordinator with the aim of understanding the role…

  14. 78 FR 26337 - Notice of Filing of Self-Certification of Coal Capability Under the Powerplant and Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... of Filing of Self-Certification of Coal Capability Under the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act... a coal capability self- certification to the Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to Sec. 201(d) of... 501.60, 61. FUA and regulations thereunder require DOE to publish a notice of filing of...

  15. 77 FR 74473 - Notice of Filing of Self-Certification of Coal Capability Under the Powerplant and Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... of Filing of Self-Certification of Coal Capability Under the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act... a coal capability self- certification to the Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to Sec. 201(d) of... 501.60, 61. FUA and regulations thereunder require DOE to publish a notice of filing of...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL-AND OIL-FIRING IN A CONTROLLED INDUSTRIAL BOILER. VOLUME I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a comparative multimedia assessment of coal versus oil firing in a controlled industrial boiler. Relative environmental, energy, economic, and societal impacts were identified. Comprehensive sampling and analyses of gaseous, liquid, and solid emissions...

  17. Industrial relations reform and the occupational transition of Australian workers: a critical discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Lo Bartolo, Luciano; Sheahan, Marie

    2009-01-01

    The 2005 WorkChoices legislation delivered a significant diminution of Australian workers' rights in the form of choice and control over numerous aspects of working life. WorkChoices extended previous neoliberal reforms and consolidated the negative impacts of those reforms on marginalized groups of workers, especially those in precarious employment. This paper reports on the findings of an occupational science-based, critical discourse analysis of a government newspaper advertisement that promotes the reforms. The construction of a WorkChoices discourse, one that was based on and sought to extend neoliberal hegemony, is identified by exploring the ways that particular ideas are presented as natural and mutually beneficial and, in response, the development of a counter-hegemonic argument, based on occupational justice theory, is discussed. The broader application of critical social research is also recommended in extending the occupational justice paradigm. PMID:19478412

  18. Coal fly ash: the most powerful tool for sustainability of the concrete industry

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, P.K.

    2008-07-01

    In the last 15 years the global cement industry has almost doubled its annual rate of direct emissions of carbon dioxide. These can be cut back by reducing global concrete consumption, reducing the volume of cement paste in mixtures and reducing the proportion of portland clinker in cement. It has recently been proved that use of high volumes of coal fly ash can produce low cost, durable, sustainable cement and concrete mixtures that would reduce the carbon footprint of both the cement and the power generation industries. 2 photos.

  19. Vulnerability of industrial natural-gas markets to electricity and coal: a context for R and D planning. Working paper

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, M.O.; Kothari, V.S.; Salama, S.Y.

    1982-11-01

    Current trends in electric- and coal-technology developments and the outlook for natural-gas prices indicate the possibility of strong competition and possible natural-gas market-share losses in the industrial sector. The report develops an initial classification of industrial energy-consuming processes and estimates the extent to which future natural-gas consumption in each class is vulnerable to competition from electricity and coal. The discussion also addresses reasons why specific gas markets are considered vulnerable.

  20. Mineralogical and geochemical composition of particulate matter (PM10) in coal and non-coal industrial cities of Henan Province, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaoyan; Shao, Longyi; Zheng, Qiming; Yang, Shushen

    2014-06-01

    A total of 19 24-h PM10 samples, the 11 for a typical coal industrial city and 8 for a non-coal industrial city, were collected by a TSP-PM10 sampler during a serious and continuous haze event in Henan Province, North China. An X-ray diffractometer (XRD) was used to determine the mineralogy and a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) was used to determine the morphology and chemical composition of the PM10 samples. The crystalline phases that were identified by XRD mainly include sulfate (dominated by koktaite, boussingaultite, gypsum, etc.) and silicate (quartz and kaolinite) as well as small amount of chloride (sal-ammoniac). Silicate particles mainly originate from crust as well as waste dumps for coal industrial cities, and usually have an irregular shape, while sulfate particles occur as individual sheets or needles, and have an anthropogenic origin, which are the products of chemical reaction of preexisting carbonate with SO2 emitted by coal combustion. Nitrogen, S and Cl occurring in particulate matter are considered to have an anthropogenic origin due to their high enrichment factors, and their abundance in particulate matter is associated with coal industrial activities. Nitrogen mainly occurs as NH4+ in sulfate, as well as in small amount of organic matter. Sulfur mainly occurs as SO42 - in sulfate. Chlorine mainly occurs in chloride.

  1. Early opportunities of CO2 geological storage deployment in coal chemical industry in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Shengnan; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2014-11-12

    Abstract: Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is regarded as a promising option for climate change mitigation; however, the high capture cost is the major barrier to large-scale deployment of CCS technologies. High-purity CO2 emission sources can reduce or even avoid the capture requirements and costs. Among these high-purity CO2 sources, certain coal chemical industry processes are very important, especially in China. In this paper, the basic characteristics of coal chemical industries in China is investigated and analyzed. As of 2013 there were more than 100 coal chemical plants in operation or in late planning stages. These emission sources together emit 430 million tons CO2 per year, of which about 30% are emit high-purity and pure CO2 (CO2 concentration >80% and >99% respectively).Four typical source-sink pairs are studied by a techno-economic evaluation, including site screening and selection, source-sink matching, concept design, and experienced economic evaluation. The technical-economic evaluation shows that the levelized cost of a CO2 capture and aquifer storage project in the coal chemistry industry ranges from 14 USD/t to 17 USD/t CO2. When a 15USD/t CO2 tax and 15USD/t for CO2 sold to EOR are considered, the levelized cost of CCS project are negative, which suggests a net economic benefit from some of these CCS projects. This might provide China early opportunities to deploy and scale-up CCS projects in the near future.

  2. Students' Experiences of Supervision in Academic and Industry Settings: Results of an Australian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Suzanne; Pitt, Rachael; Manathunga, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The joint supervision of Research Higher Degree (RHD) students by an industry and university supervisor is likely to increase in forthcoming years with a rise in the number of university-industry collaborations. Research students may become involved in these collaborative arrangements for a variety of reasons and may launch into their RHD without…

  3. Industry perspectives on increasing the efficiency of coal-fired power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Torrens, I.M.; Stenzel, W.C.

    1997-12-31

    Independent power producers will build a substantial fraction of expected new coal-fired power generation in developing countries over the coming decades. To reduce perceived risk and obtain financing for their projects, they are currently building and plan to continue to build subcritical coal-fired plants with generating efficiency below 40%. Up-to-date engineering assessment leads to the conclusion that supercritical generating technology, capable of efficiencies of up to 45%, can produce electricity at a lower total cost than conventional plants. If such plants were built in Asia over the coming decades, the savings in carbon dioxide emissions over their lifetime would be measured in billions of tons. IPPs perceive supercritical technology as riskier and higher cost than conventional technology. The truth needs to be confirmed by discussions with additional experienced power engineering companies. Better communication among the interested parties could help to overcome the IPP perception issue. Governments working together with industry might be able to identify creative financing arrangements which can encourage the use of more efficient pulverized clean coal technologies, while awaiting the commercialization of advanced clean coal technologies like gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  4. Use of sorbents of hot-contact coal carbonization in the power industry

    SciTech Connect

    A.I. Blokhin; F.E. Keneman; A.V. Sklyarov; B.S. Fedoseev

    2003-11-15

    The many years of experience in the use of sorbents of hot-contact coal carbonization (HCCC) in the power industry is used for substantiation of their prospects for solving problems of power and materials saving and improving the reliability and safety of operation of power equipment. Results of tests of sorbents in systems of water conditioning of thermal power plants, cleaning of return condensates, mazut- and oil-contaminated process wastewaters, makeup water in heat networks, and biosorption cleaning of sewerage are presented. The sorption methods of cleaning are shown to have many advantages, to save expensive ion-exchange resins and reagents, to decrease the cost of desalinated water, and to prolong the service of power equipment. Comparative data are presented for basic commercial kinds of activated carbon and HCCC (sorbents activated crushed brown-coal coke (ABD)). The technical characteristics of sorbents of hot-contact coal carbonization are shown to be at the level of commercial sorbents or be higher at a much lower cost (by a factor of 2.5 - 3). It is shown that the creation of several HCCC installations with an output of 25 - 30 thousand tons of sorbents a year at coal-fired power plants will solve many water-cleaning problems of the 'EES Rossii' Co. ('The United Power Systems of Russia') and make it a monopolistic producer of activated carbon in the Russian market.

  5. H. R. 3413: Coal Industry Health Benefit Stabilization Act of 1989. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, October 5, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The bill would provide for stabilization of the process of providing coal industry health benefits and would clarify Federal tax treatment of the transfer of excess coal pension plan assets to coal health plans. The bill describes the authorization of surplus assets from coal pension plan to coal health plan; the continuing obligation to contribute to multi-employer plans; and the relationship to collective bargaining agreements.

  6. Conceptual design study of a coal gasification combined-cycle powerplant for industrial cogeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Nelson, S. G.; Straight, H. F.; Subramaniam, T. K.; Winklepleck, R. G.

    1981-03-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to assess technical feasibility, environmental characteristics, and economics of coal gasification. The feasibility of a coal gasification combined cycle cogeneration powerplant was examined in response to energy needs and to national policy aimed at decreasing dependence on oil and natural gas. The powerplant provides the steam heating and baseload electrical requirements while serving as a prototype for industrial cogeneration and a modular building block for utility applications. The following topics are discussed: (1) screening of candidate gasification, sulfur removal and power conversion components; (2) definition of a reference system; (3) quantification of plant emissions and waste streams; (4) estimates of capital and operating costs; and (5) a procurement and construction schedule. It is concluded that the proposed powerplant is technically feasible and environmentally superior.

  7. Conceptual design study of a coal gasification combined-cycle powerplant for industrial cogeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Nelson, S. G.; Straight, H. F.; Subramaniam, T. K.; Winklepleck, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to assess technical feasibility, environmental characteristics, and economics of coal gasification. The feasibility of a coal gasification combined cycle cogeneration powerplant was examined in response to energy needs and to national policy aimed at decreasing dependence on oil and natural gas. The powerplant provides the steam heating and baseload electrical requirements while serving as a prototype for industrial cogeneration and a modular building block for utility applications. The following topics are discussed: (1) screening of candidate gasification, sulfur removal and power conversion components; (2) definition of a reference system; (3) quantification of plant emissions and waste streams; (4) estimates of capital and operating costs; and (5) a procurement and construction schedule. It is concluded that the proposed powerplant is technically feasible and environmentally superior.

  8. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-30

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashesand industrial wastes. ne primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order toevaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, three preliminary coal-fired tests were successfully completed. These tests used industrial boiler flyash, sewer sludge ash, and waste glass collet as feedstocks. The coal-fired ash vitrification tests are considered near term potential commercial applications of the CMS technology. The waste glass cullet provided necessary dam on the effect of coal firing with respect to vitrified product oxidation state. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the proof-of-concept tests are continuing. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes is continuing. Preliminary designs for 15, 25, 100 and 400 ton/day systems are in progress. This dam will serve as input data to the life cycle cost analysis which will be-an integral part of the CMS commercialization plan.

  9. South Africa, a new perspective: How the coal industry of RSA looks to an observer from the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, S.P.

    1994-09-01

    A microcosm of what was, what is, and hopefully what will be, is embodied in South Africa`s coal industry-the sixth largest in the world, the third largest in coal exports behind the United States and Australia, and the second largest in the world`s steam coal trade behind Australia. Mining is the international, economic life blood of South Africa. In total, the country exports 60 minerals to 80 countries, providing on a raw basis for 43% of the nation`s international trade, and as much as 60% when beneficiated products are included. The nation`s coal fields lie in the northeastern section of the country, running south from the Botswana-Zimbabwe-Mozambique borders, principally in the Transvaal, Natal, and Orange Free State provinces. The coal seams run in thickness from 2.5 to 8 m, with an average overburden thickness of 80 m. The coal industry provides 83% of the country`s commercial energy and 52% of all the electric power consumed on the entire continent. Seen from the air, the veld around Johannesburg is dotted with power plants-virtually all coal-fired. There is only one nuclear plant and two hydroelectric produced in South Africa comes from Eskom, the state-owned utility, and 90% total comes from coal-fired units.

  10. Artificial neural network modeling of the spontaneous combustion occurring in the industrial-scale coal stockpiles with 10-18 mm coal grain sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdeniz, A.H.; Yilmaz, N.

    2009-07-01

    Companies consuming large amounts of coal should work with coal stocks in order to not face problems due to production delays. The industrial-scale stockpiles formed for the aforementioned reasons cause environmental problems and economic losses for the companies. This study was performed in a coal stock area of a large company in Konya, which uses large amounts of coal in its manufacturing units. The coal stockpile with 5 m width, 10 m length, 3 m height, and having 120 tons of weight was formed in the coal stock area of the company. The inner temperature data of the stockpile was recorded by 17 temperature sensors placed inside the stockpile at certain points. In order to achieve this goal, the electrical signal conversion of temperatures sensed by 17 temperature sensors placed in certain points inside the coal stockpile, the transfer of these electrical signals into computer media by using analog-digital conversion unit after applying necessary filtration and upgrading processes, and the record of these information into a database in particular time intervals are provided. Additionally, the data relating to the air temperature, air humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, and wind direction that are the parameters affecting the coal stockpile were also recorded. Afterwards, these measurement values were used for training and testing of an artificial neural network model. Comparison of the experimental and artificial neural network results, accuracy rates of training and testing were found to be 99.5% and 99.17%, respectively. It is shown that possible coal stockpile behavior with this artificial neural network model is powerfully estimated.

  11. COAL: DRDF (DENSIFIED REFUSE DERIVED FUEL) DEMONSTRATION TEST IN AN INDUSTRIAL SPREADER STOKER BOILER. USE OF COAL: DRDF BLENDS IN STOKER-FIRED BOILERS. VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study program has the overall objective of evaluating boiler performance and environmental feasibility when combusting densified forms of refuse derived fuels (dRDF) blended with coal and fired in a modern industrial spreader stoker-fired boiler. The results reported herein ...

  12. Managing produced water from coal seam gas projects: implications for an emerging industry in Australia.

    PubMed

    Davies, Peter J; Gore, Damian B; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews the environmental problems, impacts and risks associated with the generation and disposal of produced water by the emerging coal seam gas (CSG) industry and how it may be relevant to Australia and similar physical settings. With only limited independent research on the potential environmental impacts of produced water, is it necessary for industry and government policy makers and regulators to draw upon the experiences of related endeavours such as mining and groundwater extraction accepting that the conclusions may not always be directly transferrable. CSG is widely touted in Australia as having the potential to provide significant economic and energy security benefits, yet the environmental and health policies and the planning and regulatory setting are yet to mature and are continuing to evolve amidst ongoing social and environmental concerns and political indecision. In this review, produced water has been defined as water that is brought to the land surface during the process of recovering methane gas from coal seams and includes water sourced from CSG wells as well as flowback water associated with drilling, hydraulic fracturing and gas extraction. A brief overview of produced water generation, its characteristics and environmental issues is provided. A review of past lessons and identification of potential risks, including disposal options, is included to assist in planning and management of this industry. PMID:25783163

  13. Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of primary air pollutants emissions from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yifeng; Tian, Hezhong; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Junling; Nie, Lei; Pan, Tao; Zhou, Junrui; Hua, Shenbing; Wang, Yong; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2016-06-01

    Coal-fired combustion is recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of atmospheric compounds in Beijing, causing heavy air pollution events and associated deterioration in visibility. Obtaining an accurate understanding of the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of emissions from coal-fired industrial combustion is essential for predicting air quality changes and evaluating the effectiveness of current control measures. In this study, an integrated emission inventory of primary air pollutants emitted from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing is developed for the period of 2007-2013 using a technology-based approach. Future emission trends are projected through 2030 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. Our analysis shows that there is a general downward trend in primary air pollutants emissions because of the implementation of stricter local emission standards and the promotion by the Beijing municipal government of converting from coal-fired industrial boilers to gas-fired boilers. However, the ratio of coal consumed by industrial boilers to total coal consumption has been increasing, raising concerns about the further improvement of air quality in Beijing. Our estimates indicate that the total emissions of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, CO and VOCs from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing in 2013 are approximately 19,242 t, 13,345 t, 26,615 t, 22,965 t, 63,779 t and 1406 t, respectively. Under the current environmental policies and relevant energy savings and emission control plans, it may be possible to reduce NOx and other air pollutant emissions by 94% and 90% by 2030, respectively, if advanced flue gas purification technologies are implemented and coal is replaced with natural gas in the majority of existing boilers. PMID:27023281

  14. PROCEEDINGS: EPA/INDUSTRY FORUM ON COAL LIQUEFACTION HELD AT CHICAGO, ILLINOIS ON OCTOBER 23 AND 24, 1979

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations made at the EPA/Industry Forum on Coal Liquefaction, October 23 and 24, 1979, in Chicago. The forum brought together representatives of government and industry with the goal of sharing information and increasing cooperation between the two g...

