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  1. Problem gambling in Australian PTSD treatment-seeking veterans.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Dirk; Hawthorne, Graeme; Forbes, David; Coman, Greg

    2005-12-01

    This study explored gambling among Australian veterans entering posttraumatic stress treatment programs (n = 153). Twenty-eight percent reached the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) criteria for probable problem gambling, as did 17% on the DSM-IV gambling scale (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition; American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Almost all problem gamblers reported gambling to escape problems in other areas of their lives. The strongest independent predictor of problem gambling was gambling weekly or more often on electronic gaming machines. There was no significant relationship between problem gambling, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, depression, or alcohol use. The study identified an entrenched gambling culture among PTSD treatment-seeking veterans, finding these veterans indulge in many different forms of gambling and that these forms are mediated by situational factors that provide both casual and formal gambling opportunities. PMID:16382440

  2. Salt Lake Community College Veterans Services: A Model of Serving Veterans in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahern, Aaron; Foster, Michael; Head, Darlene

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the birth and growth of a veterans' program in Salt Lake City, Utah, and discusses next steps in spurring additional innovations and advancements to improve service for student veterans in community colleges.

  3. Writing with Veterans in a Community Writing Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schell, Eileen E.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of the growing phenomenon of community writing groups for military veterans. Drawing on the scholarship on literacy studies, community literacy, and veterans' writing groups, the author profiles three veterans' writing groups and provides strategies for starting up, conducting, and sustaining such…

  4. Depression, anxiety, and stress in partners of Australian combat veterans and military personnel: a comparison with Australian population norms

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Partners of Australian combat veterans are at an increased risk of experiencing mental health problems. The present study provides a comparative analysis of the mental health of partners of veterans with that of the Australian normative data. To compare different types of groups of partners, the study samples comprised: (a) partners of Australian combat veterans (Sample 1: n = 282, age M = 60.79, SD = 5.05), (b) a sub-sample of partners of Australian combat veterans from the previous sample (Sample 2: n = 50; M = 60.06, SD = 4.80), (c) partners of Special Air Services Regiment (SASR) personnel (Sample 3: n = 40, age M = 34.39SD = 7.01), and (d) partners of current serving military (non-SASR) personnel (Sample 4: n = 38, age M = 32.37, SD = 6.20). Respondents completed measures assessing their reported levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. Samples 1 and 2 comprised partners of Australian military veterans who reported significantly greater symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress than the comparative population norms. The sample of SASR personnel partners (Sample 3) reported significantly lower levels of depression and anxiety, whereas the sample with non-SASR personnel partners (Sample 4) reported a significantly greater stress symptomatology than the comparative norms. Number of deployments was found to be associated with depression, anxiety, and stress in partners of non-SASR veterans (Sample 4). Lessons and protective factors can be learnt from groups within the current military as to what may assist partners and families to maintain a better level of psychosocial health.

  5. Veterans' Transitions to Community College: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Holly A.

    2012-01-01

    Veterans on college campuses are not new; however, the recent influx of veterans returning home from war-time service present challenges to the colleges they attend. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the transition process experienced by veterans leaving military service and attending community college for the first time.…

  6. Supporting Veterans: Creating a "Military Friendly" Community College Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heineman, Judie A.

    2016-01-01

    Veterans are entering the community college classroom as part of their transition from military to civilian life. This article explores what leaders of community colleges could do, and have done, in developing programs, implementing changes, and adopting policies to attract and accommodate the unique needs of student-veterans.

  7. Students Receiving Veteran Benefits--Community Colleges, Spring 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Community Coll. System.

    Recipients of veteran benefits at community colleges in Hawaii comprised 24 percent of the spring 1975 enrollees. The proportion varied by campus from 15 percent at Kapiolani to 31 percent at Leeward and Kauai. Veterans differ from the student body as a whole in terms of credit load carried and educational objectives; this may be a result of the…

  8. Veterans Education: Coming Home to the Community College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persky, Karen Rae

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the needs of veterans who are community college students and to examine community college programs and services essential to meeting their needs. A qualitative case study design using interviews, observations, field notes, document reviews, a focus group, and a preinterview demographic questionnaire…

  9. How Military Service Affects Student Veteran Success at Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Patrick C., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly more service members are separating from the military as the United States draws down the force and moves towards a post-war era. Tens of thousands of these veterans will leverage their GI Bill tuition and housing benefits in an attempt to access Southern California community colleges and bolster their transition into mainstream…

  10. Student Veterans Returning to a Community College: Understanding Their Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumann, Corey Bradford

    2010-01-01

    Higher education and the military have been linked throughout history in the United States. Now, with the current wars in Afghanistan and Iraq the higher education community is beginning to realize again the importance of understanding student veterans' transition experiences into college and providing appropriate support programs. However, the…

  11. The Veteran at North Hennepin Community College: 1972-1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Janis H.

    The academic progress of veteran students has delighted some and been a source of consternation to others. Three points of view seem most common: veterans do more poorly than other students; veterans do better than other students; and, veterans do not differ from other students. This study investigated the academic achievement of veterans at North…

  12. Veterans Coming Home to the Community College: Linking Research to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persky, Karen R.; Oliver, Diane E.

    2011-01-01

    Community colleges must prepare for change as increasing numbers of students who are veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars use their post-9/11 GI Bill benefits to join the colleges' diverse student bodies. Based on the findings of a mixed methods case study, needs of veterans at the community college are framed and discussed within five major…

  13. Complex Perceptions of Identity: The Experiences of Student Combat Veterans in Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Shane Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study illustrates how complex perceptions of identity influence the community college experience for student veterans who have been in combat, creating barriers to their overall persistence. The collective experiences of student combat veterans at two community colleges in northwestern Massachusetts are presented, and a Combat…

  14. Engagement of Community College Student Veterans: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Martha A.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed-methods study focused on the engagement of student veterans at a community college and sought to understand the factors that contribute to the involvement and success of student veterans at a California community college. Using a sequential explanatory design, the methodology involved written surveys and focus group interviews to…

  15. Discounting of medicines in Australian community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Thai, Loc P; Vitry, Agnes I; Moss, John R

    2014-11-01

    Objective There are many medicines listed on the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in which point of sale price is less than the level of the general patient co-payment. In these circumstances, the patient covers the total cost of the medicine from their own pocket with no government subsidy. The aim of the present study was to compare the consumer prices of under general co-payment prescription medicines between banner group pharmacies with open discounting policies and community pharmacies without; and to assess the impact of the April 2012 PBS price disclosure policies on the discounts offered. Methods The consumer prices of 31 under co-payment medicines were collected from banner group pharmacy websites and individual pharmacies both before and after April 2012. PBS maximum prices were obtained from the PBS website. Absolute and relative price differences between PBS and pharmacy groups were calculated. Results Before April 2012, banner group pharmacies provided discounts to patients of around 40% per prescription, whereas other pharmacies provided discounts of around 15%. Total price savings were on average $9 per prescription at banner group pharmacies and $3.50 at other pharmacies. Percentage discounts did not change greatly after April 2012, when price decreases occurred on the PBS. Conclusions Banner group pharmacies with pricing strategies are able to provide greater discounts to patients compared with other pharmacies. Community pharmacies still have the ability to provide substantial discounts after the April 2012 price reductions. What is known about the topic? There is currently little known about the under co-payment medicines market in Australia and the price discounts available to patients. What does this paper add? This research shows that patients who purchase under co-payment medicines are able to save money if they purchase from pharmacies with openly advertised discounting policies. Price reductions related to the implementation

  16. Psychological Sense of Community: An Australian Aboriginal Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Brian; Colquhoun, Simon; Johnson, Gemma

    2006-01-01

    Sense of community (SOC) is central to an individual's psychological wellbeing (Sarason, 1974). Eleven participants, mainly from the North West of Western Australia, took part in semistructured interviews investigating Australian Aboriginal notions of community and SOC. Five key themes emerged from the data. These included: kinship structure,…

  17. Building Better Communities for Children: Community Implementation and Evaluation of the Australian Early Development Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayers, Mary; Coutts, Melissa; Goldfeld, Sharon; Oberklaid, Frank; Brinkman, Sally; Silburn, Sven

    2007-01-01

    Since 2004 the Australian Early Development Index (AEDI) has been completed in 54 Australian communities over seven states and territories on more than 30,000 children. A concurrent systematic evaluation of community implementation and use of the AEDI was undertaken that included both a process and impact component. The purpose of this paper is to…

  18. A Tale of Two Transitions: Female Military Veterans During Their First Year at Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrino, Lauren; Hoggan, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Surprisingly few empirical studies examine the experience of veterans as they transition into community college. Using Schlossberg's transition model and 4S framework--situation, self, supports, and strategies--this article portrays a subset of findings from a qualitative study involving recent military veterans transitioning into community…

  19. Partnering with Communities to Address the Mental Health Needs of Rural Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, JoAnn E.; Farmer, Mary Sue; Shue, Valorie M.; Blevins, Dean; Sullivan, Greer

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Many veterans who face mental illness and live in rural areas never obtain the mental health care they need. To address these needs, it is important to reach out to community stakeholders who are likely to have frequent interactions with veterans, particularly those returning from Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF). Methods:…

  20. Proactive Coping in Community-Dwelling Older Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sougleris, Christina; Ranzijn, Rob

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study of older community-dwelling Australian adults which aimed to test whether a relatively unexplored construct, proactive coping, could have a role in purpose in life, personal growth, and life satisfaction. A total of 109 women and 115 men (Mean age = 75.04 yrs, SD = 6.66) completed a questionnaire containing…

  1. The Veteran-Student Services (Work-study) Program; Grade Point Average Increases of Veteran-Student Employees at Harrisburg Area Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, David K.

    This paper explores the Veterans Administration (VA) work-study program and its implications for student/veterans at Harrisburg Area Community College in Pennsylvania. Unique advantages of the program include tax-free income, flexible working schedules around students' class schedules, additional study time, easy access to the office from classes,…

  2. Understanding the Health Needs and Barriers to Seeking Health Care of Veteran Students in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Misra-Hebert, Anita D.; Santurri, Laura; DeChant, Richard; Watts, Brook; Rothberg, Michael; Sehgal, Ashwini R.; Aron, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Access to care at Veterans Affairs facilities may be limited by long wait times; however, additional barriers may prevent US military veterans from seeking help at all. We sought to understand the health needs of veterans in the community to identify possible barriers to health-seeking behavior. Methods Focus groups were conducted with veteran students at a community college until thematic saturation was reached. Qualitative data analysis involved both an inductive content analysis approach and deductive elements. Results A total of 17 veteran students participated in 6 separate focus groups. Health needs affecting health-seeking behavior were identified. Themes included lack of motivation to improve health, concern about social exclusion and stigma, social interactions and behavior, limited access to affordable and convenient health care, unmet basic needs for self and family, and academics competing with health needs. Conclusions Veterans face a range of personal, societal, and logistical barriers to accessing care. In addition to decreasing wait times for appointments, efforts to improve the transition to civilian life, reduce stigma, and offer assistance related to work, housing, and convenient access to health care may improve health in veteran students. PMID:26280777

  3. Rural-Urban Differences in Preventable Hospitalizations among Community-Dwelling Veterans with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorpe, Joshua M.; Van Houtven, Courtney H.; Sleath, Betsy L.; Thorpe, Carolyn T.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Alzheimer's patients living in rural communities may face significant barriers to effective outpatient medical care. Purpose: We sought to examine rural-urban differences in risk for ambulatory care sensitive hospitalizations (ACSH), an indicator of access to outpatient care, in community-dwelling veterans with dementia. Methods: Medicare…

  4. Using International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to understand challenges in community reintegration of injured veterans.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda J; Allen, Susan M

    2007-01-01

    This pilot study used the framework of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to understand the challenges faced by Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans as they reintegrate into the community. We conducted semistructured interviews with 14 injured veterans, 12 caregivers, and 14 clinicians. We used ICF taxonomy to code data and identify issues. We identified challenges in the following ICF domains: learning and applying knowledge; general tasks and demands; communication; mobility; self-care; domestic life; interpersonal interactions, major life areas; and community, social, and civic life. We found many similarities between the challenges faced by veterans with and without polytraumatic injuries, although veterans with polytraumatic injuries faced challenges of greater magnitude. Identifying community reintegration challenges early and promoting reintegration are important mandates for the Department of Veterans Affairs. The findings of this study are useful in understanding the needs of OEF/OIF veterans. PMID:18075956

  5. College and Community Partnerships: Extending the Benefits of Therapeutic Recreation to Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Steven J.; Cannella, Lee grace; Pisano, Susan

    2014-01-01

    In fall 2010, St. Joseph's College initiated a partnership between the college, Northport VA Medical Center, and Long Island State Veterans Home that provides a therapeutic platform for the integration of the three communities through sustainable and mutually beneficial curricular and co-curricular service and experiential learning programs.…

  6. Telephone-Administered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Veterans Served by Community-Based Outpatient Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, David C.; Carmody, Timothy; Erickson, Lauren; Jin, Ling; Leader, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Multiple trials have found telephone-administered cognitive behavioral therapy (T-CBT) to be effective for the treatment of depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate T-CBT for the treatment of depression among veterans served by community-based outpatient clinics (CBOCs) outside of major urban areas. Method: Eighty-five veterans…

  7. Avoiding Treatment Interruptions: What Role Do Australian Community Pharmacists Play?

    PubMed Central

    Abukres, Salem Hasn; Hoti, Kreshnik; Hughes, Jeffery David

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the reported practice of Australian community pharmacists when dealing with medication supply requests in absence of a valid prescription. Methods Self-administered questionnaire was posted to 1490 randomly selected community pharmacies across all Australian states and territories. This sample was estimated to be a 20% of all Australian community pharmacies. Results Three hundred eighty five pharmacists participated in the study (response rate achieved was 27.9% (there were 111 undelivered questionnaires). Respondents indicated that they were more likely to provide medications to regular customers without a valid prescription compared to non-regular customers (p<0.0001). However, supply was also influenced by the type of prescription and the medication requested. In the case of type of prescription (Standard, Authority or Private) this relates to the complexity/probability of obtaining a valid prescription from the prescriber at a later date (i.e. supply with an anticipated prescription). Decisions to supply and/or not supply related to medication type were more complex. For some cases, including medication with potential for abuse, the practice and/or the method of supply varied significantly according to age and gender of the pharmacist, and pharmacy location (p<0.05). Conclusions Although being a regular customer does not guarantee a supply, results of this study reinforce the importance for patients having a regular pharmacy, where pharmacists were more likely to continue medication supply in cases of patients presenting without a valid prescription. We would suggest, more flexible legislation should be implemented to allow pharmacists to continue supplying of medication when obtaining a prescription is not practical. PMID:27170997

  8. Factors influencing food choice in an Australian Aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, Julie; Maypilama, Elaine; Colles, Susan; Scarlett, Maria; Dhurrkay, Joanne Garnggulkpuy; Ritchie, Jan; O'Dea, Kerin

    2014-03-01

    We explored with Aboriginal adults living in a remote Australian community the social context of food choice and factors perceived to shape food choice. An ethnographic approach of prolonged community engagement over 3 years was augmented by interviews. Our findings revealed that knowledge, health, and resources supporting food choice were considered "out of balance," and this imbalance was seen to manifest in a Western-imposed diet lacking variety and overrelying on familiar staples. Participants felt ill-equipped to emulate the traditional pattern of knowledge transfer through passing food-related wisdom to younger generations. The traditional food system was considered key to providing the framework for learning about the contemporary food environment. Practitioners seeking to improve diet and health outcomes for this population should attend to past and present contexts of food in nutrition education, support the educative role of caregivers, address the high cost of food, and support access to traditional foods. PMID:24549409

  9. The Effects of Professional Learning Communities and School Leaders on Veteran Teachers Assigned to New Grade Levels or Subject Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchens, Joy C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore the effects of professional learning communities on veteran teachers with three or more years of experience assigned to new grade levels or subject areas and the implications for school leaders. The specific research questions that framed the study were: (1) What do veteran teachers assigned…

  10. Using a CBT-Based Therapeutic Community Program to Facilitate Healthy Relationships among Military Veterans and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush-Ossenbeck, Marilyn; West-Olatunji, Cirecie

    2014-01-01

    The authors propose a CBT-based Therapeutic Community (TC) program designed to facilitate healthy relationships between military veterans and their families. In many military veteran families, there is a struggle to maintain a healthy and balanced life both outside and inside the household. This struggle affects both spouses and children and is…

  11. Is Veteran Status and Suicide Risk Assessed in Community Long-Term Care? A Review of the States' Assessment Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthieu, Monica M.; Welch, Benjamin; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Proctor, Enola; Nickel, Michael; Navarro, Jessica; Moon, Alyson

    2010-01-01

    Given recent policy initiatives to address suicide risk among older persons and veterans, community-based elder serving agencies may serve an important role in identifying and referring individuals at risk for suicide. A review of state-level long-term assessment instruments was conducted to determine whether veteran status and suicide are…

  12. Military and Veteran Student Achievement in Postsecondary Education: A Structural Equation Model Using the Community College Survey of Men (CCSM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De LaGarza, Thomas R.; Manuel, Marcus A.; Wood, J. Luke; Harris, Frank, III

    2016-01-01

    Few quantitative studies exist on veteran success in postsecondary education, and existing qualitative research has also not accurately identified factors related to veteran achievement or pathways to success in postsecondary education. In this article, the Community College Survey of Men (CCSM) evaluates predictors of student success for…

  13. Microbial Communities of Three Sympatric Australian Stingless Bee Species

    PubMed Central

    Leonhardt, Sara D.; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts of insects have received increasing attention due to their prominent role in nutrient acquisition and defense. In social bees, symbiotic bacteria can maintain colony homeostasis and fitness, and the loss or alteration of the bacterial community may be associated with the ongoing bee decline observed worldwide. However, analyses of microbiota associated with bees have been largely confined to the social honeybees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus spec.), revealing – among other taxa – host-specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB, genus Lactobacillus) that are not found in solitary bees. Here, we characterized the microbiota of three Australian stingless bee species (Apidae: Meliponini) of two phylogenetically distant genera (Tetragonula and Austroplebeia). Besides common plant bacteria, we find LAB in all three species, showing that LAB are shared by honeybees, bumblebees and stingless bees across geographical regions. However, while LAB of the honeybee-associated Firm4–5 clusters were present in Tetragonula, they were lacking in Austroplebeia. Instead, we found a novel clade of likely host-specific LAB in all three Australian stingless bee species which forms a sister clade to a large cluster of Halictidae-associated lactobacilli. Our findings indicate both a phylogenetic and geographical signal of host-specific LAB in stingless bees and highlight stingless bees as an interesting group to investigate the evolutionary history of the bee-LAB association. PMID:25148082

  14. Microbial communities of three sympatric Australian stingless bee species.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Sara D; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts of insects have received increasing attention due to their prominent role in nutrient acquisition and defense. In social bees, symbiotic bacteria can maintain colony homeostasis and fitness, and the loss or alteration of the bacterial community may be associated with the ongoing bee decline observed worldwide. However, analyses of microbiota associated with bees have been largely confined to the social honeybees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus spec.), revealing--among other taxa--host-specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB, genus Lactobacillus) that are not found in solitary bees. Here, we characterized the microbiota of three Australian stingless bee species (Apidae: Meliponini) of two phylogenetically distant genera (Tetragonula and Austroplebeia). Besides common plant bacteria, we find LAB in all three species, showing that LAB are shared by honeybees, bumblebees and stingless bees across geographical regions. However, while LAB of the honeybee-associated Firm4-5 clusters were present in Tetragonula, they were lacking in Austroplebeia. Instead, we found a novel clade of likely host-specific LAB in all three Australian stingless bee species which forms a sister clade to a large cluster of Halictidae-associated lactobacilli. Our findings indicate both a phylogenetic and geographical signal of host-specific LAB in stingless bees and highlight stingless bees as an interesting group to investigate the evolutionary history of the bee-LAB association. PMID:25148082

  15. Perceptions of risk among households in two Australian coastal communities

    SciTech Connect

    Elrick-Barr, Carmen E.; Smith, Timothy F.; Thomsen, Dana C.; Preston, Benjamin L.

    2015-04-20

    There is limited knowledge of risk perceptions in coastal communities despite their vulnerability to a range of risks including the impacts of climate change. A survey of 400 households in two Australian coastal communities, combined with semi-structured interviews, provides insight into household perceptions of the relative importance of climatic and non-climatic risks and the subsequent risk priorities that may inform household adaptive action. In contrast to previous research, the results demonstrated that geographic location and household characteristics might not affect perceptions of vulnerability to environmental hazards. However, past experience was a significant influence, raising the priority of environmental concerns. Overall, the results highlight the priority concerns of coastal households (from finance, to health and environment) and suggest to increase the profile of climate issues in coastal communities climate change strategies need to better demonstrate links between climate vulnerability and other household concerns. Moreover, promoting generic capacities in isolation from understanding the context in which households construe climate risks is unlikely to yield the changes required to decrease the vulnerability of coastal communities.

  16. Perceptions of risk among households in two Australian coastal communities

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Elrick-Barr, Carmen E.; Smith, Timothy F.; Thomsen, Dana C.; Preston, Benjamin L.

