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Sample records for austria 25th june-7th

  1. Austria.

    PubMed

    1983-08-01

    This discussion of Austria focuses on the following: geography, people, history, government, political conditions, economy, foreign relations, and relations between the US and Austria. As of July 1982, the population of Austria totaled 7.6 million with an annual growth rate of 0.1%. The infant mortality rate is 16/1000, and life expectancy is 73 years. Austria is primarily mountainous, and the climate is moderate. 99% of Austria's population are native German speakers. The only 2 significant minority groups are about 20,000 Slovenes in Carinthia and about 25,000 Croatians in Burgenland. The Austro-Hungarian Empire played a decisive role in central European history, partly because of its strategic position astride the southeast approaches to western Europe and the north-south routes between Germany and Italy. The president of Austria is directly elected to a 6-year term and may not serve more than 2 successive terms. As chief of state, the president's functions are largely representational. The chancellor (head of government) is either the leader of the party that wins the majority of seats in parliamentary elections and therefore can form a government or a coalition, or the leader of the party having the support of the president in the formation of a minority government. The chancellor selects the cabinet and, with its assistance, weilds actual power and is responsible to the Federal Assembly. The Federal Assembly (parliament) is composed of 2 houses--the National Council, or lower house, and the Federal Council, or upper house. Virtually all legislative authority is concentrated in the National Council. Since World War 2 Austria has enjoyed politcal stability. The 2 major parties that formed during the 1945-66 period have the support of about 90% of the electorate. Austria has a free enterprise economy in which the government plays an important role. More than half of the gross domestic product (GDP) comes from manufacturing and services. Austrian farms are small

  2. The Hospital Microbiome Project: Meeting Report for the 1st Hospital Microbiome Project Workshop on sampling design and building science measurements, Chicago, USA, June 7th-8th 2012

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Daniel; Alverdy, John; An, Gary; Coleman, Maureen; Garcia-Houchins, Sylvia; Green, Jessica; Keegan, Kevin; Kelley, Scott T.; Kirkup, Benjamin C.; Kociolek, Larry; Levin, Hal; Landon, Emily; Olsiewski, Paula; Knight, Rob; Siegel, Jeffrey; Weber, Stephen; Gilbert, Jack

    2013-01-01

    This report details the outcome of the 1st Hospital Microbiome Project workshop held on June 7th-8th, 2012 at the University of Chicago, USA. The workshop was arranged to determine the most appropriate sampling strategy and approach to building science measurement to characterize the development of a microbial community within a new hospital pavilion being built at the University of Chicago Medical Center. The workshop made several recommendations and led to the development of a full proposal to the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation as well as to the creation of the Hospital Microbiome Consortium. PMID:23961316

  3. Apollo 11 25th Anniversary logo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This Official NASA commemorative logo marks the 25th anniversary of the first lunar landing. The design incorporates an eagle, from the original Apoll 11 crew insignia, descending toward the lunar surface with an olive branch, symbolizing America's peaceful mission in space. Alternative Headquarters number is 93-HC-312 or 93-H-336.

  4. Hubble 25th Anniversary: NASA Social at Goddard

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope celebrated its 25th anniversary on April 24, 2015. To mark the occasion, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland -- home of Hubble operations -- host...

  5. EDITORIAL: Inverse Problems' 25th year of publication Inverse Problems' 25th year of publication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    2009 is Inverse Problems' 25th year of publication. In this quarter-century, the journal has established itself as the premier publication venue for inverse problems research. It has matured from its beginnings as a niche journal serving the emerging field of inverse and ill-posed problems to a monthly publication in 2009 covering all aspects of a well-established, vibrant and still-expanding subject. Along with its core readership of pure and applied mathematicians and physicists, Inverse Problems has become widely known across a broad range of researchers in areas such as geophysics, optics, radar, acoustics, communication theory, signal processing and medical imaging, amongst others. The journal's appeal to the inverse problems community and those researchers from the varied fields that encounter such problems can be attributed to our commitment to publishing only the very best papers, and to offering unique services to the community. Besides our regular research papers, which average a remarkably short five months from submission to electronic publication, we regularly publish heavily cited topical review papers and topic-specific special sections, which first appeared in 2004. These highly-downloaded invited articles focus on the latest developments and hot topics in all areas of inverse problems. No other journal in the field offers these features. I am very pleased to take Inverse Problems into its 25th year as Editor-in-Chief. The journal has an impressive tradition of scholarship, established at its inception by the founder and first Editor-in-Chief, Professor Pierre Sabatier. Professor Sabatier envisioned the journal in 1985 as providing a medium for publication of exemplary research in our intrinsically interdisciplinary field. I am glad to say that the support of our authors, readers, referees, Editors-in-Chief, Editorial Boards and Advisory Panels over the years, has resulted in Inverse Problems becoming the top publication in this field, publishing

  6. 25th anniversary of the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goreglyad, I.; Shonin, G.

    1985-01-01

    Interviews with retired Major General of Aviation L. Goreglyad and pilot-cosmonaut with the 25th anniversary of the establishment of the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center. Major-General Goreglyad, one of the Center's founders, tells of its development. Major General Shonin, one of the first cosmonauts to train there, tells of the tests and procedures leading to his acceptance as a trainee.

  7. Army Medical Department Lessons Learned Program marks 25th anniversary.

    PubMed

    Cannon, David W; McCollum, Jeffery

    2011-11-01

    The year 2010 marked the 25th anniversary of the Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL) as well as the Army Medical Department (AMEDD) Center and School's Lessons Learned Division. In the aftermath of Operation Urgent Fury in 1983, the Army recognized the need to create an organization whose sole purpose was to collect, review, and analyze lessons learned and created the CALL in 1985 at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. The AMEDD followed suit and established the Medical Information System/AMEDD Lessons Learned office under the Directorate of Evaluation and Standardization to research and compile lessons learned as the AMEDD's point of contact for the CALL program. Over these past 25 years the AMEDD Center and School Lessons Learned program evolved and underwent organizational realignments, but the overall mission continues to promote changes either directly or indirectly in the AMEDD's Doctrine, Organizations, Training, Leader Development, Materiel, Personnel and Facilities domains and capabilities to provide combat health service support on the battlefield. PMID:22165647

  8. Proceedings of the 25th intersociety energy conversion engineering conference

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.A.; Schertz, W.W.; Till, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 25th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference. Volume 5 is organized under the following headings: Photovoltaics I, Photovoltaics II, Geothermal power, Thermochemical conversion of biomass, Energy from waste and biomass, Solar thermal systems for environmental applications, Solar thermal low temperature systems and components, Solar thermal high temperature systems and components, Wind systems, Space power sterling technology Stirling cooler developments, Stirling solar terrestrial I, Stirling solar terrestrial II, Stirling engine generator sets, Stirling models and simulations, Stirling engine analysis, Stirling models and simulations, Stirling engine analysis, Stirling engine loss understanding, Novel engine concepts, Coal conversion and utilization, Power cycles, MHD water propulsion I, Underwater vehicle powerplants - performance, MHD underwater propulsion II, Nuclear power, Update of advanced nuclear power reactor concepts.

  9. 25th PolyMAC Conference, June 13-15, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.F.

    1995-06-01

    This document contains abstracts of reports presented at the 25th Annual Polymeric, Materials, Adhesives and Composites Symposium. Reports covered aging, testing and performance, and encapsulating materials.

  10. 76 FR 67799 - Pricing for the American Eagle 25th Anniversary Silver Coin Set

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the American Eagle 25th Anniversary Silver Coin Set AGENCY: United States... price of the American Eagle 25th Anniversary Silver Coin Set. The coin set will be offered for sale at...

  11. Proceedings of the 25th Himalaya-Karakoram-Tibet Workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leech, Mary L.; Klemperer, Simon L.; Mooney, Walter D.

    2010-01-01

    For a quarter of a century the Himalayan-Karakoram-Tibet (HKT) Workshop has provided scientists studying the India-Asia collision system a wonderful opportunity for workshop-style discussion with colleagues working in this region. In 2010, HKT returns to North America for the first time since 1996. The 25th international workshop is held from June 7 to10 at San Francisco State University, California. The international community was invited to contribute scientific papers to the workshop, on all aspects of geoscience research in the geographic area of the Tibetan Plateau and its bounding ranges and basins, from basic mapping to geochemical and isotopic analyses to large-scale geophysical imaging experiments. In recognition of the involvement of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists in a wide range of these activities, the USGS agreed to publish the extended abstracts of the numerous components of HKT-25 as an online Open-File Report, thereby ensuring the wide availability and distribution of these abstracts, particularly in the HKT countries from which many active workers are precluded by cost from attending international meetings. In addition to the workshop characterized by contributed presentations, participants were invited to attend a pre-meeting field trip from the Coast Ranges to the Sierra Nevada, to allow the international group to consider how the tectonic elements of the Pacific margin compare to those of the Himalayan belt. Following the workshop, the National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored a workshop on the 'Future directions for NSF-sponsored geoscience research in the Himalaya/Tibet' intended to provide NSF Program Directors with a clear statement and vision of community goals for the future, including the scientific progress we can expect if NSF continues its support of projects in this geographic region, and to identify which key geoscience problems and processes are best addressed in the Himalaya and Tibet, what key datasets are needed, and

  12. Proceedings of the 25th Annual Stirling Physics Meeting 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McVey, Michael

    1999-09-01

    The 25th Annual Stirling Physics meeting took place on Thursday 20 May on a warm sunny day when the country setting of Stirling Campus could be seen at its best. A total of 225 participants from all sectors of physics education attended. There was an opportunity to view and discuss with exhibitors a wide range of state-of-the-art equipment and teaching materials both before and after the meeting. The theme of the meeting was `Maintaining Standards'. Gemmel Millar, Scottish Branch Secretary acting as Chairperson for the morning session and in anticipation of the first speaker, wondered if a new unit qualification, the `Planck' might be introduced. Half units would then be `Short Plancks' and how many Short Plancks must there be in a unit? Great stuff. Scottish Qualifications Authority Hugh McGill began with a brief history and description of the Scottish Qualifications Authority. Born on 1 April 1997 (a light frisson of amusement swept through the audience) it was a unification between SEB and SCOTVEC and has a range of responsibilities covering schools, further and higher education. It oversees Standard and Higher grades, HNC and HND and SVQs, and it has 500 full-time employees as well as some 13500 appointees who act as examiners, assessors and verifiers etc, without whom its remit could not be carried out. The committee structure of the Board was outlined, one each for national and higher national qualifications and a third for Scottish vocational qualifications. These will be served by a proposed 19 Advisory Groups. The Science Advisory Group will be the key body for advising SQA on strategic developments to ensure that qualifications meet the needs of both client groups and end users. A consultation paper `Added Value To Learning' was referred to, in which all qualifications available in Scotland are given parity of esteem on a rising 11-point scale. Mr McGill stated that standards would be best maintained by ensuring continuity in procedures developed over

  13. Proceedings of the 25th Annual Stirling Physics Meeting 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McVey, Michael

    1999-09-01

    The 25th Annual Stirling Physics meeting took place on Thursday 20 May on a warm sunny day when the country setting of Stirling Campus could be seen at its best. A total of 225 participants from all sectors of physics education attended. There was an opportunity to view and discuss with exhibitors a wide range of state-of-the-art equipment and teaching materials both before and after the meeting. The theme of the meeting was `Maintaining Standards'. Gemmel Millar, Scottish Branch Secretary acting as Chairperson for the morning session and in anticipation of the first speaker, wondered if a new unit qualification, the `Planck' might be introduced. Half units would then be `Short Plancks' and how many Short Plancks must there be in a unit? Great stuff. Scottish Qualifications Authority Hugh McGill began with a brief history and description of the Scottish Qualifications Authority. Born on 1 April 1997 (a light frisson of amusement swept through the audience) it was a unification between SEB and SCOTVEC and has a range of responsibilities covering schools, further and higher education. It oversees Standard and Higher grades, HNC and HND and SVQs, and it has 500 full-time employees as well as some 13500 appointees who act as examiners, assessors and verifiers etc, without whom its remit could not be carried out. The committee structure of the Board was outlined, one each for national and higher national qualifications and a third for Scottish vocational qualifications. These will be served by a proposed 19 Advisory Groups. The Science Advisory Group will be the key body for advising SQA on strategic developments to ensure that qualifications meet the needs of both client groups and end users. A consultation paper `Added Value To Learning' was referred to, in which all qualifications available in Scotland are given parity of esteem on a rising 11-point scale. Mr McGill stated that standards would be best maintained by ensuring continuity in procedures developed over

  14. National Center for Biotechnology Information Celebrates 25th Anniversary | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. National Center for Biotechnology Information Celebrates 25th Anniversary Past Issues / Winter 2014 ... Photo courtesy of NLM The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), a component of NLM, celebrated its ...

  15. Mosquito vector biology and control in Latin America - A 25th Symposium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 25th Annual Latin American Symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 81st Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA, in March 2015. The principal objective, for the previous 24 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control spec...

  16. Apollo-11 25th Arniversary celebration: Space Shuttle Main Engine - Technology Test Bed (SSME-TTB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    On the 25th Anniversary of the Apollo-11 space launch, Marshall celebrated with a test firing of the Space Shuttle Main Engine at the Technology Test Bed (SSME-TTB). This drew a large crowd who stood in the fields around the test site and watched as plumes of white smoke verified ignition.

  17. Symposium commemorating the 25th anniversary of the discovery of mendelevium

    SciTech Connect

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1980-01-01

    The Symposium honoring the 25th Anniversary of the discovery of mendelevium was held at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory on March 28, 1980. The following three papers were presented: Chemical Properties of Mendelevium; Nuclear Properties of Mendelevium; and Radioactive Decay of Md Isotopes. Besides these papers there were introductory remarks, reminiscences, and concluding remarks.

  18. Editorial: Special issue highlighting research presented at the 25th IWGO Conference, Chicago 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A joint international conference was held among corn insect entomologists from 15 countries at the Allerton Hotel, Chicago, Illinois on April 13-17, 2014. It combined the 25th IWGO (International Working Group on Ostrinia and other maize pests) Conference with the 4th Diabrotica Genetics Conference,...

  19. Research activities on Antarctic middle atmosphere by JARE 25th team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirasawa, T.; Eiwasaka, Y. AFTANAKA, M. agfujii, r.0 typ; Eiwasaka, Y. AFTANAKA, M. agfujii, r.0 typ

    1985-01-01

    The Antarctic Middle Atmosphere (AMA)-Japan research project was set about by the JARE (Japan Antarctic Research Expedition) 23rd team in 1982, and since then the JARE-24th and JARE-25th teams have been continuing reseach on the Antarctic Middle Atmosphere. Results gained by JARE-25th team members who are now working at Syowa Station (69.99 deg S, 39.35 deg E), Antarctica are presented. In their activities satellite measurements (Exos-C) and rocket soundings are used. Three rockets of the S310 type were launched at Syowa Station (Geomagnetic Latitude = 69.9 deg S) for the purpose of directly observing the electron density, ionospheric temperature, auroral patterns and luminosity in situ. Vertical profiles of electron density and auroral emission 4278A measured by three rockets are compared.

  20. Alumni of High School Internship Program Return for 25th Anniversary to Inspire Current Students | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The Building 549 auditorium is often packed with high school interns eager to hear a scientific lecture. On April 22, however, the room swelled with interns spanning a wider age range. At the 25th Werner H. Kirsten Student Intern Program (WHK SIP) Anniversary Symposium, incoming, current, and former interns gathered to celebrate the program, which has provided biomedical research experience for local high school seniors.

  1. Hubble’s 25th Anniversary: A Quarter-Century of Discovery and Inspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straughn, Amber; Jirdeh, Hussein

    2015-01-01

    April 24, 2015 marks the 25th anniversary of the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope. In its quarter-century in orbit, the Hubble Space Telescope has transformed the way we understand the Universe, helped us find our place among the stars, and paved the way to incredible advancements in science and technology. NASA and ESA, including STScI and partners, will use the 25th anniversary of Hubble's launch as a unique opportunity to communicate to the widest possible audience the significance of the past quarter-century of discovery with the Hubble Space Telescope and to highlight that Hubble will continue to produce groundbreaking science results. We will enhance public understanding of Hubble's many contributions to the scientific world, and will capitalize on Hubble's cultural popularity by emphasizing its' successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. This poster highlights many of the upcoming opportunities to join in the anniversary activities, both in-person and online. Find out more at hubble25th.org and follow #Hubble25 on social media.

  2. Geophysical measurements and monitoring on the Pechgraben Landslide in Upper Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochum, Birgit; Ottowitz, David; Pfeiler, Stefan; Gruber, Stefanie; Hoyer, Stefan; Supper, Robert; Schattauer, Ingrid

    2016-04-01

    In January 2013, after an intense rainfall of about 400 mm, the historic slope movement northwest of the village of Pechgraben (municipality Großraming, Upper Austria) started to move. Already in early March the landslide with an area of about 7 hectares came to a halt. After the long-lasting rainfall (200mm) from June 1st to 3rd 2013 the Pechgraben landslide was reactivated with an extent of about 80 ha on June 6th. This landslide is therefore the largest in Austria since the last 5 years. Several million cubic meters of loose material was moving towards the settlement area. Already one day later, on June 7th, 2013, emergency measures began immediately. The Geological Survey of Austria (GBA), the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Mountain Risk Engineering (IAN), and the consultant engineering office Moser/Jaritz as well as the local fire brigade and the federal armed forces supported the Torrent and Avalanche Control with their remediation measures. In addition to the emergency measures, which consisted mainly of water diversion and material removal, a comprehensive monitoring system (GPS, inclinometer, geoelectric monitoring, airborne laserscan and aerial photogrammetry, etc.) has been created in order to document the development of the slope movement and to be able to take further measures if necessary. The geophysical part undertaken by the Geological Survey of Austria consisted of an airborne geophysical survey (EM, magnetics, gamma radiation) as well as several geoelectric profiles to understand the geology and mechanism of the landslide. To monitor the movement, we set up 5 different geoelectrical monitoring profiles, permanent inclinometers, photo monitoring, piezometers, as well as soil humidity and precipitation sensors. Hübl, J., Schraml, K., Lindner, G., Tartarotti, T., Gruber, H., Gasperl, W., Supper, R., Jochum, B., Ottowitz, D., Gruber, S., Marschallinger, R., Moser, G. (2015): Synthesebericht der H

  3. Predictions of the onset of mini ice age in the 25th solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajiv

    2016-07-01

    Predictions of the ir-regularty in the 11 year heartbeat of the sun due to asyncronous of the two layered dynamo effect would result in mini ice age as in the Maunder minimum.The onset of this event is expected in the begining of 25th solar cycle and would go to its maximum in the 26th solar cycle.The minimum temperature is expected in 2028 due to the fall of solar activity by 60 % termed as solar hibernation.The predictions are based on the observations obtained by the Royal Greenwich observatory since 1874. Keywords: Dynamo effect,munder minimum,Solar hybernation

  4. Irish Literature in Austria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faerber, Gerda

    After a brief description of some historical and cultural interchanges between Ireland and Austria, the paper examines Irish fiction that has been translated into German and Irish plays that have been performed in Vienna over the past 25 years. The paper also describes German translations of Irish children's fiction, including classics like…

  5. Tornado climatology of Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, A. M.

    After several decades of little work, a revised tornado climatology for Austria is presented. Tornadoes seldom form in the alpine areas, however, near the eastern flanks of the Alps, favourable conditions for tornado genesis are found. Whereas in the alpine regions less than 0.3 tornadoes per 10,000 km 2 a year touch down (averaged for provinces or major parts of a province), we can count 0.9 in the greater Graz area, 1.0 in the greater Linz area and 1.2 tornadoes per 10,000 km 2 a year in the greater Vienna area, suggesting the existence of so-called tornado alleys. As these regions are the most populated areas of Austria, there is a possible population bias in the dataset. The overall average for Austria is 0.3 tornadoes per 10,000 km 2 a year. The database consists of 89 tornadoes, one landspout and six waterspouts, with a total of 96 events. The seasonal peak is in July with a maximum probability of tornadoes in the late afternoon and early evening hours. Every fifth tornado occurs in the hour after 5 p.m. The maximum intensity determined for a tornado in Austria was T7 on the TORRO-Scale (F3 on the Fujita-Scale), the most common intensity is T2 on the TORRO-Scale (F1 on the Fujita-Scale).

  6. Secondary Education in Austria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aigner, Helmut

    This booklet provides a brief description of secondary education in Austria. The publication is part of a series that seeks to make the public aware of the education systems and traditions in all signatory states to the European Cultural Convention and to outline the essential problems these systems presently are facing. This short booklet…

  7. [The Citizen Constitution and the 25th anniversary of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS)].

    PubMed

    Paim, Jairnilson Silva

    2013-10-01

    This article, celebrating the 25th anniversary of Brazil's 1988 Constitution, aims to review the country's social policy development, discuss political projects, and analyze challenges for the sustainability of the Unified National Health System (SUS). Based on public policymaking studies, the article revisits the origins of liberal social policy, focused on social assistance, and analyzes the hegemony of U.S. policies targeting poverty and their repercussions for universal policies. After identifying the formulation of political projects in Brazil's democratic transition, it discusses their implications during the various Administrations since 1988, along with the difficulties faced by the National Health System. The article concludes that the political forces occupying government in the last two decades have failed to present a project for the country on the same level as those who drafted the Citizen Constitution. PMID:24127081

  8. The Daylight Bolide of 1996 April 25th , over Mt. Bruce, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, G.; McBeath, A.

    On Thursday, 1996 April 25th (ANZAC Day in New Zealand) a bright daylight bolide with possible -22m end point, was seen from Newtown, Wellington, New Zealand at 02h20m12s. Its end-point altitude was calculated to be app. 15-20km over Mt. Bruce, some 80km NE of Wellington. A smoky train, initially 42deg long, was visible to the naked eye for 28 minutes afterwards. Sonics were heard by the New Zealand author, around 265s after the end point, suggesting a direct-line distance of 88km from the author's location. The impact point was probably several kilometers off Foxton Beach in the Tasman Sea. The bolide passed about 5deg above the first quarter Moon, and two photographs were secured, showing how the train began to drift, ultimately app. 17deg, to the south, before dissipating.

  9. Mosquito Vector Biology and Control in Latin America-A 25TH Symposium.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    The 25th Annual Latin American Symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 81st Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA, in March 2015. The principal objective, as for the previous 24 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from Latin America. This publication includes summaries of 24 presentations that were given orally in Spanish by participants from Colombia, Mexico, and the USA. Topics addressed in the symposium included: surveillance, operations, ecology, chemical control, studies of dengue viruses, and insecticide resistance. Insect vectors included Aedes, Culex, and Anopheles mosquitoes in addition to phlebotomine sand flies and triatomine bugs. PMID:26375913

  10. Marshall Space Flight Center 1960-1985: 25th anniversary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Marshall Space FLight Center marks its 25th aniversary with a record of notable achievements. These accomplishments are the essence of the Marshall Center's history. Behind the scenes of the space launches and missions, however, lies the story of challenges faced and problems solved. The highlights of that story are presented. The story is organized not as a straight chronology but as three parallel reviews of the major assignments: propulsion systems and launch vehicles, space science research and technology, and manned space systems. The general goals were to reach space, to know and understand the space environment, and to inhabit and utilize space for the benefit of mankind. Also included is a chronology of major events, presented as a fold-out chart for ready reference.

  11. Proceedings of the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Francesca C.; Mendius, E. Louise

    2003-09-23

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base, held 23-25 September, 2003 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  12. The Prospects for Educational Planning. A Workshop Organised by IIEP on the Occasion of Its 25th Anniversary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caillods, Francoise, Ed.

    In late 1988, on the occasion of its 25th anniversary celebration, the International Institute for Educational Planning organized an international workshop to review the major problems faced by education today and to consider the future of educational planning worldwide. The workshop brought together researchers, planners, and specialists from all…

  13. PREFACE: 25th International Congress on Condition Monitoring and Diagnostic Engineering (COMADEM 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Andrew; Mishra, Rakesh; Gu, Fengshou; Rao, Raj B. K. N.

    2012-05-01

    The proactive multidisciplinary conceptual philosophy of Condition Monitoring and Diagnostic Engineering Management (COMADEM) was conceived and has been nurtured, developed and sustained since 1988. Since then, it is gratifying to note that the condition monitoring, diagnostic and prognostic community worldwide (representing industrialists, academics, research and development organizations, professional/private establishments and many hardware/software vending organizations) has warmly welcomed and supported this venture. As is evidenced, many have reaped (and are reaping) the benefits of COMADEM interdiscipline through continuous knowledge discovery, generation and dissemination. We are now proud to celebrate the 25th Annual Event (Silver Jubilee) in Huddersfield, the most beautiful part of the United Kingdom. The theme of this Congress is 'Sustained Prosperity through Proactive Monitoring, Diagnosis, Prognosis and Management'. This proceedings is enriched by contributions from many keynote experts representing many industry and academic establishments worldwide. Authors from more than 30 different countries have pooled their rich multidisciplinary up-to-date knowledge, in order to share their invaluable experience with the COMADEM community. In this proceedings, the readers will find more than 120 refereed papers encompassing a number of topical areas of interest relating to the theme of the congress. The proceedings of COMADEM 2012 will appear in the Open Access Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS), which is part of the IOP Conference Series. All papers published in the IOP Conference Series are fully citable and upon publication will be free to download. We would like to express our deep gratitude to all the keynote speakers, authors, referees, exhibitors, Technical Co-Sponsoring Organizations, Gold Sponsors, IOP Publishers, COMADEM 2012 organizing committee members, delegates and many others on whom the success of this prestigious event depends

  14. Earthquake Forecasts for Gorkha Immediately Following the 25th April, M=7.8 Mainshock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segkou, M.; Parsons, T.

    2015-12-01

    The M-7.8 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake on the 25th April, 2015 has shaken the central Himalayan front and immediately raised concerns for the severity of future triggered earthquakes. Here, we implement standard and innovative forecast models to predict the spatio-temporal distribution of triggered events. Key challenges addressed are: 1) the limited information on early aftershocks, 2) the low-productivity aftershock sequence in the near-source area, 3) the off-fault (>250 km) triggered events exemplified by the M=5.4 Xegar event, 3 hrs after the mainshock. We apply short-term empirical/statistical ETAS and physical forecast models, the latter based on the combination of rate/state friction law and Coulomb stresses. Within the physics-based model implementation we seek to evaluate the uncertainty related with the rupture style of triggered events by considering: 1) the geometry of active structures, 2) optimally oriented for failure faults and 3) all-potential faults described by the total stress field. The latter is represented by the full stress tensor before and after the mainshock and our analysis suggests that the preseismic stress magnitudes are still sufficient to cause earthquakes even after modification by the mainshock. The above remark reveals that there are no "stress shadows" affecting the spatial distribution of near-field aftershocks. It is also noted that the method allows for an a-priori determination of the rupture plan of the M=7.3 event, within the limit of uncertainty (20˚). The results show that: (1) ETAS models underestimate the number of observed events, since they heavily base their good performance in small magnitude earthquakes, not available in the first few weeks after the mainshock, (2) far field triggered events are captured only by physics-based forecasts, and (3) the total stress method improves the predictability of larger magnitude events. We conclude that frontier regions benefit from the implementation of physics-based models

  15. REPORT FROM THE ORGANIZERS: The 25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kes, Peter

    2009-03-01

    The 25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT25) was hosted by the Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium of the Leiden Institute of Physics and held in the RAI Convention Center in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 6-13 August 2008. It was the second time that the Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory had the privilege of organizing an LT conference. In 1958, at LT6, 50 years of liquid helium temperatures were commemorated; in 2008 we celebrated the 100th anniversary of the remarkable achievements of Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and his collaborators in Leiden. In 1958 there were 323 participants and 145 papers appeared in the proceedings; in 2008 these numbers had increased to 1390 participants and 900 papers, of which eventually 849 were accepted. This large participation required adequate conference and housing facilities. These could not be found in Leiden, but were conveniently available in Amsterdam. The triennial International Low Temperature Conferences are organized under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) through Commission C5 on Low Temperature Physics. It is the most important global meeting that brings together the international scientific community in the broad field of Low Temperature Physics. Because the meeting is held only every third year the 11 plenary and 22 half plenary talks (of 45 or 30 min.) generally provide an overview of important new discoveries over the last few years, whereas the 161 short oral presentations (20 min.) are mainly focused on very recent developments. Since the field is broad, embracing a large section of condensed matter physics, the program is divided into five parallel program lines: A. Quantum Gases, Fluids and Solids B. Superconductivity C. Quantum Phase Transitions and Magnetism D. Electronic Quantum Transport in Condensed Matter E. Cryogenic Techniques and Applications This distinction was used both to group the 1625 accepted abstracts, and the short-oral and poster presentations; the

  16. REPORT FROM THE ORGANIZERS: The 25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kes, Peter

    2009-03-01

    The 25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT25) was hosted by the Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium of the Leiden Institute of Physics and held in the RAI Convention Center in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 6-13 August 2008. It was the second time that the Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory had the privilege of organizing an LT conference. In 1958, at LT6, 50 years of liquid helium temperatures were commemorated; in 2008 we celebrated the 100th anniversary of the remarkable achievements of Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and his collaborators in Leiden. In 1958 there were 323 participants and 145 papers appeared in the proceedings; in 2008 these numbers had increased to 1390 participants and 900 papers, of which eventually 849 were accepted. This large participation required adequate conference and housing facilities. These could not be found in Leiden, but were conveniently available in Amsterdam. The triennial International Low Temperature Conferences are organized under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) through Commission C5 on Low Temperature Physics. It is the most important global meeting that brings together the international scientific community in the broad field of Low Temperature Physics. Because the meeting is held only every third year the 11 plenary and 22 half plenary talks (of 45 or 30 min.) generally provide an overview of important new discoveries over the last few years, whereas the 161 short oral presentations (20 min.) are mainly focused on very recent developments. Since the field is broad, embracing a large section of condensed matter physics, the program is divided into five parallel program lines: A. Quantum Gases, Fluids and Solids B. Superconductivity C. Quantum Phase Transitions and Magnetism D. Electronic Quantum Transport in Condensed Matter E. Cryogenic Techniques and Applications This distinction was used both to group the 1625 accepted abstracts, and the short-oral and poster presentations; the

  17. History of biotechnology in Austria.

    PubMed

    Roehr, M

    2000-01-01

    Austria has contributed significantly to the progress of the biotechnologies in the past and is actively engaged in doing so today. This review describes the early history of biotechnology in Austria, beginning with the Vienna process of baker's yeast manufacture in 1846, up to the achievements of the 20th century, e.g. the submerged vinegar process, penicillin V, immune biotechnology, biomass as a renewable source of fermentation products (power alcohol, biogas, organic acids etc.), biopulping, biopolymers, biocatalysis, mammalian cell technology, nanotechnology of bacterial surface layers, and environmental biotechnology. PMID:11036693

  18. Newly diagnosed hyperthyroidism in the 25th gestational week of pregnancy presenting with systolic arterial hypertension only.

