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Sample records for autoimmune connective tissue

  1. Autoimmune connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    stensen, Monika; Cetin, Irene

    2015-07-01

    Rheumatic diseases (RDs) occur preferentially in women, often during the childbearing age. The interaction of pregnancy and the RD is varied, ranging from spontaneous improvement to aggravation of disease symptoms or life-threatening flares. Risks for the mother with RD and the child differ in regard to the presence of organ manifestations, organ damage, disease activity, presence of specific autoantibodies, and therapy. Pregnancy complications comprise hypertension, preeclampsia, premature delivery, and side effects of therapy. Adverse pregnancy outcomes include recurrent miscarriage, intrauterine growth restriction, and fetal demise, and they are frequently encountered in RD with organ manifestations and harmful autoantibodies. Because of the difference in the prevalence of RDs, knowledge on the gestational course of disease and pregnancy outcome is limited to the fairly common RDs such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and antiphospholipid syndrome. Pregnancies in RD are connected with increased risks for mother and child and need interdisciplinary care and management. PMID:25891380

  2. Neutrophilic Skin Lesions in Autoimmune Connective Tissue Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hau, Estelle; Vignon Pennamen, Marie-Dominique; Battistella, Maxime; Saussine, Anne; Bergis, Maud; Cavelier-Balloy, Benedicte; Janier, Michel; Cordoliani, Florence; Bagot, Martine; Rybojad, Michel; Bouaziz, Jean-David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The pathophysiology of neutrophilic dermatoses (NDs) and autoimmune connective tissue diseases (AICTDs) is incompletely understood. The association between NDs and AICTDs is rare; recently, however, a distinctive subset of cutaneous lupus erythematosus (LE, the prototypical AICTD) with neutrophilic histological features has been proposed to be included in the spectrum of lupus. The aim of our study was to test the validity of such a classification. We conducted a monocentric retrospective study of 7028 AICTDs patients. Among these 7028 patients, a skin biopsy was performed in 932 cases with mainly neutrophilic infiltrate on histology in 9 cases. Combining our 9 cases and an exhaustive literature review, pyoderma gangrenosum, Sweet syndrome (n?=?49), Sweet-like ND (n?=?13), neutrophilic urticarial dermatosis (n?=?6), palisaded neutrophilic granulomatous dermatitis (n?=?12), and histiocytoid neutrophilic dermatitis (n?=?2) were likely to occur both in AICTDs and autoinflammatory diseases. Other NDs were specifically encountered in AICTDs: bullous LE (n?=?71), amicrobial pustulosis of the folds (n?=?28), autoimmunity-related ND (n?=?24), ND resembling erythema gyratum repens (n?=?1), and neutrophilic annular erythema (n?=?1). The improvement of AICTDS neutrophilic lesions under neutrophil targeting therapy suggests possible common physiopathological pathways between NDs and AICTDs. PMID:25546688

  3. Neutrophilic skin lesions in autoimmune connective tissue diseases: nine cases and a literature review.

    PubMed

    Hau, Estelle; Vignon Pennamen, Marie-Dominique; Battistella, Maxime; Saussine, Anne; Bergis, Maud; Cavelier-Balloy, Benedicte; Janier, Michel; Cordoliani, Florence; Bagot, Martine; Rybojad, Michel; Bouaziz, Jean-David

    2014-12-01

    The pathophysiology of neutrophilic dermatoses (NDs) and autoimmune connective tissue diseases (AICTDs) is incompletely understood. The association between NDs and AICTDs is rare; recently, however, a distinctive subset of cutaneous lupus erythematosus (LE, the prototypical AICTD) with neutrophilic histological features has been proposed to be included in the spectrum of lupus. The aim of our study was to test the validity of such a classification. We conducted a monocentric retrospective study of 7028 AICTDs patients. Among these 7028 patients, a skin biopsy was performed in 932 cases with mainly neutrophilic infiltrate on histology in 9 cases. Combining our 9 cases and an exhaustive literature review, pyoderma gangrenosum, Sweet syndrome (n = 49), Sweet-like ND (n = 13), neutrophilic urticarial dermatosis (n = 6), palisaded neutrophilic granulomatous dermatitis (n = 12), and histiocytoid neutrophilic dermatitis (n = 2) were likely to occur both in AICTDs and autoinflammatory diseases. Other NDs were specifically encountered in AICTDs: bullous LE (n = 71), amicrobial pustulosis of the folds (n = 28), autoimmunity-related ND (n = 24), ND resembling erythema gyratum repens (n = 1), and neutrophilic annular erythema (n = 1). The improvement of AICTDS neutrophilic lesions under neutrophil targeting therapy suggests possible common physiopathological pathways between NDs and AICTDs. PMID:25546688

  4. Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the body resulting in a variety of problems. The phrase "connective tissue disease" is used to describe the diseases of the immune system that are treated primarily by rheumatologists. These represent systemic autoimmune diseases that often involve the joints, cartilage, ...

  5. Connective Tissue Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Connective tissue is the material inside your body that supports many of its parts. It is the "cellular ... their work. Cartilage and fat are examples of connective tissue. There are over 200 disorders that impact connective ...

  6. Altered Th17 cells and Th17/regulatory T-cell ratios indicate the subsequent conversion from undifferentiated connective tissue disease to definitive systemic autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    Szodoray, Peter; Nakken, Britt; Barath, Sandor; Csipo, Istvan; Nagy, Gabor; El-Hage, Fadi; Osnes, Liv T; Szegedi, Gyula; Bodolay, Edit

    2013-12-01

    A shift in the balance between Th17-cells and regulatory T-cells (Treg) is an important feature of systemic autoimmune diseases (SAID), and may also contribute to their development. Hereby, we assessed the distribution of peripheral Th17 and Treg-cells in patients with undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD), the forerunner of SAIDs and followed these parameters during the development towards definitive SAIDs. Fifty-one UCTD patients were investigated and followed-up for 3 years. Flow cytometry was used to identify and follow three cell-populations: Th17-cells (CD4+IL-17+ T-cells), natural regulatory T-cells (CD4(+)CD25(bright)FoxP3(+); nTregs) and IL-10 producing Type-1 regulatory T-cells (CD4+IL-10+ T-cells; Tr1). Altogether 37.3% of these patients progressed into SAIDs. Th17-cells were increased in UCTD vs. controls, which further increased in those, whom developed SAIDs eventually. The Th17/nTreg ratio gradually increased from controls through UCTD patients, reaching the highest values in SAID-progressed patients. Regarding the Th17/Tr1 ratios, a similar tendency was observed moreover Th17/Tr1 could distinguish between UCTD patients with, or without subsequent SAID progression in a very early UCTD stage. Various immunoserological markers showed association with Th17 and Th17/nTreg at baseline, indicating the consecutive development of a distinct SAID. The derailed Th17/Treg balance may contribute to disease progression therefore could function as a prognostic marker. PMID:23974054

  7. Connective tissue diseases and the liver.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Wael I; Tavill, Anthony S

    2002-10-01

    Connective tissue diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, Sjgren's syndrome, and scleroderma are systemic disorders that may have an autoimmune basis. The system manifestations vary, and there is frequent overlap among the syndromes. Liver involvement in patients with connective tissue diseases has been well documented but is generally considered rare. Although advanced liver disease with cirrhosis and liver failure is rare in patients with connective tissue diseases, clinical and biochemical evidence of associated liver abnormalities is common. Previous treatment with potentially hepatotoxic drugs or coincident viral hepatitis has usually been implicated as the main causes of liver disease in patients with connective tissue diseases. However, even after careful exclusion of these etiologies, the question remains whether to classify the patient as having a primary liver disease with associated autoimmune, clinical, and laboratory features or as having liver disease as a manifestation of generalized connective tissue disease. The main example of this pathogenetic dilemma is autoimmune hepatitis and SLE-associated hepatitis, which have been regarded as two different entities, although they have features in common of autoimmune syndromes. Several clinical and histopathologic features have been used to discriminate autoimmune hepatitis from SLE, a relevant diagnostic exercise because complications and therapy are quite different. Although hepatic steatosis and abnormal results on biochemical liver function tests are the most common hepatic abnormalities associated with connective tissue diseases, other less frequent abnormalities have been noted, such as nodular regenerative hyperplasia, portal vein obliteration and portal hypertension, features of primary biliary cirrhosis, and rarely portal fibrosis with abnormal lobular architecture. Vascular disorders of the liver also have been described, such as Budd-Chiari syndrome. Histologic assessment may reveal a variety of subclinical liver diseases. The aim of this contribution is to review the current published data regarding liver involvement in connective tissue diseases. PMID:12352299

  8. Linear connective tissue nevus.

    PubMed

    Asano, Yoshihide; Ihn, Hironobu; Tamaki, Kunihiko

    2007-01-01

    Multiple connective tissue nevi in linear arrangements, which was previously described as zosteriform connective tissue nevus, is a rare variant of connective tissue nevus. We herein report the case of an 8-year-old Japanese boy with this disease. He developed a small mass on the upper region of his right inner ankle at the age of one-half years. Then, other lesions had appeared on the inner side of his right lower leg, thigh, and groin within the next 2 years. Furthermore, multiple new lesions in linear arrangements had appeared on the right half of the abdomen and on the extensor side of the right forearm at the age of 8 years. A biopsy specimen revealed abnormalities in both the collagen bundles and the elastic fibers. Since the distribution was along Blaschko's lines, not dermatomes, we propose that the diagnosis "linear connective tissue nevus" is suitable for this clinical study. PMID:17845185

  9. Introduction: mechanisms of tissue injury in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Eilat, Dan

    2014-09-01

    This issue of Seminars in Immunopathology is devoted to the most recent developments in our understanding of the mechanisms leading to tissue injury in autoimmune diseases. These include rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, type I diabetes, autoimmune liver diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases, autoimmune skin diseases, autoimmune uveitis, and autoinflammatory diseases. This impressive account of basic and clinical research in a wide spectrum of immunological disorders provides the reader with a comprehensive view of the common and unique features of these diverse conditions. It may also provide one with many new ideas for therapeutic intervention in the natural course of these autoimmune syndromes. PMID:25168400

  10. Connective Tissue Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Dabiri, Ganary; Falanga, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Connective tissue disorders (CTD), which are often also termed collagen vascular diseases, include a number of related inflammatory conditions. Some of these diseases include rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis (scleroderma), localized scleroderma (morphea variants localized to the skin), Sjogrens syndrome, dermatomyositis, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease. In addition to the systemic manifestations of these diseases, there are a number of cutaneous features that make these conditions recognizable on physical exam. Lower extremity ulcers and digital ulcers are an infrequent but disabling complication of long-standing connective tissue disease. The exact frequency with which these ulcers occur is not known, and the cause of the ulcerations is often multifactorial. Moreover, a challenging component of CTD ulcerations is that there are still no established guidelines for their diagnosis and treatment. The morbidity associated with these ulcerations and their underlying conditions is very substantial. Indeed, these less common but intractable ulcers represent a major medical and economic problem for patients, physicians and nurses, and even well organized multidisciplinary wound healing centers. PMID:23756459

  11. Fibroblastic connective tissue nevus.

    PubMed

    Velez, Moises J; Billings, Steven D; Weaver, Joshua A

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblastic connective tissue nevus (FCTN) is a newly recognized, benign cutaneous mesenchymal lesion of fibroblasts/myofibroblastic lineage, which expands the classification of connective tissue nevi. We present three cases of FCTN and discuss significant clinical, morphologic and immunophenotypic overlap with dermatomyofibroma. Our cases were from young women, aged 32, 24 and 10, and presented as 1.2 and 1 cm nodules on the posterior neck and right upper flank, respectively while presenting as a linear plaque of the right posterior thigh in the latter case. The lesions showed a poorly circumscribed proliferation of hypercellular spindle cells arranged in short to longer intersecting fascicles entrapping adnexal structures. Superficial adipose tissue was also entrapped in one case. The spindle cells had fibroblastic features with pale eosinophilic cytoplasmic extensions and inconspicuous nucleoli. The spindle cells were positive for CD34 in two cases. One case was negative for CD34, smooth muscle actin (SMA), desmin and S100. The overall features were consistent with a diagnosis of FCTN. In two cases, we further elucidated the fibroblastic differentiation of the spindle cells in FCTN with electron microscopy, which has not been previously described. PMID:26268513