    2015-04-20

    There is limited knowledge of risk perceptions in coastal communities despite their vulnerability to a range of risks including the impacts of climate change. A survey of 400 households in two Australian coastal communities, combined with semi-structured interviews, provides insight into household perceptions of the relative importance of climatic and non-climatic risks and the subsequent risk priorities that may inform household adaptive action. In contrast to previous research, the results demonstrated that geographic location and household characteristics might not affect perceptions of vulnerability to environmental hazards. However, past experience was a significant influence, raising the priority of environmental concerns. Overall,more » the results highlight the priority concerns of coastal households (from finance, to health and environment) and suggest to increase the profile of climate issues in coastal communities climate change strategies need to better demonstrate links between climate vulnerability and other household concerns. Moreover, promoting generic capacities in isolation from understanding the context in which households construe climate risks is unlikely to yield the changes required to decrease the vulnerability of coastal communities.« less

  17. Getting Veterans Back to Work. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Each year about 13,000 military personnel leave the service and select Washington state as their home, bringing with them a wealth of experience and a wide range of skills. Washington ranks among the top five most popular states for military personnel separating from the service. Washington's 34 community and technical colleges are a perfect fit…

  18. Substance Use over the Military-Veteran Life Course: An Analysis of a Sample of OEF/OIF Veterans Returning to Low-Income Predominately Minority Communities

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Andrew; Bennett, Alex S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of substance use patterns of recent veterans returning to low-income predominately minority communities over four periods of the military-veteran career. Respondent driven sampling (RDS) was used so that unbiased estimates could be obtained for the characteristics of the target population. The majority of participants had used marijuana but no other illegal drugs. In the military, marijuana use was substantially lower and alcohol was the drug of choice; the majority were binge drinkers and nearly half were heavy drinkers. While deployed, alcohol and marijuana use were both lower, though some participants (6%) initiated the misuse of prescription painkillers. After separating from the military and returning to civilian life, heavy drinking was much lower, marijuana use increased, and some veterans misused prescription painkillers (7%). Further research based on these data will examine these distinct periods of substance use, contexts of use, related substance and mental health problems, treatment use and avoidance, and civilian reintegration. PMID:23932708

  19. Child-caregiver interaction in two remote Indigenous Australian communities.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Jill; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Loakes, Deborah; Disbray, Samantha; Moses, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study in two remote multilingual Indigenous Australian communities: Yakanarra in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and Tennant Creek in the Barkly region of the Northern Territory. In both communities, processes of language shift are underway from a traditional language (Walmajarri and Warumungu, respectively) to a local creole variety (Fitzroy Valley Kriol and Wumpurrarni English, respectively). The study focuses on language input from primary caregivers to a group of preschool children, and on the children's productive language. The study further highlights child-caregiver interactions as a site of importance in understanding the broader processes of language shift. We use longitudinal data from two time-points, approximately 2 years apart, to explore changes in adult input over time and developmental patterns in the children's speech. At both time points, the local creole varieties are the preferred codes of communication for the dyads in this study, although there is some use of the traditional language in both communities. Results show that for measures of turn length (MLT), there are notable differences between the two communities for both the focus children and their caregivers. In Tennant Creek, children and caregivers use longer turns at Time 2, while in Yakanarra the picture is more variable. The two communities also show differing trends in terms of conversational load (MLT ratio). For measures of morphosyntactic complexity (MLU), children and caregivers in Tennant Creek use more complex utterances at Time 2, while caregivers in Yakanarra show less complexity in their language at that time point. The study's findings contribute to providing a more detailed picture of the multilingual practices at Yakanarra and Tennant Creek, with implications for understanding broader processes of language shift. They also elucidate how children's language and linguistic input varies diachronically across time. As such, we contribute to

  20. Child-caregiver interaction in two remote Indigenous Australian communities

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Jill; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Loakes, Deborah; Disbray, Samantha; Moses, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study in two remote multilingual Indigenous Australian communities: Yakanarra in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and Tennant Creek in the Barkly region of the Northern Territory. In both communities, processes of language shift are underway from a traditional language (Walmajarri and Warumungu, respectively) to a local creole variety (Fitzroy Valley Kriol and Wumpurrarni English, respectively). The study focuses on language input from primary caregivers to a group of preschool children, and on the children's productive language. The study further highlights child-caregiver interactions as a site of importance in understanding the broader processes of language shift. We use longitudinal data from two time-points, approximately 2 years apart, to explore changes in adult input over time and developmental patterns in the children's speech. At both time points, the local creole varieties are the preferred codes of communication for the dyads in this study, although there is some use of the traditional language in both communities. Results show that for measures of turn length (MLT), there are notable differences between the two communities for both the focus children and their caregivers. In Tennant Creek, children and caregivers use longer turns at Time 2, while in Yakanarra the picture is more variable. The two communities also show differing trends in terms of conversational load (MLT ratio). For measures of morphosyntactic complexity (MLU), children and caregivers in Tennant Creek use more complex utterances at Time 2, while caregivers in Yakanarra show less complexity in their language at that time point. The study's findings contribute to providing a more detailed picture of the multilingual practices at Yakanarra and Tennant Creek, with implications for understanding broader processes of language shift. They also elucidate how children's language and linguistic input varies diachronically across time. As such, we contribute to

  1. Cognitive-behavioral Therapy for Late-life Anxiety: Similarities and Differences between Veteran and Community Participants

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, Terri L.; Cully, Jeffrey A.; Amspoker, Amber B.; Wilson, Nancy L.; Kraus-Schuman, Cynthia; Wagener, Paula D.; Calleo, Jessica S.; Teng, Ellen J.; Rhoades, Howard M.; Masozera, Nicholas; Kunik, Mark E.; Stanley, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based treatment for anxiety; however, a growing body of research suggests that CBT effect sizes are smaller in Veteran samples. The aim of this study was to perform secondary data analyses of a randomized controlled trial of CBT for late-life generalized anxiety disorder compared with treatment as usual (TAU) in a Veteran (n = 101) and community-based (n = 122) sample. Veterans had lower income and less education than community participants, greater severity on baseline measures of anxiety and depression, poorer physical health, and higher rates of psychiatric comorbidity. Treatment effects were statistically significant in the community sample (all ps < .01), but not in Veterans (all ps > .05). Further analyses in Veterans revealed that poorer perceived social support significantly predicted poorer outcomes (all ps <.05). Our results underscore the complexity of treating Veterans with anxiety, and suggest that additional work is needed to improve the efficacy of CBT for Veterans, with particular attention to social support. PMID:26005839

  2. Theater-Based Community Engagement Project for Veterans Recovering From Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Wasmuth, Sally; Pritchard, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine the feasibility and acceptability of a 6-wk, interdisciplinary, occupation-based theater project for facilitating community engagement and substance use disorder (SUD) recovery in veterans. All data were collected at baseline, postintervention, and 6-wk and 6-mo follow-up intervals. Of the invited veterans, 24% consented to participate (n = 14), and 50% were retained (n = 7). Average attendance was 91%. Considerable improvements in social and occupational participation were noted at postintervention and at 6-wk follow-up but were not retained at 6 mo. No important change in self-efficacy was noted. Of the participants, 86% remained abstinent for 6 wk following the intervention. Theater provides a feasible and acceptable resource for potentially facilitating SUD recovery. Larger controlled effectiveness studies of theater are needed to examine whether robust and notable recovery outcomes in people with SUDs can be linked to participation in theater. PMID:27294989

  3. Education resources in remote Australian Indigenous community dog health programs: a comparison of community and extra-community-produced resources.

    PubMed

    Constable, Sophie Elizabeth; Dixon, Roselyn May; Dixon, Robert John

    2013-09-01

    Commercial dog health programs in Australian Indigenous communities are a relatively recent occurrence. Health promotion for these programs is an even more recent development, and lacks data on effective practices. This paper analyses 38 resources created by veterinary-community partnerships in Indigenous communities, to 71 resources available through local veterinary service providers. On average, community-produced resources used significantly more of the resource area as image, more imagery as communicative rather than decorative images, larger fonts and smaller segments of text and used images of people with a range of skin tones. As well as informal registers of Standard Australian English, community-produced resources used Aboriginal English and/or Creole languages in their text, while extra-community (EC)-produced resources did not. The text of EC resources had Flesh-Kincaid reading grade levels that excluded a large proportion of community recipients. Also, they did not cover some topics of importance in communities, used academic, formal and technical language, and did not depict people of a representative range of skin tones. As such, community-produced resources were more relevant to the unique situations in remote communities, while EC resources were often inappropriate and in some cases could even distance recipients by using inappropriate language, formats and imagery. PMID:22552425

  4. An In Depth Look at Veterans Attending the Community Colleges in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, James R.

    In order to compile general data on veterans attending two-year institutions in Washington State, develop educational and employment profiles of the veterans, explore the extent of veterans' knowledge of available benefits, and evaluate the effectiveness of Veterans Outreach programs throughout the state, a questionnaire was designed and…

  5. Children's Language Input: A Study of a Remote Multilingual Indigenous Australian Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loakes, Deborah; Moses, Karin; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Simpson, Jane; Billington, Rosey

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous children growing up in the remote regions of Australia live in multilingual communities which are often undergoing rapid language shift. In these communities, children are exposed to a range of language input, including the traditional language of the area, a local creole and Standard Australian English. The extent to which the…

  6. A Direction towards Sustainability? Australian Rural Communities and Care for the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Geoffrey; Stehlik, Dani

    1996-01-01

    Rural elderly in Australia lack access to health and welfare services, compounded by an increasingly aging population and downsizing of services. Successful strategies can be found in U.S. retirement communities and the Australian Community Aged Care Package program. However, these strategies often compete with a drive toward cost-effectiveness.…

  7. Using Communities of Practice to Enhance Interdisciplinary Teaching: Lessons from Four Australian Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pharo, Emma; Davison, Aidan; McGregor, Helen; Warr, Kristin; Brown, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We report on the establishment of communities of practice at four Australian institutions and evaluate their effectiveness and durability as a means of building staff and institutional capacity for interdisciplinary teaching. A community of practice approach is a potentially valuable methodology for overcoming dynamics of fragmentation, isolation…

  8. National outpatient medication profiling: medications associated with outpatient fractures in community-dwelling elderly veterans

    PubMed Central

    French, Dustin D; Campbell, Robert; Spehar, Andrea; Rubenstein, Laurence Z; Branch, Laurence G; Cunningham, Francesca

    2007-01-01

    What is already known about this subject Polypharmacy, to include a subissue of potentially inappropriate prescribing, in community-dwelling elderly is widespread. The objective of this study was to identify the magnitude of problematic outpatient drug prescribing and its potential association as a risk factor for injuries. What this study adds This is the first national study of outpatient injuries in elderly veterans. The results are consistent with previous published literature highlighting the risks associated with prescribing central nervous system drugs in the elderly. Aims The primary objective of this retrospective case–control study in an elderly veteran population was to assess the impact of specific medications with recognized side-effects that increase the risk of a fall and were prescribed prior to fractures treated in the outpatient setting compared with patients treated for nonspecific chest pain. Methods Two national Veterans Health Administration (VHA) databases were used to identify 17 273 unique patients, aged ≥65 years, treated in outpatient settings with a fracture in fiscal year 2005, and for whom we could link to all of their outpatient prescriptions (809 536). For comparison, we identified other elderly patients with outpatient clinic visits for nonspecific chest pain (N = 62 331) for whom we could link with their 2 987 394 outpatient prescriptions. We categorized the fall-related medications as drugs that primarily affect the cardiovascular (CVS), the central nervous (CNS) or the muscular skeletal system (MSS). Results Significant differences in the two patient groups occurred in the CNS category. Approximately 41% of the patients with fracture-coded encounters were prescribed CNS drugs compared with 31% of the patients in the comparison group (P < 0.0003). Finally, the use of muscle relaxants in the MSS category was significantly higher in the fracture group than in the nonspecific chest pain group. Conclusions Studies using

  9. Australian Aboriginal Education at the Fulcrum of Forces of Change: Remote Queensland Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Victoria J.

    Schools in Australian Aboriginal communities are pulled between an educational model that stresses cultural pride and preservation and one that emphasizes uniformity of education to prepare Aboriginal students for a place in the dominant society. The tension between these objectives is seen in these case studies of schools in two remote Queensland…

  10. An Open Letter to the Professional Communities of Australian Council for Computers in Education (ACCE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an open letter to the Professional Communities of Australian Council for Computers in Education (ACCE). In preparing for this article, the author looked back over the contributions of other fellows in publications and ACCE Minutes, and recognized that each had led the ACCE family in this endeavor. Creating direction was the…

  11. Active Citizenship and the Secondary School Experience: Community Participation Rates of Australian Youth. Research Report Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kevin; Lipsig-Mumme, Carla; Zajdow, Grazyna

    Volunteering is often seen as an essential element in active citizenship and community participation, and existing literature suggests that those who volunteer young are more likely to volunteer through later stages of life. Analysis of Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY), which identified factors that contribute to volunteering for…

  12. Policy Change and Its Effect on Australian Community-Based Natural Resource Management Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Penelope R.; Hemmings, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    The authors of this article report on a qualitative study of Australian community-based natural resource management groups known as Landcare groups. They discuss how four Landcare groups contributed to sustainability practices and how a policy change implemented in 2003 influenced the efforts of the groups to remain active in their activities.…

  13. Strongyloides stercoralis: Systematic Review of Barriers to Controlling Strongyloidiasis for Australian Indigenous Communities

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Adrian; Smith, Michelle L.; Judd, Jenni A.; Speare, Rick

    2014-01-01

    Background Strongyloides stercoralis infects human hosts mainly through skin contact with contaminated soil. The result is strongyloidiasis, a parasitic disease, with a unique cycle of auto-infection causing a variety of symptoms and signs, with possible fatality from hyper-infection. Australian Indigenous community members, often living in rural and remote settings, are exposed to and infected with S. stercoralis. The aim of this review is to determine barriers to control of strongyloidiasis. The purpose is to contribute to the development of initiatives for prevention, early detection and effective treatment of strongyloidiasis. Methodology/Principle Findings Systematic search reviewing research published 2012 and earlier was conducted. Research articles discussing aspects of strongyloidiasis, context of infection and overall health in Indigenous Australians were reviewed. Based on the PRISMA statement, the systematic search of health databases, Academic Search Premier, Informit, Medline, PubMed, AMED, CINAHL, Health Source Nursing and Academic was conducted. Key search terms included strongyloidiasis, Indigenous, Australia, health, and community. 340 articles were retrieved with 16 original research articles published between 1969 and 2006 meeting criteria. Review found barriers to control defined across three key themes, (1) health status, (2) socioeconomic status, and (3) health care literacy and procedures. Conclusions/Significance This study identifies five points of intervention: (1) develop reporting protocols between health care system and communities; (2) test all Indigenous Australian patients, immunocompromised patients and those exposed to areas with S. stercoralis; (3) health professionals require detailed information on strongyloidiasis and potential for exposure to Indigenous Australian people; (4) to establish testing and treatment initiatives within communities; and (5) to measure and report prevalence rates specific to communities and to act

  14. We Are not Retired: Veteran Community College Faculty at a Crossroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Jon E.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a study conducted to determine the receptivity of veteran faculty to instructional-improvement initiatives, finding that they support faculty lifelong learning and are not resistant to new ideas and procedures. Asserts that, as the average age of college faculty rises, a greater understanding of veteran faculty is essential. Contains 24…

  15. An ecological approach to health promotion in remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Bailie, Ross; Grace, Jocelyn; Brewster, David

    2010-03-01

    Poor environmental conditions and poor child health in remote Australian Aboriginal communities are a symptom of a disjuncture in the cultures of a disadvantaged (and only relatively recently enfranchised) minority population and a proportionally large, wealthy dominant immigrant population, problematic social policies and the legacy of colonialism. Developing effective health promotion interventions in this environment is a challenge. Taking an ecological approach, the objective of this study was to identify the key social, economic, cultural and environmental factors that contribute to poor hygiene in remote Aboriginal communities, and to determine approaches that will improve hygiene and reduce the burden of infection among children. The methods included a mix of quantitative and qualitative community-based studies and literature reviews. Study findings showed that a combination of crowding, non-functioning health hardware and poor standards of personal and domestic hygiene underlie the high burden of infection experienced by children. Also, models of health promotion drawn from developed and developing countries can be adapted for use in remote Australian Aboriginal community contexts. High levels of disadvantage in relation to social determinants of health underlie the problem of poor environmental conditions and poor child health in remote Australian Aboriginal communities. Measures need to be taken to address the immediate problems that impact on children's health-for example, by ensuring the availability of functional and adequate water and sanitation facilities-but these interventions are unlikely to have a major effect unless the underlying issues are also addressed. PMID:20167824

  16. Organizational Responsibility for Age-Friendly Social Participation: Views of Australian Rural Community Stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Winterton, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study critically explores the barriers experienced by diverse rural community stakeholders in facilitating environments that enable age-friendly social participation. Twenty-six semi-structured interviews were conducted across two rural Australian communities with stakeholders from local government, health, social care, and community organizations. Findings identify that rural community stakeholders face significant difficulties in securing resources for groups and activities catering to older adults, which subsequently impacts their capacity to undertake outreach to older adults. However, in discussing these issues, questions were raised in relation to whose responsibility it is to provide resources for community groups and organizations providing social initiatives and whose responsibility it is to engage isolated seniors. These findings provide a much-needed critical perspective on current age-friendly research by acknowledging the responsibilities of various macro-level social structures-different community-level organizations, local government, and policy in fostering environments to enable participation of diverse rural older adults. PMID:26881483

  17. Community-based preparedness programmes and the 2009 Australian bushfires: policy implications derived from applying theory.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, Colin; Gibbs, Lisa; Clark, Rachel

    2014-04-01

    The Victorian Country Fire Authority in Australia runs the Community Fireguard (CFG) programme to assist individuals and communities in preparing for fire. The objective of this qualitative research was to understand the impact of CFG groups on their members' fire preparedness and response during the 2009 Australian bushfires. Social connectedness emerged as a strong theme, leading to an analysis of data using social capital theory. The main strength of the CFG programme was that it was driven by innovative community members; however, concerns arose regarding the extent to which the programme covered all vulnerable areas, which led the research team to explore the theory of diffusion of innovation. The article concludes by stepping back from the evaluation and using both applied theories to reflect on broad options for community fire preparedness programmes in general. The exercise produced two contrasting options for principles underlying community fire preparedness programmes. PMID:24601916

  18. Predictors of children's involvement in parents' treatment among homeless veterans in community residential care.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robert A; Kasprow, Wesley J; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2005-09-01

    This study identified the proportion of homeless veterans who are parents and described characteristics of homeless veterans whose children became involved in their treatment. Of the 9,444 veterans surveyed, 37.7 percent were parents of children younger than 18 years; yet children were involved in parents' treatment in only 10.6 percent of these cases. Parents whose children were involved in their treatment were more likely to have direct custody, be female, have greater social stability, and have more psychiatric and medical problems. These parents were also less likely to have been exposed to combat fire. Services to homeless parents might be improved through coordination of adult- and child-focused funding streams and programmatic efforts to provide comprehensive interventions. PMID:16148333

  19. Death in Community Australian Football: A Ten Year National Insurance Claims Report

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Caroline F.

    2016-01-01

    While deaths are thought to be rare in community Australian sport, there is no systematic reporting so the frequency and leading causes of death is unknown. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and cause of deaths associated with community-level Australian Football (AF), based on insurance-claims records. Retrospective review of prospectively collected insurance-claims for death in relation to community-level AF activities Australia-wide from 2004 to 2013. Eligible participants were aged 15+ years, involved in an Australian football club as players, coaches, umpires or supporting roles. Details were extracted for: year of death, level of play, age, sex, anatomical location of injury, and a descriptive narrative of the event. Descriptive data are presented for frequency of cases by subgroups. From 26,749 insurance-claims relating to AF, 31 cases were in relation to a death. All fatalities were in males. The initial event occurred during on-field activities of players (football matches or training) in 16 cases. The remainder occurred to people outside of on-field football activity (n = 8), or non-players (n = 7). Road trauma (n = 8) and cardiac conditions (n = 7) were the leading identifiable causes, with unconfirmed and other causes (including collapsed or not yet determined) comprising 16 cases. Although rare, fatalities do occur in community AF to both players and people in supporting roles, averaging 3 per year in this setting alone. A systematic, comprehensive approach to data collection is urgently required to better understand the risk and causes of death in participants of AF and other sports. PMID:27467365

  20. Death in Community Australian Football: A Ten Year National Insurance Claims Report.

    PubMed

    Fortington, Lauren V; Finch, Caroline F

    2016-01-01

    While deaths are thought to be rare in community Australian sport, there is no systematic reporting so the frequency and leading causes of death is unknown. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and cause of deaths associated with community-level Australian Football (AF), based on insurance-claims records. Retrospective review of prospectively collected insurance-claims for death in relation to community-level AF activities Australia-wide from 2004 to 2013. Eligible participants were aged 15+ years, involved in an Australian football club as players, coaches, umpires or supporting roles. Details were extracted for: year of death, level of play, age, sex, anatomical location of injury, and a descriptive narrative of the event. Descriptive data are presented for frequency of cases by subgroups. From 26,749 insurance-claims relating to AF, 31 cases were in relation to a death. All fatalities were in males. The initial event occurred during on-field activities of players (football matches or training) in 16 cases. The remainder occurred to people outside of on-field football activity (n = 8), or non-players (n = 7). Road trauma (n = 8) and cardiac conditions (n = 7) were the leading identifiable causes, with unconfirmed and other causes (including collapsed or not yet determined) comprising 16 cases. Although rare, fatalities do occur in community AF to both players and people in supporting roles, averaging 3 per year in this setting alone. A systematic, comprehensive approach to data collection is urgently required to better understand the risk and causes of death in participants of AF and other sports. PMID:27467365

  1. Causes of community suicides among indigenous South Australians.

    PubMed

    Austin, Amy E; van den Heuvel, Corinna; Byard, Roger W

    2011-10-01

    A retrospective review of suicides occurring among Aboriginal people in the community in South Australia over a 5-year period was undertaken from January 2005 to December 2009. Twenty-eight cases were identified, consisting of 21 males (age range 16-44 years, mean 29.9 years) and 7 females (age range 23-45 years, mean 32.0 years). Deaths in all cases were caused by hanging (100%). Toxicological evaluation of blood revealed alcohol (39.3% of cases), cannabinoids (39.3%), benzodiazepines (10.7%), opiates (7.1%), antidepressants (7.1%), amphetamines (3.6%) and volatiles (3.6%). This study has demonstrated that the method of suicide overwhelmingly preferred by indigenous victims in South Australia is hanging. The precise reasons for this preference are uncertain, however, an indigenous person in South Australia presenting as a suicide where a method other than hanging has been used would be exceedingly uncommon, raising the possibility of alternative manners of death. PMID:21907931

  2. Supporting Veterans at the Community College: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John J.; Pellegrino, Lauren; Hoggan, Chad

    2015-01-01

    As postsecondary institutions seek ways to attract military veterans as students, they ostensibly grapple with how to best support these men and women once they arrive on campus. Although there are dozens of financial, academic, and emotional support systems available through the government, academic institutions, and non-profit organizations,…

  3. To name the Department of Veterans Affairs community-based outpatient clinic in Artesia, New Mexico, as the "Alejandro Renteria Ruiz Department of Veterans Affairs Clinic".

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Teague, Harry [D-NM-2

    2009-12-14

    07/12/2010 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Veterans' Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Statement by the President of the American Association of Community Colleges to the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Education, Training, Employment and Housing on Veterans' Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, David R.

    Historically, community colleges have sought to serve the needs of and expand opportunities for the nation's veterans. Some attributes that make community colleges user-friendly for veterans are low tuition; alternative delivery systems, such as telecommunications and other forms of distance learning; occupational courses linked to the immediate…

  5. Evaluation of an Australian indigenous housing programme: community level impact on crowding, infrastructure function and hygiene

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Elizabeth L; Stevens, Matthew; Guthridge, Steven; Brewster, David R

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aim Housing programmes in indigenous Australian communities have focused largely on achieving good standards of infrastructure function. The impact of this approach was assessed on three potentially important housing-related influences on child health at the community level: (1) crowding, (2) the functional state of the house infrastructure and (3) the hygienic condition of the houses. Methods A before-and-after study, including house infrastructure surveys and structured interviews with the main householder, was conducted in all homes of young children in 10 remote Australian indigenous communities. Results Compared with baseline, follow-up surveys showed (1) a small non-significant decrease in the mean number of people per bedroom in the house on the night before the survey (3.4, 95% CI 3.1 to 3.6 at baseline vs 3.2, 95% CI 2.9 to 3.4 at follow-up; natural logarithm transformed t test, t=1.3, p=0.102); (2) a marginally significant overall improvement in infrastructure function scores (Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2=3.9, p=0.047); and (3) no clear overall improvement in hygiene (Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2=0.3, p=0.605). Conclusion Housing programmes of this scale that focus on the provision of infrastructure alone appear unlikely to lead to more hygienic general living environments, at least in this study context. A broader ecological approach to housing programmes delivered in these communities is needed if potential health benefits are to be maximised. This ecological approach would require a balanced programme of improving access to health hardware, hygiene promotion and creating a broader enabling environment in communities. PMID:20466712

  6. Marine wildlife entanglement: Assessing knowledge, attitudes, and relevant behaviour in the Australian community.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Elissa; Mellish, Sarah; Sanders, Ben; Litchfield, Carla

    2014-12-15

    Marine debris remains a global challenge, with significant impacts on wildlife. Despite this, there is a paucity of research examining public understanding about marine wildlife entanglement [MWE], particularly within an Australian context. The present study surveyed two hundred and thirteen participants across three coastal sites to assess familiarity with MWE and the effectiveness of a new community education initiative 'Seal the Loop' [STL]. Results revealed attitudes toward marine wildlife were very positive (M 40.5, SD 4.12); however 32% of participants were unable to correctly explain what MWE is and risks to wildlife were under-estimated. STL may be one method to enhance public understanding and engagement-if community familiarity with the program can be increased. For those aware of STL (<13% of the sample at the time of the study), findings revealed this was having a positive impact (e.g. learning something new, changed waste disposal behaviours). PMID:25455820

  7. Barriers and Facilitators in Providing Community Mental Health Care to Returning Veterans with a History of Traumatic Brain Injury and Co-occurring Mental Health Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Matarazzo, Bridget B; Signoracci, Gina M; Brenner, Lisa A; Olson-Madden, Jennifer H

    2016-02-01

    As Veterans from recent conflicts return from deployments, increasing numbers are seeking care for physical (e.g., history of traumatic brain injury) and mental health (e.g., depression, anxiety) symptoms. Data suggest that only about half of recent Veterans are seeking care within the Veterans Health Administration. As such, providers within the community are likely to require additional training to meet the unique needs of these Veterans and their families. Towards this end, meetings were held with administrators and clinicians at Colorado Community Mental Health Centers (CMHCs) to identify current barriers and facilitators, as they relate to working with Veterans with a history of TBI and co-occurring mental health conditions. On-whole, CMHC employees had limited experience with providing care to the cohort of interest. Additional training will assist with increasing capacity and a web-based toolkit was developed to facilitate the transfer of knowledge ( www.mirecc.va.gov/visn19/tbi_toolkit ). PMID:26308836

  8. Analysis of the social network development of a virtual community for Australian intensive care professionals.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Kaye Denise; Hansen, Margaret; Jackson, Debra; Elliott, Doug

    2014-11-01

    Social media platforms can create virtual communities, enabling healthcare professionals to network with a broad range of colleagues and facilitate knowledge exchange. In 2003, an Australian state health department established an intensive care mailing list to address the professional isolation experienced by senior intensive care nurses. This article describes the social network created within this virtual community by examining how the membership profile evolved from 2003 to 2009. A retrospective descriptive design was used. The data source was a deidentified member database. Since 2003, 1340 healthcare professionals subscribed to the virtual community with 78% of these (n = 1042) still members at the end of 2009. The membership profile has evolved from a single-state nurse-specific network to an Australia-wide multidisciplinary and multiorganizational intensive care network. The uptake and retention of membership by intensive care clinicians indicated that they appeared to value involvement in this virtual community. For healthcare organizations, a virtual community may be a communications option for minimizing professional and organizational barriers and promoting knowledge flow. Further research is, however, required to demonstrate a link between these broader social networks, enabling the exchange of knowledge and improved patient outcomes. PMID:25310223

  9. An Innovative Australian Outreach Model of Diabetic Retinopathy Screening in Remote Communities

    PubMed Central

    Glasson, Nicola M.; Crossland, Lisa J.; Larkins, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Up to 98% of visual loss secondary to diabetic retinopathy (DR) can be prevented with early detection and treatment. Despite this, less than 50% of Australian and American diabetics receive appropriate screening. Diabetic patients living in rural and remote communities are further disadvantaged by limited access to ophthalmology services. Research Design and Methods. DR screening using a nonmydriatic fundal camera was performed as part of a multidisciplinary diabetes service already visiting remote communities. Images were onforwarded to a distant general practitioner who identified and graded retinopathy, with screen-positive patients referred to ophthalmology. This retrospective, descriptive study aims to compare the proportion of remote diabetic patients receiving appropriate DR screening prior to and following implementation of the service. Results. Of the 141 patients in 11 communities who underwent DR screening, 16.3% had received appropriate DR screening prior to the implementation of the service. In addition, 36.2% of patients had never been screened. Following the introduction of the service, 66.3% of patients underwent appropriate DR screening (p = 0.00025). Conclusion. This innovative model has greatly improved accessibility to DR screening in remote communities, thereby reducing preventable blindness. It provides a holistic, locally appropriate diabetes service and utilises existing infrastructure and health workforce more efficiently. PMID:26798648

  10. Food, food choice and nutrition promotion in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Colles, Susan L; Maypilama, Elaine; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary diets of Aboriginal people living in remote Australia are characterised by processed foods high in fat and sugar. Within the 'new' food system, evidence suggests many Aboriginal people understand food in their own terms but lack access to consumer information about store-purchased foods, and parents feel inadequate as role models. In a remote Australian Aboriginal community, purposive sampling identified adults who participated in semistructured interviews guided by food-based themes relating to the contemporary food system, parental guidance of children's food choice and channels through which people learn. Interpretive content analysis was used to identify salient themes. In discussions, people identified more closely with dietary qualities or patterns than nutrients, and valued a balanced, fresh diet that made them feel 'light'. People possessed basic knowledge of 'good' store foods, and wanted to increase familiarity and experience with foods in packets and cans through practical and social skills, especially cooking. Education about contemporary foods was obtained from key family role models and outside the home through community-based organisations, including school, rather than pamphlets and flip charts. Freedom of choice was a deeply held value; carers who challenged children's autonomy used strategic distraction, or sought healthier alternatives that did not wholly deny the child. Culturally safe approaches to information sharing and capacity building that contribute to the health and wellbeing of communities requires collaboration and shared responsibility between policy makers, primary healthcare agencies, wider community-based organisations and families. PMID:25053144

  11. Evaluation of the Australian Community Climate and Earth-System Simulator Chemistry-Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, K. A.; Morgenstern, O.; Karoly, D. J.; Klekociuk, A. R.; French, W. J. R.; Abraham, N. L.; Schofield, R.

