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Sample records for author taylor jessica

  1. Reflections on the Historical Narrative of Jessica Park, an Artist with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furniss, Gillian J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewpoint discusses the history of Jessica Park, a professional artist who is an adult with autism. The narrative was constructed from historical descriptive research conducted by the author using published accounts and interviews with the artist, her mother, and two childhood companions. Examples of artwork produced in elementary through…

  2. Jessica's Journey: Transforming School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Kenneth O.

    2014-01-01

    Kenneth Grover, the principal at Innovations Early College High School in Salt Lake City, Utah, describes a student he calls Jessica who is, unfortunately, one of thousands of students across the country entering and walking away from high school during their first year. These students' efforts are sincere, their attendance superb, and their…

  3. Twenty-Five Years and Counting of "Sweet Valley": Jessica and Elizabeth in Romance Novels for Young Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2010-01-01

    With the 2008 reissue of Francine Pascal's (1983) "Sweet Valley High", the popular cultural icons of twins Jessica and Elizabeth have been revitalized. Jessica and Elizabeth are the much-beloved protagonists in romance novels strategically targeted for young adults in "Sweet Valley High" or "Sweet Valley U", and for first- and second-grade readers…

  4. Interview with John Taylor Gatto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Ellen

    1994-01-01

    Introduces ex-teacher and author John Taylor Gatto's experiences and views on education, including contradictory patterns of family life and education in the United States, based on traditions of various immigrant groups; deleterious impacts of standardization and institutional usurpation of family functions; and conflict between the development…

  5. A Comparison of Documentary Approaches: Margaret Bourke-White and Erskine Caldwell, Authors of "You Have Seen Their Faces," and Dorothea Lange and Paul S. Taylor, Authors of "An American Exodus."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Art

    Two books that use documentary photography to examine social problems--"You Have Seen Their Faces," a 1937 study of Southern sharecroppers by Margaret Bourke-White and Erskine Caldwell, and "An American Exodus," a 1939 examination of the migration of farm families by Dorothea Lange and Paul S. Taylor--are compared in this paper. After relating the…

  6. Taylor Business Institute, Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Jerry

    The Office of the State Comptroller in New York audited the records and procedures used in administering the Tuition Assistance Program (TAP) at Taylor Business Institute (Taylor) for the academic years 1995-96 through 1997-98. Taylor, located in Manhattan, offers both degree programs and diploma programs in Accounting, Business Management,…

  7. Taylor-Made Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonergan, David

    2011-01-01

    Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) was an efficiency expert whose concerns were less about avoiding worker fatigue and more about increasing profit margins by any means necessary. Taylor was devoted to finding the One Best Way to carry out a task and then training workers to do that task unvaryingly; attempts by employees to improve their own…

  8. Effects of the Jessica oil spill on artisanal fisheries in the Galápagos.

    PubMed

    Born, Abraham F; Espinoza, Eduardo; Murillo, Juan Carlos; Nicolaides, Francis; Edgar, Graham J

    2003-01-01

    In contrast to local perceptions, the impact on the local Galápagos artisanal fishery of the 16 January 2001 grounding of the Jessica and subsequent oil spill was relatively minor. No significant changes in fishing effort, total fishing catches or catch-per-unit effort were detected after the spill based on analyses of fisheries monitoring data. Nevertheless, large boats tended to move away from sites near the path of the spill following the grounding in 2001, with no fishing recorded from the oil-affected regions of Floreana and southern Isabela in February 2001. The total fishing effort of small boats operating from the Jessica-grounding island of San Cristóbal also declined immediately after the spill, probably in part because such boats were used in clean up operations. During 2001, prices paid to fishers remained stable at levels higher than in 2000, with the notable anomaly that prices fell precipitously to 30% of previous levels during a 1-2 week period in early February 2001. Fish exports remained at similar levels for the years 2000 and 2001; however, as in the previous year, little fish product was exported from Galápagos in the month following the spill, with most fish product dried and stored for up to two months prior to transport to the continent. PMID:12810096

  9. Baker & Taylor's George Coe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fialkoff, Francine

    2009-01-01

    In his 30 years as a library wholesaler, first as VP and general manager of Brodart Books, Library, and School Automation divisions and since 2000 as president of the Library & Education division of Baker & Taylor (B&T), George Coe has been instrumental in a whole host of innovations. They go way beyond the selection, processing, and delivery of…

  10. Reply to Taylor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanovich, Keith E.; West, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    Responds to Denny Taylor's critique in the same issue of an article by Richard F. West, Keith E. Stanovich, and H. R. Mitchell entitled "Reading in the Real World and Its Correlates," published in an earlier issue of "Reading Research Quarterly." (HB)

  11. Meet Jessica and Elizabeth from Sweet Valley: Who Are the Female Role Models in Popular Romance Novels for Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    Jessica and Elizabeth are two female characters, twins, featured throughout Francine Pascal's Sweet Valley series, the Bantam Publishers popular series for girls from elementary school through junior high, high school, university, and well into adulthood. This paper notes that these books are a part of the same formula that are used for romance…

  12. Tailored Taylor vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprague, M. A.; Weidman, P. D.; Macumber, S.; Fischer, P. F.

    2008-01-01

    The stability of circular Couette flow in discontinuous axisymmetric geometries is investigated using numerical simulations and physical experiments. By contouring the geometry of the inner cylinder, Taylor vortices can be made to appear in discrete sections along the length of the cylinder while adjoining sections remain stable. The disparate flows are connected by transition regions that arise from the stability of the axially nonuniform base flow state. The geometry of the inner cylinder can be tailored to produce the simultaneous onset of Taylor vortices of different wavelength in neighboring sections. In another variant, a stack of inner cylinders of common radius are made to rotate independently to produce adjacent regions of stable and unstable flow.

  13. Continuously tailored Taylor vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprague, M. A.; Weidman, P. D.

    2009-11-01

    Modified axisymmetric, finite-length Taylor-Couette (TC) cells with stationary outer cylinder and rotating inner cylinder are designed in an effort to produce simultaneous onset of toroidal vortices of continuously varying wavelength along the gap. For a given axial variation in the inner radius, the axial variation in the outer radius can be chosen such that at every axial position, the criterion for the onset of Taylor vortices in a corresponding classical TC cell is met. In one scenario, a conical inner cylinder is chosen and the shape of the outer cylinder is then determined by locally satisfying the onset criterion. In another scenario, the inner and outer radii are chosen such that the onset criterion is locally satisfied and the axial rate of change in the classical onset wave number is held constant. In both cases, the modified cells possess a large-scale meridional circulation wrought by the finite Ekman (Bödewadt) pumping on the inner (outer) cylinder walls. Using direct numerical simulation, it is found that for sufficiently large aspect ratio, there exists a critical rotation rate for the simultaneous transition from the base flow to counter-rotating toroidal vortices throughout the varying-radius region. The vortices propagate in the direction of decreasing gap width with a phase speed that decreases with increasing aspect ratio.

  14. Overview of Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this talk is to survey Rayleigh-Taylor instability, describing the phenomenology that occurs at a Taylor unstable interface, and reviewing attempts to understand these phenomena quantitatively.

  15. Rayleigh-Taylor Shock Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, B J; Cook, A W

    2007-08-30

    Beginning from a state of hydrostatic equilibrium, in which a heavy gas rests atop a light gas in a constant gravitational field, Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the interface will launch a shock wave into the upper fluid. The rising bubbles of lighter fluid act like pistons, compressing the heavier fluid ahead of the fronts and generating shocklets. These shocklets coalesce in multidimensional fashion into a strong normal shock, which increases in strength as it propagates upwards. Large-eddy simulations demonstrate that the shock Mach number increases faster in three dimensions than it does in two dimensions. The generation of shocks via Rayleigh-Taylor instability could have profound implications for astrophysical flows.

  16. Bursting the Taylor cone bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhao; Truscott, Tadd

    2014-11-01

    A soap bubble fixed on a surface and placed in an electric field will take on the shape of a cone rather than constant curvature (dome) when the electrical field is not present. The phenomenon was introduced by J. Zeleny (1917) and studied extensively by C.T. Wilson & G.I. Taylor (1925). We revisit the Taylor cone problem by studying the deformation and bursting of soap bubbles in a point charge electric field. A single bubble takes on the shape of a cone in the electric field and a high-speed camera equipped with a micro-lens is used to observe the unsteady dynamics at the tip. Rupture occurs as a very small piece of the tip is torn away from the bubble toward the point charge. Based on experiments, a theoretical model is developed that predicts when rupture should occur. This study may help in the design of foam-removal techniques in engineering and provide a better understanding of an electrified air-liquid interface.

  17. Taylor Business Institute. Report 93-T-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attmore, Robert H.

    Taylor Business Institute is a proprietary, degree-granting school located in New York City, offering various programs leading to two-year degrees and diplomas. An audit was conducted by the New York State Comptroller's Office of the records and procedures used by Taylor in certifying students' awards for the Tuition Assistance Program (TAP) and…

  18. Taylor approximations of multidimensional linear differential systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomadze, Vakhtang

    2016-06-01

    The Taylor approximations of a multidimensional linear differential system are of importance as they contain a complete information about it. It is shown that in order to construct them it is sufficient to truncate the exponential trajectories only. A computation of the Taylor approximations is provided using purely algebraic means, without requiring explicit knowledge of the trajectories.

  19. 33 CFR 117.987 - Taylor Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Taylor Bayou. 117.987 Section 117.987 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.987 Taylor Bayou. The draws of the Union...

  20. 33 CFR 117.987 - Taylor Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Taylor Bayou. 117.987 Section 117.987 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.987 Taylor Bayou. The draws of the Union...

  1. 33 CFR 117.987 - Taylor Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Taylor Bayou. 117.987 Section 117.987 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.987 Taylor Bayou. The draws of the Union...

  2. 33 CFR 117.987 - Taylor Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylor Bayou. 117.987 Section 117.987 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.987 Taylor Bayou. The draws of the Union...

  3. 33 CFR 117.987 - Taylor Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Taylor Bayou. 117.987 Section 117.987 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.987 Taylor Bayou. The draws of the Union...

  4. Taylorism and the Logic of Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoller, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines the shared philosophical foundations of Fredrick W. Taylor's scientific management principles and the contemporary learning outcomes movement (LOM). It analyses the shared philosophical ground between the focal point of Taylor's system--"the task"--and the conceptualization and deployment of "learning…

  5. 33 CFR 117.335 - Taylor Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylor Creek. 117.335 Section 117.335 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.335 Taylor Creek. The draw of US441 bridge, mile...

  6. Douglas Taylor School: Rooted in Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, James; Boone, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Inspiring students to become teachers and community leaders is a goal of Douglas Taylor School's leadership team. A feeling of continuity and connection are important to the school, which opened in the 19th century. Housed in a beautiful old school building in Chicago's South Side, Douglas Taylor School contains grades preK-8. To maintain the…

  7. 33 CFR 117.335 - Taylor Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Taylor Creek. 117.335 Section 117.335 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.335 Taylor Creek. The draw of US441 bridge, mile...

  8. Nested Taylor decomposition in multivariate function decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baykara, N. A.; Gürvit, Ercan

    2014-12-01

    Fluctuationlessness approximation applied to the remainder term of a Taylor decomposition expressed in integral form is already used in many articles. Some forms of multi-point Taylor expansion also are considered in some articles. This work is somehow a combination these where the Taylor decomposition of a function is taken where the remainder is expressed in integral form. Then the integrand is decomposed to Taylor again, not necessarily around the same point as the first decomposition and a second remainder is obtained. After taking into consideration the necessary change of variables and converting the integration limits to the universal [0;1] interval a multiple integration system formed by a multivariate function is formed. Then it is intended to apply the Fluctuationlessness approximation to each of these integrals one by one and get better results as compared with the single node Taylor decomposition on which the Fluctuationlessness is applied.

  9. Taylor instability in rhyolite lava flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, B. A.; Krantz, W. B.; Fink, J. H.; Dickinson, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    A refined Taylor instability model is developed to describe the surface morphology of rhyolite lava flows. The effect of the downslope flow of the lava on the structures resulting from the Taylor instability mechanism is considered. Squire's (1933) transformation is developed for this flow in order to extend the results to three-dimensional modes. This permits assessing why ridges thought to arise from the Taylor instability mechanism are preferentially oriented transverse to the direction of lava flow. Measured diapir and ridge spacings for the Little and Big Glass Mountain rhyolite flows in northern California are used in conjunction with the model in order to explore the implications of the Taylor instability for flow emplacement. The model suggests additional lava flow features that can be measured in order to test whether the Taylor instability mechanism has influenced the flows surface morphology.

  10. Taylor impact of glass bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Natalie; Bourne, Neil; Field, John

    1997-07-01

    Brar and Bless pioneeered the use of plate impact upon bars as a technique for investigating the 1D stress loading of glass. We wish to extend this technique by applying VISAR and embedded stress gauge measurements to a symmetrical version of the test. In this configuration two rods impact one upon the other in a symmetrical version of the Taylor test geometry in which the impact is perfectly rigid in the centre of mass frame. Previous work in the laboratory has characterised the three glass types (float, borosilicate and a high density lead glass). These experiments will identify the 1D stress failure mechanisms from high-speed photography and the stress and particle velocity histories will be interpreted in the light of these results. The differences in response of the three glasses will be highlighted.

  11. Nonideal Rayleigh-Taylor mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, David Howland; Lin, Hyun K; Iwerks, Justin G; Gliman, James G

    2009-01-01

    Rayleigh-Taylor mixing is a classical hydrodynamic Instability, which occurs when a light fluid pushes against a heavy fluid. The two main sources of nonideal behavior in Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing are regularizations (physical and numerical) which produce deviations from a pure Euler equation, scale Invariant formulation, and non Ideal (i.e. experimental) initial conditions. The Kolmogorov theory of turbulence predicts stirring at all length scales for the Euler fluid equations without regularization. We Interpret mathematical theories of existence and non-uniqueness in this context, and we provide numerical evidence for dependence of the RT mixing rate on nonideal regularizations, in other words indeterminacy when modeled by Euler equations. Operationally, indeterminacy shows up as non unique solutions for RT mixing, parametrized by Schmidt and Prandtl numbers, In the large Reynolds number (Euler equation) limit. Verification and validation evidence is presented for the large eddy simulation algorithm used here. Mesh convergence depends on breaking the nonuniqueness with explicit use of the laminar Schmidt and PrandtJ numbers and their turbulent counterparts, defined in terms of subgrid scale models. The dependence of the mixing rate on the Schmidt and Prandtl numbers and other physical parameters will be illustrated. We demonstrate numerically the influence of initial conditions on the mixing rate. Both the dominant short wavelength Initial conditions and long wavelength perturbations are observed to playa role. By examination of two classes of experiments, we observe the absence of a single universal explanation, with long and short wavelength initial conditions, and the various physical and numerical regularizations contributing In different proportions In these two different contexts.

  12. Nonideal Rayleigh–Taylor mixing

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyunkyung; Iwerks, Justin; Glimm, James; Sharp, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Rayleigh–Taylor mixing is a classical hydrodynamic instability that occurs when a light fluid pushes against a heavy fluid. The two main sources of nonideal behavior in Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) mixing are regularizations (physical and numerical), which produce deviations from a pure Euler equation, scale invariant formulation, and nonideal (i.e., experimental) initial conditions. The Kolmogorov theory of turbulence predicts stirring at all length scales for the Euler fluid equations without regularization. We interpret mathematical theories of existence and nonuniqueness in this context, and we provide numerical evidence for dependence of the RT mixing rate on nonideal regularizations; in other words, indeterminacy when modeled by Euler equations. Operationally, indeterminacy shows up as nonunique solutions for RT mixing, parametrized by Schmidt and Prandtl numbers, in the large Reynolds number (Euler equation) limit. Verification and validation evidence is presented for the large eddy simulation algorithm used here. Mesh convergence depends on breaking the nonuniqueness with explicit use of the laminar Schmidt and Prandtl numbers and their turbulent counterparts, defined in terms of subgrid scale models. The dependence of the mixing rate on the Schmidt and Prandtl numbers and other physical parameters will be illustrated. We demonstrate numerically the influence of initial conditions on the mixing rate. Both the dominant short wavelength initial conditions and long wavelength perturbations are observed to play a role. By examination of two classes of experiments, we observe the absence of a single universal explanation, with long and short wavelength initial conditions, and the various physical and numerical regularizations contributing in different proportions in these two different contexts. PMID:20615983

  13. Rayleigh--Taylor spike evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Schappert, G. T.; Batha, S. H.; Klare, K. A.; Hollowell, D. E.; Mason, R. J.

    2001-09-01

    Laser-based experiments have shown that Rayleigh--Taylor (RT) growth in thin, perturbed copper foils leads to a phase dominated by narrow spikes between thin bubbles. These experiments were well modeled and diagnosed until this '' spike'' phase, but not into this spike phase. Experiments were designed, modeled, and performed on the OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton , Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] to study the late-time spike phase. To simulate the conditions and evolution of late time RT, a copper target was fabricated consisting of a series of thin ridges (spikes in cross section) 150 {mu}m apart on a thin flat copper backing. The target was placed on the side of a scale-1.2 hohlraum with the ridges pointing into the hohlraum, which was heated to 190 eV. Side-on radiography imaged the evolution of the ridges and flat copper backing into the typical RT bubble and spike structure including the '' mushroom-like feet'' on the tips of the spikes. RAGE computer models [R. M. Baltrusaitis, M. L. Gittings, R. P. Weaver, R. F. Benjamin, and J. M. Budzinski, Phys. Fluids 8, 2471 (1996)] show the formation of the '' mushrooms,'' as well as how the backing material converges to lengthen the spike. The computer predictions of evolving spike and bubble lengths match measurements fairly well for the thicker backing targets but not for the thinner backings.

  14. Woltjer-Taylor State Without Taylor's Conjecture - Plasma Relaxation at all Wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Hong; Liu, Wandong; Li, Hong; Squire, Jonathan

    2012-10-10

    In astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, it has been discovered that plasmas relax towards the well-known Woltjer-Taylor state specified by ∇ x B = αB for a constant α . To explain how such a relaxed state is reached, Taylor developed his famous relaxation theory based on the conjecture that the relaxation is dominated by short wavelength fluctuations. However, there is no conclusive experimental and numerical evidence to support Taylor's conjecture. A new theory is developed, which predicts that the system will evolve towards the Woltjer-Taylor state for an arbitrary fluctuation spectrum.

  15. Rayleigh-Taylor mixing in supernova experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swisher, N. C.; Kuranz, C. C.; Arnett, D.; Hurricane, O.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Abarzhi, S. I.

    2015-10-01

    We report a scrupulous analysis of data in supernova experiments that are conducted at high power laser facilities in order to study core-collapse supernova SN1987A. Parameters of the experimental system are properly scaled to investigate the interaction of a blast-wave with helium-hydrogen interface, and the induced Rayleigh-Taylor instability and Rayleigh-Taylor mixing of the denser and lighter fluids with time-dependent acceleration. We analyze all available experimental images of the Rayleigh-Taylor flow in supernova experiments and measure delicate features of the interfacial dynamics. A new scaling is identified for calibration of experimental data to enable their accurate analysis and comparisons. By properly accounting for the imprint of the experimental conditions, the data set size and statistics are substantially increased. New theoretical solutions are reported to describe asymptotic dynamics of Rayleigh-Taylor flow with time-dependent acceleration by applying theoretical analysis that considers symmetries and momentum transport. Good qualitative and quantitative agreement is achieved of the experimental data with the theory and simulations. Our study indicates that in supernova experiments Rayleigh-Taylor flow is in the mixing regime, the interface amplitude contributes substantially to the characteristic length scale for energy dissipation; Rayleigh-Taylor mixing keeps order.

  16. Rayleigh-Taylor mixing in supernova experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Swisher, N. C.; Abarzhi, S. I.; Kuranz, C. C.; Arnett, D.; Hurricane, O.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.

    2015-10-15

    We report a scrupulous analysis of data in supernova experiments that are conducted at high power laser facilities in order to study core-collapse supernova SN1987A. Parameters of the experimental system are properly scaled to investigate the interaction of a blast-wave with helium-hydrogen interface, and the induced Rayleigh-Taylor instability and Rayleigh-Taylor mixing of the denser and lighter fluids with time-dependent acceleration. We analyze all available experimental images of the Rayleigh-Taylor flow in supernova experiments and measure delicate features of the interfacial dynamics. A new scaling is identified for calibration of experimental data to enable their accurate analysis and comparisons. By properly accounting for the imprint of the experimental conditions, the data set size and statistics are substantially increased. New theoretical solutions are reported to describe asymptotic dynamics of Rayleigh-Taylor flow with time-dependent acceleration by applying theoretical analysis that considers symmetries and momentum transport. Good qualitative and quantitative agreement is achieved of the experimental data with the theory and simulations. Our study indicates that in supernova experiments Rayleigh-Taylor flow is in the mixing regime, the interface amplitude contributes substantially to the characteristic length scale for energy dissipation; Rayleigh-Taylor mixing keeps order.

  17. Temperature, size, and depth of the magma reservoir for the Taylor Creek Rhyolite, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, W.A.; du Bray, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    The 55 km3 mid-Tertiary Taylor Creek Rhyolite in southwestern New Mexico consists of 20 lava domes and flows. This rhyolite is metaluminous to weakly peraluminous. Compositional zonation in feldspar phenocrysts is very minor and nonsystematic. The compositions of each feldspar species vary little throughout the suite of analyzed samples. This chemical homogeneity of phenocrysts reflects similar whole-rock homogeneity and suggests that the lavas were tapped from a single large reservoir of magma. Ages of sanidine phenocrysts determined using 40Ar/39Ar indicate that the Taylor Creek Rhyolite lavas were emplaced during a period of less than 0.42 my. and possibly less than 0.13 m.y., which is consistent with the single-reservoir scenario. Two-feldspar geothermometry suggests that Taylor Creek Rhyolite phenocrysts crystallized at about 775??C, at an assumed pressure of 2 kbar. Fe-Ti-oxide geothermometry suggests phenocryst growth at about 800??C. Experimental studies suggest that quartz and potassium-feldspar crystals that grow from H2O-undersaturated granitic magmas should exhibit resorption texture, a texture ubiquitous to Taylor Creek Rhyolite quartz and sanidine phenocrysts. We tentatively conclude that the Taylor Creek Rhyolite magma was H2O undersaturated and subliquidus at an unspecified pressure greater than 0.5 kbar during phenocryst growth and that Taylor Creek Rhyolite pyroclastic deposits formed because volatile saturation developed during the ascent of magma to sites of eruption. -from Authors

  18. New directions for Rayleigh-Taylor mixing.

    PubMed

    Glimm, James; Sharp, David H; Kaman, Tulin; Lim, Hyunkyung

    2013-11-28

    We study the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing layer, presenting simulations in agreement with experimental data. This problem is an idealized subproblem of important scientific and engineering problems, such as gravitationally induced mixing in oceanography and performance assessment for inertial confinement fusion. Engineering codes commonly achieve correct simulations through the calibration of adjustable parameters. In this sense, they are interpolative and not predictive. As computational science moves from the interpolative to the predictive and reduces the reliance on experiment, the quality of decision making improves. The diagnosis of errors in a multi-parameter, multi-physics setting is daunting, so we address this issue in the proposed idealized setting. The validation tests presented are thus a test for engineering codes, when used for complex problems containing RT features. The RT growth rate, characterized by a dimensionless but non-universal parameter α, describes the outer edge of the mixing zone. Increasingly accurate front tracking/large eddy simulations reveal the non-universality of the growth rate and agreement with experimental data. Increased mesh resolution allows reduction in the role of key subgrid models. We study the effect of long-wavelength perturbations on the mixing growth rate. A self-similar power law for the initial perturbation amplitudes is here inferred from experimental data. We show a maximum ±5% effect on the growth rate. Large (factors of 2) effects, as predicted in some models and many simulations, are inconsistent with the experimental data of Youngs and co-authors. The inconsistency of the model lies in the treatment of the dynamics of bubbles, which are the shortest-wavelength modes for this problem. An alternative theory for this shortest wavelength, based on the bubble merger model, was previously shown to be consistent with experimental data. PMID:24146006

  19. Cathedral house & crocker fence, Taylor Street east and north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cathedral house & crocker fence, Taylor Street east and north elevations, perspective view from the northeast - Grace Cathedral, George William Gibbs Memorial Hall, 1051 Taylor Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. 20. TURNTABLE WITH CABLE CAR BAY & TAYLOR: View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. TURNTABLE WITH CABLE CAR - BAY & TAYLOR: View to northwest of the Bay and Taylor turntable. The gripman and conductor are turning the car around. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. Neo-Taylorism in Educational Administration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronn, Peter C.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews eight recent observational studies of school administrators and criticizes the studies' use of "time and motion" assumptions drawn from Frederick Winslow Taylor's ideas. Outlines an alternate approach based on "thick" description of administrators' work, including their talk, as exemplified in James Boswell's biography of Samuel Johnson.…

  2. Damage modeling for Taylor impact simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C. E., Jr.; Chocron, I. S.; Nicholls, A. E.

    2006-08-01

    G. I. Taylor showed that dynamic material properties could be deduced from the impact of a projectile against a rigid boundary. The Taylor anvil test became very useful with the advent of numerical simulations and has been used to infer and/or to validate material constitutive constants. A new experimental facility has been developed to conduct Taylor anvil impacts to support validation of constitutive constants used in simulations. Typically, numerical simulations are conducted assuming 2-D cylindrical symmetry, but such computations cannot hope to capture the damage observed in higher velocity experiments. A computational study was initiated to examine the ability to simulate damage and subsequent deformation of the Taylor specimens. Three-dimensional simulations, using the Johnson-Cook damage model, were conducted with the nonlinear Eulerian wavecode CTH. The results of the simulations are compared to experimental deformations of 6061-T6 aluminum specimens as a function of impact velocity, and conclusions regarding the ability to simulate fracture and reproduce the observed deformations are summarized.

  3. PEOPLE IN PHYSICS: Interview with Charles Taylor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pople, Conducted by Stephen

    1996-07-01

    Charles Taylor started his university teaching career at UMIST in 1948. In 1965 he became Professor and Head of the Department of Physics at University College, Cardiff. He was a Vice-President of the Institute of Physics from 1970 to 1975, and Professor of Experimental Physics at the Royal Institution from 1977 until 1989. Over the years, Professor Taylor has delighted audiences of all ages with his demonstration lectures, including the Royal Institution Christmas Lectures televised in 1971 and 1989. In 1986 he became the first recipient of the Royal Society's Michael Faraday Award for contributions to the public understanding of science. His many books include Exploring Music, The Art and Science of the Lecture Demonstration, and also the Oxford Children's Book of Science, co-written with interviewer Stephen Pople.

  4. Rayleigh-Taylor Mix experiment on Pegasus

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, M.G.; Atchison, W.L.; Anderson, W.E.

    1997-09-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor Mix project will attempt to diagnose and understand the growth of a mixing layer at the interface between an imploding metal liner and a polystyrene foam core in a series of pulsed power experiments on the Pegasus capacitor bank. Understanding the effects of material strength will be an important part of the study. During the initial phase of the implosion, the linear/foam interface is Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) stable; however, as the foam is compressed, it decelerates the liner, causing it to bound and to go RT unstable. This paper reports 1D and 2D MHD simulations of the first experiment in the series and preliminary results.

  5. CTH simulation of PBX-9501 Taylor tests /

    SciTech Connect

    Koby, Joseph R.

    2011-09-01

    During March-May 2011, multiple Taylor impact tests were conducted at LANL, examining the behavior of PBXN-9 and PBX-9501 under rapid loading. Subsequently, a computational hydrodynamics code (CTH) model was developed to mimic the deformation behavior observed in these impact tests with PBX-9501 would likely initiate upon impact. Also examined was whether an inert slud behind the explosive would lead to initiation at lower, more easily attainable velocities. The simplified model used here showed a minimum velocity for ignition of 530 m/s which was unchanged by the addition of a plastic slud behind the sample. The use of a lead slug did lower the minimum velocity to 460 m/s. These values are likely more qualitative at this point because multiple simplifications are currently used in the materials properties and test geometry. The results do show that this approach is capable of determining ignition due to Taylor impact.

  6. New trends in Taylor series based applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocina, Filip; Šátek, Václav; Veigend, Petr; Nečasová, Gabriela; Valenta, Václav; Kunovský, Jiří

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with the solution of large system of linear ODEs when minimal comunication among parallel processors is required. The Modern Taylor Series Method (MTSM) is used. The MTSM allows using a higher order during the computation that means a larger integration step size while keeping desired accuracy. As an example of complex systems we can take the Telegraph Equation Model. Symbolic and numeric solutions are compared when harmonic input signal is used.

  7. 1989 Bowen Award to Ross Taylor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Kevin

    Ross Taylor graduated with a B.Sc. degree from Canterbury College of the then University of New Zealand in 1948 and an M.Sci in 1951. He followed the footsteps of Ernest Rutherford and other distinguished New Zealanders (including a surprisingly large number of AGU Fellows in proportion to the small population of New Zealand) by going aboard to further pursue his scientific education.

  8. Fluctuation scaling, Taylor's law, and crime.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Quentin S; Khatun, Suniya; Yosef, Amal; Dyer, Rachel-May

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuation scaling relationships have been observed in a wide range of processes ranging from internet router traffic to measles cases. Taylor's law is one such scaling relationship and has been widely applied in ecology to understand communities including trees, birds, human populations, and insects. We show that monthly crime reports in the UK show complex fluctuation scaling which can be approximated by Taylor's law relationships corresponding to local policing neighborhoods and larger regional and countrywide scales. Regression models applied to local scale data from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire found that different categories of crime exhibited different scaling exponents with no significant difference between the two regions. On this scale, violence reports were close to a Poisson distribution (α = 1.057 ± 0.026) while burglary exhibited a greater exponent (α = 1.292 ± 0.029) indicative of temporal clustering. These two regions exhibited significantly different pre-exponential factors for the categories of anti-social behavior and burglary indicating that local variations in crime reports can be assessed using fluctuation scaling methods. At regional and countrywide scales, all categories exhibited scaling behavior indicative of temporal clustering evidenced by Taylor's law exponents from 1.43 ± 0.12 (Drugs) to 2.094 ± 0081 (Other Crimes). Investigating crime behavior via fluctuation scaling gives insight beyond that of raw numbers and is unique in reporting on all processes contributing to the observed variance and is either robust to or exhibits signs of many types of data manipulation. PMID:25271781

  9. Motivation, Time Course, and Heterogeneity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Response to Taylor, McKay, and Abramowitz (2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Erik Z.; Szechtman, Henry

    2005-01-01

    In response to commentary by S. Taylor, D. McKay, and J. S. Abramowitz, the authors discuss the distinctive features of their theory of obsessive-compulsive disorder outlined in their original article, which explains the disorder as a dysfunction of a security-motivation system. The authors address issues of the interrelation of emotion,…

  10. Microbial Energetics Beneath the Taylor Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikucki, J. A.; Turchyn, A. V.; Farquhar, J.; Priscu, J. C.; Schrag, D. P.; Pearson, A.

    2007-12-01

    Subglacial microbiology is controlled by glacier hydrology, bedrock lithology, and the preglacial ecosystem. These factors can all affect metabolic function by influencing electron acceptor and donor availability in the subglacial setting leaving biogeochemical signatures that can be used to determine ecosystem processes. Blood Falls, an iron-rich, episodic subglacial outflow from the Taylor Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys Antarctica provides an example of how microbial community structure and function can provide insight into subglacial hydrology. This subglacial outflow contains cryoconcentrated, Pliocene-age seawater salts that pooled in the upper Taylor Valley and was subsequently covered by the advance of the Taylor Glacier. Biogeochemical measurements, culture-based techniques, and genomic analysis were used to characterize microbes and chemistry associated with the subglacial outflow. The isotopic composition of important geochemical substrates (i.e., δ34Ssulfate, Δ33Ssulfate, δ18Osulfate, δ18Owater, Δ14SDIC) were also measured to provide more detail on subglacial microbial energetics. Typically, subglacial systems, when driven to anoxia by the hydrolysis of organic matter, will follow a continuum of redox chemistries utilizing electron acceptors with decreasing reduction potential (e.g., Fe (III), sulfate, CO2). Our data provide no evidence for sulfate reduction below the Taylor Glacier despite high dissolved organic carbon (450 μM C) and measurable metabolic activity. We contend that, in the case of the Taylor Glacier, the in situ bioenergetic reduction potential has been 'short-circuited' at Fe(III)-reduction and excludes sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. Given the length of time that this marine system has been isolated from phototrophic production (~2 Mya) the ability to degrade and consume increasingly recalcitrant organic carbon is likely an important component to the observed redox chemistry. Our work indicates that glacier hydrology

  11. Rayleigh-Taylor instability in binary condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Gautam, S.; Angom, D.

    2010-05-15

    We propose a well-controlled experimental scheme to initiate and examine the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in two-species Bose-Einstein condensates. We identify the {sup 85}Rb-{sup 87}Rb mixture as an excellent candidate to observe experimentally. The instability is initiated by tuning the {sup 85}Rb-{sup 85}Rb interaction through a magnetic Feshbach resonance. We show that the observable signature of the instability is the damping of the radial oscillations. We also propose a semianalytic scheme to determine the stationary state of binary condensates with the Thomas-Fermi approximation for axisymmetric traps.

  12. Monitoring Biopolymer Degradation by Taylor Dispersion Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chamieh, Joseph; Biron, Jean Philippe; Cipelletti, Luca; Cottet, Hervé

    2015-12-14

    This work aims at demonstrating the interest of modern Taylor dispersion analysis (TDA), performed in narrow internal diameter capillary, for monitoring biopolymer degradations. Hydrolytic and enzymatic degradations of dendrigraft poly-l-lysine taken as model compounds have been performed and monitored by TDA at different degradation times. Different approaches for the data processing of the taylorgrams are compared, including simple integration of the taylorgram, curve fitting with a finite number of Gaussian peaks, cumulant-like method and Constrained Regularized Linear Inversion approach. Valuable information on the kinetics of the enzymatic/hydrolytic degradation reactions and on the degradation process can be obtained by TDA. PMID:26633075

  13. Hydrodynamical Dispersion in Taylor-Couette Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piva, M.; Calvo, A.; Aguirre, A.; Callegari, G.; Gabbanelli, S.; Rosen, M.; Wesfreid, J. E.

    1997-04-01

    In this article we study the mass tracer dispersion in organized flows. For this purpose we performed experiments in the flow arising from the Taylor-Couette hydrodynamic instability combined with axial flow. The tracer evolution is followed by means of optical measurements of the concentration. In this way transmission curves are obtained. We compare these curves with the solutions of the Gaussian models of mass diffusion and with phenomenological models including tracer trapping in the cells. This comparison gives us physical parameters related to the typical time and distances involved in the diffusive behaviour of tracers in the regions with recirculations and trapping.

  14. Ekman and Taylor Vortices' Destruction and Mixing Enhancement in a Taylor-Couette System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oualli, H.; Mekadem, M.; Bentsabet, A.; Abada, M.; Bouabdallah, A.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2014-11-01

    Suppression of Ekman and Taylor vortices is sought in several industrial processes such as cylindrical crystal growth and osmotic/photonic water purification. Last meeting, we investigated experimentally and numerically an active flow control strategy to obliterate vortices in a Taylor-Couette flow. The control consists of effecting minute radial pulsatile motion of the rotating inner cylinder's cross-section. The results showed that destruction of either type of vortices occurs at different pulsatile frequencies, requiring one order of magnitude higher frequency to obliterate the Ekman type. This problem is revisited with identical parameters and conditions for the controlling strategy but the Taylor-Couette system is now inclined relative to the horizontal direction in such a way that gravitational effects are no longer negligible. It is found that body forces contribute to the complete destruction of Taylor and Ekman vortices, reducing the optimum frequency by more than 50% for even a modest inclination angle of θ =15° . Furthermore, the axial and azimuthal velocity fluctuations are increased by one order of magnitude, thus yielding substantial enhancement in flow mixing.

  15. A cosmological Slavnov-Taylor identity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Hael; Holman, R.; Vardanyan, Tereza

    2014-12-01

    We develop a method for treating the consistency relations of inflation that includes the full time-evolution of the state. This approach relies only on the symmetries of the inflationary setting, in particular a residual conformal symmetry in the spatial part of the metric, along with general properties which hold for any quantum field theory. As a result, the consistency relations that emerge, which are essentially the Slavnov-Taylor identities associated with this residual conformal symmetry, apply very generally: they are true of the full Green's functions, hold largely independently of the particular inflationary model, and can be used for arbitrary states. We illustrate these techniques by showing the form assumed by the standard consistency relation between the two and three-point functions for the primordial scalar fluctuations when they are in a Bunch-Davies state. But because we have included the full evolution of the state, this approach works for a general initial state as well and does not need to have assumed that inflation began in the Bunch-Davies state. We explain how the Slavnov-Taylor identity is modified for these more general states.

  16. Axially localized states in Taylor Couette flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Jose M.; Marques, Francisco

    2014-11-01

    We present numerical simulations of the flow in a Taylor Couette system with the inner cylinder rotating and aspect ratio Γ restricted to 0 . 86 <Γ/N < 0 . 95 , being N the number of Taylor vortices. For these values a complex experimental bifurcation scenario has been reported. The transition from wavy vortex flow (WVF) to a very low frequency mode VLF happens via an axisymmetric eigenfunction. The VLF plays an essential role in the dynamics, leading to chaos through a two-tori period-doubling route. This chaotic regime vanishes with further increase in Re and gives rise to a new flow regime ALS characterized by the existence of large jet oscillations localized in some pairs of vortices. The aim of this numerical study is to extend the available information on ALS by means of a detailed exploration of the parameter space in which it occurs. Frequency analysis from time series simultaneously recorded at several points of the domain has been applied to identify the different transitions taking place. The VLF occurs in a wide range of control parameters and its interaction with the axially localized states is crucial is most transitions, either between different ALS or to the chaotic regime. Spanish Ministry of Education and Science Grants (with FEDER funds) FIS2013-40880 and BES-2010-041542.

  17. Evaluating a Class of Series Using Taylor's Theorem. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaister, P.

    2004-01-01

    A class of infinite series is evaluated with the aid of Taylor's theorem and a comparison is made with other methods. In a recent note [1] a class of infinite series was shown to be equivalent to a number of definite integrals, and Taylor's theorem was used to establish convergence and to determine the sums of the series and the integrals to any…

  18. 78 FR 12307 - Taylor, G. Tom; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Taylor, G. Tom; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 14, 2013, G. Tom Taylor filed an application to hold interlocking positions pursuant to section 305(b) of...

  19. 15. TURNTABLE RECONSTRUCTION BAY & TAYLOR: Photocopy of January ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. TURNTABLE RECONSTRUCTION - BAY & TAYLOR: Photocopy of January 1941 photograph taken during reconstruction of the Bay and Taylor turntable. View to the south. The 'spider' that carries the actual turntable is in place in the pit. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. G.I. Taylor and the Trinity Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deakin, Michael A. B.

    2011-01-01

    The story is often told of the calculation by G.I. Taylor of the yield of the first ever atomic bomb exploded in New Mexico in 1945. It has indeed become a staple of the classroom whenever dimensional analysis is taught. However, while it is true that Taylor succeeded in calculating this figure at a time when it was still classified, most versions…

  1. Animating Nested Taylor Polynomials to Approximate a Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzone, Eric F.; Piper, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    The way that Taylor polynomials approximate functions can be demonstrated by moving the center point while keeping the degree fixed. These animations are particularly nice when the Taylor polynomials do not intersect and form a nested family. We prove a result that shows when this nesting occurs. The animations can be shown in class or…

  2. Modeling Solid Rayleigh-Taylor Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, Ann M

    2010-09-20

    Intense impulses applied to solid materials result in high strain rates, strong plastic strains and significant temperature increments. Data in such regimes would allow confidence in extending material strength models to strain rates of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} s{sup -1}. High explosives can be used to accelerate a plate with a perturbation on the side facing the HE, resulting in a Rayleigh-Taylor-like perturbation growth that depends on amplitude and wavelength of the initial surface perturbation, strength of the material, time dependence of the driving pressure force, and temperature of the material. Such experiments have been conducted on perturbed copper plates at LANL, using the LANSCE proton radiography beam to obtain multiple frames of data for each experiment. The results of numerical simulations of these experiments using a 2-D ALE code are presented.

  3. Classical Rayleigh Taylor experiments on Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Budil, K.S.; Remington, B.A.; Peyser, T.A.

    1995-07-01

    The evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in a compressible medium was investigated both at an accelerating embedded interface and at the ablation front in a new series of experiments on Nova. The x-ray drive generated in a hohlraum ablatively accelerated a planar target consisting of a doped plastic pusher which was in some cases backed by a higher density titanium payload. Both target types were diagnosed by face-on and side-on radiography. Experiments have been done with a variety of wavelengths and initial amplitudes. In the case where the perturbed RT-unstable embedded interface is isolated from the ablation front, short wavelength perturbations are observed to grow strongly. When the perturbation is at the ablation front, the short wavelengths are observed to be severely stabilized.

  4. Anelastic Rayleigh–Taylor mixing layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, N.; Gauthier, S.

    2016-07-01

    Anelastic Rayleigh–Taylor mixing layers for miscible fluids are investigated with a recently built model (Schneider and Gauthier 2015 J. Eng. Math. 92 55–71). Four Chebyshev–Fourier–Fourier direct numerical simulations are analyzed. They use different values for the compressibility parameters: Atwood number (the dimensionless difference of the heavy and light fluid densities) and stratification (accounts for the vertical variation of density due to gravity). For intermediate Atwood numbers and finite stratification, compressibility effects quickly occurs. As a result only nonlinear behaviours are reached. The influence of the compressibility parameters on the growth speed of the RTI is discussed. The 0.1—Atwood number/0.4—stratification configuration reaches a turbulent regime. This turbulent mixing layer is analyzed with statistical tools such as moments, PDFs, anisotropy indicators and spectra.

  5. Rayleigh-Taylor instability in elastic solids.

    PubMed

    Piriz, A R; Cela, J J López; Cortázar, O D; Tahir, N A; Hoffmann, D H H

    2005-11-01

    We present an analytical model for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability that allows for an approximate but still very accurate and appealing description of the instability physics in the linear regime. The model is based on the second law of Newton and it has been developed with the aim of dealing with the instability of accelerated elastic solids. It yields the asymptotic instability growth rate but also describes the initial transient phase determined by the initial conditions. We have applied the model to solid/solid and solid/fluid interfaces with arbitrary Atwood numbers. The results are in excellent agreement with previous models that yield exact solutions but which are of more limited validity. Our model allows for including more complex physics. In particular, the present approach is expected to lead to a more general theory of the instability that would allow for describing the transition to the plastic regime. PMID:16383751

  6. Aluminum Rayleigh Taylor Strength Measurements and Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Lindquist, M J; Cavallo, R M; Lorenz, K T; Pollaine, S M; Remington, B A; Raevsky, V A

    2007-01-10

    A traditional approach to the study of material strength has been revitalized at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center (VNIIEF). Rayleigh Taylor strength experiments have long been utilized to measure the material response of metals at high pressure and strain rates. A modulated (sinusoidal or sawtooth perturbation) surface is shocklessly (quasi-isentropically) accelerated by a high explosive (HE) driver, and radiography is used to measure the perturbation amplitude as a function of time. The Aluminum T-6061 targets are designed with several sets of two-dimensional sawtooth perturbations machined on the loading surface. The HE driver was designed to reach peak pressures in the range of 200 to 300 kbar and strain rates in the range of 10{sup 4} - 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}. The standard constitutive strength models, Steinberg-Guinan (SG) [1], Steinberg-Lund (SL) [2], Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) [3], Johnson-Cooke (JC) [4], and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) [5], have been calibrated by traditional techniques: (Hopkinson-Bar, Taylor impact, flyer plate/shock-driven experiments). The VNIIEF experimental series accesses a strain rate regime not attainable using traditional methods. We have performed a detailed numerical study with a two-dimensional Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian hydrodynamics computer code containing several constitutive strength models to predict the perturbation growth. Results show that the capabilities of the computational methodology predict the amplitude growth to within 5 percent of the measured data, thus validating both the code and the strength models under the given conditions and setting the stage for credible future design work using different materials.

  7. The solution of the point kinetics equations via converged accelerated Taylor series (CATS)

    SciTech Connect

    Ganapol, B.; Picca, P.; Previti, A.; Mostacci, D.

    2012-07-01

    This paper deals with finding accurate solutions of the point kinetics equations including non-linear feedback, in a fast, efficient and straightforward way. A truncated Taylor series is coupled to continuous analytical continuation to provide the recurrence relations to solve the ordinary differential equations of point kinetics. Non-linear (Wynn-epsilon) and linear (Romberg) convergence accelerations are employed to provide highly accurate results for the evaluation of Taylor series expansions and extrapolated values of neutron and precursor densities at desired edits. The proposed Converged Accelerated Taylor Series, or CATS, algorithm automatically performs successive mesh refinements until the desired accuracy is obtained, making use of the intermediate results for converged initial values at each interval. Numerical performance is evaluated using case studies available from the literature. Nearly perfect agreement is found with the literature results generally considered most accurate. Benchmark quality results are reported for several cases of interest including step, ramp, zigzag and sinusoidal prescribed insertions and insertions with adiabatic Doppler feedback. A larger than usual (9) number of digits is included to encourage honest benchmarking. The benchmark is then applied to the enhanced piecewise constant algorithm (EPCA) currently being developed by the second author. (authors)

  8. Author! Author! Beverly Cleary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a brief biography of author Beverly Cleary. Born on April 12, 1916 in McMinnville, Oregon (Yamhill County), Beverly Cleary celebrated her eighty-ninth birthday in 2005. Cleary is probably best known for creating "Ramona" and the other children's book characters who live on Klickitat Street in Portland, Oregon. A selective…

  9. Slavnov-Taylor identities for primordial perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhiani, Lasha; Khoury, Justin E-mail: jkhoury@sas.upenn.edu

    2014-02-01

    Correlation functions of adiabatic modes in cosmology are constrained by an infinite number of consistency relations, which relate N + 1-point correlation functions with a soft-momentum scalar or tensor mode to a symmetry transformation on N-point correlation functions of hard-momentum modes. They constrain, at each order n, the q{sup n} behavior of the soft limits. In this paper we show that all consistency relations derive from a single, master identity, which follows from the Slavnov-Taylor identity for spatial diffeomorphisms. This master identity is valid at any value of q and therefore goes beyond the soft limit. By differentiating it n times with respect to the soft momentum, we recover the consistency relations at each q order. Our approach underscores the role of spatial diffeomorphism invariance at the root of cosmological consistency relations. It also offers new insights on the necessary conditions for their validity: a physical contribution to the vertex functional must satisfy certain analyticity properties in the soft limit in order for the consistency relations to hold. For standard inflationary models, this is equivalent to requiring that mode functions have constant growing-mode solutions. For more exotic models in which modes do not ''freeze'' in the usual sense, the analyticity requirement offers an unambiguous criterion.

  10. Rayleigh-Taylor mixing in supernova experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swisher, Nora; Kuranz, Carolyn; Arnett, David; Hurricane, Omar; Remington, Bruce; Robey, Harry; Abarzhi, Snezhana

    2015-11-01

    We report a scrupulous analysis of data in supernova experiments that are conducted at high power laser facilities in order to study core-collapse supernova SN1987A. Parameters of the experimental system are properly scaled to investigate the interaction of a blast-wave with helium-hydrogen interface, and the induced Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing of the denser and lighter fluids with time-dependent acceleration. We analyze all available experimental images of RT flow in supernova experiments, and measure delicate features of the interfacial dynamics. A new scaling is identified for calibration of experimental data to enable their accurate analysis and comparisons. By proper accounting for the imprint of the experimental conditions, the data set size and statistics are substantially increased. New theoretical solutions are identified to describe asymptotic dynamics of RT flow with time-dependent acceleration by applying theoretical analysis. Good qualitative and quantitative agreement is achieved of the experimental data with the theory and simulations. Our study indicates that in supernova experiments, the RT flow is in the mixing regime, the interface amplitude contributes substantially to the characteristic length scale for energy dissipation; the mixing flow may keep order. Support of the National Science Foundation is warmly appreciated.

  11. Kinetic Simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagert, Irina; Bauer, Wolfgang; Colbry, Dirk; Howell, Jim; Staber, Alec; Strother, Terrance

    2014-09-01

    We report on an ongoing project to develop a large scale Direct Simulation Monte Carlo code. The code is primarily aimed towards applications in astrophysics such as simulations of core-collapse supernovae. It has been tested on shock wave phenomena in the continuum limit and for matter out of equilibrium. In the current work we focus on the study of fluid instabilities. Like shock waves these are routinely used as test-cases for hydrodynamic codes and are discussed to play an important role in the explosion mechanism of core-collapse supernovae. As a first test we study the evolution of a single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the interface of a light and a heavy fluid in the presence of a gravitational acceleration. To suppress small-wavelength instabilities caused by the irregularity in the separation layer we use a large particle mean free path. The latter leads to the development of a diffusion layer as particles propagate from one fluid into the other. For small amplitudes, when the instability is in the linear regime, we compare its position and shape to the analytic prediction. Despite the broadening of the fluid interface we see a good agreement with the analytic solution. At later times we observe the development of a mushroom like shape caused by secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities as seen in hydrodynamic simulations and consistent with experimental observations.

  12. Numerical Simulation of Taylor Cone-Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, Ronne

    The Taylor cone-jet is a particular type of electrohydrodynamic phenomenon where electrostatic stresses and surface tension effects shape the interface of the jet in a peculiar conical shape. A thin jet is issued from the cone apex that further breaks up into a fine aerosol. Due to its monodispersive properties, this fine aerosol has found a number of applications, ranging from mass spectrometry, colloidal space propulsion, combustion, nano-fabrication, coating/painting, and many others. In this study, a general non-dimensional analysis is performed to derive the governing equations and boundary conditions. In accordance with the observations of Gamero-Castano (2010), noting that droplet electric potential is insensitive to the flow rate conditions, a particular set of characteristic parameters is proposed, based on the terminal jet diameter. In order to solve the non-dimensional set of governing equations and boundary conditions, a numerical method combining the Boundary Element Method and the Finite Volume Method is developed. Results of electric current have shown good agreement with numerical and experimental data available in the literature. The main feature of the algorithm developed is related to the decoupling of the electrostatic from the hydrodynamic problem, allowing us to accurately prescribe the far field electric potential boundary conditions away from the hydrodynamic computational domain used to solve the hydrodynamics of the transition region near the cone apex.

  13. Janet Taylor Spence (1923-2015).

    PubMed

    Deaux, Kay

    2016-01-01

    The long and remarkable life of Janet Taylor Spence, the sixth woman to serve as president of the American Psychological Association (APA), ended on March 16, 2015, after a short illness. Janet's 1978 book, Masculinity & Femininity, coauthored with Robert Helmreich, was a major contribution to our understanding of the complex relationships between personal attributes, self-esteem, and attitudes toward women, as well their links to both achievement motivation and parental characteristics. Janet's interest in achievement motivation was an extension of her gender work, as she attempted to learn more about the ways in which presumed differences in achievement motivation might be related to the key dimensions of instrumentality and expressiveness. Janet's election to the presidency of the APA was the culmination of a long and broad involvement in the organization. She served on the Board of Directors from 1976 to 1978, and again in 1983 to 1984 during her presidential term. Earlier she served on the Board of Scientific Affairs and edited Contemporary Psychology in the 1970s. Janet was a fellow in four divisions (3, 8, 12, and 35), and in 2004 she received the APA Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology. PMID:26766767

  14. The effect of scale on the applicability of Taylor's hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parlange, Marc; Higgins, Chad; Froidevaux, Martin; Simeonov, Valentin

    2010-05-01

    Taylor's frozen flow hypothesis is a central assumption in most fluid mechanics experiments with stationary sensors, and many statistical theories of turbulence where links between the Lagrangian and Eulerian nature of turbulence are made. In this work we seek to quantify the effectiveness of Taylor's hypothesis at the field scale using water vapor as a passive tracer. A horizontal Raman Lidar is used to capture the humidity field in space and time above a small lake in Switzerland. High resolution wind speed and direction measurements are conducted simultaneously allowing for a direct test of Taylor's hypothesis. Through a wavelet decomposition of the data we show that scale has a strong influence on the applicability of Taylor's hypothesis. This effect is explained through the use of dimensional analysis and turbulent structure functions, which ultimately leads to the definition of a nondimensional parameter describing the ‘persistency' of the turbulence.