  12. Immune Components of Liver Damage Associated with Connective Tissue Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Serov, Youri A.; Alazmi, Mansour; Baba, Kamaldeen

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune connective tissue diseases are associated with liver abnormalities and often have overlapping pathological and clinical manifestations. As a result, they can present great clinical challenges and evoke questions about diagnostic criteria for liver diseases. Moreover, discriminating between liver involvement as a manifestation of connective tissue disease and primary liver disease can be challenging since they share a similar immunological mechanism. Most patients with connective tissue diseases exhibit liver test abnormalities that likely result from coexisting, primary liver diseases, such as fatty liver disease, viral hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, autoimmune hepatitis, and drug-related liver toxicity. Liver damage can be progressive, leading to cirrhosis, complications of portal hypertension, and liver-related death, and, therefore, must be accurately identified. In this review, we highlight the challenges facing the diagnosis of liver damage associated with connective tissue disease and identify immune mechanisms involved in liver damage associated with connective tissue diseases. PMID:26357616

  13. Significance of tissue specific and tissue non specific autoimmune reactions of Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Kiljanski, J; Nebes, V; Wall, J R

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between the many immunologic abnormalities demonstrated in the peripheral blood of patients with Graves' disease (GD) and the broad spectrum of clinical features with which patients may present has not yet been addressed in detail. In this review we examine the evidence to support the notion that GD could be considered a multi-system autoimmune disorder in which tissue damage is restricted to the thyroid gland, connective tissue of the skin and orbit, extra-ocular and other skeletal muscles and, possibly, the lacrimal glands. Apart from the well recognized reactions of autoantibodies and sensitized T lymphocytes with epitopes on the thyroid specific TSH receptor, thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin, in patients with hyperthyroidism, there is also good evidence for autoantibody and, to a lesser extent, T lymphocyte reactivity with several eye muscle, other skeletal muscle and connective tissue, antigens in patients with ophthalmopathy, systemic myopathy, dermopathy and acropachy. There is also some evidence for immunoreactivity against lacrimal gland antigens in patients with ophthalmopathy associated with other features of GD. There are, in addition, a variety of organ non-specific reactions in GD; antinuclear antibodies are detected in serum from about one-third of patients with hyperthyroidism and ophthalmopathy, while from 5% to 10% have antibodies reactive with several other ubiquitous tissue proteins. Cloned proteins which are autoantigenic in some patients with hyperthyroidism or Hashimoto's thyroiditis and ophthalmopathy include collagen XIII, nebulin, the calcium binding protein calmitine, and the Mac-II antigen. All antibodies reactive with eye muscle antigens, except the 64 kDa protein which is also expressed in the thyroid, cross react with the same, or a related, protein in other skeletal muscle. Future research should focus on the underlying mechanisms for this broad loss of tolerance to self antigens and the effect of environmental factors such as stress, radioiodine and viral infection of the thyroid gland and other target tissues, in precipitating disease. PMID:8828951

  14. Ocular involvement in cutaneous connective tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Frank A; Huang, John

    2016-01-01

    Connective tissue disorders commonly involve multiple organ systems including the skin and eye. The pathogenesis of many of these disorders affects the microvasculature in these organs. Redness, dryness, pain, and vision loss might be signs of ocular disease in a patient with connective tissue disease. Ocular involvement can potentially lead to blindness and indicate systemic involvement. Dermatologists should be aware of potential ocular involvement in cutaneous connective tissue disorders, and their recognition should prompt ophthalmologic evaluation. PMID:26903181

  15. Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) include changes in the physical properties of skin, joints, blood vessels, and other tissues ... people learn more about clinical trials, why they matter, and how to participate. Visitors to the website ...

  16. Cellular control of connective tissue matrix tension.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Helene M; Nedergaard, Maiken; Howe, Alan K

    2013-08-01

    The biomechanical behavior of connective tissue in response to stretching is generally attributed to the molecular composition and organization of its extracellular matrix. It also is becoming apparent that fibroblasts play an active role in regulating connective tissue tension. In response to static stretching of the tissue, fibroblasts expand within minutes by actively remodeling their cytoskeleton. This dynamic change in fibroblast shape contributes to the drop in tissue tension that occurs during viscoelastic relaxation. We propose that this response of fibroblasts plays a role in regulating extracellular fluid flow into the tissue, and protects against swelling when the matrix is stretched. This article reviews the evidence supporting possible mechanisms underlying this response including autocrine purinergic signaling. We also discuss fibroblast regulation of connective tissue tension with respect to lymphatic flow, immune function, and cancer. PMID:23444198

  17. What Are Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Heritable Disorders of the Connective Tissue Q&A full-text version, please contact NIAMS using the contact information above. To view the complete text or to order online, visit ... NIAMS Site NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® Home | ...

  18. Cutaneous Connective Tissue Diseases: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Bobby Y.; Hantash, Basil M.

    2010-01-01

    Connective tissue diseases (CTDs) are a group of clinical disorders that have an underlying autoimmune pathogenesis. These include a diverse set of diseases such as relapsing polychondritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and eosinophilic fasciitis, along with more common entities like Sjogrens syndrome, dermatomyositis, scleroderma, and lupus erythematosus. The latter three will be the focus of this review, as they constitute the most significant and common CTD with cutaneous manifestations. The cutaneous signs often represent the preliminary stages of disease and the presenting clinical symptoms. Therefore, comprehensive knowledge of CTD manifestations is essential for accurate diagnosis, better assessment of prognosis, and effective management. Although the precise etiologies of CTDs remain obscure, recent advances have allowed for further understanding of their pathogenesis and improved disease classifications. In addition, there have been developments in therapeutic options for CTDs. This review provides an overview of the epidemiology, clinical presentations, and current treatment options of cutaneous lupus erythematous, dermatomyositis and scleroderma. PMID:21218179

  19. Stretching Impacts Inflammation Resolution in Connective Tissue.

    PubMed

    Berrueta, Lisbeth; Muskaj, Igla; Olenich, Sara; Butler, Taylor; Badger, Gary J; Colas, Romain A; Spite, Matthew; Serhan, Charles N; Langevin, Helene M

    2016-07-01

    Acute inflammation is accompanied from its outset by the release of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), including resolvins, that orchestrate the resolution of local inflammation. We showed earlier that, in rats with subcutaneous inflammation of the back induced by carrageenan, stretching for 10 min twice daily reduced inflammation and improved pain, 2 weeks after carrageenan injection. In this study, we hypothesized that stretching of connective tissue activates local pro-resolving mechanisms within the tissue in the acute phase of inflammation. In rats injected with carrageenan and randomized to stretch versus no stretch for 48 h, stretching reduced inflammatory lesion thickness and neutrophil count, and increased resolvin (RvD1) concentrations within lesions. Furthermore, subcutaneous resolvin injection mimicked the effect of stretching. In ex vivo experiments, stretching of connective tissue reduced the migration of neutrophils and increased tissue RvD1 concentration. These results demonstrate a direct mechanical impact of stretching on inflammation-regulation mechanisms within connective tissue. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1621-1627, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26588184

  20. Connective tissue: Vascular and hematological (blood) support

    PubMed Central

    Calvino, Nick

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Connective Tissue (CT) is a ubiquitous component of all major tissues and structures of the body (50% of all body protein is CT), including that of the blood, vascular, muscle, tendon, ligament, fascia, bone, joint, IVD's (intervertebral discs) and skin. Because of its ubiquitous nature, CT is an often overlooked component of any essential nutritional program that may address the structure, and/or function of these tissues. The central role of CT in the health of a virtually all cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems, is discussed. General nutritional CT support strategies, as well as specific CT support strategies that focus on blood, vascular, structural system (eg, muscles, tendons, ligaments, fascia, bone, and joints), integument (skin) and inflammatory and immune mediation will be discussed here and will deal with connective tissue dynamics and dysfunction. An overview of the current scientific understanding and possible options for naturally enhancing the structure and function of CT through the application of these concepts will be discussed in this article, with specific attention on the vascular and hematological systems. PMID:19674592

  1. Update on Management of Connective Tissue Panniculitides

    PubMed Central

    Braunstein, Inbal; Werth, Victoria P.

    2012-01-01

    In connective tissue diseases panniculitis can be the sole manifestation or occur along with the underlying disease process. The best described forms of connective tissue panniculitis are lupus erythematosus panniculitis (LEP) and lupus profundus, panniculitis associated with dermatomyositis, and morphea and scleroderma associated panniculitis. These processes cause significant morbidity, such as deep atrophic scars, cosmetic disfigurement and psychiatric sequelae. Due to the location of the inflammation in the subcutaneous adipose layer, topical therapies may not penetrate enough to be effective, and systemic agents are required. Despite the large number of reported cases and therapies, recommendations for treatment are based largely on case series and expert opinion due to a lack of controlled therapeutic trials. All treatments are off-label in the United States. The lack of validated clinical outcome measures makes systematic and controlled studies difficult. Nonetheless further investigation into the most effective therapies for these conditions are needed. PMID:22741936

  2. Latest advances in connective tissue disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    The connective tissue disorders comprise a number of related conditions that include systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the antiphospholipid (Hughes) syndrome, scleroderma, myositis and Sjgrens syndrome. They are characterized by autoantibody production and other immune-mediated dysfunction. There are common clinical and serological features with some patients having multiple overlapping connective tissue disorders. The latest advances include new approaches to therapy, including more focused utilization of existing therapies and the introduction of biological therapies in SLE, more precise protocols for assessment of severe disease manifestations such as in interstitial lung disease and pulmonary artery hypertension in scleroderma, new antibodies for disease characterization in myositis and new approaches to patient assessment in Sjgrens syndrome. B cells have a critical role in most, if not all of these disorders such that B-cell depletion or suppression of B-cell activating cytokines improves disease in many patients. In particular, the introduction of rituximab, a monoclonal antibody targeting the CD20 molecule on B cells, into clinical practice for rheumatoid arthritis and B-cell lymphoma has been a key driver of experimental approaches to therapy in connective tissue disorders. Genetic studies also suggest a role for the innate immune system in disease pathogenesis, suggesting further future targets for biological therapies over the next few years. PMID:23904866

  3. Langerhans Cells Maintain Local Tissue Tolerance in a Model of Systemic Autoimmune Disease.

    PubMed

    King, Jennifer K; Philips, Rachael L; Eriksson, Anna U; Kim, Peter J; Halder, Ramesh C; Lee, Delphine J; Singh, Ram Raj

    2015-07-15

    Systemic autoimmune diseases such as lupus affect multiple organs, usually in a diverse fashion where only certain organs are affected in individual patients. It is unclear whether the "local" immune cells play a role in regulating tissue specificity in relation to disease heterogeneity in systemic autoimmune diseases. In this study, we used skin as a model to determine the role of tissue-resident dendritic cells (DCs) in local and systemic involvement within a systemic lupus disease model. Skin-resident DCs, namely, Langerhans cells (LCs), have been implicated in regulating tolerance or autoimmunity using elegant transgenic models, however, their role in local versus systemic immune regulation is unknown. We demonstrate that although lymphocytes from skin-draining lymph nodes of autoimmune-prone MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr/lp) (r) (MRL-lpr) mice react spontaneously to a physiological skin self-Ag desmoglein-3, epicutaneous applications of desmoglein-3 induced tolerance that is dependent on LCs. Inducible ablation of LCs in adult preclinical MRL-lpr and MRL/MpJ-Fas(+/+) mice resulted in increased autoantibodies against skin Ags and markedly accelerated lupus dermatitis with increased local macrophage infiltration, but had no effect on systemic autoantibodies such as anti-dsDNA Abs or disease in other organs such as kidneys, lung, and liver. Furthermore, skin-draining lymph nodes of LC-ablated MRL-lpr mice had significantly fewer CD4(+) T cells producing anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 than LC-intact controls. These results indicate that a skin-resident DC population regulates local tolerance in systemic lupus and emphasize the importance of the local immune milieu in preventing tissue-specific autoimmunity, yet have no effect on systemic autoimmunity. PMID:26071559

