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Sample records for australian public sector

  1. Internal Audit: Does it Enhance Governance in the Australian Public University Sector?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Joe

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to confirm if internal audit, a corporate control process, is functioning effectively in Australian public universities. The study draws on agency theory, published literature and best-practice guidelines to develop an internal audit evaluation framework. A survey instrument is thereafter developed from the framework and used as a…

  2. Marketing in the Australian Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favaloro, Chrissa

    2015-01-01

    This article examines domestic marketing in the Australian higher education sector, specifically, the marketing investment patterns of universities and their levels of student growth as a return on marketing investment. Marketing expenditure by universities has risen 23 per cent in the five years to 2013, with several institutions allocating in…

  3. Nexus between preventive policy inadequacies, workplace bullying, and mental health: Qualitative findings from the experiences of Australian public sector employees.

    PubMed

    Hurley, John; Hutchinson, Marie; Bradbury, Joanne; Browne, Graeme

    2016-02-01

    Public sector organizations have been shown to have high levels of workplace bullying, despite widespread adoption of zero-tolerance policy. Given the level of harm that stems from bullying, it has been suggested that it might be one of the most serious problems facing modern organizations. The qualitative findings from a large cross sectional study of public servants in Australia are reported in the present study. The results highlight palpable mental distress and illness stemming from exposure to workplace bullying. This distress was exacerbated by failures in prohibitive workplace procedures. Reporting bullying through formal organization processes did not lead to resolution of the problem; it instead highlighted feelings of powerlessness and mistrust. In light of the findings, we suggest that an alternative discourse is required, one that gives attention to enhancing employee resilience and self-healing behaviours to the emotional trauma of workplaces. Organizations might be better placed investing resources in fostering the resilience and emotional intelligence of their workforce, rather than continuing to invest resources in prohibitive policies that fail to address the problem. Employees should be supported to prioritize responsibility for their own mental health, rather than an overreliance on organizational responses. PMID:26752457

  4. Public Sector Reform in Australia and Its Impact on Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willard, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of public sector reform in Australia, focusing on the Commonwealth Government and Australian Public Service. Describes management reform packages, human resources management reforms, and industrial relations reforms. Discusses the impact of these changes on public libraries. (AEF)

  5. Public Sector Impasse Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadakin, James C.

    The subject of collective bargaining negotiation impasse procedures in the public sector, which includes public school systems, is a broad one. In this speech, the author introduces the various procedures, explains how they are used, and lists their advantages and disadvantages. Procedures discussed are mediation, fact-finding, arbitration,…

  6. Employment in the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report synthesizes the findings from several areas of work undertaken to assess what impact public sector employment has had on both the level and structure of employment. It also examines the impact of the public sector as employer on the labor market from two viewpoints: the level and share of public sector employment and the structure of…

  7. Publications of Australian LIS Academics in Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Concepcion S.; Boell, Sebastian K.; Kennan, Mary Anne; Willard, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines aspects of journal articles published from 1967 to 2008, located in eight databases, and authored or co-authored by academics serving for at least two years in Australian LIS programs from 1959 to 2008. These aspects are: inclusion of publications in databases, publications in journals, authorship characteristics of…

  8. Trends in Public Sector Arbitration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Harry; Wallace, Virginia

    1982-01-01

    Presents developments in grievance arbitration in government employment by examining all public sector arbitration cases from 1971 through 1979. Predicts that issues of employee discipline and discharge will comprise the largest number of cases proceeding to arbitration. (Author/MLF)

  9. Public Sector Employee Assistance Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Donna R.; Verlinde, Beverly

    This document discusses employee assistance programs (EAPs), programs which have been developed to help employees deal with personal problems that seriously affect job performance. It reviews literature which specifically addresses EAPs in the public sector, noting that there are no exact figures on how many public entities have EAPs. Previous…

  10. Funding of South Australian public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Moss, John

    2002-01-01

    Since the 1994-95 financial year, inpatient episodes of care in South Australian public hospitals have been funded according to their casemix. This paper describes the current funding system, sets it in some context and examines what can be established about hospital performance. PMID:11974955

  11. The Writing on the Wall: Responses of Australian Public Universities to Competition in Global Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradmore, Donald J.; Smyrnios, Kosmas X.

    2009-01-01

    Australian public universities are struggling to maintain parity with international counterparts in an environment that is becoming increasingly competitive globally. While most universities are now heeding calls from sector leaders to become more competitive, any strategies that they implement to effect change in this regard might be too late to…

  12. Research Frontiers in Public Sector Performance Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhonghua, Cai; Ye, Wang

    In "New Public Management" era, performance measurement has been widely used in managerial practices of public sectors. From the content and features of performance measurement, this paper aims to explore inspirations on Chinese public sector performance measurement, which based on a review of prior literatures including influencial factors, methods and indicators of public sector performance evaluation. In the end, arguments are presented in this paper pointed out the direction of future researches in this field.

  13. Labor in the Public and Nonprofit Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamermesh, Daniel S., Ed.

    Originally presented at a Conference on Labor in Nonprofit Industry and Government held at Princeton University, the studies are the first to provide an economic discussion of the public sector labor market. Melvin Reder examines the effect of the absence of the profit motive on employment and wage determination in the public sector. Orley…

  14. Recent Changes in Public-Sector Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khademian, Anne Meredith

    This report looks at recent changes in governance across the public sector to provide context and examples for the National Commission on Governing America's Schools' efforts. The report is presented in six sections. Following a brief introduction in section 1, section 2 provides an overview of the forces that have changed public-sector governance…

  15. Public Sector Labor Law in Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielke, Laurence J.

    1979-01-01

    Examines Kentucky's statutory and decisional law concerning public sector labor relations, as well as the practice and future of public sector relations as perceived by city and county officials. Available from Salmon P. Chase College of Law, 1401 Dixie Highway, Covington, Kentucky 41011; 1.50 per reprint. (Author/IRT)

  16. Proposed Public Sector Bargaining Legislation for Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Mary Volk

    1979-01-01

    Argues for a public sector collective bargaining statute in Colorado and analyzes the issues that must be addressed in effective public sector collective bargaining legislation. Available from University of Colorado Law Review, Inc., Fleming Law Building, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309. (Author/IRT)

  17. 2008 Public Sector Cucumber Research Priority Survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In December 2008, a national wide survey was conducted to identify priorities for cucumber research in the public sector. The questions in the survey were in four categories: diseases, insects, abiotic stresses and other issues. The survey was sent to cucumber-related researchers in the public insti...

  18. Quality in the Australian VET Sector: What Has Been Happening?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Roger

    2015-01-01

    VET (vocational education and training) is a fascinating sector. Aligned closely with the labour market and sandwiched between two major sectors, it is continually buffeted by political winds, susceptible to the ideologies of different governments. Often labelled the "poor cousin", debates continue to rage about its quality. This paper…

  19. The Australian Way: Competency-Based Training in the Corporate Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellie, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    Examples from road construction, mining, and other Australian industries show that the corporate sector has responded slowly to the introduction of a national framework for competency-based training. As industry bears more of the costs of training, it has yet to see returns in terms of productivity gains. (SK)

  20. "Singing into Language": Sudanese Australian Young Women Create Public Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the ethnocinematic research project "Cross-Marked: Sudanese Australian Young Women Talk Education", and its relationship to the evolving notion of public pedagogies. The project explores the potential of alternative pedagogies, which include popular culture, especially audiovisual forms, to engage teachers and learners with…

  1. Public Policy and Union Security in the Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson Nels E.

    1978-01-01

    Surveys the legal status of union security in the public sector and indicates that the basic policy options are to limit union security to the voluntary dues check-off, to authorize the parties to negotiate union or agency shop agreements, or to establish a mandatory fee for the exclusive representative. (Author/IRT)

  2. 22 CFR 201.22 - Procurement under public sector procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procurement under public sector procedures. 201... § 201.22 Procurement under public sector procedures. (a) General requirements. When the importer is the... contracts for commodities shall be awarded under public sector procedures in this section unless...

  3. Elements of a Knowledge Management Guide for Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mark Cameron

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the factors that are critical to the success of public (government) sector knowledge management initiatives and the lessons from private sector knowledge management and organizational learning that apply in the public sector. The goal was to create a concise guide, based on research-validated success factors, to aid government…

  4. Partnerships with the Public Sector: Vocational Education Resource Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation and Training Inst., Los Angeles, CA.

    Designed to assist community college administrators and faculty in enhancing vocational education programs and services, this resource package contains information on successful partnership programs between California Community Colleges (CCC) and public sector entities. Following a brief overview of public sector partnerships, the report presents…

  5. 29 CFR 801.10 - Exclusion for public sector employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusion for public sector employers. 801.10 Section 801... public sector employers. (a) Section 7(a) provides an exclusion from the Act's coverage for the United States Government, any State or local government, or any political subdivision of a State or...

  6. A Guide to Discipline in the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidman, Joel

    This monograph was prepared as an initial effort in development of a body of material for training public sector managers. It sets forth the basic principles of grievance arbitration covering discipline in the public sector. Major sections are devoted to the topics of just or proper cause for discipline, due process, the nature of discipline, and…

  7. Leadership Provided by Non-Academic Middle-Level Managers in the Australian Higher Education Sector: The Enablers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilkinas, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to identify the leadership behaviours displayed by non-academic middle-level managers in the Australian higher education sector. The study also identifies the importance of these leadership behaviours and the leadership effectiveness of these managers. The integrated competing values framework was used to measure leadership…

  8. The private sector's role in public sector genetically engineered crop projects.

    PubMed

    Potrykus, Ingo

    2010-11-30

    There is widespread interest within academia to work on public good genetically engineered (GE) projects to the benefit of the poor, especially to use GE-technology to contribute to food security. Not a single product from this work has reached the market. The major cause is GE-regulation, which prevents use of the technology for public good beyond proof-of-concept (Potrykus, I. (2010) Lessons from the Humanitarian Golden Rice project: Regulation prevents development of public good GE-products (these Proceedings)). There is, however, another key problem responsible for the lack of deployment of public good GE-plants: the public sector is incompetent and disinterested for work beyond proof-of-concept, and has neither capability nor funding to develop GE-plant products and introduce them to growers and consumers. The private sector has the expertise for both and in the right circumstances can be ready to support the public sector in public good enterprises. Public-private-partnerships are the best solution so far, to advance exploitation of GE-technology to the benefit of the poor. Public-private-partnerships are viable, however, only, if there is mutual interest from the private sector and initiative and funding from the public sector. PMID:20637908

  9. Behavioral economics perspectives on public sector pension plans

    PubMed Central

    BESHEARS, JOHN; CHOI, JAMES J.; LAIBSON, DAVID; MADRIAN, BRIGITTE C.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the pension plan features of the states and the largest cities and counties in the U.S. Unlike in the private sector, defined benefit (DB) pensions are still the norm in the public sector. However, a few jurisdictions have shifted toward defined contribution (DC) plans as their primary savings plan, and fiscal pressures are likely to generate more movement in this direction. Holding fixed a public employee’s work and salary history, we show that DB retirement income replacement ratios vary greatly across jurisdictions. This creates large variation in workers’ need to save for retirement in other accounts. There is also substantial heterogeneity across jurisdictions in the savings generated in primary DC plans because of differences in the level of mandatory employer and employee contributions. One notable difference between public and private sector DC plans is that public sector primary DC plans are characterized by required employee or employer contributions (or both), whereas private sector plans largely feature voluntary employee contributions that are supplemented by an employer match. We conclude by applying lessons from savings behavior in private sector savings plans to the design of public sector plans. PMID:21789032

  10. Transferring technology to the public sector.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alper, M. E.

    1972-01-01

    Approximately four years ago the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, under NASA sponsorship, began to devote some of its resources to examining ways to transfer space technology to the civil sector. As experience accumulated under this program, certain principles basic to success in technology transfer became apparent. An adequate definition of each problem must be developed before any substantial effort is expended on a solution. In most instances, a source of funds other than the potential user is required to support the problem definition phase of the work. Sensitivity to the user's concerns and effective interpersonal communications between the user and technical personnel are essential to success.

  11. How does retiree health insurance influence public sector employee saving?

    PubMed

    Clark, Robert L; Mitchell, Olivia S

    2014-12-01

    Economic theory predicts that employer-provided retiree health insurance (RHI) benefits have a crowd-out effect on household wealth accumulation, not dissimilar to the effects reported elsewhere for employer pensions, Social Security, and Medicare. Nevertheless, we are unaware of any similar research on the impacts of retiree health insurance per se. Accordingly, the present paper utilizes a unique data file on respondents to the Health and Retirement Study, to explore how employer-provided retiree health insurance may influence net household wealth among public sector employees, where retiree healthcare benefits are still quite prevalent. Key findings include the following: Most full-time public sector employees anticipate having employer-provided health insurance coverage in retirement, unlike most private sector workers.Public sector employees covered by RHI had substantially less wealth than similar private sector employees without RHI. In our data, Federal workers had about $82,000 (18%) less net wealth than private sector employees lacking RHI; state/local workers with RHI accumulated about $69,000 (or 15%) less net wealth than their uninsured private sector counterparts.After controlling on socioeconomic status and differences in pension coverage, net household wealth for Federal employees was $116,000 less than workers without RHI and the result is statistically significant; the state/local difference was not. PMID:25479891

  12. Information Technology and Value Creation in the Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Min-Seok

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, I study the performance impact of information technology (IT) investments in the public sector. IT has been one of the key assets in public administration since the early MIS era. Even though the information systems (IS) discipline has witnessed a considerable amount of research efforts on the subject of IT business value for…

  13. 22 CFR 201.22 - Procurement under public sector procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Procurement under public sector procedures. 201.22 Section 201.22 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Procurement Procedures; Responsibilities of Importers § 201.22 Procurement under public...

  14. 22 CFR 201.22 - Procurement under public sector procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Procurement under public sector procedures. 201.22 Section 201.22 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Procurement Procedures; Responsibilities of Importers § 201.22 Procurement under public...

  15. 22 CFR 201.22 - Procurement under public sector procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procurement under public sector procedures. 201.22 Section 201.22 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Procurement Procedures; Responsibilities of Importers § 201.22 Procurement under public...

  16. An Overview of Training in the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David A.

    This report provides an overview of the training and education received by public sector employees, estimates of public funds expended for this training, recent trends, and identification of policy issues for future study. Chapter 1, an introduction, summarizes the content of chapters 2 and 3. Chapter 2 describes the major portions of the public…

  17. Governing Education: Public Sector Reform or Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Paul C.

    Americans are facing a critical choice between two different systems of school control the continuance of the current system of public governance or a move to a privatized approach to schooling. The purpose of this book is to help educators and citizens better understand the issues and opportunities associated with changes in educational…

  18. Supporting SMEs in public sector bids.

    PubMed

    James, Edward

    2016-03-01

    Edward James, workstream lead, Estates, Facilities and Professional Services Workstream, at NHS London Procurement Partnership (pictured), looks at the workings and benefits of Dynamic Purchasing Systems--electronic systems used by a public bodies to purchase commonly used goods, works, or services. One of the major benefits, he explains, is that under a 'DPS'--an 'open market' system revised in 2015--smaller businesses have a greater opportunity to win business than in traditional ('closed') framework agreements. PMID:27132302

  19. Environmental performance policy indicators for the public sector: the case of the defence sector.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Tomás B; Alves, Inês; Subtil, Rui; Joanaz de Melo, João

    2007-03-01

    The development of environmental performance policy indicators for public services, and in particular for the defence sector, is an emerging issue. Despite a number of recent initiatives there has been little work done in this area, since the other sectors usually focused on are agriculture, transport, industry, tourism and energy. This type of tool can be an important component for environmental performance evaluation at policy level, when integrated in the general performance assessment system of public missions and activities. The main objective of this research was to develop environmental performance policy indicators for the public sector, specifically applied to the defence sector. Previous research included an assessment of the environmental profile, through the evaluation of how environmental management practices have been adopted in this sector and an assessment of environmental aspects and impacts. This paper builds upon that previous research, developing an indicator framework--SEPI--supported by the selection and construction of environmental performance indicators. Another aim is to discuss how the current environmental indicator framework can be integrated into overall performance management. The Portuguese defence sector is presented and the usefulness of this methodology demonstrated. Feasibility and relevancy criteria are applied to evaluate the set of indicators proposed, allowing indicators to be scored and indicators for the policy level to be obtained. PMID:16580128

  20. Building the Synergy between Public Sector and Research Data Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craglia, Massimo; Friis-Christensen, Anders; Ostländer, Nicole; Perego, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    INSPIRE is a European Directive aiming to establish a EU-wide spatial data infrastructure to give cross-border access to information that can be used to support EU environmental policies, as well as other policies and activities having an impact on the environment. In order to ensure cross-border interoperability of data infrastructures operated by EU Member States, INSPIRE sets out a framework based on common specifications for metadata, data, network services, data and service sharing, monitoring and reporting. The implementation of INSPIRE has reached important milestones: the INSPIRE Geoportal was launched in 2011 providing a single access point for the discovery of INSPIRE data and services across EU Member States (currently, about 300K), while all the technical specifications for the interoperability of data across the 34 INSPIRE themes were adopted at the end of 2013. During this period a number of EU and international initiatives has been launched, concerning cross-domain interoperability and (Linked) Open Data. In particular, the EU Open Data Portal, launched in December 2012, made provisions to access government and scientific data from EU institutions and bodies, and the EU ISA Programme (Interoperability Solutions for European Public Administrations) promotes cross-sector interoperability by sharing and re-using EU-wide and national standards and components. Moreover, the Research Data Alliance (RDA), an initiative jointly funded by the European Commission, the US National Science Foundation and the Australian Research Council, was launched in March 2013 to promote scientific data sharing and interoperability. The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (JRC), besides being the technical coordinator of the implementation of INSPIRE, is also actively involved in the initiatives promoting cross-sector re-use in INSPIRE, and sustainable approaches to address the evolution of technologies - in particular, how to support Linked Data in INSPIRE and

  1. Ideologies of Religion and Diversity in Australian Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    In many multicultural democracies, education has a Christian history. However, teaching religion has ideological variation. Progressives teach about many religions, while conservatives favor (often exclusive) instruction into one tradition. Australian secular education controversially prioritizes faith-forming instruction (mostly Christian). In…

  2. Shelf stable meals for public sector uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmandt, J. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Meal System was developed with three simple concepts in mind: (1) nutritious, conventional foods are packaged in single-serving units and assembled into complete meals; (2) the meals have an extended shelf-life and can be transported and stored without need for refrigeration or freezing; (3) preparation of the meal by the consumer is an easy task which is accomplished in ten minutes or less. The meal system was tested in 1975 and 1976 by different groups of elderly individuals. NASA and the LBJ School of Public Affairs sponsored a national conference to report on the demonstration of the meal system for the elderly and to explore potential uses of the system for social services, institutional feeding programs, disaster relief, and international aid. The proceedings of the conference and how different groups assessed the potential of the meal system are reported.

  3. Public Accountability in Australian Education: A Discussion Paper. Occasional Paper No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, S. S.

    After discussing the demand for public accountability in Australian education, the first section of this paper treats the scope of accountability and details the responsibilities of a state minister of education, other key administrators, schools and teachers, and the national system itself. The second section examines what the public wants to…

  4. 29 CFR 801.10 - Exclusion for public sector employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exclusion for public sector employers. 801.10 Section 801.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Exemptions § 801.10 Exclusion...

  5. 29 CFR 801.10 - Exclusion for public sector employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exclusion for public sector employers. 801.10 Section 801.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Exemptions § 801.10 Exclusion...

  6. 29 CFR 801.10 - Exclusion for public sector employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exclusion for public sector employers. 801.10 Section 801.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Exemptions § 801.10 Exclusion...

  7. 29 CFR 801.10 - Exclusion for public sector employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exclusion for public sector employers. 801.10 Section 801.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Exemptions § 801.10 Exclusion...

  8. Political and Academic Linkages in Public Sector Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, LaVerne Williamson

    2006-01-01

    Decision making in the public sector encompasses many topics of interest to the academic researcher--environmental issues, health and human services, budget planning, and so on. Expertise in data collection and analysis is critical to the policy-making process and can be provided by academic researchers. But the "real world" policymaker…

  9. Industrial Rehabilitation in the Public Sector: The Ohio Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsheski, Jerry; Growick, Bruce

    In 1979, Ohio passed a law creating a Rehabilitation Division within its Industrial Commission and authorizing the building of two comprehensive rehabilitation centers to serve disabled workers. Ohio provides industrial rehabilitation services almost entirely through the public sector. This paper describes industrial rehabilitation policies and…

  10. Third Sector Involvement in Public Education: The Israeli Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkovich, Izhak; Foldes, Vincent Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to address the involvement of third sector organizations in state public education in Israel, with emphasis on the decision-making processes affecting the geographic distribution of service provision. Design/methodology/approach: A collective case study approach was used to investigate non-governmental…

  11. Negotiations Strategies: A Reference Manual for Public Sector Labor Negotiations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Richard G.

    This guide contains practical, field-tested advice concerning the development of a suitable negotiating strategy for management's use in public sector collective bargaining. The author stresses that strategies are long-term plans of action and that this book does not consider bargaining tactics--the individual methods used to achieve the strategic…

  12. The Speed of Obsolescence: Evidence from the Dutch Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Loo, Jasper B.

    2007-01-01

    HRD is extensively concerned with human capital investment, but only focuses on how skills and knowledge become obsolete to a limited extent. In this paper we look at the speed of obsolescence. Using data from a survey among Dutch public sector employees, we find that the yearly rate of skills obsolescence is 2.6%. Subsequent analyses show that…

  13. Public Sector Transformation, Racial Inequality and Downward Occupational Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, George; Roscigno, Vincent J.; Huffman, Matt L.