  15. Experimental determination of the effective Taylor dispersivity in a fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Gilardi, J.R.

    1984-06-01

    The applicability and accuracy of the approximation for Taylor Dispersion was experimentally determined for the diffusion of a chemical tracer in flow through a fracture. 12 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs. (ACR)

  16. McMurdo LTER: streamflow measurements in Taylor Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKnight, D.; House, H.; Von Guerard, P.

    1994-01-01

    Has established a stream gaging network for the three major lake basins in Taylor Valley. These data are critical for determining nutrient budgets for the lake ecosystems and for understanding physical factors controlling microbial mats in the streams.

  17. ChuckTaylor: Principal Investigator, Game Changing Development Program

    NASA Video Gallery

    Charles (Chuck) Taylor is the Principal Investigator in the Space Technology's Game Changing Development Program for 3 major projects:Solar Electric Propulsion, Ride The Light (RTL), and Space Powe...

  18. Taylor impact tests and simulations of plastic bonded explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Brad E.; Thompson, Darla; Luscher, D. J.; DeLuca, Racci; Brown, Geoffrey

    2012-03-01

    Taylor impact tests were conducted on plastic bonded explosives PBX 9501 and PBXN-9 for impact velocities between 80 and 214 m/s. High-speed photography was used to image the impact event at a rate of one frame for every 25 μs. For early times, PBXN-9 showed large-deformation mushrooming of the explosive cylinders, followed by fragmentation by an amount proportional to the impact speed, was observed at all velocities. PBX 9501 appeared to be more brittle than PBXN-9, the latter demonstrated a more viscoelastic response. The post-shot fragments were collected and particle size distributions were obtained. The constitutive model ViscoSCRAM was then used to model the Taylor experiments using the finite element code ABAQUS. Prior to the Taylor simulations, ViscoSCRAM was parameterized for the two explosives using uniaxial stress-strain data. Simulating Taylor impact tests validates the model in situations undergoing extreme damage and fragmentation.

  19. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Everitt K. Taylor, Photographer September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Everitt K. Taylor, Photographer September 15, 1936 EXTERIOR - GENERAL VIEW EAST ELEVATION FROM OLD PRINT IN POSSESSION OF OWNER - Governor's House, 149 Kearny Avenue, Perth Amboy, Middlesex County, NJ

  20. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Everitt K. Taylor, Photographer September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Everitt K. Taylor, Photographer September 15, 1936 EXTERIOR - EAST ELEVATION FROM OLD PRINT IN POSSESSION OF OWNER - Governor's House, 149 Kearny Avenue, Perth Amboy, Middlesex County, NJ

  1. The New Taylorism: Hacking at the Philosophy of the University's End

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Robin Truth

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at the critical writings of Mark C. Taylor. It suggests that Mark C. Taylor is rewriting a global imaginary devoid of the kind of citizenship that Henry Giroux claims as the basis for public education. Instead, Taylor wants to see the university take shape as profit-generating. According to Taylor, in lieu of learning to take…

  2. Observation of the Taylor instability in a dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Pacha, K. A.; Heinrich, J. R.; Kim, S.-H.; Merlino, R. L.

    2012-01-15

    Observations of the Taylor instability in a laboratory dusty plasma are presented. The dust cloud, formed in a dc argon glow-discharge plasma, is stratified into regions of high and low dust densities. The instability was triggered by a spontaneous intrusion of the low density dust fluid into the high density dust fluid at the interface. The instability in the dust fluid was phenomenologically similar to the hydrodynamic Taylor instability that occurs when a light fluid is accelerated into a heavy fluid.

  3. Suppression of Rayleigh Taylor instability in strongly coupled plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Amita; Kaw, Predhiman

    2014-06-15

    The Rayleigh Taylor instability in a strongly coupled plasma medium has been investigated using the equations of generalized hydrodynamics. It is demonstrated that the visco-elasticity of the strongly coupled medium due to strong inter particle correlations leads to a suppression of the Rayleigh Taylor instability unless certain threshold conditions are met. The relevance of these results to experiments on laser compression of matter to high densities including those related to inertial confinement fusion using lasers has also been shown.

  4. Generalized Saffman-Taylor formula for multi-layer Hele-Shaw flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daripa, Prabir

    2011-03-01

    Stability theory plays a major role from fundamental science to applied sciences. It is useful in the design of many processes and engineering instruments as well as in explaining many phenomena. In this paper we review some of the author's and his collaborator's recent works on the extension of Saffman-Taylor instability which occurs at an interface between two immiscible fluids in porous media and Hele-Shaw cells when displacing fluid is less viscous than the displaced one. The growth rate of interfacial disturbances is given by a formula called Saffman-Taylor formula which plays a very important role in many areas including flows in porous media and oil recovery among many others. In this talk, we will present our results on the generalization of this formula to multi-layer flows involving many interfaces. As an application of the generalized Saffman-Taylor formula, we will derive necessary conditions for suppressing instability of two-layer flows by introducing arbitrary number of constant viscosity fluid layers in between. The important role that these conditions play in stabilization of hydrodynamic instabilities in Hele-Shaw flows will be discussed.

  5. Jupiter's great red spot revisited. [validity of Taylor column theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hide, R.

    1972-01-01

    On the original Taylor column theory of Jupiter's Great Red Spot, the fixed latitude of the Spot is taken to imply that the Taylor column in Jupiter's atmosphere is associated with a disturbance such as a topographic feature of the surface Q underlying the atmosphere. The alternative suggestion that the Taylor column is produced by a solid raft floating at depth in the atmosphere is somewhat easier to reconcile with the approximately 10s difference between the respective rotation periods P sub S and P sub R of the Red Spot and of the radio sources, but it does not account so readily for the fixed latitude of the Spot unless it can be shown that the raft is in stable equilibrium under the north-south components of the dynamical forces, including wind effects, acting upon it. A slight wavering of the upper end of the Taylor column relative to the lower end could account at least in part for the most rapid variations in P sub S, but the slow large-amplitude variations in P sub S must reflect changes in the longitudinal motion of either the surface Q or of the raft. By generalizing the Proudman-Taylor theorem to the case of a non-homogeneous fluid it is shown that the Taylor column theory does not imply very special and therefore unlikely horizontal and vertical temperature variations in Jupiter's atmosphere, thus refuting a widely-held belief to the contrary.

  6. The Life and Legacy of G. I. Taylor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, G. K.

    1996-07-01

    G.I. Taylor, one of the most distinguished physical scientists of this century, used his deep insight and originality to increase our understanding of phenomena such as the turbulent flow of fluids. His interest in the science of fluid flow was not confined to theory; he was one of the early pioneers of aeronautics, and designed a new type of anchor that was inspired by his passion for sailing. Taylor spent most of his working life in the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge, where he investigated the mechanics of fluid and solid materials; his discoveries and ideas have had application throughout mechanical, civil, and chemical engineering, meteorology, oceanography and materials science. He was also a noted research leader, and his group in Cambridge became one of the most productive centers for the study of fluid mechanics. How was Taylor able to be innovative in so many different ways? This interesting and unusual biography helps answer that question. Professor Batchelor, himself a student and close collaborator of Taylor, is ideally placed to describe Taylor's life, achievements and background. He does so without introducing any mathematical details, making this book enjoyable reading for a wide range of people--and especially those whose own interests have brought them into contact with the legacy of Taylor.

  7. Gender Discrimination in Jessica's Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the sexual harassment and other gender-related difficulties faced by a Chinese-American woman. Profiles her encounters with gender discrimination and how it hindered career advancement and led to professional isolation. Relates how this case study can be used to sensitize workers to gender discrimination. (RJM)

  8. Omissions about the sources of contaminant emissions and depositions - A reply to comments on Taylor, M.P., Davies, P.J., Kristensen, L.J., Csavina, J., 2014. Licenced to pollute but not to poison: The ineffectiveness of regulatory authorities at protecting public health from atmospheric arsenic, lead and other contaminants resulting from mining and smelting operations. Aeolian Research, 14, 35-52

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. P.; Kristensen, L. J.; Davies, P. J.; Csavina, J.; Mackay, A. K.; Munksgaard, N. C.; Hudson-Edwards, K. A.

    2015-06-01

    We would like to thank Dr Wilson for increasing the interest in our 2014 Aeolian Research study along with our other articles that he referred to in his letter to the journal. Before we tackle the specifics of his letter, we would like to inform the readers that our response is inclusive of several other authors whose Mount Isa research was referred to in Dr Wilson's letter.

  9. 33 CFR 207.170d - Taylor Creek, navigation lock (S-193) across the entrance to Taylor Creek at Lake Okeechobee...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Taylor Creek, navigation lock (S-193) across the entrance to Taylor Creek at Lake Okeechobee, Okeechobee, Fla.; use, administration..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.170d Taylor Creek, navigation...

  10. 33 CFR 207.170d - Taylor Creek, navigation lock (S-193) across the entrance to Taylor Creek at Lake Okeechobee...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylor Creek, navigation lock (S-193) across the entrance to Taylor Creek at Lake Okeechobee, Okeechobee, Fla.; use, administration..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.170d Taylor Creek, navigation...

  11. Taylor line swimming in microchannels and cubic lattices of obstacles.

    PubMed

    Münch, Jan L; Alizadehrad, Davod; Babu, Sujin B; Stark, Holger

    2016-09-21

    Microorganisms naturally move in microstructured fluids. Using the simulation method of multi-particle collision dynamics, we study in two dimensions an undulatory Taylor line swimming in a microchannel and in a cubic lattice of obstacles, which represent simple forms of a microstructured environment. In the microchannel the Taylor line swims at an acute angle along a channel wall with a clearly enhanced swimming speed due to hydrodynamic interactions with the bounding wall. While in a dilute obstacle lattice swimming speed is also enhanced, a dense obstacle lattice gives rise to geometric swimming. This new type of swimming is characterized by a drastically increased swimming speed. Since the Taylor line has to fit into the free space of the obstacle lattice, the swimming speed is close to the phase velocity of the bending wave traveling along the Taylor line. While adjusting its swimming motion within the lattice, the Taylor line chooses a specific swimming direction, which we classify by a lattice vector. When plotting the swimming velocity versus the magnitude of the lattice vector, all our data collapse on a single master curve. Finally, we also report more complex trajectories within the obstacle lattice. PMID:27510576

  12. Crash simulation of rayleigh-taylor, richtmyer-meshkov, and magnetic rayleigh-taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Jason Chuan-Chih

    The research discussed in this thesis was motivated by the supernova Rayleigh-Taylor (SNRT) experiments conducted in 2009. Originally designed as laboratory astrophysics experiments relevant to the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) at the He-H interface during supernova explosion, these experiments exhibited unusual late-time morphology development, characterized by the lack of mushroom caps and uniform width of the spikes. In response, a "Magnetic Straitjacket" hypothesis was proposed to explain the discrepancy, based on the Biermann Battery mechanism. In order to test this hypothesis, we used the Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics (CRASH) code developed for a sufficiently similar problem and with the necessary capabilities. We validated this alternative usage of the CRASH code with simulations of pure hydrodynamic RTI and Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI) and identified the suitable combinations of numerical schemes and parameters. For the RTI, we compared the results of simulations to the analytical solution for the early time behavior, examined the late-time morphology, and tested the low-resolution limit for the RTI simulations using CRASH. For the RMI, we modeled Collins and Jacobs' experiment and compared the results of CRASH simulations to the experimental observations as well as to the simulation results of several other code packages. Finally, we modeled the original SNRT experiments with magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and Biermann battery effect. Unfortunately, the results were inconclusive due to insufficiently resolved simulations, limited by the explicit time integration of the magnetic diffusion. Furthermore, pilot runs with higher resolution indicated that simulations that fully resolve the gradients necessary to calculate the Biermann battery effect may be susceptible to the development of extraneous small-wavelength instabilities. Developments of implicit time integration of the magnetic diffusion and possibly new numerical schemes are

  13. On Using Taylor's Hypothesis for Three-Dimensional Mixing Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBoeuf, Richard L.; Mehta, Rabindra D.

    1995-01-01

    In the present study, errors in using Taylor's hypothesis to transform measurements obtained in a temporal (or phase) frame onto a spatial one were evaluated. For the first time, phase-averaged ('real') spanwise and streamwise vorticity data measured on a three-dimensional grid were compared directly to those obtained using Taylor's hypothesis. The results show that even the qualitative features of the spanwise and streamwise vorticity distributions given by the two techniques can be very different. This is particularly true in the region of the spanwise roller pairing. The phase-averaged spanwise and streamwise peak vorticity levels given by Taylor's hypothesis are typically lower (by up to 40%) compared to the real measurements.

  14. PREFACE: The 15th International Couette-Taylor Worskhop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutabazi, Innocent; Crumeyrolle, Olivier

    2008-07-01

    The 15th International Couette-Taylor Worskhop (ICTW15) was held in Le Havre, France from 9-12 July 2007. This regular international conference started in 1979 in Leeds, UK when the research interest in simple models of fluid flows was revitalized by systematic investigation of Rayleigh-Bénard convection and the Couette-Taylor flow. These two flow systems are good prototypes for the study of the transition to chaos and turbulence in closed flows. The workshop themes have been expanded from the original Couette-Taylor flow to include other centrifugal instabilities (Dean, Görtler, Taylor-Dean), spherical Couette flows, thermal convection instabilities, MHD, nonlinear dynamics and chaos, transition to turbulence, development of numerical and experimental techniques. The impressive longevity of the ICTW is due to the close interaction and fertile exchanges between international research groups from different disciplines: Physics and Astrophysics, Applied Mathematics, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering. The present workshop was attended by 100 participants, the program included over 83 contributions with 4 plenary lectures, 68 oral communications and 17 posters. The topics include, besides the classical Couette-Taylor flows, the centrifugal flows with longitudinal vortices, the shear flows, the thermal convection in curved geometries, the spherical Couette-Taylor flow, the geophysical flows, the magneto-hydrodynamic effects including the dynamo effect, the complex flows (viscoelasticity, immiscible fluids, bubbles and migration). Selected papers have been processed through the peer review system and are published in this issue of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Workshop has been sponsored by Le Havre University, the Region Council of Haute-Normandie, Le Havre City Council, CNRS (ST2I, GdR-DYCOEC), and the European Space Agency through GEOFLOW program. The French Ministry of Defense (DGA), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of

  15. Reconnection in ICMEs by Relaxation into the Taylor State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fermo, R. L.; Opher, M.; Drake, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    Recent in situ observations of interplanetary mass ejections (ICMEs) found signatures of reconnection exhausts in their interior or trailing edge [Gosling et al., 2007]. Whereas reconnection on the leading edge of an ICME would indicate an interaction with the coronal or interplanetary environment, this result suggests that the internal magnetic field reconnects with itself. To this end, we propose an approach borrowed from the fusion plasma community. In the context of a tokamak, Taylor [1974] showed that the lowest energy state corresponds to one in which curl B = λB. Variations from this state will result in the magnetic field trying to re-orient itself into the Taylor state solution, subject to the constraints that the toroidal flux and magnetic helicity are invariant. This relaxation is mediated by the reconnection of magnetic field lines in the m=1 mode. In tokamaks, the result is a "sawtooth crash" [Kadomtsev, 1975]. In an ICME, if we likewise treat the flux rope as a toroidal flux tube, any variation from the Taylor state will result in reconnection within the interior of the flux tube, in accord with the observation by Gosling et al. [2007]. One such way in which the Taylor state might be violated is by the elongation of the flux tube cross section in the non-radial direction, as seen in MHD simulations of flux tubes propagating through the interplanetary medium. We show analytically that this this elongation results in a violation of the Taylor state criterion curl B = λB. Lastly, we shall present PIC simulations of an elongated flux tube which has deviated from the Taylor state.

  16. An Author as a Counter-Storyteller: Applying Critical Race Theory to a "Coretta Scott King Award Book"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Wanda

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the 2002 Coretta Scott King Award book by Mildred Taylor entitled "The Land". The novel and its author are situated within a tradition of historical fiction written by and about African Americans. I then offer an analysis that utilizes Critical Race Theory as an interpretive tool for examining the ways Taylor embeds meanings…

  17. Narrow fingers in the Saffman-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couder, Y.; Gerard, N.; Rabaud, M.

    1986-12-01

    Saffman-Taylor fingers with a relative width much smaller than the classical limit lambda = 0.5 are found when a small isolated bubble is located at their tip. These solutions are members of a family found by Saffman and Taylor (1958) neglecting superficial tension. Recent theories have shown that when capillary forces are taken into account an unphysical cusplike singularity would appear at the tip of all the fingers with lambda less than 0.5. Conversely, here the replacement of the tip by a small bubble makes these solutions possible. At large velocity these fingers show dendritic instability.

  18. Controlled formation of multiple Taylor cones in electrospinning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaseashta, A.

    2007-02-01

    Electrospinning is a versatile technique for preparation of micro- and nanoscale fibers using polymer solutions. The study presented here describes an observation of multiple Taylor cones in electrospinning processes. Plausible physical models explaining the formation and modeling of multiple Taylor cones in terms of the process and polymer solution parameters are presented. A thorough understanding of the process will lead to the preparation of fibers by design, system on fibers, and e-textiles having applications ranging from biomedical devices, environmental pollution and prevention, to global security and defense.

  19. Rapid Calculation of Spacecraft Trajectories Using Efficient Taylor Series Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, James R.; Martini, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    A variable-order, variable-step Taylor series integration algorithm was implemented in NASA Glenn's SNAP (Spacecraft N-body Analysis Program) code. SNAP is a high-fidelity trajectory propagation program that can propagate the trajectory of a spacecraft about virtually any body in the solar system. The Taylor series algorithm's very high order accuracy and excellent stability properties lead to large reductions in computer time relative to the code's existing 8th order Runge-Kutta scheme. Head-to-head comparison on near-Earth, lunar, Mars, and Europa missions showed that Taylor series integration is 15.8 times faster than Runge- Kutta on average, and is more accurate. These speedups were obtained for calculations involving central body, other body, thrust, and drag forces. Similar speedups have been obtained for calculations that include J2 spherical harmonic for central body gravitation. The algorithm includes a step size selection method that directly calculates the step size and never requires a repeat step. High-order Taylor series integration algorithms have been shown to provide major reductions in computer time over conventional integration methods in numerous scientific applications. The objective here was to directly implement Taylor series integration in an existing trajectory analysis code and demonstrate that large reductions in computer time (order of magnitude) could be achieved while simultaneously maintaining high accuracy. This software greatly accelerates the calculation of spacecraft trajectories. At each time level, the spacecraft position, velocity, and mass are expanded in a high-order Taylor series whose coefficients are obtained through efficient differentiation arithmetic. This makes it possible to take very large time steps at minimal cost, resulting in large savings in computer time. The Taylor series algorithm is implemented primarily through three subroutines: (1) a driver routine that automatically introduces auxiliary variables and

  20. Dynamic stabilization of classical Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    SciTech Connect

    Piriz, A. R.; Piriz, S. A.; Tahir, N. A.

    2011-09-15

    Dynamic stabilization of classical Rayleigh-Taylor instability is studied by modeling the interface vibration with the simplest possible wave form, namely, a sequence of Dirac deltas. As expected, stabilization results to be impossible. However, in contradiction to previously reported results obtained with a sinusoidal driving, it is found that in general the perturbation amplitude is larger than in the classical case. Therefore, no beneficial effect can be obtained from the vertical vibration of a Rayleigh-Taylor unstable interface between two ideal fluids.

  1. G.I. Taylor and the Trinity test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deakin, Michael A. B.

    2011-12-01

    The story is often told of the calculation by G.I. Taylor of the yield of the first ever atomic bomb exploded in New Mexico in 1945. It has indeed become a staple of the classroom whenever dimensional analysis is taught. However, while it is true that Taylor succeeded in calculating this figure at a time when it was still classified, most versions of the story are quite inaccurate historically. The reality is more complex than the usual accounts have it. This article sets out to disentangle fact from fiction.

  2. IMPACT OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL MUD CONTAMINATION ON WELLBORE CEMENT- FORMATION SHEAR BOND STRENGTH Authors: Arome Oyibo1 and Mileva Radonjic1 * 1. Craft and Hawkins Department of Petroleum Engineering, 2131 Patrick F. Taylor Hall, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, aoyibo1@tigers.lsu.edu, mileva@lsu.edu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyibo, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    /not contaminated, scrapped and washed composite cores. Similarly, for the chemically contaminated samples we had 3 different sample designs: 0%, 5% and 10% mud contaminated composite cores. Shear test were performed on the composite cores to determine the shear bond strength and the results suggested that the detrimental impact of the contamination is higher when the cores are physically contaminated i.e. when we have mud cake present at the surface of the wellbore before a cement job is performed. Also, the results showed that shear bond strength is higher for sandstone formations as compared to shale formations. Material characterization analysis was carried out to determine the micro structural changes at the cement-formation interface. The results obtained from the SEM and micro CT images taken at the bond interface confirmed that chemical contamination caused substantial changes in the spatial distribution of minerals that impacted bond strength. Keywords: Cement-Formation bond strength, mud contamination, shale, sandstone and material characterization *Corresponding author

  3. On the Nature of Teaching and Teachers in Higher Education: A Bibliography of Harold A. Taylor. Public Administration Series: Bibliography P-996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quay, Richard H.

    A bibliography of approximately 130 materials authored, coauthored, or edited by Harold A. Taylor from 1951 to 1979 on the nature of teaching in higher education is presented. Specific topics include the following: student protests, radical reform, a world university, the United Nations University, the world as teacher, the humanities in the…

  4. Frank Bursley Taylor - Forgotten Pioneer of Continental Drift.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, George W., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Frank B. Taylor was an American geologist who specialized in the glacial geology of the Great Lakes. This article discusses his work on the Continental Drift theory, which preceeded the work of Alfred Wegener by a year and a half. (MA)

  5. Evaluation of five fracture models in Taylor impact fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Xin-Ke; Wei, Gang; Guo, Zitao

    2012-03-01

    Taylor impact test presented in a previous study on a commercial high strength and super hard aluminum alloy 7A04-T6 are numerically evaluated using the finite element code ABAQUS/Explicit. In the present study, the influence of fracture criterion in numerical simulations of the deformation and fracture behavior of Taylor rod has been studied. Included in the paper are a modified version of Johnson-Cook, the Cockcroft-Latham(C-L), the constant fracture strain, the maximum shear stress and the maximum principle stress fracture models. Model constants for each criterion are calibrated from material tests. The modified version of Johnson-Cook fracture criterion with the stress triaxiality cut off idea is found to give good prediction of the Taylor impact fracture behavior. However, this study will also show that the C-L fracture criterion where only one simple material test is required for calibration is found to give reasonable predictions. Unfortunately, the other three criteria are not able to repeat the experimentally obtained fracture behavior. The study indicates that the stress triaxiality cut off idea is necessary to predict the Taylor impact fracture.

  6. Evaluation of Five Fracture Models in Taylor Impact Fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Xinke; Wei, Gang; Guo, Zitao

    2011-06-01

    Taylor impact test presented in a previous study on a commercial high strength and super hard aluminum alloy 7A04-T6 are numerically evaluated using the finite element code ABAQUS/Explicit. In the present study, the influence of fracture criterion in numerical simulations of the deformation and fracture behavior of Taylor rod has been studied. Included in the paper are a modified version of Johnson-Cook, the Cockcroft-Latham(C-L), the constant fracture strain, the maximum shear stress and the maximum principle stress fracture models. Model constants for each criterion are calibrated from material tests. The modified version of Johnson-Cook fracture criterion with the stress triaxiality cut off idea is found to give good prediction of the Taylor impact fracture behavior. However, this study will also show that the C-L fracture criterion where only one simple material test is required for calibration, is found to give reasonable predictions. Unfortunately, the other three criteria are not able to repeat the experimentally obtained fracture behavior. The study indicates that the stress triaxiality cut off idea is necessary to predict the Taylor impact fracture. The National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.: 11072072).

  7. Taylor Proposes Five-Year Child-Care Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Glen

    Senator Glen Taylor of Minnesota proposed a five-year child-care program for the purposes of encouraging employer-sponsored child care and increasing by 53,000 the number of children in low-income families who were covered. This report lists central features of the program, which include: (1) tax incentives which employers can use when they build…

  8. Rayleigh-Taylor instability experiments in a cylindrically convergent geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, B.; Weir, S.

    1995-08-25

    Due to the sensitivity of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities to initial conditions and due to the difficulty of forming well controlled cylindrical or spherical fluid interfaces, Rayleigh-Taylor experiments are often performed with simple, planar interfaces. Rayleigh-Taylor instability phenomena of practical interest, however, (e.g., underwater explosions, supernova core collapses, and inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions) are typically associated with cylindrical or spherical interfaces in which convergent flow effects have an important influence on the dynamics of instability growth. Recently, Meshkov et.al. have developed a novel technique for studying Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth in a cylindrically convergent geometry. Their experiments utilized low-strength gelatin rings which are imploded by a detonating gas mixture of oxygen and acetylene. Since the gelatin itself has sufficient strength to resist significant deformation by gravity, no membranes are needed to define the ring shape. This experimental technique is attractive because it offers a high degree of control over the interfacial geometry and over the material`s strength and rigidity, which can be varied by adjusting the gelatin concentration. Finally, since both the gelatin and the explosive product gases are transparent, optical diagnostics can be used.

  9. Rayleigh Taylor instability of viscoelastic drops at high Weber numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, D. D.; Beavers, G. S.; Funada, T.

    2002-02-01

    Movies of the breakup of viscous and viscoelastic drops in the high-speed airstream behind a shock wave in a shock tube have been reported by Joseph, Belanger & Beavers (1999). They performed a Rayleigh Taylor stability analysis for the initial breakup of a drop of Newtonian liquid and found that the most unstable Rayleigh Taylor wave fits nearly perfectly with waves measured on enhanced images of drops from the movies, but the effects of viscosity cannot be neglected. Here we construct a Rayleigh Taylor stability analysis for an Oldroyd-B fluid using measured data for acceleration, density, viscosity and relaxation time [lambda]1. The most unstable wave is a sensitive function of the retardation time [lambda]2 which fits experiments when [lambda]2/[lambda]1 = O(10-3). The growth rates for the most unstable wave are much larger than for the comparable viscous drop, which agrees with the surprising fact that the breakup times for viscoelastic drops are shorter. We construct an approximate analysis of Rayleigh Taylor instability based on viscoelastic potential flow which gives rise to nearly the same dispersion relation as the unapproximated analysis.

  10. 13. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JOHNNY TAYLOR HAND LEVELING FRESHLY DEPOSITED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JOHNNY TAYLOR HAND LEVELING FRESHLY DEPOSITED SAND INTO A FLASK PRIOR TO COMPRESSION BY THE MOLDING MACHINE INSIDE GREY IRON UNIT NO. 1. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  11. Pentagon After Action Reports: The Jack Taylor Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Stan

    In requesting after action reports--Pentagon-prepared summaries of interviews between reporters and Pentagon officials--investigative reporter Jack Taylor both aroused Pentagon opposition and created a rift between the Pentagon press corps and outside reporters. To investigate whether the full-time Pentagon press corps was reporting as…

  12. Taylor's Theorem and Derivative Tests for Extrema and Inflection Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2005-01-01

    The standard derivative tests for extrema and inflection points from Calculus I can be revisited subsequently from the perspective of Taylor polynomial approximations to provide additional insights into those tests, as well as to extend them to additional criteria. (Contains 3 figures.)

  13. Slavnov-Taylor identities for noncommutative QED{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Charneski, B.; Gomes, M.; Silva, A. J. da; Mariz, T.; Nascimento, J. R.

    2010-05-15

    In this work we present an analysis of the one-loop Slavnov-Taylor identities in noncommutative QED{sub 4}. The vectorial fermion-photon and the triple photon vertex functions were studied, with the conclusion that no anomalies arise.

  14. 76 FR 18378 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Taylor, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... amend controlled airspace at Taylor, AZ (76 FR 3570). Interested parties were invited to participate in... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec....

  15. Using Taylor Expansions to Prepare Students for Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutzer, Carl V.

    2011-01-01

    We propose an alternative to the standard introduction to the derivative. Instead of using limits of difference quotients, students develop Taylor expansions of polynomials. This alternative allows students to develop many of the central ideas about the derivative at an intuitive level, using only skills and concepts from precalculus, and…

  16. Taylorism, Tylerism, and Performance Indicators: Defending the Indefensible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helsby, Gill; Saunders, Murray

    1993-01-01

    Explores the antecedents to the growing interest in the use of educational performance indicators. Discusses this issue in relation to the work of economist F. W. Taylor and evaluator Ralph Tyler. Describes a five-year project that demonstrates the promise of teacher-developed performance indicators. (CFR)

  17. 14. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JOHNNY TAYLOR REMOVING A MOLD HALF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JOHNNY TAYLOR REMOVING A MOLD HALF FROM THE PATTERN ON THE MOLDING MACHINE, REVEALING THE CAVITY THAT WILL BE FILLED WITH MOLTEN IRON AFTER IT IS ASSEMBLED WITH THE OTHER MOLD HALF INSIDE GREY IRON UNIT NO. 1. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  18. Detached eddy simulations of Taylor bubbles rising in stagnant liquid columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaban, Hassan; Tavoularis, Stavros

    2015-11-01

    The rise of a single air Taylor bubble in a vertical circular tube filled with stagnant water was investigated numerically using the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method to model the phase distribution and the Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) method for turbulence modelling. The predictions were in good quantitative agreement with previous experimental results. The simulation results provided insight into bubble shedding in the wake of the Taylor bubble, frictional pressure drop along the tube and scalar dispersion caused by the passage of the Taylor bubble. The interaction between adjacent Taylor bubbles and the process of Taylor bubble coalescence were also examined in detail. Supported by NSERC and UNENE.

  19. Evolution of a magmatic system during continental extension: The Mount Taylor volcanic field, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, F.V. ); Baldridge, W.S. ); DePaolo, D.J. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley, CA ); Shafiqullah, M. )

    1990-11-10

    In this paper the authors present geologic mapping, K-Ar chronology, major and trace element data, mineral chemistry, and Nd, Sr, and O isotopic data for volcanic rocks of the Mount Taylor volcanic field (MTVF). The MTVF lies on the tectonic boundary between the Basin and Range province and the southeastern Colorado Plateau and is dominated by Mount Taylor, a composite volcano active from {approx}3 to 1.5 m.y. ago. Growth of the volcano began with eruption of rhyolite, followed by quartz latite and finally latite. Basalts erupted throughout the lifetime of the volcano. Rare mixing of evolved hy-hawaiite and rhyolite produced a few intermediate magmas, primarily in the early history of the field. Mixing may have occurred when rhyolite magmas in the lower crust ascended to upper crustal levels and were injected into the bases of mafic magma chambers. Small amounts of crustal assimilation accompanied fractional crystallization and affected all the evolved MTVF rocks. Assimilation/fractional crystallization occurred primarily in the lower crust as hy-hawaiite differentiated to mugearite or latite. Early in the history of the field, evolved lower crustal magmas ascended into the upper crust, where density filtering and a reduced tensional stress field inhibited further ascent until magmas evolved to rhyolite or quartz latite. Later in the history of the field, latite magmas ascended directly from the lower crust and erupted without further significant differentiation because of increased crustal extension.

  20. Ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kilkenny, J.D.

    1994-08-04

    As shown elsewhere an ablatively imploded shell is hydrodynamically unstable, the dominant instability being the well known Rayleigh-Taylor instability with growth rate {gamma} = {radical}Akg where k = 2{pi}/{lambda} is the wave number, g is the acceleration and A the Attwood number ({rho}{sub hi} {minus} {rho}{sub lo})/({rho}{sub hi} + {rho}{sub lo}) where {rho}{sub hi} is the density of the heavier fluid and {rho}{sub lo} is the density of the lighter fluid. A theoretical understanding of ablative stabilization has gradually evolved, confirmed over the last five years by experiments. The linear growth is very well understood with excellent agreement between experiment and simulation for planar geometry with wavelengths in the region of 30--100{mu}m. There is an accurate, albeit phenomenological dispersion relation. The non-linear growth has been measured and agrees with calculations. In this lecture, the authors go into the fundamentals of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and the experimental measurements that show it is stabilized sufficiently by ablation in regimes relevant to ICF.

  1. Psychoanalysis, creativity, and hope: forward edge strivings in the life and work of choreographer Paul Taylor.

    PubMed

    Press, Carol M

    2005-01-01

    Psychoanalysis and creativity are not interchangeable enterprises; however, both creativity and psychoanalysis promise the hope of transformation. But hope may be fragile. Healthy aspects of self may hide and diminish hope to protect it against invasion from toxic pathological patterns. Hope may be rekindled by an empathically responsive environment and the reengagement of healthy forward edge strivings. Psychoanalysis illustrates creativity as a conduit for hope. Modern dance choreographer Paul Taylor's 1988 autobiography, Private Domain, describes Taylor's hope and strivings through creative engagement. Unfortunately, when Taylor's body inevitably falters after years of performing, he is unprepared psychologically to cope successfully. Taylor's sense of self begins to fragment and his forward edge strivings to decay. Eventually, Taylor collapses on stage from drug addiction and illness; his performing career crashes to an end. Taylor must search for his forward edge strivings with hope. Psychoanalysis illuminates Taylor's journey to find hope, motivation, meaningful intention, and transformation through creativity and dance-making. PMID:15953780

  2. Measurements of small radius ratio turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Veen, Roeland; Huisman, Sander; Merbold, Sebastian; Sun, Chao; Harlander, Uwe; Egbers, Christoph; Lohse, Detlef

    2014-11-01

    In Taylor-Couette flows, the radius ratio (η =ri /ro) is one of the key parameters of the system. For small η, the asymmetry of the inner and outer boundary layer becomes more important, affecting the general flow structure and boundary layer characteristics. Using high-resolution particle image velocimetry we measure flow profiles, local transport, and statistical properties of the flow for a radius ratio of 0.5 and a Reynolds number of up to 4 .104 . By measuring flow profiles at varying heights, roll structures are characterized for two different rotation ratios of the inner and outer cylinder. In addition, we systematically vary the rotation ratio and the Reynolds number. These results exemplify how curvature affects flow in strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette Flow.

  3. Multiple states in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisman, Sander G.; van der Veen, Roeland C. A.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2014-05-01

    The ubiquity of turbulent flows in nature and technology makes it of utmost importance to fundamentally understand turbulence. Kolmogorov’s 1941 paradigm suggests that for strongly turbulent flows with many degrees of freedom and large fluctuations, there would only be one turbulent state as the large fluctuations would explore the entire higher dimensional phase space. Here we report the first conclusive evidence of multiple turbulent states for large Reynolds number, Re(106) (Taylor number Ta(1012)) Taylor-Couette flow in the regime of ultimate turbulence, by probing the phase space spanned by the rotation rates of the inner and outer cylinder. The manifestation of multiple turbulent states is exemplified by providing combined global torque- and local-velocity measurements. This result verifies the notion that bifurcations can occur in high-dimensional flows (that is, very large Re) and questions Kolmogorov’s paradigm.

  4. Multiple states in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisman, Sander; van der Veen, Roeland; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2014-11-01

    The ubiquity of turbulent flows in nature and technology makes it of utmost importance to fundamentally understand turbulence. Kolmogorov's 1941 paradigm suggests that for strongly turbulent flows with many degrees of freedom and its large fluctuations, there would only be one turbulent state as the large fluctuations would explore the entire higher-dimensional phase space. Here we report the first conclusive evidence of multiple turbulent states for large Reynolds number Re = O (106) (Taylor number Ta = O (1012) Taylor-Couette flow in the regime of ultimate turbulence, by probing the phase space spanned by the rotation rates of the inner and outer cylinder. The manifestation of multiple turbulent states is exemplified by providing combined global torque and local velocity measurements. This result verifies the notion that bifurcations can occur in high-dimensional flows (i.e. very large Re) and questions Kolmogorov's paradigm.

  5. A Taylor weak-statement algorithm for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, A. J.; Kim, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    Finite element analysis, applied to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) problem classes, presents a formal procedure for establishing the ingredients of a discrete approximation numerical solution algorithm. A classical Galerkin weak-statement formulation, formed on a Taylor series extension of the conservation law system, is developed herein that embeds a set of parameters eligible for constraint according to specification of suitable norms. The derived family of Taylor weak statements is shown to contain, as special cases, over one dozen independently derived CFD algorithms published over the past several decades for the high speed flow problem class. A theoretical analysis is completed that facilitates direct qualitative comparisons. Numerical results for definitive linear and nonlinear test problems permit direct quantitative performance comparisons.

  6. Singularities in water waves and Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanveer, S.

    1991-01-01

    Singularities in inviscid two-dimensional finite-amplitude water waves and inviscid Rayleigh-Taylor instability are discussed. For the deep water gravity waves of permanent form, through a combination of analytical and numerical methods, results describing the precise form, number, and location of singularities in the unphysical domain as the wave height is increased are presented. It is shown how the information on the singularity in the unphysical region has the same form as for deep water waves. However, associated with such a singularity is a series of image singularities at increasing distances from the physical plane with possibly different behavior. Furthermore, for the Rayleigh-Taylor problem of motion of fluid over a vacuum and for the unsteady water wave problem, integro-differential equations valid in the unphysical region are derived, and how these equations can give information on the nature of singularities for arbitrary initial conditions is shown.

  7. Stability of the Taylor--Culick receding rim: surprising observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhuissier, Henri; Villermaux, Emmanuel

    2008-11-01

    When punctured, a uniform liquid sheet is known, since Taylor and Culick, to recess at a constant speed balancing surface tension and inertia. For planar soap films, this steady solution holds until the initially smooth receding rim is violently destabilized, exhibiting deep indentations from which droplets are ejected. A surprising new three dimensional mechanism explaining this destabilization and resulting wavelength has been evidenced : because of the shear between the still outer medium and the receding liquid, the film flaps through a Kelvin--Helmholtz instability, itself inducing an acceleration perpendicular to the film, which intensifies with the flapping amplitude. To this acceleration is associated a classical Rayleigh--Taylor mechanism, promoting the rim indentations. The same mechanism holds for a punctured round bubble, for which the relevant acceleration is the Culick velocity squared divided by the bubble radius. The bearing of this phenomenon on aerosols formation in Nature will be underlined.

  8. Structures in Transitional Taylor-Couette Flows Identified using POD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balabani, Stavroula; Imomoh, Eboshogwe; Dusting, Jonathan

    2009-11-01

    The flow in the gap between concentric cylinders, or Taylor-Couette flow, has been used to study transition to turbulence for decades, and is also utilised for various biotechnological and industrial processes. Transitional flow states depend highly on vessel geometry; they are also three-dimensional and often time dependent limiting the use of experimental techniques for their characterisation. In this talk the transition to turbulence in a Taylor-Couette flow is studied by means of time resolved PIV velocity fields and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD). It is found that for the particular geometry studied the transition to turbulence occurs via a quasi periodic regime characterised by a fast moving azimuthal wave (FMAW). Aspects of the FMAW structure, such as a series of co-rotating vortices that increase in strength away from the endwalls, are also revealed by spatially resolved POD.

  9. General theory of Taylor dispersion phenomena. Part 3. Surface transport

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, L.H.; Brenner, H.

    1982-01-01

    An asymptotic theory of Brownian tracer particle transport phenomena within a bulk fluid, as augmented by surface transport, is presented in the context of generalized Taylor dispersion theory. The analysis expands upon prior work, which was limited to transport wholly within a continuous phase, so as to now include surface adsorption, diffusion, and convection of the tracer along a continuous surface bounding the continuous fluid phase.

  10. Numerical study of a Taylor bubble rising in stagnant liquids.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chang-Wei; Quan, Shaoping; Lou, Jing

    2010-06-01

    The dynamics of a Taylor bubble rising in stagnant liquids is numerically investigated using a front tracking coupled with finite difference method. Parametric studies on the dynamics of the rising Taylor bubble including the final shape, the Reynolds number (Re(T)), the Weber number (We(T)), the Froude number (Fr), the thin liquid film thickness (w/D), and the wake length (l(w)/D) are carried out. The effects of density ratio (η), viscosity ratio (λ), Eötvös number (Eo), and Archimedes number (Ar) are examined. The simulations demonstrate that the density ratio and the viscosity ratio under consideration have minimal effect on the dynamics of the Taylor bubble. Eötvös number and Archimedes number influence the elongation of the tail and the wake structures, where higher Eo and Ar result in longer wake. To explain the sudden extension of the tail, a Weber number (We(l)) based on local curvature and velocity is evaluated and a critical We(l) is detected around unity. The onset of flow separation at the wake occurs in between Ar=2×10(3) and Ar=1×10(4), which corresponds to Re(T) between 13.39 and 32.55. Archimedes number also drastically affects the final shape of Taylor bubble, the terminal velocity, the thickness of thin liquid film, as well as the wall shear stress. It is found that w/D=0.32 Ar(-0.1). PMID:20866523

  11. Rayleigh-Taylor vortices in a pair-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Adak, Ashish Khan, Manoranjan

    2015-04-15

    The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) vortices and the analytical solution of three-mode coupling in pair-ion plasmas are investigated. It is shown that the E×B convection of polarization drift is responsible for the saturation of growing RT instability and as a result the localized dipole vortex structures are formed. The shear flow generation due to the destruction of vortex structures is discussed by the Fourier mode analysis.

  12. Nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor instability of rotating inviscid fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, J. J.; He, X. T.; Ye, W. H.; Busse, F. H.

    2013-01-01

    It is demonstrated theoretically that the nonlinear stage of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability can be retarded at arbitrary Atwood numbers in a rotating system with the axis of rotation normal to the acceleration of the interface between two uniform inviscid fluids. The Coriolis force provides an effective restoring force on the perturbed interface, and the uniform rotation will always decrease the nonlinear saturation amplitude of the interface at any disturbance wavelength.

  13. Rayleigh-Taylor instability in dusty plasma experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Avinash, K.; Sen, A.

    2015-08-15

    The stability of a stratified dust cloud levitated in an anodic plasma is studied in the weakly and strongly coupled dust regimes. It is shown that the cloud is predominantly unstable to a Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability driven by a component of the ambient gravity in a direction opposite to the direction of dust density stratification in the cloud. The elasticity of the strongly coupled dust is shown to set a threshold for the RT instability, which is consistent with experimental observations.

  14. Glacier geophysical studies at Taylor Dome: Your three

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, D.L.; Waddington, E.D. )

    1993-01-01

    Taylor Dome is the site of an ongoing ice core/paleoclimate project. The main activities of the 1992-1993 season included surveys by ground-based optical methods, surveys using satellite receivers, radio-echo sounding of bedrock topography, and depositional environment characterization. Monitoring continued of accumulation rate and three cores were sampled to detect the depths of atmospheric nuclear test fallout products. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Viscous Rayleigh-Taylor instability in spherical geometry

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mikaelian, Karnig O.

    2016-02-08

    We consider viscous fluids in spherical geometry, a lighter fluid supporting a heavier one. Chandrasekhar [Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 8, 1 (1955)] analyzed this unstable configuration providing the equations needed to find, numerically, the exact growth rates for the ensuing Rayleigh-Taylor instability. He also derived an analytic but approximate solution. We point out a weakness in his approximate dispersion relation (DR) and offer one that is to some extent improved.

  16. Taylor's Theorem: The Elusive "c" Is Not So Elusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreminski, Richard

    2010-01-01

    For a suitably nice, real-valued function "f" defined on an open interval containing [a,b], f(b) can be expressed as p[subscript n](b) (the nth Taylor polynomial of f centered at a) plus an error term of the (Lagrange) form f[superscript (n+1)](c)(b-a)[superscript (n+1)]/(n+1)! for some c in (a,b). This article is for those who think that not…

  17. Displacement Maps in Taylor Impact Using Speckle Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, S. G.; Braithwaite, C. H.; Proud, W. G.; Williamson, D. M.

    2006-07-01

    A method was developed at the Cavendish Laboratory (Cambridge University) to determine the internal displacement characteristics of a polymer rod undergoing classic Taylor impact. Using a layer of lead filings on the central plane of the rod and Digital Speckle Radiography with flash x-rays it was possible to build up a dynamic displacement map. This technique can be used to derive material properties such as yield strength and provide data for model validation.

  18. Rayleigh-Taylor instability in an equal mass plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Adak, Ashish; Ghosh, Samiran; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2014-09-15

    The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in an inhomogeneous pair-ion plasma has been analyzed. Considering two fluid model for two species of ions (positive and negative), we obtain the possibility of the existence of RT instability. The growth rate of the RT instability as usual depends on gravity and density gradient scale length. The results are discussed in context of pair-ion plasma experiments.

  19. Solving ODE Initial Value Problems With Implicit Taylor Series Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, James R.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new class of numerical methods for integrating ODE initial value problems. Specifically, we propose an extension of the Taylor series method which significantly improves its accuracy and stability while also increasing its range of applicability. To advance the solution from t (sub n) to t (sub n+1), we expand a series about the intermediate point t (sub n+mu):=t (sub n) + mu h, where h is the stepsize and mu is an arbitrary parameter called an expansion coefficient. We show that, in general, a Taylor series of degree k has exactly k expansion coefficients which raise its order of accuracy. The accuracy is raised by one order if k is odd, and by two orders if k is even. In addition, if k is three or greater, local extrapolation can be used to raise the accuracy two additional orders. We also examine stability for the problem y'= lambda y, Re (lambda) less than 0, and identify several A-stable schemes. Numerical results are presented for both fixed and variable stepsizes. It is shown that implicit Taylor series methods provide an effective integration tool for most problems, including stiff systems and ODE's with a singular point.

  20. Numerical study of Taylor bubbles with adaptive unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhihua; Pavlidis, Dimitrios; Percival, James; Pain, Chris; Matar, Omar; Hasan, Abbas; Azzopardi, Barry

    2014-11-01

    The Taylor bubble is a single long bubble which nearly fills the entire cross section of a liquid-filled circular tube. This type of bubble flow regime often occurs in gas-liquid slug flows in many industrial applications, including oil-and-gas production, chemical and nuclear reactors, and heat exchangers. The objective of this study is to investigate the fluid dynamics of Taylor bubbles rising in a vertical pipe filled with oils of extremely high viscosity (mimicking the ``heavy oils'' found in the oil-and-gas industry). A modelling and simulation framework is presented here which can modify and adapt anisotropic unstructured meshes to better represent the underlying physics of bubble rise and reduce the computational effort without sacrificing accuracy. The numerical framework consists of a mixed control-volume and finite-element formulation, a ``volume of fluid''-type method for the interface capturing based on a compressive control volume advection method, and a force-balanced algorithm for the surface tension implementation. Numerical examples of some benchmark tests and the dynamics of Taylor bubbles are presented to show the capability of this method. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.

  1. Taylor bubbles at high viscosity ratios: experiments and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewakandamby, Buddhika; Hasan, Abbas; Azzopardi, Barry; Xie, Zhihua; Pain, Chris; Matar, Omar

    2015-11-01

    The Taylor bubble is a single long bubble which nearly fills the entire cross section of a liquid-filled circular tube, often occurring in gas-liquid slug flows in many industrial applications, particularly oil and gas production. The objective of this study is to investigate the fluid dynamics of three-dimensional Taylor bubble rising in highly viscous silicone oil in a vertical pipe. An adaptive unstructured mesh modelling framework is adopted here which can modify and adapt anisotropic unstructured meshes to better represent the underlying physics of bubble rising and reduce computational effort without sacrificing accuracy. The numerical framework consists of a mixed control volume and finite element formulation, a `volume of fluid'-type method for the interface-capturing based on a compressive control volume advection method, and a force-balanced algorithm for the surface tension implementation. Experimental results for the Taylor bubble shape and rise velocity are presented, together with numerical results for the dynamics of the bubbles. A comparison of the simulation predictions with experimental data available in the literature is also presented to demonstrate the capabilities of our numerical method. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.

  2. Taylor Impact Tests and Simulations on PBX 9501

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Brad; Thompson, Darla G.; Luscher, D. J.; Deluca, Racci

    2011-06-01

    Taylor impact tests have been conducted previously on plastic bonded explosives (PBXs) to characterize the stress state of these materials as they impact smooth and flat steel anvil surfaces at speeds of ~100m/s (i.e. Christopher, et al, 11th Detonation Symposium). In 2003, C. Liu and R. Ellis (unpublished, Los Alamos National Laboratory) performed Taylor tests on PBX 9501 up to speeds of 115 m/s, capturing impact images. In the work presented here, we have extended these tests to velocities of 200 m/s using a composite-lined gun barrel and no specimen sabot. Specimen images are used to validate the thermo-mechanical constitutive model ViscoSCRAM. ViscoSCRAM has been parameterized for PBX 9501 in uniaxial stress configurations. Simulating Taylor impact experiments tests the model in situations undergoing extreme damage. In addition, experimental variations to specimen confinement and friction are introduced in an attempt to establish ignition thresholds in this velocity regime.

  3. Parameterizing the power spectrum: Beyond the truncated Taylor expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Abazajian, Kevork; Kadota, Kenji; Stewart, Ewan D.; /KAIST, Taejon /Canadian Inst. Theor. Astrophys.

    2005-07-01

    The power spectrum is traditionally parameterized by a truncated Taylor series: ln P(k) = ln P{sub *} + (n{sub *} - 1) ln(k/k{sub *}) + 1/2 n'{sub *} ln{sup 2} (k/k{sub *}). It is reasonable to truncate the Taylor series if |n'{sub *} ln(k/k{sub *})| << |n{sub *} - 1|, but it is not if |n'{sub *} ln(k/k{sub *})| {approx}> |n{sub *} - 1|. We argue that there is no good theoretical reason to prefer |n'{sub *}| << |n{sub *} - 1|, and show that current observations are consistent with |n*{sub *} ln(k/k{sub *})| {approx} |n{sub *} - 1| even for |ln(k/k{sub *})| {approx} 1. Thus, there are regions of parameter space, which are both theoretically and observationally relevant, for which the traditional truncated Taylor series parameterization is inconsistent, and hence it can lead to incorrect parameter estimations. Motivated by this, we propose a simple extension of the traditional parameterization, which uses no extra parameters, but that, unlike the traditional approach, covers well motivated inflationary spectra with |n'{sub *}| {approx} |n{sub *} - 1|. Our parameterization therefore covers not only standard-slow-roll inflation models but also a much wider class of inflation models. We use this parameterization to perform a likelihood analysis for the cosmological parameters.

  4. Taylor impact tests on PBX composites: imaging and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graff Thompson, Daria; DeLuca, Racci; Archuleta, Jose; Brown, Geoff W.; Koby, Joseph

    2014-05-01

    A series of Taylor impact tests were performed on three plastic bonded explosive (PBX) formulations: PBX 9501, PBXN-9 and HPP (propellant). The first two formulations are HMX-based, and all three have been characterized quasi-statically in tension and compression. The Taylor impact tests use a 500 psi gas gun to launch PBX projectiles (approximately 30 grams, 16 mm diameter, 76 mm long), velocities as high as 215 m/s, at a steel anvil. Tests were performed remotely and no sign of ignition/reaction have been observed to date. Highspeed imaging was used to capture the impact of the specimen onto anvil surface. Side-view contour images have been analyzed using dynamic stress equations from the literature, and additionally, front-view images have been used to estimate a tensile strain failure criterion for initial specimen fracture. Post-test sieve analysis of specimen debris correlates fragmentation with projectile velocity, and these data show interesting differences between composites. Along with other quasi-static and dynamic measurements, Taylor impact images and fragmentation data provide a useful metric for the calibration or evaluation of intermediate-rate model predictions of PBX constituitive response and failure/fragmentation. Intermediate-rate tests involving other impact configurations are being considered.