  4. Connective tissue alterations in Fkbp10?/? mice

    PubMed Central

    Lietman, Caressa D.; Rajagopal, Abbhirami; Homan, Erica P.; Munivez, Elda; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Bertin, Terry K.; Chen, Yuqing; Hicks, John; Weis, MaryAnn; Eyre, David; Lee, Brendan; Krakow, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited brittle bone disorder characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. Loss of function mutations in FK506-binding protein 10 (FKBP10), encoding the FKBP65 protein, result in recessive OI and Bruck syndrome, of which the latter is additionally characterized by joint contractures. FKBP65 is thought to act as a collagen chaperone, but it is unknown how loss of FKBP65 affects collagen synthesis and extracellular matrix formation. We evaluated the developmental and postnatal expression of Fkbp10 and analyzed the consequences of its generalized loss of function. Fkbp10 is expressed at low levels in E13.5 mouse embryos, particularly in skeletal tissues, and steadily increases through E17.5 with expression in not only skeletal tissues, but also in visceral tissues. Postnatally, expression is limited to developing bone and ligaments. In contrast to humans, with complete loss of function mutations, Fkbp10?/? mice do not survive birth, and embryos present with growth delay and tissue fragility. Type I calvarial collagen isolated from these mice showed reduced stable crosslink formation at telopeptide lysines. Furthermore, Fkbp10?/? mouse embryonic fibroblasts show retention of procollagen in the cell layer and associated dilated endoplasmic reticulum. These data suggest a requirement for FKBP65 function during embryonic connective tissue development in mice, but the restricted expression postnatally in bone, ligaments and tendons correlates with the bone fragility and contracture phenotype in humans. PMID:24777781

  5. Connective tissue alterations in Fkbp10-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Lietman, Caressa D; Rajagopal, Abbhirami; Homan, Erica P; Munivez, Elda; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Bertin, Terry K; Chen, Yuqing; Hicks, John; Weis, MaryAnn; Eyre, David; Lee, Brendan; Krakow, Deborah

    2014-09-15

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited brittle bone disorder characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. Loss of function mutations in FK506-binding protein 10 (FKBP10), encoding the FKBP65 protein, result in recessive OI and Bruck syndrome, of which the latter is additionally characterized by joint contractures. FKBP65 is thought to act as a collagen chaperone, but it is unknown how loss of FKBP65 affects collagen synthesis and extracellular matrix formation. We evaluated the developmental and postnatal expression of Fkbp10 and analyzed the consequences of its generalized loss of function. Fkbp10 is expressed at low levels in E13.5 mouse embryos, particularly in skeletal tissues, and steadily increases through E17.5 with expression in not only skeletal tissues, but also in visceral tissues. Postnatally, expression is limited to developing bone and ligaments. In contrast to humans, with complete loss of function mutations, Fkbp10(-/-) mice do not survive birth, and embryos present with growth delay and tissue fragility. Type I calvarial collagen isolated from these mice showed reduced stable crosslink formation at telopeptide lysines. Furthermore, Fkbp10(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts show retention of procollagen in the cell layer and associated dilated endoplasmic reticulum. These data suggest a requirement for FKBP65 function during embryonic connective tissue development in mice, but the restricted expression postnatally in bone, ligaments and tendons correlates with the bone fragility and contracture phenotype in humans. PMID:24777781

  6. Inducing tissue specific tolerance in autoimmune disease with tolerogenic dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Suwandi, Jessica S; Toes, René E M; Nikolic, Tatjana; Roep, Bart O

    2015-01-01

    Current immunosuppressive therapy acts systemically, causing collateral damage and does not necessarily cope with the cause of rheumatoid arthritis. Tissue specific immune modulation may restore tolerance in patients with autoimmune diseases such as RA, but desires knowledge on relevant target autoantigens. We present the case of type 1 diabetes as prototype autoimmune disease with established autoantigens to set the stage for tissue-specific immune modulation using tolerogenic dendritic cells pulsed with autoantigen in RA. This approach induces autoantigen-specific regulatory T cells that exert their tissue-specific action through a combination of linked suppression and infectious tolerance, introducing a legacy of targeted, localised immune regulation in the proximity of the lesion. Several trials are in progress in RA employing various types of tolerogenic DCs. With knowledge on mode of action and confounding effects of concomitant immunosuppressive therapy, this strategy may provide novel immune intervention that may also prevent RA in high-risk subjects. PMID:26458178

  7. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias with connective tissue diseases features: A review.

    PubMed

    Cottin, Vincent

    2016-02-01

    A systematic approach is recommended to search for clinical and biological features of connective tissue disease (CTD) in any patient with interstitial lung disease (ILD). In the diagnostic approach to ILD, a diagnosis of CTD should be considered particularly in women and subjects younger than 50 years, and in those with an imaging and/or pathological pattern of non-specific interstitial pneumonia. However, the diagnosis of CTD may be difficult when ILD is the presenting or the dominant manifestation of CTD. A proportion of patients with ILD present symptoms that belong to the spectrum of CTD and/or biological autoimmune features, but do not fulfil diagnostic criteria for a given CTD. Some imaging and histopathological patterns may also suggest the presence of an underlying CTD. Although studies published to date used heterogeneous definitions and terminology for this condition, evidence is accumulating that even limited CTD features are relevant regarding symptoms, imaging features, pathological pattern and possibly evolution to overt CTD, whereas the impact on prognosis needs confirmation. Conversely, autoantibodies alone do not seem to impact the prognosis or management in patients with otherwise typical idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and no extra-pulmonary manifestation. A collective international multidisciplinary effort has proposed a uniform definition and criteria for 'interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features', a condition characterized by limited CTD features occurring in the setting of ILD, with the aim of fostering future clinical studies. Referral of ILD patients suspect to have CTD to a rheumatologist and possibly multidisciplinary discussion may contribute to a better management. PMID:26212251

  8. Stem cell-derived tissue-associated regulatory T cells ameliorate the development of autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Haque, Mohammad; Song, Jianyong; Fino, Kristin; Sandhu, Praneet; Song, Xinmeng; Lei, Fengyang; Zheng, Songguo; Ni, Bing; Fang, Deyu; Song, Jianxun

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have the potential to produce almost all of the cells in the body, including regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, the exact conditions required for the development of antigen (Ag)-specific Tregs from PSCs (i.e., PSC-Tregs) are not well delineated. Ag-specific PSC-Tregs can be tissue/organ-associated and migrate to local inflamed tissues/organs to suppress the autoimmune response after adoptive transfer, thereby avoiding potential overall immunosuppression from non-specific Tregs. In this study, we developed a new approach to generate functional Ag-specific Tregs from induced PSCs (iPSCs), i.e., iPSC-Tregs, which had the ability to generate an Ag-specific immunosuppressive response in a murine model of arthritis. We retrovirally transduced murine iPSCs with a construct containing genes of Ag-specific T cell receptor (TCR) and the transcriptional factor FoxP3. We differentiated the iPSCs into Ag-specific iPSC-Tregs using in vitro or in vivo Notch signaling, and demonstrated that adoptive transfer of such Tregs dramatically suppressed autoimmunity in a well-established Ag-induced arthritis model, including the inflammation, joint destruction, cartilage prostaglandin depletion, osteoclast activity, and Th17 production. Our results indicate that PSCs can be used to develop Ag-specific Tregs, which have a therapeutic potential for Treg-based therapies of autoimmune disorders. PMID:26846186

  9. Stem cell-derived tissue-associated regulatory T cells ameliorate the development of autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Mohammad; Song, Jianyong; Fino, Kristin; Sandhu, Praneet; Song, Xinmeng; Lei, Fengyang; Zheng, Songguo; Ni, Bing; Fang, Deyu; Song, Jianxun

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have the potential to produce almost all of the cells in the body, including regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, the exact conditions required for the development of antigen (Ag)-specific Tregs from PSCs (i.e., PSC-Tregs) are not well delineated. Ag-specific PSC-Tregs can be tissue/organ-associated and migrate to local inflamed tissues/organs to suppress the autoimmune response after adoptive transfer, thereby avoiding potential overall immunosuppression from non-specific Tregs. In this study, we developed a new approach to generate functional Ag-specific Tregs from induced PSCs (iPSCs), i.e., iPSC-Tregs, which had the ability to generate an Ag-specific immunosuppressive response in a murine model of arthritis. We retrovirally transduced murine iPSCs with a construct containing genes of Ag-specific T cell receptor (TCR) and the transcriptional factor FoxP3. We differentiated the iPSCs into Ag-specific iPSC-Tregs using in vitro or in vivo Notch signaling, and demonstrated that adoptive transfer of such Tregs dramatically suppressed autoimmunity in a well-established Ag-induced arthritis model, including the inflammation, joint destruction, cartilage prostaglandin depletion, osteoclast activity, and Th17 production. Our results indicate that PSCs can be used to develop Ag-specific Tregs, which have a therapeutic potential for Treg-based therapies of autoimmune disorders. PMID:26846186

  10. Connective tissue disorders in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Halper, Jaroslava

    2014-01-01

    Though soft tissue disorders have been recognized and described to some detail in several types of domestic animals and small mammals for some years, not much progress has been made in our understanding of the biochemical basis and pathogenesis of these diseases in animals. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome described in dogs already in 1943 and later in cats affects mainly skin in these animals. The involved skin is thin and hyperextensible with easily inflicted injuries resulting in hemorrhagic wounds and atrophic scars. Joint laxity and dislocation common in people are less frequently found in dogs. No systemic complications, such as organ rupture or cardiovascular problems which have devastating consequences in people have been described in cats and dogs. The diagnosis is based on clinical presentation and on light or electron microscopic features of disorganized and fragmented collagen fibrils. Several cases of bovine and ovine dermatosparaxis analogous to human Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIIC were found to be caused by mutations in the procollagen I N-proteinase (pnPI) or ADAMTS2 gene, though mutations in other sites are likely responsible for other types of dermatosparaxis. Cattle suffering from a form of Marfan syndrome were described to have aortic dilatation and aneurysm together with ocular abnormalities and skeletal involvement. As in people mutations at different sites of bovine FBN1 may be responsible for Marfan phenotype. Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA), or hyperelastosis cutis, has been recognized in several horse breeds as affecting primarily skin, and, occasionally, tendons. A mutation in cyclophilin B, a chaperon involved in proper folding of collagens, has been identified in some cases. Degenerative suspensory ligament desmitis (DSLD) affects primarily tendons and ligaments of certain horse breeds. New data from our laboratory showed excessive accumulation of proteoglycans in organs with high content of connective tissues. We have identified an abnormal form of decorin with altered biological activity in these proteoglycan deposits, and more recently changes in processing of aggrecan were found by us and other investigators.The naturally occurring diseases of soft tissues in domestic animals described here have a potential to serve as good models for analogous human diseases. This is the case particularly relevant to dogs as a half out of the more than 400 naturally occurring hereditary canine diseases has the potential to serve as a model for human disease. PMID:24443030

  11. Connective tissue growth factor in tumor pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Key roles for connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) are demonstrated in the wound repair process where it promotes myofibroblast differentiation and angiogenesis. Similar mechanisms are active in tumor-reactive stroma where CTGF is expressed. Other potential roles include prevention of hypoxia-induced apoptosis and promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transistion (EMT). CTGF expression in tumors has been associated to both tumor suppression and progression. For example, CTGF expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, breast, pancreas and gastric cancer correlates to worse prognosis whereas the opposite is true for colorectal, lung and ovarian cancer. This discrepancy is not yet understood. High expression of CTGF is a hallmark of ileal carcinoids, which are well-differentiated endocrine carcinomas with serotonin production originating from the small intestine and proximal colon. These tumors maintain a high grade of differentiation and low proliferation. Despite this, they are malignant and most patients have metastatic disease at diagnosis. These tumors demonstrate several phenotypes potentially related to CTGF function namely: cell migration, absent tumor cell apoptosis, as well as, reactive and well vascularised myofibroblast rich stroma and fibrosis development locally and in distal organs. The presence of CTGF in other endocrine tumors indicates a role in the progression of well-differentiated tumors. PMID:23259759

  12. Autoimmune Diabetes Is Suppressed by Treatment with Recombinant Human Tissue Kallikrein-1

    PubMed Central

    Maneva-Radicheva, Lilia; Amatya, Christina; Parker, Camille; Ellefson, Jacob; Radichev, Ilian; Raghavan, Arvind; Charles, Matthew L.; Williams, Mark S.; Robbins, Mark S.; Savinov, Alexei Y.