    2015-07-01

    Chemistry climate models are important tools for addressing interactions of composition and climate in the Earth System. In particular, they are used for assessing the combined roles of greenhouse gases and ozone in Southern Hemisphere climate and weather. Here we present an evaluation of the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator-Chemistry Climate Model, focusing on the Southern Hemisphere and the Australian region. This model is used for the Australian contribution to the international Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative, which is soliciting hindcast, future projection and sensitivity simulations. The model simulates global total column ozone (TCO) distributions accurately, with a slight delay in the onset and recovery of springtime Antarctic ozone depletion, and consistently higher ozone values. However, October averaged Antarctic TCO from 1960 to 2010 show a similar amount of depletion compared to observations. A significant innovation is the evaluation of simulated vertical profiles of ozone and temperature with ozonesonde data from Australia, New Zealand and Antarctica from 38 to 90° S. Excess ozone concentrations (up to 26.4 % at Davis during winter) and stratospheric cold biases (up to 10.1 K at the South Pole) outside the period of perturbed springtime ozone depletion are seen during all seasons compared to ozonesondes. A disparity in the vertical location of ozone depletion is seen: centered around 100 hPa in ozonesonde data compared to above 50 hPa in the model. Analysis of vertical chlorine monoxide profiles indicates that colder Antarctic stratospheric temperatures (possibly due to reduced mid-latitude heat flux) are artificially enhancing polar stratospheric cloud formation at high altitudes. The models inability to explicitly simulated supercooled ternary solution may also explain the lack of depletion at lower altitudes. The simulated Southern Annular Mode (SAM) index compares well with ERA-Interim data. Accompanying these

  12. Culture, history, and health in an Australian aboriginal community: the case of utopia.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Heather; Kowal, Emma

    2012-01-01

    The poor health of Indigenous Australians is well established. However, the health of residents of one remote community in the Northern Territory of Australia called Utopia has been found recently to be much better than expected. In this article, we draw on historical anthropological research to explain this finding. We trace how cultural and social structures were maintained through changing eras of government policy from the 1930s, and show how these structures strengthened psychosocial determinants of health. We argue that the mainstream psychosocial determinants of social cohesion and self-efficacy are usefully reconceptualized in an Indigenous context as connectedness to culture and land, and collective efficacy, respectively. Continuity of cultural and social structures into the 1940s was facilitated by a combination of factors including the relatively late colonial occupation, the intercultural practices typical of the pastoral industry, the absence of a mission or government settlement, and the individual personalities and histories of those connected to Utopia. PMID:22881383

  13. Variation in epinephrine and cortisol excretion rates associated with behavior in an Australian Aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, L H; Harrison, G A; Spargo, R M

    1998-06-01

    Urinary epinephrine and cortisol hormone output in a remote Australian Aboriginal community was on average about twice as high in those individuals measured on a Thursday or Friday as those measured at the beginning of the next week (Monday or Tuesday). Diastolic blood pressure was about 6 mm Hg higher in the Thursday-Friday group, but the difference in mean systolic blood pressure between the day groups does not reach statistical significance. These physiological differences are associated with a marked dichotomy in behavior in the two time periods: on the first 2 days, virtually all adults were involved in intense gambling activity for large stakes, but this was not a feature of the latter period. This behavior pattern occurs on a regular weekly basis. If substantiated by longitudinal studies, this phenomenon may provide an additional link between human behavior and a poor health profile mediated via the physiological consequences of high stress hormone output. PMID:9637187

  14. Benefits for Military Veterans with ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Veterans Resources for Military Veterans, Families & Survivors The ALS Association is working everyday to support people with ...

  15. Impact of an Ivermectin Mass Drug Administration on Scabies Prevalence in a Remote Australian Aboriginal Community

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Thérèse M.; Speare, Richard; Cheng, Allen C.; McCarthy, James; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Holt, Deborah C.; Currie, Bart J.; Page, Wendy; Shield, Jennifer; Gundjirryirr, Roslyn; Bundhala, Leanne; Mulholland, Eddie; Chatfield, Mark; Andrews, Ross M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Scabies is endemic in many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, with 69% of infants infected in the first year of life. We report the outcomes against scabies of two oral ivermectin mass drug administrations (MDAs) delivered 12 months apart in a remote Australian Aboriginal community. Methods Utilizing a before and after study design, we measured scabies prevalence through population census with sequential MDAs at baseline and month 12. Surveys at months 6 and 18 determined disease acquisition and treatment failures. Scabies infestations were diagnosed clinically with additional laboratory investigations for crusted scabies. Non-pregnant participants weighing ≥15 kg were administered a single 200 μg/kg ivermectin dose, repeated after 2–3 weeks if scabies was diagnosed, others followed a standard alternative algorithm. Principal Findings We saw >1000 participants at each population census. Scabies prevalence fell from 4% at baseline to 1% at month 6. Prevalence rose to 9% at month 12 amongst the baseline cohort in association with an identified exposure to a presumptive crusted scabies case with a higher prevalence of 14% amongst new entries to the cohort. At month 18, scabies prevalence fell to 2%. Scabies acquisitions six months after each MDA were 1% and 2% whilst treatment failures were 6% and 5% respectively. Conclusion Scabies prevalence reduced in the six months after each MDA with a low risk of acquisition (1–2%). However, in a setting where living conditions are conducive to high scabies transmissibility, exposure to presumptive crusted scabies and population mobility, a sustained reduction in prevalence was not achieved. Clinical Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Register (ACTRN—12609000654257). PMID:26516764

  16. The Role of Coral-Associated Bacterial Communities in Australian Subtropical White Syndrome of Turbinaria mesenterina

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, Scott; Bent, Elizabeth; Borneman, James; Pereg, Lily

    2012-01-01

    Australian Subtropical White Syndrome (ASWS) is an infectious, temperature dependent disease of the subtropical coral Turbinaria mesenterina involving a hitherto unknown transmissible causative agent. This report describes significant changes in the coral associated bacterial community as the disease progresses from the apparently healthy tissue of ASWS affected coral colonies, to areas of the colony affected by ASWS lesions, to the dead coral skeleton exposed by ASWS. In an effort to better understand the potential roles of bacteria in the formation of disease lesions, the effect of antibacterials on the rate of lesion progression was tested, and both culture based and culture independent techniques were used to investigate the bacterial communities associated with colonies of T. mesenterina. Culture-independent analysis was performed using the Oligonucleotide Fingerprinting of Ribosomal Genes (OFRG) technique, which allowed a library of 8094 cloned bacterial 16S ribosomal genes to be analysed. Interestingly, the bacterial communities associated with both healthy and disease affected corals were very diverse and ASWS associated communities were not characterized by a single dominant organism. Treatment with antibacterials had a significant effect on the rate of progress of disease lesions (p = 0.006), suggesting that bacteria may play direct roles as the causative agents of ASWS. A number of potential aetiological agents of ASWS were identified in both the culture-based and culture-independent studies. In the culture-independent study an Alphaproteobacterium closely related to Roseovarius crassostreae, the apparent aetiological agent of juvenile oyster disease, was found to be significantly associated with disease lesions. In the culture-based study Vibrio harveyi was consistently associated with ASWS affected coral colonies and was not isolated from any healthy colonies. The differing results of the culture based and culture-independent studies highlight the

  17. Development of the good food planning tool: A food system approach to food security in indigenous Australian remote communities.

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, Julie; van den Boogaard, Christel; Wood, Beverley; Liberato, Selma C; Brown, Jacqui; Barnes, Adam; Rogers, Alison; Coveney, John; Ritchie, Jan; Bailie, Ross

    2015-07-01

    Few frameworks exist to assist food system planning, especially for Indigenous Australian remote communities. We developed a Good Food Planning Tool to support stakeholders to collectively plan and take action for local food system improvement. Development occurred over a four-year period through an evolving four phase participatory process that included literature review, several meetings with representatives of various organisations and communities and application of the Tool with multi-sector groups in each of four Indigenous Australian remote communities. A diverse range of 148 stakeholders, 78 of whom were Indigenous, had input to its development. Five food system domains: (i) Leadership and partnerships; (ii) Traditional food and local food production; (iii) Food businesses; (iv) Buildings, public places and transport; (v) Community and services and 28 activity areas form the framework of the Tool. The Good Food Planning Tool provides a useful framework to facilitate collective appraisal of the food system and to identify opportunities for food system improvement in Indigenous Australian remote communities, with potential for adaptation for wider application. PMID:25912518

  18. Bacterial community dynamics over successional stages of Australian biological soil crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilton, Angela; Woodhouse, Jason; Neilan, Brett

    2015-04-01

    A key aspect for successful ecological rehabilitation is understanding the naturally occurring ecosystem and landscape function which is to be restored. This allows for recovery indicators to be identified and criteria to be developed to assess progress and outcomes. In arid rangelands, environmental stresses result in characteristically heterogeneous landscapes where biological soil crusts (BSCs) cover large expanses of inter-plant areas. Here, BSCs perform crucial roles in nutrient cycling and re-distribution, affect hydrological patterns and stabilise the soil surface. They also serve as a large reservoir of microbial and avascular plant biodiversity. The recognition of these important roles has resulted in increased global arid rehabilitation efforts employing BSCs. Within Australia, research has focused on the macro components of BSCs including lichens and mosses, however, there have been insufficient studies examining the BSC bacterial communities and their dynamics over different successional stages. This project surveyed the bacterial community of crust-free soil and three successional stages of undisturbed BSCs from New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in order to provide reference standards of naturally occurring Australian BSCs. Visual assessments were conducted and BSCs were categorised as Early, Mid or Late stage depending on colour, thickness, topography and presence of lichens and mosses. The crust-free soil and different stages were sampled within three 50 m2 plots of the same edaphic conditions near the town of Cobar, NSW. High throughput sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq platform was performed targeting the V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Preliminary analysis has revealed a clear distinction between the crust-free and crusted soil while Canonical Analysis of Principal Co-ordinates (CAP) suggests the presence of two distinct BSC microbial communities despite three stages being sampled. Across all sample types, the dominant phyla were Actinobacteria

  19. Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance Community-onset Gram-negative Surveillance Program annual report, 2010.

    PubMed

    Turnidge, John D; Gottlieb, Thomas; Mitchell, David H; Coombs, Geoffrey W; Pearson, Julie C; Bell, Jan M

    2013-09-01

    The Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance (AGAR) performs regular period-prevalence studies to monitor changes in antimicrobial resistance in selected enteric Gram-negative pathogens. The 2010 survey focussed on community-onset infections, examining isolates from urinary tract infections from patients presenting to outpatient clinics, emergency departments or to community practitioners. Two thousand and ninety-two Escherichia coli, 578 Klebsiella species and 268 Enterobacter species were tested using a commercial automated method (Vitek 2, BioMérieux) and results were analysed using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoints from January 2012. Of the key resistances, non-susceptibility to the third-generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone, was found in 3.2% of E. coli and 3.2%-4.0% of Klebsiella spp. Non-susceptibility rates to ciprofloxacin were 5.4% for E. coli, 1.0%-2.3% for Klebsiella spp., and 2.5%-6.6% in Enterobacter spp, and resistance rates to piperacillin-tazobactam were 2.8%, 3.2%-6.9%, and 16.8%-18.0% for the same 3 groups respectively. Only 3 strains, 2 Klebsiella spp. and 1 Enterobacter spp, were shown to harbour a carbapenemase (IMP-4). PMID:24890957

  20. Cannabis use and violence in three remote Aboriginal Australian communities: Analysis of clinic presentations.

    PubMed

    Kylie Lee, K S; Sukavatvibul, Krisakorn; Conigrave, Katherine M

    2015-12-01

    Anecdotal reports have linked cannabis use to violence in some remote Australian Aboriginal communities. We examine the relationship between cannabis use and presentations to local clinics for violence-related trauma at a population level. As part of a larger study, estimates of cannabis and alcohol use status were obtained for 264 randomly selected individuals aged 14-42. These estimates were collected from Aboriginal health workers and respected community informants using a previously validated approach. Clinic records for the sample were audited for physical trauma presentations between January 2004 and June 2006. One in 3 individuals (n = 88/264) presented to the clinic with physical trauma. Of these, the majority (65.9%, n = 58/88) had at least one presentation that was violence-related. Nearly 2 in every 3 of the total presentations for trauma following violence (n = 40/63) involved the use of a weapon. Hunting tools were most often used, followed by wooden or rock implements. Individuals who reported any current cannabis use were nearly 4 times more likely than nonusers to present at least once for violent trauma after adjusting for current alcohol use, age, and sex (OR = 3.8, 95% CI [1.5, 9.8]). Aboriginal individuals in these remote communities experience high rates of physical trauma and violence, often involving weapons. A comprehensive study is needed to explore the association between cannabis and violence. At the same time, an investment in local programmes is needed to address cannabis use and underlying risk factors for substance use and for violence. PMID:26045571

  1. Incarcerated Veterans Outreach Program.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Bradley J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify and facilitate re-entry services for military veterans in the Criminal Justice System through the Incarcerated Veteran Outreach Program. Veterans are explored as a subgroup of the general inmate jail populations in southern Ohio based upon veteran's status, military discharges, service-related injuries, treatment needs, pre-release planning, and re-entry services. Veterans reported having psycho-social problems, diverse levels of criminality, criminogenic needs, and significant episodes of homelessness. A sample of 399 incarcerated veterans in state prison, county jails, and community corrections setting were identified and completed the psycho-social pre-release assessment. Their average age was 44.6; they were more likely to be White males, divorced, most honorably discharged, and were represented in the following eras: 34% Vietnam, 35% post-Vietnam, 26% Persian Gulf War, and 5% Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom. The findings encourage the development of a re-entry outreach model and strategies to prevent episodes of criminal recidivism. PMID:25975930

  2. Military Veterans Face Challenges in Accessing Educational Benefits at Florida Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiro, Rivka; Hill, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Florida's community colleges are seeing an influx of students who face unique challenges. They are the men and women who served in the military after the attacks of September 11, 2001, and who are now attending college on the new Post-9/11 GI Bill, with its greatly enhanced educational benefits, and on the expanded, old Montgomery GI Bill, which…

  3. Understanding community beliefs of Chinese-Australians about cancer: initial insights using an ethnographic approach.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Soo See; Meiser, Bettina; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine; Goldstein, David; Tucker, Katherine; Eisenbruch, Maurice

    2005-03-01

    Ethnography was employed to investigate the hypothesis that the cultural meaning of cancer is one of the possible barriers to access of cancer services. The objectives were to identify indigenous terminologies, taxonomies and illness explanatory models of cancer in a community-based sample of 15 Chinese-Australians and a sample of 16 informants who had been recruited through two Sydney familial cancer clinics. Many of the informants included in their narrative terms that seemed to match Western biomedical explanations for cancer. The majority of informants also maintained traditional Chinese beliefs, despite high acculturation and beliefs in biomedical explanations about cancer. Explanations of illness including cancer, referred to the following concepts: (i) karma (yeh), (ii) retribution (bao ying), (iii) fate (ming yun) or Heaven's or God's will, (iv) geomancy (feng-shui), (v) touched evil (zhong chia), (vi) misfortune or bad luck (shui wan, dong hark); (vii) offending the gods or deities requiring prayers or offerings for appeasement; and (viii) kong-tau (spells invoked through human intervention). Taking into consideration the heterogeneity of the Chinese population, the findings provide an insight into Chinese illness conceptualization that may assist health professionals to develop an understanding of how the cultural explanatory models affect access to screening services, communication of diagnosis of cancer and management of treatment regimen. PMID:15386778

  4. Service providers' views of community participation at six Australian primary healthcare services: scope for empowerment and challenges to implementation.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Toby; Baum, Frances E; Jolley, Gwyneth M; Lawless, Angela; Edwards, Tahnia; Javanparast, Sara; Ziersch, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Community participation is a key principle of comprehensive primary health care (PHC). There is little literature on how community participation is implemented at Australian PHC services. As part of a wider study conducted in partnership with five South Australian PHC services, and one Aboriginal community controlled health service in the Northern Territory, 68 staff, manager, regional health executives, and departmental funders were interviewed about community participation, perceived benefits, and factors that influenced implementation. Additional data were collected through analysis of policy documents, service reports on activity, and a web-based survey completed by 130 staff. A variety of community participation strategies was reported, ranging from consultation and participation as a means to improve service quality and acceptability, to substantive and structural participation strategies with an emphasis on empowerment. The Aboriginal community controlled health service in our study reported the most comprehensive community participation. Respondents from all services were positive about the benefits of participation but reported that efforts to involve service users had to compete with a centrally directed model of care emphasising individual treatment services, particularly at state-managed services. More empowering substantive and structural participation strategies were less common than consultation or participation used to achieve prescribed goals. The most commonly reported barriers to community participation were budget and lack of flexibility in service delivery. The current central control of the state-managed services needs to be replaced with more local management decision making if empowering community participation is to be strengthened and embedded more effectively in the culture of services. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24789355

  5. Climate change and Australian agriculture: a review of the threats facing rural communities and the health policy landscape.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Elizabeth G; Bell, Erica; King, Debra; Woodruff, Rosalie

    2011-03-01

    Population health is a function of social and environmental health determinants. Climate change is predicted to bring significant alterations to ecological systems on which human health and livelihoods depend; the air, water, plant, and animal health. Agricultural systems are intrinsically linked with environmental conditions, which are already under threat in much of southern Australian because of rising heat and protracted drying. The direct impact of increasing heat waves on human physiology and survival has recently been well studied. More diffusely, increasing drought periods may challenge the viability of agriculture in some regions, and hence those communities that depend on primary production. A worst case scenario may herald the collapse of some communities. Human health impacts arising from such transition would be profound. This article summarizes existing rural health challenges and presents the current evidence plus future predictions of climate change impacts on Australian agriculture to argue the need for significant augmentation of public health and existing health policy frameworks. The article concludes by suggesting that adaptation to climate change requires planning for worst case scenario outcomes to avert catastrophic impacts on rural communities. This will involve national policy planning as much as regional-level leadership for rapid development of adaptive strategies in agriculture and other key areas of rural communities. PMID:21242153

  6. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Two Forms of the Enhancing Relationships in School Communities Project for Promoting Cooperative Conflict Resolution Education in Australian Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinder, Margot; Wertheim, Eleanor H.; Freeman, Elizabeth; Sanson, Ann; Richardson, Shanel; Hunt, Sue

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the Enhancing Relationships in School Communities (ERIS) Project which aimed to promote constructive conflict resolution (CR) in Australian primary school communities through professional development for core teams of three-five staff (n = 33 teachers). Twelve schools were randomly assigned to a full intervention (FI) group or…

  7. A student-directed community project to support sexually abused women veterans suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Wing, D M; Oertle, J R; Cabioc, A R; Evans, C M; Smith, D J; Stangeby, B L

    2000-01-01

    While awareness of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and sexual abuse continues to grow, it has only been during the past few years that the military has realized the prevalence and impact of sexual abuse inflicted upon women while on active military duty. Though Veteran Administration (VA) agencies throughout the United States have given concerted attention to this problem, published resources specific to PTSD and military sexual abuse have been limited. In this article the authors present the results of a 2(1/2)-year endeavor to address the problem of PTSD and military sexual abuse at the Tulsa VA Outpatient Clinic. The project started with a research study and the subsequent initiation of a PTSD women veterans support group, and culminated in the development of resource manuals for both professional staff and women veterans. PMID:10943771

  8. Veterans Crisis Line

    MedlinePlus

    ... also access and download the Veterans Crisis Line Branding Guidelines for guidance on how to consistently apply ... Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs | 810 ...

  9. Low back pain risk factors in a large rural Australian Aboriginal community. An opportunity for managing co-morbidities?