    PubMed

    Zaveljcina, Janez; Legan, Mateja; Gaberšček, Simona

    2016-05-01

    We present a case of a 30-year-old woman diagnosed with arterial hypertension in the 25th week of pregnancy. Our search for secondary causes of arterial hypertension revealed hyperthyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), which was treated with propilthiouracil. Three weeks after delivery, she was normotensive without medication. In the next four months, she developed hypothyroidism and treatment with L-thyroxine was started. In conclusion, in the second half of pregnancy, a hyperthyroid HT can occur - in spite of the well-known amelioration of autoimmune thyroid disorders in that period, and can be the only cause of arterial hypertension. PMID:26979941

  19. 25th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference: summary of sessions EX/S, EX/W and ICC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper provides a summary overview, based on papers presented at the 25th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC), in the area of magnetic confinement experiments related to stability (EX/S), wave-plasma interactions, current drive, heating, energetic particles (EX/W) and innovative confinement concepts (ICCs). A selection of results that represent progress made since the last FEC in a few important thematic areas that are relevant for the successful and safe operation of future fusion devices like ITER, is highlighted.

  20. Highlights of the 25th Anniversary EANM Congress Milan 2012: nuclear medicine and molecular imaging at its best.

    PubMed

    Langsteger, Werner; Beheshti, Mohsen

    2013-09-01

    The European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) celebrated its 25th Anniversary Congress in Milan under the chairmanship of Professor Emilio Bombardieri and the auspices of the Italian Society of Nuclear Medicine. As always, the Congress was a great success: more than 5,530 participants from 88 countries came from Europe and beyond. In spite of limited budgets, industry again made an important contribution: New innovative equipment and tracers demonstrating the latest technology and innovations were presented by 122 companies. This review is a brief summary of the major scientific contributions made in the fields of oncology, multimodality imaging, cardiovascular science, neurology and psychiatry, technological innovation and novel tracers, and in other clinical sciences as well as in radionuclide therapy, which all show promising and great innovations. PMID:23917722

  1. [Epidemiology of obesity in Austria].

    PubMed

    Dorner, Thomas E

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article was to compile all existing data regarding the prevalence of obesity in Austria in all age groups, and to perform additional analyses. Prevalence of obesity in the adult Austrian population varies between 8.3 and 19.9% in men, and 9.0 and 19.8% in women with increasing trends over time. Prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents in Austria varies between 3.1 and 9.0% in boys and between 2.2 and 7.3% in girls. Factors associated with obesity include higher age, lower educational level, profession, migration background, living in eastern parts of Austria, lack of social support, and psycho-social pressure. In women, socio-economic parameters are stronger associated with obesity compared to men. Obesity is associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, and low back pain, and deteriorated quality of live, in both sexes, and in men additionally with a history of heart attack, and in women additionally with anxiety/depression. PMID:26650060

  2. Republic of Austria. Country profile.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, L C

    1985-07-01

    A summary description of Austria's demographic situation, economic conditions, labor force characteristics, housing conditions, household characteristics, and marriage patterns is provided. Austria, the former center of the Hapsburg Empire, covers 32,375 square miles and is divided into 9 provinces, including Vienna, the federal capital. Austria's population increased from 6.9 million in 1950 to 7.6 million in 1980. Since 1980 it declined slightly and in 1985 it was estimated to be 7,487,000. Between 1961-81, the industrial, western region of the country grew more rapidly than the predominantly rural eastern section of the country. Vienna, the largest city in the country, experienced a decline in population size from 1.9 million to 1.5 million since 1923. Part of the decline was due to the annihilation of the city's Jewish population in 1938. Austria has a lower urban population (56%) than most other industrialized countries. This low rate reflects the availability of tourist related jobs in the rural areas. 98% of the population is Austrian, the official language is German, and most of the inhabitants are Roman Catholic. Due to the homogeneity of the population, the country has few religious and racial problems; however, a recent study indicated that about 1/2 of the population has anti-Semetic attitudes. Life expectancy is 69 years for men and 76 years for women. Austria's population is aging. Currently, 18% of the population is under 15 years of age, and 14% is 65 years of age or older. Births are expected to increase slightly until the end of the 1900s and then decline slightly. Austrians place a high value on children and family life. Between 1978-82 the marriage rate increased from 4.5/1000 to 4.8/1000, and the median age at marriage increased from 22.4-23.0 years for women and from 25.6-25.8 years for men. The number of divorces/year increased from 11,168-14.298 between 1976-82. Currently, there are 2,767,000 households, and the average household size is 2

  3. Deeply Rooted, Branching Out, 1972-1997. Annual AEE International Conference Proceedings (25th, Asheville, North Carolina, November 23-26, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Rick, Ed.; Comstedt, Timothea, Ed.; Roberts, Nina, Ed.

    This proceedings contains 36 papers presented at the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Experiential Education. Papers are: "The Woods and the Trees: Interpreting Experiential Education for Schools and a Greater Audience" (Joanna Allen, John Hutchinson); "Adventure Programming & Prevention of Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Applying…

  4. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (25th, Utrecht, The Netherlands, July 12-17, 2001). Volumes 1-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja, Ed.

    This document contains the proceedings of the 25th annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME). It features plenary lectures, research forums, discussion groups, working sessions, short oral communications, and poster presentations. Papers in Volume 1 include: (1) "The P in PME: Progress and…

  5. The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher: Past, Present and Future. A Survey of Teachers, Principals and Students. 25th Anniversary Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MetLife, Inc., 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report is the twenty-fifth in a series of surveys sponsored annually by MetLife since 1984 as a public service. This 25th anniversary edition includes the views of teachers, principals and students and looks back to the earliest MetLife Surveys to examine how perspectives on teachers, teaching and public education have changed. It documents…

  6. Visual Literacy in the Digital Age: Selected Readings from the Annual Conference of the International Visual Literacy Association (25th, Rochester, New York, October 13-17, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, Darrel G.; And Others

    This document contains selected papers from the 25th annual conference of the International Visual Literacy Association (IVLA). Topics addressed in the papers include the following: visual literacy; graphic information in research and education; evaluation criteria for instructional media; understanding symbols in business presentations;…

  7. Proceedings of the Anniversary Meeting (25th, Toronto, December 28-29, 1972). Industrial Relations Research Association Series. Index of IRRA Publications 1966-1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Gerald G., Ed.

    Papers presented at the 25th meeting of the Industrial Relations Research Association (IRAA) covered issues that are central to industrial relations in North America. Papers and discussions dealt with these major issues: (1) Prices and Income Policy: Comparative Aspects, (2) Dispute Settlement in the Public Sector, (3) Manpower Policies in Canada…

  8. Teaching of Psychology: Ideas and Innovations. Proceedings of the Annual Conference (25th, Tarrytown, New York, March 25-26, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell-Carter, Marya, Ed.; Gonder, Jennifer, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Conference proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference on the Teaching of Psychology: Ideas and Innovations, sponsored by the Psychology Department of the State University of New York at Farmingdale. The conference theme for 2011 was: The Future of the Undergraduate Psychology Major: New Directions in an Evolving Educational Climate. The Conference…

  9. Case study: An isolated severe storm with giant hail hit Slovenian capital city Ljubljana on May 25th 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korosec, M.

    2009-09-01

    Introduction A quite unusual weather pattern for month of May with first and early season heat wave of year 2009 resulted in several days of active severe storms across central Europe and Alpine region. Synoptic situation On May 25th 2009, an omega block pattern with strong upper-level subtropical ridge extending over Mediterranean and Balkan Peninsula brought stable and warm conditions into Southern Europe. Elsewhere, two large-scale troughs were located over Western and Eastern Europe with very unstable environment. On the nose of the Mediterranean ridge a jet streak with moderate shear was placed while over the Southern Alpine region only weak shear was placed over Slovenia. Rich boundary layer moisture and steep lapse rates within an elevated mixed layer favored extreme amounts of CAPE. After strong diurnal heating and surface wind convergence along the local topography a few convective cells were triggered in the mountainous terrain while deep moist convection over the rest of Slovenia was trapped by the strong capping inversion. In late afternoon several cells from the mountainous terrain interfered with each other and explosive convective cell was initiated along their outflow boundaries. Increasing near surface southeasterly wind flow supported enhanced low-level shear and storm relative helicity which caused this cell to very rapidly grown into an organized supercell storm on the flat terrain in northern Slovenia. This supercell then started racing southeastwards towards Ljubljana, a capital city of Slovenia. It caused extensive hail damage with very large to giant hailstones up to 7cm in diameter falling over parts of Ljubljana and areas north and southeast of the city. Presentation of research This case study will go through a research of this very damaging hailstorm, throughout a detailed analysis of the synoptic situation including analysis of satellite, radar and surface observations. At first, forecasting models did not suggest organized convection

  10. Radon mapping strategies in Austria.

    PubMed

    Gruber, V; Ringer, W; Wurm, G; Friedmann, H

    2015-11-01

    According to current European and international recommendations (e.g. by IAEA, WHO and European Union), countries shall identify high radon areas. In Austria, this task was initiated already in the early 1990s, which yielded the first Austrian Radon Potential Map. This map is still in use, updated with recent indoor radon data in 2012. The map is based on radon gas measurements in randomly selected dwellings, normalised to a standard situation. To meet the current (legal) requirements, uncertainties in the existing Austrian radon map should be reduced. A new indoor radon survey with a different sampling strategy was started, and possible mapping methods are studied and tested. In this paper, the methodology for the existing map as well as the planned strategies to improve this map is discussed. PMID:25911411

  11. Developments in biotechnological research in Austria

    SciTech Connect

    Kubicek, C.P.

    1996-12-01

    Austria is a small European country with a small number of universities and biotechnological industries, but with great efforts in the implementation of environmental consciousness and corresponding legal standards. This review attempts to describe the biotechnological landscape of Austria, thereby focusing on the highlights in research by industry, universities, and research laboratories, as published during 1990 to early 1995. These will include microbial metabolite (organic acids, antibiotics) and biopolymer (polyhydroxibutyrate, S-layers) production; enzyme (cellulases, hemicellulases, ligninases) technology and biocatalysis; environmental biotechnology; plant breeding and plant protection; mammalian cell products; fermenter design; and bioprocess engineering. 234 refs.

  12. AlpArray Austria - Illuminating the subsurface of Austria and understanding of Alpine geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Florian; Bokelmann, Götz; Bianchi, Irene; Apoloner, Maria-Theresia; AlpArray Working Group

    2015-04-01

    AlpArray Austria is a research project to study the geodynamics of the Eastern Alps and the subsurface of Austria with a large-scale mobile broadband seismological network. AlpArray Austria is part of the AlpArray project - a unique European transnational research initiative in which 64 research institutes from 17 countries join their expertise to advance our knowledge about the structure and evolution of the lithosphere beneath the entire Alpine area. AlpArray Austria is coordinated by the Department of Meteorology and Geophysics (IMGW) at the University of Vienna and funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF). During spring 2015 the deployment of 42 mobile broadband seismometers (and two permanent stations) will commence and by autumn 2015 Austria will be completely covered by a dense seismological network with an average station spacing of about 40 kilometers. The mobile network consisting of 27 Reftek 151 60s sensors (provided by IMGW) and 15 Trillium 120s instruments (provided by the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, DIAS, Ireland) will complement the permanent Austrian seismic network operated by the Austrian Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) that will also install the two permanent stations. AlpArray Austria will be continuously recording high-quality ground motion data for three years. Seismic data will be distributed through the European Integrated Data Archive (EIDA) and shared with the collaborating AlpArray institutes. AlpArray Austria will shed light on the detailed geological structure and geodynamical evolution of the Eastern Alps and the subsurface of Austria. Utilizing seismic analysis methods such as shear wave splitting, receiver functions and body wave dispersion the AlpArray Austria working group at IMGW will, together with the international partners, focus on seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle, the location of interfaces and tomography, to answer outstanding questions on slab geometry and subduction polarity under

  13. Early Childhood Intervention and Inclusion in Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretis, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This article assesses the situation of preschool children in Austria facing the need to implement the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability. Eligibility criteria for preventive preschool services and the necessary labeling of children as "disabled" or "at risk" are assessed as inhibiting factors within…

  14. The New Member States: Austria, Finland, Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetschy, Janine; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Includes "Difficult Metamorphosis of the Social 'Models' of the Nordic Countries" (Goetschy); "Swedish Training System" (Ottersten); "Features of Vocational Education in Finland" (Kyro); "Boom in Apprenticeship Training in Finland" (Vartiainen); "Vocational Training in Austria" (Riemer); "Reforms in the Vocational Education and Training Systems of…

  15. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Austria 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nusche, Deborah; Radinger, Thomas; Busemeyer, Marius R.; Theisens, Henno

    2016-01-01

    This report for Austria forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school…

  16. JANNAF 25th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee, 37th Combustion Subcommittee and 1st Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee Joint Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Ronald S.; Becker, Dorothy L.

    2000-01-01

    Volume I, the first of three volumes, is a compilation of 24 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 25th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee, 37th Combustion Subcommittee and 1st Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee (MSS) meeting held jointly with the 19th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee. The meeting was held 13-17 November 2000 at the Naval Postgraduate School and Hyatt Regency Hotel, Monterey, California. Topics covered include: a Keynote Address on Future Combat Systems, a review of the new JANNAF Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee, and technical papers on Hyper-X propulsion development and verification; GTX airbreathing launch vehicles; Hypersonic technology development, including program overviews, fuels for advanced propulsion, ramjet and scramjet research, hypersonic test medium effects; and RBCC engine design and performance, and PDE and UCAV advanced and combined cycle engine technologies.

  17. Clinical Study of the Necessity of Replanning Before the 25th Fraction During the Course of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Patients With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Wei; Yang Haihua; Hu Wei; Shan Guoping; Ding Weijun; Yu Changhui; Wang Biyun; Wang Xufeng; Xu Qianyi

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify the target and normal structures on dose distributing variations during intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and to assess the value of replanning for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Methods and Materials: Twenty-eight NPC patients treated with IMRT were recruited. The IMRT was delivered in 33 fractions, to 70 to 76Gy, to the gross tumor volume (GTV). Before the 25th fraction of IMRT, a new simulation computed tomography (CT) scan was acquired for all patients. According to the dose constraint criterion in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0225 protocol, the replanning was generated on the new simulation CT. With the Quality Assessment Center of a CORVUS 6.3 treatment planning system, a phantom plan was generated for each patient by applying the beam configurations of the initial plan to the anatomy of the new simulation CT. The dose-volume histograms of the phantom plan were compared with the replanning. Results: The percentage of prescription dose delivered to the clinical target volume (CTV1) was significantly increased by 4.91% +- 10.89%, whereas the maximum dose to the spinal cord, mean dose to the left parotid, and V30 to the right parotid were significantly decreased by 5.00 +- 9.23Gy, 4.23 +- 10.03Gy, and 11.47% +- 18.89% respectively in the replanning, compared with the phantom plan (p < 0.05). Based on the dose constraint criterion in the RTOG0225 protocol, 50% of phantom plans (14/28) were out of limit for the dose to the normal critical structures, whereas no plan was out of limit in replanning (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Replanning for patients with NPC before the 25th fraction during IMRT helps to ensure adequate dose to the target volumes and safe doses to critical normal structures.

  18. False-color composite of Oetztal, Austria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This image is a false-color composite of Oetztal, Austria located in the Central Alps centered at 46.8 degrees north latitude, 10.70 degrees east longitude, at the border between Switzerland (top), Italy (left) and Austria (right and bottom). The area shown is 50 kilometers (30 miles) south of Inssbruck, Austria. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperature Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying on the Space Shuttle Endeavour on its 14th orbit. Approximately one quarter of this image is covered by glaciers, the largest of which, Gepatschferner, is visible as a triangular yellow patch in the center of the scene. The blue areas are lakes (Gepatsch dam at center right; Lake Muta at top right) and glacier ice. The yellow areas are slopes facing the radar and areas of dry snow. Purple corresponds to slopes facing away from the radar. Yellow in the valley bottom corresponds to tree covered areas. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43890.

  19. Austria Declares Intent To Join ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-04-01

    At a press conference today at the University of Vienna's Observatory, the Austrian Science Minister Johannes Hahn announced the decision by the Austrian Government to seek membership of ESO from 1 July this year. ESO PR Photo 11/08 ESO PR Photo 11/08 Announcing Austria's Intent to Join ESO Said Minister Hahn: "With membership of ESO, Austria's scientists will receive direct access to the world's leading infrastructure in astronomy. This strengthens Austria as a place for research and provides an opportunity for young researchers to continue their work from here. With this move, Austria takes an important step in the reinforcement of Europe's science and research infrastructure." The decision constitutes a major breakthrough for Austrian scientists who have argued for membership of ESO for many years. Seeking membership in ESO also marks a step towards the further development of the European Research and Innovation Area, an important element of Europe's so-called Lisbon Strategy. "ESO welcomes the Austrian bid to join our organisation. I salute the Austrian Government for taking this important step and look forward to working closely with our Austrian friends and colleagues in the years to come," commented the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. For Austrian astronomers, ESO membership means not only unrestricted access to ESO's world-leading observational facilities including the world's most advanced optical telescope, the Very Large Telescope, and full participation in the quasi-global ALMA project, but also the possibility to participate on a par with their European colleagues in the future projects of ESO, including the realisation of ESO's Extremely Large Telescope project (E-ELT), which is currently in the design phase. All these projects require some of the most advanced technologies in key areas such as optics, detectors, lightweight structures, etc. Austrian participation in ESO opens the door for Austrian industry and major research institutes of the

  20. Ceremony 25th birthday Cern

    SciTech Connect

    2006-05-08

    Célébration du 25ème anniversaire du Cern (jour par jour) avec discours de L.Van Hove et J.B.Adams, des interludes musicals offerts par Mme Mey et ses collègues (au debut 1.mouvement du quatuor avec piano no 3 de L.van Beethoven) Les directeurs généraux procéderont à la remise du souvenir aux membres de personnel ayant 25 années de service dans l'organisation. Un témoignage de reconnaissance est auss fait à l'interprète Mme Zwerner

  1. 25th Birthday Cern- Restaurant

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Cérémonie du 25ème anniversaire du Cern avec plusieurs orateurs et la présence de nombreux autorités cantonales et communales genevoises et personnalités, directeurs généraux, ministres, chercheurs.... Le conseiller féderal et chef du département des affaires étrangères de la confédération Monsieur Pierre Aubert prend la parole pour célébrer à la fois les résultats très remarquables de la coopération internationale en matière scientifique, mais aussi la volonté politique des états européens de mettre en commun leurs ressources pour faire oeuvre d'avenir. Un grand hommage est aussi donné aux deux directeurs disparus, les prof.Bakker et Gregory.

  2. 25th Birthday Cern- Amphi

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Cérémonie du 25ème anniversaire du Cern avec 2 orateurs: le Prof.Weisskopf parle de la signification et le rôle du Cern et le Prof.Casimir(?) fait un exposé sur les rélations entre la science pure et la science appliquée et la "big science" (science légère)

  3. Ceremony 25th birthday Cern

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Célébration du 25ème anniversaire du Cern (jour par jour) avec discours de L.Van Hove et J.B.Adams, des interludes musicals offerts par Mme Mey et ses collègues (au debut 1.mouvement du quatuor avec piano no 3 de L.van Beethoven) Les directeurs généraux procéderont à la remise du souvenir aux membres de personnel ayant 25 années de service dans l'organisation. Un témoignage de reconnaissance est auss fait à l'interprète Mme Zwerner

  4. Spatiotemporal analysis of snow trends in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Roland; Schöner, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    This study presents the spatiotemporal analysis of Austrian snow observations. A set of consistent and reliable long-term time series of snow depth on a daily scale from selected meteorological sites across Austria is used. The time series were collected by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) and the Hydrographical Central Bureau of Austria (HZB). The data cover a time period from the late nineteenth century until today. In the first part of the study spatiotemporal characteristics of seasonal snow depth observations were investigated by the method of principal component analysis (PCA). Furthermore, the spatial patterns of variability have been used for a regionalisation, identifying regions with similar conditions during the base period 1961 to 2010. The results show a clear separation of four major regions including various sub-regions. However, the regionalisation was limited due to sparse data coverage. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall statistical test had been used to assess the significance of trends in snow indices, e.g. snow depth, maximum snow depth, snow cover duration, at monthly and seasonal time scales. In order to remove the influence of the lag-1 serial correlation from the snow data, the trend-free pre-whitening approach was applied. In the monthly and seasonal time series during the period 1961-2010, negative trends in snow indices were significant at the 95% confidence level primarily at stations in the Western and Southern part of Austria. In addition, the correlation between snow observations and gridded HISTALP winter temperature and precipitation fields was investigated. The analysis has shown an increased temperature and decreased precipitation during the 1990s, yielding a pronounced reduction in snow depth and duration. As a matter of fact, the results indicate major shifts of the snow depth and snow cover duration around the 1970s and especially the 1990s, which are predominantly responsible for trends.

  5. Glacier recession in Iceland and Austria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Bayr, Klaus J.

    1992-01-01

    It has been possible to measure glacier recession on the basis of Landsat data, in conjunction with comparisons of the magnitude of recession of a glacier margin with in situ measurements at fixed points along the same margin. Attention is presently given to the cases of Vatnajokull ice cap, in Iceland, and the Pasterze Glacier, in Austria, on the basis of satellite data from 1973-1987 and 1984-1990, respectively. Indications of a trend toward negative mass balance are noted. Nevertheless, while most of the world's small glaciers have been receding, some are advancing either due to local climate or the tidewater glacier cycle.

  6. Glacier recession in Iceland and Austria

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D.K.; Williams, R.S. Jr.; Bayr, K.J. USGS, Reston, VA Keene State College, NH )

    1992-03-01

    It has been possible to measure glacier recession on the basis of Landsat data, in conjunction with comparisons of the magnitude of recession of a glacier margin with in situ measurements at fixed points along the same margin. Attention is presently given to the cases of Vatnajokull ice cap, in Iceland, and the Pasterze Glacier, in Austria, on the basis of satellite data from 1973-1987 and 1984-1990, respectively. Indications of a trend toward negative mass balance are noted. Nevertheless, while most of the world's small glaciers have been receding, some are advancing either due to local climate or the tidewater glacier cycle. 21 refs.

  7. Surveillance of Legionnaires' disease in Austria.

    PubMed

    Schmid, D; Wewalka, G; Allerberger, F

    2005-05-01

    Seven foreign cases of travel-associated Legionnaires' disease were associated with two neighbouring tourist villages in Austria between 1992 and 2004. The seven foreigners stayed in four hotels located in a geographical diameter of less than 10 km. Two cases were diagnosed in The Netherlands and five in the UK. The first case occurred in 1992, while the remaining cases clustered between August 2000 and April 2004. None of these cases was reported officially as part of a hotel-associated cluster, thereby highlighting several weaknesses of the infectious disease control systems involved. PMID:15819872

  8. eHealth Terminology Management in Austria.

    PubMed

    Seerainer, Carina; Sabutsch, Stefan W

    2016-01-01

    When it comes to establishing and operating a nationwide personal health record (PHR), effective and efficient terminology management including the development, administration, maintenance and publishing of terminologies is a precondition for semantic interoperability. In the Austrian national patient health record "ELGA" all relevant terminologies are provided and distributed by means of a CTS2-conformant terminology server. In the following article, issues and lessons learned from terminology management in a large-scale eHealth project are presented. Experience has proved the necessity of a national authority for medical terminology management in Austria. PMID:27577418

  9. Results on perfluorocarbon background concentrations in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piringer, Martin; Baumann, Kathrin; Rötzer, Harald; Riesing, Johann; Nodop, Katrin

    Results of Perfluorocarbon background concentrations in Austria are presented, which were taken at the beginning of 1994 in preparation for the European Tracer Experiment ETEX. Two very different weather regimes, a mild westerly current and a continental spell with easterly air flow, were chosen to comprise a variety of weather situations. The concentrations obtained are generally higher than those from prior experiments, but there is no systematic dependence on meteorological parameters; slightly higher values have been obtained during easterly flow for all components measured.

  10. Statistics about torrents in Lower Austria, status from May 2015.

    PubMed

    Lepuschitz, Ehrenfried

    2015-09-01

    This data presents analyzed data exports of Austrian torrent and avalanche cadaster (TAC) in May 2015. The TAC is developed by Austrian Service for Torrent and Avalanche Control. Data are viewed from different aspects and combinations geographically in the area of Lower Austria, a province of Austria. PMID:26401518

  11. Preparation and Characterization of a Monoclonal Antibody Against the Core Protein VP7 of the 25th Serotype of Bluetongue Virus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao; Liu, Qi; He, Jia; Zang, Mingxin; Wang, Haixiu; Li, Yijing

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a member of the genus Orbivirus, within the family Reoviridae. The VP7 protein of BTV is used for developing group-specific serological assays. To prepare monoclonal antibody (MAb) against VP7 of the 25th serotype BTV, the RNA S7 encoding VP7 was cloned into prokaryotic expression vectors pET-28a (+) and pGEX-6P-1 to generate recombinant plasmids. The recombinant protein VP7 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), respectively. The results of SDS-PAGE revealed that the VP7 was expressed and the molecular mass of recombinant fusion protein pET-28a (+)/VP7 and pGEX-6P-1/VP7 was approximately 44 kDa and 64 kDa, respectively. The Western blot analysis indicated that the recombinant VP7 possessed good immunoreactivity. After purification, pET-28a (+)/VP7 was used to immunize BALB/c mice, while pGEX-6P-1/VP7 was used to screen for well-to-well MAb-secreting hybridomas. The hybridoma cell line 3H7 against recombinant VP7 that secreted MAbs was obtained. The isotype of 3H7 was identified as IgG1. The purification of recombinant VP7 protein and the monoclonal antibody will have potential applications on competitive ELISA format for BT-specific serum detection method. PMID:25897610

  12. Preparation and Characterization of a Monoclonal Antibody Against the Core Protein VP7 of the 25th Serotype of Bluetongue Virus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao; Liu, Qi; He, Jia; Zang, Mingxin; Wang, Haixiu; Li, Yijing; Tang, Lijie

    2015-04-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a member of the genus Orbivirus, within the family Reoviridae. The VP7 protein of BTV is used for developing group-specific serological assays. To prepare monoclonal antibody (MAb) against VP7 of the 25th serotype BTV, the RNA S7 encoding VP7 was cloned into prokaryotic expression vectors pET-28a (+) and pGEX-6P-1 to generate recombinant plasmids. The recombinant protein VP7 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), respectively. The results of SDS-PAGE revealed that the VP7 was expressed and the molecular mass of recombinant fusion protein pET-28a (+)/VP7 and pGEX-6P-1/VP7 was approximately 44 kDa and 64 kDa, respectively. The Western blot analysis indicated that the recombinant VP7 possessed good immunoreactivity. After purification, pET-28a (+)/VP7 was used to immunize BALB/c mice, while pGEX-6P-1/VP7 was used to screen for well-to-well MAb-secreting hybridomas. The hybridoma cell line 3H7 against recombinant VP7 that secreted MAbs was obtained. The isotype of 3H7 was identified as IgG1. The purification of recombinant VP7 protein and the monoclonal antibody will have potential applications on competitive ELISA format for BT-specific serum detection method. PMID:25897610

  13. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Austria.

    PubMed

    Hainfellner, J A; Jellinger, K; Diringer, H; Guentchev, M; Kleinert, R; Pilz, P; Maier, H; Budka, H

    1996-08-01

    Between 1969 and 30 September 1995, 79 Austrian patients had Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) diagnosed neuropathologically by necropsy or biopsy. The annual incidence has significantly increased in recent years (average 0.18 per million in 1969-85, and 0.67 per million in 1986-94; estimate for 1995: 1.5 per million). Also, the percentage of patients with CJD over 70 years at death increased significantly until 1989 but is since in decline. There is no regional clustering, familial occurrence, or recognised iatrogenic risk. One patient had a 10 year history of intramuscular injection of purified bovine RNA preparation (Regeneresen) from various organs including the brian. The ages at death are symmetrically distributed around the median of 64 years. The median duration of disease is four months. Most patients (76%) died within six months of onset. Retrospectively, 86% of patients fulfilled clinical criteria of probable or possible CJD. Neuropathology showed the classic triad of spongiform change, astrogliosis, and neuronal loss in most cases. Two cases did not show unequivocal tissue alterations, but anti-PrP immunocytochemistry detected PrP deposits also in these cases. It is concluded that the recent rise in incidence of CJD in Austria most likely reflects increased awareness and diagnosis of CJD rather than a real increase. As bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has not been reported in Austria, the data do not support a link between a rise in incidence of sporadic CJD and BSE. PMID:8708680

  14. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria.

    PubMed

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction. PMID:26479843

  15. Graduate Education--Past--Present--Future. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Graduate Schools in the United States (25th, Anaheim, California, December 11-14, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalil, Edna M., Ed.

    This proceedings document contains papers presented at the 25th anniversary meeting of the Council of Graduate Schools in the United States (CGS); information on the CGS business meeting, notices of awards presentations, copies of the CGS constitution and bylaws, and a CGS membership list. Topics and presenters are as follows: "Current Issues in…

  16. The Human Face of Technological Change. Theme Papers from the Silver Jubilee Conference of the Australian College of Education (25th, Australian Capital Territory, Canberra, May 5-9, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Shirley, Ed.

    Papers presented at the 25th annual conference of the Australia College of Education addressed four major themes: The Brave New World of 1984; The Communications Revolution; Being Human in a Technological Age; and Implications of the Technological Society of Education. Papers in this volume include: (1) "The Challenge of Education in the Brave New…

  17. Informing Policy and Practice in Australia's Vocational Education and Training Sector: Reflections and Futures. Proceedings of the 25th Anniversary Forum of the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, March 21, 2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Penelope, Ed.; Loveder, Phil, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    To mark the occasion of its 25th anniversary, the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) brought together policy, industry and academic leaders to reflect on the role that research and statistics have played in the development of Australia's vocational education and training (VET) sector. This publication includes the original…

  18. Mathematics Education in the South Pacific. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia Incorporated (25th, Auckland, New Zealand, July 7-10, 2002). Volume I [and] Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Bill, Ed.; Irwin, Kathryn C., Ed.; Pfannkuch, Maxine, Ed.; Thomas, Michael O. J., Ed.

    This document contains the proceedings of the 25th annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australia (MERGA) held at the University of Auckland, New Zealand. The focus of this meeting is mathematics education in the South Pacific. Presentations are centered around the topic of numeracy in primary or elementary school.…

  19. Children's Rights and School Psychology: An Introduction to the Multiple Journal Series Honoring the 25th Anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mcloughlin, Caven S.; Hart, Stuart N.

    2014-01-01

    This year, 2014, is the 25th anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child--the world's "positive ideology" and its clearest statement of commitments to and respect and aspirations for the dignity of the child. To commemorate this landmark, a program of articles by respected experts has been organized to…

  20. The Quest for Excellence in Teacher Education. International Perspectives on Improving the Quality of Teacher Education. Proceedings of the World Assembly of the International Council on Education for Teaching (25th, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 24-28, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Howard B., Ed.; Klassen, Frank H., Ed.