    2014-01-01

    The kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) comprises a cascade of proteolytic enzymes and biogenic peptides that regulate several physiological processes. Over-expression of tissue kallikrein-1 and modulation of the KKS shows beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and other parameters relevant to type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, much less is known about the role of kallikreins, in particular tissue kallikrein-1, in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). We report that chronic administration of recombinant human tissue kallikrein-1 protein (DM199) to non-obese diabetic mice delayed the onset of T1D, attenuated the degree of insulitis, and improved pancreatic beta cell mass in a dose- and treatment frequency-dependent manner. Suppression of the autoimmune reaction against pancreatic beta cells was evidenced by a reduction in the relative numbers of infiltrating cytotoxic lymphocytes and an increase in the relative numbers of regulatory T cells in the pancreas and pancreatic lymph nodes. These effects may be due in part to a DM199 treatment-dependent increase in active TGF-beta1. Treatment with DM199 also resulted in elevated C-peptide levels, elevated glucagon like peptide-1 levels and a reduction in dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity. Overall, the data suggest that DM199 may have a beneficial effect on T1D by attenuating the autoimmune reaction and improving beta cell health. PMID:25259810

  13. Autoimmune diabetes is suppressed by treatment with recombinant human tissue Kallikrein-1.

    PubMed

    Maneva-Radicheva, Lilia; Amatya, Christina; Parker, Camille; Ellefson, Jacob; Radichev, Ilian; Raghavan, Arvind; Charles, Matthew L; Williams, Mark S; Robbins, Mark S; Savinov, Alexei Y

    2014-01-01

    The kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) comprises a cascade of proteolytic enzymes and biogenic peptides that regulate several physiological processes. Over-expression of tissue kallikrein-1 and modulation of the KKS shows beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and other parameters relevant to type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, much less is known about the role of kallikreins, in particular tissue kallikrein-1, in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). We report that chronic administration of recombinant human tissue kallikrein-1 protein (DM199) to non-obese diabetic mice delayed the onset of T1D, attenuated the degree of insulitis, and improved pancreatic beta cell mass in a dose- and treatment frequency-dependent manner. Suppression of the autoimmune reaction against pancreatic beta cells was evidenced by a reduction in the relative numbers of infiltrating cytotoxic lymphocytes and an increase in the relative numbers of regulatory T cells in the pancreas and pancreatic lymph nodes. These effects may be due in part to a DM199 treatment-dependent increase in active TGF-beta1. Treatment with DM199 also resulted in elevated C-peptide levels, elevated glucagon like peptide-1 levels and a reduction in dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity. Overall, the data suggest that DM199 may have a beneficial effect on T1D by attenuating the autoimmune reaction and improving beta cell health. PMID:25259810

  14. Tissue Targeting of Anti-RNP Autoimmunity: Effects of T Cells and Myeloid Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Greidinger, Eric L.; Zang, YunJuan; Fernandez, Irina; Berho, Mariana; Nassiri, Mehdi; Martinez, Laisel; Hoffman, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Using adoptive transfer techniques, we explored the immune cells implicated in a model of anti-RNP autoimmunity that presents either with pneumonitis or glomerulonephritis. Unfractionated splenocytes from donors without renal disease induced predominantly lung disease (8/14 (57%) lung versus 2/14 (14%) renal, p = 0.046). However, the CD4+ cells taken from these splenocytes induced renal disease more frequently than lung disease (7/10 (70%) renal versus 2/10 (20%) lung, p = 0.01). Adoptive transfer of RNP+ CD4+ T cells from short-term culture gave results similar to those with donor splenic CD4+ cells (8/11 (73%) of recipients with renal disease versus 3/11 (27%) with lung disease). Co-transfer of myeloid dendritic cells (MDCs) from the spleens of immunized mice along with CD4+ cells from immunized donors prevented the induction of renal disease (0/5 mice, p = 0.026 versus recipients of fresh CD4+ cells), though lung disease was still seen in 1/5 mice. Transfer of MDCs alone from immunized donors induced lung disease in 3/5 (60%) of recipients, with no nephritis. Co-transfer of splenocytes from mice with nephritis along with splenocytes from mice without nephritis led to renal disease in 4/5 recipients, with lung disease in 0/5 recipients. These findings indicate that RNP+ CD4+ T cells are sufficient to induce anti-RNP autoimmunity, that the tissue targeting of anti-RNP autoimmunity can be deviated to either a renal or pulmonary phenotype depending upon the presence of accessory cells including MDCs, and that dendritic cell subsets can play roles in both propagation of autoimmunity and end organ targeting. PMID:19180485

  15. Meningeal Tertiary Lymphoid Tissues and Multiple Sclerosis: A Gathering Place for Diverse Types of Immune Cells during CNS Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Pikor, Natalia B.; Prat, Alexandre; Bar-Or, Amit; Gommerman, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Collections of leukocytes in the meningeal space have been documented in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). These meningeal aggregates, which in the context of other autoimmune diseases have often been termed tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLT), have been associated with sub-pial cortical damage and disease progression. However, the key molecular and cellular signals required for their formation and maintenance remain unclear. Herein, we review TLT structures in other disease states in order to provide a framework for understanding these structures in the MS meninges. We then assess the evidence that the meningeal compartment serves as an important nexus for immune cells as well as a location for drainage of antigen into cervical lymph nodes. Extrapolating what is known about the molecular and cellular cues that initiate the formation of leukocyte aggregates in non-lymphoid tissues, we speculate on what signals lead to the formation and maintenance of meningeal TLT structures. Referring to the animal model of MS [experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)], we also explore what is known about these structures in supporting B cell and T cell responses during neuroinflammation. Last, we examine the evidence that connects these structures to ongoing neuropathology. Collectively, our review points to the meningeal compartment as an important player in neuroinflammatory processes. Moreover, we hypothesize that in order to gain insights into pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of lymphocytes in MS, one must understand the cellular scaffolds that support lymphocyte retention within the meninges, thus highlighting the importance of non-immune cells (stromal cells) in the neuroinflammatory process. PMID:26793195

  16. Analgesic Drugs Alter Connective Tissue Remodeling and Mechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Chad C

    2016-01-01

    Exercising individuals commonly consume analgesics, but these medications alter tendon and skeletal muscle connective tissue properties, possibly limiting a person from realizing the full benefits of exercise training. I detail the novel hypothesis that analgesic medications alter connective tissue structure and mechanical properties by modifying fibroblast production of growth factors and matrix enzymes, which are responsible for extracellular matrix remodeling. PMID:26509485

  17. [Focusing on tissue biomarkers. Estrogens as key players in the immune response and autoimmunity].

    PubMed

    Vsrhelyi, Barna; Mszros, Katalin; Karvaly, Gellrt; Patcs, Attila

    2015-12-20

    Estrogens modulate the immune response as well as the risk and progression of autoimmune disorders. Their effects are mediated by nuclear receptors (i.e. estrogen receptor alpha and beta), membrane receptors, and are influenced by their interactions with other hormones. Locally produced hormones and cytokines are the main factors in maintaining tissue homeostasis. The response of immune cells to estrogens is related to their developmental stage. The diverse effects of estrogens on various autoimmune disorders are the result of the versatility of their pathomechanism. In general, progression of B-cell mediated disorders is aggravated by estrogens. Their effects on T-cell mediated disorders, on the other hand, are driven by Th1 or Th2 dominance. As estrogens promote the escalation of the Th2 immune response, Th2-dominant disorders are aggravated, while Th1-dominant disorders are ameliorated upon high estrogen levels. Inflammation on its own also modulates the impact of estrogens. Inflammatory cytokines alter the expression of the alpha and beta estrogen receptors as well as the activity of estrogen metabolizing enzymes. Monitoring the local, tissue-wide interaction between hormones and immune cells would provide a better tool for identification and characterization of molecules involved in this system. To date, routinely used laboratory methods have a limited role in monitoring the local effects of estrogens. In this current paper the authors summarize the role of estrogens in immune system and overview those novel methods which are useful in the investigation of local endocrine milieu. PMID:26654543

  18. Pectus Excavatum and Heritable Disorders of the Connective Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Tocchioni, Francesca; Ghionzoli, Marco; Messineo, Antonio; Romagnoli, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Pectus excavatum, the most frequent congenital chest wall deformity, may be rarely observed as a sole deformity or as a sign of an underlying connective tissue disorder. To date, only few studies have described correlations between this deformity and heritable connective tissue disorders such as Marfan, Ehlers-Danlos, Poland, MASS (Mitral valve prolapse, not progressive Aortic enlargement, Skeletal and Skin alterations) phenotype among others. When concurring with connective tissue disorder, cardiopulmonary and vascular involvement may be associated to the thoracic defect. Ruling out the concomitance of pectus excavatum and connective tissue disorders, therefore, may have a direct implication both on surgical outcome and long term prognosis. In this review we focused on biological bases of connective tissue disorders which may be relevant to the pathogenesis of pectus excavatum, portraying surgical and clinical implication of their concurrence. PMID:24198927

  19. The decrease in silicon concentration of the connective tissues with age in rats is a marker of connective tissue turnover.

    PubMed

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Watson, Abigail I E; Pedro, Liliana D; Powell, Jonathan J

    2015-06-01

    Silicon may be important for bone and connective tissue health. Higher concentrations of silicon are suggested to be associated with bone and the connective tissues, compared with the non-connective soft tissues. Moreover, in connective tissues it has been suggested that silicon levels may decrease with age based upon analyses of human aorta. These claims, however, have not been tested under controlled conditions. Here connective and non-connective tissues were collected and analysed for silicon levels from female Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages (namely, 3, 5, 8, 12, 26 and 43 weeks; n=8-10 per age group), all maintained on the same feed source and drinking water, and kept in the same environment from weaning to adulthood. Tissues (696 samples) were digested in nitric acid and analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for total silicon content. Fasting serum samples were also collected, diluted and analysed for silicon. Higher concentrations of silicon (up to 50-fold) were found associated with bone and the connective tissues compared with the non-connective tissues. Although total silicon content increased with age in all tissues, the highest connective tissue silicon concentrations (up to 9.98 ?g/g wet weight) were found in young weanling rats, decreasing thereafter with age (by 2-6 fold). Fasting serum silicon concentrations reflected the pattern of connective tissue silicon concentrations and, both measures, when compared to collagen data from a prior experiment in Sprague-Dawley rats, mirrored type I collagen turnover with age. Our findings confirm the link between silicon and connective tissues and would imply that young growing rats have proportionally higher requirements for dietary silicon than mature adults, for bone and connective tissue development, although this was not formally investigated here. However, estimation of total body silicon content suggested that actual Si requirements may be substantially lower than previously estimated which could explain why absolute silicon deficiency is difficult to achieve but, when it is achieved in young growing animals, it results in stunted growth and abnormal development of bone and other connective tissues. PMID:25687224

  20. The decrease in silicon concentration of the connective tissues with age in rats is a marker of connective tissue turnover☆

    PubMed Central

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Watson, Abigail I.E.; Pedro, Liliana D.; Powell, Jonathan J.

