Science.gov

Sample records for autism speaks awards

  1. Autism Speaks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Terms of Service What is Autism? Around the World links Autism Speaks Canada Global Autism Public Health Initiative Non-English Resources Shafallah World Autism Awareness Day Connect with Us Facebook Google + ...

  2. Advocacy Update: Autism Speaks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ursitti, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Autism Speaks, the world's largest autism non-profit organization, is addressing a struggle to obtain evidence-based treatment on autism. The mission of Autism Speaks is to change the future for all who struggle with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Part of their focus is to change state insurance laws to require private health insurance policies…

  3. Autism Speaks Toolkits: Resources for Busy Physicians.

    PubMed

    Bellando, Jayne; Fussell, Jill J; Lopez, Maya

    2016-02-01

    Given the increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), it is likely that busy primary care providers (PCP) are providing care to individuals with ASD in their practice. Autism Speaks provides a wealth of educational, medical, and treatment/intervention information resources for PCPs and families, including at least 32 toolkits. This article serves to familiarize PCPs and families on the different toolkits that are available on the Autism Speaks website. This article is intended to increase physicians' knowledge on the issues that families with children with ASD frequently encounter, to increase their ability to share evidence-based information to guide treatment and care for affected families in their practice. PMID:26149848

  4. Grammatical Abilities of Greek-Speaking Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzi, Arhonto; Marinis, Theodoros; Kotsopoulou, Angeliki; Francis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates pronoun reference and verbs with nonactive morphology in high-functioning Greek-speaking children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). It is motivated by problems with reflexive pronouns demonstrated by English-speaking children with ASD and the fact that reflexivity is also expressed via nonactive (reflexive) verbs in…

  5. The Use of Grammatical Morphemes by Mandarin-Speaking Children with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Peng; Crain, Stephen; Gao, Liqun; Tang, Ye; Jia, Meixiang

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the production of grammatical morphemes by Mandarin-speaking children with high functioning autism. Previous research found that a subgroup of English-speaking children with autism exhibit deficits in the use of grammatical morphemes that mark tense. In order to see whether this impairment in grammatical morphology…

  6. The use of grammatical morphemes by Mandarin-speaking children with high functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Crain, Stephen; Gao, Liqun; Tang, Ye; Jia, Meixiang

    2015-05-01

    The present study investigated the production of grammatical morphemes by Mandarin-speaking children with high functioning autism. Previous research found that a subgroup of English-speaking children with autism exhibit deficits in the use of grammatical morphemes that mark tense. In order to see whether this impairment in grammatical morphology can be generalised to children with autism from other languages, the present study examined whether or not high-functioning Mandarin-speaking children with autism also exhibit deficits in using grammatical morphemes that mark aspect. The results show that Mandarin-speaking children with autism produced grammatical morphemes significantly less often than age-matched and IQ-matched TD peers as well as MLU-matched TD peers. The implications of these findings for understanding the grammatical abilities of children with autism were discussed. PMID:25381192

  7. Deferred Imitation and Social Communication in Speaking and Nonspeaking Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strid, Karin; Heimann, Mikael; Gillberg, Christopher; Smith, Lars; Tjus, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Deferred imitation and early social communication skills were compared among speaking and nonspeaking children with autism and children developing typically. Overall, the children with autism showed a lower frequency on measures of deferred imitation and social communication compared with typically developing children. Deferred imitation was…

  8. Parents Speak: An Ethnographic Study of Autism Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wolfe, Juliette

    2012-01-01

    This ethnography documents the everyday experiences of the parents of children diagnosed with autism with whom I conducted fieldwork from April 2010 through September 2011. It describes the daily activities of self proclaimed "autism parents" living in Queens, New York, who tirelessly campaign for their children's medical,…

  9. Pitch Processing in Tonal-Language-Speaking Children with Autism: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Luodi; Fan, Yuebo; Deng, Zhizhou; Huang, Dan; Wang, Suiping; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated pitch processing in Mandarin-speaking children with autism using event-related potential measures. Two experiments were designed to test how acoustic, phonetic and semantic properties of the stimuli contributed to the neural responses for pitch change detection and involuntary attentional orienting. In comparison…

  10. Do Individuals with High-Functioning Autism Who Speak a Tone Language Show Intonation Deficits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kary K. L.; To, Carol K. S.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether intonation deficits were observed in 19 Cantonese-speaking adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) when compared to 19 matched neurotypical (NT) controls. This study also investigated the use of sentence-final particles (SFPs) and their relationship with intonation in both groups. Standard deviations…

  11. Pitch Processing in Tonal-Language-Speaking Children with Autism: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Luodi; Fan, Yuebo; Deng, Zhizhou; Huang, Dan; Wang, Suiping; Zhang, Yang

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated pitch processing in Mandarin-speaking children with autism using event-related potential measures. Two experiments were designed to test how acoustic, phonetic and semantic properties of the stimuli contributed to the neural responses for pitch change detection and involuntary attentional orienting. In comparison with age-matched (6-12 years) typically developing controls (16 participants in Experiment 1, 18 in Experiment 2), children with autism (18 participants in Experiment 1, 16 in Experiment 2) showed enhanced neural discriminatory sensitivity in the nonspeech conditions but not for speech stimuli. The results indicate domain specificity of enhanced pitch processing in autism, which may interfere with lexical tone acquisition and language development for children who speak a tonal language. PMID:26111738

  12. Autism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    These organizations are good sources of information on autism : Association for Science in Autism Treatment -- www.asatonline.org Autism Society of America -- www.autism-society.org Autism Speaks -- www.autismspeaks.org ...

  13. Autism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... good sources of information on autism : Association for Science in Autism Treatment -- www.asatonline.org Autism Society of America -- www.autism-society.org Autism Speaks -- www.autismspeaks. ...

  14. Social Attention in a Virtual Public Speaking Task in Higher Functioning Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Jarrold, William; Mundy, Peter; Gwaltney, Mary; Bailenson, Jeremy; Hatt, Naomi; McIntyre, Nancy; Kim, Kwanguk; Solomon, Marjorie; Novotny, Stephanie; Swain, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Background Impairments in social attention play a major role in autism, but little is known about their role in development after preschool. In this study a public speaking task was used to study social attention, its moderators, and its association with classroom learning in elementary and secondary students with higher functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD). Method Thirty-seven students with HFASD and 54 age and IQ-matched peers without symptoms of ASD were assessed in a virtual classroom public speaking paradigm. This paradigm assessed the ability to attend to 9 avatar peers seated at a table, while simultaneously answering self-referenced questions. Results Students with HFASD looked less frequently to avatar peers in the classroom while talking. However, social attention was moderated in the HFASD sample such that students with lower IQ, and/or more symptoms of social anxiety, and/or more ADHD Inattentive symptoms, displayed more atypical social attention. Group differences were more pronounced when the classroom contained social avatars versus non-social targets. Moreover, measures of social attention rather than non-social attention were significantly associated with parent report and objective measures of learning in the classroom. Conclusions The data in this study supports the hypothesis of the Social Attention Model of ASD that social attention disturbance remains part of the school-aged phenotype of autism that is related to syndrome specific problems in social learning. More research of this kind would likely contribute to advances in the understanding of the development of autism and educational intervention approaches for affected school-aged children. PMID:23696132

  15. Narrative Coherence of Mandarin-Speaking Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Investigation into Causal Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sah, Wen-hui; Torng, Pao-chuan

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) had difficulty integrating narrative information coherently. The majority of these studies focused on people narrating in English; however, little is known about the narrative abilities of Mandarin-speaking individuals with ASD. This study investigates the ability of…

  16. Interpretation of Logical Words in Mandarin-Speaking Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Uncovering Knowledge of Semantics and Pragmatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Yi; Su, Lin-Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the interpretation of the logical words "some" and "every…or…" in 4-15-year-old high-functioning Mandarin-speaking children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children with ASD performed similarly to typical controls in demonstrating semantic knowledge of simple sentences with "some", and…

  17. Do Individuals with High-Functioning Autism Who Speak a Tone Language Show Intonation Deficits?

    PubMed

    Chan, Kary K L; To, Carol K S

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether intonation deficits were observed in 19 Cantonese-speaking adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) when compared to 19 matched neurotypical (NT) controls. This study also investigated the use of sentence-final particles (SFPs) and their relationship with intonation in both groups. Standard deviations (SDs) of the fundamental frequency (F0), the total number and the type of SFPs were calculated based on narrative samples. The HFA group demonstrated significantly higher SD of F0 and a positive correlation between the type of SFPs and SD of F0. Both groups produced a similar total number and type of SFPs. The results supported the universality of atypical intonation in ASD. The relationship between intonation and SFPs could be further explored by focusing on sentences containing SFPs. PMID:26825662

  18. Connecting with Families: Parents Speak up about Preschool Services for Their Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Shannon K.; Flis, Laura D.; Rinaldi, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    Having a child with autism can severely disrupt family life. Parents may experience emotional stress, anxiety, fear, and guilt. Understanding parental efforts in learning about autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their experiences with a variety of therapeutic interventions and educational strategies is an important component of building…

  19. Role of Sentence-Final Particles and Prosody in Irony Comprehension in Cantonese-Speaking Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jackie P. W.; Law, Thomas; Lam, Gary Y. H.; To, Carol K. S.

    2013-01-01

    English-speaking children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are less capable of using prosodic cues such as intonation for irony comprehension. Prosodic cues, in particular intonation, in Cantonese are relatively restricted while sentence-final particles (SFPs) may be used for this pragmatic function. This study investigated the use of prosodic…

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Autism Spectrum Disorder Information Page Condensed from Autism Spectrum ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Autistic disorder (sometimes called autism or ...

  1. Interpretation of Logical Words in Mandarin-Speaking Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Uncovering Knowledge of Semantics and Pragmatics.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi Esther; Su, Lin-Yan

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the interpretation of the logical words 'some' and 'every…or…' in 4-15-year-old high-functioning Mandarin-speaking children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children with ASD performed similarly to typical controls in demonstrating semantic knowledge of simple sentences with 'some', and they had delayed knowledge of the complex sentences with 'every…or…'. Interestingly, the children with ASD had pragmatic knowledge of the scalar implicatures of these logical words, parallel to those of the typical controls. Taken together, the interpretation of logical words may be a relative strength in children with ASD. It is possible that some aspects of semantics and pragmatics may be selectively spared in ASD, due to the contribution the language faculty makes to language acquisition in the ASD population. PMID:25577515

  2. From music making to speaking: engaging the mirror neuron system in autism.

    PubMed

    Wan, Catherine Y; Demaine, Krystal; Zipse, Lauryn; Norton, Andrea; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2010-05-31

    Individuals with autism show impairments in emotional tuning, social interactions and communication. These are functions that have been attributed to the putative human mirror neuron system (MNS), which contains neurons that respond to the actions of self and others. It has been proposed that a dysfunction of that system underlies some of the characteristics of autism. Here, we review behavioral and imaging studies that implicate the MNS (or a brain network with similar functions) in sensory-motor integration and speech representation, and review data supporting the hypothesis that MNS activity could be abnormal in autism. In addition, we propose that an intervention designed to engage brain regions that overlap with the MNS may have significant clinical potential. We argue that this engagement could be achieved through forms of music making. Music making with others (e.g., playing instruments or singing) is a multi-modal activity that has been shown to engage brain regions that largely overlap with the human MNS. Furthermore, many children with autism thoroughly enjoy participating in musical activities. Such activities may enhance their ability to focus and interact with others, thereby fostering the development of communication and social skills. Thus, interventions incorporating methods of music making may offer a promising approach for facilitating expressive language in otherwise nonverbal children with autism. PMID:20433906

  3. Hierarchical phrase-based grammatical analysis of language samples from Cantonese-speaking children with and without autism.

    PubMed

    Leung, Man-Tak; Li, Hong-Lan

    2015-01-01

    The present study made a reference to Zhu Dexi's phrase-based grammar approach to analyse Cantonese utterances hierarchically into 14 syntactic structures (SS). A total of 68 speech samples from Cantonese-speaking children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) were collected. The mean length of utterance in words (MLUw), the number of syntactic structures (NOSS), the number of different syntactic structures (NODSS) and the flexibility of syntactic structures (FSS) of the samples were calculated. Comparisons among four groups of typically developing (TD) children revealed that all the indexes show developmental changes across age stages. Comparisons between ASD subjects and their age-matched (AM) and MLUw-matched (MM) normal peers were done. MLUw, NOSS and NODSS and FSS could be used to distinguish autistic children from their AM normal peers, but only FSS could be used to distinguish ASD from MM groups qualitatively and quantitatively. The lack of production of SP, V1O/SV2 and Coord1Coord2 with low FSS may be one of the factors that will affect ASD children's further syntactic development. PMID:26114755

  4. Autism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some people with autism are especially good at music or computers or art — just like other teens. ... sleep) Many other types of therapy (including diet, music, and art therapies) can help people with autism ...

  5. Role of sentence-final particles and prosody in irony comprehension in Cantonese-speaking children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Li, Jackie P W; Law, Thomas; Lam, Gary Y H; To, Carol K S

    2013-01-01

    English-speaking children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are less capable of using prosodic cues such as intonation for irony comprehension. Prosodic cues, in particular intonation, in Cantonese are relatively restricted while sentence-final particles (SFPs) may be used for this pragmatic function. This study investigated the use of prosodic cues and SFPs in irony comprehension in Cantonese-speaking children with and without ASD. Thirteen children with ASD (8;3-12;9) were language-matched with 13 typically developing (TD) peers. By manipulating prosodic cues and SFPs, 16 stories with an ironic remark were constructed. Participants had to judge the speaker's belief and intention. Both groups performed similarly well in judging the speaker's belief. For the speaker's intention, the TD group relied more on SFPs. The ASD group performed significantly poorer and did not rely on either cue. SFPs may play a salient role in Cantonese irony comprehension. The differences between the two groups were discussed by considering the literature on theory of mind. PMID:23237415

  6. Review of Research: Do You Speak My Language? Are Behavior Analysts Considering the Needs of Learners on the Autism Spectrum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsdorf, Sheri

    2014-01-01

    One of the domains most commonly affected by autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is communication (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Language deficits in children with ASD can be as severe as to warrant a label as nonverbal, or characterized by difficulties with the functions of communication. Additionally, deficits in language for children…

  7. Children's Books: Awards and Prizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbert, Margaret, Comp.

    This document is a compilation of honors awarded in the children's book field by organizations, schools, universities, publishers, and newspapers. Major international and foreign awards of English speaking countries are included. The awards are arranged alphabetically. Each award entry includes a brief history of the award and a list of all…

  8. Autism

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Susan E; Mandell, David S; Schultz, Robert T

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by severe deficits in socialisation, communication, and repetitive or unusual behaviours. Increases over time in the frequency of these disorders (to present rates of about 60 cases per 10 000 children) might be attributable to factors such as new administrative classifications, policy and practice changes, and increased awareness. Surveillance and screening strategies for early identification could enable early treatment and improved outcomes. Autism spectrum disorders are highly genetic and multifactorial, with many risk factors acting together. Genes that affect synaptic maturation are implicated, resulting in neurobiological theories focusing on connectivity and neural effects of gene expression. Several treatments might address core and comorbid symptoms. However, not all treatments have been adequately studied. Improved strategies for early identification with phenotypic characteristics and biological markers (eg, electrophysiological changes) might hopefully improve effectiveness of treatment. Further knowledge about early identification, neurobiology of autism, effective treatments, and the effect of this disorder on families is needed. PMID:19819542

  9. Autism Advocacy: A Network Striving for Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itkonen, Tiina; Ream, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In this exploratory case study, we examine the rise of autism on the policy agenda and the new generation of autism advocacy. We focus especially on interconnections between the rhetoric about autism in the media and the emergence and political effectiveness of Autism Speaks, the nation's largest autism advocacy group. We portray how…

  10. Speak Out for Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holthouse, David

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses a documentary film created by students with learning disabilities to share their wisdom. "Speak Out for Understanding" is a new film on learning disabilities created by a group of students at a Vermont high school. Made on a shoestring, the award-winning 32-minute documentary overturns a number of popular assumptions about…

  11. Something to "Speak" about: Addressing Sensitive Issues through Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackett, Mark

    2007-01-01

    "Speak," by Laurie Halse Anderson, is one of the most powerful young adult novels to come along in the past decade. It has won numerous awards, including the "School Library Journal" award for "Best Book of the Year," and was a National Book Award Finalist. Despite this acclaim, many English teachers are uncomfortable teaching "Speak" in their…

  12. Speaking of Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larmer, John; Mergendoller, John R.

    2013-01-01

    From the early elementary grades through high school, the Common Core State Standards ask students to organize and explain their ideas in oral presentations, use visual aids, and speak appropriately for various contexts and tasks. Although teachers could give assignments that teach some of these skills in isolation, the authors have found that…

  13. Children's Books: Awards and Prizes. 1975 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Book Council, New York, NY.