    This document contains the proceedings of the 25th World Assembly of the International Council on Education for Teaching. The Assembly focused on the topic of improving teacher education on a global scale. Leading educators from every continent participated in workshops, plenary sessions, and group discussions on a variety of topics dealing with…

  1. Austria`s efforts to control CO{sub 2}-emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Hackl, A.E.

    1997-12-31

    In the National Energy Report of 1990 the Austrian Government expressed its intention to meet the Toronto-target by the year 2005. This statement is also part of the National Energy Reports of 1993 and 1996 including a list of measures to reduce CO{sub 2}-emissions proper for Austrian conditions. By becoming member of the European Union in 1995 Austria automatically is in duty to contribute to the target of stabilizing the CO{sub 2}-emissions of the European Union as a whole in 2000 on basis of 1990. Furthermore, all nine provincial governments of Austria and nearly all of its cities have signed the Climate Alliance which means to reach a 50% reduction of CO{sub 2}-emissions in these areas in the year 2010 calculated on the level of emissions in 1988. In Austria, the main strategies to control CO{sub 2}-emissions reflect the fact that about 70% of electricity generation is based on hydropower, furthermore that about 12 % of the demand on primary energy is covered by biomass. An overview will be given over measures and legal framework already in force or in preparation and those advised for implementation. Some of these measures have been calculated concerning their potential for reduction of CO{sub 2}-emissions, however, only for a few ones a point of time is given at which the target should be met. On basis of the present situation Austria has good chances to meet the stabilization target of the European Union. Chances to meet the Toronto target however are - similar to other industrialized countries - not very realistic.

  2. Virus meningo-encephalitis in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Verlinde, J. D.; van Tongeren, H. A. E.; Pattyn, S. R.; Rosenzweig, A.

    1955-01-01

    Two virus strains were isolated from the central nervous systems of two fatal human cases during an epidemic of encephalomyelitis in Austria. Monkeys, mice, and chick embryos proved susceptible; rabbits and guinea-pigs were refractory. The experimental disease in monkeys was characterized by acute meningo-encephalomyelitis, which was localized particularly in the grey matter of the brain stem, the cerebellum, the medulla, and the anterior horns of the spinal cord. The virus produced discrete lesions on the chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In monkeys, viraemia was demonstrated for a period of at least 6-8 days before the development of the clinical illness. The virus was shown to be closely related to that of Russian spring-summer encephalitis. Neutralizing and complement-fixing antibodies could be demonstrated in patients' sera. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12 PMID:14378999

  3. Elemental composition of game meat from Austria.

    PubMed

    Ertl, Kathrin; Kitzer, Roland; Goessler, Walter

    2016-06-01

    Concentrations of 26 elements (B, Na, Mg, P, S, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ba, Hg, Pb, U) in wild game meat from Austria were analysed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. All investigated animals were culled during the hunting season 2012/2013, including 10 chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), 9 hare (Lepus europaeus), 10 pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), 10 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 12 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 10 wild boar (Sus scrofa). In 19 out of 61 meat samples lead concentrations were higher than 0.1 mg/kg, the maximum limit in meat as set by the European Commission (Regulation EC No 1881/2006), which is most likely caused by ammunition residues. Especially, pellet shot animals and chamois show a high risk for lead contamination. Despite ammunition residues all investigated muscle samples show no further health risk with respect to metal contamination. PMID:26886253

  4. Space Radar Image of Oetzal, Austria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This image is a false-color composite of Oetzal, Austria located in the Central Alps centered at 46.8 degrees north latitude, 10.70 degrees east longitude, at the border between Switzerland (top), Italy (left) and Austria (right and bottom). The area shown is 50 kilometers (30 miles) south of Innsbruck, Austria. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 14th orbit. Oetztal is a SIR-C/X-SAR hydrology supersite. Approximately one quarter of this image is covered by glaciers, the largest of which, Gepatschferner, is visible as a triangular yellow patch in the center of the scene. The summits of the main peaks reach elevations between 3,500 and 3,768 meters (11,500 and 12,362 feet) above sea level. The tongues of the glaciers are descending from elevated plateaus down into narrow valleys which were formed during the last ice age. This color image was produced in C-band using multi-polarization information (red=CHV, green=CVV,blue=CVV/CHV). The blue areas are lakes (Gepatsch dam at center right; Lake Muta at top right) and glacier ice. The yellow areas are slopes facing the radar and areas of dry snow. Purple corresponds to slopes facing away from the radar. Yellow in the valley bottom corresponds to tree covered areas. There is 30 to 50 centimeters (12 to 20 inches) of dry, fresh snow on the glaciers, and about 10 centimeters (4 inches) in the valley at the city of Vent, Austria (center). At these data were taken, the weather was cold, with snow and thick fog. The entire area would appear white to an optical sensor because it is all covered under a winter snowpack. Researchers are interested in Oetztal because knowing how glaciers shrink and grow over time is an important indication of climatic change. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE). The radars illuminate Earth with

  5. Evaluation of groundwater droughts in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Johannes Christoph; Birk, Steffen

    2015-04-01

    Droughts are abnormally dry periods that affect various aspects of human life on earth, ranging from negative impacts on agriculture or industry, to being the cause for conflict and loss of human life. The changing climate reinforces the importance of investigations into this phenomenon. Various methods to analyze and classify droughts have been developed. These include drought indices such as the Standard Precipitation Index SPI, the Palmer Drought Severity Index PDSI or the Crop Moisture Index CMI. These and other indices consider meteorological parameters and/or their effects on soil moisture. A depletion of soil moisture triggered by low precipitation and high evapotranspiration may also cause reduced groundwater recharge and thus decreasing groundwater levels and reduced groundwater flow to springs, streams, and wetlands. However, the existing indices were generally not designed to address such drought effects on groundwater. Thus, a Standardized Groundwater level Index has recently been proposed by Bloomfied and Marchant (2013). Yet, to our knowledge, this approach has only been applied to consolidated aquifers in the UK. This work analyzes time series of groundwater levels from various, mostly unconsolidated aquifers in Austria in order to characterize the effects of droughts on aquifers in different hydrogeologic and climatic settings as well as under different usage scenarios. In particular, comparisons are made between the water rich Alpine parts of Austria, and the dryer parts situated in the East. The time series of groundwater levels are compared to other data, such as meteorological time series and written weather records about generally accepted phenomena, such as the 2003 European drought and heat wave. Thus, valuable insight is gained into the propagation of meteorological droughts through the soil and the aquifer in different types of hydrogeologic and climatic settings, which provides a prerequisite for the assessment of the aquifers' drought

  6. National survey of women in physics in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkmann, C.; Rodriguez, A.; Brodacz, I.; Dilaver, N.; Suárez, A.; Ayala, P.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports very generally on changes in the situation of women in physics in Austria since 2008 and more specifically on a national web-based survey that was distributed among physicists in Austria. It was aimed at understanding why few women are motivated to study physics and to follow an academic path. Family responsibilities— among others—seem to have a deep impact on women's careers. In Austria, initiatives to support women in scientific careers are quite well known throughout the physics community, and a high percentage of women responding to the survey said they had participated in at least one of them.

  7. Genome research in Austria--a program of the future.

    PubMed

    Pasterk, Markus G

    2002-11-01

    Genome research is a central area both for progress in scientific findings in life sciences and for the innovative capacity in medical science, and the pharmaceutical and biotech industries. The research findings obtained by interdisciplinary cooperation are of paramount epistemological importance. They will establish a new understanding of biology. In this context, there will be revolutionary opportunities for new medical therapies, for instance, or for keeping plants and animals healthy. Austria will participate in this science and innovation field and will use the resulting opportunities for scientific and economic development as well as for overall social prosperity. For this purpose, [corrected] Austria has developed the 'Austrian Genome Research Programme', a 'programme of the future' for Austria. This program will be based on the good foundations that genome research has already established in Austria. PMID:12437484

  8. Multidisciplinary approach for the study of an Egyptian coffin (late 22nd/early 25th dynasty): combining imaging and spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Bracci, S; Caruso, O; Galeotti, M; Iannaccone, R; Magrini, D; Picchi, D; Pinna, D; Porcinai, S

    2015-06-15

    This paper demonstrates that an educated methodology based on both non-invasive and micro invasive techniques in a two-step approach is a powerful tool to characterize the materials and stratigraphies of an Egyptian coffin, which was restored several times. This coffin, belonging to a certain Mesiset, is now located at the Museo Civico Archeologico of Bologna (inventory number MCABo EG 1963). Scholars attributed it to the late 22nd/early 25th dynasty by stylistic comparison. The first step of the diagnostic approach applied imaging techniques on the whole surface in order to select measurements spots and to unveil both original and restored areas. Images and close microscopic examination of the polychrome surface allowed selecting representative areas to be investigated in situ by portable spectroscopic techniques: X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Fiber Optic Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). After the analysis of the results coming from the first step, very few selected samples were taken to clarify the stratigraphy of the polychrome layers. The first step, based on the combination of imaging and spectroscopic techniques in a totally non-invasive modality, is quite unique in the literature on Egyptian coffins and enabled us to reveal many differences in the ground layer's composition and to identify a remarkable number of pigments in the original and restored areas. This work offered also a chance to check the limitations of the non-invasive approach applied on a complex case, namely the right localization of different materials in the stratigraphy and the identification of binding media. Indeed, to dissolve any remaining doubts on superimposed layers belonging to different interventions, it was necessary to sample few micro-fragments in some selected areas and analyze them prepared as cross-sections. The original ground layer is made of calcite, while the restored areas show the presence of either a mixture of calcite

  9. Multidisciplinary approach for the study of an Egyptian coffin (late 22nd/early 25th dynasty): Combining imaging and spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracci, S.; Caruso, O.; Galeotti, M.; Iannaccone, R.; Magrini, D.; Picchi, D.; Pinna, D.; Porcinai, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper demonstrates that an educated methodology based on both non-invasive and micro invasive techniques in a two-step approach is a powerful tool to characterize the materials and stratigraphies of an Egyptian coffin, which was restored several times. This coffin, belonging to a certain Mesiset, is now located at the Museo Civico Archeologico of Bologna (inventory number MCABo EG 1963). Scholars attributed it to the late 22nd/early 25th dynasty by stylistic comparison. The first step of the diagnostic approach applied imaging techniques on the whole surface in order to select measurements spots and to unveil both original and restored areas. Images and close microscopic examination of the polychrome surface allowed selecting representative areas to be investigated in situ by portable spectroscopic techniques: X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Fiber Optic Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). After the analysis of the results coming from the first step, very few selected samples were taken to clarify the stratigraphy of the polychrome layers. The first step, based on the combination of imaging and spectroscopic techniques in a totally non-invasive modality, is quite unique in the literature on Egyptian coffins and enabled us to reveal many differences in the ground layer's composition and to identify a remarkable number of pigments in the original and restored areas. This work offered also a chance to check the limitations of the non-invasive approach applied on a complex case, namely the right localization of different materials in the stratigraphy and the identification of binding media. Indeed, to dissolve any remaining doubts on superimposed layers belonging to different interventions, it was necessary to sample few micro-fragments in some selected areas and analyze them prepared as cross-sections. The original ground layer is made of calcite, while the restored areas show the presence of either a mixture of calcite

  10. [Suicides in Austria: update on present state and recent trends].

    PubMed

    Kapusta, Nestor; Sonneck, Gernot

    2012-01-01

    Suicide rates exceed fatal traffic accidents two-fold in Austria but have been decreasing since 1987. Against common perceptions, approximately 75 % of all suicides in Austria are commited by men each year and while suicide attempts are more common in adolescents, completed suicides increase with age. Studies show that suicide rates are more common in rural than in urban areas and are associated with socio-economic factors. Nationwide prevention efforts should keep these epidemiological aspects in mind. PMID:23055303

  11. Genetic Variation of Bordetella pertussis in Austria.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Birgit; Melzer, Helen; Freymüller, Georg; Stumvoll, Sabine; Rendi-Wagner, Pamela; Paulke-Korinek, Maria; Repa, Andreas; Mooi, Frits R; Kollaritsch, Herwig; Mittermayer, Helmut; Kessler, Harald H; Stanek, Gerold; Steinborn, Ralf; Duchêne, Michael; Wiedermann, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    In Austria, vaccination coverage against Bordetella pertussis infections during infancy is estimated at around 90%. Within the last years, however, the number of pertussis cases has increased steadily, not only in children but also in adolescents and adults, indicating both insufficient herd immunity and vaccine coverage. Waning immunity in the host and/or adaptation of the bacterium to the immunised hosts could contribute to the observed re-emergence of pertussis. In this study we therefore addressed the genetic variability in B. pertussis strains from several Austrian cities. Between the years 2002 and 2008, 110 samples were collected from Vienna (n = 32), Linz (n = 63) and Graz (n = 15) by nasopharyngeal swabs. DNA was extracted from the swabs, and bacterial sequence polymorphisms were examined by MLVA (multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis) (n = 77), by PCR amplification and conventional Sanger sequencing of the polymorphic regions of the prn (pertactin) gene (n = 110), and by amplification refractory mutation system quantitative PCR (ARMS-qPCR) (n = 110) to directly address polymorphisms in the genes encoding two pertussis toxin subunits (ptxA and ptxB), a fimbrial adhesin (fimD), tracheal colonisation factor (tcfA), and the virulence sensor protein (bvgS). Finally, the ptxP promoter region was screened by ARMS-qPCR for the presence of the ptxP3 allele, which has been associated with elevated production of pertussis toxin. The MLVA analysis revealed the highest level of polymorphisms with an absence of MLVA Type 29, which is found outside Austria. Only Prn subtypes Prn1/7, Prn2 and Prn3 were found with a predominance of the non-vaccine type Prn2. The analysis of the ptxA, ptxB, fimD, tcfA and bvgS polymorphisms showed a genotype mixed between the vaccine strain Tohama I and a clinical isolate from 2006 (L517). The major part of the samples (93%) displayed the ptxP3 allele. The consequences for the vaccination strategy are discussed. PMID

  12. Twenty Years of Acanthamoeba Diagnostics in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Walochnik, Julia; Scheikl, Ute; Haller-Schober, Eva-Maria

    2015-01-01

    Acanthamoebae are the causative agents of an often seriously progressing keratitis (AK) occurring predominantly in contact lens wearers and can cause several disseminating infections potentially resulting in granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) in the immunocompromised host. Our institution is the Austrian reference laboratory for Acanthamoeba diagnostics and the aim of this study was to give an overview of proven cases of Acanthamoeba infections in Austria during the past 20 yr. All samples of patients with suspected AK or GAE were screened for Acanthamoeba spp. by culture and/or PCR and the detected amoebae were genotyped. Altogether, 154 cases of AK and three cases of GAE were diagnosed. Age of the AK patients ranged from 8 to 82 yr (mean 37.8) and 58% of the patients were female. Approximately 89% of the AK patients were contact lens wearers, almost all cases were unilateral and 19% of the patients required a keratoplasty. Age of the GAE patients ranged from 2 to 25 yr (mean 14.7), all were HIV-negative, but two were severely immunosuppressed at the time of diagnosis. The predominant genotype in the AK cases was T4, other genotypes found were T3, T5, T6, T10 and T11. The three GAE cases involved genotypes T2, T4 and T5. PMID:25047131

  13. PREFACE: 11th Asia-Pacific Conference on Plasma Science and Technology (APCPST-11) and 25th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-25)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Takayuki; Kaneko, Toshio; Sekine, Makoto; Tanaka, Yasunori

    2013-06-01

    The 11th Asia-Pacific Conference on Plasma Science and Technology (APCPST-11) was held in Kyoto, Japan on 2-5 October 2012 with the 25th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-25). SPSM has been held annually since 1988 under the sponsorship of The 153rd Committee on Plasma Materials Science, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). This symposium is one of the major activities of the Committee, which is organized by researchers in academia and industry for the purpose of advancing intersectional scientific information exchange and discussion of science and technology of plasma materials processing. APCPST and SPSM are jointly held biennially to survey the current status of low temperature and thermal plasma physics and chemistry for industrial applications. The whole area of plasma processing was covered from fundamentals to applications. Previous meetings were held in China, Japan, Korea, and Australia, attended by scientists from the Asia-Pacific and other countries. The joint conference was organized in plenary lectures, invited, contributed oral presentations and poster sessions. At this meeting, we had 386 participants from 10 countries and 398 presentations, including 26 invited presentations. This year, we arranged special topical sessions that covered green innovation, life innovation, and technical reports from industry. This conference seeks to bring the plasma community together and to create a forum for discussing the latest developments and issues, the challenges ahead in the field of plasma research and applications among engineers and scientists in Asia, the Pacific Rim, as well as Europe. This volume presents 44 papers that were selected via a strict peer-review process from full papers submitted for the proceedings of the conference. The topics range from the basic physics and chemistry of plasma processing to a broad variety of materials processing and environmental applications. This volume offers an overview of recent

  14. Space Radar Image of Oetzal, Austria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a digital elevation model that was geometrically coded directly onto an X-band seasonal change image of the Oetztal supersite in Austria. The image is centered at 46.82 degrees north latitude and 10.79 degrees east longitude. This image is located in the Central Alps at the border between Switzerland, Italy and Austria, 50 kilometers (31 miles) southwest of Innsbruck. It was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994 and on October 5, 1994. It was produced by combining data from these two different data sets. Data obtained in April is green; data obtained in October appears in red and blue, and was used as an enhancement based on the ratio of the two data sets. Areas with a decrease in backscatter from April to October appear in light blue (cyan), such as the large Gepatschferner glacier seen at the left of the image center, and most of the other glaciers in this view. A light blue hue is also visible at the east border of the dark blue Lake Reschensee at the upper left side. This shows a significant rise in the water level. Magenta represents areas with an increase of backscatter from April 10 to October 5. Yellow indicates areas with high radar signal response during both passes, such as the mountain slopes facing the radar. Low radar backscatter signals refer to smooth surface (lakes) or radar grazing areas to radar shadow areas, seen in the southeast slopes. The area is approximately 29 kilometers by 21 kilometers (18 miles by 13.5 miles). The summit of the main peaks reaches elevations of 3,500 to 3,768 meters (xx feet to xx feet)above sea level. The test site's core area is the glacier region of Venter Valley, which is one of the most intensively studied areas for glacier research in the world. Research in Venter Valley (below center)includes studies of glacier dynamics, glacier-climate regions, snowpack conditions and glacier hydrology. About 25 percent of the core test

  15. Characterization of HIV Transmission in South-East Austria

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Harald H.; Haas, Bernhard; Stelzl, Evelyn; Weninger, Karin; Little, Susan J.; Mehta, Sanjay R.

    2016-01-01

    To gain deeper insight into the epidemiology of HIV-1 transmission in South-East Austria we performed a retrospective analysis of 259 HIV-1 partial pol sequences obtained from unique individuals newly diagnosed with HIV infection in South-East Austria from 2008 through 2014. After quality filtering, putative transmission linkages were inferred when two sequences were ≤1.5% genetically different. Multiple linkages were resolved into putative transmission clusters. Further phylogenetic analyses were performed using BEAST v1.8.1. Finally, we investigated putative links between the 259 sequences from South-East Austria and all publicly available HIV polymerase sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory HIV sequence database. We found that 45.6% (118/259) of the sampled sequences were genetically linked with at least one other sequence from South-East Austria forming putative transmission clusters. Clustering individuals were more likely to be men who have sex with men (MSM; p<0.001), infected with subtype B (p<0.001) or subtype F (p = 0.02). Among clustered males who reported only heterosexual (HSX) sex as an HIV risk, 47% clustered closely with MSM (either as pairs or within larger MSM clusters). One hundred and seven of the 259 sequences (41.3%) from South-East Austria had at least one putative inferred linkage with sequences from a total of 69 other countries. In conclusion, analysis of HIV-1 sequences from newly diagnosed individuals residing in South-East Austria revealed a high degree of national and international clustering mainly within MSM. Interestingly, we found that a high number of heterosexual males clustered within MSM networks, suggesting either linkage between risk groups or misrepresentation of sexual risk behaviors by subjects. PMID:26967154

  16. [Prospects for the development of fertility in Austria].

    PubMed

    Nebenfuhr, E

    1992-01-01

    "In Austria, as in most other European countries, after the sharp decline of the mid-60s fertility has stabilized well under replacement level. In the course of the changing structure of family formation and the pluralization of life-styles, the relationship between fertility and nuptiality has turned into a mutual one. Nuptiality is not always the determinant of fertility; it may also be the dependent variable.... Empirical evidence for the last few years suggests that fertility in Austria--and in most other European countries--will stay at a modest level for the coming decades." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12286941

  17. The Distribution of Accommodation Rates in St. Anton, Austria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eysberg, Cees D.

    1984-01-01

    For use in college geography courses which teach spatial analysis, this case study investigated whether hotel rates in the ski resort of St. Anton, Austria, are affected by the hotel's proximity to ski lifts and apres ski establishments. Results showed that tourists are sensitive to distance; spatial behavior is predictable. (RM)

  18. 78 FR 43226 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Register of February 27, 2013 (78 FR 13379). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on May 23, 2013, and... COMMISSION Xanthan Gum From Austria and China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... with material injury by reason of imports from China of xanthan gum provided for in subheading...

  19. Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors in Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huemer, Julia; Karnik, Niranjan; Voelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Steiner, Hans

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of a range of psychopathology among African unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) in Austria. Additionally, the predictive value of war exposure on PTSD symptoms was examined. Forty-one URMs were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents, the Youth Self-Report, the UCLA…

  20. Nosocomial Outbreak of Parechovirus 3 Infection among Newborns, Austria, 2014.

    PubMed

    Strenger, Volker; Diedrich, Sabine; Boettcher, Sindy; Richter, Susanne; Maritschnegg, Peter; Gangl, Dietmar; Fuchs, Simone; Grangl, Gernot; Resch, Bernhard; Urlesberger, Berndt

    2016-09-01

    In 2014, sepsis-like illness affected 9 full-term newborns in 1 hospital in Austria. Although results of initial microbiological testing were negative, electron microscopy identified picornavirus. Archived serum samples and feces obtained after discharge were positive by PCR for human parechovirus 3. This infection should be included in differential diagnoses of sepsis-like illness in newborns. PMID:27532333

  1. Nosocomial Outbreak of Parechovirus 3 Infection among Newborns, Austria, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Diedrich, Sabine; Boettcher, Sindy; Richter, Susanne; Maritschnegg, Peter; Gangl, Dietmar; Fuchs, Simone; Grangl, Gernot; Resch, Bernhard; Urlesberger, Berndt

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, sepsis-like illness affected 9 full-term newborns in 1 hospital in Austria. Although results of initial microbiological testing were negative, electron microscopy identified picornavirus. Archived serum samples and feces obtained after discharge were positive by PCR for human parechovirus 3. This infection should be included in differential diagnoses of sepsis-like illness in newborns. PMID:27532333

  2. "Crafts and Technology" and "Technical Education" in Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiter, Josef

    2009-01-01

    In Austria, the syllabus for "Technisches Werken/Crafts and Technology" for all types of school in general education was issued more than 30 years ago. The authors believed that it might lay the foundations for technical literacy. The paper is about how the situation of the subject and, with it, technical education has developed since then in…

  3. First genetic evidence of leprosy in early medieval Austria.

    PubMed

    Gausterer, Christian; Stein, Christina; Teschler-Nicola, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Leprosy used to be a widespread, dreaded disease in Europe during the middle ages, and it still remains an important health problem in some parts of the world today. Herein, we present data on the earliest 'Austrian' (an adult female from the early medieval period) proven to have suffered from leprosy. Manifestations of the disease were first identified during a systematic screening of pathological changes in skeletons recovered from an archaeological site in Pottenbrunn (Lower Austria). In the present study, DNA extracts from selected cranial and postcranial bone samples were investigated using polymerase chain reaction primers specific to the Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) repetitive element (RLEP). M. leprae traces were detected in extracts from nasal and palatine bones. Sequence analysis of informative polymorphic sites supports previous reports indicating that European M. leprae strains fall into single nucleotide polymorphism group 3. In summary, these findings put Austria on the map of confirmed leprosy cases in ancient Europe. PMID:25007893

  4. Efficiency, ownership, and financing of hospitals: the case of Austria.

    PubMed

    Czypionka, Thomas; Kraus, Markus; Mayer, Susanne; Röhrling, Gerald

    2014-12-01

    While standard economic theory posits that privately owned hospitals are more efficient than their public counterparts, no clear conclusion can yet be drawn for Austria in this regard. As previous Austrian efficiency studies rely on data from the 1990s only and are based on small hospital samples, the generalizability of these results is questionable. To examine the impact of ownership type on efficiency, we apply a Data Envelopment Analysis which extends the existing literature in two respects: first, it evaluates the efficiency of the Austrian acute care sector, using data on 128 public and private non-profit hospitals from the year 2010; second, it additionally focusses on the inpatient sector alone, thus increasing the comparability between hospitals. Overall, the results show that in Austria, private non-profit hospitals outperform public hospitals in terms of technical efficiency. A multiple regression analysis confirms the significant association between efficiency and ownership type. This conclusive result contrasts some international evidence and can most likely be attributed to differences in financial incentives for public and private non-profit hospitals in Austria. Therefore, by drawing on the example of the Austrian acute care hospital sector and existing literature on the German acute care hospital sector, we also discuss the impact of hospital financing systems and their incentives on efficiency. This paper thus also aims at providing a proof of principle, pointing out the importance of the respective market conditions when internationally comparing hospital efficiency by ownership type. PMID:24338279

  5. Changes of the transverse diameter and volume and dosimetry before the 25th fraction during the course of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Haihua; Hu Wei; Ding Weijun; Shan Guoping; Wang Wei; Yu Changhui; Wang Biyun; Shao Minghai; Wang Jianhua; Yang Weifang

    2012-07-01

    To quantify changes of the transverse diameter and volume and dosimetry, and to illustrate the inferiority of non-replanning during intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Fifty-three NPC patients who received IMRT in 33 fractions were enrolled in this prospective trial. Before the 25th fraction, a new simulation computed tomography (CT) scan was acquired for all patients. The dose-volume histograms of the phantom plan were compared with the initial plan. Significant reduction of the transverse diameter of the nasopharyngeal, the neck, and 2 parotid glands volume was observed on second CT compared with the first CT (mean reduction 7.48 {+-} 4.45 mm, 6.80 {+-} 15.14 mm, 5.70 {+-} 6.26 mL, and 5.04 {+-} 5.85 mL, respectively; p < 0.01). The maximum dose and V-40 of the spinal cord, mean dose, and V30 of the left and right parotid, and V-50 of the brain stem were increased significantly in the phantom plan compared with the initial plan (mean increase 4.75 {+-} 5.55 Gy, 7.18 {+-} 10.07%, 4.51 {+-} 8.55 Gy, 6.59 {+-} 17.82%, 5.33 {+-} 8.55 Gy, 11.68 {+-} 17.11% and 1.48 {+-} 3.67%, respectively; p < 0.01). On the basis of dose constraint criterion in the RTOG0225 protocol, the dose of the normal critical structures for 52.83% (28/53) of the phantom plans were out of limit compared with 1.89% (1/53) of the initial plans (p < 0.0001). Because of the significant change in anatomy and dose before the 25th fraction during IMRT, replanning should be necessary during IMRT with NPC.

  6. The 25th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-two papers are documented regarding aeronautical and spacecraft hardware. Technological areas include actuators, latches, cryogenic mechanisms, vacuum tribology, bearings, robotics, ground support equipment for aerospace applications, and other mechanisms.

  7. Occurrence of Isospora suis in Germany, Switzerland and Austria.

    PubMed

    Mundt, H-C; Cohnen, A; Daugschies, A; Joachim, A; Prosl, H; Schmäschke, R; Westphal, B

    2005-03-01

    Nationwide surveys for the occurrence of Isospora suis were carried out in Germany, Austria and Switzerland including a questionnaire regarding herd size, health status and management practices and a coccidiosis sampling kit for pooled faecal samples from litters of suckling piglets. A total of 184 veterinary practices participated in the survey and returned 1745 samples (331 kits) from 324 farms in the north (n = 98), south (n = 84), centre/east (n = 42) and west (n = 10) of Germany, Austria (n = 61) and Switzerland (n = 29) with larger farms in north and centre/east (average number of sows: 270 and 500) and smaller ones in the south (95), Austria (60) and Switzerland (43). Larger farms tended to have better hygienic standards (slatted floors, disinfection of the farrowing units). The majority of the participating farms (93.5%) reported problems with diarrhoea in piglets at 2-3 weeks of age, significantly associated (P < 0.001) with uneven weaning weights (94.9%). Toltrazuril (5%; Baycox) was used only rarely; however, in these farms unevenness of weaning weights was less frequently observed (P = 0.011). A 76.2% of the farms were positive for I. suis (samples contained mostly low or moderate oocyst numbers), especially in the south (P < 0.001). Oocysts were more frequently found in samples from farms with reported diarrhoea (P = 0.011), uneven weight gain (P = 0.019) or in herds of small size (P < 0.001). Disinfection, floor type or treatment with toltrazuril did not affect the frequency of observation of oocysts. PMID:15752269

  8. Smoking and lung cancer: current trends in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Caroline A.; Waldhör, Thomas; Schernhammer, Eva S.; Hackl, Monika; Vutuc, Christian; Haidinger, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Despite a recent decline in smoking behavior in many European countries, lung cancer rates remain high, especially in Central and Eastern Europe. This paper aims to describe trends in smoking behavior and lung cancer incidence and mortality, including histopathological classification of lung cancer, in a Central European country: Austria. Methods Using data from the Austrian Central Cancer Registry, we calculated age-standardized incidence, histopathology-specific incidence, and age-standardized and birth cohort-specific mortality rates for all lung cancer cases in Austria. Using national survey data, we estimated prevalence of smoking in the Austrian population. Our analysis covers the time period from 1970 to 2009. Results In 2009, lung cancer incidence rates were 41.3/100,000 and 18.5/100,000 and mortality rates were 36.3/100,000 and14.5/100,000, for males and females, respectively. Male lung cancer rates declined but increased steadily in females over the past three decades. In 2009, the most common histological type is adenocarcinoma, which reflects a shift from predominantly squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma in the mid 1980s. In 2009, 27 % of men and 19 % of women were smokers, which represent a rise of smoking rates in women, especially in younger women, and a decline in the men. Conclusions While in Austrian men the lung cancer rates, in accordance with their decreasing prevalence of smoking, declined over the past 30 years, the increasing smoking prevalence and lung cancer rates in women remain a public health concern. Antismoking laws and public health initiatives to curtail smoking habits are needed in Austria, especially targeting younger women. PMID:22815002

  9. Multiple Infections of Rodents with Zoonotic Pathogens in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Sabrina; Essbauer, Sandra S.; Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Poppert, Sven; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Klempa, Boris; Henning, Klaus; Schares, Gereon; Groschup, Martin H.; Spitzenberger, Friederike; Richter, Dania; Heckel, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Rodents are important reservoirs for a large number of zoonotic pathogens. We examined the occurrence of 11 viral, bacterial, and parasitic agents in rodent populations in Austria, including three different hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox virus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Toxoplasma gondii. In 2008, 110 rodents of four species (40 Clethrionomys glareolus, 29 Apodemus flavicollis, 26 Apodemus sylvaticus, and 15 Microtus arvalis) were trapped at two rural sites in Lower Austria. Chest cavity fluid and samples of lung, spleen, kidney, liver, brain, and ear pinna skin were collected. We screened selected tissue samples for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, Leptospira, Borrelia, Rickettsia, Bartonella spp., C. burnetii, and T. gondii by RT-PCR/PCR and detected nucleic acids of Tula hantavirus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia afzelii, Rickettsia spp., and different Bartonella species. Serological investigations were performed for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, and Rickettsia spp. Here, Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus-, Tula hantavirus-, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-, orthopox virus-, and rickettsia-specific antibodies were demonstrated. Puumala hantavirus, C. burnetii, and T. gondii were neither detected by RT-PCR/PCR nor by serological methods. In addition, multiple infections with up to three pathogens were shown in nine animals of three rodent species from different trapping sites. In conclusion, these results show that rodents in Austria may host multiple zoonotic pathogens. Our observation raises important questions regarding the interactions of different pathogens in the host, the countermeasures of the host's immune system, the impact of the host–pathogen interaction on the fitness of the host, and the spread of infectious agents among wild rodents and from those to other animals or humans. PMID

  10. Short Rotation Coppice in Austria - Management and Producticivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochbichler, E.; Hofmann, H.; Bellos, N.; Zeitlinger, C.; Liebhard, P.