    2013-01-01

    New "governance" reforms entailing shifts toward privatization have permeated the public sector over the last decade, possibly affecting workplace-based attainments. We examine the consequences of this reform for African American men, who during the civil rights era reached relative parity with whites. We analyze race-based inequities on one…

  14. Teaching Chinese Students: Understanding Their Public Sector Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Cynthia; Coleman, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Teaching Chinese students in an American university can be both challenging and rewarding. Cultural and language differences can lead to some superficial confusion and interpretational problems. However, the vast differences in the ways Chinese students view the role of the public sector, as compared to the US, can mean that the instructors and…

  15. The Practice of Evaluation in Public Sector Contexts: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chouinard, Jill Anne

    2013-01-01

    In the original paper, it was argued that while there is an array of methods and methodologies available, their use is delimited by the culture of accountability that prevails in public sector institutions, a fact that is particularly problematic given the complexity and diversity of evaluation contexts today. This short rejoinder, to responses…

  16. Incentives and Their Dynamics in Public Sector Performance Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Marschke, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    We use the principal-agent model as a focal theoretical frame for synthesizing what we know, both theoretically and empirically, about the design and dynamics of the implementation of performance management systems in the public sector. In this context, we review the growing body of evidence about how performance measurement and incentive systems…

  17. Arbitration of Public Sector Labor Disputes: The Nevada Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grodin, Joseph R.

    1974-01-01

    Having analyzed the records of all Nevada factfinding cases in 1972 and 1973, and interviewed most principals involved, the author concludes that Nevada's experience shows that arbitration of public sector disputes can be consistent with both effective bargaining and political responsibility. (Author/MW)

  18. Recent Court Decisions on Collective Bargaining in the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shifman, Burton R.

    This paper focuses on recent, significant court decisions in public sector collective bargaining under the following categories: the job security clause, the choice of instructional materials as the province of the school board under collective bargaining agreements, the effect of open meetings acts on the board of education in collective…

  19. Facilitating Expansive Learning in a Public Sector Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustavsson, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss how learning opportunities can be organized to promote expansive learning in work practice. The discussion draws on results from a case study examining local development work and conditions that facilitate processes of expansive learning in a work team within a public sector organization in a Swedish…

  20. A proposed framework of big data readiness in public sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Raja Haslinda Raja Mohd; Mohamad, Rosli; Sudin, Suhizaz

    2016-08-01

    Growing interest over big data mainly linked to its great potential to unveil unforeseen pattern or profiles that support organisation's key business decisions. Following private sector moves to embrace big data, the government sector has now getting into the bandwagon. Big data has been considered as one of the potential tools to enhance service delivery of the public sector within its financial resources constraints. Malaysian government, particularly, has considered big data as one of the main national agenda. Regardless of government commitment to promote big data amongst government agencies, degrees of readiness of the government agencies as well as their employees are crucial in ensuring successful deployment of big data. This paper, therefore, proposes a conceptual framework to investigate perceived readiness of big data potentials amongst Malaysian government agencies. Perceived readiness of 28 ministries and their respective employees will be assessed using both qualitative (interview) and quantitative (survey) approaches. The outcome of the study is expected to offer meaningful insight on factors affecting change readiness among public agencies on big data potentials and the expected outcome from greater/lower change readiness among the public sectors.

  1. Management practices in Australian healthcare: can NSW public hospitals do better?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Renu; Green, Roy; Agarwal, Neeru; Randhawa, Krithika

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determinants of best management practices in an Australian state-run healthcare system, namely New South Wales (NSW), and studies the impact of a range of hospital factors in driving best management practices as a means of enhancing healthcare delivery. Design/methodology/approach - This study adapts a unique survey instrument globally tested to quantify the multi-dimensional nature of hospital management practices in 42 acute care public hospitals of NSW. The authors then analysed the role of hospital-specific characteristics in driving best management practices, namely hospital size (measured by the number of hospital beds, employees and doctors), level of skill and education, degree of hospital manager autonomy and organisational hierarchy. Findings - The findings of this study show the areas of strength and potential areas of improvement in NSW hospitals. The authors find a positive association between the adoption of better management practices and hospital size (measured by the number of hospital beds and employees), level of skills and education, degree of hospital manager autonomy and organisational hierarchy. However, hospital size as measured by the number of doctors did not have a statistically significant relationship. Practical implications - This paper is of interest to both hospital administrators, clinical doctors and healthcare policy-makers who want to improve and develop strategies for better management in the healthcare sector. Originality/value - This study provides an internationally comparable robust measure of management capability in public hospitals, and contributes to the evidence-base of management practices and performance in hospitals. PMID:27119390

  2. Public Service Motivation as a Predictor of Attraction to the Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Jacqueline; Doverspike, Dennis; Miguel, Rosanna F.

    2012-01-01

    According to public service motivation theory, individuals with a strong public service orientation are attracted to government jobs. This proposition was investigated in three studies by measuring public sector motivation at a pre-entry level as an individual difference variable affecting perceptions of fit and organizational attraction. Results…

  3. Differences in public and private sector adoption of telemedicine: Indian case study for sectoral adoption.

    PubMed

    Sood, Sanjay P; Negash, Solomon; Mbarika, Victor W A; Kifle, Mengistu; Prakash, Nupur

    2007-01-01

    Telemedicine is the use of communication networks to exchange medical information for providing healthcare services and medical education from one site to another. The application of telemedicine is more promising in economically developing countries with agrarian societies. The American Telemedicine Association (ATA) identifies three healthcare services: clinical medical services, health and medical education, and consumer health information. However, it is not clear how these services can be adopted by different sectors: public and private. This paper looks at four Indian case studies, two each in public and private sectors to understand two research questions: Are there differences in telemedicine adoption between public and private hospitals. If there are differences: What are the differences in telemedicine adoption between public and private sectors? Authors have used the extant literature in telemedicine and healthcare to frame theoretical background, describe the research setting, present the case studies, and provide discussion and conclusions about their findings. Authors believe that as India continues to develop its telemedicine infrastructures, especially with continued government support through subsidies to private telemedicine initiatives, its upward trend in healthcare will continue. This is expected to put India on the path to increase its life expectancy rates, especially for it rural community which constitute over 70% of its populace. PMID:17917199

  4. Australian Public Universities: Are They Practising a Corporate Approach to Governance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on the multi-theoretical approach to governance and a qualitative research method to examine the extent to which the corporate approach is practised in Australian public universities. The findings reveal that in meeting the needs of multiple stakeholders, universities are faced with a number of structural, legalistic, and…

  5. Economic impact of public sector spending on health care.

    PubMed

    Hy, Ronald John

    2011-01-01

    Public sector spending on health care clearly has a positive economic impact on local communities. Not only does such spending provide residents with better health care, but it is widely recognized as an investment that returns continual dividends in the form of better jobs, higher incomes, and additional state and local tax revenues. The results of a static input/output model shows that public sector spending on health care of approximately $46 billion (in 2009 dollars) in the state of Texas yields over 588,000 jobs, $74.2 billion in total output, $26.3 billion in personal income, $22 billion in employee compensation, and $1.8 billion in state and local taxes; it clearly has a considerable positive economic impact on local economies and their quest for economic development. PMID:22106548

  6. Democratizing Process Innovation? On Citizen Involvement in Public Sector BPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehaves, Björn; Malsch, Robert

    ‘Open Innovation’ has been heavily discussed for product innovations; however, an information systems (IS) perspective on ‘process innovation’ has not yet been taken. Analyzing the example of the public sector in Germany, the paper seeks to investigate the factors that hinder and support ‘open process innovation’, a concept we define as the involvement of citizens in business process management (BPM) activities. With the help of a quantitative study (n=358), six factors are examined for their impact on citizen involvement in local government BPM initiatives. The results show that citizen involvement in reform processes is not primarily motivated by the aim of cost reduction, but rather related to legitimacy reasons and the intent to increase employee motivation. Based on these findings, implications for (design) theory and practice are discussed: Instead of detailed collaborative business processes modeling, the key of citizen involvement in public sector BPM lies in communication and mutual understanding.

  7. A dataset for examining trends in publication of new Australian insects.

    PubMed

    Mesibov, Robert Evan

    2014-01-01

    Australian Faunal Directory data were used to create a new, publicly available dataset, nai50, which lists 18318 species and subspecies names for Australian insects described in the period 1961-2010, together with associated publishing data. The number of taxonomic publications introducing the new names varied little around a long-term average of 70 per year, with ca 420 new names published per year during the 30-year period 1981-2010. Within this stable pattern there were steady increases in multi-authored and 'Smith in Jones and Smith' names, and a decline in publication of names in entomology journals and books. For taxonomic works published in Australia, a publications peak around 1990 reflected increases in museum, scientific society and government agency publishing, but a subsequent decline is largely explained by a steep drop in the number of papers on insect taxonomy published by Australia's national science agency, CSIRO. PMID:25057256

  8. Applications of aerospace technology in the public sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuskiewicz, T.; Johnston, J.; Zimmerman, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    Current activities of the program to accelerate specific applications of space related technology in major public sector problem areas are summarized for the period 1 June 1971 through 30 November 1971. An overview of NASA technology, technology applications, and supporting activities are presented. Specific technology applications in biomedicine are reported including cancer detection, treatment and research; cardiovascular diseases, diagnosis, and treatment; medical instrumentation; kidney function disorders, treatment, and research; and rehabilitation medicine.

  9. A Disciplinary Perspective: The Internationalization of Australian Public Relations Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitch, Kate

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the internationalization of public relations education, by examining public relations education in Australia, its relation with the public relations industry, and its growth in response to international student- and market-led demand. The discussion highlights the tensions within what is essentially an education project…

  10. Adaptation to climate change in the Ontario public health sector

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Climate change is among the major challenges for health this century, and adaptation to manage adverse health outcomes will be unavoidable. The risks in Ontario – Canada’s most populous province – include increasing temperatures, more frequent and intense extreme weather events, and alterations to precipitation regimes. Socio-economic-demographic patterns could magnify the implications climate change has for Ontario, including the presence of rapidly growing vulnerable populations, exacerbation of warming trends by heat-islands in large urban areas, and connectedness to global transportation networks. This study examines climate change adaptation in the public health sector in Ontario using information from interviews with government officials. Methods Fifty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted, four with provincial and federal health officials and 49 with actors in public health and health relevant sectors at the municipal level. We identify adaptation efforts, barriers and opportunities for current and future intervention. Results Results indicate recognition that climate change will affect the health of Ontarians. Health officials are concerned about how a changing climate could exacerbate existing health issues or create new health burdens, specifically extreme heat (71%), severe weather (68%) and poor air-quality (57%). Adaptation is currently taking the form of mainstreaming climate change into existing public health programs. While adaptive progress has relied on local leadership, federal support, political will, and inter-agency efforts, a lack of resources constrains the sustainability of long-term adaptation programs and the acquisition of data necessary to support effective policies. Conclusions This study provides a snapshot of climate change adaptation and needs in the public health sector in Ontario. Public health departments will need to capitalize on opportunities to integrate climate change into policies and programs

  11. Questions and Answers in Public Sector Labor Relations. A Practitioner's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Midwest Center for Public Sector Labor Relations.

    The purpose of this guide is to answer common questions about public sector labor relations with special emphasis on how this sector differs from the private sector. A beginning section offers general information defining and explaining public sector labor relations. A segment on labor relations law details legislation and the function of…

  12. Academic Governance Provided by Academic Boards within the Australian Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilkinas, Tricia; Peters, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Academic boards play a key role in the maintenance of quality standards and the provision of strategic leadership on academic issues. The current research investigated the role provided at present to Australian universities through their academic boards. All universities described their academic boards as their principal academic body. The…

  13. Jump Horse Safety: Reconciling Public Debate and Australian Thoroughbred Jump Racing Data, 2012–2014

    PubMed Central

    Ruse, Karen; Davison, Aidan; Bridle, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This paper documents the dynamics of Australian thoroughbred jump racing in the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with the aim of informing debate about risks to horses and the future of this activity. We conclude that the safety of Australian jump racing has improved in recent years but that steeplechases are considerably riskier for horses than hurdle races. Abstract Thoroughbred jump racing sits in the spotlight of contemporary welfare and ethical debates about horse racing. In Australia, jump racing comprises hurdle and steeplechase races and has ceased in all but two states, Victoria and South Australia. This paper documents the size, geography, composition, and dynamics of Australian jump racing for the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with a focus on debate about risks to horses. We found that the majority of Australian jump racing is regional, based in Victoria, and involves a small group of experienced trainers and jockeys. Australian jump horses are on average 6.4 years of age. The jump career of the majority of horses involves participating in three or less hurdle races and over one season. Almost one quarter of Australian jump horses race only once. There were ten horse fatalities in races over the study period, with an overall fatality rate of 5.1 fatalities per 1000 horses starting in a jump race (0.51%). There was significant disparity between the fatality rate for hurdles, 0.75 fatalities per 1000 starts (0.075%) and steeplechases, 14 fatalities per 1000 starts (1.4%). Safety initiatives introduced by regulators in 2010 appear to have significantly decreased risks to horses in hurdles but have had little or no effect in steeplechases. Our discussion considers these data in light of public controversy, political debate, and industry regulation related to jump horse safety. PMID:26506396

  14. Performance Contracting as a Performance Management Tool in the Public Sector in Kenya: Lessons of learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Kempe Ronald, Sr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an assessment and analysis of public sector performance contracting as a performance management tool in Kenya. It aims to demonstrate that performance contracting remains a viable and important tool for improving public sector performance as a key element of the on-going public sector transformation…

  15. The construction and legitimation of workplace bullying in the public sector: insight into power dynamics and organisational failures in health and social care.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Marie; Jackson, Debra

    2015-03-01

    Health-care and public sector institutions are high-risk settings for workplace bullying. Despite growing acknowledgement of the scale and consequence of this pervasive problem, there has been little critical examination of the institutional power dynamics that enable bullying. In the aftermath of large-scale failures in care standards in public sector healthcare institutions, which were characterised by managerial bullying, attention to the nexus between bullying, power and institutional failures is warranted. In this study, employing Foucault's framework of power, we illuminate bullying as a feature of structures of power and knowledge in public sector institutions. Our analysis draws upon the experiences of a large sample (n = 3345) of workers in Australian public sector agencies - the type with which most nurses in the public setting will be familiar. In foregrounding these power dynamics, we provide further insight into how cultures that are antithetical to institutional missions can arise and seek to broaden the debate on the dynamics of care failures within public sector institutions. Understanding the practices of power in public sector institutions, particularly in the context of ongoing reform, has important implications for nursing. PMID:25131347

  16. Jump Horse Safety: Reconciling Public Debate and Australian Thoroughbred Jump Racing Data, 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Ruse, Karen; Davison, Aidan; Bridle, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Thoroughbred jump racing sits in the spotlight of contemporary welfare and ethical debates about horse racing. In Australia, jump racing comprises hurdle and steeplechase races and has ceased in all but two states, Victoria and South Australia. This paper documents the size, geography, composition, and dynamics of Australian jump racing for the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with a focus on debate about risks to horses. We found that the majority of Australian jump racing is regional, based in Victoria, and involves a small group of experienced trainers and jockeys. Australian jump horses are on average 6.4 years of age. The jump career of the majority of horses involves participating in three or less hurdle races and over one season. Almost one quarter of Australian jump horses race only once. There were ten horse fatalities in races over the study period, with an overall fatality rate of 5.1 fatalities per 1000 horses starting in a jump race (0.51%). There was significant disparity between the fatality rate for hurdles, 0.75 fatalities per 1000 starts (0.075%) and steeplechases, 14 fatalities per 1000 starts (1.4%). Safety initiatives introduced by regulators in 2010 appear to have significantly decreased risks to horses in hurdles but have had little or no effect in steeplechases. Our discussion considers these Animals 2015, 5 1073 data in light of public controversy, political debate, and industry regulation related to jump horse safety. PMID:26506396

  17. Public sector nurses in Swaziland: can the downturn be reversed?

    PubMed Central

    Kober, Katharina; Van Damme, Wim

    2006-01-01

    Background The lack of human resources for health (HRH) is increasingly being recognized as a major bottleneck to scaling up antiretroviral treatment (ART), particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, whose societies and health systems are hardest hit by HIV/AIDS. In this case study of Swaziland, we describe the current HRH situation in the public sector. We identify major factors that contribute to the crisis, describe policy initiatives to tackle it and base on these a number of projections for the future. Finally, we suggest some areas for further research that may contribute to tackling the HRH crisis in Swaziland. Methods We visited Swaziland twice within 18 months in order to capture the HRH situation as well as the responses to it in 2004 and in 2005. Using semi-structured interviews with key informants and group interviews, we obtained qualitative and quantitative data on the HRH situation in the public and mission health sectors. We complemented this with an analysis of primary documents and a review of the available relevant reports and studies. Results The public health sector in Swaziland faces a serious shortage of health workers: 44% of posts for physicians, 19% of posts for nurses and 17% of nursing assistant posts were unfilled in 2004. We identified emigration and attrition due to HIV/AIDS as major factors depleting the health workforce. The annual training output of only 80 new nurses is not sufficient to compensate for these losses, and based on the situation in 2004 we estimated that the nursing workforce in the public sector would have been reduced by more than 40% by 2010. In 2005 we found that new initiatives by the Swazi government, such as the scale-up of ART, the introduction of retention measures to decrease emigration and the influx of foreign nurses could have the potential to improve the situation. A combination of such measures, together with the planned increase in the training capacity of the country's nursing schools, could even reverse

  18. The legal risks of quality assurance in Australian public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Cavell, Richard

    2007-10-01

    Quality assurance techniques aim to measure and uphold the quality of patient care. Tools have been developed that investigate bad outcomes, and identify system errors that may lead to bad outcomes. Hospital administrators are motivated to use these tools, but worry that quality assurance may itself cause legal risks to a hospital. For example, if a hospital finds and documents substandard care, a patient who has suffered a bad outcome might discover this and try to use it in litigation against the hospital. This article examines the legal doctrine behind document discovery, freedom of information, legal professional privilege, medical professional privilege, qualified privilege and defamation, to explore how patients and their relatives may, first, come across and obtain quality assurance findings, and second, use them in legal action. With this knowledge, public hospital administrators might then be able to engage in quality assurance without unduly causing legal risk for their hospital. PMID:18035841

  19. Health care of female outpatients in south-central India: comparing public and private sector provision.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Jagdish; Cleland, John

    2004-11-01

    The object of this study was to compare components of quality of care provided to female outpatients by practitioners working in the private and public sectors in Karnataka State, India. Consultations conducted by 18 private practitioners and 25 public-sector practitioners were observed for 5 days using a structured protocol. Private practitioners were selected from members of the Indian Medical Association in a predominantly rural sub-district of Kolar District. Government doctors were selected from a random sample of hospitals and health centres in three sub-districts of Mysore District. A total of 451 private-sector and 650 public-sector consultations were observed; in each sector about half involved a female practitioner. The mean length of consultation was 2.81 minutes in the public sector and 6.68 minutes in the private sector. Compared with public-sector practitioners, private practitioners were significantly more likely to undertake a physical examination and to explain their diagnosis and prognosis to the patient. Privacy was much better in the private sector. One-third of public-sector patients received an injection compared with two-thirds of private patients. The mean cost of drugs dispensed or prescribed were Rupees 37 and 74 in public and private sectors, respectively. Both in terms of thoroughness of diagnosis and doctor-patient communication, the quality of care appears to be much higher in the private than in the public sector. However, over-prescription of drugs by private practitioners may be occurring. PMID:15459165

  20. Job Satisfaction and Burnout among Greek Early Educators: A Comparison between Public and Private Sector Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Grammatikopoulos, Vasilios

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine perceived levels of burnout and job satisfaction of Greek early educators, across public and private sector. One hundred and seventy eight childhood educators participated in the study. 108 were working in the public sector, 67 in private sector, whereas three did not respond. Participants were…

  1. Competence Development in the Public Sector: Development, or Dismantling of Professionalism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjort, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    For more than a decade, competence development has been a key concept of modern management in both the private and the public sector, but to some extent its meaning and practice have been different in the two sectors. In the public sector in particular, competence development has been closely related to a number of other buzzwords characterizing…

  2. Designing effective incentives for energy conservation in the public sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drezner, Jeffrey Alan

    Understanding why government officials behave in certain ways under particular circumstances is an important theme in political science. This research explores the design of policies and incentives targeted at public sector officials, in particular the use of market based policy tools in a non-market environment, and the influence of that organizational environment on the effectiveness of the policy. The research examines the case of Department of Defense (DoD) facility energy management. DoD energy policy includes a provision for the retention of savings generated by conservation activities: two-thirds of the savings is retained at the installation generating the savings, half to used for further investment in energy conservation, and half to be used for general morale, welfare, and recreation activities. This policy creates a financial incentive for installation energy managers to establish higher quality and more active conservation programs. A formal written survey of installation energy managers within DoD was conducted, providing data to test hypotheses regarding policy effectiveness and factors affecting policy implementation. Additionally, two detailed implementation case studies were conducted in order to gain further insights. Results suggest that policy design needs to account for the environment within which the policy will be implemented, particularly organizational culture and standard operating procedures. The retention of savings policy failed to achieve its intended outcome---retention of savings for re-investment in energy conservation---because the role required of the financial management community was outside its normal mode of operation and interests and the budget process for allocating resources did not include a mechanism for retention of savings. The policy design did not adequately address these start-up barriers to implementation. This analysis has shown that in order for retention of savings, or similar policies based on market

  3. Public Disorder, Private Boons? Inter-Sectoral Dynamics Illustrated by the Kenyan Case. PROPHE Working Paper Series. WP No. 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otieno, Wycliffe; Levy, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Within and beyond Africa, it is the public sector much more than the private sector that is the scene of strikes and other forms of disorder, conflict and difficulty. Yet the private sector can be much affected by the public problems. Effects may be simultaneously positive for the private sector and deleterious for the public sector. Although a…

  4. Public Sector/Private Sector Interaction in Providing Information Services. Report to the NCLIS from the Public Sector/Private Sector Task Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, Washington, DC.