    This is a compilation of honors awarded in the children's book field including major international and foreign awards of English-speaking countries. It is revised biennially. The awards are arranged alphabetically. Each entry includes a brief history of the award. With a few exceptions, all the winners from the first to the most recent as of June…

  14. Children's Books: Awards & Prizes. 1975 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Book Council, New York, NY.

    A biennial compilation of honors awarded in the children's book field, this book includes major international and foreign awards of English-speaking countries. The awards are arranged alphabetically. Each entry includes a brief history of the award and, with a few exceptions, the titles of all winners from the first to the most recent, as of June…

  15. Persuasive Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheidel, Thomas M.

    This book, for either college or secondary-school speech or rhetoric courses, defines persuasive speaking as essentially a process or activity and discusses the elements which facilitate analyzing that process. Sections deal with (1) the nature and history of persuasive speaking, especially classical and modern canons of rhetoric, (2) the…

  16. Teaching Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleistein, T.; Smith, M. K.; Lewis, M.

    2013-01-01

    To meet the needs of students, teachers of oral English have three main tasks: find out all they can about how speaking works, look for ways to introduce their classes to the language of conversation, and provide students with opportunities to practice speaking English. This book covers these three tasks in an easy-to-follow guide that language…

  17. Autism from the Inside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandin, Temple

    2007-01-01

    Temple Grandin, a university professor and award-winning livestock designer with autism, describes how thinking, for her, means processing a series of photorealistic mental images. Thinking in pictures, according to Grandin, is the only possible mode of thinking for many autistic people: Others think with sound patterns, visual patterns, or long…

  18. Tracheostomy tube - speaking

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000465.htm Tracheostomy tube - speaking To use the sharing features on ... are even speaking devices that can help you. Tracheostomy Tubes and Speaking Air passing through vocal cords ( ...

  19. Adam's Rage: Children of the Pinelands Speak: The Michael L. Printz Award Winning Novels: Authentic Current Literature as a Catalyst for Increased Student Growth, Motivation and Healing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecchini, Stephanie Anne

    2012-01-01

    Young adults deserve our best as parents, educators and community members. The Michael L. Printz award winning books, instituted by the Young Adult Library Association, form a recent grouping of current literature. Novels worthy of the Printz Award explore physical, emotional, and social themes important in the lives of young adults. This library…

  20. The Duke of Edinburgh's Award: A "Simply Brilliant" Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lico, Abner

    2008-01-01

    While speaking to Gold Award Achievers in Toronto in 2002, Tony Comper, past President and Chief Executive Officer of the BMO Financial Group, referred to the Duke of Edinburgh's (DofE) Award as a program "so brilliantly simple, it's simply brilliant." This ironic statement has echoed in the Ontario division of the DofE Award ever since. This…

  1. Children's Literature Awards and Winners: A Directory of Prizes, Authors, and Illustrators. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dolores Blythe

    Updating and augmenting a first edition published in 1983, this book provides a comprehensive guide to awards granted in English-speaking countries for excellence in children's literature. Included in the book are awards presented to an author or illustrator for his or her body of work, awards presented for a particular title, and awards presented…

  2. Autism Plus versus Autism Pure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    The reported prevalence of autism is going up and up. We propose that some--even much--of the increase in the rate of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is driven by "Autism Plus". Autism Plus refers to autism with comorbidities (including intellectual developmental disorder, language disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder),…

  3. Autism Society

    MedlinePlus

    Home Contact Us Home About Autism Symptoms Diagnosis Causes Asperger’s Syndrome Facts and Statistics Living with Autism Autism through the Lifespan Navigating Services Legal Resources Treatment Options ...

  4. Autism: An Experiment of Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Savita

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the oration that received the Poona Psychiatric Association Oration Award of the Indian Association of Child and Adolescent Mental Health for its significant contributions to child and adolescent mental health. Malhotra focuses on the features of autism and the neuropsychological theories of this disorder. She concludes that,…

  5. SPR awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, Marcia

    The First Occasional Solar Planetary Relationships Award Ceremony was held in conjunction with the annual SPR banquet on December 8, 1982. The following awards were presented:The Golden Palate Award to Bruce T. Tsurutani for his intrepid tasting and superb menu planning;The Traveling Intercontinental Disturbance Award to Murray Dryer and Peggy Shea for their unflagging efforts to track down every last piece of relevant data;

  6. Facets of Speaking Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen F.; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the componential structure of second-language (L2) speaking proficiency. Participants--181 L2 and 54 native speakers of Dutch--performed eight speaking tasks and six tasks tapping nine linguistic skills. Performance in the speaking tasks was rated on functional adequacy by a panel of judges and formed the dependent variable in…

  7. Speak, Move, Play and Learn with Children on the Autism Spectrum: Activities to Boost Communication Skills, Sensory Integration and Coordination Using Simple Ideas from Speech and Language Pathology and Occupational Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Lois Jean; Gonzalez, America X.; Zawadzki, Maciej; Presley, Corinda

    2012-01-01

    This practical resource is brimming with ideas and guidance for using simple ideas from speech and language pathology and occupational therapy to boost communication, sensory integration, and coordination skills in children on the autism spectrum. Suitable for use in the classroom, at home, and in community settings, it is packed with…

  8. Autism Assets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarahan, Neal; Copas, Randy

    2014-01-01

    The Center for Disease Control estimates that 1 in 88 children have been identified with autism (CDC, 2012). Autism is often associated with other psychiatric, developmental, neurological, and genetic diagnoses. However, the majority (62%) of children identified on the autism spectrum do not have intellectual disability. Instead, they are hurting.…

  9. How autism became autism

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that the meaning of the word ‘autism’ experienced a radical shift in the early 1960s in Britain which was contemporaneous with a growth in epidemiological and statistical studies in child psychiatry. The first part of the article explores how ‘autism’ was used as a category to describe hallucinations and unconscious fantasy life in infants through the work of significant child psychologists and psychoanalysts such as Jean Piaget, Lauretta Bender, Leo Kanner and Elwyn James Anthony. Theories of autism were then associated both with schizophrenia in adults and with psychoanalytic styles of reasoning. The closure of institutions for ‘mental defectives’ and the growth in speech therapy services in the 1960s and 1970s encouraged new models for understanding autism in infants and children. The second half of the article explores how researchers such as Victor Lotter and Michael Rutter used the category of autism to reconceptualize psychological development in infants and children via epidemiological studies. These historical changes have influenced the form and function of later research into autism and related conditions. PMID:24014081

  10. Speaking with Confidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gousie, Gene

    This paper offers a summary of two aspects of effective speaking in public, whether it be with co-workers, supervisors, friends, or a group of little-known or unknown others. One aspect of public speaking is the level of sincerity, and the other is the level and variety of skills used. The paper first considers sincerity and then, it discusses the…

  11. Assessing Second Language Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    While the viva voce (oral) examination has always been used in content-based educational assessment (Latham 1877: 132), the assessment of second language (L2) speaking in performance tests is relatively recent. The impetus for the growth in testing speaking during the 19th and 20th centuries is twofold. Firstly, in educational settings the…

  12. Teaching Students with Autism to Read Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cihak, David F.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the use of teaching three students with autism how to comprehend pictures. Students were elementary-aged, did not speak, and needed communication training. Students were provided systematic visual literacy instruction. Visual literacy instruction consisted of comprehending familiar people, objects, actions, and sequences…

  13. Autism across Cultures: Rethinking Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyun Uk

    2012-01-01

    Whereas the autism prevalence rate has been very closely monitored in the United States, the same has not been observed in many other countries. This may be attributed to the fact that each culture views and defines autism differently. Using field notes and semi-structured interviews with family members with an individual with autism, teachers,…

  14. Waterman Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nominations are now being accepted for the Alan T. Waterman Award, which annually recognizes an outstanding young scientist in the forefront of science. The award, named for the first director of the National Science Foundation (NSF), was established by Congress in 1975 to mark the agency's silver anniversary.Candidates for the 1985 award must be U.S. citizens and must be 35 years old or younger (or not be more than 5 years beyond receipt of the Ph.D. degree by December 31, 1984). Candidates should have completed sufficient scientific or engineering research to have demonstrated through personal accomplishments outstanding capability and exceptional promise for significant future achievement, the award committee says. In addition, those nominated should exhibit quality, innovation, and potential for discovery in their research.

  15. Tracheostomy tube - speaking

    MedlinePlus

    ... key part of communicating with people. Having a tracheostomy tube can change your ability to talk and ... you can learn how to speak with a tracheostomy tube. It just takes practice. There are even ...

  16. An aberrant precision account of autism

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Rebecca P.; Rees, Geraint; Friston, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by problems with social-communication, restricted interests and repetitive behavior. A recent and thought-provoking article presented a normative explanation for the perceptual symptoms of autism in terms of a failure of Bayesian inference (Pellicano and Burr, 2012). In response, we suggested that when Bayesian inference is grounded in its neural instantiation—namely, predictive coding—many features of autistic perception can be attributed to aberrant precision (or beliefs about precision) within the context of hierarchical message passing in the brain (Friston et al., 2013). Here, we unpack the aberrant precision account of autism. Specifically, we consider how empirical findings—that speak directly or indirectly to neurobiological mechanisms—are consistent with the aberrant encoding of precision in autism; in particular, an imbalance of the precision ascribed to sensory evidence relative to prior beliefs. PMID:24860482

  17. Waterman award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nominations are being accepted for the Alan T. Waterman Award, which annually recognizes an outstanding young scientist in the forefront of science. The award, named for the first director of the National Science Foundation, was established by Congress 8 years ago to mark the agency's silver anniversary.Candidates must be U.S. citizens and must be 35 years old or younger (or not be more than 5 years beyond receipt of the Ph.D. degree by December 31 of the year in which nominated). Candidates should have completed sufficient scientific or engineering research to have demonstrated through personal accomplishments outstanding capability and exceptional promise for significant future achievement, the award committee says. In addition, those nominated should exhibit quality, innovation, and potential for discovery in their research.

  18. Cultural Adaptation and Translation of Outreach Materials on Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinker, Roy R.; Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Ahmann, Chloe; Beidas, Rinad S.; Lagman, Adrienne; Mandell, David S.

    2015-01-01

    In order to connect with families and influence treatment trajectories, outreach materials should address cultural perceptions of the condition, its causes, and post-diagnostic care. This paper describes the cultural adaptation and translation of the Autism Speaks First 100 Days Kit into Korean for the purpose of improving autism spectrum disorder…

  19. The Relationship among Oral Language, Decoding Skills, and Reading Comprehension in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among oral language, decoding, and reading comprehension for children with autism. Participants included 13 English-speaking children with a diagnosis of high-functioning autism (IQ > 70) who were included in a typical classroom, and who had parents who spoke English. Parts of the…

  20. Measuring Anxiety as a Treatment Endpoint in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecavalier, Luc; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Halladay, Alycia K.; Jones, Nancy E.; Aman, Michael G.; Cook, Edwin H.; Handen, Benjamin L.; King, Bryan H.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Hallett, Victoria; Sullivan, Katherine Anne; Grondhuis, Sabrina; Bishop, Somer L.; Horrigan, Joseph P.; Dawson, Geraldine; Scahill, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high rate of anxiety in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), measuring anxiety in ASD is fraught with uncertainty. This is due, in part, to incomplete consensus on the manifestations of anxiety in this population. Autism Speaks assembled a panel of experts to conduct a systematic review of available measures for anxiety in…

  1. Infantilizing Autism.

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Harp, Bev; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2014-01-01

    When members of the public envision the disability of autism, they most likely envision a child, rather than an adult. In this empirically based essay, three authors, one of whom is an autistic self-advocate, analyzed the role played by parents, charitable organizations, the popular media, and the news industry in infantilizing autism. Parents portrayed the face of autism to be that of a child 95% of the time on the homepages of regional and local support organizations. Nine of the top 12 autism charitable organizations restricted descriptions of autism to child-referential discourse. Characters depicted as autistic were children in 90% of fictional books and 68% of narrative films and television programs. The news industry featured autistic children four times as often as they featured autistic adults in contemporary news articles. The cyclical interaction between parent-driven autism societies, autism fundraising charities, popular media, and contemporary news silences adult self-advocates by denying their very existence. Society's overwhelming proclivity for depicting autism as a disability of childhood poses a formidable barrier to the dignity and well-being of autistic people of all ages. PMID:25520546

  2. Speaking and Speaking Education as Physical Process in Turkish Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurudayioglu, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Speaking is sending the message which is desired to be transferred to another one with vocal organs and produced by complicated operations in the brain. Speaking, which is a complicated process, is the most common and important means of communication among people. Speaking, which has essential place both individually and socially, affects success…

  3. Spanish-Speaking Heroes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axford, Roger W.

    Given in this book are 23 brief biographies of outstanding Spanish speaking athletes, businessmen, government employees, educators, politicians, a labor leader, singer, actor, and musician. Their struggles, sacrifices, courage, educational background, and accomplishments are described. Among those discussed are Cesar Chavez; Senator Joseph M.…

  4. Learning to Speak Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The presence of a bilingual educator is proving pivotal to the success of technology initiatives aimed at developing Spanish-speaking students' grasp of both the concepts and the language of mathematics. This article features Ginny Badger, a teaching assistant at Glenwood Springs High School in Glenwood Springs, Colorado, who sacrificed her…

  5. Speaking in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBain, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Too much speaking and indiscipline in class is an on-going problem for any teacher, it is at its least disruptive and at most it destroys a good positive classroom atmosphere. This article recognizes this and continues this debate and suggests key clues to support teachers in their efforts to maintain a positive classroom atmosphere and discipline…

  6. Public Speaking: Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taufen, Phyllis M.

    There is a simple but effective process for developing public speakers in elementary and junior high schools. After discussing the importance of effective speaking, the teacher puts a topic sentence, on favorite desserts for example, on the board or overhead projector and students think of their favorite desserts and some related words and…

  7. My Hesitation to Speak English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oda, Naruha

    2015-01-01

    Even though English was the author's favorite subject, she was not good at speaking in English, and always tried to avoid it. However, it did not matter because she did not have to speak to demonstrate her English ability. After entering university, her lack of confidence in speaking English became a major issue, and other students face the same…