    PubMed Central

    Vindigni, Dein; Walker, Bruce F; Jamison, Jennifer R; Da Costa, Cliff; Parkinson, Lynne; Blunden, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Background Low back pain (LBP) is the most prevalent musculo-skeletal condition in rural and remote Australian Aboriginal communities. Smoking, physical inactivity and obesity are also prevalent amongst Indigenous people contributing to lifestyle diseases and concurrently to the high burden of low back pain. Objectives This paper aims to examine the association between LBP and modifiable risk factors in a large rural Indigenous community as a basis for informing a musculo-skeletal and related health promotion program. Methods A community Advisory Group (CAG) comprising Elders, Aboriginal Health Workers, academics, nurses, a general practitioner and chiropractors assisted in the development of measures to assess self-reported musculo-skeletal conditions including LBP risk factors. The Kempsey survey included a community-based survey administered by Aboriginal Health Workers followed by a clinical assessment conducted by chiropractors. Results Age and gender characteristics of this Indigenous sample (n = 189) were comparable to those reported in previous Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) studies of the broader Indigenous population. A history of traumatic events was highly prevalent in the community, as were occupational risk factors. Thirty-four percent of participants reported a previous history of LBP. Sporting injuries were associated with multiple musculo-skeletal conditions, including LBP. Those reporting high levels of pain were often overweight or obese and obesity was associated with self-reported low back strain. Common barriers to medical management of LBP included an attitude of being able to cope with pain, poor health, and the lack of affordable and appropriate health care services. Though many of the modifiable risk factors known to be associated with LBP were highly prevalent in this study, none of these were statistically associated with LBP. Conclusion Addressing particular modifiable risk factors associated with LBP such as smoking, physical

  10. Development and trialling of a tool to support a systems approach to improve social determinants of health in rural and remote Australian communities: the healthy community assessment tool

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The residents of many Australian rural and remote communities do not have the essential infrastructure and services required to support healthy living conditions and community members choosing healthy lifestyle options. Improving these social determinants of health is seen to offer real opportunities to improve health among such disadvantaged populations. In this paper, we describe the development and trialling of a tool to measure, monitor and evaluate key social determinants of health at community level. Methods The tool was developed and piloted through a multi-phase and iterative process that involved a series of consultations with community members and key stakeholders and trialling the tool in remote Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory of Australia. Results The indicators were found to be robust, and by testing the tool on a number of different levels, face validity was confirmed. The scoring system was well understood and easily followed by Indigenous and non-Indigenous study participants. A facilitated small group process was found to reduce bias in scoring of indicators. Conclusion The Healthy Community Assessment Tool offers a useful vehicle and process to help those involved in planning, service provision and more generally promoting improvements in community social determinants of health. The tool offers many potential uses and benefits for those seeking to address inequities in the social determinants of health in remote communities. Maximum benefits in using the tool are likely to be gained with cross-sector involvement and when assessments are part of a continuous quality improvement program. PMID:23442804

  11. Neighbourhood Effects and Community Spillovers in the Australian Youth Labour Market. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Dan; Green, Colin; Mangan, John

    Data taken primarily from the Australian Youth Survey were used to model unemployment as a function of personal characteristics, family structure, and neighborhood composition using binomial probit estimation techniques. The cross-sectional model developed indicated that significant neighborhood effects on unemployment outcomes exist in high- and…

  12. Current Trends of the Linguistic and Cultural Values of the Greek Australian Community in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holeva, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    The paper investigates the perspectives of Greek origin people as regards their intention to maintain their ancestral culture within the Australian context of social values. This qualitative research study, influenced by Humanistic Sociology, analyses data collected through questionnaires from first and second generation parents and teachers of…

  13. Putting History in Its Place: Grounding the Australian Curriculum--History in Local Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Neil

    2012-01-01

    This position paper develops the case for a greater focus on the teaching of local histories in the Australian Curriculum: History. It takes as its starting point an Indigenous epistemology that understands knowledge to be embedded in the land. This connection between knowledge and country is used to examine recent literature on whether the…

  14. DSM-IV and DSM-5 social anxiety disorder in the Australian community

    PubMed Central

    Grove, Rachel; Baillie, Andrew J; Sunderland, Matthew; Teesson, Maree; Slade, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Current and accurate estimates of prevalence, correlates, comorbid concerns and treatment-seeking behaviours associated with disorders are essential for informing policy, clinical practice and research. The most recent snapshot of social anxiety disorder in Australia was published more than a decade ago, with significant changes to the accessibility of mental health treatment services and diagnostic measures occurring during this period. This paper aims to (i) update the understanding of social anxiety disorder, its associations and patterns of treatment-seeking behaviours in the Australian population, and (ii) explore the impact of revised diagnostic criteria detailed in the Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) on prevalence estimates. Methods: The National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (NSMHWB) was conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2007, collecting information from a nationally representative random sample of 8841 Australians aged 16–85 years. The presence of social anxiety disorder diagnostic criteria and related disorders were assessed over 12 months and lifetime periods using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results: Profiles of social anxiety disorder were consistent with previous estimates, with higher prevalence in females and younger age groups. Of the 8.4% of Australians meeting criteria for social anxiety disorder at some point in their lifetime (12-month prevalence 4.2%), a majority also experienced comorbid mental health concerns (70%). The revised performance-only specifier included in the DSM-5 was applicable to only 0.3% of lifetime cases. Just over 20% of people reporting social anxiety disorder as their primary concern sought treatment, most commonly through general practitioners. Conclusions: Social anxiety disorder continues to be prevalent in the Australian population and highly related to other disorders, yet few people

  15. Appalachian Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnow, Pat, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This journal issue focuses on Appalachian veterans and on the premise that Appalachians and Americans in general are still fighting the battles and dealing with the psychic aftermath of the Civil War and all wars fought since then. One article notes that Appalachian soldiers were 20 to 25% more likely to be killed in Vietnam than other soldiers.…

  16. A curriculum for training quality scholars to improve the health and health care of veterans and the community at large.

    PubMed

    Splaine, Mark E; Aron, David C; Dittus, Robert S; Kiefe, Catarina I; Landefeld, C Seth; Rosenthal, Gary E; Weeks, William B; Batalden, Paul B

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, the Veterans Health Administration invested in the creation of the Veterans Administration National Quality Scholars Fellowship Program (VAQS) to train physicians in new ways to improve the quality of health care. We describe the curriculum for this program and the lessons learned from our experience to date. The VAQS Fellowship program has developed a core improvement curriculum to train postresidency physicians in the scholarship, research, and teaching of the improvement of health care. The curriculum covers seven domains of knowledge related to improvement: health care as a process; variation and measurement; customer/beneficiary knowledge; leading, following, and making changes in health care; collaboration; social context and accountability; and developing new, locally useful knowledge. We combine specific knowledge about the improvement of health care with the use of adult learning strategies, interactive video, and development of learner competencies. Our program provides insights for medical education to better prepare physicians to participate in and lead the improvement of health care. PMID:12512460

  17. Physical activity as a protective factor against depressive symptoms in older Chinese veterans in the community: result from a national cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wen-Jin; Tan, Ji-Ping; Yi, Fang; Zou, Yong-Ming; Gao, Ya; Zhao, Yi-Ming; Wang, Lu-Ning

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity is generally considered to be effective in reducing the prevalence of depression and promoting remission of its symptoms. However, large-scale epidemiological research on this issue is lacking in older Chinese adults. We performed a nationwide epidemiological survey to determine the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in older Chinese veterans in the community, with adjustment for potential confounders. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of 9,676 community-dwelling older Chinese veterans. Depressive symptoms were identified using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Physical activity was self-reported using a one-year physical activity questionnaire. Information about covariates was obtained by questionnaire-based interview. Relationships between study variables and symptoms of depression were estimated using unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results The median age was 82.29 (interquartile range 80.25–84.60) years. In total, 81.84% of the study participants engaged in physical activity that was predominantly light in intensity. In unadjusted analyses, physical activity was associated with a significantly decreased likelihood of depressive symptoms (5.43% versus 18.83%, P<0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression with adjustment and controlling for confounders, physical activity was still inversely associated with depressive symptoms and was the only independent protective factor (odds ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.44–0.72, P<0.0001) among the associated factors in this study. In a univariate general linear model, there was a significant difference in Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale score between subjects participating in active physical activity and those who did not (F=59.07, P<0.0001). Conclusion This study found an inverse relationship between physical activity and symptoms of depression in older Chinese veterans in

  18. Hydro-acoustic remote sensing of benthic biological communities on the shallow South East Australian continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rattray, Alex; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Laurenson, Laurie; Burq, Shoaib; Reston, Marcus

    2009-09-01

    Information regarding the composition and extent of benthic habitats on the South East Australian continental shelf is limited. In this habitat mapping study, multibeam echosounder (MBES) data are integrated with precisely geo-referenced video ground-truth data to quantify benthic biotic communities at Cape Nelson, Victoria, Australia. Using an automated decision tree classification approach, 5 representative biotic groups defined from video analysis were related to hydro-acoustically derived variables in the Cape Nelson survey area. Using a combination of multibeam bathymetry, backscatter and derivative products produced highest overall accuracy (87%) and kappa statistic (0.83). This study demonstrates that decision tree classifiers are capable of integrating variable data types for mapping distributions of benthic biological assemblages, which are important in maintaining biodiversity and other system services in the marine environment.

  19. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Resilience in a National Community-Based Cohort of Australian Gay Men Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Anthony; Heywood, Wendy; Rozbroj, Tomas

    2016-08-01

    HIV-positive gay men may experience multiple sources of adversity and stress, related both to their HIV diagnosis and sexual identity. Most of these men, however, do not experience mental health problems. Little is known about factors that help them achieve resilience in the face of life challenges. This study examined psychosocial factors associated with resilience in a national community-based sample of 357 Australian HIV-positive gay men. Resilience was measured using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Higher levels of resilience were linked with experiencing low or no internalized HIV-related stigma, having no previous history of mental health problems, and a number of socioeconomic indicators. In addition to providing a more complete picture of the mental health of HIV-positive gay men, findings from this study can be used to inform strength-based approaches to mental health prevention and support. PMID:26884311

  20. Center for Women Veterans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Veterans (CWV) VA aggressively implementing measures to prevent suicide among Veterans Whether you have a minute or ... Meet the Veteran of the Day » September is Suicide Prevention Month Show your support for our Nation’s ...

  1. One to One and Face to Face: A Community Based Higher Education Support Strategy Retaining Indigenous Australian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharrock, Peta; Lockyer, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Literature relating to Indigenous Australian students in higher education highlights the need for improving the retention rates of Indigenous students in Australian universities. A cause for concern has been the increasing numbers of Indigenous Australian people experiencing lower progress and completion rates in comparison to non-Indigenous…

  2. Predicting Absolute Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Using Age and Waist Circumference Values in an Aboriginal Australian Community

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To predict in an Australian Aboriginal community, the 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes associated with waist circumference and age on baseline examination. Method A sample of 803 diabetes-free adults (82.3% of the age-eligible population) from baseline data of participants collected from 1992 to 1998 were followed-up for up to 20 years till 2012. The Cox-proportional hazard model was used to estimate the effects of waist circumference and other risk factors, including age, smoking and alcohol consumption status, of males and females on prediction of type 2 diabetes, identified through subsequent hospitalisation data during the follow-up period. The Weibull regression model was used to calculate the absolute risk estimates of type 2 diabetes with waist circumference and age as predictors. Results Of 803 participants, 110 were recorded as having developed type 2 diabetes, in subsequent hospitalizations over a follow-up of 12633.4 person-years. Waist circumference was strongly associated with subsequent diagnosis of type 2 diabetes with P<0.0001 for both genders and remained statistically significant after adjusting for confounding factors. Hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes associated with 1 standard deviation increase in waist circumference were 1.7 (95%CI 1.3 to 2.2) for males and 2.1 (95%CI 1.7 to 2.6) for females. At 45 years of age with baseline waist circumference of 100 cm, a male had an absolute diabetic risk of 10.9%, while a female had a 14.3% risk of the disease. Conclusions The constructed model predicts the 10-year absolute diabetes risk in an Aboriginal Australian community. It is simple and easily understood and will help identify individuals at risk of diabetes in relation to waist circumference values. Our findings on the relationship between waist circumference and diabetes on gender will be useful for clinical consultation, public health education and establishing WC cut-off points for Aboriginal Australians. PMID:25876058

  3. Global and local-scale variation in bacterial community structure of snow from the Swiss and Australian Alps.

    PubMed

    Wunderlin, Tina; Ferrari, Belinda; Power, Michelle

    2016-09-01

    Seasonally, snow environments cover up to 50% of the land's surface, yet the microbial diversity and ecosystem functioning within snow, particularly from alpine regions are not well described. This study explores the bacterial diversity in snow using next-generation sequencing technology. Our data expand the global inventory of snow microbiomes by focusing on two understudied regions, the Swiss Alps and the Australian Alps. A total biomass similar to cell numbers in polar snow was detected, with 5.2 to 10.5 × 10(3) cells mL(-1) of snow. We found that microbial community structure of surface snow varied by country and site and along the altitudinal range (alpine and sub-alpine). The bacterial communities present were diverse, spanning 25 distinct phyla, but the six phyla Proteobacteria (Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria), Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria and Firmicutes, accounted for 72%-98% of the total relative abundance. Taxa such as Acidobacteriaceae and Methylocystaceae, associated with cold soils, may be part of the atmospherically sourced snow community, while families like Sphingomonadaceae were detected in every snow sample and are likely part of the common snow biome. PMID:27297721

  4. 'Jumping around': exploring young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health in a remote Aboriginal Australian community.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Sarah; Narjic, Concepta Wulili; Belton, Suzanne; Saggers, Sherry; McGrath, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Sexual health indicators for young remote-living Aboriginal women are the worst of all of Australian women. This study aimed to describe and explore young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health, as well as to provide health professionals with cross-cultural insights to assist with health practice. A descriptive ethnographic study was conducted, which included: extended ethnographic field work in one remote community over a six-year period; community observation and participation; field notes; semi-structured interviews; group reproductive ethno-physiology drawing and language sessions; focus-group sessions; training and employment of Aboriginal research assistants; and consultation and advice from a local reference group and a Cultural Mentor. Findings reveal that young women in this remote community have a very poor biomedical understanding of sexually transmitted infections and contraception. This is further compounded by not speaking English as a first language, low literacy levels and different beliefs in relation to body functions. In their sexual relationships, young women often report experiences involving multiple casual partners, marijuana use and violence. Together, the findings contribute to a better understanding of the factors underlying sexual health inequity among young Aboriginal women in Australia. PMID:25115988

  5. Learning to Be Drier: A Case Study of Adult and Community Learning in the Australian Riverland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mike; Schulz, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the adult and community learning associated with "learning to be drier" in the Riverland region of South Australia. Communities in the Riverland are currently adjusting and making changes to their understandings and practices as part of learning to live with less water. The analysis of adult and community learning derived…

  6. The Components of Resilience--Perceptions of an Australian Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buikstra, Elizabeth; Ross, Helen; King, Christine A.; Baker, Peter G.; Hegney, Desley; McLachlan, Kathryn; Rogers-Clark, Cath

    2010-01-01

    Resilience, of individuals, is a well-established concept in the psychology/mental health literatures, but has been little explored in relation to communities. Related theory in the community development and social impact assessment literature provides insight into qualities and assets of communities that enable them to develop effectively or to…

  7. 75 FR 79323 - Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 63 RIN 2900-AN73 Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program AGENCY: Department of... contracting with community-based treatment facilities in the Health Care for Homeless Veterans (HCHV) program... ``RIN 2900-AN73, Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program.'' Copies of comments received will...

  8. MISSION GRADUATION: A Student Military and Veteran Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whikehart, John

    2010-01-01

    Mission Graduation, a student military and veteran organization, is designed to meet the needs of military service students, veterans, and their families enrolled at Ivy Tech Community College. Mission Graduation, funded by a grant, brings awareness to the student veteran organization, provides transition programming and ongoing assistance, and…

  9. 76 FR 52575 - Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 63 RIN 2900-AN73 Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program AGENCY: Department of... community-based treatment facilities in the Health Care for Homeless Veterans (HCHV) program of the... enrolled in the VA health care system. Through the HCHV program, VA identifies homeless veterans...

  10. Suicidal behavior in war veterans.

    PubMed

    Rice, Timothy R; Sher, Leo

    2012-05-01

    Military veterans represent a unique, heterogeneous population with suicide prevalence rates, risk factors and preventative management needs that differ from those of the rest of community. Veterans worldwide receive high proportions of their healthcare from community providers, and sensitivity to these distinct needs is required for optimized care. An overview of the recent prevalence-study literature, with a focus upon statistical design, is presented in order to provide a critical orientation within this field with high levels of popular media attention. Attention to psychiatric comorbidity, subthreshold symptomology, select signature disorders of contemporary conflicts (namely, post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury), and veteran life narratives before, within and beyond military service will guide our review of risk factor assessment and management strategies. This critical review of the literature provides an overview of this active field of neuropsychiatric research with a select focus upon these topics of special interest. PMID:22550989

  11. Prevalence and determinants of frequent gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in the Australian community.

    PubMed

    Pandeya, N; Green, A C; Whiteman, D C

    2012-01-01

    Frequent gastroesophageal reflux (GER) causes chronic inflammation and damages esophageal mucosa, which can lead to Barrett's esophagus. It has also been consistently found to be a strong risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. The prevalence of GER appears to vary; however, population-based Australian studies investigating the symptoms are limited. This study aimed to estimate the population prevalence and identify the determinants of frequent GER symptoms in the Australian population. Self-reported information on the frequency of reflux symptoms were collected from 1,580 adults from a population register. We estimated age- and sex-standardized prevalence of occasional (Australian population. We also estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) for GER symptoms associated with demographic and lifestyle characteristics. The standardized prevalences of GER symptoms were 10.4% and 38.3% for frequent and occasional symptoms, respectively. Compared with participants with body mass index <25, those with body mass index ≥35 had almost 90% higher prevalence of frequent GER symptoms (PR 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-3.16). Similarly, the prevalence of frequent GER symptoms was significantly higher among regular users of aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs than never users (PR 1.71; 95%CI 1.08-3.16) and regular consumers of medium to well-done barbecued meat (PR 1.75; 95%CI 1.10-2.80) or fried food (PR 2.69; 95%CI 1.66-4.35). The prevalence of frequent GER symptoms was significantly lowered with regular physical activity (PR 0.46; 95%CI 0.32-0.66) and Helicobacter pylori infection (PR 0.53; 95%CI 0.35-0.80). We found no evidence that frequent GER symptoms were associated with smoking, alcohol, spicy food, or coffee consumption. Our results confirm that GER symptoms are common and that frequent GER symptoms are associated with a range of modifiable lifestyle factors. PMID:22128757

  12. Suicide among incarcerated veterans.

    PubMed

    Wortzel, Hal S; Binswanger, Ingrid A; Anderson, C Alan; Adler, Lawrence E

    2009-01-01

    Both veterans and jail/prison inmates face an increased risk of suicide. The incarcerated veteran sits at the intersection of these two groups, yet little is known about this subpopulation, particularly its risk of suicide. A Pubmed/Medline/PsycINFO search anchored to incarcerated veteran suicide, veteran suicide, suicide in jails/prisons, and veterans incarcerated from 2000 to the present was performed. The currently available literature does not reveal the suicide risk of incarcerated veterans, nor does it enable meaningful estimates. However, striking similarities and overlapping characteristics link the data on veteran suicide, inmate suicide, and incarcerated veterans, suggesting that the veteran in jail or prison faces a level of suicide risk beyond that conferred by either veteran status or incarceration alone. There is a clear need for a better characterization of the incarcerated veteran population and the suicide rate faced by this group. Implications for clinical practice and future research are offered. PMID:19297638

  13. An Exploratory Assessment of the Validity of the Community College Survey of Men (CCSM): Implications for Serving Veteran Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Garza, Thomas; Wood, J. Luke; Harris, Frank, III

    2015-01-01

    The Community College Survey of Men (CCSM) assesses predictors of student success for historically underrepresented and underserved men in community colleges. The instrument is designed to inform programming and service-delivery for male students (Wood & Harris, 2013). While the instrument was designed for community college men in general,…

  14. Retrospective lifetime dietary patterns predict cognitive performance in community-dwelling older Australians.

    PubMed

    Hosking, Diane E; Nettelbeck, Ted; Wilson, Carlene; Danthiir, Vanessa

    2014-07-28

    Dietary intake is a modifiable exposure that may have an impact on cognitive outcomes in older age. The long-term aetiology of cognitive decline and dementia, however, suggests that the relevance of dietary intake extends across the lifetime. In the present study, we tested whether retrospective dietary patterns from the life periods of childhood, early adulthood, adulthood and middle age predicted cognitive performance in a cognitively healthy sample of 352 older Australian adults >65 years. Participants completed the Lifetime Diet Questionnaire and a battery of cognitive tests designed to comprehensively assess multiple cognitive domains. In separate regression models, lifetime dietary patterns were the predictors of cognitive factor scores representing ten constructs derived by confirmatory factor analysis of the cognitive test battery. All regression models were progressively adjusted for the potential confounders of current diet, age, sex, years of education, English as native language, smoking history, income level, apoE ɛ4 status, physical activity, other past dietary patterns and health-related variables. In the adjusted models, lifetime dietary patterns predicted cognitive performance in this sample of older adults. In models additionally adjusted for intake from the other life periods and mechanistic health-related variables, dietary patterns from the childhood period alone reached significance. Higher consumption of the 'coffee and high-sugar, high-fat extras' pattern predicted poorer performance on simple/choice reaction time, working memory, retrieval fluency, short-term memory and reasoning. The 'vegetable and non-processed' pattern negatively predicted simple/choice reaction time, and the 'traditional Australian' pattern positively predicted perceptual speed and retrieval fluency. Identifying early-life dietary antecedents of older-age cognitive performance contributes to formulating strategies for delaying or preventing cognitive decline. PMID

  15. 'Give us the full story': overcoming the challenges to achieving informed choice about fetal anomaly screening in Australian Aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    Wild, Kayli; Maypilama, Elaine Lawurrpa; Kildea, Sue; Boyle, Jacqueline; Barclay, Lesley; Rumbold, Alice

    2013-12-01

    This cross-cultural qualitative study examined the ethical, language and cultural complexities around offering fetal anomaly screening in Australian Aboriginal communities. There were five study sites across the Northern Territory (NT), including urban and remote Aboriginal communities. In-depth interviews were conducted between October 2009 and August 2010, and included 35 interviews with 59 health providers and 33 interviews with 62 Aboriginal women. The findings show that while many providers espoused the importance of achieving equity in access to fetal anomaly screening, their actions were inconsistent with this ideal. Providers reported they often modified their practice depending on the characteristics of their client, including their English skills, the perception of the woman's interest in the tests and assumptions based on their risk profile and cultural background. Health providers were unsure whether it was better to tailor information to the specific needs of their client or to provide the same level of information to all clients. Very few Aboriginal women were aware of fetal anomaly screening. The research revealed they did want to be offered screening and wanted the 'full story' about all aspects of the tests. The communication processes advocated by Aboriginal women to improve understanding about screening included community discussions led by elders and educators. These processes promote culturally defined ways of sharing information, rather than the individualised, biomedical approaches to information-giving in the clinical setting. A different and arguably more ethical approach to introducing fetal anomaly screening would be to initiate dialogue with appropriate groups of women in the community, particularly young women, build relationships and utilise Aboriginal health workers. This could accommodate individual choice and broader cultural values and allow women to discuss the moral and philosophical debates surrounding fetal anomaly screening

  16. Neoliberal Social Inclusion? The Agenda of the Australian Universities Community Engagement Alliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, David

    2012-01-01

    University-community engagement (UCE) represents a hybrid discourse and a set of practices within contemporary higher education. As a modality of research and teaching, "engagement" denotes the process of universities forming partnerships with external communities for the promised generation of mutually beneficial and socially responsive…

  17. Cultural Differences and Conflict in the Australian Community. Working Papers on Multiculturalism Paper No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Linda; Long, Jeremy

    The Community Justice Centres (CJCs) in New South Wales (Australia) are an addition to the justice system established and maintained by the state to deal with dispute and conflict in the community. The CJCs are designed to deal with disputes, such as those between members of a family or between neighbors, where there is a continuing relationship…

  18. Modifiable Risk Factors for Attempted Suicide in Australian Clinical and Community Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gregory L.; Page, Andrew; Clover, Kerrie; Taylor, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Modifiable risk factors for suicide attempt require identification in clinical and community samples. The aim of this study was to determine if similar social and psychiatric factors are associated with suicide attempts in community and clinical settings and whether the magnitude of effect is greater in clinical populations. Two case-control…

  19. Challenges in the Care of Clients with Established Cardiovascular Disease: Lessons Learned from Australian Community Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Puspitasari, Hanni P.; Aslani, Parisa; Krass, Ines

    2014-01-01

    Background As primary healthcare professionals, community pharmacists have both opportunity and potential to contribute to the prevention and progression of chronic diseases. Using cardiovascular disease (CVD) as a case study, we explored factors that influence community pharmacists’ everyday practice in this area. We also propose a model to best illustrate relationships between influencing factors and the scope of community pharmacy practice in the care of clients with established CVD. Methods In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 community pharmacists in New South Wales, Australia. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed ad verbatim, and analysed using a “grounded-theory” approach. Results Our model shows that community pharmacists work within a complex system and their practice is influenced by interactions between three main domains: the “people” factors, including their own attitudes and beliefs as well as those of clients and doctors; the “environment” within and beyond the control of community pharmacy; and outcomes of their professional care. Despite the complexity of factors and interactions, our findings shed some light on the interrelationships between these various influences. The overarching obstacle to maximizing the community pharmacists’ contribution is the lack of integration within health systems. However, achieving better integration of community pharmacists in primary care is a challenge since the systems of remuneration for healthcare professional services do not currently support this integration. Conclusion Tackling chronic diseases such as CVD requires mobilization of all sources of support in the community through innovative policies which facilitate inter-professional collaboration and team care to achieve the best possible healthcare outcomes for society. PMID:25409194

  20. Innovative Efforts to Address Homelessness Among Veterans.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Thomas P; Pape, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Ending homelessness among veterans has been a goal of the Department of Veterans Affairs for some time, and it is now becoming a reality in many communities. Unprecedented strides have been made through the rapid implementation of evidence-based innovations, capacity building, and a comprehensive strategic focus on 4 goals: prevention, moving veterans into permanent housing, providing the population-tailored care and services needed to keep them housed, and providing the supports necessary to allow them to recover and be productive members of their communities. PMID:26946863

  1. 38 CFR 36.4354 - Estate of veteran in real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... property. 36.4354 Section 36.4354 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Estate of veteran in real property. (a) The title of the estate in the realty acquired by the veteran... informed buyers, title companies, and attorneys, generally, in the community in which the property...