  15. Evaluating Industry-Based Doctoral Research Programs: Perspectives and Outcomes of Australian Cooperative Research Centre Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manathunga, Catherine; Pitt, Rachael; Cox, Laura; Boreham, Paul; Mellick, George; Lant, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Researchers of the future will need to be able to work across the increasingly porous boundaries between university, industry, government and community sectors. Concerns have been raised internationally for several decades about the content and approaches adopted in doctoral programs. Innovative doctoral programs that facilitate students'…

  16. Australian Apprentice & Trainee Statistics. Skills Supply to the Trade Industries, 1995-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    This report provides information on trends over the years 1995-98 in the realm of contracts of training in vocational education and training (VET) in Australia's trade industries. Section 1 introduces the report. Section 2 provides a general overview of trends in apprentice and trainee numbers over the period for the major trade occupation…

  17. Innovation Agents: Vocational Education and Training Skills and Innovation in Australian Industries and Firms. Volume I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Phillip; Marceau, Jane; Hall, Richard; Considine, Gillian

    2004-01-01

    Australia's competitive success with innovation-based products and services is an influential factor to its long-term prosperity. This study examines the role of vocational education and training (VET) and occupations in innovative industries and firms. The authors find VET is vital to developing knowledge and practical skills across a broad range…

  18. Financial Awareness Education with Apprentices in the Australian Construction Industry: Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Plessis, Karin; Green, Emma

    2013-01-01

    A financial awareness education program was implemented with construction industry apprentices in Victoria, Australia. The program included face-to-face delivery of education around a range of financial management issues that apprentices face as they begin their apprenticeship. The paper reports on an evaluation of the program, which included…

  19. Aspects of Training and Remuneration in the Accommodation Industry: A Comparison between Australian and Singaporean Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ruth; Davies, Doug

    2004-01-01

    It has long been recognised that effective staff training and remuneration allows an organisation to provide a unique and differentiating standard of service in industry, resulting in increased profitability to service providers. The purpose of this research study is to investigate the training strategies, and hence the training profile, of…

  20. Studies of angiospermous wood in Australian brown coal by nuclear magnetic resonance and analytical pyrolysis: new insights into the early coalification process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, P.G.; Wilson, M.A.; Vassallo, A.M.; Lerch, H. E., III

    1989-01-01

    Many Tertiary coals contain abundant fossilized remains of angiosperms, which commonly dominated the ancient peat-swamp environments; modern analogs of such swamps can be found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Comparisons of angiospermous wood from Australian brown coal with similar wood buried in modern peat swamps of Indonesia have provided some new insights into coalification reactions. These comparisons were made by using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques and pyrolsis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (py-gc-ms). These two modern techniques are especially suited for detailed structural evaluation of the complex macromolecules in coal. The earliest transformation (peatification) of organic matter in angiospermous wood is the degradation and removal of cellulosic components and the concomitant selective preservation of lignin-derived components. The angiospermous lignin that becomes enriched in wood as a result of cellulose degradation also is modified by coalification reactions; this modification, however, does not involve degradation and removal of the lignin. Rather, the early coalification process transforms the lignin phenols (guiacyl and syringyl) to eventually yield the aromatic structures typically found in brown coal. One such transformation, which is determined from NMR data, involves the cleavage of aryl-ether bonds that link guaiacyl and syringyl units in lignin, and this transformation leads to the formation of free lignin phenols. Another transformation, which is also determined from the NMR data, involves the loss of methoxyl groups, probably via demethylation, to produce catechol-like structures. Coincident with ether-cleavage and demethylation, the aromatic rings derived from lignin phenols become more carbon-substituted and cross linked, as determined by dipolar-dephasing NMR studies. This cross linking is probably responsible for preventing the lignin phenols, which are freed from the lignin

  1. Synthesis of hydroxy sodalite from coal fly ash using waste industrial brine solution.

    PubMed

    Musyoka, Nicholas M; Petrik, Leslie F; Balfour, Gillian; Gitari, Wilson M; Hums, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The effect of using industrial waste brine solution instead of ultra pure water was investigated during the synthesis of zeolites using three South African coal fly ashes as Si feedstock. The high halide brine was obtained from the retentate effluent of a reverse osmosis mine water treatment plant. Synthesis conditions applied were; ageing of fly ash was at 47 ° C for 48 hours, and while the hydrothermal treatment temperature was set at 140 ° C for 48 hours. The use of brine as a solvent resulted in the formation of hydroxy sodalite zeolite although unconverted mullite and hematite from the fly ash feedstock was also found in the synthesis product. PMID:22175873

  2. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1991--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; When, C.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report covers the activity during the period from 2 June 1991 to 1 June 1992. The major areas of work include: the combustor sub-scale and full size testing, cleanup, coal fuel specification and processing, the Hot End Simulation rig and design of the engine parts required for use with the coal-fueled combustor island. To date Solar has demonstrated: Stable and efficient combustion burning coal-water mixtures using the Two Stage Slagging Combustor; Molten slag removal of over 97% using the slagging primary and the particulate removal impact separator; and on-site preparation of CWM is feasible. During the past year the following tasks were completed: The feasibility of on-site CWM preparation was demonstrated on the subscale TSSC. A water-cooled impactor was evaluated on the subscale TSSC; three tests were completed on the full size TSSC, the last one incorporating the PRIS; a total of 27 hours of operation on CWM at design temperature were accumulated using candle filters supplied by Refraction through Industrial Pump & Filter; a target fuel specification was established and a fuel cost model developed which can identify sensitivities of specification parameters; analyses of the effects of slag on refractory materials were conducted; and modifications continued on the Hot End Simulation Rig to allow extended test times.

  3. Use of Sorbents of Hot-Contact Coal Carbonization in the Power Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Blokhin, A. I.; Keneman, F. E.; Sklyarov, A. V.; Fedoseev, B. S.

    2003-11-15

    The many years of experience in the use of sorbents of hot-contact coal carbonization in the power industry is used for substantiation of their prospects for solving problems of power and materials saving and improving the reliability and safety of operation of power equipment. Results of tests of sorbents in systems of water conditioning of thermal power plants, cleaning of return condensates, mazut- and oil-contaminated process wastewaters, makeup water in heat networks, and biosorption cleaning of sewerage are presented. The sorption methods of cleaning are shown to have many advantages, to save expensive ion-exchange resins and reagents, to decrease the cost of desalinated water, and to prolong the service of power equipment. Comparative data are presented for basic commercial kinds of activated carbon and HCCC sorbents (ABD). The technical characteristics of sorbents of hot-contact coal carbonization are shown to be at the level of commercial sorbents or be higher at a much lower cost (by a factor of 2.5 - 3). It is shown that the creation of several HCCC installations with an output of 25 - 30 thousand tons of sorbents a year at coal-fired power plants will solve many water-cleaning problems of the 'EES Rossii' Co. ('The United Power Systems of Russia') and make it a monopolistic producer of activated carbon in the Russian market.

  4. Cost-effectiveness Analysis on Measures to Improve China's Coal-fired Industrial Boiler

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Manzhi; Shen, Bo; Han, Yafeng; Price, Lynn; Xu, Mingchao

    2015-08-01

    Tackling coal-burning industrial boiler is becoming one of the key programs to solve the environmental problem in China. Assessing the economics of various options to address coal-fired boiler is essential to identify cost-effective solutions. This paper discusses our work in conducting a cost-effectiveness analysis on various types of improvement measures ranging from energy efficiency retrofits to switch from coal to other fuels in China. Sensitivity analysis was also performed in order to understand the impacts of some economic factors such as discount rate and energy price on the economics of boiler improvement options. The results show that nine out ofmore » 14 solutions are cost-effective, and a lower discount rate and higher energy price will result in more energy efficiency measures being cost-effective. Both monetary and non-monetary barriers to energy-efficiency improvement are discussed and policies to tackle these barriers are recommended. Our research aims at providing a methodology to assess cost-effective solutions to boiler problems.« less

  5. Cost-effectiveness Analysis on Measures to Improve China's Coal-fired Industrial Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Manzhi; Shen, Bo; Han, Yafeng; Price, Lynn; Xu, Mingchao

    2015-08-01

    Tackling coal-burning industrial boiler is becoming one of the key programs to solve the environmental problem in China. Assessing the economics of various options to address coal-fired boiler is essential to identify cost-effective solutions. This paper discusses our work in conducting a cost-effectiveness analysis on various types of improvement measures ranging from energy efficiency retrofits to switch from coal to other fuels in China. Sensitivity analysis was also performed in order to understand the impacts of some economic factors such as discount rate and energy price on the economics of boiler improvement options. The results show that nine out of 14 solutions are cost-effective, and a lower discount rate and higher energy price will result in more energy efficiency measures being cost-effective. Both monetary and non-monetary barriers to energy-efficiency improvement are discussed and policies to tackle these barriers are recommended. Our research aims at providing a methodology to assess cost-effective solutions to boiler problems.

  6. The global biopharma industry and the rise of Indian drug multinationals: implications for Australian generics policy

    PubMed Central

    Löfgren, Hans

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a synopsis of the new dynamics of the global biopharma industry. The emergence of global generics companies with capabilities approximating those of 'big pharma' has accelerated the blurring of boundaries between the innovator and generics sectors. Biotechnology-based products form a large and growing segment of prescription drug markets and regulatory pathways for biogenerics are imminent. Indian biopharma multinationals with large-scale efficient manufacturing plants and growing R&D capabilities are now major suppliers of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) and generic drugs across both developed and developing countries. In response to generic competition, innovator companies employ a range of life cycle management techniques, including the launch of 'authorised generics'. The generics segment in Australia will see high growth rates in coming years but the prospect for local manufacturing is bleak. The availability of cheap generics in international markets has put pressure on Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) pricing arrangements, and a new policy direction was announced in November 2006. Lower generics prices will have a negative impact on some incumbent suppliers but industrial renewal policies for the medicines industry in Australia are better focused on higher value R&D activities and niche manufacturing of sophisticated products. PMID:17543115

  7. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) and Coal Mining on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Mining of coal bed methane deposits (termed ';coal seam gas' in Australia) is a rapidly growing source of natural gas in Australia. Indeed, expansion of the industry is occurring so quickly that in some cases, legislation is struggling to keep up with this expansion. Perhaps because of this, community concern about the impacts of coal seam gas development is very strong. Responding to these concerns, the Australian Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) to provide advice to the Commonwealth and state regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. In order to provide the underlying science to the IESC, a program of ';bioregional assessments' has been implemented. One aim of these bioregional assessments is to improve our understanding of the connectivity between the impacts of coal seam gas extraction and groundwater aquifers, as well as their connection to surface water. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas and coal mining on water resources in Australia. The methodology of undertaking bioregional assessments will be described, and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia will be detailed. Preliminary results of the program of research to date will be assessed in light of the requirements of the IESC to provide independent advice to the Commonwealth and State governments. Finally, parallels between the expansion of the industry in Australia with that

  8. Study of application of ERTS-A imagery to fracture-related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T. V.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The mine refuse inventory maps were prepared in response to a need by both the State and the coal industry. The lack of information on the scope of the problem handicapped all people concerned in drafting realistic legislation for a severance tax on coal production to raise funds for restoration of refuse sites. The inventory was conducted rapidly and economically, and demonstrated the benefits which can be derived through remote sensing methods.

  9. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bert Zauderer

    1998-09-30

    Coal Tech Corp's mission is to develop, license & sell innovative, lowest cost, solid fuel fired power systems & total emission control processes using proprietary and patented technology for domestic and international markets. The present project 'DEVELOPMENT & TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3' on DOE Contract DE-AC22-91PC91162 was a key element in achieving this objective. The project consisted of five tasks that were divided into three phases. The first phase, 'Optimization of First Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor', consisted of three tasks, which are detailed in Appendix 'A' of this report. They were implemented in 1992 and 1993 at the first generation, 20 MMBtu/hour, combustor-boiler test site in Williamsport, PA. It consisted of substantial combustor modifications and coal-fired tests designed to improve the combustor's wall cooling, slag and ash management, automating of its operation, and correcting severe deficiencies in the coal feeding to the combustor. The need for these changes was indicated during the prior 900-hour test effort on this combustor that was conducted as part of the DOE Clean Coal Program. A combination of combustor changes, auxiliary equipment changes, sophisticated multi-dimensional combustion analysis, computer controlled automation, and series of single and double day shift tests totaling about 300 hours, either resolved these operational issues or indicated that further corrective changes were needed in the combustor design. The key result from both analyses and tests was that the combustor must be substantially lengthened to maximize combustion efficiency and sharply increase slag retention in the combustor. A measure of the success of these modifications was realized in the third phase of this project, consisting of task 5 entitled: 'Site Demonstration with the Second Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor'. The details of the task 5 effort are

  10. Capital and the state in regional economic development: the case of the coal industry in central Appalachia

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    This study examines theories of development policy to assess their relevance for the problems of persistently poor regions within advanced capitalist societies. The central premises of three sets of theories are explored using a multi-method approach that combines quantitative analysis of the impact of growth in the coal industry in rural Kentucky between 1960 and 1980, and qualitative analysis of the perspectives of coal industry executives on development in the coal fields. Theories are categorized into neoclassical, redistributionist and critical paradigms because this typology clarifies the differences in the role of capital and the state in development strategies. Results of analyses of economic and social change in rural Kentucky challenge neoclassical development theory. Greater economic growth in coal counties did not bring greater social progress. The analysis supports the redistributionist and critical theorists' thesis that widespread distribution of economic benefits is important to development. Counties with better distribution of income and work had better conditions in 1980, and coal counties have the greatest economic inequality. Comments of coal industry executives confirm the critical theorists' argument that capital resists State policies to redistribute economic surplus for investment in development.

  11. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-03

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation's Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications'' is project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelling and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, approval of Vortec's Environmental Assessment (EA) required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was approved. The EA approval cycle took approximately 9 months. The preliminary test program which was being held in abeyance pending approval of the EA was initiated. Six preliminary test runs were successfully competed during the period. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the preliminary tests were completed.