    The results of a 2-year study on the interactions between government and private sector information activities are presented in terms of principles and guidelines for federal policy to support the development and use of information resources, products, and services, and to implement the principles. Discussions address sources of conflict between…

  5. Divergent stakeholder views of corporate social responsibility in the Australian forest plantation sector.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Melissa; Lockwood, Michael; Vanclay, Frank; Hanson, Dallas; Schirmer, Jacki

    2012-12-30

    Although the Australian forest plantation industry acknowledges that there is a role for corporate social responsibility (CSR) in forest management, there is confusion as to what this constitutes in practice. This paper describes the conflicts between internal and external stakeholder views on CSR in plantation forestry. We conducted in-depth interviews with key informants across three plantation management regions in Australia: Tasmania, the Green Triangle and south-west Western Australia. We interviewed a range of stakeholders including forest company employees, local councils, Indigenous representatives, and environmental non-government organisations. CSR-related initiatives that stakeholders believed were important for plantation management included the need for community engagement, accountability towards stakeholders, and contribution to community development and well-being. Although there was wide support for these initiatives, some stakeholders were not satisfied that forest companies were actively implementing them. Due to the perception that forest companies are not committed to CSR initiatives such as community engagement, some stakeholder expectations are not being satisfied. PMID:23078976

  6. Older lesbians and work in the Australian health and aged care sector.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Mark; Kentlyn, Sujay

    2015-01-01

    While research has identified challenges lesbians face in the workplace, there is limited understanding of the particular experiences of older lesbians, especially those working in the health and aged care sector. This article draws on the stories of four women who participated in a narrative research project on lesbian and gay people's experiences of health and aged care. It highlights the need for future research to examine the complexity of identity expression and community affiliation, how people negotiate "coming out" in the workplace, the impact of discrimination, and the resources (such as friends) available to lesbians in the workplace. PMID:25575323

  7. Training Australian General Practitioners in Rural Public Health: Impact, Desirability and Adaptability of Hybrid Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladman, Justin; Perkins, David

    2013-01-01

    Context and Objective: Australian rural general practitioners (GPs) require public health knowledge. This study explored the suitability of teaching complex public health issues related to Aboriginal health by way of a hybrid problem-based learning (PBL) model within an intensive training retreat for GP registrars, when numerous trainees have no…

  8. Public sector energy management: A strategy for catalyzing energy efficiency in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Anish Kumar

    To date the public sector role in facilitating the transition to a sustainable energy future has been envisaged mainly from a regulatory perspective. In such a role, the public sector provides the push factors---enforcing regulations and providing incentives---to correct market imperfections that impede energy transitions. An alternative and complementary role of the public sector that is now gaining increasing attention is that of catalyzing energy transitions through public sector energy management initiatives. This dissertation offers a conceptual framework to rationalize such a role for the public sector by combining recent theories of sustainable energy transition and public management. In particular, the framework identifies innovative public management strategies (such as performance contracting and procurement) for effectively implementing sustainable energy projects in government facilities. The dissertation evaluates a model of sustainable public sector energy management for promoting energy efficiency in Malaysia. The public sector in Malaysia can be a major player in leading and catalyzing energy efficiency efforts as it is not only the largest and one of the most influential energy consumers, but it also plays a central role in setting national development strategy. The dissertation makes several recommendations on how a public sector energy management strategy can be implemented in Malaysia. The US Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is used as a practical model. The analysis, however, shows that in applying the FEMP model to the Malaysian context, there are a number of limitations that will have to be taken into consideration to enable a public sector energy management strategy to be effectively implemented. Overall the analysis of this dissertation contributes to a rethinking of the public sector role in sustainable energy development that can strengthen the sector's credibility both in terms of governance and institutional performance. In

  9. Queensland public sector nurse executives: job satisfaction and career opportunities.

    PubMed

    Courtney, M; Yacopetti, J; James, C; Walsh, A

    2001-01-01

    During the past decade, economic and political forces have caused radical transformations in health care systems resulting in changed circumstances within which nursing executives must function. This paper provides an understanding of nursing executives' roles and responsibilities and the impact changes in the health industry have had on their careers. One hundred and forty-seven (52%) of the 281 nursing executives employed in the Queensland Public Health Sector completed a postal self-administered survey. The findings of this study demonstrate their role has expanded to include not only nursing administration, but also responsibility for financial, human resources, strategic and resource management, staff development and quality improvement. The impact of these role changes has affected the health and well-being of nursing executives, with nearly half reporting increased stress, frustration and irritation. Their workload has increased and some reported deterioration in their health, specifically, exhaustion, fatigue and insomnia. Respondents reported they now have less time to spend with families and friends, which has had a negative impact on family relationships. Overall, nursing executives were satisfied with their current position, the work itself and their relationships with their co-workers, but dissatisfied with organisational aspects, especially the quality of mentorship and opportunities for promotion. PMID:11496477

  10. The new Australian Primary Health Networks: how will they integrate public health and primary care?

    PubMed

    Booth, Mark; Hill, Graham; Moore, Michael J; Dalla, Danielle; Moore, Michael G; Messenger, Anne

    2016-01-01

    On 1 July 2015, the Australian Government established 31 new Primary Health Networks (PHNs), following a review by its former Chief Medical Officer, John Horvath, of 61 Medicare Locals created under the previous Labor administration. The Horvath review recommended, among other things, that new, larger primary health organisations be established to reduce fragmentation of care by integrating and coordinating health services, supporting the role of general practice, and leveraging and administering health program funding. The two main objectives of the new PHNs, as stated on the Department of Health's website, are "increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of medical services for patients, particularly those at risk of poor health outcomes, and improving coordination of care to ensure patients receive the right care in the right place at the right time". Below are three viewpoints, commissioned for this primary health care themed issue of Public Health Research & Practice, from the Australian Government Department of Health, the Public Health Association of Australia and a Sydney-based PHN. We asked the authors to focus particularly on how the newly established networks might help to integrate public health within the primary health care landscape. Our authors have pointed out the huge overlap between public health and primary care and looked at evidence showing the great benefits for health systems of collaboration between the two. Challenges ahead include a possible government focus on delivery of 'frontline' medical services, which may come at the expense of population health, and the complexity of dealing with all primary health care stakeholders, including health professionals, Local Health Districts, nongovernment organisations, research institutions and local communities. PMID:26863166

  11. An Investigation of Conflict Management in Public and Private Sector Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Din, Siraj ud; Khan, Bakhtiar; Rehman, Rashid; Bibi, Zainab

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to gain an insight into the conflict management in public and private sector universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. To achieve the earlier mentioned purpose, survey method was used with the help of questionnaire. In this research, impact of university type (public and private sector) was examined on the conflict…

  12. Bargaining Tactics: A Reference Manual for Public Sector Labor Negotiations. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Richard G.

    A supplement to an earlier-published volume on bargaining tactics, this document presents specific tactics that can be used in the course of public sector collective bargaining to further management's pre-established negotiating strategies. All the tactics suggested are drawn from the author's personal experience as a public sector labor…

  13. Factors Affecting Teachers' Motivation: An HRM Challenge for Public Sector Higher Educational Institutions of Pakistan (HEIs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasheed, Muhammad Imran; Humayon, Asad Afzal; Awan, Usama; Ahmed, Affan ud Din

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore/investigate various issues of teachers ' motivation in public sector Higher Educational Institutions of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: This is an exploratory research where surveys have been conducted in the well known public sector Universities of Pakistan; primary data have been collected…

  14. RADON MITIGATION CHOICES IN THE UNITED STATES: A COMPARISON OF PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SECTOR DEVELOPMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper compares private and public sector developments relating to radon mitigation in the U.S. In response to elevated radon levels in many U.S. houses, the Federal and State governments and the private sector have undertaken many varied mitigation and public information effo...

  15. NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL/ENERGY WORKFORCE ASSESSMENT. SALARIES AND ATTENDANT PROBLEMS OF PUBLIC SECTOR ENVIRONMENTAL EMPLOYMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The monograph deals with disparities between public and private sector employment conditions and practices which affect the recruitment and retention of personnel. The emphasis is on state agencies because the disparities are most evident at that level of public sector employment...

  16. Public Sector Training: A "Blind" Spot in the 1999 South African National Levy-Grant Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, South Africa implemented a levy-grant policy (Skills Development Levies Act, 1999) to give an incentive for workplace training across private and public sector workplaces alike, but the impact of the levy-grant scheme in the public sector was restricted by financial and management processes unique to that environment. This article shows…

  17. People Management Practices in the Public Health Sector: Developments from Victoria, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Pauline; Bartram, Timothy; Harbridge, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the impact on human resource management (HRM) practices in the public health sector in Victoria, Australia of two different government policy environments. First, it explores the Liberal Coalition Government's decentralisation of public health sector management, from 1992-1999 and second, the Labor Government's…

  18. Investigating the effectiveness of response strategies for vulnerabilities to corruption in the chinese public construction sector.

    PubMed

    Shan, Ming; Chan, Albert P C; Le, Yun; Hu, Yi

    2015-06-01

    Response strategy is a key for preventing widespread corruption vulnerabilities in the public construction sector. Although several studies have been devoted to this area, the effectiveness of response strategies has seldom been evaluated in China. This study aims to fill this gap by investigating the effectiveness of response strategies for corruption vulnerabilities through a survey in the Chinese public construction sector. Survey data obtained from selected experts involved in the Chinese public construction sector were analyzed by factor analysis and partial least squares-structural equation modeling. Analysis results showed that four response strategies of leadership, rules and regulations, training, and sanctions, only achieved an acceptable level in preventing corruption vulnerabilities in the Chinese public construction sector. This study contributes to knowledge by improving the understanding of the effectiveness of response strategies for corruption vulnerabilities in the public construction sector of developing countries. PMID:24894336

  19. New activity-based funding model for Australian private sector overnight rehabilitation cases: the rehabilitation Australian National Sub-Acute and Non-Acute Patient (AN-SNAP) model.

    PubMed

    Hanning, Brian; Predl, Nicolle

    2015-09-01

    Traditional overnight rehabilitation payment models in the private sector are not based on a rigorous classification system and vary greatly between contracts with no consideration of patient complexity. The payment rates are not based on relative cost and the length-of-stay (LOS) point at which a reduced rate applies (step downs) varies markedly. The rehabilitation Australian National Sub-Acute and Non-Acute Patient (AN-SNAP) model (RAM), which has been in place for over 2 years in some private hospitals, bases payment on a rigorous classification system, relative cost and industry LOS. RAM is in the process of being rolled out more widely. This paper compares and contrasts RAM with traditional overnight rehabilitation payment models. It considers the advantages of RAM for hospitals and Australian Health Service Alliance. It also considers payment model changes in the context of maintaining industry consistency with Electronic Claims Lodgement and Information Processing System Environment (ECLIPSE) and health reform generally. PMID:25725655

  20. Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers

    PubMed Central

    Garuba, Habibat A; Kohler, Jillian C; Huisman, Anna M

    2009-01-01

    Background Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries [1]. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals [2]. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments), and distribution. Methods Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. Results The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Conclusion Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the absence of conflict of

  1. The Empowering of Public Sector Officers in the Mauritian Public Sector in the Context of Reforms: How Far Has Management Education Helped?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhiwajee, Soolakshna Lukea; Garavan, Thomas N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide insights about the usefulness of management education for the public sector in the Republic of Mauritius, which embarked on reforms initiatives around two decades ago. In this context, public officers were encouraged to follow specialised management courses. However, as at date, there is…

  2. Disaster preparedness and response: challenges for Australian public health nurses - a literature review.

    PubMed

    Rokkas, Philippa; Cornell, Victoria; Steenkamp, Malinda

    2014-03-01

    To date, Australia has not had to respond to a nationwide catastrophic event. However, over the past decade, heat waves, bushfires, cyclones, and floods have significantly challenged Australia's disaster preparedness and the surge capacity of local and regional health systems. Given that disaster events are predicted to increase in impact and frequency, the health workforce needs to be prepared for and able to respond effectively to a disaster. To be effective, nurses must be clear regarding their role in a disaster and be able to articulate the value and relevance of this role to communities and the professionals they work with. Since almost all disasters will exert some impact on public health, it is expedient to prepare the public health nursing workforce within Australia. This paper highlights issues currently facing disaster nursing and focuses on the challenges for Australian public health nurses responding to and preparing for disasters within Australia. The paper specifically addresses public health nurses' awareness regarding their roles in disaster preparation and response, given their unique skills and central position in public health. PMID:24635900

  3. Job satisfaction among public health professionals working in public sector: a cross sectional study from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Job satisfaction largely determines the productivity and efficiency of human resource for health. It literally depicts the extent to which professionals like or dislike their jobs. Job satisfaction is said to be linked with the employee’s work environment, job responsibilities and powers and time pressure; the determinants which affect employee’s organizational commitment and consequently the quality of services. The objective of the study was to determine the level of and factors influencing job satisfaction among public health professionals in the public sector. Methods This was a cross sectional study conducted in Islamabad, Pakistan. Sample size was universal including 73 public health professionals, with postgraduate qualifications and working in government departments of Islamabad. A validated structured questionnaire was used to collect data from April to October 2011. Results Overall satisfaction rate was 41% only, while 45% were somewhat satisfied and 14% of professionals highly dissatisfied with their jobs. For those who were not satisfied, working environment, job description and time pressure were the major causes. Other factors influencing the level of satisfaction were low salaries, lack of training opportunities, improper supervision and inadequate financial rewards. Conclusion Our study documented a relatively low level of overall satisfaction among workers in public sector health care organizations. Considering the factors responsible for this state of affairs, urgent and concrete strategies must be developed to address the concerns of public health professionals as they represent a highly sensitive domain of health system of Pakistan. Improving the overall work environment, review of job descriptions and better remuneration might bring about a positive change. PMID:23298253

  4. Shaping public opinion on the issue of childbirth; a critical analysis of articles published in an Australian newspaper

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Australian government has announced a major program of reform with the move to primary maternity care, a program of change that appears to be at odds with current general public perceptions regarding how maternity care is delivered. Methods A critical discourse analysis of articles published in 'The Age', a newspaper with national distribution, subsequent to the release of the discussion paper by the Australian Government in 2008 was undertaken. The purpose was to identify how Australian maternity services are portrayed and what purpose is served by this representation to the general public. Results Findings from this critical discourse analysis revealed that Australian maternity services are being portrayed to the general public as an inflexible outdated service struggling to meets the needs of pregnant women and in desperate need of reform. The style of reporting employed in this newspaper involved presenting to the reader the range of expert opinion relevant to each topic, frequently involving polarised positions of the experts on the issue. Conclusions The general public are presented with a conflict, caught between the need for changes that come with the primary maternity model of care and fear that these change will undermine safe standards. The discourse; 'Australia is one of the safest countries in which to give birth or be born, what is must be best', represents the situation where despite major deficiencies in the system the general public may be too fearful of the consequences to consider a move away from reliance on traditional medical-led maternity care. PMID:21708041

  5. Health Care Spending: Changes in the Perceptions of the Australian Public

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing demand for services and rising health care costs create pressures within the Australian health care system and result in higher health insurance premiums and out-of-pocket costs for consumers. Objective To measure changes in consumer views on the quality of the Australian health care system, contributors to rising costs and attitudes towards managing these costs. Methods Two computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted in 2006 (533 respondents) and 2015 (1318 respondents) and results compared. Results More respondents in 2015 rated the Australian health care system ‘very adequate’ than in 2006 (22.3% vs 8.3%; Odds Ratio OR 3.2, 99% CI 2.1, 5.1) with fewer ‘concerned’ or ‘fairly concerned’ about the health care costs (69.0% vs 85.7%; OR 0.37, 99% CI 0.25, 0.53). The 2015 respondents were more likely to identify new treatments for cancer (77% vs 65.7%; OR 1.75, 99% CI 1.30, 2.35) and community expectations for access to the latest technologies (73.8% vs 67%; OR 1.39, 99% CI 1.04, 1.86) as contributors to rising health care costs. While more 2015 respondents agreed that patients should pay a greater part of the health care costs, this remained a minority view (37.9% vs 31.7%; OR 1.32, 99% CI 0.99, 1.76). They were less likely to agree that doctors should offer medical treatments regardless of the cost and chance of benefit (63.6% vs 82.9%; OR 0.36, 99% CI 0.25, 0.50). Conclusions Satisfaction with the Australian health care system has increased over time. Consumers recognise the cost pressures and have lower expectations that all services should be provided regardless of their costs and potential benefit. Public consultation on the allocation of health care resources and involvement in health care decision-making remains important. There should be community consultation about the principles and values that should guide resource allocation decisions. PMID:27294518

  6. From legitimate consumers to public relations pawns: the tobacco industry and young Australians

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To document the Australian tobacco industry's activities regarding youth smoking to support tobacco control. Method: 492 industry documents from primary and secondary websites were abstracted and analysed. Results: Australian legislation and rhetoric on youth and tobacco has changed dramatically over the last 50 years, from an unproblematic association of teenagers and smoking in the 1960s, through the industry's aggressive attacks and denials in the 1980s, to the 1990s, when industry became newly compliant with "societal expectations" and youth became a dominant bargaining issue in the industry's public relations strategy. The industry's current policy is to simultaneously blame others for underage smoking, frame the industry as socially responsible via voluntary marketing codes, youth access programmes, and school education, and market actively to young adults. Conclusions: The arbitrary distinction between 17 and 18 year olds is, particularly in Australia's dark market, a liability for tobacco control and an opportunity for the industry, which is attempting to claim the high moral ground traditionally occupied by tobacco control on the youth issue. The current review of Australia's Tobacco Advertising Prohibition Act of 1992 should prohibit all forms of industry communication targeting young people, including retail access and schools programmes and below-the-line marketing. Tobacco control advocacy should highlight the industry's attempts to use the youth issue in its own favour while laying the blame elsewhere. PMID:14645951

  7. Management of Workplace Change in the Australian Higher Education Sector: A Study of Employee Involvement Provisions in Workplace Agreements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Stephen; Van Gramberg, Bernadine

    2007-01-01

    Involvement of employees and unions in workplace decision-making has a long history in Australian industrial relations. The mechanism for employee involvement in workplace change was originally set out in the Termination Change and Redundancy (TCR) clause in Australian awards in 1984. It continues to operate under Enterprise Bargaining Agreements…

  8. Balancing public health, trade and intellectual monopoly privileges: recent Australian IP legislation and the TPPA.

    PubMed

    Vines, Tim; Crow, Kim; Faunce, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Over the past year, several significant reforms to Australia's intellectual property regime have been proposed and passed by Parliament. The Intellectual Property Laws Amendment (Raising the Bar) Act 2012 (Cth) made various improvements to Australian patent law, including an improved threshold for patentability, greater clarity around "usefulness" requirements, and the introduction of an experimental use exemption from infringement. Another Bill, the Intellectual Property Laws Amendment Bill 2012 (Cth), currently out for public consultation, would implement a 2003 decision of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) General Council and the 2005 Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health (Doha Declaration). If enacted, this Bill would facilitate equitable access to essential medicines by amending the compulsory licensing regime set out in the Patents Act 1990 (Cth). The underlying intention of this Bill--meeting public health goals outlined in the 2005 Doha Declaration--stands in juxtaposition to proposed reforms to intellectual property standards pursuant to the Trans-Pacific Partnership Trade and Investment Agreement (TPPA) that Australia is involved in. Although at a preliminary stage, leaked drafts of relevant intellectual property provisions in the TPPA suggest a privileging of patent monopoly privileges over public health goals. This column weighs the sentiments of the proposed Bill against those of the proposed provisions in the TPPA. PMID:23431847

  9. The Adoption of Internal Audit as a Governance Control Mechanism in Australian Public Universities--Views from the CEOs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This study draws on the multi-theoretical approach to governance and the views of university chief executive officers (CEOs) to examine the extent to which internal auditing as a control mechanism is adopted in Australian public universities under an environment of change management. The findings highlight negative consequences of change and their…

  10. Farmers sun exposure, skin protection and public health campaigns: An Australian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Smit-Kroner, Christel; Brumby, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is a common and costly cancer in agricultural populations. Prevention and early detection are an effective way to decrease the burden of disease and associated costs. To examine sun exposure and skin protection practices in agricultural workers and farmers a thematic review of the literature between 1983 and 2014 was undertaken. Comparison between studies was complicated by differences in study design, definitions of skin protection, and analytic methods used. Farmers are the most exposed to harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation of all outdoor workers and the level of reported skin protection by farmers is suboptimal. Years of public health campaigns have failed to adequately address farmers' specific needs. Increased rates of skin cancer and subsequent higher costs are expected. Estimates of sun exposure and skin protection practice indicate that protective clothing is the most promising avenue to improve on farmers' skin protection. Early detection needs to be part of public health campaigns. This review explores the quantitative data about Australian farmers and their skin protective behaviours. We investigate what the documented measurable effect of the public health campaign Slip!Slop!Slap! has had on agricultural workers and farmers and make recommendations for future focus. PMID:26844126

  11. Seasonal dynamics in diatom and particulate export fluxes to the deep sea in the Australian sector of the southern Antarctic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigual-Hernández, Andrés S.; Trull, Thomas W.; Bray, Stephen G.; Closset, Ivia; Armand, Leanne K.

    2015-02-01

    Particle fluxes were recorded over a one-year period (2001-02) in the southern Antarctic Zone in the Australian Sector of the Southern Ocean. Here, we present the results on the seasonal and vertical variability of biogenic particle and diatom valve fluxes. Total mass and diatom fluxes were highly seasonal, with maxima registered during the austral summer and minima during winter. Biogenic opal dominated sedimentation, followed by carbonate, and very low levels of organic carbon (annual average 1.4%). The strong correlation between opal and organic carbon at both depth levels suggests that a significant fraction of organic matter exported to the deep sea was associated with diatom sedimentation events. Seasonal diatom fluxes appear driven principally by changes in the flux of Fragilariopsis kerguelensis. The occurrence of the sea-ice affiliated diatoms Fragilariopsis cylindrus and Fragilariopsis curta in both sediment traps is considered to correspond to the sedimentation of a diatom bloom advected from an area under the influence of sea ice. Highest fluxes of the subsurface-dwelling species Thalassiothrix antarctica registered at the end of the summer bloom were linked to a drop of the light levels during the summer-autumn transition. This study provides the first annual observation on seasonal succession of diatom species in the Australian sector of the Antarctic Zone, and corresponds, in terms of magnitude and seasonality of diatom fluxes, to those in neighbouring sectors (Pacific and eastern Atlantic).