  8. The Neuronal Infrastructure of Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menenti, Laura; Segaert, Katrien; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Models of speaking distinguish producing meaning, words and syntax as three different linguistic components of speaking. Nevertheless, little is known about the brain's integrated neuronal infrastructure for speech production. We investigated semantic, lexical and syntactic aspects of speaking using fMRI. In a picture description task, we…

  9. Autism plus versus autism pure.

    PubMed

    Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2014-12-01

    The reported prevalence of autism is going up and up. We propose that some-even much-of the increase in the rate of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is driven by "Autism Plus". Autism Plus refers to autism with comorbidities (including intellectual developmental disorder, language disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder), and this is what is now being diagnosed by clinicians as ASD. In clinical practice, a diagnosis of ASD much more often entails that the child will receive support at school and in the community, which is not the case for other diagnoses. In the past the comorbidities were given diagnostic priority and the "autistic features" might, or might not be mentioned as the "plus bit" in the diagnostic summary. It is high time that the comorbidities, sometimes even more important than the autism, came back on the diagnostic agenda. Autism is but one of the Early Symptomatic Syndromes Eliciting Neurodevelopmental Clinical Examination (ESSENCE), not the one and only. PMID:24958434

  10. Perception of Melodic Contour and Intonation in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence From Mandarin Speakers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun; Liu, Fang; Wan, Xuan; Jiang, Cunmei

    2015-07-01

    Tone language experience benefits pitch processing in music and speech for typically developing individuals. No known studies have examined pitch processing in individuals with autism who speak a tone language. This study investigated discrimination and identification of melodic contour and speech intonation in a group of Mandarin-speaking individuals with high-functioning autism. Individuals with autism showed superior melodic contour identification but comparable contour discrimination relative to controls. In contrast, these individuals performed worse than controls on both discrimination and identification of speech intonation. These findings provide the first evidence for differential pitch processing in music and speech in tone language speakers with autism, suggesting that tone language experience may not compensate for speech intonation perception deficits in individuals with autism. PMID:25636678

  11. AWARD program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leppert, Frank

    1998-07-01

    The All Weather ARrival and Departure (AWARD) program is supported by the European Commission under the Brite-EuRam III structure. Following the VERSATILE preparation program, it started on June 1996 and is planned to finish end of 1999. The program consortium consists of ten partners such as a major airline, aircraft and equipment manufacturers, research and tests centers, and an university. Contractors from France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy and The Netherlands are coordinated by Sextant Avionique. AWARD main objective is to demonstrate the efficiency of vision systems under adverse weather conditions. In order to evaluate the added benefits of these concepts within aircraft operations of approach, landing, taxi and takeoff, two applications are developed: (1) Enhanced Vision System (EVS) based on Head Up Display enhancement with Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) and Millimeter Wave Radar (MMWR) images. (2) Synthetic Vision System (SVS) displaying an overlaid symbology on a perspective presentation of the environment, thanks to the combination of database and accurate positioning systems. The evaluation of these two tests systems will focus on: (1) Performance and human acceptability aspects. They will be appreciated according to human factors criteria as well as an integration within realistic environments. The NLR Research Flight Simulator and the DLR ATTAS flight test aircraft will be used. (2) Reliability, integrity aspects thanks to a theoretical certification/system study which will propose guidelines for certification, and will address impact on the system architecture. The paper addresses the work structure of AWARD in order to show what are the keypoints addressed in this program.

  12. Are Children with Autism More Responsive to Animated Characters? A Study of Interactions with Humans and Human-Controlled Avatars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Elizabeth J.; Williams, Diane L.; Hodgins, Jessica K.; Lehman, Jill F.

    2014-01-01

    Few direct comparisons have been made between the responsiveness of children with autism to computer-generated or animated characters and their responsiveness to humans. Twelve 4-to 8-year-old children with autism interacted with a human therapist; a human-controlled, interactive avatar in a theme park; a human actor speaking like the avatar; and…

  13. Communication Growth in Minimally Verbal Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mucchetti, Charlotte Alcestis

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about language and communication development in minimally verbal children with autism, especially those who remain minimally verbal past the age of five. This population is rarely reported on in research and although there is evidence that some children do learn to speak after the age of five, we lack information on the course…

  14. Anger in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Parent's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Betty P. V.; Stephenson, Jennifer; Carter, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Anger related behaviours such as aggression are known to be an area of difficulty for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A national internet forum for parents of children with ASD was selected out of other similar forums from six English speaking countries. Information about the angry episodes of 121 children with ASD as described by…

  15. Autism and Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This document defines and discusses autism and how genes play a role in the condition. Answers to the following questions are covered: (1) What are genes? (2) What is autism? (3) What causes autism? (4) Why study genes to learn about autism? (5) How do researchers look for the genes involved in autism? (screen the whole genome; conduct cytogenetic…

  16. [Autism: neuroimaging].

    PubMed

    Zilbovicius, Mônica; Meresse, Isabelle; Boddaert, Nathalie

    2006-05-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a range of clinical presentations. These presentations vary from mild to severe and are referred to as autism spectrum disorders. The most common clinical sign of autism spectrum disorders is social interaction impairment, which is associated with verbal and non-verbal communication deficits and stereotyped and repetitive behaviors. Thanks to recent brain imaging studies, scientists are getting a better idea of the neural circuits involved in autism spectrum disorders. Indeed, functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography, single foton emission tomography and functional MRI have opened a new perspective to study normal and pathological brain functioning. Three independent studies have found anatomical and rest functional temporal lobe abnormalities in autistic patients. These alterations are localized in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally, an area which is critical for perception of key social stimuli. In addition, functional studies have shown hypoactivation of most areas implicated in social perception (face and voice perception) and social cognition (theory of mind). These data suggest an abnormal functioning of the social brain network in autism. The understanding of the functional alterations of this important mechanism may drive the elaboration of new and more adequate social re-educative strategies for autistic patients. PMID:16791388

  17. Children's Book Awards Annual 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Matt; Dupuy, Marigny J.

    This publication reviews the books from the major national children's book awards and lists. The following awards are covered: John Newberry Awards, Randolph Caldecott Awards, Coretta Scott King Awards, Mildred L. Batchelder Awards, Pura Belpre, Boston Globe-Horn Book Award, and the National Book Award for Young People's Literature. The lists are…

  18. Occupational Aspirations of State FFA Contest and Award Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Blannie E.; Doerfert, David L.

    1989-01-01

    A study explored the occupational aspirations of 300 (of 503) students with high levels of participation in Future Farmers of America's (FFA) Computers in Agriculture (CIA), Proficiency Award (PA), and Prepared and Extemporaneous Speaking (PES) contests. CIA and PES winners aspired to professional occupations more than PA winners. PES winners…

  19. Adjudicating non-knowledge in the Omnibus Autism Proceedings.

    PubMed

    Decoteau, Claire Laurier; Underman, Kelly

    2015-08-01

    After 5600 families of children diagnosed with autism filed claims with the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program in the United States, the court selected 'test' cases consolidated into the Omnibus Autism Proceedings, held from 2007 to 2008, to examine claims that vaccines caused the development of autism. The court found all of the causation theories presented to be untenable and did not award damages to any parents. We analyze the Omnibus Autism Proceedings as a struggle within the scientific field between the scientific orthodoxy of the respondents and the heterodox position taken by the plaintiffs, suggesting that the ruling in these cases helped to shore up hegemony on autism causation. Drawing on the literature on non-knowledge, we suggest that only the respondents had enough scientific capital to strategically direct non-knowledge toward genetic research, thereby foreclosing the possibility of environmental causation of autism. The plaintiffs, who promote a non-standard ontology of autism, suggest that the science on autism remains undone and should not be circumscribed. In analyzing the Omnibus Autism Proceedings with field theory, we highlight the way in which scientific consensus-building and the setting of research agendas are the result of struggle, and we show that the strategic deployment of non-knowledge becomes a major stake in battles for scientific legitimacy and the settling of scientific controversies. PMID:26502656

  20. Distinguishing Features in Scoring L2 Chinese Speaking Performance: How Do They Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Tan; Mak, Barley

    2013-01-01

    For Chinese as a second language (L2 Chinese), there has been little research into "distinguishing features" (Fulcher, 1996; Iwashita et al., 2008) used in scoring L2 Chinese speaking performance. The study reported here investigates the relationship between the distinguishing features of L2 Chinese spoken performances and the scores awarded by…

  1. A Meta-Analysis of Single Case Research Studies on Aided Augmentative and Alternative Communication Systems with Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Earles-Vollrath, Theresa L.; Heath, Amy K.; Parker, Richard I.; Rispoli, Mandy J.; Duran, Jaime B.

    2012-01-01

    Many individuals with autism cannot speak or cannot speak intelligibly. A variety of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) approaches have been investigated. Most of the research on these approaches has been single-case research, with small numbers of participants. The purpose of this investigation was to meta-analyze the single…

  2. Well Spoken: Teaching Speaking to All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Erik

    2011-01-01

    All teachers at all grade levels in all subjects have speaking assignments for students, but many teachers believe they don't know how to teach speaking, and many even fear public speaking themselves. In his new book, "Well Spoken", veteran teacher and education consultant Erik Palmer shares the art of teaching speaking in any classroom. Teachers…

  3. The John Muir Award.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Graham

    2002-01-01

    The John Muir Award was established in the United Kingdom to respond to minimal environmental awareness, especially among youth. The Award has three levels of effort; all involve discovering a wild place, exploring its wildness, helping to conserve it, and sharing the experience with a wider audience. There is an effort to establish the award in…

  4. Autism through the Lifespan

    MedlinePlus

    ... of life. Early Detection and Intervention The Autism Society promotes early identification and access to effective treatments before age 3 . Autism behaviors can become apparent as early as 18 months, ...

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of developmental disabilities that can cause significant social, communication and behavioral ... for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disabilities. More E-mail Your Friends "Children with autism ...

  6. Roses for Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaino, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses Roses for Autism, a program that provides training, guidance and employment opportunities for older students and adults on the autistic spectrum. Roses for Autism tackles one of the biggest challenges currently facing the autism community--a disproportionally high unemployment rate that hovers around 88 percent. Although a…

  7. Sensory Correlations in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Johnson, Danny G.; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Savla, Jayshree S.; Mehta, Jyutika A.; Schroeder, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between auditory, visual, touch, and oral sensory dysfunction in autism and their relationship to multisensory dysfunction and severity of autism. The Sensory Profile was completed on 104 persons with a diagnosis of autism, 3 to 56 years of age. Analysis showed a significant correlation between the different…

  8. Handbook on Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thacker, Cheryl

    This handbook provides information on various techniques and strategies that can reduce excessive behaviors and improve deficit behaviors in children with autism. Chapter 1 gives an overview of autism and discusses the development of social skills and play skills in individuals with high-functioning autism. The characteristics of children with…

  9. The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers: Reliability in a Diverse Rural American Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarpa, Angela; Reyes, Nuri M.; Patriquin, Michelle A.; Lorenzi, Jill; Hassenfeldt, Tyler A.; Desai, Varsha J.; Kerkering, Kathryn W.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the modified checklist for autism in toddlers (M-CHAT) in a diverse rural American low-socioeconomic status (SES) sample. Four hundred and forty-seven English (n = 335) and Spanish (n = 112) speaking caregivers completed the M-CHAT during their toddler's 18- or 24-month well visit in a…

  10. Considerations Influencing Hispanic-American Mothers' Intergenerational Language Practices with Their Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niles, Gloria Y.

    2013-01-01

    Using basic qualitative research methodology, the purpose for this dissertation study was to explore the language, social and learning considerations and subsequent actions taken by eight, bilingual, Hispanic-American mothers of children with autism between the ages of four and eight-years-old regarding speaking Spanish, English or both languages…

  11. Perception of Melodic Contour and Intonation in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence from Mandarin Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Jun; Liu, Fang; Wan, Xuan; Jiang, Cunmei

    2015-01-01

    Tone language experience benefits pitch processing in music and speech for typically developing individuals. No known studies have examined pitch processing in individuals with autism who speak a tone language. This study investigated discrimination and identification of melodic contour and speech intonation in a group of Mandarin-speaking…

  12. The Interface of Syntax with Pragmatics and Prosody in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzi, Arhonto; Marinis, Theodoros; Francis, Kostantinos

    2016-01-01

    In order to study problems of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) with morphosyntax, we investigated twenty high-functioning Greek-speaking children (mean age: 6;11) and twenty age- and language-matched typically developing children on environments that allow or forbid object clitics or their corresponding noun phrase. Children with…

  13. Cognitive and Language Correlates of Hyperlexia: Evidence from Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoso-Martins, Claudia; da Silva, Juliane Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the correlates of hyperlexia in Brazilian Portuguese-speaking children with the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Study 1 involved 3 groups of school age children individually matched for word reading ability: 6 ASD hyperlexic children, 6 ASD non-hyperlexic children, and 6 typically developing…

  14. Teaching Math: Speaking of Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Lola

    1995-01-01

    Provides tips and guidelines for teaching students how to speak the universal language of mathematics. Recommends the unlearning of faulty vocabulary, adopting workable strategies to teach math language, and teaching appropriate names of operations, shapes, and angles. Emphasizes need for mastering math vocabulary to be able to communicate in…

  15. Plain Facts on Plain Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1993-01-01

    Public speaking goes with being on the school board. A few pointers and practice can help you get better at communicating in public. Experts suggest the following: know what your point is and state it precisely; strive to be expressive, using your voice and gestures; and present a story that people can relate to. (MLF)

  16. You Are What You Speak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motluk, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Does the language one speaks influence the way he thinks? Does it help define his world view? Anyone who has tried to master a foreign tongue has at least considered the possibility. Little linguistic peculiarities, though amusing, don't change the objective world people are describing. So how can they alter the way they think? Scientists and…

  17. Just Smile and Speak Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Allen R.

    1993-01-01

    To take fear out of public speaking, superintendents and other school executives are advised to have something interesting to say, set aside time to practice, use eye contact to advantage, pay attention to body language, be wary of using humor or gimmicks, lean toward relatively short presentations, keep abreast of current events, realize people…

  18. Speaking up for Better Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers have a lot of frustrating things to deal with in school--obdurate administrators, inane work rules, and ham-fisted policies, to name a few. Instead of speaking up for change, many teachers have just come to accept all the dysfunction and take refuge in their classrooms. But teachers have it in their power to bust out of that classroom…

  19. Writing and Speaking to Learn Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nadine C.

    1991-01-01

    Describes an intermediate level, college geometry course that is designated as both writing and speaking intensive. Suggests methods that utilize writing and speaking activities to enhance student learning, and discusses student reactions to the course. (nine references) (JJK)

  20. The Autism Simplex Collection: an international, expertly phenotyped autism sample for genetic and phenotypic analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    focus is on sequencing complete trios. ASC sequencing for the first 1,000 samples (all from whole-blood DNA) is complete and data will be released in 2014. Data is being made available through NIH databases (database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP) and National Database for Autism Research (NDAR)) with DNA released in Dist 11.0. Primary funding for the collection, genotyping, sequencing and distribution of TASC samples was provided by Autism Speaks and the NIH, including the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and the National Human Genetics Research Institute (NHGRI). Conclusions TASC represents an important sample set that leverages expert sites. Similar approaches, leveraging expert sites and ongoing studies, represent an important path towards further enhancing available ASD samples. PMID:25392729

  1. ACTFL Speaking Proficiency Guidelines. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    This digest focuses on the American Council on the Speaking of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) Speaking Proficiency Guidelines. The history and development of the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines (originally, the ACTFL Provisional Proficiency Guidelines) are reviewed, the generic characteristics of each level of the speaking guidelines are presented in…

  2. An Assessment of IELTS Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karim, Shahzad; Haq, Naushaba

    2014-01-01

    The present study focused on assessing the speaking test of IELTS. The assessment discussed both positive aspects and weaknesses in IELTS speaking module. The researchers had also suggested some possible measures for the improvement in IELTS speaking test and increasing its validity and reliability. The researchers had analysed and assessed IELTS…

  3. Educating Nevada's Limited-English-Speaking Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada State Dept. of Education, Carson City.