  12. Integrated process control for recirculating cooling water treatment in the coal chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Pei, Y S; Guo, W; Yang, Z F

    2011-01-01

    This work focused on the integrated process of the recirculating cooling water (RCW) treatment to achieve approximate zero emission in the coal chemical industry. The benefits of fractional and comprehensive RCW treatment were quantified and qualified by using a water and mass balance approach. Limits of cycle of concentrations and some encountered bottlenecks were used to ascertain set target limits for different water sources. Makeup water was mixed with water produced from reverse osmosis (RO) in the proportion of 6:4, which notably reduced salts discharge. Side infiltration, which settled down suspended solids, can reduce energy consumption by over 40%. An automated on-line monitoring organic phosphorus inhibitor feed maintains the RCW system stability in comparison to the manual feed. Two-step electrosorb technology (EST) instead of an acid feed can lead cycle of concentration of water to reach 7.0. The wastewater from RO, EST and filter was transferred into a concentration treatment system where metallic ions were adsorbed by permanent magnetic materials. Separation of water and salts was completed by using a magnetic disc separator. Applying the integrated process in a coal chemical industry, a benefit of 1.60 million Yuan annually in 2 years was gained and approximate zero emission was achieved. Moreover, both technical and economic feasibility were demonstrated in detail. PMID:21977648

  13. Integrated parasite management: products for adoption by the Australian sheep industry.

    PubMed

    Kahn, L P; Woodgate, R G

    2012-05-01

    The increasing cost of production loss caused by gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) highlights the importance of good control programs. However, the endemic nature of anthelmintic resistance also reminds of the need for nonchemical options. Both chemical and nonchemical control options need to be integrated into regional parasite management programs (IPM) with the emphasis on component options determined by factors such as major GIN species, regional climate, property size and enterprise structure. The Integrated Parasite Management of Sheep project was established to develop and demonstrate regional parasite control programs, that integrated chemical and nonchemical options, for the main sheep-producing regions of Australia. The project included research about the ecology of the main endo and ecto-parasites of sheep and a national survey of parasite control practices by sheep producers. IPM approaches developed for two contrasting regions of Australia are discussed. Barriers for the adoption of IPM programs include perceived complexity associated with a multi-component approach, time requirements and difficulty. Facilitating the industry adoption of IPM programs is discussed with relevance to the use of small group extension and involvement of the commercial sector. Perceptions of complexity of IPM may be managed by facilitating adoption of components in a step-wise process such that learning outcomes accumulate over time. Extension efforts must address the needs of industry sectors other than sheep producers and explore user pay approaches. The success of these approaches will depend on the relation of the extra profit to producers, through adoption of IPM programs, with remuneration sufficient to attract a commercial service. PMID:22154258

  14. Ever-shifting ground: work and labor relations in the anthracite coal industry, 1968-1903

    SciTech Connect

    Blatz, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation traces the work experience of the mine workers of the anthracite coal industry of northeastern Pennsylvania from the final three decades of the nineteenth century, during which several attempts to unionize the mines failed, to the industry-wide anthracite strikes of 1900 and 1902, which brought to a successful conclusion the United Mine Workers' drive for unionization. The correspondence of corporate executives shows that a pervasive philosophy of antiunionism characterized management's approach to labor relations. During the nonunion era, the state, rather than any labor organization, served as the most effective counterpoise to corporate power through its enactment of an extensive code of mining regulation. Nevertheless, mine workers still confronted a perilous workplace which, along with chronic underemployment and an utterly unsystematized congeries of work rules, combined to create a work experience fraught with insecurity. The United Mine Workers proposed an industry-wide contract as the means to solve these problems, and effective organization as the prod to force the corporations to negotiate such a contract. However, the union succeeded in its organizing only in the wake of numerous wildcat strikes protesting the many manifestations of the paternalistic, individualized style of labor relations which had always characterized the industry.

  15. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 3

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the

  16. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 4

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  17. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the

  18. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 5

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  19. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the

  20. Occupational health and safety regulation in the coal mining industry: public health at the workplace.

    PubMed

    Weeks, J L

    1991-01-01

    The strategy for preventing occupational disease and injury in the coal mining industry employs several elements. Standards are set and enforced; technical assistance, research, and development are provided; and surveillance is conducted. Compensation for black lung is a vivid reminder of the consequences of failure to prevent disease. And, workers are represented by a union that encourages active participation in all aspects of this strategy. There are significant problems in each of these elements. Regulatory reform threatens to weaken many standards, there is a decline in government research budgets, surveillance is not well monitored, and compensation for black lung is significantly more difficult to obtain now than in the past. Moreover, the conservative governments of the past decade are not friendly towards unions. Nevertheless, the fundamental structure of disease and injury prevention remains intact and, more importantly, it has a historical record of success. The Mine Safety and Health Act provided for a wide array of basic public health measures to prevent occupational disease and injury in the mining industry. These measures have been effective in reducing both risk of fatal injury and exposure to respirable coal mine dust. They are also associated with temporary declines in productivity. In recent years, however, productivity has increased, while risk of fatal injury and exposure to respirable dust have declined. At individual mines, productivity with longwall mining methods appear to be associated with increases in exposure to respirable dust. These trends are not inconsistent with similar trends following implementation of regulations by OSHA. When OSHA promulgated regulations to control exposure to vinyl chloride monomer, enforcement of the standard promoted significant efficiencies in vinyl chloride production (5). Similarly, when OSHA promulgated its standard regulating exposure to cotton dust, this effort provoked modernization in the cotton

  1. Use of Anthropogenic Sea Floor Structures by Australian Fur Seals: Potential Positive Ecological Impacts of Marine Industrial Development?

    PubMed Central

    Arnould, John P. Y.; Monk, Jacquomo; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Hindell, Mark A.; Semmens, Jayson; Hoskins, Andrew J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Abernathy, Kyler; Marshall, Greg J.

    2015-01-01

    Human-induced changes to habitats can have deleterious effects on many species that occupy them. However, some species can adapt and even benefit from such modifications. Artificial reefs have long been used to provide habitat for invertebrate communities and promote local fish populations. With the increasing demand for energy resources within ocean systems, there has been an expansion of infrastructure in near-shore benthic environments which function as de facto artificial reefs. Little is known of their use by marine mammals. In this study, the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures (pipelines, cable routes, wells and shipwrecks) on the foraging locations of 36 adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) was investigated. For 9 (25%) of the individuals, distance to anthropogenic sea floor structures was the most important factor in determining the location of intensive foraging activity. Whereas the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures on foraging locations was not related to age and mass, it was positively related to flipper length/standard length (a factor which can affect manoeuvrability). A total of 26 (72%) individuals tracked with GPS were recorded spending time in the vicinity of structures (from <1% to >75% of the foraging trip duration) with pipelines and cable routes being the most frequented. No relationships were found between the amount of time spent frequenting anthropogenic structures and individual characteristics. More than a third (35%) of animals foraging near anthropogenic sea floor structures visited more than one type of structure. These results further highlight potentially beneficial ecological outcomes of marine industrial development. PMID:26132329

  2. The development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-16

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation's Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications has been selected for Phase III development under contract DE-AC22-91PC91161. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting, recycling, and refining processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase HI research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing glass frits and wool fiber from boiler and incinerator ashes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes has begun. In order to accurately estimate the cost of the primary process vessels, preliminary designs for 25, 50, and 100 ton/day systems have been started under Task 1. This data will serve as input data for life cycle cost analysis performed as part of techno-economic evaluations. The economic evaluations of commercial CMS systems will be an integral part of the commercialization plan.

  3. Impending impacts of Title III and Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 on the coal industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kerch, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    The coal industry has already begun to feel the affects of the acid deposition title, particularly in Illinois. Two challenges to the producers and sellers of coal; i.e., (1) Title III, Hazardous Air Pollutants and what is in store for customers, and (2) Title V, Operating Permits, which may affect production facilities are discussed. The utilities are temporarily exempted from Title III. The Great Waters report suggests that mercury will be regulated, and it looks like risk assessments will be based on coal analysis rather than on actual emission measurements. Stack sampling is difficult, expensive and slow. Coal cleaning is important in reducing trace elements. Electrostatic precipitators also remove trace elements. ESPs are less effective for mercury and selenium because they are emitted in the gas phase. FGD can remove hazardous air pollutants, but it is not well documented.

  4. Evaluation of water resources around Barapukuria coal mine industrial area, Dinajpur, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howladar, M. Farhad; Deb, Pulok Kanti; Muzemder, A. T. M. Shahidul Huqe; Ahmed, Mushfique

    2014-09-01

    Water is a very important natural resource which can be utilized in renewable or non-renewable forms but before utilizing, the evaluation of the quality of this resource is crucial for a particular use. However, the problems of water quality are more severe in areas where the mining and mineral processes' industries are present. In mining processes, several classes of wastes are produced which may turn into ultimately the sources of water quality and environmental degradation. In consequences, the evaluations of water quality for livestock, drinking, irrigation purposes and environmental implications have been carried out around the Barapukuria Coal Mining Industry under different methods and techniques such as primarily the field investigation; secondly the laboratory chemical analysis and thirdly justified the suitability of the laboratory analysis with statistical representation and correlation matrix, Schoeller plot, Piper's Trilinear diagram, Expanded Durov diagram, Wilcox diagram, US salinity diagram, Doneen's chart and others. The results of all surface and ground water samples analysis show that the characteristics and concentrations of all the major physical and chemical parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fetotal, Cl-, HCO3 -, CO3 2- and SO4 2- are varied from one sample to other but well analogous with the WHO and EQS standard limit for all purposes in the area where the abundance of the major ions is as follows: Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ > Fetotal = HCO3 - > SO4 2- > Cl- > CO3 2-. The graphical exposition of analytical data demonstrates two major hydrochemical facies for example: calcium-bicarbonate (Ca2+- HCO3 -) and magnesium-bicarbonate (Mg2+- HCO3 -) type facies which directly support the shallow recently recharged alkaline water around the industry. The calculated values for the evaluation classification of water based on TDS, Na%, EC, SAR, PI, RSC, MH, and TH replicate good to excellent use of water for livestock, drinking and

  5. Fields of Coal: An analysis of industry and sedimentology in Dolores, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oaden, A.; Besonen, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    characterize the sediments is underway. Basic conclusions indicate the present environment to be minimally affected by the coal operations and resulting tipple pile, but with a large variance over time in mineralogy and composition of sediment, with further research necessary to determine the full effects of industry in the area.

  6. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-29

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashesand industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, a majority of the effort was spent relining the separator/reservoir and the cyclone melter. The relinings were completed, the cyclonemelter was reinstalled, and the test system was returned to operational status. The wet ESP was delivered and placed on its foundation. The focus during the upcoming months will be completing the integration ofthe wet ESP and conducting the first industrial proof-of-concept test. The other system modifications are well underway with the designs of the recuperator installation and the batch/coal feed system progressing smoothly. The program is still slightly behind the original schedule but it is anticipated that it will be back on schedule by the end of the year. The commercialization planning is continuing with the identification of seven potential near-term commercial demonstration opportunities.

  7. Development of a retrofit coal combustor for industrial applications, (Phase 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    The objective of Phase I of the program for the development of a retrofit pulse coal combustor for industrial applications was to design, fabricate, test and evaluate advanced chamber designs at the laboratory-scale utilizing several fuels (Task 1). The activities were structured to provide design criteria for scaling up to the pilot-scale level for the demonstration of a pulse combustor fired with coal-water mixtures for industrial boiler and process heater retrofit applications. The design data and information acquired during Task 1 of the initial phase was to develop scale-up design criteria for scaling the laboratory-scale design to pilot-scale including interface requirements for the field demonstration. The scale-up pilot unit design was to be sufficiently developed to allow fabrication of the unit for testing in the existing test facility upon DOE exercising its option for the follow-on activities of this program. These follow-on activities (Phase II) included the fabrication, test, and engineering evaluation of the pilot-scale combustor as well as technical and laboratory test support activities for reducing the technical risks and costs of development at the pilot-scale. Based on the information, test, data and technical support activities, a retrofit combustor system was to be designed for field demonstration. An additional effort was added to the contract by modification A005. This modification added a Phase IA in place of the original Task 2 of Phase I activity. This interim phase consisted of three technical tasks described in previous quarterly reports. Phase II was initiated in April 1989.

  8. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial processing heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1995--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a {open_quotes}Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications{close_quotes} is a project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. The test program consisted of one test run, with a duration of 100 hours at a nominal feed rate of 1000 lbs/hr. Throughout the test, the CMS was fired with coal and a coal by-product (i.e. coal-fired boiler fly ash) as the primary fuels. Natural gas was used as an auxiliary fuel as necessary to provide process trim. The feedstock consisted of a coal-fired utility boiler fly ash and dolomite and produced a stable, fully-reacted vitrified product. The fly ash, supplied by PENELEC, contained between 6 and 12% by weight of carbon because of the low NOx burners on the PENELEC boilers. Therefore, a substantial portion of the required thermal input came from the fly ash.

  9. Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC) process. Health programs: industrial hygiene, clinical and toxicological programs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hubis, W.

    1982-03-01

    This final report summarizes the Health Program under the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process Contract from January 1, 1976 through December 31, 1981 with particular emphasis on the period January 1, 1980 through December 31, 1981. The major areas of activity within the Health program were: an industrial hygiene monitoring program, a clinical medical examination program, a personal hygiene and educational program, an epidemiology program, and a toxicological program. The industrial hygiene monitoring program during the past two years continued evaluation of occupational exposures to various air contaminants. The major emphasis was directed to the development, refinement and implementation of the skin contamination evaluation project. The medical examination program continued to indicate the absence of discernible occupationally related changes in employee medical profiles. In addition, appreciable effort was expended on efforts to develop a single layered garment which would prevent the appearance of black specks on the anterior thighs of plant operators working in areas of high particulate concentrations. The employee personal hygiene and educational program was extended to include both temporary and contract personnel. An epidemiology program was initiated during the period and efforts were concentrated primarily on program design and data collection. In the toxicological program, acute and genetic studies were completed on most of the SRC-II materials but no studies were initiated in the SRC-I portion of the program because of unavailability of test materials.

  10. Analysis of the interaction of the coal and transportation industries in 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    This study analyzes the impacts of major developments in coal transportation on coal production, prices and markets. Coal and coal transportation markets have special characteristics that must be accommodated if an analysis is to be useful. First, coal of differing energy and sulfur contents is produced in different regions in the United States. The transportation options from these supply regions to the various coal demand regions also differ. The market boundary between coal supply regions depends on the end-use cost to the final purchaser of using coal from each source. The differences in coals and transportation options imply that no simple rule of thumb will yield the end-use cost from competing supply regions at a given site, so market boundaries cannot be identified simply. Second, at most sites, one fuel, say coal from a given region, will clearly have a lower end-use cost than the others. However, there is no unique answer to the question of how the benefits from this lower cost at a given site are shared among the parties involved. Finally, the current status of the coal market is not a reliable guide to the future, because of ongoing changes in relative real fuel prices, the regulatory rules that railroads follow, and environmental constraints on utilities. The implication of these characteristics is that no one can predict what actual future coal markets and transportation rates will be using only a theoretical model or statistical analysis of historical data.

  11. Compare pilot-scale and industry-scale models of pulverized coal combustion in an ironmaking blast furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yansong; Yu, Aibing; Zulli, Paul

    2013-07-01

    In order to understand the complex phenomena of pulverized coal injection (PCI) process in blast furnace (BF), mathematical models have been developed at different scales: pilot-scale model of coal combustion and industry-scale model (in-furnace model) of coal/coke combustion in a real BF respectively. This paper compares these PCI models in aspects of model developments and model capability. The model development is discussed in terms of model formulation, their new features and geometry/regions considered. The model capability is then discussed in terms of main findings followed by the model evaluation on their advantages and limitations. It is indicated that these PCI models are all able to describe PCI operation qualitatively. The in-furnace model is more reliable for simulating in-furnace phenomena of PCI operation qualitatively and quantitatively. These models are useful for understanding the flow-thermo-chemical behaviors and then optimizing the PCI operation in practice.