  12. Current Trends in Public Sector Labor Relations Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzman, Joan

    1976-01-01

    Reviews state labor legislation passed or debated in 1975 and early 1976. Also describes the impact of amending laws on the current labor picture and evident trends in public attitudes toward public employees. For availability, see EA 507 548. (Author)

  13. The Social Cohesion Role of the Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capshaw, N. Clark

    2005-01-01

    Social cohesion, the "glue" that keeps a society together, is influenced by the various sectors or "pillars" of that society-educational institutions, social and religious institutions, business institutions, and government. In this article, the effect of the three branches of government (executive, legislative, and judicial) on social cohesion is…

  14. Distributions of dissolved and particulate iron in the sub-Antarctic and Polar Frontal Southern Ocean (Australian sector)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lannuzel, Delphine; Bowie, Andrew R.; Remenyi, Tomas; Lam, Phoebe; Townsend, Ashley; Ibisanmi, Enitan; Butler, Edward; Wagener, Thibaut; Schoemann, Véronique

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents iron (Fe) profiles in the upper 1000 m from nine short-term (transect) stations and three long-term (process) stations occupied in the Australian sector of the Southern Ocean during the SAZ-Sense expedition in austral summer (January-February) 2007. Strong vertical and horizontal gradients in Fe concentrations were observed between the 18 sampled profiles (i.e. 0.09-0.63 nmol/l dissolved Fe (dFe)). Average dFe concentrations in surface gggwaters in the northern Sub-Antarctic Zone (SAZ-N) West (station P1) were 0.27±0.04 nmol/l. This is lower in the SAZ-N East region (station P3 and around) where average dFe values in the mixed layer were 0.48±0.10 nmol/l. The Polar Front (PF) station (P2) exhibited the lowest average surface Fe values (i.e., 0.22±0.02 nmol/l). Iron concentrations in deep waters down to 1000 m were more uniform (0.25-0.37 nmol/l dFe), which is in accordance with values reported elsewhere in remote waters of the Southern Ocean, but lower than those observed in the North Atlantic and North Pacific basins. A strong decoupling was observed between dFe and nutrient cycles at all stations. Particulate Fe levels were generally very low for all SAZ stations (<0.08-1.38 nmol/l), with higher values observed at stations collected near Tasmania and in the SAZ-N East region. The intrusion of subtropical waters, enriched with Fe from sediments or dust further north, is thought to mediate Fe input to the SAZ-N and STZ areas, while input from below would be the main source of Fe in the PF region. We applied the tracer Fe * (Fe *= [dFe]- RFe:P×[PO 43-], where RFe:P is the algal uptake ratio) to estimate the degree to which the water masses were Fe limited. In this study, Fe * tended to be negative and decreased with increasing depths and latitude. Positive Fe * values, indicating Fe sufficiency, were observed in the (near-)surface waters collected in the SAZ-N East and near continental sources, where primary production was higher and

  15. Mental health first aid responses of the public: results from an Australian national survey

    PubMed Central

    Jorm, Anthony F; Blewitt, Kelly A; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Kitchener, Betty A; Parslow, Ruth A

    2005-01-01

    Background The prevalence of mental disorders is so high that members of the public will commonly have contact with someone affected. How they respond to that person (the mental health first aid response) may affect outcomes. However, there is no information on what members of the public might do in such circumstances. Methods In a national survey of 3998 Australian adults, respondents were presented with one of four case vignettes and asked what they would do if that person was someone they had known for a long time and cared about. There were four types of vignette: depression, depression with suicidal thoughts, early schizophrenia, and chronic schizophrenia. Verbatim responses to the open-ended question were coded into categories. Results The most common responses to all vignettes were to encourage professional help-seeking and to listen to and support the person. However, a significant minority did not give these responses. Much less common responses were to assess the problem or risk of harm, to give or seek information, to encourage self-help, or to support the family. Few respondents mentioned contacting a professional on the person's behalf or accompanying them to a professional. First aid responses were generally more appropriate in women, those with less stigmatizing attitudes, and those who correctly identified the disorder in the vignette. Conclusions There is room for improving the range of mental health first aid responses in the community. Lack of knowledge of mental disorders and stigmatizing attitudes are important barriers to effective first aid. PMID:15694008

  16. Aging public services and the position of older women: an Australian case study.

    PubMed

    Colley, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary labor markets are characterized by both aging of the workforce and the increase in participation of women. At the intersection of these two policy agendas are older women. Governments and employers recognize the importance of attracting and retaining older workers to address skills shortages, but the aging workforce discourse remains largely gender neutral. This research considers the intersection of age and gender in the context of public services, which are large employers of both women and older workers. It focuses on the agencies in an Australian state public service. The research finds that, despite decades of equal opportunity programs, there is still evidence of subtle inequalities and cumulative disadvantage. While the case study agencies employ a large proportion of older women, these women were generally recruited at younger ages and aged within the workforce. Their advancement and development opportunities were also inferior to those of older men. Despite these lesser opportunities, older women are generally very satisfied with their employment, and the employer should explore these residual inequalities if genuinely seeking to attract and retain all older workers. PMID:24713054

  17. Legal Framework for Public Sector Collective Bargaining in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, James F.; Fox, M. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews the legal rulings and statutes that have shaped public employee labor relations in Texas since the late 19th century. In the absence of one comprehensive labor/management act, Texas has many diverse laws and precedents that affect the public employee. Available from Baywood Publishing Company, Inc., 43 Central Drive, Farmingdale, NY 11735;…

  18. State Profiles: Current Status of Public Sector Labor Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labor Management Services Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Div. of Public Employee Labor Relations.

    This guide summarizes the coverage of public employees by state labor relations laws. For each state, the guide describes legal provisions, current situation, and current legislative activity. The report also includes data on population, public employment, work stoppages, and state revenues and expenditures. Agencies useful in gathering and…

  19. Using History: Historical Research and Publication by Australian Librarians and Archivists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boadle, Don

    2006-01-01

    Library history has constituted a significant portion of the research articles published in the "Australian Library Journal" and in "Australian Academic & Research Libraries". By contrast, archives history has attracted much less interest from researchers publishing in "Archives and Manuscripts". The author uses these articles together with papers…

  20. Health care inequities in north India: Role of public sector in universalizing health care

    PubMed Central

    Prinja, Shankar; Kanavos, Panos; Kumar, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Income inequality is associated with poor health. Inequities exist in service utilization and financing for health care. Health care costs push high number of households into poverty in India. We undertook this study to ascertain inequities in health status, service utilization and out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditures in two States in north India namely, Haryana and Punjab, and Union Territory of Chandigarh. Methods: Data from National Sample Survey 60th Round on Morbidity and Health Care were analyzed by mean consumption expenditure quintiles. Indicators were devised to document inequities in the dimensions of horizontal and vertical inequity; and redistribution of public subsidy. Concentration index (CI), and equity ratio in conjunction with concentration curve were computed to measure inequity. Results: Reporting of morbidity and hospitalization rate had a pro-rich distribution in all three States indicating poor utilization of health services by low income households. Nearly 57 and 60 per cent households from poorest income quintile in Haryana and Punjab, respectively faced catastrophic OOP hospitalization expenditure at 10 per cent threshold. Lower prevalence of catastrophic expenditure was recorded in higher income groups. Public sector also incurred high costs for hospitalization in selected three States. Medicines constituted 19 to 47 per cent of hospitalization expenditure and 59 to 86 per cent OPD expenditure borne OOP by households in public sector. Public sector hospitalizations had a pro-poor distribution in Haryana, Punjab and Chandigarh. Interpretation & conclusions: Our analysis indicates that public sector health service utilization needs to be improved. OOP health care expenditures at public sector institutions should to be curtailed to improve utilization of poorer segments of population. Greater availability of medicines in public sector and regulation of their prices provide a unique opportunity to reduce public

  1. The relevance of personal characteristics in health care rationing: what the Australian public thinks and why.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Malcolm; Richardson, Jeff; McKie, John; Iezzi, Angelo; Khan, Munir

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the preferences of the general public in Australia regarding health care resource allocation. While previous studies have revealed that the public is willing to give priority to particular groups of patients based on their personal characteristics, the present article goes beyond previous efforts in attempting to explain these results. In the present study, there was strong support among respondents for giving “equal priority” to people regardless of their personal characteristics. However, respondents did reveal a preference for married patients over single, for children over adults, for carers of children and the elderly, sole breadwinners, and good community contributors. Further, they would give a lower priority to those perceived as “self-harmers”—smokers, individuals with unhealthy diets, and those who rarely exercise. Variation in the answers according to broad economic and social beliefs across seven different categories (“factors”) influenced the pattern of the public's attitudes towards rationing. The Principal Components Analysis (PCA) indicated that most of the items in our survey are associated with seven factors that explain or capture much of the variation. These relate to a patient's avoidance of self-harm behaviors (Safe Living), their Life Style (diet, exercise, etc.), their contribution to the community through caring for others (Caring), their talents (Gifted), their sexual behavior (Sexuality), their age and marital status (Family), and whether they are an Australian citizen or employed (Citizen). The strength of social preferences—e.g., how strongly respondents would “discriminate” against a recreational drug user or preference a person with a healthy diet—is related to the particular class of preferences. PMID:21322896

  2. Digital Broadband Content: Public Sector Information. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 112

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Public bodies hold a range of information and content ranging from demographic, economic and meteorological data to art works, historical documents and books. Given the availability of information and communication technologies (ICTs) public sector information can play an important role in producing innovative value-added services and goods.…

  3. Facilitating the Evaluation of Complexity in the Public Sector: Learning from the NHS in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, John; Reid, Garth; Mooney, Allan

    2015-01-01

    It is necessary for public managers to be able to evaluate programmes in the context of complexity. This article offers key learning and reflections based on the experience of facilitating the evaluation of complexity with a range of public sector partners in Scotland. There have been several articles that consider evaluating complexity and…

  4. Subjective Performance Evaluation in the Public Sector: Evidence from School Inspections. CEE DP 135

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Iftikhar

    2012-01-01

    Performance measurement in the public sector is largely based on objective metrics, which may be subject to gaming behaviour. This paper investigates a novel subjective performance evaluation system where independent inspectors visit schools at very short notice, publicly disclose their findings and sanction schools rated fail. First, I…

  5. 75 FR 39934 - Oil and Natural Gas Sector-Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... AGENCY Oil and Natural Gas Sector--Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... opportunity for public involvement during EPA's review of air regulations affecting the oil and natural gas industry. The review in progress covers oil and natural gas exploration and production, as well as...

  6. The Impact of Private Sector Competition on Public Schooling in Kuwait: Some Socio-Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shehab, Ali Jasem

    2010-01-01

    With the diminishing model of the welfare state, public education in Kuwait is facing the challenges of the competition of private schools, while the private sector has always struggled against the monopolistic power of the public schools that educate a broad spectrum of K-12 students. This article presents estimates of the effect of private…

  7. Conducting Public-sector Research on Commercialized Transgenic Seed: In Search of a Paradigm that Works

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Public-sector scientists have a mandate to independently evaluate agricultural products available to American farmers on the open market, whereas the companies that sell the products are concerned about protecting their intellectual property. As a consequence of the latter concern, public scientist...

  8. State Policy and Postsecondary Education: The Relationship of the Independent and Public Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    The relationship between the public and independent sector of higher education in Florida is examined in this conference publication. The problems and issues involved in formulating state policy with respect to postsecondary education in Florida are examined. An overview of policy positions of other states is presented as well as an assessment of…

  9. The Applicability of Market-Based Solutions to Public Sector Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Carolyn

    This paper examines the ways in which private- and public-sector location affects organizational structure and functions, and the implications for school reform. It identifies the differences that are often overlooked when policymakers utilize market-based organizational reform models to address public school problems. Two fundamental questions…

  10. Organizational Politics, Job Attitudes, and Work Outcomes: Exploration and Implications for the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigoda, Eran

    2000-01-01

    A study of the effect of organizational politics on 303 Israeli public employees found that public sector workers are more likely to react to organizational politics with negligent behavior than quitting. Women, highly educated employees, and those with higher incomes showed fewer intentions of neglect. (Contains 66 references.) (SK)

  11. 7 Elements of Effective Public-Sector Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Andrianna; Tierney, William G.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis at the University of Southern California conducted a national study of public higher education governing board performance. 130 board members, presidents, coordinating board officials, governors, legislators, and education department staff were interviewed about ways to improve performance…

  12. Accounting Considerations in Public Sector Risk Management Pools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commons, Harriet V.

    1987-01-01

    The Government Accounting Standards Board's Insurance Issues Project has issued an invitation to comment on two issues: (1) whether governmental risk pools should follow the same accounting principles as commercial insurance companies and (2) financial statement disclosures required of entities with public accountability (MLF)

  13. Public health sector unions and deregulation in Europe.

    PubMed

    Lethbridge, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Deregulation and liberalization of health services take several forms in Europe: public-private partnerships; contracting out of services; and corporatization of health care institutions. The impact on health workers includes changes in terms and conditions of employment, breakup of collective bargaining agreements, and often more stressful working conditions. The author examines four types of trade union responses to deregulation. National health trade union action has used campaigning, awareness raising, and judicial review. Health workers' unions in alliance with other trade unions have taken part in wider campaigns against privatization and in promoting public services. Health workers' unions joining with social movements have become involved in wider alliances that link with broader public policy issues such as poverty reduction and urban/regional regeneration. European-wide action, seen through the work of the European Federation of Public Service Unions, has concentrated on the development of an alternative health policy, and the promotion of social dialogue at a European level. Trade unions must adopt a range of approaches to challenge the effects of deregulation. Increasingly, trade union members need to be aware of how to take action at both the national and European levels. PMID:15346679

  14. Public sector retirement systems: what does the future hold?

    PubMed

    Fornia, William B

    2003-06-01

    Public pension plans will continue to search for cost-sharing retiree health care solutions and may shift to a defined contribution emphasis. Fiduciary responsibility will be highlighted in view of controversial plan changes, government budgetary constraints, scrutinized investment return assumptions, potential labor shortages and increased shareholder activism. PMID:12800307

  15. Private and Public Sector Enterprise Resource Planning System Post-Implementation Practices: A Comparative Mixed Method Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    While private sector organizations have implemented enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems since the mid 1990s, ERP implementations within the public sector lagged by several years. This research conducted a mixed method, comparative assessment of post "go-live" ERP implementations between public and private sector organization. Based on a…

  16. Western Australian Public Opinions of a Minimum Pricing Policy for Alcohol: Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Keatley, David A; Daube, Mike; Hardcastle, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol consumption has significant adverse economic, social, and health outcomes. Recent estimates suggest that the annual economic costs of alcohol in Australia are up to AUD $36 billion. Policies influencing price have been demonstrated to be very effective in reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms. Interest in minimum pricing has gained traction in recent years. However, there has been little research investigating the level of support for the public interest case of minimum pricing in Australia. Objective This article describes protocol for a study exploring Western Australian (WA) public knowledge, understanding, and reaction to a proposed minimum price policy per standard drink. Methods The study will employ a qualitative methodological design. Participants will be recruited from a wide variety of backgrounds, including ethnic minorities, blue and white collar workers, unemployed, students, and elderly/retired populations to participate in focus groups. Focus group participants will be asked about their knowledge of, and initial reactions to, the proposed policy and encouraged to discuss how such a proposal may affect their own alcohol use and alcohol consumption at the population level. Participants will also be asked to discuss potential avenues for increasing acceptability of the policy. The focus groups will adopt a semi-structured, open-ended approach guided by a question schedule. The schedule will be based on feedback from pilot samples, previous research, and a steering group comprising experts in alcohol policy and pricing. Results The study is expected to take approximately 14 months to complete. Conclusions The findings will be of considerable interest and relevance to government officials, policy makers, researchers, advocacy groups, alcohol retail and licensed establishments and organizations, city and town planners, police, and other stakeholder organizations. PMID:26582408

  17. The public sector and mental health parity: time for inclusion.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Michael F.

    1998-12-01

    BACKGROUND: In the United States, there is an uneasy division of responsibility for financing mental health care. For most illnesses, employer-sponsored health insurance and the large federal health insurance programs (Medicare, Medicaid) cover the costs of care. However, most employer-sponsored plans and Medicare provide only limited coverage for treatment of mental illness. A possible cause and result of this limited coverage in mental health is that states, and in some cases local (county) governments, finance a separate system of mental health care. This separate "public mental health system" provides a "safety net" of care for indigent individuals needing mental health care. However, there are potential negative consequences of maintaining separate systems. Continuity of treatment between systems may be impaired, and costs may be higher due to duplicate administrative costs. Maintaining a separate system managed by government may exacerbate the stigma associated with mental illness treatment. Most significantly, since eligibility for care may be linked to poverty status, and since having a serious mental illness may preclude regaining private coverage, maintaining a separate system may contribute to the poverty rate among persons with mental illnesses. AIMS OF THE PAPER: These potential problems have not been widely considered, perhaps because other problems and controversies in mental health care have captured our attention. In particular, controversies over deinstitutionalization in mental health have dominated the policy debate, especially when linked to related problems. These have included conflicts over authority and financial responsibility among federal, state and local governments, sensationalized media coverage of incidents involving people with mental illness, problems with siting community facilities, concern about mental illness among prisoners and the like. However, with the substantial reform of public mental health care in some states and

  18. International patients within the NHS: a case of public sector entrepreneurialism.

    PubMed

    Lunt, Neil; Exworthy, Mark; Hanefeld, Johanna; Smith, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    Many public health systems in high- and middle-income countries are under increasing financial pressures as a result of ageing populations, a rise in chronic and non-communicable diseases and shrinking public resources. At the same time the rise in patient mobility and concomitant market in medical tourism provides opportunities for additional income. This is especially the case where public sector hospitals have a reputation as global centres of excellence. Yet, this requires public sector entrepreneurship which, given the unique features of the public sector, means a change to professional culture. This paper examines how and under what conditions public sector entrepreneurship develops, drawing on the example of international patients in the UK NHS. It reports on a subset of data from a wider study of UK medical tourism, and explores inward flows and NHS responses through the lens of public entrepreneurship. Interviews in the English NHS were conducted with managers of Foundation Trusts with interest in international patient work. Data is from seven Foundation Trusts, based on indepth, semi-structured interviews with a range of NHS managers, and three other key stakeholders (n = 16). Interviews were analysed using a framework on entrepreneurship developed from academic literature. Empirical findings showed that Trust managers were actively pursuing a strategy of expanding international patient activity. Respondents emphasised that this was in the context of the current financial climate for the NHS. International patients were seen as a possible route to ameliorating pressure on stretched NHS resources. The analysis of interviews revealed that public entrepreneurial behaviour requires an organisational managerial or political context in order to develop, such as currently in the UK. Public sector workers engaged in this process develop entrepreneurship - melding political, commercial and stakeholder insights - as a coping mechanism to health system constraints

  19. IT Governance and the Public Sector: A Survey of Perceptions, Attitudes, and Knowledge of Federal Public Sector IT Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, David P.

    2013-01-01

    IT governance has become an important topic as both public and private organizations struggle to meet the challenge of aligning complex IT systems with operational needs. Without effective IT governance, organizations fail to gain strategic benefits that come by the proper strategic alignment of IT resources with the larger organizational mission.…

  20. Advancing a Conceptual Model of Evidence-Based Practice Implementation in Public Service Sectors

    PubMed Central

    Hurlburt, Michael; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2010-01-01

    Implementation science is a quickly growing discipline. Lessons learned from business and medical settings are being applied but it is unclear how well they translate to settings with different historical origins and customs (e.g., public mental health, social service, alcohol/drug sectors). The purpose of this paper is to propose a multi-level, four phase model of the implementation process (i.e., Exploration, Adoption/Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment), derived from extant literature, and apply it to public sector services. We highlight features of the model likely to be particularly important in each phase, while considering the outer and inner contexts (i.e., levels) of public sector service systems. PMID:21197565

  1. Corporate governance of public health services: lessons from New Zealand for the state sector.

    PubMed

    Perkins, R; Barnett, P; Powell, M

    2000-01-01

    New Zealand public hospitals and related services were grouped into 23 Crown Health Enterprises and registered as companies in 1993. Integral to this change was the introduction of corporate governance. New directors, largely from the business sector, were appointed to govern these organisations as efficient and effective businesses. This article presents the results of a survey of directors of New Zealand publicly-owned health provider organisations. Although directors thought they performed well in business systems development, they acknowledged their shortcomings in meeting government expectations in respect to financial performance and social responsibility. Changes in public health sector provider performance indicators have resulted in a mixed report card for the sector six years after corporate governance was instituted. PMID:10947611

  2. Unlocking the Potential of Public Sector Information with Semantic Web Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alani, Harith; Dupplaw, David; Sheridan, John; O'Hara, Kieron; Darlington, John; Shadbolt, Nigel; Tullo, Carol

    Governments often hold very rich data and whilst much of this information is published and available for re-use by others, it is often trapped by poor data structures, locked up in legacy data formats or in fragmented databases. One of the great benefits that Semantic Web (SW) technology offers is facilitating the large scale integration and sharing of distributed data sources. At the heart of information policy in the UK, the Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the part of the UK government charged with enabling the greater re-use of public sector information. This paper describes the actions, findings, and lessons learnt from a pilot study, involving several parts of government and the public sector. The aim was to show to government how they can adopt SW technology for the dissemination, sharing and use of its data.