    This resource for program planning offers guidelines for providing Nevada's limited-English-speaking (Spanish-speaking and American Indian) students with equal access to quality education. The following chapters are included: (1) "Educating Limited-English-Speaking Students: The Record," (2) "State Board of Education Position on…

  4. Kingma awarded Mineral and Rock Physics Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Mineral and Rock Physics Award was presented to Kathleen J. Kingma at the 1993 AGU Fall Meeting. The annual award, given by the AGU Committee on Mineral and Rock Physics, recognizes an undergraduate or graduate student who exhibits unusual promise, as indicated by a letter of support and a published work.Kingma received the award for her work in the area of pressure-induced amorphization of minerals. In this work, she combined in situ high-pressure diamond-anvil cell techniques with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy of quenched material to investigate the microstructural effects associated with these pressure-induced transitions in quartz. The letters of nomination attributed her success to the way in which “she combines extraordinary abilities in the laboratory, where she is a tireless and meticulous worker, with a thorough knowledge of mineralogy.”

  5. Creativity Awards: Great Expectations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgour, Mark; Sasser, Sheila; Koslow, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Given the creativity inherent in advertising, one useful measure of creativity may be the advertising creativity award. Although creativity awards have been used by academics, agencies, and clients as indicators of exemplary creative work, there is surprisingly little research as to what creative elements they actually represent. Senior agency…

  6. AGU Ocean Science Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Ocean Science Executive Committee has announced that nominations are needed for its Award given for outstanding service to the marine science community. Service may include leadership, management, sharing of data, analysis techniques or models, as well as facility or instrumentation development. In every case, the service must go well beyond the normal requirements of an individual's job specifications. The individual must be nationally recognized for such service.The executive committee will review nominations and designate awardee(s). Nominations should consist of a paragraph describing the individual's qualifications with respect to the award as well as a list of potential referees. While nominations can be considered at any time, it is customary for an annual assessment of potential awardee(s) to occur in early fall. The award is not given on any specific schedule, annual or otherwise. When the award is made, the awardee may select the meeting where he/she wishes to receive the award.

  7. Oxidative stress in autism.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Abha; Chauhan, Ved

    2006-08-01

    Autism is a severe developmental disorder with poorly understood etiology. Oxidative stress in autism has been studied at the membrane level and also by measuring products of lipid peroxidation, detoxifying agents (such as glutathione), and antioxidants involved in the defense system against reactive oxygen species (ROS). Lipid peroxidation markers are elevated in autism, indicating that oxidative stress is increased in this disease. Levels of major antioxidant serum proteins, namely transferrin (iron-binding protein) and ceruloplasmin (copper-binding protein), are decreased in children with autism. There is a positive correlation between reduced levels of these proteins and loss of previously acquired language skills in children with autism. The alterations in ceruloplasmin and transferrin levels may lead to abnormal iron and copper metabolism in autism. The membrane phospholipids, the prime target of ROS, are also altered in autism. The levels of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) are decreased, and phosphatidylserine (PS) levels are increased in the erythrocyte membrane of children with autism as compared to their unaffected siblings. Several studies have suggested alterations in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in autism. Additionally, altered glutathione levels and homocysteine/methionine metabolism, increased inflammation, excitotoxicity, as well as mitochondrial and immune dysfunction have been suggested in autism. Furthermore, environmental and genetic factors may increase vulnerability to oxidative stress in autism. Taken together, these studies suggest increased oxidative stress in autism that may contribute to the development of this disease. A mechanism linking oxidative stress with membrane lipid abnormalities, inflammation, aberrant immune response, impaired energy metabolism and excitotoxicity, leading to clinical symptoms and pathogenesis of autism is proposed. PMID:16766163

  8. "Speaking Up" with Janet Wong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Terrell A.; Vardell, Sylvia M.

    2005-01-01

    Writer of children's books, Janet Wong is concerned about the number of children being unable to get the education and being left behind. Her books, which reflect her Asian heritage, have appeared on notables list and she was also honored with the IRA Celebrate Literacy Award, the Claremont Stone Center Recognition of Merit, the Penn State/Lee…

  9. Columbine Author Speaks at Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Andrea J.

    2004-01-01

    Brooks Brown, the author of No Easy Answers: The Truth Behind Death at Columbine High School, spoke at the 11th annual Reclaiming Youth International No Disposable Kids conference at Rushmore Plaza Holiday Inn. Brown, who worked with Michael Moore on his Academy Award winning documentary, "Bowling for Columbine," said the letters he received from…

  10. Public Speaking in a Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, A. L.; Evans, V.; Kanra, A. M. Lami; Jones, O. S. L.

    2004-01-01

    In this day, people all over academia feel that our democracy is eroding and that there is no need for rhetoric. Yet, if some effort is not made to help young people understand democracy and the role of public speaking in this form of government, all will truly be lost. The battle is always ongoing as long as on person stands to tell the story.…

  11. Sex and gender differences in autism spectrum disorder: summarizing evidence gaps and identifying emerging areas of priority.

    PubMed

    Halladay, Alycia K; Bishop, Somer; Constantino, John N; Daniels, Amy M; Koenig, Katheen; Palmer, Kate; Messinger, Daniel; Pelphrey, Kevin; Sanders, Stephan J; Singer, Alison Tepper; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Szatmari, Peter

    2015-01-01

    One of the most consistent findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research is a higher rate of ASD diagnosis in males than females. Despite this, remarkably little research has focused on the reasons for this disparity. Better understanding of this sex difference could lead to major advancements in the prevention or treatment of ASD in both males and females. In October of 2014, Autism Speaks and the Autism Science Foundation co-organized a meeting that brought together almost 60 clinicians, researchers, parents, and self-identified autistic individuals. Discussion at the meeting is summarized here with recommendations on directions of future research endeavors. PMID:26075049

  12. Waterman Award nominations sought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-10-01

    The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) is accepting nominations for the 2013 Alan T. Waterman Award. The award, established in 1975 to commemorate NSF's first director, is the foundation's highest honor for promising, early-career researchers. Nominees are accepted from all sources, from any field of science and engineering that NSF supports. In addition to receiving a medal, the award recipient will also receive a $1,000,000 grant over 5 years for scientific research or advanced study in any field of science or engineering supported by NSF. Completed nomination packages are due by 31 October. For more information, see http://www.nsf.gov/od/waterman/waterman.jsp.

  13. The Lennart Nilsson Award.

    PubMed

    Peres, M

    2001-01-01

    This article takes a brief look at the photography of Lennart Nilsson as well as the history of, and the formation of a foundation to raise monies for the establishment of an award in his name. Subsequently, a board and an international nominating committee evolved to select individuals to receive the award. Honorees are chosen based on the merits of their efforts in scientific imagery that, like the photography of Nilsson, reveal the unseen in the natural world. Finally, this article discusses the work of the latest two recipients of the award and invites readers to participate in the nomination process. PMID:11293062

  14. BHP Billiton Science Teacher Awards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chittleborough, Gail; Campbell, Coral

    2012-01-01

    The prestigious BHP Billiton Science Teacher Awards are awarded annually to one teacher from each state of Australia. The awards recognise and value the time and effort that teachers give to the profession and to students conducting scientific research projects. This paper examines the Science Award scheme to identify the characteristics common to…

  15. Autism spectrum disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Autism; Autistic disorder; Asperger syndrome; Childhood disintegrative disorder; Pervasive developmental disorder ... to be regarded as separate disorders: Autistic disorder Asperger syndrome Childhood disintegrative disorder Pervasive developmental disorder

  16. Psychopharmacology in autism.

    PubMed

    Tsai, L Y

    1999-01-01

    Autism is a neurobiological disorder. The core clinical features of autism include impairment in social interaction, impairments in verbal and nonverbal communication, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. Autism often has coexisting neuropsychiatric disorders, including seizure disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, affective disorders, anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and Tourette disorder. No etiology-based treatment modality has been developed to cure individuals with autism. However, comprehensive intervention, including parental counseling, behavior modification, special education in a highly structured environment, sensory integration training, speech therapy, social skill training, and medication, has demonstrated significant treatment effects in many individuals with autism. Findings from preliminary studies of major neurotransmitters and other neurochemical agents strongly suggest that neurochemical factors play a major role in autism. The findings also provide the rationale for psychopharmacotherapy in individuals with autism. This article reviews studies of neurochemical systems and related psychopharmacological research in autism and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Clinical indications for pharmacotherapy are described, and uses of various medications are suggested. This article also discusses new avenues of investigation that may lead to the development of more effective medication treatments in persons with autism. PMID:10511014

  17. Brief Report: Coherent Motion Processing in Autism: Is Dot Lifetime an Important Parameter?

    PubMed

    Manning, Catherine; Charman, Tony; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2015-07-01

    Contrasting reports of reduced and intact sensitivity to coherent motion in autistic individuals may be attributable to stimulus parameters. Here, we investigated whether dot lifetime contributes to elevated thresholds in children with autism. We presented a standard motion coherence task to 31 children with autism and 31 typical children, with both limited and unlimited lifetime conditions. Overall, children had higher thresholds in the limited lifetime condition than in the unlimited lifetime condition. However, children with autism were affected by this manipulation to the same extent as typical children and were equally sensitive to coherent motion. Our results suggest that dot lifetime is not a critical stimulus parameter and speak against pervasive difficulties in coherent motion perception in children with autism. PMID:25604585

  18. Waterman Award nominations open

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nominations are now being accepted for the Alan T. Waterman Award, which annually recognizes an outstanding young scientist in the forefront of science. The award, named for the first director of the National Science Foundation (NSF), was established by Congress in 1975 to mark the agency's silver anniversary.Candidates for the 1987 award must be U.S. citizens and must be 35 years old or younger (or not be more than 5 years beyond receipt of the Ph.D. degree) by December 31, 1986. Candidates should have completed sufficient scientific or engineering research to have demonstrated, through personal accomplishments, outstanding capability and exceptional promise for significant future achievement, the award committee says. In addition, those nominated should exhibit quality, innovation, and potential for discovery in their research.

  19. Scholastic Photography Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Art Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents 13 winning photographs by secondary students participating in the annual Scholastic Photography Awards competition conducted by Scholastic Magazines, Inc., and sponsored by the Eastman Kodak Company. Top winners receive scholarships. (SJL)

  20. CASE Recognition Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currents, 1985

    1985-01-01

    A total of 294 schools, colleges, and universities received prizes in this year's CASE Recognition program. Awards were given in: public relations programs, student recruitment, marketing, program pulications, news writing, fund raising, radio programming, school periodicals, etc. (MLW)

  1. The Olive Branch Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnack, William

    1984-01-01

    The first annual Olive Branch Awards, sponsored by the Writers' and Publishers Alliance and the Editors' Organizing Committee, were given to ten magazines, out of 60 that submitted entries. Winning entries are described briefly. (IM)

  2. CHP Awards Announced

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program has selected six projects for financial awards under the "Combined Heat and Power Systems Technology Development and Demonstration" solicitation (DE-FOA-0000016).

  3. Tectonics wins AAP Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AGU's newest journal, Tectonics, won the 1983 award for excellence in journal design and production given by the Association of American Publishers, Inc. (AAP), in the eighth annual professional and scholarly publishing awards competition. Edited by John F. Dewey, the bimonthly journal is a joint publication of AGU and the European Geophysical Society. Paul E. Tapponnier is the European editor and B.C. Burchfiel is the North American editor. The journal is now in its third year of publication.

  4. Awards and Addresses Summary

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Each year at the annual ASHG meeting, addresses are given in honor of the society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the next pages, we have printed the Presidential Address and the addresses for the William Allan Award. The other addresses, accompanied by pictures of the speakers, can be found at www.ashg.org.

  5. Fulbright Award opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More than a dozen opportunities are available to geophysicists in the 1982-1983 Fulbright Awards program for United States scholars to study abroad. The lecturing and research awards are listed in a new brochure published by the Council for International Exchange of Scholars. Geophysics-related opportunities are also available in geography, engineering, and technology.The majority of grants are for the academic year in the host country. All are subject to availability of funds and changes in program priorities.

  6. Adapting for Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2009-01-01

    Autism is the most common condition in a group of developmental disorders known as the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Although autism is considered a low-incidence disorder, many music educators in schools today teach students with autism each week. Students with ASDs usually require similar educational interventions that are adapted to their…

  7. Issues in Bilingualism and Heritage Language Maintenance: Perspectives of Minority-Language Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The author investigated the language practices of 10 bilingual, Chinese/English-speaking, immigrant mothers with their children with autism spectrum disorders. The aim was to understand (a) the nature of the language practices, (b) their constraints, and (c) their impact. Method: The author employed in-depth phenomenological interviews…

  8. Brief Report: The Feasibility and Effectiveness of an Advocacy Program for Latino Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Meghan M.; Magaña, Sandra; Garcia, Marlene; Mello, Maria P.