  12. Effect of Temperature Gradient on Industrial Coal Slag Infiltration into Porous Refractory Materials in Slagging Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth; Bennett, James P.; Dridhar, Seetharaman

    2011-12-01

    Infiltration characteristics of industrial coal slag into alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) refractory material with a temperature gradient induced along the slag's penetration direction are compared to those obtained under near-isothermal conditions. Experiments were conducted with a hot-face temperature of 1450°C and a CO/CO{sub 2} ratio of 1.8, which corresponds to an oxygen partial pressure of ~10{sup −8} atm. The refractory under the near-isothermal temperature profile, with higher average temperatures, demonstrated a greater penetration depth than its counterpart that was under the steeper temperature gradient. Slag that did not infiltrate into the refractory due to the induced temperature gradient, pooled and solidified on the top of the sample. Within the pool, a conglomerated mass of troilite (FeS) formed separately from the surrounding slag. Microscopy of the cross-sectioned infiltrated refractories revealed that the slag preferentially corroded the matrix regions closer to the top surface. Furthermore, the formation of a thick layer of hercynite (FeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) at the top of refractory/slag interface significantly depleted the slag of its iron-oxide content with respect to its virgin composition. A qualitative description of the penetration process is provided in this article.

  13. The effect of unionization and firm structure on health and safety in the bituminous coal industry

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The increase in the number of conglomerate mergers during the 1980's has prompted renewed debate on the effects of such mergers. This study investigates the effect of the conglomerate firm on the ability of the labor union to achieve safe working conditions in the bituminous coal industry. An index of union strength is constructed to replace the dummy union variable, traditionally included in econometric models to indicate whether or not the work place is unionized. The index is able to differentiate between situations in which the union has the ability to achieve a desired result from situations in which it does not. The principal data set constructed consists of 2,748 injuries in 270 mines from the states of: West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Illinois, Kentucky, and Colorado for the year 1988. One finding was that the index of union strength has a negative but insignificant effect on the injury rate and the severity of the injury. Another principal finding was that conglomerate firms reduce the severity of the injury, but not the injury frequency rate. It was also found that conglomerate firms have a higher incidence of occupational illness than independent firms.

  14. "Rule of Thumb Methods No Longer Suffice": Development of British Coal Industry Education and Training 1900-circa 1970 and Lessons for Present-Day Education Policy-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martyn A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper traces the origins and development of coal mining education and training in Britain from 1900 to the 1970s, by which time the coal industry had substantially declined. It looks at the progress from working-class self-help to national policy in support of education and training. The research makes use of college prospectuses and…

  15. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-30

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a {open_quotes}Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications{close_quotes} is a project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the past quarter, the major effort was completing the system modification installation designs, completing the TSCA ash testing, and conducting additional industry funded testing. Final detailed installation designs for the integrated test system configuration are being completed.

  16. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1994--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a {open_quotes}Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications{close_quotes} is a project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the past quarter, the major effort was concentrated on conducting the 100 hour demonstration test. The test was successfully conducted from September 12th through the 16th. The test program consisted of one test run, with a duration of 100 hours at a nominal feed rate of 1000 lbs/hr. Throughout the test, the CMS was fired with coal and a coal by-product (i.e. coal-fired boiler flyash) as the primary fuels. Natural gas was used as an auxiliary fuel as necessary to provide process trim. The feedstock consisted of a coal-fired utility boiler flyash and dolomite and produced a stable, fully-reacted vitrified product. The fly ash, supplied by PENELEC, contained between 6 and 12% by weight of carbon because of the low NO{sub x} burners on the PENELEC boilers.

  17. Industrial innovations for tomorrow: Advances in industrial energy-efficiency technologies. Commercial power plant tests blend of refuse-derived fuel and coal to generate electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    MSW can be converted to energy in two ways. One involves the direct burning of MSW to produce steam and electricity. The second converts MSW into refuse-derived fuel (RDF) by reducing the size of the MSW and separating metals, glass, and other inorganic materials. RDF can be densified or mixed with binders to form fuel pellets. As part of a program sponsored by DOE`s Office of Industrial Technologies, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory participated in a cooperative research and development agreement to examine combustion of binder-enhanced, densified refuse-derived fuel (b-d RDF) pellets with coal. Pelletized b-d RDF has been burned in coal combustors, but only in quantities of less than 3% in large utility systems. The DOE project involved the use of b-d RDF in quantities up to 20%. A major goal was to quantify the pollutants released during combustion and measure combustion performance.

  18. Development of a retrofit coal combustor for industrial applications, (Phase 1-A)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    During this past quarter, two tandem-fired pulse combustors were designed to fire at a nominal rate of 3.5 to 5.5 MMBtu/hr under continuation of Phase I work on DOE project DE-AC22-87PC79654. In prior work, MTCI demonstrated the operation of a 1--2 MMBtu/h coal-fired tandem pulse combustor that is intended for small industrial applications. These component tests emphasized verification of key design issues such as combustor coupling, slag rejection, and staged air addition. The current work, which represents an extension of the Phase I effort, focuses on integrated testing of the tandem pulse combustor with a fire-tube boiler, and the addition of a slag quench vessel. A tandem-fired pulse combustion unit designed to fire at a nominal rate of 3.5-5 MMBtu/hr was designed and fabricated. The configuration includes two combustion chambers cast in a single monolith, tailpipes cast separately with annular air preheating capability, and a cyclonic decoupler. Design analysis and evaluations were performed to optimize the system with respect to minimizing heat losses, size, and cost. Heat losses from the combustor and decoupler walls are predicted to be approximately 3 percent. The final designs for the ancillary items (slag quench, tertiary air addition, scrubber and sampling system) were completed and fabrication and installation initiated. A Cleaver-Brooks 150 hp-4 pass boiler was delivered and installed and modifications for interfacing with the retrofit pulse combustor unit completed. A below-ground slag collection pit was excavated to permit direct in-line coupling of the combustor to the boiler and to reduce head-room requirements. The pit is 30 inches deep and lined with waterproof and fireproof siding.

  19. Old Dominion, industrial commonwealth: coal, politics, and economy in Antebellum America

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.P.

    2005-05-15

    The political economies of coal in Virginia and Pennsylvania from the late eighteenth century through the Civil War are compared, and the divergent paths these two states took in developing their ample coal reserves during a critical period of American industrialisation are examined. State economic policies played a major role. Virginia's failure to exploit the rich coal fields in the western part of the state can be traced to the legislature's over riding concern to protect and promote the interests of the agrarian, slaveholding elite of eastern Virginia. Pennsylvania's more fractious legislature enthusiastically embraced a policy of economic growth that resulted in the construction of an extensive transportation network, a statewide geological survey, and support for private investment in its coal fields.

  20. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1990--June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  1. A new partnership to enhance international competitiveness for coal-related industries

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Finkelman, R.B.

    1999-07-01

    Conducting business in countries with significant indigenous coal supplies and expected economic growth (China, Indonesia, India, Russia, Ukraine, South Africa, Columbia, Brazil, and Venezuela) is extremely difficult, not only from a socio-economic/cultural standpoint, but because little reliable information is available on the properties and quality of raw materials. The question is how to compete and create opportunities in these countries when little or nothing is known about the properties of the indigenous raw materials. To address this concern the Penn State University and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are partnering to develop an integrated database and sample bank of international coal and limestone samples of commercial value to power generation. The purpose of this partnership is to provide a reliable database linked to a convenient sample bank that would aid in resource evaluation and testing with regard to coal utilization including, but not limited to, combustion and combustion engineering, coke making, liquefaction, gasification, coalbed methane recovery, coal preparation, and mining. The Penn State-USGS-Private Sector partnership offers unique potential to provide this valuable service. The Penn State Energy Institute maintains a wide variety of analytical and testing equipment and expertise in coal-related engineering, chemistry and geology and has access to much more throughout the University system. For several decades the Institute has successfully maintained a large domestic coal sample bank. The USGS maintains a state-of-the-art analytical facility and a comprehensive domestic coal quality database. The USGS is actively working in about thirty countries to develop a reliable international coal quality database. Private sector will bring insights into the issues of competitiveness, certain knowledge of the marketplace and financial support.

  2. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1992--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-30

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashesand industrial wastes. ne primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order toevaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, three preliminary coal-fired tests were successfully completed. These tests used industrial boiler flyash, sewer sludge ash, and waste glass collet as feedstocks. The coal-fired ash vitrification tests are considered near term potential commercial applications of the CMS technology. The waste glass cullet provided necessary dam on the effect of coal firing with respect to vitrified product oxidation state. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the proof-of-concept tests are continuing. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes is continuing. Preliminary designs for 15, 25, 100 and 400 ton/day systems are in progress. This dam will serve as input data to the life cycle cost analysis which will be-an integral part of the CMS commercialization plan.

  3. The true cost of renewables: An analytic response to the coal industry`s attack on renewable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Swezey, B G; Wan, Yih-huei

    1995-10-01

    In April 1995, the Center for Energy and Economic Development (CEED), an umbrella organization of pro-coal interests, released a report entitled Energy Choices in a Competitive Era: The Role of Renewable and Traditional Energy Resources in America`s Electric Generation Mix. The report purports to show that a very modest growth in the use of renewable energy in the U.S. power sector would entail unaffordable costs for the nation`s electricity ratepayers. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to review the assumptions contained in the report, which was prepared for CEED by Resource Data International, Inc. (RDI). The NREL analysis finds that the conclusions of the CEED/RDI study are based on faulty data and assumptions regarding the comparative economics of coal and renewable energy development. After correcting these errors, NREL finds that a modest growth path of renewable resource development would essentially cost the nation little more than projected electricity market costs for coal-fired generation, even before considering the environmental benefits that would accompany this development.

  4. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1993--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-30

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the US Department of Energy awarded Vortec Corporation this Phase III contract (No. DE-AC22-91PC91161) for the development of {open_quotes}A Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications{close_quotes}. The effective contrast start date was September 3, 1991. The contract period of performance is 36 months. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. Final detailed installation designs for the integrated test system configuration are being completed. The equipment is being fabricated and deliveries have begun. The industry funded testing consisted of vitrifying Spent Aluminum Potliner (SPL) which is a listed hazardous waste. This testing has verified that SPL can be vitrified into a safe recyclable glass product.

  5. PM10 mass concentration, chemical composition, and sources in the typical coal-dominated industrial city of Pingdingshan, China.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoyan; Yang, Shushen; Shao, Longyi; Fan, Jingsen; Liu, Yanfei

    2016-11-15

    The atmospheric pollution created by coal-dominated industrial cities in China cannot be neglected. This study focuses on the atmospheric PM10 in the typical industrial city of Pingdingshan City in North China. A total of 44 PM10 samples were collected from three different sites (power plant, mining area, and roadside) in Pingdingshan City during the winter of 2013, and were analyzed gravimetrically and chemically. The Pingdingshan PM10 samples were composed of mineral matter (average of 118.0±58.6μg/m(3), 20.6% of the total PM10 concentration), secondary crystalline particles (338.7±122.0μg/m(3), 59.2%), organic matter (77.3±48.5μg/m(3), 13.5%), and elemental carbon (38.0±28.3μg/m(3), 6.6%). Different sources had different proportions of these components in PM10. The power plant pollutant source was characterized by secondary crystalline particles (377.1μg/m(3)), elemental carbon (51.5μg/m(3)), and organic matter (90.6μg/m(3)) due to coal combustion. The mining area pollutant source was characterized by mineral matter (124.0μg/m(3)) due to weathering of waste dumps. The roadside pollutant source was characterized by mineral matter (130.0μg/m(3)) and organic matter (81.0μg/m(3)) due to road dust and vehicle exhaust, respectively. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis was performed for PM10 source apportionment to identify major anthropogenic sources of PM10 in Pingdingshan. Six factors-crustal matter, coal combustion, vehicle exhaust and abrasion, local burning, weathering of waste dumps, and industrial metal smelting-were identified and their contributions to Pingdingshan PM10 were 19.0%, 31.6%, 7.4%, 6.3%, 9.8%, and 25.9%, respectively. Compared to other major cities in China, the source of PM10 in Pingdingshan was characterized by coal combustion, weathering of waste dumps, and industrial metal smelting. PMID:27450962

  6. The effects of outsourcing on occupational health and safety: a comparative study of factory-based workers and outworkers in the Australian clothing industry.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, C; Quinlan, M

    1999-01-01

    Outsourcing has become increasingly widespread throughout industrialized societies over the past 20 years. Accompanying this has been a renewed growth in home-based work, sometimes using new technologies (telework) but also entailing a re-emergence of old forms, such as clothing outwork, used extensively 100 years ago. A growing body of research indicates that changes to work organization associated with outsourcing adversely affect occupational health and safety (OHS), both for outsourced workers and for those working alongside them. This study assessed the OHS implications of the shift to home-based workers in the Australian clothing industry by systematically comparing the OHS experiences of 100 factory-based workers and 100 outworkers. The level of self-reported injury was over three times higher among outworkers than factory-based workers undertaking similar tasks. The most significant factor explaining this difference was the payment system. All outworkers were paid solely by the piece, whereas factory workers were paid either under a time plus production bonus system or solely on a time basis. While the incidence of injury was far higher among outworkers, factory-based workers paid under an incentive system reported more injuries than those paid solely on a time basis. Increasing injury was correlated with piecework payment systems. PMID:10079399

  7. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system particle removal system development

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, M.

    1994-03-01

    Solar Turbines developed a direct coal-fueled turbine system (DCFT) and tested each component in subscale facilities and the combustion system was tested at full-scale. The combustion system was comprised of a two-stage slagging combustor with an impact separator between the two combustors. Greater than 90 percent of the native ash in the coal was removed as liquid slag with this system. In the first combustor, coal water slurry mixture (CWM) was injected into a combustion chamber which was operated loan to suppress NO{sub x} formation. The slurry was introduced through four fuel injectors that created a toroidal vortex because of the combustor geometry and angle of orientation of the injectors. The liquid slag that was formed was directed downward toward an impaction plate made of a refractory material. Sixty to seventy percent of the coal-borne ash was collected in this fashion. An impact separator was used to remove additional slag that had escaped the primary combustor. The combined particulate collection efficiency from both combustors was above 95 percent. Unfortunately, a great deal of the original sulfur from the coal still remained in the gas stream and needed to be separated. To accomplish this, dolomite or hydrated lime were injected in the secondary combustor to react with the sulfur dioxide and form calcium sulfite and sulfates. This solution for the sulfur problem increased the dust concentrations to as much as 6000 ppmw. A downstream particulate control system was required, and one that could operate at 150 psia, 1850-1900{degrees}F and with low pressure drop. Solar designed and tested a particulate rejection system to remove essentially all particulate from the high temperature, high pressure gas stream. A thorough research and development program was aimed at identifying candidate technologies and testing them with Solar`s coal-fired system. This topical report summarizes these activities over a period beginning in 1987 and ending in 1992.