  3. Public-private sector interactions and the demand for supplementary health insurance in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Bíró, Anikó; Hellowell, Mark

    2016-07-01

    We examine the demand for private health insurance (PHI) in the United Kingdom and relate this to changes in the supply of public and private healthcare. Using a novel collection of administrative, private sector and survey data, we re-assess the relationships between the quality and availability of public and private sector inpatient care, and the demand for PHI. We find that PHI coverage in the United Kingdom is positively related to the median of the region- and year-specific public sector waiting times. We find that PHI prevalence ceteris paribus increases with being self-employed and employed, while it decreases with having financial difficulties. In addition, we highlight the complexities of inter-sectoral relations and their impact on PHI demand. Within a region, we find that an increase in private healthcare supply is associated with a decrease in public sector waiting times, implying lower PHI demand. This may be explained by the usage of private facilities by NHS commissioners. These results have important implications for policymakers interested in the role of private healthcare supply in enhancing the availability of and equitable access to acute inpatient care. PMID:27234967

  4. The public sector nursing workforce in Kenya: a county-level analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Kenya’s human resources for health shortage is well documented, yet in line with the new constitution, responsibility for health service delivery will be devolved to 47 new county administrations. This work describes the public sector nursing workforce likely to be inherited by the counties, and examines the relationships between nursing workforce density and key indicators. Methods National nursing deployment data linked to nursing supply data were used and analyzed using statistical and geographical analysis software. Data on nurses deployed in national referral hospitals and on nurses deployed in non-public sector facilities were excluded from main analyses. The densities and characteristics of the public sector nurses across the counties were obtained and examined against an index of county remoteness, and the nursing densities were correlated with five key indicators. Results Of the 16,371 nurses in the public non-tertiary sector, 76% are women and 53% are registered nurses, with 35% of the nurses aged 40 to 49 years. The nursing densities across counties range from 1.2 to 0.08 per 1,000 population. There are statistically significant associations of the nursing densities with a measure of health spending per capita (P value = 0.0028) and immunization rates (P value = 0.0018). A higher county remoteness index is associated with explaining lower female to male ratio of public sector nurses across counties (P value <0.0001). Conclusions An overall shortage of nurses (range of 1.2 to 0.08 per 1,000) in the public sector countrywide is complicated by mal-distribution and varying workforce characteristics (for example, age profile) across counties. All stakeholders should support improvements in human resources information systems and help address personnel shortages and mal-distribution if equitable, quality health-care delivery in the counties is to be achieved. PMID:24467776

  5. Awaking the Public Sector with Strategic Corporate Philanthropy: Revitalizing the Public Servant's Organizational Knowledge, Innovative Capability, and Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Janese Marie

    2011-01-01

    Given the perils of today's dynamic and resource-constrained environment, intellectual capital has become a source of competitive advantage for public sector organizations. Composed of three elements--organizational knowledge, innovative capability, and organizational commitment--intellectual capital is an asset that cannot simply be bought or…

  6. Are clerical workers proletarian? A case study of the Australian Public Service.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Craig

    2007-12-01

    This paper explores whether clerical workers have been proletarianized by using the Australian Public Service (APS) as a case study. It shows that before the late 1980s the market, work and status situations of APS clerks were predominantly proletarian since they were typified by limited career prospects, low skill requirements, restricted autonomy; low organizational status and estrangement from senior management. This proletarian class situation was reflected in an order taker's culture of informality, cynicism, hedonism and alienation. Since the late 1980s however technological change and workplace restructuring have markedly reduced the number of unskilled and lower paid jobs in the APS, thereby belying widespread predictions of deskilling. I conclude that proletarianization is more likely to have arisen from a decline in the status of clerical work during the course of the twentieth century rather than from a process of deskilling. Notwithstanding the fact that their class situations were predominantly proletarian, most clerks have identified as middle class. We can attribute this not only to the fact that their class situations differ from those of manual workers, as noted by Lockwood, but also to a widespread tendency to identify as middle class, the tendency of many female clerks to base their class identity on their husband's occupation and the fact that popular stereotypes tend to equate class with occupation. It is difficult to decide if clerks are proletarian since 1. Their class situations display a mixture of proletarian and middle-class characteristics 2. They exhibit diverse class identities, social origins, marriage partners and cultural attributes and 3. They occupy different positions on different aspects of inequality. We are therefore unable to allocate them en bloc to a single uniform class. I conclude that while a minority of clerks are proletarian most are better described as middle class. PMID:18076387

  7. WARF's stem cell patents and tensions between public and private sector approaches to research.

    PubMed

    Golden, John M

    2010-01-01

    While society debates whether and how to use public funds to support work on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), many scientific groups and businesses debate a different question - the extent to which patents that cover such stem cells should be permitted to limit or to tax their research. The Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), a non-profit foundation that manages intellectual property generated by researchers at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, owns three patents that have been at the heart of the latter controversy The story of WARF's patents and the controversy they have fostered highlights not only continuing tensions between proprietary and nonproprietary approaches to developing science and technology, but also an at least partly reassuring capacity of public and private sectors to deal with those tensions in a way that can render them substantially manageable, and frequently more manageable as a technology matures. More particularly, the cumulative story of WARF's patents features three leitmotifs that suggest how an attentive and engaged public sector might commonly succeed in working with public and private sector actors to achieve workable balances between proprietary rights and more general social interests: (1) right holders' decisions to pursue less than full rights assertion or enforcement; (2) the ability of government and other public sector actors to help bring about such decisions through co-option or pressure; and (3) the frequent availability or development of technological alternatives that limit research bottlenecks. PMID:20579254

  8. Revolving drug funds: conducting business in the public sector.

    PubMed

    Cross, P N; Huff, M A; Quick, J D; Bates, J A

    1986-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are essential for preventive and therapeutic health services. Unfortunately, significant demand, limited funds and high prices contribute to frequent shortages of drugs in many public health programs. One method for financing pharmaceutical supplies has been the establishment of revolving drug funds (RDFs) in which, after an initial capital investment, drug supplies are replenished with monies collected from the sale of drugs. All too often however, the funds actually recovered are insufficient to replenish supplies and the fund is soon depleted. In this paper we consider the potential benefits and common pitfalls of revolving drug funds and then focus on the central role of financial planning in establishing drug sales programs. Experiences from a variety of countries suggest several causes for the failure of some RDFs, including: under-estimation of capitalization costs, prices set below true replacement cost, frequent failure to collect payment, delays in cash flow which make funds unavailable for replenishment of drug stocks, rapid program expansion for which additional capital funds are not available, losses due to theft and deterioration of drugs, unanticipated price increases due to inflation or changes in parity rates and foreign exchange purchase restrictions. Common to many of these problems is the lack of a businesslike orientation to RDFs and, in particular, lack of careful financial planning and management. Financial planning for an RDF includes four analytical tasks: assessment of the potential market, estimation of the costs of an RDF, establishment of the cost-recovery objectives, definition of the role of subsidies and surcharges.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3515574

  9. Public Sector Reform and Governance for Adaptation: Implications of New Public Management for Adaptive Capacity in Mexico and Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, Hallie; Eriksen, Siri; Eikeland, Per-Ove; Øyen, Cecilie

    2011-03-01

    Although many governments are assuming the responsibility of initiating adaptation policy in relation to climate change, the compatibility of "governance-for-adaptation" with the current paradigms of public administration has generally been overlooked. Over the last several decades, countries around the globe have embraced variants of the philosophy of administration broadly called "New Public Management" (NPM) in an effort to improve administrative efficiencies and the provision of public services. Using evidence from a case study of reforms in the building sector in Norway, and a case study of water and flood risk management in central Mexico, we analyze the implications of the adoption of the tenets of NPM for adaptive capacity. Our cases illustrate that some of the key attributes associated with governance for adaptation—namely, technical and financial capacities; institutional memory, learning and knowledge; and participation and accountability—have been eroded by NPM reforms. Despite improvements in specific operational tasks of the public sector in each case, we show that the success of NPM reforms presumes the existence of core elements of governance that have often been found lacking, including solid institutional frameworks and accountability. Our analysis illustrates the importance of considering both longer-term adaptive capacities and short-term efficiency goals in public sector administration reform.

  10. Public sector reform and governance for adaptation: implications of new public management for adaptive capacity in Mexico and Norway.

    PubMed

    Eakin, Hallie; Eriksen, Siri; Eikeland, Per-Ove; Øyen, Cecilie

    2011-03-01

    Although many governments are assuming the responsibility of initiating adaptation policy in relation to climate change, the compatibility of "governance-for-adaptation" with the current paradigms of public administration has generally been overlooked. Over the last several decades, countries around the globe have embraced variants of the philosophy of administration broadly called "New Public Management" (NPM) in an effort to improve administrative efficiencies and the provision of public services. Using evidence from a case study of reforms in the building sector in Norway, and a case study of water and flood risk management in central Mexico, we analyze the implications of the adoption of the tenets of NPM for adaptive capacity. Our cases illustrate that some of the key attributes associated with governance for adaptation--namely, technical and financial capacities; institutional memory, learning and knowledge; and participation and accountability--have been eroded by NPM reforms. Despite improvements in specific operational tasks of the public sector in each case, we show that the success of NPM reforms presumes the existence of core elements of governance that have often been found lacking, including solid institutional frameworks and accountability. Our analysis illustrates the importance of considering both longer-term adaptive capacities and short-term efficiency goals in public sector administration reform. PMID:21229245

  11. Scoping study of integrated resource planning needs in the public utility sector

    SciTech Connect

    Garrick, C J; Garrick, J M; Rue, D R

    1993-06-01

    Integrated resource planning (IRP) is an approach to utility resource planning that integrates the evaluation of supply- and demand-site options for providing energy services at the least cost. Many utilities practice IRP; however, most studies about IRP focus on investor-owned utilities (IOUs). This scoping study investigates the IRP activities and needs of public utilities (not-for-profit utilities, including federal, state, municipal, and cooperative utilities). This study (1) profiles IRP-related characteristics of the public utility sector, (2) articulates the needs of public utilities in understanding and implementing IRP, and (3) identifies strategies to advance IRP principles in public utility planning.

  12. Public sector employment, relative deprivation and happiness in adult urban Chinese employees.

    PubMed

    Hu, Anning

    2013-09-01

    The decline in perceived happiness within economic prosperity in Chinese society calls for further examination. In this research, we investigate the effect of employment in public sector work units on perceived happiness through the mediation of economic and social status relative deprivations. In the reform era of China, work unit is still an important mechanism maintaining social inequality, and those working in government/Communist Party agencies and public institutions have advantages of getting access to high wage, comprehensive welfare and the manipulation of administrative public power. Such economic and social status advantages are expected to reduce their relative deprivation and further promote their perceived happiness. Using a nationwide survey data conducted in 2006, we find working in public sector can significantly reduce the odds of experiencing economic relative deprivation, which is further contributive to the improvement of subjective wellbeing. PMID:22717616

  13. Good governance of animal health systems and public-private partnerships: an Australian case study.

    PubMed

    Black, P F

    2012-08-01

    The animal health system in Australia has evolved over more than 100 years and includes innovative public-private partnership arrangements. The establishment in 1996 of Animal Health Australia (AHA), a not-for-profit company, was a crucial development which formalised arrangements for shared decision-making and funding across both government and industry stakeholders. However, Federal and State governments retain legislative authority for animal health control. Accordingly, all programmes must recognise that the public sector remains an executive arm of government, accountable for its actions. Hence, much effort has been invested in ensuring that the governance arrangements within AHA are lawful and transparent. The Emergency Animal Disease Response Agreement (EADRA) is a very good example of governance arrangements that are sustainably financed, widely available, provided efficiently, without waste or duplication, and in a manner that is transparent and free of fraud or corruption. The benefits of EADRA include certainty and greater transparency of funding; greater efficiency through increased probability of a rapid response to an occurrence of any of 65 diseases; and industry participation in the management and financing of such a response. PMID:23413743

  14. Cross-sector partnerships and public health: challenges and opportunities for addressing obesity and noncommunicable diseases through engagement with the private sector.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lee M; Finegood, Diane T

    2015-03-18

    Over the past few decades, cross-sector partnerships with the private sector have become an increasingly accepted practice in public health, particularly in efforts to address infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Now these partnerships are becoming a popular tool in efforts to reduce and prevent obesity and the epidemic of noncommunicable diseases. Partnering with businesses presents a means to acquire resources, as well as opportunities to influence the private sector toward more healthful practices. Yet even though collaboration is a core principle of public health practice, public-private or nonprofit-private partnerships present risks and challenges that warrant specific consideration. In this article, we review the role of public health partnerships with the private sector, with a focus on efforts to address obesity and noncommunicable diseases in high-income settings. We identify key challenges-including goal alignment and conflict of interest-and consider how changes to partnership practice might address these. PMID:25581149

  15. Distributing the ERIC Database on Compact Disc: A Case History of Private Sector Involvement in the Distribution of Public Sector Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandhorst, Ted

    1987-01-01

    Describes the partnership between the public and private sectors in developing and marketing the ERIC database in CD-ROM format. Particular emphasis is given to the marketing research and protocols of partnership that were developed. (Author/CLB)

  16. Guidelines for public transportation contracting with the private sector in California: Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-30

    The manual provides practical assistance to public transit agencies in California in contracting for goods and services with the private sector. It also assists private firms seeking to provide goods and services to public transit agencies. The manual provides an overview of each of the processes involved in procurement from preparation of procurement documents to contract management and evaluation. It also provides detailed, practical guidance on each of these processes.

  17. "What's the problem?": Australian public policy constructions of domestic and family violence.

    PubMed

    Murray, Suellen; Powell, Anastasia

    2009-05-01

    The campaign of feminists to have domestic violence formally acknowledged as a key issue affecting Australian women succeeded in the early 1980s when governments began developing policy seeking to address the problem. Far from simply adopting feminist gendered understandings of domestic violence, however, the development of contemporary policy responses to this issue has been influenced by a number of competing discourses about the problem, its causes, and possible solutions. Drawing on Bacchi's policy analysis approach, the authors compare the discursive constructions of domestic violence inherent in how the issue is named, framed, and defined across contemporary Australian policy documents. PMID:19208919

  18. Clustering Consumers Based on Trust, Confidence and Giving Behaviour: Data-Driven Model Building for Charitable Involvement in the Australian Not-For-Profit Sector

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Natalie Jane; Reis, Rodrigo; Moscato, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Organisations in the Not-for-Profit and charity sector face increasing competition to win time, money and efforts from a common donor base. Consequently, these organisations need to be more proactive than ever. The increased level of communications between individuals and organisations today, heightens the need for investigating the drivers of charitable giving and understanding the various consumer groups, or donor segments, within a population. It is contended that `trust' is the cornerstone of the not-for-profit sector's survival, making it an inevitable topic for research in this context. It has become imperative for charities and not-for-profit organisations to adopt for-profit's research, marketing and targeting strategies. This study provides the not-for-profit sector with an easily-interpretable segmentation method based on a novel unsupervised clustering technique (MST-kNN) followed by a feature saliency method (the CM1 score). A sample of 1,562 respondents from a survey conducted by the Australian Charities and Not-for-profits Commission is analysed to reveal donor segments. Each cluster's most salient features are identified using the CM1 score. Furthermore, symbolic regression modelling is employed to find cluster-specific models to predict `low' or `high' involvement in clusters. The MST-kNN method found seven clusters. Based on their salient features they were labelled as: the `non-institutionalist charities supporters', the `resource allocation critics', the `information-seeking financial sceptics', the `non-questioning charity supporters', the `non-trusting sceptics', the `charity management believers' and the `institutionalist charity believers'. Each cluster exhibits their own characteristics as well as different drivers of `involvement'. The method in this study provides the not-for-profit sector with a guideline for clustering, segmenting, understanding and potentially targeting their donor base better. If charities and not

  19. Clustering consumers based on trust, confidence and giving behaviour: data-driven model building for charitable involvement in the Australian not-for-profit sector.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Natalie Jane; Reis, Rodrigo; Moscato, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Organisations in the Not-for-Profit and charity sector face increasing competition to win time, money and efforts from a common donor base. Consequently, these organisations need to be more proactive than ever. The increased level of communications between individuals and organisations today, heightens the need for investigating the drivers of charitable giving and understanding the various consumer groups, or donor segments, within a population. It is contended that `trust' is the cornerstone of the not-for-profit sector's survival, making it an inevitable topic for research in this context. It has become imperative for charities and not-for-profit organisations to adopt for-profit's research, marketing and targeting strategies. This study provides the not-for-profit sector with an easily-interpretable segmentation method based on a novel unsupervised clustering technique (MST-kNN) followed by a feature saliency method (the CM1 score). A sample of 1,562 respondents from a survey conducted by the Australian Charities and Not-for-profits Commission is analysed to reveal donor segments. Each cluster's most salient features are identified using the CM1 score. Furthermore, symbolic regression modelling is employed to find cluster-specific models to predict `low' or `high' involvement in clusters. The MST-kNN method found seven clusters. Based on their salient features they were labelled as: the `non-institutionalist charities supporters', the `resource allocation critics', the `information-seeking financial sceptics', the `non-questioning charity supporters', the `non-trusting sceptics', the `charity management believers' and the `institutionalist charity believers'. Each cluster exhibits their own characteristics as well as different drivers of `involvement'. The method in this study provides the not-for-profit sector with a guideline for clustering, segmenting, understanding and potentially targeting their donor base better. If charities and not

  20. Engaging the Online Learner: Perceptions of Public and Private Sector Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alagaraja, Meera; Dooley, Larry M.

    2005-01-01

    Engaging the online learner is a prominent issue that is certain to affect the future success of online learning. A critical step in progressing on this issue is to understand how public and private sector educators' adopt distinctive approaches to meet the diverse needs of their environments and their learners. The paper uses a thematic approach…

  1. Behavioural and Motivational Training for Senior Staff in the Portuguese Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madureira, Cesar

    2006-01-01

    The results of this research has highlighted the fact that most public sector bodies in Portugal do not have any formal specification for training requirements, nor do they have training programmes or detailed training evaluation systems. Furthermore, there is no interaction in these areas between the training body and the Departmental Customer or…

  2. The Nays Have It: When Public Sector Unions Win in California. Civic Report. No. 72

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSalvo, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This November, California voters must decide two policy questions of great concern to public-sector unions. One is a tax hike to stave off further cuts to state spending (there are two versions on the ballot with a chance of passing). The other is a "paycheck protection" measure that would ban the practice of unions' deducting money from member…

  3. Dues and Deep Pockets: Public-Sector Unions' Money Machine. Civic Report. No. 67

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSalvo, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    At first glance, public-sector labor unions are just one of many types of organizations that participate in the political process. However, these unions differ significantly from other interest groups made up of individual citizens or non-labor organizations. Because their members' interests are tied to government policy, these unions are more…

  4. Private Service, Public Rights: The Private Children's Residential Group Care Sector in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gharabaghi, Kiaras

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the core themes and issues of private residential service delivery for children and youth in Ontario, with a specific focus on staffed group care within this sector. Such exploration highlights the juxtaposition of the public rights of children with the private world of service provision. Based on twenty interviews with…

  5. How Do Private Sector Schools Serve the Public Good by Fostering Inclusive Service Delivery Models?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Martin; Tichy, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Conversations about promoting educational reforms that redress educational inequities often ignore private schools as irrelevant. Yet pursuits of inclusivity in private sector schools serve the public interest. This article focuses on how the system of Catholic schools in the Archdiocese of St. Louis has been purposefully striving for 2 decades to…

  6. The skills gap in hospital management in the South African public health sector.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Rubin

    2008-01-01

    A lack of management capacity has been identified as the key stumbling block to the transformation and reconceptualization of the public sector in South Africa into a more effective, efficient, and responsive system of health delivery. As part of the overall management development process, this research aimed to identify the skills important for public sector health management and to evaluate managers' self-assessed proficiency in each of these skills. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among hospital managers in the South African public health sector. Respondents were asked to rate the level of importance that each proposed competency had in their job and to indicate their proficiency in each skill. Self-assessment of levels of competency showed that managers felt most competent in strategic planning, people management, and self-management, and relatively less competent in the task-related skills and their ability to deliver healthcare. People management, self-management, and task-related skills were rated as being most important, followed by strategic management and health delivery skills, respectively. The largest differences between mean importance rating and mean skill rating were for people management skills, task-related and self-management skills. These findings reflect the reality of the local health service environment and the needs of health managers and will be useful in the conceptualization, design, and delivery of health management programs aimed at enhancing current and future management and leadership capacity in the public health sector in South Africa. PMID:18708881

  7. How to Enhance the Impact of Training on Service Quality? Evidence from Malaysian Public Sector Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumrah, Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to highlight the importance role of transfer of training as a mediator in the relationship between training and service quality. Design/methodology/approach: The data of this study were collected from three sources: the employees of public sector organizations in Malaysia who participated in a Basic Financial…

  8. Choosing Charters: Who Leaves Public School as an Alternative Sector Expands?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowen, Joshua M.; Winters, Marcus A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the number of charter schools in Florida has doubled. We examine five years of data on students moving into these schools from the traditional public sector. We consider student attributes and the school and district contexts that they are leaving. The better students are performing relative to their peers, the less likely they…

  9. Leadership Strategies of Performance Measures Impacts in Public Sector Management: A National Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubala, James Joseph

    A quantitative and qualitative study examined three leadership strategies found in performance-based management (human resource, scientific management and political strategies used in public sector management); a framework by which performance measurement (PM) supports leadership strategies; and how the strategies impact PM. It examined leadership…

  10. A Guide to the Changing Court Rulings on Union Security in the Public Sector: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jascourt, Hugh D.

    1985-01-01

    Introduces two articles that (1) supply the union and management perspectives of the Supreme Court decision in "Ellis vs. Brotherhood of Railway, Airline and Steamship Clerks" and (2) discuss how this decision affects the public sector in the area of education. (MLF)

  11. The Medicaid School Program: An Effective Public School and Private Sector Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallett, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Privatized service delivery within Medicaid has greatly increased over the past two decades. This public program-private sector collaboration is quite common today, with a majority of Medicaid recipients receiving services in this fashion; yet controversy remains. This article focuses on just one program within Medicaid, school-based services for…

  12. Comparison of Ethical Dilemmas across Public and Private Sectors in Rehabilitation Counseling Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beveridge, Scott; Garcia, Jorge; Siblo, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the nature of ethical dilemmas most frequently reported by rehabilitation counselors in the private and public sectors and determine if significant differences exist in how practitioners experience ethical dilemmas in these two settings. Method: A mixed-methods internet-based survey design was utilized and included descriptive,…

  13. Utilization and Value of Public Sector Information for Knowledge Development: The Case of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharif, Raed M.