    2016-01-01

    Latino, Spanish-speaking families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face unique barriers in special education advocacy. Although advocacy programs are becoming more common in the United States, none of these programs target Latino families. This is a pilot study to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of an advocacy program for…

  9. Immunological Treatments for Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Sudhir

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses research findings that indicate immunological abnormalities in children with autism, including the dysregulation of the immune system, and concludes that there are sufficient data to suggest a role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of autism. Various biological therapies are analyzed, including intravenous…

  10. Chromosomal Disorders and Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on chromosomal aberrations in autism, especially possible gene markers. It notes that Chromosome 15 and numerical and structural abnormalities of the sex chromosomes have been most frequently reported as related to the genesis of autism. (Author/DB)

  11. Autism and Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilker, Paul; Yergeau, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a profoundly rhetorical phenomenon. And all--parents, educators, caregivers, policymakers, the public, and autistic people themselves--would be significantly empowered to understand and respond to it as such. In the continuing absence of stable scientific or medical knowledge about autism, one needs to shine a bright and insistent light…

  12. Malemployment in Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romoser, Mark

    2000-01-01

    In this humorous article, a man with autism discusses his struggles with the world of employment despite his cum laude degree from Yale University. The underemployment of people with disabilities is highlighted, along with the lack of "people skills" that individuals with autism have, which creates a barrier to employment. (CR)

  13. Early Childhood Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchionne, Anne

    The author traces autism from recognition of the disability by E. Bleuler in 1906 to the present, noting changes, similarities, and differences in the copious amont of research. After a poem by Neil Diamond and a glossary of terms, the author describes the views on autism held by E. Bleuler, L. Kanner, L. Bender, M. Mahler, F. Kallmann, B.…

  14. The Coherence of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, R. Peter

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of opinion that we should view autism as fractionable into different, largely independent sets of clinical features. The alternative view is that autism is a coherent syndrome in which principal features of the disorder stand in intimate developmental relationship with each other. Studies of congenitally blind children…

  15. Neuroanatomical markers of speaking Chinese.

    PubMed

    Crinion, Jenny T; Green, David W; Chung, Rita; Ali, Nliufa; Grogan, Alice; Price, Gavin R; Mechelli, Andrea; Price, Cathy J

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify regional structural differences in the brains of native speakers of a tonal language (Chinese) compared to nontonal (European) language speakers. Our expectation was that there would be differences in regions implicated in pitch perception and production. We therefore compared structural brain images in three groups of participants: 31 who were native Chinese speakers; 7 who were native English speakers who had learnt Chinese in adulthood; and 21 European multilinguals who did not speak Chinese. The results identified two brain regions in the vicinity of the right anterior temporal lobe and the left insula where speakers of Chinese had significantly greater gray and white matter density compared with those who did not speak Chinese. Importantly, the effects were found in both native Chinese speakers and European subjects who learnt Chinese as a non-native language, illustrating that they were language related and not ethnicity effects. On the basis of prior studies, we suggest that the locations of these gray and white matter changes in speakers of a tonal language are consistent with a role in linking the pitch of words to their meaning. PMID:19530216

  16. An Exploration of Kenyan Public Speaking Patterns with Implications for the American Introductory Public Speaking Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ann Neville

    2002-01-01

    Examines the public speaking patterns of Kenya, and compares those findings to the content of American introductory public speaking courses. Finds that most frequently mentioned areas of difference between American and Kenyan public speaking were establishment of speaker credibility, structure of the speech, selection of supporting materials,…

  17. Student Satisfaction with EFL Speaking Classes: Relating Speaking Self-Efficacy and Skills Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asakereh, Ahmad; Dehghannezhad, Maliheh

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between student satisfaction with speaking classes, speaking skills self-efficacy beliefs, and speaking skills achievement. To this end, one hundred Iranian EFL undergraduate students filled out two questionnaires; a research-made and pilot-tested questionnaire for student satisfaction with speaking…

  18. Education as Invitation to Speak: On the Teacher Who Does Not Speak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vansieleghem, Nancy; Masschelein, Jan

    2012-01-01

    As a response to "Le Fils," a film directed by the Dardenne brothers, we explore the idea of speaking as an invitation and juxtapose it against ideas of speaking as a transactional, calculative, calibrated, activity. Speaking tends to be understood as a relatively straightforward matter: as a means of communication structured by such values as the…

  19. SpeakApps 2: Speaking Practice in a Foreign Language through ICT Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Christine; Nic Giolla Mhichíl, Mairéad; Jager, Sake; Prizel-Kania, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    SpeakApps 2 is a project with support of the Lifelong Learning Programme, Accompanying Measures. It follows up on the work and results reached during the KA2 project "SpeakApps: Oral production and interaction in a foreign language through ICT tools". The overarching aim of SpeakApps 2 is to further enhance Europeans' language learning…

  20. Stereotypes of autism

    PubMed Central

    Draaisma, Douwe

    2009-01-01

    In their landmark papers, both Kanner and Asperger employed a series of case histories to shape clinical insight into autistic disorders. This way of introducing, assessing and representing disorders has disappeared from today's psychiatric practice, yet it offers a convincing model of the way stereotypes may build up as a result of representations of autism. Considering that much of what society at large learns on disorders on the autism spectrum is produced by representations of autism in novels, TV-series, movies or autobiographies, it will be of vital importance to scrutinize these representations and to check whether or not they are, in fact, misrepresenting autism. In quite a few cases, media representations of talent and special abilities can be said to have contributed to a harmful divergence between the general image of autism and the clinical reality of the autistic condition. PMID:19528033

  1. Stereotypes of autism.

    PubMed

    Draaisma, Douwe

    2009-05-27

    In their landmark papers, both Kanner and Asperger employed a series of case histories to shape clinical insight into autistic disorders. This way of introducing, assessing and representing disorders has disappeared from today's psychiatric practice, yet it offers a convincing model of the way stereotypes may build up as a result of representations of autism. Considering that much of what society at large learns on disorders on the autism spectrum is produced by representations of autism in novels, TV-series, movies or autobiographies, it will be of vital importance to scrutinize these representations and to check whether or not they are, in fact, misrepresenting autism. In quite a few cases, media representations of talent and special abilities can be said to have contributed to a harmful divergence between the general image of autism and the clinical reality of the autistic condition. PMID:19528033

  2. SPR Awards Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    The SPR Awards Committee has been formed for the next 2-year period (July 1, 1990-June 30, 1992). It consists of Marty Lee (chair), University of New Hampshire, tel. 603-862-3509; Nancy Crooker (ex-officio), University of California at Los Angeles; Bill Kurth, University of Iowa; Tom Moore, Marshall Space Flight Center; Ed Roelof, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory; Bob Schunk, Utah State University; and Dan Winske, Los Alamos National Laboratory.The SPR Awards Committee has several responsibilities, including solicitation and development of proposals for potential AGU Fellows from the SPR section; the AGU Fellows Committee makes the final selections. The awards committee also reviews SPR student papers at the Fall and Spring AGU Meetings and nominates outstanding papers for AGU recognition.

  3. Evaluating the non-English Speaking Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineman, Carol A.; Ross, Amparo

    The project titled "Evaluating the non-English Speaking Handicapped" was established to research existing evaluation instruments in language other than English, validate the tests as well as additional translations where needed, and develop a procedural manual for distribution to utilize in evaluating non-English speaking handicapped students. The…

  4. Teaching Public Speaking Using Aristotle's "Rhetoric."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Candida

    Rather than relegating Aristotle's "Rhetoric" to history of rhetoric courses, where it is regarded with only an antiquarian interest, it can be used as a practical text for introductory public speaking courses. The advantages would be threefold: (1) its emphasis is essentially on rhetoric as a speaking art rather than an art of composition; (2) it…

  5. Pragmatic Activities for the Speaking Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Being able to speak naturally and appropriately with others in a variety of situations is an important goal for many English as a foreign language (EFL) learners. Because the skill of speaking invariably involves interaction with people and using language to reach objectives (e.g., ordering food, making friends, asking for favors), it is crucial…

  6. Reading to Speak: Integrating Oral Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yun

    2009-01-01

    According to Ur (1996, 120), "of all the four skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing), speaking seems intuitively the most important." Indeed, whether for business or pleasure, a primary motivation to learn a second language is to be able to converse with speakers of that language. However, in addition to being an important skill,…

  7. Chicago's Spanish-Speaking Population: Selected Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Dept. of Development and Planning, IL.

    Based on selected data from the 1970 census, this report provides a general description of Chicago's Spanish-speaking population's: (1) general population characteristics; (2) age and family characteristics; (3) income; (4) labor force characteristics; (5) education; and (6) housing. Using the Census Bureau's definition of Spanish speaking (all…

  8. Narrative Assessment for Cantonese-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    To, Carol Kit-Sum; Stokes, Stephanie F.; Cheung, Hin-Tat; T'sou, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study examined the narrative skills of Cantonese-speaking school-age children to fill a need for a normative language test for school-age children. Purpose: To provide a benchmark of the narrative skills of Cantonese-speaking children; to identify which of the microstructure components was the best predictor of age; and to…

  9. Integrating Speaking Skills into the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Susan Monroe, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Stressing the importance of incorporating speech skills throughout the curriculum, the articles in this journal provide ideas for developing speaking skills in all subjects and at all levels. The titles of the articles and their authors include the following: (1) "Speaking Skills: A Few Tips from an Old Timer" (Geoffrey R. Butler); (2)…

  10. An Experimental Analog of Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droppleman, Leo F.; McNair, Douglas M.

    1971-01-01

    Using finger sweat prints and arousal ratings two different types of stress were measured: anticipation of, and stress during, simulated public speaking. The results indicated that the stress producing properties of public speaking can be reproduced in the laboratory, thus the model has acceptable stimulus properties and can be used in…

  11. Sustaining Speaking across the Curriculum Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Robert O.

    In 1988 a paper described "Start-Up Strategies for Speaking and Listening across Disciplines," with special reference to eight institutions which at that time had relatively freshly-minted programs in speaking across the curriculum (Weiss). Eight strategies for starting such programs were delineated and remain viable today, but the shelf-life of…

  12. To speak and be heard.

    PubMed

    Marty, M E; Guinn, D E; Greenfield, L

    1999-01-01

    This article is excerpted from the Park Ridge Center for the Study of Health, Faith, and Ethics 28-page handbook entitled "Religion and Public Discourse: Principles and Guidelines for Religious Participants." These principles are the product of a three-year research project conducted by the Center. The project "To Speak and Be Heard" is based upon a wide range of resources from within the participants' religious traditions, including practices, rituals, and tenets of faith. While this project grew out of the specific controversies around the Cairo Conference, the principles of civil discourse spelled out in this document are general in application and may be used to facilitate constructive public dialogue. This article also discusses the nature of civil discourse in the public square, covenants of conversation, engaging the other, living with conflict during and after conversation and argument, and the hope of civil discourse. PMID:12178896

  13. The Spanish-speaking Five-year-old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman, Betty L.

    1972-01-01

    Author observed four kindergarten classes where teachers were able to speak Spanish; Spanish-speaking children, by various methods, learned skills and content at the same rate as English-speaking children did. (SP)

  14. Environmental Factors in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Grabrucker, Andreas M.

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication and social behavior, and by repetitive behaviors. Although genetic factors might be largely responsible for the occurrence of autism they cannot fully account for all cases and it is likely that in addition to a certain combination of autism-related genes, specific environmental factors might act as risk factors triggering the development of autism. Thus, the role of environmental factors in autism is an important area of research and recent data will be discussed in this review. Interestingly, the results show that many environmental risk factors are interrelated and their identification and comparison might unveil a common scheme of alterations on a contextual as well as molecular level. For example, both, disruption in the immune system and in zinc homeostasis may affect synaptic transmission in autism. Thus, here, a model is proposed that interconnects the most important and scientifically recognized environmental factors. Moreover, similarities in how these risk factors impact synapse function are discussed and a possible influence on an already well described genetic pathway leading to the development of autism via zinc homeostasis is proposed. PMID:23346059

  15. Coe Receives 2007 Gilbert Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogue, Scott W.; Coe, Robert S.

    2008-05-01

    Robert S. Coe received the 2007 William Gilbert Award at the 2007 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif. The award recognizes outstanding and unselfish work in magnetism of Earth materials and of the Earth and planets.

  16. UK businesses bag innovation awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Five UK firms have received innovation awards from the Institute of Physics (IOP), which publishes Physics World. Hallmarq Veterinary Imaging, Metrasens, M Squared Lasers, Silixa and Tracerco have all won an IOP award for developing new innovative products.

  17. IT Summit 2010 - Award Winners

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA CIO Linda Cureton announces this year’s IT Summit award winners. These awards recognize achievement in six key areas for contributions that have aided in NASA achieving mission goals and objec...

  18. NINDS epilepsy and autism spectrum disorders workshop report

    PubMed Central

    Hirtz, Deborah; Mamounas, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The association of epilepsy and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), although well-recognized, is poorly understood. The purpose of this report is to summarize the discussion of a workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, with support from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Autism Speaks, and Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy, that took place in Bethesda, Maryland, on May 29 and 30, 2012. The goals of this workshop were to highlight the clinical and biological relationships between ASD and epilepsy, to determine both short- and long-term goals that address research and treatment conundrums in individuals with both ASD and epilepsy, and to identify resources that can further both clinical and basic research. Topics discussed included epidemiology, genetics, environmental factors, common mechanisms, neuroimaging, neuropathology, neurophysiology, treatment, and research gaps and challenges in this unique population. PMID:24089385

  19. Web Awards: Are They Reliable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhart, Nancy; McKnight, Kathleen

    1997-01-01

    School library media specialists recommend quality Web sites to children based on evaluations and Web awards. This article examines three types of Web awards and who grants them, suggests ways to determine their reliability, and discusses specific award sites. Includes a bibliography of Web sites. (PEN)

  20. Effective Elocution. Communication IV: Teaching Speaking Skills in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corpening, Dodie K.

    1985-01-01

    Activities are presented to help gifted students overcome the fear of public speaking. Activities include exercises to improve confidence and understand the principles of effective public speaking. (CL)

  1. Designing Award Winning Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kintigh, Cynthia

    1990-01-01

    Graphic designers, marketing specialists, and campus activities professionals who have won awards for the design of campus programing publicity offer tips in the process of designing successful promotional items, including ingredients of winning pieces and aspects of a productive designer-client relationship. (MSE)

  2. 1987 Paragon Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Sandra

    1987-01-01

    Describes the annual Paragon Award winners, representing 76 successful community college marketing efforts in the areas of overall promotion; best catalog, schedule, annual report, newsletter, news story, viewbook, brochure, poster, folder, postcard, outdoor advertising, print advertisement, radio advertisement, video promotion, photographs, media…

  3. 1987 CASE Recognition Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currents, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The 1987 CASE Recognition Awards are presented for: general excellence in programs; student recruitment marketing improvement; video public service announcements, news, and commercial spots; total publications; magazines of the decade; improvement in periodicals; photocommunications via print; designer of the year and series; and imagination in…

  4. Award Winning Science Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Showalter, Victor M.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    This is a collection of reports of student award winning science projects that have appeared in "The Science Teacher." Grade levels 7-12 are represented with projects categorized as follows: biology, chemistry and physics, earth-space science, and miscellaneous. In each section the abstracts are arranged in order of increasing complexity beginning…

  5. Speaking rate adjustment across changes in talker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Rochelle S.; Sawusch, James R.

    2002-05-01

    Individuals vary their speaking rate, and listeners use the speaking rate of precursor sentences to adjust for these changes [Kidd (1989)]. Recent work has suggested that speaking rate adjustment may not always be limited to speech from a single talker (Sawusch and Newman, 2000). When a talker change occurs in the midst of a vowel, the durations of both portions of the vowel influence perception of the rate-based contrast. In the present experiments, we examined the effect of talker change on rate normalization for precursor phrases. A male talker produced the sentence, I heard him say the word-at one of three different speaking rates. A female talker then produced a nonword containing a duration-based contrast. We examined whether the male talker's speaking rate would influence perception of the female talker's speech. The results were somewhat surprising. The speaking rate of the first talker did influence perception of the contrast in the second talker. However, the effect was a U-shaped function of speaking rate, rather than the linear function typically demonstrated in the single-voice condition. Several follow-up studies replicated this basic pattern. Implications of this finding for studies of rate normalization will be discussed.

  6. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological and developmental disorder that begins early in childhood and lasts throughout a ... and pervasive developmental disorders. It is called a "spectrum" disorder because people with ASD can have a ...

  7. Kids' Quest: Autism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Basketball Player  Return to Steps Movies and Books Here are some books about Kids and people ... people living with Asperger's. Different Like Me: My Book of Autism Heroes by Jennifer Elder Publisher: Jessica ...

  8. Histidinemia and Infantile Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotsopoulos, S.; Kutty, K. M.

    1979-01-01

    The article presents a case history of a boy with both infantile autism and histidenia (an inborn error of amino acid metabolism), and discusses the possible relationship between the two conditions. (DLS)

  9. Autism Screening and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... A. Autism from 2 to 9 years of age. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006 Jun;63(6):694-701. Related Pages Child Development Developmental Disabilities "Learn the Signs. Act Early." Campaign CDC's National Center on Birth Defects and ...

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... IDDs) NICHD News and Spotlights Resources to Help Families and Physicians Spot Early Signs of Autism Selected NICHD Research Advances of 2015 Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes All related news Home ...