    2012-04-01

    In Austria energy wood production in short rotation coppice systems (SRC) becomes increasingly important to meet the demands of the growing bio-energy sector. In order to successfully develop the SRC market, the achievement of high and constant yields in SRC management is just as important as a reliable harvesting technology, which facilitates the production of high quality wood chips. Yield models and site-specific knowledge about productivity are needed with respect to clones, site factors and management alternatives. Therefore in the years 2007 and 2008 experimental plots (Marchfeld; 16 poplar clones and 19 willow clones) and a network of demonstration plots (different regions in Lower Austria; 7 poplar clones, 4 willow clones) were established. Single shoot surveys and biomass functions in combination with stand inventories form the general basis for estimating yield and productivity. They also help to optimize yield and rotation length by taking the maximum harvestable tree diameter into account, which is determined by harvesting techniques. For optimizing the yield estimation of SRC stands, preliminary clone specific yield functions for poplar and willow clones were developed. These specific yield functions were based on common yield estimation functions with respect to the newly used clones (e.g. faster growth, lower wood density), using a regression analytical approach. Standard stand surveys were carried out in autumn 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010. We were able to show a high variety in biomass production of poplar and willow clones on the specific site. For the first and second rotation cycle the mean productivity of poplar clones was within a range of 4 - 12 t/y/ha and for willow clones within a range of 3 - 17 t/y/ha. These results were compared with the productivity of older experimental plots in Austria. Based on the preliminary results of productivity of poplar and willow clones for various site factors and management alternatives (planting design

  11. Impact of climate change on groundwater resources in Southern Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reszler, C.; Harum, T.; Poltnig, W.; Saccon, P.; Reichl, P.; Ruch, C.; Kopeinig, C.; Freundl, G.; Schlamberger, J.; Zessar, H.; Suette, G.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater is the most important source for drinking water in Austria. In some parts of Southern Austria water resources already are very vulnerable to unfavourable climate conditions. This paper summarizes case studies of estimating the impact of climate change on groundwater recharge and groundwater flow in Southern Austria in the frame of the ETC-Alpine Space project ALP-WATER-SCARCE. In several pilot regions a distributed hydrological model was set up to simulate groundwater recharge and groundwater flow for a period of 10 to 30 years. The pilot sites range from mountainous catchments with steep hillslopes to Alpine valleys and flatlands with pore aquifers. In the model period comprehensive land data and meteorological data were used, and the models were calibrated to available stream gauge data. Additional low flow monitoring in the frame of the project also allowed for a more detailed regional analysis in some catchments. The simulations were firstly used to extend runoff and groundwater recharge depths on an annual basis up to 200 years into the past by regression analysis with long time meteorological parameters (HISTALP). The historical view shows that groundwater flow and recharge in most of the pilot regions decreased since the beginning of the 20th century, which is mainly the effect of climate change. Changes of land use are of minor relevance in most of the regions. Second, by the calibrated model scenarios were simulated to quantify the impact of a possible future change in the climatic conditions on water resources. The scenarios were generated by altering the model input by a "Delta-Change", under consideration of the historical development. These scenarios can be interpreted as "what if"-scenarios to quantify the sensitivity of the hydrological systems on these climatic variables. The results are compared with actual and projected water uses as a basis for regional water resources management.

  12. Energy-efficient Renovation of a Real Estate in AUSTRIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korjenic, Azra; Vašková, Anna

    2015-11-01

    An action have cities worldwide, due to urbanization. More than 70 percent of people in Europe live in cities, where 70 percent of the energy consumed. Without adequate measures, a rapidly growing city is at risk in by overloading the infrastructure, threats to water, energy, pollution, logistical bottlenecks and lack of housing. This paper describes an energy-efficient renovation or expansion planning a real estate in Vorarlberg, Austria. The settlement was analysed in more detail here, it involves the city Dornbirn- part Shor. The study investigated how to extend this settlement energy efficient and what feed for factors in the assessment.

  13. Uncertainty contributions to low-flow projections in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parajka, Juraj; Blaschke, Alfred Paul; Blöschl, Günter; Haslinger, Klaus; Hepp, Gerold; Laaha, Gregor; Schöner, Wolfgang; Trautvetter, Helene; Viglione, Alberto; Zessner, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    The main objective of the paper is to understand the contributions to the uncertainty in low-flow projections resulting from hydrological model uncertainty and climate projection uncertainty. Model uncertainty is quantified by different parameterisations of a conceptual semi-distributed hydrologic model (TUWmodel) using 11 objective functions in three different decades (1976-1986, 1987-1997, 1998-2008), which allows for disentangling the effect of the objective function-related uncertainty and temporal stability of model parameters. Climate projection uncertainty is quantified by four future climate scenarios (ECHAM5-A1B, A2, B1 and HADCM3-A1B) using a delta change approach. The approach is tested for 262 basins in Austria. The results indicate that the seasonality of the low-flow regime is an important factor affecting the performance of model calibration in the reference period and the uncertainty of Q95 low-flow projections in the future period. In Austria, the range of simulated Q95 in the reference period is larger in basins with a summer low-flow regime than in basins with a winter low-flow regime. The accuracy of simulated Q95 may result in a range of up to 60 % depending on the decade used for calibration. The low-flow projections of Q95 show an increase of low flows in the Alps, typically in the range of 10-30 % and a decrease in the south-eastern part of Austria mostly in the range -5 to -20 % for the climate change projected for the future period 2021-2050, relative the reference period 1978-2007. The change in seasonality varies between scenarios, but there is a tendency for earlier low flows in the northern Alps and later low flows in eastern Austria. The total uncertainty of Q95 projections is the largest in basins with a winter low-flow regime and, in some basins the range of Q95 projections exceeds 60 %. In basins with summer low flows, the total uncertainty is mostly less than 20 %. The ANOVA assessment of the relative contribution of the three

  14. Holocaust Education in Austria: A (Hi)story of Complexity and Ambivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastel, Heribert; Matzka, Christian; Miklas, Helene

    2010-01-01

    In Austria, activities for teaching about and remembering the Holocaust have concentrated mainly on National Socialism and its atrocities. Austria's history of political anti-Semitism goes back to the 19th century, however, and has been widely and publicly acknowledged. It has always been linked to nationalistic tendencies that are still present…

  15. 77 FR 65361 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... Austria and the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 77 FR 39210... Determination Deadlines Pursuant to the Tariff Act of 1930, as Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). This notice... International Trade Administration Xanthan Gum From Austria and the People's Republic of China: Postponement...

  16. In situ gamma-spectrometry intercomparison exercise in Salzburg, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettner, H.; Andrasi, A.; Hubmer, A. K.; Lovranich, E.; Steger, F.; Zombori, P.

    1996-02-01

    In situ gamma-spectrometry has become a useful method of assessing the nuclide concentrations of man-made and natural gamma-emitters in the soil. For the quality assurance of the measurements, periodically conducted intercomparison exercises are essential. Therefore exercises were organized in different European countries since 1990, the last one was conducted in Salzburg, Austria in September 1994. The participation of 27 measurement teams from all over Europe emphasizes the importance of the intercomparison. Salzburg was selected because the Province of Salzburg, Austria was among the most heavily contaminated regions outside the former USSR by the Chernobyl fallout. Two different typical sites were selected for the measurements: Site 1 was inside the urban area of Salzburg on intensively used grassland which had not been tilled since the deposition of the fallout. This site is representative for intensively used agricultural regions in the Province of Salzburg. Site 2 was in the mountainous regions of the Hohe Tauern at an elevated altitude of 1600 m, representing the agricultural soil- and contamination conditions of the Alpine regions in the Tauern. The two sites differ significantly in terms of soil characteristics, a crucial parameter for the evaluation of in situ gamma-spectra. The participants used different approaches for the evaluation of the gamma-spectra in terms of considering the depth distribution. In the paper the results from the 24 European teams are presented.

  17. Predictors of participation in preventive health examinations in Austria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preventive health check-ups in Austria are offered free of charge to all insured adults (98% of the population) and focus on early detection of chronic diseases, primary prevention, and health counseling. The study aims to explore predictors of compliance with the recommended interval of preventive health check-up performance. Methods Source of data was the Austrian Health Interview Survey 2006/07 (15,474 subjects). Participation in a preventive health examination during the last three years was used as dependent variable. Socio-demographic and health-related characteristics were used as independent variables in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Results show that 41.6% of men and 41.8% of women had attended a preventive health check-up within the last three years. In multivariate analysis, subjects ≥40 years, with higher education, higher income or born in Austria were significantly more likely to attend a preventive health check-up. Furthermore, a chronic disease was associated with a higher attendance rate (OR: 1.21; CI: 1.07-1.36 in men; OR: 1.19; CI: 1.06-1.33 in women). Conclusions Attendance rates for health check-ups in the general Austrian population are comparatively high but not equally distributed among subgroups. Health check-ups must increase among people at a young age, with a lower socio-economic status, migration background and in good health. PMID:24308610

  18. Towards high resolution soil property maps for Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schürz, Christoph; Klotz, Daniel; Herrnegger, Mathew; Schulz, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    Soil hydraulic properties, such as soil texture, soil water retention characteristics, hydraulic conductivity, or soil depth are important inputs for hydrologic catchment modelling. However, the availability of such data in Austria is often insufficient to fulfill requirements of well-established hydrological models. Either, soil data is available in sufficient spatial resolution but only covers a small extent of the considered area, or the data is comprehensive but rather coarse in its spatial resolution. Furthermore, the level of detail and quality of the data differs between the available data sets. In order to generate a comprehensive soil data set for whole Austria that includes main soil physical properties, as well as soil depth and organic carbon content in a high spatial resolution (10x10 to 100x100m²) several available soil data bases are merged and harmonized. Starting point is a high resolution soil texture map that only covers agricultural areas and is available due to Austrian land appraisal. Soil physical properties for those areas are derived by applying pedotransfer functions (e.g. Saxton and Rawls, 2006) resulting in expectation values and quantiles of the respective property for each soil texture class. For agricultural areas where no texture information is available, the most likely soil texture is assigned applying a Bayesian network approach incorporating information such as elevation, soil slope, soil type, or hydro-geology at different spatial scales. Soil data for forested areas, that cover a large extent of the state territory, are rather sparse in Austria. For such areas a similar approach as for agricultural areas is applied by using a Bayesian network for prediction of the soil texture. Additionally, information to various soil parameters taken from literature is incorporated. For areas that are covered by land use different to agriculture or forestry, such as bare rock surfaces, or wetland areas, solely literature information is used

  19. eParticipation for Adolescent Citizens (in Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelmann, Noella; Hoechtl, Johann; Parycek, Peter

    In Austria, two recent eParticipation projects focused on adolescent citizens. The first project, “mitmachen.at - move your future” was to provide initial experiences with an eParticipation tool. The second project, “Jugend2help”, applied the lessons learned from the “mitmachen.at” project to improve the Austrian public administration web portal for adolescent citizens. In both projects, the results indicate that web portals and eParticpation seems to suit the adolescents’ information and communication needs. Involving the users is central to the development of an eParticipation process or platform so that the users’ specific characteristics (age, skills), needs and interests are included appropriately. The target users’ characteristics are also important for developing a marketing strategy which is able to reach them. Other issues which must also be considered in eParticipation are accessibility, inclusion and possibly gender.

  20. Formaldehyde--study of indoor air pollution in Austria.

    PubMed

    Koeck, M; Pichler-Semmelrock, F P; Schlacher, R

    1997-09-01

    As part of a long-term study of indoor air pollution, formaldehyde concentrations were determined in 792 apartments following complaints by inhabitants. Measurements were carried out using Draeger tubes as well as the acetyl acetone method. In 157 apartments, HCHO concentrations of more than 0.1 ppm, exceeding the recommended standard values for indoor air concentrations, were determined. The concentrations determined tended to decrease over time. As far as they were caused by furnishings, they were limited to the spaces where these furnishings were installed. In older-style prefabricated houses with foam-filled particle-board wall systems, concentrations of more than 1.0 ppm were determined. In spite of legal regulations governing the release of formaldehyde from substances, preparations and products containing formaldehyde which have been in existence in Austria since 1990, this substance must still be considered as a possible factor of indoor pollution in causing feelings of ill-health. PMID:9386898

  1. Molecular genetic investigations on Austria's patron saint Leopold III

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Christiane Maria; Bodner, Martin; Niederstätter, Harald; Niederwieser, Daniela; Huber, Gabriela; Hatzer-Grubwieser, Petra; Holubar, Karl; Parson, Walther

    2013-01-01

    The successful marriage policy of margrave Leopold III increased the importance of the House of Babenberg in late medieval Austria (12th century). Historical documentation is inconclusive in providing evidence whether or not his eldest son Adalbert derived from an earlier relationship or from the marriage with King Henry IV's daughter Agnes of Waiblingen, with whom Leopold is considered to have had 17 children. As a matter of fact Adalbert was ignored in the line of succession in favor of a younger brother, Leopold IV, which has led to long term historical discussions. Human remains attributed to these individuals were subjected to DNA analysis. Autosomal, Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA analyses brought successful results, which suggested that Leopold III, Agnes and Adalbert were related in parent–son constellation, in contrast to historical considerations. A possible mix-up of Adalbert's remains with those of his younger brother Ernst could not be confirmed by DNA analysis. PMID:23142176

  2. Molecular genetic investigations on Austria's patron saint Leopold III.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Christiane Maria; Bodner, Martin; Niederstätter, Harald; Niederwieser, Daniela; Huber, Gabriela; Hatzer-Grubwieser, Petra; Holubar, Karl; Parson, Walther

    2013-02-01

    The successful marriage policy of margrave Leopold III increased the importance of the House of Babenberg in late medieval Austria (12th century). Historical documentation is inconclusive in providing evidence whether or not his eldest son Adalbert derived from an earlier relationship or from the marriage with King Henry IV's daughter Agnes of Waiblingen, with whom Leopold is considered to have had 17 children. As a matter of fact Adalbert was ignored in the line of succession in favor of a younger brother, Leopold IV, which has led to long term historical discussions. Human remains attributed to these individuals were subjected to DNA analysis. Autosomal, Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA analyses brought successful results, which suggested that Leopold III, Agnes and Adalbert were related in parent-son constellation, in contrast to historical considerations. A possible mix-up of Adalbert's remains with those of his younger brother Ernst could not be confirmed by DNA analysis. PMID:23142176

  3. Report on the 5‘th scientific meeting of the “Verein zur Förderung des Wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchses in der Neurologie” (NEUROWIND e.V.) held in Motzen, Germany, Oct. 25th – Oct. 27th, 2013

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    From october 25th - 27th 2013, the 5th NEUROWIND e.V. meeting was held in Motzen, Brandenburg, Germany. This year more than 60 doctoral students and postdocs from over 25 different groups working in German university hospitals or research institutes attended the meeting to discuss their latest findings in the fields of neuroimmunology, neurodegeneration and neurovascular research. All participants appreciated the stimulating environment in Motzen, Brandenburg, and people took the opportunity for scientific exchange, discussion about ongoing projects and already started further collaborations. Like in the previous years, the symposium was regarded as a very well organized platform to support research of young investigators in Germany. According to the major aim of NEUROWIND e.V. to support younger researchers in Germany the 3rd NEUROWIND YOUNG SCIENTIST AWARD for experimental neurology was awarded to Ruth Stassart working in the group of Klaus Armin Nave and Wolfgang Brück (MPI Göttingen and Department of Neuropathology, Göttingen Germany). The successful work was published in Nature Neuroscience entitled “A role for Swann cell-derived neuregulin-1 in remyelination”. This outstanding paper deals with the function of Schwann cell neuregulin as an endogenous factor for myelin repair. The award is endowed with 20.000 Euro sponsored by Merck Serono GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany (unrestricted educational grant). This year’s keynote lecture was given by Albert Ludolph, Head of the Department of Neurology at the University Clinic of Ulm. Dr. Ludolph highlighted the particular role of individual scientists for the development of research concepts in Alzheimer´s disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). PMID:24330587

  4. Reactor instrumentation renewal of the TRIGA reactor Vienna, Austria

    SciTech Connect

    Boeck, H.; Weiss, H.; Hood, W.E.; Hyde, W.K.

    1992-07-01

    The TRIGA Mark-II reactor at the Atominstitut in Vienna, Austria is replacing its twenty-four year old instrumentation system with a microprocessor based control system supplied by General Atomics. Ageing components, new governmental safety requirements and a need for state of the art instrumentation for training students has spurred the demand for new reactor instrumentation. In Austria a government appointed expert is assigned the responsibility of reviewing the proposed installation and verifying all safety aspects. After a positive review, final assembly and checkout of the instrumentation system may commence. The instrumentation system consists of three basic modules: the control system console, the data acquisition console and the NH-1000 wide range channel. Digital communications greatly reduce interwiring requirements. Hardwired safety channels are independent of computer control, thus, the instrumentation system in no way relies on any computer intervention for safety function. In addition, both the CSC and DAC computers are continuously monitored for proper operation via watchdog circuits which are capable of shutting down the reactor in the event of computer malfunction. Safety channels include two interlocked NMP-1000 multi-range linear channels for steady state mode, an NPP-1000 linear safety channel for pulse mode and a set of three independent fuel temperature monitoring channels. The microprocessor controlled wide range NM- 1000 digital neutron monitor (fission chamber based) functions as a startup/operational channel, and provides all power level related Interlocks. The Atominstitut TRIGA reactor is configured for four modes of operation: manual mode, automatic mode (servo control), pulsing mode and square wave mode. Control of the standard control rods is via stepping motor control rod drives, which offers the operator the choice of which control rods are operated by the servo system in automatic and square wave model. (author)

  5. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, M.

    2008-07-01

    The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities. From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets. In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-)insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles), and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions. This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  6. Supporting phosphorus management in Austria: Potential, priorities and limitations.

    PubMed

    Zoboli, Ottavia; Zessner, Matthias; Rechberger, Helmut

    2016-09-15

    Protecting water bodies from eutrophication, ensuring long-term food security and shifting to a circular economy represent compelling objectives to phosphorus management strategies. This study determines how and to which extent the management of phosphorus in Austria can be optimized. A detailed national model, obtained for the year 2013 through Material Flow Analysis, represents the reference situation. Applicability and limitations are discussed for a range of actions aimed at reducing consumption, increasing recycling, and lowering emissions. The potential contribution of each field of action is quantified and compared using three indicators: Import dependency, Consumption of fossil-P fertilizers and Emissions to water bodies. Further, the uncertainty of this assessment is characterized and priorities for the upgrade of data collection are identified. Moreover, all the potential gains discussed in the article are applied to the reference situation to generate an ideal target model. The results show that in Austria a large scope for phosphorus stewardship exists. Strategies based exclusively either on recycling or on the decline of P consumption hold a similar potential to reduce import dependency by 50% each. An enhanced P recycling from meat and bone meal, sewage sludge and compost could replace the current use of fossil-P fertilizers by 70%. The target model, i.e. the maximum that could be achieved taking into account trade-offs between different actions, is characterized by an extremely low import dependency of 0.23kgPcap(-1)y(-1) (2.2kgPcap(-1)y(-1) in 2013), by a 28% decline of emissions to water bodies and by null consumption of fossil-P fertilizers. This case study shows the added value of using Material Flow Analysis as a basis to design sound management strategies. The systemic approach inherent to it allows performing a proper comparative assessment of different actions, identifying priorities, and visualizing a target model. PMID:27177138

  7. Public Perception of Cancer Care in Poland and Austria

    PubMed Central

    Jȩdrzejewski, Mariusz; Thallinger, Christiane; Mrozik, Magda; Kornek, Gabriela; Zielinski, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Background. We compared the public perception of cancer care in Poland and Austria. Both countries are members of the European Union (EU) but reflect two extremes in health-related per capita spending. Recently, the EUROCARE-5 study reported on very discrepant cancer outcomes between the two countries. Methods. A one-time survey was conducted to compare the public perception of cancer treatment in Poland and Austria. In total, 3,649 subjects, representing the general population, cancer patients, and cancer patients’ family members, were surveyed. Results. In both countries, cancer was considered the most challenging problem of the health care system, and health care was indicated as the most important issue influencing political election decisions. Polish compared with Austrian cancer patients gave a significantly lower positive assessment of overall cancer treatment efficacy and detection methods. Cancer cure rates estimated by Polish and Austrian citizens were 29% and 44%, respectively. The majority of all citizens interviewed thought that cancer patients should have access to all available registered cancer drugs. However, only 18% of Poles versus 62% of Austrians agreed with the notion that the available cancer treatment in their countries is of a standard comparable to that of other EU countries. Consequently, 24% of Poles and 7% of Austrians identified financial status, age, gender, and residence as factors influencing the availability of cancer treatments. Conclusion. In both countries, cancer is considered the most challenging problem of the health care system, and health care issues may strongly influence decisions for political elections. Vast differences in the two populations’ perceptions of cancer care reflect actual cancer outcomes and the national per capita spending on health-related issues. PMID:25520325

  8. Management of Disused Sealed Sources in Austria - 12147

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Helmut

    2012-07-01

    The use of sealed radiation sources is regulated by the Austrian Radiation Protection Act and the General Radiation Protection Ordinance. The Austrian radiation protection legislation requires minimisation of radioactive waste. The preferred radioactive waste management option concerning sealed sources, both spent and disused, is the return to the manufacturer. If this is not possible a reuse by a third party is encouraged. According to this requirement, disused sealed sources shall, as far as possible, be stored on the site of the licence holder until a new owner is found. If this is not possible, disused sealed sources shall be transported to Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf, which is a recognised storage facility for radioactive waste in Austria, for temporary storage pending reuse. Sources, which cannot be reused, are declared as radioactive waste. Since Austria is a Member State of the European Union, the Council Directive 122/2003/Euratom on High Activity Sealed Sources and Orphan Sources is applied. This directive defines high activity sealed sources on the basis of their total activity. The possession of such sources is subject to certain obligations. Therefore it is in the interest of the owner to return disused sources as soon as possible to the manufacturer or to deliver them to Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf. In case of the loss and finding of an 'orphan' source the competent authority secures, recovers and stores the source at the cost of the owner of the source with recourse. In line with the directive the licensee of a High Activity Sealed Source has to notify the main data concerning this source to the Central Source Register which is maintained by the Federal Minister of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management for all radioactive sources. This register was put into operation in 2006. (authors)

  9. Filicide in Austria and Finland - A register-based study on all filicide cases in Austria and Finland 1995-2005

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Filicide is the tragic crime of murdering one's own child. Previous research has found that the offending parents are commonly depressed and that suicide is often associated as an actual act or an intention. Yet, filicide is an underreported crime and previous studies have been strained with methodological problems. No comprehensive international studies on filicide have been presented in the literature until now. Methods This was a descriptive, comprehensive, register-based study of all filicides in Austria and Finland during 1995-2005. Filicide-suicide cases were also included. Results Most of the perpetrators were the biological mothers; in Austria 72%, in Finland 52%. Suicide followed filicide either as an attempt or a fulfilled act in 32% and 54% of the cases in Austria and Finland, respectively. Psychotic mood disorders were diagnosed for 10% of the living perpetrators in Austria, and 12% in Finland. Non-psychotic depression was diagnosed in 9% of surviving perpetrators in Austria, 35% in Finland. Conclusion The data from the two countries demonstrated that filicide is such a multifaceted and rare phenomenon that national data from individual countries seldom offer sufficient scope for its thorough study. Further analyses are needed to produce a complete picture of filicide. PMID:19930581

  10. The automated/computerized TLD-personnel monitoring system in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duftschmid, K. E.

    1980-09-01

    The paper discusses the layout and operation details of the automated TLD system used in Austria for several years to monitor some 13000 radiation workers per month. Dosimetric properties, handling and computer software are described.

  11. Sustainable energy development in Austria until 2020: Insights from applying the integrated model "e3.at"

    PubMed

    Stocker, Andrea; Großmann, Anett; Madlener, Reinhard; Wolter, Marc Ingo

    2011-10-01

    This paper reports on the Austrian research project "Renewable energy in Austria: Modeling possible development trends until 2020". The project investigated possible economic and ecological effects of a substantially increased use of renewable energy sources in Austria. Together with stakeholders and experts, three different scenarios were defined, specifying possible development trends for renewable energy in Austria. The scenarios were simulated for the period 2006-2020, using the integrated environment-energy-economy model "e3.at". The modeling results indicate that increasing the share of renewable energy sources in total energy use is an important but insufficient step towards achieving a sustainable energy system in Austria. A substantial increase in energy efficiency and a reduction of residential energy consumption also form important cornerstones of a sustainable energy policy. PMID:21976785

  12. e-Government Readiness, Strategy and Two Different User Groups - in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelmann, Noella; Hoechtl, Johann; Parycek, Peter

    This paper offers a description of the e-Government Strategy in Austria and its e-Government readiness, and looks at how two different user groups are experiencing e-Government in Austria. Studies conducted show that adolescent citizens are more optimistic and enthusiastic about the possibilities offered whilst the municipalities are more skeptical. The Austrian e-Government strategy, the decisionmakers and IT solution providers must understand the needs of all stakeholders and provide viable solutions accordingly.

  13. Evaluation of the operational Air-Quality forecast model for Austria ALARO-CAMx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flandorfer, Claudia; Hirtl, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    The Air-Quality model for Austria (AQA) is operated at ZAMG by order of the regional governments of Vienna, Lower Austria, and Burgenland since 2005. The emphasis of this modeling system is on predicting ozone peaks in the North-east Austrian flatlands. The modeling system is currently a combination of the meteorological model ALARO and the photochemical dispersion model CAMx. Two modeling domains are used with the highest resolution (5 km) in the alpine region. Various extensions with external data sources have been conducted in the past to improve the daily forecasts of the model, e.g. data assimilation of O3- and PM10-observations from the Austrian measurement network (with optimum interpolation method technique), MACC-II boundary conditions; combination of high resolved emission inventories for Austria with TNO and EMEP data. The biogenic emissions are provided by the SMOKE model. The model runs 2 times per day for a period of 48 hours. ZAMG provides daily forecasts of O3, PM10 and NO2 to the regional governments of Austria. The evaluation of these forecasts is done for January to September 2015, with the main focus on the summer peaks of ozone. The measurements of the Air-Quality stations are compared with the punctual forecasts at the sites of the stations and the area forecasts for every province of Austria. Several heat waves occurred between June and September 2015 (new temperature records for St. Pölten and Linz). During these periods the information threshold for ozone has been exceeded 19 times, mostly in the Eastern regions of Austria. Values above the alert threshold have been measured at some stations in Lower Austria and Vienna at the beginning of July. For the evaluation, the results for the periods with exceedances in Eastern Austria will be discussed in detail.

  14. Structural evolution of Alpine salt deposits, Austria and Bavaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Ch.; Neubauer, F.; Genser, H.; Borojevic Sostaric, S.