    2013-01-01

    Although there appears to be a broad recognition of the key role that Public Sector Information (PSI) can play in the development of societies, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of how PSI is actually being utilized and of its wider societal value, especially in developing countries. The overarching goal of this dissertation…

  14. Training Needs Assessment in the Botswana Public Service: A Case Study of Five State Sector Ministries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balisi, Shadreck

    2014-01-01

    Using qualitative methods, this study analysed the process of training needs assessment in the Botswana public service, with special focus on five state sector ministries. It is evident from the research findings that there is little and an unsystematic approach to the needs assessment prior to training. The research further revealed that the…

  15. Standard Setting in the United States: Public and Private Sector Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, D. Linda

    1992-01-01

    Examines the evolution of the U.S. standards process and its basis in U.S. political culture; evaluates the system in the light of the many structural changes taking place in the world economy; and suggests that a new balance must be struck between public and private sector roles. (23 references) (LAE)

  16. Preparing for Public Life: School Sector and the Educational Context of Lasting Citizen Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    School sector and educational context seem to make a difference in civic socialization. There is limited knowledge, however, of the mechanisms through which socialization may occur in public and private schools, and the extent to which they have any lasting effect. Does the private school effect on civic socialization persist into young adulthood,…

  17. The US Public Sector and Its Adoption of Service Oriented Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) provides public sector organizations the capability to provide real increases in organizational effectiveness by aiding in the efficient exchange of information. Adoption of advanced IT such as service oriented environments, Web 2.0, and bespoke systems such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) promises to markedly…

  18. Networking and Managers' Career Success in the Malaysian Public Sector: The Moderating Effect of Managerial Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasdi, Roziah Mohd; Garavan, Thomas N.; Ismail, Maimunah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how managerial level moderates the relationships between networking behaviours and career success (objective and subjective) in the context of a public sector organisation in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The study utilised a cross-sectional design and investigated these relationships…

  19. Two Paths to Transforming Markets through Public Sector EnergyEfficiency: Bottom Up versus Top Down

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura; Coleman, Philip; Fridley, David; Harris,Jeffrey; Villasenor Franco, Edgar

    2006-05-10

    The evolution of government purchasing initiatives in Mexicoand China, part of the PEPS (Promoting an Energy-efficient Public Sector)program, demonstrates the need for flexibility in designingenergy-efficiency strategies in the public sector. Several years ofpursuing a top-down (federally led) strategy in Mexico produced fewresults, and it was not until the program was restructured in 2004 tofocus on municipal-level purchasing that the program gained momentum.Today, a new partnership with the Mexican federal government is leadingto an intergovernmental initiative with strong support at the federallevel. By contrast, the PEPS purchasing initiative in China wassuccessfully initiated and led at the central government level withstrategic support from international experts. The very different successtrajectories in these two countries provide valuable lessons fordesigning country-specific public sector energy-efficiency initiatives.Enabling conditions for any successful public sector purchasinginitiative include the existence of mandatory energy-efficiencyperformance standards, an effective energy-efficiency endorsementlabeling program, an immediate need for energy conservation, a simplepilot phase (focusing on a limited number of strategically chosenproducts), and specialized technical assistance. Top-down purchasingprograms are likely to be more successful where there is high-levelpolitical endorsement and a national procurement law in place, supportedby a network of trained purchasers. Bottom-up (municipally led)purchasing programs require that municipalities have the authority to settheir own purchasing policies, and also benefit from existing networks ofcities, supported by motivated municipal leaders and trained purchasingofficials.

  20. Behavioural Indicators of Perceived Managerial and Leadership Effectiveness within Romanian and British Public Sector Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Robert G.; Patel, Taran

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report the results of a replication study of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness within a Romanian public sector hospital, and to discuss the extent to which they are similar to and different from findings from equivalent studies carried out in two British NHS Trust hospitals. Design/methodology/approach:…

  1. Thomas J. Fagan: award for distinguished professional contributions to practice in the public sector.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation for Thomas J. Fagan, who received the Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Practice in the Public Sector "for his service as a leader in correctional psychology." A brief profile and a selected bibliography accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115843

  2. Towards Developing a Theoretical Framework for Measuring Public Sector Managers' Career Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasdi, Roziah Mohd; Ismail, Maimunah; Uli, Jegak; Noah, Sidek Mohd

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework for measuring public sector managers' career success. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical foundation used in this study is social cognitive career theory. To conduct a literature search, several keywords were identified, i.e. career success, objective and subjective…

  3. Business as Usual: Exploring Private Sector Participation in American Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakeshaft, Charol; Trachtman, Roberta

    Although there is widespread publicity about the involvement of businesses with schools, and as President Reagan as well as authors of reform reports continue to call upon the private sector to help education, it is unclear to what extent such relationships exist and what they are accomplishing. A 10-page, 55-question survey was mailed to the…

  4. 'Health's a difficult beast': the interrelationships between domestic violence, women's health and the health sector. An Australian case study.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Colleen; Hunt, Lynne; Adamsam, Rhonda; Thurston, Wilfreda E

    2007-10-01

    This paper reports on the Australian component of a five nation study undertaken in Australia, Canada, Thailand, Bangladesh and Afghanistan examining policy networks that address women's health and domestic violence. It examines the relationship between health and domestic violence in Western Australia and analyses the secondary role assumed by health. The study adopted a qualitative research paradigm and semi-structured interviews. Snowball sampling was used to identify relevant and significant stakeholders and resulted in a final sample of 30 individuals representing three key areas: the 'health policy community', the 'domestic violence prevention community' and 'other interested stakeholders', that is, those who have an interest in, but who are not involved in, domestic violence prevention work. Results suggest that the secondary positioning of health is associated with the historical 'championing' of the issue in the women's movement; limited linkages between the health policy community and the domestic violence prevention community and within the health policy community itself; the 'fit' between domestic violence and the Western Australian Health Department mandate; and the mis-match between domestic violence and the medical model. The conclusion indicates a need for collaboration based on effective links across the domestic violence community and the health policy community. PMID:17614173

  5. Institutional Breakdown? An Exploratory Taxonomy of Australian University Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, David; Dollery, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Australian higher education has undergone radical change aimed transforming universities into commercial enterprises less dependent on public funding. Despite some significant successes, including dramatic increases in the numbers of domestic and international students, decreased Commonwealth subsidies, and more private sector finance, there are…

  6. The Australian public's preferences for emergency care alternatives and the influence of the presenting context: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Paul; Whitty, Jennifer A; Kendall, Elizabeth; Ratcliffe, Julie; Wilson, Andrew; Littlejohns, Peter; Scuffham, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The current study seeks to quantify the Australian public's preferences for emergency care alternatives and determine if preferences differ depending on presenting circumstances. Setting Increasing presentations to emergency departments have led to overcrowding, long waiting times and suboptimal health system performance. Accordingly, new service models involving the provision of care in alternative settings and delivered by other practitioners continue to be developed. Participants A stratified sample of Australian adults (n=1838), 1382 from Queensland and 456 from South Australia, completed the survey. This included 951 females and 887 males from the 2045 people who met the screening criteria out of the 4354 people who accepted the survey invitation. Interventions A discrete choice experiment was used to elicit preferences in the context of one of four hypothetical scenarios: a possible concussion, a rash/asthma-related problem involving oneself or one's child and an anxiety-related presentation. Mixed logit regression was used to analyse the dependent variable choice and identify the relative importance of care attributes and the propensity to access care in each context. Results Results indicated a preference for treatment by an emergency physician in hospital for possible concussion and treatment by a doctor in ambulatory settings for rash/asthma-related and anxiety-related problems. Participants were consistently willing to wait longer before making trade-offs in the context of the rash/asthma-related scenario compared with when the same problem affected their child. Results suggest a clear preference for lower costs, shorter wait times and strong emphasis on quality care; however, significant preference heterogeneity was observed. Conclusions This study has increased awareness that the public's emergency care choices will differ depending on the presenting context. It has further demonstrated the importance of service quality as a determinant of

  7. Why do health workers in rural Tanzania prefer public sector employment?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Severe shortages of qualified health workers and geographical imbalances in the workforce in many low-income countries require the national health sector management to closely monitor and address issues related to the distribution of health workers across various types of health facilities. This article discusses health workers' preferences for workplace and their perceptions and experiences of the differences in working conditions in the public health sector versus the church-run health facilities in Tanzania. The broader aim is to generate knowledge that can add to debates on health sector management in low-income contexts. Methods The study has a qualitative study design to elicit in-depth information on health workers' preferences for workplace. The data comprise ten focus group discussions (FGDs) and 29 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with auxiliary staff, nursing staff, clinicians and administrators in the public health sector and in a large church-run hospital in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in Tanzania. Results The study found a clear preference for public sector employment. This was associated with health worker rights and access to various benefits offered to health workers in government service, particularly the favourable pension schemes providing economic security in old age. Health workers acknowledged that church-run hospitals generally were better equipped and provided better quality patient care, but these concerns tended to be outweighed by the financial assets of public sector employment. In addition to the sector specific differences, family concerns emerged as important in decisions on workplace. Conclusions The preference for public sector employment among health workers shown in this study seems to be associated primarily with the favourable pension scheme. The overall shortage of health workers and the distribution between health facilities is a challenge in a

  8. Language and Culture in Australian Public Policy: Some Critical Reflections. Occasional Papers New Series No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayasuriya, Laksiri

    The social, political, and ideological underpinnings of recent policy initiatives relating to language and culture in Australian society, in particular, those of concern to ethnic minority groups, are examined in this paper. The development of a policy for immigrant ethnic minorities has always been quite distinct in comparison with the indigenous…

  9. Computer simulation model of ecological succession in Australian subtropical rainforest. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 1407

    SciTech Connect

    Shugart, H.H.; Mortlock, A.T.; Hopkins, M.S.; Burgess, I.P.

    1980-04-01

    KIAMBRAM, a detailed simulation model for ecological succession in an Australian subtropical humid rainforest is documented in respect to model structure. Model parameters for 125 rainforest tree species are provided. A listing of the KIAMBRAM model and a sample of output from the model is included.

  10. Public and private sector responses to essential drugs policies: a multilevel analysis of drug prescription and selling practices in Mali.

    PubMed

    Maïga, Fatoumata Ina; Haddad, Slim; Fournier, Pierre; Gauvin, Lise

    2003-09-01

    Many African countries have introduced cost recovery mechanisms based on the sale of drugs and measures aimed at improving drug supply. This study compares prescribing and selling practices in Mali, in 3 cities where the public sector contributes differentially to the supply of drugs on the market. Multilevel models are used to analyse the content and cost of 700 medication transactions observed in 14 private and public legal points of sale. Results show that the objective of improving access to drugs seems to have been achieved in the sites studied. Costs of prescriptions were lower where public health services had been revitalized. Affordable generic drugs were accessible and widely used, even in the private sector. However, measures intended to rationalize the prescription and delivery of drugs did not always have the desired effect. While agents in the public sector tended to prescribe fewer antibiotics, injectables, or brand-name drugs, the data confirm the virtual absence of advice concerning the use or the side effects of the drugs in both public and private sectors. In addition, data supported the notion that the public and private sectors are closely intertwined. Notably, availability of drugs in the public sector contributed to diminishing the prices charged in the private sector. Similarly, the use that agents in the public sector made of the opportunities afforded by the presence of the private pharmaceutical sector provided another illustration of interrelatedness. Finally, the data showed that the presence of a private sector, which has not been affected by measures aimed at rationalizing prescription and sales practices, limits the effects of measures implemented in the public sector. More assertive policies, based on strategies encompassing actors in the private sector, are needed to increase the safety and effectiveness of prescription and sales practices. PMID:12850118

  11. Does the Wage Gap between Private and Public Sectors Encourage Political Corruption?

    PubMed Central

    Podobnik, Boris; Vukovic, Vuk; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2015-01-01

    We present a dynamic network model of corrupt and noncorrupt employees representing two states in the public and private sector. Corrupt employees are more connected to one another and are less willing to change their attitudes regarding corruption than noncorrupt employees. This behavior enables them to prevail and become the majority in the workforce through a first-order phase transition even though they initially represented a minority. In the model, democracy—understood as the principle of majority rule—does not create corruption, but it serves as a mechanism that preserves corruption in the long run. The motivation for our network model is a paradox that exists on the labor market. Although economic theory indicates that higher risk investments should lead to larger rewards, in many developed and developing countries workers in lower-risk public sector jobs are paid more than workers in higher-risk private sector jobs. To determine the long-run sustainability of this economic paradox, we study data from 28 EU countries and find that the public sector wage premium increases with the level of corruption. PMID:26495847

  12. Metric conversion: Future progress depends upon private sector and public support. Report to Congressional requesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-01-01

    In reviewing federal metric conversion (metrication) activities, the General Accounting Office (GAO) evaluated federal agency activities in (1) establishing metric guidelines and preparing reports on the transition, (2) using the metric system in procurements, (3) using the metric system in grants and other business activities, and (4) dealing with private sector and public attitudes toward conversion. Since 1990, federal preparations for metric conversion have advanced dramatically, with more than 30 agencies having developed some combination of guidelines, transition plans, and progress reports that indicate a substantially greater commitment to metrication. However, they are still facing serious difficulties in putting their plans into practice. These difficulties include a procurement environment in which most products are nonmetric and in which federal agencies represent too small a share of the total market to stimulate private sector conversion. Mixed progress has been made toward metric conversion in the areas of federal grants and other business activities. Grants for research require the use of the metric system, but such a commitment has not been made for grants in other areas, such as housing and education. Agencies that undertake other business-related activities, such as federal programs involving farmers or highway signs, are concerned about private sector and public resistance to conversion. Now that most agencies have made significant progress in preparing for metric conversion, a broader national dialogue between the government, the private sector, and the public is needed to discuss the next steps in decision-making about metric conversion.

  13. Does the Wage Gap between Private and Public Sectors Encourage Political Corruption?

    PubMed

    Podobnik, Boris; Vukovic, Vuk; Stanley, H Eugene

    2015-01-01

    We present a dynamic network model of corrupt and noncorrupt employees representing two states in the public and private sector. Corrupt employees are more connected to one another and are less willing to change their attitudes regarding corruption than noncorrupt employees. This behavior enables them to prevail and become the majority in the workforce through a first-order phase transition even though they initially represented a minority. In the model, democracy-understood as the principle of majority rule-does not create corruption, but it serves as a mechanism that preserves corruption in the long run. The motivation for our network model is a paradox that exists on the labor market. Although economic theory indicates that higher risk investments should lead to larger rewards, in many developed and developing countries workers in lower-risk public sector jobs are paid more than workers in higher-risk private sector jobs. To determine the long-run sustainability of this economic paradox, we study data from 28 EU countries and find that the public sector wage premium increases with the level of corruption. PMID:26495847

  14. Workplace romance in the public sector: sex differences in reactions to the Clinton-Lewinsky affair.

    PubMed

    Powell, G N

    2000-12-01

    This study examined reactions of part-time MBA students (n = 199) and undergraduate business students (n = 220) to the affair involving U.S. President Bill Clinton and White House intern Monica Lewinsky prior to Clinton's impeachment by the House of Representatives. Consistent with research on attitudes toward workplace romance in the private sector, women believed that this affair occurring in the public sector represented a more serious problem for the nation and more than men were inclined to prefer that some type of action, e.g., resignation or impeachment, be taken. Implications of the results are discussed. PMID:11272740

  15. The development of national injury prevention policy in the Australian health sector: and the unmet challenges of participation and implementation

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Rebecca; McClure, Rod

    2006-01-01

    For the last 20 years injury prevention policy in Australia has been hampered by poor consultation practices, limited stakeholder involvement, inadequate allocation of resources, poor implementation, and an absence of performance measures. This paper describes the development of injury prevention policy in Australia from its beginnings in 1981 to the current day and considers what measures should be undertaken to create an effective platform for the reduction of the burden of injury in Australia. The National Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion Plan 2004–2014, released in 2005, needs to be supported by a whole of government commitment to the reduction of injury. The Council of Australian Governments would be an ideal forum to monitor progress, supported by a cross-government Ministerial Council. PMID:17059612

  16. Corporate Sector Practice Informs Online Workforce Training for Australian Government Agencies: Towards Effective Educational-Learning Systems Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Elspeth; Vilela, Cenie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline government online training practice. We searched individual research domains of the human-dimensions of Human Computer Interaction (HCI), information and communications technologies (ICT) and instructional design for evidence of either corporate sector or government training practices. We overlapped these…

  17. Implications of private sector Hib vaccine coverage for the introduction of public sector Hib-containing pentavalent vaccine in India: evidence from retrospective time series data

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Abhishek; Kaplan, Warren A; Chokshi, Maulik; Hasan Farooqui, Habib; Zodpey, Sanjay P

    2015-01-01

    Objective Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine has been available in India's private sector market since 1997. It was not until 14 December 2011 that the Government of India initiated the phased public sector introduction of a Hib (and DPT, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus)-containing pentavalent vaccine. Our objective was to investigate the state-specific coverage and behaviour of Hib vaccine in India when it was available only in the private sector market but not in the public sector. This baseline information can act as a guide to determine how much coverage the public sector rollout of pentavalent vaccine (scheduled April 2015) will need to bear in order to achieve complete coverage. Setting 16 of 29 states in India, 2009–2012. Design Retrospective descriptive secondary data analysis. Data (1) Annual sales of Hib vaccines, by volume, from private sector hospitals and retail pharmacies collected by IMS Health and (2) national household surveys. Outcome measures State-specific Hib vaccine coverage (%) and its associations with state-specific socioeconomic status. Results The overall private sector Hib vaccine coverage among the 2009–2012 birth cohort was low (4%) and varied widely among the studied Indian states (minimum 0.3%; maximum 4.6%). We found that private sector Hib vaccine coverage depends on urban areas with good access to the private sector, parent's purchasing capacity and private paediatricians’ prescribing practices. Per capita gross domestic product is a key explanatory variable. The annual Hib vaccine uptake and the 2009–2012 coverage levels were several times higher in the capital/metropolitan cities than the rest of the state, suggesting inequity in access to Hib vaccine delivered by the private sector. Conclusions If India has to achieve high and equitable Hib vaccine coverage levels, nationwide public sector introduction of the pentavalent vaccine is needed. However, the role of private sector in universal Hib vaccine coverage is

  18. Addressing gaps in health care sector legal preparedness for public health emergencies.

    PubMed

    Ransom, Montrece McNeill; Goodman, Richard A; Moulton, Anthony D

    2008-03-01

    Health care providers and their legal counsel play pivotal roles in preparing for and responding to public health emergencies. Lawyers representing hospitals, health systems, and other health care provider components are being called upon to answer complex legal questions regarding public health preparedness issues that most providers have not previously faced. Many of these issues are legal issues with which public health officials should be familiar, and that can serve as a starting point for cross-sector legal preparedness planning involving both the public health and health care communities. This article examines legal issues that health care providers face in preparing for public health emergencies, and steps that providers, their legal counsel, and others can take to address those issues and to strengthen community preparedness. PMID:18388658

  19. EXAMINING THE DIMENSIONALITY OF COLQUITT'S ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE SCALE IN A PUBLIC HEALTH SECTOR CONTEXT.

    PubMed

    Enoksen, Elisabeth

    2015-06-01

    In 2001, Colquitt developed an Organizational Justice Scale that intended to measure procedural, distributive, interpersonal, and informational justice. The dimensionality of the scale has been tested in subsequent studies with diverging results. Given the fact that contextual differences may account for more variation across research sites than individual differences, the deviating research findings may be due to context. This study examined the dimensionality of Colquitt's Organizational Justice Scale in a new context: the public health sector. The procedural and informational justice dimensions were highly correlated, but confirmatory factor analysis showed that a four-factor solution provided a better fit than a three-factor solution. All fit indices for the four-factor model were consistent with a good model. There was, however, evidence of a potential omitted factor, procedural-voice justice, which has also been found in a previous examination of the measure in the public sector. PMID:25871568

  20. Death of the Public Library: From 'People's University' to 'Public-Sector Leisure Centre'.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruk, Miroslaw

    1998-01-01

    Public libraries emerged as educational institutions during the second half of the 19th century. Their aim was the intellectual and moral improvement of individuals and societies. After several decades it became evident that public libraries had failed as "people's universities." They came to acknowledge the provision of entertainment as a…

  1. Buprenorphine Maintenance for Opioid Dependence in Public Sector Healthcare: Benefits and Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Laura G.; Mendoza, Sonia; Hansen, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Background Since its U.S. FDA approval in 2002, buprenorphine has been available for maintenance treatment of opiate dependence in primary care physicians’ offices. Though buprenorphine was intended to facilitate access to treatment, disparities in utilization have emerged; while buprenorphine treatment is widely used in private care setting, public healthcare integration of buprenorphine lags behind. Results Through a review of the literature, we found that U.S. disparities are partly due to a shortage of certified prescribers, concern of patient diversion, as well as economic and institutional barriers. Disparity of buprenorphine treatment dissemination is concerning since buprenorphine treatment has specific characteristics that are especially suited for low-income patient population in public sector healthcare such as flexible dosing schedules, ease of concurrently treating co-morbidities such as HIV and hepatitis C, positive patient attitudes towards treatment, and the potential of reducing addiction treatment stigma. Conclusion As the gap between buprenorphine treatment in public sector settings and private sector settings persists in the U.S., current research suggests ways to facilitate its dissemination. PMID:27088135

  2. Ethics in public health research: masters of marketing: bringing private sector skills to public health partnerships.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Valerie A; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Scott, Beth

    2007-04-01

    Skill in marketing is a scarce resource in public health, especially in developing countries. The Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap set out to tap the consumer marketing skills of industry for national handwashing programs. Lessons learned from commercial marketers included how to (1) understand consumer motivation, (2) employ 1 single unifying idea, (3) plan for effective reach, and (4) ensure effectiveness before national launch. After the first marketing program, 71% of Ghanaian mothers knew the television ad and the reported rates of handwashing with soap increased. Conditions for the expansion of such partnerships include a wider appreciation of what consumer marketing is, what it can do for public health, and the potential benefits to industry. Although there are practical and philosophical difficulties, there are many opportunities for such partnerships. PMID:17329646

  3. Global Adoption of Genetically Modified (GM) Crops: Challenges for the Public Sector.

    PubMed

    Huesing, Joseph E; Andres, David; Braverman, Michael P; Burns, Andrea; Felsot, Allan S; Harrigan, George G; Hellmich, Richard L; Reynolds, Alan; Shelton, Anthony M; Jansen van Rijssen, Wilna; Morris, E Jane; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-01-20

    Advances in biotechnology continue to drive the development of a wide range of insect-protected, herbicide-tolerant, stress-tolerant, and nutritionally enhanced genetically modified (GM) crops, yet societal and public policy considerations may slow their commercialization. Such restrictions may disproportionately affect developing countries, as well as smaller entrepreneurial and public sector initiatives. The 2014 IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry (San Francisco, CA, USA; August 2014) included a symposium on "Challenges Associated with Global Adoption of Agricultural Biotechnology" to review current obstacles in promoting GM crops. Challenges identified by symposium presenters included (i) poor public understanding of GM technology and the need for enhanced communication strategies, (ii) nonharmonized and prescriptive regulatory requirements, and (iii) limited experience with regulations and product development within some public sector programs. The need for holistic resistance management programs to enable the most effective use of insect-protected crops was also a point of emphasis. This paper provides details on the symposium discussion and provides background information that can be used in support of further adoption of beneficial GM crops. Overall, it emphasizes that global adoption of modern agricultural biotechnology has not only provided benefits to growers and consumers but has great potential to provide solutions to an increasing global population and diminishing agricultural land. This potential will be realized by continued scientific innovation, harmonized regulatory systems, and broader communication of the benefits of the high-yielding, disease-resistant, and nutritionally enhanced crops attainable through modern biotechnology. PMID:26751159

  4. Collaboration across private and public sector primary health care services: benefits, costs and policy implications.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Julie; Powell Davies, Gawaine; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Fort Harris, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Ongoing care for chronic conditions is best provided by interprofessional teams. There are challenges in achieving this where teams cross organisational boundaries. This article explores the influence of organisational factors on collaboration between private and public sector primary and community health services involved in diabetes care. It involved a case study using qualitative methods. Forty-five participants from 20 organisations were purposively recruited. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and from content analysis of documents. Thematic analysis was used employing a two-level coding system and cross case comparisons. The patterns of collaborative patient care were influenced by a combination of factors relating to the benefits and costs of collaboration and the influence of support mechanisms. Benefits lay in achieving common or complementary health or organisational goals. Costs were incurred in bridging differences in organisational size, structure, complexity and culture. Collaboration was easier between private sector organisations than between private and public sectors. Financial incentives were not sufficient to overcome organisational barriers. To achieve more coordinated primary and community health care structural changes are also needed to better align funding mechanisms, priorities and accountabilities of the different organisations. PMID:21554068

  5. Defining the Impact of Public Administration Programmes for Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broucker, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    In times of financial and economic crises, public organizations seem to cut their budgets for training and education, especially when the impact of a programme is questioned. Therefore, PA programmes need to clarify what impact can be expected and what individual and organizational processes are influencing the impact of a PA programme on the…

  6. Some Proposals for Change to the Role of the Catholic Sector in the Australian School Funding Policy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furtado, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper is set against a history of school funding policies in Australia that begins with the first public policy recognition of the disadvantages experienced by government and non-government schools in the 1973 Schools in Australia (Karmel) Report. The paper traces a history of school funding policy linking it with the current backlash against…

  7. Skills and abilities needed by environmental health science and protection professionals in the public sector.

    PubMed

    Morrone, Michele

    2003-01-01

    The National Environmental Health Science and Protection Accreditation Council (EHAC) accredits undergraduate academic environmental health science programs in the United States. The guidelines used by EHAC include core and technical courses that students should take in order to graduate with a bachelor of science degree in environmental health science. As part of a review of the accreditation guidelines, the research reported in this paper was undertaken with support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To identify the skills and abilities needed by entry-level environmental health professionals in the public sector, the research 1) examined existing environmental health priorities in public-health agencies, 2) reviewed entry-level job postings, and 3) surveyed more than 120 public-health professionals across the country. The results suggest that students who graduate from accredited programs must be skilled interpersonal communicators with a broad base of technical knowledge. PMID:12575636

  8. Helping public sector health systems innovate: the strategic approach to strengthening reproductive health policies and programs.