    2015-01-01

    Silicon may be important for bone and connective tissue health. Higher concentrations of silicon are suggested to be associated with bone and the connective tissues, compared with the non-connective soft tissues. Moreover, in connective tissues it has been suggested that silicon levels may decrease with age based upon analyses of human aorta. These claims, however, have not been tested under controlled conditions. Here connective and non-connective tissues were collected and analysed for silicon levels from female Sprague–Dawley rats of different ages (namely, 3, 5, 8, 12, 26 and 43 weeks; n = 8–10 per age group), all maintained on the same feed source and drinking water, and kept in the same environment from weaning to adulthood. Tissues (696 samples) were digested in nitric acid and analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for total silicon content. Fasting serum samples were also collected, diluted and analysed for silicon. Higher concentrations of silicon (up to 50-fold) were found associated with bone and the connective tissues compared with the non-connective tissues. Although total silicon content increased with age in all tissues, the highest connective tissue silicon concentrations (up to 9.98 μg/g wet weight) were found in young weanling rats, decreasing thereafter with age (by 2–6 fold). Fasting serum silicon concentrations reflected the pattern of connective tissue silicon concentrations and, both measures, when compared to collagen data from a prior experiment in Sprague–Dawley rats, mirrored type I collagen turnover with age. Our findings confirm the link between silicon and connective tissues and would imply that young growing rats have proportionally higher requirements for dietary silicon than mature adults, for bone and connective tissue development, although this was not formally investigated here. However, estimation of total body silicon content suggested that actual Si requirements may be substantially lower than previously estimated which could explain why absolute silicon deficiency is difficult to achieve but, when it is achieved in young growing animals, it results in stunted growth and abnormal development of bone and other connective tissues. PMID:25687224

  1. Biomarkers of connective tissue disease in patients with intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Yurt, Alaattin; Vardar, Enver; Selçuki, Mehmet; Ertürk, Ali Riza; Ozbek, Gülriz; Atçi, Burak

    2010-09-01

    Connective tissue defects may play a significant role in the development of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). Multiorgan connective tissue disorders may, therefore, indicate a risk of IA development. We investigated biomarkers of connective tissue disease in patients with IAs. A series of 62 patients with IAs was studied by physical examination, echocardiography, ultrasound examination of the kidneys and abdomen, and microscopic examination of skin tissue (temporal area) and superficial temporal artery taken at operation. Patients with IAs had a higher incidence of biomarkers of systemic connective tissue disease than controls and identification of these markers may be important for screening for IAs. Microscopic investigation of biopsies of the skin and superficial temporal artery from patients and their relatives may become valuable for clinical diagnosis, identification of people at risk and basic studies of the pathogenesis of this vascular disease. PMID:20452221

  2. Characterization of human orbital fat and connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Sires, B S; Lemke, B N; Dortzbach, R K; Gonnering, R S

    1998-11-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the characteristics of human orbital fat and connective tissue. Two exenteration specimens were studied by light microscopy with special stains. Four distinct regions were identified on the basis of their connective tissue septa, which contained blood vessels and were composed of elastin and collagen types I, III, and IV. Transmission electron microscopy was performed on the opposite orbits. The fibroblasts and adipocytes appeared metabolically inactive and showed no regional differences. The fat was phase extracted from the connective tissue and subjected to biochemical analysis. No regional differences were found in the content of fatty acids and protein. The fatty acids included palmitic acid (22-24.6%), oleic acid (45-51.5%), and linoleic acid (15-18.6%). Despite demarcation of the orbital fat into distinct regions by the connective tissue septa, ultrastructural and biochemical analysis revealed no regional variations in the fat. The diagnostic and therapeutic implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:9842560

  3. Molecular basis of hereditary disorders of connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Tilstra, D J; Byers, P H

    1994-01-01

    The molecular basis for several hereditary disorders of connective tissues has been elucidated in recent years. In this chapter, we discuss recent advances in the molecular characterization of a number of these disorders and examine their clinical applications. PMID:8198373

  4. Autoimmune hepatitis

    MedlinePLUS

    Lupoid hepatitis; Chronic acute liver disease ... This form of hepatitis is an autoimmune disease . The body's immune system cannot tell the difference between healthy body tissue and harmful, outside ...

  5. Optical Clearing in Dense Connective Tissues to Visualize Cellular Connectivity In Situ

    PubMed Central

    Calve, Sarah; Ready, Andrew; Huppenbauer, Christopher; Main, Russell; Neu, Corey P.

    2015-01-01

    Visualizing the three-dimensional morphology and spatial patterning of cells embedded deep within dense connective tissues of the musculoskeletal system has been possible only by utilizing destructive techniques. Here we utilize fructose-based clearing solutions to image cell connectivity and deep tissue-scale patterning in situ by standard confocal microscopy. Optical clearing takes advantage of refractive index matching of tissue and the embedding medium to visualize light transmission through a broad range of bovine and whole mount murine tissues, including cartilage, bone, and ligament, of the head and hindlimb. Using non-destructive methods, we show for the first time intercellular chondrocyte connections throughout the bulk of cartilage, and we reveal in situ patterns of osteocyte processes and the lacunar-canalicular system deep within mineralized cortical bone. Optical clearing of connective tissues is expected to find broad application for the study of cell responses in normal physiology and disease pathology. PMID:25581165

  6. Optical clearing in dense connective tissues to visualize cellular connectivity in situ.

    PubMed

    Calve, Sarah; Ready, Andrew; Huppenbauer, Christopher; Main, Russell; Neu, Corey P

    2015-01-01

    Visualizing the three-dimensional morphology and spatial patterning of cells embedded deep within dense connective tissues of the musculoskeletal system has been possible only by utilizing destructive techniques. Here we utilize fructose-based clearing solutions to image cell connectivity and deep tissue-scale patterning in situ by standard confocal microscopy. Optical clearing takes advantage of refractive index matching of tissue and the embedding medium to visualize light transmission through a broad range of bovine and whole mount murine tissues, including cartilage, bone, and ligament, of the head and hindlimb. Using non-destructive methods, we show for the first time intercellular chondrocyte connections throughout the bulk of cartilage, and we reveal in situ patterns of osteocyte processes and the lacunar-canalicular system deep within mineralized cortical bone. Optical clearing of connective tissues is expected to find broad application for the study of cell responses in normal physiology and disease pathology. PMID:25581165

  7. Interpretation of autoantibody positivity in interstitial lung disease and lung-dominant connective tissue disease*

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Daniel Antunes Silva; Kawassaki, Alexandre de Melo; Baldi, Bruno Guedes

    2013-01-01

    The initial evaluation of patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) primarily involves a comprehensive, active search for the cause. Autoantibody assays, which can suggest the presence of a rheumatic disease, are routinely performed at various referral centers. When interstitial lung involvement is the condition that allows the definitive diagnosis of connective tissue disease and the classical criteria are met, there is little debate. However, there is still debate regarding the significance, relevance, specificity, and pathophysiological role of autoimmunity in patients with predominant pulmonary involvement and only mild symptoms or formes frustes of connective tissue disease. The purpose of this article was to review the current knowledge of autoantibody positivity and to discuss its possible interpretations in patients with ILD and without clear etiologic associations, as well as to enhance the understanding of the natural history of an allegedly new disease and to describe the possible prognostic implications. We also discuss the proposition of a new term to be used in the classification of ILDs: lung-dominant connective tissue disease. PMID:24473767

  8. Autoimmune diseases - connecting risk alleles with molecular traits of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Arcelus, Maria; Rich, Stephen S; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2016-03-01

    Genome-wide strategies have driven the discovery of more than 300 susceptibility loci for autoimmune diseases. However, for almost all loci, understanding of the mechanisms leading to autoimmunity remains limited, and most variants that are likely to be causal are in non-coding regions of the genome. A critical next step will be to identify the in vivo and ex vivo immunophenotypes that are affected by risk variants. To do this, key cell types and cell states that are implicated in autoimmune diseases will need to be defined. Functional genomic annotations from these cell types and states can then be used to resolve candidate genes and causal variants. Together with longitudinal studies, this approach may yield pivotal insights into how autoimmunity is triggered. PMID:26907721

  9. Hypericin-mediated selective photomodification of connective tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Hovhannisyan, V. Guo, H. W.; Chen, Y. F.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ghukasyan, V.; Dong, C. Y.

    2014-12-29

    Controllable modification of biological molecules and supramolecular components of connective tissue are important for biophysical and biomedical applications. Through the use of second harmonic generation imaging, two-photon fluorescence microscopy, and spectrofluorimetry, we found that hypericin, a natural pigment, induces photosensitized destruction of collagen fibers but does not affect elastic fibers and lipids in chicken tendon, skin, and blood vessels. We demonstrated the dynamics and efficiency of collagen photomodification and investigated mechanisms of this processes. Our results suggest that hypericin–mediated photoprocesses in biological tissues may be useful in biomedical applications that require selective modification of connective tissues.

  10. Hypericin-mediated selective photomodification of connective tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovhannisyan, V.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ghukasyan, V.; Guo, H. W.; Chen, Y. F.; Dong, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Controllable modification of biological molecules and supramolecular components of connective tissue are important for biophysical and biomedical applications. Through the use of second harmonic generation imaging, two-photon fluorescence microscopy, and spectrofluorimetry, we found that hypericin, a natural pigment, induces photosensitized destruction of collagen fibers but does not affect elastic fibers and lipids in chicken tendon, skin, and blood vessels. We demonstrated the dynamics and efficiency of collagen photomodification and investigated mechanisms of this processes. Our results suggest that hypericin-mediated photoprocesses in biological tissues may be useful in biomedical applications that require selective modification of connective tissues.

  11. Oral manifestations of connective tissue disease and novel therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Heath, Kenisha R; Rogers, Roy S; Fazel, Nasim

    2015-01-01

    Connective tissue diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), and Sjgren syndrome (SS) have presented many difficulties both in their diagnosis and treatment. Known causes for this difficulty include uncertainty of disease etiology, the multitude of clinical presentations, the unpredictable disease course, and the variable cell types, soluble mediators, and tissue factors that are believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of connective tissue diseases. The characteristic oral findings seen with these specific connective tissue diseases may assist with more swift diagnostic capability. Additionally, the recent use of biologics may redefine the success rate in the treatment and management of the disease. In this review we describe the oral manifestations associated with SLE, SSc, and SS and review the novel biologic drugs used to treat these conditions. PMID:26632801

  12. The Emerging Roles of Gamma–Delta T Cells in Tissue Inflammation in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Sakshi; Want, Muzamil Yaqub; Awasthi, Amit

    2016-01-01

    γδ (gamma–delta) T cells, a small population of unconventional T cells, have been found in central nervous system lesions of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, but their function in disease activity is not clearly understood. Previous studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) were inconsistent in identifying their specific roles in suppressing or promoting disease pathogenesis. Emerging advancements in the biology of γδ T cells especially in the context of their being the major initial producers of IL-17, suggested their crucial role in pathogenesis of EAE. In addition, γδ T cells express high levels of IL-23R and IL-1R, which further enhance their effector functions in the pathogenesis of EAE. Nonetheless, activated heterogeneous γδ T cells display functional dichotomy, which is crucial in determining the outcomes of tissue inflammation in EAE. In this review, we discussed recent advances in understanding the biology of γδ T cells in tissue inflammation as well as their roles in suppressing or promoting the development of EAE. PMID:26858718

  13. Invited review: mesenchymal progenitor cells in intramuscular connective tissue development.

    PubMed

    Miao, Z G; Zhang, L P; Fu, X; Yang, Q Y; Zhu, M J; Dodson, M V; Du, M

    2016-01-01

    The abundance and cross-linking of intramuscular connective tissue contributes to the background toughness of meat, and is thus undesirable. Connective tissue is mainly synthesized by intramuscular fibroblasts. Myocytes, adipocytes and fibroblasts are derived from a common pool of progenitor cells during the early embryonic development. It appears that multipotent mesenchymal stem cells first diverge into either myogenic or non-myogenic lineages; non-myogenic mesenchymal progenitors then develop into the stromal-vascular fraction of skeletal muscle wherein adipocytes, fibroblasts and derived mesenchymal progenitors reside. Because non-myogenic mesenchymal progenitors mainly undergo adipogenic or fibrogenic differentiation during muscle development, strengthening progenitor proliferation enhances the potential for both intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis, leading to the elevation of both marbling and connective tissue content in the resulting meat product. Furthermore, given the bipotent developmental potential of progenitor cells, enhancing their conversion to adipogenesis reduces fibrogenesis, which likely results in the overall improvement of marbling (more intramuscular adipocytes) and tenderness (less connective tissue) of meat. Fibrogenesis is mainly regulated by the transforming growth factor (TGF) β signaling pathway and its regulatory cascade. In addition, extracellular matrix, a part of the intramuscular connective tissue, provides a niche environment for regulating myogenic differentiation of satellite cells and muscle growth. Despite rapid progress, many questions remain in the role of extracellular matrix on muscle development, and factors determining the early differentiation of myogenic, adipogenic and fibrogenic cells, which warrant further studies. PMID:26350682

  14. T-Cell Avidity and Tuning: The Flexible Connection Between Tolerance and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    van den Boorn, Jasper G.; Le Poole, I. Caroline; Luiten, Rosalie M.