  5. High-Reynolds Number Taylor-Couette Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Taylor-Couette flow, the flow between two coaxial co- or counter-rotating cylinders, is one of the paradigmatic systems in the physics of fluids. The (dimensionless) control parameters are the Reynolds numbers of the inner and outer cylinders, the ratio of the cylinder radii, and the aspect ratio. One key response of the system is the torque required to retain constant angular velocities, which can be connected to the angular velocity transport through the gap. Whereas the low-Reynolds number regime was well explored in the 1980s and 1990s of the past century, in the fully turbulent regime major research activity developed only in the past decade. In this article, we review this recent progress in our understanding of fully developed Taylor-Couette turbulence from the experimental, numerical, and theoretical points of view. We focus on the parameter dependence of the global torque and on the local flow organization, including velocity profiles and boundary layers. Next, we discuss transitions between different (turbulent) flow states. We also elaborate on the relevance of this system for astrophysical disks (quasi-Keplerian flows). The review ends with a list of challenges for future research on turbulent Taylor-Couette flow.

  6. Aerial EM Survey Reveals Groundwater Systems Beneath Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, H.; Mikucki, J.; Auken, E.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Virginia, R. A.; Schamper, C.; Sørensen, K.; Doran, P. T.; Foley, N.

    2014-12-01

    The extent of groundwater and its potential habitability in the ice-free regions and along the coastal margins of Antarctica is poorly understood. Here we report on an airborne transient electromagnetic survey in Antarctica, which for the first time produced extensive imagery of subsurface resistivity in Taylor Valley, an ice-free margin of the Ross Sea. Wide zones of low subsurface resistivity were detected that are inconsistent with the typical high resistivity of glacier ice or dry permafrost. These results are interpreted as an indication that water, with sufficiently high solute content to remain unfrozen well below 0°C, temperatures considered within the range suitable for microbial life. The inferred subsurface brines are widespread and form two isolated groundwater systems: a near shore system, which extends from the ocean 18 km inland; and a sub-/proglacial system, which emanates from beneath Taylor Glacier into Lake Bonney and is associated with the discharge from Blood Falls. The brine networks in Taylor Valley challenge the notion that groundwater is negligible in regions of continuous permafrost, and signify the potential for a deep biosphere that is hydrologically and geochemically connected to the marine system and subglacial environments.

  7. Fluctuations in Saffman-Taylor fingers with quenched disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torralba, M.; Ortín, J.; Hernández-Machado, A.; Corvera Poiré, E.

    2006-04-01

    We make an experimental characterization of the effect that static disorder has on the shape of a normal Saffman-Taylor finger. We find that static noise induces a small amplitude and long wavelength instability on the sides of the finger. Fluctuations on the finger sides have a dominant wavelength, indicating that the system acts as a selective amplifier of static noise. The dominant wavelength does not seem to be very sensitive to the intensity of static noise present in the system. On the other hand, at a given flow rate, rms fluctuations of the finger width, decrease with decreasing intensity of static noise. This might explain why the sides of the fingers are flat for typical Saffman-Taylor experiments. Comparison with previous numerical studies of the effect that temporal noise has on the Saffman-Taylor finger, leads to conclude that the effect of temporal noise and static noise are similar. The behavior of fluctuations of the finger width found in our experiments, is qualitatively similar to one recently reported, in the sense that, the magnitude of the width fluctuations decays as a power law of the capillary number, at low flow rates, and increases with capillary number for larger flow rates.

  8. The effect of crossflow on Taylor vortices: A model problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, S. R.; Bassom, Andrew P.

    1993-01-01

    A number of practically relevant problems involving the impulsive motion or the rapid rotation of bodies immersed in fluid are susceptible to vortex-like instability modes. Depending upon the configuration of any particular problem the stability properties of any high-wavenumber vortices can take on one of two distinct forms. One of these is akin to the structure of Gortler vortices in boundary layer flows while the other is similar to the situation for classical Taylor vortices. Both the Gortler and Taylor problems have been extensively studied when crossflow effects are excluded from the underlying base flows. Recently, studies were made concerning the influence of crossflow on Gortler modes and a linearized stability analysis is used to examine crossflow properties for the Taylor mode. This work allows us to identify the most unstable vortex as the crossflow component increases and it is shown how, like the Gortler case, only a very small crossflow component is required in order to completely stabilize the flow. Our investigation forms the basis for an extension to the nonlinear problem and is of potential applicability to a range of pertinent flows.

  9. Dynamic response of reverse Taylor impact based on DIC technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiancheng; Pi, Aiguo; Wu, Haijun; Huang, Fenglei

    2015-09-01

    Reverse ballistic impact test, which can obtain the response data of rod/projectile more comprehensive and quantitative than forward impact test, was widely used for the measurement of material dynamic and structure response. Based on the DIC technology and traditional optical measurement (high-speed camera measurement), the Taylor experiment of reverse ballistic with different length-diameter ratio and different impact velocities were carried out by 57 mm compression-shear type light-gas gun, which provides the instantaneous response data of the Taylor rod in microsecond level. Then, the transient structural deformation of the specimen and the characteristics of plastic wave propagation were analysed by DIC technology and compared with traditional optical measurement. Applying the theory of reverse Taylor impact deformation and combining with the simulation results by LS-DYNA, the rules of structure deformation and plastic wave propagation were obtained. The method above can be applied for the structure response of penetrator under the condition of reverse ballistic penetration.

  10. Authoring Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treviranus, Jutta

    Authoring tools that are accessible and that enable authors to produce accessible Web content play a critical role in web accessibility. Widespread use of authoring tools that comply to the W3C Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) would ensure that even authors who are neither knowledgeable about nor particularly motivated to produce accessible content do so by default. The principles and techniques of ATAG are discussed. Some examples of accessible authoring tools are described including authoring tool content management components such as TinyMCE. Considerations for creating an accessible collaborative environment are also covered. As part of providing accessible content, the debate between system-based personal optimization and one universally accessible site configuration is presented. The issues and potential solutions to address the accessibility crisis presented by the advent of rich internet applications are outlined. This challenge must be met to ensure that a large segment of the population is able to participate in the move toward the web as a two-way communication mechanism.

  11. Military Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton; Hayes, Bill

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores questions of military authority. The first article looks at the French Army mutinies in World War I and how the French Army dealt with them. The second article examines President Truman's firing of popular and powerful General Douglas MacArthur during the Korean War. The final article looks at how…

  12. Optimal Taylor-Couette flow: radius ratio dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostilla-Mónico, Rodolfo; Huisman, Sander G.; Jannink, Tim J. G.; Van Gils, Dennis P. M.; Verzicco, Roberto; Grossmann, Siegfried; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2014-05-01

    Taylor-Couette flow with independently rotating inner (i) and outer (o) cylinders is explored numerically and experimentally to determine the effects of the radius ratio {\\eta} on the system response. Numerical simulations reach Reynolds numbers of up to Re_i=9.5 x 10^3 and Re_o=5x10^3, corresponding to Taylor numbers of up to Ta=10^8 for four different radius ratios {\\eta}=r_i/r_o between 0.5 and 0.909. The experiments, performed in the Twente Turbulent Taylor-Couette (T^3C) setup, reach Reynolds numbers of up to Re_i=2x10^6$ and Re_o=1.5x10^6, corresponding to Ta=5x10^{12} for {\\eta}=0.714-0.909. Effective scaling laws for the torque J^{\\omega}(Ta) are found, which for sufficiently large driving Ta are independent of the radius ratio {\\eta}. As previously reported for {\\eta}=0.714, optimum transport at a non-zero Rossby number Ro=r_i|{\\omega}_i-{\\omega}_o|/[2(r_o-r_i){\\omega}_o] is found in both experiments and numerics. Ro_opt is found to depend on the radius ratio and the driving of the system. At a driving in the range between {Ta\\sim3\\cdot10^8} and {Ta\\sim10^{10}}, Ro_opt saturates to an asymptotic {\\eta}-dependent value. Theoretical predictions for the asymptotic value of Ro_{opt} are compared to the experimental results, and found to differ notably. Furthermore, the local angular velocity profiles from experiments and numerics are compared, and a link between a flat bulk profile and optimum transport for all radius ratios is reported.

  13. Phase mixed rotation magnetoconvection and Taylor's condition III. Wave trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewen, Susan A.; Soward, Andrew M.

    Nonlinear amplitude equations governing the radial modulation of quasi-geostrophic convective rolls, which occur in a rapidly rotating self-gravitating sphere permeated by a weak azimuthal magnetic field (small Elsasser number), were derived in Part I. Stationary and travelling pulse solutions were obtained in Part II. That analysis is extended here; wave train solutions are sought and their stability tested. Special features of the equations include: nonlinear diffusion and dispersion; also phase mixing, which leads to a lack of translational invariance of the system. In spite of the latter, the underlying structure of the wave trains sought is spatially periodic on a length L, but modulated by a time dependent Floquet exponent. Consequently, a Fourier representation is employed and the time evolution of the Fourier coefficients is determined numerically. It is shown that pulses confined to lengths l(< L) can be superimposed non-interactively to form wave trains. The numerical demonstration relies on establishing that the pseudo-energy based on the time averaged wave train amplitude coincides with the corresponding pulse energy E calculated in Part II. When l and L are comparable some pulse interaction can be inferred. Available numerical evidence suggests that wave trains, and by implication pulses, are unstable. The geophysical implications are discussed. All finite amplitude solutions pertain to the Ekman regime in which the modified Taylor's condition is satisfied by small magnetic field perturbations. Only in the infinite amplitude limit do the solutions determine true Taylor states. It is anticipated that following instability in the Ekman regime convection equilibrates in some large amplitude Taylor state, which is determined when additional ageostrophic effects are taken into account. Analysis of that state lies outside the range of validity of our amplitude equations.

  14. Rayleigh-Taylor instability with finite current relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, F. E. M.; Orlandi, H. I.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we explore the influence of perturbative wavelengths, shorter than those usually considered, on the growth rate of the Rayleigh-Taylor modes. Therefore, we adopt an extended form of Ohm's law which includes a finite relaxation time of the current density due to inertial effects of charged species in the plasma. The restoring force density that acts upon charged species close to the mode rational surface takes into account a new term which is usually neglected with respect to the motional electromotive force. We find that the width of the resistive layer can be interpreted in terms of the "height" of free fall in a constant gravitational field, in the Alfvén time interval. We also show that the charged species must fall "down" in the constant gravitational field in order that the static state of equilibrium of the system becomes unstable to the linear perturbation. Through the principle of conservation of energy, we find a general formula which gives the growth rate γ of the Rayleigh-Taylor modes. When the new term becomes negligible with respect to the motional electromotive force, we recover the standard result of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, which establishes that γ scales with the plasma resistivity η as γ ˜ η 1 / 3 . However, in the opposite limiting situation, we find that γ does not depend any longer on the plasma resistivity and scales now with the electron number density n e as γ ˜ ne - 1 / 2 . Further developments of our theory may contribute to improve our understanding on the excitation mechanisms of resistive plasma instabilities by transient phenomena such as shock waves.

  15. Photographic copy of architectural drawings for Building 4315: Taylor & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawings for Building 4315: Taylor & Barnes, Architects & Engineers, 803 W. Third Street, Los Angeles California, O.C.E. Office of Civil Engineer Job No. Muroc ESA 210-50 and 210-44, Military Construction: Muroc Flight Test Base, Muroc, California, Utility Yard & Shops: Carpenter & Paint Shop, Utility Shop & Lavatory, Plan & Elevations, Sheet No. 4 of 8, May 1945. Reproduced from the holdings of the National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Utility & Paint Shop, Second & E Streets, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. 2. Photographic copy of architectural elevations for Building 4505, Taylor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photographic copy of architectural elevations for Building 4505, Taylor & Barnes, Architects & Engineers, 803 W. Third Street, Los Angeles California, O.C.E. Office of Civil Engineer Job No. A(9-10), Military Construction: Materiel Command Flight Test Base, Muroc, California, Hangar and Auxiliary Buildings: Hangar Type P-A, Exterior Elevations, Sheet No. 18, March 1944. Reproduced from the holdings of the National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Hangar, End of North Base Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. 1. Photographic copy of architectural plan for Building 4505, Taylor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photographic copy of architectural plan for Building 4505, Taylor & Barnes, Architects & Engineers, 803 W. Third Street, Los Angeles California, O.C.E. Office of Civil Engineer Job No. A(9-10), Military Construction: Materiel Command Flight Test Base, Muroc, California, Hangar and Auxiliary Buildings: Hangar Type P-A, Floor Plan & Roof Plan, Sheet No. 16, March 1944. Reproduced from the holdings of the National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Hangar, End of North Base Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. THE RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR INSTABILITY IN SMALL ASPECT RATIO CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect

    RIVERA, MICHAEL K.; ECKE, ROBERT E.

    2007-01-22

    We present experimental measurements of density and velocity obtained from the mixing zone of buoyancy driven turbulence initiated by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a small aspect ration chamber (a chamber who's vertical height is significantly larger than its lateral dimesion). The mixing front propogates at a slightly slower rate than the expected t{sup 2} behavior obtained from earlier experiments and numerics. Once the front has propogated significantly far away, we observe that the mixing zone develops to a statistically stationary state. In this stationary state, the spectral distributions of energy and density deviate from the familiar k{sup -5/3} ubiquitous to turbulence in three dimensions.

  19. Taylor's experiment in a periodically sheared particulate suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souzy, Mathieu; Pham, Phong; Metzger, Bloen

    2016-08-01

    We revisit Taylor's experiment investigating the evolution of a blob of dye in a periodically sheared suspension of non-Brownian particles. Above a critical strain amplitude, particulate suspensions are subject to phase transition where reversibility is lost and particles fail to return to their original positions. We investigate the effect of this transition on the dispersion of a blob of dye. Beyond the critical strain, the dispersion of the blob is found to increase significantly. The dispersion coefficient of the blob of dye is measured and compared to the self-diffusivity coefficient of the particles.

  20. On Taylor-Series Approximations of Residual Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruett, C. David

    1999-01-01

    Although subgrid-scale models of similarity type are insufficiently dissipative for practical applications to large-eddy simulation, in recently published a priori analyses, they perform remarkably well in the sense of correlating highly against exact residual stresses. Here, Taylor-series expansions of residual stress are exploited to explain the observed behavior and "success" of similarity models. Until very recently, little attention has been given to issues related to the convergence of such expansions. Here, we re-express the convergence criterion of Vasilyev [J. Comput. Phys., 146 (1998)] in terms of the transfer function and the wavenumber cutoff of the grid filter.

  1. Bubble Counts for Rayleigh-Taylor Instability Using Image Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P L; Gezahegne, A G; Cook, A W; Cabot, W H; Kamath, C

    2007-01-24

    We describe the use of image analysis to count bubbles in 3-D, large-scale, LES [1] and DNS [2] of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We analyze these massive datasets by first converting the 3-D data to 2-D, then counting the bubbles in the 2-D data. Our plots for the bubble count indicate there are four distinct regimes in the process of the mixing of the two fluids. We also show that our results are relatively insensitive to the choice of parameters in our analysis algorithms.

  2. Rayleigh-Taylor instability in quantum magnetized viscous plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshoudy, G. A.

    2011-09-15

    Quantum effects on Rayleigh-Taylor instability of stratified viscous plasmas layer under the influence of vertical magnetic field are investigated. By linearly solving the viscous QMHD equations into normal mode, a forth-order ordinary differential equation is obtained to describe the velocity perturbation. Then the growth rate is derived for the case where a plasma with exponential density distribution is confined between two rigid planes. The results show that, the presence of vertical magnetic field beside the quantum effect will bring about more stability on the growth rate of unstable configuration for viscous plasma, which is greater than that of inviscous plasma.

  3. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Yue Ying; Gilgenbach, Ronald

    2013-07-07

    Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRT) is important to magnetized target fusion, wire-array z-pinches, and equation-of-state studies using flyer plates or isentropic compression. It is also important to the study of the crab nebula. The investigators performed MRT experiments on thin foils, driven by the mega-ampere linear transformer driver (LTD) facility completed in their laboratory. This is the first 1-MA LTD in the USA. Initial experiments on the seeding of MRT were performed. Also completed was an analytic study of MRT for a finite plasma slab with arbitrary magnetic fields tangential to the interfaces. The effects of magnetic shear and feedthrough were analyzed.

  4. Nonlinear magnetoconvection in a rapidly rotating sphere and Taylor's constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fearn, D. R.; Proctor, M. R. E.; Sellar, C. C.

    We investigate thermally driven convection in a rapidly rotating sphere in the presence of a prescribed azimuthal magnetic field B1. Earlier work has looked at the linear problem. Here, we include the most important nonlinear effect; the geostrophic flow VG(s)1. This is determined through the standard condition that leads to Taylor's (1963) constraint in the limit of vanishing viscosity. The present work therefore follows on from earlier work on both kinematic α- and αω-dynamos and magnetoconvection. Examples of the latter have so far been restricted to plane-layer, duct and cylindrical geometries. The present work uses a spherical geometry and makes a further step towards physical realism in that the contributions from both the axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric components of the magnetic field to the Taylor integral are included. (The earlier magnetoconvection work only included the non-axisymmetric contributions while the kinematic dynamo calculations involved only the axisymmetric contributions). The problem is solved by integrating the governing partial differential equations forward in time. Ekman states [where the amplitude of the non-axisymmetric convection is controlled by the Ekman boundary layer and is O(E¼), where E is the Ekman number] are found for values of the modified Rayleigh number ? both above and (in at least one example) slightly below the critical value ? c (in the absence of any differential rotation). The latter behaviour implies that the convective instability can be subcritical and this can be understood on the basis of the linear result that, for small amplitudes, a differential rotation can act to decrease ? c. (The reasons for this and the conditions under which this happens are not yet well understood, but are currently under investigation.) Two further main features have emerged from our calculations: the non-axisymmetric contribution to the Taylor integral typically dominates the axisymmetric contribution, and a complicated time

  5. Simulating Hamiltonian dynamics with a truncated Taylor series.

    PubMed

    Berry, Dominic W; Childs, Andrew M; Cleve, Richard; Kothari, Robin; Somma, Rolando D

    2015-03-01

    We describe a simple, efficient method for simulating Hamiltonian dynamics on a quantum computer by approximating the truncated Taylor series of the evolution operator. Our method can simulate the time evolution of a wide variety of physical systems. As in another recent algorithm, the cost of our method depends only logarithmically on the inverse of the desired precision, which is optimal. However, we simplify the algorithm and its analysis by using a method for implementing linear combinations of unitary operations together with a robust form of oblivious amplitude amplification. PMID:25793789

  6. High Speed Solution of Spacecraft Trajectory Problems Using Taylor Series Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, James R.; Martini, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    Taylor series integration is implemented in a spacecraft trajectory analysis code-the Spacecraft N-body Analysis Program (SNAP) - and compared with the code s existing eighth-order Runge-Kutta Fehlberg time integration scheme. Nine trajectory problems, including near Earth, lunar, Mars and Europa missions, are analyzed. Head-to-head comparison at five different error tolerances shows that, on average, Taylor series is faster than Runge-Kutta Fehlberg by a factor of 15.8. Results further show that Taylor series has superior convergence properties. Taylor series integration proves that it can provide rapid, highly accurate solutions to spacecraft trajectory problems.

  7. Visiting Author

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Author of Rocket Boys Homer Hickam, Jr. (left) and Marshall Space Flight Center Director Art Stephenson during a conference at Morris Auditorium. Homer Hickam worked at MSFC during the Apollo project years. As a young man, Mr. Hickam always dreamed of becoming a rocket scientist and following in the footsteps fo Wernher von Braun. Years later he would see his dream realized and had written Rocket Boys commemorating his life and the people at MSFC.

  8. On spatial pattern of concentration distribution for Taylor dispersion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zi; Fu, Xudong; Wang, Guangqian

    2016-02-01

    Taylor dispersion is a key concept in many fields. In the present paper, we characterize the pattern of the complete spatial concentration distribution for laminar tube flow; the obtained simple description is shown to represent the nature of Taylor dispersion. Importantly, we find that during the approach to the longitudinal normality of the transverse mean concentration at the time scale of R2/D (R is the tube radius and D is the molecular diffusivity), the solute concentration becomes uniformly distributed across a family of invariant curved transverse surfaces instead of the flat cross-sections in the traditional view. The family of curved surfaces is analytically determined, and a transformation is devised for the previously obtained analytical solution to discuss the decay of the concentration difference across the curved surfaces. The approach to a uniform concentration across the flat cross-sections to the same degree (~3% by concentration difference percentage), achieved at a time-scale of 100 R2/D, is shown to be the natural consequence of the longitudinal separation of the concentration contours on the curved surfaces.

  9. Rayleigh-Taylor mixing with time-dependent acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana

    2015-11-01

    We extend the momentum model to describe Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing driven by a time-dependent acceleration. The acceleration is a power-law function of time, similarly to astrophysical and plasma fusion applications. In RT flow the dynamics of a fluid parcel is driven by a balance per unit mass of the rates of momentum gain and loss. We find analytical solutions in the cases of balanced and imbalanced gains and losses, and identify their dependence on the acceleration exponent. The existence is shown of two typical regimes of self-similar RT mixing -acceleration-driven Rayleigh-Taylor-type and dissipation-driven Richtymer-Meshkov-type with the latter being in general non-universal. Possible scenarios are proposed for transitions from the balanced dynamics to the imbalanced self-similar dynamics. Scaling and correlations properties of RT mixing are studied on the basis of dimensional analysis. Departures are outlined of RT dynamics with time-dependent acceleration from canonical cases of homogeneous turbulence as well as blast waves with first and second kind self-similarity. Support of National Science Foundation is warmy appreciated.

  10. On spatial pattern of concentration distribution for Taylor dispersion process.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zi; Fu, Xudong; Wang, Guangqian

    2016-01-01

    Taylor dispersion is a key concept in many fields. In the present paper, we characterize the pattern of the complete spatial concentration distribution for laminar tube flow; the obtained simple description is shown to represent the nature of Taylor dispersion. Importantly, we find that during the approach to the longitudinal normality of the transverse mean concentration at the time scale of R(2)/D (R is the tube radius and D is the molecular diffusivity), the solute concentration becomes uniformly distributed across a family of invariant curved transverse surfaces instead of the flat cross-sections in the traditional view. The family of curved surfaces is analytically determined, and a transformation is devised for the previously obtained analytical solution to discuss the decay of the concentration difference across the curved surfaces. The approach to a uniform concentration across the flat cross-sections to the same degree (~3% by concentration difference percentage), achieved at a time-scale of 100 R(2)/D, is shown to be the natural consequence of the longitudinal separation of the concentration contours on the curved surfaces. PMID:26867803

  11. Rayleigh-Taylor instability of viscous fluids with phase change.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byoung Jae; Kim, Kyung Doo

    2016-04-01

    Film boiling on a horizontal surface is a typical example of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. During the film boiling, phase changes take place at the interface, and thus heat and mass transfer must be taken into consideration in the stability analysis. Moreover, since the vapor layer is not quite thick, a viscous flow must be analyzed. Existing studies assumed equal kinematic viscosities of two fluids, and/or considered thin viscous fluids. The purpose of this study is to derive the analytical dispersion relation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability for more general conditions. The two fluids have different properties. The thickness of the vapor layer is finite, but the liquid layer is thick enough to be nearly semi-infinite in view of perturbation. Initially, the vapor is in equilibrium with the liquid at the interface, and the direction of heat transfer is from the vapor side to the liquid side. In this case, the phase change has a stabilizing effect on the growth rate of the interface. When the vapor layer is thin, there is a coupled effect of the vapor viscosity, phase change, and vapor thickness on the critical wave number. For the other limit of a thick vapor, both the liquid and vapor viscosities influence the critical wave number. Finally, the most unstable wavelength is investigated. When the vapor layer is thin, the most unstable wavelength is not affected by phase change. When the vapor layer is thick, however, it increases with the increasing rate of phase change. PMID:27176406

  12. Taylor Impact Tests on PBX Composites: Imaging and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Darla; Deluca, Racci

    2013-06-01

    A series of Taylor impact tests were performed on three plastic bonded explosive (PBX) formulations: PBX 9501, PBXN-9 and HPP (propellant). The first two formulations are HMX-based, and all three have been characterized quasi-statically in tension and compression. The Taylor impact tests use a 500 psi gas gun to launch PBX projectiles (approximately 30 grams, 16 mm diameter, 76 mm long) at velocities as high as 215 m/s. Tests were performed remotely and no sign of ignition/reaction have been observed to date. High-speed imaging was used to capture the impact of the specimen onto the surface of a steel anvil. Side-view contour images have been analyzed using dynamic stress equations from the literature, and additionally, front-view images have been used to estimate a tensile strain failure criterion for initial specimen fracture. Post-test sieve analysis of specimen debris correlates fragmentation with projectile velocity, and these data show interesting differences between composites. Along with other quasi-static and dynamic measurements, these impact images and fragmentation data provide a useful metric for the calibration or evaluation of intermediate-rate model predictions of PBX constituitive response and failure/fragmentation. Intermediate-rate tests involving other impact configurations are being considered.

  13. Nonlinear effects for the Taylor column for a hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisalli, A. J.; Walker, J. D. A.

    1976-01-01

    When a flow is forced past an obstacle in a rapidly rotating fluid, a Taylor column forms. This is defined by a set of vertical detached shear layers circumscribing the obstacle which provide the smooth transition from an external inviscid potential flow to a stagnant core above the obstacle. For a hemispherical object, the main adjustment takes place in an external E to the 1/4 power layer and an internal E to the 2/7 power layer; here, the nonlinear flow in these layers is investigated. The problem in the E to the 1/4 power layer is identical to a problem occurring in magnetohydrodynamic flow; in addition, some features of the magnetohydrodynamic problem have been resolved. Numerical solutions are obtained for the steady nonlinear external E to the 1/4 power layer flow up to the point where unsteady flow separation from the Taylor column is imminent. The response of the internal E to the 2/7 power layer to the flow in the E to the 1/4 power layer is calculated, and the results suggest that the internal shear layer is unlikely to play any significant role in the separation process

  14. Rayleigh-Taylor instability of viscous fluids with phase change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byoung Jae; Kim, Kyung Doo

    2016-04-01

    Film boiling on a horizontal surface is a typical example of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. During the film boiling, phase changes take place at the interface, and thus heat and mass transfer must be taken into consideration in the stability analysis. Moreover, since the vapor layer is not quite thick, a viscous flow must be analyzed. Existing studies assumed equal kinematic viscosities of two fluids, and/or considered thin viscous fluids. The purpose of this study is to derive the analytical dispersion relation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability for more general conditions. The two fluids have different properties. The thickness of the vapor layer is finite, but the liquid layer is thick enough to be nearly semi-infinite in view of perturbation. Initially, the vapor is in equilibrium with the liquid at the interface, and the direction of heat transfer is from the vapor side to the liquid side. In this case, the phase change has a stabilizing effect on the growth rate of the interface. When the vapor layer is thin, there is a coupled effect of the vapor viscosity, phase change, and vapor thickness on the critical wave number. For the other limit of a thick vapor, both the liquid and vapor viscosities influence the critical wave number. Finally, the most unstable wavelength is investigated. When the vapor layer is thin, the most unstable wavelength is not affected by phase change. When the vapor layer is thick, however, it increases with the increasing rate of phase change.

  15. Transition to turbulence in Taylor-Couette ferrofluidic flow

    PubMed Central

    Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    It is known that in classical fluids turbulence typically occurs at high Reynolds numbers. But can turbulence occur at low Reynolds numbers? Here we investigate the transition to turbulence in the classic Taylor-Couette system in which the rotating fluids are manufactured ferrofluids with magnetized nanoparticles embedded in liquid carriers. We find that, in the presence of a magnetic field transverse to the symmetry axis of the system, turbulence can occur at Reynolds numbers that are at least one order of magnitude smaller than those in conventional fluids. This is established by extensive computational ferrohydrodynamics through a detailed investigation of transitions in the flow structure, and characterization of behaviors of physical quantities such as the energy, the wave number, and the angular momentum through the bifurcations. A finding is that, as the magnetic field is increased, onset of turbulence can be determined accurately and reliably. Our results imply that experimental investigation of turbulence may be feasible by using ferrofluids. Our study of transition to and evolution of turbulence in the Taylor-Couette ferrofluidic flow system provides insights into the challenging problem of turbulence control. PMID:26065572

  16. Transition to turbulence in Taylor-Couette ferrofluidic flow.

    PubMed

    Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    It is known that in classical fluids turbulence typically occurs at high Reynolds numbers. But can turbulence occur at low Reynolds numbers? Here we investigate the transition to turbulence in the classic Taylor-Couette system in which the rotating fluids are manufactured ferrofluids with magnetized nanoparticles embedded in liquid carriers. We find that, in the presence of a magnetic field transverse to the symmetry axis of the system, turbulence can occur at Reynolds numbers that are at least one order of magnitude smaller than those in conventional fluids. This is established by extensive computational ferrohydrodynamics through a detailed investigation of transitions in the flow structure, and characterization of behaviors of physical quantities such as the energy, the wave number, and the angular momentum through the bifurcations. A finding is that, as the magnetic field is increased, onset of turbulence can be determined accurately and reliably. Our results imply that experimental investigation of turbulence may be feasible by using ferrofluids. Our study of transition to and evolution of turbulence in the Taylor-Couette ferrofluidic flow system provides insights into the challenging problem of turbulence control. PMID:26065572

  17. Simulating Hamiltonian Dynamics with a Truncated Taylor Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somma, Rolando

    2015-03-01

    One of the main motivations for quantum computers is their ability to efficiently simulate the dynamics of quantum systems. Since the mid-1990s, many algorithms have been developed to simulate Hamiltonian dynamics on a quantum computer, with applications to problems such as simulating spin models and quantum chemistry. While it is now well known that quantum computers can efficiently simulate Hamiltonian dynamics, ongoing work has improved the performance and expanded the scope of such simulations. In this talk, I will describe a very simple and efficient algorithm for simulating Hamiltonian dynamics on a quantum computer by approximating the truncated Taylor series of the evolution operator. This algorithm can simulate the time evolution of a wide variety of physical systems. The cost of this algorithm depends only logarithmically on the inverse of the desired precision, and can be shown to be optimal. Such a cost also represents an exponential improvement over known methods for Hamiltonian simulation based on, e.g., Trotter-Suzuki approximations. Roughly speaking, doubling the number of digits of accuracy of the simulation only doubles the complexity. The new algorithm and its analysis are highly simplified due to a technique for implementing linear combinations of unitary operations to directly apply the truncated Taylor series. This is joint work with Dominic Berry, Andrew Childs, Richard Cleve, and Robin Kothari.

  18. The Inhibition of the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability by Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Kyle A.; Scase, Matthew M.; Hill, Richard J. A.

    2015-01-01

    It is well-established that the Coriolis force that acts on fluid in a rotating system can act to stabilise otherwise unstable flows. Chandrasekhar considered theoretically the effect of the Coriolis force on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, which occurs at the interface between a dense fluid lying on top of a lighter fluid under gravity, concluding that rotation alone could not stabilise this system indefinitely. Recent numerical work suggests that rotation may, nevertheless, slow the growth of the instability. Experimental verification of these results using standard techniques is problematic, owing to the practical difficulty in establishing the initial conditions. Here, we present a new experimental technique for studying the Rayleigh-Taylor instability under rotation that side-steps the problems encountered with standard techniques by using a strong magnetic field to destabilize an otherwise stable system. We find that rotation about an axis normal to the interface acts to retard the growth rate of the instability and stabilise long wavelength modes; the scale of the observed structures decreases with increasing rotation rate, asymptoting to a minimum wavelength controlled by viscosity. We present a critical rotation rate, dependent on Atwood number and the aspect ratio of the system, for stabilising the most unstable mode. PMID:26130005

  19. The Inhibition of the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability by Rotation.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Kyle A; Scase, Matthew M; Hill, Richard J A

    2015-01-01

    It is well-established that the Coriolis force that acts on fluid in a rotating system can act to stabilise otherwise unstable flows. Chandrasekhar considered theoretically the effect of the Coriolis force on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, which occurs at the interface between a dense fluid lying on top of a lighter fluid under gravity, concluding that rotation alone could not stabilise this system indefinitely. Recent numerical work suggests that rotation may, nevertheless, slow the growth of the instability. Experimental verification of these results using standard techniques is problematic, owing to the practical difficulty in establishing the initial conditions. Here, we present a new experimental technique for studying the Rayleigh-Taylor instability under rotation that side-steps the problems encountered with standard techniques by using a strong magnetic field to destabilize an otherwise stable system. We find that rotation about an axis normal to the interface acts to retard the growth rate of the instability and stabilise long wavelength modes; the scale of the observed structures decreases with increasing rotation rate, asymptoting to a minimum wavelength controlled by viscosity. We present a critical rotation rate, dependent on Atwood number and the aspect ratio of the system, for stabilising the most unstable mode. PMID:26130005

  20. A novel control strategy for a Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouabdallah, A.; Oualli, H.; Mekadem, M.; Boukrif, M.; Saad, S.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2015-11-01

    Advancing transition is desired in applications where heat, mass, or momentum transfer needs to be augmented. On the other hand, delaying transition is imperative in crystal growth devices, where all instabilities are to be avoided in order to prevent the appearance of geometrical irregularities in the resulting crystal. The hydrodynamic stability of a viscous flow in a closed, fully filled Taylor-Couette system is considered in the present numerical study. The fluid evolves in an annular cavity between the rotating inner cylinder and the outer fixed one. The base flow is axis-symmetric with two counter-rotating vortices each wavelength. The Taylor number varies in the range of 0-50. Numerical simulations are implemented on a finite-volume CFD code. The control strategy involves a pulsatile motion superimposed separately on the inner and outer cylinder's cross-section, with maximum amplitude of, respectively, 5% and 15% of the radius. The frequency varies in the range of 0-100 Hz. The objective is to localize the transition and to assess the flow's response to the imposed boundary motions. Substantial advancement of transition is found when the inner cylinder's cross-section is varied, while this transition is delayed when the outer cylinder's cross-section is pulsating.

  1. Instability vaccination: A structural design to reduce Rayleigh Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, Amin

    2013-10-01

    Instability vaccination can be defined as designing a structure to stimulate the system in order to develop immunity against its instability. In this work we have tried to do this stabilization by a new technique. Previously some suppression of R-M instability was done by insertion of magnetic field, but in this work we have tried to do this suppression by proposing a configuration similar to the shape of instability, we call it instability vaccination. This design will reduce the rotations (mostly rotations of Rayleigh Taylor instability) in the fluids that cause more mixing and instabilities. In this paper, we consider the evolution of the interface between two ideal semi-infinite fluid surfaces, using two-dimensional Riemann solver, to solve the Euler equations. First, we performed evolution of a rectangular disorder between the 2 surfaces using two-dimensional Riemann problem for the equations of Euler. Next, the interface was replaced with a perturbation that was part rectangular and part semi-circular (like a mushroom). The simulation was continued till some time steps using the HLL method. We have seen that the rotations of Rayleigh Taylor (R-T) instability were decreased in the second case. Email: amin@cavelab.cs.tsukuba.ac.jp

  2. Use of analog ground medium of Taylor-Schneebeli type for modelling of multiparametric deformations arising in mining-influenced areas

    SciTech Connect

    Klosek, K.

    1996-12-31

    The results of the authors several years of model research using analog ground medium of Taylor-Schneebeli type to the multiparametric simulations of mining area deformations are presented in the paper. On the basis of the model similarity criteria the complete usefulness was proven of this research approach to the analysis of process of joint action of the mining rock mass and ground structures, underground infrastructures, engineering structures and road surface, also with use of geosynthetics.

  3. Taylor-Made Education: The Influence of the Efficiency Movement on the Testing of Reading Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, JoBeth

    Much of what has developed in the testing of reading harkens back to the days of the "Cult of Efficiency" movement in education that can be largely attributed to Frederick Winslow Taylor. Taylor spent most of his productive years studying time and motion in an attempt to streamline industrial production so that people could work as quickly and…

  4. 43 CFR 4170.2-1 - Penal provisions under the Taylor Grazing Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Penal provisions under the Taylor Grazing...-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Penalties § 4170.2-1 Penal provisions under the Taylor Grazing Act. Under section 2 of the Act any person who willfully commits an act prohibited under § 4140.1(b), or who...

  5. 43 CFR 4170.2-1 - Penal provisions under the Taylor Grazing Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Penal provisions under the Taylor Grazing...-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Penalties § 4170.2-1 Penal provisions under the Taylor Grazing Act. Under section 2 of the Act any person who willfully commits an act prohibited under § 4140.1(b), or who...

  6. 43 CFR 4170.2-1 - Penal provisions under the Taylor Grazing Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Penal provisions under the Taylor Grazing...-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Penalties § 4170.2-1 Penal provisions under the Taylor Grazing Act. Under section 2 of the Act any person who willfully commits an act prohibited under § 4140.1(b), or who...

  7. 43 CFR 4170.2-1 - Penal provisions under the Taylor Grazing Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Penal provisions under the Taylor Grazing Act. 4170.2-1 Section 4170.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued...-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Penalties § 4170.2-1 Penal provisions under the Taylor Grazing Act. Under section 2...

  8. Preferential accumulation of bubbles in Couette-Taylor flow patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Climent, Eric; Simonnet, Marie; Magnaudet, Jacques

    2007-08-01

    We investigate the migration of bubbles in several flow patterns occurring within the gap between a rotating inner cylinder and a concentric fixed outer cylinder. The time-dependent evolution of the two-phase flow is predicted through three-dimensional Euler-Lagrange simulations. Lagrangian tracking of spherical bubbles is coupled with direct numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations. We assume that bubbles do not influence the background flow (one-way coupling simulations). The force balance on each bubble takes into account buoyancy, added-mass, viscous drag, and shear-induced lift forces. For increasing velocities of the rotating inner cylinder, the flow in the fluid gap evolves from the purely azimuthal steady Couette flow to Taylor toroidal vortices and eventually a wavy vortex flow. The migration of bubbles is highly dependent on the balance between buoyancy and centripetal forces (mostly due to the centripetal pressure gradient) directed toward the inner cylinder and the vortex cores. Depending on the rotation rate of the inner cylinder, bubbles tend to accumulate alternatively along the inner wall, inside the core of Taylor vortices or at particular locations within the wavy vortices. A stability analysis of the fixed points associated with bubble trajectories provides a clear understanding of their migration and preferential accumulation. The location of the accumulation points is parameterized by two dimensionless parameters expressing the balance of buoyancy, centripetal attraction toward the inner rotating cylinder, and entrapment in Taylor vortices. A complete phase diagram summarizing the various regimes of bubble migration is built. Several experimental conditions considered by Djéridi, Gabillet, and Billard [Phys. Fluids 16, 128 (2004)] are reproduced; the numerical results reveal a very good agreement with the experiments. When the rotation rate is increased further, the numerical results indicate the formation of oscillating bubble

  9. The numerical solution of ordinary differential equations by the Taylor series method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, A. H.; Sullivan, E.

    1973-01-01

    A programming implementation of the Taylor series method is presented for solving ordinary differential equations. The compiler is written in PL/1, and the target language is FORTRAN IV. The reduction of a differential system to rational form is described along with the procedures required for automatic numerical integration. The Taylor method is compared with two other methods for a number of differential equations. Algorithms using the Taylor method to find the zeroes of a given differential equation and to evaluate partial derivatives are presented. An annotated listing of the PL/1 program which performs the reduction and code generation is given. Listings of the FORTRAN routines used by the Taylor series method are included along with a compilation of all the recurrence formulas used to generate the Taylor coefficients for non-rational functions.

  10. High Reynolds number decay of turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschoof, Ruben A.; Huisman, Sander G.; van der Veen, Roeland C. A.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2015-11-01

    We study the decay of high-Reynolds number turbulence in a Taylor-Couette facility for pure inner cylinder rotation. The rotation of the inner cylinder (Rei = 2 ×106) is suddenly decelerated as fast as possible, thus removing the energy input within seconds. Local velocity measurements show that the decay in this wall-bounded inhomogeneous flow is faster than observed for homogeneous isotropic turbulent flows, due to the strong viscous drag applied by the inner and outer cylinder surfaces. We found that the decay over time can be described with the differential equation Re . (t) =cf (Re)Re2 , where the effects of the walls are included through the friction coefficient. A self-similar behavior of the azimuthal velocity is found: its normalized velocity profile as a function of the radius collapses over time during the decay process.

  11. Logarithmic Boundary Layers in Strong Taylor-Couette Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohse, Detlef; Huisman, Sander; Ostilla, Rodolfo; Scharnowski, Sven; Cierpka, Christian; Kähler, Christian; Verzicco, Roberto; Sun, Chao; Grossmann, Siegfried

    2013-11-01

    We provide direct measurements of boundary layer profiles in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow up to Re = 2 ×106 using high-resolution particle image velocimetry and particle tracking velocimetry, complemented by DNS data on the same system up to Re =105 . We find that the mean azimuthal velocity profile at the inner and outer cylinder can be fitted by the von Kármán log law, but with corrections due to the curvature of the cylinder, which we theoretically account for, based on the Navier-Stokes equation and a closure assumption for the turbulent diffusivity. In particular, we study how these corrections depend on the cylinder radius ratio and show that they are different for the boundary layers at the inner and at the outer cylinder.

  12. Logarithmic Boundary Layers in Strong Taylor-Couette Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisman, Sander G.; Scharnowski, Sven; Cierpka, Christian; Kähler, Christian J.; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao

    2013-06-01

    We provide direct measurements of the boundary layer properties in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow up to Re=2×106 (Ta=6.2×1012) using high-resolution particle image velocimetry and particle tracking velocimetry. We find that the mean azimuthal velocity profile at the inner and outer cylinder can be fitted by the von Kármán log law u+=1/κln⁡y++B. The von Kármán constant κ is found to depend on the driving strength Ta and for large Ta asymptotically approaches κ≈0.40. The variance profiles of the local azimuthal velocity have a universal peak around y+≈12 and collapse when rescaled with the driving velocity (and not with the friction velocity), displaying a log dependence of y+ as also found for channel and pipe flows.

  13. Recovering network topologies via Taylor expansion and compressive sensing.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangjun; Wu, Xiaoqun; Liu, Juan; Lu, Jun-an; Guo, Chi

    2015-04-01

    Gaining knowledge of the intrinsic topology of a complex dynamical network is the precondition to understand its evolutionary mechanisms and to control its dynamical and functional behaviors. In this article, a general framework is developed to recover topologies of complex networks with completely unknown node dynamics based on Taylor expansion and compressive sensing. Numerical simulations illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Moreover, this method is found to have good robustness to weak stochastic perturbations. Finally, the impact of two major factors on the topology identification performance is evaluated. This method provides a natural and direct point to reconstruct network topologies from measurable data, which is likely to have potential applicability in a wide range of fields. PMID:25933650

  14. Qualitative and quantitative features of Rayleigh-Taylor mixing dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmick, Aklant; Abarzhi, Snezhana; Ramaprabhu, Praveen; Karkhanis, Varad; Lawrie, Andrew; RTI Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    We consider dynamics of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) flow in a large aspect ratio three-dimensional domain with square symmetry in the plane for fluids with contrasting densities. In order to quantify the interface evolution from a small amplitude single-mode initial perturbation to advanced stage of RT mixing, we apply numerical simulations using the MOBILE code, theoretical analyses, including group theory and momentum model, as well as parameters describing the interplay between acceleration and turbulence. We find: In RT flow, the fluid motion is intense near the interface and is negligible far from the interface. At late times the growth rates of RT bubbles and spikes may increase without a corresponding increase of length-scales in the direction normal to acceleration. The parameters describing the interplay between acceleration and turbulence in RT mixing are shown to scale well with the flow Reynolds number and Froude number.

  15. Nonlinear saturation amplitude of cylindrical Rayleigh—Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wan-Hai; Yu, Chang-Ping; Ye, Wen-Hua; Wang, Li-Feng

    2014-09-01

    The nonlinear saturation amplitude (NSA) of the fundamental mode in the classical Rayleigh—Taylor instability with a cylindrical geometry for an arbitrary Atwood number is analytically investigated by considering the nonlinear corrections up to the third order. The analytic results indicate that the effects of the initial radius of the interface (r0) and the Atwood number (A) play an important role in the NSA of the fundamental mode. The NSA of the fundamental mode first increases gently and then decreases quickly with increasing A. For a given A, the smaller the r0/λ (λ is the perturbation wavelength), the larger the NSA of the fundamental mode. When r0/λ is large enough (r0 ≫ λ), the NSA of the fundamental mode is reduced to the prediction in the previous literatures within the framework of the third-order perturbation theory.

  16. Size invariance of the granular Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinningland, Jan Ludvig; Johnsen, Øistein; Flekkøy, Eirik G.; Toussaint, Renaud; Måløy, Knut Jørgen

    2010-04-01

    The size scaling behavior of the granular Rayleigh-Taylor instability [J. L. Vinningland , Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 048001 (2007)] is investigated experimentally, numerically, and theoretically. An upper layer of grains displaces a lower gap of air by organizing into dense fingers of falling grains separated by rising bubbles of air. The dependence of these structures on the system and grain sizes is investigated. A spatial measurement of the finger structures is obtained by the Fourier power spectrum of the wave number k . As the size of the grains increases the wave number decreases accordingly which leaves the dimensionless product of wave number and grain diameter, dk , invariant. A theoretical interpretation of the invariance, based on the scaling properties of the model equations, suggests a gradual breakdown of the invariance for grains smaller than ˜70μm or greater than ˜570μm in diameter.

  17. Suppression of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in Z-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhigalin, A. S.; Rousskikh, A. G.; Baksht, R. B.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Labetskaya, N. A.; Oreshkin, V. I.

    2015-06-01

    Experiments on studying the stability of Z-pinch compression were carried out at a current of 450 kA with a build-up time of 450 ns. The plasma shell of the pinches was formed by evaporating the electrode material in the process of vacuum arc burning. The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities were suppressed using the regime of arc combustion on the surface of one of the electrodes in the high-voltage gap in which the pinch was positioned. As a result of free plasma discharge, the radial density distribution was formed such that the plasma concentration increased from the outer boundary to the shell axis. The experiments demonstrated that such an initial radial density distribution almost completely suppresses of the RT instability.

  18. Shercliff layers in strongly magnetic cylindrical Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollerbach, Rainer; Hulot, Deborah

    2016-07-01

    We numerically compute the axisymmetric Taylor-Couette flow in the presence of axially periodic magnetic fields, with Hartmann numbers up to Ha2 =107. The geometry of the field singles out special field lines on which Shercliff layers form. These are simple shear layers for insulating boundaries, versus super-rotating or counter-rotating layers for conducting boundaries. Some field configurations have previously studied spherical analogs, but fundamentally new configurations also exist, having no spherical analogs. Finally, we explore the influence of azimuthal fields Bϕ ∼r-1eˆϕ on these layers, and show that the flow is suppressed for conducting boundaries, but enhanced for insulating boundaries. xml:lang="fr"

  19. Taylor dispersion in equilibrium gradient focusing at steady state.

    PubMed

    Ivory, Cornelius F

    2015-03-01

    An analytic expression is presented for the effective dispersion coefficient in the case where a solute is focused in a parabolic flow against a linear gradient in a restoring force. This expression was derived by employing a minor variation on the method of moments used by Aris in his development of the dispersion coefficients for a time-dependent, isocratic system. In the present case, dispersion is controlled by two dimensionless groups, a Peclet number which is proportional to the parabolic component of the flow, and a gradient number which is proportional to the slope of the restoring force. These results confirm that the Aris-Taylor expression for the dispersion coefficient should not be applied in cases where a solute is focused to a stationary steady state. PMID:25521436

  20. A novel technique for performing symmetric Taylor impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walley, S. M.; Taylor, N. E.; Williamson, D. M.; Jardine, A. P.

    2015-09-01

    A novel spring tensioned wire cradle arrangement has been developed to hold the target rod lightly but firmly in place when performing rod-on-rod (symmetric Taylor) impact in a vacuum. In addition, a soft capture system has been designed and used to decelerate both rods while reducing the chance of them colliding a second time. High-speed photography was used to obtain the profile of a pure aluminium target rod as a function of time. Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) was also deployed to record the velocity of the rear of the target rod as a function of time. Voiding in the interior of recovered rods was investigated non-destructively using X-ray tomography. The data provides comprehensive validation information for predictive constitutive models.

  1. Bubble Acceleration in the Ablative Rayleigh-Taylor Instability

    SciTech Connect

    Betti, R.; Sanz, J.

    2006-11-20

    The highly nonlinear evolution of the single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) at the ablation front of an accelerated target is investigated in the parameter range typical of inertial confinement fusion implosions. A new phase of the nonlinear bubble evolution is discovered. After the linear growth phase and a short constant-velocity phase, it is found that the bubble is accelerated to velocities well above the classical value. This acceleration is driven by the vorticity accumulation inside the bubble resulting from the mass ablation adn vorticity convection off the ablation front. While the albative growth rates are slower than their classical values in the linear regime, the ablative RTI grows faster than the classical RTI in the nonlinear regime for deuterium and tritium ablators.

  2. Modified Taylor Complex Figure: normative data from 290 adults.

    PubMed

    Casarotti, Alessandra; Papagno, Costanza; Zarino, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    Data for copying and delayed recall (after a 15-min delay) of the Modified Taylor Complex Figure (MTCF), an alternative form of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF), were collected from 290 healthy participants. Normative data are provided. Age and education were significantly correlated with MTCF scores and must be corrected for to interpret results accurately. More specifically, increasing age adversely affected performance, whereas a higher education resulted in a better performance. Twenty-five participants were tested with both complex figures (MTCF and ROCF) in two separate sessions to assess correlation, which proved to be high. The collected data allow using the MTCF as a valid alternative material for testing visual long-term memory avoiding implicit learning that can occur when the same version of the ROCF is used for repeated testing sessions. PMID:23647550

  3. The cylindrical magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability for viscous fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, K.; Forbes, L. K.

    2012-10-15

    This paper considers a cylindrical Rayleigh-Taylor instability, in which a heavy fluid surrounds a light fluid, and gravity is directed radially inwards. A massive object is located at the centre of the light fluid, and it behaves like a line dipole both for fluid flow and magnetic field strength. The initially circular interface between the two conducting fluids evolves into plumes, dependent on the magnetic and fluid dipole strengths and the nature of the initial disturbance to the interface. A spectral method is presented to solve the time-dependent interface shapes, and results are presented and discussed. Bipolar solutions are possible, and these are of particular relevance to astrophysics. The solutions obtained resemble structures of some HII regions and nebulae.

  4. Classical Rayleigh-Taylor instability experiments at Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Budil, K.S.; Remington, B.A.; Weber, S.V.; Perry, T.S.; Peyser, T.A.

    1997-11-10

    The evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability at an embedded, or classical, interface is examined in a series of experiments at the Nova laserfacility .[reference for Nova] These experiments focused on the transition from the linear to nonlinear regimes for both single- and multimode initialperturbations. The development of a single mode at the embedded interface is compared to its evolution at an ablation front and the effect of ablativestabilization is experimentally demonstrated. The multimode experiments have shown evidence of the process of bubble competition, whereinneighboring structures either continue to rise or are washed downstream in the flow depending upon their relative size. The experiments with simulations performed with either the LASNEX are comparedcode [G. B.Zimmerman and W. L. Kruer, Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 2,51 (1975).], a two-dimensional Lagrangian radiation-hydrodynamics code, or CALE [R. Tipton, reference for CALE], a two-dimensional arbitrary Lagrange-Eulerian radiation-hydrodynamics code.

  5. Collisional effects on Rayleigh-Taylor-induced magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel, M. J.-E.; Flaig, M.; Plewa, T.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Casey, D. T.; Petrasso, R. D.; Hu, S. X.; Betti, R.; Hager, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Smalyuk, V.

    2015-05-15

    Magnetic-field generation from the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability was predicted more than 30 years ago, though experimental measurements of this phenomenon have only occurred in the past few years. These pioneering observations demonstrated that collisional effects are important to B-field evolution. To produce fields of a measurable strength, high-intensity lasers irradiate solid targets to generate the nonaligned temperature and density gradients required for B-field generation. The ablation process naturally generates an unstable system where RT-induced magnetic fields form. Field strengths inferred from monoenergetic-proton radiographs indicate that in the ablation region diffusive effects caused by finite plasma resistivity are not negligible. Results from the first proof-of-existence experiments are reviewed and the role of collisional effects on B-field evolution is discussed in detail.