  8. Environmental impact of coal industry and thermal power plants in India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, U C

    2004-01-01

    Coal is the only natural resource and fossil fuel available in abundance in India. Consequently, it is used widely as a thermal energy source and also as fuel for thermal power plants producing electricity. India has about 90,000 MW installed capacity for electricity generation, of which more than 70% is produced by coal-based thermal power plants. Hydro-electricity contributes about 25%, and the remaining is mostly from nuclear power plants (NPPs). The problems associated with the use of coal are low calorific value and very high ash content. The ash content is as high as 55-60%, with an average value of about 35-40%. Further, most of the coal is located in the eastern parts of the country and requires transportation over long distances, mostly by trains, which run on diesel. About 70% oil is imported and is a big drain on India's hard currency. In the foreseeable future, there is no other option likely to be available, as the nuclear power programme envisages installing 20,000 MWe by the year 2020, when it will still be around 5% of the installed capacity. Hence, attempts are being made to reduce the adverse environmental and ecological impact of coal-fired power plants. The installed electricity generating capacity has to increase very rapidly (at present around 8-10% per annum), as India has one of the lowest per capita electricity consumptions. Therefore, the problems for the future are formidable from ecological, radio-ecological and pollution viewpoints. A similar situation exists in many developing countries of the region, including the People's Republic of China, where coal is used extensively. The paper highlights some of these problems with the data generated in the author's laboratory and gives a brief description of the solutions being attempted. The extent of global warming in this century will be determined by how developing countries like India manage their energy generation plans. Some of the recommendations have been implemented for new plants

  9. CAPSULE REPORT: PARTICULATE CONTROL BY FABRIC FILTRATION ON COAL-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interest in fabric filtration for boiler particulate control has increased due to the conversion of oil- and gas- to coal-fired boilers and the promulgation of more stringent particulate emission regulations. his report describes the theory, applications, performance, and economi...

  10. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1992--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-03

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a ``Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications`` is project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelling and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, approval of Vortec`s Environmental Assessment (EA) required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was approved. The EA approval cycle took approximately 9 months. The preliminary test program which was being held in abeyance pending approval of the EA was initiated. Six preliminary test runs were successfully competed during the period. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the preliminary tests were completed.

  11. Coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. This includes new installations and those existing installations that were originally designed for oil or gas firing. The data generated by these projects must be sufficient for private-sector decisions on the feasibility of using coal as the fuel of choice. This work should also provide incentives for the private sector to continue and expand the development, demonstration, and application of these combustion systems. Vortec Corporation`s Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications is being developed under contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 as part of this DOE development program. The current contract represents the third phase of a three-phase development program. Phase I of the program addressed the technical and economic feasibility of the process, and was initiated in 1987 and completed 1989. Phase II was initiated in 1989 and completed in 1990. During Phase II of the development, design improvements were made to critical components and the test program addressed the performance of the process using several different feedstocks. Phase III of the program was initiated September 1991 and is scheduled for completion in 1994. The Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value-added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and selected industrial wastes.

  12. Global emissions of hydrogen chloride and chloromethane from coal combustion, incineration and industrial activities: Reactive Chlorine Emissions Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulloch, Archie; Aucott, Michael L.; Benkovitz, Carmen M.; Graedel, Thomas E.; Kleiman, Gary; Midgley, Pauline M.; Li, Yi-Fan

    1999-04-01

    Much if not all of the chlorine present in fossil fuels is released into the atmosphere as hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chloromethane (CH3Cl, methyl chloride). The chlorine content of oil-based fuels is so low that these sources can be neglected, but coal combustion provides significant releases. On the basis of national statistics for the quantity and quality of coal burned during 1990 in power and heat generation, industrial conversion and residential and commercial heating, coupled with information on the chlorine contents of coals, a global inventory of national HCl emissions from this source has been constructed. This was combined with an estimate of the national emissions of HCl from waste combustion (both large-scale incineration and trash burning) which was based on an estimate of the global quantity released from this source expressed per head of population. Account was taken of reduced emissions where flue gases were processed, for example to remove sulphur dioxide. The HCl emitted in 1990, comprising 4.6 ± 4.3 Tg Cl from fossil fuel and 2 ± 1.9 Tg Cl from waste burning, was spatially distributed using available information on point sources such as power generation utilities and population density by default. Also associated with these combustion sources are chloromethane emissions, calculated to be 0.075 ± 0.07 Tg as Cl (equivalent) from fossil fuels and 0.032 ± 0.023 Tg Cl (equivalent) from waste combustion. These were distributed spatially exactly as the HCl emissions, and a further 0.007 Tg Cl in chloromethane from industrial process activity was distributed by point sources.

  13. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1993--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-30

    Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a ``Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications`` is project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the past quarter, the designs of the remaining major components of the integrated system were completed and the equipment was ordered. DOE has elected to modify the scope of the existing R&D program being conducted under this contract to include testing of a simulated TSCA incinerator ash. The modification will be in the form of an additional Task (Task 8 -- TSCA Ash Testing) to the original Statement of Work.

  14. Water-carbon trade-off in China's coal power industry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Mo, Hongpin; Zhao, Zhongnan; Liu, Zhu

    2014-10-01

    The energy sector is increasingly facing water scarcity constraints in many regions around the globe, especially in China, where the unprecedented large-scale construction of coal-fired thermal power plants is taking place in its extremely arid northwest regions. As a response to water scarcity, air-cooled coal power plants have experienced dramatic diffusion in China since the middle 2000s. By the end of 2012, air-cooled coal-fired thermal power plants in China amounted to 112 GW, making up 14% of China's thermal power generation capacity. But the water conservation benefit of air-cooled units is achieved at the cost of lower thermal efficiency and consequently higher carbon emission intensity. We estimate that in 2012 the deployment of air-cooled units contributed an additional 24.3-31.9 million tonnes of CO2 emissions (equivalent to 0.7-1.0% of the total CO2 emissions by China's electric power sector), while saving 832-942 million m(3) of consumptive water use (about 60% of the total annual water use of Beijing) when compared to a scenario with water-cooled plants. Additional CO2 emissions from air-cooled plants largely offset the CO2 emissions reduction benefits from Chinese policies of retiring small and outdated coal plants. This water-carbon trade-off is poised to become even more significant by 2020, as air-cooled units are expected to grow by a factor of 2-260 GW, accounting for 22% of China's total coal-fired power generation capacity. PMID:25215622

  15. Employee Participation: Some Australian Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansbury, Russell D.; Davis, Edward M.

    1992-01-01

    The Australian Workplace Industrial Relations Survey of 2,353 companies showed sporadic employee participation in decision making. Although case studies of Ford Motor, Australia Post, Lend Lease, Telecom Australia, and Woodlawn Mining illustrate successful programs, most managers appear cautious about industrial democracy. (SK)

  16. COAL: DRDF (DENSIFIED REFUSE DERIVED FUEL) DEMONSTRATION TEST IN AN INDUSTRIAL SPREADER STOKER BOILER. USE OF COAL: DRDF BLENDS IN STOKER-FIRED BOILERS, APPENDICES A, B, C, AND D. VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study program has the overall objective of evaluating boiler performance and environmental feasibility when combusting densified forms of refuse derived fuels (dRDF) blended with coal and fired in a modern industrial spreader stoker-fired boiler. The results reported herein ...

  17. Using MSD prevention for cultural change in mining: Queensland Government/Anglo Coal Industry partnership.

    PubMed

    Tilbury, Trudy; Sanderson, Liz

    2012-01-01

    Queensland Mining has a strong focus on safety performance, but risk management of health, including Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) continues to have a lower priority. The reliance on individual screening of workers and lower level approaches such as manual handling training is part of the coal mining 'culture'. Initiatives such as the New South Wales and Queensland Mining joint project to develop good practice guidance for mining has allowed for a more consistent message on participatory ergonomics and prevention of MSD. An evidence based practice approach, including the introduction of participatory ergonomics and safe design principles, was proposed to Anglo American Coal operations in Queensland. The project consisted of a skills analysis of current health personnel, design of a facilitated participatory ergonomics training program, site visits to identify good practice and champions, and a graduated mentoring program for health personnel. Early results demonstrate a number of sites are benefiting from site taskforces with a focus on positive performance outcomes. PMID:22317407

  18. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, David

    2014-05-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States and potentially in Europe, extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus in Australia. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics, with hydraulic fracturing generally (but not always) required to extract coal seam gas also. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction and hydraulic fracturing on surface and groundwater resources may be potentially of more concern for coal seam gas than for shale gas. To determine the potential for coal seam gas extraction (and coal mining more generally) to impact on water resources and water-related assets in Australia, the Commonwealth Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (the IESC) to provide advice to Commonwealth and State Government regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. The IESC has in turn implemented a program of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the program can be found at http://www.environment.gov.au/coal-seam-gas-mining/bioregional-assessments.html. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas extraction on surface and groundwater resources and water-related assets in Australia. The

  19. Contemporary formulation and distribution practices for cold-filled acid products: Australian industry survey and modeling of published pathogen inactivation data.

    PubMed

    Chapman, B; Scurrah, K J; Ross, T

    2010-05-01

    A survey of 12 Australian manufacturers indicated that mild-tasting acids and preservatives are used to partially replace acetic acid in cold-filled acid dressings and sauces. In contrast to traditional ambient temperature distribution practices, some manufacturers indicated that they supply the food service sector with cold-filled acid products prechilled for incorporation into ready-to-eat foods. The Comité des Industries des Mayonnaises et Sauces Condimentaires de la Communauté Economique Européenne (CIMSCEE) Code, a formulation guideline used by the industry to predict the safety of cold-filled acid formulations with respect to Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli, does not extend to the use of acids and preservatives other than acetic acid nor does it consider the effects of chill distribution. We found insufficient data in the published literature to comprehensively model the response of S. enterica and E. coli to all of the predictor variables (i.e., pH, acetic acid, NaCl, sugars, other acids, preservatives, and storage temperature) of relevance for contemporary cold-filled acid products in Australia. In particular, we noted a lack of inactivation data for S. enterica at aqueous-phase NaCl concentrations of >3% (wt/wt). However, our simple models clearly identified pH and 1/absolute temperature of storage as the most important variables generally determining inactivation. To develop robust models to predict the effect of contemporary formulation and storage variables on product safety, additional empirical data are required. Until such models are available, our results support challenge testing of cold-filled acid products to ascertain their safety, as suggested by the CIMSCEE, but suggest consideration of challenging with both E. coli and S. enterica at incubation temperatures relevant to intended product distribution temperatures. PMID:20501041

  20. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor Phase III industrial boiler retrofit. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995 No. 16

    SciTech Connect

    Borio, R.W.

    1995-12-15

    The objective of this project is to retrofit a burner, capable of firing microfine coal, to a standard gas/oil designed industrial boiler to assess the technical and economic viability of displacing premium fuels with microfine coal. This report documents the technical aspects of this project during the sixteenth quarter (July `95 through September `95) of the program. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components. (2) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC (High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor) burner. (3) Installation and testing of a prototype HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application. (4) Economics evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. (5) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions.

  1. Coal supply/demand, 1980 to 2000. Task 3. Resource applications industrialization system data base. Final review draft. [USA; forecasting 1980 to 2000; sector and regional analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, W.M.; Hasson, V.

    1980-10-10

    This report is a compilation of data and forecasts resulting from an analysis of the coal market and the factors influencing supply and demand. The analyses performed for the forecasts were made on an end-use-sector basis. The sectors analyzed are electric utility, industry demand for steam coal, industry demand for metallurgical coal, residential/commercial, coal demand for synfuel production, and exports. The purpose is to provide coal production and consumption forecasts that can be used to perform detailed, railroad company-specific coal transportation analyses. To make the data applicable for the subsequent transportation analyses, the forecasts have been made for each end-use sector on a regional basis. The supply regions are: Appalachia, East Interior, West Interior and Gulf, Northern Great Plains, and Mountain. The demand regions are the same as the nine Census Bureau regions. Coal production and consumption in the United States are projected to increase dramatically in the next 20 years due to increasing requirements for energy and the unavailability of other sources of energy to supply a substantial portion of this increase. Coal comprises 85 percent of the US recoverable fossil energy reserves and could be mined to supply the increasing energy demands of the US. The NTPSC study found that the additional traffic demands by 1985 may be met by the railways by the way of improved signalization, shorter block sections, centralized traffic control, and other modernization methods without providing for heavy line capacity works. But by 2000 the incremental traffic on some of the major corridors was projected to increase very significantly and is likely to call for special line capacity works involving heavy investment.

  2. Community Economic Identity: The Coal Industry and Ideology Construction in West Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Shannon Elizabeth; York, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Economic changes and the machinations of the treadmill of production have dramatically reduced the number of jobs provided by extractive industries, such as mining and timber, in the United States and other affluent nations in the post-World War II era. As the importance of these industries to national, regional, and local economies wanes,…

  3. Co-firing of paper mill sludge and coal in an industrial circulating fluidized bed boiler.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Meng-Yuan; Wu, Keng-Tung; Huang, Chin-Cheng; Lee, Hom-Ti

    2002-01-01

    Co-firing of coal and paper mill sludge was conducted in a 103 MWth circulating fluidized bed boiler to investigate the effect of the sludge feeding rate on emissions of SOx, NOx, and CO. The preliminary results show that emissions of SOx and Nx decrease with increasing sludge feeding rate, but CO shows the reverse tendency due to the decrease in combustion temperature caused by a large amount of moisture in the sludge. All emissions met the local environmental requirements. The combustion ashes could be recycled as feed materials in the cement manufacturing process. PMID:12099502

  4. Australian Extinctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…

  5. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1992--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-29

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashesand industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, a majority of the effort was spent relining the separator/reservoir and the cyclone melter. The relinings were completed, the cyclonemelter was reinstalled, and the test system was returned to operational status. The wet ESP was delivered and placed on its foundation. The focus during the upcoming months will be completing the integration ofthe wet ESP and conducting the first industrial proof-of-concept test. The other system modifications are well underway with the designs of the recuperator installation and the batch/coal feed system progressing smoothly. The program is still slightly behind the original schedule but it is anticipated that it will be back on schedule by the end of the year. The commercialization planning is continuing with the identification of seven potential near-term commercial demonstration opportunities.

  6. Development of a retrofit coal combustor for industrial applications, (Phase 2). Technical progress report, April--June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    The objective of Phase I of the program for the development of a retrofit pulse coal combustor for industrial applications was to design, fabricate, test and evaluate advanced chamber designs at the laboratory-scale utilizing several fuels (Task 1). The activities were structured to provide design criteria for scaling up to the pilot-scale level for the demonstration of a pulse combustor fired with coal-water mixtures for industrial boiler and process heater retrofit applications. The design data and information acquired during Task 1 of the initial phase was to develop scale-up design criteria for scaling the laboratory-scale design to pilot-scale including interface requirements for the field demonstration. The scale-up pilot unit design was to be sufficiently developed to allow fabrication of the unit for testing in the existing test facility upon DOE exercising its option for the follow-on activities of this program. These follow-on activities (Phase II) included the fabrication, test, and engineering evaluation of the pilot-scale combustor as well as technical and laboratory test support activities for reducing the technical risks and costs of development at the pilot-scale. Based on the information, test, data and technical support activities, a retrofit combustor system was to be designed for field demonstration. An additional effort was added to the contract by modification A005. This modification added a Phase IA in place of the original Task 2 of Phase I activity. This interim phase consisted of three technical tasks described in previous quarterly reports. Phase II was initiated in April 1989.

  7. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale, Coal-Fired Combustion System: Phase 3.