  2. 38 CFR 36.4354 - Estate of veteran in real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... property. 36.4354 Section 36.4354 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Estate of veteran in real property. (a) The title of the estate in the realty acquired by the veteran... informed buyers, title companies, and attorneys, generally, in the community in which the property...

  3. Phenology of Australian temperate grasslands: linking near-surface phenology to C3/C4 community composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Vegetation phenology is relatively well-studied in northern hemisphere temperate biomes, but limited research has been conducted on phenological drivers and responses in Australian temperate ecosystems. Australian temperate grasslands represent a broad range of plant communities from exotic pastures to native grasslands, but all are important for food security (livestock grazing) and biodiversity retention. Climate predictions for temperate Australia include higher temperatures, altered rainfall frequency/seasonality, increased drought severity and more regular wildfires. The ecosystem response to these climatic factors is unknown, and the need to improve the monitoring of these highly dynamic grassland systems at a landscape scale is acute. The aim of this research is to use high-frequency phenological data to improve the identification of grassland functional types and ultimately use this to improve the inter-annual monitoring of dynamic grassland systems. We use hourly repeat photography and the Green Chromatic Coordinate vegetation index to characterize the vegetative phenology of several native and exotic grassland communities. Monthly vegetation surveys allow us to correlate plant functional groups with indicator features on the phenology profile. C4-dominated grasslands are characterized by a consistent low greenness during winter, the commencement of greening in late spring/early summer and the retention of green vegetation throughout the summer. Exotic C4 grasslands can be distinguished from native ecosystems by their early-spring flush of annual grasses and forbs prior to the primary greening in late spring/early summer. Native C3 grasslands are more variable in response to rainfall and exhibit multiple greening/browning cycles within the year. They tend to green up earlier in the spring and brown off rapidly in response to high temperatures and low rainfall. Exotic C3 grasslands also green up in early spring but exhibit a more traditional unimodal

  4. Secondary prevention of renal and cardiovascular disease: results of a renal and cardiovascular treatment program in an Australian aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang; Baker, Philip R A; Kelly, Angela M

    2003-07-01

    Australian Aborigines are experiencing an epidemic of renal and cardiovascular disease. In late 1995 we introduced a treatment program into the Tiwi community, which has a three- to fivefold increase in death rates and a recent annual incidence of treated ESRD of 2760 per million. Eligible for treatment were people with hypertension, diabetics with micro or overt albuminuria, and all people with overt albuminuria. Treatment centered around use of perindopril (Coversyl, Servier), with other agents added to reach BP goals; attempts to control glucose and lipid levels; and health education. Thirty percent of the adult population, or 267 people, were enrolled, with a mean follow up of 3.39 yr. Clinical parameters were followed every 6 mo, and rates of terminal endpoints were compared with those of 327 historical controls matched for baseline disease severity, followed in the pretreatment program era. There was a dramatic reduction in BP in the treatment group, which was sustained through 3 yr of treatment. Albuminuria and GFR stabilized or improved. Rates of natural deaths were reduced by an estimated 50% (P = 0.012); renal deaths were reduced by 57% (P = 0.038); and nonrenal deaths by 46% (P = 0.085). Survival benefit was suggested at all levels of overt albuminuria, and regardless of diabetes status, baseline BP, or prior administration of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI). No significant benefit was apparent among people without overt albuminuria, nor among those with GFR less than 60 ml/min. An estimated 13 renal deaths and 10 nonrenal deaths were prevented, with the number-needed-to-treat to avoid one terminal event of only 11.6. Falling deaths and renal failure in the whole community support these estimates. The program was extremely cost-effective. Programs like this should be introduced to all high-risk communities as a matter of urgency. PMID:12819325

  5. Influence of geogenic factors on microbial communities in metallogenic Australian soils.

    PubMed

    Reith, Frank; Brugger, Joel; Zammit, Carla M; Gregg, Adrienne L; Goldfarb, Katherine C; Andersen, Gary L; DeSantis, Todd Z; Piceno, Yvette M; Brodie, Eoin L; Lu, Zhenmei; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Wakelin, Steven A

    2012-11-01

    Links between microbial community assemblages and geogenic factors were assessed in 187 soil samples collected from four metal-rich provinces across Australia. Field-fresh soils and soils incubated with soluble Au(III) complexes were analysed using three-domain multiplex-terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, and phylogenetic (PhyloChip) and functional (GeoChip) microarrays. Geogenic factors of soils were determined using lithological-, geomorphological- and soil-mapping combined with analyses of 51 geochemical parameters. Microbial communities differed significantly between landforms, soil horizons, lithologies and also with the occurrence of underlying Au deposits. The strongest responses to these factors, and to amendment with soluble Au(III) complexes, was observed in bacterial communities. PhyloChip analyses revealed a greater abundance and diversity of Alphaproteobacteria (especially Sphingomonas spp.), and Firmicutes (Bacillus spp.) in Au-containing and Au(III)-amended soils. Analyses of potential function (GeoChip) revealed higher abundances of metal-resistance genes in metal-rich soils. For example, genes that hybridised with metal-resistance genes copA, chrA and czcA of a prevalent aurophillic bacterium, Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34, occurred only in auriferous soils. These data help establish key links between geogenic factors and the phylogeny and function within soil microbial communities. In particular, the landform, which is a crucial factor in determining soil geochemistry, strongly affected microbial community structures. PMID:22673626

  6. The Cascade of Care for an Australian Community-Based Hepatitis C Treatment Service

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, Diana M.; Doyle, Joseph S.; Gordon, Adam; Roberts, Stuart K.; Thompson, Alexander J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C treatment uptake in Australia is low. To increase access to hepatitis C virus treatment for people who inject drugs, we developed a community-based, nurse-led service that linked a viral hepatitis service in a tertiary hospital to primary care clinics, and resulted in hepatitis C treatment provision in the community. Methods A retrospective cohort study of patients referred to the community hepatitis service was undertaken to determine the cascade of care. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of hepatitis C treatment uptake. Results Four hundred and sixty-two patients were referred to the community hepatitis service; 344 attended. Among the 279 attendees with confirmed chronic hepatitis C, 257 (99%) reported ever injecting drugs, and 124 (48%) injected in the last month. Of 201 (72%) patients who had their fibrosis staged, 63 (31%) had F3-F4 fibrosis. Fifty-five patients commenced hepatitis C treatment; 26 (47%) were current injectors and 25 (45%) had F3-F4 fibrosis. Nineteen of the 27 (70%) genotype 1 patients and 14 of the 26 (54%) genotype 3 patients eligible for assessment achieved a sustained virologic response. Advanced fibrosis was a significant predictor of treatment uptake in adjusted analysis (AOR 2.56, CI 1.30–5.00, p = 0.006). Conclusions Our community hepatitis service produced relatively high rates of fibrosis assessment, hepatitis C treatment uptake and cure, among people who inject drugs. These findings highlight the potential benefits of providing community-based hepatitis C care to people who inject drugs in Australia–benefits that should be realised as direct-acting antiviral agents become available. PMID:26562516

  7. A bill to designate the community-based outpatient clinic of the Department of Veterans Affairs to be constructed at 3141 Centennial Boulevard, Colorado Springs, Colorado, as the "PFC Floyd K. Lindstrom Department of Veterans Affairs Clinic".

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Udall, Mark [D-CO

    2013-10-29

    10/29/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Veterans' Affairs. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3375, which became Public Law 113-215 on 12/16/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Definitions of Suicide and Self-Harm Behavior in an Australian Aboriginal Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrelly, Terri; Francis, Karen

    2009-01-01

    In this small qualitative grounded theory study (21 interviews and focus groups with a total of 26 participants) investigating the understandings of and attitudes toward suicide and self-harm of Aboriginal peoples in a coastal region of New South Wales, Australia, we found that cultural factors particular to these communities influence the way…

  9. Child Participation and Family Engagement with Early Childhood Education and Care Services in Disadvantaged Australian Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Rebekah; Bowes, Jennifer; Elcombe, Emma

    2014-01-01

    To support national policy initiatives in early childhood education and to determine reasons for low enrolment in services from families in disadvantaged areas, the authors investigated the views and practices of 101 families from disadvantaged communities. Families with a child aged 3-5 years were recruited from urban, rural and remote areas of…

  10. (Re)Configuring Masculinities in an Ethno-Centric Australian Community School: Complexity and Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godinho, Sally; Garas, Dimitri

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on a case study of 15 boys aged between 13 and 14 years who attend an urban ethno-centric community school located in Melbourne, Australia. The study investigated how the boys' constructions of masculinity were mediated by a strong connectedness to their Greek cultural traditions and ideals. Data generated from focus group…

  11. Color me healthy: food diversity in school community gardens in two rapidly urbanising Australian cities.

    PubMed

    Guitart, Daniela A; Pickering, Catherine M; Byrne, Jason A

    2014-03-01

    Community garden research has focused on social aspects of gardens, neglecting systematic analysis of what food is grown. Yet agrodiversity within community gardens may provide health benefits. Diverse fruit and vegetables provide nutritional benefits, including vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. This paper reports research that investigated the agro-biodiversity of school-based community gardens in Brisbane and Gold Coast cities, Australia. Common motivations for establishing these gardens were education, health and environmental sustainability. The 23 gardens assessed contained 234 food plants, ranging from 7 to 132 plant types per garden. This included 142 fruits and vegetables. The nutritional diversity of fruits and vegetable plants was examined through a color classification system. All gardens grew fruits and vegetables from at least four food color groups, and 75% of the gardens grew plants from all seven color groups. As places with high agrodiversity, and related nutritional diversity, some school community gardens can provide children with exposure to a healthy range of fruit and vegetables, with potential flow-on health benefits. PMID:24434081

  12. Embedding Engagement in an Australian "Sandstone" University: From Community Service to University Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthill, Michael

    2011-01-01

    There has been much recent interest and debate in Australia around the topics of university engagement, knowledge transfer, and engaged scholarship. Diverse responses relating to teaching and learning, research, and community service are evident in many institutions. However, there is a paucity of empirical research describing institutional…

  13. Developing an inter-organizational community-based health network: an Australian investigation.

    PubMed

    Short, Alison; Phillips, Rebecca; Nugus, Peter; Dugdale, Paul; Greenfield, David

    2015-12-01

    Networks in health care typically involve services delivered by a defined set of organizations. However, networked associations between the healthcare system and consumers or consumer organizations tend to be open, fragmented and are fraught with difficulties. Understanding the role and activities of consumers and consumer groups in a formally initiated inter-organizational health network, and the impacts of the network, is a timely endeavour. This study addresses this aim in three ways. First, the Unbounded Network Inter-organizational Collaborative Impact Model, a purpose-designed framework developed from existing literature, is used to investigate the process and products of inter-organizational network development. Second, the impact of a network artefact is explored. Third, the lessons learned in inter-organizational network development are considered. Data collection methods were: 16 h of ethnographic observation; 10 h of document analysis; six interviews with key informants and a survey (n = 60). Findings suggested that in developing the network, members used common aims, inter-professional collaboration, the power and trust engendered by their participation, and their leadership and management structures in a positive manner. These elements and activities underpinned the inter-organizational network to collaboratively produce the Health Expo network artefact. This event brought together healthcare providers, community groups and consumers to share information. The Health Expo demonstrated and reinforced inter-organizational working and community outreach, providing consumers with community-based information and linkages. Support and resources need to be offered for developing community inter-organizational networks, thereby building consumer capacity for self-management in the community. PMID:24760546

  14. Reducing coronary heart disease in the Australian Coalfields: evaluation of a 10-year community intervention.

    PubMed

    Higginbotham, N; Heading, G; McElduff, P; Dobson, A; Heller, R

    1999-03-01

    Coronary heart disease is a leading cause of death in Australia with the Coalfields district of New South Wales having one of the country's highest rates. Identification of the Coalfields epidemic in the 1970's led to the formation of a community awareness program in the late 1980's (the healthy heart support group) followed by a more intense community action program in 1990, the Coalfields Healthy Heartbeat (CHHB). CHHB is a coalition of community members, local government officers, health workers and University researchers. We evaluate the CHHB program, examining both the nature and sustainability of heart health activities undertaken, as well as trends in risk factor levels and rates of coronary events in the Coalfields in comparison with nearby local government areas. Process data reveal difficulties mobilising the community as a whole; activities had to be selected for interested subgroups such as families of heart disease patients, school children, retired people and women concerned with family nutrition and body maintenance. Outcome data show a significantly larger reduction in case fatality for Coalfields men (although nonfatal heart attacks did not decline) while changes in risk factors levels were comparable with surrounding areas. We explain positive responses to the CHHB by schools, heart attack survivors and women interested in body maintenance in terms of the meaning these subgroups find in health promotion discourses based on their embodied experiences. When faced with a threat to one's identity, health discourse suddenly becomes meaningful along with the regimens for health improvement. General public disinterest in heart health promotion is examined in the context of historical patterns of outsiders criticising the lifestyle of miners, an orientation toward communal rather than individual responsibility for health (i.e. community 'owned' emergency services and hospitals) and anger about risks from environmental hazards imposed by industrialists

  15. Young adult veteran perceptions of peers' drinking behavior and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Marshall, Grant N; Schell, Terry L; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-02-01

    Social norms-based interventions have shown promise in reducing drinking behavior and the resulting consequences in young adults. Although most research has focused on young civilians (i.e., college students), some studies have investigated social norms-based interventions with active-duty military and veteran samples. Yet, research has not yet determined how to maximize the effectiveness of social norms-based interventions in this heavy-drinking population. As an initial step toward this goal, the current study utilized a community sample of 1,023 young adult veterans to examine (a) whether veteran perceptions of the drinking behavior of their veteran peers differ from their perceptions of civilian drinking behavior, (b) whether perceptions of specific veteran groups differ from the actual drinking behavior of veterans within those groups, (c) what levels of specificity in reference groups (same-gender civilians, same-branch veterans, same-gender veterans, or same-branch-and-gender veterans) are most strongly associated with veterans' own drinking, and (d) whether perceptions about others' attitudes toward drinking also contribute independently of perceived behavioral norms to veteran drinking. Findings indicated that participants perceived that other veterans drank more than civilians and that veteran groups drank more than veterans in the sample actually drank. Veteran-specific perceived behavioral norms were similar in their associations with drinking outcomes, whereas same-gender civilian perceived behavioral norms exhibited little or no associations with drinking. Veteran-specific perceived attitudinal norms exhibited little or no association with drinking behavior after controlling for perceived behavioral norms. These findings can be used to inform the development of social norms interventions for young adult veterans. PMID:26415056

  16. A clustered randomised trial examining the effect of social marketing and community mobilisation on the age of uptake and levels of alcohol consumption by Australian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Bosco; Toumbourou, John Winston; Osborn, Amber; Smith, Rachel; Hall, Jessica Kate; Kremer, Peter; Kelly, Adrian B; Williams, Joanne; Leslie, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Throughout the world, alcohol consumption is common among adolescents. Adolescent alcohol use and misuse have prognostic significance for several adverse long-term outcomes, including alcohol problems, alcohol dependence, school disengagement and illicit drug use. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether randomisation to a community mobilisation and social marketing intervention reduces the proportion of adolescents who initiate alcohol use before the Australian legal age of 18, and the frequency and amount of underage adolescent alcohol consumption. Method and analysis The study comprises 14 communities matched with 14 non-contiguous communities on socioeconomic status (SES), location and size. One of each pair was randomly allocated to the intervention. Baseline levels of adolescent alcohol use were estimated through school surveys initiated in 2006 (N=8500). Community mobilisation and social marketing interventions were initiated in 2011 to reduce underage alcohol supply and demand. The setting is communities in three Australian states (Victoria, Queensland and Western Australia). Students (N=2576) will complete school surveys in year 8 in 2013 (average age 12). Primary outcomes: (1) lifetime initiation and (2) monthly frequency of alcohol use. Reports of social marketing and family and community alcohol supply sources will also be assessed. Point estimates with 95% CIs will be compared for student alcohol use in intervention and control communities. Changes from 2006 to 2013 will be examined; multilevel modelling will assess whether random assignment of communities to the intervention reduced 2013 alcohol use, after accounting for community level differences. Analyses will also assess whether exposure to social marketing activities increased the intervention target of reducing alcohol supply by parents and community members. Trial registration ACTRN12612000384853. PMID:23355674

  17. Fraud and Australian Academics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Brian

    1989-01-01

    A series of highly publicized cases of alleged fraud in the Australian academic community are described. Each case reveals an apparent failure of peer review. The right to pursue investigations and make comments that may offend powerful figures within the scholarly community is precarious. (MLW)

  18. Effectiveness of the Lidcombe Program for early stuttering in Australian community clinics.

    PubMed

    O'Brian, Sue; Iverach, Lisa; Jones, Mark; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross

    2013-12-01

    This study explored the effectiveness of the Lidcombe Program for early stuttering in community clinics. Participants were 31 speech-language pathologists (SLPs) using the Lidcombe Program in clinics across Australia, and 57 of their young stuttering clients. Percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS) was collected 9 months after beginning treatment along with information about variables likely to influence outcomes. The mean %SS for the 57 children 9 months after starting treatment was 1.7. The most significant predictor of outcome was Lidcombe Program Trainers Consortium (LPTC) training. The children of trained SLPs (n = 19), compared to the children of untrained SLPs, took 76% more sessions to complete stage 1, but achieved 54% lower %SS scores, 9 months after starting treatment. Results suggest that outcomes for the Lidcombe Program in the general community may be comparable to those obtained in clinical trials when SLPs receive formal training and support. PMID:23691980

  19. Suicide prevention in Australian Aboriginal communities: a review of past and present programs.

    PubMed

    Ridani, Rebecca; Shand, Fiona L; Christensen, Helen; McKay, Kathryn; Tighe, Joe; Burns, Jane; Hunter, Ernest

    2015-02-01

    A review of Aboriginal suicide prevention programs were conducted to highlight promising projects and strategies. A content analysis of gray literature was conducted to identify interventions reported to have an impact in reducing suicidal rates and behaviors. Most programs targeted the whole community and were delivered through workshops, cultural activities, or creative outlets. Curriculums included suicide risk and protective factors, warning signs, and mental health. Many programs were poorly documented and evaluations did not include suicidal outcomes. Most evaluations considered process variables. Results from available outcome evaluations suggest that employing a whole of community approach and focusing on connectedness, belongingness and cultural heritage may be of benefit. Despite the challenges, there is a clear need to evaluate outcomes if prevention is to be progressed. PMID:25227155

  20. Implementation of asthma guidelines to West Australian community pharmacies: an exploratory, quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Trevenen, Michelle; Murray, Kevin; Kendall, Peter A; Schneider, Carl R; Clifford, Rhonda

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pharmacy assistants are often the first point of contact for patients presenting in community pharmacies. The current role of pharmacy assistants in the supply of asthma-reliever medications (short-acting β-agonists) was identified as a barrier to appropriate guideline-based care. The aim of this research was to devise and evaluate a team-based intervention to formalise the role of pharmacy assistants and to improve asthma guideline-based care in community pharmacy. Design A controlled pre-post intervention study was conducted in 336 metropolitan pharmacies located in Perth, Western Australia. Pharmacies were stratified into 2 groups (187 intervention and 149 control) based on known confounders for asthma control. The intervention was designed using a common-sense approach and resources developed included a checklist, videos and web page. Delivery was via workshops (25 pharmacies) or academic detailing (162 pharmacies). Pharmacy practice was assessed preintervention and postintervention via covert simulated patient methodology. Primary outcome measures included patient medical referral, device use demonstration and counselling, internal referral and/or direct involvement of a pharmacist in consultations. Results There was a significant increase in patient medical referral in intervention pharmacies from 32% to 47% (p=0.0007) from preintervention to postintervention, while control pharmacies showed a non-significant decrease from 50% to 44% (p=0.22). Device counselling was not routinely carried out at any stage or in any cohort of this research and no significant changes in internal referral were observed. Conclusions Increases in medical referral indicate that asthma guideline compliance can be improved in community pharmacy if implementation employs a team-based approach and involves pharmacy assistants. However, results were variable and the intervention did not improve practice related to device counselling or internal referral/pharmacist involvement

  1. Interspecific variation in the phenology of advertisement calling in a temperate Australian frog community.

    PubMed

    Heard, Geoffrey W; Canessa, Stefano; Parris, Kirsten M

    2015-09-01

    Spatial and temporal partitioning of resources underlies the coexistence of species with similar niches. In communities of frogs and toads, the phenology of advertisement calling provides insights into temporal partitioning of reproductive effort and its implications for community dynamics. This study assessed the phenology of advertisement calling in an anuran community from Melbourne, in southern Australia. We collated data from 1432 surveys of 253 sites and used logistic regression to quantify seasonality in the nightly probability of calling and the influence of meteorological variables on this probability for six species of frogs. We found limited overlap in the predicted seasonal peaks of calling among these species. Those shown to have overlapping calling peaks are unlikely to be in direct competition, due to differences in larval ecology (Crinia signifera and Litoria ewingii) or differences in calling behavior and acoustics (Limnodynastes dumerilii and Litoria raniformis). In contrast, closely related and ecologically similar species (Crinia signfera and Crinia parinsignifera;Litoria ewingii and Litoria verreauxii) appear to have staggered seasonal peaks of calling. In combination with interspecific variation in the meteorological correlates of calling, these results may be indicative of temporal partitioning of reproductive activity to facilitate coexistence, as has been reported for tropical and temperate anurans from other parts of the globe. PMID:26442760

  2. Exploring domestic violence and social distress in Australian-Indian migrants through community theater.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Manjula; Colucci, Erminia

    2016-02-01

    In many parts of the world, young adult women have higher levels of common mental disorders than men. The exacerbation of domestic violence (DV) by migration is a salient social determinant of poor mental health. Ecological models describe factors contributing to DV as operating at individual, family, cultural, and societal levels. We explored the interplay among these factors in an Indian community living in Melbourne, Australia, in a qualitative participatory action research study using a modified Forum Theater approach. We here present findings on connections between migration, societal factors, and social/family/cultural factors in DV. The study captured the voices of women living in the community as they describe how DV contributes to their emotional difficulties. Improved understanding of the sociocultural dynamics of DV and the associated social distress in this migrant Indian community can be used to guide the development of culturally sensitive prevention and response programs to assist migrant women from the Indian subcontinent who present with psychopathology and suicidal behaviors associated with DV. PMID:26341404

  3. A local upwelling controls viral and microbial community structure in South Australian continental shelf waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, James S.; Nayar, Sasi; Mitchell, James G.; Seuront, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increasing awareness of the role of viruses and heterotrophic bacteria in microbial dynamics and biogeochemical cycles, there is still a critical lack of information on their community composition and dynamics, especially in relation to upwellings. We investigated, within surface waters and the Deep Chlorophyll Max, the community composition and dynamics of flow cytometrically defined sub-populations of heterotrophic bacteria and virus-like particles in nearby water masses that were affected and unaffected by a localised wind-driven coastal upwelling. In contrast to previous studies we uniquely identified a 4-fold increase in total viral abundance and a decrease in bacterial abundance, from upwelled to offshore waters. Individual viral sub-populations were seen to correlate significantly to both bacterial populations and chlorophyll a, suggesting the possibility of individual viral populations infecting multiple host species rather than the often assumed single host species. The percentage of HDNA bacteria was high (84.3-93.4%) within upwelled waters, in accordance with the highest recorded values within an upwelling system, and decreased down to 35.5-42.6% away from the upwelling. Additionally, changes in the community composition of individual bacterial sub-populations suggest individual populations might be better adapted to distinct environments. We suggest that each flow cytometrically defined bacterial population may possess its own environmental niche where favourable conditions for that population result in an increase in abundance, cellular activity and productivity.