    2007-01-01

    Thymic T-cell selection mechanisms generate a cross-reactive, self-MHC restricted peripheral T-cell pool. Affinity and avidity are of profound influence on this selection and the generation of immunity. Autoreactive T cells can escape thymic deletion by lowering their avidity and retain this tuned state in the periphery. Upon activation, tuned T cells can cause autoimmunity, while immunotherapeutic strategies may be hampered by existing T-cell tolerance. The regulation of T-cell avidity and tuning therefore determines the balance between tolerance and autoimmunity and should be taken into account in the design of therapeutic strategies aimed at T-cell reactivity. PMID:16818373

  15. [50 years of connective tissue research: from the French Connective Tissue Club to the French Society of Extracellular Matrix Biology].

    PubMed

    Maquart, François-Xavier; Borel, Jacques-Paul

    2012-01-01

    The history of connective tissue research began in the late 18th century. However, it is only 50 years later that the concept of connective tissue was shaped. It took another fifty years before biochemical knowledge of extracellular matrix macromolecules began to emerge in the first half of the 20th century. In 1962, thanks to Ladislas and Barbara Robert, back from the US, the first society called "French Connective Tissue Club" was created in Paris. The first board was constituted of Albert Delaunay, Suzanne Bazin and Ladislas Robert. Very quickly, under the influence of these pioneers, national and international meetings were organized and, in 1967, a "Federation of the European Connective Tissue Clubs" was created at the initiative of Ladislas Robert (Paris) and John Scott (Manchester). It spread rapidly to the major European nations. In 1982 the transformation of "Clubs" in "Societies" occurred, a name more in line with the requirements of the time. In 2008, the "French Connective Tissue Society" became the "French Society of Extracellular Matrix Biology" ("Société Française de Biologie de la Matrice Extracellulaire", SFBMEc), to better highlight the importance of the extracellular matrix in the biology of living organisms. The SFBMEc's mission today is to promote and develop scientific exchanges between academic, industrial, and hospital laboratories involved in research on the extracellular matrix. SFBMEc organizes or subsidizes scientific meetings and awards scholarships to Ph.D. students or post-docs to participate in international conferences. It includes 200 to 250 members from different disciplines, developing strong interactions between scientists, clinicians and pathologists. It is present all around the French territory in many research laboratories. During these last 50 years, the extraordinary advances made possible by the development of new investigation techniques, in particular molecular biology, cell and tissue imaging, molecular modeling, etc., have permitted a considerable increase of the knowledge in the field of connective tissue. PMID:22748045

  16. Connective tissue anomalies in patients with spontaneous cervical artery dissection

    PubMed Central

    Giossi, Alessia; Ritelli, Marco; Costa, Paolo; Morotti, Andrea; Poli, Loris; Del Zotto, Elisabetta; Volonghi, Irene; Chiarelli, Nicola; Gamba, Massimo; Bovi, Paolo; Tomelleri, Giampaolo; Carletti, Monica; Checcarelli, Nicoletta; Meneghetti, Giorgio; Morra, Michele; Chinaglia, Mauro; De Giuli, Valeria; Colombi, Marina; Padovani, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of connective tissue abnormalities in patients with spontaneous cervical artery dissections (sCeAD). Methods: We systematically assessed clinically detectable signs of connective tissue aberration in a series of consecutive patients with sCeAD and of age- and sex-matched patients with ischemic stroke unrelated to CeAD (non-CeAD IS) by a standard examination protocol including 68 items, and performed extensive molecular investigation for hereditary connective tissue disorders in all patients with sCeAD. Results: The study group included 84 patients with sCeAD (mean age, 44.5 7.8 years; 66.7% men) and 84 patients with non-CeAD IS. None of the patients with sCeAD met clinical or molecular diagnostic criteria for established hereditary connective tissue disorder. Connective tissue abnormalities were detected more frequently in the group of patients with sCeAD than in the group of those with non-CeAD IS (mean number of pathologic findings, 4.5 3.5 vs 1.9 2.3; p < 0.001). Eighty-one patients (96.4%) in the sCeAD group had at least one detectable sign compared with 55 patients (66.7%) in the group with non-CeAD IS (p < 0.001). Skeletal, ocular, and skin abnormalities, as well as craniofacial dysmorphisms, were the clinical signs more strongly associated with sCeAD. Signs suggesting connective tissue abnormality were also more frequently represented in patients with sCeAD than in patients with traumatic CeAD (28.6%, p < 0.001; mean number of pathologic findings, 1.7 3.7, p = 0.045). Conclusions: Connective tissue abnormalities are frequent in patients with sCeAD. This reinforces the hypothesis that systemic aberrations of the connective tissue might be implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:25355826

  17. A Proteomic Comparison of Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Pancreatic Tissue from Autoimmune Pancreatitis, Chronic Pancreatitis, and Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Paulo, Joao A; Kadiyala, Vivek; Brizard, Scott; Banks, Peter A; Steen, Hanno; Conwell, Darwin L

    2015-01-01

    Context Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue is a standard for specimen preservation, and as such FFPE tissue banks are an untapped resource of histologically-characterized specimens for retrospective biomarker investigation for pancreatic disease. Objectives We use liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to compare FFPE specimens from three different diseases of the exocrine pancreas. Design We investigated the proteomic profile of FFPE pancreatic tissue from 9 archived specimens that were histologically classified as: autoimmune pancreatitis (n=3), chronic pancreatitis (n=3), and pancreatic cancer (n=3), using LC-MS/MS. Setting This is a proteomic analysis experiment of FFPE pancreatic tissue in an academic center. Patients FFPE tissue specimens were provided by Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center (Boston, MA, USA). Interventions FFPE tissue specimens were collected via routine surgical resection procedures. Main outcome measures We compared proteins identified from chronic pancreatitis, autoimmune pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer FFPE pancreatic tissue. Results We identified 386 non-redundant proteins from 9 specimens. Following our filtering criteria, 73, 29, and 53 proteins were identified exclusively in autoimmune pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer specimens, respectively. Conclusions We report that differentially-expressed proteins can be identified among FFPE tissues specimens originating from individuals with different histological diagnoses. These proteins merit further confirmation with a greater number of specimens and orthogonal validation, such as immunohistochemistry. The mass spectrometry-based methodology used herein has the potential to enhance diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target discovery, further advancing pancreatic research. PMID:23846938

  18. [Connective tissue: big unifying element of the organism].

    PubMed

    Kapandji, A-I

    2012-10-01

    The anatomical unity of the organism is realized by the connective tissue, which assumes five functions: the filling of the spaces between organs; the connexion between these organs; the driving of the vascular and nervous pedicles to these organs; the stocking of nutritive reserves in fat pads; an aesthetic role with hollows and bumps erasing. The space filling is done with jointed polyedric volumes, which are constituted, according to the theories of J.-C.Guimberteau, with microvacuoles, filled with under pressure fundamental substance. This is a status of preconstraint resulting in a form memory. So, the connective tissue under constraint get back its initial status after this constraint is over, according to the laws of a new science, the tensegrity. The explorations of the connective tissue with a 25 magnifying micro endoscopes are showing micro fibrillar structures, evoluting under constraint. Its arrangement, that seems chaotic, is in fractal disposition, in reality, and follows the "universal parcimony law" established by Williams of Ockham. The structure of the connective tissue can be integrated in a holistic conception of the organism. Many characteristics of this tissue have still to be discovered. PMID:22884219

  19. The role of biologics in treatment of connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Sharp, C; Dodds, N; Mayers, L; Millar, A B; Gunawardena, H; Adamali, H

    2015-09-01

    With an increased understanding of the molecular pathways of inflammation and autoimmunity, the development of targeted biological agents has revolutionized the management of connective tissue diseases (CTDs). There has been an explosion in the development of these drugs in the last decade, targeting diseases in diverse fields including: allergic disorders, oncology, neuroinflammatory disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, macular degeneration and CTDs. In this last field, commonly applied biologics fall into two categories: cytokine inhibitors and lymphocyte-targeted therapies. The former group includes the antitumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), anti-interleukin (IL)-6 receptor monoclonal antibodies and IL-1 receptor antagonists, whilst the latter encompasses the anti-CD20, B-cell depleting, monoclonal antibody (mAb), Rituximab and the anti-T-cell activation agent, Abatacept. This review will examine our developing experience in the use of these agents in the treatment of CTD-related interstitial lung diseases, with a particular focus on B-cell depletion. PMID:25614613

  20. Alveolar ridge augmentation by connective tissue grafting using a pouch method and modified connective tissue technique: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ashish; Gupta, Narinder Dev

    2015-01-01

    Background: Localized alveolar ridge defect may create physiological and pathological problems. Developments in surgical techniques have made it simpler to change the configuration of a ridge to create a more aesthetic and more easily cleansable shape. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of alveolar ridge augmentation using a subepithelial connective tissue graft in pouch and modified connective tissue graft technique. Materials and Methods: In this randomized, double blind, parallel and prospective study, 40 non-smoker individuals with 40 class III alveolar ridge defects in maxillary anterior were randomly divided in two groups. Group I received modified connective tissue graft, while group II were treated with subepithelial connective tissue graft in pouch technique. The defect size was measured in its horizontal and vertical dimension by utilizing a periodontal probe in a stone cast at base line, after 3 months, and 6 months post surgically. Analysis of variance and Bonferroni post-hoc test were used for statistical analysis. A two-tailed P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Mean values in horizontal width after 6 months were 4.70 0.87 mm, and 4.05 0.89 mm for group I and II, respectively. Regarding vertical heights, obtained mean values were 4.75 0.97 mm and 3.70 0.92 mm for group I and group II, respectively. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, connective tissue graft proposed significantly more improvement as compare to connective tissue graft in pouch. PMID:26759591

  1. Bioreactors for Connective Tissue Engineering: Design and Monitoring Innovations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haj, A. J. El; Hampson, K.; Gogniat, G.

    The challenges for the tissue engineering of connective tissue lie in creating off-the-shelf tissue constructs which are capable of providing organs for transplantation. These strategies aim to grow a complex tissue with the appropri ate mechanical integrity necessary for functional load bearing. Monolayer culture systems lack correlation with the in vivo environment and the naturally occur ring cell phenotypes. Part of the development of more recent models is to create growth environments or bioreactors which enable three-dimensional culture. Evidence suggests that in order to grow functional load-bearing tissues in a bioreactor, the cells must experience mechanical loading stimuli similar to that experienced in vivo which sets out the requirements for mechanical loading bioreactors. An essential part of developing new bioreactors for tissue growth is identifying ways of routinely and continuously measuring neo-tissue formation and in order to fully identify the successful generation of a tissue implant, the appropriate on-line monitoring must be developed. New technologies are being developed to advance our efforts to grow tissue ex vivo. The bioreactor is a critical part of these develop ments in supporting growth of biological implants and combining this with new advances in the detection of tissue formation allows us to refine our protocols and move nearer to off-the-shelf implants for clinical applications.