  11. Advances in autism.

    PubMed

    Geschwind, Daniel H

    2009-01-01

    Autism is a common childhood neurodevelopmental disorder with strong genetic liability. It is not a unitary entity but a clinical syndrome, with variable deficits in social behavior and language, restrictive interests, and repetitive behaviors. Recent advances in the genetics of autism emphasize its etiological heterogeneity, with each genetic susceptibility locus accounting for only a small fraction of cases or having a small effect. Therefore, it is not surprising that no unifying structural or neuropathological features have been conclusively identified. Given the heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), approaches based on studying heritable components of the disorder, or endophenotypes, such as language or social cognition, provide promising avenues for genetic and neurobiological investigations. Early intensive behavioral and cognitive interventions are efficacious in many cases, but autism does not remit in the majority of children. Therefore, development of targeted therapies based on pathophysiologically and etiologically defined subtypes of ASD remains an important and achievable goal of current research. PMID:19630577

  12. Buried by Autism: Older Parents' Perceptions of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Monique; Balandin, Susan; Togher, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we explored older parents' perceptions of their adult sons and daughters with autism in order to gain insights into how parents' beliefs about autism may influence their coping. Narrative analysis of in-depth interviews held with 16 parents aged 60 years and older of adults with autism revealed that these parents perceived that…

  13. How are they doing? Listening as fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder compare themselves to fathers of children who are typically developing.

    PubMed

    Cheuk, Samantha; Lashewicz, Bonnie

    2016-04-01

    The growing prevalence of autism spectrum disorder is accompanied by ongoing efforts to understand and support parents in the face of challenges related to their child's autism spectrum disorder. Although fathers are increasingly hands-on in raising children, research focus on parenting children with autism spectrum disorder continues to be skewed toward experiences of mothers. Our purpose in this article is to contribute understandings of how fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder perceive themselves to be managing, and we undertake this by examining comparisons fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder make between their parenting experiences and experiences of fathers of typically developing children. A purposive sample of 28 fathers of children (aged 2-13 years) with autism spectrum disorder living in an urban center in Western Canada participated in in-depth interviews about their parenting successes and challenges. We found fathers speak of universal fathering experiences yet articulate their own sense of loss and efforts to come to terms with unanticipated demands associated with autism spectrum disorder. Fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder feel "pangs of jealousy" toward fathers of typically developing children, yet they are keenly attentive to their own child's development and convey a sense of gratitude for their child's capabilities and personality amidst an appreciation for trials and triumphs of fathering in general and fathering a child with autism spectrum disorder in particular. PMID:25976158

  14. Using Effort to Measure Reward Value of Faces in Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Ewing, Louise; Pellicano, Elizabeth; Rhodes, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    According to one influential account, face processing atypicalities in autism reflect reduced reward value of faces, which results in limited attention to faces during development and a consequent failure to acquire face expertise. Surprisingly, however, there is a paucity of work directly investigating the reward value of faces for individuals with autism and the evidence for diminished face rewards in this population remains equivocal. In the current study, we measured how hard children with autism would work to view faces, using an effortful key-press sequence, and whether they were sensitive to the differential reward value of attractive and unattractive faces. Contrary to expectations, cognitively able children with autism did not differ from typically developing children of similar age and ability in their willingness to work to view faces. Moreover, the effort expended was strongly positively correlated with facial attractiveness ratings in both groups of children. There was also no evidence of atypical reward values for other, less social categories (cars and inverted faces) in the children with autism. These results speak against the possibility that face recognition difficulties in autism are explained by atypical reward value of faces. PMID:24236140

  15. Using effort to measure reward value of faces in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Louise; Pellicano, Elizabeth; Rhodes, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    According to one influential account, face processing atypicalities in autism reflect reduced reward value of faces, which results in limited attention to faces during development and a consequent failure to acquire face expertise. Surprisingly, however, there is a paucity of work directly investigating the reward value of faces for individuals with autism and the evidence for diminished face rewards in this population remains equivocal. In the current study, we measured how hard children with autism would work to view faces, using an effortful key-press sequence, and whether they were sensitive to the differential reward value of attractive and unattractive faces. Contrary to expectations, cognitively able children with autism did not differ from typically developing children of similar age and ability in their willingness to work to view faces. Moreover, the effort expended was strongly positively correlated with facial attractiveness ratings in both groups of children. There was also no evidence of atypical reward values for other, less social categories (cars and inverted faces) in the children with autism. These results speak against the possibility that face recognition difficulties in autism are explained by atypical reward value of faces. PMID:24236140

  16. Skater Tara Lipinski Speaks Out About DVT

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Deep Vein Thrombosis Skater Tara Lipinski Speaks Out About DVT Past Issues / Spring ... deadly potential at any age. Photo: Tara Lipinski Tara Lipinski has spent almost every day of her ...

  17. Joe Acaba Speaks with WISH Students

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 32 Flight Engineer Joe Acaba speaks with high school students participating in a summer program called Women in STEM High School Aerospace Scholars, or WISH, using the station’s ham ra...

  18. Strabismus in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Melvin; Edelson, Stephen M.; Rimland, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    Two studies of strabismus ("crossed eyes") in children with autism are reported. A clinical optometric evaluation of 34 individuals with autism, ages 7 to 19 years, found a strabismus rate of 50% and a parent survey of 7,640 families of children with autism found an incidence of 18% (compared to 2-4% in the general population). (Author/DB)

  19. Autism: Clinical and Research Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Accardo, Pasquale J., Ed.; Magnusen, Christy, Ed.; Capute, Arnold J., Ed.

    This text examines the characteristics that define autism: impairments in communication; abnormal social development; and clinically significant odd behaviors. Specific chapters include: (1) Neural Mechanisms in Autism (Andrew W. Zimmerman and Barry Gordon); (2) Epidemiology of Autism and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Current…

  20. Autism Overview: What We Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is one of many federal agencies working to understand autism. The NICHD supports and conducts research on what causes autism, how many people have autism, how best to treat…

  1. Autism. Decade of the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuwirth, Sharyn

    This booklet provides an overview of autism and discusses strategies for living and working with children with autism. The first section of the guide, "Understanding the Problem," addresses the characteristics of autism, including social symptoms, language difficulties, repetitive behaviors and obsessions, sensory symptoms, and unusual abilities;…

  2. Langley Medal awarded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Robert Thomas Jones, senior scientist at the Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif., was awarded the distinguished Langley Medal by the Smithsonian Institution for his ‘extensive contributions in theoretical aerodynamics, particularly with regard to development of the swept wing, supersonic area rule and, more recently, the oblique wing.’ Jones is an internationally acclaimed expert on aerodynamics, optics, and biomechanics as well as an applied mathematician, astronomer, inventor, author, and violin maker.The Langley award has been given to just 16 recipients since it was established 73 years ago. Past recipients include Wilbur and Orville Wright, Charles Lindbergh, and Richard Byrd. Named for Samuel Pierpont Langley, aeronautical pioneer and third secretary of the Smithsonian, the medal honors ‘especially meritorious investigations in the field of aerospace science.’

  3. Effects of Rater Characteristics and Scoring Methods on Speaking Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsugu, Sawako

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the sources of variance in speaking assessment is important in Japan where society's high demand for English speaking skills is growing. Three challenges threaten fair assessment of speaking. First, in Japanese university speaking courses, teachers are typically the only raters, but teachers' knowledge of their students may…

  4. Thirty Days and Thirty Ways towards Better Public Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Marquez, Michelle

    The ability to speak in various public speaking situations is imperative for success in school, business, and industry. Aspects which improve public speaking skills include preparation, organization, paying attention to the "nuts and bolts" of the speaking situation, identifying the topic, using invigorating language, watching other public…

  5. Speaking Activities for the Advanced College-Bound Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Don

    Three activities for developing speaking skills of advanced English as second language students are presented. Impromptu speaking, extemporaneous speaking, and debate activities are designed to train students to organize concepts, develop spontaneous oral skills, and enhance confidence and clarity of thought. Impromptu speaking develops…

  6. [Current status of autism studies].

    PubMed

    Kurita, H

    2001-01-01

    The current status of autism studies was reviewed based on English articles published during the 1990s. Although the concepts of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are established, diagnostic criteria of PDDNOS or atypical autism, which is frequently difficult to differentiate from autism, need to be established. The prevalence of autism has been estimated as about 0.05% in the U.S and many European countries, while it was reported to be 0.1% or higher in Japan and some European countries, though the reasons for this difference are unclear. High-functioning (IQ > or = 70) autism may not be as rare a condition as previously thought and both its difference from and similarity to Asperger's syndrome, the highest functioning PDD subtype, need clarification. About 20 to 40% of children with autism lose meaningful words by the age of 2 years and display autistic symptoms thereafter. Such autism, called the setback type in Japan, has been demonstrated to have a poorer adolescent/adult outcome compared to autism without setback and its relationship with childhood disintegrative disorder, which displays a clearer regression after normal development for at least the first 2 years of life, needs to be addressed. The etiology of autism is now considered mostly genetic for reasons, such as the significantly higher concordance rate of autism in identical twin pairs (60-80%) than in fraternal twin pairs (0-10%) and an 3-5% incidence of autism among sibs of an autism proband, 30 to 100 times higher than that in the general population. The involvement of several genes is implicated to create susceptibility for autism, yet the responsible genes have not been identified. Although there is no medication to cure autism, some psychotropic drugs, such as antipsychotics and SSRIs, seem effective for behavior problems in autism patients. Psychosocial treatments are the main therapeutic approach to autism, though they are yet to be well systematized. It is important to

  7. Bilingualism as Conceptualized and Bilingualism as Lived: A Critical Examination of the Monolingual Socialization of a Child with Autism in a Bilingual Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Betty

    2016-01-01

    This is an ethnographic and discourse analytic case study of a bilingual, minority-language family of a six-year-old child with autism whose family members were committed to speaking English with him. Drawing on "family language policy," the study examines the tensions between the family members' stated beliefs, management efforts, and…

  8. A scoring strategy combining statistics and functional genomics supports a possible role for common polygenic variation in autism

    PubMed Central

    Carayol, Jérôme; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Dombroski, Beth; Amiet, Claire; Génin, Bérengère; Fontaine, Karine; Rousseau, Francis; Vazart, Céline; Cohen, David; Frazier, Thomas W.; Hardan, Antonio Y.; Dawson, Geraldine; Rio Frio, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are highly heritable complex neurodevelopmental disorders with a 4:1 male: female ratio. Common genetic variation could explain 40–60% of the variance in liability to autism. Because of their small effect, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have only identified a small number of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). To increase the power of GWASs in complex disorders, methods like convergent functional genomics (CFG) have emerged to extract true association signals from noise and to identify and prioritize genes from SNPs using a scoring strategy combining statistics and functional genomics. We adapted and applied this approach to analyze data from a GWAS performed on families with multiple children affected with autism from Autism Speaks Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE). We identified a set of 133 candidate markers that were localized in or close to genes with functional relevance in ASD from a discovery population (545 multiplex families); a gender specific genetic score (GS) based on these common variants explained 1% (P = 0.01 in males) and 5% (P = 8.7 × 10−7 in females) of genetic variance in an independent sample of multiplex families. Overall, our work demonstrates that prioritization of GWAS data based on functional genomics identified common variants associated with autism and provided additional support for a common polygenic background in autism. PMID:24600472

  9. Physical maltreatment of children with autism in Henan province in China: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Duan, Guiqin; Chen, Jingqi; Zhang, Wenjing; Yu, Buyi; Jin, Yanqin; Wang, Yazhe; Yao, Meiling

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of child physical maltreatment (CPM) in children with autism aged 2-5 years in Henan province (China), and to explore the risk factors for severe CPM in these children. This cross-sectional study was performed at the Psychology Clinic of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University between September 2012 and September 2013 with 180 parents of children with autism. Children and parents had no history of any cognitive therapy. The childhood autism rating scale (CARS) was used to evaluate the severity of autism in children. Data on parental CPM during the past 3 months were collected from parental self-reporting. Logistic regression was used to investigate the risk factors of severe CPM. CPM was self-reported by 88% of the parents of children with autism. One hundred and fifty four of these cases were in the minor CPM group (86%) and 64 in the severe CPM group (36%). Most cases of severe CPM were unlikely to have caused injury. Univariate analyses showed that child's age (p=.018), age started to speak (p=.043) and CARS score (p=.048) were associated with severe CPM. Child's age (p=.011) and CARS score (p=.041) were independently associated with severe CPM. The risk of severe CPM increased with age and CARS score. Our findings showed that CPM is widespread in families of children with autism in Central China and more knowledge should be provided to parents of children with autism, particularly in cases of severe autism (those with high CARS scores). PMID:25957752

  10. 31 CFR 20.605 - Award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Award. 20.605 Section 20.605 Money...-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.605 Award. Award means an award of financial... award includes: (1) A Federal grant or cooperative agreement, in the form of money or property in...

  11. 31 CFR 20.605 - Award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Award. 20.605 Section 20.605 Money...-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.605 Award. Award means an award of financial... award includes: (1) A Federal grant or cooperative agreement, in the form of money or property in...

  12. 31 CFR 20.605 - Award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Award. 20.605 Section 20.605 Money...-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.605 Award. Award means an award of financial... award includes: (1) A Federal grant or cooperative agreement, in the form of money or property in...

  13. 2 CFR 170.305 - Award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Definitions § 170.305 Award. Award, for the purposes of this part, effective October 1, 2010, means a grant or... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Award. 170.305 Section 170.305 Grants and... site, award also will include other types of awards of Federal financial assistance subject to...

  14. 5 CFR 451.104 - Awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Awards. 451.104 Section 451.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS AWARDS Agency Awards § 451.104 Awards. (a) An agency may grant a cash, honorary, or informal recognition award, or grant time-off without charge to leave or loss of...

  15. 2 CFR 25.305 - Award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... owned property provided in lieu of money, even if the award is called a grant. ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Award. 25.305 Section 25.305 Grants and... REGISTRATION Definitions § 25.305 Award. (a) Award, for the purposes of this part, means an award of...

  16. 5 CFR 451.105 - Award restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Award restrictions. 451.105 Section 451.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS AWARDS Agency Awards § 451.105 Award restrictions. (a) In accordance with 5 U.S.C. 4508, agencies shall not grant awards under this subpart during a...

  17. 31 CFR 20.605 - Award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... award includes: (1) A Federal grant or cooperative agreement, in the form of money or property in lieu... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Award. 20.605 Section 20.605 Money...-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.605 Award. Award means an award of...

  18. Nominations sought for AAAS award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science seeks nominations for its Award for International Scientific Cooperation, which recognizes an individual or small group for outstanding contributions to furthering international cooperation in science or engineering.AAAS presents this award in collaboration with its affiliated organizations in the AAAS Consortium of Affiliates for International Programs. A prize of $2,500, a certificate of citation, and travel expenses to the AAAS annual meeting to receive the award are included.