  4. You're a CEO--Now What? Veteran Advice for a New Generation of Community College Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    What does it take to be an effective leader? That's a question 146 first-time community college presidents will be attempting to answer as they take the reins at their respective institutions this fall. Whether it's figuring out how to be a better listener or how to form relationships with trustees and board members and other stakeholders in the…

  5. Distribution of picophytoplankton communities from brackish to hypersaline waters in a South Australian coastal lagoon

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Picophytoplankton (i.e. cyanobacteria and pico-eukaryotes) are abundant and ecologically critical components of the autotrophic communities in the pelagic realm. These micro-organisms colonized a variety of extreme environments including high salinity waters. However, the distribution of these organisms along strong salinity gradient has barely been investigated. The abundance and community structure of cyanobacteria and pico-eukaryotes were investigated along a natural continuous salinity gradient (1.8% to 15.5%) using flow cytometry. Results Highest picophytoplankton abundances were recorded under salinity conditions ranging between 8.0% and 11.0% (1.3 × 106 to 1.4 × 106 cells ml-1). Two populations of picocyanobacteria (likely Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus) and 5 distinct populations of pico-eukaryotes were identified along the salinity gradient. The picophytoplankton cytometric-richness decreased with salinity and the most cytometrically diversified community (4 to 7 populations) was observed in the brackish-marine part of the lagoon (i.e. salinity below 3.5%). One population of pico-eukaryote dominated the community throughout the salinity gradient and was responsible for the bloom observed between 8.0% and 11.0%. Finally only this halotolerant population and Prochlorococcus-like picocyanobacteria were identified in hypersaline waters (i.e. above 14.0%). Salinity was identified as the main factor structuring the distribution of picophytoplankton along the lagoon. However, nutritive conditions, viral lysis and microzooplankton grazing are also suggested as potentially important players in controlling the abundance and diversity of picophytoplankton along the lagoon. Conclusions The complex patterns described here represent the first observation of picophytoplankton dynamics along a continuous gradient where salinity increases from 1.8% to 15.5%. This result provides new insight into the distribution of pico-autotrophic organisms along strong

  6. Definitions of suicide and self-harm behavior in an Australian aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Terri; Francis, Karen

    2009-04-01

    In this small qualitative grounded theory study (21 interviews and focus groups with a total of 26 participants) investigating the understandings of and attitudes toward suicide and self-harm of Aboriginal peoples in a coastal region of New South Wales, Australia, we found that cultural factors particular to these communities influence the way such behavior is defined in an Aboriginal context. A continuation of certain "traditional" cultural forms of self-harm behavior was evident in participant definitions, notably the practice of female hair cutting, also described as a mourning ritual, which appears to serve as a marker both to the individual and others. PMID:19527158

  7. Assessment and management of serotonin syndrome in a simulated patient study of Australian community pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of serotonin syndrome is increasing due to the widening use of serotonergic drugs. Identification of serotonin syndrome is challenging as the manifestations are diverse. Misdiagnosis can lead to delay in care and inappropriate treatment. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine if staff of community pharmacies in Australia could identify the symptoms of serotonin syndrome in simulated patients and recommend an appropriate course of action. Methods: Agents acting on behalf of a simulated patient were trained on a patient scenario that reflected possible serotonin syndrome due to an interaction between duloxetine and recently prescribed tramadol. They entered 148 community pharmacies in Australia to ask for advice about a 60 year old male simulated patient who was ‘not feeling well’. The interaction was audio recorded and analysed for degree of access to the pharmacist, information gathered by pharmacy staff, management advice given and pharmacotherapy recommended. Results: The simulated patient’s agent was consulted by a pharmacist in 94.0% (139/148) of cases. The potential for serotonin syndrome was identified by 35.1% (52/148) of pharmacies. Other suggested causes of the simulated patient’s symptoms were viral (16.9%; 25/148) and cardiac (15.5%; 23/148). A total of 33.8% (50/148) of pharmacies recommended that the simulated patient should cease taking tramadol. This advice always came from the pharmacist. Immediate cessation of tramadol was advised by 94.2% (49/52) of pharmacists correctly identifying serotonin syndrome. The simulated patient was advised to seek urgent medical care in 14.2% (21/148) of cases and follow up with a doctor when possible in 68.2% (101/148) of cases. The majority of pharmacies (87.8%; 130/148) did not recommend non-prescription medicines. Conclusion: While not identifying the cause of the simulated patient’s symptoms in the majority of cases, community pharmacies recommended

  8. A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Emily G; Dhand, Navneet; Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P

    2016-04-01

    Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information-together with model outputs-would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia's preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA) in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10-20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community. More than half of the

  9. A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Emily G.; Dhand, Navneet; Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information–together with model outputs–would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia’s preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA) in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10–20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community. More than

  10. Paralyzed Veterans of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... veterans of the armed forces who have experienced spinal cord injury or disease. Paralyzed Veterans of America will use ... care for our members, - Research and education addressing spinal cord injury and disease, - VA benefits available as a result ...

  11. Young Adult Veteran Perceptions of Peers’ Drinking Behavior and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Marshall, Grant N.; Schell, Terry L.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    Social norms-based interventions have shown promise in reducing drinking behavior and resulting consequences in young adults. Although most research has focused on young civilians (i.e., college students), some studies have investigated social norms-based interventions with active duty military and veteran samples. Yet, research has not yet determined how to maximize the effectiveness of social norms-based intervention in this heavy drinking population. As an initial step toward this goal, the current study utilized a community sample of 1,023 young adult veterans to examine: (1) whether veteran perceptions of the drinking behavior of their veteran peers differ from their perceptions of civilian drinking behavior, (2) whether perceptions of specific veteran groups differ from actual drinking behavior of veterans within those groups, (3) what levels of specificity in reference groups (same-gender civilians, same-branch veterans, same-gender veterans, or same-branch-and-same-gender veterans) are most strongly associated with veterans’ own drinking, and (4) whether perceptions about others’ attitudes toward drinking also contribute independently of perceived behavioral norms to veteran drinking. Findings indicated that participants perceived that other veterans drank more than civilians and that veteran groups drank more than veterans in the sample actually drank. Veteran-specific perceived behavioral norms were similar in their associations with drinking outcomes, whereas same-gender civilian perceived behavioral norms exhibited little or no associations with drinking. Veteran-specific perceived attitudinal norms exhibited little or no association on drinking behavior after controlling for perceived behavioral norms. These findings can be used to inform the development of social norms interventions for young adult veterans. PMID:26415056

  12. Adherence to Therapeutic Guidelines for Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Australian Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Adler, NR; Weber, HM; Gunadasa, I; Hughes, AJ; Friedman, ND

    2014-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in elderly patients, and is associated with a considerable economic burden on the healthcare system. The combination of high incidence and substantial financial costs necessitate accurate diagnosis and appropriate management of patients admitted with CAP. This article will discuss the rates of adherence to clinical guidelines, the use of severity scoring tools and the appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing for patients diagnosed with CAP. The authors maintain that awareness of national and hospital guidelines is imperative to complement the physicians’ clinical judgment with evidence-based recommendations. Increased use of pneumonia severity assessment tools and greater adherence to therapeutic guidelines will enhance concordant antimicrobial prescribing for patients with CAP. A robust and multifaceted educational intervention, in combination with antimicrobial stewardship programs, may enhance compliance of CAP guidelines in clinical practice in Australia. PMID:25249765

  13. Implementation of an optimal stomatal conductance scheme in the Australian Community Climate Earth Systems Simulator (ACCESS1.3b)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kala, J.; De Kauwe, M. G.; Pitman, A. J.; Lorenz, R.; Medlyn, B. E.; Wang, Y.-P.; Lin, Y.-S.; Abramowitz, G.

    2015-12-01

    We implement a new stomatal conductance scheme, based on the optimality approach, within the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLEv2.0.1) land surface model. Coupled land-atmosphere simulations are then performed using CABLEv2.0.1 within the Australian Community Climate and Earth Systems Simulator (ACCESSv1.3b) with prescribed sea surface temperatures. As in most land surface models, the default stomatal conductance scheme only accounts for differences in model parameters in relation to the photosynthetic pathway but not in relation to plant functional types. The new scheme allows model parameters to vary by plant functional type, based on a global synthesis of observations of stomatal conductance under different climate regimes over a wide range of species. We show that the new scheme reduces the latent heat flux from the land surface over the boreal forests during the Northern Hemisphere summer by 0.5-1.0 mm day-1. This leads to warmer daily maximum and minimum temperatures by up to 1.0 °C and warmer extreme maximum temperatures by up to 1.5 °C. These changes generally improve the climate model's climatology of warm extremes and improve existing biases by 10-20 %. The bias in minimum temperatures is however degraded but, overall, this is outweighed by the improvement in maximum temperatures as there is a net improvement in the diurnal temperature range in this region. In other regions such as parts of South and North America where ACCESSv1.3b has known large positive biases in both maximum and minimum temperatures (~ 5 to 10 °C), the new scheme degrades this bias by up to 1 °C. We conclude that, although several large biases remain in ACCESSv1.3b for temperature extremes, the improvements in the global climate model over large parts of the boreal forests during the Northern Hemisphere summer which result from the new stomatal scheme, constrained by a global synthesis of experimental data, provide a valuable advance in the long-term development

  14. Healthcare utilization and mortality among veterans of the Gulf War

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Gregory C; Kang, Han K

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted an extensive search for published works concerning healthcare utilization and mortality among Gulf War veterans of the Coalition forces who served during the1990–1991 Gulf War. Reports concerning the health experience of US, UK, Canadian, Saudi and Australian veterans were reviewed. This report summarizes 15 years of observations and research in four categories: Gulf War veteran healthcare registry studies, hospitalization studies, outpatient studies and mortality studies. A total of 149 728 (19.8%) of 756 373 US, UK, Canadian and Australian Gulf War veterans received health registry evaluations revealing a vast number of symptoms and clinical conditions but no suggestion that a new unique illness was associated with service during the Gulf War. Additionally, no Gulf War exposure was uniquely implicated as a cause for post-war morbidity. Numerous large, controlled studies of US Gulf War veterans' hospitalizations, often involving more than a million veterans, have been conducted. They revealed an increased post-war risk for mental health diagnoses, multi-symptom conditions and musculoskeletal disorders. Again, these data failed to demonstrate that Gulf War veterans suffered from a unique Gulf War-related illness. The sparsely available ambulatory care reports documented that respiratory and gastrointestinal complaints were quite common during deployment. Using perhaps the most reliable data, controlled mortality studies have revealed that Gulf War veterans were at increased risk of injuries, especially those due to vehicular accidents. In general, healthcare utilization data are now exhausted. These findings have now been incorporated into preventive measures in support of current military forces. With a few diagnostic exceptions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, mental disorders and cancer, it now seems time to cease examining Gulf War veteran morbidity and to direct future research efforts to preventing illness among current and

  15. The process evaluation of It's Your Move!, an Australian adolescent community-based obesity prevention project

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence on interventions for preventing unhealthy weight gain in adolescents is urgently needed. The aim of this paper is to describe the process evaluation for a three-year (2005-2008) project conducted in five secondary schools in the East Geelong/Bellarine region of Victoria, Australia. The project, 'It's Your Move!' aimed to reduce unhealthy weight gain by promoting healthy eating patterns, regular physical activity, healthy body weight, and body size perception amongst youth; and improve the capacity of families, schools, and community organisations to sustain the promotion of healthy eating and physical activity in the region. Methods The project was supported by Deakin University (training and evaluation), a Reference Committee (strategic direction, budgetary approval and monitoring) and a Project Management Committee (project delivery). A workshop of students, teachers and other stakeholders formulated a 10-point action plan, which was then translated into strategies and initiatives specific to each school by the School Project Officers (staff members released from teaching duties one day per week) and trained Student Ambassadors. Baseline surveys informed intervention development. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and these were collated and enumerated, where possible, into a set of mutually exclusive tables to demonstrate the types of strategies and the dose, frequency and reach of intervention activities. Results The action plan included three guiding objectives, four on nutrition, two on physical activity and one on body image. The process evaluation data showed that a mix of intervention strategies were implemented, including social marketing, one-off events, lunch time and curriculum programs, improvements in infrastructure, and healthy school food policies. The majority of the interventions were implemented in schools and focused on capacity building and healthy eating strategies as physical activity practices

  16. The Lililwan Project: study protocol for a population-based active case ascertainment study of the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in remote Australian Aboriginal communities

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Elizabeth J; Latimer, Jane; Carter, Maureen; Oscar, June; Ferreira, Manuela; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Lucas, Barbara; Doney, Robyn; Salter, Claire; Peadon, Elizabeth; Hawkes, Genevieve; Hand, Marmingee

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Anecdotal reports suggest that high-risk drinking in pregnancy is common in some remote Australian communities. Alcohol is teratogenic and may cause a range of lifelong conditions termed ‘fetal alcohol spectrum disorders’ (FASD). Australia has few diagnostic services for FASD, and prevalence of these neurodevelopmental disorders remains unknown. In 2009, Aboriginal leaders in the remote Fitzroy Valley in North Western Australia identified FASD as a community priority and initiated the Lililwani Project in partnership with leading research organisations. This project will establish the prevalence of FASD and other health and developmental problems in school-aged children residing in the Fitzroy Valley, providing data to inform FASD prevention and management. Methods and analysis This is a population-based active case ascertainment study of all children born in 2002 and 2003 and residing in the Fitzroy Valley. Participants will be identified from the Fitzroy Valley Population Project and Communicare databases. Parents/carers will be interviewed using a standardised diagnostic questionnaire modified for local language and cultural requirements to determine the demographics, antenatal exposures, birth outcomes, education and psychosocial status of each child. A comprehensive interdisciplinary health and neurodevelopmental assessment will be performed using tests and operational definitions adapted for the local context. Internationally recognised diagnostic criteria will be applied to determine FASD prevalence. Relationships between pregnancy exposures and early life trauma, neurodevelopmental, health and education outcomes will be evaluated using regression analysis. Results will be reported according to STROBE guidelines for observational studies. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been granted by the University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee, the Western Australian Aboriginal Health Information and Ethics Committee, the Western

  17. Caring for Vietnam Veterans.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Veterans of the Vietnam era are now the largest group of United States Veterans, and are at or approaching Social Security and Medicare eligibility. As a result, it is likely that home care clinicians will be caring for many patients who are Vietnam Veterans. The purpose of this article is to increase awareness of the unique healthcare needs of Vietnam Veterans. Having an understanding of military and Veteran culture can help inform home healthcare clinicians in ways to manage the unique healthcare needs of Veterans and engage previously learned behaviors and attitudes from military service. In addition, knowing the types of exposures and health risks specific to this era could be beneficial in identifying potential problems that may have not yet been addressed. PMID:26121505

  18. Developing Tests for the Assessment of Traditional Language Skill: A Case Study in an Indigenous Australian Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loakes, Deborah; Moses, Karin; Simpson, Jane; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the development and piloting of a vocabulary recognition test designed for Indigenous Australian children. The research is both application oriented and development oriented. The aims of the article are to determine how well the test is used as a test instrument and the extent to which children recognize vocabulary items in…

  19. Veterans Administration Databases

    Cancer.gov

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  20. Preparing nursing students for the future: Development and implementation of an Australian Bachelor of Nursing programme with a community health focus.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Simon; Cant, Robyn; Browning, Mark; Robinson, Eddie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This paper focuses on changes in the educational preparation of undergraduate nurses in line with contemporary primary and preventative healthcare models. We evaluated a new Australian nursing and community care degree programme using focus groups with 38 students in their first years of study, and quantitative performance data (regarding entry, performance and course attrition). Four main themes were identified related to students' course experience: 'I think community health should be an elective'; 'Focus on relevance to practice'; 'Teaching by non-nursing academics' and 'Access to support during transition to university.' Overall pass rates were 94% (first year) and 97% (second year) with a low 11% attrition rate. We conclude that based on prior experiences and stereotypical views, students may be ambivalent about the inclusion of primary and preventative care models which nevertheless are essential to enhance practice and to prepare the future nursing workforce. PMID:25549746

  1. Preparing nursing students for the future: development and implementation of an Australian Bachelor of Nursing program with a community health focus.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Simon; Cant, Robyn; Browning, Mark; Robinson, Eddie

    2014-10-27

    Abstract This paper focuses on changes in the educational preparation of undergraduate nurses in line with contemporary primary and preventative healthcare models. We evaluated a new Australian nursing and community care degree program using focus groups with 38 students in their first years of study, and quantitative performance data (regarding entry, performance and course attrition). Four main themes were identified related to students' course experience: 'I think community health should be an elective'; 'Focus on relevance to practice'; 'Teaching by non-nursing academics' and 'Access to support during transition to university'. Overall pass rates were 94% (1st year) and 97% (2nd year) with a low 11% attrition rate. We conclude that based on prior experiences and stereotypical views, students may be ambivalent about the inclusion of primary and preventative care models which nevertheless are essential to enhance practice and to prepare the future nursing workforce. PMID:25346214

  2. "Time enough! Or not enough time!" An oral history investigation of some British and Australian community nurses' responses to demands for "efficiency" in health care, 1960-2000.

    PubMed

    Hallett, Christine E; Madsen, Wendy; Pateman, Brian; Bradshaw, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Oral history methodology was used to investigate the perspectives of retired British district nurses and Australian domiciliary nurses who had practiced between 1960 and 2000. Interviews yielded insights into the dramatic changes in community nursing practice during the last four decades of the 20th century. Massive changes in health care and government-led drives for greater efficiency meant moving from practice governed by "experiential time" (in which perception of time depends on the quality of experience) to practice governed by "measured time" (in which experience itself is molded by the measurement of time). Nurses recognized that the quality of their working lives and their relationships with families had been altered by the social, cultural, and political changes, including the drive for professional recognition in nursing itself, soaring economic costs of health care and push for deinstitutionalization of care. Community nurses faced several dilemmas as they grappled with the demands for efficiency created by these changes. PMID:22360001

  3. A Statewide Approach to Creating Veteran-Friendly Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lokken, Jayne M.; Pfeffer, Donald S.; McAuley, James; Strong, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    One of the most consistent messages one hears from veterans on campus is the need for a strong sense of community and belonging. St. Cloud State University (SCSU), part of the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities system (MnSCU), is collaborating with the Minnesota Department of Veterans Affairs (MDVA) and the SCSU Student Veterans…

  4. Understanding Barriers to Mental Health Care for Recent War Veterans Through Photovoice.

    PubMed

    True, Gala; Rigg, Khary K; Butler, Anneliese

    2015-10-01

    Despite an urgent need for mental health care among U.S. service members returning from deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan, many veterans do not receive timely or adequate treatment. We used photovoice methods to engage veterans in identifying barriers to utilizing mental health services. Veterans described how key aspects of military culture and identity, highly adaptive during deployment, can deter help-seeking behavior and hinder recovery. Veterans' photographs highlighted how mental health symptoms and self-coping strategies operated as barriers to care. Many veterans' photos and stories revealed how negative health care encounters contributed to avoidance and abandonment of treatment; some veterans described these experiences as re-traumatizing. Visual methods can be a powerful tool for engaging recent war veterans in research. In particular, community-based participatory research approaches, which have rarely been used with veterans, hold great promise for informing effective interventions to improve access and enhance provision of patient-centered care for veterans. PMID:25488935

  5. Student Veterans and Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumann, Corey; Rivera, Marisa; Hernandez, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Higher education and the military have been linked throughout U.S. history. Following World War II, the President's Commission on Higher Education released "Higher Education for American Democracy," popularly known as the Truman Commission Report of 1946. It called for, among other things, the establishment of a network of public community…

  6. Scleroderma in Australian aborigines.

    PubMed

    Zurauskas, J; Beroukas, D; Walker, J G; Smith, M D; Ahern, M J; Roberts-Thomson, P J

    2005-01-01

    Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) has not been reported before in Australian Aborigines. We describe in detail a community middle-aged Aboriginal woman whose diffuse scleroderma terminated fatally with a renal crisis. Moreover, we have identified a further five Aboriginal patients on the South Australian Scleroderma Register (two with diffuse, two with limited and one with overlap scleroderma), a number consistent with that expected from the 2001 census data for our state. However, an analysis of all antinuclear antibody (ANA) requests from the Top End of Australia over a 6-year period revealed only two Aborigines with low titre anticentromere antibody (despite frequent occurrence of ANA with other specificities). Neither of these Aborigines had features of scleroderma. In conclusion, scleroderma does occur in indigenous Australians but further studies are needed to confirm the apparent infrequency of centromere-associated limited scleroderma (which is the commonest form of scleroderma in our Caucasian population). PMID:15667472

  7. Student Veterans Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerlot, John; Green, Sean-Michael; Parker, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Students who have experienced conflict as members of the military come to college expecting to be supported, if not honored for their service. One way that campus administrators can facilitate transitions for student veterans is to assist in founding and maintaining campus-based student organizations for veterans. Military service is a bonding…

  8. Retrospective lifetime dietary patterns are associated with demographic and cardiovascular health variables in an older community-dwelling Australian population.

    PubMed

    Hosking, Diane; Danthiir, Vanessa

    2013-12-14

    Dietary patterns derived from factor analytic procedures have been demonstrated to predict demographic and health outcomes across a wide range of populations. To examine the potential utility of long-term dietary recall, in the present study, we examined associations between dietary patterns from across the lifespan and demographic and later-life cardiovascular-related health variables, using the Lifetime Diet Questionnaire (LDQ). The LDQ is a self-administered, non-quantitative, retrospective FFQ designed to assess dietary intake from childhood to older age. Participants (n 352) from the Older People, Omega-3 and Cognitive Health trial, aged 65-91 years, completed the LDQ. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the LDQ and plausible dietary patterns were derived. As a result, three patterns were extracted from each life period, with five distinct patterns overall; these were 'traditional Australian' and 'non-traditional Australian', 'high-sugar and high-fat', 'vegetable' and 'fruit and vegetable' patterns. In separate adjusted regression models, age, sex, education, income, parental background and childhood physical activity all significantly predicted dietary patterns across the lifespan. A 'traditional Australian' pattern in childhood predicted higher HDL-cholesterol levels and lower odds of cholesterol medication use; lower HDL-cholesterol levels were predicted by the adult 'processed, high-sugar and high-fat' pattern, and higher intake of a 'non-traditional Australian' pattern in adulthood also predicted lower odds of using cardiac medications. Lifetime dietary recall, as instantiated by the LDQ, provides a hitherto untapped source of long-term dietary information in older adults that may contribute to greater understanding of the impact exerted by early-life and cumulative dietary choices on later-life health. PMID:23726359

  9. Veterans as physician assistants.

    PubMed

    Brock, Douglas; Evans, Timothy; Garcia, Drew; Bester, Vanessa; Gianola, F J

    2015-11-01

    The physician assistant (PA) profession emerged nearly 50 years ago to leverage the healthcare experience of Vietnam-era military trained medics and corpsmen to fill workforce shortages in medical care. In 2009, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Primary Care Training and Enhancement program was established to improve access to primary care. Training military veterans as PAs was again identified as a strategy to meet provider access shortages. However, fewer than 4% of veterans with military healthcare training are likely to apply to PA school and little is known regarding the factors that predict acceptance to training. In 2012, we surveyed all veteran applicants and a stratified random sample of nonveterans applying to PA training. We compare the similarities and differences between veteran and nonveteran applicants, application barriers, and the factors predicting acceptance. We conclude with a discussion of the link between modern veterans and the PA profession. PMID:26501578

  10. The Association between HbA1c and Cardiovascular Disease Markers in a Remote Indigenous Australian Community with and without Diagnosed Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Luke W.; Hoy, Wendy E.; Sharma, Suresh K.; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study investigates the burden of cardiovascular risk markers in people with and without diabetes in a remote Indigenous Australian community, based on their HbA1c concentration. Methods. This study included health screening exams of 1187 remote Indigenous residents over 15 years old who represented 70% of the age-eligible community. The participants were stratified by HbA1c into 5 groups using cut-off points recommended by international organisations. The associations of traditional cardiovascular risk markers with HbA1c groups were assessed using logistic and linear regressions and ANOVA models. Results. Of the 1187 participants, 158 (13%) had a previous diabetes diagnosis, up to 568 (48%) were at high risk (5.7–6.4% (39–46 mmol/mol) HbA1c), and 67 (6%) potential new cases of diabetes (≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol)) were identified. Individuals with higher HbA1c levels were more likely to have albuminuria (OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.26–7.82) and dyslipidaemia (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.29–4.34) and visited the clinic more often (OR 2.52, 95% CI 1.26–4.99). Almost all traditional CVD risk factors showed a positive association with HbA1c. Conclusions. Screening in this remote Indigenous Australian community highlights the high proportion of individuals who are at high risk of diabetes as indicated by HbA1c and who also had an accentuated cardiovascular risk profile. PMID:26989697

  11. Alcohol consumption and cognitive performance in a random sample of Australian soldiers who served in the Second World War.