  6. Linear analysis of incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability in solids.

    PubMed

    Piriz, A R; Cela, J J López; Tahir, N A

    2009-10-01

    The study of the linear stage of the incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability in elastic-plastic solids is performed by considering thick plates under a constant acceleration that is also uniform except for a small sinusoidal ripple in the horizontal plane. The analysis is carried out by using an analytical model based on the Newton second law and it is complemented with extensive two-dimensional numerical simulations. The conditions for marginal stability that determine the instability threshold are derived. Besides, the boundary for the transition from the elastic to the plastic regime is obtained and it is demonstrated that such a transition is not a sufficient condition for instability. The model yields complete analytical solutions for the perturbation amplitude evolution and reveals the main physical process that governs the instability. The theory is in general agreement with the numerical simulations and provides useful quantitative results. Implications for high-energy-density-physics experiments are also discussed. PMID:19905434

  7. Adaptive wavelet collocation method simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckinger, S. J.; Livescu, D.; Vasilyev, O. V.

    2010-12-01

    Numerical simulations of single-mode, compressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability are performed using the adaptive wavelet collocation method (AWCM), which utilizes wavelets for dynamic grid adaptation. Due to the physics-based adaptivity and direct error control of the method, AWCM is ideal for resolving the wide range of scales present in the development of the instability. The problem is initialized consistent with the solutions from linear stability theory. Non-reflecting boundary conditions are applied to prevent the contamination of the instability growth by pressure waves created at the interface. AWCM is used to perform direct numerical simulations that match the early-time linear growth, the terminal bubble velocity and a reacceleration region.

  8. Viscous Rayleigh-Taylor instability in spherical geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikaelian, Karnig O.

    2016-02-01

    We consider viscous fluids in spherical geometry, a lighter fluid supporting a heavier one. Chandrasekhar [Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 8, 1 (1955), 10.1093/qjmam/8.1.1] analyzed this unstable configuration providing the equations needed to find, numerically, the exact growth rates for the ensuing Rayleigh-Taylor instability. He also derived an analytic but approximate solution. We point out a weakness in his approximate dispersion relation (DR) and offer a somewhat improved one. A third DR, based on transforming a planar DR into a spherical one, suffers no unphysical predictions and compares reasonably well with the exact work of Chandrasekhar and a more recent numerical analysis of the problem [Terrones and Carrara, Phys. Fluids 27, 054105 (2015), 10.1063/1.4921648].

  9. Saffman-Taylor Instability for a non-Newtonian fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daripa, Prabir

    2013-11-01

    Motivated by applications, we study classical Saffman-Taylor instability involving displacement of an Oldroyd-B fluid displaced by air in a Hele-Shaw cell. The lubrication approximation is used by neglecting the vertical component of the velocity. We obtain an explicit expression of one of the components of the extra-stress perturbations tensor in terms of the horizontal velocity perturbations. The main result is an explicit formula for the growth constant (in time) of perturbations, given by a ratio in which a term depending on the relaxation and retardation (time) constants appears in the denominator of the ratio. This exact result compares extremely well with known numerical results. It is found that flow is more unstable than the corresponding Newtonian case. This is a joint work with Gelu Pasa. The research has been made possible by an NPRP Grant # 08-777-1-141 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of the Qatar Foundation).

  10. Symmetry and stability in Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golubitsky, M.; Stewart, I.

    1986-01-01

    The flow of a fluid between concentric rotating cylinders (the Taylor problem) is studied by exploiting the symmetries of the system. The Navier-Stokes equations, linearized about Couette flow, possess two zero and four purely imaginary eigenvalues at a suitable value of the speed of rotation of the outer cylinder. There is thus a reduced bifurcation equation on a six-dimensonal space which can be shown to commute with an action of the symmetry group 0(2) x S0(2). The group structure is used to analyze this bifurcation equation in the simplest (nondegenerate) case, and to compute the stabilities of solutions. In particular, when the outer cylinder is counterrotated, transitions which seem to agree with recent experiments of Andereck, Liu, and Swinney (1984) are obtained. It is also possible to obtain the 'main sequence' in this model. This sequence is normally observed in experiments when the outer cylinder is held fixed.

  11. Recovering network topologies via Taylor expansion and compressive sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guangjun; Liu, Juan E-mail: liujuanjp@163.com; Wu, Xiaoqun E-mail: liujuanjp@163.com; Lu, Jun-an; Guo, Chi

    2015-04-15

    Gaining knowledge of the intrinsic topology of a complex dynamical network is the precondition to understand its evolutionary mechanisms and to control its dynamical and functional behaviors. In this article, a general framework is developed to recover topologies of complex networks with completely unknown node dynamics based on Taylor expansion and compressive sensing. Numerical simulations illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Moreover, this method is found to have good robustness to weak stochastic perturbations. Finally, the impact of two major factors on the topology identification performance is evaluated. This method provides a natural and direct point to reconstruct network topologies from measurable data, which is likely to have potential applicability in a wide range of fields.

  12. Fabrication of microcoined metal foil Rayleigh-Taylor targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Greg; Vecchio, James; Fitzsimmons, Paul; Knipping, Jack; Wall, Don; Vu, Matthew; Giraldez, Emilio; Remington, Tane; Blue, Brent; Farrell, Michael; Nikroo, Abbas

    2013-03-01

    Rippled metal foils are currently sought for high strain rate material strength studies. For example, the growth of these ripples by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability after a laser-induced ramped compression yields strength behavior at extremely high strain rate. Because metals of interest (iron, tantalum, steel, etc.) typically cannot be diamond turned, we employ a microcoining process to imprint the ~ 5 μm deep by ~ 50 μm long ripples into the metal surface. The process consists of nitriding a steel die, diamond turning the die, and then pressing the die into a polished metal foil of choice (Seugling et al., Proc EUSPEN Int. Conference, 2010). This work details recent process developments, characterization techniques, and important physics for fabrication of these rippled metal targets.

  13. Plasma transport driven by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, X.; Delamere, P. A.; Otto, A.

    2016-06-01

    Two important differences between the giant magnetospheres (i.e., Jupiter's and Saturn's magnetospheres) and the terrestrial magnetosphere are the internal plasma sources and the fast planetary rotation. Thus, there must be a radially outward flow to transport the plasma to avoid infinite accumulation of plasma. This radial outflow also carries the magnetic flux away from the inner magnetosphere due to the frozen-in condition. As such, there also must be a radial inward flow to refill the magnetic flux in the inner magnetosphere. Due to the similarity between Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability and the centrifugal instability, we use a three-dimensional RT instability to demonstrate that an interchange instability can form a convection flow pattern, locally twisting the magnetic flux, consequently forming a pair of high-latitude reconnection sites. This process exchanges a part of the flux tube, thereby transporting the plasma radially outward without requiring significant latitudinal convection of magnetic flux in the ionosphere.

  14. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Former Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to the Former Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents... of Charles Taylor On July 22, 2004, by Executive Order 13348, the President declared a national... to the former Liberian regime of Charles Taylor, pursuant to the International Emergency...

  15. Nature and significance of Austin-Taylor unconformity on western margin of east Texas basin

    SciTech Connect

    Surles, M.A. Jr.

    1984-04-01

    The Taylor Marl unconformably overlies the Austin Chalk on the western margin of the East Texas basin. Along this contact, up to 275 ft (84 m) of upper Austin is missing in the Waco area and up to 450 ft (137 m) in Bell County. However, the Austin Chalk appears to have been more-or-less uniformly deposited throughout the study area. Apparently regional uplift caused a regression that terminated Austin deposition and was related to the erosion of the upper Chalk. While the unconformity is areally extensive, slightly angular, and accounts for a relatively long period of time, the mechanism of erosion that caused the unconformity is still uncertain. Erosion was terminated by the deposition of the lower Taylor Marl. Taylor A, the lowermost subdivision of the lower Taylor, was deposited in a near-shore environment that was highly variable. Of particular interest is the relationship of this unconformity to structure and probably to oil occurrence in the Austin Chalk in McLennan and Falls Counties. Major Austin fracturing, which apparently does not extend into the Taylor in Falls County, clearly indicates that structure in the Chalk, at least in part, antedates Taylor deposition. Oil occurrence in the Chalk is clearly related to fracturing and probably is localized by post-Austin-pre-Taylor fracture systems.

  16. Lesbis sustineo! Naiad press authors remember Barbara Grier.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from semi-structured interviews with some of Naiad Press's most celebrated women, including Katherine V. Forrest, Barbara's supervising editor at Naiad from 1983-1993; Sheila Ortiz Taylor, author of what is considered by many to be the first lesbian novel with a Chicana heroine; and the incomparable Lee Lynch, this work aims to sustain an ongoing remembrance of Grier's life and work by encouraging memory exploration--a symphonic blending of the printed and spoken word. PMID:25298097

  17. Numerical solution of differential-difference equations in large intervals using a Taylor collocation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirani, M. Dadkhah; Sohrabi, F.; Almasieh, H.; Kajani, M. Tavassoli

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a collocation method based on Taylor polynomials is developed for solving systems linear differential-difference equations with variable coefficients defined in large intervals. By using Taylor polynomials and their properties in obtaining operational matrices, the solution of the differential-difference equation system with given conditions is reduced to the solution of a system of linear algebraic equations. We first divide the large interval into M equal subintervals and then Taylor polynomials solutions are obtained in each interval, separately. Some numerical examples are given and results are compared with analytical solutions and other techniques in the literature to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the proposed method.

  18. Implications of the Monin-Yaglom relation for Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence.

    PubMed

    Soulard, Olivier

    2012-12-21

    The aim of this letter is to assess existing theories for Rayleigh-Taylor small turbulent scales. For this purpose, we propose to adapt the Monin-Yaglom relation to the Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence context. A special emphasis is put on the inhomogeneity of the flow and on the effect of buoyancy forces. This relation is then used to show that, among existing theories, the standard Kolmogorov-Obukhov theory should apply to Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence in the limit of a large Reynolds number, large times, and small scales. PMID:23368468

  19. Experimental Investigation of the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Jeremy

    2011-12-01

    A series of experiments have been carried out to study the behavior of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The experiments cover a wide range of Atwood (A = (rho2-rho1)/(rho 2-rho1)) numbers, 0.28 ≤ A ≤ 1 using immiscible fluids, with Reynolds numbers spanning four orders of magnitude, ˜ 10 ≤ Re ≤ 10000. Multiple 2D interface shapes have been studied along with a single 3D configuration. The unique properties of magnetorheological fluids are exploited to generate well defined, static initial conditions for both single and multi-mode sinusoidal perturbations as well as isolated wavelengths of single-mode perturbations protruding from flat interfaces. The magnetic properties of the fluid are used to hold these shapes static prior to running, as well as to suspend them above a lighter fluid to allow gravity to provide acceleration to drive the mixing. The 2D experimental results corroborate some of the limitations of the non-linear analytical models, which have been recently investigated numerically, as well as observed in 3D experiments, but not reported in 2D experiments before. The unbounded growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor spikes at late times has been experimentally confirmed for both the 3D condition, where this is predicted to occur for all Atwood numbers, and for the A = 1 limit in the 2D configuration. Preliminary testing with multi-mode interface shapes with high viscosity, high surface tension MR fluids demonstrate the feasibility of extending this unique experimental technique to the more complicated multi-mode/broadband initial conditions more commonly present in applications. Further extension to lower viscosity and surface tension MR fluids for higher Reynolds number flows has proven difficult with the experimental design, yet has revealed the future changes that will be needed to apply this unique experimental idea to the study of the turbulent mix regime. Finally, 3D simulations using the 2D experimental conditions have demonstrated the importance

  20. Numerical and experimental studies of magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in solid liners

    SciTech Connect

    Faehl, R.J.; Atchison, W.L.; Reinovsky, R.E.; Morgan, D.V.

    1997-12-31

    The authors have studied the nonlinear evolution of Magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability in solid aluminum liners. Two-dimensional MHD modeling of the configuration have been performed using the measured current pulseform of the PEGASUS II capacitor bank as a magnetic field source. The liner configuration consisted of a solid aluminum annulus 20 mm long and 0.4 mm thick. The outer surface of the liner was machined with a sinusoidal ripple. Half of the liner was scribed with one wavelength, the other half with another wavelength. A series of experiments was conducted with a smooth surface and ripple wavelengths of 0.5, 0.75, and 2.0 mm. The peak-to-peak ripple amplitude was varied between 0.025 and 0.10 mm, but the ratio of the initial amplitude to wavelength never exceeded 7%. Diagnostics consisted of radiography, a center-conductor B-dot probe, and transmission line pulsed power diagnostics. The inner surfaces of the liners were coated with a thin film of gold (Au) to permit measurement of material deformation at various stages of the instability growth. Three radiographs, at different times, were taken for each experiment. The center-conductor magnetic probe was used to measure the magnetic field penetration through the liner. Initial comparisons between the data and the MHD calculations showed excellent agreement with respect to nonlinear instability growth and with the time of field rupture of the liner.

  1. Magneto-stratigraphic studies in Neogene deposits of Taylor Valley and McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elston, D.P.; Bressler, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    Magnetic polarity and susceptibility zonations obtained from drill cores have served to refine temporal correlations in glaciogenic sections cored in eastern Taylor Valley. The zonations have led to a better understanding of the glacial and structural history for an interval of time that extends from the late Miocene (about 7Ma) to perhaps near the end of the Pliocene (approx 2.4-1.8Ma). However polarity data from a core drilled in McMurdo Sound (hole MSSTS-1) were found to be less useful. In this core, normal and reverse polarity deposits of Holocene, Pleistocene, and Pliocene age are nearly 40m thick and appear to uncomformably overlie strata assigned to the middle Miocene on the basis of a reworked fauna and flora. Gaps in the stratigraphic coverage of the Miocene strata, and two intervals in which the magnetisation post-dates deposition, however, have made development of a reliable polarity zonation impossible, and no firm correlation could be made with the magnetic polarity time scale. -Authors

  2. Vlasov simulation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yasutaka; Umeda, Takayuki; Machida, Shinobu

    2016-04-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) develops at an interface between two fluids with different densities when an external force is applied from a heavy fluid to a light fluid. The RTI is seen as a secondary instability of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability taking place at the magnetopause. The spatial scale of the secondary RTI is on the ion inertial scale or ion gyro scale where non-MHD effects are important. In the previous studies of ideal MHD simulations, the RTI develops symmetrically in the horizontal axis. On the other hand, previous hall-MHD and Finite-Larmor-Radius (FLR)-MHD simulations have shown that the RTI develops asymmetrically in the horizontal axis. In this study, basic processes of non-MHD scale RTI are of interest. We perform four-dimensional Vlasov simulations of the RTI with two spatial dimensions and two velocity dimensions. We vary the ratio of the ion inertial length and/or the ion gyro radius to the spatial scale of the density gradient layer, and discuss the effect of the non-MHD effects on the linear growth and nonlinear development of the RTI.

  3. Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability in solid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y. B.; Piriz, A. R.

    2014-07-01

    A linear analysis of the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the interface between a Newtonian fluid and an elastic-plastic solid is performed by considering a uniform magnetic B →, parallel to the interface, which has diffused into the fluid but not into the solid. It is found that the magnetic field attributes elastic properties to the viscous fluid which enhance the stability region by stabilizing all the perturbation wavelengths shorter than λ 0 ∝ B 2 for any initial perturbation amplitude. Longer wavelengths are stabilized by the mechanical properties of the solid provided that the initial perturbation wavelength is smaller than a threshold value determined by the yield strength and the shear modulus of the solid. Beyond this threshold, the amplitude grows initially with a growth rate reduced by the solid strength properties. However, such properties do not affect the asymptotic growth rate which is only determined by the magnetic field and the fluid viscosity. The described physical situation intends to resemble some of the features present in recent experiments involving the magnetic shockless acceleration of flyers plates.

  4. Taylor relaxation and λ decay of unbounded, freely expanding spheromaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, J.; Bellan, P. M.

    2000-09-01

    A magnetized coaxial gun is discharged into a much larger vacuum chamber and the subsequent evolution of the plasma is observed using high speed cameras and a magnetic probe array. Photographic results indicate four distinct regimes of operation, labeled I-IV, each possessing qualitatively different dynamics, with the parameter λgun=μ0Igun/Φbias determining the operative regime. Plasmas produced in Regime II are identified as detached spheromak configurations. Images depict a donut-like shape, while magnetic data demonstrate that a closed toroidal flux-surface topology is present. Poloidal flux amplification shows that Taylor relaxation mechanisms are at work. The spatial and temporal variation of plasma λ=μ0Jφ/Bφ indicate that the spheromak is decaying and expanding in a manner analogous to a self-similar expansion model proposed for interplanetary magnetic clouds. In Regime III, the plasma is unable to detach from the gun due to excess bias flux. Analysis of toroidal and poloidal flux as well as the λ profile shows that magnetic flux and helicity are confined within the gun for this regime.

  5. Geometry Mediated Drag Reduction in Taylor-Couette Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raayai, Shabnam; McKinley, Gareth

    2015-11-01

    Micro-scale ribbed surfaces have been shown to be able to modify surface properties such as skin friction on both natural and fabricated surfaces. Previous experiments have shown that ribbed surfaces can reduce skin friction in turbulent flow by up to 4-8% in the presence of zero or mild pressure gradients. Our previous computations have shown a substantial reduction in skin friction using micro-scaled ribs of sinusoidal form in high Reynolds number laminar boundary layer flow. The mechanism of this reduction is purely viscous, through a geometrically-controlled retardation of the flow in the grooves of the surface. The drag reduction achieved depends on the ratio of the amplitude to the wavelength of the surface features and can be presented as a function of the wavelength expressed in dimensionless wall units. Here we extend this work, both experimentally and numerically, to consider the effect of similar ribs on steady viscous flow between concentric cylinders (Taylor-Couette flow). For the experimental work, the inner rotating cylinder (rotor) is machined with stream-wise V-groove structures and experiments are performed with fluids of different viscosity to compare the measured frictional torques to the corresponding values on a smooth flat rotor as a measure of drag reduction. The numerical work is performed using the OpenFOAM®open source software to compare the results and understand the physical mechanisms underlying this drag reduction phenomenon.

  6. Regimes of the magnetized Rayleigh{endash}Taylor instability

    SciTech Connect

    Winske, D.

    1996-11-01

    Hybrid simulations with kinetic ions and massless fluid electrons are used to investigate the linear and nonlinear behavior of the magnetized Rayleigh{endash}Taylor instability in slab geometry with the plasma subject to a constant gravity. Three regimes are found, which are determined by the magnitude of the complex frequency {omega}={omega}{sub {ital r}}+{ital i}{gamma}. For {vert_bar}{omega}{vert_bar}{lt}{Omega}{sub {ital i}}({Omega}{sub {ital i}}= ion gyrofrequency), one finds the typical behavior of the usual fluid regime, namely the development of {open_quote}{open_quote}mushroom-head{close_quote}{close_quote} spikes and bubbles in the density and a strongly convoluted boundary between the plasma and magnetic field, where the initial gradient is not relaxed much. A second regime, where {vert_bar}{omega}{vert_bar}{approximately}0.1{Omega}{sub {ital i}}, is characterized by the importance of the Hall term. Linearly, the developing flute modes are more finger-like and tilted along the interface; nonlinearly, clump-like structures form, leading to a significant broadening of the interface. The third regime is characterized by unmagnetized ion behavior, with {vert_bar}{omega}{vert_bar}{approximately}{Omega}{sub {ital i}}. Density clumps, rather than flutes, form in the linear stage, while nonlinearly, longer-wavelength modes that resemble those in fluid regime dominate. Finite Larmor radius stabilization of short-wavelength modes is observed in each regime. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Frictional drag reduction in bubbly Couette-Taylor flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murai, Yuichi; Oiwa, Hiroshi; Takeda, Yasushi

    2008-03-01

    Frictional drag reduction due to the presence of small bubbles is investigated experimentally using a Couette-Taylor flow system; i.e., shear flow between concentric cylinders. Torque and bubble behavior are measured as a function of Reynolds number up to Re =5000 while air bubbles are injected constantly and rise through an array of vortical cells. Silicone oil is used to avoid the uncertain interfacial property of bubbles and to produce nearly monosized bubble distributions. The effect of drag reduction on sensitivity and power gain are assessed. The sensitivity exceeds unity at Re <2000, proving that the effect of the reduction in drag is greater than that of the reduction in mixture density. This is due to the accumulation of bubbles toward the rotating inner cylinder, which is little affected by turbulence. The power gain, which is defined by the power saving from the drag reduction per the pumping power of bubble injection, has a maximum value of O(10) at higher Re numbers around 2500. An image processing measurement shows this is because of the disappearance of azimuthal waves when the organized bubble distribution transforms from toroidal to spiral modes. Moreover, the axial spacing of bubble clouds expands during the transition, which results in an effective reduction in the momentum exchange.

  8. Rayleigh-Taylor Instability in non-premixed reacting flames.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attal, Nitesh; Ramaprabhu, Praveen

    2015-11-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) occurs at a perturbed interface between fluids of different densities when a light fluid pushes a heavier fluid. The mixing driven by RTI affects several physical phenomena, such as Inertial Confinement Fusion, Supernovae detonation, centrifugal combustors and liquid rocket engines. The RTI in such flows is often coupled with chemical/nuclear reactions that may form complex density stratifications in the form of flames or ablative layers. We investigate such a non-premixed fuel-air interface subject to a constant acceleration and developing under the influence of chemical reactions using high-resolution, Navier-Stokes simulations. The H2 fuel is diluted with N2 to vary the density difference across the interface in thermal equilibrium (at 1000K). The intervening layer between fuel and air is subject to exothermic combustion reactions to form a flame. Following combustion, initially unstable fuel-air interfaces at an Atwood number (At) <0.5, transform into stable (fuel-flame) and unstable (flame-air) interfaces. We report on interfaces (At = 0.2 and 0.6) with single wavelength, sinusoidal perturbations and a broadband spectrum of multimode perturbations.

  9. Nonaxisymmetric linear instability of cylindrical magnetohydrodynamic Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Child, Adam; Kersalé, Evy; Hollerbach, Rainer

    2015-09-01

    We consider the nonaxisymmetric modes of instability present in Taylor-Couette flow under the application of helical magnetic fields, mainly for magnetic Prandtl numbers close to the inductionless limit, and conduct a full examination of marginal stability in the resulting parameter space. We allow for the azimuthal magnetic field to be generated by a combination of currents in the inner cylinder and fluid itself and introduce a parameter governing the relation between the strength of these currents. A set of governing eigenvalue equations for the nonaxisymmetric modes of instability are derived and solved by spectral collocation with Chebyshev polynomials over the relevant parameter space, with the resulting instabilities examined in detail. We find that by altering the azimuthal magnetic field profiles the azimuthal magnetorotational instability, nonaxisymmetric helical magnetorotational instability, and Tayler instability yield interesting dynamics, such as different preferred mode types and modes with azimuthal wave number m >1 . Finally, a comparison is given to the recent WKB analysis performed by Kirillov et al. [Kirillov, Stefani, and Fukumoto, J. Fluid Mech. 760, 591 (2014), 10.1017/jfm.2014.614] and its validity in the linear regime.

  10. On the effects of microbubbles on Taylor Green vortex flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrante, Antonino; Elghobashi, Said E.

    The paper describes a numerical study of the effects of microbubbles on the vorticity dynamics in a Taylor Green vortex flow (TGV) using the two-fluid approach. The results show that bubbles with a volume fraction {˜}10(-2) enhance the decay rate of the vorticity at the centre of the vortex. Analysis of the vorticity equation of the bubble-laden flow shows that the local positive velocity divergence of the fluid velocity, {bm nabla} {bm *} {bm U}, created in the vortex core by bubble clustering, is responsible for the vorticity decay. At the centre of the vortex, the vorticity omega_c(t) decreases nearly linearly with the bubble concentration C_m(t). Similarly, the enstrophy in the core of the vortex, omega(2(t)) , decays nearly linearly with C(2(t)) . The approximate mean-enstrophy equation shows that bubble accumulation in the high-enstrophy core regions produces a positive correlation between omega(2) and {bm nabla} {bm *} {bm U}, which enhances the decay rate of the mean enstrophy.

  11. Effects of microbubbles on the Taylor-Green vortex flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrante, A.

    2005-11-01

    Numerical simulations of the Taylor-Green vortex (TGV) flow laden with microbubbles were performed to study the effects of microbubbles on a simple vortical flow using the two-fluid approach. The study was motivated by our DNS results of a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer laden with microbubbles [J. Fluid Mech. 503 (2004)] which showed that the presence of bubbles results in a local positive divergence of the fluid velocity, ∇.U. This velocity divergence displaces the near-wall quasi-streamwise vortical structures away from the wall, thus reducing the skin friction. In the present study, the continuity and momentum equations of both phases (fluid and bubbles) were numerically solved in a cubical domain. The results for Stokes number equal to 0.25 and bubbles volume fraction of 1% show that the magnitude of the vorticity at the center of the vortex decays faster than that of the single-phase flow. After 20 turnover times of the initial vortex, the magnitude of the vorticity at the center of the vortex becomes 30% smaller than that of the single-phase flow. Analysis of the vorticity equation shows that the local positive velocity divergence of the fluid velocity, ∇.U, created in the vortex core by the clustering of the bubbles, is responsible for the vorticity decay. Results for different Stokes numbers and bubbles volume fractions will be presented.

  12. Transition and Turbulence Decay in the Taylor-Green Vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinstein, Fernando; Drikakis, Dimitris; Fureby, Christer; Youngs, David

    2005-11-01

    The Taylor-Green Vortex (TGV) is a fundamental case that has been traditionally used as prototype of vortex stretching and consequent production of small-scale eddies, to investigate the basic dynamics of transition to turbulence. As such, it is also a very convenient case in which to test the ability of explicit and implicit subgrid scale (SGS) modeling to simulate the basic laws of turbulence. We report on the performance of Monotone Integrated LES (MILES) in emulating the space/time development of transition to turbulence and self-similar decay in the TGV without resorting to an explicit SGS model. MILES based on various limiting algorithms, including Flux Corrected Transport, characteristics-based Godunov, Lagrange-Remap, and several other hybrid methods is tested and compared with a conventional (mixed) LES method combining one-equation eddy-viscosity and scale-similarity models. The agreement between MILES, mixed-model LES, and the previous DNS by Brachet et al. (1983) is quite good in estimating the time and height of the dissipation peak associated with the TGV inviscid instability.

  13. Helical magnetorotational instability in magnetized Taylor-Couette flow

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Wei; Ji Hantao; Goodman, Jeremy; Herron, Isom

    2006-11-15

    Hollerbach and Ruediger have reported a new type of magnetorotational instability (MRI) in magnetized Taylor-Couette flow in the presence of combined axial and azimuthal magnetic fields. The salient advantage of this 'helical' MRI (HMRI) is that marginal instability occurs at arbitrarily low magnetic Reynolds and Lundquist numbers, suggesting that HMRI might be easier to realize than standard MRI (axial field only), and that it might be relevant to cooler astrophysical disks, especially those around protostars, which may be quite resistive. We confirm previous results for marginal stability and calculate HMRI growth rates. We show that in the resistive limit, HMRI is a weakly destabilized inertial oscillation propagating in a unique direction along the axis. But we report other features of HMRI that make it less attractive for experiments and for resistive astrophysical disks. Large axial currents are required. More fundamentally, instability of highly resistive flow is peculiar to infinitely long or periodic cylinders: finite cylinders with insulating endcaps are shown to be stable in this limit, at least if viscosity is neglected. Also, Keplerian rotation profiles are stable in the resistive limit regardless of axial boundary conditions. Nevertheless, the addition of a toroidal field lowers thresholds for instability even in finite cylinders.

  14. Further evidence for the validity of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Giancola, Peter R; Parrott, Dominic J

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) as a measure of direct physical aggression. Hypotheses were generated from recent theory pertinent to the categorization and measurement of aggressive behavior as well as widely supported effects of alcohol intoxication and gender on aggression. Participants were 328 (163 men and 165 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age who completed self-report personality inventories designed to assess one's propensity toward direct physical aggression, verbal aggression, trait anger, and hostility. Following the consumption of either an alcohol or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on the TAP, in which mild electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent during a competitive task. Direct physical aggression was operationalized as the shock intensities (i.e., first trial shock intensity, mean shock intensity, proportion of highest shock) administered to the fictitious opponent. Although all self-report measures were significantly associated with the three TAP indices, the associations involving physical aggression were strongest. In addition, self-report measures of physical aggression consistently predicted higher levels of aggression on the TAP indices in men, compared with women, and in intoxicated, relative to sober, participants. Taken as a whole, this pattern of findings provides further evidence for the validity of the TAP as a measure of direct physical aggression for men and women. PMID:17894385

  15. Cylindrical effects in weakly nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wan-Hai; Ma, Wen-Fang; Wang, Xu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The classical Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) at the interface between two variable density fluids in the cylindrical geometry is explicitly investigated by the formal perturbation method up to the second order. Two styles of RTI, convergent (i.e., gravity pointing inward) and divergent (i.e., gravity pointing outwards) configurations, compared with RTI in Cartesian geometry, are taken into account. Our explicit results show that the interface function in the cylindrical geometry consists of two parts: oscillatory part similar to the result of the Cartesian geometry, and non-oscillatory one contributing nothing to the result of the Cartesian geometry. The velocity resulting only from the non-oscillatory term is followed with interest in this paper. It is found that both the convergent and the divergent configurations have the same zeroth-order velocity, whose magnitude increases with the Atwood number, while decreases with the initial radius of the interface or mode number. The occurrence of non-oscillation terms is an essential character of the RTI in the cylindrical geometry different from Cartesian one. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 10835003), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11274026), the Scientific Research Foundation of Mianyang Normal University, China (Grant Nos. QD2014A009 and 2014A02), and the National High-Tech ICF Committee.

  16. Preliminary survey report, Didier Taylor Refractories Corporation Plant, Newtown, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Mahon, R.D.

    1981-10-20

    An on-site visit was made to the Didier Taylor Refractories Corporation located in Newtown, Ohio for the purpose of evaluating control methods instituted to protect workers from hazardous conditions. Raw materials were received at this location in bags and canisters. The bags were opened in an area with dual-pull exhaust ventilation from two sides. Several St. Regis single spout packers with local exhaust systems were also used at this facility. All exhaust ducts connected to a large Kirk and Blum dry-bag collector located adjacent to the building. Some molding and casting work was done at this facility, but no particularly significant health hazard controls were noted for the process. The product line included bricks, patches, ramming mixes, cements, castables, plastics, and miscellaneous items. Plaster of paris and thermo setting plastics were used as mold materials. Slip mixes involved a wide range of chemical compounds. Plans were made to conduct a walk-through preliminary-type survey of the location at a later date. An in-depth assessment of portions of the facility and operations may be decided upon at that time.

  17. Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability in solid media

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y. B.; Piriz, A. R.

    2014-07-15

    A linear analysis of the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the interface between a Newtonian fluid and an elastic-plastic solid is performed by considering a uniform magnetic B{sup →}, parallel to the interface, which has diffused into the fluid but not into the solid. It is found that the magnetic field attributes elastic properties to the viscous fluid which enhance the stability region by stabilizing all the perturbation wavelengths shorter than λ{sub 0}∝B{sup 2} for any initial perturbation amplitude. Longer wavelengths are stabilized by the mechanical properties of the solid provided that the initial perturbation wavelength is smaller than a threshold value determined by the yield strength and the shear modulus of the solid. Beyond this threshold, the amplitude grows initially with a growth rate reduced by the solid strength properties. However, such properties do not affect the asymptotic growth rate which is only determined by the magnetic field and the fluid viscosity. The described physical situation intends to resemble some of the features present in recent experiments involving the magnetic shockless acceleration of flyers plates.

  18. Rayleigh-Taylor stabilization by material strength at Mbar pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H; Lorenz, K T; Cavallo, R M; Pollaine, S M; Prisbrey, S T; Remington, B A; Rudd, R E; Becker, R C; Bernier, J V

    2009-05-27

    Studies of solid-state material dynamics at high pressures ({approx}1 Mbar) and ultrahigh strain rates (>10{sup 6} s{sup -1}) are performed using a unique laser based, quasi-isentropic high-pressure acceleration platform. Vanadium foils with pre-imposed sinusoidal ripples are accelerated in the solid state with this ramped high pressure drive. This causes Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth at the interface, where the rate of growth is sensitive to the solid-state material properties. The RT growth history is measured by face-on radiography using synchronized laser-driven x-ray backlighters at the Omega Laser. The experimental results are compared with 2D hydrodynamics simulations utilizing constitutive models of high pressure material strength. We find that the vanadium strength increases by a factor of 3.5-4 at peak pressure, compared to its ambient (undriven) strength. Both pressure hardening and strain rate hardening are the suggested cause for this increase in strength. An analysis treating strength as an effective lattice viscosity finds that a viscosity of {approx}400 poise is required to reproduce our RT data.

  19. Rayleigh-Taylor Unstable Flames -- Fast or Faster?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, E. P.

    2015-04-01

    Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) unstable flames play a key role in the explosions of supernovae Ia. However, the dynamics of these flames are still not well understood. RT unstable flames are affected by both the RT instability of the flame front and by RT-generated turbulence. The coexistence of these factors complicates the choice of flame speed subgrid models for full-star Type Ia simulations. Both processes can stretch and wrinkle the flame surface, increasing its area and, therefore, the burning rate. In past research, subgrid models have been based on either the RT instability or turbulence setting the flame speed. We evaluate both models, checking their assumptions and their ability to correctly predict the turbulent flame speed. Specifically, we analyze a large parameter study of 3D direct numerical simulations of RT unstable model flames. This study varies both the simulation domain width and the gravity in order to probe a wide range of flame behaviors. We show that RT unstable flames are different from traditional turbulent flames: they are thinner rather than thicker when turbulence is stronger. We also show that none of the several different types of turbulent flame speed models accurately predicts measured flame speeds. In addition, we find that the RT flame speed model only correctly predicts the measured flame speed in a certain parameter regime. Finally, we propose that the formation of cusps may be the factor causing the flame to propagate more quickly than predicted by the RT model.

  20. Modified Taylor reproducing formulas and h-p clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuppa, Carlos

    2008-03-01

    We study two different approximations of a multivariate function f by operators of the form sum_{iD1}^{N}mathcal{T}_{r}[f,x_{i}](x) mathcal{W} _{i}(x) , where \\{mathcal{W}_{i}\\} is an m -reproducing partition of unity and mathcal{T}_{r}[f,x_{i}](x) are modified Taylor polynomials of degree r expanded at x_{i} . The first approximation was introduced by Xuli (2003) in the univariate case and generalized for convex domains by Guessab et al. (2005). The second one was introduced by Duarte (1995) and proved in the univariate case. In this paper, we first relax the Guessab's convexity assumption and we prove Duarte's reproduction formula in the multivariate case. Then, we introduce two related reproducing quasi-interpolation operators in Sobolev spaces. A weighted error estimate and Jackson's type inequalities for h-p cloud function spaces are obtained. Last, numerical examples are analyzed to show the approximative power of the method.

  1. Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics of Rayleigh-Taylor Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Tapan K.; Sengupta, Aditi; Sengupta, Soumyo; Bhole, Ashish; Shruti, K. S.

    2016-04-01

    Here, the fundamental problem of Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) is studied by direct numerical simulation (DNS), where the two air masses at different temperatures, kept apart initially by a non-conducting horizontal interface in a 2D box, are allowed to mix. Upon removal of the partition, mixing is controlled by RTI, apart from mutual mass, momentum, and energy transfer. To accentuate the instability, the top chamber is filled with the heavier (lower temperature) air, which rests atop the chamber containing lighter air. The partition is positioned initially at mid-height of the box. As the fluid dynamical system considered is completely isolated from outside, the DNS results obtained without using Boussinesq approximation will enable one to study non-equilibrium thermodynamics of a finite reservoir undergoing strong irreversible processes. The barrier is removed impulsively, triggering baroclinic instability by non-alignment of density, and pressure gradient by ambient disturbances via the sharp discontinuity at the interface. Adopted DNS method has dispersion relation preservation properties with neutral stability and does not require any external initial perturbations. The complete inhomogeneous problem with non-periodic, no-slip boundary conditions is studied by solving compressible Navier-Stokes equation, without the Boussinesq approximation. This is important as the temperature difference between the two air masses considered is high enough (Δ T = 70 K) to invalidate Boussinesq approximation. We discuss non-equilibrium thermodynamical aspects of RTI with the help of numerical results for density, vorticity, entropy, energy, and enstrophy.

  2. The stability of Taylor-Couette flow with radial heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mohamed El-Sayed

    The stability of circular Couette flow with radial heating across vertically oriented coaxial cylinders is investigated using linearized stability theory. The physical problem is governed by five parameters: the Taylor number Ta, the Groshof number G, the Prandtl number Pr, the cylinder aspect ration A, and the radius ratio eta. In the model infinite aspect ratio is assumed and critical stability boundaries are calculated for a conduction regime base flow. A rational analysis is made to derive the full governing perturbation equations and test flow stability subject to both axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric disturbances. The flow may be driven to instability by competition between centrifugal, buoyancy, and shear force mechanisms. In spite of this complexity, the existence of solution symmetries of the perturbation equations with respect to the sense of radial heating and the sense of cylinder rotation are proven. The linear boundary-value problem defined by 16 first-order differential equations is solved using the software package SUPORT in combination with the nonlinear equation solver SNSQE. Critical stability boundaries at fixed Pr and eta were determined by searching for the minimum value of either Ta or G over all wavelengths K and mode numbers n.

  3. Fundamental magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor Instability Growth Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinars, D. B.; Peterson, K. J.; Vesey, R. A.; Jennings, C.; Herrmann, M. C.; McBride, R. D.; Martin, M. R.; Slutz, S. A.

    2013-10-01

    Sandia is investigating a magnetized liner inertial fusion concept that uses cylindrical Be or Al liners to compress magnetized and preheated fusion fuel. As part of this work, we have been studying the growth of instabilities in initially solid liners driven with 20-24 MA, 100-ns current pulses on the Z pulsed power facility. The magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability in particular can disrupt the plasma liner during its implosion. Previous experiments studied instability growth starting either from intentionally seeded single-mode perturbations or from diamond-turned best-finish surfaces. Here we report on experiments studying (1) the growth of intentionally seeded multi-mode perturbations, and (2) the growth from polished best-finish surfaces where the tooling mark orientation is changed from being predominantly azimuthal to axial. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. DSMC Simulations of the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability in Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallis, Michael; Koehler, Timothy; Torczynski, John; Plimpton, Steven

    2015-11-01

    The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of molecular gas dynamics is applied to simulate the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) in atmospheric-pressure monatomic gases (e.g., argon and helium). The computational domain is a 1 mm × 4 mm rectangle divided into 50-nm square cells. Each cell is populated with 1000 computational molecules, and time steps of 0.1 ns are used. Simulations are performed to quantify the growth of a single-mode perturbation on the interface as a function of the Atwood number and the gravitational acceleration. The DSMC results qualitatively reproduce all observed features of the RTI and are in reasonable quantitative agreement with existing theoretical and empirical models. Consistent with previous work in this field, the DSMC simulations indicate that the growth of the RTI follows a universal behavior. For cases with multiple-mode perturbations, the numbers of bubble-spike pairs that eventually appear are found to be in agreement with theoretical results for the most unstable wavelength. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Nonlinear dynamics in eccentric Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pier, Benoît; Caulfield, C. P.

    2015-11-01

    The flow in the gap between two parallel but eccentric cylinders and driven by an axial pressure gradient and inner cylinder rotation is characterized by two geometrical parameters (radius ratio and eccentricity) and two dynamic parameters (axial and azimuthal Reynolds numbers). Such a theoretical configuration is a model for the flow between drill string and wellbore in the hydrocarbon drilling industry. The linear convective and absolute instability properties have been systematically derived in a recent study [Leclercq, Pier & Scott, J. Fluid Mech. 2013 and 2014]. Here we address the nonlinear dynamics resulting after saturation of exponentially growing small-amplitude perturbations. By using direct numerical simulations, a range of finite-amplitude states are found and characterized: nonlinear traveling waves (an eccentric counterpart of Taylor vortices, associated with constant hydrodynamic loading on the inner cylinder), modulated nonlinear waves (with time-periodic torque and flow rate) and more irregular states. In the nonlinear regime, the hydrodynamic forces are found to depart significantly from those prevailing for the base flow, even in situations of weak linear instability.

  6. Saffman-Taylor streamers: mutual finger interaction in spark formation.

    PubMed

    Luque, Alejandro; Brau, Fabian; Ebert, Ute

    2008-07-01

    Bunches of streamers form the early stages of sparks and lightning but theory presently concentrates on single streamers or on coarse approximations of whole breakdown trees. Here a periodic array of interacting streamer discharges in a strong homogeneous electric field is studied in density or fluid approximation in two dimensions. If the period of the streamer array is small enough, the streamers do not branch, but approach uniform translation. When the streamers are close to the branching regime, the enhanced field at the tip of the streamer is close to 2Einfinity, where Einfinity is the homogeneous field applied between the electrodes. We discuss a moving boundary approximation to the density model. This moving boundary model turns out to be essentially the same as the one for two-fluid Hele-Shaw flows. In two dimensions, this model possesses a known analytical solution. The shape of the two-dimensional interacting streamers in uniform motion obtained from the PDE simulations is actually well fitted by the analytically known "selected Saffman-Taylor finger." This finding helps to understand streamer interactions and raises new questions on the general theory of finger selection in moving boundary problems. PMID:18764034

  7. Transient growth in linearly stable Taylor-Couette flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maretzke, Simon; Hof, Björn; Avila, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Non-normal transient growth of disturbances is considered as an essential prerequisite for subcritical transition in shear flows, i.e. transition to turbulence despite linear stability of the laminar flow. In this work we present numerical and analytical computations of linear transient growth covering all linearly stable regimes of Taylor--Couette flow. Our numerical experiments reveal comparable energy amplifications in the different regimes. For high shear Reynolds numbers Re the optimal transient energy growth always follows a 2/3-scaling with Re, which allows for large amplifications even in regimes where the presence of turbulence remains debated. In co-rotating Rayleigh-stable flows the optimal perturbations become increasingly columnar in their structure, as the optimal axial wavenumber goes to zero. In this limit of axially invariant perturbations we show that linear stability and transient growth are independent of the cylinders' rotation-ratio and we derive a universal 2/3-scaling of optimal energy growth with Re using WKB-theory. Based on this, a semi-empirical formula for the estimation of linear transient growth valid in all regimes is obtained.

  8. Rayleigh-Taylor unstable, premixed flames: the transition to turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Elizabeth; Rosner, Robert

    2010-11-01

    A premixed flame moving against a sufficiently strong gravitational field becomes deformed and creates vorticity. If gravity is strong enough, this vorticity is shed and deposited behind the flame front. We present two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of this vortex shedding process and its effect on the flame front for various values of the gravitational force. The flame and its shed vortices go through the following stages as gravity is increased: no vorticity and a flat flame front; long vortices attached to a cusped flame front; instability of the attached vortices and vortex shedding (Hopf bifurcation); disruption of the flame front by the shed vortices, causing the flame to pulsate; loss of left/right symmetry (period doubling); dominance of Rayleigh-Taylor instability over burning (torus bifurcation); and, finally, complex interactions between the flame front and the vortices. We measure the subsequent wrinkling of the flame front by computing its fractal dimension and also measure mixing behind the flame front by computing the finite-time Lyapunov exponents.

  9. Gravitationally Unstable Flames: Rayleigh-Taylor Stretching versus Turbulent Wrinkling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, E. P.; Rosner, R.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we provide support for the Rayleigh-Taylor-(RT)-based subgrid model used in full-star simulations of deflagrations in Type Ia supernovae explosions. We use the results of a parameter study of two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of an RT unstable model flame to distinguish between the two main types of subgrid models (RT or turbulence dominated) in the flamelet regime. First, we give scalings for the turbulent flame speed, the Reynolds number, the viscous scale, and the size of the burning region as the non-dimensional gravity (G) is varied. The flame speed is well predicted by an RT-based flame speed model. Next, the above scalings are used to calculate the Karlovitz number (Ka) and to discuss appropriate combustion regimes. No transition to thin reaction zones is seen at Ka = 1, although such a transition is expected by turbulence-dominated subgrid models. Finally, we confirm a basic physical premise of the RT subgrid model, namely, that the flame is fractal, and thus self-similar. By modeling the turbulent flame speed, we demonstrate that it is affected more by large-scale RT stretching than by small-scale turbulent wrinkling. In this way, the RT instability controls the flame directly from the large scales. Overall, these results support the RT subgrid model.

  10. Weakly nonlinear analysis of the Saffman-Taylor problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Jose A.

    The Saffman-Taylor viscous fingering instability occurs when a less viscous fluid displaces a more viscous one between narrowly spaced parallel plates in a Hele-Shaw cell. Experiments in radial and rectangular flow geometries form finger-like patterns, in which fingers of different lengths compete, spread and split. Our weakly nonlinear analysis of the instability predicts these phenomena, which are beyond the scope of linear stability theory. Finger competition arises through enhanced growth of sub-harmonic perturbations, while spreading and splitting occur through the growth of harmonic modes. Nonlinear mode-coupling enhances the growth of these specific perturbations with appropriate relative phases, as we demonstrate through a symmetry analysis of the mode coupling equations. We extend our mode coupling theory to include the situation in which one of the fluids is a ferrofluid and a magnetic field is applied normal to the Hele-Shaw cell. Our analysis indicates that the onset of interface symmetry breaking observed in experiments involving ferrofluids depends on viscosity contrast, not on the applied magnetic field. We also show how magnetic fields lead to finger tip-splitting.

  11. Dynamics of axially localized states in Taylor-Couette flows.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Jose M; Marques, Francisco

    2015-05-01

    We present numerical simulations of the flow confined in a wide gap Taylor-Couette system, with a rotating inner cylinder and variable length-to-gap aspect ratio. A complex experimental bifurcation scenario differing from the classical Ruelle-Takens route to chaos has been experimentally reported in this geometry. The wavy vortex flow becomes quasiperiodic due to an axisymmetric very low frequency mode. This mode plays a key role in the dynamics of the system, leading to the occurrence of chaos via a period-doubling scenario. Further increasing the rotation of the inner cylinder results in the appearance of a new flow pattern which is characterized by large amplitude oscillations localized in some of the vortex pairs. The purpose of this paper is to study numerically the dynamics of these axially localized states, paying special attention to the transition to chaos. Frequency analysis from time series simultaneously recorded at several points has been applied in order to identify the flow transitions taking place. It has been found that the very low frequency mode is essential to explain the behavior associated with the different transitions towards chaos including localized states. PMID:26066253

  12. On Taylor dispersion in liquid-cooled electronics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilley, B. S.

    2013-11-01

    We are interested in extending classical asymptotic approaches to allow for the spatial pattern wavenumber to vary on the macroscale variables and to find how changes in microstructure geometry affect macroscopic properties and transport. To this end, we consider here the thermal transport of a coolant through nonuniformly spaced laminates, as a simple model for heat sinks in electronics. Power is continuously being generated by the laminates, and the local rates of heat transport depend on convection, fluid inertia, buoyancy and Taylor dispersion in the coolant and conduction within both the fluid and the laminates. We find a coupled system of partial differential equations that describe the local microscale temperature and deviations from the Darcy pressure. Microscale values of all of these quantities are known in terms of the solutions to these effective eqautions. We are especially interested in geometries in the laminate spacing which allow for better thermal transport by the coolant for a prescribed power distribution. The choice of the channel geometries depend on the ability to transfer heat from the device to the enviornment, the orientation of the device with respect to gravity, and the available power needed to drive the fluid motion. This work is supported by a grant from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, (Award No. FA9550-11-1-0197).

  13. Reynolds and Atwood Numbers Effects on Homogeneous Rayleigh Taylor Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslangil, Denis; Livescu, Daniel; Banerjee, Arindam

    2015-11-01

    The effects of Reynolds and Atwood numbers on turbulent mixing of a heterogeneous mixture of two incompressible, miscible fluids with different densities are investigated by using high-resolution Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). The flow occurs in a triply periodic 3D domain, with the two fluids initially segregated in random patches, and turbulence is generated in response to buoyancy. In turn, stirring produced by turbulence breaks down the scalar structures, accelerating the molecular mixing. Statistically homogeneous variable-density (VD) mixing, with density variations due to compositional changes, is a basic mixing problem and aims to mimic the core of the mixing layer of acceleration driven Rayleigh Taylor Instability (RTI). We present results covering a large range of kinematic viscosity values for density contrasts including small (A =0.04), moderate (A =0.5), and high (A =0.75 and 0.9) Atwood numbers. Particular interest will be given to the structure of the turbulence and mixing process, including the alignment between various turbulence and scalar quantities, as well as providing fidelity data for verification and validation of mix models. Arindam Banerjee acknowledges support from NSF CAREER award # 1453056.

  14. An Instability in Stratified Taylor-Couette Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinney, Harry

    2015-11-01

    In the late 1950s Russell Donnelly began conducting experiments at the University of Chicago on flow between concentric rotating cylinders, and his experiments together with complementary theory by his collaborator S. Chandrasekhar did much to rekindle interest in the flow instability discovered and studied by G.I. Taylor (1923). The present study concerns an instability in a concentric cylinder system containing a fluid with an axial density gradient. In 2005 Dubrulle et al. suggested that a `stratorotational instability' (SRI) in this system could provide insight into instability and angular momentum transport in astrophysical accretion disks. In 2007 the stratorotational instability was observed in experiments by Le Bars and Le Gal. We have conducted an experiment on the SRI in a concentric cylinder system (radius ratio η = 0 . 876) with buoyancy frequency N / 2 π = 0.25, 0.50, or 0.75 Hz. For N = 0.75 Hz we observe the SRI onset to occur for Ωouter /Ωinner > η , contrary to the prediction of Shalybkov and Rüdiger. Research conducted with Bruce Rodenborn and Ruy Ibanez.

  15. Rayleigh-Taylor instability experiments in cryogenic deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. F.; Smalyuk, V. A.

    2005-10-01

    We report on experiments under way at the Omega laser, using cryogenic deuterium to study Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in laser targets. These instabilities are important in astrophysical situations (e.g., mixing of the different shells during a supernova explosion) and in inertial fusion (during the compression stage of a fusion target). They can be studied in small (˜1 mm) shock tubes filled with one heavy and one light material, with an interface between the two materials that is machined to seed the instability. A high-energy laser (˜5 kJ) drives a shock from the heavy to the light material. The evolution of the interface is studied using gated x-ray cameras, where x-ray illumination is obtained from additional laser beams focused on metal backlighter foils. Traditionally the heavy material is CH (1 g/cm^3) doped with I or Br for improved contrast, while the light material is a low-density (˜0.1 g/cm^3) C foam. The goal of the current experiments is to determine if contrast can be improved even further by replacing the foam with cryogenic deuterium, which has a density similar to the foam, but a lower x-ray opacity allowing clearer images, including images taken at late times in the evolution. Work performed under the auspices of the Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract number W-7405-ENG-48.

  16. Rayleigh Taylor instability of two superposed compressible fluids in un-magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, P. K.; Tiwari, A.; Argal, S.; Chhajlani, R. K.

    2014-09-01

    The linear Rayleigh Taylor instability of two superposed compressible Newtonian fluids is discussed with the effect of surface tension which can play important roles in space plasma. As in both the superposed Newtonian fluids, the system is stable for potentially stable case and unstable for potentially unstable case in the present problem also. The equations of the problem are solved by normal mode method and a dispersion relation is obtained for such a system. The behaviour of growth rate is examined in the presence of surface tension and it is found that the surface tension has stabilizing influence on the Rayleigh Taylor instability of two superposed compressible fluids. Numerical analysis is performed to show the effect of sound velocity and surface tension on the growth rate of Rayleigh Taylor instability. It is found that both parameters have stabilizing influence on the growth rate of Rayleigh Taylor instability.

  17. A model of mixing and transport in wavy Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Matthias; Shinbrot, Troy; Lueptow, Richard M.

    1998-10-01

    Wavy Taylor vortex flow was simulated by developing a stream function model of the velocity vector field in a radial-axial plane that mimics an experimentally obtained velocity field. The simulation neglects the azimuthal component of velocity but provides estimates of the mixing and axial transport properties of wavy vortex flow in the axial-radial plane at higher Taylor numbers ( Ta) and larger gap widths than previous models. Based on the estimated Lyapunov numbers, the particle paths appear to be chaotic for wavy vortex flow in the range 131 ≤ Ta ≤ 253. The axial particle transport increases with the Taylor number in this range, most likely due to increased axial transport of fluid between vortices. The mixing within vortices is also enhanced with increasing Taylor number as a result of increased stretching and folding within a vortex.