    2009-04-01

    Structural evolution of Alpine salt deposits, Austria and Bavaria Alpine salt deposits consist of a tectonic melange of rocksalt and shale called haselgebirge representing the Haselgebirge Formation of Permian to Early Triassic age and mainly exposed within the central and eastern Northern Calcareous Alps. The initial evaporitic sediments were transformed into a breccia (protocataclasite, mylonite) during Alpine orogeny. Residual rocks of shale, anhydrite, polyhalite, sandstone and limestone float as isolated bodies in the haselgebirge matrix. Field investigations of foliation, halite mineral lineation, fold axis, veins and the overall present slickensides in shale revealed an individual history for all investigated mines (Dürrnberg, Berchtesgaden, Altaussee, in part Hallstatt). Ar-Ar dating of various micostructural types of polyhalite yield several preliminary age groups: 235 Ma, 180 Ma, and 110 Ma. Fluid inclusion measurements on anhydrite together with vitrinite reflectance data showed that temperatures of 140-180 °C were reached in Berchtesgaden and around 250° C in Altaussee. Microstructural analysis of anhydrite reveals strong stretching structures with lobate grain boundaries and the fomation of large anhydrite crystals in polyhalite (locally called muriazite). Rock salt and Haselgebirge samples were gamma-irradiated to intensify contrasts in thin section analysis. No primary structures like fluid inclusion bands or chevrons were found. The oldest visible parts are innner cores of large residual grains. All other types of grains suffered grain size reduction during the subsequent deformation. Using subgrain piezometry, high differential stresses of around 5 MPa formed the present microstructure. The Alpine rock salt deposits suffered a complex deformation history. A first peak was the formation of polyhalite veins, 235 Ma ago. The overburden was around 800 m (Rantitsch & Russegger, 2005) and first differentiation of the sea floor occurred (Mandl, 1984

  15. Structural shifts in the employment of foreign workers in Austria.

    PubMed

    Biffl, G

    1985-03-01

    The full economic importance of immigration becomes clear only when one examines the concentration of immigrant workers in certain industries and occupations, and this is done in the case of Austria to show the degree of segmentation of the labor market between indigenous and foreign labor. In the course of the 1960s the employment of foreign labor gained importance in Austria. As a consequence, bilateral agreements with the major recruiting countries were made, e.g., with Spain in 1962 and 1969, with Turkey in 1964, and with Yugoslavia in 1966. The reason for the increasing demand for foreign labor was the short supply of indigenous labor due to increasing participation rates and strong economic growth. The demand-pull for foreign labor gained momentum with the onset of the economic boom in 1970, so that by the end of 1973 the number of foreign workers had doubled in comparison to 1970. The 226,800 foreign workers accounted for 8.7% of total employment. The 1974-75 recession and the weak economic development ever since resulted in a decreasing demand for labor. At the same time, the supply of indigenous labor increased as a consequence of a demographic effect and because of increasing participation rates of women. From 1981 to the present, foreign employment decreased again due to the unusually long period of economic stagnation. During 1983, 145,300 foreign workers were engaged, i.e., 5.3% of total employment. The structure for foreign employment now differs greatly from that in the 1960s. The share of women in foreign employment has increased steadily from some 20% in the early 1960s to 31% in 1973 and 40% in 1983 -- a value comparable to the Austrian female share in employment. The reduction of foreign employment since 1973 affected, above all, Yugoslav men. the share of Yugoslavs in foreign employment decreased from 196,300 or 79% in 1973 to 92,200 or 61.7% in 1983. With the duration of foreign employment rising, the disribution of foreign labor over economic

  16. Assessing reference evapotranspiration in a subhumid climate in NE Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolz, Reinhard; Eitzinger, Josef; Cepuder, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Computing reference evapotranspiration and multiplying it with a specific crop coefficient as recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is the most widely accepted approach to estimate plant water requirements. The standardized form of the well-known FAO Penman-Monteith equation, published by the Environmental and Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE-EWRI), is recommended as a standard procedure for calculating reference evapotranspiration. Applied and validated under different climatic conditions it generally achieved good results compared to other methods. However, several studies documented deviations between measured and calculated reference evapotranspiration depending on local environmental conditions. Consequently, it seems advisable to evaluate the model under local environmental conditions. Evapotranspiration was determined at a subhumid site in Austria (48°12'N, 16°34'E; 157 m asl) using a large weighing lysimeter operated at (limited) reference conditions and compared with calculations according to ASCE-EWRI. The lysimeter had an inner diameter of 1.9 m and a hemispherical bottom with a maximum depth of 2.5 m. Seepage water was measured at a free draining outlet using a tipping bucket. Lysimeter mass changes were sensed by a weighing facility with an accuracy of ±0.1 mm. Both rainfall and evapotranspiration were determined directly from lysimeter data using a simple water balance equation. Meteorological data for the ASCE-EWRI model were obtained from a weather station of the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Austria (ZAMG). The study period was from 2005 to 2010, analyses were based upon daily time steps. Daily calculated reference evapotranspiration was generally overestimated at small values, whereas it was rather underestimated when evapotranspiration was large, which is supported also by other studies. In the given case, advection of sensible heat proved

  17. Effects of The 1999-guidelines For Hazard Zoning In Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höller, P.

    Hazard Zoning in Austria has a long tradition. While the first maps already were developed at the end of the 1960s the legal regulations followed in 1976. These regulations defined that hazard maps have to be elaborated for each community on a basis of avalanche occurences over a period of 150 years (return period); the Red Zone includes areas which are endangered by avalanches to such an extent that their permanent use for settlements infrastructures and traffic facilities is not possible. TheYellow Zone covers areas with a reduced danger of avalanches; buildings and infrastructures are allowed to be built in the Yellow Zone but they must be protected by special architectural designing. As a result of the avalanches in 1999 (Galtür, Valzur) new guidelines were proposed by the Ministry of Agriculture. These guidelines provide new design criteria for hazard maps in Austria. While the old decree determined 25 kPa for the Red Zone and 2 kPa for the Yellow Zone, the modified guidelines have extended it to 10 kPa, respectively 1 kPa. However, the new design criteria will result in an increase of existing hazard zones (especially the Red Zones). To get an idea about the effects of the new guidelines a simple calculation was used. Taking into account the velocity at the Red Zone (vR) and theYellow Zone (vY) we can write the following equation v2R/aR = v 2 Y /(aR ­ a), where a is the distance between the Red and Yellow Zone and aR is the distance from the calculated point of furthest reach of the debris to the Red Zone. Thus aR is 1.087a. The distance from the point of furthest reach of the debris to the Red Zone according to the new guidelines (aRnew) was calculated in the same way. With aRnew = 0.435a it was possible to calculate the value x (which is the distance from the actual Red Zone to the New Red Zone). Analysing some different hazard maps it can be found, that the distance between the existing Red and Yellow Zones (a) is between 30 m (small avalanches) and 200

  18. Low pressure granulites from the Bohemian Massif, Upper Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorger, Dominik; Daghighi, Donia; Simic, Katica; Pichler, Ruth; Schwaiger, Christian; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Linner, Manfred; Iglseder, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Low pressure granulite facies rocks are commonly found in the Bohemian Massif in Upper Austria. They belong to the Moldanubian Unit and were metamorphosed during the last stage of the Variscan orogeny. The investigated granulites from the Donau valley (west of Linz), Lichtenberg (northwest of Linz), Sauwald (south of the river Danube) and Bad Leonfelden zone comprise mainly migmatic paragneisses. Most of these rocks underwent high degrees of melting forming meta- and diatexites (''Perlgneise)''. Al-rich metapelites with partly cm-sized garnet porphyroblasts, which are suitable for precise PT and PT-path determinations, can be found in some localities of this unit. In this study samples taken along the Danube valley between Linz and Wilhering, from Lichtenberg and from Bad Leonfelden (north of Linz) were sampled and investigated petrographically in detail. Since garnets are rare and usually consumed by cordierite, a sample with large garnets was investigated in detail. A chemical zoning profile across the c. 1cm large garnet displayed elevated Ca contents (Xgrs=0.06) in the central part which decreased discontinuously towards the rim to Xgrs=0.02. Almandine, pyrope and spessartine components do not show any pronounced zoning pattern. Most of the smaller garnet grains in other samples are also homogeneous in composition with a slight Xalm increase and Xprp decrease at the rims, typical for retrograde diffusional zoning. The cordierite-garnet-sillimanite-granulites as well as some mafic granulites were used for geothermobarometry. Metamorphic conditions of around 770°C to 850°C and 0.5-0.6 GPa could be obtained, which are similar to the values obtained by Tropper et al. (2006). P. Tropper I. Deibl F. Finger R. Kaindl (2006). P-T-t evolution of spinel-cordierite-garnet gneisses from the Sauwald Zone (Southern Bohemian Massif, Upper Austria): is there evidence for two independent late-Variscan low-P / high-T events in the Moldanubian Unit? Int J Earth Sci (Geol

  19. Genetic diversity of pestivirus isolates in cattle from Western Austria.

    PubMed

    Hornberg, Andrea; Fernández, Sandra Revilla; Vogl, Claus; Vilcek, Stefan; Matt, Monika; Fink, Maria; Köfer, Josef; Schöpf, Karl

    2009-03-30

    The genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolates in infected cattle from Tyrol and Vorarlberg (Austria) was investigated. Blood samples were collected within the compulsory Austrian BVDV control programme during 2005 and 2006. The 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) and partially the N-terminal autoprotease (N(pro)) were amplified by one-step reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the PCR products were subsequently sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis based on 5'-UTR and N(pro) sequences demonstrated that almost all isolates (307/310) were of the BVDV-1 genotype. They were clustered into eight different subtypes, here listed by their frequency of occurrence: BVDV-1h (143), BVDV-1f (79), BVDV-1b (41), BVDV-1d (28), BVDV-1e (6), BVDV-1a (4), BVDV-1g (3) and BVDV1-k (3). Two pestivirus isolates were typed as BVDV-2 and one isolate as BDV closely related to Gifhorn strain (BDV-3). Correlation among isolates could only be observed at the farm level, i.e., within a herd. However, no correlation between the genetic and geographical distances could be observed above the farm level. Because of the wide distribution of certain BVDV-1 subtypes and the low prevalence of herd-specific strains, a determination of tracing routes of infection was not possible. Furthermore, recombination events were not detected. PMID:19019571

  20. Transboundary Groundwater Body Karavanke/Karawanken Between Austria and Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brencic, M.; Poltnig, W.

    2009-04-01

    Large part of the border region between Republic of Slovenia and Republic of Austria is represented by high east west extended mountainous ridge of Karavanke/Karawanken. It is a range extending along the Slovenian-Austrian border for almost 150 km. Its terrain consists of long and prominent ridges, whose slopes steeply fall to the northern and southern side. Ridges are interrupted by long, deep and narrow valleys. The highest peaks reach over 2000 m above sea level. In the entire range prominent ridges with mountain meadows and forests prevail. The area is scarcely populated, the main economic activities are grazing and forestry, in some places tourism is also developing, especially winter sports centres. Karavanke/Karawanken lies on the contact between two continental plates, the large European plate in the north and the smaller Adriatic plate in the south. When the Adriatic plate was thrusted over the European one towards the north, the collision resulted in the folding of sediments previously deposited in the space between the plates. The contact of both plates caused large lateral displacements, causing the rocks of both plates to fold and fault and then extend along the contact. This is the area of Periadriatic lineament, dividing Karavanke/Karawanken range into their north and south part. Periadriatic lineament is large stripe slip tectonic structure along which on the northern side rocks were extruded to the east and on the southern side to the west. Along the lineament metamorphic (e.g. biotitic and feldsparic para-gneis, amfibolites) and magmatic (e.g. diabaz, granite and tonalite) rocks of various ages are present. Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks cover large part of the mountain ridge. The oldest are Silurian and Ordovician limestone on the northern border followed by Devonian ridge limestones. They are covered by molasse sedimentation in Carbon and shallow marine and river predominantly clastic sedimentation in Perm. The most abundant and with numerous

  1. Temporal and Spatial Melanoma Trends in Austria: An Ecological Study

    PubMed Central

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2014-01-01

    Annual solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is mostly determined by latitude and altitude. Over the last decades, increasing UVR ground levels have been observed. Exposure to UVR is associated with a life-time risk to develop melanoma, a malign skin cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that melanoma incidence in Austria is associated with altitude of place of living and time of diagnosis. We investigated this hypothesis in an ecological study by district and year for Austrian melanoma incidence (1990–2010) and mortality (1970–2011) data. As expected, incidence rates increased with altitude (about 2% per 10 m) and year (about 2%). Additionally, melanoma incidence rates were about 50% higher in urban than in rural districts. In contrast, mortality rates decreased with altitude (for males: 0.4% per 10 m, for women: 0.7% per 10 m, respectively). The observed discrepancy between incidence and mortality data could partly be explained by melanoma diagnosis at earlier tumor stage in districts with higher altitude. Possible reasons for this finding include higher awareness of patients, better diagnostic performance of medical professionals working at higher altitudes, or slower tumor growth due to protective effects of sun light-associated vitamin D synthesis. PMID:24398911

  2. Mortality after hip fracture in Austria 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Brozek, Wolfgang; Reichardt, Berthold; Kimberger, Oliver; Zwerina, Jochen; Dimai, Hans Peter; Kritsch, Daniela; Klaushofer, Klaus; Zwettler, Elisabeth

    2014-09-01

    Osteoporosis-related hip fractures represent a substantial cause of mortality and morbidity in industrialized countries like Austria. Identification of groups at high risk for mortality after hip fracture is crucial for health policy decisions. To determine in-hospital, long-term, and excess mortality after osteoporosis-related hip fracture in Austrian patients, we conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of pseudonymized invoice data from Austrian social insurance authorities covering roughly 98 % of the entire population. The data set included 31,668 subjects aged 50 years and above sustaining a hip fracture between July 2008 and December 2010 with follow-up until June 2011, and an age-, gender-, and regionally matched control population without hip fractures (56,320 subjects). Kaplan-Meier and Cox hazard regression analyses served to determine unadjusted and adjusted mortality rates: Unadjusted all-cause 1-year mortality amounted to 20.2 % (95 % CI: 19.7-20.7 %). Males had significantly higher long-term, in-hospital, and excess mortality rates than females, but younger males exhibited lower excess mortality than their female counterparts. Advanced age correlated with increased long-term and in-hospital mortality, but lower excess mortality. Excess mortality, particularly in males, was highest in the first 6 months after hip fracture, but remained statistically significantly elevated throughout the observation period of 3 years. Longer hospital stay per fracture was correlated with mortality reduction in older patients and in patients with more subsequent fractures. In conclusion, more efforts are needed to identify causes and effectively prevent excess mortality especially in male osteoporosis patients. PMID:24989776

  3. Assessing management effects on Oak forests in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Sishir; Pietsch, Stephan A.; Hasenauer, Hubert

    2010-05-01

    Historic land use as well as silvicultural management practices have changed the structures and species composition of central European forests. Such changes have effects on the growth of forests and contribute to global warming. As insufficient information on historic forest management is available it is hard to explain the effect of management on forests growth and its possible consequences to the environment. In this situation, the BIOME-BGC model, which integrates the main physical, biological and physiological processes based on current understanding of ecophysiology is an option for assessing the management effects through tracking the cycling of energy, water, carbon and nutrients within a given ecosystems. Such models are increasingly employed to simulate current and future forest dynamics. This study first compares observed standing tree volume, carbon and nitrogen content in soil in the high forests and coppice with standards stands of Oak forests in Austria. Biome BGC is then used to assess the effects of management on forest growth and to explain the differences with measured parameters. Close positive correlations and unbiased results and statistically insignificant differences between predicted and observed volumes indicates the application of the model as a diagnostic tool to assess management effects in oak forests. The observed data in 2006 and 2009 was further compared with the results of respective model runs. Further analysis on simulated data shows that thinning leads to an increase in growth efficiency (GE), nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and water use efficiency (WUE), and to a decrease in the radiation use efficiency (RUE) in both forests. Among all studied growth parameters, only the difference in the NUE was statistically significant. This indicates that the difference in the yield of forests is mainly governed by the NUE difference in stands due to thinning. The coppice with standards system produces an equal amount of net primary

  4. Late Pleistocene oscillations of the Drau Glacier (southern Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnitschar, Christina; Reitner, Jürgen; Draganits, Erich

    2016-04-01

    The Drau Glacier was the largest Pleistocene glacier in the southeastern part of the Alps and significantly shaped the landscape in this region. The study area is located at the termination of the Drau Glacier in the southern part of Austria (Carinthia). The investigation aims to decipher glacial dynamics during the Late Pleistocene glacial advance, stabilisation and final recession of this glacier based on geological/geomorphological mapping, interpretation of airborne laser scan (ALS) topographic data and lithostratigraphic investigations of glacial and periglacial sediments. Special emphasis is laid on the reconstruction of the maximum extent of the glaciation (LGM). Based on previous mapping by Bobek (1959) and Ucik (1996-1998) more details have been gained for the paleogeographic reconstruction based on glacial and non-glacial erosion and accumulation features. These include traces of pre-Upper Pleistocene glaciation, drumlins, terminal moraines and kettle holes. Paleogeographic reconstruction was done with correlation of different outcrops based on lithostratigraphy and ALS topography. Sequences of gravel related to glacial advance covered by till, followed by periglacial sediments allowed detailed reconstruction of the glacial sequence in this area and the complex succession of various extents of the Drau Glacier. References Bobek, Hans. 1959: Der Eisrückgang im östlichen Klagenfurter Becken. In: Mitteilungen der österreichischen geographischen Gesellschaft, Wien. Ucik, Friedrich Hans. 1996: Bericht über geologische Aufnahmen im Quartär auf Blatt 204 Völkermarkt, Jb. Geol. B.-A., 141, S. 340, Wien. Ucik, Friedrich Hans. 1997: Bericht über geologische Aufnahmen im Quartär auf Blatt 204 Völkermarkt, Jb. Geol. B.-A., 141, S. 325-326, Wien. Ucik, Friedrich Hans. 1998: Bericht über geologische Aufnahmen im Quartär auf Blatt 204 Völkermarkt, Jb. Geol. B.-A., 142, S. 333-334, Wien.

  5. Flashiness of mountain streams in Slovakia and Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holko, Ladislav; Parajka, Juraj; Kostka, Zdeno; Škoda, Peter; Blöschl, Günter

    2011-08-01

    SummaryThis article evaluates the spatial and temporal changes in streamflow flashiness in 122 mountain catchments in Slovakia and Austria. The flashiness is quantified by the Richards-Baker flashiness index ( FI), which is the ratio of absolute day-to-day fluctuations of streamflow relative to total flow in a year. The analysis is based on daily streamflow data from the period 1976 to 2005. The results show that the average day-to-day fluctuations of streamflow vary from 6% to 43%, depending on the catchment. The spatial pattern of the FI reflects the variations in the main geological units and generally shows a trend of decreasing flashiness with increasing size of the catchment. Statistically significant temporal trends in flashiness are found in 7 Slovak and 22 Austrian catchments. Most of these trends are related to anthropogenic effects, while, in a few catchments, the change in annual flashiness appears to be caused by changes in precipitation seasonality. A multivariate statistical analysis of FI indicates negative correlations with catchment area, mean catchment elevation, percents of forest cover, agricultural land and Quaternary geology. Positive correlations are found between FI and Tertiary and Calcareous geologies. Extrapolating the regression models beyond the observed range of catchment attributes used in the estimation leads to significant prediction errors. In order to better interpret the FI values, a statistically significant relationship was found between the FI and the frequency of peak flows exceeding the long-term mean as well as between the FI and the 5% quantile of daily streamflow.

  6. Seismic precursory signals from a rockfall at Rappenlochschlucht, Vorarlberg, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaderer, U.; Walter, M.; Joswig1, M.

    2012-04-01

    On May 10, 2011 at 10:48 UTC a rockfall happened at Rappenlochschlucht, Vorarlberg, Austria. The rockfall with 15.000 m3 volume destroyed a massive bridge but luckily did not cause any fatalities in this famous, heavily frequented touristic spot. Our institute operated a seismic network in 5 km distance at the Heumös slope dedicated to record very small slide quakes caused by the creeping slope. The network was tuned to extreme sensitivity, and thus monitored the rockfall as well. We found two types of seismic signals shortly before and during the rockfall that we could not observe at that region in the remaining two and half years of network operation. Type one was a minute-lasting sequence of broadband pulses caused by the stochastic hits of single rockfall blocks against subsurface during the entire period of sliding. This signal resembles the audible, acoustic noise of avalanches in our lower-frequent passband of measured mechanical vibrations. Thus we called this type 'avalanche'. Two small avalanche events were identified in the last five hours before the final rockfall. The second type exhibits an impulsive onset and a subsequent decay to lower frequencies. This signature is caused by a single fracture process where the instantaneously released energy reaches the observation site in a well-defined sequence of different wave types and travel paths with decreasing propagation speed. These fracture processes or nano-earthquakes could be located close to the rockfall, and the energy release could be described by a local magnitude -0.5 to 0.4 indicating an activated fault length of some ten meter in rock. We thus called this type 'fracture', and could identify twelve fracture signals before final failure. Further hints for the precursory character of these signals will be discussed, as well as a search for potential trigger indications.

  7. Incidence, prevalence and geographic distribution of human alveolar echinococcosis in Austria from 1854 to 1990.

    PubMed

    Auer, H; Aspöck, H

    1991-01-01

    Since the second half of the last century it has been known that Austria--like southern Germany, eastern France and Switzerland--is a part of the Central European area of distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis (Em), the causative organism of alveolar echinococcosis (AE). Up until October 1990, 128 human AE cases were documented in Austria; personal, anamnestic and clinical data on the majority of these patients are available. Based on these data, epidemiological parameters (incidence, prevalence, geographic distribution, sex and age distribution, occupation) were evaluated so as to obtain information on the past and recent history of alveolar echinococcosis in Austria. The (retrospective) study led to the following results and conclusions: (a) the (documented) incidence (presently two cases/year) of AE in Austria is rather low; (b) the main endemic Em areas are situated in the western (Tyrol, Vorarlberg) and southern (Carinthia) provinces; (c) a new focus could be detected in Lower Austria (outside the Alps); (d) the sex ratio (M:F) of AE patients was 1.3:1; (e) the average age of men and women at the time of diagnosis was 44 and 47 years, respectively; (f) 98% of Austrian AE patients exhibited Em lesions in the liver; and (g) greater than 50% of AE patients were (or had been) farmers. PMID:1891451

  8. Subnational responsibilities for healthcare and Austria's rejection of the EU's patients' rights directive.

    PubMed

    Kostera, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    In 2011, Member States and the European Parliament brought into force a Directive on the application of patients' rights in cross-border healthcare within the EU. Austria voted against this directive even though its national legislation was already in line with the rulings of the European Court of Justice which had triggered the negotiations on the directive. Why then, in the absence of any legal constraints on adapting to it, did Austria vote against the directive? The article argues that it was the federal structure of financing hospital infrastructure and the subnational level's influence on national position building which led to the rejection of the directive. The article retraces the process of position building by analyzing the interaction between the national and the subnational levels and concludes that Austria's position mirrors the national struggle between both levels of government over control of the hospital sector. PMID:23602349

  9. Multifractal analysis of the 137Cs fallout pattern in Austria resulting from the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Pausch, G; Bossew, P; Hofmann, W; Steger, F

    1998-06-01

    The cumulative deposition of the 137Cs fallout in Austria resulting from the passage of the Chernobyl cloud has been investigated by applying correlation dimension and hyperbolic frequency distribution methods. For the analysis, a total of 1,881 deposition values were used, which were collected by the Federal Environmental Agency of Austria and the Federal Ministry of Health, representing all available measurements of 137Cs in soil made in Austria after the Chernobyl accident. From these data a hyperbolic exponent for the frequency distribution of 4.0 and a set of fractal correlation dimensions, which decrease from 1.426 +/- 0.022 (for the whole network) to 0.706 +/- 0.047 (for 137Cs values > or = 100 kBq m(-2)), were derived, thus confirming that the fallout pattern can be described as a multifractal. PMID:9600299

  10. Stalagmites from Spannagel cave (Austria) and holocene climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollweiler, N.; Mangini, A.; Spötl, C.; Scholz, D.; Mühlinghaus, C.

    2009-04-01

    The Spannagel cave is located around 2,500 m asl at the end of the Tux Valley in Tyrol (Austria) close to the Hintertux glacier. While the area above the cave is ice free at present, it was covered by ice during past glacials as well as during colder periods of Interglacials. Presently, the temperature inside the cave is between 1.8° and 2.0° C. We used the d18O time-series of three stalagmites which grew in small distance from each other. This speleothem record is not influenced by effects of kinetic isotope fractionation due to the low temperatures in the cave. The stalagmites were precisely dated with the U/Th-method. The combined record (COMNISPA, Vollweiler et al. 2006) shows substantial variability within the last 9 kyr with features like the Holocene Climatic Optimum between 7.5 and 6.5 kyr, the Mediaeval Warm Period between 1.2 and 0.7 kyr and the Roman Warm Period between 2.25 and 1.7 kyr. In contrast, periods of lower temperatures are visible between 7.9 and 7.5, 5.9 and 5.1, 3.5 and 3 kyr, and during the LIA between 600 and 150 yr. The period between 5.9 and 5.1 kyr has equivalence in many records from various regions in both hemispheres corresponding to global cooling. It also includes the time of the Alpine Iceman at 5.3 kyr. The timing of the climatic variations revealed by COMNISPA agrees approximately with that shown by other Alpine archives. Joerin et al. (2006) dated wood and peat samples which were released by melting Swiss Alpine glaciers located between Engadin and Valais. Both the d18O maxima and minima recorded in COMNISPA clearly have counterparts in the glacier recession record. Comparisons of COMNISPA with other archives have shown that our stalagmite curve does not only record local climate but also the history of European climate. The extremely high correlation to the Hematite Stained Grain record of Bond et al. (2001) suggests that COMNISPA is a good archive for climate in the North Atlantic region (Mangini et al. 2007). In addition

  11. Susceptibility to mountain hazards in Austria - paradigms of vulnerability revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven

    2010-05-01

    The concept of vulnerability is pillared by multiple disciplinary theories underpinning either a technical or a social origin of the concept and resulting in a range of paradigms for either a qualitative or quantitative assessment of vulnerability. However, efforts to reduce susceptibility to hazards and to create disaster-resilient communities require intersections among these theories, since human activity cannot be seen independently from the environmental setting. Acknowledging different roots of disciplinary paradigms, issues determining structural, economic, institutional and social vulnerability are discussed with respect to mountain hazards in Austria. The underlying idea of taking such an integrative viewpoint was the cognition that human action in mountain environments affects the state of vulnerability, and the state of vulnerability in turn shapes the possibilities of human action. It is argued that structural vulnerability as originator results in considerable economic vulnerability, generated by the institutional settings of dealing with natural hazards and shaped by the overall societal framework. Hence, the vulnerability of a specific location and within a considered point of time is triggered by the hazardous event and the related physical susceptibility of structures, such as buildings located on a torrent fan. Depending on the specific institutional settings, economic vulnerability of individuals or of the society results, above all with respect to imperfect loss compensation mechanisms in the areas under investigation. While this potential for harm can be addressed as social vulnerability, the concept of institutional vulnerability has been developed with respect to the overall political settings of governmental risk management. As a result, the concept of vulnerability, as being used in natural sciences, can be extended by integration of possible reasons why such physical susceptibility of structures exists, and by integration of compensation

  12. Seismic monitoring of rockfalls at Spitz quarry (NÖ, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Puy Papí Isaba, María; Brückl, Ewald; Roncat, Andreas; Schweigl, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    In the recent past, significant rockfalls, which pose a danger to persons, railways and roads, occurred in the quarry of Spitz (NÖ-Austria). An existing seismic warning system did not fulfill the expected efficiency and reliability standards since the ratio of well-detected events to undetected events or false alarms was not satisfactory. Our aim was to analyze how a seismic warning system must be designed in order to overcome these deficiencies. A small-scale seismic network was deployed in the Spitz quarry to evaluate the possibility of improving the early-warning rockfall monitoring network by means of seismic observations. A new methodology based on seismic methods, which enables the detection and location of rockfalls above a critical size, was developed. In order to perform this task, a small-scale (200x200 m2) passive seismic network comprised of 7 monitoring seismic stations acquiring data in continuous mode was established in the quarry of Spitz so that it covered the rockfall hazard area. On the 2nd of October 2015, an induced rockfall experiment was performed. It began at 09:00 a.m (local time, 07:00 UTC) and lasted about 1.5 hours. The entire data set was analyzed using the pSysmon software. In order to locate the impact point of the rock falls, we used a procedure based on the back-projection of the maximum resultant amplitude recorded at each station of the network within a time window to every grid-point covering the whole area of interest. In order to verify the performance of the employed algorithm for detection and localization, we performed man-induced rock falls. We also used a terrestrial laser scanner and a camera, not only to draw the rockfall block trajectories, but also to determine the volume of rock lost or gained in the different areas of the quarry. This allowed us to relate the lost mass with the strength of the collision (Pseudo-magnitude) of the rockfall, and draw and rebuild their associated trajectory. The location test performed

  13. Geoconservation mapping using digital geomorphological maps in Vorarlberg, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seijmonsbergen, A. C.; De Jong, M. G. G.; de Graaff, L. W. S.; Anders, N. S.

    2012-04-01

    Geomorphological inventories are being made in the State of Vorarlberg (Austria) since the mid-1950s by the University of Amsterdam. Starting as an academic training fieldwork for undergraduate geomorphology students, PhD students and staff members soon recognized the research potential of the unique alpine landscape. In particular, landforms and deposits of the ice-marginal environment and pollen records preserved in peat provide valuable proxies for climate reconstruction and give detailed insight in the former growth and decay of the Rhine glacier network and of local glaciers, and assist in reconstructing landscape development in general. A project was started in 2007 to prepare community wide inventory maps of potential geoconservation areas, based on digital geomorphological mapping in a Geographical Information System (GIS). A stepwise protocol was designed for the identification of potential geoconservation areas in the landscape, comprising: 1. Preparing digital geomorphological maps, using a morphogenetic classification scheme 2. Assigning values for selected geoconservation assessment criteria to types of geomorphological features 3. Ranking the criteria assessment values into three categories of potential geoconservation value, and 4. Storing, visualizing and describing the geoconservation data. Four major traits are used in the weighting and ranking protocol (steps 2 and 3): scientific relevance, frequency of occurrence, disturbance, and environmental vulnerability. The process of assigning values and of ranking the landforms and deposits has been automated in GIS. For the evaluation of disturbance we use digital infrastructure layers in GIS which can be intersected with the potential geoconservation areas to determine the level of disturbance. The proposed method is demonstrated for the municipality of Lech, a well-known winter skiing resort. To illustrate the loss of high-rank potential geoconservation areas due to human influence over the last 50

  14. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria, and Israel reveals higher genetic variability within the type II lineage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria and Israel. For this, we genotyped 90 T. gondii isolates (16 from Portugal, 67 from Austria and 7 from Israel) using 10 nested PCR-restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) genetic markers and 15 microsatellite (...

  15. Intended long-term permafrost monitoring in Austria: Observations from eight years (2006-2014) of ground temperature monitoring in the Tauern Range, Central Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Lintschnig, Michèle

    2015-04-01

    At present permafrost monitoring in Austria is carried out by several institutions at some 20 sites in the Austrian Alps. However, so far this monitoring is not coordinated and institutionalised in terms of monitoring strategy, organization, data management and funding. Within the currently running permAT project such an institutionalization is in progress. Permafrost in the Austrian mountains is rather warm and hence sensitive to present climate change. Consequently permafrost conditions and changes are of increasing importance also for the public. Therefore, it is evident that a coordinated and institutionalised long-term monitoring of ground temperature in Austria is essential for permafrost understanding and people's safety. In this contribution we present up to eight years of field data from nine different study sites in Austria. All sites are located in the highest mountain range in Austria, the Tauern Range (maximum elevation 3798 m asl) covering some 9000 km² of the national territory. The nine different study sites are located between latitude 46°55' to 47°22' and longitude 12°44' to 14°41'. Altogether 57 ground temperature monitoring sites have been installed in 2006 and 2007 at the nine study sites using one- (at 23 sites) and three-channel (at 34 sites) miniature temperature dataloggers produced by GeoPrecision, Germany. Therefore, more than 120 ground temperature data series are available from between the ground surface to maximum depths of 2.75 m. The 57 monitoring sites range from 1922 to 3002 m asl in elevation and consider flat terrain as well as step rock walls. All slope aspects are adequately considered. Relevant research questions we intend to address in this contribution include (a) general ground thermal conditions in 2006-2014, (b) the influence of different substrates and aspects on ground temperatures, (c) potential permafrost occurrence, (d) changes or stable conditions during the observation period, (e) regional pattern, and (f

  16. Observations of "Love Talks:" A Successful Community-Supported Sexuality Education Program in Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilgen, Julie Mapes; Kapella, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    Sexuality education integrated into math, economics, and computer science classes? Parents participating with teachers and students in working groups to plan sex ed programs in public schools? Eight- to ten-year-olds publishing their own book "Don't Talk to Us about the Stork"? Does this sound utopian? Actually, it is a reality in Austria and…

  17. Teaching Practices and Beliefs about Inclusion of General and Special Needs Teachers in Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Susanne; Holzinger, Andrea; Krammer, Mathias; Gebhardt, Markus; Hessels, Marco G. P.

    2015-01-01

    Self-reports of primary and secondary school teachers who teach in general and special education classrooms in Austria were examined in terms of their engagement in teamwork (between special and general education teachers), instructional methods that they use, factors that positively influence inclusive education, and their needs for training. The…

  18. Second-Generation Turkish Youth in Europe: Explaining the Academic Disadvantage in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the role of students' home and school variables in producing the achievement gap between second-generation Turkish students and their native peers in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. Using the data from PISA 2006, this study supports past findings that both home and school resources affect the educational outcomes of…

  19. 78 FR 33354 - Xanthan Gum From Austria: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Postponement of Final Determination, 78 FR 2251 (January 10... Preliminary Determination, 78 FR at 2254. However, because May 25, 2013, falls on a non-business day, the... Act of 1930, As Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). \\4\\ See id. On March 12, 2013, JBL Austria...

  20. The Rise of Work-Based Academic Education in Austria, Germany and Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Austria, Germany and Switzerland are renowned for their extensive systems of collective vocational skill formation, which, however, have developed largely in separation from higher education. This divide has become increasingly contested as a result of a variety of socioeconomic factors that have led to an increasing demand for higher level…

  1. Analysis of E-Inclusion Projects in Russia, Austria and Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehaves, Bjorn; Plattfaut, Ralf; Gorbacheva, Elena; Vages, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The issue of digital divide is widely discussed in research as well as in practice. Today, especially senior citizens are excluded from the merits of using information and communication technologies (ICT). This paper aims to study municipal projects for an inclusive information society in Russia, Austria, and Switzerland.…

  2. The Relationships between Paranormal Belief, Creationism, Intelligent Design and Evolution at Secondary Schools in Vienna (Austria)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eder, Erich; Turic, Katharina; Milasowszky, Norbert; Van Adzin, Katherine; Hergovich, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The present study is the first to investigate the relationships between a multiple set of paranormal beliefs and the acceptance of evolution, creationism, and intelligent design, respectively, in Europe. Using a questionnaire, 2,129 students at secondary schools in Vienna (Austria) answered the 26 statements of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale…

  3. Skilled Voices?: Reflections on Political Participation and Education in Austria. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Florian; Rosenberger, Sieglinde

    2007-01-01

    This study, part of OECD/CERI's project on Measuring the Social Outcomes of Learning, investigates the relationship between educational attainment and political participation in Austria. First, a model based on various theoretical considerations is introduced. This incorporates direct educational effects as well as indirect effects that occur…

  4. The QIBB Quality Initiative of the Vocational Training System in Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paechter, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    The QIBB quality initiative was specifically developed for the vocational training system in Austria. The quality system is distinctive in that it includes both objectives and survey instruments designed to address the specific concerns of vocational training. There are general quality concepts and instruments that are common to all schools and…

  5. Modularisation of Vocational Training in Germany, Austria and Switzerland: Parallels and Disparities in a Modernisation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilz, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the modularisation of initial vocational training (including apprenticeships) as a modernisation strategy in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Training systems are similarly structured in these three countries with the apprenticeship system at their heart, and the three national philosophies of education and training are…

  6. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe: Austria 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Michael; Schad, Anke; Nagel, Tanja

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Austria's arts and cultural education. The Austrian arts curriculum is organised as separate subjects. It includes music, visual arts and crafts (divided into two separate subjects: technical crafts and textile arts). The Austrian curriculum refers to "Bildungs- und Lehraufgaben", i.e. educational and teaching tasks. This…

  7. [Social politics and health--Germany and Austria at the time of the Weimar Republic].