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1997-04-21

    In the first quarter of calendar year 1997, 17 days of combustor- boiler tests were performed, including one day of tests on a parallel DOE sponsored project on sulfur retention in a slagging combustor. Between tests, modifications and improvements that were indicated by these tests were implemented. This brings the total number of test days required to meet the task 5 project plan. The key project objectives in the areas of combustor performance and environmental performance have been exceeded. With sorbent injection in the combustion gas train, NO{sub x} emissions as low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and SO{sub 2} emissions as low as 0.2 lb/MMBtu have been measured in tests in this quarter. Tests in the present quarter have resulted in further optimizing the sorbent injection and NO{sub x} control processes. A very important milestone in this quarter was two successful combustor tests on a very high ash (37%) Indian coal. Work in the next quarter will focus on commercialization of the combustor- boiler system. In addition, further tests of the NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} control process and on the Indian coal will be performed.

  8. Annual Coal Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Provides information about U.S. coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience, including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public.

  9. Indonesian coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    2008-11-15

    The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. The carbon cycle in the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS-ESM1) - Part 1: Model description and pre-industrial simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, R. M.; Ziehn, T.; Matear, R. J.; Lenton, A.; Chamberlain, M. A.; Stevens, L. E.; Wang, Y. P.; Srbinovsky, J.; Bi, D.; Yan, H.; Vohralik, P. F.

    2015-09-01

    Earth System Models (ESMs) that incorporate carbon-climate feedbacks represent the present state of the art in climate modelling. Here, we describe the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS)-ESM1 that combines existing ocean and land carbon models into the physical climate model to simulate exchanges of carbon between the land, atmosphere and ocean. The land carbon model can optionally include both nitrogen and phosphorous limitation on the land carbon uptake. The ocean carbon model simulates the evolution of nitrate, oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity and iron with one class of phytoplankton and zooplankton. From two multi-centennial simulations of the pre-industrial period with different land carbon model configurations, we evaluate the equilibration of the carbon cycle and present the spatial and temporal variability in key carbon exchanges. For the land carbon cycle, leaf area index is simulated reasonably, and seasonal carbon exchange is well represented. Interannual variations of land carbon exchange are relatively large, driven by variability in precipitation and temperature. We find that the response of the ocean carbon cycle shows reasonable agreement with observations and very good agreement with existing Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) models. While our model over estimates surface nitrate values, the primary productivity agrees well with observations. Our analysis highlights some deficiencies inherent in the carbon models and where the carbon simulation is negatively impacted by known biases in the underlying physical model. We conclude the study with a brief discussion of key developments required to further improve the realism of our model simulation.

  11. Coal use by industry and the associated air pollution emissions in the period from 1980 to 2000 under alternative market and regulatory conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    This study develops methods and data necessary to forecast both coal use and the associated air pollution emissions from US manufacturing industries in the period from 1980 to 2000 under alternative market and regulatory conditions. For the forecast and sensitivity analyses, a process model was developed to simulate industry's investment decisions for energy using equipment. Embodied in the process model are judgments on several practical issues of applied microeconomics, the most important being those concerning methods of investment decision making by industry. Under basecase assumptions, rapid growth in industrial coal use is forecast, a 9.8% compound rate of growth over the 1980 to 2000 period. If the base-case level of coal use was achieved and current air pollution rules were continued, a substantial increase in SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions would be realized; a 219% increase in industrial emissions of SO/sub 2/ and a 100% increase in NO/sub x/ emissions by the year 2000. To block this increase in emissions, a series of stricter air pollution regulations was simulated in the process model. With the high oil and gas prices assumed in the basecase, the stricter regulations did not slow the increase in coal use. However, the cost of stricter regulations may be a problem. The incremental cost of air pollution control (the cost per ton of pollutant reduction) rises steeply as stricter rules are imposed. A total cost of $4 billion could be incurred if very strict regulations (scrubber devices on all coal-fired systems) were imposed instead of continuing current policy.

  12. Video image analysis in the Australian meat industry - precision and accuracy of predicting lean meat yield in lamb carcasses.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, D L; Safari, E; Thompson, J M; Smith, C R

    2004-06-01

    A wide selection of lamb types of mixed sex (ewes and wethers) were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir and during this process images of 360 carcasses were obtained online using the VIAScan® system developed by Meat and Livestock Australia. Soft tissue depth at the GR site (thickness of tissue over the 12th rib 110 mm from the midline) was measured by an abattoir employee using the AUS-MEAT sheep probe (PGR). Another measure of this thickness was taken in the chiller using a GR knife (NGR). Each carcass was subsequently broken down to a range of trimmed boneless retail cuts and the lean meat yield determined. The current industry model for predicting meat yield uses hot carcass weight (HCW) and tissue depth at the GR site. A low level of accuracy and precision was found when HCW and PGR were used to predict lean meat yield (R(2)=0.19, r.s.d.=2.80%), which could be improved markedly when PGR was replaced by NGR (R(2)=0.41, r.s.d.=2.39%). If the GR measures were replaced by 8 VIAScan® measures then greater prediction accuracy could be achieved (R(2)=0.52, r.s.d.=2.17%). A similar result was achieved when the model was based on principal components (PCs) computed from the 8 VIAScan® measures (R(2)=0.52, r.s.d.=2.17%). The use of PCs also improved the stability of the model compared to a regression model based on HCW and NGR. The transportability of the models was tested by randomly dividing the data set and comparing coefficients and the level of accuracy and precision. Those models based on PCs were superior to those based on regression. It is demonstrated that with the appropriate modeling the VIAScan® system offers a workable method for predicting lean meat yield automatically. PMID:22061323

  13. Have government regulations improved workplace safety? A test of the asynchronous regulatory effects in China's coal industry, 1995-2006

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, X.P.

    2009-07-01

    Empirical studies on the effectiveness of workplace safety regulations are inconclusive. This study hypothesizes that the asynchronous effects of safety regulations occur because regulations need time to become effective. Safety regulations will work initially by reducing the most serious accidents, and later by improving overall safety performance. The hypothesis is tested by studying a provincial level aggregate panel dataset for China's coal industry using two different models with different sets of dependent variables: a fixed-effects model on mortality rate, which is defined as fatalities per 1,000 employees; and a negative binominal model on the annual number (frequency) of disastrous accidents. Safety regulations can reduce the frequency of disastrous accidents, but have not reduced mortality rate, which represents overall safety performance. Policy recommendations are made, including shifting production from small to large mines through industrial consolidation, improving the safety performance of large mines, addressing consequences of decentralization, and facilitating the implementation of regulations through carrying on institutional actions and supporting legislation.

  14. Fluid-dynamical and poro-elastic coupling of gas permeability of inert and sorbing gases on an Australian sub-bituminous coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gensterblum, Y.; Krooss, B. M.

    2013-12-01

    The interaction and the coupling of slip-flow, a fluid dynamic phenomenon, and the cleat volume compressibility which is a poroelastic phenomenon has been investigated on two samples from the Taroom coal measure, Surat Basin, Queensland Australia. Measurements were performed using inert (helium and argon) and sorbing gases (nitrogen, methane and carbon dioxide) at controlled effective stress. We observed the following regular sequence of permeability coefficients for the different gases: Helium >> argon => nitrogen > methane >> CO2 Even after slip-flow correction, different intrinsic permeability coefficients are obtained for the same sample if different gases are used in the tests. The permeability values determined with helium are largest while those measured with CO2 are lowest. Inert gases like helium and argon show higher apparent- and even slip flow-corrected permeability coefficients than sorbing gases like methane or carbon dioxide. This observation is contrary to the prediction that the slip-flow corrected permeability have to be the same for all gases. The cleat volume compressibility cf was evaluated using the 'matchstick approach' [1, 2]. The cleat volume compressibility coefficients cf are almost identical for the two samples taken from the same well. However, for one sample a strong dependence of the cf with the mean pore pressure was observed. This is attributed to a strong slip-flow effect caused by a narrow cleat system as compared to the sister sample. The cleat volume compressibility coefficient cf is almost the same for inert and sorbing gases. We conclude that the occurrence of slip-flow in coals is able to compensate the permeability reduction resulting from increasing effective stress. This should lead to a much higher productivity of coal bed methane reservoirs in the third production phase (pseudo-steady state phase; [3]). This conclusion appears to be also valid for shale gas and tight gas reservoirs, where the gas transport takes place in

  15. Atmospheric emissions of mercury from Australian point sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Peter F.

    The UN Global Mercury Assessment (GMA) estimates that atmospheric emissions of mercury from Australian stationary combustion sources were 97.0 tonnes for the year of 1995. This is more than 90% of the estimated emissions from stationary combustion for the whole of North America, and seems abnormally high for a country with a population of around 20 million, in spite of the fact that most of Australia's stationary energy supply is provided by coal. It is also significantly larger than previous estimates of mercury emissions from Australian sources. New estimates of Australian mercury emissions from stationary energy sources, based on both a top down and bottom up approach, are presented. These estimates can be reconciled for black coal fired power stations, but suggest that the bottom up approach (the Australian National Pollutant Inventory) significantly under-estimates emissions from brown coal fired plant, if mercury capture efficiencies in these plants are low, as observed for lignite-fired plant. The major uncertainties in these estimates are the coal mercury content in coals burnt in Australian power stations, and the mercury capture efficiency in particulate control devices used at these stations. Based on these estimates, Australian emissions of mercury from stationary energy are currently 2-8 tonnes/year, significantly lower than the GMA estimate.

  16. Skills Gaps in Australian Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of more than 2000 managers examining perceptions of skills gaps in a range of Australian firms. It finds that three quarters report a skills gap, and almost one third report skills gaps across the whole organisation. Firm size and industry differences exist in perceptions of the effect of the skills gap…

  17. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1993--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-30

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase 3 research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase 3 project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the past quarter, the major effort was completing some of the system modification installation designs, completing industry funded testing, developing a surrogate TSCA ash composition, and completing the TSCA ash Test Plan. The installation designs will be used for the equipment modifications planned for the end of CY 93. The industry funded testing consisted of vitrifying Spent Aluminum Potliner (SPL) which is a listed hazardous waste. This testing has verified that SPL can be vitrified into a safe, recyclable glass product. Some results from this testing are provided in Section 2.2.1. The surrogate TSCA ash composition was developed with input from various DOE laboratories and subcontractors. The surrogate ash consists of a mixture of MSW fly ash and bottom ash spiked with heavy metal contaminants. The levels of metal additives are sufficient to ascertain the partitioning of the contaminants between the glass and effluent flow streams. Details of the surrogate composition and the planned testing is provided in Section 4.2.2.

  18. Pulse-jet fabric filters for coal-fired utility and industrial boilers: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, A.H.; Cushing, K.M.

    1987-09-01

    Pulse-jet fabric filters rely on the filtration of dirty flue gas by the outside surface of the bags, which are then cleaned by a shock wave from an air pulse entering each bag from the top. The shock wave travels down each bag, flexing the bag and dislodging dustcake as it travels the length of the bag downward and then upward. A venturi may or may not be used to enhance the pulse, and cleaning may be on-line or off-line. This study provides a convenient and versatile information base about pulse-jet fabric filters on coal-fired boilers. Features include an overview of the pulse-jet concept, a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of pulse-jet cleaning, a survey of vendors and design and hardware features of pulse-jet installations, discussion of these design and hardware characteristics for several vendors, case histories of a wide variety of installations as examples, and a list of pertinent references. The most important part of the study is an exhaustive table of pulse-jet installations and their features, sorted several different ways for accessibility. Predominant features of the installations in the list are analyzed and presented in graphic form.

  19. Experimental characterization of an industrial pulverized coal-fired furnace under deep staging conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, M.; Azevedo, J.L.T.

    2007-07-01

    Measurements have been performed in a 300 MWe, front-wall-fired, pulverized-coal, utility boiler. This boiler was retrofitted with boosted over fire air injectors that allowed the operation of the furnace under deeper staging conditions. New data are reported for local mean gas species concentration of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NOx, gas temperatures and char burnout measured at several ports in the boiler including those in the main combustion and staged air regions. Comparisons of the present data with our previous measurements in this boiler, prior to the retrofitting with the new over fire system, show lower O{sub 2} and higher CO concentrations for the new situation as a consequence of the lower stoichiometry in the main combustion zone associated with the present boiler operating condition. Consistently, the measured mean NOx concentrations in the main combustion zone are now lower than those obtained previously, yielding emissions below 500 mg/Nm{sup 3}at 6% O{sub 2}. Finally, the measured values of particle burnout at the furnace exit are acceptable being those measured in the main combustion zone comparable with those obtained with the conventional over fire system.

  20. Preparation and characterization of high-strength calcium silicate boards from coal-fired industrial solid wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhao; Cao, Yong-dan; Zhang, Jin-shan; Sun, Chun-bao; Li, Xian-long

    2015-08-01

    To realize the comprehensive utilization of coal-fired industrial solid wastes, a novel high-strength board was prepared from calcium silicate slag, fly ash, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum. The changes in mineral phases, chemical structure, and morphology during hydration were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A traditional board made from quartz and lime was prepared as a reference. The novel board not only consumes a lot of solid wastes, but also meets the strength requirement of the class-five calcium silicate board according to the Chinese Standard JC/T 564.2—2008. Microanalysis showed that hydrated calcium silicate gel (C-S-H(I)), ettringite, tobermorite, and xonotlite were successively generated in the novel board by synergistic hydration of the mixed solid wastes. The board strength was improved by the formation of tobermorite and xonotlite but decreased by unhydrated quartz. It was demonstrated that quartz was not completely hydrated in the traditional board. As a result, the flexural strength of the traditional board was much lower than that of the novel board.

  1. Coal production 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  2. Baseload, industrial-scale wind power: An alternative to coal in China

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, D.J.; Williams, R.H.; Xie Shaoxiong; Zhang Shihui

    1996-12-31

    This report presents a novel strategy for developing wind power on an industrial-scale in China. Oversized wind farms, large-scale electrical storage and long-distance transmission lines are integrated to deliver {open_quotes}baseload wind power{close_quotes} to distant electricity demand centers. The prospective costs for this approach to developing wind power are illustrated by modeling an oversized wind farm at Huitengxile, Inner Mongolia. Although storage adds to the total capital investment, it does not necessarily increase the cost of the delivered electricity. Storage makes it possible to increase the capacity factor of the electric transmission system, so that the unit cost for long-distance transmission is reduced. Moreover, baseload wind power is typically more valuable to the electric utility than intermittent wind power, so that storage can be economically attractive even in instances where the cost per kWh is somewhat higher than without storage. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Industrial- and utility-scale coal-water fuel demonstration projects

    SciTech Connect

    Hathi, V.; Ramezan, M.; Winslow, J.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory-, pilot-, and large-scale CWF combustion work has been performed primarily in Canada, China, Italy, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and the United States, and several projects are still active. Sponsors have included governments, utilities and their research arms, engine manufacturers, equipment suppliers, and other organizations in attempts to show that CWF is a viable alternative to premium fuels, both in cost and performance. The objective of this report is to present brief summaries of past and current industrial- and utility-scale CWF demonstrations in order to determine what lessons can be learned from these important, highly visible projects directed toward the production of steam and electricity. Particular emphasis is placed on identifying the CWF characteristics; boiler type, geometry, size, and location; length of the combustion tests; and the results concerning system performance, including emissions.

  4. Knowledge Types Used by Researchers and Wool Producers in Australia under a Workplace Learning Typology: Implications for Innovation in the Australian Sheep Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Lyndal-Joy; Reeve, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on research into the learning aspects of adopting integrated parasite management practices for sheep (IPM-s) applying a workplace learning framework. An analysis of four primary data sources was conducted; a postal survey of Australian wool producers, a Delphi process with IPM-s researchers, focus groups and interviews with wool…

  5. Clean coal technologies market potential

    SciTech Connect

    Drazga, B.