  18. 4. Photocopy of watercolor by J.B. Taylor, September 3, 1840 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of watercolor by J.B. Taylor, September 3, 1840 (original in the Chester County Historical Society, West Chester Pennsylvania) WEST FRONT, 1840 - Bank of Chester County, 17 North High Street, West Chester, Chester County, PA

  19. Application of the Priestley-Taylor Approach in a Two-Source Surface Energy Balance Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Priestley-Taylor (PT) approximation for computing evapotranspiration was initially developed for conditions of a horizontally uniform saturated surface, sufficiently extended to obviate any significant advection of energy. Nevertheless, the PT approach has been proven efficient within the frame...

  20. Chorioamnionitis: Implications for the Neonate Jessica

    PubMed Central

    Ericson, Jessica E; Laughon, Matthew M

    2014-01-01

    Chorioamnionitis (CA) is a perinatal condition characterized by inflammation of the fetal membranes. The incidence of CA increases with decreasing gestational age at birth. When CA is suspect based on clinical criteria, pathologic assessment of the placenta should be performed. While the mechanisms are not entirely clear, CA predisposes infants to premature birth, neonatal sepsis and intraventricular hemorrhage. The role of CA in respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and neurodevelopmental impairment is mixed. Prevention and treatment of CA are not well defined. The use of antibiotics for preterm premature rupture of membranes reduces the incidence of CA and increases the length of time to delivery. Antibiotics are recommended for infants exposed to CA while laboratory studies are being performed. PMID:25678002

  1. Experimental and numerical analysis of Al6063 duralumin using Taylor impact test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruszka, L.; Anaszewicz, Ł.; Janiszewski, J.; Grązka, M.

    2012-08-01

    The paper presents results of experimental and numerical analysis of dynamic behaviour Al6063 duralumin. Dynamical experiments were made using Taylor impact test. Experimental results at next step of study were used in numerical analyses of dynamic yield stress of tested material and model parameters of the Johnson-Cook constitutive equation. The main aim of this analysis is to find out dynamical properties of Al6063 duralumin tested in Taylor impact test.

  2. Transition to two-dimensionality in magnetohydrodynamic turbulent Taylor-Couette flow.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yurong; Tao, Jianjun; Zikanov, Oleg

    2014-03-01

    Transition from a Taylor-Couette turbulent flow to a completely two-dimensional axisymmetric turbulent state is realized numerically by increasing gradually the strength of the azimuthal magnetic field produced by electric current flowing through the axial rod. With the increase of the Hartmann number, the Taylor-vortex-like structures shrink, move closer to the inner cylinder, and turn into unsteady but perfect tori at sufficiently high Hartmann numbers. PMID:24730932

  3. On the modeling of the Taylor cylinder impact test for orthotropic textured materials: Calculations and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Maudlin, P.J.; Bingert, J.F.; House, J.W.

    1997-04-01

    Taylor impact tests using specimens cut from a rolled plate of Ta were conducted. The Ta was well-characterized in terms of flow stress and crystallographic texture. A piece-wise yield surface was interrogated from this orthotropic texture, and used in EPIC-95 3D simulations of the Taylor test. Good agreement was realized between the calculations and the post-test geometries in terms of major and minor side profiles and impact-interface footprints.

  4. Distribution of glacial deposits, soils, and permafrost in Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bockheim, J.G.; Prentice, M.L.; McLeod, M.

    2008-01-01

    We provide a map of lower and central Taylor Valley, Antarctica, that shows deposits from Taylor Glacier, local alpine glaciers, and grounded ice in the Ross Embayment. From our electronic database, which includes 153 sites from the coast 50 km upvalley to Pearse Valley, we show the distribution of permafrost type and soil subgroups according to Soil Taxonomy. Soils in eastern Taylor Valley are of late Pleistocene age, cryoturbated due to the presence of ground ice or ice-cemented permafrost within 70 cm of the surface, and classified as Glacic and Typic Haploturbels. In central Taylor Valley, soils are dominantly Typic Anhyorthels of mid-Pleistocene age that have dry-frozen permafrost within the upper 70 cm. Salt-enriched soils (Salic Anhyorthels and Petrosalic Anhyorthels) are of limited extent in Taylor Valley and occur primarily on drifts of early Pleistocene and Pliocene age. Soils are less developed in Taylor Valley than in nearby Wright Valley, because of lesser salt input from atmospheric deposition and salt weathering. Ice-cemented permafrost is ubiquitous on Ross Sea, pre-Ross Sea, and Bonney drifts that occur within 28 km of the McMurdo coast. In contrast, dry-frozen permafrost is prevalent on older (???115 ky) surfaces to the west. ?? 2008 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  5. The stability of Taylor bubbles in large-diameter tubes: Linear theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, Habib; Matar, Omar

    2015-11-01

    Taylor bubbles are a characteristic feature of the slug flow regime in gas-liquid pipe flows. With increasing pipe diameter, previous experimental observations have shown that at sufficiently large diameter (> 0.1 m), the slug flow regime, and hence Taylor bubbles, are not observed in gas-liquid flows in vertical pipes. Numerical simulations of a Taylor bubble rising in a quiescent liquid (see companion talk at this APS/DFD conference) have also shown that the wake of Taylor bubbles rising in a riser of such sizes is turbulent and has great impact on the stability of the subsequent, trailing bubbles. In view of these observations, a linear stability analysis is carried out to establish the stability conditions for a Taylor bubble rising in a turbulent flowing liquid. The stability of an axisymmetric Taylor bubble to a small-amplitude, three dimensional, perturbation is studied and the dimensionless flow parameters of the liquid investigated include the Froude number, the inverse viscosity number, and the Eotvos numbers. Nigerian Government scholarship (for HA).

  6. Taylor's hypothesis in turbulent channel flow considered using a transport equation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, James; Geng, Chenhui; He, Guowei; Wang, Yinshan; Xu, Chunxiao

    2014-11-01

    A DNS of turbulent channel flow was carried out to examine Taylor's ``frozen turbulence'' hypothesis, i.e. the simple time-space transformation that allows (1 / Ū) ∂ / ∂ t to approximate streamwise derivatives, ∂ / ∂x , of velocity fluctuations. These terms in Taylor's hypothesis appear in the transport equation for instantaneous momentum for this flow. The additional terms, i.e. the additional convective acceleration and the pressure gradient and viscous force terms, act to diminish the validity of Taylor's hypothesis when they are relatively large compared to the Taylor's hypothesis terms and are not in balance. A similar analysis also has been applied to the transport equation for instantaneous vorticity. There the additional terms, namely the additional convective rates of change, the stretching/compression/rotation and the viscous diffusion of vorticity terms, similarly act to diminish the validity of Taylor's hypothesis when they also are relatively large compared to the terms in the hypothesis and are not in balance. Where in the channel flow this diminishment occurs, and to what degree, and which of the non-Taylor's hypothesis terms in the momentum and vorticity equations contribute most to this diminishment will be presented. Supported by National Natural Sci. Found. and the National Basic Res. Progr. of China and the Burgers Progr. for Fluid Dynamics.

  7. Rayleigh-Taylor Gravity Waves and Quasiperiodic Oscillation Phenomenon in X-ray Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titarchuk, Lev

    2002-01-01

    Accretion onto compact objects in X-ray binaries (black hole, neutron star (NS), white dwarf) is characterized by non-uniform flow density profiles. Such an effect of heterogeneity in presence of gravitational forces and pressure gradients exhibits Rayleigh-Taylor gravity waves (RTGW). They should be seen as quasiperiodic wave oscillations (QPO) of the accretion flow in the transition (boundary) layer between the Keplerian disk and the central object. In this paper the author shows that the main QPO frequency, which is very close to the Keplerian frequency, is split into separate frequencies (hybrid and low branch) under the influence of the gravitational forces in the rotational frame of reference. The RTGWs must be present and the related QPOs should be detected in any system where the gravity, buoyancy and Coriolis force effects cannot be excluded (even in the Earth and solar environments). The observed low and high QPO frequencies are an intrinsic signature of the RTGW. The author elaborates the conditions for the density profile when the RTGW oscillations are stable. A comparison of the inferred QPO frequencies with QPO observations is presented. The author finds that hectohertz frequencies detected from NS binaries can be identified as the RTGW low branch frequencies. The author also predicts that an observer can see the double NS spin frequency during the NS long (super) burst events when the pressure gradients and buoyant forces are suppressed. The Coriolis force is the only force which acts in the rotational frame of reference and its presence causes perfect coherent pulsations with a frequency twice of the NS spin. The QPO observations of neutron binaries have established that the high QPO frequencies do not go beyond of the certain upper limit. The author explains this observational effect as a result of the density profile inversions. Also the author demonstrates that a particular problem of the gravity waves in the rotational frame of reference in the

  8. 78 FR 48669 - Carolina Gas Transmission Corporation; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Carolina Gas Transmission Corporation; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on July 19, 2013 Carolina Gas Transmission Corporation (CGT), 601 Old Taylor Road... application should be directed to Michael R. Ferguson, Manager-System Intergity, Carolina Gas...

  9. Linear magnetohydrodynamic Taylor-Couette instability for liquid sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüdiger, Günther; Schultz, Manfred; Shalybkov, Dima

    2003-04-01

    The linear stability of MHD Taylor-Couette flow of infinite vertical extension is considered for liquid sodium with its small magnetic Prandtl number Pm of order 10-5. The calculations are performed for a container with Rout=2Rin, with an axial uniform magnetic field and with boundary conditions for both vacuum and perfect conductions. For resting outer cylinder subcritical excitation in comparison to the hydrodynamical case occurs for large Pm but it disappears for small Pm. For rotating outer cylinder the Rayleigh line plays an exceptional role. The hydromagnetic instability exists with Reynolds numbers exactly scaling with Pm-1/2 so that the moderate values of order 104 (for Pm=10-5) result. For the smallest step beyond the Rayleigh line, however, the Reynolds numbers scale as 1/Pm leading to much higher values of order 106. Then it is the magnetic Reynolds number Rm that directs the excitation of the instability. It results as lower for insulating than for conducting walls. The magnetic Reynolds number has to exceed here values of order 10 leading to frequencies of about 20 Hz for the rotation of the inner cylinder if containers with (say) 10 cm radius are considered. With vacuum boundary conditions the excitation of nonaxisymmetric modes is always more difficult than the excitation of axisymmetric modes. For conducting walls, however, crossovers of the lines of marginal stability exist for both resting and rotating outer cylinders, and this might be essential for future dynamo experiments. In this case the instability also can onset as an overstability.

  10. Rayleigh-Taylor Instability Evolution in Ablatively Driven Cylindrical Implosions^*,**

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsing, W. W.

    1996-11-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability is an important limitation in ICF capsule designs. Significant work both theoretically and experimentally has been done to demonstrate the stabilizing effects due to material flow through the unstable region. The experimental verification has been done predominantly in planar geometry. Convergent geometry introduces effects not present in planar geometry such as shell thickening and accelerationless growth of modal amplitudes (e.g. Bell-Plesset growth). Amplitude thresholds for the nonlinear regime are reduced, since the wavelength of a mode m decreases with convergence λ ~ r/m, where r is the radius. We have investigated convergent effects using an imploding cylinder driven by x-ray ablation on the NOVA laser. By doping sections of the cylinder with high-Z materials, in conjunction with x-ray backlighting, we have measured the growth and feedthrough of the perturbations from the ablation front to the inner surface of the cylinder for various initial modes and amplitudes from early time through stagnation. Mode coupling of illumination asymmetries with material perturbations is observed, as well as phase reversal of the perturbations from near the ablation front to the inner surface of the cylinder. Imaging is performed with an x-ray pinhole camera coupled to a gated microchannel plate detector. In collaboration with C. W. Barnes, J. B. Beck, N. Hoffman (LANL), D. Galmiche, A. Richard (CEA/L-V), J. Edwards, P. Graham, B. Thomas (AWE). ^**This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36.

  11. The Transition to Turbulence of Rayleigh-Taylor Unstable Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Elizabeth P.; Rosner, R.

    2011-01-01

    Part of the uncertainty surrounding the explosion mechanism of Type 1A supernovae is the extent to which the turbulence created by the flame front can speed the flame up. A premixed flame moving against a sufficiently strong gravitational field becomes deformed and creates vorticity. If gravity is strong enough, this vorticity is shed and deposited behind the flame front. We have completed some two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of this shedding process for various values of the gravitational force. If gravity is weak enough, the flame front remains flat and no vorticity is created. If gravity is slightly stronger, the flame front becomes cusped and creates vorticity; long vortices attach to the flame front and extend behind it. For even larger values of gravity, the far end of these vortices becomes unstable and sheds more vortices. For simulations with increased gravity, the position of the shedding instability moves closer to the flame front. Next, the vortex shedding disturbs the flame front, causing the flame to pulsate. These pulsations lose their left/right symmetry and the period of oscillation doubles. For even higher values of gravity, an additional frequency is introduced into the system as the Rayleigh-Taylor instability begins to dominate over burning. Eventually, the pulsations of the flame become quite complex and the interaction between the flame front and the vortices can't be simply described. We have measured the subsequent wrinkling of the flame front by computing its fractal dimension and the energy spectra behind the flame front. Measurements of the fractal dimension suggest that it saturates, implying that any additional speed up of the flame must be due to large-scale stretching or disruption of the flame front. Our simulations were performed at NERSC which is supported by the Department of Energy.

  12. Rayleigh-Taylor instability and mushroom-pattern formation in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Kazuki; Suzuki, Naoya; Saito, Hiroki; Akamatsu, Daisuke

    2009-12-15

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the interface in an immiscible two-component Bose-Einstein condensate is investigated using the mean field and Bogoliubov theories. Rayleigh-Taylor fingers are found to grow from the interface and mushroom patterns are formed. Quantized vortex rings and vortex lines are then generated around the mushrooms. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability and mushroom-pattern formation can be observed in a trapped system.

  13. The Taylor-Green vortex and fully developed turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachet, M. E.; Meiron, D.; Orszag, S.; Nickel, B.; Morf, R.; Frisch, U.

    1984-03-01

    We here report results obtained from numerical simulations of the TaylorGreen three-dimensional vortex flow. This flow is perhaps the simplest system in which one can study the generation of small scales by three-dimensional vortex stretching and the resulting turbulence. The problem is studied by both direct spectral numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations (with up to 2563 modes) and by power series analysis in time. The inviscid dynamics are strongly influenced by symmetries which confine the flow to an impermeable box with stress-free boundaries. There is an early stage during which the flow is strongly anisotropic with well-organized (laminar) small-scale excitation. The flow is smooth but has complex-space singularities within a distance δ(t) of the real space which are manifest through an exponential tail in the energy spectrum. It is found that δ(t) decreases exponentially in time to the limit of our resolution. Indirect evidence is presented that more violent vortex stretching takes place at later times, possibly leading to a real singularity (δ=0) at a finite time. These direct integration results are consistent with new presented results extending the Morf, Orszag, and Frisch temporal power series analysis from order t40 to order t80. Still, convincing evidence for or against the existence of a real singularity will require even more sophisticated analysis. The viscous dynamics (decay) have been studied for Reynolds numbers R (based on integral scale) up to 3000 and beyond the time tmax at which the maximum energy dissipation is achieved. Early time, high R dynamics are essentially inviscid and laminar. Then, instabilities starting at small scales, which may be driven by viscosity, make the flow increasingly chaotic (turbulent) with extended high-vorticity patches appearing away from the impermeable walls. Near t max the small scales of the flow are nearly isotropic provided R>1000. Various features characteristic of fully developed

  14. Reconnaissance and deep-drill site selection on Taylor Dome, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grootes, Pieter M.; Waddington, Edwin D.

    1993-01-01

    Taylor Dome is a small ice dome near the head of Taylor Valley, Southern Victoria Land. The location of the dome, just west of the Transantarctic Mountains, is expected to make the composition of the accumulating snow sensitive to changes in the extent of the Ross Ice Shelf. Thus, it is linked to the discharge of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet but protected against direct influences of glacial-interglacial sea-level rise. The record of past climatic and environmental changes in the ice provides a valuable complement to the radiocarbon-dated proxy record of climate derived from perched deltas, strandlines, and moraines that have been obtained in the nearby Dry Valleys. We carried out a reconnaissance of the Taylor Dome area over the past two field seasons to determine the most favorable location to obtain a deep core to bedrock. A stake network has been established with an 80-km line roughly along the crest of Taylor Dome, and 40-km lines parallel to it and offset by 10 km. These lines have been surveyed 1990/91, and the positions of 9 grid points have been determined with geoceivers. A higher density stake network was placed and surveyed around the most likely drill area in the second year. Ground-based radar soundings in both years provided details on bedrock topography and internal layering of the ice in the drill area. An airborne radar survey in January 1992, completed the radar coverage of the Taylor Dome field area.

  15. An Experimental Investigation of Flow Mode Selection in a Conical Taylor-Couette System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noui-Mehidi, Mohamed Nabil; Ohmura, Naoto; Kataoka, Kunio

    Transitions of viscous flow between coaxial conical cylinders with the inner one rotating and the outer one at rest were investigated to reveal mode selection of the first instabilities with the aid of flow visualization and spectral analysis. The rotational velocity of the inner conical cylinder was linearly accelerated from rest until reaching its final speed. The different observed states were successfully distinguished by their dependency on the acceleration rate β in the investigated range of Taylor number Ta. Transitions between states were determined as functions of β and Ta by fixing the Taylor number and varying the acceleration rate in the range 0.01-1.5 rad/s2. Observed states were classified into: first toroidal vortices (FTV), helical motion (HMV), upward travelling vortices (UTV), steady Taylor vortices (TVF) and wavy vortices (WVF). Modes of six pairs of Taylor vortices (6TVF), seven pairs (7TVF) and eight pairs (8TVF) were observed at the same Ta and different β. Steady Taylor vortices and wavy vortices were also observed when β increased at the same Ta. The spectral analysis indicated that the states HMV and WVF have constant ratios between the characteristic frequencies and the frequency of rotation of the inner conical cylinder, while in UTV the ratio decreases with increasing Ta. The mode selection diagram in the (Ta,β) plane has no regular form with regard to the zones delimiting the different observed states.

  16. Experimental observation of Rayleigh-Taylor modes in solids with strength

    SciTech Connect

    Reinovsky, R.E.; Anderson, W.E.; Atchison, W.L.

    1998-12-31

    Magnetically imploded cylindrical metal shells (z-pinch liners) can be used to drive a wide variety of hydrodynamics and materials properties experiments if they can be imploded at high velocity with good azimuthal symmetry and axial uniformity. As in all z-pinches, the outer surface of the liner is magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) unstable during acceleration and large-scale distortion of the liners from RT modes growing from initial imperfections could make liners unusable. According to first principles, material strength in the liner should reduce the growth rate of RT modes and material strength can render some modes analytically stable. To study the evolution of RT modes in liners, a series of experiments have been conducted in which high purity aluminum liners were accelerated with 6 MA, 7ms risetime driving currents. Initial sub-millimeter perturbations were machined into the outer surface of the liner and perturbation growth monitored with x-ray imaging optical, magnetic and impact probes, described in a companion paper. Results 2D MHD simulations were in excellent agreement with observed perturbation growth through the entire course of the implosions. Analytic theory of instability threshold in materials with strength adequately predicted the onset of instability growth and is also in good agreement with 2D calculations. When internal stress substantially exceeded the yield strength of the material, fluid like growth rates were observed as predicted by analytic theory. In general, for high conductivity and soft materials, theory and simulation adequately predicted the behavior of classic magneto-RT modes. This is the first direct verification of the growth of magneto RT in solids with strength known to the authors. Based on these results higher strength liner materials should further reduce the growth of RT modes. Two similar experiments have also been conducted with substantially higher strength, but also lower conductivity, alloys in which dramatically

  17. Exploring the phase space of multiple states in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Veen, Roeland C. A.; Huisman, Sander G.; Dung, On-Yu; Tang, Ho L.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the existence of multiple turbulent states in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow in the range of Ta =1011 to 9 ×1012 by measuring the global torques and the local velocities while probing the phase space spanned by the rotation rates of the inner and outer cylinders. The multiple states are found to be very robust and are expected to persist beyond Ta =1013 . The rotation ratio is the parameter that most strongly controls the transitions between the flow states; the transitional values only weakly depend on the Taylor number. However, complex paths in the phase space are necessary to unlock the full region of multiple states. By mapping the flow structures for various rotation ratios in a Taylor-Couette setup with an equal radius ratio but a larger aspect ratio than before, multiple states are again observed. Here they are characterized by even richer roll structure phenomena, including an antisymmetrical roll state.

  18. Large eddy simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method

    SciTech Connect

    Darlington, R

    1999-12-01

    This research addresses the application of a large eddy simulation (LES) to Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. First, ALE simulations of simplified Rayleigh-Taylor instability are studied. The advantages of ALE over Eulerian simulations are shown. Next, the behavior of the LES is examined in a more complicated ALE simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The effects of eddy viscosity and stochastic backscatter are examined. The LES is also coupled with ALE to increase grid resolution in areas where it is needed. Finally, the methods studied above are applied to two sets of experimental simulations. In these simulations, ALE allows the mesh to follow expanding experimental targets, while LES can be used to mimic the effect of unresolved instability modes.

  19. A modified Taylor rule for dealing with demand shocks and uncertain potential macroeconomic output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Ibarra-Valdez, Carlos; Fernandez-Anaya, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

    2008-02-01

    A critical issue for central banks in modern economies is the inflation stabilization about a prescribed level. The best-known simple instrumental rule to guide monetary policy to control inflation is the Taylor rule, where the instrument (e.g., a short interest rate) responds to changes in the inflation and the output gaps. The objective of this paper is to introduce some modifications to the Taylor rule in order to improve its robustness with respect to uncertainties about potential output and unanticipated shocks. To this end, departing from feedback control theory, the Taylor rule is equipped with an adaptive control scheme to reject the adverse effects of shocks and to estimate the deviations of the potential output. It is shown that the proposed adaptation procedure is equivalent to a classical integral feedback controller whose characteristics and implementation issues are well understood in practical control engineering. Singular perturbation methods are used to establish the stability properties of the resulting control system.

  20. Coulomb potentials and Taylor expansions in time-dependent density-functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournais, Søren; Lampart, Jonas; Lewin, Mathieu; Sørensen, Thomas Østergaard

    2016-06-01

    We investigate when Taylor expansions can be used to prove the Runge-Gross theorem, which is at the foundation of time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT). We start with a general analysis of the conditions for the Runge-Gross argument, especially the time differentiability of the density. The latter should be questioned in the presence of singular (e.g., Coulomb) potentials. Then we show that a singular potential in a one-body operator considerably decreases the class of time-dependent external potentials to which the original argument can be applied. A two-body singularity has an even stronger impact and an external potential is essentially incompatible with it. For the Coulomb interaction and all reasonable initial many-body states, the Taylor expansion only exists to a finite order, except for constant external potentials. Therefore, high-order Taylor expansions are not the right tool to study atoms and molecules in TDDFT.

  1. THE VIOLATION OF THE TAYLOR HYPOTHESIS IN MEASUREMENTS OF SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, K. G.; Howes, G. G.; TenBarge, J. M.

    2014-08-01

    Motivated by the upcoming Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus missions, qualitative and quantitative predictions are made for the effects of the violation of the Taylor hypothesis on the magnetic energy frequency spectrum measured in the near-Sun environment. The synthetic spacecraft data method is used to predict observational signatures of the violation for critically balanced Alfvénic turbulence or parallel fast/whistler turbulence. The violation of the Taylor hypothesis can occur in the slow flow regime, leading to a shift of the entire spectrum to higher frequencies, or in the dispersive regime, in which the dissipation range spectrum flattens at high frequencies. It is found that Alfvénic turbulence will not significantly violate the Taylor hypothesis, but whistler turbulence will. The flattening of the frequency spectrum is therefore a key observational signature for fast/whistler turbulence.

  2. On the turbulent structure in the wake of Taylor bubbles rising in vertical pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemer, L.; Gulitski, A.; Barnea, D.

    2007-03-01

    The development of gas-liquid slug flow along pipes is governed by the interaction between consecutive elongated bubbles. It is commonly accepted that the trailing bubble's shape and velocity are affected by the flow field in the liquid phase ahead of it. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements of the velocity field in the wake of an elongated Taylor bubble are performed for different pipe diameters and various Reynolds numbers. Experiments are carried out in both laminar and turbulent background flows. Ensemble-averaged quantities in the frame of reference moving with the Taylor bubble are calculated. Peculiarities regarding the variation of the mean velocity distributions, as well as of the normal and shear Reynolds stresses, with the distance from the Taylor bubble bottom are discussed.

  3. Helical magnetorotational instability in a Taylor-Couette flow with strongly reduced Ekman pumping.

    PubMed

    Stefani, Frank; Gerbeth, Gunter; Gundrum, Thomas; Hollerbach, Rainer; Priede, Jānis; Rüdiger, Günther; Szklarski, Jacek

    2009-12-01

    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is thought to play a key role in the formation of stars and black holes by sustaining the turbulence in hydrodynamically stable Keplerian accretion disks. In previous experiments the MRI was observed in a liquid metal Taylor-Couette flow at moderate Reynolds numbers by applying a helical magnetic field. The observation of this helical MRI (HMRI) was interfered with a significant Ekman pumping driven by solid end caps that confined the instability only to a part of the Taylor-Couette cell. This paper describes the observation of the HMRI in an improved Taylor-Couette setup with the Ekman pumping significantly reduced by using split end caps. The HMRI, which now spreads over the whole height of the cell, appears much sharper and in better agreement with numerical predictions. By analyzing various parameter dependencies we conclude that the observed HMRI represents a self-sustained global instability rather than a noise-sustained convective one. PMID:20365263

  4. The application of taylor weighting, digital phase shifters, and digital attenuators to phased-array antennas.

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, Billy C.

    2008-03-01

    Application of Taylor weighting (taper) to an antenna aperture can achieve low peak sidelobes, but combining the Taylor weighting with quantized attenuators and phase shifters at each radiating element will impact the performance of a phased-array antenna. An examination of array performance is undertaken from the simple point of view of the characteristics of the array factor. Design rules and guidelines for determining the Taylor-weighting parameters, the number of bits required for the digital phase shifter, and the dynamic range and number of bits required for the digital attenuator are developed. For a radar application, when each element is fed directly from a transmit/receive module, the total power radiated by the array will be reduced as a result of the taper. Consequently, the issue of whether to apply the taper on both transmit and receive configurations, or only on the receive configuration is examined with respect to two-way sidelobe performance.

  5. Saffman-Taylor fingering with lateral injection with applications to imbibition coarsening dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagree, Bertrand; Zaleski, Stephane; Bondino, Igor; Josserand, Christophe; Popinet, Stephane

    2013-11-01

    We report 2D simulations of Saffman-Taylor fingering motivated by the analysis of experiments on the imbibition of porous media in square slab geometries. We use a Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method to model a two-phase Darcy flow with a sharp interface between the two fluids. The Gerris code which allows efficient parallel computations with quad-tree mesh refinement is used. It is tested for accuracy and precision using several levels of refinement and comparing to reference simulations in the literature. A fingering pattern is observed after lateral injection of a less viscous fluid into a region filled with a more viscous one. Large fractal-like clusters are observed allowing the measurements of several scaling exponents which are compared to the known Diffusion-Limited-Aggregation (DLA) and Saffman-Taylor scalings. An interesting effect is the transition from a transient cylindrical DLA pattern to a small number then a single Saffman Taylor finger.

  6. Revisiting Taylor Dispersion: Differential enhancement of rotational and translational diffusion under oscillatory shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, Brian; Ong, Desmond; Cheng, Xiang; Cohen, Itai

    2013-03-01

    The idea of Taylor dispersion - enhancement of translational diffusion under shear - has found applications in fields from pharmacology to chemical engineering. Here, in a combination of experiment and simulations, we study the translational and rotational diffusion of colloidal dimers under triangle-wave oscillatory shear. We find that the rotational diffusion is enhanced, in addition to the enhanced translational diffusion. This ``rotational Taylor dispersion'' depends strongly on the strain rate (Peclet number), aspect ratio, and the shear strain, in contradistinction to translational Taylor dispersion in a shear flow, which depends only weakly on strain rate and aspect ratio. This separate tunability of translations and orientations promises important applications in mixing and self-assembly of solutions of anisometric colloids. We discuss the corresponding effect on the structure and rheology of denser suspensions of rod-like particles. B. L. acknowledges supported by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program.

  7. Magnetic Field Generation by the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability in Laser-Driven Planar Plastic Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, L.; Nilson, P. M.; Igumenschev, I. V.; Hu, S. X.; Davies, J. R.; Stoeckl, C.; Haines, M. G.; Froula, D. H.; Betti, R.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2012-09-01

    Magnetic fields generated by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability were measured in laser-accelerated planar foils using ultrafast proton radiography. Thin plastic foils were irradiated with ˜4-kJ, 2.5-ns laser pulses focused to an intensity of ˜1014W/cm2 on the OMEGA EP Laser System. Target modulations were seeded by laser nonuniformities and amplified during target acceleration by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The experimental data show the hydrodynamic evolution of the target and MG-level magnetic fields generated in the broken foil. The experimental data are in good agreement with predictions from 2-D magnetohydrodynamic simulations.

  8. Taylor Series Trajectory Calculations Including Oblateness Effects and Variable Atmospheric Density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Taylor series integration is implemented in NASA Glenn's Spacecraft N-body Analysis Program, and compared head-to-head with the code's existing 8th- order Runge-Kutta Fehlberg time integration scheme. This paper focuses on trajectory problems that include oblateness and/or variable atmospheric density. Taylor series is shown to be significantly faster and more accurate for oblateness problems up through a 4x4 field, with speedups ranging from a factor of 2 to 13. For problems with variable atmospheric density, speedups average 24 for atmospheric density alone, and average 1.6 to 8.2 when density and oblateness are combined.

  9. Spinal anesthesia using Taylor's approach helps avoid general anesthesia in short stature asthmatic patient

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Amarjeet Dnyandeo; Bapat, Manasi; Patil, Sunita A.; Gogna, Roshan Lal

    2015-01-01

    The case history of a 35-year-old female patient with short stature is presented. She was posted for rectopexy in view of rectal prolapse. She was a known case of bronchial asthma. She had crowding of intervertebral spaces, which made administration of spinal anesthesia via the normal route very difficult. Taylor's approach for administration of the same was tried and proved successful, thus saving the patient from receiving general anesthesia in the presence of bronchial asthma, for a perineal surgery. The possible cause for the difficulty in administration of spinal anesthesia and the Taylor's approach are discussed, and reports of similar cases reviewed. PMID:26543472

  10. On the importance of recrystallization to reproduce the Taylor impact specimen shape of a pure nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couque, Hervé

    2015-09-01

    Taylor tests are a mean to investigate the dynamic plastic and failure behaviour of metals under compression. By taking in account the strengthening occurring at high strain rates, the Taylor final diameter of a pure nickel impacted at 453 m/s have been numerically reproduced by 13%. Through post-mortem observations of the specimen impacted at 453 m/s, a recrystallization process has been found to occur resulting in a softening of the pure nickel. Subsequent numerical simulations taking in account this softening have been found to reduce the difference between experimental and numerical diameter by 10%.

  11. Changing Course: Thurgood Marshall College Fund President Johnny Taylor Seeks New Partnerships and Avenues of Support for Public HBCUs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2011-01-01

    When veteran educator Dr. N. Joyce Payne handed the reins of the organization she founded, the Thurgood Marshall College Fund, to entertainment lawyer and board member Johnny Taylor, Taylor began pursuing a remake of the prestigious group that has turned it on its head in just a matter of months. Today, with just more than a year of leading the…

  12. 78 FR 43751 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Former Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Register and transmitted to the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, July 17, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013... Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor On July 22, 2004, by Executive Order 13348, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the former Liberian regime of Charles Taylor pursuant to...

  13. 76 FR 43799 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Former Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ....) THE WHITE HOUSE, July 20, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-18703 Filed 7-20-11; 2:00 pm] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... With Respect to the Former Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0... Respect to the Former Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor On July 22, 2004, by Executive Order 13348,...

  14. A thin-walled Taylor column surrounding a bathtub vortex in rotating tank.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Chin-Chou; Lai, Kuan-Ruei; Chen, Yin-Chung; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Vortex Dynamics Team

    2015-11-01

    Numerical simulations and laboratory experiments were jointly conducted to investigate a bathtub vortex under the influence of a protruding cylinder in a rotating tank. The flow pattern depends on Rossby number (Ro = U /fR), Ekman number (Ek = ν /fR2) , and height ratio, h/ H, where R is the radius of the cylinder, f the Coriolis parameter, ν the kinematic viscosity of the fluid, h the vertical length of the cylinder and H the height of the tank. Steady-state solutions obtained by numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations in the rotating frame are shown to have good agreements with flow visualizations measurements. The bathtub vortex exhibits an interesting two-celled structure with an inner Ekman pumping and an outer up-drafting motion. The two regions of up-drafting motion are separated by a notable finite-thickness structure, identified as thin-walled Taylor column. The Taylor column sets a barrier to the fluid flow that flows into the inner region only through the narrow gaps, one above the Taylor column and one beneath it. Moreover, the dependence of thickness and height of the thin-walled Taylor column on angular velocity ratio of cylinder to background rotation (ω/ Ω) , ranging from -8/3 to 8/3 are also discussed. Supported by Ministry of Science and Technology, TAIWAN ROC, under contract no's 102-2221-E-002-068-MY3 & 103C-4514-1.

  15. Subscales to the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale in Three Chronically Ill Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Peter N.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examines factors of anxiety in the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale in 150 asthma, tuberculosis, and chronic pain patients. Key cluster analysis revealed five clusters: restlessness, embarrassment, sensitivity, physiological anxiety, and self-confidence. Embarrassment is fairly dependent on the other factors. (JAC)

  16. CFD-informed unified closure relation for the rise velocity of Taylor bubbles in pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizarraga-Garcia, Enrique; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Al-Safran, Eissa; Lakehal, Djamel

    2015-11-01

    Two-phase slug flow commonly occurs in gas and oil systems. Current predictive methods are based on the mechanistic models, which require the use of closure relations to complement the conservation equations to predict integral flow parameters such as liquid holdup (or void fraction) and pressure gradient. Taylor bubble velocity in slug flow is one of these closure relations which has been determined to significantly affect the calculation of these parameters. In this work, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) with Level-Set as the Interface Tracking Method (ITM) are employed to simulate the motion of Taylor bubbles in slug flow, for which the commercial code TransAT is used. A large numerical database with stagnant and flowing liquid for various Reynolds numbers is being generated from which a unified Taylor bubble velocity correlation in stagnant liquids for an ample range of fluid properties and pipe geometries is proposed (Mo ∈ [ 1 .10-6 , 5 .103 ] , Eo ∈ [ 10 , 700 ]). Furthermore, it is found that the velocity of Taylor bubbles in inclined pipes is greatly affected by the presence of a lubricating thin film between the bubble and the pipe wall. An analytical and experimentally validated criterion, which predicts the film existence, draiage and breakup, is presented.

  17. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

  18. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

  19. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

  20. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

  1. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

  2. Magnetic-field generation by the ablative nonlinear Rayleigh–Taylor instability

    SciTech Connect

    Nilson, P. M.; Gao, L.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Fiksel, G.; Yan, R.; Davies, J. R.; Martinez, D.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Haines, M. G.; Blackman, E. G.; Froula, D. H.; Betti, R.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2015-04-01

    Experiments reporting magnetic-field generation by the ablative nonlinear Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) instability are reviewed. The experiments show how large-scale magnetic fields can, under certain circumstances, emerge and persist in strongly driven laboratory and astrophysical flows at drive pressures exceeding one million times atmospheric pressure.

  3. 77 FR 61937 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Taylor's Checkerspot Butterfly and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, propose to list the Taylor's checkerspot butterfly as an endangered species, and to list the streaked horned lark as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We additionally propose to designate critical habitat for these species. These determinations fulfill our obligations under a settlement agreement. These are......

  4. 78 FR 61451 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for the Taylor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... On October 11, 2012 (77 FR 61938), we published a proposed rule to list the Taylor's checkerspot... species may be found in the proposed rule, which was published October 11, 2012 (77 FR 61938). Previous... horned lark as candidates for listing in our 2001 candidate notice of review (CNOR) (66 FR 54808;...

  5. Validity of the Taylor hypothesis for linear kinetic waves in the weakly collisional solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, G. G.; Klein, K. G.; TenBarge, J. M.

    2014-07-10

    The interpretation of single-point spacecraft measurements of solar wind turbulence is complicated by the fact that the measurements are made in a frame of reference in relative motion with respect to the turbulent plasma. The Taylor hypothesis—that temporal fluctuations measured by a stationary probe in a rapidly flowing fluid are dominated by the advection of spatial structures in the fluid rest frame—is often assumed to simplify the analysis. But measurements of turbulence in upcoming missions, such as Solar Probe Plus, threaten to violate the Taylor hypothesis, either due to slow flow of the plasma with respect to the spacecraft or to the dispersive nature of the plasma fluctuations at small scales. Assuming that the frequency of the turbulent fluctuations is characterized by the frequency of the linear waves supported by the plasma, we evaluate the validity of the Taylor hypothesis for the linear kinetic wave modes in the weakly collisional solar wind. The analysis predicts that a dissipation range of solar wind turbulence supported by whistler waves is likely to violate the Taylor hypothesis, while one supported by kinetic Alfvén waves is not.

  6. Taylor Series Expansion with the Fluctuation Freely Approximated Remainder Over Highly Oscillatory Basis Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Guervit, Ercan; Baykara, N. A.; Demiralp, Metin

    2009-09-09

    A new formulation is developed here to approximate highly oscillatory functions by applying the Fluctuationlessness Theorem to the remainder term of the Taylor polynomial. To this end a trigonometric basis set is utilized. Because of the limitation of space in this extended abstract the implementation of results are left to the presentation.

  7. The role of the modified taylor impact test in dynamic material research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagusat, Frank; Rohr, Ingmar

    2015-09-01

    Dynamic material research with strain rates of more than 1000 1/s is experimentally very often done with a Split-Hopkinson Bar, Taylor impact tests or planar plate impact test investigations. At the Ernst-Mach-Institut (EMI), a variant of an inverted classical Taylor impact test is used by application of velocity interferometers of the VISAR type ("Modified Taylor Impact Test", MTT). The conduction of the experiments is similar to that of planar plate impact tests. The data reduction and derivation of dynamic material data can also be restricted to an analysis of the VISAR signal. Due to these properties, nearly each highly dynamic material characterization in our institute done by planar plate investigations is usually accompanied by MTT experiments. The extended possibilities and usefulness of a combined usage of these two highly dynamic characterization methods are explained. Recently, further developed MTT experiments with very small specimen sizes are presented. For the first time, Taylor impact and planar impact specimen can be used for which the load directions even in case of thin plate test material are identical and not perpendicular to each other. Consequences for testing construction elements are discussed.

  8. Stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the presence of viscosity and compressibility: A critical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, A.; Roychoudhury, R.; Khan, M.

    2016-02-01

    The stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth rate due to the combined effect of viscosity and compressibility has been studied. A detailed explanation of the observed results has been made from theoretical point of view. The numerical results have been compared qualitatively with those of Plesset and Whipple [Phys. Fluids 17, 1 (1974)] and Bernstein and Book [Phys. Fluids 26, 453 (1983)].

  9. 75 FR 71668 - Cibota National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District, NM, Roca Honda Mine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ...Roca Honda Resources, LLC has submitted a Plan of Operations proposing to develop and conduct underground uranium mining operations on their mining claims on and near Jesus Mesa in the Mount Taylor Ranger District of the Cibola National Forest. The proposed mine is located within portions of Sections 9, 10 and 16, Township 13 North, Range 8 West, New Mexico Principal Meridian. These sections......

  10. 78 FR 61505 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Taylor's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... in the Federal Register (77 FR 61937) a proposed rule to list the Taylor's checkerspot butterfly and... Federal Register on April 3, 2012 (78 FR 20074), allowing the public to provide comments on our analysis... comment periods. The first comment period, ] associated with the publication of the proposed rule (77...

  11. A depositional model for the Taylor coal bed, Martin and Johnson counties, eastern Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, W.M.; Hower, J.C.; Ferm, J.C.; Evans, S.D.; Sirek, N.S.; Warrell, M.; Eble, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the Taylor coal bed in Johnson and Martin counties, eastern Kentucky, using field and petrographic techniques to develop a depositional model of the coal bed. Petrography and chemistry of the coal bed were examined. Multiple benches of the Taylor coal bed were correlated over a 10 km distance. Three sites were studied in detail. The coal at the western and eastern sites were relatively thin and split by thick clastic partings. The coal at the central site was the thickest and unsplit. Two major clastic partings are included in the coal bed. Each represents a separate and distinct fluvial splay. The Taylor is interpreted to have developed on a coastal plain with periodic flooding from nearby, structurally-controlled fluvial systems. Doming is unlikely due to the petrographic and chemical trends, which are inconsistent with modern Indonesian models. The depositional history and structural and stratigraphic setting suggest contemporaneous structural influence on thickness and quality of the Taylor coal bed in this area.

  12. Rayleigh-Taylor modes in constant-density incompressible fluids accelerated by radiation pressure. [astrophysical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krolik, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    The paper examines the behavior of linear perturbations in an incompressible fluid undergoing acceleration by radiation pressure, with reference to processes occurring in quasars, supernovae, and planetary nebulae. It is shown that, contrary to prior expectation, fluids accelerated by radiation pressure, are not always unstable to Rayleigh-Taylor modes. Some are, in fact, unstable, but the nature of the instability is qualitatively different.

  13. The Robert Taylor Boys and Girls Club of Chicago. Practitioner Perspectives: Bulletin from the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Patrick J.; Lahey, Elizabeth; Orlando, Kristine

    The Robert Taylor Boys and Girls Club of Chicago is located in this country's largest public housing development, serving over 1,500 predominantly African American members. It offers a brightly-colored building in a dilapidated, deprived area. It provides a clean, warm, safe haven for children to play, build strong bodies, get help with homework,…

  14. Effect of resistivity on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in an accelerated plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, J.L. ); Huerta, M.A. )

    1993-11-01

    We study the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in finite-conductivity accelerated plasma arcs of the type found in electromagnetic rail launchers. For a plasma of length [ital l], acceleration [ital a], and thermal speed [ital v][sub [ital T

  15. Approximate Expressions for the Period of a Simple Pendulum Using a Taylor Series Expansion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belendez, Augusto; Arribas, Enrique; Marquez, Andres; Ortuno, Manuel; Gallego, Sergi

    2011-01-01

    An approximate scheme for obtaining the period of a simple pendulum for large-amplitude oscillations is analysed and discussed. When students express the exact frequency or the period of a simple pendulum as a function of the oscillation amplitude, and they are told to expand this function in a Taylor series, they always do so using the…

  16. The stability of Taylor bubbles in large-diameter tubes: direct numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanjal, Amanjalot; Saravan-Butler, Maya; Smith, Sydney; Yang, Junfeng; Matar, Omar

    2015-11-01

    Slug flow corresponds to intermittent Taylor bubbles and liquid slugs, and is widely observed in the oil-and-gas industry. The fluctuating flow rate caused by Taylor bubbles is problematical; thus, the destabilisation of this regime would be beneficial. To gain better understanding of this regime in vertical tubes, three-dimensional CFD simulations of Taylor air bubble rise in initially stagnant water and progressively larger diameter tubes, are carried out. Tubes with diameters in the range of 0.032m-0.290m and a height of 2m are considered. The topology of the Taylor bubbles and their rise velocity are predicted and validated against experimental results. Our results suggest that the wake of leading bubbles plays a key role in the deformation and break-up of trailing bubbles. Motivated by these results, the effect of bubble separation distance, and aspect ratio, on bubble stability and the slug flow regime is investigated. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.

  17. Glaciation in Taylor Valley, Antarctica, older than 2.7 million years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, R.L.; Hamilton, W.; Denton, G.H.

    1968-01-01

    Potassium-argon dates for three samples of basaltic scoria from Taylor Valley, on the west side of McMurdo Sound, indicate that the basalt, which antedates and postdates major glaciations, is at least 2.7 million years old.

  18. The World of Barilla Taylor: Bringing History to Life through Primary Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stearns, Liza

    1997-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan using material from a primary source-based curriculum kit titled "The World of Barilla Taylor." The kit uses personal letters, maps, hospital and work records, and other primary sources to document the life of a young woman working in the textile mills in 19th-century Massachusetts. (MJP)

  19. Analyzing Traditional Medical Practitioners' Information-Seeking Behaviour Using Taylor's Information-Use Environment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatokun, Wole Michael; Ajagbe, Enitan

    2010-01-01

    This survey-based study examined the information-seeking behaviour of traditional medical practitioners using Taylor's information use model. Respondents comprised all 160 traditional medical practitioners that treat sickle cell anaemia. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. Frequency and percentage…

  20. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology: Janet Taylor Spence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology is awarded to Janet Taylor Spence. She is recognized for her outstanding scientific contributions that have had a profound theoretical and empirical impact on two areas of inquiry: Her early seminal research on the motivational properties of trait anxiety led the way to…

  1. Application of Morse Theory to Analysis of Rayleigh-Taylor Topology

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P L; Bremer, P T; Cabot, W H; Cook, A W; Laney, D E; Mascarenhas, A A; Pascucci, V

    2007-01-24

    We present a novel Morse Theory approach for the analysis of the complex topology of the Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer. We automatically extract bubble structures at multiple scales and identify the resolution of interest. Quantitative analysis of bubble counts over time highlights distinct mixing trends for a high-resolution Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) [1].

  2. 43 CFR 2091.7-2 - Segregative effect and opening: Taylor Grazing Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Segregative effect and opening: Taylor Grazing Act. 2091.7-2 Section 2091.7-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening of Lands § 2091.7-2 Segregative effect and opening:...

  3. A New NPGS Special Collection: Norman L. Taylor University of Kentucky Clover Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dr. Norman L. Taylor was a world renowned Professor and clover breeder in the Department of Plant and Soil Sciences at the University of Kentucky for 48 years. Following retirement in 2001, he continued working on clovers up until his death in 2010. Dr. Taylor’s entire career was devoted to enhancin...

  4. Differences between Experts' and Students' Conceptual Images of the Mathematical Structure of Taylor Series Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Taylor series convergence is a complicated mathematical structure which incorporates multiple concepts. Therefore, it can be very difficult for students to initially comprehend. How might students make sense of this structure? How might experts make sense of this structure? To answer these questions, an exploratory study was conducted using…

  5. The Taylor spectrum and transversality for a Heisenberg algebra of operators

    SciTech Connect

    Dosi, Anar A

    2010-05-11

    A problem on noncommutative holomorphic functional calculus is considered for a Banach module over a finite-dimensional nilpotent Lie algebra. As the main result, the transversality property of algebras of noncommutative holomorphic functions with respect to the Taylor spectrum is established for a family of bounded linear operators generating a Heisenberg algebra. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  6. The mantle and basalt-crust interaction below the Mount Taylor Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, C. M.; Crumpler, L. S.; Schmidt, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    The Mount Taylor Volcanic Field (MTVF) lies on the Jemez Lineament on the southeastern margin of the Colorado Plateau. The field is centered on the Mt. Taylor composite volcano and includes Mesa Chivato to the NE and Grants Ridge to the WSW. MTVF magmatism spans ~3.8-1.5 Ma (K-Ar, Perry et al., 1990). Magmas are dominantly alkaline with mafic compositions ranging from basanite to hy-basalt and felsic compositions ranging from ne-trachyte to rhyolite. We are investigating the state of the mantle and the spatial and temporal variation in basalt-crustal interaction below the MTVF by examining mantle xenoliths and basalts in the context of new mapping and future Ar-Ar dating. The earliest dated magmatism in the field is a basanite flow south of Mt. Taylor (Perry et al., 1990). Mantle xenolith-bearing alkali basalts and basanites occur on Mesa Chivato (Crumpler, 1980) and in the region of Mt. Taylor, though most basalts are peripheral to the main cone. Xenolith-bearing magmatism persists at least into the early stages of cone-building. Preliminary examination of the mantle xenolith suite suggests it is dominantly lherzolitic but contains likely examples of both melt-depleted (harzburgitic) and melt-enriched (clinopyroxenitic) mantle. There are aphyric and crystal-poor hawaiites, some of which are hy-normative (Perry et al., 1990), on and near Mt. Taylor, but many of the more evolved MTVF basalts show evidence of complex histories. Mt. Taylor basalts higher in the cone-building sequence contain >40% zoned plagioclase pheno- and megacrysts. Other basalts peripheral to Mt. Taylor and at Grants Ridge contain clinopyroxene and plagioclase megacrysts and cumulate-textured xenoliths, suggesting they interacted with lower crustal cumulates. Among the questions we are addressing: What was the chemical and thermal state of the mantle recorded by the basaltic suites and xenoliths and how did it change with time? Are multiple parental basalts (Si-saturated vs. undersaturated

  7. The Mantle and Basalt-Crust Interaction Below the Mount Taylor Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, Christian M.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Schmidt, Marick E.

    2010-01-01

    The Mount Taylor Volcanic Field (MTVF) lies on the Jemez Lineament on the southeastern margin of the Colorado Plateau. The field is centered on the Mt. Taylor composite volcano and includes Mesa Chivato to the NE and Grants Ridge to the WSW. MTVF magmatism spans approximately 3.8-1.5 Ma (K-Ar). Magmas are dominantly alkaline with mafic compositions ranging from basanite to hy-basalt and felsic compositions ranging from ne-trachyte to rhyolite. We are investigating the state of the mantle and the spatial and temporal variation in basalt-crustal interaction below the MTVF by examining mantle xenoliths and basalts in the context of new mapping and future Ar-Ar dating. The earliest dated magmatism in the field is a basanite flow south of Mt. Taylor. Mantle xenolith-bearing alkali basalts and basanites occur on Mesa Chivato and in the region of Mt. Taylor, though most basalts are peripheral to the main cone. Xenolith-bearing magmatism persists at least into the early stages of conebuilding. Preliminary examination of the mantle xenolith suite suggests it is dominantly lherzolitic but contains likely examples of both melt-depleted (harzburgitic) and melt-enriched (clinopyroxenitic) mantle. There are aphyric and crystal-poor hawaiites, some of which are hy-normative, on and near Mt. Taylor, but many of the more evolved MTVF basalts show evidence of complex histories. Mt. Taylor basalts higher in the cone-building sequence contain >40% zoned plagioclase pheno- and megacrysts. Other basalts peripheral to Mt. Taylor and at Grants Ridge contain clinopyroxene and plagioclase megacrysts and cumulate-textured xenoliths, suggesting they interacted with lower crustal cumulates. Among the questions we are addressing: What was the chemical and thermal state of the mantle recorded by the basaltic suites and xenoliths and how did it change with time? Are multiple parental basalts (Si-saturated vs. undersaturated) represented and, if so, what changes in the mantle or in the tectonic

  8. Authority in Educational Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steutel, Jan; Spiecker, Ben

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes John Wilson's account of authority in educational relationships by reconstructing his views on different types of authority. Explores the topic of parental authority arguing that parental authority differs from the authority of teachers. Comments on whether authoritative parental supervision is essential. Includes references. (CMK)

  9. Heat Transfer Characteristics of Liquid-Gas Taylor Flows incorporating Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, J. A.; Walsh, P. A.