    PubMed

    Fajans, Peter; Simmons, Ruth; Ghiron, Laura

    2006-03-01

    Public sector health systems that provide services to poor and marginalized populations in developing countries face great challenges. Change associated with health sector reform and structural adjustment often leaves these already-strained institutions with fewer resources and insufficient capacity to relieve health burdens. The Strategic Approach to Strengthening Reproductive Health Policies and Programs is a methodological innovation developed by the World Health Organization and its partners to help countries identify and prioritize their reproductive health service needs, test appropriate interventions, and scale up successful innovations to a subnational or national level. The participatory, interdisciplinary, and country-owned process can set in motion much-needed change. We describe key features of this approach, provide illustrations from country experiences, and use insights from the diffusion of innovation literature to explain the approach's dissemination and sustainability. PMID:16449594

  9. Performance-based budgeting in the public sector: an illustration from the VA health care system.

    PubMed

    Yaisawarng, Suthathip; Burgess, James F

    2006-03-01

    This paper estimates frontier cost functions for US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals in FY2000 that are consistent with economic theory and explicitly account for cost differences across patients' risk, level of access to care, quality of care, and hospital-specific characteristics. Results indicate that on average VA hospitals in FY2000 operate at efficiency levels of 94%, as compared to previous studies on US private sector hospitals that average closer to 90% efficient. Using these cost frontiers, management systems potentially could be implemented to enhance the equitable allocation of the VA medical care global budget and systematically distribute funds across hospitals and networks. The paper also provides recommendations to improve the efficiency of delivering health care services applicable to public sector organizations. PMID:16331724

  10. Reflecting the Context of MPA Education in the Time of Economic Crisis in Public Sectors in Britain and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldfield, Chrissie; Berg, Mireille van den

    2013-01-01

    The reality of the economic crisis and subsequent cuts in public sector funding in some European countries means that the context for public management education is significantly changing. In a period of economic constraint there is the obvious questioning of the cost of public management education programmes and even more of their relevance and…

  11. Communication, Relationships, and Religious Difference in the Northern Ireland Workplace: A Study of Private and Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, David; Hargie, Owen; Wilson, Noel

    2008-01-01

    Four large organizations, two each from the private and public sectors of the Northern Ireland economy, were selected for this study which, first, explored the effects of religion-based workforce difference on intergroup relationships, second, investigated the contribution of organizational sector to communicative differences, and third, gauged…

  12. Transition of Higher Education Graduates to the Labour Market: Are Employment Procedures More Meritocratic in the Public Sector?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berggren, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    As an employer, the public sector might be expected to be more meritocratic than the private sector, because of its democratic values and more transparent appointments procedures. In this context meritocratic means that the employer only considers characteristics such as degree and grades, relevant for the position in question. The individuals in…

  13. Mediating Education Policy: Making up the "Anti-Politics" of Third-Sector Participation in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the participation of "third-sector" organisations in public education in England. These organisations act as a cross-sectoral policy network made up of new kinds of policy experts: mediators and brokers with entrepreneurial careers in ideas. They have sought to make education reform thinkable, intelligible and…

  14. The Australian Public is Still Vulnerable to Emerging Virulent Strains of West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Prow, Natalie A.; Hewlett, Elise K.; Faddy, Helen M.; Coiacetto, Flaminia; Wang, Wenqi; Cox, Tarnya; Hall, Roy A.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2014-01-01

    The mosquito-borne West Nile virus (WNV) is responsible for outbreaks of viral encephalitis in humans and horses with particularly virulent strains causing recent outbreaks in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and North America. In Australia, a strain of WNV, Kunjin (WNVKUN), is endemic in the north and infection with this virus is generally asymptomatic. However, in early 2011, following extensive flooding, an unprecedented outbreak of WNVKUN encephalitis in horses occurred in South-Eastern Australia, resulting in more than 1,000 cases and a mortality of 10–15%. Despite widespread evidence of equine infections, there was only a single mild human case reported during this outbreak. To understand why clinical disease was seen in horses without similar observations in the human population, a serosurvey was conducted using blood donor samples from areas where equine cases were reported to assess level of flavivirus exposure. The seroprevalence to WNVKUN in humans was low before the outbreak (0.7%), and no significant increase was demonstrated after the outbreak period (0.6%). Due to unusual epidemiological features during this outbreak, a serosurvey was also conducted in rabbits, a potential reservoir host. Out of 675 animals, sampled across Australia between April 2011 and November 2012, 86 (12.7%) were seropositive for WNVKUN, with the highest prevalence during February of 2012 (28/145; 19.3%). As this is the first serological survey for WNVKUN in Australian feral rabbits, it remains to be determined whether wild rabbits are able to develop a high enough viremia to actively participate in WNV transmission in Australia. However, they may constitute a sentinel species for arbovirus activity, and this is the focus of on-going studies. Collectively, this study provides little evidence of human exposure to WNVKUN during the 2011 outbreak and indicates that the Australian population remains susceptible to the emergence of virulent strains of WNV. PMID:25279370

  15. The economic rationale of public and private sector roles in the provision of animal health services.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, V

    2004-04-01

    In the changing market environment of livestock products, the delivery of animal health services is emerging as an important priority area for enhancing the competitiveness of poor livestock producers. At the same time, governments are continuing to face serious budgetary difficulties and are finding it difficult to expand the reach of these services or improve service quality. In this context of a changing environment and dwindling public resources, this paper revisits the economic framework that has thus far guided thinking about public and private sector roles in the provision of animal health services and examines the ongoing debate on livestock service delivery for the poor. The paper highlights the importance of strong institutions and appropriate legislation for regulating behaviour and enforcing contracts and re-emphasises the idea, which is supported by economic theory, that there is a need for task sharing between the public and private sectors. The paper further emphasizes the need for: a) integrating the debate on livestock service delivery with the larger debate on political economy and institutional development, and b) ensuring service access in poor marginal areas by working through membership organisations, self-help groups and civil society organisations, and by promoting the use of para-professionals and community-based animal health delivery systems. PMID:15200085

  16. Job Satisfaction of Primary Health-Care Providers (Public Sector) in Urban Setting

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pawan; Khan, Abdul Majeed; Inder, Deep; Sharma, Nandini

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Job satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. The core components of information necessary for what satisfies and motivates the health work force in our country are missing at policy level. Therefore present study will help us to know the factors for job satisfaction among primary health care providers in public sector. Materials and Methods: Present study is descriptive in nature conducted in public sector dispensaries/primary urban health centers in Delhi among health care providers. Pretested structured questionnaire was administered to 227 health care providers. Data was analyzed using SPSS and relevant statistical test were applied. Results: Analysis of study reveals that ANMs are more satisfied than MOs, Pharmacist and Lab assistants/Lab technicians; and the difference is significant (P < 0.01). Age and education level of health care providers don’t show any significant difference in job satisfaction. All the health care providers are dissatisfied from the training policies and practices, salaries and opportunities for career growth in the organization. Majority of variables studied for job satisfaction have low scores. Five factor were identified concerned with job satisfaction in factor analysis. Conclusion: Job satisfaction is poor for all the four groups of health care providers in dispensaries/primary urban health centers and it is not possible to assign a single factor as a sole determinant of dissatisfaction in the job. Therefore it is recommended that appropriate changes are required at the policy as well as at the dispensary/PUHC level to keep the health work force motivated under public sector in Delhi. PMID:24479088

  17. African American Patients Seeking Treatment in the Public Sector: Characteristics of Buprenorphine v. Methadone Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Kelly, Sharon M.; Gryczynski, Jan; Myers, C. Patrick; Jaffe, Jerome H.; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Olsen, Yngvild K.; Schwartz, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    Background To expand its public-sector treatment capacity, Baltimore City made buprenorphine treatment accessible to low-income, largely African American residents. This study compares the characteristics of patients entering methadone treatment v. buprenorphine treatment to determine whether BT was attracting different types of patients. Methods Participants consisted of two samples of adult heroin-dependent African Americans. The first sample was newly-admitted to a health center or a mental health center providing buprenorphine (N=200), and the second sample was newly-admitted to one of two hospital-based methadone programs (N=178). The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and the Friends Supplemental Questionnaire were administered at treatment entry and data were analyzed with logistic regression. Results BT participants were more likely to be female (p=.017) and less likely to inject (p=.001). Participants with only prior buprenorphine treatment experience were nearly five time more likely to enter buprenorphine than methadone treatment (p<.001). Those with experience with both treatments were more than twice as likely to enter BT (OR=2.7, 95% CI=1.11–6.62; p=.028). In the 30 days prior to treatment entry, BT participants reported more days of medical problems (p=.002) and depression (p=.044), and were more likely to endorse a lifetime history of depression (p<.001). Conclusion Methadone and buprenorphine treatment provided in the public sector may attract different patient subpopulations. Providing buprenorphine treatment through drug treatment programs co-located with a health and mental health center may have accounted for their higher rates of medical and psychiatric problems and appears to be useful in attracting a diverse group of patients into public-sector funded treatment. PMID:21962726

  18. Public sector antiretroviral treatment programme in South Africa: health care workers' attention to mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Pappin, Michele; Wouters, Edwin; Booysen, Frederik L R; Lund, Crick

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a high prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst people receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART), many patients are not screened, diagnosed or referred for mental health problems. This study aims to determine whether public sector health care workers in South Africa observe, screen, diagnose and refer ART patients that show symptoms of common mental disorders. It also aims to ascertain the extent of mental health training received by public sector health care workers working in ART. The study was cross-sectional in design. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 40 nurses and structured interviews were conducted with 23 lay workers across the five districts in the Free State between July 2009 and October 2009. STATA version 12 was used to perform statistical data analysis. The health care workers reported observing a high frequency of symptoms of common mental disorders among public sector ART patients. While 70% of nurses screened and diagnosed, only 40% of lay workers screened and diagnosed patients on ART for a mental disorder. Health care workers who had received training in mental health were more likely to screen or diagnose a mental disorder, but only 14% of the workers had received such training. We recommend that health care workers should receive task-specific training to screen and/or diagnose patients on ART for common mental disorders using the guidelines of the South African HIV Clinicians Society. A positive diagnosis should be referred to a health care practitioner for appropriate evidence-based treatment in the form of medication or psychotherapy. PMID:25317991

  19. Australian Public Relations: Status at the Turn of the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Raveena; Smyth, Rosaleen

    2000-01-01

    Notes how over the last two decades the Public Relations Institute of Australia together with its strategic alliances have made many changes, structurally, strategically, and academically towards the professional growth of public relations. Discusses the views of the Public Relations Institute of Australia and offers a snapshot of two surveys on…

  20. The impact of the 1975 New York City financial crisis on public sector unionism.

    PubMed

    Kruger, D H; Rodgers, R C

    1978-01-01

    Using New York City's 1975 financial crisis as an example, this article argues that the classic inelastic theory of wage demand for public sector employment (higher wages do not lead to reductions in employment) has been supplanted in the mid-1970s by a kinked demand relationship (the idea that higher wages can and do lead to reductions in employment), wherein unions can improve wages for their respective memberships only by implementing strategies that lend themselves to facilitating an increase in overall demand for government services. PMID:10318417

  1. Strengthening of partnerships between the public sector and faith-based groups.

    PubMed

    Duff, Jean F; Buckingham, Warren W

    2015-10-31

    The sharpening focus on global health and the growing recognition of the capacities and scope of faith-based groups for improving community health outcomes suggest an intentional and systematic approach to forging strong, sustained partnerships between public sector agencies and faith-based organisations. Drawing from both development and faith perspectives, this Series paper examines trends that could ground powerful, more sustainable partnerships and identifies new opportunities for collaboration based on respective strengths and existing models. This paper concludes with five areas of recommendations for more effective collaboration to achieve health goals. PMID:26159394

  2. Partnerships between the faith-based and medical sectors: Implications for preventive medicine and public health.

    PubMed

    Levin, Jeff

    2016-12-01

    Interconnections between the faith-based and medical sectors are multifaceted and have existed for centuries, including partnerships that have evolved over the past several decades in the U.S. This paper outlines ten points of intersection that have engaged medical and healthcare professionals and institutions across specialties, focusing especially on primary care, global health, and community-based outreach to underserved populations. In a time of healthcare resource scarcity, such partnerships-involving religious congregations, denominations, and communal and philanthropic agencies-are useful complements to the work of private-sector medical care providers and of federal, state, and local public health institutions in their efforts to protect and maintain the health of the population. At the same time, challenges and obstacles remain, mostly related to negotiating the complex and contentious relations between these two sectors. This paper identifies pressing legal/constitutional, political/policy, professional/jurisdictional, ethical, and research and evaluation issues that need to be better addressed before this work can realize its full potential. PMID:27512649

  3. Labour market participation after breast cancer for employees from the private and public sectors: Educational and sector gradients in the effect of cancer.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Heinesen, Eskil

    2016-05-01

    For employees who get cancer and survive, the probability of returning to work may depend on their ability to work, potential earnings losses if they do not return to work, qualifications and job type, but also on characteristics of the pre-cancer workplace. This paper focuses on differences between public and private sector employees in the effect of breast cancer on the probability of being out of the labour force three years after the diagnosis. We use propensity score weighting methods and a large longitudinal Danish administrative dataset which allows us to control for a wide range of important baseline characteristics such as education, sector of employment, labour market status, income, health, and demographics. We find that the educational gradient in the effect of cancer is significant in the public sector, where the estimated effects are 11.5 and 3.8 percentage points, respectively, for the low- and high-educated. The corresponding estimates for the private sector are 6.2 and 3.2 percentage points and here the educational gradient is only marginally significant. We discuss possible mechanisms behind the large sector gradient for the low-educated. PMID:26744998

  4. Eliminating malaria in Malaysia: the role of partnerships between the public and commercial sectors in Sabah

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    general public. Best practices included consistent communication, developing government-staffed subsector offices for malaria control on-site, engaging commercial plantations to provide financial and human resources for malaria control activities, and the development of new worker screening programmes. The successes and challenges associated with partnerships between the public and commercial sector can serve as an example for other malaria-eliminating countries with large plantation sectors, and may also be applied to other sectors that employ migrant workers or have commercial enterprises in hard to reach areas. PMID:24443824

  5. Social Media for e-Government in the Public Health Sector: Protocol for a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Massimo; Tursunbayeva, Aizhan

    2016-01-01

    Background Public sector organizations worldwide are engaging with social media as part of a growing e-government agenda. These include government departments of health, public health agencies, and state-funded health care and research organizations. Although examples of social media in health have been described in the literature, little is known about their overall scope or how they are achieving the objectives of e-government. A systematic literature review is underway to capture and synthesize existing evidence on the adoption, use, and impacts of social media in the public health sector. A series of parallel scoping exercises has taken place to examine (1) relevant existing systematic reviews, to assess their focus, breadth, and fit with our review topic, (2) existing concepts related to e-government, public health, and the public health sector, to assess how semantic complexity might influence the review process, and (3) the results of pilot searches, to examine the fit of social media within the e-government and health literatures. The methods and observations of the scoping exercises are reported in this protocol, alongside the methods and interim results for the systematic review itself. Objective The systematic review has three main objectives: To capture the corpus of published studies on the uses of social media by public health organizations; to classify the objectives for which social media have been deployed in these contexts and the methods used; and to analyze and synthesize evidence of the uptake, use, and impacts of social media on various outcomes. Methods A set of scoping exercises were undertaken, to inform the search strategy and analytic framework. Searches have been carried out in MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and the Scopus international electronic databases, and appropriate gray literature sources. Articles published between January 1, 2004, and July 12, 2015, were included. There was no restriction by language. One

  6. Health worker (internal customer) satisfaction and motivation in the public sector in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Agyepong, Irene Akua; Anafi, Patricia; Asiamah, Ebenezer; Ansah, Evelyn K; Ashon, Daniel A; Narh-Dometey, Christiana

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes factors affecting health worker motivation and satisfaction in the public sector in Ghana. The data are from a survey of public sector health care providers carried out in January 2002 and repeated in August 2003 using an interviewer administered structured questionnaire. It is part of a continuous quality improvement (CQI) effort in the health sector in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Workplace obstacles identified that caused dissatisfaction and de-motivated staff in order of the most frequently mentioned were low salaries such that obtaining basic necessities of daily living becomes a problem; lack of essential equipment, tools and supplies to work with; delayed promotions; difficulties and inconveniences with transportation to work; staff shortages; housing, additional duty allowances and in-service (continuous) training. Others included children's education, vehicles to work with such as ambulances and pickups, staff transfer procedures, staff pre-service education inadequate for job requirements, and the effect of the job on family and other social factors. There were some differences in the percentages of staff selecting a given workplace obstacle between the purely rural districts, the highly urbanized Accra metropolis and the districts that were a mixture of urbanized and rural. It is unlikely that the Ghana Health Service can provide high quality of care to its end users (external customers) if workplace obstacles that de-motivate staff (internal customers) and negatively influence their performance are not properly recognized and addressed as a complex of inter-related problems producing a common result--dissatisfied poorly motivated staff and resulting poor quality services. PMID:15688876

  7. Advancing the business creed? The framing of decisions about public sector managed care.

    PubMed

    Waitzkin, Howard; Yager, Joel; Santos, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little research has clarified how executives of for-profit healthcare organisations frame their own motivations and behaviour, or how government officials frame their interactions with executives. Because managed care has provided an organisational structure for health services in many countries, we focused our study on executives and government officials who were administering public sector managed care services. Emphasising theoretically the economic versus non-economic motivations that guide economic behaviour, we extended a long-term research project on public sector Medicaid managed care (MMC) in the United States. Our method involved in-depth, structured interviews with chief executive officers of managed care organisations, as well as high-ranking officials of state government. Data analysis involved iterative interpretation of interview data. We found that the rate of profit, which proved relatively low in the MMC programme, occupied a limited place in executives' self-described motivations and in state officials' descriptions of corporation-government interactions. Non-economic motivations included a strong orientation toward corporate social responsibility and a creed in which market processes advanced human wellbeing. Such patterns contradict some of the given wisdom about how corporate executives and government officials construct their reality. PMID:21707659

  8. Trends in childhood vaccine purchase costs in the US public sector: 1996-2014.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiwei; Messonnier, Mark; Zhou, Fangjun

    2016-09-01

    While vaccination remains as one of the most cost-effective preventive strategies, the cost of fully immunizing a child has grown considerably over the last few decades. This study examines trends in non-influenza childhood vaccine purchase costs in the public sector from 1996 to 2014. Non-influenza vaccine purchase cost per child for children aged 0 through 18years was calculated based on public-sector purchase prices. Purchase cost changes were then decomposed into changes attributable to recommendation updates and changes attributable to price variation. The study analyzed the growth rate of combination vaccine prices separately and compared these prices with the sum of prices of component vaccines. It is found that the average annual growth rate of non-influenza vaccine purchase cost per child during 1996-2014 was 12.6%. The growth rate attributable to price changes was 1.0% on average. Combination vaccine prices showed greater variation. The study concludes that vaccine price variation was one but a minor reason for purchase cost changes. Recommendation updates, particularly the introduction of new vaccines, played a much larger role in raising the purchase costs. If the 12.6% annual growth rate found during 1996-2014 in the study continues to apply, the purchase costs of childhood vaccines may more than double by 2020. PMID:27522176