    2007-01-30

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  6. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2003 through September 30, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, John; Schobert, Harold; Miller, Bruce G

    2006-03-01

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) has been successfully operating the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by PSU, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with PSU responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes PSU and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. A second contract was executed with DOE NETL starting in October 2003 to continue the activities of CPCPC. An annual funding meeting was held in October 2003 and the council selected 10 projects for funding. Base funding for the projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the various subcontractors on March 1, 2004.

  7. H.R. 2877: A Bill to require the Secretary of the Interior to determine the impact of leasing Federal lands for coal mining, on the existing mining industry prior to issuing Federal coal mining leases, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, August 5, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The report H.R. 2877 is a bill to require the Secretary of the Interior to determine the impact of leasing Federal lands for coal mining, on the existing mining industry prior to issuing Federal coal mining leases. The proposed legislative text is included.

  8. Coal Extraction - Environmental Prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cecil, C. Blaine; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    Coal from the Appalachian region has supplied energy to the Nation for more than 200 years. Appalachian coal fueled America through a civil war and helped win two world wars. Appalachian coal has also provided fuel for keeping America warm in the winter and cool in the summer and has served as the basis for the steel, automobile, organic chemicals, chlorine, and aluminum industries. These benefits have not come without environmental costs, however. Coal extraction and utilization have had significant environmental impacts.

  9. Coal Activities for Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Coal Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This collection of lesson plans designed for teachers of 4th- through 12th-grade students utilizes an assortment of teaching strategies for topics related to coal and the coal industry. Activities cover the following topics: coal formation; coal identification; "the geologist's dilemma" (a supply and demand activity); geologic time and the…

  10. Coal market momentum converts skeptics

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-01-15

    Tight supplies, soaring natural gas prices and an improving economy bode well for coal. Coal Age presents it 'Forecast 2006' a survey of 200 US coal industry executives. Questions asked included predicted production levels, attitudes, expenditure on coal mining, and rating of factors of importance. 7 figs.

  11. Fluorine in coal and coal by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.D.; Wong, A.S.; Hower, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    Fluorine occurs in awe amounts in most coals. It is typically associated with minerals of the apatite group, principally fluorapatite and clays, and with fluorite, tourmaline, topaz, amphiboles and micas. The average fluorine content of US coal is, according to the tabulation of Swanson, 74 {mu}g/g. In the United States, the lowest average fluorine concentration of 30 {mu}g/g is found in coals from Eastern Kentucky and the highest average value of 160 {mu}g/g is found in coals from Wyoming and New Mexico. The concentration range of fluorine in European coals is similar to that found in the US while the average fluorine content of Australian coals ranges from 15 to 500 {mu}g/g. We have determined the fluorine content in coal and fly ash standards by proton-induced gamma ray emission analysis (PIGE).

  12. Computer Aided Design of Advanced Turbine Airfoil Alloys for Industrial Gas Turbines in Coal Fired Environments

    SciTech Connect

    G.E. Fuchs

    2007-12-31

    Recent initiatives for fuel flexibility, increased efficiency and decreased emissions in power generating industrial gas turbines (IGT's), have highlighted the need for the development of techniques to produce large single crystal or columnar grained, directionally solidified Ni-base superalloy turbine blades and vanes. In order to address the technical difficulties of producing large single crystal components, a program has been initiated to, using computational materials science, better understand how alloy composition in potential IGT alloys and solidification conditions during processing, effect castability, defect formation and environmental resistance. This program will help to identify potential routes for the development of high strength, corrosion resistant airfoil/vane alloys, which would be a benefit to all IGT's, including small IGT's and even aerospace gas turbines. During the first year, collaboration with Siemens Power Corporation (SPC), Rolls-Royce, Howmet and Solar Turbines has identified and evaluated about 50 alloy compositions that are of interest for this potential application. In addition, alloy modifications to an existing alloy (CMSX-4) were also evaluated. Collaborating with SPC and using computational software at SPC to evaluate about 50 alloy compositions identified 5 candidate alloys for experimental evaluation. The results obtained from the experimentally determined phase transformation temperatures did not compare well to the calculated values in many cases. The effects of small additions of boundary strengtheners (i.e., C, B and N) to CMSX-4 were also examined. The calculated phase transformation temperatures were somewhat closer to the experimentally determined values than for the 5 candidate alloys, discussed above. The calculated partitioning coefficients were similar for all of the CMSX-4 alloys, similar to the experimentally determined segregation behavior. In general, it appears that computational materials science has become a

  13. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system: Phase 3, Progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1995-10-12

    The primary objective of the present Phase 3 effort is to perform the final testing, at a 20 MMBtu/hr commercial scale, of an air cooled, slagging coal combustor for application to industrial steam boilers and power plants. The focus of the test effort is on combustor durability, automatic control of the combustor`s operation, and optimum environmental control of emissions inside the combustor. In connection with the latter, the goal is to achieve 0.4lb/MMBtu of SO{sub 2} emissions, 0.2 lb./MMBtu of NO{sub x}, emissions, and 0.02 lb. particulates/MMBtu. To meet the particulate goal a baghouse will be used to augment the slag retention in the combustor. The NO{sub x} emission goal will require a modest improvement over maximum reduction achieved to date in the combustor to a level of 0.26 lb. /MMBtu. To reach the SO{sub 2} emissions goal may require a combination of sorbent injection inside the combustor and sorbent injection inside the boiler, or stack. In the third quarter of calendar year 1995 work continued on task 5, ``Site Demonstration``, with emphasis on installation of the 20 MMBtu/hr combustor and auxiliary equipment at the Philadelphia test site. The task 5 effort involve testing the combustor over extended periods under conditions that fully simulate commercial operation and that meet the combustion and environmental specifications for this project. During the present quarterly reporting period, over 90% of the components needed to implement the initial 100 hours of testing were installed at the test site.

  14. Development of a retrofit coal combustor for industrial applications, (Phase 1-A). Technical progress report, July--September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    During this past quarter, two tandem-fired pulse combustors were designed to fire at a nominal rate of 3.5 to 5.5 MMBtu/hr under continuation of Phase I work on DOE project DE-AC22-87PC79654. In prior work, MTCI demonstrated the operation of a 1--2 MMBtu/h coal-fired tandem pulse combustor that is intended for small industrial applications. These component tests emphasized verification of key design issues such as combustor coupling, slag rejection, and staged air addition. The current work, which represents an extension of the Phase I effort, focuses on integrated testing of the tandem pulse combustor with a fire-tube boiler, and the addition of a slag quench vessel. A tandem-fired pulse combustion unit designed to fire at a nominal rate of 3.5-5 MMBtu/hr was designed and fabricated. The configuration includes two combustion chambers cast in a single monolith, tailpipes cast separately with annular air preheating capability, and a cyclonic decoupler. Design analysis and evaluations were performed to optimize the system with respect to minimizing heat losses, size, and cost. Heat losses from the combustor and decoupler walls are predicted to be approximately 3 percent. The final designs for the ancillary items (slag quench, tertiary air addition, scrubber and sampling system) were completed and fabrication and installation initiated. A Cleaver-Brooks 150 hp-4 pass boiler was delivered and installed and modifications for interfacing with the retrofit pulse combustor unit completed. A below-ground slag collection pit was excavated to permit direct in-line coupling of the combustor to the boiler and to reduce head-room requirements. The pit is 30 inches deep and lined with waterproof and fireproof siding.

  15. Development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Phase 3 final report, November 1992--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-26

    A three phase research and development program has resulted in the development and commercialization of a Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}), capable of being fueled by pulverized coal, natural gas, and other solid, gaseous, or liquid fuels, for the vitrification of industrial wastes. The Phase 3 research effort focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added glass products from the vitrification of boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase 3 project was to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential for successful commercialization. The demonstration test consisted of one test run with a duration of 105 hours, approximately one-half (46 hours) performed with coal as the primary fuel source (70% to 100%), the other half with natural gas. Approximately 50 hours of melting operation were performed vitrifying approximately 50,000 lbs of coal-fired utility boiler flyash/dolomite mixture, producing a fully-reacted vitrified product.

  16. Bio-coal briquette

    SciTech Connect

    Honda, Hiroshi

    1993-12-31

    Some of the developing nations aim to earn foreign currency by exporting oil and/or gas and to increase the domestic consumption of coal to ensure a secure energy supply. Therefore, it is very important to promote effective coal utilization in these nations. Currently, these countries experience problems associated with coal use for household cooking and household industries. For household cooking, coal creates too much smoke and smells unpleasant. In addition, illegally obtained firewood is almost free in local agricultural regions. Coal is also used in household industries; however, simple stoker boilers are inefficient, since unburned coal particles tend to drop through screens during the combustion process. The bio-coal briquette, on the other hand, is an effective and efficient fuel, since it utilizes coal, which is to be used extensively in households and in small and medium-scale industry sectors in some coal-producing countries, as a primary fuel and bamboos (agricultural waste) as a secondary fuel. In addition, the use of bio-coal briquettes will greatly help reduce unburned coal content.

  17. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15, 1994--August 15, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1994-11-30

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new system specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. During this reporting period, the construction of the CWSF preparation circuit (as well as a dry, micronized coal circuit) continued. The CWSF preparation circuit will be completed by November 1,1994. Additional activities included receiving a coal-designed burner and installing it on the demonstration boiler, and working with DOE in selecting pollution control systems to install on the boiler.

  18. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semi-annual technical progress report, February 15--September 15, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1997-06-02

    A coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program is being undertaken to determine if CWSFs prepared from cleaned coal (containing approximately 3.5 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can be burned effectively in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. Information will also be generated to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated In a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. The first three phases have been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler did not meet performance goals. A maximum coal combustion efficiency of 95% (target is 98%) was achieved; however, natural gas cofiring was necessary to maintain a stable flame. Consequently, the first demonstration was terminated after 500 hours. The second demonstration (Phase 4) will be conducted after a proven CWSF-designed burner is installed on the boiler. Prior to starting the second demonstration, a CWSF preparation circuit was constructed to provide flexibility in CWSF production.

  19. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1994--February 15, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.

    1995-05-12

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State and DOE have entered into a cooperative agreement to determine if CWSFs prepared from cleaned coal (containing approximately 3.5 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can be burned effectively in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and stagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. The first three phases (i.e., the first demonstration) have been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler did not meet performance goals. Consequently, the first demonstration has been concluded at 500 hours.

  20. China's post-coal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ye; Stern, Nicholas; Wu, Tong; Lu, Jiaqi; Green, Fergus

    2016-08-01

    Slowing GDP growth, a structural shift away from heavy industry, and more proactive policies on air pollution and clean energy have caused China's coal use to peak. It seems that economic growth has decoupled from growth in coal consumption.

  1. Farewell, king coal!

    PubMed

    Seaton, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    Coal mining provided the power for the industrial development of the West, at great cost to the health of the workforce and, from industrial pollution, of the population. Medical appreciation of the diseases of miners was slow to develop and has been marked by controversy relating to the roles of coal and quartz and the causation of emphysema. Research by the MRC and the British coal industry resolved these issues as the industry itself declined. However, from the research has come an understanding of the influence of inhalation of different inhaled pollutants on human health that has been applied to predicting and preventing possible hazards of developing nanotechnologies. PMID:26856364

  2. Coal Production 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  3. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, David

    2016-04-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States and Europe, in Australia extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus to date. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics including the potential requirement for hydraulic fracturing. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction on surface and groundwater resources may be of even greater concern. In Australia, an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) has been established to provide scientific advice to federal and state government regulators on the impact that coal seam gas and large coal mining developments may have on water resources. This advice is provided to enable decisions to be informed by the best available science about the potential water-related impacts associated with these developments. To support this advice, the Australian Government Department of the Environment has implemented a programme of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment is defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are currently being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the programme and results to date can be found at http://www.bioregionalassessments.gov.au. Surface water and groundwater modelling is now complete for two regions where coal seam gas development may proceed, namely the Clarence-Moreton and Gloucester regions in eastern New South Wales. This presentation will discuss how the results of these

  4. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, David

    2015-04-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States and Europe, in Australia extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus to date. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics including the potential requirement for hydraulic fracturing. However as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas the potential impacts of extraction and hydraulic fracturing on surface and groundwater resources may be of even greater concern for coal seam gas than for shale gas. In Australia an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) has been established to provide scientific advice to federal and state government regulators on the impact that coal seam gas and large coal mining developments may have on water resources. This advice is provided to enable decisions to be informed by the best available science about the potential water-related impacts associated with these developments. To support this advice the Australian Government Department of the Environment has implemented a three-year programme of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment is defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are currently being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the program and results to date can be found at http://www.bioregionalassessments.gov.au. In this presentation the methodology for undertaking bioregional assessments will be described and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia

  5. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce G

    2006-03-01

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) has been successfully operating the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by PSU, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with PSU responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes PSU and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. A second contract was executed with DOE NETL starting in October 2003 to continue the activities of CPCPC. An annual funding meeting was held in October 2003 and the council selected ten projects for funding. Base funding for the projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten projects have been completed and the final reports for these 2004 projects are attached. An annual funding meeting was held in November 2004 and the council selected

  6. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce G

    2006-09-29

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University has been successfully managing the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by Penn State, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. Base funding for the selected projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. At the annual funding meeting held in October 2003, ten projects were selected for funding. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten 2004 projects were completed during the previous annual reporting period and their final reports were submitted with the previous annual report (i.e., 10/01/04-09/30/05). The final report for the remaining project, which was submitted during this reporting

  7. Meeting Skills Needs in a Market-Based Training System: A Study of Employer Perceptions and Responses to Training Challenges in the Australian Transport and Logistics Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gekara, Victor O.; Snell, Darryn; Chhetri, Prem; Manzoni, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Many countries are adopting market-based training systems to address industry skills needs. This paper examines the marketisation of Australia's training system and the implications for training provision and outcomes in the Transport and Logistics industry. Drawing on qualitative interviews from industry employers and training providers, we…

  8. Analysis of the financial impacts to the industrial energy user of using coal or municipal solid waste in a new process-steam-generating plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    An analysis is presented of the financial impacts to the industrial energy user of using either coal or MSW in a new process-steam-generating plant. The results of the analysis indicate that the use of coal or solid waste, rather than oil, in a new energy production plant represents an attractive investment. The financial analysis is based on replacing an existing oil-fired plant with a new plant financed via 100-percent debt. The analysis was structured to cover a range of steam demands, different plant ownership and operating structures, and the tax benefits available to these types of plants. Information is also provided on the types of technologies that would be appropriate given the assumed steam demands. In addition, information is provided on available tax benefits in light of recent tax law changes. Nine options for new coal and MSW plants were analyzed, reflecting a matching of technology and energy output to various process steam demands, as well as different ownership and operating structures.

  9. Determinants of Successful Training Practices in Large Australian Firms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawe, Susan

    The determinants of successful training practices in large Australian firms were examined. The study's three phases were as follows: (1) a review of existing literature; (2) a meta-analysis of previously conducted case studies of 49 large Australian firms in 14 industrial sectors; and (3) a comparative analysis of the findings of the past studies…

  10. Educational and Institutional Flexibility of Australian Educational Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shurville, Simon; O'Grady, Thomas; Mayall, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide context for papers in this special issue on Australasian e-learning. The paper aims to examine the background to Australian flexible and transnational education and to evaluate the educational and intuitional flexibility of three typical products of the Australian educational software industry.…

  11. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor phase III industrial boiler retrofit. Technical progress report No. 17, 18 and 19, September 30, 1991--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Borio, R.W.; Patel, R.L.; Thornock, D.E.