  19. It looks like autism: caution in diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Snyder, David M; Miller, Karen; Stein, Martin T

    2010-04-01

    CASE 1: At 3 years of age, Billy was seen by his pediatrician for a well child visit. Spontaneous speech was limited during the visit. He did not interact with the pediatrician and attempts to play with Billy resulted in oppositional behavior. About 3 months after the visit, Billy's parents requested a developmental evaluation; he was diagnosed with autism by means of an observational measure and a parent interview. Billy was born full term after an uncomplicated labor, delivery and postnatal period. Motor milestones were normal. His parents recalled that he used his finger to point to an object prior to using words. He spoke several single words by his first birthday and used phrases before age 2 years. Billy was described as often having difficulty with transitions, but he is happy and outgoing in familiar situations. At 3 years old, when he started preschool, Billy did not speak to either the teacher or other children. This pattern of refusal to speak persists. His parents report that he talks to them and one uncle using complete sentences with clear speech. Billy prefers to repeat activities and is reluctant to try activities. He frequently plays with the same toy cars placing them in a neat line and becomes upset if things are not done in the same way. An uncle has Asperger syndrome. CASE 2: Juan, a 3 year old Mexican-American boy, was referred by his preschool teacher because "he does not interact with other children or use language at an age-appropriate level." He prefers to play alone, resists participation in group activities at preschool, and does not share as well as other students according to his teacher. Expressive language with speech is rarely seen in preschool. In contrast, at home he plays interactively, shares toys with his older brother and speaks in short, clear sentences. In preschool, English is spoken exclusively. At home, Spanish is the primary language. Prenatal and birth histories were uneventful. Motor and social milestones were achieved

  20. Development of Vocabulary in Spanish-Speaking and Cantonese-Speaking English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchikoshi, Yuuko

    2014-01-01

    This study examines vocabulary growth rates in first and second languages for Spanish-speaking and Cantonese-speaking English language learners from kindergarten through second grade. Growth-modeling results show a within-language effect of concepts about print on vocabulary. Language exposure also had an effect on English vocabulary: earlier…

  1. Teaching English Speaking and English Speaking Tests in the Thai Context: A Reflection from Thai Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khamkhien, Attapol

    2010-01-01

    To successfully assess how language learners enhance their performance and achieve language learning goals, the four macro skills of listening, speaking reading and writing are usually the most frequently assessed and focused areas. However, speaking, as a productive skill, seems intuitively the most important of all the four language skills…

  2. English-Speaking and Spanish-Speaking Domestic Violence Perpetrators: An MMPI-2 Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Ronald L.; Flowers, John V.; Bulnes, Alejandro; Olmsted, Eileen; Carbajal-Madrid, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    The use of assessments to characterize domestic violence perpetrators continues to develop with an emphasis on increasing the effectiveness of domestic violence interventions. The present study examines and compares Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2 responses from 41 English-speaking and 48 Spanish-speaking men who were in…

  3. Visual perceptual abilities of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children.

    PubMed

    Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports an investigation of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children's general visual perceptual abilities. The Developmental Test of Visual Perception was administered to 41 native Chinese-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 4 mo. in Hong Kong and 35 English-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 2 mo. in Melbourne. Of interest were the two interrelated components of visual perceptual abilities, namely, motor-reduced visual perceptual and visual-motor integration perceptual abilities, which require either verbal or motoric responses in completing visual tasks. Chinese-speaking children significantly outperformed the English-speaking children on general visual perceptual abilities. When comparing the results of each of the two different components, the Chinese-speaking students' performance on visual-motor integration was far better than that of their counterparts (ES = 2.70), while the two groups of students performed similarly on motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities. Cultural factors such as written language format may be contributing to the enhanced performance of Chinese-speaking children's visual-motor integration abilities, but there may be validity questions in the Chinese version. PMID:22755448

  4. Error Gravity: Perceptions of Native-Speaking and Non-Native Speaking Faculty in EFL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kresovich, Brant M.

    1988-01-01

    A survey of teachers of composition in English as a Second Language in Japan addressed the perceptions of native-English-speaking and non-native-English-speaking teachers of the acceptability of specific error types within sentences. The native speakers of English were one British and 16 Americans. The non-native group was comprised of 26 Japanese…

  5. A Comparison of Narrative Structures of English-Speaking and Spanish-Speaking Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Delma McLeod

    1989-01-01

    Examines the pragmatic uses of narrative structures in the written stories of native-English speaking and native-Spanish speaking college students. It is shown that there are subtle differences in the way that the two groups use structures, suggesting that native-English and native-Spanish narrators have differing perceptions of themselves and…

  6. 2014 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  7. 2013 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the Presidential Address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  8. NCI R25T Award

    Cancer.gov

    Institutional award for predoctoral or postdoctoral candidates or mentored junior faculty who are pursuing careers in cancer prevention, control, behavioral, and population sciences or transdisciplinary sciences.

  9. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Mitochondrial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Form Controls Autism Cancel Submit Search The CDC Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... with a mitochondrial disease: may also have an autism spectrum disorder, may have some of the symptoms/signs of ...

  10. Autism and Clostridium tetani.

    PubMed

    Bolte, E R

    1998-08-01

    Autism is a severe developmental disability believed to have multiple etiologies. This paper outlines the possibility of a subacute, chronic tetanus infection of the intestinal tract as the underlying cause for symptoms of autism observed in some individuals. A significant percentage of individuals with autism have a history of extensive antibiotic use. Oral antibiotics significantly disrupt protective intestinal microbiota, creating a favorable environment for colonization by opportunistic pathogens. Clostridium tetani is an ubiquitous anaerobic bacillus that produces a potent neurotoxin. Intestinal colonization by C. tetani, and subsequent neurotoxin release, have been demonstrated in laboratory animals which were fed vegetative cells. The vagus nerve is capable of transporting tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) and provides a route of ascent from the intestinal tract to the CNS. This route bypasses TeNT's normal preferential binding sites in the spinal cord, and therefore the symptoms of a typical tetanus infection are not evident. Once in the brain, TeNT disrupts the release of neurotransmitters by the proteolytic cleavage of synaptobrevin, a synaptic vesicle membrane protein. This inhibition of neurotransmitter release would explain a wide variety of behavioral deficits apparent in autism. Lab animals injected in the brain with TeNT have exhibited many of these behaviors. Some children with autism have also shown a significant reduction in stereotyped behaviors when treated with antimicrobials effective against intestinal clostridia. When viewed as sequelae to a subacute, chronic tetanus infection, many of the puzzling abnormalities of autism have a logical basis. A review of atypical tetanus cases, and strategies to test the validity of this paper's hypothesis, are included. PMID:9881820

  11. Don Bloch award, 2013.

    PubMed

    Degruy, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Frank deGruy, as recipient of the 2013 Don Bloch Award, presents a brief history of Bloch's contributions to the concept of collaboration in primary and mental health care. Bloch focused on the family as the unit of care for people with mental health problems, but saw something else: a person's psychological state was inextricably linked to his or her physical state. The health of one depended on the health of the other. Bloch started the journal that is now called Families, Systems, & Health, and then decided there was a need for an organization, which became the Collaborative Family Health care Association. PMID:24684146

  12. WRIB Poster Award winners.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    The 10th Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (WRIB) held in Orlando, USA, in April 2016. It drew close to 500 professionals representing large pharmas, biotechs, CROs and multiple regulatory agencies from around the world, working on both small- and large-molecule bioanalysis. This year, bioanalysis and bioanalysis zone were proud to support the WRIB Poster Awards and we feature profiles of the authors of the winning posters. Go to www.bioanalysis-zone.com to see the winning posters in full. Winning posters. PMID:27523325

  13. Outstanding Student Paper Awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    The following members in the Space Physics & Aeronomy Section received Outstanding Student Paper Awards at the 2003 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, California. Arve Aksnes; Aroh Barjatya; Jacob Bortnik; Amir Caspi; Ruben Delgado; Galen Fowler; Paul G. Hanlon; Sid Henderson; Tara B. Hiebert; Chia-Lin Huang; Steven P. Joy; Eun-Hwa Kim; Colby Lemon; Yingjuan Ma; Elizabeth A. MacDonald; Jaco Minnie; Mitsuo Oka; Yoshitaka Okazaki; Erin J. Rigler; Ina P. Robertson; Patrick A. Roddy; Sang-Il Roh; Albert Y. Shih; Christopher Smithtro; Emma Spanswick; Maria Spasojevic; Hiroki Tanaka; Linghua Wang; Deirdre E. Wendel; Jichun Zhang>

  14. Outstanding Student Paper Awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-04-01

    The following members in the Space Physics & Aeronomy Section received Outstanding Student Paper Awards at the 2003 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, California. Arve Aksnes; Aroh Barjatya; Jacob Bortnik; Amir Caspi; Ruben Delgado; Galen Fowler; Paul G. Hanlon; Sid Henderson; Tara B. Hiebert; Chia-Lin Huang; Steven P. Joy; Eun-Hwa Kim; Colby Lemon; Yingjuan Ma; Elizabeth A. MacDonald; Jaco Minnie; Mitsuo Oka; Yoshitaka Okazaki; Erin J. Rigler; Ina P. Robertson; Patrick A. Roddy; Sang-Il Roh; Albert Y. Shih; Christopher Smithtro; Emma Spanswick; Maria Spasojevic; Hiroki Tanaka; Linghua Wang; Deirdre E. Wendel; Jichun Zhang>

  15. Outstanding student paper awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Hydrology Section presented six outstanding student paper awards at the 2000 AGU Spring Meeting in Washington, D.C., last June.Wade T. Crow presented a poster titled Impacts of Upscaling Soil Moisture During SGP 97. He received a B.A. in physics from Carleton College in 1995, and a M.S.E.in civil and environmental engineering from Princeton University in 1998. Wade is currently completing his Ph.D. at Princeton. His dissertation work, supervised by Eric F Wood, focuses on spatial scale issues surrounding both the retrieval of soil moisture imagery by microwave remote sensors and the eventual assimilation of this imagery into hydrologic models.

  16. Sleep, epilepsy, and autism.

    PubMed

    Accardo, Jennifer A; Malow, Beth A

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this review article is to explore the links between sleep and epilepsy and the treatment of sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Epilepsy and sleep have bidirectional relationships, and problems with both are highly prevalent in children with ASD. Literature is reviewed to support the view that sleep is particularly important to address in the context of ASD. Identification and management of sleep disorders may improve seizure control and challenging behaviors. In closing, special considerations for evaluating and treating sleep disorders in children with ASD and epilepsy are reviewed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Autism and Epilepsy". PMID:25496798

  17. Future affective technology for autism and emotion communication

    PubMed Central

    Picard, Rosalind W.

    2009-01-01

    People on the autism spectrum often experience states of emotional or cognitive overload that pose challenges to their interests in learning and communicating. Measurements taken from home and school environments show that extreme overload experienced internally, measured as autonomic nervous system (ANS) activation, may not be visible externally: a person can have a resting heart rate twice the level of non-autistic peers, while outwardly appearing calm and relaxed. The chasm between what is happening on the inside and what is seen on the outside, coupled with challenges in speaking and being pushed to perform, is a recipe for a meltdown that may seem to come ‘out of the blue’, but in fact may have been steadily building. Because ANS activation both influences and is influenced by efforts to process sensory information, interact socially, initiate motor activity, produce meaningful speech and more, deciphering the dynamics of ANS states is important for understanding and helping people on the autism spectrum. This paper highlights advances in technology that can comfortably sense and communicate ANS arousal in daily life, allowing new kinds of investigations to inform the science of autism while also providing personalized feedback to help individuals who participate in the research. PMID:19884152

  18. ASLO Presents Hutchinson Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence Richards Pomeroy, Alumni Foundation Distinguished Professor at the University o f Georgia, Athens, is the 1987 recipient of the Hutchinson Award, given annually by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO). The award is given in recognition o f outstanding past and current research in limnology and oceanography.Larry Pomeroy was trained in zoology at the University of Michigan, where he received his B.S. and M.S., and at Rutgers University, where he received his Ph.D. in 1959. In his very first published research, on phosphorus uptake by the American oyster, he began the interest in phosphorus and mineral cycling in natural waters that was to be a major research theme o f his for the next 20 years. His studies at the University of Georgia included measurements of estuaries, coral reefs, zooplankton excretion, salt marshes, and sediment-water exchange. The techniques and understanding that he developed and the publications he produced with a variety of coauthors made him a world leader in the biogeochemistry of phosphorus cycling.

  19. Philip wins AWRAC Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John Philip, member of the AGU Section of Hydrology since 1951, was recently awarded the inaugural Eminent Researcher Fellowship of the Australian Water Research Advisory Council (AWRAC). Philip, Chief of the CSIRO Centre for Environmental Mechanics in Canberra, Australia, was awarded the Fellowship for his pioneering work on the mathematical physics of water movement in unsaturated porous media and soils.During his research career over 4 decades, Philip has published over. 230 scientific papers, mainly in hydrology. Sub-disciplines include soil and porous medium physics, fluid mechanics, micrometeorology, physical chemistry, and mathematical and physical aspects of physiology and ecology. The stipend associated with the AWRAC Fellowship will allow Philip to reduce his administrative duties for a year and mount a full-time attack on three important water research projects: a boundary layer analysis of water entry into subterranean holes from unsaturated seepage; groundwater pollution from hydrocarbon leaks beneath the water table; and an engineering approach to control of water use and microclimate by plant surface resistance under arid advective conditions.

  20. Mitchell Receives 2013 Ronald Greeley Early Career Award in Planetary Science: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Jonathan L.

    2014-07-01

    I am honored to receive this award in memory of Ron Greeley. Although I did not have the opportunity to know him, I had the pleasure of getting to know his wife, Cynthia, at a luncheon prior to the special awards session at the AGU Fall Meeting. Cynthia is an intelligent and elegant southern woman with a confident gaze. She spoke fondly of Ron and of her sincere respect for his work ethic and dedication to planetary science. What most impressed me, though, was the respect Ron showed to her and the kids by always "giving them the evenings"; no matter how busy things got, Ron always kept his evenings open for Cynthia. This clearly meant the world to her. As a family man, I can only hope that my wife and kids will speak so kindly of me many years from now. I would like to dedicate this award to them in gratitude for their seemingly unconditional love and support.

  1. Campus Technology Innovators Awards 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Meg; Raths, David

    2010-01-01

    Each year in judging the Campus Technology Innovators awards, the authors have the privilege of reading through hundreds of fascinating examples of technology innovation on campus. Nominated projects cover the gamut of technology areas, from assessment and advising to wireless and web 2.0. This article presents 11 innovator award winners of this…

  2. Directory of Awards. FY 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Science and Engineering Education.

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) provides awards for education and research in the sciences, mathematics, and engineering. This publication contains information on fiscal year 1986 awards. An introductory section reviews the goals of NSF's education program and the long-range goals of the Directorate for Science and Engineering Education.…

  3. Clark Receives Ocean Sciences Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, Michael R.; Clark, H. Lawrence

    2008-09-01

    H. Lawrence Clark received the 2008 Ocean Sciences Award at the 2008 Ocean Sciences Meeting, held 2-7 March 2008 in Orlando, Fla. The award is given in recognition of outstanding and long-standing service to the ocean sciences.

  4. Step 5: Award Negotiation & Issuance

    Cancer.gov

    Before a grant can be awarded and accepted, several pre-award activities must happen to formalize the partnership. Ensuring compliance with federal laws, a review of costs and a negotiation of the appropriate funding level must all happen in order to rece

  5. [Autism and Autism-associated Metabolites].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kunitomo

    2016-06-01

    Gene-microbiota interactions are now proposed to be a special case of gene-environmental interaction. Preclinical and clinical data summarized in this article reveal that a specific serum metabolite, associated with alterations in gut microbiome composition, might have an emerging role in the onset and pathogenesis of autism. Altered level of this specified metabolite may induce perturbations in the epigenome and modulate the expression of key disease susceptible genes in neurons and their associated cells during critical periods of neurodevelopment. The gut microbiota itself is now regarded as a reservoir for environmental epigenetic factors. PMID:27279160

  6. Investigating Shifts in Diverse Family Structures in Newbery Award and Honor Books Utilizing U.S. Census Data, 1930-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Despain, Shannon M.; Tunnell, Michael O.; Wilcox, Brad; Morrison, Timothy G.