    PubMed Central

    Dent, O. F.; Sulway, M. R.; Broe, G. A.; Creasey, H.; Kos, S. C.; Jorm, A. F.; Tennant, C.; Fairley, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between the average daily alcohol intake of older men in 1982 and cognitive performance and brain atrophy nine years later. SUBJECTS: Random sample of 209 Australian men living in the community who were veterans of the second world war. Their mean age in 1982 was 64.3 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 18 standard neuropsychological tests measuring a range of intellectual functions. Cortical, sylvian, and vermian atrophy on computed tomography. RESULTS: Compared with Australian men of the same age in previous studies these men had sustained a high rate of alcohol consumption into old age. However, there was no significant correlation, linear or non-linear, between alcohol consumption in 1982 and results in any of the neuropsychological tests in 1991; neither was alcohol consumption associated with brain atrophy on computed tomography. CONCLUSION: No evidence was found that apparently persistent lifelong consumption of alcohol was related to the cognitive functioning of these men in old age. PMID:9180067

  12. More than Experiential Learning or Volunteering: A Case Study of Community Service Learning within the Australian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Elizabeth Anne; Myers, Natasha; Higgins, Helen Christine; Oddsson, Thorun; Price, Meegan; Gould, Trish

    2009-01-01

    Community service learning is the integration of experiential learning and community service into coursework such that community needs are met and students gain both professional skills and a sense of civic responsibility. A critical component is student reflection. This paper provides an example of the application of community service learning…

  13. Learning Preferences and Impacts of Education Programs in Dog Health Programs in Five Rural and Remote Australian Indigenous Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constable, Sophie; Dixon, Roselyn; Dixon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    As part of strategies to improve dog and community health in rural and remote Indigenous communities, this study investigated preferences and impacts of dog health education programs. Semistructured interviews with 63 residents from five communities explored learning preferences. Though each community differed, on average yarning was preferred by…

  14. Veterans Advancing Clean Energy and Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Kopser, Joseph; Marr, Andrea; Perez-Halperin, Elizabeth; Eckstein, Robin; Moniz, Ernest

    2013-11-11

    The Champions of Change series highlights ordinary Americans who are doing extraordinary things in their communities to out-innovate, out-educate and out-build the rest of the world. On November 5, 2013, the White House honored 12 veterans and leaders who are using the skills they learned in the armed services to advance the clean energy economy.

  15. Veterans Advancing Clean Energy and Climate

    ScienceCinema

    Kopser, Joseph; Marr, Andrea; Perez-Halperin, Elizabeth; Eckstein, Robin; Moniz, Ernest

    2014-01-07

    The Champions of Change series highlights ordinary Americans who are doing extraordinary things in their communities to out-innovate, out-educate and out-build the rest of the world. On November 5, 2013, the White House honored 12 veterans and leaders who are using the skills they learned in the armed services to advance the clean energy economy.

  16. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Male Veterans and Non-Veterans: The Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Christine E.; Rideaux, Tiffany; Spira, Adam P.; Beaudreau, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined whether Veteran status was associated with elevated depression and anxiety symptoms in men aged 50 and older after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Methods Participants were 6,577 men aged 50 years and older who completed the 2006 wave of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Forty-nine percent of participants were Veterans. A randomly selected subset of participants completed the HRS Psychosocial Questionnaire (N = 2,957), which contained the anxiety items. Elevated depression and anxiety symptoms were determined based on brief versions of Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression Scale (CES-D total score ≥ 4) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI total score ≥ 12). Results Elevated depression and anxiety symptoms were found in 11.0% and 9.9% of Veterans, respectively, compared with 12.8% and 12.3% of non-Veterans. Veteran status was not associated with increased odds of anxiety or depression symptoms in the multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses. Additional analyses indicated that Vietnam War Veterans were more than twice as likely as World War II or Korean War Veterans to have elevated depression symptoms (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.54–3.00) or anxiety symptoms (OR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.28–3.51). Conclusions In a community-based sample of men aged 50 and older, Veteran status was not associated with the presence of elevated depression and anxiety symptoms. Rather, these symptoms were associated with age, ethnicity, education, and medical conditions. Among Veterans, cohort effects accounted for differences in psychiatric symptoms. Including younger cohorts from the Global War on Terror may yield different results in future studies. PMID:25145943

  17. Australian Rural Education Award, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Rural Australia, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Profiles and contact information for 14 candidate programs for the 1999 Australian Rural Education Award. Programs feature tree planting, transportation to boarding school, community development, business awareness, early childhood services, GIS technology, community-based curriculum development, reading resources, environmental service learning,…

  18. “We Made the Rule, We Have to Stick to It”: Towards Effective Management of Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Remote Australian Aboriginal Communities

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Jan; Pointing, Boris Shane; Stevenson, Leah; Clough, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Smoking prevalence in remote Australian Aboriginal communities remains extraordinarily high, with rates reported of up to 82%. Widespread exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is exacerbated by overcrowded housing. Implementation of existing smoke-free policies is challenged by the normalization of smoking and a lack of appropriate regulation resources. This paper celebrates a grassroots approach to control of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in these settings. We report on selected findings from a tobacco intervention study in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory in 2007–2012. In community-level tobacco use surveys at baseline (n = 400 ≥ 16 years), participants reported concern about the constant exposure of non-smokers to tobacco smoke. Suggestions for action included restricting smoking in private and public spaces. We selected three case studies illustrating management of ETS from observational data during the study’s intervention phase. Using a critical realist approach, the context and mechanisms that contributed to specific strategies, or outcomes, were examined in order to develop a hypothesis regarding more effective management of ETS in these environments. Our results suggest that in discrete, disadvantaged communities, enhanced local ownership of smoke-free policies and development of implementation strategies at the grassroots level that acknowledge and incorporate cultural contexts can contribute to more effective management of ETS. PMID:24157514

  19. Perspectives of family and veterans on family programs to support reintegration of returning veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Ellen P; Sherman, Michelle D; McSweeney, Jean C; Pyne, Jeffrey M; Owen, Richard R; Dixon, Lisa B

    2015-08-01

    Combat deployment and reintegration are challenging for service members and their families. Although family involvement in mental health care is increasing in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) system, little is known about family members' preferences for services. This study elicited the perspectives of returning Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder and their families regarding family involvement in veterans' mental health care. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 47 veterans receiving care for posttraumatic stress disorder at the Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System or Oklahoma City VA Medical Center and 36 veteran-designated family members. Interviews addressed perceived needs related to veterans' readjustment to civilian life, interest in family involvement in joint veteran/family programs, and desired family program content. Interview data were analyzed using content analysis and constant comparison. Both groups strongly supported inclusion of family members in programs to facilitate veterans' postdeployment readjustment and reintegration into civilian life. Both desired program content focused on information, practical skills, support, and gaining perspective on the other's experience. Although family and veteran perspectives were similar, family members placed greater emphasis on parenting-related issues and the kinds of support they and their children needed during and after deployment. To our knowledge, this is the first published report on preferences regarding VA postdeployment reintegration support that incorporates the perspectives of returning male and female veterans and those of their families. Findings will help VA and community providers working with returning veterans tailor services to the needs and preferences of this important-to-engage population. PMID:26213788

  20. Department of Veterans Affairs

    MedlinePlus

    ... a variety of benefits and services that provide financial and other forms of assistance to Servicemembers, Veterans, their dependents and survivors. Compensation Education & Training Home Loans Life Insurance Vocational Rehabilitation Get Started Burials & Memorials VA operates ...

  1. Veterans and Military Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... a risk of health problems from exposure to environmental hazards, such as contaminated water, chemicals, and infections. Being in combat and being separated from your family can be stressful. The stress can put service members and veterans at risk ...

  2. Veterans and chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Summary points 1. Musculoskeletal problems are the commonest reason for medical discharge in all the British armed forces. By definition, these problems are chronic and resistant to treatment. 2. Pain is also common in veterans who have experienced severe injuries (polytrauma), often accompanied by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) orpostconcussive syndrome. 3. In veterans seeking treatment for chronic pain, PTSD is common. There is also evidence for elevated levels of alcohol misuse in veterans who have been deployed to conflict. However, most veterans do not have pain, PTSD or alcohol problems. 4. Pain clinicians would benefit from training in meeting veterans’ needs, in order to promote their engagement and successful treatment. This should include countering stereotypes, information about the military and support for the assessment and onward referral of PTSD and alcohol problems. PMID:26516504

  3. Homeland security and public health: role of the Department of Veterans Affairs, the US Department of Homeland Security, and implications for the public health community.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Kristi L

    2003-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 led to the largest US Government transformation since the formation of the Department of Defense following World War II. More than 22 different agencies, in whole or in part, and >170,000 employees were reorganized to form a new Cabinet-level Department of Homeland Security (DHS), with the primary mission to protect the American homeland. Legislation enacted in November 2002 transferred the entire Federal Emergency Management Agency and several Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) assets to DHS, including the Office of Emergency Response, and oversight for the National Disaster Medical System, Strategic National Stockpile, and Metropolitan Medical Response System. This created a potential separation of "health" and "medical" assets between the DHS and HHS. A subsequent presidential directive mandated the development of a National Incident Management System and an all-hazard National Response Plan. While no Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) assets were targeted for transfer, the VA remains the largest integrated healthcare system in the nation with important support roles in homeland security that complement its primary mission to provide care to veterans. The Emergency Management Strategic Healthcare Group (EMSHG) within the VA's medical component, the Veteran Health Administration (VHA), is the executive agent for the VA's Fourth Mission, emergency management. In addition to providing comprehensive emergency management services to the VA, the EMSHG coordinates medical back-up to the Department of Defense, and assists the public via the National Disaster Medical System and the National Response Plan. This article describes the VA's role in homeland security and disasters, and provides an overview of the ongoing organizational and operational changes introduced by the formation of the new DHS. Challenges and opportunities for public health are highlighted. PMID:15310045

  4. 75 FR 61249 - Proposed Information Collection (Annual Certification of Veteran Status and Veteran-Relatives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Annual Certification of Veteran Status and Veteran-Relatives) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs....

  5. 75 FR 77956 - Agency Information Collection (Annual Certification of Veteran Status and Veteran-Relatives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Annual Certification of Veteran Status and Veteran-Relatives) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs....

  6. 75 FR 61858 - Proposed Information Collection (Annual Certification of Veteran Status and Veteran-Relatives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Annual Certification of Veteran Status and Veteran-Relatives) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs....

  7. 78 FR 68905 - Proposed Information Collection (Annual Certification of Veteran Status and Veteran-Relatives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Annual Certification of Veteran Status and Veteran-Relatives) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs....

  8. Phosphorus nutrition of phosphorus-sensitive Australian native plants: threats to plant communities in a global biodiversity hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Lambers, Hans; Ahmedi, Idriss; Berkowitz, Oliver; Dunne, Chris; Finnegan, Patrick M.; Hardy, Giles E. St J.; Jost, Ricarda; Laliberté, Etienne; Pearse, Stuart J.; Teste, François P.

    2013-01-01

    South-western Australia harbours a global biodiversity hotspot on the world's most phosphorus (P)-impoverished soils. The greatest biodiversity occurs on the most severely nutrient-impoverished soils, where non-mycorrhizal species are a prominent component of the flora. Mycorrhizal species dominate where soils contain slightly more phosphorus. In addition to habitat loss and dryland salinity, a major threat to plant biodiversity in this region is eutrophication due to enrichment with P. Many plant species in the south-western Australian biodiversity hotspot are extremely sensitive to P, due to a low capability to down-regulate their phosphate-uptake capacity. Species from the most P-impoverished soils are also very poor competitors at higher P availability, giving way to more competitive species when soil P concentrations are increased. Sources of increased soil P concentrations include increased fire frequency, run-off from agricultural land, and urban activities. Another P source is the P-fertilizing effect of spraying natural environments on a landscape scale with phosphite to reduce the impacts of the introduced plant pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi, which itself is a serious threat to biodiversity. We argue that alternatives to phosphite for P. cinnamomi management are needed urgently, and propose a strategy to work towards such alternatives, based on a sound understanding of the physiological and molecular mechanisms of the action of phosphite in plants that are susceptible to P. cinnamomi. The threats we describe for the south-western Australian biodiversity hotspot are likely to be very similar for other P-impoverished environments, including the fynbos in South Africa and the cerrado in Brazil. PMID:27293594

  9. Phosphorus nutrition of phosphorus-sensitive Australian native plants: threats to plant communities in a global biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Lambers, Hans; Ahmedi, Idriss; Berkowitz, Oliver; Dunne, Chris; Finnegan, Patrick M; Hardy, Giles E St J; Jost, Ricarda; Laliberté, Etienne; Pearse, Stuart J; Teste, François P

    2013-01-01

    South-western Australia harbours a global biodiversity hotspot on the world's most phosphorus (P)-impoverished soils. The greatest biodiversity occurs on the most severely nutrient-impoverished soils, where non-mycorrhizal species are a prominent component of the flora. Mycorrhizal species dominate where soils contain slightly more phosphorus. In addition to habitat loss and dryland salinity, a major threat to plant biodiversity in this region is eutrophication due to enrichment with P. Many plant species in the south-western Australian biodiversity hotspot are extremely sensitive to P, due to a low capability to down-regulate their phosphate-uptake capacity. Species from the most P-impoverished soils are also very poor competitors at higher P availability, giving way to more competitive species when soil P concentrations are increased. Sources of increased soil P concentrations include increased fire frequency, run-off from agricultural land, and urban activities. Another P source is the P-fertilizing effect of spraying natural environments on a landscape scale with phosphite to reduce the impacts of the introduced plant pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi, which itself is a serious threat to biodiversity. We argue that alternatives to phosphite for P. cinnamomi management are needed urgently, and propose a strategy to work towards such alternatives, based on a sound understanding of the physiological and molecular mechanisms of the action of phosphite in plants that are susceptible to P. cinnamomi. The threats we describe for the south-western Australian biodiversity hotspot are likely to be very similar for other P-impoverished environments, including the fynbos in South Africa and the cerrado in Brazil. PMID:27293594

  10. The dominant Australian community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone ST93-IV [2B] is highly virulent and genetically distinct.

    PubMed

    Chua, Kyra Y L; Seemann, Torsten; Harrison, Paul F; Monagle, Shaun; Korman, Tony M; Johnson, Paul D R; Coombs, Geoffrey W; Howden, Brian O; Davies, John K; Howden, Benjamin P; Stinear, Timothy P

    2011-01-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) USA300 has spread rapidly across North America, and CA-MRSA is also increasing in Australia. However, the dominant Australian CA-MRSA strain, ST93-IV [2B] appears distantly related to USA300 despite strikingly similar clinical and epidemiological profiles. Here, we compared the virulence of a recent Australian ST93 isolate (JKD6159) to other MRSA, including USA300, and found that JKD6159 was the most virulent in a mouse skin infection model. We fully sequenced the genome of JKD6159 and confirmed that JKD6159 is a distinct clone with 7616 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distinguishing this strain from all other S. aureus genomes. Despite its high virulence there were surprisingly few virulence determinants. However, genes encoding α-hemolysin, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and α-type phenol soluble modulins were present. Genome comparisons revealed 32 additional CDS in JKD6159 but none appeared to encode new virulence factors, suggesting that this clone's enhanced pathogenicity could lie within subtler genome changes, such as SNPs within regulatory genes. To investigate the role of accessory genome elements in CA-MRSA epidemiology, we next sequenced three additional Australian non-ST93 CA-MRSA strains and compared them with JKD6159, 19 completed S. aureus genomes and 59 additional S. aureus genomes for which unassembled genome sequence data was publicly available (82 genomes in total). These comparisons showed that despite its distinctive genotype, JKD6159 and other CA-MRSA clones (including USA300) share a conserved repertoire of three notable accessory elements (SSCmecIV, PVL prophage, and pMW2). This study demonstrates that the genetically distinct ST93 CA-MRSA from Australia is highly virulent. Our comparisons of geographically and genetically diverse CA-MRSA genomes suggest that apparent convergent evolution in CA-MRSA may be better explained by the rapid dissemination of a

  11. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form is reliable in children living in remote Australian Aboriginal communities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Lililwan Project is the first population-based study to determine Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) prevalence in Australia and was conducted in the remote Fitzroy Valley in North Western Australia. The diagnostic process for FASD requires accurate assessment of gross and fine motor functioning using standardised cut-offs for impairment. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2) is a norm-referenced assessment of motor function used worldwide and in FASD clinics in North America. It is available in a Complete Form with 53 items or a Short Form with 14 items. Its reliability in measuring motor performance in children exposed to alcohol in utero or living in remote Australian Aboriginal communities is unknown. Methods A prospective inter-rater and test-retest reliability study was conducted using the BOT-2 Short Form. A convenience sample of children (n = 30) aged 7 to 9 years participating in the Lililwan Project cohort (n = 108) study, completed the reliability study. Over 50% of mothers of Lililwan Project children drank alcohol during pregnancy. Two raters simultaneously scoring each child determined inter-rater reliability. Test-retest reliability was determined by assessing each child on a second occasion using predominantly the same rater. Reliability was analysed by calculating Intra-Class correlation Coefficients, ICC(2,1), Percentage Exact Agreement (PEA) and Percentage Close Agreement (PCA) and measures of Minimal Detectable Change (MDC) were calculated. Results Thirty Aboriginal children (18 male, 12 female: mean age 8.8 years) were assessed at eight remote Fitzroy Valley communities. The inter-rater reliability for the BOT-2 Short Form score sheet outcomes ranged from 0.88 (95%CI, 0.77 – 0.94) to 0.92 (95%CI, 0.84 – 0.96) indicating excellent reliability. The test-retest reliability (median interval between tests being 45.5 days) for the BOT-2 Short Form score sheet outcomes ranged from

  12. How to be a fig wasp down under: The diversity and structure of an Australian fig wasp community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segar, Simon T.; Dunn, Derek W.; Darwell, Clive T.; Cook, James M.

    2014-05-01

    Endophytic insects and their parasitoids provide valuable models for community ecology. The wasp communities in inflorescences of fig trees have great potential for comparative studies, but we must first describe individual communities. Here, we add to the few detailed studies of such communities by describing the one associated with Ficus rubiginosa in Australia. First, we describe community composition, using two different sampling procedures. Overall, we identified 14 species of non-pollinating fig wasp (NPFW) that fall into two size classes. Small wasps, including pollinators, gallers and their parasitoids, were more abundant than large wasps (both galler and parasitoid species). We show that in figs where wasps emerge naturally, the presence of large wasps may partly explain the low emergence of small wasps. During fig development, large gallers oviposit first, before and around the time of pollination, while parasitoids lay eggs after pollination. We further show that parasitoids in the subfamily Sycoryctinae, which comprise the majority of all individual NPFWs, segregate temporally by laying eggs at different stages of fig development. We discuss our results in terms of species co-existence and community structure and compare our findings to those from fig wasp communities on other continents.

  13. Australian Extinctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…

  14. Changes in the microbial community structure of bacteria, archaea and fungi in response to elevated CO(2) and warming in an Australian native grassland soil.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Helen L; Mele, Pauline M; Bougoure, Damian S; Allan, Claire Y; Norng, Sorn; Piceno, Yvette M; Brodie, Eoin L; Desantis, Todd Z; Andersen, Gary L; Williams, Amity L; Hovenden, Mark J

    2012-12-01

    The microbial community structure of bacteria, archaea and fungi is described in an Australian native grassland soil after more than 5 years exposure to different atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) (ambient, +550 ppm) and temperatures (ambient, + 2°C) under different plant functional types (C3 and C4 grasses) and at two soil depths (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm). Archaeal community diversity was influenced by elevated [CO2], while under warming archaeal 16S rRNA gene copy numbers increased for C4 plant Themeda triandra and decreased for the C3 plant community (P < 0.05). Fungal community diversity resulted in three groups based upon elevated [CO2], elevated [CO2] plus warming and ambient [CO2]. Overall bacterial community diversity was influenced primarily by depth. Specific bacterial taxa changed in richness and relative abundance in response to climate change factors when assessed by a high-resolution 16S rRNA microarray (PhyloChip). Operational taxonomic unit signal intensities increased under elevated [CO2] for both Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and increased under warming for Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. For the interaction of elevated [CO2] and warming there were 103 significant operational taxonomic units (P < 0.01) representing 15 phyla and 30 classes. The majority of these operational taxonomic units increased in abundance for elevated [CO2] plus warming plots, while abundance declined in warmed or elevated [CO2] plots. Bacterial abundance (16S rRNA gene copy number) was significantly different for the interaction of elevated [CO2] and depth (P < 0.05) with decreased abundance under elevated [CO2] at 5-10 cm, and for Firmicutes under elevated [CO2] (P < 0.05). Bacteria, archaea and fungi in soil responded differently to elevated [CO2], warming and their interaction. Taxa identified as significantly climate-responsive could show differing trends in the direction of response ('+' or '-') under elevated CO2 or warming, which could then not be used to

  15. Rehabilitation and the Veterans' Administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, F.

    1974-01-01

    The Veteran's Administration health care system provides prosthetic and sensory aids for the rehabilitation of neurologically handicapped veterans. Research and development centers include prosthetic clinic teams, orthopedic shops, restoration clinics, bioengineering services, orthotics, etc.

  16. A case study of physical and social barriers to hygiene and child growth in remote Australian Aboriginal communities

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Bailie, Ross; Grace, Jocelyn; Brewster, David

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite Australia's wealth, poor growth is common among Aboriginal children living in remote communities. An important underlying factor for poor growth is the unhygienic state of the living environment in these communities. This study explores the physical and social barriers to achieving safe levels of hygiene for these children. Methods A mixed qualitative and quantitative approach included a community level cross-sectional housing infrastructure survey, focus groups, case studies and key informant interviews in one community. Results We found that a combination of crowding, non-functioning essential housing infrastructure and poor standards of personal and domestic hygiene underlie the high burden of infection experienced by children in this remote community. Conclusion There is a need to address policy and the management of infrastructure, as well as key parenting and childcare practices that allow the high burden of infection among children to persist. The common characteristics of many remote Aboriginal communities in Australia suggest that these findings may be more widely applicable. PMID:19761623

  17. 38 CFR 51.50 - Eligible veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligible veterans. 51.50 Section 51.50 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Per Diem Payments § 51.50 Eligible veterans....

  18. 38 CFR 52.50 - Eligible veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eligible veterans. 52.50 Section 52.50 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Per Diem Payments § 52.50 Eligible veterans....

  19. 38 CFR 51.50 - Eligible veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eligible veterans. 51.50 Section 51.50 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Per Diem Payments § 51.50 Eligible veterans....

  20. 38 CFR 51.50 - Eligible veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eligible veterans. 51.50 Section 51.50 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Per Diem Payments § 51.50 Eligible veterans....

  1. 38 CFR 52.50 - Eligible veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eligible veterans. 52.50 Section 52.50 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Per Diem Payments § 52.50 Eligible veterans....

  2. 38 CFR 51.50 - Eligible veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eligible veterans. 51.50 Section 51.50 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Per Diem Payments § 51.50 Eligible veterans....

  3. 38 CFR 52.50 - Eligible veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eligible veterans. 52.50 Section 52.50 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Per Diem Payments § 52.50 Eligible veterans....

  4. 38 CFR 52.50 - Eligible veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eligible veterans. 52.50 Section 52.50 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Per Diem Payments § 52.50 Eligible veterans....

  5. 38 CFR 51.50 - Eligible veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eligible veterans. 51.50 Section 51.50 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Per Diem Payments § 51.50 Eligible veterans....

  6. 38 CFR 52.50 - Eligible veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligible veterans. 52.50 Section 52.50 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Per Diem Payments § 52.50 Eligible veterans....

  7. Psychosocial Equine Program for Veterans.

    PubMed

    Ferruolo, David M

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of all combat veterans suffer from serious psychological disorders and reintegration issues. Veterans shy away from typical talk therapy and are seeking alternative treatments. Equine-facilitated mental health therapy has shown promise in treating veterans with depressive and anxiety disorders and reintegration issues. This article reports on an institutional review board-approved pilot program designed to address the mental health needs of veterans. Furthermore, this article discusses future directions for evolving development of equine treatment programming. PMID:26897999

  8. Care of women veterans.

    PubMed

    Levander, Ximena A; Overland, Maryann K

    2015-05-01

    As more women have joined the US military, there has been a shift in the overall veteran population. Those who served in the US military, especially women, have undergone experiences that will impact their overall health and wellbeing. It is therefore critical for providers to better understand US military culture and be prepared on how to ask patients about their military experience. Health care providers need to be aware of the unique medical, psychiatric, and psychosocial needs of women veterans in order to best serve this patient population. PMID:25841605

  9. Employment Services Needs of Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perspective: Essays and Reviews of Issues in Employment Security and Employment and Training Programs, 1989

    1989-01-01

    This issue of an annual journal contains 20 papers reflecting on the efforts of U.S. employment security and training programs to meet the needs of veterans. Part I, "National Perspective," contains five essays: "Policy Issues for Veteran Job Training Programs" (Martin F. Smith); "Cognizant Ramblings: Superfluous Lags the Veteran on the Stage…

  10. Data on Vietnam Era Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veterans Administration, Washington, DC. Office of the Controller.