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the heat transfer characteristics associated with liquid-gas Taylor flows in mini channels incorporating microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCM). Taylor flows have been shown to result in heat transfer enhancements due to the fluid recirculation experienced within liquid slugs which is attributable to the alternating liquid slug and gas bubble flow structure. Microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCM) also offer significant potential with increased thermal capacity due to the latent heat required to cause phase change. The primary aim of this work was to examine the overall heat transfer potential associated with combining these two novel liquid cooling technologies. By investigating the local heat transfer characteristics, the augmentation/degradation over single phase liquid cooling was quantified while examining the effects of dimensionless variables, including Reynolds number, liquid slug length and gas void fraction. An experimental test facility was developed which had a heated test section and allowed MPCM-air Taylor flows to be subjected to a constant heat flux boundary condition. Infrared thermography was used to record high resolution experimental wall temperature measurements and determine local heat transfer coefficients from the thermal entrance point. 30.2% mass particle concentration of the MPCM suspension fluid was examined as it provided the maximum latent heat for absorption. Results demonstrate a significant reduction in experimental wall temperatures associated with MPCM-air Taylor flows when compared with the Graetz solution for conventional single phase coolants. Total enhancement in the thermally developed region is observed to be a combination of the individual contributions due to recirculation within the liquid slugs and also absorption of latent heat. Overall, the study highlights the potential heat transfer enhancements that are attainable within heat exchange devices employing MPCM

  10. Beryllium-10 in the Taylor Dome ice core: Applications to Antarctic glaciology and paleoclimatology

    SciTech Connect

    Steig, E.J.

    1996-12-31

    An ice core was drilled at Taylor dome, East Antarctica, reaching to bedrock at 554 meters. Oxygen-isotope measurements reveal climatic fluctuations through the last interglacial period. To facilitate comparison of the Taylor Dome paleoclimate record with geologic data and results from other deep ice cores, several glaciological issues need to be addressed. In particular, accumulation data are necessary as input for numerical ice-flow-models, for determining the flux of chemical constituents from measured concentrations, and for calculation of the offset in age between ice and trapped air in the core. The analysis of cosmogenic beryllium-10 provides a geochemical method for constraining the accumulation-rate history at Taylor Dome. High-resolution measurements were made in shallow firn cores and snow pits to determine the relationship among beryllium-10 concentrations, wet and dry deposition mechanisms, and snow-accumulation rates. Comparison between theoretical and measured variations in deposition over the last 75 years constrains the relationship between beryllium-10 deposition and global average production rates. The results indicate that variations in geomagnetically-modulated production-rate do not strongly influence beryllium-10 deposition at Taylor Dome. Although solar modulation of production rate is important for time scales of years to centuries, snow-accumulation rate is the dominant control on ice-core beryllium-10 concentrations for longer periods. Results show that the Taylor Dome core can be used to provide new constraints on regional climate over the last 130,000 years, complementing the terrestrial and marine geological record from the Dry Valley, Transantarctic Mountains and western Ross Sea.

  11. Taylor's power law and fluctuation scaling explained by a central-limit-like convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendal, Wayne S.; Jørgensen, Bent

    2011-06-01

    A power function relationship observed between the variance and the mean of many types of biological and physical systems has generated much debate as to its origins. This Taylor's law (or fluctuation scaling) has been recently hypothesized to result from the second law of thermodynamics and the behavior of the density of states. This hypothesis is predicated on physical quantities like free energy and an external field; the correspondence of these quantities with biological systems, though, remains unproven. Questions can be posed as to the applicability of this hypothesis to the diversity of observed phenomena as well as the range of spatial and temporal scales observed with Taylor's law. We note that the cumulant generating functions derived from this thermodynamic model correspond to those derived over a quarter century earlier for a class of probabilistic models known as the Tweedie exponential dispersion models. These latter models are characterized by variance-to-mean power functions; their phenomenological basis rests with a central-limit-theorem-like property that causes many statistical systems to converge mathematically toward a Tweedie form. We review evaluations of the Tweedie Poisson-gamma model for Taylor's law and provide three further cases to test: the clustering of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the horse chromosome 1, the clustering of genes within human chromosome 8, and the Mertens function. This latter case is a number theoretic function for which a thermodynamic model cannot explain Taylor's law, but where Tweedie convergence remains applicable. The Tweedie models are applicable to diverse biological, physical, and mathematical phenomena that express power variance functions over a wide range of measurement scales; they provide a probabilistic description for Taylor's law that allows mechanistic insight into complex systems without the assumption of a thermodynamic mechanism.

  12. Shallow Sub-Permafrost Groundwater Systems In A Buried Fjord: Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, N.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Auken, E.; Mikucki, J.

    2014-12-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV), Antarctica, represent a unique geologic setting where permanent lakes, ephemeral streams, and subglacial waters influence surface hydrology in a cold polar desert. Past research suggested that the MDV are underlain by several hundreds of meters of permafrost. Here, we present data collected from an Airborne EM (AEM) resistivity sensor flown over the MDV during the 2011-12 austral summer. A focus of our survey was over the Taylor Glacier where saline, iron-rich subglacial fluid releases at the glacier snout at a feature known as Blood Falls, and over Taylor Valley, where a series of isolated lakes lie between Taylor Glacier and the Ross Sea. Our data show that in Taylor Valley there are extensive areas of low resistivity, interpreted as hypersaline brines, beneath a relatively thin layer of high resistivity material, interpreted as dry- or ice-cemented permafrost. These hypersaline brines remain liquid at temperatures well below 0°C due to their salinity. They appear to be contained within the sedimentary fill deposited in Taylor Valley when it was still a fjord. This brine system continues up valley and has a subglacial extension beneath Taylor Glacier, where it may provide the source that feeds Blood Falls. By categorizing the resistivity measurements according to surficial land cover, we are able to distinguish between ice, permafrost, lake water, and seawater based on characteristic resistivity distributions. Furthermore, this technique shows that areas of surface permafrost become increasingly conductive (brine-filled) with depth, whereas the large lakes exhibit taliks that extend through the entire thickness of the permafrost. The subsurface brines represent a large, unstudied and potentially connected hydrogeologic system, in which subsurface flows may help transfer water and nutrients between lakes in the MDV and into the Ross Sea. Such a system is a potential habitat for extremophile life, similar to that already detected in

  13. Three dimensional hydrodynamic calculations with adaptive mesh refinement of the evolution of Rayleigh Taylor and Richtmyer Meshkov instabilities in converging geometry: Multi-mode perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R.I. |; Bell, J.; Pember, R.; Kelleher, T.

    1993-04-01

    The authors present results for high resolution hydrodynamic calculations of the growth and development of instabilities in shock driven imploding spherical geometries in both 2D and 3D. They solve the Eulerian equations of hydrodynamics with a high order Godunov approach using local adaptive mesh refinement to study the temporal and spatial development of the turbulent mixing layer resulting from both Richtmyer Meshkov and Rayleigh Taylor instabilities. The use of a high resolution Eulerian discretization with adaptive mesh refinement permits them to study the detailed three-dimensional growth of multi-mode perturbations far into the non-linear regime for converging geometries. They discuss convergence properties of the simulations by calculating global properties of the flow. They discuss the time evolution of the turbulent mixing layer and compare its development to a simple theory for a turbulent mix model in spherical geometry based on Plesset`s equation. Their 3D calculations show that the constant found in the planar incompressible experiments of Read and Young`s may not be universal for converging compressible flow. They show the 3D time trace of transitional onset to a mixing state using the temporal evolution of volume rendered imaging. Their preliminary results suggest that the turbulent mixing layer loses memory of its initial perturbations for classical Richtmyer Meshkov and Rayleigh Taylor instabilities in spherically imploding shells. They discuss the time evolution of mixed volume fraction and the role of vorticity in converging 3D flows in enhancing the growth of a turbulent mixing layer.

  14. Exploring the phase space of multiple states in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Veen, Roeland; Huisman, Sander; Dung, On Yu; Tang, Ho Lun; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2015-11-01

    It was recently found that multiple turbulent states exist for large Reynolds number (Re =106) Taylor-Couette flow in the regime of ultimate turbulence. Here we investigate how the transitions between the multiple states depend on the Reynolds number in the range of Re =105 to 2 .106 , by measuring global torque and local velocity while probing the phase space spanned by the rotation rates of the inner and outer cylinder. This sheds light on the question whether multiple states persist for Reynolds numbers beyond those currently reached. By mapping the flow structures for various rotation ratios in two Taylor-Couette setups with equal radius ratio but different aspect ratio, we furthermore investigate the influence of aspect ratio on the characteristics of the multiple states.

  15. Study on Electrohydrodynamic Rayleigh-Taylor Instability with Heat and Mass Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Srivastava, Vineet K.

    2014-01-01

    The linear analysis of Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the interface between two viscous and dielectric fluids in the presence of a tangential electric field has been carried out when there is heat and mass transfer across the interface. In our earlier work, the viscous potential flow analysis of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in presence of tangential electric field was studied. Here, we use another irrotational theory in which the discontinuities in the irrotational tangential velocity and shear stress are eliminated in the global energy balance. Stability criterion is given by critical value of applied electric field as well as critical wave number. Various graphs have been drawn to show the effect of various physical parameters such as electric field, heat transfer coefficient, and vapour fraction on the stability of the system. It has been observed that heat transfer and electric field both have stabilizing effect on the stability of the system. PMID:24526897

  16. Elimination of Gravity Influence on Flame Propagation Via Enhancement of the Saffman-Taylor Instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldredge, R. C.

    2003-01-01

    In this analytical work the influence of the Saffman-Taylor instability on flame propagation is formulated for computational investigation. Specifically, it is of interest to examine the influence of this instability as a potential means of eliminating the effect of gravitational acceleration on the development of thermoacoustic instability. Earlier experimental investigations of thermoacoustic instability employed tubes of large circular or annular cross-section, such that neither heat loss nor viscosity at the burner walls was of significant importance in influencing flame behavior. However, it has been demonstrated recently that flames propagating between closely spaced walls, may be subject to long-wavelength wrinkling associated with the Saffman-Taylor instability, known to be relevant when a less-viscous fluid pushes a more-viscous fluid through a porous medium or between two closely spaced walls.

  17. Rayleigh-Taylor-induced magnetic fields in laser-irradiated plastic foils

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel, M. J.-E.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Casey, D. T.; Petrasso, R. D.; Hu, S. X.; Betti, R.; Hager, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Smalyuk, V.

    2012-08-15

    Experimental observations of magnetic fields generated by Rayleigh-Taylor growth in laser-irradiated planar foils are presented. X-ray and monoenergetic proton radiographic techniques were used to probe plastic foils with seeded surface perturbations at different times during the evolution. Protons deflected by fields in the target cause modulations in proton fluence at the seed wavelength of 120 {mu}m. Path-integrated magnetic-field strengths were inferred from modulations in proton fluence using a discrete-Fourier-transform analysis technique and found to increase from 10 to 100 T-{mu}m during linear growth. Electron thermal conduction was shown to be unaffected by Rayleigh-Taylor-induced magnetic fields during the linear growth phase.

  18. Rayleigh-Taylor-induced magnetic fields in laser-irradiated plastic foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, M. J.-E.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Casey, D. T.; Petrasso, R. D.; Hu, S. X.; Betti, R.; Hager, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Smalyuk, V.

    2012-08-01

    Experimental observations of magnetic fields generated by Rayleigh-Taylor growth in laser-irradiated planar foils are presented. X-ray and monoenergetic proton radiographic techniques were used to probe plastic foils with seeded surface perturbations at different times during the evolution. Protons deflected by fields in the target cause modulations in proton fluence at the seed wavelength of 120 μm. Path-integrated magnetic-field strengths were inferred from modulations in proton fluence using a discrete-Fourier-transform analysis technique and found to increase from 10 to 100 T-μm during linear growth. Electron thermal conduction was shown to be unaffected by Rayleigh-Taylor-induced magnetic fields during the linear growth phase.

  19. Numerical simulation on single Taylor bubble rising in LBE using moving particle method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Tian, Wen X.; Chen, Rong H.; Su, Guang H.; Qiu, Sui Z.

    2013-07-01

    An improved meshless numerical method (MPS-MAFL) is utilized to simulate single Taylor bubble rising in liquid LBE to study its hydrodynamic characteristics. The computational region is a circular tube in which the liquid is described using discretized particles by un-uniform grid scheme. The gas-liquid interface was approximately treated as a free surface boundary and nonslip conditions are applied on tube wall. Several simulation results and corresponding analysis including Taylor bubble propagation procedure, pressure distribution, velocity profile around bubble nose and in the wake region as well as in the falling film are presented. Some experimental results and CFD numerical simulations from other previous researchers are compared with the present study as validation. The simulation results agree well with both theoretical analysis and experimental results, which demonstrate the reasonable selection of model as well as the accuracy and reliability of moving particle method.

  20. Investigation of the Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bonazza, Riccardo; Anderson, Mark; Smith, Leslie

    2005-02-09

    The present research program is centered on the experimental and numerical study of two instabilities that develop at the interface between two different fluids when the interface experiences an impulsive or a constant acceleration. The instabilities, called the Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor instability, respectively, adversely affect target implosion in experiments aimed at the achievement of nuclear fusion by inertial confinement by causing the nuclear fuel contained in a target and the shell material to mix, leading to contamination of the fuel, yield reduction or no ignition at all. The laboratory experiments summarized in this report include shock tube experiments to study a shock-accelerated bubble and a shock-accelerated 2-D sinusoidal interface; and experiments based on the use of magnetorheological fluids for the study of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Computational experiments based on the shock tube experimental conditions are also reported.

  1. Simulation of spatially evolving turbulence and the applicability of Taylor's hypothesis in compressible flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sangsan; Lele, Sanjiva K.; Moin, Parviz

    1992-01-01

    For the numerical simulation of inhomogeneous turbulent flows, a method is developed for generating stochastic inflow boundary conditions with a prescribed power spectrum. Turbulence statistics from spatial simulations using this method with a low fluctuation Mach number are in excellent agreement with the experimental data, which validates the procedure. Turbulence statistics from spatial simulations are also compared to those from temporal simulations using Taylor's hypothesis. Statistics such as turbulence intensity, vorticity, and velocity derivative skewness compare favorably with the temporal simulation. However, the statistics of dilatation show a significant departure from those obtained in the temporal simulation. To directly check the applicability of Taylor's hypothesis, space-time correlations of fluctuations in velocity, vorticity, and dilatation are investigated. Convection velocities based on vorticity and velocity fluctuations are computed as functions of the spatial and temporal separations. The profile of the space-time correlation of dilatation fluctuations is explained via a wave propagation model.

  2. Designs for highly nonlinear ablative Rayleigh-Taylor experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casner, A.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Masse, L.; Igumenshchev, I.; Liberatore, S.; Jacquet, L.; Chicanne, C.; Loiseau, P.; Poujade, O.; Bradley, D. K.; Park, H. S.; Remington, B. A.

    2012-08-01

    We present two designs relevant to ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in transition from weakly nonlinear to highly nonlinear regimes at the National Ignition Facility [E. I. Moses, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 112, 012003 (2008)]. The sensitivity of nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor instability physics to ablation velocity is addressed with targets driven by indirect drive, with stronger ablative stabilization, and by direct drive, with weaker ablative stabilization. The indirect drive design demonstrates the potential to reach a two-dimensional bubble-merger regime with a 20 ns duration drive at moderate radiation temperature. The direct drive design achieves a 3 to 5 times increased acceleration distance for the sample in comparison to previous experiments allowing at least 2 more bubble generations when starting from a three-dimensional broadband spectrum.

  3. New Perspectives on Turbulent Mixing Induced by Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov Instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y; Remington, B A; Glendinning, S G; Dimits, A; Buckingham, A C; Robey, H F; Cook, A W; Clark, T T; Zimmerman, G; Burke, E W; Peyser, T A; Cabot, W; Eliason, D

    2002-10-30

    Turbulent hydrodynamic mixing induced by the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities occurs in settings as varied as exploding stars (supernovae), inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule implosions, and macroscopic flows on fluid dynamics facilities such as shock tubes. We have developed a quantitative description of turbulence from the onset to the asymptotic end-state. Our treatment, based on a combined approach of theory, direct numerical simulation (DNS), and experimental data analysis, has broad generality. We will report two key areas in our progress. First, we have developed a robust, easy to apply criteria for the mixing transition in a time-dependent flow. This allows an assessment of whether flows, be they from supernova explosions or ICF experiments, should be turbulent or not. Second, we inspect the structure, scaling and spectra of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities induced flows.

  4. Taylor-Couette Flow with Hourglass Geometry of Varying Lengths Simulated by Reaction-Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yunjie; Halmstad, Andrew; Olsen, Thomas; Wiener, Richard

    2008-11-01

    Previously, we have observed chaotic formation of Taylor-Vortex pairs in Modified Taylor- Couette Flow with Hourglass Geometry. In the experiment, the chaotic formation in a shorter system has been restricted to a narrow band about the waist of the hourglass. Such behavior has been modeled by The Reaction-Diffusion equation, which has been previously studied, by Riecke and Paap. Their calculation suggested that quadrupling length of the system would lead to spatial chaos in the vortex formation. We present a careful recreation of this result and consider an intermediate length. We demonstrate that doubling the length should be sufficient to observe spatially chaotic behavior. Richard J. Wiener et al, Phys. Rev. E 55, 5489 (1997). H. Riecke and H.-G. Paap, Europhys. Lett. 14, 1235 (1991).

  5. Ephemeris calculation and orbit determination of geostationary satellites, using Taylor series integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenbruck, Oliver

    1991-02-01

    It is shown that Taylor series integration allows problems of celestial mechanics for interplanetary orbits to be solved with relatively simple orbit models. The method is adapted to the computation of satellite orbits. A new implementation concept is included, which allows a programmation of the equations of motion. It offers simultaneously extension possibilities, which are necessary for the computation of special terms of the power function. The linking of Sun and Moon ephemeris for the treatment of gavitational disturbances of the satellite orbit is used as an example. This concept is represented with the principles of Taylor series integration, and compared with variants of the process. The power spectrum of the method is examined for disturbed and undisturbed Kepler orbits.

  6. Comparing Mantle Xenoliths from Mount Taylor and Rio Puerco Necks, New Mexico: Evidence for Metasomatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, A. E.; Schmidt, M. E.; Schrader, C. M.; Crumpler, L. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Mount Taylor Volcanic Field (MTVF) is located along the Jemez Lineament at the south eastern margin of the Colorado Plateau in north western New Mexico. To learn about its underlying lithospheric mantle, we conducted a survey of xenoliths from basaltic vents peripheral to the Mount Taylor edifice and the Rio Puerco Volcanic Necks. A total of 89 thin sections (32 from Mount Taylor and 57 from Rio Puerco) were examined. The population of thin sections from Mount Taylor and Rio Puerco listed respectively is: 18 and 20 lherzolites; 8 and 24 pyroxenites; 4 and 3 wehrlites; 1 and 6 dunites; and 1 and 4 harzburgites. Pyroxenite grain size ranged from 1 to 9 mm and lherzolite grains were typically 0.5 to 2 mm. Spinels ranged in colour from dark green, brown to black and they were generally <1 mm and interstitially concentrated. Spinel concentrations between the two suites were comparable, with an average of 2.6% for Mount Taylor and 2.0% for Rio Puerco. The largest concentration of spinels was in a pyroxenite at 12.5% from Mount Taylor. Up to 5% primary calcite is present in the Rio Puerco suite; in contrast calcite has not been identified in the Mount Taylor suite. Calcite grains were <0.5 mm in size and located at grain boundaries and as inclusions in clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene. Equilibrium textures include triple junction grain boundaries between olivines and clinopyroxenes in some lherzolites. Disequilibrium textures include rounded, optically continuous olivine and orthopyroxene in clinopyroxene, complex intergrowths between clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene, and sheared olivine. Electron microprobe analyses were performed on 9 representative thin sections with 5 pyroxenites, 4 lherzolites and 1 wehrlite; samples included green, brown, red and black spinels. Pyroxenes for the two suites decrease in Cr2O3 and increase in Al2O3 with decreasing Mg numbers, increase in CaO with decreasing MgO and increase in Na2O with increasing Al2O3. The presence of optically

  7. Investigation of the Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Riccardo Bonazza, Mark Anderson, Jason Oakley

    2006-11-03

    The present research program is centered on the experimental and numerical study of two instabilities that develop at the interface between two different fluids when the interface experiences an impulsive or a constant acceleration. The instabilities, called the Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor instability, respectively, adversely affect target implosion in experiments aimed at the achievement of nuclear fusion by inertial confinement by causing the nuclear fuel contained in a target and the shell material to mix, leading to contamination of the fuel, yield reduction or no ignition at all. The laboratory experiments summarized in this report include shock tube experiments to study a shock-accelerated bubble and a shock-accelerated 2-D sinusoidal interface; and experiments based on the use of magnetorheological fluids for the study of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Computational experiments based on the shock tube experimental conditions are also reported.

  8. Aeromagnetic Survey of Taylor Mountains Area in Southwest Alaska, A Website for the Distribution of Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    USGS Data Series Report for the release of aeromagnetic data collected in the Taylor Mountains Area of Southwest Alaska and associated contractor reports. Summary: An airborne high-resolution magnetic and coincidental horizontal magnetic gradiometer survey was completed over the Taylor Mountains area in southwest Alaska. The flying was undertaken by McPhar Geosurveys Ltd. on behalf of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). First tests and calibration flights were completed by April 7, 2004, and data acquisition was initiated on April 17, 2004. The final data acquisition and final test/calibrations flight was completed on May 31, 2004. Data acquired during the survey totaled 8,971.15 line-miles.

  9. An Improved Power Quality Based Sheppard-Taylor Converter Fed BLDC Motor Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhim; Bist, Vashist

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the design and analysis of a power factor correction based Sheppard-Taylor converter fed brushless dc motor (BLDCM) drive. The speed of the BLDCM is controlled by adjusting the dc link voltage of the voltage source inverter (VSI) feeding BLDCM. Moreover, a low frequency switching of the VSI is used for electronically commutating the BLDCM for reduced switching losses. The Sheppard-Taylor converter is designed to operate in continuous conduction mode to achieve an improved power quality at the ac mains for a wide range of speed control and supply voltage variation. The BLDCM drive is designed and its performance is simulated in a MATLAB/Simulink environment to achieve the power quality indices within the limits of the international power quality standard IEC-61000-3-2.

  10. Simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth rate of laser accelerated plant target. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bel`kov, S.A.; Bondarenko, S.V.; Vinokurov, O.A.; Kochemasov, G.G.; Mkhitarian, L.S.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the research results for the time point when the Rayleigh-Taylor instability converts to the nonlinear stage as well as the computational results for the interaction of two modes of Rayleigh-Taylor instability when initial perturbations are concentrated at the ablation front (problem (a)) and on the rear side (problem (b)) of the plane target. As was shown in the report for the first phase, for a target of 3 {mu}m thick the existence time of the nonlinear stage is extremely low and does not allow to track the evolution pattern. In it was shown that the plane target with {Delta}{sub 0}=5 {mu}m is more preferable for this goal. Therefore all the computations presented here relate to the target with the indicated thickness. The laser pulse parameters are remained unchanged J{sub L}=10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}, {lambda}=0.35 {mu}m.

  11. Limits of the potential flow approach to the single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor problem.

    PubMed

    Ramaprabhu, P; Dimonte, Guy; Young, Yuan-Nan; Calder, A C; Fryxell, B

    2006-12-01

    We report on the behavior of a single-wavelength Rayleigh-Taylor flow at late times. The calculations were performed in a long square duct (lambda x lambda x 8lambda), using four different numerical simulations. In contradiction with potential flow theories that predict a constant terminal velocity, the single-wavelength Rayleigh-Taylor problem exhibits late-time acceleration. The onset of acceleration occurs as the bubble penetration depth exceeds the diameter of bubbles, and is observed for low and moderate density differences. Based on our simulations, we provide a phenomenological description of the observed acceleration, and ascribe this behavior to the formation of Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices on the bubble-spike interface that diminish the friction drag, while the associated induced flow propels the bubbles forward. For large density ratios, the formation of secondary instabilities is suppressed, and the bubbles remain terminal consistent with potential flow models. PMID:17280149

  12. Single-mode dynamics of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at any density ratio.

    PubMed

    Ramaprabhu, P; Dimonte, Guy

    2005-03-01

    The behavior of a periodic array of Rayleigh-Taylor bubbles (and spikes) of wavelength lambda is investigated at different density ratios using three-dimensional numerical simulations. The scaled bubble and spike velocities (v(b,s)/sqrt[Aglambda/2]), are found to vary with the Atwood number A, and are compared with recent potential flow theories. Simulations at different grid resolutions reveal that the convergence rates of bubble velocities improve with increasing A, while the converse holds true for spike velocities. The asymptotic radius of curvature at the bubble tip is found to be independent of A, consistent with potential flow theory. These results are useful in validating potential flow theory models of the nonlinear stage of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. PMID:15903581

  13. Study on electrohydrodynamic Rayleigh-Taylor instability with heat and mass transfer.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Srivastava, Vineet K

    2014-01-01

    The linear analysis of Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the interface between two viscous and dielectric fluids in the presence of a tangential electric field has been carried out when there is heat and mass transfer across the interface. In our earlier work, the viscous potential flow analysis of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in presence of tangential electric field was studied. Here, we use another irrotational theory in which the discontinuities in the irrotational tangential velocity and shear stress are eliminated in the global energy balance. Stability criterion is given by critical value of applied electric field as well as critical wave number. Various graphs have been drawn to show the effect of various physical parameters such as electric field, heat transfer coefficient, and vapour fraction on the stability of the system. It has been observed that heat transfer and electric field both have stabilizing effect on the stability of the system. PMID:24526897

  14. Three-dimensional single-mode nonlinear ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, R.; Betti, R.; Sanz, J.; Aluie, H.; Liu, B.; Frank, A.

    2016-02-01

    The nonlinear evolution of the single-mode ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability is studied in three dimensions. As the mode wavelength approaches the cutoff of the linear spectrum (short-wavelength modes), it is found that the three-dimensional (3D) terminal bubble velocity greatly exceeds both the two-dimensional (2D) value and the classical 3D bubble velocity. Unlike in 2D, the 3D short-wavelength bubble velocity does not saturate. The growing 3D bubble acceleration is driven by the unbounded accumulation of vorticity inside the bubble. The vorticity is transferred by mass ablation from the Rayleigh-Taylor spikes to the ablated plasma filling the bubble volume.

  15. Analytical mitigation of solute-capillary interactions in double detection Taylor Dispersion Analysis.

    PubMed

    Latunde-Dada, Seyi; Bott, Rachel; Hampton, Karl; Leszczyszyn, Oksana Iryna

    2015-08-21

    Taylor Dispersion Analysis (TDA) in the presence of interactions between solutes and capillary walls yields inaccurate results for the diffusion coefficients of the solutes because the resulting concentration profiles are broadened and asymmetric. Whilst there are practical ways of mitigating these interactions, it is not always possible to eradicate them completely. In this paper, an analytical method of mitigating the effects of the adsorptions is presented. By observing the dispersion of the solute molecules at two detection points and using the expected relations between measured parameters, such as the standard deviations and peak amplitudes, the dispersive components of the profiles were isolated with a constrained fitting algorithm. The method was successfully applied to lysozyme and cytochrome C which adsorb onto fused silica capillary walls. Furthermore, this illustrates an advantage of using the fitting method for Taylor Dispersion Analysis. PMID:26189206

  16. Numerical investigation of the Taylor-Couette and Batchelor flows with heat transfer: physics and numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiełczewski, K.; Tuliszka-Sznitko, E.; Bontoux, P.

    2014-08-01

    In the paper the authors present the results obtained during a numerical investigation (Direct Numerical Simulation/Spectral Vanishing Viscosity method - DNS/SVV) of a flow with heat transfer in rotating cavities (i.e. the flow between two concentric disks and two concentric cylinders). These model flows are useful from numerical and experimental point of view among others because of the simplicity of their geometry. Simultaneously, the flows in rotating cavities appear in numerous industrial installations and machines in the field of mechanics and chemistry, e.g., in ventilation installations, desalination tanks and waste water tanks, in cooling system, in gas turbines and axial compressors. In the paper attention is focused on the laminar-turbulent region in the configuration of the large aspect ratio i.e. Taylor-Couette flow (a Batchelor flow case of small aspect ratio Γ = 0.04 is also presented for comparison). The main purpose of computations is to investigate the influence of different parameters (the aspect ratio, the end-wall boundary conditions and temperature gradient) on the flow structure and flow characteristics. For the non-isothermal flow cases the Nusselt number distributions along cylinders are presented and are correlated with the flow structures. The λ2 method has been used for visualization.

  17. General decay rate estimates for viscoelastic wave equation with Balakrishnan-Taylor damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Tae Gab

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the viscoelastic wave equation with Balakrishnan-Taylor damping. This work is devoted to prove uniform decay rates of the energy without imposing any restrictive growth assumption on the damping term and weakening the usual assumptions on the relaxation function. Our estimate depends both on the behavior of the damping term near zero and on behavior of the relaxation function at infinity.

  18. Ablative Stabilization of the Deceleration-Phase Rayleigh-Taylor Instability, control No. 2000-107

    SciTech Connect

    Lobatchev, V.; Betti, R.

    2000-10-01

    The growth rates of the deceleration-phase Rayleigh-Taylor instability for imploding inertial confinement fusion capsules are calculated and compared with the results of numerical simulations. It is found that the unstable spectrum and the growth rates are significantly reduced by the finite ablation flow at the shell's inner surface. For typical direct-drive capsules designed for the National Ignition Facility, the unstable spectrum exhibits a cutoff for {ell} {approx} 90.

  19. A numerical and analytical investigation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a solid tungsten plate

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, A.C.; Swegle, J.W.

    1987-07-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability response of an elastic-plastic tungsten plate is investigated by numerical experiments and an approximate modal analysis. The so-called ''minimum amplitude'' instability criteria derived from plasticity analyses is shown to be incomplete as a general indicator of instability or stability at very large driving pressures. Model equations are derived which are able to reproduce the basic qualitative features of the observed instability response given by the numerical calculations. 11 refs., 29 figs.

  20. Sheath broadening in imploding z-pinches due to large-bandwidth Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, J.H.; Eddleman, J.L.; Tabak, M.; Toor, A.; Zimmerman, G.B.; De Groot, J.S.

    1996-06-04

    The magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability has been predicted and observed to cause breakup of the plasma sheath in imploding Z-pinches. In this work we show that for the type of density profile encountered in strongly radiating pinches, instability at very short wavelengths grows to the non-linear stage and seeds progressively longer wavelengths. The result is a self-similar broadening of the sheath as found for mix layers in fluid RT unstable systems.

  1. Observation of Magnetocoriolis Waves in a Liquid Metal Taylor-Couette Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nornberg, M. D.; Ji, H.; Schartman, E.; Roach, A.; Goodman, J.

    2009-09-14

    The first observation of fast and slow magnetocoriolis (MC) waves in a laboratory experiment is reported. Rotating nonaxisymmetric modes arising from a magnetized turbulent Taylor-Couette flow of liquid metal are identified as the fast and slow MC waves by the dependence of the rotation frequency on the applied field strength. The observed slow MC wave is marginally damped but will become destabilized by the magnetorotational instability with a modest increase in rotation rate.

  2. Observation of Magnetocoriolis Waves in a Liquid Metal Taylor-Couette Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nornberg, M. D.; Ji, H.; Schartman, E.; Roach, A.; Goodman, J.

    2010-02-19

    The first observation of fast and slow magnetocoriolis (MC) waves in a laboratory experiment is reported. Rotating nonaxisymmetric modes arising from a magnetized turbulent Taylor-Couette flow of liquid metal are identified as the fast and slow MC waves by the dependence of the rotation frequency on the applied field strength. The observed slow MC wave is damped but the observation provides a means for predicting the onset of the magnetorotational instability.

  3. The ATOMFT integrator - Using Taylor series to solve ordinary differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berryman, Kenneth W.; Stanford, Richard H.; Breckheimer, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of ATOMFT, an integration package based on Taylor series solution with a sophisticated user interface. ATOMFT has the capabilities to allow the implementation of user defined functions and the solution of stiff and algebraic equations. Detailed examples, including the solutions to several astrodynamics problems, are presented. Comparisons with its predecessor ATOMCC and other modern integrators indicate that ATOMFT is a fast, accurate, and easy method to use to solve many differential equation problems.

  4. A herringbone bedform pattern of possible Taylor-Görtler type flow origin seen in sonographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toimil, Lawrence J.; Reimnitz, Erk

    1979-01-01

    Side-scan sonar records collected in a shallow arctic lagoon (2–2.5 m depth) reveal a herringbone pattern of current-aligned linear reflectors with branching diagonals. The major longitudinal reflectors have no detectable relief (<20 cm), are spaced 5–10 m apart, and may represent current-aligned helical cell boundaries preserved in the silty fine sand of the lagoon floor. The pattern suggests a three-dimensional flow regime of the Taylor-Görtler type.

  5. A hybrid Rayleigh-Taylor-current-driven coupled instability in a magnetohydrodynamically collimated cylindrical plasma with lateral gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Xiang; Bellan, Paul M.

    2016-03-01

    We present an MHD theory of Rayleigh-Taylor instability on the surface of a magnetically confined cylindrical plasma flux rope in a lateral external gravity field. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability is found to couple to the classic current-driven instability, resulting in a new type of hybrid instability that cannot be described by either of the two instabilities alone. The lateral gravity breaks the axisymmetry of the system and couples all azimuthal modes together. The coupled instability, produced by combination of helical magnetic field, curvature of the cylindrical geometry, and lateral gravity, is fundamentally different from the classic magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability occurring at a two-dimensional planar interface. The theory successfully explains the lateral Rayleigh-Taylor instability observed in the Caltech plasma jet experiment [Moser and Bellan, Nature 482, 379 (2012)]. Potential applications of the theory include magnetic controlled fusion, solar emerging flux, solar prominences, coronal mass ejections, and other space and astrophysical plasma processes.

  6. Author! Author! Making Kids Laugh: Jon Scieszka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a brief biography of author Jon Scieszka, best known for his first published title, "The True Story of the Three Little Pigs!" which has become a modern classic. The publication of this creative and inventive title led to the numerous fractured fairy tales published since its release in 1989. His books have received numerous…

  7. Author! Author! Seymour Simon: Science Writer Extraordinaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This column presents a brief biography of author Seymour Simon, whose topics for children's photo essays include icebergs, gorillas, thunderstorms, optical illusions, snakes, air, water, planets, airplanes, volcanoes, cars, the brain, bridges, bugs, crocodiles, skyscrapers, sharks, and paper airplanes. Though he is best known in the style and an…

  8. OPTIMIZATION-BASED CONSTITUTIVE PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION FROM SPARSE TAYLOR CYLINDER DATA

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Lacy

    2010-10-01

    The classic Taylor impact test imparts temporally and spatially varying fields of strain, strain rate, and temperature through the specimen. It is possible to exploit this complexity to directly identify constitutive model parameters from the deformed shape of the specimen. Where prior investigators have employed various mathematical fitting methods to identify or improve strength model parameters from Taylor cylinder profiles, we extend the method to employ a multi-objective genetic optimization algorithm to minimize the cylinder profile errors simultaneously on three cylinders impacted at different velocities. No experimental data other than the three Taylor cylinders is employed in developing the constitutive model parameter set, and generic starting coefficients are employed. To validate the accuracy of the resulting coefficients, both split Hopkinson pressure bar and axisymmetric expanding ring tests were conducted and compared to the resultant Johnson-Cook strength model. The derived strength model agreed well with experimental data available to date. Further work is necessary to evaluate the range of rates and temperatures over which parameters derived by this method may be applied.

  9. Rayleigh-Taylor-Instability Evolution in Colliding-Plasma-Jet Experiments with Magnetic and Viscous Stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Colin Stuart

    2015-01-15

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability causes mixing in plasmas throughout the universe, from micron-scale plasmas in inertial confinement fusion implosions to parsec-scale supernova remnants. The evolution of this interchange instability in a plasma is influenced by the presence of viscosity and magnetic fields, both of which have the potential to stabilize short-wavelength modes. Very few experimental observations of Rayleigh-Taylor growth in plasmas with stabilizing mechanisms are reported in the literature, and those that are reported are in sub-millimeter scale plasmas that are difficult to diagnose. Experimental observations in well-characterized plasmas are important for validation of computational models used to make design predictions for inertial confinement fusion efforts. This dissertation presents observations of instability growth during the interaction between a high Mach-number, initially un-magnetized plasma jet and a stagnated, magnetized plasma. A multi-frame fast camera captures Rayleigh-Taylor-instability growth while interferometry, spectroscopy, photodiode, and magnetic probe diagnostics are employed to estimate plasma parameters in the vicinity of the collision. As the instability grows, an evolution to longer mode wavelength is observed. Comparisons of experimental data with idealized magnetohydrodynamic simulations including a physical viscosity model suggest that the observed instability evolution is consistent with both magnetic and viscous stabilization. These data provide the opportunity to benchmark computational models used in astrophysics and fusion research.

  10. Ring-bursting behavior en route to turbulence in narrow-gap Taylor-Couette flows.

    PubMed

    Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the Taylor-Couette system where the radius ratio is close to unity. Systematically increasing the Reynolds number, we observe a number of previously known transitions, such as one from the classical Taylor vortex flow (TVF) to wavy vortex flow (WVF) and the transition to fully developed turbulence. Prior to the onset of turbulence, we observe intermittent bursting patterns of localized turbulent patches, confirming the experimentally observed pattern of very short wavelength bursts (VSWBs). A striking finding is that, for a Reynolds number larger than that for the onset of VSWBs, a new type of intermittently bursting behavior emerges: patterns of azimuthally closed rings of various orders. We call them ring-bursting patterns, which surround the cylinder completely but remain localized and separated in the axial direction through nonturbulent wavy structures. We employ a number of quantitative measures including the cross-flow energy to characterize the ring-bursting patterns and to distinguish them from the background flow. These patterns are interesting because they do not occur in the wide-gap Taylor-Couette flow systems. The narrow-gap regime is less studied but certainly deserves further attention to gain deeper insights into complex flow dynamics in fluids. PMID:26651790

  11. Ring-bursting behavior en route to turbulence in narrow-gap Taylor-Couette flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the Taylor-Couette system where the radius ratio is close to unity. Systematically increasing the Reynolds number, we observe a number of previously known transitions, such as one from the classical Taylor vortex flow (TVF) to wavy vortex flow (WVF) and the transition to fully developed turbulence. Prior to the onset of turbulence, we observe intermittent bursting patterns of localized turbulent patches, confirming the experimentally observed pattern of very short wavelength bursts (VSWBs). A striking finding is that, for a Reynolds number larger than that for the onset of VSWBs, a new type of intermittently bursting behavior emerges: patterns of azimuthally closed rings of various orders. We call them ring-bursting patterns, which surround the cylinder completely but remain localized and separated in the axial direction through nonturbulent wavy structures. We employ a number of quantitative measures including the cross-flow energy to characterize the ring-bursting patterns and to distinguish them from the background flow. These patterns are interesting because they do not occur in the wide-gap Taylor-Couette flow systems. The narrow-gap regime is less studied but certainly deserves further attention to gain deeper insights into complex flow dynamics in fluids.

  12. Influence of energetics on the stability of viscoelastic Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mubaiyedh, U. A.; Sureshkumar, R.; Khomami, B.

    1999-11-01

    Previously reported isothermal linear stability analyses of viscoelastic Taylor-Couette flow have predicted transitions to nonaxisymmetric and time-dependent secondary flows for elasticity numbers E≡De/Re>0.01. In contrast, recent experiments by Baumert and Muller using constant viscosity Boger fluids have shown that the primary flow transition leads to axisymmetric and stationary Taylor-type toroidal vortices. Moreover, experimentally observed onset Deborah number is an order of magnitude lower than that predicted by isothermal linear stability analyses. In this work, we explore the influence of energetics on the stability characteristics of the viscoelastic Taylor-Couette flow. Our analysis is based on a thermodynamically consistent reformulation of the Oldroyd-B constitutive model that takes into account the influence of thermal history on polymeric stress, and an energy equation that takes into account viscous dissipation effects. Our calculations reveal that for experimentally realizable values of Peclet and Brinkman numbers, the most dangerous eigenvalue is real, corresponding to a stationary and axisymmetric mode of instability. Moreover, the critical Deborah number associated with this eigenvalue is an order of magnitude lower than those associated with the nonisothermal extensions of the most dangerous eigenvalues of the isothermal flow. Eigenfunction analysis shows stratification of perturbation hoop stress across the gap width drives a radial secondary flow. The convection of base state temperature gradients by this radial velocity perturbation leads to this new mode of instability. The influence of geometric and kinematic parameters on this instability is also investigated.

  13. Direct numerical simulations of type Ia supernovae flames II: The Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.B.; Day, M.S.; Rendleman, C.A.; Woosley, S.E.; Zingale, M.

    2004-01-12

    A Type Ia supernova explosion likely begins as a nuclear runaway near the center of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf. The outward propagating flame is unstable to the Landau-Darrieus, Rayleigh-Taylor, and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, which serve to accelerate it to a large fraction of the speed of sound. We investigate the Rayleigh-Taylor unstable flame at the transition from the flamelet regime to the distributed-burning regime, around densities of 10e7 gm/cc, through detailed, fully resolved simulations. A low Mach number, adaptive mesh hydrodynamics code is used to achieve the necessary resolution and long time scales. As the density is varied, we see a fundamental change in the character of the burning--at the low end of the density range the Rayleigh-Taylor instability dominates the burning, whereas at the high end the burning suppresses the instability. In all cases, significant acceleration of the flame is observed, limited only by the size of the domain we are able to study. We discuss the implications of these results on the potential for a deflagration to detonation transition.

  14. Investigation of the Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Riccardo Bonazza; Mark Anderson; Leslie Smith

    2004-01-14

    Some of the major difficulties encountered in the effort to achieve nuclear fusion by means of inertial confinement arise from the unstable behavior of the interface between the shell material and the nuclear fuel which develops upon implosion of the shell by direct or indirect laser drive. The fluid flows that develop (termed the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities) cause the gassified shell material to mix with the nuclear fuel, causing a reduction in energy yield or no ignition altogether. The present research program addresses the Rayleigh-Taylor and the Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities with extensive laboratory and computational experiments. In the past year, three new activities have been initiated: a new shock tube experiment, involving the impulsive acceleration of a test gas-filled soap bubble, diagnosed with planar Mie scattering or planar induced fluorescence; a Rayleigh-Taylor experiment based on the use of a magnetorheological (MR) fluid to fix the initial shape of the interface between the MR fluid and water; and a series of computer calculations using the Raptor code (made available by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) to design and simulate the shock tube experiments.

  15. Self-generated Magnetic Fields in Blast-wave Driven Rayleigh-Taylor Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaig, Markus; Plewa, Tomasz

    2014-10-01

    We study the generation of magnetic fields via the Biermann battery effect in blast-wave driven Rayleigh-Taylor experiments. Previous estimates have shown that in a typical experiment, one should expect fields in the MG range to be generated, with the potential to influence the Rayleigh-Taylor morphology. We perform two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations, where we solve the extended set of MHD equations known as the Braginskii equations. The simulation parameters reflect the physical conditions in past experiments performed on the OMEGA laser and potential future experiments on the NIF laser facility. When neglecting the friction force between electrons and ions in the simulations, magnetic fields of the order of a few 0.1 MG (with a plasma smaller than 1000) are generated, and are found to be dynamically significant. However, it turns out that once the friction force is included, the magnetic fields become much smaller (with a plasma beta greater than 100000) which have negligible influence on the dynamics of the system. Our results therefore indicate that, contrary to previous speculations, it is highly unlikely that self-generated magnetic fields can influence the morphology of a typical blast-wave driven Rayleigh-Taylor experiment. M.F. and T.P. were supported by the DOE Grant DE-FG52- 09NA29548 and the NSF Grant AST-1109113. This research used resources of the National Energy Re.

  16. And Speaking of Authority...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Connie

    2010-01-01

    Over breakfast at the American Library Association (ALA) Annual Conference, this author was asked, "What is authority? What does one know about the ways in which he/she determines credibility? Whom do you trust?" In this article, the author focuses on these questions in terms of administrators who have control over libraries. She provides a…

  17. Authority in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Karl D.

    2012-01-01

    Authority as a philosophical concept is defined both in general and as it applies to engineering education. Authority is shown to be a good and necessary part of social structures, in contrast to some cultural trends that regard it as an unnecessary and outmoded evil. Technical, educational, and organizational authority in their normal functions…

  18. Rayleigh-Taylor unstable flames: The competition between burning, gravity and self-generated flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Elizabeth Peele

    A Type Ia supernova explosion may occur if a subsonic nuclear flame in a white dwarf star is wrinkled by turbulence produced by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and becomes supersonic. Our research investigates the plausibility of this theory by simulating a very simple case- a model flame in 2D. We performed a parameter study in which we changed only the non-dimensional gravitational force, G. The overarching goal of the thesis was to figure out how changing the strength of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability affects the flame surface and therefore the flame speed. At low values of G, this is a transition-to-turbulence type problem and we approached it from the dynamical systems point of view. Specifically, we measured various observables in our simulations and used them to search for simple bifurcation models of the flame behavior. For instance, the initial vortex shedding instability in the wake behind the flame front can be described by a Hopf bifurcation. Overall, simple temporal bifurcations are sufficient to describe the flame for low G. For high values of G, the simple dynamical systems approach breaks down. The area just behind the flame becomes fully turbulent and this turbulence wrinkles the flame front. Because the wrinkling takes place on all scales between the integral scale and the viscous scale, the flame assumes a fractal shape. We measured the fractal dimension of the flame front to assess the importance of this effect. For very high G, it turns out that large-scale Rayleigh-Taylor stretching is responsible for creating a larger part of flame surface than the turbulent wrinkling. This suggests that the flame speed is mostly determined by large-scale stretching driven by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, not by the secondary interaction of turbulence with the flame front. The flame speed predicted for this situation is much too small for the flame to become supersonic, casting some doubt on the Rayleigh-Taylor wrinkling mechanism for Type Ia explosions.

  19. Balancing between sensitization and repression: the role of opium in the life and art of Edgar Allan Poe and Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

    PubMed

    Iszáj, Fruzsina; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2011-01-01

    The creative process contains both conscious and unconscious work. Therefore, artists have to face their unconscious processes and work with emotional material that is difficult to keep under control in the course of artistic creation. Bringing these contents of consciousness to the surface needs special sensitivity and special control functions while working with them. Considering these mechanisms, psychoactive substance can serve a double function in the case of artists. On the one hand, chemical substances may enhance the artists' sensitivity. On the other hand, they can help moderate the hypersensitivity and repress extreme emotions and burdensome contents of consciousness. The authors posit how the use of opiates could have influenced the life and creative work of Edgar Allan Poe and Samuel Taylor Coleridge. PMID:21859403

  20. Authoring tool evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.L.; Klenk, K.S.; Coday, A.C.; McGee, J.P.; Rivenburgh, R.R.; Gonzales, D.M.; Mniszewski, S.M.

    1994-09-15

    This paper discusses and evaluates a number of authoring tools currently on the market. The tools evaluated are Visix Galaxy, NeuronData Open Interface Elements, Sybase Gain Momentum, XVT Power++, Aimtech IconAuthor, Liant C++/Views, and Inmark Technology zApp. Also discussed is the LIST project and how this evaluation is being used to fit an authoring tool to the project.

  1. Akenti Authorization System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-06-01

    Akenti is an authorization service for distributed resources. The authorization policy is kept in distributed certificates signed by one or more stakeholders for the resources. The package consists of the following components: Java GUI tools to create and sign the policy certificates C++ libraries to do make acess decisions based on the policy certificates A standalone authorization server that make access decisions C interfaces to the libraries and server

  2. Authoring Issues beyond Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spierling, Ulrike; Szilas, Nicolas

    Authoring is still considered a bottleneck in successful Interactive Storytelling and Drama. The claim for intuitive authoring tools is high, especially for tools that allow storytellers and artists to define dynamic content that can be run with an AI-based story engine. We explored two concrete authoring processes in depth, using various Interactive Storytelling prototypes, and have provided feedback from the practical steps. The result is a presentation of general issues in authoring Interactive Storytelling, rather than of particular problems with a specific system that could be overcome by 'simply' designing the right interface. Priorities for future developments are also outlined.

  3. The Voice of Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetterlund, Kris

    2012-01-01

    In the last part of 2011, conversations swirled around the Internet and print about the assault on museum authority. The Marcus Institute for Digital Education in the Arts (MIDEA) summarized some of the discussion in their blog entry "The Participatory Museum and a New Authority." Other sites joined in the discussion, for example, the Museum Geek…

  4. The Authors Reply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilloteaux, Marie J.; Dornyei, Zoltan

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the authors' reply to Rod Ellis's comments on their study on motivated classroom behavior. As Ellis correctly summarizes, the three student variables selected for investigation in the authors' study were attention, participation, and volunteering for teacher-fronted activity. These three components were then summed up in a…

  5. The Authors Reply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    File, Kieran A.; Adams, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the authors' reply to Beniko Mason and Stephen Krashen's comments on their recent article published in "TESOL Quarterly." Mason and Krashen have provided an interesting reinterpretation of the authors' results and have also brought up several valid points regarding the efficiency of vocabulary learning from instruction,…

  6. Bringing Authors to Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Carl A., II

    2005-01-01

    Traditional story times begin with "The author of this book is..." and "The illustrator of this book is...". Although library media specialists emphasize the role of an author and an illustrator in creating a book, students often have difficulty making the connection between the name and a real person. Learning involves making connections and…

  7. Charter Authorizers Face Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Joey

    2013-01-01

    Since the first charter school opened 20 years ago in Minnesota, charters have been a focus of school reform advocates and the subject of substantial research. Yet the regulators of the charter industry (called "authorizers" or "sponsors") remain a mystery to many. In fact, many authorizers work in isolation, developing their…

  8. Boerhaave: Author and Editor *

    PubMed Central

    Lindeboom, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The many facets of Herman Boerhaave's life are presented. He was a renowned teacher, physician, author, and editor. Discussed here are his activities as cataloger of the Vossius Collection, author of books on chemistry, botany, and medicine, and as editor of works by Vesalius and early Greek medical writers. Printing and bookselling in Leiden during Boerhaave's era are described. Images PMID:4596962

  9. American Indian Authors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momaday, Natachee Scott

    Twenty-six selections by 15 contemporary American Indian authors are given in this book. The selections--legends, ceremonial chants and prayers, poems, and stories--are accompanied by topics for discussion. Some of the selections deal with the supernatural, and some tell an actual story about the author. Pictures and short biographies of each…

  10. Evaluating Digital Authoring Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilde, Russ

    2004-01-01

    As the quality of authoring software increases, online course developers become less reliant on proprietary learning management systems, and develop skills in the design of original, in-house materials and the delivery platforms for them. This report examines the capabilities of digital authoring software tools for the development of learning…

  11. Taylor-Couette flow control by amplitude variation of the inner cylinder cross-section oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oualli, Hamid; Mekadem, Mahmoud; Lebbi, Mohamed; Bouabdallah, Ahcene

    2015-07-01

    The hydrodynamic stability of a viscous fluid flow evolving in an annular space between a rotating inner cylinder with a periodically variable radius and an outer fixed cylinder is considered. The basic flow is axis-symmetric with two counter-rotating vortices each wavelength along the whole filled system length. The numerical simulations are implemented on the commercial Fluent software package, a finite-volume CFD code. It is aimed to make investigation of the early flow transition with assessment of the flow response to radial pulsatile motion superimposed to the inner cylinder cross-section as an extension of a previous developed work in Oualli et al. [H. Oualli, A. Lalaoua, S. Hanchi, A. Bouabdallah, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 61, 11102 (2013)] where a comparative controlling strategy is applied to the outer cylinder. The same basic system is considered with similar calculating parameters and procedure. In Oualli et al. [H. Oualli, A. Lalaoua, S. Hanchi, A. Bouabdallah, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 61, 11102 (2013)], it is concluded that for the actuated outer cylinder and relatively to the non-controlled case, the critical Taylor number, Tac1, characterizing the first instability onset illustrated by the piled Taylor vortices along the gap, increases substantially to reach a growing rate of 70% when the deforming amplitude is ɛ = 15%. Interestingly, when this controlling strategy is applied to the inner cylinder cross-section with a slight modification of the actuating law, this tendency completely inverts and the critical Taylor number decreases sharply from Tac1 = 41.33 to Tac1 = 17.66 for ɛ = 5%, corresponding to a reduction rate of 57%. Fundamentally, this result is interesting and can be interpreted by prematurely triggering instabilities resulting in rapid development of flow turbulence. Practically, important applicative aspects can be met in several industry areas where substantial intensification of transport phenomena (mass, momentum and heat) is

  12. Truncation effect on Taylor-Aris dispersion in lattice Boltzmann schemes: Accuracy towards stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, Irina; Roux, Laetitia

    2015-10-01

    The Taylor dispersion in parabolic velocity field provides a well-known benchmark for advection-diffusion (ADE) schemes and serves as a first step towards accurate modeling of the high-order non-Gaussian effects in heterogeneous flow. While applying the Lattice Boltzmann ADE two-relaxation-times (TRT) scheme for a transport with given Péclet number (Pe) one should select six free-tunable parameters, namely, (i) molecular-diffusion-scale, equilibrium parameter; (ii) three families of equilibrium weights, assigned to the terms of mass, velocity and numerical-diffusion-correction, and (iii) two relaxation rates. We analytically and numerically investigate the respective roles of all these degrees of freedom in the accuracy and stability in the evolution of a Gaussian plume. For this purpose, the third- and fourth-order transient multi-dimensional analysis of the recurrence equations of the TRT ADE scheme is extended for a spatially-variable velocity field. The key point is in the coupling of the truncation and Taylor dispersion analysis which allows us to identify the second-order numerical correction δkT to Taylor dispersivity coefficient kT. The procedure is exemplified for a straight Poiseuille flow where δkT is given in a closed analytical form in equilibrium and relaxation parameter spaces. The predicted longitudinal dispersivity is in excellent agreement with the numerical experiments over a wide parameter range. In relatively small Pe-range, the relative dispersion error increases with Péclet number. This deficiency reduces in the intermediate and high Pe-range where it becomes Pe-independent and velocity-amplitude independent. Eliminating δkT by a proper parameter choice and employing specular reflection for zero flux condition on solid boundaries, the d2Q9 TRT ADE scheme may reproduce the Taylor-Aris result quasi-exactly, from very coarse to fine grids, and from very small to arbitrarily high Péclet numbers. Since free-tunable product of two

  13. Stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a non-Newtonian incompressible complex plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garai, S.; Banerjee, D.; Janaki, M. S.; Chakrabarti, N.