    1996-07-29

    The objective of this project is to retrofit a burner, capable of firing microfine coal, to a standard gas/oil designed industrial boiler to assess the technical and economic viability of displacing premium fuels with microfine coal. This report documents the technical aspects of this project during the last three quarters [seventeenth (October `95 through December `95), eighteenth (January `96 through March `96), and nineteenth (April `96 through June `96)] of the program.

  12. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1993--February 15, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Poe, R.L.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1994-11-30

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. The first demonstrations been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler has been determined to be unacceptable. Consequently, the first demonstration has been concluded at 500 hours. The second demonstration will be conducted after a proven CWSF-designed burner is installed on the boiler. During this reporting period, the construction of the fuel preparation facility that will contain the CWSF circuit (as well as a dry, micronized coal circuit) was completed. Proposals from potential suppliers of the flue gas treatment systems were reviewed by Penn State and DOE.

  13. Preliminary draft industrial siting administration permit application: Socioeconomic factors technical report. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project in Converse County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Under the with-project scenario, WyCoalGas is projected to make a difference in the long-range future of Converse County. Because of the size of the proposed construction and operations work forces, the projected changes in employment, income, labor force, and population will alter Converse County's economic role in the region. Specifically, as growth occurs, Converse County will begin to satisfy a larger portion of its own higher-ordered demands, those that are currently being satisfied by the economy of Casper. Business-serving and household-serving activities, currently absent, will find the larger income and population base forecast to occur with the WyCoalGas project desirable. Converse County's economy will begin to mature, moving away from strict dependence on extractive industries to a more sophisticated structure that could eventually appeal to national, and certainly, regional markets. The technical demand of the WyCoalGas plant will mean a significant influx of varying occupations and skills. The creation of basic manufacturing, advanced trade and service sectors, and concomitant finance and transportation firms will make Converse County more economically autonomous. The county will also begin to serve market center functions for the smaller counties of eastern Wyoming that currently rely on Casper, Cheyenne or other distant market centers. The projected conditions expected to exist in the absence of the WyCoalGas project, the socioeconomic conditions that would accompany the project, and the differences between the two scenarios are considered. The analysis is keyed to the linkages between Converse County and Natrona County.

  14. Development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-30

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system, controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. The past quarter began with a two-day test performed in January to determine the cause of pulsations in the batch feed system observed during pilot-scale testing of surrogate TSCA incinerator ash performed in December of 1993. Two different batch feedstocks were used during this test: flyash and cullet. The cause of the pulsations was traced to a worn part in the feeder located at the bottom of the batch feed tank. The problem was corrected by replacing the wom part with the corresponding part on the existing coal feed tank. A new feeder for the existing coal tank, which had previously been ordered as part of the new coal handling system, was procured and installed. The data from the pilot-scale tests performed on surrogate TSCA incinerator ash during December of 1993 was collected and analyzed. All of the glass produced during the test passed both the Toxicity characteristics Leach Procedure (TCLP) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT) by approximately two orders of magnitude.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric PM2.5 and PM10 at a coal-based industrial city: Implication for PAH control at industrial agglomeration regions, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Wang, Zongshuang; Chen, Jianhua; Kong, Shaofei; Fu, Xiao; Deng, Hongbing; Shao, Guofan; Wu, Gang

    2014-11-01

    Eighteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM2.5 and PM10 are identified and quantified at five sites of E'erduosi in 2005 by GC-MS. Total PAH concentrations in PM2.5 and PM10 are in the ranges of 0.58-145.01 ng m- 3 and 5.80-180.32 ng m- 3 for the five sites, decreasing as coal-chemical base site (ZGE) > heavy industrial site (QPJ) > residential site with heavy traffic (DS) > suburban site surrounded by grassland (HJQ) > background site (QGN) for both PM2.5 and PM10. PAH concentrations in the coal-chemical base site are 250 and 31.1 times of those in the background site. Flu, Pyr, Chr, BbF, BeP, IND and BghiP are abundant for the coal-chemical base site, totally accounting for 75% of the PAH concentrations. 4, 5 and 6 rings PAHs are dominant, accounting for 88.9-94.2% and 90.5-94.1% of PAHs in PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. Combustion-derived PAH concentrations cover 42%-84% and 75%-82% of PAHs in PM2.5 and PM10, indicating large amounts of combustion sources existed for them in E'erduosi. PAH compositions between PM2.5 and PM10 are quite different from each other for sites with few human activities (HJQ and QGN) by coefficient of divergence analysis. Results obtained from principal component analysis and diagnostic ratios indicate that coal combustion, vehicle emission, wood combustion and industrial processes are the main sources for PAHs in E'erduosi. According to BaP equivalent concentration, the potential health risk of PAHs in PM2.5 at the two industrial sites ZGE and QPJ are 537 and 460 times of those for the background site. And they are 4.3 and 3.7 times of those for the residential site. The potential PAH pollution in particles at other industrial agglomeration regions that occurred in China in recent years should be paid attention by the local government.

  16. FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITE H

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives test results on a coal-fired, overfeed, traveling-grate stoker. The boiler tested is rated at 45,000 lb/hr saturated steam at 140 psig. Measurements include gaseous emissions (O2, CO2, CO, NO, NO2, SO3, and HC), uncontrolled particulate mass loading, particle siz...

  17. FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT--SITE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field measurements made on a 70,000 lb steam/hr coal-fired overfeed stoker with traveling grate. The effects of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency were studied. Parameters include overfire air, excess oxygen, grate heat release, and ...

  18. FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITES L1-L7

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field measurements to determine particulate emission rate and particle size distribution for seven institutional-type stoker-fired boilers firing bituminous coals. Operational data were recorded during the tests to provide information for evaluating bo...

  19. FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITE K

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field measurements made on a 50,000 lb stream/hr coal-fired overfeed stoker with traveling grate. The effects of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency were studied. Parameters include overfire air, excess oxygen, grate heat release, and...

  20. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase 3 industrial boiler retrofit. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.L.; Thornock, D.E.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; McGowan, J.G.

    1998-03-01

    Economics and/or political intervention may one day dictate the conversion from oil or natural gas to coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn oil or gas. In recognition of this future possibility the US Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technical Center (DOE-FETC) supported a program led by ABB Power Plant Laboratories with support from the Energy and Fuels Research Center of Penn State University with the goal of demonstrating the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of the overall goal the following specific objectives were targeted: develop a coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical and operational requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; maintain boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; maintain NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb NO{sub 2} per million Btu; achieve combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and determine economic payback periods as a function of key variables.

  1. Premium carbon products from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Rusinko, F. Jr.; Morrison, J.L.

    2000-07-01

    The face of the US coal industry and its markets are changing. Environmental concerns over global warming and plant emissions are two factors that will continue to gain national attention and consequently will challenge the use of coal in the US within its traditional markets. The decline of coke production in the US has lead to high quality metallurgical-grade coal being used to generate electricity. One could argue this is a waste of a limited valuable resource. The debate over global warming and the generation of greenhouse gases, particularly CO{sub 2}, will undoubtedly negatively impact the use of coal in newly constructed power plants. What is the future of the US coal industry and the industries that benefit from coal? This paper will review the use of coal and coal-derived materials in new, non-fuel markets. It will review a new industrial consortium that has recently been formed to stimulate the use of coal in value-added carbon markets. One of the questions the reader should ask when reading this paper is: Is coal more valuable for its carbon content or its BTU content? Carbon materials such as carbon fibers, carbon-carbon composites, specialty and mechanical graphite, activated carbon, carbon black, and carbon foams may provide new markets for the coal industry. These markets are expanding and some of these markets are in their infancy. These new material applications offer an exciting, but little recognized, opportunity for the expanded use of coal.

  2. State coal profiles, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  3. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15, 1993--August 15, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Poe, R.L.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1993-09-24

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State and DOE have entered into a cooperative agreement with the purpose of determining if CWSF prepared from a cleaned coal (containing approximately 3.5 wt % ash and 0.9 wt % sulfur) can be effectively burned in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will also generate information to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The approach being used in the program is as follows: 1. Install a natural gas/fuel oil-designed package boiler and generate baseline data firing natural gas; 2. Shake down the system with CWSF and begin the first 1,000 hours of testing using the burner/atomizer system provided with the boiler. The first 1,000-hour demonstration was to consist of boiler operation testing and combustion performance evaluation using CWSF preheat, a range of atomizing air pressures (up to 200 psig as compared to the 100 psig boiler manufacturer design pressure), and steam as the atomizing medium; 3. If the combustion performance was not acceptable based on the combustion efficiency obtained and the level of gas support necessary to maintain flame stabilization, then low-cost modifications were to be implemented, such as installing a quarl and testing alternative atomizers; 4. If acceptable combustion performance was not obtained with the low-cost modifications, then the first demonstration was to be terminated and the burner system replaced with one of proven CWSF design.

  4. Partial Oxidation Gas Turbine for Power and Hydrogen Co-Production from Coal-Derived Fuel in Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2009-06-30

    , pressures, and volumetric flows practically identical. In POGT mode, the turbine specific power (turbine net power per lb mass flow from expander exhaust) is twice the value of the onventional turbine. POGT based IGCC plant conceptual design was developed and major components have been identified. Fuel flexible fluid bed gasifier, and novel POGT unit are the key components of the 100 MW IGCC plant for co producing electricity, hydrogen and/or yngas. Plant performances were calculated for bituminous coal and oxygen blown versions. Various POGT based, natural gas fueled systems for production of electricity only, coproduction of electricity and hydrogen, and co production of electricity and syngas for gas to liquid and hemical processes were developed and evaluated. Performance calculations for several versions of these systems were conducted. 64.6 % LHV efficiency for fuel to electricity in combined cycle was achieved. Such a high efficiency arise from using of syngas from POGT exhaust s a fuel that can provide required temperature level for superheated steam generation in HRSG, as well as combustion air preheating. Studies of POGT materials and combustion instabilities in POR were conducted and results reported. Preliminary market assessment was performed, and recommendations for POGT systems applications in oil industry were defined. POGT technology is ready to proceed to the engineering prototype stage, which is recommended.

  5. Coal Gasification (chapter only)

    SciTech Connect

    Shadle, L.J.; Berry, D.A.; Syamlal, Madhava

    2002-11-15

    Coal gasification is presented in terms of the chemistry of coal conversion and the product gas characteristics, the historical development of coal gasifiers, variations in the types and performance of coal gasifiers, the configuration of gasification systems, and the status and economics of coal gasification. In many ways, coal gasification processes have been tailored to adapt to the different types of coal feedstocks available. Gasification technology is presented from a historical perspective considering early uses of coal, the first practical demonstration and utilization of coal gasification, and the evolution of the various processes used for coal gasification. The development of the gasification industry is traced from its inception to its current status in the world economy. Each type of gasifier is considered focusing on the process innovations required to meet the changing market needs. Complete gasification systems are described including typical system configurations, required system attributes, and aspects of the industry's environmental and performance demands. The current status, economics of gasification technology, and future of gasification are also discussed.

  6. Coal mining methods in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Continuous miner methods dominate underground while dragline stripping is today's and tomorrow's favored method on surface. Poor roof conditions in Australian underground mines and the need to operate more efficient surface mines in view of rising fuel costs are key factors in determining the mining methods for the country's premier cash commodity - coal. These and other new developments in underground and surface mining in Australia were discussed in detail at the Australian Coal Association's 1980 coal conference which was held last April in Surfers Paradise, Queensland. Two papers presented at the conference form the basis of this article; H.L. Pearce, general superintendent of the Steel Division Collieries of the Broken Hill Proprietary Company, described underground mining and K.J. Foots, manager of the Utah Development Company's Blackwater mine, talked about surface mining.

  7. COAL SLAGGING AND REACTIVITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Jason D. Laumb

    2003-10-01

    carbon as well as slagging. A second phase of the project involved advanced analysis of the baseline coal along with an Australian coal fired at the plant. These analysis results were used in equilibrium thermodynamic modeling along with a coal quality model developed by the EERC to assess slagging, fouling, and opacity for the coals. Bench-scale carbon conversion testing was performed in a drop-tube furnace to assess the reactivity of the coals. The Australian coal had a higher mineral content with significantly more clay minerals present than the baseline coal. The presence of these clay minerals, which tend to melt at relatively low temperatures, indicated a higher potential for problematic slagging than the baseline coal. However, the pyritic minerals, comprising over 25% of the baseline mineral content, may form sticky iron sulfides, leading to severe slagging in the burner region if local areas with reducing conditions exist. Modeling results indicated that neither would present significant fouling problems. The Australian coal was expected to show slagging behavior much more severe than the baseline coal except at very high furnace temperatures. However, the baseline coal was predicted to exhibit opacity problems, as well as have a higher potential for problematic calcium sulfate-based low-temperature fouling. The baseline coal had a somewhat higher reactivity than the Australian coal, which was consistent with both the lower average activation energy for the baseline coal and the greater carbon conversion at a given temperature and residence time. The activation energy of the baseline coal showed some effect of oxygen on the activation energy, with E{sub a} increasing at the lower oxygen concentration, but may be due to the scatter in the baseline coal kinetic values at the higher oxygen level tested.

  8. Quantitative relations between exposure to respirable coalmine dust and coalworkers' simple pneumoconiosis in men who have worked as miners but have left the coal industry.

    PubMed Central

    Soutar, C A; Maclaren, W M; Annis, R; Melville, A W

    1986-01-01

    Present estimates of the quantitative relations between exposure to mixed respirable coalmine dust and risk of developing coalworkes' simple pneumoconiosis are based on studies of working miners. These studies did not include men who had been miners but had left the coal industry, and it was not known whether the estimates of risk were also appropriate for these men. The results are reported of a study in which the dust/disease relations in men who have been miners but have left the industry have been compared with those in men who have remained in it. A sample of 17738 men who were first examined when working in 24 British collieries in the 1950s has been followed up about 22 years later. It was possible to examine 61% of the survivors, 44% of the original sample. Simple pneumoconiosis was more frequent among men (particularly older men) who had left the industry than among those who had stayed in it. A detailed analysis did not show any systematic or statistically significant difference between men who stayed and men who left in the quantitative relations between dust exposure and simple pneumoconiosis. Present estimates of risk of simple pneumoconiosis in relation to exposure to mixed respirable dust in working miners adequately describe the relation found in men who have been miners but have left the industry. PMID:3947559

  9. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to fracture related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry. [Indiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T. V.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. New fracture detail of Indiana has been observed and mapped from ERTS-1 imagery. Studies so far indicate a close relationship between the directions of fracture traces mapped from the imagery, fractures measured on bedrock outcrops, and fractures measured in the underground mines. First hand observations and discussions with underground mine operators indicate good correlation of mine hazard maps prepared from ERTS-1/aircraft imagery and actual roof falls. The inventory of refuse piles/slurry ponds of the coal field of Indiana has identified over 225 such sites from past mining operations. These data will serve the State Legislature in making tax decisions on coal mining which take on increased importance because of the energy crisis.

  10. Coal science for the clean use of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.S.

    1994-12-31

    Coal will need to be retained as a major source of energy in the next century. It will need to be used more effectively and more cleanly. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to introduce new technology supported by a local community of science and technology. Only in this way can the full benefits of international advances in coal utilization be fully achieved. It is important that full advantage be taken of the advances that have been achieved in laboratory techniques and in the better understanding of fundamental coal science. This paper reviews available technologies in power generation, industrial process heat, coal combustion, coal gasification, and coal analytical procedures.