    PubMed

    Sablik, K

    1989-04-01

    The article contributes to the development of health-welfare in Austria in the first third of the 20th century. The various relations to such activities of health protection in Germany and the efforts and merits of the Vienna physician, anatomist and social politician Julius Tandler (1869-1936) are accentuated. PMID:2662652

  8. Research on Language Teaching and Learning in Austria (2004-2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton-Puffer, Christiane; Faistauer, Renate; Vetter, Eva

    2011-01-01

    This overview of six years of research on language learning and teaching in Austria covers a period of dynamic development in the field. While all the studies reviewed here illustrate research driven by a combination of local and global concerns and theoretical frameworks, some specific clusters of research interest emerge. The first of these…

  9. More than a Culture Capsule: Teaching Switzerland and Austria in the German Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabisch, Peter Karl

    2012-01-01

    This essay offers some direction for greater integration of Austria and Switzerland into every level of the German language and culture curriculum. By excavating a number of now nearly forgotten intercultural connections between these alpine countries and the U.S., it is possible to present a more complete and complex picture of German-speaking…

  10. Economic Literacy in the United States, Germany, and Austria: Results of Cross National Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumm, Volker; Beck, Klaus

    Designed to assess the economic literacy of high school students in Austria, Germany, and the United States, this research study involved the administration of an economic literacy test and gathering data on attitudes toward economics, on intelligence, and on moral maturity. The main focus of the research was a comparison between 11th and 12th…

  11. Informal Assessment of Competences in the Context of Science Standards in Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffl, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Science standards have been a topic in educational research in Austria for about ten years now. Starting in 2005, competency structure models have been developed for junior and senior classes of different school types. After evaluating these models, prototypic tasks were created to point out the meaning of the models to teachers. At the moment,…

  12. First report of Rickettsia raoultii in field collected Dermacentor reticulatus ticks from Austria.

    PubMed

    Duscher, Georg G; Hodžić, Adnan; Weiler, Martin; Vaux, Alexander G C; Rudolf, Ivo; Sixl, Wolfdieter; Medlock, Jolyon M; Versteirt, Veerle; Hubálek, Zdenek

    2016-07-01

    In a set of pooled field collected Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, Rickettsia raoultii, the causative agent of Tick-borne lymphadenopathy/Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy, was found for the first time in Austria. The coordinates of the positive locations for tick and pathogen abundance are given and shown in a map. PMID:26976704

  13. Lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from the valley ‘Ochsental’ (Eastern Alps, Vorarlberg, Austria)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter Othmar; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    A list of 100 lichen species and 4 lichenicolous fungi from the valley ‘Ochsental’ is presented. Lecidea laboriosa is new to Austria. Lecanora swartzii, Orphniospora moriopsis, Protothelenella corrosa and the lichenicolous fungus Cercidospora stereocaulorum are new to the province of Vorarlberg. PMID:26869748

  14. Monitoring of Qualifications and Employment in Austria: An Empirical Approach Based on the Labour Force Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassnigg, Lorenz; Vogtenhuber, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The empirical approach referred to in this article describes the relationship between education and training (ET) supply and employment in Austria; the use of the new ISCED (International Standard Classification of Education) fields of study variable makes this approach applicable abroad. The purpose is to explore a system that produces timely…

  15. Sustainable energy development in Austria until 2020: Insights from applying the integrated model “e3.at”

    PubMed Central

    Stocker, Andrea; Großmann, Anett; Madlener, Reinhard; Wolter, Marc Ingo

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the Austrian research project “Renewable energy in Austria: Modeling possible development trends until 2020”. The project investigated possible economic and ecological effects of a substantially increased use of renewable energy sources in Austria. Together with stakeholders and experts, three different scenarios were defined, specifying possible development trends for renewable energy in Austria. The scenarios were simulated for the period 2006–2020, using the integrated environment–energy–economy model “e3.at”. The modeling results indicate that increasing the share of renewable energy sources in total energy use is an important but insufficient step towards achieving a sustainable energy system in Austria. A substantial increase in energy efficiency and a reduction of residential energy consumption also form important cornerstones of a sustainable energy policy. PMID:21976785

  16. Economic comparison of the monitoring programmes for bluetongue vectors in Austria and Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Pinior, B.; Brugger, K.; Köfer, J.; Schwermer, H.; Stockreiter, S.; Loitsch, A.; Rubel, F.

    2015-01-01

    With the bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) outbreak in 2006, vector monitoring programmes (according to EU regulation 1266/2007) were implemented by European countries to obtain information on the spatial distribution of vectors and the vector-free period. This study investigates the vector monitoring programmes in Austria and Switzerland by performing a retrospective cost analysis for the period 2006–2010. Two types of costs were distinguished: costs financed directly via the national bluetongue programmes and costs contributed in-kind by the responsible institutions and agricultural holdings. The total net costs of the monitoring programme in Austria amounted to €1,415,000, whereby in Switzerland the costs were valued at €94,000. Both countries followed the legislation complying with requirements, but differed in regard to sampling frequency, number of trap sites and sampling strategy. Furthermore, the surface area of Austria is twice the area of Switzerland although the number of ruminants is almost the same in both countries. Thus, for comparison, the costs were normalised with regard to the sampling frequency and the number of trap sites. Resulting costs per trap sample comprised €164 for Austria and €48 for Switzerland. In both countries, around 50 per cent of the total costs can be attributed to payments in-kind. The benefit of this study is twofold: first, veterinary authorities may use the results to improve the economic efficiency of future vector monitoring programmes. Second, the analysis of the payment in-kind contribution is of great importance to public authorities as it makes the available resources visible and demonstrates how they have been used. PMID:25841165

  17. The relationship between extreme precipitation events and landslides distributions in 2009 in Lower Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzensteiner, H.; Bell, R.; Petschko, H.; Glade, T.

    2012-04-01

    The prediction and forecast of widespread landsliding for a given triggering event is an open research question. Numerous studies tried to link spatial rainfall and landslide distributions. This study focuses on analysing the relationship between intensive precipitation and rainfall-triggered shallow landslides in the year 2009 in Lower Austria. Landslide distributions were gained from the building ground register, which is maintained by the Geological Survey of Lower Austria. It contains detailed information of landslides, which were registered due to damage reports. Spatially distributed rainfall estimates were extracted from INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) precipitation analysis, which is a combination of station data interpolation and radar data in a spatial resolution of 1km developed by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG), Vienna, Austria. The importance of the data source is shown by comparing rainfall data based on reference gauges, spatial interpolation and INCA-analysis for a certain storm period. INCA precipitation data can detect precipitating cells that do not hit a station but might trigger a landslide, which is an advantage over the application of reference stations for the definition of rainfall thresholds. Empirical thresholds at regional scale were determined based on rainfall-intensity and duration in the year 2009 and landslide information. These thresholds are dependent on the criteria which separate the landslide triggering and non-triggering precipitation events from each other. Different approaches for defining thresholds alter the shape of the threshold as well. A temporarily threshold I=8,8263*D^(-0.672) for extreme rainfall events in summer in Lower Austria was defined. A verification of the threshold with similar events of other years as well as following analyses based on a larger landslide database are in progress.

  18. Etisus evamuellerae, a new xanthid crab (Decapoda, Brachyura) from the Middle Miocene of Austria and Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Hyžný, M.; van Bakel, B.W.M.; Guinot, D.

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of several carapaces, a new species of xanthid crab, Etisus evamuellerae, is described from the Middle Miocene of the Vienna (Austria) and Great Hungarian basins. It differs from the coeval xanthids, Xantho moldavicus and Pilodius vulgaris, in having a distinctly protruding front and comparatively longer carapace. Contrary to those two species, the new one makes up for just a small percentage in the decapod crustacean assemblages studied. PMID:25983383

  19. The high alpine bee fauna (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of the Zillertal Alps, Austria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Bees from the Zemmgrund area in the Zillertal Alps (Austria, Tyrol) were collected and determined to investigate the species composition of the area. A total of 61 specimens were collected over a two year period; they represent 24 species from 8 genera. Building on these records, the first commented checklist for the area is presented, with notes on habitats and visited flowers. PMID:25057253

  20. Mitigating mountain hazards in Austria - legislation, risk transfer, and awareness building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holub, M.; Fuchs, S.

    2009-04-01

    Embedded in the overall concept of integral risk management, mitigating mountain hazards is pillared by land use regulations, risk transfer, and information. In this paper aspects on legislation related to natural hazards in Austria are summarised, with a particular focus on spatial planning activities and hazard mapping, and possible adaptations focussing on enhanced resilience are outlined. Furthermore, the system of risk transfer is discussed, highlighting the importance of creating incentives for risk-aware behaviour, above all with respect to individual precaution and insurance solutions. Therefore, the issue of creating awareness through information is essential, which is presented subsequently. The study results in recommendations of how administrative units on different federal and local levels could increase the enforcement of regulations related to the minimisation of natural hazard risk. Moreover, the nexus to risk transfer mechanisms is provided, focusing on the current compensation system in Austria and some possible adjustments in order to provide economic incentives for (private) investments in mitigation measures, i.e. local structural protection. These incentives should be supported by delivering information on hazard and risk target-oriented to any stakeholder involved. Therefore, coping strategies have to be adjusted and the interaction between prevention and precaution has to be highlighted. The paper closes with recommendations of how these efforts could be achieved, with a particular focus on the situation in the Republic of Austria.

  1. Health-promoting residential aged care: a pilot project in Austria.

    PubMed

    Krajic, Karl; Cichocki, Martin; Quehenberger, Viktoria

    2015-09-01

    Long-term care for the aged is an area that has not been in the focus of health promotion so far. The paper describes context, concept and project plan of a 2-year pilot project of comprehensive health-promoting setting development in residential aged care in Austria, and provides an overview over main experiences and results. Austria's most relevant health promotion agencies, a specialized scientific institute and Austria's largest provider of aged care acted as partners. The project aimed at developing elements of a comprehensive approach, but also providing evidence for the effectiveness of health promotion. Therefore, the project combined an organizational development approach with a scientific, randomized controlled study on mobility enhancement for residents. A comprehensive settings approach turned out acceptable for the main stakeholders of aged care (owners and management, staff, residents and residents' relatives). Strategy development, based on a systematic needs assessment, found staff health to be of special interest for the organization (ergonomics, workability over life course), and residents' relatives, got more attention. The mobility study was able to achieve positive results on occupational performance, concerning quality-of-life indicators and reached also formerly inactive groups. After the end of the project, health promotion is still on the agenda of the organization; further developments will be monitored. Good support from the policy level and well-established networking between the aged care provider, health promotion agencies and a network for health promotion in health care seems to have been an important resource for success. PMID:24682545

  2. The Interreg IV Italia-Austria "SeismoSAT" Project: connecting Seismic Data Centers via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Rauch, Markus; Zivcic, Mladen; Steiner, Rudolf; Fabris, Paolo; Bertoni, Michele

    2013-04-01

    Since 2002 the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale - OGS in Udine (Italy), the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Vienna (Austria), and the Agencija Republike Slovenije za okolje (ARSO) in Ljubljana (Slovenija) are using the Antelope software suite as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data in real time, initially in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIA project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps". The data exchange has proved to be effective and very useful in case of seismic events near the borders between Italy, Austria and Slovenia, where the poor single national seismic networks coverage precluded a correct localization, while the usage of common data from the integrated networks improves considerably the overall reliability of real time seismic monitoring of the area. At the moment the data exchange between the seismic data centers relies on internet: this however is not an ideal condition for civil protection purposes, since internet reliability is poor. For this reason in 2012 the Protezione Civile della Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano in Bolzano (Italy) joined OGS, ZAMG and ARSO in the Interreg IV Italia-Austria Project "SeismoSAT" aimed in connecting the seismic data centers in real time via satellite. The general schema of the project, including first data bandwith estimates and a possible architecture will be illustrated.

  3. Overcoming fragmentation in health care: chronic care in Austria, Germany and The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Ellen; Knai, Cécile; Hofmarcher, Maria; Conklin, Annalijn; Erler, Antje; Elissen, Arianne; Flamm, Maria; Fullerton, Brigit; Sönnichsen, Andreas; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M

    2012-01-01

    The growing recognition of care fragmentation is causing many countries to explore new approaches to healthcare delivery that can bridge the boundaries between professions, providers and institutions and so better support the rising number of people with chronic health problems. This paper examines the role of the regulatory, funding and organisational context for the development and implementation of approaches to chronic care, using examples from Austria, Germany and the Netherlands. We find that the three countries have implemented a range of policies and approaches to achieve better coordination within and across the primary and secondary care interface and so better meet the needs of patients with chronic conditions. This has involved changes to the regulatory framework to support more coordinated approaches to care (Austria, Germany), coupled with financial incentives (Austria, Germany) or changes in payment systems (the Netherlands). What is common to the three countries is the comparative 'novelty' of policies and approaches aimed at fostering coordinated care; however, the evidence of their impact remains unclear. PMID:22221931

  4. The potential of geological storage of CO2 in Austria: a techno-economic assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brüstle, Anna Katharina; Welkenhuysen, Kris; Bottig, Magdalena; Piessens, Kris; Ramirez, Andrea; Swenner, Rudy

    2014-05-01

    An impressive two-third or about 40GWh/y of electricity in Austria is produced from renewable energy sources, in particular hydro energy. For the remaining part the country depends on fossil fuels, which together with iron & steel production form the most CO2 intensive industries in Austria with a combined emission of just over 20Mt/y. According to the IEA, CO2 capture and geological storage (CCS) can reduce the global CO2 emission until 2050 by 17%. A correct assessment of CCS needs to start with the storage potential. Prior to this study, only general estimates of the theoretical capacity of Austrian reservoirs were available, thus, up until now, the realistic potential for CCS technology has not been assessed. Both for policy and industry, an assessment of the matched capacity is required, which is the capacity that actually will be used in CCS projects. This hurdle can be taken by applying a recently developed methodology (Welkenhuysen et al., 2013). This policy support system (PSS) consists of two parts, PSS Explorer and PSS III simulator. In brief, the methodology is based on expert judgements of potential reservoirs. These assessments can provide the best available data, including the expert's experience and possibly confidential data, without disclosing specific data. The geo-techno-economic calculation scheme PSS Explorer uses the expert input to calculate for each individual reservoir an assessment of the practical capacity (as probability density functions), in function of an acceptable price for storage. This practical capacity can then be used by the techno-economic PSS III simulator to perform advanced source-sink matching until 2050 and thus provide the matched reservoir capacity. The analysed reservoirs are 7 active or abandoned oil and gas reservoirs in Austria. The simulation of the electricity and iron & steel sector of Austria resulted in the estimation of the geological storage potential, taking into account geological, technological and

  5. A new solar radiation model for research and applications in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olefs, Dr.; Schoener, Dr.

    2012-04-01

    The operational model STRAHLGRID calculates 10 minute values of direct and diffuse solar radiation as well as sunshine duration on a 1x1km grid for the national territory of Austria in near realtime. The model accounts for atmospheric turbidity, cloudiness, terrain shading, multiple and terrain reflections and ground albedo feedbacks. To reproduce temporal changes of atmospheric turbidity at best, we use precipitable water (water vapour transmittance) and visibility fields (aerosol transmittance) from the ZAMG operational nowcasting model INCA at same spatial resolution as well as a cloud raster. The latter combines measured sunshine fraction at 249 automatic weather stations (TAWES) with cloud type from MSG-2 satellite data and is therefore directly relevant for solar radiation. It is updated every 15 minutes. To account for multiple reflections, the ground albedo is taken from daily available MODIS imagery. Terrain data (elevation, aspect, slope, ground and sky view factor) is taken from a 100x100m DEM extracted at every 10th grid cell. To validate the model, quality controlled global solar radiation and sunshine duration data from 232 automatic weather stations in Austria as well as direct and diffuse solar radiation data of 5 operational suntracking systems are used. At ZAMG, the model is operationally used to assist the legal task of a national climate monitoring in Austria, to perform data quality control, to provide input and verification data for modeling tasks on different temporal and spatial scales (e.g. energy balance, regional climate modeling, weather forecasting) and to derive products related to solar energy applications (longterm means and forecasts). In future, the model will be used as an important part of a planned national operational snow cover model. The model data is freely available for academic and research use.

  6. Three decades of pleural cancer and mesothelioma registration in Austria where asbestos cement was invented.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, Manfred; Vutuc, Christian

    2003-03-01

    Recently, a new mesothelioma epidemic was predicted from observations made in Western Europe. From early observations in Austria the lower increase in cases of mesothelioma compared with neighbor countries had been related to different uses of asbestos. In order to test this hypothesis, incidence and mortality of pleural cancer [International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-8/9 163] were analyzed for three decades and supplemented by data from a cohort study in the factory that had been the largest consumer of asbestos imported to Austria and from all Austrian occupational diseases registered between 1990 and 2001. In men, mortality rates (based on 15 to 45 deaths/year) were lowest in 1980-1989, but similar in 1970-1979 and 1990-2001. No increase in younger-birth cohorts was detected. Incidence rates (based on 13 to 44 cases/year) increased (36%) non-significantly ( P=0.14). In women, a significant decrease in mortality and incidence rates ( P<0.01) was observed from 1970. Rates from work-related mesothelioma (based on only 0-7 men and 0-4 women/year) must be interpreted with caution. In the cohort of 2,816 asbestos cement workers 26 pleural mesotheliomas were registered from 1990 through mid-1999. Six of these cases (three male and three female) had not been registered as an occupational disease, but all of these cases had been encoded under ICD 163 in mortality statistics. One female cohort member registered as having asbestosis according to the death certificate had died from mesothelioma according to the statistics of occupational diseases. We conclude that no epidemic of mesothelioma due to past asbestos exposure is to be expected in Austria. PMID:12733090

  7. What's left? - Investigations on soil cover of conservation tillage methods in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Thomas; Hösl, Rosemarie; Strauss, Peter

    2014-05-01

    One of the most accepted and a practicable method to prevent soil from erosion is conservation tillage. If conservation tillage practices are performed in a proper way soil is protected from wind and water erosion. This study deals with the effectivity of conservation tillage practices under real field conditions. Therefore we i) carried out rainfall simulation experiments employing conservation tillage practices which had been proposed by farmers to test whether actual conservation tillage practices would be effective, ii) did an observation of mean soil cover on arable land after seeding in Lower and Upper Austria for field sites where conservation tillage was funded. Rainfall simulation experiments were carried out in the years 2011 and 2012 for various conservation tillage treatments consisting of different mulching and no tillage techniques. To evaluate results on surface runoff and erosion we additionally measured soil cover, bulk densities and surface roughness of the experimental plots. Soil cover estimation of the arable land in Lower and Upper Austria which is funded for conservation tillage practices was done in 2012 and 2013. Altogether on 146 randomly chosen field sites soil cover was estimated by using an object-based image analysis method. Results reveal that the effectiveness of conservation tillage was depending on the existence of a sufficient soil cover. However, under conditions of actual farm practices, a sufficient soil cover was not obtained for mulching treatments in 2011 and only partially in 2012. Therefore, mulching treatments partially gained even higher surface runoff and soil loss rates than conventional tillage practices. Due to their high soil cover, soil loss and surface runoff of no tillage treatments were very small as compared to all other tested treatments. The results of the soil cover estimation in Lower and Upper Austria show that under practicable land use a mean soil cover of 12 percent can be reached, what's rather low in

  8. Modelling informally collected quantities of bulky waste and reusable items in Austria

    SciTech Connect

    Ramusch, R. Pertl, A.; Scherhaufer, S.; Schmied, E.; Obersteiner, G.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Informal collectors from Hungary collect bulky waste and reusable items in Austria. • Two methodologies were applied to estimate the informally collected quantities. • Both approaches lead to an estimation of roughly 100,000 t p.a. informally collected. • The formal Austrian system collects 72 kg/cap/yr of bulky waste, WEE & scrap metal. • Informal collection amounts to approx. 12 kg/cap/yr. - Abstract: Disparities in earnings between Western and Eastern European countries are the reason for a well-established informal sector actively involved in collection and transboundary shipment activities from Austria to Hungary. The preferred objects are reusable items and wastes within the categories bulky waste, WEEE and metals, intended to be sold on flea markets. Despite leading to a loss of recyclable resources for Austrian waste management, these informal activities may contribute to the extension of the lifetime of certain goods when they are reused in Hungary; nevertheless they are discussed rather controversially. The aim of this paper is to provide objective data on the quantities informally collected and transhipped. The unique activities of informal collectors required the development and implementation of a new set of methodologies. The concept of triangulation was used to verify results obtained by field visits, interviews and a traffic counting campaign. Both approaches lead to an estimation of approx. 100,000 t per year of reusable items informally collected in Austria. This means that in addition to the approx. 72 kg/cap/yr formally collected bulky waste, bulky waste wood, household scrap (excluding packaging) and WEEE, up to a further 12 kg/cap/yr might, in the case that informal collection is abandoned, end up as waste or in the second-hand sector.

  9. The influence of the post-Chernobyl fallout on birth defects and abortion rates in Austria.

    PubMed

    Haeusler, M C; Berghold, A; Schoell, W; Hofer, P; Schaffer, M

    1992-10-01

    Researchers analyzed data on 66,743 births which occurred between 1985-1989 in the Styria region in southern Austria to determine whether radioactive fallout from the meltdown of the nuclear reaction at Chernobyl in the Ukraine, USSR in may 1986 affected the birth defect and abortion rates in this area of Austria. There were 1695 birth defect cases. Of the birth defects which occurred during embryogenesis, most occurred 14-49 days postconception (group 2; n=630). The researchers did not note a short-term effect of the fallout in group 2 or the other groups (relative risk= 0.75, 0.73 for group 1, and 0.93 for group 2). Baseline birth defect rates (per 1000 births) for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 2.5, 8.5, and 1,8 respectively. The only sizable increase occurred in group 2 at years 2 and 3 (10.6 and 10.3, respectively). More reported minor congenital defect cases accounted for this increase due to the newly established data base in the Department of Pediatric Cardiology at the University of Graz. Thus the increase was an artifact and not a true increase. Abortion rates varied from 10% to 14% and did not increase significantly after Chernobyl. Counseling frequency at abortion clinics fluctuated greatly (117-205) both before and after Chernobyl and the changes were not significant. These results indicated that the low dosage of radiation did not have a detectable biologic effect in terms of birth defects and abortions. The researchers addressed the difficulties with measuring teratologic potential of low dose radiation. They also highlighted the need for accurate categorizing of birth defects, adequate baseline data, and very reliable registries. Future research on possible environmental disasters which affect Austria can use these data as baseline data. PMID:1415387

  10. Daily temperature grids for Austria since 1961—concept, creation and applicability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiebl, Johann; Frei, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Current interest into past climate change and its potential role for changes in the environment call for spatially distributed climate datasets of high temporal resolution and extending over several decades. To foster such research, we present a new gridded dataset of daily minimum and maximum temperature covering Austria at 1-km resolution and extending back till 1961 at daily time resolution. To account for the complex and highly variable thermal distributions in this high-mountain region, we adapt and employ a recently published interpolation method that estimates nonlinear temperature profiles with altitude and accounts for the non-Euclidean spatial representativity of station measurements. The spatial analysis builds upon 150 station series in and around Austria (homogenised where available), all of which extend over or were gap-filled to cover the entire study period. The restriction to (almost) complete records shall avoid long-term inconsistencies from changes in the station network. Systematic leave-one-out cross-validation reveals interpolation errors (mean absolute error) of about 1 °C. Errors are relatively larger for minimum compared to maximum temperatures, for the interior of the Alps compared to the flatland and for winter compared to summer. Visual comparisons suggest that valley-scale inversions and föhn are more realistically captured in the new compared to existing datasets. The usefulness of the presented dataset (SPARTACUS) is illustrated in preliminary analyses of long-term trends in climate impact indices. These reveal spatially variable and eventually considerable changes in the thermal climate in Austria.

  11. Human impact on the geomorphic evolution of the HOAL catchment, Lower Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöppl, Ronald; Kraushaar, Sabine; Strauss, Peter; Fuchs, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Since the beginning of human settlement extensive land cover and land use changes have induced significant geomorphic landscape changes as water and sediment dynamics have been transformed. The presented project focuses on the reconstruction of Holocene geomorphic landscape evolution and the assessment of recent geomorphic processes in the Northern foothills of the Eastern Alps in Austria - an area intensively agriculturally used since the middle ages and often overlooked in its geomorphic evolution. The study area is a small catchment (ca. 66 ha) which is located in the western part of Lower Austria comprising a land use history as well as environmental settings typical for wide regions across the Northern foothills of the Eastern Alps in Austria. The catchment elevation ranges from 268 to 323 m a.s.l. and has a mean slope angle of 8%. The climate in this region can be characterized as humid. The lithology mainly consists of Tertiary marly to sandy deposits which are superimposed by Quaternary sediments (e.g. loesses). Dominant soil types are Cambisols, Luvisols, and Planosols. Furthermore, the catchment is used as a Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) implemented for the long-term research of water-related flow and transport processes in the landscape (http://hoal.hydrology.at). The main objective of this research project is to reconstruct Holocene landscape evolution by analyzing physical parameters of sediment cores taken from colluvial and alluvial sediment archives with additional 14C and OSL dating as well as by the measurement of truncated and covered standardized Luvisol profiles. First results will be presented at the EGU General Assembly 2016.

  12. 25th ANNUAL NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MANAGING ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The model results may help landscape ecologists produce indicators of surface water condition, such that unique combinations of these indicators can be used to infer the potential cause(s) and origin(s) of non-point pollution, which may lead to eutrophication in aquatic ecosystem...

  13. PREFACE: 25th IUPAP Conference on Computational Physics (CCP2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchur, Lev N.; Barash, Lev Yu

    2014-05-01

    Participants of the XXV IUPAP Conference on Computational physics came to Moscow at the end of the August during a hot period. It was not a hot period because of the summer; in fact, the weather was quite comfortable. It was a hot period for the atmosphere amidst scientific society in Russia, especially for scientists working for the Russian Academy of Sciences. Four years ago, the C20 IUPAP Commission on Computational Physics and Computational Physics Group of the European Physical Society chose Moscow for several reasons. The first reason was connected to the high level and deep traditions of computational physics in Russia. It is known from experience at the former CCP conferences that native participants contribute about half of the presentations which form the solid scientific background of the conference, and the good level of domestic science makes the conference interesting and successful. The second reason was due to the fact that for the last twenty years there were not many IUPAP conferences in Russia, and it was a time to open more places for information exchange and intensify scientific collaboration. Thirdly, it was common opinion four years ago that the situation in Russia had become stable enough after the transition to a modern society, which took almost a quarter of a century. The conference preface is continued in the pdf.

  14. Proceedings of the 25th Project Integration Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, M.

    1985-01-01

    Topics addressed include: silicon sheet growth and characterization, silicon material, process development, high-efficiency cells, environmental isolation, engineering sciences, and reliability physics.

  15. The Orphan Nuclear Receptors at Their 25th Year Reunion

    PubMed Central

    Mullican, Shannon E.; DiSpirito, Joanna R.; Lazar, Mitchell A.

    2013-01-01

    The Nuclear Receptor superfamily includes many receptors identified based on their similarity to steroid hormone receptors but without a known ligand. The study of how these receptors are diversely regulated to interact with genomic regions to control a plethora of biological processes has provided critical insight into development, physiology and the molecular pathology of disease. Here we provide a compendium of these so-called Orphan Receptors, and focus on what has been learned about their modes of action, physiological functions, and therapeutic promise. PMID:24096517

  16. 25th Anniversary Article: Supramolecular Materials for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Boekhoven, Job

    2014-01-01

    In supramolecular materials, molecular building blocks are designed to interact with one another via non-covalent interactions in order to create function. This offers the opportunity to create structures similar to those found in living systems that combine order and dynamics through the reversibility of intermolecular bonds. For regenerative medicine there is a great need to develop materials that signal cells effectively, deliver or bind bioactive agents in vivo at controlled rates, have highly tunable mechanical properties, but at the same time, can biodegrade safely and rapidly after fulfilling their function. These requirements make supramolecular materials a great platform to develop regenerative therapies. This review illustrates the emerging science of these materials and their use in a number of applications for regenerative medicine. PMID:24496667

  17. Naval Training Device Center 25th Anniversary Commemorative Technical Journal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amico, G. Vincent; Regan, James J.

    Both the technical history of training devices and the issues which currently confront their design and use are discussed by a group of distinguished scientists and engineers. A blend of human factors and engineering paper reflects the twin thrusts that make up the educational tools that are training device systems. (Author)

  18. Proceedings, 25th international conference on ground control in mining

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.; Mark, C.; Finfinger, G.; Tadolini, S.; Wahab Khair, A.; Heasley, K.; Luo, Y.

    2006-07-01

    Topics covered include: computer and physical modelling; geology in ground control; geophysics in ground control; ground control; impoundments stability; longwall gateroad support design; longwall operations; longwall shields and standing supports; mine design; multiple-seam mining interactions; pillar and pillar extraction; roof bolting; roof bolting - resin; and subsidence. Most of the topics include a retrospective paper which summarises the progress of the subject field during the past 25 years.

  19. A probable case of congenital syphilis from pre-Columbian Austria.

    PubMed

    Gaul, Johanna Sophia; Grossschmidt, Karl; Gusenbauer, Christian; Kanz, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the skeletal remains of a subadult from an archeological site in Austria. Radiocarbon dating and archeological attribution indicate that this individual is of pre-Columbian origin. Most of the skeleton was recovered, and only the teeth and the orbital roofs show changes. Dental defects such as the mulberry molar and a tapered, fang-like canine suggest a diagnosis of congenital syphilis. This is the first probable case of congenital syphilis from pre-Columbian Central Europe. Our findings contribute to the pre-Columbian theory, offering counter evidence to the assumption that syphilis was carried from Columbus' crew from the New to the Old World. PMID:26482430

  20. Unregulated access to health-care services is associated with overutilization—lessons from Austria

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The Austrian health-care system is characterized by free provider choice and uncontrolled access to all levels of care. Using primary data, the ECOHCARE study shows that hospitalization rates for the secondary and tertiary care levels in Austria are both 4.4 times higher than those reported from the USA using a similar methodology. At the same time, essential functions of the primary care sector are weak. We propose that regulating access to secondary and tertiary care and restricting free provider choice to the primary care level would both reverse over utilization and strengthen the primary care sector. PMID:25417940

  1. “Saving lives”: Adapting and adopting Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Katharina T.