    2015-03-01

    The stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability is investigated in a non-Newtonian unmagnetized dusty plasma with an experimentally verified model of shear flow rate dependent viscosity. It has been found that non-Newtonian property has also a significant role in stabilization of RT instability along with velocity shear stabilization in the short wavelength regime. The effect of the non-Newtonian parameters is more profound in the higher velocity shear rate regime. A detailed study is reported on the role of non-Newtonian effect on RT instability with conventional dust fluid equations using standard numerical eigenvalue analysis.

  14. Photographic copy of architectural drawings for Building 4332 (T82): Taylor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawings for Building 4332 (T-82): Taylor & Barnes, Architects & Engineers, 803 W. Third Street, Los Angeles California, O.C.E. Office of Civil Engineer Job No. Muroc ESA 210-48 and 210-49, Military Construction: Muroc Flight Test Base, Muroc, California, Warehouses and Additional Housing for Officers: Warehouse "A" Plans & Elevations, Sheet No. 4 of 16, May 1945. Reproduced from the holdings of the National Archives; Pacific Southwest Region - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Warehouse A, North Base Road at E Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  15. Photographic copy of architectural plan for Administration Building (T50): Taylor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural plan for Administration Building (T-50): Taylor & Barnes, Architects & Engineers, 803 W. Third Street, Los Angeles California, O.C.E. Office of Civil Engineer Job No. A(9-10), Military Construction: Materiel Command Flight Test Base, Muroc, California, Hangar and Auxiliary Buildings: Administration Building Type OB-H-T, Plans and - Details, Sheet No. 38 of 38, March 1944. Reproduced from the holdings of the National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Administration Building T-50, D Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. The Taylor Creek Rhyolite of New Mexico: a rapidly emplaced field of lava domes and flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, W.A.; Dalrymple, G.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Tertiary Taylor Creek Rhyolite of southwest New Mexico comprises at least 20 lava domes and flows. Each of the lavas was erupted from its own vent, and the vents are distributed throughout a 20 km by 50 km area. The volume of the rhyolite and genetically associated pyroclastic deposits is at least 100 km3 (denserock equivalent). The rhyolite contains 15%-35% quartz, sanidine, plagioclase, ??biotite, ??hornblende phenocrysts. Quartz and sanidine account for about 98% of the phenocrysts and are present in roughly equal amounts. With rare exceptions, the groundmass consists of intergrowths of fine-grained silica and alkali feldspar. Whole-rock major-element composition varies little, and the rhyolite is metaluminous to weakly peraluminous; mean SiO2 content is about 77.5??0.3%. Similarly, major-element compositions of the two feldsparphenocryst species also are nearly constant. However, whole-rock concentrations of some trace-elements vary as much as several hundred percent. Initial radiometric age determinations, all K-Ar and fission track, suggest that the rhyolite lava field grew during a period of at least 2 m.y. Subsequent 40Ar/39Ar ages indicate that the period of growth was no more than 100 000 years. The time-space-composition relations thus suggest that the Taylor Creek Rhyolite was erupted from a single magma reservoir whose average width was at least 30 km, comparable in size to several penecontemporaneous nearby calderas. However, this rhyolite apparently is not related to a caldera structure. Possibly, the Taylor Creek Phyolite magma body never became sufficiently volatile rich to produce a large-volume pyroclastic eruption and associated caldera collapse, but instead leaked repeatedly to feed many relatively small domes and flows. The new 40Ar/39Ar ages do not resolve preexisting unknown relative-age relations among the domes and flows of the lava field. Nonetheless, the indicated geologically brief period during which Taylor Creek Rhyolite magma was

  17. First Measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor-Induced Magnetic Fields in Laser-Produced Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, M. J.-E.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J.; Casey, D. T.; Petrasso, R. D.; Hu, S. X.; Betti, R.; Hager, J. D.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Smalyuk, V. A.

    2012-06-01

    The first experimental demonstration of Rayleigh-Taylor-induced magnetic fields due to the Biermann battery effect has been made. Experiments with laser-irradiated plastic foils were performed to investigate these illusive fields using a monoenergetic proton radiography system. Path-integrated B field strength measurements were inferred from radiographs and found to increase from 10 to 100Tμm during the linear growth phase for 120μm perturbations. Proton fluence modulations were corrected for Coulomb scattering using measured areal density profiles from x-ray radiographs.

  18. Rayleigh-Taylor Instability in Elastoplastic Solids: A Local Catastrophic Process.

    PubMed

    Maimouni, I; Goyon, J; Lac, E; Pringuey, T; Boujlel, J; Chateau, X; Coussot, P

    2016-04-15

    We show that the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in elastoplastic solids takes the form of local perturbations penetrating the material independently of the interface size, in contrast with the theory for simple elastic materials. Then, even just beyond the stable domain, the instability abruptly develops as bursts rapidly moving through the other medium. We show that this is due to the resistance to penetration of a finger which is minimal for a specific finger size and drops to a much lower value beyond a small depth (a few millimeters). PMID:27127971

  19. Rayleigh-Taylor Instability in Elastoplastic Solids: A Local Catastrophic Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maimouni, I.; Goyon, J.; Lac, E.; Pringuey, T.; Boujlel, J.; Chateau, X.; Coussot, P.

    2016-04-01

    We show that the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in elastoplastic solids takes the form of local perturbations penetrating the material independently of the interface size, in contrast with the theory for simple elastic materials. Then, even just beyond the stable domain, the instability abruptly develops as bursts rapidly moving through the other medium. We show that this is due to the resistance to penetration of a finger which is minimal for a specific finger size and drops to a much lower value beyond a small depth (a few millimeters).

  20. Identification of complex flows in Taylor-Couette counter-rotating cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czarny, O.; Serre, E.; Bontoux, P.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    The transition in confined rotating flows is a topical problem with many industrial and fundamental applications. The purpose of this study is to investigate the Taylor-Couette flow in a finite-length cavity with counter-rotating walls, for two aspect ratios L=5 or L=6. Two complex regimes of wavy vortex and spirals are emphasized for the first time via direct numerical simulation, by using a three-dimensional spectral method. The spatio-temporal behavior of the solutions is analyzed and compared to the few data actually available. c2001 Academie des sciences/Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS.

  1. Harmonic growth of spherical Rayleigh-Taylor instability in weakly nonlinear regime

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wanhai; Chen, Yulian; Yu, Changping E-mail: lixl@imech.ac.cn; Li, Xinliang E-mail: lixl@imech.ac.cn

    2015-11-15

    Harmonic growth in classical Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) on a spherical interface is analytically investigated using the method of the parameter expansion up to the third order. Our results show that the amplitudes of the first four harmonics will recover those in planar RTI as the interface radius tends to infinity compared against the initial perturbation wavelength. The initial radius dramatically influences the harmonic development. The appearance of the second-order feedback to the initial unperturbed interface (i.e., the zeroth harmonic) makes the interface move towards the spherical center. For these four harmonics, the smaller the initial radius is, the faster they grow.

  2. Strong stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability by material strength at Mbar pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H S; Lorenz, K T; Cavallo, R M; Pollaine, S M; Prisbrey, S T; Rudd, R E; Becker, R C; Bernier, J V; Remington, B A

    2009-11-19

    Experimental results showing significant reductions from classical in the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth rate due to high pressure effective lattice viscosity are presented. Using a laser created ramped drive, vanadium samples are compressed and accelerated quasi-isentropically at {approx}1 Mbar pressures, while maintaining the sample in the solid-state. Comparisons with simulations and theory indicate that the high pressure, high strain rate conditions trigger a phonon drag mechanism, resulting in the observed high effective lattice viscosity and strong stabilization of the RT instability.

  3. Stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a non-Newtonian incompressible complex plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Garai, S.; Janaki, M. S.; Chakrabarti, N.

    2015-03-15

    The stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability is investigated in a non-Newtonian unmagnetized dusty plasma with an experimentally verified model of shear flow rate dependent viscosity. It has been found that non-Newtonian property has also a significant role in stabilization of RT instability along with velocity shear stabilization in the short wavelength regime. The effect of the non-Newtonian parameters is more profound in the higher velocity shear rate regime. A detailed study is reported on the role of non-Newtonian effect on RT instability with conventional dust fluid equations using standard numerical eigenvalue analysis.

  4. Taylor-plasticity-based analysis of length scale effects in void growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. X.; Demiral, M.; El Sayed, T.

    2014-10-01

    We have studied the void growth problem by employing the Taylor-based strain gradient plasticity theories, from which we have chosen the following three, namely, the mechanism-based strain gradient (MSG) plasticity (Gao et al 1999 J. Mech. Phys. Solids 47 1239, Huang et al 2000 J. Mech. Phys. Solids 48 99-128), the Taylor-based nonlocal theory (TNT; 2001 Gao and Huang 2001 Int. J. Solids Struct. 38 2615) and the conventional theory of MSG (CMSG; Huang et al 2004 Int. J. Plast. 20 753). We have addressed the following three issues which occur when plastic deformation at the void surface is unconstrained. (1) Effects of elastic deformation. Elasticity is essential for cavitation instability. It is therefore important to guarantee that the gradient term entering the Taylor model is the effective plastic strain gradient instead of the total strain gradient. We propose a simple elastic-plastic decomposition method. When the void size approaches the minimum allowable initial void size related to the maximum allowable geometrically necessary dislocation density, overestimation of the flow stress due to the negligence of the elastic strain gradient is on the order of \\frac{l\\varepsilon_Y}{R0} near the void surface, where l, ɛY and R0 are, respectively, the intrinsic material length scale, the yield strain and the initial void radius. (2) MSG intrinsic inconsistency, which was initially mentioned in Gao et al (1999 J. Mech. Phys. Solids 47 1239) but has not been the topic of follow-up studies. We realize that MSG higher-order stress arises due to the linear-strain-field approximation within the mesoscale cell with a nonzero size, lɛ. Simple analysis shows that within an MSG mesoscale cell near the void surface, the difference between microscale and mesoscale strains is on the order of (\\frac{l\\varepsilon}{R0})2 , indicating that when \\frac{l\\varepsilon}{R0}˜ 1.0 , the higher-order stress effect can make the MSG result considerably different from the TNT or CMSG

  5. High-Speed Solution of Spacecraft Trajectory Problems Using Taylor Series Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, James R.; Martini, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    It has been known for some time that Taylor series (TS) integration is among the most efficient and accurate numerical methods in solving differential equations. However, the full benefit of the method has yet to be realized in calculating spacecraft trajectories, for two main reasons. First, most applications of Taylor series to trajectory propagation have focused on relatively simple problems of orbital motion or on specific problems and have not provided general applicability. Second, applications that have been more general have required use of a preprocessor, which inevitably imposes constraints on computational efficiency. The latter approach includes the work of Berryman et al., who solved the planetary n-body problem with relativistic effects. Their work specifically noted the computational inefficiencies arising from use of a preprocessor and pointed out the potential benefit of manually coding derivative routines. In this Engineering Note, we report on a systematic effort to directly implement Taylor series integration in an operational trajectory propagation code: the Spacecraft N-Body Analysis Program (SNAP). The present Taylor series implementation is unique in that it applies to spacecraft virtually anywhere in the solar system and can be used interchangeably with another integration method. SNAP is a high-fidelity trajectory propagator that includes force models for central body gravitation with N X N harmonics, other body gravitation with N X N harmonics, solar radiation pressure, atmospheric drag (for Earth orbits), and spacecraft thrusting (including shadowing). The governing equations are solved using an eighth-order Runge-Kutta Fehlberg (RKF) single-step method with variable step size control. In the present effort, TS is implemented by way of highly integrated subroutines that can be used interchangeably with RKF. This makes it possible to turn TS on or off during various phases of a mission. Current TS force models include central body

  6. The Rayleigh-Taylor condition for the evolution of irrotational fluid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Cordoba, Antonio; Cordoba, Diego; Gancedo, Francisco

    2009-07-01

    For the free boundary dynamics of the two-phase Hele-Shaw and Muskat problems, and also for the irrotational incompressible Euler equation, we prove existence locally in time when the Rayleigh-Taylor condition is initially satisfied for a 2D interface. The result for water waves was first obtained by Wu in a slightly different scenario (vanishing at infinity), but our approach is different because it emphasizes the active scalar character of the system and does not require the presence of gravity. PMID:19553208

  7. Viscoelastic Taylor-Couette instability as analog of the magnetorotational instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yang; Crumeyrolle, Olivier; Mutabazi, Innocent

    2015-09-01

    A linear stability analysis and an experimental study of a viscoelastic Taylor-Couette flow corotating in the Keplerian ratio allow us to elucidate the analogy between the viscoelastic instability and the magnetorotational instability (MRI). A generalized Rayleigh criterion allows us to determine the potentially unstable zone to pure-elasticity-driven perturbations. Experiments with a viscoelastic polymer solution yield four modes: one pure-elasticity mode and three elastorotational instability (ERI) modes that represent the MRI-analog modes. The destabilization by the polymer viscosity is evidenced for the ERI modes.

  8. Solid-state Rayleigh-Taylor experiments in vanadium at Mbar pressures at the Omega laser

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B A; Park, H S; Lorenz, K T; Cavallo, R M; Pollaine, S M; Prisbrey, S T; Rudd, R E; Becker, R C; Bernier, J V

    2009-06-24

    We present experiments on the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in the plastic flow regime of solid-state vanadium (V) foils at {approx}1 Mbar pressures and strain rates of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 8} s{sup -1}, using a laser based, ramped-pressure acceleration technique. High pressure material strength causes strong stabilization of the RT instability at short wavelengths. Comparisons with 2D simulations utilizing models of high pressure strength show that the V strength increases by a factor of 3.5 at peak pressure, compared to its ambient strength. An effective lattice viscosity of {approx}400 poise would have a similar effect.

  9. Observation of Rayleigh-Taylor-instability evolution in a plasma with magnetic and viscous effects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Adams, Colin S.; Moser, Auna L.; Hsu, Scott C.

    2015-11-06

    We present time-resolved observations of Rayleigh-Taylor-instability (RTI) evolution at the interface between an unmagnetized plasma jet colliding with a stagnated, magnetized plasma. The observed instability growth time (~10μs) is consistent with the estimated linear RTI growth rate calculated using experimentally inferred values of density (~1014cm–3) and deceleration (~109 m/s2). The observed mode wavelength (≳1 cm) nearly doubles within a linear growth time. Furthermore, theoretical estimates of magnetic and viscous stabilization and idealized magnetohydrodynamic simulations including a physical viscosity model both suggest that the observed instability evolution is subject to magnetic and/or viscous effects.

  10. Simple model of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, collapse, and structural elements.

    PubMed

    Goncharov, V P; Pavlov, V I

    2013-08-01

    The mechanisms and structural elements of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability whose evolution results in the occurrence of the collapse have been studied in the scope of the rotating shallow water model with horizontal density gradient. Analysis of the instability mechanism shows that two collapse scenarios are possible. One scenario implies anisotropic collapse during which the contact area of a collapsing fragment with the bottom contracts into a spinning segment. The other implies isotropic contracting of the area into a point. The rigorous integral criteria and power laws of collapses are found. PMID:24032919

  11. Communication strategies in cosmetic surgery websites: an application of Taylor's six-segment message strategy wheel.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ho-Young Anthony; Wu, Lei; Taylor, Ronald E

    2013-01-01

    Using Taylor's six-segment message strategy wheel as a theoretical framework, this study examines the communication approach (transmission or ritual) and message strategy (ego, social, sensory, routine, acute need, or ration) of cosmetic surgery websites. A content analysis revealed a fairly even division between transmission and ritual approaches. Ration strategy was the exclusive strategy in the websites adopting a transmission approach. No routine or acute need strategies were observed. Websites incorporating the ritual approach used ego, social, and sensory strategies. Human female models and natural objects were incorporated to deliver emotional persuasion. Implications for cosmetic surgery web marketers are discussed. PMID:23697851

  12. Proton Beam Fast Ignition Fusion: Synergy of Weibel and Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2011-04-01

    The proton beam generation and focusing in fast ignition inertial confinement fusion is studied. The spatial and energy spread of the proton beam generated in a laser-solid interaction is increased due to the synergy of Weibel and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. The focal spot radius can reach 100 μm, which is nearly an order of magnitude larger than the optimal value. The energy spread decreases the beam deposition energy in the focal spot. Under these conditions, ignition of a precompressed DT fuel is achieved with the beam powers much higher than the values presently in consideration. Work supported in part by NIKOLA TESLA Laboratories (Stefan University), La Jolla, CA.

  13. The cosmological Slavnov-Taylor identity from BRST symmetry in single-field inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binosi, D.; Quadri, A.

    2016-03-01

    The cosmological Slavnov-Taylor (ST) identity of the Einstein-Hilbert action coupled to a single inflaton field is obtained from the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) symmetry associated with diffeomorphism invariance in the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formalism. The consistency conditions between the correlators of the scalar and tensor modes in the squeezed limit are then derived from the ST identity, together with the softly broken conformal symmetry. Maldacena's original relations connecting the 2- and 3-point correlators at horizon crossing are recovered, as well as the next-to-leading corrections, controlled by the special conformal transformations.

  14. Revisiting the Saffman-Taylor Experiment: Imbibition Patterns and Liquid-Entrainment Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levaché, Bertrand; Bartolo, Denis

    2014-07-01

    We revisit the Saffman-Taylor experiment focusing on the forced-imbibition regime where the displacing fluid wets the confining walls. We demonstrate a new class of invasion patterns that do not display the canonical fingering shapes. We evidence that these unanticipated patterns stem from the entrainment of thin liquid films from the moving meniscus. We then theoretically explain how the interplay between the fluid flow at the contact line and the interface deformations results in the destabilization of liquid interfaces. In addition, this minimal model conveys a unified framework which consistently accounts for all the liquid-entrainment scenarios that have been hitherto reported.

  15. Nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov mixing experiments at Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Budil, K.S.; Remington, B.A.; Weber, S.V.; Farley, D.R.; Murray, S.; Peyser, T.A.

    1997-09-15

    The evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities in the nonlinear regime of growth was investigated in indirect-drive experiments on the Nova laser. The RT experiments investigated the evolution of both single- and multimode perturbations at an embedded interface, isolated from the effects of ablation. This ``classical`` geometry allows short wavelength ({lambda} {approximately} 10-20 {micro}m) perturbations to grow strongly, in marked contrast to prior results at an ablation front. The RM experiments studied singly- and doubly-shocked perturbed interfaces in both face-on and side-on geometries. (U)

  16. Magnetic field generation in Rayleigh-Taylor unstable inertial confinement fusion plasmas.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Dimonte, Guy; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2012-04-20

    Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities (RTI) in inertial confinement fusion implosions are expected to generate magnetic fields. A Hall-MHD model is used to study the field generation by 2D single-mode and multimode RTI in a stratified two-fluid plasma. Self-generated magnetic fields are predicted and these fields grow as the RTI progresses via the ∇n(e)×∇T(e) term in the generalized Ohm's law. Scaling studies are performed to determine the growth of the self-generated magnetic field as a function of density, acceleration, Atwood number, and perturbation wavelength. PMID:22680725

  17. The Taylor Creek Rhyolite of New Mexico: a rapidly emplaced field of lava domes and flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffield, Wendell A.; Dalrymple, G. Brent

    1990-08-01

    The Tertiary Taylor Creek Rhyolite of southwest New Mexico comprises at least 20 lava domes and flows. Each of the lavas was erupted from its own vent, and the vents are distributed throughout a 20 km by 50 km area. The volume of the rhyolite and genetically associated pyroclastic deposits is at least 100 km3 (denserock equivalent). The rhyolite contains 15% 35% quartz, sanidine, plagioclase, ±biotite, ±hornblende phenocrysts. Quartz and sanidine account for about 98% of the phenocrysts and are present in roughly equal amounts. With rare exceptions, the groundmass consists of intergrowths of fine-grained silica and alkali feldspar. Whole-rock major-element composition varies little, and the rhyolite is metaluminous to weakly peraluminous; mean SiO2 content is about 77.5±0.3%. Similarly, major-element compositions of the two feldsparphenocryst species also are nearly constant. However, whole-rock concentrations of some trace-elements vary as much as several hundred percent. Initial radiometric age determinations, all K-Ar and fission track, suggest that the rhyolite lava field grew during a period of at least 2 m.y. Subsequent 40Ar/39Ar ages indicate that the period of growth was no more than 100 000 years. The time-space-composition relations thus suggest that the Taylor Creek Rhyolite was erupted from a single magma reservoir whose average width was at least 30 km, comparable in size to several penecontemporaneous nearby calderas. However, this rhyolite apparently is not related to a caldera structure. Possibly, the Taylor Creek Phyolite magma body never became sufficiently volatile rich to produce a large-volume pyroclastic eruption and associated caldera collapse, but instead leaked repeatedly to feed many relatively small domes and flows. The new 40Ar/39Ar ages do not resolve preexisting unknown relative-age relations among the domes and flows of the lava field. Nonetheless, the indicated geologically brief period during which Taylor Creek Rhyolite magma was

  18. Comparative Analysis of Uniaxial Strain Shock Tests and Taylor Tests for Armor and Maraging Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mescheryakov, Yu. I.; Zhigacheva, N. I.; Petrov, Yu. A.; Divakov, A. K.; Cline, C. F.

    2004-07-01

    High-strength constructional 38KhN3MFA steel and 02H18К9M5-BИ maraging steel were tested to determine the yield stress under dynamic loading. The 38KhN3MFA steel was used as central test material to work out the experimental technique. For both kinds of steel the results obtained in the plane shock tests under uniaxial strain condition show approximately the identical yield stress values as those obtained in Taylor tests. Cracking of maraging steel occurs along the shock-induced austenite bands where microhardness is much smaller than that for the rest of the matrix.

  19. The management of tibial fracture non-union using the Taylor Spatial Frame.

    PubMed

    Khunda, A; Al-Maiyah, M; Eardley, W G P; Montgomery, R

    2016-12-01

    We reviewed 40 complex tibial non-unions treated with Taylor Spatial Frames. 39 healed successfully. Using the ASAMI scoring, we obtained 33 excellent, 5 good, 1 fair and 1 poor bone results. The functional results were excellent in 29 patients, good in 8, fair in two and poor in one. Mean patient satisfaction score was 95%. All but one patient would have the same treatment again. 28 of the 36 patients in work when injured, returned to work at the time of their final review. Four patients had an adverse event requiring significant intervention. Average treatment cost was approximately £26,000/patient. PMID:27453643

  20. Dependence of Ablative Rayleigh—Taylor Instability on High-Z Dopant Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiroto, Takashi; Ohnishi, Naofumi; Sunahara, Atsushi; Fujioka, Shinsuke

    2016-03-01

    We conducted two-dimensional simulations of inertial confinement fusion targets to evaluate effects of high-Z doping on implosion hydrodynamics. It was found that an ablation structure drastically changes with concentration of dopant material. We also confirmed that even a lightly-doped target can suppress Rayleigh-Taylor instability on short wavelength, while a long-wavelength perturbation is difficult to be suppressed with any dopant concentration. The high-Z doping is thus only effective for a spherical implosion with high-mode perturbations.

  1. A scheme for reducing deceleration-phase Rayleigh-Taylor growth in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. F.; Ye, W. H.; Wu, J. F.; Liu, Jie; Zhang, W. Y.; He, X. T.

    2016-05-01

    It is demonstrated that the growth of acceleration-phase instabilities in inertial confinement fusion implosions can be controlled, especially in the high-foot implosions [O. A. Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056314 (2014)] on the National Ignition Facility. However, the excessive growth of the deceleration-phase instabilities can still destroy the hot spot ignition. A scheme is proposed to retard the deceleration-phase Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth by shock collision near the waist of the inner shell surface. Two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations confirm the improved deceleration-phase hot spot stability properties without sacrificing the fuel compression.

  2. Observation of Rayleigh-Taylor-instability evolution in a plasma with magnetic and viscous effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Colin S.; Moser, Auna L.; Hsu, Scott C.

    2015-11-01

    We present time-resolved observations of Rayleigh-Taylor-instability (RTI) evolution at the interface between an unmagnetized plasma jet colliding with a stagnated, magnetized plasma. The observed instability growth time (˜10 μ s ) is consistent with the estimated linear RTI growth rate calculated using experimentally inferred values of density (˜1014cm-3 ) and deceleration (˜109 m /s2). The observed mode wavelength (≳1 cm) nearly doubles within a linear growth time. Theoretical estimates of magnetic and viscous stabilization and idealized magnetohydrodynamic simulations including a physical viscosity model both suggest that the observed instability evolution is subject to magnetic and/or viscous effects.

  3. Zero-dimensional model for magnetic curvature driven Rayleigh Taylor turbulence simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sarveshwar; Das, Amita; Kaw, Predhiman; Sen, Abhijit

    2007-05-01

    A zero-dimensional nonlinear evolution model is derived from the full set of two-dimensional fluid evolution equations of the curvature driven Rayleigh Taylor instability. Such a model, arrived on heuristic grounds earlier, was found to capture the principal features of the final saturated state of the instability [A. Das, S. Mahajan, P. Kaw, A. Sen, S. Benkadda, A. Verga, Phys. Plasmas 4 (1997) 1018; A. Das, A. Sen, S. Mahajan, P. Kaw, Phys. Plasmas 8 (2001) 5104]. We present a detailed analysis of the linear and nonlinear characteristics of the model and also discuss some of its limitations.

  4. Authorizing Online Learning. Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Susan; Vander Ark, Tom

    2011-01-01

    processing to personalized learning. There will also be a slow enrollment shift from traditional district-operated schools to schools and programs operated by organizations authorized under contracts or…

  5. Emission and Charging of Nanoaerosol Plumes from a Taylor Cone-Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunshan; Tan, Ming K.; Go, David B.; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2011-11-01

    We examine the explosive atomization at the tip of a Direct-Current Taylor cone-jet for an electrolyte, which is the most common mode for electrospray proteomic mass spectrometry applications but whose fundamental mechanism remains unknown. With scaling arguments and imaging experiments, we demonstrate the underlying physics to be the induction of a polarized region with a high space charge density in the microjet by the dominant Taylor harmonic of the cone. The induced space charge density increases along the jet until Coulombic repulsion among the space charges, when their separation is below the Bjerrum length, triggers the explosive microjet atomization and emits charged nanoaerosols in distinct conic plumes. As the induced microjet space charge can be estimated by a nonlinear Guoy-Chapman equilibrium analysis for strong electrolytes, the jet breakup length, current-flow rate correlation, aerosol size/charge and plume angle are strong functions of ionic strength and interfacial tension and are quantitatively captured by our universal scaling laws.

  6. Pollen and geochronological data from South Florida; Taylor Creek Site 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willard, D.A.; Holmes, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    Many recent changes in plant and animal communities of the Everglades have been attributed to human alteration of the environment, such as changes in the hydrologic regime and increased agricultural activity, but cause-and-effect relationships between environmental and biotic changes have not been documented scientifically. This report on pollen and geochronological evidence from cores collected along Taylor Creek is the first of a series documenting the biotic history of a series of sites in southern Florida. Pollen and geochronology were analyzed from two cores collected at site 2 along Taylor Creek, one short core (35 cm long) to provide high-resolution data and one long core (98 cm long) to provide a record of the last few millenia. Analysis of pollen assemblages from these cores indicate that marsh and slough vegetation, primarily sawgrass with some incursions by cattails, dominated the area for most of the last two millenia, until about 1950-1960. At that point, sawgrass pollen declined to lower abundances than recorded elsewhere in the core, and tree pollen became much more abundant in the cores. This change reflects the vegetational response to alterations in the hydrologic system throughout much of the last century.

  7. Combined Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities on cylindrical interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M, Vadivukkarasan; Panchagnula, Mahesh V.

    2014-11-01

    Hydrodynamic instabilities that occur on a fluid interface are of interest to a wide range of applications. We study the combined effect of Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) and Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) mechanisms of instability simultaneously attempting to destabilize a cylindrical interface. Linear stability analysis is used to study the process by which relative velocity (characterized by a Weber number) and acceleration (characterized by a Bond number) induced effects distort the interface. We investigate the effect of three dimensional disturbances and study the effect of varying Bo and We. From the dispersion relation obtained in this study, we are able to recover the R-T and K-H mechanism dispersion relations as special cases. From this study, we observe the occurrence of two-dimensional Taylor and flute modes as well as three-dimensional helical modes. A regime chart is presented in the (Bo,We) space to demonstrate the energy budget in the acceleration and shear induced instability mechanisms. In addition, we show that the length scale associated with the distorted interface is minimum in the helical mode. Finally, we show that an optimal Weber number exists above which it is not beneficial to increase relative velocity based kinetic energy.

  8. Modulation of isotropic turbulence by deformable droplets of Taylor lengthscale size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Michael; Ferrante, Antonino

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the effects of finite-size deformable droplets on decaying isotropic turbulence via direct numerical simulation (DNS). DNS is performed using the two-fluid pressure-correction method by Dodd and Ferrante [J. Comput. Phys. 273, 416 (2014)] coupled with the volume of fluid method by Baraldi et al. [Comput. & Fluids 96, 322 (2014)]. We fully-resolve the flow around and inside 3130 droplets of Taylor lengthscale size, resulting in a droplet volume fraction of 0.05. The initial Taylor lengthscale Reynolds number is Reλ0 = 75 , and the computational mesh has 10243 grid points. We analyze the effects on turbulence modulation of varying the droplet- to carrier-fluid viscosity ratio (1 <=μd /μc <= 100) and the droplet Weber number based on the r.m.s velocity of turbulence (0 . 1 <=Werms <= 5). We discuss how varying these parameters affects the turbulence kinetic energy budget, and explain the physical mechanisms for such modulation. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation CAREER Award, Grant Number OCI-1054591.

  9. Saffman-Taylor-like instability in a narrow gap induced by dielectric barrier discharge.

    PubMed

    Hou, Shang-Yan; Chu, Hong-Yu

    2015-07-01

    This work is inspired by the expansion of the plasma bubble in a narrow gap reported by Chu and Lee [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 225001 (2011)]. We report the unstable phenomena of the plasma-liquid interface with different curvature in a Hele-Shaw cell. Dielectric barrier discharge is produced in the cell at atmospheric pressure which is partially filled with silicone oil. We show that the Saffman-Taylor-like instability is observed on the bubble-type, channel-type, and drop-type interfaces. The Schlieren observation of the plasma-drop interaction reveals that there is a vapor layer around the drop and the particle image velocimetry shows the liquid flow inside the drop. We propose that the thermal Marangoni effect induced by the plasma heating is responsible for the unstable phenomena of the plasma-liquid interaction. The fluctuation of the interface is shown consistently with the Saffman-Taylor instability modified by the temperature-dependent velocity and surface tension. PMID:26274288

  10. High-Rate Material Modeling and Validation Using the Taylor Cylinder Impact Test

    SciTech Connect

    Maudlin, P.J.; Gray, G.T. III; Cady, C.M.; Kaschner, G.C.

    1998-10-21

    Taylor Cylinder impact testing is used to validate anisotropic elastoplastic constitutive modeling by comparing polycrystal simulated yield surface shapes (topography) to measured shapes from post-test Taylor impact specimens and quasistatic compression specimens. Measured yield surface shapes are extracted from the experimental post-test geometries using classical r-value definitions modified for arbitrary stress state and specimen orientation. Rolled tantalum (body-centered-cubic metal) plate and clock-rolled zirconium (hexagonal-close-packed metal) plate are both investigated. The results indicate that an assumption of topography invariance with respect to strain-rate is justifiable for tantalum. However, a strong sensitivity of topography with respect to strain-rate for zirconium was observed, implying that some accounting for a deformation mechanism rate-dependence associated with lower-symmetry materials should be included in the constitutive modeling. Discussion of the importance of this topography rate-dependence and texture evolution in formulating constitutive models appropriate for FEM applications is provided.

  11. Experimental observations of direct laminar-turbulent transition in counter-rotating Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, Christopher; Krygier, Michael; Borrero-Echeverry, Daniel; Grigoriev, Roman; Schatz, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The transition to turbulence in counter-rotating Taylor-Couette flow typically occurs through a sequence of supercritical bifurcations of stable flow states (e.g. spiral vortices, interpenetrating spirals (IPS), and wavy interpenetrating spirals). Coughlin and Marcus have proposed a mechanism by which these laminar spiral flows undergo a secondary instability that leads to turbulence. We report the discovery of a counter-rotating regime (Reout = - 1000 , Rein ~ 640) of small aspect ratio/large radius ratio Taylor-Couette flow (Γ = 5 . 26 / η = 0 . 91), where the system bypasses the primary instability to stable laminar spirals and instead undergoes a direct transition to turbulence as the inner cylinder rotation rate is slowly increased. This transition is mediated by an unstable IPS state. We study the transition experimentally using flow visualization and tomographic PIV, and show that it is both highly repeatable and that it shows hysteresis as the inner cylinder rotation rate is decreased. As Rein is decreased, the turbulent flow relaminarizes into an intermediate, stable IPS state. Decreasing Rein further returns the system back to circular Couette flow. This study was supported by NSF DMS-1125302 and NSF CMMI-1234436.

  12. Blow Up Exponents and Deviations from Ideal Taylor Cone Shapes in Ultrathin Liquid Metal Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albertson, Theodore G.; Troian, Sandra

    We employ a finite element, moving mesh model to investigate the axisymmetric flow of an ultrathin liquid metal film overlay by a thin vacuum layer confined between two circular disks held at a constant potential difference close to field evaporation values. Within nanoseconds, a small Gaussian protrusion centered about the origin evolves into a sharpened cusp elongated by Maxwell stresses and rounded by capillary stresses. Previous analytic studies and numerical simulations based on marker and cell techniques have uncovered a self-similar regime in time where the opposing stresses and kinetic energy exhibit blow up behavior with a characteristic exponent of - 2/3, and cusp shapes that deviate from the ideal Taylor cone angle. Our simulations consistently yield exponents in the range -3/4 to -4/5, with values that depend sensitively on the choice of blowup time. We also find that deviations from the ideal Taylor cone angle become significant all along the film interface as the Gaussian amplitude increases beyond fractions of a micron. TGA gratefully acknowledges support from a NASA Science and Technology fellowship.

  13. Flow regimes in a vertical Taylor-Couette system with a radial thermal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillerm, R.; Kang, C.; Savaro, C.; Lepiller, V.; Prigent, A.; Yang, K.-S.; Mutabazi, I.

    2015-09-01

    A rich variety of flow regimes in a Newtonian fluid inside a vertical large-aspect ratio and a wide-gap Taylor-Couette system with a radial temperature gradient has been determined in experiments and in direct numerical simulations (DNSs). Compared to previous experiments and numerical studies, a wider range of temperature differences (i.e., of the Grashof number Gr) and of the rotation rate (the Taylor number Ta) has been covered. The combined effect of rotation and of the radial temperature gradient is the occurrence of helicoidal vortices or modulated waves at the onset. Stationary axisymmetric vortices are found for very weak temperature differences. A good agreement was found for critical states between results from experiments, linear stability analysis, and DNS. Higher instability modes have been determined for a wide range of parameters and a state diagram of observable flow regimes has been established in the plane spanned by Gr and Ta. Some higher states observed in experiments were retrieved in DNS.

  14. Three-Dimensional Single-Mode Nonlinear Ablative Rayleigh-Taylor Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, R.; Betti, R.; Sanz, J.; Liu, B.; Frank, A.

    2015-11-01

    The nonlinear evolution of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor (ART) instability is studied in three dimensions for conditions relevant to inertial confinement fusion targets. The simulations are performed using our newly developed code ART3D and an astrophysical code AstroBEAR. The laser ablation can suppress the growth of the short-wavelength modes in the linear phase but may enhance their growth in the nonlinear phase because of the vortex-acceleration mechanism. As the mode wavelength approaches the cutoff of the linear spectrum (short-wavelength modes), it is found that the bubble velocity grows faster than predicted in the classical 3-D theory. When compared to 2-D results, 3-D short-wavelength bubbles grow faster and do not reach saturation. The unbounded 3-D bubble acceleration is driven by the unbounded accumulation of vorticity inside the bubble. The vorticity is transferred by mass ablation from the Rayleigh-Taylor spikes into the ablated plasma filling the bubble volume. A density plateau is observed inside a nonlinear ART bubble and the plateau density is higher for shorter-wavelength modes. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  15. Transition to magnetorotational turbulence in Taylor-Couette flow with imposed azimuthal magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseva, A.; Willis, A. P.; Hollerbach, R.; Avila, M.

    2015-09-01

    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is thought to be a powerful source of turbulence and momentum transport in astrophysical accretion discs, but obtaining observational evidence of its operation is challenging. Recently, laboratory experiments of Taylor-Couette flow with externally imposed axial and azimuthal magnetic fields have revealed the kinematic and dynamic properties of the MRI close to the instability onset. While good agreement was found with linear stability analyses, little is known about the transition to turbulence and transport properties of the MRI. We here report on a numerical investigation of the MRI with an imposed azimuthal magnetic field. We show that the laminar Taylor-Couette flow becomes unstable to a wave rotating in the azimuthal direction and standing in the axial direction via a supercritical Hopf bifurcation. Subsequently, the flow features a catastrophic transition to spatio-temporal defects which is mediated by a subcritical subharmonic Hopf bifurcation. Our results are in qualitative agreement with the PROMISE experiment and dramatically extend their realizable parameter range. We find that as the Reynolds number increases defects accumulate and grow into turbulence, yet the momentum transport scales weakly.

  16. Viscoelastic Taylor-Couette instability as an anolog of Magnetorotational instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutabazi, Innocent; Bai, Yang; Crumeyrolle, Olivier

    2014-11-01

    Our investigation of the viscoelastic instability (VEI) in the corotating Couette-Taylor system is motivated by the prediction of Ogilvie et. al that such an instability is analogous to the MRI (magneto-rotational instability) which is believed to play a key role in the angular momentum transport in accretion disks. This analogy is supported by stretched spring argument developed by Balbus and Hawley which is similar to that of the polymer stretching model in viscoelastic solutions. To our best knowledge, only one experiment by Boldyrev et al. has been reported for the search of the analogy VEI-MRI. We present both theoretical and experimental results obtained in the viscoelastic Couette-Taylor system when both the cylinders are constrained to rotate along the Keplerian and anti-Keplerian lines. The polymer solutions have a constant solution with respect to shear rate and can be described by the Odlroyd-B model. The control parameters are the aspect ratio Γ, the radius ratio η, the Reynolds number Re , the elastic number E = Wi / Re and the viscosity ratio S =μp / μ . After linear stability analysis, critical modes are oscillatory and non-axisymmetric. The observed modes are either stationary or oscillatory modes. A state diagram allows for a comparison to MRI Partial support from the French National Research Agency (ANR) through the program Investissements d'Avenir (ANR-10 LABX-09-01), LABEX EMC3.

  17. Radiometric 81Kr dating identifies 120,000-year-old ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Buizert, Christo; Baggenstos, Daniel; Jiang, Wei; Purtschert, Roland; Petrenko, Vasilii V; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Müller, Peter; Kuhl, Tanner; Lee, James; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P; Brook, Edward J

    2014-05-13

    We present successful (81)Kr-Kr radiometric dating of ancient polar ice. Krypton was extracted from the air bubbles in four ∼350-kg polar ice samples from Taylor Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and dated using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA). The (81)Kr radiometric ages agree with independent age estimates obtained from stratigraphic dating techniques with a mean absolute age offset of 6 ± 2.5 ka. Our experimental methods and sampling strategy are validated by (i) (85)Kr and (39)Ar analyses that show the samples to be free of modern air contamination and (ii) air content measurements that show the ice did not experience gas loss. We estimate the error in the (81)Kr ages due to past geomagnetic variability to be below 3 ka. We show that ice from the previous interglacial period (Marine Isotope Stage 5e, 130-115 ka before present) can be found in abundance near the surface of Taylor Glacier. Our study paves the way for reliable radiometric dating of ancient ice in blue ice areas and margin sites where large samples are available, greatly enhancing their scientific value as archives of old ice and meteorites. At present, ATTA (81)Kr analysis requires a 40-80-kg ice sample; as sample requirements continue to decrease, (81)Kr dating of ice cores is a future possibility. PMID:24753606

  18. Miscible and immiscible experiments on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability using planar laser induced fluorescence visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokler, Matthew; Roberts, Michael; Jacobs, Jeffrey

    2013-11-01

    Incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability experiments are presented in which two stratified liquids having Atwood number of 0.2 are accelerated in a vertical linear induction motor driven drop tower. A test sled having only vertical freedom of motion contains the experiment tank and visualization equipment. The sled is positioned at the top of the tower within the linear induction motors and accelerated downward causing the initially stable interface to be unstable and allowing the Rayleigh-Taylor instability to develop. Forced and unforced experiments are conducted using both immiscible and miscible liquid combinations. Forced initial perturbations are produced by vertically oscillating the test sled prior to the start of acceleration. The interface is visualized using a 445 nm laser light source that illuminates a fluorescent dye mixed in one of the fluids. The resulting fluorescent images are recorded using a monochromatic high speed video camera. The laser beam is synchronously swept across the fluorescent fluid, at the frame rate of the camera, exposing a single plane of the interface allowing for the measurement of spike and bubble growth. Comparisons between miscible and immiscible mixing layer distributions are made from the resulting interface concentration profiles.

  19. Spatially Ramped Turbulence in Taylor-Couette Flow with Hourglass Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashbaker, Eric; Wiener, Richard J.; Olsen, Thomas; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2003-11-01

    Taylor vortex flow in an hourglass geometry undergoes a period-doubling cascade to chaotic pattern dynamics, as the rotation rate is increased(Richard J. Wiener et al), Phys. Rev. E 55, 5489 (1997).. The pattern of laminar flow in Taylor Vortex is unstable to the formation phase slips, generating new vortex pairs. For higher rotation rates, the pattern freezes. At even greater rotation rates the flow becomes demonstrably turbulent, and remarkably, the pattern again becomes unstable to phase slips. Our measurements document and quantify the spatial variation of this turbulence. Light was scattered off Kalliroscope tracer in the fluid. The time-varying intensity was Fourier transformed and the turbulence was quantified by the Spectral Mode Number, Spectral Number Distribution, and Degrees of Freedom measures. The strength of the turbulence is ramped in a manner consistent with the ramped Reynolds number along the hourglass. This is in keeping with our suggestion that the ramped turbulence gives rise to the persistent dynamics of the phase slips in the presence of turbulence.

  20. SHOCK CORRUGATION BY RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR INSTABILITY IN GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOW JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Duffell, Paul C.; MacFadyen, Andrew I. E-mail: macfadyen@nyu.edu

    2014-08-10

    Afterglow jets are Rayleigh-Taylor unstable and therefore turbulent during the early part of their deceleration. There are also several processes which actively cool the jet. In this Letter, we demonstrate that if cooling significantly increases the compressibility of the flow, the turbulence collides with the forward shock, destabilizing and corrugating it. In this case, the forward shock is turbulent enough to produce the magnetic fields responsible for synchrotron emission via small-scale turbulent dynamo. We calculate light curves assuming the magnetic field is in energy equipartition with the turbulent kinetic energy and discover that dynamic magnetic fields are well approximated by a constant magnetic-to-thermal energy ratio of 1%, though there is a sizeable delay in the time of peak flux as the magnetic field turns on only after the turbulence has activated. The reverse shock is found to be significantly more magnetized than the forward shock, with a magnetic-to-thermal energy ratio of the order of 10%. This work motivates future Rayleigh-Taylor calculations using more physical cooling models.

  1. Taylor-Couette flow control using the outer cylinder cross-section variation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oualli, Hamid; Lalaoua, Adel; Hanchi, Samir; Bouabdallah, Ahcene

    2013-01-01

    A numerical study of a controlled flow evolving in a Taylor-Couette system is presented in this paper. The study is devoted to investigate the effect of the outer cylinder cross-section variation on the flow behavior. It is aimed to make assessment of the flow response in terms of the criticality of the early transitional flow regimes and the accompanying flow topology alterations. The numerical simulations are carried out on the Fluent software package for a three-dimensional incompressible flow. The basic system is characterized by a height H = 200 mm, a ratio of the inner to the outer cylinders radii η = 0.9, an aspect ratio corresponding to the cylinders height reported to the gap length Г = 40 and a ratio of the gap to the radius of the inner cylinder δ = 0.1. The numerical deformation of the outer cylinder is executed using the dynamic mesh program according to a predefined function implemented in a homemade program as an UDF (user defined function). It is established that the first instability mode of transition is retarded from Tac1 = 41.33, corresponding to the first Taylor number critical value, to Tac1 = 70 when the deforming amplitude is equal to 15% the external cylinder diameter value. This flow relaminarization process is accompanied by substantial modifications in the flow behavior and configuration.

  2. Centrifugal instability of pulsed Taylor-Couette flow in a Maxwell fluid.

    PubMed

    Riahi, Mehdi; Aniss, Saïd; Ouazzani Touhami, Mohamed; Skali Lami, Salah

    2016-08-01

    Centrifugal instability of a pulsed flow in a viscoelastic fluid confined in a Taylor-Couette system is investigated. Both cylinders are subject to an out-of-phase modulation of rotation with equal modulation amplitude and modulation frequency. The fluid is assumed to obey a linear Maxwell fluid with a relaxation time and a constant viscosity. Attention is focused on the linear stability analysis and on the effect of Deborah and frequency numbers on the critical values of the Taylor and wave numbers. Using Floquet theory, we show that in the limit of low frequency, the Deborah number has no effect on the stability of the basic state which tends to the classical configuration of steady circular Couette flow. When the frequency number increases, the stability of the basic flow is enhanced and the Deborah number has a destabilizing effect which is strongly pronounced in the high-frequency limit. In this frequency limit, the critical parameters tend to constant values independently of the frequency number. These numerical results are in good agreement with the asymptotic solutions obtained in the limit of low and high frequencies. Moreover, a correlation between the rheological proprieties of the fluid in a rheometric experience, especially the loss and storage modulus, and this hydrodynamical instability behavior is presented. PMID:27589859

  3. Numerical simulations of bubbly Taylor-Couette turbulence in co- and counter rotating regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spandan, Vamsi; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef

    2015-11-01

    Two-phase Taylor-Couette (flow between two co-axial independently rotating cylinders) is simulated using a two-way coupled Euler-Lagrange approach in which the bubbles are treated as point particles with effective forces such as drag, lift, added mass and buoyancy acting on them. The momentum equations for the fluid and the bubbles are solved in the frame of reference of the outer cylinder. While it is already known that when the outer cylinder is stationary, within a certain Taylor number range (Ta ~106 -108) the bubbles disrupt the plume ejection regions and the coherent vortical structures leading to drag reduction, their effect and arrangement in the gap-width when both cylinders are rotating is still unknown. In this study we focus on studying the effect of bubbles on the angular velocity transport for various rotation rates of the cylinders. We find that the net percentage drag reduction persists even with a rotating outer cylinder, but is there a optimum for various rotation rates ? How does the spatial distribution of bubbles vary with in the co- and counter rotating regime ? These are some questions we attempt to answer in this work.

  4. Nonlinear evolution of multimode Rayleigh--Taylor instability in two and three dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Shvarts, D. |; Alon, U. |; Ofer, D.; McCrory, R.L.; Verdon, C.P.

    1995-06-01

    The nonlinear evolution of the Rayleigh--Taylor instability from multimode initial perturbations is studied by two complementary approaches. First, a statistical-mechanics bubble-merger model is presented, that enables determination of the late-time scaling properties based on single-mode and two-bubble interaction physics. The results for Rayleigh--Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer--Meshkov (RM) bubble and spike front penetrations are given, as well as scaling laws for mixing under a time-dependent driving acceleration. The second approach is a modal model, in which nonlinear mode coupling and saturation are included in an equation for effective modes that describe the mixed region. The importance of mode coupling in the generation of large structure that dominates the late stage evolution, and the relative importance of long-wavelength components in the initial perturbation spectra on the late-stage evolution are studied. Finally, multimode RT instability in three dimensions is studied by both full-scale simulations and the modal model. The effect and late-stage memory loss of different aspect ratios in the initial perturbation are demonstrated. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  5. Taylor Glacier basal ice, Antarctica; a biogeochemical hot-spot in a glacial environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, M.; Christner, B.; Samyn, D.; Lorrain, R.

    2005-12-01

    Increasing evidence points to a significant role for microbes in mediating the dissolution and oxidation of minerals in sediments beneath ice masses (i.e., subglacial weathering). Subglacial microbial ecosystems are local hotspots of microbial activity relative to the glacial ice overlying them due to the presence of liquid water and finely comminuted rock debris, providing nutrients and chemical energy sources. Eight different ice units from a 4 m basal ice sequence (ice temperature, -17°C) at the Taylor Glacier, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, were identified and sampled for microbiological and geochemical analysis. The vertical profile of cell and gas concentration in basal ice from Taylor Glacier indicates that the debris-rich ice layers have higher CO2 and cell concentrations relative to the glacier ice, but are depleted in O2 relative to atmospheric values. Acetate mineralization experiments were undertaken on a subset of glacial and basal ice samples with varying debris content, CO2 concentration, and cell biomass to assess heterotrophic activity at 2°C. Our results show that 14C-acetate was respired to CO2 in all the melted debris-rich ice samples analyzed, but little activity was observed in glacial ice samples of meteoric origin. Together, these data suggest that microorganisms entrapped within the debris-rich basal ice may be metabolically active in situ.

  6. Validation Study of Unnotched Charpy and Taylor-Anvil Impact Experiments using Kayenta

    SciTech Connect

    Kamojjala, Krishna; Lacy, Jeffrey; Chu, Henry S.; Brannon, Rebecca

    2015-03-01

    Validation of a single computational model with multiple available strain-to-failure fracture theories is presented through experimental tests and numerical simulations of the standardized unnotched Charpy and Taylor-anvil impact tests, both run using the same material model (Kayenta). Unnotched Charpy tests are performed on rolled homogeneous armor steel. The fracture patterns using Kayenta’s various failure options that include aleatory uncertainty and scale effects are compared against the experiments. Other quantities of interest include the average value of the absorbed energy and bend angle of the specimen. Taylor-anvil impact tests are performed on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy. The impact speeds of the specimen are 321 m/s and 393 m/s. The goal of the numerical work is to reproduce the damage patterns observed in the laboratory. For the numerical study, the Johnson-Cook failure model is used as the ductile fracture criterion, and aleatory uncertainty is applied to rate-dependence parameters to explore its effect on the fracture patterns.