  2. Sustained deep-tissue pain alters functional brain connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jieun; Loggia, Marco L.; Edwards, Robert; Wasan, Ajay D.; Gollub, Randy L.; Napadow, Vitaly

    2013-01-01

    Recent functional brain connectivity studies have contributed to our understanding of the neurocircuitry supporting pain perception. However, evoked-pain connectivity studies have employed cutaneous and/or brief stimuli, which induce sensations that differ appreciably from the clinical pain experience. Sustained myofascial pain evoked by pressure cuff affords an excellent opportunity to evaluate functional connectivity change to more clinically-relevant sustained deep-tissue pain. Connectivity in specific networks known to be modulated by evoked pain (sensorimotor, salience, dorsal attention, fronto-parietal control and default mode networks; SMN, SLN, DAN, FCN and DMN) was evaluated with functional-connectivity MRI, both at rest and during a sustained (6-minute) pain state in healthy adults. We found that pain was stable with no significant changes of subjects pain ratings over the stimulation period. Sustained pain reduced connectivity between the SMN and the contralateral leg primary sensorimotor (S1/M1) representation. Such SMN-S1/M1 connectivity decreases were also accompanied by and correlated with increased SLN-S1/M1 connectivity, suggesting recruitment of activated S1/M1 from SMN to SLN. Sustained pain also increased DAN connectivity to pain processing regions such as mid-cingulate cortex, posterior insula and putamen. Moreover, greater connectivity during pain between contralateral S1/M1 and posterior insula, thalamus, putamen, and amygdala, was associated with lower cuff pressures needed to reach the targeted pain sensation. These results demonstrate that sustained pain disrupts resting S1/M1 connectivity by shifting it to a network known to process stimulus salience. Furthermore, increased connectivity between S1/M1 and both sensory and affective processing areas may be an important contribution to inter-individual differences in pain sensitivity. PMID:23718988

  3. Bamboo nodes associated with mixed connective tissue disease as a cause of hoarseness.

    PubMed

    Schwemmle, Cornelia; Kreipe, Hans-Heinrich; Witte, Torsten; Ptok, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Vocal fold lesions related to autoimmune diseases are rheumatoid nodules and, to a lesser extent, bamboo nodes. Mostly transverse, they are located in the middle third of the vocal cord and exhibit a yellowish appearance. The characteristic shape of these lesions led to their name. These vocal fold deposits may interfere with the normal vibratory cycle during phonation and thus may be an unusual cause of hoarseness. We present a 43-year-old woman with known mixed connective tissue disease and a dysphonia. Laryngostroboscopy showed bamboo nodes as described above. We applied several laryngeal injections of cortisone as described previously in the literature. Since this treatment did not lead to a sufficient voice improvement, we attempted to surgically remove the deposits. After the surgery, the voice improved considerably. In all patients with rheumatic diseases who suffer from a rough, breathy, or unstable voice, a laryngostroboscopic examination should be done. If, however, a bamboo node lesion of the vocal folds is found by the laryngologists, an associated autoimmune disorder must be assumed, and adequate diagnostic procedures have to be initiated. Local laryngeal injections (1-3 times) with steroids should be the first line of therapy. In unsuccessful cases, subsequent surgery can be a useful treatment of bamboo nodes to stabilize and improve voice quality. PMID:22083614

  4. Diagnosis and Treatment of Connective Tissue Disease-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Strek, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is one of the most serious pulmonary complications associated with connective tissue diseases (CTDs), resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Although the various CTDs associated with ILD often are considered together because of their shared autoimmune nature, there are substantial differences in the clinical presentations and management of ILD in each specific CTD. This heterogeneity and the cross-disciplinary nature of care have complicated the conduct of prospective multicenter treatment trials and hindered our understanding of the development of ILD in patients with CTD. In this update, we present new information regarding the diagnosis and treatment of patients with ILD secondary to systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, dermatomyositis and polymyositis, and Sjgren syndrome. We review information on risk factors for the development of ILD in the setting of CTD. Diagnostic criteria for CTD are presented as well as elements of the clinical evaluation that increase suspicion for CTD-ILD. We review the use of medications in the treatment of CTD-ILD. Although a large, randomized study has examined the impact of immunosuppressive therapy for ILD secondary to systemic sclerosis, additional studies are needed to determine optimal treatment strategies for each distinct form of CTD-ILD. Finally, we review new information regarding the subgroup of patients with ILD who meet some, but not all, diagnostic criteria for a CTD. A careful and systematic approach to diagnosis in patients with ILD may reveal an unrecognized CTD or evidence of autoimmunity in those previously believed to have idiopathic ILD. PMID:23460159

  5. PDGFRα plays a crucial role in connective tissue remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Horikawa, Shinjiro; Ishii, Yoko; Hamashima, Takeru; Yamamoto, Seiji; Mori, Hisashi; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Shen, Jie; Inoue, Ran; Nishizono, Hirofumi; Itoh, Hiroshi; Majima, Masataka; Abraham, David; Miyawaki, Toshio; Sasahara, Masakiyo

    2015-01-01

    Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) plays a pivotal role in the remodeling of connective tissues. Emerging data indicate the distinctive role of PDGF receptor-α (PDGFRα) in this process. In the present study, the Pdgfra gene was systemically inactivated in adult mouse (α-KO mouse), and the role of PDGFRα was examined in the subcutaneously implanted sponge matrices. PDGFRα expressed in the fibroblasts of Pdgfra-preserving control mice (Flox mice), was significantly reduced in the sponges in α-KO mice. Neovascularized areas were largely suppressed in the α-KO mice than in the Flox mice, whereas the other parameters related to the blood vessels and endothelial cells were similar. The deposition of collagen and fibronectin and the expression of collagen 1a1 and 3a1 genes were significantly reduced in α-KO mice. There was a significantly decrease in the number and dividing fibroblasts in the α-KO mice, and those of macrophages were similar between the two genotypes. Hepatocyte growth factor (Hgf) gene expression was suppressed in Pdgfra-inactivated fibroblasts and connective tissue. The findings implicate the role of PDGFRα-dependent ECM and HGF production in fibroblasts that promotes the remodeling of connective tissue and suggest that PDGFRα may be a relevant target to regulate connective tissue remodeling. PMID:26639755

  6. Immunological basis for the development of tissue inflammation and organ-specific autoimmunity in animal models of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Korn, Thomas; Mitsdoerffer, Meike; Kuchroo, Vijay K

    2010-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS) that has shaped our understanding of autoimmune tissue inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Major therapeutic approaches to MS have been first validated in EAE. Nevertheless, EAE in all its modifications is not able to recapitulate the full range of clinical and histopathogenic aspects of MS. Furthermore, autoimmune reactions in EAE-prone rodent strains and MS patients may differ in terms of the relative involvement of various subsets of immune cells. However, the role of specific molecules that play a role in skewing the immune response towards pathogenic autoreactivity is very similar in mice and humans. Thus, in this chapter, we will focus on the identification of a novel subset of inflammatory T cells, called Th17 cells, in EAE and their interplay with other immune cells including protective regulatory T cells (T-regs). It is likely that the discovery of Th17 cells and their relationship with T-regs will change our understanding of organ-specific autoimmune diseases in the years to come. PMID:19513635

  7. Lack of connectivity between the induced and autoimmune repertoires of lpr/lpr mice.

    PubMed Central

    Very, D L; Panka, D J; Weissman, D; Wysocki, L; Manser, T; Marshak-Rothstein, A

    1993-01-01

    It has been proposed that the autoantibody-secreting cells active during autoimmune diseases are derived from B cells initially responding to environmental antigens. In order to test the relationship between the antigen-induced and autoimmune repertoires, we monitored the fate of antigen-activated idiotypically defined B cells present in mice that developed the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-like syndrome associated with the lpr mutation. Mice homozygous for both the A/J-derived Igh and Ig kappa region haplotypes and the lpr mutation were bred. Immunization of these mice with p-azophenylarsonate (Ars)-protein conjugates elicited the idiotypic components (IdCR) characteristic of the A/J anti-Ars response and did not interfere with the spontaneous development of the lpr-mediated autoimmune disease. These Id/lpr mice provided an ideal system for studying the relationship between the exogenously and endogenously induced responses because: (1) VHIdCR antibodies have been shown to bind autoantigens in vitro; and (2) serological and molecular reagents exist which can identify and monitor VHIdCR antibody production as disease progresses. Serum samples and hybridoma cell lines derived from non-immune as well as Ars-keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH)-immunized Id/lpr mice were monitored for idiotype expression as well as Ars and ssDNA reactivity at various stages of disease progression. We found that antibodies utilizing the VHIdCR gene segment did not preferentially contribute to the autoantibody pool. Moreover, even when IdCR B-cell clones were expanded by deliberate immunization with Ars-KLH, Ars non-binding variants were only rarely detected among the activated B-cell populations of diseased mice. These results indicate that there is only minimal overlap between the VHIdCR conventional and autoimmune repertoires. Images Figure 1 PMID:8307604

  8. Autoimmune encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Newman, M P; Blum, S; Wong, R C W; Scott, J G; Prain, K; Wilson, R J; Gillis, D

    2016-02-01

    Over the past decade, the clinical spectrum of autoimmune encephalitis has expanded with the emergence of several new clinicopathological entities. In particular, autoimmune encephalitis has recently been described in association with antibodies to surface receptors and ion channels on neurological tissues. Greater clinician awareness has resulted in autoimmune encephalitis being increasingly recognised in patients with unexplained neurological and psychiatric symptoms and signs. The clinical spectrum of presentations, as well as our understanding of disease mechanisms and treatment regimens, is rapidly developing. An understanding of these conditions is important to all subspecialties of Internal Medicine, including neurology and clinical immunology, psychiatry, intensive care and rehabilitation medicine. This review provides a contemporary overview of the aetiology, investigations and treatment of the most recently described autoimmune encephalitides. PMID:26899887

  9. Smooth Muscle-Mediated Connective Tissue Remodeling in Pulmonary Hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecham, Robert P.; Whitehouse, Loren A.; Wrenn, David S.; Parks, William C.; Griffin, Gail L.; Senior, Robert M.; Crouch, Edmond C.; Stenmark, Kurt R.; Voelkel, Norbert F.

    1987-07-01

    Abnormal accumulation of connective tissue in blood vessels contributes to alterations in vascular physiology associated with disease states such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Elastin synthesis was studied in blood vessels from newborn calves with severe pulmonary hypertension induced by alveolar hypoxia in order to investigate the cellular stimuli that elicit changes in pulmonary arterial connective tissue production. A two- to fourfold increase in elastin production was observed in pulmonary artery tissue and medial smooth muscle cells from hypertensive calves. This stimulation of elastin production was accompanied by a corresponding increase in elastin messenger RNA consistent with regulation at the transcriptional level. Conditioned serum harvested from cultures of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells isolated from hypertensive animals contained one or more low molecular weight elastogenic factors that stimulated the production of elastin in both fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells and altered the chemotactic responsiveness of fibroblasts to elastin peptides. These results suggest that connective tissue changes in the pulmonary vasculature in response to pulmonary hypertension are orchestrated by the medial smooth muscle cell through the generation of specific differentiation factors that alter both the secretory phenotype and responsive properties of surrounding cells.