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination against the sexually transmitted Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), a necessary agent for the development of cervical cancer, has triggered much debate. In Austria, HPV policy turned from “lagging behind” in 2008 into “Europe's frontrunner” by 2013. Drawing on qualitative research, the article shows how the vaccine was transformed and made “good enough” over the course of five years. By means of tinkering and shifting storylines, policy officials and experts disassociated the vaccine from gender, vaccine manufacturers, and youth sexuality. Ultimately, the HPV vaccine functioned to strengthen the national immunization program. To this end, preventing an effective problematization of the extant screening program was essential. PMID:26921834

  2. The Interreg IV Italia-Austria "SeismoSAT" project: connecting seismic data centers via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, D.; Lenhardt, W.; Rauch, M.; Živčić, M.; Steiner, R.; Fabris, P.; Bertoni, M.

    2014-06-01

    Since 2002 OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale) in Udine (Italy), the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Vienna (Austria), and the Agencija Republike Slovenije za Okolje (ARSO) in Ljubljana (Slovenia) are using the Antelope software suite as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data in real time, initially in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIA project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps" (Bragato et al., 2004, 2010). The data exchange has proved to be effective and very useful in case of seismic events near the borders between Italy, Austria and Slovenia, where the poor single national seismic networks coverage precluded a correct localization, while the usage of common data from the integrated networks improves considerably the overall reliability of real time seismic monitoring of the area (Fig. 1). At the moment the data exchange between the seismic data centers relies on their internet connections: this however is not an ideal condition for civil protection purposes, since the reliability of standard internet connections is poor. For this reason in 2012 the Protezione Civile della Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano in Bolzano (PCBZ, Italy), OGS, ZAMG subsidiary in Tirol (ZAMG Tirol) and ARSO joined in the Interreg IV Italia-Austria Project "SeismoSAT" (Progetto SeismoSAT, 2012) aimed in connecting the seismic data centers in real time via satellite. ARSO does not belong to the Interreg Italia-Austria region: for this reason ARSO joined the SeismoSAT project as an "associated partner", which, according to Interreg rules can not be funded. ARSO participation in the project is therefore at the beginning limited in benefiting only indirectly from improvement in the robustness of the data exchange between the other data centers, while eventually fully taking part in the project if other sources of funding will be available. The project is in a

  3. A Sunken Ship of the Desert at the River Danube in Tulln, Austria

    PubMed Central

    Galik, Alfred; Mohandesan, Elmira; Forstenpointner, Gerhard; Scholz, Ute Maria; Ruiz, Emily; Krenn, Martin; Burger, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Rescue excavations recovered a skeleton that resurrect the contemporary dramatic history of Austria in the 17th century as troops besieged Vienna in the second Osmanic-Habsburg war. Unique for Central Europe is the evidence of a completely preserved camel skeleton uncovered in a large refuse pit. The male individual of slender stature indicates a few but characteristic pathological changes revealing not a beast of burden but probably a valuable riding animal. Anatomical and morphometrical analyses suggest a hybrid confirmed by the ancient DNA analyses resulting in the presence of a dromedary in the maternal and a Bactrian camel in the paternal line. PMID:25831121

  4. Composition of the essential oil of wild grown caraway in meadows of the Vienna region (Austria).

    PubMed

    Chizzola, Remigius

    2014-04-01

    The essential oil compositions of the different plant parts of wild growing caraway (Carum carvi, Apiaceae) were analyzed by GC/MS and GC/FID. The plants came from two meadows in the Vienna region, Austria. The oils from young fruits had a high proportion of limonene (61-83%), and those from inflorescences limonene (39-62%) and germacrene D (23-41%). The carvone contents of fruits, inflorescences and leaves varied greatly. Leaves and stems, low in volatiles, were dominated by germacrene D and germacrene A. Therefore, wild caraway appears as a valuable aromatic herb in meadows. PMID:24868889

  5. Influence of weak motion data to magnitude dependence of PGA prediction model in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Data recorded by the STS2-sensors at the Austrian Seismic Network were differentiated and used to derive the PGA prediction model for Austria (Jia and Lenhardt, 2010). Before using it to our hazard assessment and real time shakemap, it is necessary to validate this model and obtain a deep understanding about it. In this paper, influence of weak motion data to the magnitude dependence of our prediction model was studied. In addition, spatial PGA residuals between the measurements and predictions were investigated as well. There are 127 earthquakes with a magnitude between 3 and 5.4 that were used to derive the PGA prediction model published in 2011. Unfortunately, 90% of used PGA measurements were made for the events with a magnitude smaller than 4. Only ten quakes among them have a magnitude larger than 4, which is the important magnitude range that needs our attention and hazard assessment. In this investigation, 127 earthquakes were divided into two groups: the first group only includes events with a magnitude smaller than 4, while the second group contains quakes with a magnitude larger than 4. By using the same modeling for estimating PGA attenuation in 2011, coefficients of the model were inverted from the measurements in two groups and compared to the one based on the complete data set. It was found that the group with the weak quakes returned results that only have small differences to the one from all 127 events, while the group with strong quakes (ml> 4) gave greater magnitude dependence than the model published in 2011. The distance coefficients stayed nearly unchanged for all three inversions. As the second step, spatial PGA residuals between the measurements and the predictions from our model were investigated. As explained in Jia and Lenhardt (2013), there are some differences in the site amplifications between the West- and the East-Austria. For a fair comparison, residuals were normalized for each station before the investigation. Then normalized

  6. A sunken ship of the desert at the river Danube in Tulln, Austria.

    PubMed

    Galik, Alfred; Mohandesan, Elmira; Forstenpointner, Gerhard; Scholz, Ute Maria; Ruiz, Emily; Krenn, Martin; Burger, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Rescue excavations recovered a skeleton that resurrect the contemporary dramatic history of Austria in the 17th century as troops besieged Vienna in the second Osmanic-Habsburg war. Unique for Central Europe is the evidence of a completely preserved camel skeleton uncovered in a large refuse pit. The male individual of slender stature indicates a few but characteristic pathological changes revealing not a beast of burden but probably a valuable riding animal. Anatomical and morphometrical analyses suggest a hybrid confirmed by the ancient DNA analyses resulting in the presence of a dromedary in the maternal and a Bactrian camel in the paternal line. PMID:25831121

  7. A giant termite from the Late Miocene of Styria, Austria (Isoptera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Michael S.; Gross, Martin

    2009-02-01

    A giant termite is described and figured from the Late Miocene of the Styrian Basin in southeastern Austria. Gyatermes styriensis gen. n. et sp. n. is represented by a relatively complete forewing, with basal scale. The fossil approximates in size the largest of all termites today and is the largest fossil termite on record. The presence of this species in the Late Miocene fauna of Europe indicates that climatic conditions were appropriate for the persistence of species and colonies requiring relatively stable, warm conditions. The genus is primitive in overall features but shares some similarity with the dampwood termites.

  8. High prevalence of Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) in foxes from western Austria.

    PubMed

    Hodžić, Adnan; Bruckschwaiger, Pia; Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Glawischnig, Walter; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2016-08-01

    Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) is a canine trichuroid nematode affecting the upper respiratory airways (i.e., nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses) of dogs, foxes, and wolves. In the past few years, reports in dogs and wild canids have increased from across Europe, but data on its occurrence and distribution in Austria is scanty. A total of 47 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the two westernmost provinces (Tyrol and Vorarlberg) of Austria were therefore examined for the presence of E. boehmi at necropsy. Eggs and adult nematodes were identified morphologically and molecularly (cox1) as E. boehmi. These nematodes were found in 26 (78.8 %) and 13 (92.9 %) foxes from Tyrol and Vorarlberg, respectively, with an overall prevalence of 83.0 % (39/47). The prevalence rate of infection recorded in this study is among the highest in Europe. These results suggest that foxes may represent an important source of infection for dogs and other canids, but further studies are needed to elucidate the transmission dynamics. PMID:27230019

  9. Molecular taxonomy and biodiversity of rock fungal communities in an urban environment (Vienna, Austria).

    PubMed

    Sterflinger, K; Prillinger, H

    2001-12-01

    The diversity of fungal communities on three different historical monuments in the city of Vienna (Austria) was analyzed and compared to the fungal diversity of microfungi on rock in the original quarry located in a rural area (Zogelsdorf, Austria). The fungal strains isolated were characterized by morphology and the complete rock fungal community was identified based on molecular data, that is, by sequencing parts of the small ribosomal subunit (18S) and internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS1). The genera Coniothyrium, Epicoccum and Phoma were found to be dominant on monument and rock surfaces. Additionally, black yeasts such as Exophiala species and microcolonial fungi like Sarcinomyces and Coniosporium which hitherto were regarded as typical rock inhabitants in semi-arid environments are frequently found on all rock surfaces in Vienna. The biodiversity of the fungi in the urban environment was much higher than on the same rock type in a rural environment, this difference can be attributed to the elevated organic pollution in the city. PMID:11827213

  10. One decade of scientific studies of snow management on Austria's glacier ski resorts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Andrea; Helfricht, Kay

    2016-04-01

    After the extremely warm summer of 2003, when melt affected Austria's glaciers up to the highest elevations, a scientific study on artificial modification of mass balance was initiated. It examined the effects of glacier covers and water injection, but also various grooming methods and snow accumulations based on monitoring and modelling of snow and energy balance. The results showed that covering the glacier was the most effective and cheapest method, saving about 70% of glacier melt in places. But covers are restricted to a small portion of the area, as they require high maintenance. In recent years, snow production and snow accumulation by wind drift have gained more and more importance, not only modifying glacier mass balance, but also guaranteeing an early season start. Initially about 35 ha of the glacier area (<10% of the ski resort area and less than one per mille of the total glacier area in Austria) were covered and later the area was reduced as snow production possibilities increased. Snow depots are often used as fun parks for snow boarders. Glacier covers are not primarily used for keeping snow for early season start on ski tracks, but to maintain the surface, especially close to cable car infrastructure, at a constant elevation and slope. Despite glacier dynamics, glacier surfaces with snow management show reduced decrease of surface elevation , both on piste and along lift tracks.

  11. Assessing the completeness of historical earthquake records in Austria and surrounding Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Asma; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Hintersberger, Esther; Decker, Kurt

    2010-05-01

    Completeness of earthquake catalogues is a necessary condition for seismic hazard assessment since they are the base for the determination of a and b values of the Gutenberg-Richter relation. A new composite catalogue for Austria has been created based on data from four different catalogues of earthquakes in Austria (ZAMG, 2009; ACORN, 2004; Van Gils & Leydecker, 1991; Shebalin et al., 1998) including for the first time also data from surrounding regions such as the Vienna Basin outside Austria and a buffer region 100km outside the boundary of the Austria and Vienna basin. The used earthquake catalogues cover different record length with a first entry in 1048 AD. A reliable estimate of the a and b parameters of the Gutenberg-Richter Relation from this newly compiled dataset can be only given, if the new catalogue is checked for completeness. We determined the completeness intensity (Ic) and the completeness periods for the composite catalogue following the method described by Stepp (1972). This method supposes that the earthquake occurrences are Poisson-distributed and investigates (i) the minimum observation interval required to reach reliable estimates of mean recurrence periods, (ii) the time interval for which the catalogues may be regarded complete. Both intervals are functions of the intensity class. Ic is the smallest intensity above which every earthquake was recorded for a given time interval. The completeness period is the time interval in which the catalogue is complete for a given intensity range. As most of the catalogue's records are pre-instrumental data, this completeness check was performed on intensity data avoiding ambiguities arising from intensity-magnitude conversion. In a second step, we repeated the completeness check, but this time based on magnitudes in order to determine the influences of various magnitude conversions. For pre-instrumental events, we converted intensities into magnitudes using published intensity-magnitude conversion

  12. Ten years trends (1984-1993) in the precipitation chemistry in central Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puxbaum, H.; Simeonov, V.; Kalina, M. F.

    Since 1984, wet precipitation samples have been collected from five sampling sites in the eastern Alpine region of Austria. The chemical analysis performed included pH, NH 4+, Na +, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Cl -, NO 3- SO 42- and precipitation amount. These data were used to determine the 10 years (1984-1993) trends in precipitation chemistry and deposition for all major ions. The statistical data treatment by the use of least-squares linear regression revealed a significant decrease of sulfate and hydrogen ion concentrations and depositions at all sites in consideration (above 65% for hydrogen ion and over 33% for sulfate concentration and 40% for hydrogen and 36% for sulfate deposition). An effort is made to explain the acidity decrease not only by the parallel decrease of sulfate concentration but by the participation of the other constituents of the wet precipitation events. It has been found that when the hydrogen ion concentration decrease is stronger than that of sulfate ion concentrations a compensation mainly by ammonium ion concentration increase is achieved. On the contrary, when the hydrogen ion concentration decrease is weaker than sulfate concentration decrease, a calcium ion concentration decrease is present for the sites in consideration. The results obtained indicate that the precipitation chemistry in Central Austria follows the global trends of controlled reduction of atmospheric acidity.

  13. [Asbestos concentrations in drinking water. Asbestos cement pipes and geogenic sources in Austria].

    PubMed

    Neuberger, M; Frank, W; Golob, P; Warbichler, P

    1996-03-01

    Sources of asbestos in drinking water may be natural deposits or the use of asbestos cement for water distribution. 50 water samples were selected in Austria to detect fibre contamination from either geology or asbestos cement by comparison with control areas and by comparison of raw and treated water. Standardized EPA/BGA methodology with transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and selected area electron diffraction was used to quantify concentrations of different sized amphibole and chrysotile fibres. In 10 areas with asbestos deposits and in 14 areas with use of asbestos cement pipes asbestos concentrations in drinking water were low and not significantly different from 6 control areas (median 32,000 total asbestos fibres per litre). The relative highest concentration was found in an area with natural deposits at the source of the water supply (190,000 per litre). In areas without natural deposits the increase of asbestos concentrations from origin to consumer of water was not significant and unrelated to water aggressiveness, age and length of asbestos cement pipes. This could be mainly due to the fact that in areas with aggressive water asbestos cement pipes have been coated in Austria. A sample from a cistern, however, showed considerable asbestos contamination and raises concern about the use of surface water for room air humidification. PMID:9376056

  14. How has Radical Right Support Transformed Established Political Conflicts? The Case of Austria

    PubMed Central

    Aichholzer, Julian; Kritzinger, Sylvia; Wagner, Markus; Zeglovits, Eva

    2014-01-01

    In many European party systems, the radical right has challenged established patterns of political competition. This article studies the consequences of this by using the case of the Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ) and data from Austria’s first national election study (AUTNES). It is found that the FPÖ has weakened Austria’s previously highly stable system of socio-structural and ideological divisions as expressed by the two mainstream parties, the People’s Party and the Social Democrats. In socio-structural terms, the FPÖ has undermined the Social Democrats’ support base. In ideological terms, FPÖ voters have distinct views on newer issues such as immigration, European integration and dissatisfaction with the political system, but its supporters’ views on Austria’s traditional conflicts surrounding the economy and social and religious values cannot explain the party’s success. These findings further our understanding of the transformation of political conflicts not just in Austria, but in Western Europe in general. PMID:26770003

  15. Modelling informally collected quantities of bulky waste and reusable items in Austria.

    PubMed

    Ramusch, R; Pertl, A; Scherhaufer, S; Schmied, E; Obersteiner, G

    2015-10-01

    Disparities in earnings between Western and Eastern European countries are the reason for a well-established informal sector actively involved in collection and transboundary shipment activities from Austria to Hungary. The preferred objects are reusable items and wastes within the categories bulky waste, WEEE and metals, intended to be sold on flea markets. Despite leading to a loss of recyclable resources for Austrian waste management, these informal activities may contribute to the extension of the lifetime of certain goods when they are reused in Hungary; nevertheless they are discussed rather controversially. The aim of this paper is to provide objective data on the quantities informally collected and transhipped. The unique activities of informal collectors required the development and implementation of a new set of methodologies. The concept of triangulation was used to verify results obtained by field visits, interviews and a traffic counting campaign. Both approaches lead to an estimation of approx. 100,000 t per year of reusable items informally collected in Austria. This means that in addition to the approx. 72 kg/cap/yr formally collected bulky waste, bulky waste wood, household scrap (excluding packaging) and WEEE, up to a further 12 kg/cap/yr might, in the case that informal collection is abandoned, end up as waste or in the second-hand sector. PMID:26209344

  16. [Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and TBE-vaccination in Austria: Update 2014].

    PubMed

    Kunze, Ursula; Böhm, Gabriela

    2015-07-01

    TBE is a public health problem well under control in Austria because of a mass vaccination programme. There have been 50-100 registered cases per year for many years, the vaccination rate of the population is currently 85 %. Special attention has to be given to the "older" generation 40 plus as this is the segment of the population where the majority of cases are observed annually. In comparison of the counties, Tyrol and Upper Austria finished first and second after a long time when Styria and Carynthia had observed most of the cases. For TBE applies the same as for Tetanus, namely the principle of disease control or disease elimination: The virus cannot be eliminated and vaccination provides individual protection. The both available TBE vaccines have proven to be very effective with an effectivity of 96-99 %, also when given irregular vaccinations the protection rate is still very high (>90 %). More than 4000 prevented cases between 2000 and 2011 prove this impressively. PMID:26055812

  17. Isotope evidence to link a suspect with a pipe bomb multimurder in Austria 1995.

    PubMed

    Papesch, Wolfgang; Rank, Dieter; Horacek, Micha; Tesch, Roland

    2011-01-01

    A bomb attempt in Oberwart, Austria, on February 4, 1995, was the culmination of several pipe and letter bomb attempts mainly in Austria. The pipe bomb had been mounted on a self-made gypsum (plaster of Paris) pedestal and exploded when touched, killing four persons. With a level of 200 tritium units (TU), the water extracted from the gypsum pedestal was unusually enriched in tritium (³H) compared to an environmental level of about 20 TU at that time. Investigation of the ³H content of air moisture in the living room of an arrested suspect showed values of about 1000 TU (normally, 50 TU is not exceeded). Additionally, water used as sealing liquid in a glass with nitroglycerine found in the living room was also significantly enriched in ³H (>400 TU). The living room therefore offered the high ³H level environment necessary to lead to elevated ³H concentrations in the gypsum pedestal. PMID:21198616

  18. Implementation of landslide susceptibility maps in Lower Austria as part of risk governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Rainer; Petschko, Helene; Bauer, Christian; Glade, Thomas; Granica, Klaus; Heiss, Gerhard; Leopold, Philip; Pomaroli, Gilbert; Proske, Herwig; Schweigl, Joachim

    2013-04-01

    Landslides frequently cause damage to agricultural land and infrastructure in Lower Austria - a province of Austria. Also settlements and people are threatened by landslides. To reduce landslide risks and to prevent the establishment of new settlements in highly landslide prone areas, the project "MoNOE" (Method development for landslide susceptibility modeling in Lower Austria) was set up by the provincial government. The main aim of the project is the development of methods to model rock fall and slide susceptibility for an area of approx. 15,900 km2 and to implement the resulting susceptibility maps into the spatial planning strategies of the state. Right from the beginning of the project a close cooperation between the involved scientists and the stakeholders from the Geological Survey of Lower Austria and the Department of Spatial Planning and Regional Policy of Lower Austria was established to ensure that method development and final susceptibility maps meet exactly the needs and demands of the stakeholders. This posed huge challenges, together with its realization in the large study area and a (heterogeneous) complex geological situation,. Limitations were given by restricted data availability (e.g. for geology or landslide inventories) in such a large study area. Rock fall susceptibility was modeled by a combined approach of determining rock fall release areas by empirical slope thresholds (dependent on geology) followed by empirical run-out modeling. Slide susceptibility was modeled based on the statistical approaches of weights of evidence (WofE) and generalized additive models (GAM) by two different research groups. Huge efforts were spent on the validation of all susceptibility models. In a later stage of the project we found that the best scientific maps are not necessarily the best maps to be implemented in spatial planning strategies. Thus, in close cooperation with the stakeholders, decisions had to be taken to find the best resolution of the maps

  19. Attitudes toward Physical Education: A Study of High School Students from Four Countries-Austria, Czech Republic, England, and USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelzer, Jiri; Ernest, James M.; Fenster, Mark J.; Langford, George

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the attitude toward physical education of 1107 high school students from four countries, Czech Republic, Austria, England, and the United States. Survey data were gathered and measured using the Adams Scale survey instrument (Adams, 1963). While the data revealed individual differences, the overall sample indicated a…

  20. Increase of genetic diversity and clonal replacement of epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in South-East Austria.

    PubMed

    Zarfel, Gernot; Luxner, Josefa; Folli, Bettina; Leitner, Eva; Feierl, Gebhard; Kittinger, Clemens; Grisold, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Spa-typing and microarray techniques were used to study epidemiological changes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in South-East Austria. The population structure of 327 MRSA isolated between 2002 and 2012 was investigated. MRSA was assigned to 58 different spa types and 14 different MLST CC (multilocus sequence type clonal complexes); in particular, between 2007 and 2012, an increasing diversity in MRSA clones could be observed. The most abundant clonal complex was CC5. On the respective SCCmec cassettes, the CC5 isolates differed clearly within this decade and CC5/SCCmecI, the South German MRSA, predominant in 2002, was replaced by CC5/SCCmecII, the Rhine-Hesse MRSA in 2012. Whereas in many European countries MLST CC22-MRSA (EMRSA 15, the Barnim epidemic MRSA) is predominant, this clone occurred in Austria nearly 10 years later than in neighbouring countries. CC45, the Berlin EMRSA, epidemic in Germany, was only sporadically found in South-East Austria. The Irish ST8-MRSA-II represented by spa-type t190 was frequently found in 2002 and 2007, but disappeared in 2012. Our results demonstrate clonal replacement of MRSA clones within the last years in Austria. Ongoing surveillance is warranted for detection of changes within the MRSA population. PMID:27231237

  1. What Does It Take to Be an Adult in Austria? Views of Adulthood in Austrian Adolescents, Emerging Adults, and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirsch, Ulrike; Dreher, Eva; Mayr, Eva; Willinger, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the defining features of emerging adulthood, subjects' conceptions of the transition to adulthood, and the perceived adult status in Austria. The sample consisted of 775 subjects (226 adolescents, 317 emerging adults, 232 adults). Results showed that most Austrian emerging adults feel themselves to be between adolescence…

  2. Increase of genetic diversity and clonal replacement of epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in South-East Austria

    PubMed Central

    Zarfel, Gernot; Luxner, Josefa; Folli, Bettina; Leitner, Eva; Feierl, Gebhard; Kittinger, Clemens; Grisold, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Spa-typing and microarray techniques were used to study epidemiological changes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in South-East Austria. The population structure of 327 MRSA isolated between 2002 and 2012 was investigated. MRSA was assigned to 58 different spa types and 14 different MLST CC (multilocus sequence type clonal complexes); in particular, between 2007 and 2012, an increasing diversity in MRSA clones could be observed. The most abundant clonal complex was CC5. On the respective SCCmec cassettes, the CC5 isolates differed clearly within this decade and CC5/SCCmecI, the South German MRSA, predominant in 2002, was replaced by CC5/SCCmecII, the Rhine-Hesse MRSA in 2012. Whereas in many European countries MLST CC22-MRSA (EMRSA 15, the Barnim epidemic MRSA) is predominant, this clone occurred in Austria nearly 10 years later than in neighbouring countries. CC45, the Berlin EMRSA, epidemic in Germany, was only sporadically found in South-East Austria. The Irish ST8-MRSA-II represented by spa-type t190 was frequently found in 2002 and 2007, but disappeared in 2012. Our results demonstrate clonal replacement of MRSA clones within the last years in Austria. Ongoing surveillance is warranted for detection of changes within the MRSA population. PMID:27231237

  3. Emotional Problems and Victimisation among Youth with National and International Migration Experience Living in Austria and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohmeier, Dagmar; Dogan, Aysun

    2012-01-01

    Young people with international migration experiences constitute an increasing proportion of the population in many European countries. In Austria, a substantial proportion of these international migrants come from Turkey. In Turkey, many adolescents are national migrants, having moved from the eastern part to the western part of the country. This…

  4. Global effects of national biomass production and consumption: Austria's embodied HANPP related to agricultural biomass in the year 2000

    PubMed Central

    Haberl, Helmut; Kastner, Thomas; Schaffartzik, Anke; Ludwiczek, Nikolaus; Erb, Karl-Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Global trade of biomass-related products is growing exponentially, resulting in increasing ‘teleconnections’ between producing and consuming regions. Sustainable management of the earth's lands requires indicators to monitor these connections across regions and scales. The ‘embodied human appropriation of NPP’ (eHANPP) allows one to consistently attribute the HANPP resulting from production chains to consumers. HANPP is the sum of land-use induced NPP changes and biomass harvest. We present the first national-level assessment of embodied HANPP related to agriculture based on a calculation using bilateral trade matrices. The dataset allows (1) the tracing of the biomass-based products consumed in Austria in the year 2000 to their countries of origin and quantifying the HANPP caused in production, and (2) the assigning of the national-level HANPP on Austria's territory to the consumers of the products on the national level. The dataset is constructed along a consistent system boundary between society and ecosystems and can be used to assess Austria's physical trade balance in terms of eHANPP. Austria's eHANPP-trade balance is slightly negative (imports are larger than exports); import and export flows are large in relation to national HANPP. Our findings show how the eHANPP approach can be used for quantifying and mapping the teleconnections related to a nation's biomass metabolism. PMID:23576842

  5. Antibiotic resistance in primary care in Austria - a systematic review of scientific and grey literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge for health care services worldwide. While up to 90% of antibiotics are being prescribed in the outpatient sector recommendations for the treatment of community-acquired infections are usually based on resistance findings from hospitalized patients. In context of the EU-project called "APRES - the appropriateness of prescribing antibiotic in primary health care in Europe with respect to antibiotic resistance" it was our aim to gain detailed information about the resistance data from Austria in both the scientific and the grey literature. Methods A systematic review was performed including scientific and grey literature published between 2000 and 2010. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined and the review process followed published recommendations. Results Seventeen scientific articles and 23 grey literature documents could be found. In contrast to the grey literature, the scientific publications describe only a small part of the resistance situation in the primary health care sector in Austria. Merely half of these publications contain data from the ambulatory sector exclusively but these data are older than ten years, are very heterogeneous concerning the observed time period, the number and origin of the isolates and the kind of bacteria analysed. The grey literature yields more comprehensive and up-to-date information of the content of interest. These sources are available in German only and are not easily accessible. The resistance situation described in the grey literature can be summarized as rather stable over the last two years. For Escherichia coli e.g. the highest antibiotic resistance rates can be seen with fluorochiniolones (19%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (27%). Conclusion Comprehensive and up-to-date antibiotic resistance data of different pathogens isolated from the community level in Austria are presented. They could be found mainly in the grey literature, only few are

  6. Spatial sensitivity of grassland yields to weather variations in Austria and its implications for the future☆

    PubMed Central

    Neuwirth, Christian; Hofer, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural production fulfills economic, ecological and structural functions. Despite technological advances, agricultural production remains sensitive to climate variations. In central Europe, climate change is predicted to bring more rainfall in winter, less rainfall in summer, and increased drought risk among other effects. Grassland agriculture, which is the dominant land use in Alpine regions, may be significantly affected by these climatic changes in the future. Motivated by this issue, the susceptibility of grassland yields to weather variations in Austria is empirical evaluated as a case study. The major objective of this study is to derive spatially distributed indications for climate change exposure by assessing the impacts of weather variations on past yield. It is assumed that reduced water supply during summer constitutes a threat to grassland productivity in regions that are warmer and drier already today. On the contrary, increased spring temperatures may improve grassland productivity in cooler regions like Alpine valleys, since the earlier snow melt leads to an extension of the growth period. Regression analyses are used for evaluating the relation between yearly yields and spring temperatures or water supply in summer, respectively. Water supply is thereby expressed by aggregated precipitation sums and the Climatic Water Balance (CWB). Input data are a meteorological time series as well as yearly yields available for 25 years between 1970 and 2010 and 99 districts in Austria. Yearly yields show a significant (P < 0.05) and positive dependency on water supply in summer for the eastern Austrian lowlands. The combination of temperature in spring and CWB in summer is only significant for six districts in the east of Austria. The positive impact of higher spring temperatures could not be verified. Generally, the regression coefficients are not very high, which indicates that temperature and water supply do not fully describe grassland productivity

  7. Temporal and spatial trends of chemical composition of wet deposition samples collected in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, Elisabeth; Kasper-Giebl, Anne; Lohninger, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Triggered by the occurrence of acid rain a sampling network for the collection of wet deposition samples was initiated in Austria in the early 1980s. Now the data set covers a time period of slightly more than 30 years for the stations being operable since the beginning. Sampling of rain water and snow was and is performed with Wet and Dry Only Samplers (WADOS) on a daily basis. Chemical analysis of rain water and snow samples comprised anions (chloride, nitrate, sulfate) and cations (sodium, ammonium, potassium, calcium and magnesium) as well as pH and electrical conductivity. Here we evaluate and discuss temporal trends of both, ion concentrations and wet deposition data for twelve sampling stations, which were operable for most of the observation period of 30 years. As expected concentrations and wet deposition loads of sulfate and acidity decreased significantly during the last three decades - which is also reflected by a strong decrease of sulfur emissions in Austria and neighboring countries. Regarding nitrate the decrease of concentrations and wet deposition loads is less pronounced. Again this is in accordance with changes in emission data. In case of ammonium even less stations showed a significant decrease of annual average concentrations and depositions. Reasons for that might be twofold. On one hand emissions of ammonia did not decrease as strongly as e.g. sulfur emissions. Furthermore local sources will be more dominant and can influence the year to year variability. Seasonality of ion concentrations and deposition loads were investigated using Fourier analysis. Sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, acidity and also precipitation amount showed characteristic seasonal patterns for most of the sites and for concentrations as well as deposition loads. However the maxima in ion concentrations and deposition loads were observed during different times of the year. Concentrations of basic cations and chloride, on the contrary, hardly showed any seasonality. However, as

  8. Recording of direct health traits in Austria--experience report with emphasis on aspects of availability for breeding purposes.