    Statistical data are presented on Vietnam era veterans for the following topics: employment status, medical status, compensation and pension, education, housing assistance, expenditures, and demographic information. The estimated number and age of veterans in civil life, categorized by sex and state, and the educational attainment of veterans at…

  11. Why are men less tested for sexually transmitted infections in remote Australian Indigenous communities? A mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Su, Jiunn-Yih; Belton, Suzanne; Ryder, Nathan

    2016-10-01

    Gender disparities in testing rates for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have been identified as one potential factor sustaining high rates of STIs and repeat infections in the Northern Territory of Australia, especially in remote Indigenous communities. The study aimed to investigate the reasons for these disparities utilising a mixed-method study design. We conducted an audit on client information at a remote community health clinic, focus-group discussions with young men in the same community and interviews with experienced remote area clinicians. The clinic audit found a significantly higher proportion of female residents of the community than males visited the clinic (72.8 versus 55.3%, p < 0.005). Women were also more likely to be tested for STIs than men when visiting the clinic (49.7 versus 40.3%, p = 0.015). Major barriers to men's seeking STI testing included a sense of shame from being seen visiting the clinic by women, men's lack of understanding of STIs and the need for testing, and inadequate access to male clinicians. Increasing men's access to healthcare and STI testing requires offering testing at a gender-sensitive and separate locations, and community-based sexual health promotion to increase knowledge of STIs. PMID:27142316

  12. Boyfriends, Babies and Basketball: Present Lives and Future Aspirations of Young Women in a Remote Australian Aboriginal Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senior, Kate A.; Chenhall, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the aspirations of a group of young women in a remote Aboriginal community in the Northern Territory of Australia. It examines how their hopes and expectations are influenced by the reality of their everyday lives and the extent to which they are able to influence the course of their lives and become agents for change in their…

  13. The Veteran's View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrin, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    In one important way, student-veterans are like all other students. They need supportive relationships to achieve their academic goals. Serving these students well means learning their stories and helping them succeed. In the process, some of these people may change one's life. In this article, the author shares the touching stories of some of the…

  14. 75 FR 22164 - Urban Non-Urban Homeless Female Veterans and Homeless Veterans With Families' Reintegration Into...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... Veterans and Homeless Veterans With Families' Reintegration Into Employment AGENCY: Veterans' Employment... training, and skills training) to expedite the reintegration of homeless Veterans into the labor...

  15. Detection of 12.5% and 25% Salt Reduction in Bread in a Remote Indigenous Australian Community.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Emma; Clarke, Rozlynne; Jaenke, Rachael; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-03-01

    Food reformulation is an important strategy to reduce the excess salt intake observed in remote Indigenous Australia. We aimed to examine whether 12.5% and 25% salt reduction in bread is detectable, and, if so, whether acceptability is changed, in a sample of adults living in a remote Indigenous community in the Northern Territory of Australia. Convenience samples were recruited for testing of reduced-salt (300 and 350 mg Na/100 g) versus Standard (~400 mg Na/100 g) white and wholemeal breads (n = 62 for white; n = 72 for wholemeal). Triangle testing was used to examine whether participants could detect a difference between the breads. Liking of each bread was also measured; standard consumer acceptability questionnaires were modified to maximise cultural appropriateness and understanding. Participants were unable to detect a difference between Standard and reduced-salt breads (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using binomial probability). Further, as expected, liking of the breads was not changed with salt reduction (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using ANOVA). Reducing salt in products commonly purchased in remote Indigenous communities has potential as an equitable, cost-effective and sustainable strategy to reduce population salt intake and reduce risk of chronic disease, without the barriers associated with strategies that require individual behaviour change. PMID:26999196

  16. Detection of 12.5% and 25% Salt Reduction in Bread in a Remote Indigenous Australian Community

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Emma; Clarke, Rozlynne; Jaenke, Rachael; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Food reformulation is an important strategy to reduce the excess salt intake observed in remote Indigenous Australia. We aimed to examine whether 12.5% and 25% salt reduction in bread is detectable, and, if so, whether acceptability is changed, in a sample of adults living in a remote Indigenous community in the Northern Territory of Australia. Convenience samples were recruited for testing of reduced-salt (300 and 350 mg Na/100 g) versus Standard (~400 mg Na/100 g) white and wholemeal breads (n = 62 for white; n = 72 for wholemeal). Triangle testing was used to examine whether participants could detect a difference between the breads. Liking of each bread was also measured; standard consumer acceptability questionnaires were modified to maximise cultural appropriateness and understanding. Participants were unable to detect a difference between Standard and reduced-salt breads (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using binomial probability). Further, as expected, liking of the breads was not changed with salt reduction (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using ANOVA). Reducing salt in products commonly purchased in remote Indigenous communities has potential as an equitable, cost-effective and sustainable strategy to reduce population salt intake and reduce risk of chronic disease, without the barriers associated with strategies that require individual behaviour change. PMID:26999196

  17. Engaging consumers in the Australian emergency mental health context: a qualitative perspective from clinicians working in the community.

    PubMed

    Procter, Nicholas; Backhouse, Julia; Cother, Ingrid; Ferguson, Monika; Fielder, Andrea; Jackson, Adrian; Murison, Julie; Reilly, Julie-Anne

    2015-07-01

    Successfully engaging with consumers is seen as an essential component of mental healthcare, yet doing so can be challenging and little is understood about the unique engagement skills and attributes employed by mental health clinicians working in the emergency community context. Consequently, this qualitative study explored the engagement experiences of clinicians to identify the attributes used when engaging with consumers in this unique setting. We conducted two semi-structured focus groups in July and August 2011 with 16 clinicians employed at one metropolitan mental health organisation in South Australia. Using thematic analysis, we identified two key themes pertaining to the skills and attributes used for successful consumer engagement: (i) building trust, through communication style, an honest approach, facilitating choice and locating trust networks; and (ii) portraying genuine care, through showing respect, offering practical assistance and taking the least restrictive pathway. These findings highlight the unique nature of engagement in the emergency community mental health setting, as well as the flexibility and resourcefulness required to facilitate it. PMID:25471007

  18. 75 FR 61247 - Proposed Information Collection (Notice to Department of Veterans Affairs of Veteran or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Notice to Department of Veterans Affairs of Veteran or Beneficiary Incarcerated in Penal Institution) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans...

  19. 38 CFR 3.501 - Veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Veterans. 3.501 Section 3.501 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Reductions and Discontinuances § 3.501 Veterans....

  20. 38 CFR 3.401 - Veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Veterans. 3.401 Section 3.401 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Effective Dates § 3.401 Veterans. Awards of pension...

  1. 38 CFR 3.401 - Veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Veterans. 3.401 Section 3.401 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Effective Dates § 3.401 Veterans. Awards of pension...

  2. 38 CFR 21.276 - Incarcerated veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Incarcerated veterans. 21.276 Section 21.276 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Monetary Assistance Services § 21.276 Incarcerated veterans. (a) General. The provisions contained in...

  3. 38 CFR 3.501 - Veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Veterans. 3.501 Section 3.501 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Reductions and Discontinuances § 3.501 Veterans....

  4. 38 CFR 3.401 - Veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Veterans. 3.401 Section 3.401 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Effective Dates § 3.401 Veterans. Awards of pension...

  5. 38 CFR 3.401 - Veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Veterans. 3.401 Section 3.401 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Effective Dates § 3.401 Veterans. Awards of pension...

  6. 38 CFR 3.501 - Veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Veterans. 3.501 Section 3.501 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Reductions and Discontinuances § 3.501 Veterans....

  7. 38 CFR 21.276 - Incarcerated veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incarcerated veterans. 21.276 Section 21.276 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Monetary Assistance Services § 21.276 Incarcerated veterans. (a) General. The provisions contained in...

  8. 38 CFR 21.276 - Incarcerated veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Incarcerated veterans. 21.276 Section 21.276 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Monetary Assistance Services § 21.276 Incarcerated veterans. (a) General. The provisions contained in...

  9. 38 CFR 3.401 - Veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Veterans. 3.401 Section 3.401 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Effective Dates § 3.401 Veterans. Awards of pension...

  10. 38 CFR 3.501 - Veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Veterans. 3.501 Section 3.501 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Reductions and Discontinuances § 3.501 Veterans....

  11. 38 CFR 21.276 - Incarcerated veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Incarcerated veterans. 21.276 Section 21.276 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Monetary Assistance Services § 21.276 Incarcerated veterans. (a) General. The provisions contained in...

  12. 38 CFR 3.501 - Veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Veterans. 3.501 Section 3.501 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Reductions and Discontinuances § 3.501 Veterans....

  13. The converging and diverging characteristics of HIV-positive and HIV-negative gay men in the Australian Gay Community Periodic Surveys, 2000-2009.

    PubMed

    Holt, Martin; Lee, Evelyn; Prestage, Garrett P; Zablotska, Iryna; de Wit, John; Mao, Limin

    2013-01-01

    To assess the changing health promotion needs of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive gay men in Australia, we analysed the social and behavioural characteristics of HIV-positive men in the Australian Gay Community Periodic Surveys. We looked at change over time in the characteristics of HIV-positive men (from 2000-2001 to 2008-2009) and compared HIV-positive men with their HIV-negative peers within each time period. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess independent changes over time within each HIV status group. A total of 21,620 responses were included in the analyses; 10,537 in 2000-2001 and 11,083 in 2008-2009. Between the two time periods, HIV-positive and HIV-negative men became more similar in the following areas: paid employment, sexual identity, number of male sex partners, the likelihood of having a regular male partner and having a seroconcordant regular male partner. The two groups diverged in these areas: age, ethnicity, educational level, social engagement with gay men, types of relationship with regular male partners, likelihood of unprotected anal intercourse with casual male partners and likelihood of HIV disclosure to casual male partners. Workforce participation and educational attainment have improved among HIV-positive gay men since 2000, but they still lag behind their HIV-negative peers in these areas. Because HIV-positive men are an ageing cohort, support services will need to increasingly address issues of HIV, sexuality and ageing with HIV-positive men. The increase in unprotected anal intercourse and HIV disclosure with casual partners means that education and support services will increasingly need to address effective HIV disclosure and non-condom-based risk reduction strategies with both HIV-positive and HIV-negative gay men. PMID:22639958

  14. The carbon cycle in the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS-ESM1) - Part 1: Model description and pre-industrial simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, R. M.; Ziehn, T.; Matear, R. J.; Lenton, A.; Chamberlain, M. A.; Stevens, L. E.; Wang, Y. P.; Srbinovsky, J.; Bi, D.; Yan, H.; Vohralik, P. F.

    2015-09-01

    Earth System Models (ESMs) that incorporate carbon-climate feedbacks represent the present state of the art in climate modelling. Here, we describe the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS)-ESM1 that combines existing ocean and land carbon models into the physical climate model to simulate exchanges of carbon between the land, atmosphere and ocean. The land carbon model can optionally include both nitrogen and phosphorous limitation on the land carbon uptake. The ocean carbon model simulates the evolution of nitrate, oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity and iron with one class of phytoplankton and zooplankton. From two multi-centennial simulations of the pre-industrial period with different land carbon model configurations, we evaluate the equilibration of the carbon cycle and present the spatial and temporal variability in key carbon exchanges. For the land carbon cycle, leaf area index is simulated reasonably, and seasonal carbon exchange is well represented. Interannual variations of land carbon exchange are relatively large, driven by variability in precipitation and temperature. We find that the response of the ocean carbon cycle shows reasonable agreement with observations and very good agreement with existing Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) models. While our model over estimates surface nitrate values, the primary productivity agrees well with observations. Our analysis highlights some deficiencies inherent in the carbon models and where the carbon simulation is negatively impacted by known biases in the underlying physical model. We conclude the study with a brief discussion of key developments required to further improve the realism of our model simulation.

  15. The Bidirectional Relationship between Quality of Life and Eating Disorder Symptoms: A 9-Year Community-Based Study of Australian Women

    PubMed Central

    Mitchison, Deborah; Morin, Alexandre; Mond, Jonathan; Slewa-Younan, Shameran; Hay, Phillipa

    2015-01-01

    Objective Studies that have investigated quality of life (QoL) in eating disorders (EDs) have been focussed on the impact of the ED on QoL and little is known regarding the possible reciprocal impact of QoL on EDs. The aim of this study was to provide a first-time investigation of possible bidirectional relationships between EDs and both health-related QoL (HRQoL) and psychological distress (PD). Method Structural equation modeling was applied to longitudinal data collected from a community sample of Australian women (N = 828) surveyed at baseline, five annual follow-ups, and again after nine years. Participants reported height and weight (from which body mass index, BMI, was calculated) and completed measures of ED symptoms (Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire), HRQoL (12-item Medical Outcomes Study Short Form), and PD (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale). Results Overall, evidence was found for a bidirectional relationship, whereby ED symptoms predicted reduced HRQoL and greater PD over time, while lower levels of HRQoL and greater PD in turn predicted increased levels of ED symptoms. These relationships were stable, observable within 12 months, and remained observable over a time period of at least four years. However, also observed were some inconsistent findings where ED symptoms predicted a short term (one year) improvement in mental HRQoL. This short term boost was not sustained at longer follow-ups. Conclusions Not only do ED symptoms impact on HRQoL and PD, but perceived poor HRQoL and PD also contribute to ED symptom development or exacerbation. This supports a movement away from symptom-centric approaches whereby HRQoL is conceptualized as a passive outcome expected to be rectified by addressing ED symptoms. Improvement in QoL and PD might rather be viewed as targets to be pursued in their own right under broader approaches in the treatment of EDs. PMID:25812047

  16. In Good Standing: Veteran Educator and Higher Education Accreditor Belle Wheelan Offers Advice for Community College Administrators in Light of Recent Accreditation Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community College Journal, 2013

    2013-01-01

    It's been a rough year for the City College of San Francisco (CCSF). After working to emerge from strict sanctions leveled by its accrediting board in July 2012, the college was notified earlier this summer that its accreditation would be revoked, effective in 2014. Though community college leaders and state officials vowed to return the…

  17. Rural Women Veterans' Use and Perception of Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Ingelse, Kathy; Messecar, Deborah

    2016-04-01

    While the total number of veterans in the U.S. is decreasing overall, the number of women veterans is significantly increasing. There are numerous barriers which keep women veterans from accessing mental health care. One barrier which can impact receiving care is living in a rural area. Veterans in rural areas have access to fewer mental health services than do urban residing veterans, and women veterans in general have less access to mental health care than do their male colleagues. Little is known about rural women veterans and their mental health service needs. Women, who have served in the military, have unique problems related to their service compared to their male colleagues including higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and military sexual trauma (MST). This qualitative study investigated use of and barriers to receiving mental health care for rural women veterans. In-depth interviews were conducted with ten women veterans who have reported experiencing problems with either MST, PTSD, or combat trauma. All ten women had utilized mental health services during active-duty military service, and post service, in Veterans Administration (VA) community based-outpatient clinics. Several recurring themes in the women's experience were identified. For all of the women interviewed, a sentinel precipitating event led to seeking mental health services. These precipitating events included episodes of chronic sexual harassment and ridicule, traumatic sexual assaults, and difficult combat experiences. Efforts to report mistreatment were unsuccessful or met with punishment. All the women interviewed reported that they would not have sought services without the help of a supportive peer who encouraged seeking care. Barriers to seeking care included feeling like they were not really a combat veteran (in spite of serving in a combat unit in Iraq); feeling stigmatized by providers and other military personnel, being treated as crazy; and a lack of interest

  18. Corresponding waist circumference and body mass index values based on 10-year absolute type 2 diabetes risk in an Australian Aboriginal community

    PubMed Central

    Adegbija, Odewumi; Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is a lack of waist circumference (WC) thresholds to identify Aboriginal individuals at high risk of type 2 diabetes. We generated gender-specific WC values with equivalent 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes as body mass index (BMI) points in an Australian Aboriginal community to contribute to guidelines needed for establishing WC cut-off points for Aboriginals. Research design and methods A cohort of 803 adult participants free from type 2 diabetes in an Aboriginal community was followed up for up to 20 years. We derived WC values with absolute risks equivalent for the development of type 2 diabetes as BMI values (20–35 kg/m2) using the Weibull accelerated failure-time model. Results After a mean follow-up of 15.7 years, 110 participants developed type 2 diabetes. Absolute risk of type 2 diabetes increased as WC increased, ranging from 3.52% (WC=77.5 cm) to 14.14% (WC=119.9 cm) in males, and 5.04% (WC=79.5 cm) to 24.25% (WC=113.7 cm) in females. In males, WC values with same absolute risks of type 2 diabetes as BMI values were 77.5 cm for BMI=20 kg/m2, 91.5 cm for BMI=25 kg/m2 (overweight threshold), 105.7 cm for BMI=30 kg/m2 (obesity threshold) and 119.9 cm for BMI=35 kg/m2. In females, WC values were 79.5 cm for BMI=20 kg/m2, 90.9 cm for BMI=25 kg/m2, 102.3 cm for BMI=30 kg/m2 and 113.7 cm for BMI=35 kg/m2. Interaction between WC and gender was not statistically significant (p=0.53). Conclusions The absolute risk of type 2 diabetes increased with higher WC measured at baseline screening. Males were not significantly different from females in the association between WC and type 2 diabetes. Our findings are useful contributions for future establishment of WC cut-off points for identifying high-risk individuals in Aboriginal people. PMID:26405557

  19. 78 FR 44600 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Veterans Retraining Assistance Program Participant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... ensure that VRAP participants are offered employment services after they complete the program as required... veterans at a VA approved community college or technical school. VRAP provides the benefit to veterans who... unemployability; was not and is not enrolled in any Federal or State job training program within the previous...

  20. A system for monitoring quality standards in the provision of non-prescription medicines from Australian community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Benrimoj, Shalom I; Werner, Joel B; Raffaele, Catherine; Roberts, Alison S

    2008-04-01

    There is a growing trend, globally, for consumers to self-medicate with non-prescription medications for common ailments. Pharmacists and pharmacy assistants are thought to be in a unique position to support consumers' purchases of these medicines through the application of knowledge and skills, in an environment in which safety and quality remains paramount. Standards of practice have been developed by the profession to address the provision of these medicines, using a consumer-focused and risk management approach. The application of these standards has been monitored since 2002, by the Quality Care Pharmacy Support Centre (QCPSC), created as a joint venture between the University and the Pharmacy Guild of Australia. The establishment of the QCPSC has allowed the development of a system to monitor and improve the application of standards for the provision of non-prescription medicines to consumers in community pharmacies in Australia. This system is unique in two aspects. The first is the use of pseudo-patient methodology, also called "mystery shoppers", "pseudo-customers" and "simulated patients", for the purpose of both assessment and quality improvement. The second unique aspect is the capturing of data based on assessments of behaviour in practice environments. To date, the centre has conducted 14,738 standards maintenance assessment (SMA) visits, involving over 4,200 pharmacies across all states and territories in Australia. The data generated by such a system create a feedback mechanism for policy decision-making in the area of Quality Use of Medicines (QUM) for non-prescription medicines, which is of critical importance to the health and safety of consumers. PMID:17939057

  1. Women Veterans Health Care: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Program Overview » Outreach Materials » FAQs Women Veterans Health Care Menu Menu Womens Health Women Veterans Health Care ... can I call for more help? What health care services are available to women Veterans? A full ...

  2. 38 CFR 21.276 - Incarcerated veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)) (b) Definition. The term incarcerated veteran means any veteran incarcerated in a Federal, State, or local prison, jail, or other penal institution for a felony. It does not include any veteran who...

  3. Role and treatment of early maladaptive schemas in Vietnam Veterans with PTSD.

    PubMed

    Cockram, David M; Drummond, Peter D; Lee, Christopher W

    2010-01-01

    The role of early maladaptive schemas in understanding and treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was investigated. The first study examined the role of perceived adverse parenting and early maladaptive schemas in the development of PTSD in Australian and New Zealand Vietnam war veterans (n = 220). Veterans diagnosed with PTSD scored higher on the Young Schema Questionnaire (L3) and had higher scores on the Measure of Parental Style than veterans not diagnosed with PTSD. The results suggest that early maladaptive schemas have an important role in the development or maintenance of PTSD in Vietnam veterans. The second study measured at baseline, termination and 3 months the early maladaptive schemas, PTSD, anxiety and depression of war veterans (n = 54) participating in a PTSD group treatment programme that included schema-focused therapy. Scores on the PTSD Checklist, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and 17 schemas decreased significantly after treatment. Change scores for the schema treatment were compared with change scores of war veterans (n = 127) who had completed a manualized cognitive-behavioural therapy programme without schema-focused therapy. Pre-treatment measures were similar in both groups. Nevertheless, PTSD and anxiety improved more significantly for the schema-focused therapy group. Together, these findings support the feasibility of schema-focused therapy to assist veterans with PTSD. PMID:20486158

  4. Understanding Student Veterans in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    In this research report the author details a phenomenological study documenting identity development in student veterans making the transition from active military service to higher education. This study took place at a doctoral granting proprietary university with a significant veteran population and consisted of in-depth interviews. This…

  5. College Is for Veterans, Too

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Douglas; Raybeck, Douglas; Wilson, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Last summer Congress passed the new GI Bill, and the president signed it into law. Americans can take great pride in such a program, one that helps veterans attend college after they return home. However, few are aware that many of those veterans will also encounter a variety of non-financial problems that require substantial adjustment as they…

  6. The mental health of veterans.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D; Iversen, A; Greenberg, N

    2008-06-01

    For the majority service in the Armed Forces is beneficial and, in the main, military veterans have successful lives. However, a minority have a bleaker outlook as a result of on-going ill health and social exclusion. Whilst the media focuses on Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, in reality the most frequent mental health problems for veterans are alcohol problems, depression and anxiety disorders. These difficulties are difficult to manage as veterans, particularly those who are unwell, demonstrate a reticence to seek help for mental health problems. Another issue is that many veterans are now reserve personnel who have been found to be at greater risk of developing mental health problems than their regular counterparts. Steps to improve the knowledge and expertise of primary care services about veteran's mental health issues and increasing the availability of treatment options are important and are underway. PMID:19043996

  7. Veteran-specific suicide prevention.

    PubMed

    York, Janet A; Lamis, Dorian A; Pope, Charlene A; Egede, Leonard E

    2013-06-01

    Suicide rates have been increasing in some subgroups of Veteran populations, such as those who have experienced combat. Several initiatives are addressing this critical need and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has been recognized for its leadership. This integrative review adopts the Research Impact Framework (RIM) to address suicide-specific prevention activities targeting Veterans. The RIM is a standardized approach for developing issue narratives using four broad areas: societal-related impacts, research-related impacts, policy-related impacts, and service-related impacts. The questions addressed in this review are: (1) What are the major initiatives in Veteran-specific suicide prevention in four areas of impact-society, research, policy, and services? (2) Are there gaps related in each impact area? and (3) What are the implications of this narrative for other strategies to address suicide prevention targeting Veterans? Systematic application of the RIM identifies exemplars, milestones, gaps, and health disparity issues. PMID:23011459

  8. Suicide among War Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Rozanov, Vsevolod; Carli, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its’ frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles. PMID:22851956

  9. The longitudinal course of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among aging military veterans.

    PubMed

    Dirkzwager, A J; Bramsen, I; van der Ploeg, H M

    2001-12-01

    This study examined the longitudinal course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among two samples of Dutch aging military veterans: 576 veterans with a military disability pension and 198 community sample veterans, who fought in World War II, the former Dutch East Indies, and Korea. Both samples were investigated in 1992 and in 1998 with a standardized and validated instrument measuring PTSD symptoms. In 1992, 27% of the veterans with a military disability pension met the criteria for a PTSD diagnosis; in 1998, this was 29%. Of the community sample veterans, 9% reported a PTSD diagnosis in 1992, in 1998 this was 8%. The results provide strong support for the long-term persistence of PTSD symptoms. In addition, PTSD caseness at one time point was associated with significantly elevated PTSD symptom severity at the time of no PTSD diagnosis. No evidence was found for an aggravation of PTSD due to stressors associated with aging. PMID:11794578

  10. Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in World War II Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engdahl, Brian E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Four posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scales were compared in a community sample of 330 former prisoners of war and World War II combat veterans. The Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related PTSD, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, and the Impact of Event Scale demonstrated moderate relationships with PTSD. (SLD)