  9. Managed Behavioral Health Care: An Instrument to Characterize Critical Elements of Public Sector Programs

    PubMed Central

    Ridgely, M Susan; Giard, Julienne; Shern, David; Mulkern, Virginia; Burnam, M Audrey

    2002-01-01

    Objective To develop an instrument to characterize public sector managed behavioral health care arrangements to capture key differences between managed and “unmanaged” care and among managed care arrangements. Study Design The instrument was developed by a multi-institutional group of collaborators with participation of an expert panel. Included are six domains predicted to have an impact on access, service utilization, costs, and quality. The domains are: characteristics of the managed care plan, enrolled population, benefit design, payment and risk arrangements, composition of provider networks, and accountability. Data are collected at three levels: managed care organization, subcontractor, and network of service providers. Data Collection Methods Data are collected through contract abstraction and key informant interviews. A multilevel coding scheme is used to organize the data into a matrix along key domains, which is then reviewed and verified by the key informants. Principal Findings This instrument can usefully differentiate between and among Medicaid fee-for-service programs and Medicaid managed care plans along key domains of interest. Beyond documenting basic features of the plans and providing contextual information, these data will support the refinement and testing of hypotheses about the impact of public sector managed care on access, quality, costs, and outcomes of care. Conclusions If managed behavioral health care research is to advance beyond simple case study comparisons, a well-conceptualized set of instruments is necessary. PMID:12236386

  10. Adapting Washington Circle Performance Measures for Public Sector Substance Abuse Treatment Systems

    PubMed Central

    Garnick, Deborah W.; Lee, Margaret T.; Horgan, Constance M.; Acevedo, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The Washington Circle (WC), a group focused on developing and disseminating performance measures for substance abuse services, developed three such measures for private health plans. In this article, we explore whether these measures are appropriate for meeting measurement goals in the public sector and feasible to calculate in the public sector using data collected for administrative purposes by state and local substance abuse and/or mental health agencies. Working collaboratively, twelve states specified revised measures and six states pilot tested them. Two measures were retained from the original specifications: initiation of treatment and treatment engagement. Additional measures were focused on continuity of care after assessment, detoxification, residential or inpatient care. These data demonstrate that state agencies can calculate performance measures from routinely available information and that there is wide variability in these indicators. Ongoing research is needed to examine the reasons for these results which might include lack of patient interest or commitment, need for quality improvement efforts, or financial issues. PMID:18722075

  11. Use of Clinical Anatomy Resources by Musculoskeletal Outpatient Physiotherapists in Australian Public Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Tilman M.; Cornwall, Jon

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate how musculoskeletal outpatient physiotherapists in public hospitals interact with and perceive clinical anatomy resources in the workplace. Method: This cross-sectional study used a postal survey sent to musculoskeletal outpatient physiotherapists in 64 Australian public hospitals. Survey questions examined demographics, qualifications, experience, types of resources used, whether resources meet requirements, and what improvements could be made to current resources. Results: A total of 193 physiotherapists responded (75% response rate; 60% female), of whom 49% were age 35 years or younger; 67% had only an undergraduate qualification, and 37% had practised for 5 years or less. More experienced physiotherapists used resources significantly less frequently ([odds ratio]=1.35; 95% CI, 1.17–1.57), and we found no significant associations between preference for online versus printed resources and age, sex, qualifications, or experience. Trends included less experienced physiotherapists identifying the absence of online access as a barrier to resource use and provision of improved online facilities as necessary to improve access to clinical anatomy resources. Conclusion: Results indicate distinct trends in physiotherapists' use of clinical anatomy resources, including a desire for improved online resource access on the part of less experienced physiotherapists. The findings are relevant to hospital outpatient clinics, particularly those that employ less experienced physiotherapists. PMID:26839457

  12. Public sector scale–up of zinc and ORS improves coverage in selected districts in Bihar, India

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Christa L. Fischer; Taneja, Sunita; Lamberti, Laura M.; Black, Robert E.; Mazumder, Sarmila

    2015-01-01

    Background In Bihar, India, a new initiative to enhance diarrhea treatment with zinc and ORS in the public sector was rolled out in selected districts. We conducted an external evaluation to measure changes in diarrhea careseeking and treatment in intervention districts. Methods We conducted baseline and endline household surveys among caregivers of children 2–59 months of age. We calculated summary statistics for household characteristics, knowledge, careseeking and treatments given to children with a diarrhea episode in the last 14 days and built logistic regression models to compare baseline and endline values. Results Caregivers named a public health center as an appropriate source of care for childhood diarrhea more often at endline (71.3%) compared to baseline (38.4%) but did not report increased careseeking to public sector providers for the current diarrhea episode. In logistic regression analyses, the odds of receiving zinc, with or without oral rehydration salts (ORS), increased at endline by more than 2.7 as compared to baseline. Children who were taken to the public sector for care were more likely to receive zinc (odds ratio, OR = 3.93) and zinc in addition to ORS (OR = 6.10) compared to children who were not taken to the public sector. Conclusion Coverage of zinc and ORS can improve with public sector programs targeted at training and increasing product availability, but demand creation may be needed to increase public sector careseeking in areas where the private sector has historically provided much of the care. PMID:26322230

  13. Is Satisfaction with the Acute-Care Experience Higher amongst Consumers Treated in the Private Sector? A Survey of Public and Private Sector Arthroplasty Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Justine M.; Descallar, Joseph; Grootemaat, Mechteld; Badge, Helen; Harris, Ian A.; Simpson, Grahame; Jenkin, Deanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Consumer satisfaction with the acute-care experience could reasonably be expected to be higher amongst those treated in the private sector compared to those treated in the public sector given the former relies on high-level satisfaction of its consumers and their subsequent recommendations to thrive. The primary aims of this study were to determine, in a knee or hip arthroplasty cohort, if surgery in the private sector predicts greater overall satisfaction with the acute-care experience and greater likelihood to recommend the same hospital. A secondary aim was to determine whether satisfaction across a range of service domains is also higher in the private sector. Methods A telephone survey was conducted 35 days post-surgery. The hospital cohort comprised eight public and seven private high-volume arthroplasty providers. Consumers rated overall satisfaction with care out of 100 and likeliness to recommend their hospital on a 5-point Likert scale. Additional Likert-style questions were asked covering specific service domains. Generalized estimating equation models were used to analyse overall satisfaction (dichotomised as ≥ 90 or < 90) and future recommendations for care (dichotomised as ‘definitely recommend’ or ‘other’), whilst controlling for covariates. The proportions of consumers in each sector reporting the best Likert response for each individual domain were compared using non-parametric tests. Results 457 survey respondents (n = 210 private) were included. Less patient-reported joint impairment pre-surgery [OR 1.03 (95% CI 1.01–1.05)] and absence of an acute complication (OR 2.13 95% CI 1.41–3.23) significantly predicted higher overall satisfaction. Hip arthroplasty [OR 1.84 (1.1–2.96)] and an absence of an acute complication [OR 2.31 (1.28–4.17] significantly predicted greater likelihood for recommending the hospital. The only care domains where the private out-performed the public sector were hospitality (46.7 vs 35.6%, p <0

  14. Psychology in the Public Sector: Addressing the Psychological Effects of Combat in the U.S. Navy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammons, Morgan T.

    2005-01-01

    The response of military psychology in times of war or other great public crises may presage the success of the profession in less perilous times. The ability of public-sector psychologists to provide assistance and improve the common welfare during conflict or turmoil is generally followed by an increased demand for psychological services. This…

  15. Barriers to Private Sector Public School Collaboration. A Set of Exploratory Papers Commissioned by the National Institute of Education and the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Enterprise Inst. for Public Policy Research, Washington, DC.

    Six exploratory papers by different authors from both the corporate sector and the public school systems present several relevant perspectives on business/education collaboration. The first, by Dr. Marsha Levine (who also provides the introduction to the collection), suggests three analytic frameworks for planning and implementing public/private…

  16. Job satisfaction and motivation of health workers in public and private sectors: cross-sectional analysis from two Indian states

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ensuring health worker job satisfaction and motivation are important if health workers are to be retained and effectively deliver health services in many developing countries, whether they work in the public or private sector. The objectives of the paper are to identify important aspects of health worker satisfaction and motivation in two Indian states working in public and private sectors. Methods Cross-sectional surveys of 1916 public and private sector health workers in Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, India, were conducted using a standardized instrument to identify health workers' satisfaction with key work factors related to motivation. Ratings were compared with how important health workers consider these factors. Results There was high variability in the ratings for areas of satisfaction and motivation across the different practice settings, but there were also commonalities. Four groups of factors were identified, with those relating to job content and work environment viewed as the most important characteristics of the ideal job, and rated higher than a good income. In both states, public sector health workers rated "good employment benefits" as significantly more important than private sector workers, as well as a "superior who recognizes work". There were large differences in whether these factors were considered present on the job, particularly between public and private sector health workers in Uttar Pradesh, where the public sector fared consistently lower (P < 0.01). Discordance between what motivational factors health workers considered important and their perceptions of actual presence of these factors were also highest in Uttar Pradesh in the public sector, where all 17 items had greater discordance for public sector workers than for workers in the private sector (P < 0.001). Conclusion There are common areas of health worker motivation that should be considered by managers and policy makers, particularly the importance of non

  17. The needs of having a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector on funding digitizing management work of historical buildings in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarudin, M. K.; Yahya, Z.; Harun, R.; Jaapar, A.

    2014-02-01

    In Malaysia, the government agencies that handle the management of historical buildings are finding themselves facing a shortage of funds to provide the necessary work on digitalising management works. Due to the rising cost of management, which also covers maintenance and infrastructure works, there is a need for a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector provision on infrastructure and management works. Therefore the government agencies need to find the suitable mechanism to encourage private sector especially the private property and developers to take part in it. This scenario has encouraged the authorities to look new ways of entering into partnership and collaboration with the private sector to secure the continuity of provision and funding. The paper first reviews the different approach to facilitate off-site local management system of historical buildings and then examines options for both private and public funding in digitalising the historical buildings management works by interviewing government officer, conservator and member of nongovernment agencies. It then explores how the current system of management may adopt the shift to avoid any vulnerability and threat to the existing historical buildings. This paper concludes with a short summary of key issues in management works of historical buildings and recommendations.

  18. Cost analysis of Periodontitis management in public sector specialist dental clinics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this paper is to quantify the cost of periodontitis management at public sector specialist periodontal clinic settings and analyse the distribution of cost components. Methods Five specialist periodontal clinics in the Ministry of Health represented the public sector in providing clinical and cost data for this study. Newly-diagnosed periodontitis patients (N = 165) were recruited and followed up for one year of specialist periodontal care. Direct and indirect costs from the societal viewpoint were included in the cost analysis. They were measured in 2012 Ringgit Malaysia (MYR) and estimated from the societal perspective using activity-based and step-down costing methods, and substantiated by clinical pathways. Cost of dental equipment, consumables and labour (average treatment time) for each procedure was measured using activity-based costing method. Meanwhile, unit cost calculations for clinic administration, utilities and maintenance used step-down approach. Patient expenditures and absence from work were recorded via diary entries. The conversion from MYR to Euro was based on the 2012 rate (1€ = MYR4). Results A total of 2900 procedures were provided, with an average cost of MYR 2820 (€705) per patient for the study year, and MYR 376 (€94) per outpatient visit. Out of this, 90% was contributed by provider cost and 10% by patient cost; 94% for direct cost and 4% for lost productivity. Treatment of aggressive periodontitis was significantly higher than for chronic periodontitis (t-test, P = 0.003). Higher costs were expended as disease severity increased (ANOVA, P = 0.022) and for patients requiring surgeries (ANOVA, P < 0.001). Providers generally spent most on consumables while patients spent most on transportation. Conclusions Cost of providing dental treatment for periodontitis patients at public sector specialist settings were substantial and comparable with some non-communicable diseases. These findings

  19. Utilisation and costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector, 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Rispel, Laetitia C.; Angelides, George

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, insufficient information exists on the costs of nursing agencies, which are temporary employment service providers that supply nurses to health establishments and/or private individuals. Objective The aim of the study was to determine the utilisation and direct costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector. Design A survey of all nine provincial health departments was conducted to determine utilisation and management of nursing agencies. The costs of nursing agencies were assumed to be equivalent to expenditure. Provincial health expenditure was obtained for five financial years (2005/6–2009/10) from the national Basic Accounting System database, and analysed using Microsoft Excel. Each of the 166,466 expenditure line items was coded. The total personnel and nursing agency expenditure was calculated for each financial year and for each province. Nursing agency expenditure as a percentage of the total personnel expenditure was then calculated. The nursing agency expenditure for South Africa is the total of all provincial expenditure. The 2009/10 annual government salary scales for different categories of nurses were used to calculate the number of permanent nurses who could have been employed in lieu of agency expenditure. All expenditure is expressed in South African rands (R; US$1 ∼ R7, 2010 prices). Results Only five provinces reported utilisation of nursing agencies, but all provinces showed agency expenditure. In the 2009/10 financial year, R1.49 billion (US$212.64 million) was spent on nursing agencies in the public health sector. In the same year, agency expenditure ranged from a low of R36.45 million (US$5.20 million) in Mpumalanga Province (mixed urban-rural) to a high of R356.43 million (US$50.92 million) in the Eastern Cape Province (mixed urban-rural). Agency expenditure as a percentage of personnel expenditure ranged from 0.96% in KwaZulu-Natal Province (mixed urban-rural) to 11.96% in the Northern Cape

  20. An Investigation on Allocative Efficiency and Implications of New Funding Plans for the Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamun, Shamsul Arifeen Khan; Rahman, Mohammand Mafizur

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 and 2014, the Australian Federal Government introduced the Gonski reforms and fee deregulation measures to reform the prevailing financing provisions for education sectors in Australia. The central proposition of the proposed new measures was to reduce the funding of public universities by the Federal Government. One likely consequence of…

  1. The Use of Supporting Documentation for Information Architecture by Australian Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hider, Philip; Burford, Sally; Ferguson, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of an online survey that examined the development of information architecture of Australian library Web sites with reference to documented methods and guidelines. A broad sample of library Web managers responded from across the academic, public, and special sectors. A majority of libraries used either in-house or…

  2. Pro-social preferences and self-selection into the public health sector: evidence from an economic experiment.

    PubMed

    Kolstad, Julie Riise; Lindkvist, Ida

    2013-05-01

    Motivational crowding-out theory establishes that the effectiveness of financial incentive schemes, like pay-for-performance, crucially depends on the underlying social preferences of health workers. In this paper we study the extent to which heterogeneity in the strength and structure of social preferences is related to career choices by testing whether preferences vary systematically between Tanzanian health worker students who prefer to work in the private for-profit health sector and those who prefer to work in the public health sector. Despite its important policy implications, this issue has received little attention to date. By combining data from a questionnaire and an economic experiment, we find that students who prefer to work in the public health sector have stronger pro-social preferences than those who prefer to work in the private for-profit sector. PMID:22763126

  3. Monitoring foods and beverages provided and sold in public sector settings.

    PubMed

    L'Abbé, M; Schermel, A; Minaker, L; Kelly, B; Lee, A; Vandevijvere, S; Twohig, P; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Hawkes, C; Kumanyika, S; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Rayner, M; Sacks, G; Sanders, D; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    This paper outlines a step-wise framework for monitoring foods and beverages provided or sold in publicly funded institutions. The focus is on foods in schools, but the framework can also be applied to foods provided or sold in other publicly funded institutions. Data collection and evaluation within this monitoring framework will consist of two components. In component I, information on existing food or nutrition policies and/or programmes within settings would be compiled. Currently, nutrition standards and voluntary guidelines associated with such policies/programmes vary widely globally. This paper, which provides a comprehensive review of such standards and guidelines, will facilitate institutional learnings for those jurisdictions that have not yet established them or are undergoing review of existing ones. In component II, the quality of foods provided or sold in public sector settings is evaluated relative to existing national or sub-national nutrition standards or voluntary guidelines. Where there are no (or only poor) standards or guidelines available, the nutritional quality of foods can be evaluated relative to standards of a similar jurisdiction or other appropriate standards. Measurement indicators are proposed (within 'minimal', 'expanded' and 'optimal' approaches) that can be used to monitor progress over time in meeting policy objectives, and facilitate comparisons between countries. PMID:24074214

  4. Vertical and Horizontal Trust at Work as Predictors of Retirement Intentions: The Finnish Public Sector Study

    PubMed Central

    Muurinen, Charlotte; Laine, Matti; Pentti, Jaana; Virtanen, Marianna; Salo, Paula; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Oksanen, Tuula

    2014-01-01

    This prospective cohort study aimed to examine the associations of trust towards the supervisor (vertical trust) and trust towards co-workers (horizontal trust) with retirement intentions. The participants were 14 840 women and men working in the municipal sector in 2000–12 (Finnish Public Sector Study). Trust (vertical trust towards the supervisor and horizontal trust towards co-workers) and retirement intentions were assessed in repeated surveys. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between baseline trust and retirement intentions at 3.7 years of follow-up. Demographic characteristics, health, psychological distress, health risk behaviors, personality factors, and psychosocial factors were included as covariates. Of the participants, 67.0% trusted their supervisor and 54.9% trusted their co-workers. Employees who trusted their supervisor (odds ratio (OR) 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53–0.67) and employees who trusted their co-workers (odds ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.55–0.70) at baseline were less likely to have strong retirement intentions at follow-up compared to those who did not trust. These associations largely persisted after adjusting for all covariates and taking into account baseline retirement intentions. In conclusion, trust in the supervisor and co-workers predicted retirement intentions. These observational findings suggest that increasing trust in the workplace may contribute to lengthening working careers and preventing early retirement. PMID:25191745

  5. Leadership in surgery for public sector hospitals in Jamaica: strategies for the operating room.

    PubMed

    Cawich, Shamir O; Harding, Hyacinth E; Crandon, Ivor W; McGaw, Clarence D; Barnett, Alan T; Tennant, Ingrid; Evans, Necia R; Martin, Allie C; Simpson, Lindberg K; Johnson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The barriers to health care delivery in developing nations are many: underfunding, limited support services, scarce resources, suboptimal health care worker attitudes, and deficient health care policies are some of the challenges. The literature contains little information about health care leadership in developing nations. This discursive paper examines the impact of leadership on the delivery of operating room (OR) services in public sector hospitals in Jamaica.Delivery of OR services in Jamaica is hindered by many unique cultural, financial, political, and environmental barriers. We identify six leadership goals adapted to this environment to achieve change. Effective leadership must adapt to the environment. Delivery of OR services in Jamaica may be improved by addressing leadership training, workplace safety, interpersonal communication, and work environment and by revising existing policies. Additionally, there should be regular practice audits and quality control surveys. PMID:24355903

  6. Leadership in Surgery for Public Sector Hospitals in Jamaica: Strategies for the Operating Room

    PubMed Central

    Cawich, Shamir O; Harding, Hyacinth E; Crandon, Ivor W; McGaw, Clarence D; Barnett, Alan T; Tennant, Ingrid; Evans, Necia R; Martin, Allie C; Simpson, Lindberg K; Johnson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The barriers to health care delivery in developing nations are many: underfunding, limited support services, scarce resources, suboptimal health care worker attitudes, and deficient health care policies are some of the challenges. The literature contains little information about health care leadership in developing nations. This discursive paper examines the impact of leadership on the delivery of operating room (OR) services in public sector hospitals in Jamaica. Delivery of OR services in Jamaica is hindered by many unique cultural, financial, political, and environmental barriers. We identify six leadership goals adapted to this environment to achieve change. Effective leadership must adapt to the environment. Delivery of OR services in Jamaica may be improved by addressing leadership training, workplace safety, interpersonal communication, and work environment and by revising existing policies. Additionally, there should be regular practice audits and quality control surveys. PMID:24355903

  7. The Prevalence of Coworker Conflict Including Bullying in a Unionized U.S. Public Sector Workforce.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, Jane; London, Matt; McPhaul, Kate M; Ghaziri, Mazen El; Lydecker, Alyson; Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Johnson, Jeffrey V

    2015-01-01

    Workplace violence is an enormous problem worldwide; incidents where the perpetrator is a current or former employee are an important dimension. This large cross-sectional survey examined the prevalence of this problem among a U.S. state government unionized public sector workforce. Using participatory action research methods, we conducted a web-based survey of members of that workforce from a single northeast U.S. state, receiving 11,874 completed surveys (response rate: 71.8%). Overall, 10.0% of the respondents indicated that they had been bullied at work during the prior 6 months, with 71.9% of those who reported regular bullying identifying the perpetrator as a supervisor and/or top management. The prevalence of bullying was similar to the rates reported in Europe and Scandinavia (5%-30%). Those reports also identified the person(s) responsible for the behavior as being predominantly of higher status within the organization. PMID:26299698

  8. The Fate of Public Scholarship in the Global University: The Australian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Rob; Buckeridge, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the proposition that modern universities have been changed radically by globalization not least of which has been the erosion of "public scholarship". The paper argues that whatever the kind or scale of changes which have occurred in the past few decades, "globalization" does not provide an explanation of…

  9. Completing a PhD by Publication: A Review of Australian Policy and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Denise

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing impetus for higher-degree-by-research students to publish during candidature. Research performance, including higher degree completions and publication output, commonly determines university funding, and doctorates with publishing experience are better positioned for a career in softening academic labour markets. The PhD by…

  10. Private health purchasing practices in the public sector: a comparison of state employers and the Fortune 500.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, James; Temin, Peter; Petigara, Tanaz

    2004-01-01

    State governments are influential purchasers of health benefits but have not been studied extensively. In a recent survey of senior benefit managers, we examine the extent to which states have followed the private-sector approach to purchasing health care. We found that states have adopted "industrial purchasing" practices similar to those of large private employers but offer greater choice of carriers and pay a higher percentage of premiums. Unions continue to influence health care purchasing in both the public and private sectors. Double-digit increases in health costs and the current budget crisis may force states to align their purchasing practices with the private sector to cut costs. PMID:15046142