    PubMed

    Egger-Danner, C; Fuerst-Waltl, B; Obritzhauser, W; Fuerst, C; Schwarzenbacher, H; Grassauer, B; Mayerhofer, M; Koeck, A

    2012-05-01

    A project to establish an Austria-wide health-monitoring system for cattle was launched in 2006. Veterinary diagnostic data subject to documentation by law [Law on the Control of Veterinary Medicinal Products (Tierarzneimittelkontrollgesetz)] are standardized, validated, and recorded in a central database. This Austria-wide project is a collaboration among agricultural and veterinary organizations as well as universities, and is also supported by the Austrian government. In addition to providing information for herd management and preventive measures, further objectives of the project include estimating breeding values for health traits and monitoring the overall health status of Austria's cattle. To ensure a high level of participation from farmers and veterinarians, data security issues are extremely important. Valid data are the prerequisite for the efficient use of health records. The challenge hereby is to distinguish between farms with low frequencies of diseases and incomplete documentation and recording. Measures were undertaken to establish a routine monitoring system for direct health traits. A routine genetic evaluation for direct health traits as part of the joint breeding value estimation program between Germany and Austria was introduced for Fleckvieh in December 2010, based on diagnostic data from 5,428 farms with 147,764 Fleckvieh cows. In 2010 to 2011, the reporting of direct health traits as a compulsory part of performance recording and the breeding program was introduced as well. The overall challenge is the availability of sufficient valid direct health data for reliable breeding values. Practical experience gained in Austria in setting up a health registration system, focusing mainly on the availability of direct health data for breeding purposes with its successes and difficulties, is described. PMID:22541507

  9. West Nile Virus Positive Blood Donation and Subsequent Entomological Investigation, Austria, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Seidel, Bernhard; Jungbauer, Christof; Dimmel, Katharina; Kolodziejek, Michael; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdenek; Allerberger, Franz; Nowotny, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The detection of West Nile virus (WNV) nucleic acid in a blood donation from Vienna, Austria, as well as in Culex pipiens pupae and egg rafts, sampled close to the donor’s residence, is reported. Complete genomic sequences of the human- and mosquito-derived viruses were established, genetically compared and phylogenetically analyzed. The viruses were not identical, but closely related to each other and to recent Czech and Italian isolates, indicating co-circulation of related WNV strains within a confined geographic area. The detection of WNV in a blood donation originating from an area with low WNV prevalence in humans (only three serologically diagnosed cases between 2008 and 2014) is surprising and emphasizes the importance of WNV nucleic acid testing of blood donations even in such areas, along with active mosquito surveillance programs. PMID:25961567

  10. Geographically predominant genotypes of Aspergillus terreus species complex in Austria: s microsatellite typing study.

    PubMed

    Lackner, M; Coassin, S; Haun, M; Binder, U; Kronenberg, F; Haas, H; Jank, M; Maurer, E; Meis, J F; Hagen, F; Lass-Flörl, C

    2016-03-01

    Aspergillus terreus species complex is recognized as a frequent agent of invasive aspergillosis in Tyrol. The reason for this specific epidemiological situation is unclear. Aspergillus terreus strains isolated from environmental and clinical sources were genotyped using a novel panel of short tandem repeats and were evaluated for virulence. Three major endemic genotypes collected from the Inn region and its side valleys were found to cause the majority of invasive A. terreus infections. All of these genotypes were of the same mating type, which suggests that a mating barrier is present between these geographically well-adapted strains which is found to persist for at least 11 years. The three major genotypes were prevalent in both human infections and the environment. No major differences in virulence were observed using Galleria mellonella as model. Our data suggest a specific environmental exposure being responsible for the high incidence of A. terreus infections in Innsbruck, the Inn valley and side valleys (Tyrol, Austria). PMID:26577144

  11. [Xenophobia in Austria? Attitudes toward migration, foreign population, and the state's policy on foreigners].

    PubMed

    Holzer, W; Munz, R

    1995-01-01

    "At present some 700,000 foreigners (almost 9% of the total population) are living in Austria, about 280,000 of which are in the labor market. A representative sample of Austrians between 20 and 54 years [of age] were asked about their attitudes toward foreign population and migration policy." The findings indicate that various degrees of higher tolerance were correlated with being young, male, urban, living in a province with a high foreign population, and high socioeconomic status. "Stepping up the integration of the foreign population...is supported by a minority of Austrians only; as for the education of the children of immigrants, the Austrian attitude is a more generous one." (EXCERPT) PMID:12321137

  12. A historical case of amelogenesis imperfecta: Giovanna of Austria, Grand Duchess of Tuscany (1547-1578).

    PubMed

    Giuffra, Valentina; Panetta, Daniele; Salvadori, Piero A; Fornaciari, Gino

    2014-02-01

    The skeletal remains of Giovanna of Austria (1547-1578), daughter of the Emperor Ferdinand I of Habsburg (1503-1564) and first wife of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Francesco I (1541-1587), exhumed from the Basilica of San Lorenzo in Florence, were submitted to paleopathological study. Examination of the dentition, which was in a good state of preservation, showed maxillary retrognathism, together with a caries lesion, moderate periodontal disease, malposition of the upper second premolars and tooth wear. Furthermore, several horizontal grooves were observed in both the buccal and the lingual crown surfaces of almost all teeth, especially the anterior ones. The orthopantomogram showed hypomineralized enamel and alveolar bone loss. Two third-molar teeth were investigated using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis, revealing highly irregular enamel caps with reduced average thickness. The observed features suggest a diagnosis of hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta, a developmental condition affecting enamel formation. PMID:24405030

  13. The Salcher landslide observatory: a new long-term monitoring site in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canli, Ekrem; Engels, Alexander; Glade, Thomas; Schweigl, Joachim; Bertagnoli, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Landslides pose a significant hazard in the federal district of Lower Austria. The Geological Survey of Lower Austria is responsible for detailed site investigations as well as the planning and installation of protective measures. The most landslide prone area in Lower Austria is within the Rhenodanubian Flyschzone whose materials consist of alterations of fine grained layers (clayey shales, silty shales, marls) and sandstones. It exhibits over 6200 landslides within an area of approx. 1300 km². For areas susceptible to landsliding, protection works are not feasible or simply too costly. Therefore, monitoring systems have been installed in the past, most of them, however, are not operated automatically and require field visits for data readouts. Thus, it is difficult to establish any relation between initiating and controlling factors to gain a comprehensive understanding of the underlying process mechanism that is essential for any early warning applications. In this presentation, we present the design and first results of an automated landslide monitoring system in Gresten (Lower Austria). The deep-seated, slow moving Salcher landslide extends over approx. 8000 m² and is situated adjacent to residential buildings and infrastructure. This monitoring setup is designed to run for at least a decade to account for investigations of long term sliding dynamics and pattern. Historically the Salcher landslide has shown shorter phases with accelerated movements followed by longer phases with barely any movements. Those periods of inactivity commonly exceed regular project durations, thus it is important to cover longer periods. Such slope dynamics can be investigated throughout many parts in the world, thus this monitoring might allow to understand better also landslides with infrequent movement patterns. The monitoring setup consists of surface as well as subsurface installations. All installations are connected to permanent power supply, are taking the respective

  14. Exchangeable Cations in the Soils of Quercus Dominated Forests in Northeastern Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shuai; Bruckman, Viktor J.; Glatzel, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    In northeastern Austria there is a growing interest in increased utilisation of forest biomass for energy. This study focuses on soil properties and nutrient pool characteristics in deciduous forests in order to provide advice for forest management. We (i) quantified selected exchangeable cations in the soils of our study area and (ii) identified the effects of stand age, soil type, soil depth and soil pH on exchangeable cations and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Nine permanent Quercus petraea dominated plots on sandy, clayey cambisols and calcic chernozem were selected for our study. From each plot 18 soil samples were collected in a systematic grid by means of a soil corer with 70 mm diameter to a maximum depth of 60 cm. Soil pH, exchangeable mineral elements K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Al, and Fe were determined in five geometric soil horizons. Statistical analysis showed that (i) forest age did not influence the exchangeable K content of the sandy soils; (ii) the exchangeable K content decreased with increasing stand age in clayey cambisols; (iii) exchangeable K, Na and Mg were higher in calcic chernozems and clayey cambisols (iv) exchangeable Fe was significantly higher in sandy forest soils except in the 60-80 years old stand; (v) exchangeable Fe was below detection limit in calcic chernozem soils. A comparison of exchangeable cations revealed that (i) Ca is the key element of base cations (ii) the content of base cations is strongly significantly higher in calcic chernozem soils (iii) calcic chernozem soils have the highest CEC. CEC ranged from 38 to 190 μmol/g in the entire research area. Base cations, acid cations and CEC differ with soil depth as followed (i) in sandy and clayey cambisols, CEC had a minimum in 20 cm depth and then increased with soil depth to 50 cm; (ii) CEC decreased steadily with soil depth in calcic chernozems. As expected, CEC is significantly positively correlated (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.661, P<0.01) with the pH of the soil. The

  15. Performance validation of the ExoMars 2018 WISDOM GPR in ice caves, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorizon, S.; Ciarletti, V.; Plettemeier, D.; Benedix, W. S.

    2016-01-01

    The WISDOM (Water Ice Subsurface Deposits Observations on Mars) Ground Penetrating Radar has been selected to be part of the ExoMars 2018 exobiological rover mission. A prototype has been tested during the Mars Simulation organized by the Austrian Space Forum in Alpine ice caves in Dachstein, Austria. This campaign provided the opportunity to validate methods developed to process WISDOM's data in a well-documented environment and to retrieve geometrical and quantitative information about the 3D structure and the electromagnetic properties of the subsurface. We estimate the ice thickness in different locations inside the ice caves, and show that this ice is formed of fine strata with different properties. Data analysis allows reconstructing the bedrock in a 3D environment where a complete survey was performed.

  16. Dirofilaria in Humans, Dogs, and Vectors in Austria (1978–2014)—From Imported Pathogens to the Endemicity of Dirofilaria repens

    PubMed Central

    Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Auer, Herbert; Leschnik, Michael; Silbermayr, Katja; Duscher, Georg; Joachim, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Background Dirofilaria repens and D. immitis are filarioid helminths with domestic and wild canids as main hosts and mosquitoes as vectors. Both species are known to cause zoonotic diseases, primarily pulmonary (D. immitis), ocular (D. repens), and subcutaneous (D. repens) dirofilariosis. Both D. immitis and D. repens are known as invasive species, and their distribution seems associated with climate change. Until very recently, both species were known to be nonendemic in Austria. Methodology and Principal Findings Metadata on introduced and possibly autochthonous cases of infection with Dirofilaria sp. in dogs and humans in Austria are analysed, together with analyses of mosquito populations from Austria in ongoing studies. In Austria, most cases of Dirofilaria sp. in humans (30 cases of D. repens—six ocular and 24 subcutaneous) and dogs (approximately 50 cases—both D. immitis and D. repens) were most likely imported. However, occasionally infections with D. repens were discussed to be autochthonous (one human case and seven in dogs). The introduction of D. repens to Austria was confirmed very recently, as the parasite was detected in Burgenland (eastern Austria) for the first time in mosquito vectors during a surveillance program. For D. immitis, this could not be confirmed yet, but data from Germany suggest that the successful establishment of this nematode species in Austria is a credible scenario for the near future. Conclusions The first findings of D. repens in mosquito vectors indicate that D. repens presumably invaded in eastern Austria. Climate analyses from central Europe indicate that D. immitis also has the capacity to establish itself in the lowland regions of Austria, given that both canid and culicid hosts are present. PMID:27196049

  17. Determining water and nitrogen balances for beneficial management practices using lysimeters at Wagna test site (Austria).

    PubMed

    Klammler, Gernot; Fank, Johann

    2014-11-15

    The shallow Murtal aquifer south of Graz, Austria, provides easily withdrawable groundwater, which is supplied as drinking water without any chemical treatment. The aquifer is also used intensively by agriculture. Common agricultural management practices are the main source for diffuse nitrogen leaching and high groundwater nitrate concentrations. To safeguard the coexisting use of these two important resources, lysimeters are operated at the agricultural test site Wagna, Austria, and the influence of two beneficial management practices--low nitrogen input and organic farming--on nitrogen leaching towards groundwater is investigated. The technical lysimeter design as presented here consists of: (1) high-resolution weighing cells, (2) a suction controlled lower boundary condition for sucking off seepage water, thus emulating undisturbed field conditions, (3) comparative soil temperature, water content and matrix potential measurements inside and outside the lysimeter at different depths, (4) an installation of the lysimeters directly into test plots and (5) a removable upper lysimeter ring enabling machinery soil tillage. Our results indicate that oasis effects or fringe effects of the lysimeter cylinder on unsaturated water flow did not occur. Another lysimeter cultivated with lawn is operated for observing grass-reference evapotranspiration, which resulted in good agreement with calculated grass-reference evapotranspiration according to the FAO-Penman-Monteith method. We conclude that lysimeters installed at Wagna test site did not show any fringe effects and, thus, are appropriate tools for measuring water balance elements and nitrogen leaching of arable and grass land at point scale. Furthermore, our results for the period of 2005 to 2011 show that beneficial management practices reduced nitrate leaching and, hence, may allow for a sustainable coexistence of drinking water supply and agriculture in the Murtal aquifer. PMID:24982000

  18. A non-foodborne norovirus outbreak among school children during a skiing holiday, Austria, 2007.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hung-Wei; Schmid, Daniela; Schwarz, Karin; Pichler, Anna-Margaretha; Klein, Heidelinde; König, Christoph; de Martin, Alfred; Allerberger, Franz

    2009-01-01

    Norovirus is increasingly recognized as a leading cause of outbreaks of foodborne disease. We report on an outbreak in Austria that reached a total of 176 cases, affecting pupils and teachers from four schools on a skiing holiday in a youth hostel in the province of Salzburg in December 2007. A questionnaire was sent to the four schools in order to obtain data from persons attending the school trip on disease status, clinical onset, duration of illness and hospitalization. A cohort study was undertaken to identify the sources of infection. The school trip attendees were interviewed by questionnaire or face-to-face on their exposure to food items from the menu provided by the hostel owner. Of the 284 school holiday-makers, 176 fitted the definition of an outbreak case (attack rate 61.9%). A total of 264 persons on the ski holiday participated in the cohort study (response rate 93%). The day-by-day food-specific analyses did not find any food items served on any of five days (December 8-12) of the holiday to be associated with infection risk. The day-specific risk analyses revealed Monday December 10 (RR: 9.04; 95% CI: 6.02-13.6; P < 0.001) and Tuesday December 11 (RR: 3.37; 95% CI: 2.56-4.43; P < 0.001) as the two most risky days for having being exposed to norovirus. According to the epidemiological investigation, airborne transmission of norovirus originating from the first vomiting case most probably initiated this outbreak; foodborne genesis was excluded. During recent years, norovirus has become increasingly established as the most important causative agent of epidemic gastroenteritis in holiday-makers all over Europe. Tourism is one of the primary industries in Austria. Timely involvement of the relevant public health authorities is essential in any outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis, irrespective of its genesis. PMID:19280137

  19. Cardiac rehabilitation in Austria: long term health-related quality of life outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The goal of cardiac rehabilitation programs is not only to prolong life but also to improve physical functioning, symptoms, well-being, and health-related quality of life (HRQL). The aim of this study was to document the long-term effect of a 1-month inpatient cardiac rehabilitation intervention on HRQL in Austria. Methods Patients (N = 487, 64.7% male, age 60.9 ± 12.5 SD years) after myocardial infarction, with or without percutaneous interventions, coronary artery bypass grafting or valve surgery underwent inpatient cardiac rehabilitation and were included in this long-term observational study (two years follow-up). HRQL was measured with both the MacNew Heart Disease Quality of Life Instrument [MacNew] and EuroQoL-5D [EQ-5D]. Results All MacNew scale scores improved significantly (p < 0.001) and exceeded the minimal important difference (0.5 MacNew points) by the end of rehabilitation. Although all MacNew scale scores deteriorated significantly over the two year follow-up period (p < .001), all MacNew scale scores still remained significantly higher than the pre-rehabilitation values. The mean improvement after two years in the MacNew social scale exceeded the minimal important difference while MacNew scale scores greater than the minimal important difference were reported by 40-49% of the patients. Two years after rehabilitation the mean improvement in the EQ-5D Visual Analogue Scale score was not significant with no significant change in the proportion of patients reporting problems at this time. Conclusion These findings provide a first indication that two years following inpatient cardiac rehabilitation in Austria, the long-term improvements in HRQL are statistically significant and clinically relevant for almost 50% of the patients. Future controlled randomized trials comparing different cardiac rehabilitation programs are needed. PMID:19995445

  20. Soil organic matter change - analysis on a regional scale of Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruendling, Ralf; Franko, Uwe; Sedy, Katrin; Freudenschuß, Alexandra; Spiegel, Adelheid; Formayer, Herbert

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is an important resource in agriculture. It influences soil fertility, erosion processes and prevents soil degradation. However, SOM is strongly affected by climate change, soil conditions and management alterations. The presented study analyzes SOM changes in Austria on a regional scale in the "Marchfeld" and the "Muehlviertel". For quantification these SOM changes the model CCB (Candy Carbon Balance) was used. Based on a 1 square kilometer raster, the impact of specific site conditions on SOM are determined to characterize the study areas. Used as a main indicator for these conditions is the biologic active time (BAT). BAT describes the biologic activity for carbon cycling in top soils depending on soil and climatic conditions. High values of BAT indicate fast SOM reproduction rates. Hence, BAT changes over last years signpost the risk of SOM loss and can be used as an on-farm decision tool. The change of risks of SOM loss due to climate change is assessed by model results. Therefore, three climate scenarios are used to compute reproduction rates of SOM. "High risk-regions" can be identified for policy consulting. Different climate scenarios can help to develop best case and worst case results. First results show that the region "Marchfeld" had a higher change in BAT during last 2 decades comparing to the "Muehlviertel". A higher risk of SOM loosing is evident. Nevertheless, future scenarios predict a higher change of BAT for the "Muehlviertel". Apparently, the sensitivity of "Marchfeld" sites regard to climate change has been higher in the past and most BAT changes took place until now. With this method an evaluation of farm management in regard to SOM reproduction and recommendation of crop rotations for the future are possible. In conclusion, the aim of the project is a tool box for farmers and policy makers to evaluate present and future agricultural management. An examination of additional regions in Austria is planned.

  1. Seismic monitoring of soft-rock landslides: New case study at Pechgraben mudslide - Upper Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vouillamoz, Naomi; Santoyo, Juan Carlos; Ottowitz, David; Jochum, Birgit; Pfeiler, Stefan; Supper, Robert; Joswig, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    Creeping soft-rock landslides trigger various seismic signals which relate to key dynamics of the slope instability. A new seismic monitoring study is carried out at Pechgraben - Upper Austria, where a clay-shale rich mudslide was reactivated in summer 2013 after heavy rainfalls. The well geophysical instrumentation of the Pechgraben mudslide by the Geological Survey of Austria (LAMOND network including permanent ERT, GPS, piezometers, soil temperature/humidity and photomonitoring) is expected as a better basis for joint interpretation of seismic source processes. Seismic data are acquired by small-aperture (< 30 m) sparse seismic arrays. Potential events are recognized by frequency-time signatures in sonograms, where sonograms are spectrograms featuring a frequency-dependant noise adaptation that enhance the display of weak signal energy down to the noise threshold. Further signal evaluation follows an interactive scheme where semi-automated beam forming method enables for approximate source location. Three seismic arrays where deployed at Pechgraben in October 2015 for an eight days feasibility study. About 200 seismic signals potentially triggered by the landslide were manually picked on night-time measurements. Target signals occur in tremor-like sequences and have duration within 1 - 8 seconds. Local magnitudes are calibrated down to ML -1.5 (Wood-Anderson amplitude ≈ 0.1 μm in 100 m distance). Observed waveforms display high degree of similarity with seismic signals catalogued at other soft-rock landslides suggesting that a general typology of seismic source processes could be established for creeping soft-rock instabilities with potential further implications in landslide mitigation and forecasting.

  2. Endoparasites of the fallow deer (Dama dama) of the Antheringer Au in Salzburg, Austria.

    PubMed

    Rehbein, Steffen; Visser, Martin; Jekel, Ilse; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2014-04-01

    Although the annual harvest of fallow deer increased markedly in Austria in the past two decades, only little is known about the parasites of fallow deer in Austria. To add current faunistic knowledge on the endoparasites of fallow deer in the country, viscera from six adult males and one male fawn from the game preserve Antheringer Au, Salzburg, were examined in 2009-2010 using standard techniques, and spleen samples were screened for DNA of tick-borne pathogens (polymerase chain reaction). Infections with sarcocysts (Sarcocystis spp.) and gastrointestinal nematodes (range: 379-1,294 worms) were demonstrated in all deer; four and three bucks had Dictyocaulus eckerti (range: two to seven worms) and Varestrongylus sagittatus lungworms, respectively; Fasciola hepatica (9 and 18 flukes) were isolated from the liver of two bucks, and DNA of Babesia capreoli was isolated from the spleen of one buck. In addition, Eimeria sordida oocysts were identified in the faeces of the fawn that harboured also one Setaria sp., presumably Setaria altaica, in its mesentery. Fifteen species (morphs for the ostertagians) of gastrointestinal nematodes were identified: Ostertagia leptospicularis, Ostertagia drozdzi/Skrjabinagia ryjikovi, Spiculopteragia asymmetrica, Spiculopteragia boehmi/Rinadia mathevossiani, Trichostrongylus askivali, Trichostrongylus capricola, Cooperia pectinata, Nematodirus battus, Nematodirus roscidus, Capillaria bovis, Oesophagostomum sikae, Oesophagostomum venulosum and Trichuris globulosa. Two and four bucks had high individual burdens of more than 500 and more than 1,000 worms, respectively. As the nematode counts of the five bucks harvested during the mating season were associated with unusual high faecal egg counts, and four of the bucks had Dictyocaulus lungworms in addition, these findings may suggest a reduced resistance to parasites related with high levels of androgens and experience of stress during rut. PMID:24535173

  3. Patterns of globalized reproduction: Egg cells regulation in Israel and Austria.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Carmel; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Since the successful introduction of in vitro fertilization in 1978, medically assisted reproduction (MAR) has proliferated in multiple clinical innovations. Consequently, egg cells have become an object of demand for both infertility treatment and stem cell research, and this raises complex legal, ethical, social and economic issues.In this paper we compare how the procurement and use of human egg cells is regulated in two countries: Israel and Austria. Israel is known for its scientific leadership, generous public funding, high utilization and liberal regulation of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Austria lies at the other extreme of the regulatory spectrum in terms of restrictions on reproductive interventions.In both countries, however, there is a constant increase in the use of the technology, and recent legal developments make egg cells more accessible. Also, in both countries the scarcity of egg cells in concert with the rising demand for donations has led to the emergence of cross-border markets and global 'reproductive tourism' practices. In Israel, in particular, a scandal known as the 'eggs affair' was followed by regulation that allowed egg cell donations from outside the country under certain conditions.Cross-border markets are developed by medical entrepreneurs, driven by global economic gaps, made possible by trans-national regulatory lacunae and find expression as consumer demand. The transnational practice of egg cell donations indicates the emergence of a global public health issue, but there is a general lack of medical and epidemiological data on its efficacy and safety. We conclude that there is need for harmonisation of domestic laws and formulation of new instruments for international governance. PMID:22913734

  4. Posterior archaeomagnetic dating for the early Medieval site Thunau am Kamp, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepp, Elisabeth; Lanos, Philippe; Obenaus, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The early medieval site Thunau am Kamp consists of a hill fort and a settlement with large burial ground at the bank of river Kamp. All these features are under archaeological investigation since many years. The settlement comprises many pit houses, some with stratigraphic order. Every pit house was equipped with at least one cupola oven and/or a hearth or fireplace. Sometimes the entire cupola was preserved. The site was occupied during the 9th and 10th AD according to potshards which seem to indicate two phases: In the older phase ovens were placed in the corner of the houses while during the younger phase they are found in the middle of the wall. In order to increase the archaeomagnetic data base 14 ovens have been sampled. They fill the temporal gap in the data base for Austria around 900 AD. Laboratory treatment included alternation field and thermal demagnetisations as well as rock magnetic experiments. The baked clay with was formed from a loess sediment has preserved stable directions. Apart from one exception the mean characteristic remanent magnetization directions are concentrated around 900 AD on the early medieval part of the directional archaeomagnetic reference curve of Austria (Schnepp & Lanos, GJI, 2006). Using this curve archaeomagnetic dating with RenDate provides ages between 800 and 1100 AD which are in agreement with archaeological dating. In one case archaeomagnetic dating is even more precise. Together with the archaeological age estimates and stratigraphic information the new data have been included into the database of the Austrian curve. It has been recalculated using a new version of RenCurve. The new data confine the curve and its error band considerably in the time interval 800 to 1100 AD. The curve calibration process also provides a probability density distribution for each structure which allows for posterior dating. This refines temporal errors considerably. Usefulness of such an approach and archaeological implications will be

  5. UV-radiation in the past: Reconstruction and long-term changes in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadzimustafic, J.; Simic, S.; Fitzka, M.

    2013-05-01

    Series of daily erythemal UV-dose are reconstructed for the last 30 years of the 20th century in Austria and its changes during that period with respect to observed changes in total ozone and cloud cover discussed. The reconstruction method is based on the relationship between long-term global radiation and sunshine duration records and existing measurements of erythemal UV at several locations. Through comparison with different data sources efforts are made to assure high data quality for all input parameters. The results for reconstructed daily sums show high correlations (0.95-0.99) with observed values compared on a yearly and seasonal basis throughout the overlapping period 1998-2010. Assessed from the reconstructed data, long-term variability of erythemal UV daily dose for two time periods has been quantified (1977-1995, 1996-2010). Special emphasis is put on the investigation of changes in UV due to observed trends in clouds and sunshine duration in the Austrian Alpine regions during the last decades. The earlier period shows significant changes between +4.1 %/dec and +6.9 %/dec at six stations in Austria, mainly due to significant decreases in total ozone column of up to -3.7 %/dec. Positive significant trends of around +2%/dec are found in cloud and aerosol modification factors at most of stations along with observed positive trends in sunshine duration, being statistically significant at eastern and southern stations. In spite of ozone layer recovery since the mid 1990s, the latter period does not reveal any statistically significant changes in erythemal UV irradiation.

  6. Holistic assessment of a landfill mining pilot project in Austria: Methodology and application.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Robert; Baumgartner, Rupert J; Vorbach, Stefan; Wolfsberger, Tanja; Ragossnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2016-07-01

    Basic technical and economic examinations of Austrian mass waste landfills, concerning the recovery of secondary raw materials, have been carried out by the 'LAMIS - Landfill Mining Austria' pilot project for the first time in Austria. A main focus of the research - the subject of this article - was the first devotion of a pilot landfill to an integrated ecological and economic assessment so that its feasibility could be verified before a landfill mining project commenced. A Styrian mass waste landfill had been chosen for this purpose that had been put into operation in 1979 and received mechanically-biologically pre-treated municipal waste till 2012. The whole assessment procedure was divided into preliminary and main assessment phases to evaluate the general suitability of a landfill mining project with little financial and human resource expense. A portfolio chart, based on a questionnaire, was created for the preliminary assessment that, as a result, has provided a recommendation for subsequent investigation - the main assessment phase. In this case, specific economic criteria were assessed by net present value calculation, while ecological or socio-economic criteria were rated by utility analysis, transferring the result into a utility-net present value chart. In the case of the examined pilot landfill, assessing the landfill mining project produced a higher utility but a lower net present value than a landfill leaving-in for aftercare. Since no clearly preferable scenario could be identified this way, a cost-revenue analysis was carried out in addition that determined a dimensionless ratio: the 'utility - net present value quotient' of both scenarios. Comparing this quotient showed unmistakably that in the overall assessment, 'leaving the landfill in aftercare' was preferable to a 'landfill mining project' in that specific case. PMID:27170192

  7. Patterns of globalized reproduction: Egg cells regulation in Israel and Austria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Since the successful introduction of in vitro fertilization in 1978, medically assisted reproduction (MAR) has proliferated in multiple clinical innovations. Consequently, egg cells have become an object of demand for both infertility treatment and stem cell research, and this raises complex legal, ethical, social and economic issues. In this paper we compare how the procurement and use of human egg cells is regulated in two countries: Israel and Austria. Israel is known for its scientific leadership, generous public funding, high utilization and liberal regulation of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Austria lies at the other extreme of the regulatory spectrum in terms of restrictions on reproductive interventions. In both countries, however, there is a constant increase in the use of the technology, and recent legal developments make egg cells more accessible. Also, in both countries the scarcity of egg cells in concert with the rising demand for donations has led to the emergence of cross-border markets and global 'reproductive tourism' practices. In Israel, in particular, a scandal known as the 'eggs affair' was followed by regulation that allowed egg cell donations from outside the country under certain conditions. Cross-border markets are developed by medical entrepreneurs, driven by global economic gaps, made possible by trans-national regulatory lacunae and find expression as consumer demand. The transnational practice of egg cell donations indicates the emergence of a global public health issue, but there is a general lack of medical and epidemiological data on its efficacy and safety. We conclude that there is need for harmonisation of domestic laws and formulation of new instruments for international governance. PMID:22913734

  8. Implementing the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC) in Austria: Flood Risk Management Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhold, Clemens

    2013-04-01

    he Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2007 on the assessment and management of flood risks (EFD) aims at the reduction of the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity associated with floods in the Community. This task is to be achieved based on three process steps (1) preliminary flood risk assessment (finalised by the end of 2011), (2) flood hazard maps and flood risk maps (due 2013) and (3) flood risk management plans (due 2015). Currently, an interdisciplinary national working group is defining the methodological framework for flood risk management plans in Austria supported by a constant exchange with international bodies and experts. Referring to the EFD the components of the flood risk management plan are (excerpt): 1. conclusions of the preliminary flood risk assessment 2. flood hazard maps and flood risk maps and the conclusions that can be drawn from those maps 3. a description of the appropriate objectives of flood risk management 4. a summary of measures and their prioritisation aiming to achieve the appropriate objectives of flood risk management The poster refers to some of the major challenges in this process, such as the legal provisions, coordination of administrative units, definition of public relations, etc. The implementation of the EFD requires the harmonisation of legal instruments of various disciplines (e.g. water management, spatial planning, civil protection) enabling a coordinated - and ideally binding - practice of flood risk management. This process is highly influenced by the administrative organisation in Austria - federal, provincial and municipality level. The Austrian approach meets this organisational framework by structuring the development of the flood risk management plan into 3 time-steps: (a) federal blueprint, (b) provincial editing and (c) federal finishing as well as reporting to the European Commission. Each time

  9. [Challenges in the implementation of electronic health care records and patient cards in Austria].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, K P; Auer, C M

    2009-03-01

    Patient-centered, interinstitutional digital documentation and communication in the Austrian health care system is a primary goal of Austria health politics. The implementation of the eCard in the year 2005 was a very important step towards digitalization of the Austria health system. The main responsibility of the Ministry of Health (MoH) is coordinating the implementation of the eHealth infrastructure based on international standards. The Austrian electronic health care record (ELGA) should include all relevant multimedia medical and health-related data of a uniquely identified person. A selection of "relevant" documents must be made. The implementation of ELGA will take place in modules. Because of the importance of the federal states and their role in health care, a special commission was set up to represent the most important stakeholders. Thereby they are included in the decision-making process. This is important with regard to the future use of many already existing information systems and for further investments. The most important steps until now were the implementation of a working group for ELGA as an association of the national health commission in the year 2006 and the implementation of a feasibility study as well as a cost-benefit analysis. Data protection and security are considered very important factors and, with respect to these, the roles for health care providers will be defined. To achieve high acceptance from the public and especially from health care providers, it is important to inform them about the benefits of eHealth. PMID:19259636

  10. Dementia service centres in Austria: A comprehensive support and early detection model for persons with dementia and their caregivers – theoretical foundations and model description

    PubMed Central

    Span, Edith; Reisberg, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Despite the highly developed social services in Austria, the County of Upper Austria, one of the nine counties of Austria had only very limited specialized services for persons with dementia and their caregivers in 2001. Support groups existed in which the desire for more specialized services was voiced. In response to this situation, funding was received to develop a new structure for early disease detection and long term support for both the person with dementia and their caregivers. This article describes the development of the model of the Dementia Service Centres (DSCs) and the successes and difficulties encountered in the process of implementing the model in six different rural regions of Upper Austria. The DSC was described in the First Austrian Dementia Report as one of the potential service models for the future. PMID:24339114