  7. Early developability screen of therapeutic antibody candidates using Taylor dispersion analysis and UV area imaging detection.

    PubMed

    Lavoisier, Alexandra; Schlaeppi, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic antibodies represent one of the fastest growing segments in the pharmaceutical market. They are used in a broad range of disease fields, such as autoimmune diseases, cancer, inflammation and infectious diseases. The growth of the segment has necessitated development of new analytical platforms for faster and better antibody selection and characterization. Early quality control and risk assessment of biophysical parameters help prevent failure in later stages of antibody development, and thus can reduce costs and save time. Critical parameters such as aggregation, conformational stability, colloidal stability and hydrophilicity, are measured during the early phase of antibody generation and guide the selection process of the best lead candidates in terms of technical developability. We report on the use of a novel instrument (ActiPix/Viscosizer) for measuring both the hydrodynamic radius and the absolute viscosity of antibodies based on Taylor dispersion analysis and UV area imaging. The looped microcapillary-based method combines low sample consumption, fast throughput and high precision compared to other conventional methods. From a random panel of 130 antibodies in the early selection process, we identified some with large hydrodynamic radius outside the normal distribution and others with non-Gaussian Taylor dispersion profiles. The antibodies with such abnormal properties were confirmed later in the selection process to show poor developability profiles. Moreover, combining these results with those of the viscosity measurements at high antibody concentrations allows screening, with limited amounts of materials, candidates with potential issues in pre-formulation development. PMID:25514497

  8. Filamentary structure on the Sun from the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Hiroaki; Miyagoshi, Takehiro; Shibata, Kazunari; Yokoyama, Takaaki

    2005-03-24

    Magnetic flux emerges from the solar surface as dark filaments connecting small sunspots with opposite polarities. The regions around the dark filaments are often bright in X-rays and are associated with jets. This implies plasma heating and acceleration, which are important for coronal heating. Previous two-dimensional simulations of such regions showed that magnetic reconnection between the coronal magnetic field and the emerging flux produced X-ray jets and flares, but left unresolved the origin of filamentary structure and the intermittent nature of the heating. Here we report three-dimensional simulations of emerging flux showing that the filamentary structure arises spontaneously from the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability, contrary to the previous view that the dark filaments are isolated bundles of magnetic field that rise from the photosphere carrying the dense gas. As a result of the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability, thin current sheets are formed in the emerging flux, and magnetic reconnection occurs between emerging flux and the pre-existing coronal field in a spatially intermittent way. This explains naturally the intermittent nature of coronal heating and the patchy brightenings in solar flares. PMID:15791248

  9. Ablation Front Rayleigh-Taylor Growth Experiments in Spherically Convergent Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Glendinning, S.G.; Cherfils, C.; Colvin, J.; Divol, L.; Galmiche, D.; Haan, S.; Marinak, M.M.; Remington, B.A.; Richard, A.L.; Wallace, R.

    1999-11-03

    Experiments were performed on the Nova laser, using indirectly driven capsules mounted in cylindrical gold hohlraums, to measure the Rayleigh-Taylor growth at the ablation front by time-resolved radiography. Modulations were preformed on the surface of Ge-doped plastic capsules. With initial modulations of 4 {micro}m, growth factors of about 6 in optical depth were seen, in agreement with simulations using the radiation hydrocode FCI2. With initial modulations of 1 {micro}m, growth factors of about 100-150 in optical depth were seen. The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability at the ablation front in an inertial confinement fusion capsule has been the subject of considerable investigation. Much of this research has been concentrated on planar experiments, in which RT growth is inferred from radiography. The evolution is somewhat different in a converging geometry; the spatial wavelength decreases (affecting the onset of nonlinear saturation), and the shell thickens and compresses rather than decompressing as in a planar geometry. In a cylindrically convergent geometry, the latter effect is proportional to the radius, while in spherically convergent geometry, the latter effect is proportional to the radius squared. Experiments were performed on the Nova and Omega lasers in cylindrical geometry (using both direct and indirect drive) and have been performed in spherical geometry using direct drive.

  10. Three-dimensional characterisation and simulation of deformation and damage during Taylor impact in PTFE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resnyansky, A.; McDonald, S.; Withers, P.; Bourne, N.; Millett, J.; Brown, E.; Rae, P.

    2013-06-01

    Aerospace, defence and automotive applications of polymers and polymer matrix composites have placed these materials under increasingly more extreme conditions. It is therefore important to understand the mechanical response of these multi-phase materials under high pressures and strain rates. Crucial to this is knowledge of the physical damage response in association with the phase transformations during the loading and the ability to predict this via multi-phase simulation taking the thermodynamical non-equilibrium and strain rate sensitivity into account. The current work presents Taylor impact experiments interrogating the effect of dynamic, high-pressure loading on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). In particular, X-ray microtomography has been used to characterise the damage imparted to cylindrical samples due to impact at different velocities. Distinct regions of deformation are present and controlled by fracture within the polymer, with the extent of the deformed region and increasing propagation of the fractures from the impact face showing a clear trend with increase in impact velocity. The experimental observations are discussed with respect to parallel multi-phase model predictions by CTH hydrocode of the shock response from Taylor impact simulations.

  11. Radiometric 81Kr dating identifies 120,000-year-old ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Buizert, Christo; Baggenstos, Daniel; Jiang, Wei; Purtschert, Roland; Petrenko, Vasilii V.; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Müller, Peter; Kuhl, Tanner; Lee, James; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Brook, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    We present successful 81Kr-Kr radiometric dating of ancient polar ice. Krypton was extracted from the air bubbles in four ∼350-kg polar ice samples from Taylor Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and dated using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA). The 81Kr radiometric ages agree with independent age estimates obtained from stratigraphic dating techniques with a mean absolute age offset of 6 ± 2.5 ka. Our experimental methods and sampling strategy are validated by (i) 85Kr and 39Ar analyses that show the samples to be free of modern air contamination and (ii) air content measurements that show the ice did not experience gas loss. We estimate the error in the 81Kr ages due to past geomagnetic variability to be below 3 ka. We show that ice from the previous interglacial period (Marine Isotope Stage 5e, 130–115 ka before present) can be found in abundance near the surface of Taylor Glacier. Our study paves the way for reliable radiometric dating of ancient ice in blue ice areas and margin sites where large samples are available, greatly enhancing their scientific value as archives of old ice and meteorites. At present, ATTA 81Kr analysis requires a 40–80-kg ice sample; as sample requirements continue to decrease, 81Kr dating of ice cores is a future possibility. PMID:24753606

  12. Carbon-Isotopic Dynamics of Streams, Taylor Valley, Antarctica: Biological Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, K.; DesMarais, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the role of biological processes in the C-isotopic dynamics of the aquatic ecosystems in Taylor Valley, Antarctica. This cold desert ecosystem is characterized by the complete lack of vascular plants, and the presence of algal mats in ephemeral streams and perennially ice covered lakes. Streams having abundant algal mats and mosses have very low sigma CO2 concentrations, as well as the most depleted delta C-13 values (-4%). Previous work has shown that algal mats in these streams have delta C-13 values averaging -7.01%. These values are similar to those observed in the algal mats in shallow areas of the lakes in Taylor Valley, where CO2 is thought to be colimiting to growth. These low Sigma CO2 concentrations, and delta C(13) signatures heavier than the algal mats, suggest that CO2 may be colimiting in the streams, as well. Streams with little algal growth, especially the longer ones in Fryxell Basin, have higher Sigma CO2 concentrations and much more enriched isotopic signatures (as high as +8%). In these streams, the dissolution of isotopically enriched, cryogenic CaCO3 is probably the major source of dissolved carbonate. The delta C(13) geochemistry of Antarctic streams is radically different from the geochemistry of more temperate streams, as it is not affected by terrestrially produced, isotopically depleted Sigma CO2. These results have important implications for the understanding of "biogenic" carbonate that might have been produced from aquatic ecosystems in the past on Mars.

  13. Reynolds number effects on Rayleigh-Taylor Instability with Implications for Type Ia Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Cabot, W H; Cook, A W

    2006-03-22

    Spontaneous mixing of materials at unstably stratified interfaces occurs in a wide variety of atmospheric, oceanic, geophysical and astrophysical flows. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability, in particular, plays key roles in the death of stars, planet formation and the quest for controlled thermonuclear fusion. Despite its ubiquity, fundamental questions regarding Rayleigh-Taylor instability persist. Among such questions are: Does the flow forget its initial conditions? Is the flow self-similar? What is the value of the scaling constant? How does mixing influence the growth rate? Here we show results from a 3072{sup 3} grid-point Direct Numerical Simulation in an attempt to answer these and other questions. The data indicate that the scaling constant cannot be found by fitting a curve to the width of the mixing region (as is common practice) but can only be accurately obtained by recourse to the similarity equation for the growth rate. The data further establish that the ratio of kinetic energy to released potential energy is not constant, as has heretofore been assumed. The simulated flow reaches a Reynolds number of 32,000, far exceeding that of all previous simulations. The latter stages of the simulation reveal a weak Reynolds number dependence, which may have profound consequences for modeling Type Ia supernovae as well as other high Reynolds number flows.

  14. Identifying coherent structures and vortex clusters in Taylor-Couette turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spandan, Vamsi; Ostilla-Monico, Rodolfo; Lohse, Detlef; Verzicco, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The nature of the underlying structures in Taylor-Couette (TC) flow, the flow between two co-axial and independently rotating cylinders is investigated by two methods. First, the quadrant analysis technique for identifying structures with intense radial-azimuthal stresses (also referred to as ‘Q’s) of Lozano-Durán et al., (J. Fluid Mech. 694, 100-130) is used to identify the main structures responsible for the transport of angular velocity. Second, the vortex clusters are identified based on the analysis by del Álamo et al., (J. Fluid. Mech., 561, 329-358). In order to test these criteria, two different radius ratios η = ri/ro are considered, where ri and ro are the radii of inner and outer cylinder, respectively: (i) η = 0.5 and (ii) η = 0.909, which correspond to high and low curvature geometries, respectively and have different underlying structures. The Taylor rolls, i.e. the large-scale coherent structures, are effectively captured as ‘Q’s for the low curvature setup and it is observed that curvature plays a dominant role in influencing the size and volumes of these ‘Q’s. On the other hand, the vortex clusters are smaller in size when compared to the ‘Q’ structures. These vortex clusters are found to be taller in the case of η = 0.909, while the distribution of the lengths of these clusters is almost homogenous for both radius ratios.

  15. One-dimensional-turbulence simulations of reactive Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Esteban; Kerstein, Alan; Lignell, David

    2011-11-01

    We consider the problem of reactive Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence in the Boussinesq framework, and model combustion with a reaction-progress-variable method, and a KPP reaction. The interesting feature of this problem is that the interface (flame) between heavy/cold reactants and light/hot products moves against gravity. Such problem is challenging because of the delicate interplay between turbulence, buoyancy, and reactions, and the wide separation between large and small scales. One model that has the capabilities to deal with these challenges is the one-dimensional-turbulence (ODT) model. In this talk, we discuss ODT results for non-reactive and reactive Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence, and compare them with those from direct numerical simulations (DNS). Here, the key advantage of ODT over DNS is that it can be used to explore larger parameter spaces. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences.

  16. Reactive Rayleigh-Taylor systems: Front propagation and non-stationarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biferale, L.; Mantovani, F.; Sbragaglia, M.; Scagliarini, A.; Toschi, F.; Tripiccione, R.

    2011-06-01

    Reactive Rayleigh-Taylor systems are characterized by the competition between the growth of the instability and the rate of reaction between cold (heavy) and hot (light) phases. We present results from state-of-the-art numerical simulations performed at high resolution in 2d by means of a self-consistent lattice Boltzmann (LB) method which evolves the coupled momentum and temperature equations and includes a reactive term. We tune parameters in order to address the competition between turbulent mixing and reaction, ranging from slow- to fast-reaction rates. We also study the mutual feedback between turbulence evolution driven by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and front propagation against gravitational acceleration. We quantify both the enhancement of "flame" propagation due to turbulent mixing for the case of slow reaction-rate as well as the slowing-down of turbulence growth for the fast-reaction case, when the front quickly burns the gravitationally unstable phase. An increase of intermittency at small scales for temperature characterizes the case of fast reaction, associated to the formation of sharp wrinkled fronts separating pure burnt/unburnt fluids regions.

  17. Investigation of liquid phase axial dispersion in Taylor bubble flow by radiotracer residence time distribution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chughtai, I. R.; Iqbal, W.; Din, G. U.; Mehdi, S.; Khan, I. H.; Inayat, M. H.; Jin, J. H.

    2013-05-01

    A gas-liquid Taylor bubble flow occurs in small diameter channels in which gas bubbles are separated by slugs of pure liquid. This type of flow regime is well suited for solid catalyzed gas-liquid reactors in which the reaction efficiency is a strong function of axial dispersion in the regions of pure liquid. This paper presents an experimental study of liquid phase axial dispersion in a Taylor bubble flow developed in a horizontal tube using high speed photography and radiotracer residence time distribution (RTD) analysis. A parametric dependence of axial dispersion on average volume fraction of gas phase was also investigated by varying the relative volumetric flow rates of the two phases. 137mBa produced from a 137Cs/137mBa radionuclide generator was used as radiotracer and measurements were made using the NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors. Validation of 137mBa in the form of barium chloride as aqueous phase radiotracer was also carried out. Axial Dispersion Model (ADM) was used to simulate the hydrodynamics of the system and the results of the experiment are presented. It was observed that the system is characterized by very high values of Peclet Number (Pe˜102) which reveals an approaching plug type flow. The experimental and model estimated values of mean residence times were observed in agreement with each other.

  18. Measurement of drug diffusivities in pharmaceutical solvents using Taylor dispersion analysis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fengbin; Jensen, Henrik; Larsen, Susan W; Yaghmur, Anan; Larsen, Claus; Østergaard, Jesper

    2012-03-01

    Knowledge of drug diffusivity is of key importance in the understanding of a number of pharmaceutical and biological processes. However, experimentally determined diffusion coefficients and hydrodynamic radii are only reported for a limited number of drug substances. In this work, Taylor dispersion analysis conducted using capillary electrophoresis instrumentation coupled with a UV imaging detector, with two detection windows along the capillary, is introduced as a powerful method for the determination of drug diffusivities in nanoliter samples. Several potential advantages associated with applying two detection windows instead of one window as done in most previous studies were identified. Overall diffusion coefficient measurements performed using two detection windows are more robust and correction for changes in flow rate and sample volume is not required. The experimental conditions applied were suboptimal for performing single detection window measurements due to the relatively large sample volumes and may be optimized to alleviate the need for tedious correction procedures for this setup. The diffusivities of eleven aromatic compounds in water at 25 °C were determined, and showed a good agreement with the literature values. Furthermore, the diffusivities and hydrodynamic radii of four selected drug substances were determined in acetonitrile, methanol, isopropyl myristate, medium chain triglyceride, and propylene glycol in addition to water. The solvent viscosity was determined simultaneously along with the measurement of analyte diffusivity. Drug diffusivities decreased with increasing solvent viscosity. Taylor dispersion analysis is a robust, simple and automated method of quantification of diffusion coefficients even in media with a relatively higher viscosity than water. PMID:22197153

  19. Large-eddy simulation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability on a massively parallel computer

    SciTech Connect

    Amala, P.A.K.

    1995-03-01

    A computational model for the solution of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations is developed. This model includes a turbulence model: a modified Smagorinsky eddy-viscosity with a stochastic backscatter extension. The resultant equations are solved using finite difference techniques: the second-order explicit Lax-Wendroff schemes. This computational model is implemented on a massively parallel computer. Programming models on massively parallel computers are next studied. It is desired to determine the best programming model for the developed computational model. To this end, three different codes are tested on a current massively parallel computer: the CM-5 at Los Alamos. Each code uses a different programming model: one is a data parallel code; the other two are message passing codes. Timing studies are done to determine which method is the fastest. The data parallel approach turns out to be the fastest method on the CM-5 by at least an order of magnitude. The resultant code is then used to study a current problem of interest to the computational fluid dynamics community. This is the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The Lax-Wendroff methods handle shocks and sharp interfaces poorly. To this end, the Rayleigh-Taylor linear analysis is modified to include a smoothed interface. The linear growth rate problem is then investigated. Finally, the problem of the randomly perturbed interface is examined. Stochastic backscatter breaks the symmetry of the stationary unstable interface and generates a mixing layer growing at the experimentally observed rate. 115 refs., 51 figs., 19 tabs.

  20. Weakly nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor instability of a finite-thickness fluid layer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L. F. Ye, W. H. Liu, Jie; He, X. T.; Guo, H. Y.; Wu, J. F. Zhang, W. Y.

    2014-12-15

    A weakly nonlinear (WN) model has been developed for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of a finite-thickness incompressible fluid layer (slab). We derive the coupling evolution equations for perturbations on the (upper) “linearly stable” and (lower) “linearly unstable” interfaces of the slab. Expressions of temporal evolutions of the amplitudes of the perturbation first three harmonics on the upper and lower interfaces are obtained. The classical feedthrough (interface coupling) solution obtained by Taylor [Proc. R. Soc. London A 201, 192 (1950)] is readily recovered by the first-order results. Our third-order model can depict the WN perturbation growth and the saturation of linear (exponential) growth of the perturbation fundamental mode on both interfaces. The dependence of the WN perturbation growth and the slab distortion on the normalized layer thickness (kd) is analytically investigated via the third-order solutions. Comparison is made with Jacobs-Catton's formula [J. W. Jacobs and I. Catton, J. Fluid Mech. 187, 329 (1988)] of the position of the “linearly unstable” interface. Using a reduced formula, the saturation amplitude of linear growth of the perturbation fundamental mode is studied. It is found that the finite-thickness effects play a dominant role in the WN evolution of the slab, especially when kd < 1. Thus, it should be included in applications where the interface coupling effects are important, such as inertial confinement fusion implosions and supernova explosions.

  1. Statistics of turbulent fluctuations in counter-rotating Taylor-Couette flows.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Sander G; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao

    2013-12-01

    The statistics of velocity fluctuations of turbulent Taylor-Couette flow are examined. The rotation rates of the inner and outer cylinders are varied while keeping the Taylor number fixed to 1.49×10(12) [O(Re)=10(6)]. The azimuthal velocity component of the flow is measured using laser Doppler anemometry. For each experiment 5×10(6) data points are acquired and carefully analyzed. Using extended self-similarity [Benzi et al., Phys. Rev. E 48, R29 (1993)] the longitudinal structure function exponents are extracted and are found to weakly depend on the ratio of the rotation rates. For the case where only the inner cylinder rotates the results are in good agreement with results measured by Lewis and Swinney [Phys. Rev. E 59, 5457 (1999)] using hot-film anemometry. The power spectra show clear -5/3 scaling for the intermediate angular velocity ratios -ω(o)/ω(i)∈{0.6,0.8,1.0}, roughly -5/3 scaling for -ω(o)/ω(i)∈{0.2,0.3,0.4,2.0}, and no clear scaling law can be found for -ω(0)/ω(i)=0 (inner cylinder rotation only); the local scaling exponent of the spectra has a strong frequency dependence. We relate these observations to the shape of the probability density function of the azimuthal velocity and the presence of a neutral line. PMID:24483551

  2. Experiments on the rarefaction wave driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability initiated with a random initial perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Robert; Jacobs, Jeffrey

    2014-11-01

    Experiments are presented in which a diffuse interface between two gases is accelerated to become Rayleigh-Taylor unstable. The initially flat interface is generated by the opposing flow of two test gases at matched volumetric flow rates exiting through small holes in the test section. A random, three-dimensional interface perturbation is forced using a loudspeaker. The interface is then accelerated by an expansion wave which is generated by the rupturing of a diaphragm separating the heavy gas from a vacuum tank evacuated to ~0.01 atm. The expansion wave generates a large (of order 1000 g), non-constant acceleration acting on the interface causing the Rayleigh-Taylor instability to develop. Planar Mie scattering is employed to visualize the flow using a planar laser sheet generated at the top of the apparatus, which illuminates smoke particles seeded in the heavy gas. The scattered light is then recorded using a CMOS camera operating at 12 kHz. The mixing layer width is obtained from an ensemble of experiments and the turbulent growth parameter α is extracted and compared with previous experiments and simulations.

  3. Selective interaction between microbubbles and modulating waves in a Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watamura, Tomoaki; Tasaka, Yuji; Murai, Yuichi

    2012-11-01

    Modifications of a coherent vortical structure by dispersed microbubbles have been investigated in a vertical Taylor-Couette flow, which is the flow generated between coaxial-rotating double cylinders. Radii of the inner and outer cylinders are 95 mm and 105 mm, respectively. The radius ratio and aspect ratio are 0.905 and 20, respectively. Flow mode in the experiments represents wavy vortex flow and modulated wavy vortex flow. Hydrogen bubbles with 60 μm in the mean diameter were generated by water electrolysis and dispersed from a platinum-wire electrode mounted at the bottom of the fluid layer. Maximum void fraction estimated by input power is smaller than 0.01%. Velocity distribution of microbubbles in a Taylor vortex array is determined by image analysis, and show preferential distribution and motion in the oscillating vortex tube. The fluctuation power of the basic wave was increased by adding microbubbles, while the power of its modulation was decreased. The gradient of the azimuthal velocity in the radial direction, i.e. origin of skin frictional drag acting on the cylinder walls, was decreased. These modifications of flow structure represent the suppression of the flow transition, due to the excitation of the basic wave oscillation and increase of momentum transfer by bubble swarm.

  4. Juice irradiation with Taylor-Couette flow: UV inactivation of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Forney, L J; Pierson, J A; Ye, Z

    2004-11-01

    A novel reactor is described with flow characteristics that approach that of ideal plug flow but with a residence time that is uncoupled from the hydrodynamics or boundary layer characteristics. The design described consists of an inner cylinder that rotates within a stationary but larger outer cylinder. At low rotation rates, a laminar, hydrodynamic configuration called Taylor-Couette flow is established, which consists of a system of circumferential vortices within the annular fluid gap. The latter constitutes a spatially periodic flow that is the hydrodynamic equivalent to cross flow over a tube bank or lamp array. These vortices provide radial mixing, reduce the boundary layer thickness, and are independent of the axial flow rate and thus the fluid residence time. An additional feature of the rotating design is the repetitive exposure of the fluid parcels to a minimum number of lamps, which substantially reduces the maintenance requirements. Inactivation data for Escherichia coli (ATCC 15597) were recorded in commercial apple and grape juice that are relatively opaque to UV radiation. With initial E. coli concentrations of approximately 10(6) CFU/ml, Taylor-Couette flow was found to provide a 3- to 5-log improvement in the inactivation efficiency compared with simple channel flow between concentric cylinders. PMID:15553621

  5. Pulsed Taylor-Couette flow in a viscoelastic fluid under inner cylinder modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, Mehdi; Aniss, Saïd; Ouazzani Touhami, Mohamed; Skali Lami, Salah

    2015-12-01

    The influence of elasticity on pulsed Taylor-Couette flow in a linear Maxwell fluid is investigated. We consider the case, in which the inner cylinder is oscillating with a periodic angular velocity, Ω0cos(ω t), and the outer cylinder is fixed. Attention is focused on the linear stability analysis which is solved using the Floquet theory and a technique of converting a boundary value problem to an initial value problem. Results obtained in this framework show that, in the high-frequency limit, the Deborah number has a destabilizing effect and the critical Taylor and wave numbers tend toward constant values independently of the frequency number. However, in the low-frequency limit, the Maxwell fluid behaves as a Newtonien one and the Deborah number has no effect on the stability of the basic state which tends to the classical configuration of steady circular Couette flow. These numerical results are in good agreement with the asymptotic analysis performed in the limit of low and high frequencies.

  6. TWO-DIMENSIONAL BLAST-WAVE-DRIVEN RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR INSTABILITY: EXPERIMENT AND SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Harding, E. C.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Robey, H. F.; Remington, B. A.; Edwards, M. J.; Miles, A. R.; Perry, T. S.; Blue, B. E.; Plewa, T.; Hearn, N. C.; Arnett, D.; Leibrandt, D. R.

    2009-05-01

    This paper shows results from experiments diagnosing the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability with two-dimensional initial conditions at an embedded, decelerating interface. Experiments are performed at the Omega Laser and use {approx}5 kJ of energy to create a planar blast wave in a dense, plastic layer that is followed by a lower density foam layer. The single-mode interface has a wavelength of 50 {mu}m and amplitude of 2.5 {mu}m. Some targets are supplemented with additional modes. The interface is shocked then decelerated by the foam layer. This initially produces the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability followed and then dominated by Rayleigh-Taylor growth that quickly evolves into the nonlinear regime. The experimental conditions are scaled to be hydrodynamically similar to SN1987A in order to study the instabilities that are believed to occur at the He/H interface during the blast-wave-driven explosion phase of the star. Simulations of the experiment were performed using the FLASH hydrodynamics code.

  7. Modelling Rayleigh Taylor instability of a sedimenting suspension of several thousand circular particles in a direct numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, T. W.; Joseph, D. D.; Glowinski, R.

    2001-05-01

    In this paper we study the sedimentation of several thousand circular particles in two dimensions using the method of distributed Lagrange multipliers for solid liquid flow. The simulation gives rise to fingering which resembles Rayleigh Taylor instabilities. The waves have a well-defined wavelength and growth rate which can be modelled as a conventional Rayleigh Taylor instability of heavy fluid above light. The heavy fluid is modelled as a composite solid liquid fluid with an effective composite density and viscosity. Surface tension cannot enter this problem and the characteristic shortwave instability is regularized by the viscosity of the solid liquid dispersion. The dynamics of the Rayleigh Taylor instability are studied using viscous potential flow, generalizing work of Joseph, Belanger & Beavers (1999) to a rectangular domain bounded by solid walls; an exact solution is obtained.

  8. Discussion of Identification, Estimation and Approximation of Risk under Interventions that Depend on the Natural Value of Treatment Using Observational Data, by Jessica Young, Miguel Hernán, and James Robins

    PubMed Central

    van der Laan, Mark J.; Luedtke, Alexander R.; Díaz, Iván

    2015-01-01

    Young, Hernán, and Robins consider the mean outcome under a dynamic intervention that may rely on the natural value of treatment. They first identify this value with a statistical target parameter, and then show that this statistical target parameter can also be identified with a causal parameter which gives the mean outcome under a stochastic intervention. The authors then describe estimation strategies for these quantities. Here we augment the authors’ insightful discussion by sharing our experiences in situations where two causal questions lead to the same statistical estimand, or the newer problem that arises in the study of data adaptive parameters, where two statistical estimands can lead to the same estimation problem. Given a statistical estimation problem, we encourage others to always use a robust estimation framework where the data generating distribution truly belongs to the statistical model. We close with a discussion of a framework which has these properties. PMID:26636024

  9. Stability of force-free Taylor states in a new version of magnetic flux-averaged magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Pfirsch, D.; Sudan, R.N.

    1996-01-01

    It is observed that the recently developed magnetic flux-averaged magnetohydrodynamics (AMHD) [Phys. Plasmas {bold 1}, 2488 (1994)] is incompatible with Taylor{close_quote}s theorem, which states that the lowest-energy state of force-free equilibria based on the conservation of the helicity integral is absolutely stable for vanishingly small resistivity. By a modification of the Lagrangian from which AMHD is derived, a modified version of AMHD that is compatible with Taylor{close_quote}s theorem is obtained. It also provides an energy principle for examining the linear instability of resistive equilibria, which has a great advantage over resistive MHD. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Modified Taylor-Couette Flow in Multiply-Waisted Hourglass Geometries Simulations based upon Reaction-Diffusion Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Thomas; Hou, Yu; Kowalski, Adam; Wiener, Richard

    2006-05-01

    The Reaction-Diffusion model predicted a period doubling cascade to chaos in a situation analagous Taylor- Couette flow with hourglass geometry. This cascade to chaos was discovered in the actual fluid flow experiments. We model Taylor-Couette flow in a cylindrical geometry with multiple waists of super-critical flow connected by regions of barely super-critical flow by corresponding Reaction-Diffusion models. We compare our results to the findings of an ongoing experimental program. H. Riecke and H.-G. Paap, Europhys. Lett. 14, 1235 (1991). Richard J. Wiener et al, Phys. Rev. E 55, 5489 (1997).

  11. Two source energy balance model to calculate E, T, and ET: Comparison of Priestly-Taylor and Penman-Monteith formulations and two time scaling methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The two source energy balance (TSEB) model calculates the energy balance of the soil–canopy–atmosphere continuum, where turbulent fluxes are based on the Priestley–Taylor equation. The TSEB was revised recently using the Penman–Monteith equation to replace the Priestley–Taylor formulation, thus bett...

  12. FFTF Authorization Agreement

    SciTech Connect

    DAUTEL, W.A.

    2000-02-25

    The purpose of the Authorization Agreement is to serve as a mechanism whereby the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) and Fluor Hanford (FH) jointly clarify and agree to key conditions for conducting work safely and efficiently.

  13. Author Identification Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, A. Ben

    2009-01-01

    Many efforts are currently underway to disambiguate author names and assign unique identification numbers so that publications by a given scholar can be reliably grouped together. This paper reviews a number of operational and in-development services. Some systems like ResearcherId.Com depend on self-registration and self-identification of a…

  14. Authors on Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geduld, Harry M., Ed.

    Different authors' attitudes toward film are revealed through five different sections of this book: (1) articles, essays, and reviews pertaining to the silent cinema and the transition to sound; (2) general statements on the film medium or filmmakers and their messages; (3) essays dealing with the problems, involvements, and reflections of the…

  15. Site authorization service (SAZ)

    SciTech Connect

    Dane Skow; Igor Mandrichenko; Vijay Sehkri

    2003-10-01

    In this paper the authors present a methodology to provide an additional level of centralized control for the grid resources. This centralized control is applied to site-wide distribution of various grids and thus provides an upper hand in the maintenance.

  16. Today's Authors, Tomorrow's Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Although not all teachers can invite scientists into classrooms on a regular basis, they can invite them into their students' worlds through literature. Here the author shares how she used the nonfiction selection, "Science to the Rescue" (Markle 1994), as an opportunity for students to investigate socially significant problems and empower them to…

  17. Creating Digital Authors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoch, Melody; Langston-DeMott, Brooke; Adams-Budde, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Elementary students find themselves engaged and learning at a digital writing camp. The authors find that such elementary students usually have limited access to technology at home and school, and posit that teachers should do all they can to give them more access to and experience in digital composing. Students were motivated and learned to use…

  18. Linear and global space-time dependence and Taylor hypotheses for rainfall in the tropical Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado, AndréS. F.; Poveda, GermáN.

    2009-05-01

    The space-time linear and global dependence of tropical rainfall in an intra-Andean valley of Colombia is estimated using 15 min of resolution data, recorded by 18 raingauges, through correlation (ρ) and mutual information (MI) analysis of the entire record (1998-2006) and at seasonal and interannual (ENSO) timescales. Spatial dependence analyses are developed for increasing (1) time aggregation intervals T = 15 min to T = 24 hours, and (2) time lags τ = 15 min to τ = 120 min. Results for (1) indicate that both spatial MI and ρ decay as I(λ, T) = A(T)λ-α(T), but also that A(T) = aTμ and α(T) = bT-ω. Maps of MI and ρ for increasing values of T are discussed in terms of geographical and few known meteorological features. Regarding (2), exponential functions fit better the spatial decay rates of both MI and ρ, such that I(λ, τ) = F(τ)exp[-ϕ(τ)λ], with F(τ) = exp[-dτ], and ϕ(τ) = j-kτ. Maps of MI and ρ for increasing values of τ suggest that MI may be better suited than ρ to capture highly localized singularities of tropical mountain rainfall. Estimated power laws are highly dependent on both the seasonal cycle and ENSO phases, consistently with temporal dynamics of rainfall at both timescales. We tested the validity of Taylor hypothesis ρ(0, τ) = ρ(Uτ, 0) and found it rejected in 11 of 18 raingauges, which prompted us to introduce a global Taylor hypothesis using the space-time MIs as I(0, τ) = I(Uτ, 0). Results indicate that power laws characterize the decay of both the temporal I(0, τ) and the space-transformed I(λ, 0) with respect to τ. A rigorous statistical test indicates that the global Taylor hypothesis is valid in 14 of 18 raingauges within the 20-180 min time range.

  19. Groundwater seeps in Taylor Valley Antarctica: an example of a subsurface melt event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, W. Berry; Welch, Kathleen A.; Carey, Anne E.; Doran, Peter T.; Wall, Diana H.; Virginia, Ross A.; Fountain, Andrew G.; Csathó, Bea M.; Tremper, Catherine M.

    The 2001/02 austral summer was the warmest summer on record in Taylor Valley, Antarctica, (˜78° S) since continuous records of temperature began in 1985. The highest stream-flows ever recorded in the Onyx River, Wright Valley, were also recorded that year (the record goes back to the 1969/70 austral summer). In early January 2002, a groundwater seep was observed flowing in the southwest portion of Taylor Valley. This flow has been named 'Wormherder Creek' (WHC) and represents an unusual event, probably occurring on a decadal time-scale. The physical characteristics of this feature suggest that it may have flowed at other times in the past. Other groundwater seeps, emanating from the north-facing slope of Taylor Valley, were also observed. Little work has been done previously on these very ephemeral seeps, and the source of water is unknown. These features, resembling recently described features on Mars, represent the melting of subsurface ice. The Martian features have been interpreted as groundwater seeps. In this paper we compare the chemistry of the WHC groundwater seep to that of the surrounding streams that flow every austral summer. The total dissolved solids content of WHC was ˜6 times greater than that of some nearby streams. The Na : Cl and SO4 : Cl ratios of the seep waters are higher than those of the streams, but the Mg : Cl and HCO3 : Cl ratios are lower, indicating different sources of solutes to the seeps compared to the streams. The enrichment of Na and SO4 relative to Cl may suggest significant dissolution of mirabilite within the previously unwetted soil. The proposed occurrence of abundant mirabilite in higher-elevation soils of the dry valley region agrees with geochemical models developed, but not tested, in the late 1970s. The geochemical data demonstrate that these seeps could be important in 'rinsing' the soils by dissolving and redistributing the long-term accumulation of salts, and perhaps improving habitat suitability for soil biota

  20. Megacrystic Clinopyroxene Basalts Sample A Deep Crustal Underplate To The Mount Taylor Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M. E.; Schrader, C. M.; Crumpler, L. S.; Wolff, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The alkaline and compositionally diverse (basanite to high-Si rhyolite) Mount Taylor Volcanic Field (MTVF), New Mexico comprises 4 regions that cover ~75 x 40 km2: (1) Mount Taylor, a large composite volcano and a surrounding field of basaltic vents; (2) Grants Ridge, constructed of topaz rhyolitic ignimbrite and coulees; (3) Mesa Chivato, a plateau of alkali basalts and mugearitic to trachytic domes; and (4) the Rio Puero basaltic necks. Distributed throughout its history (~3.6 to 1.26 Ma; Crumpler and Goff, 2012) and area (excepting Rio Puerco Necks) is a texturally distinct family of differentiated basalts (Mg# 43.2-53.4). These basalts contain resorbed and moth-eaten megacrysts (up to 2 cm) of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and olivine ±Ti-magnetite ±ilmenite ±rare orthopyroxene. Some megacrystic lava flows have gabbroic cumulate inclusions with mineral compositions similar to the megacrysts, suggesting a common origin. For instance, gabbroic and megacrystic clinopyroxenes form linear positive arrays in TiO2 (0.2-2.3 wt%) with respect to Al2O3 (0.7-9.3 wt%). The lowest Al clinopyroxenes are found in a gabbroic inclusion and are associated with partially melted intercumulus orthopyroxene. Megacrystic and gabbroic plagioclase (An 41-80) in 4 representative thin sections were analyzed for 87Sr/86Sr by Laser Ablation ICP-MS. 87Sr/86Sr values for the suite range from 0.7036 to 0.7047. The low 87Sr/86Sr plagioclases (0.7036 to 0.7037) are associated with high Ti-Al clinopyroxenes. Likewise, the higher 87Sr/86Sr plagioclases (0.7043 to 0.7047) are associated with the low-Al clinopyroxenes. Taken together, these megacrysts track the differentiation of an intrusive body (or related bodies) from alkaline to Si-saturated conditions by fractional crystallization and crustal assimilation. The intrusive body likely underplates portions of the MTVF that have generated silicic magmas (Mount Taylor, Grants Ridge, Mesa Chivato). Although disequilibrium is implied by resorbed

  1. The late-time dynamics of the single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaprabhu, P.; Dimonte, Guy; Woodward, P.; Fryer, C.; Rockefeller, G.; Muthuraman, K.; Lin, P.-H.; Jayaraj, J.

    2012-07-01

    We report on numerical simulations of the detailed evolution of the single mode Rayleigh-Taylor [Lord Rayleigh, Scientific Papers II (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1900), p. 200; G. I. Taylor, "The instability of liquid surfaces when accelerated in a direction perpendicular to their plane," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 201, 192 (1950), 10.1098/rspa.1950.0052; S. Chandrasekhar, Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1961)] instability to late times and high aspect ratios. In contrast to established potential flow models that predict a terminal velocity and a constant Froude number at low Atwood numbers, we observe a complex sequence of events that can be summarized in four stages: I. Exponential growth of imposed perturbations, II. Saturation to terminal velocity, III. Reacceleration to a higher Froude number, and IV. Chaotic mixing. The observed reacceleration away from the Froude number predicted by potential flow theory is attributed to the appearance of secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz structures, and described with a modification to the potential flow model proposed by Betti and Sanz [R. Betti and J. Sanz, "Bubble acceleration in the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 205002 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.205002]. The secondary KH instability is in turn sensitive to several parameters, and can be suppressed at large Atwood numbers, as well as viscosity (physical or numerical), with the bubble/spike velocity in each case reverting to the potential flow value. Our simulations delineate the change in dynamics of the primary and secondary instabilities due to changes in these flow parameters. When the flow is allowed to evolve to late times, further instability is observed, resulting in chaotic mixing which is quantified here. The increased atomic mixing due to small-scale structures results in a dramatic drop in the late-time Froude number. Spike behavior resembles bubbles at low A, while for large A

  2. Authors: who contributes what?

    PubMed

    Squires, B P

    1996-10-01

    In this issue (see pages 877 to 882) Dr. H. Dele Davies and associates examine how a sample of pediatric department chairs and faculty deans' offices perceive the involvement of faculty members in medical research. Their findings point to the confusion that surrounds the question of authorship in collaborative research. Dr. Drummond Rennie, deputy editor of the Journal of the American Medical Association, has proposed that a complete and descriptive list of "contributors" replace author lists and acknowledgements. Slight modifications to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors guidelines on authorship retain the designation "author" and the use of acknowledgements but encourage the explicit description of each investigator's contribution. Researchers and editors should continue to explore ways to ensure that contributions to published research are clearly and honestly identified. PMID:8837537

  3. FFTF Authorization Agreement

    SciTech Connect

    DAUTEL, W.A.

    2000-09-25

    The purpose of the Authorization Agreement is to serve as a mechanism whereby the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) and Fluor Hanford (FH) jointly clarify and agree to key conditions for conducting work safely and efficiently in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Work must be accomplished in a manner that achieves high levels of quality while protecting the environment and the safety and health of workers and the public, and complying with applicable contractual and regulatory requirements. It is the intent of this Agreement to address those items of significant importance in establishing and supporting the FFTF Authorization Envelope, but this Agreement in no way alters the terms and conditions of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC), Contract Number DE-AC06-96RL13200.

  4. The Author's Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    The referee's report is a standard rite of passage for an author of articles in The Physics Teacher. Will the referee (and the editor) agree with the basic premise and the details of your carefully thought-out article? I have faced this moment of truth many times; the majority of them were during the editorship of Cliff Swartz. These reminiscences are as much about the journal as Cliff, for, to many of us, the two seemed inseparable.

  5. The effect of normal electric field on the evolution of immiscible Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofighi, Nima; Ozbulut, Murat; Feng, James J.; Yildiz, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    Manipulation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability using an external electric field has been the subject of many studies. However, most of these studies are focused on early stages of the evolution. In this work, the long-term evolution of the instability is investigated, focusing on the forces acting on the interface between the two fluids. To this end, numerical simulations are carried out at various electric permittivity and conductivity ratios as well as electric field intensities using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method. The electric field is applied in parallel to gravity to maintain unstable evolution. The results show that increasing top-to-bottom permittivity ratio increases the rising velocity of the bubble while hindering the spike descent. The opposite trend is observed for increasing top-to-bottom conductivity ratio. These effects are amplified at larger electric field intensities, resulting in narrower structures as the response to the excitation is non-uniform along the interface.

  6. Taylor-Lagrange renormalization scheme: Application to light-front dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Grange, P.; Mutet, B.

    2009-11-15

    The recently proposed renormalization scheme based on the definition of field operators as operator valued distributions acting on specific test functions is shown to be very convenient in explicit calculations of physical observables within the framework of light-front dynamics. We first recall the main properties of this procedure based on identities relating the test functions to their Taylor remainder of any order expressed in terms of Lagrange's formulas, hence the name given to this scheme. We thus show how it naturally applies to the calculation of state vectors of physical systems in the covariant formulation of light-front dynamics. As an example, we consider the case of the Yukawa model in the simple two-body Fock state truncation.

  7. A solution to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Bubbles, spikes, and their scalings

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mikaelian, Karnig O.

    2014-05-12

    A fluid that pushes on and accelerates a heavier fluid, small perturbations at their interface grows with time and lead. to turbulent mixing. The same instability, known as the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, operates when a heavy fluid is supported by a lighter fluid in a gravitational field. Moreover, it has a particularly deleterious effect on inertial-confinement-fusion implosions and is known to operate over 18 orders of magnitude in dimension. We propose analytic expressions for the bubble and spike amplitudes and mixing widths in the linear, nonlinear, and turbulent regimes. They cover arbitrary density ratios and accelerations that are constant or changingmore » relatively slowly with time. Here, we discuss their scalings and compare them with simulations and experiments.« less

  8. Dynamic stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in an ablation front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piriz, A. R.; Di Lucchio, L.; Rodriguez Prieto, G.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in an ablation front is studied by considering a modulation in the acceleration that consists of sequences of Dirac deltas. This allows obtaining explicit analytical expressions for the instability growth rate as well as for the boundaries of the stability region. As a general rule, it is found that it is possible to stabilize all wave numbers above a certain minimum value km, but the requirements in the modulation amplitude and frequency become more exigent with smaller km. The essential role of compressibility is phenomenologically addressed in order to find the constraint it imposes on the stability region. The results for some different wave forms of the acceleration modulation are also presented.

  9. Stochastic model of Rayleigh-Taylor mixing with time-dependent acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swisher, Nora; Abarzhi, Snezhana

    2015-11-01

    We report the stochastic model of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing with time-dependent acceleration. RT mixing is a statistically unsteady process, where the means values of the flow quantities as well as the fluctuations around these means are time-dependent. A set of nonlinear stochastic differential equations with multiplicative noise is derived on the basis of rigorous momentum model and group theory analyses to account for the randomness of RT mixing. A broad range of parameter regime is investigated; self-similar asymptotic solutions are found; new regimes of RT mixing dynamics are identified. We show that for power-law asymptotic solutions describing RT mixing the exponent is relatively insensitive and pre-factor is sensitive to the fluctuations, and find the statistic invariants of the dynamics in each of the new regimes. Support of the National Science Foundation is warmly appreciated.

  10. Stabilization of ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability due to change of the Atwood number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Wenhua; Zhang, Weiyan; He, X. T.

    2002-05-01

    Recent experiment [S.G. Glendinning et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3318 (1997)] showed that the measured growth rate of laser ablative Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability with preheating is about 50% of the classic value and is reduced by about 18% compared with the simulated value obtained with the computer code LASNEX. By changing the temperature variation of the electron thermal conductivity at low temperatures, the density profile from the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook approximation is recovered in the simulation, and the simulated RT growth rate is in good agreement with the experimental value from Glendinning et al. The preheated density profile on ablative RT stablization is studied numerically. A change of the Atwood number in the preheating case also leads to RT stabilization. The RT growth formula γ=(Akg/(1+AkL))-2kVa agrees well with experiment and simulation, and is appropriate for the preheating case.

  11. Acceleration- and deceleration-phase nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor growth at spherical interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Daniel S.; Tabak, Max

    2005-11-01

    The Layzer model for the nonlinear evolution of bubbles in the Rayleigh-Taylor instability has recently been generalized to the case of spherically imploding interfaces [D. S. Clark and M. Tabak, Phys. Rev. E 71, 055302(R) (2005)]. The spherical case is more relevant to, e.g., inertial confinement fusion or various astrophysical phenomena when the convergence is strong or the perturbation wavelength is comparable to the interface curvature. Here, the model is further extended to the case of bubble growth during the deceleration (stagnation) phase of a spherical implosion and to the growth of spikes during both the acceleration and deceleration phases. Differences in the nonlinear growth rates for both bubbles and spikes are found when compared with planar results. The model predictions are verified by comparison with numerical hydrodynamics simulations.

  12. Thermal evidence for Taylor columns in turbulent rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Eric M.; Aurnou, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate flow structures in rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection experiments in water using thermal measurements. We focus on correlations between time series measurements of temperature in the top and bottom boundaries. Distinct anticorrelations are observed for rapidly rotating convection, which are argued to attest to heat transport by convective Taylor columns. In support of this argument, these quasigeostrophic flow structures are directly observed in flow visualizations, and their thermal signature is qualitatively reproduced by a simple model of heat transport by columnar flow. Weakly rotating and nonrotating convection produces positively correlated temperature changes across the layer, indicative of heat transport by large-scale circulation. We separate these regimes using a transition parameter that depends on the Rayleigh and Ekman numbers, RaE3/2.

  13. Study of two tantalum Taylor impact specimens using experiments and stochastic polycrystal plasticity simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tonks, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    We compare the experimentally obtained response of two cylindrical tantalum Taylor impact specimens. The first specimen is manufactured using a powder metallurgy (P/M) process with a random initial texture and relatively equiaxed crystals. The second is sectioned from a roundcorner square rolled (RCSR) rod with an asymmetric texture and elongated crystals. The deformed P/M specimen has an axisymmetric footprint while the deformed RCSR projectile has an eccentric footprint with distinct corners. Also, the two specimens experienced similar crystallographic texture evolution, though the RCSR specimen experienced greater plastic deformation. Our simulation predictions mimic the texture and deformation data measured from the P/M specimen. However, our RCSR specimen simulations over-predict the texture development and do not accurately predict the deformation, though the deformation prediction is improved when the texture is not allowed to evolve. We attribute this discrepancy to the elongated crystal morphology in the RCSR specimen which is not represented in our mean-field model.

  14. Experimental and numerical investigations of beryllium strength models using the Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    SciTech Connect

    Henry de Frahan, M. T. Johnsen, E.; Belof, J. L.; Cavallo, R. M.; Ancheta, D. S.; El-dasher, B. S.; Florando, J. N.; Gallegos, G. F.; LeBlanc, M. M.; Raevsky, V. A.; Ignatova, O. N.; Lebedev, A.

    2015-06-14

    We present a set of high explosive driven Rayleigh-Taylor strength experiments for beryllium to produce data to distinguish predictions by various strength models. Design simulations using existing strength model parameterizations from Steinberg-Lund and Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) suggested an optimal design that would delineate between not just different strength models, but different parameters sets of the PTW model. Application of the models to the post-shot results, however, suggests growth consistent with little material strength. We focus mostly on efforts to simulate the data using published strength models as well as the more recent RING relaxation model developed at VNIIEF. The results of the strength experiments indicate weak influence of strength in mitigating the growth with the RING model coming closest to predicting the material behavior. Finally, we present shock and ramp-loading recovery experiments.

  15. Nonlinear evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dimonte, G

    1998-11-01

    Scaled experiments on the nonlinear evolution of the Rayleigh- Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities are described under a variety, of conditions that occur in nature. At high Reynolds number, the mixing layer grows self-similarly - {alpha}{sub i}Agt{sup 2} for a constant acceleration (g), and as a power law t{sup {theta}{sub i}} for impulsive accelerations U{delta}(t) at low and high Mach numbers. The growth coefficients {alpha}{sub i} and {theta}{sub i} exponents are measured over a comprehensive range of Atwood numbers A. The RT instability is also investigated with Non- Newtonian materials which are independently characterized. A critical wavelength and amplitude for instability is observed associated with the shear modulus and tensile yield of the material. The results are applicable from supernova explosions to geophysical flows subject to these hydrodynamic instabilities.

  16. Comparison of two- and three-dimensional simulations of miscible Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    SciTech Connect

    Cabot, W

    2006-02-23

    A comparison of two-dimensional and three-dimensional high-resolution numerical large-eddy simulations of planar, miscible Rayleigh-Taylor instability flows are presented. The resolution of the three-dimensional simulation is sufficient to attain a fully turbulent state. A number of different statistics from the mixing region (e.g., growth rates, PDFs, mixedness measures, and spectra) are used to demonstrate that two-dimensional flow simulations differ substantially from the three-dimensional one. It is found that the two-dimensional flow grows more quickly than its three-dimensional counterpart at late times, develops larger structures, and is much less well mixed. These findings are consistent with the concept of inverse cascade in two-dimensional flow, as well as the influence of a reduced effective Atwood number on miscible flow.

  17. Noise-Sustained Convective Instability in a Magnetized Taylor-Couette Flow

    SciTech Connect

    W. Liu

    2009-02-20

    The helical magnetorotational instability of the magnetized Taylor-Couette flow is studied numerically in a finite cylinder. A distant upstream insulating boundary is shown to stabilize the convective instability entirely while reducing the growth rate of the absolute instability. The reduction is less severe with larger height. After modeling the boundary conditions properly, the wave patterns observed in the experiment turn out to be a noise-sustained convective instability. After the source of the noise resulted from unstable Ekman and Stewartson layers is switched off, a slowly-decaying inertial oscillation is observed in the simulation. We reach the conclusion that the experiments completed to date have not yet reached the regime of absolute instability.

  18. Noise-sustained convective instability in a magnetized Taylor-Couette flow

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei

    2008-01-01

    The helical magnetorotational instability of the magnetized Taylor-Couette flow is studied numerically in a finite cylinder. A distant upstream insulating boundary is shown to stabilize the convective instability entirely while reducing the growth rate of the absolute instability. The reduction is less severe with larger height. After modeling the boundary conditions properly, the wave patterns observed in the experiment turn out to be a noise-sustained convective instability. After the source of the noise resulted from unstable Ekman and Stewartson layers is switched off, a slowly-decaying inertial oscillation is observed in the simulation. We reach the conclusion that the experiments completed to date have not yet reached the regime of absolute instability.

  19. Self-generated magnetic fields in blast-wave driven Rayleigh-Taylor experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaig, Markus; Plewa, Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    We study the effect of self-generated magnetic fields in two-dimensional computer models of blast-wave driven high-energy density Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) experiments. Previous works [1,2] suggested that such fields have the potential to influence the RTI morphology and mixing. When neglecting the friction force between electrons and ions, we do indeed find that dynamically important (β≲103) magnetic fields are generated. However, in the more realistic case where the friction force is accounted for, the resulting fields are much weaker, β≳105 , and can no longer influence the dynamics of the system. Although we find no evidence for dynamically important magnetic fields being created in the two-dimensional case studied here, the situation might be different in a three-dimensional setup, which will be addressed in a future study.

  20. Solution to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities: Bubbles, spikes, and their scalings.

    PubMed

    Mikaelian, Karnig O

    2014-05-01

    When a fluid pushes on and accelerates a heavier fluid, small perturbations at their interface grow with time and lead to turbulent mixing. The same instability, known as the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, operates when a heavy fluid is supported by a lighter fluid in a gravitational field. It has a particularly deleterious effect on inertial-confinement-fusion implosions and is known to operate over 18 orders of magnitude in dimension. We propose analytic expressions for the bubble and spike amplitudes and mixing widths in the linear, nonlinear, and turbulent regimes. They cover arbitrary density ratios and accelerations that are constant or changing relatively slowly with time. We discuss their scalings and compare them with simulations and experiments. PMID:25353882