    2015-01-01

    Newbery Award and Honor books are a representation of children's literature, but family structures portrayed in them have not previously been studied. This prescriptive content analysis considered 87 contemporary realistic fiction Newbery winners and runners-up since the 1930s that portray families in English-speaking, Western settings. The family…

  7. Rethinking Language in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterponi, Laura; de Kirby, Kenton; Shankey, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we invite a rethinking of traditional perspectives of language in autism. We advocate a theoretical reappraisal that offers a corrective to the dominant and largely tacitly held view that language, in its essence, is a referential system and a reflection of the individual's cognition. Drawing on scholarship in Conversation…

  8. Epigenetics and Autism

    PubMed Central

    Millis, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    This review identifies mechanisms for altering DNA-histone interactions of cell chromatin to upregulate or downregulate gene expression that could serve as epigenetic targets for therapeutic interventions in autism. DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) can phosphorylate histone H3 at T6. Aided by protein kinase Cβ1, the DNMT lysine-specific demethylase-1 prevents demethylation of H3 at K4. During androgen-receptor-(AR-) dependent gene activation, this sequence may produce AR-dependent gene overactivation which may partly explain the male predominance of autism. AR-dependent gene overactivation in conjunction with a DNMT mechanism for methylating oxytocin receptors could produce high arousal inputs to the amygdala resulting in aberrant socialization, a prime characteristic of autism. Dysregulation of histone methyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs) associated with low activity of methyl CpG binding protein-2 at cytosine-guanine sites in genes may reduce the capacity for condensing chromatin and silencing genes in frontal cortex, a site characterized by decreased cortical interconnectivity in autistic subjects. HDAC1 inhibition can overactivate mRNA transcription, a putative mechanism for the increased number of cerebral cortical columns and local frontal cortex hyperactivity in autistic individuals. These epigenetic mechanisms underlying male predominance, aberrant social interaction, and low functioning frontal cortex may be novel targets for autism prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:24151554

  9. Autism. Bibliography #26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Public Health Association, Springfield, IL. Illinois Birth to Three Clearinghouse.

    The bibliography lists books and journal articles which are available on loan (to Illinois residents only) from the Illinois Birth to Three Clearinghouse. The 79 items listed focus on many aspects of autism, such as diagnosis, possible genetic links, social and pragmatic deficits, sleep problems, developmental therapy, drug therapy, behavior…

  10. Deafness and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Diane D.

    2008-01-01

    At the most basic level, autism is a neurological disorder that most likely involves a distinct abnormality in brain structure and affects a child's abilities in two areas: communication and social development. It also is marked by repetitive or stereotypical behavior. Because of the variability in the causes of deafness as well as…

  11. Autism and sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Devnani, Preeti A; Hegde, Anaita U

    2015-01-01

    "Autism Spectrum Disorders" (ASDs) are neurodevelopment disorders and are characterized by persistent impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication. Sleep problems in ASD, are a prominent feature that have an impact on social interaction, day to day life, academic achievement, and have been correlated with increased maternal stress and parental sleep disruption. Polysomnography studies of ASD children showed most of their abnormalities related to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep which included decreased quantity, increased undifferentiated sleep, immature organization of eye movements into discrete bursts, decreased time in bed, total sleep time, REM sleep latency, and increased proportion of stage 1 sleep. Implementation of nonpharmacotherapeutic measures such as bedtime routines and sleep-wise approach is the mainstay of behavioral management. Treatment strategies along with limited regulated pharmacotherapy can help improve the quality of life in ASD children and have a beneficial impact on the family. PubMed search was performed for English language articles from January 1995 to January 2015. Following key words: Autism spectrum disorder, sleep disorders and autism, REM sleep and autism, cognitive behavioral therapy, sleep-wise approach, melatonin and ASD were used. Only articles reporting primary data relevant to the above questions were included. PMID:26962332

  12. Autism, oxytocin and interoception

    PubMed Central

    Quattrocki, E.; Friston, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by profound social and verbal communication deficits, stereotypical motor behaviors, restricted interests, and cognitive abnormalities. Autism affects approximately 1% of children in developing countries. Given this prevalence, identifying risk factors and therapeutic interventions are pressing objectives—objectives that rest on neurobiologically grounded and psychologically informed theories about the underlying pathophysiology. In this article, we review the evidence that autism could result from a dysfunctional oxytocin system early in life. As a mediator of successful procreation, not only in the reproductive system, but also in the brain, oxytocin plays a crucial role in sculpting socio-sexual behavior. Formulated within a (Bayesian) predictive coding framework, we propose that oxytocin encodes the saliency or precision of interoceptive signals and enables the neuronal plasticity necessary for acquiring a generative model of the emotional and social ‘self.’ An aberrant oxytocin system in infancy could therefore help explain the marked deficits in language and social communication – as well as the sensory, autonomic, motor, behavioral, and cognitive abnormalities – seen in autism. PMID:25277283

  13. Urinary Compounds in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcorn, A.; Berney, T.; Bretherton, K.; Mills, M.; Savery, D.; Shattock, P.

    2004-01-01

    Although earlier claims to identify specific compounds in the urine of people with autism had been discredited, it was subsequently suggested that there might be biochemical characteristics that were specific to early childhood, particularly in those who also did not have a severe degree of intellectual disability This study was to establish…

  14. Biophysical Bases of Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menolascino, Frank J.; Eyde, Donna R.

    1979-01-01

    The article reviews a variety of biophysical variables which contribute to autism or autistic symptoms, and discusses the nature and manifestations of these psychobiological variables in terms of the need for individual yet comprehensive educational interventions and family support services. (DLS)

  15. Autism and Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Erik K.; Yazdgerdi, Sasha

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the Center for Disease Control released the findings of a study estimating that 1 in 88 children in the U. S. has been identified with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) representing a 78% increase over the last decade. The study also reports that Hispanic and African-American children represent the largest increase. An increasing number…

  16. Autism and Mitochondrial Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as defined by the revised Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM IVTR criteria (American Psychiatric Association [2000] Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing) as impairment before the age of 3 in language development and socialization with the development of repetitive behaviors, appears…

  17. Sensational Stars with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Karen; Miller, Lucy Jane

    2008-01-01

    Sensory processing refers to the way the brain takes incoming sensory messages, converts them into meaningful messages, then makes a response. If the responses are disorganized or inappropriate given the sensory input, sensory processing disorder (SPD) may co-exist with autism. If a child has an occasional atypical response to sensation, he or she…

  18. Multicultural Issues in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyches, Tina Taylor; Wilder, Lynn K.; Sudweeks, Richard R.; Obiakor, Festus E.; Algozzine, Bob

    2004-01-01

    The professional literature provides ample evidence that individuals with autism exhibit a myriad of unusual social, communication, and behavioral patterns of interactions that present challenges to their families and service providers. However, there is a dearth of quality works on multicultural issues regarding autistic spectrum disorders. In…

  19. Reward Processing in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Van Zeeland, Ashley A.; Dapretto, Mirella; Ghahremani, Dara G.; Poldrack, Russell A.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.

    2011-01-01

    The social motivation hypothesis of autism posits that infants with autism do not experience social stimuli as rewarding, thereby leading to a cascade of potentially negative consequences for later development. While possible downstream effects of this hypothesis such as altered face and voice processing have been examined, there has not been a direct investigation of social reward processing in autism. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine social and monetary rewarded implicit learning in children with and without autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Sixteen males with ASD and sixteen age- and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) males were scanned while performing two versions of a rewarded implicit learning task. In addition to examining responses to reward, we investigated the neural circuitry supporting rewarded learning and the relationship between these factors and social development. We found diminished neural responses to both social and monetary rewards in ASD, with a pronounced reduction in response to social rewards (SR). Children with ASD also demonstrated a further deficit in frontostriatal response during social, but not monetary, rewarded learning. Moreover, we show a relationship between ventral striatum activity and social reciprocity in TD children. Together, these data support the hypothesis that children with ASD have diminished neural responses to SR, and that this deficit relates to social learning impairments. PMID:20437601

  20. Autism and art.

    PubMed

    James, Ioan

    2010-01-01

    The link between mild forms of autism and artistic creativity is suggested by a number of individual cases. Here those of a well-known composer, Béla Bártok, and a famous visual artist, Andy Warhol, are considered. PMID:20375530

  1. Autism, oxytocin and interoception.

    PubMed

    Quattrocki, E; Friston, Karl

    2014-11-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by profound social and verbal communication deficits, stereotypical motor behaviors, restricted interests, and cognitive abnormalities. Autism affects approximately 1% of children in developing countries. Given this prevalence, identifying risk factors and therapeutic interventions are pressing objectives—objectives that rest on neurobiologically grounded and psychologically informed theories about the underlying pathophysiology. In this article, we review the evidence that autism could result from a dysfunctional oxytocin system early in life. As a mediator of successful procreation, not only in the reproductive system, but also in the brain, oxytocin plays a crucial role in sculpting socio-sexual behavior. Formulated within a (Bayesian) predictive coding framework, we propose that oxytocin encodes the saliency or precision of interoceptive signals and enables the neuronal plasticity necessary for acquiring a generative model of the emotional and social 'self.' An aberrant oxytocin system in infancy could therefore help explain the marked deficits in language and social communication—as well as the sensory, autonomic, motor, behavioral, and cognitive abnormalities—seen in autism. PMID:25277283

  2. Behavioural and Cognitive Phenotypes in Idiopathic Autism versus Autism Associated with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissanayake, Cheryl; Bui, Quang; Bulhak-Paterson, Danuta; Huggins, Richard; Loesch, Danuta Z.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In order to better understand the underlying biological mechanism/s involved in autism, it is important to investigate the cognitive and behavioural phenotypes associated with idiopathic autism (autism without a known cause) and comorbid autism (autism associated with known genetic/biological disorders such as fragile X syndrome).…

  3. Brief Report: Sensorimotor Gating in Idiopathic Autism and Autism Associated with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuhas, Jennifer; Cordeiro, Lisa; Tassone, Flora; Ballinger, Elizabeth; Schneider, Andrea; Long, James M.; Ornitz, Edward M.; Hessl, David

    2011-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) may useful for exploring the proposed shared neurobiology between idiopathic autism and autism caused by FXS. We compared PPI in four groups: typically developing controls (n = 18), FXS and autism (FXS+A; n = 15), FXS without autism spectrum disorder (FXS-A; n = 17), and idiopathic autism (IA; n = 15). Relative to…

  4. Prestigious award for SOHO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    SOHO spacecraft artist's impression hi-res Size hi-res: 451 Kb Credits: ESA SOHO spacecraft SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA. SOHO's science ranges from the Sun's hot interior, through its visible surface and stormy atmosphere, and out to distant regions where the wind from the Sun battles with a breeze of atoms coming from among the stars. The award recognises both the outstanding achievements in designing, building and operating the mission, as well as the science it has performed. It is a tribute to a team that has contributed to one of the most successful space missions in history. The International Academy of Astronautics presents this award in recognition of extraordinary performance and achievement by teams of scientists, engineers and managers in the field of astronautics. This honour has been awarded only twice before - to the Russian Mir Space Station Team and the US Space Shuttle Team. Now the SOHO team joins this select group. The citation of the award for the SOHO team reads: "To the team of scientists, engineers and managers for the development and operation of a world-class mission leading to substantial advancements in understanding the Sun and the solar-terrestrial relationship." SOHO has an impressive and unique list of achievements. For instance, it produced the first ever images of the turbulent outer shell of the Sun and of the structure below sunspots. It gave the most precise measurements of the solar temperature structure, the interior rotation and the gas flows inside the Sun. It measured the acceleration of the fast and slow solar winds and discovered new solar phenomena, such as solar tornadoes. It revolutionised our ability to forecast space weather, and helped our understanding of the impact of solar variability on Earth's climate. During eight years of operation, the team has had to face several heart-stopping moments, but with extraordinary team spirit, skill and competence, they turned these

  5. Prestigious award for SOHO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    SOHO spacecraft artist's impression hi-res Size hi-res: 451 Kb Credits: ESA SOHO spacecraft SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA. SOHO's science ranges from the Sun's hot interior, through its visible surface and stormy atmosphere, and out to distant regions where the wind from the Sun battles with a breeze of atoms coming from among the stars. The award recognises both the outstanding achievements in designing, building and operating the mission, as well as the science it has performed. It is a tribute to a team that has contributed to one of the most successful space missions in history. The International Academy of Astronautics presents this award in recognition of extraordinary performance and achievement by teams of scientists, engineers and managers in the field of astronautics. This honour has been awarded only twice before - to the Russian Mir Space Station Team and the US Space Shuttle Team. Now the SOHO team joins this select group. The citation of the award for the SOHO team reads: "To the team of scientists, engineers and managers for the development and operation of a world-class mission leading to substantial advancements in understanding the Sun and the solar-terrestrial relationship." SOHO has an impressive and unique list of achievements. For instance, it produced the first ever images of the turbulent outer shell of the Sun and of the structure below sunspots. It gave the most precise measurements of the solar temperature structure, the interior rotation and the gas flows inside the Sun. It measured the acceleration of the fast and slow solar winds and discovered new solar phenomena, such as solar tornadoes. It revolutionised our ability to forecast space weather, and helped our understanding of the impact of solar variability on Earth's climate. During eight years of operation, the team has had to face several heart-stopping moments, but with extraordinary team spirit, skill and competence, they turned these

  6. Reading and the Spanish Speaking Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Critchlow, Donald E., Ed.

    This booklet consists of five articles. The first, "Bilingual Education: Reading through Two Languages," by Arturo Luis Gutierrez, stresses the importance of teaching Spanish-speaking children to read first in their native tongue. The second article, "Teaching All Children to Read," by Donald E. Critchlow, discusses methodology and the problems…

  7. Speaking Strategies: Meeting NCATE Oral Proficiency Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyers, Joseph R.

    2010-01-01

    The teaming of ACTFL and the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education resulted in the requirement that teacher candidates speak at the Advanced Low (AL) or higher level on the Oral Proficiency scale. Providing the means to help candidates meet that minimum standard for certification is a fundamental consideration. This article…

  8. Learning to Remember by Learning to Speak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettlinger, Marc; Lanter, Jennifer; Van Pay, Craig K.

    2014-01-01

    Does the language we speak affect the way we think, and if so, how? Previous researchers have considered this question by exploring the cognitive abilities of speakers of different languages. In the present study, we looked for evidence of linguistic relativity within a language and within participants by looking at memory recall for monolingual…

  9. Validation of a Videoconferenced Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jungtae; Craig, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    Videoconferencing offers new opportunities for language testers to assess speaking ability in low-stakes diagnostic tests. To be considered a trusted testing tool in language testing, a test should be examined employing appropriate validation processes [Chapelle, C.A., Jamieson, J., & Hegelheimer, V. (2003). "Validation of a web-based ESL test."…

  10. Speaking and Listening through Drama 7 - 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prendiville, Francis; Toye, Nigel

    2007-01-01

    Showing teachers how to use drama to promote speaking and listening for pupils, including those who find learning difficult, this book describes, analyses and teaches how to use role play effectively and looks at how to generate a productive dialogue between teachers and pupils that is both powerful and enabling. The authors present innovative…