  10. Absorption of Hydrocortisone Acetate in Human Connective Tissue Using Phonophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Gurney, A. Burke; Wascher, Daniel; Schenck, Robert; Tennison, Alexandria; Jaramillo, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    Background: Therapeutic ultrasound to drive medication (phonophoresis) has been a mainstay in physical therapy. The most common drug used in phonophoresis is hydrocortisone acetate (HA). A number of studies have been done examining phonophoresis in the delivery of HA through the skin to underlying tissues; however, a study has never been done examining the absorption of HA using phonophoresis on human connective tissue. Hypothesis: Phonophoresis will facilitate the transmission of HA in human connective tissue. Study Design: Randomized controlled study. Methods: Twenty-one patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery were randomly assigned to either a sham or true phonophoresis treatment group. The latter group received 6 minutes of 10% HA ultrasound at a point consistent with the gastrocnemius slip of the semitendinosis tendon (treatment site). The sham group received 6 minutes of 10% HA ultrasound to the same area, but the ultrasound was not turned on. The slip and a sample of the distal attachment of the tendon (control) were removed. Samples were analyzed for HA levels. Results: Although the mean and median levels of HA found at the treatment site were greater than those of the control site (means, 34.1 vs 22.9 parts per billion; medians, 7 vs 0 parts per billion), the levels of HA found at the treatment site were not significantly greater than those at the control site (P = 0.15). There were no statistically significant differences between the true and sham phonophoresis groups in HA levels (P = 0.80) nor in age, sex, or skin thickness. Conclusion: Phonophoresis does not appear to facilitate the absorption of HA in connective tissue when compared with simple absorption (sham). Clinical Relevance: Phonophoresis does not appear to enhance the transmission of HA in human connective tissue; therefore, use of phonophoresis should be reconsidered in inflammatory conditions. PMID:23016027

  11. Automated Detection of Connective Tissue by Tissue Counter Analysis and Classification and Regression Trees

    PubMed Central

    Smolle, Josef; Kahofer, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of the CART (Classification and Regression Tree) procedure for the recognition of microscopic structures in tissue counter analysis. Methods: Digital microscopic images of H&E stained slides of normal human skin and of primary malignant melanoma were overlayed with regularly distributed square measuring masks (elements) and grey value, texture and colour features within each mask were recorded. In the learning set, elements were interactively labeled as representing either connective tissue of the reticular dermis, other tissue components or background. Subsequently, CART models were based on these data sets. Results: Implementation of the CART classification rules into the image analysis program showed that in an independent test set 94.1% of elements classified as connective tissue of the reticular dermis were correctly labeled. Automated measurements of the total amount of tissue and of the amount of connective tissue within a slide showed high reproducibility (r=0.97 and r=0.94, respectively; p < 0.001). Conclusions: CART procedure in tissue counter analysis yields simple and reproducible classification rules for tissue elements. PMID:12082296

  12. Extracellular matrix of connective tissues in the heads of teleosts.

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, M; Ralphs, J R

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of extracellular matrix molecules (chondroitin and keratan sulphates, type II collagen) is described in cranial connective tissues of teleosts. Hyaline cartilage was similar to that in mammals and usually contained all 3 molecules. The more cellular cartilages that are not normally present in mammals were more variable in composition. Scleral cartilage closely resembled hyaline cartilage, Zellknorpel in the gill filaments resembled it in some species but not in others, and elastic/cell-rich and hyaline-cell cartilages were unlike hyaline cartilage. These variations may be related to functional or developmental differences between the tissues. Bone and chondroid bone also varied in composition between species. Whilst both tissues contained chondroitin sulphate, bone contained type II collagen in 5 of the 12 species examined. This suggests that cartilage components are more widespread in teleost bone than has previously been shown. Type II collagen also occurred in dense connective tissues of some species. Notably, where this molecule was present in one of these tissues, it was present in all. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:1817131

  13. A Framework for Modelling Connective Tissue Changes in VIIP Syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethier, C. R.; Best, L.; Gleason, R.; Mulugeta, L.; Myers, J. G.; Nelson, E. S.; Samuels, B. C.

    2014-01-01

    Insertion of astronauts into microgravity induces a cascade of physiological adaptations, notably including a cephalad fluid shift. Longer-duration flights carry an increased risk of developing Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome, a spectrum of ophthalmic changes including posterior globe flattening, choroidal folds, distension of the optic nerve sheath, kinking of the optic nerve and potentially permanent degradation of visual function. The slow onset of changes in VIIP, their chronic nature, and the similarity of certain clinical features of VIIP to ophthalmic findings in patients with raised intracranial pressure strongly suggest that: (i) biomechanical factors play a role in VIIP, and (ii) connective tissue remodeling must be accounted for if we wish to understand the pathology of VIIP. Our goal is to elucidate the pathophysiology of VIIP and suggest countermeasures based on biomechanical modeling of ocular tissues, suitably informed by experimental data, and followed by validation and verification. We specifically seek to understand the quasi-homeostatic state that evolves over weeks to months in space, during which ocular tissue remodeling occurs. This effort is informed by three bodies of work: (i) modeling of cephalad fluid shifts; (ii) modeling of ophthalmic tissue biomechanics in glaucoma; and (iii) modeling of connective tissue changes in response to biomechanical loading.

  14. Connective tissue progenitors: practical concepts for clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Muschler, George F; Midura, Ronald J

    2002-02-01

    Tissue engineering can be defined as any effort to create or induce the formation of a specific tissue in a specific location through the selection and manipulation of cells, matrices, and biologic stimuli. The biologic concepts and the biochemical and biophysical principles on which these efforts are based have become an exciting and rapidly evolving field of biomedical research. More importantly, tissue engineering is becoming a clinical reality in the practice of orthopaedic surgery, providing patients and physicians with an expanding set of practical tools for effective therapy. New and improved matrices and bioactive factors inevitably will play important roles in the evolution of orthopaedic tissue engineering. However, tissue engineering never can stray far from fundamental biologic principles, and one of these is that cells do all the work. No new tissue forms except through the activity of living cells. No bone graft, no matrix, no growth factor, no cytokine can contribute to the generation or integration of new tissue, except through the influence it has on the behavior of cells. The efficacy of all current clinical tools depends entirely on the cells in the grafted site, particularly the small subset of stem cells and progenitor cells that are capable of generating new tissue. The current authors review a series of key biologic concepts related to the rational design and selection of composites of cells and matrices in contemporary bone grafting and tissue engineering efforts. The functional paradigms of stem cell biology are reviewed, including self renewal, asymmetric and symmetric mitosis, and lineage restriction. Several potential sources for autogenous stem cells for connective tissues are discussed. Finally, a simple mathematical model is introduced as a tool for understanding the functional demands placed on stem cells and progenitors in a graft site and to provide a conceptual framework for the rational design of cell matrix composite grafts. PMID:11937867

  15. Neurologic manifestations of inherited disorders of connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Debette, Stéphanie; Germain, Dominique P

    2014-01-01

    Inherited disorders of connective tissue are single gene disorders affecting structure or function of the connective tissue. Neurological manifestations are classic and potentially severe complications of many such disorders. The most common neurological manifestations are cerebrovascular. Ischemic stroke is a classic complication of vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (type IV), homocystinuria, and arterial tortuosity syndrome, and may occasionally be seen in Marfan syndrome and pseudoxanthoma elasticum with distinct underlying mechanisms for each disease. Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome can also lead to cervical artery dissection (with or without ischemic stroke), carotid-cavernous fistula, intracranial dissections and aneurysms potentially causing subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage, and arterial rupture. Other neurological manifestations include nerve root compression and intracranial hypotension due to dural ectasia in Marfan and Loeys-Dietz syndrome, spinal cord compression in osteogenesis imperfecta, and mucopolysaccharidosis type I and VI, carpal tunnel syndrome in mucopolysaccharidosis type I, II, and VI. Impaired mental development can be observed in homocystinuria, mucopolysaccharidosis type II, and the severe form of mucopolysaccharidosis type I. For the neurologist, being aware of these complications and of the diagnostic criteria for inherited connective tissue disorders is important since neurological complications can be the first manifestation of the disease and because caution may be warranted for the management of these patients. PMID:24365320

  16. Serological profiles in the connective tissue diseases in Zimbabwean patients.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, P; Stein, M; Ley, H; Johnston, C

    1989-01-01

    The serological profiles of 104 Zimbabwean patients with clinically diagnosed connective tissue diseases were determined. The prevalence of rheumatoid factor was less than would have been expected in other geographical groups, but the prevalence of antinuclear antibodies was similar. Despite considerable racial, socioeconomic, and genetic differences in our patient group compared with other previously published studies the specificity and sensitivity of antinuclear antibodies, notably to DNA and Sm, correlated well with clinical diagnoses. This study validates the use of these serological tests in the investigation of this group of patients. PMID:2784309

  17. Coverage of gingival recession using tunnel connective tissue graft technique

    PubMed Central

    Khuller, Nitin

    2009-01-01

    The recession of gingiva is increasingly becoming a more prominent condition in the oral health of many patients and should be treated at its earliest detection. The multi-factorial etiology, decision modality, and current trends followed in treatment of gingival recession are discussed in this presentation. The correction of class I and II gingival recessions are presented as a means of minimizing surgical trauma and achieving predictable aesthetic results. In this case report, I present an alternative technique in treating gingival recession- the tunnel connective tissue graft. PMID:20407659

  18. Management of connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Chartrand, Sandra; Fischer, Aryeh

    2015-05-01

    A thorough, often multidisciplinary assessment to determine extrathoracic versus intrathoracic disease activity and degrees of impairment is needed to optimize the management of connective tissue disease (CTD)-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD). Pharmacologic intervention with immunosuppression is the mainstay of therapy for all forms of CTD-ILD, but should be reserved for those that show clinically significant and/or progressive disease. The management of CTD-ILD is not yet evidence based and there is a need for controlled trials across the spectrum of CTD-ILD. Nonpharmacologic management strategies and addressing comorbidities or aggravating factors should be included in the comprehensive treatment plan for CTD-ILD. PMID:25836643

  19. Dendritic Cells Induce Autoimmune Diabetes and Maintain Disease via De Novo Formation of Local Lymphoid Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ludewig, Burkhard; Odermatt, Bernhard; Landmann, Salome; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    1998-01-01

    Activation of autoreactive T cells can lead to autoimmune diseases such as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The initiation and maintenance of IDDM by dendritic cells (DC), the most potent professional antigen-presenting cells, were investigated in transgenic mice expressing the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus glycoprotein (LCMV-GP) under the control of the rat insulin promoter (RIP-GP mice). We show that after adoptive transfer of DC constitutively expressing the immunodominant cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope of the LCMV-GP, RIP-GP mice developed autoimmune diabetes. Kinetic and functional studies of DC-activated CTL revealed that development of IDDM was dependent on dose and timing of antigenic stimulation. Strikingly, repeated CTL activation by DC led to severe destructive mononuclear infiltration of the pancreatic islets but also to de novo formation of islet-associated organized lymphoid structures in the pancreatic parenchyma. In addition, repetitive DC immunization induced IDDM with lymphoid neogenesis also in perforin-deficient RIP-GP mice, illustrating that CD8+ T celldependent inflammatory mechanisms independent of perforin could induce IDDM. Thus, DC presenting self-antigens not only are potent inducers of autoreactive T cells, but also help to maintain a peripheral immune response locally; therefore, the induction of autoimmunity against previously ignored autoantigens represents a potential hazard, particularly in DC-based antitumor therapies. PMID:9782126

  20. Connective tissue disease-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Luke S.

    2015-01-01

    Although rare in its idiopathic form, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is not uncommon in association with various associated medical conditions, most notably connective tissue disease (CTD). In particular, it develops in approximately 10% of patients with systemic sclerosis and so these patients are increasingly screened to enable early detection. The response of patients with systemic sclerosis to PAH-specific therapy appears to be worse than in other forms of PAH. Survival in systemic sclerosis-associated PAH is inferior to that observed in idiopathic PAH. Potential reasons for this include differences in age, the nature of the underlying pulmonary vasculopathy and the ability of the right ventricle to cope with increased afterload between patients with systemic sclerosis-associated PAH and idiopathic PAH, while coexisting cardiac and pulmonary disease is common in systemic sclerosis-associated PAH. Other forms of connective tissue-associated PAH have been less well studied, however PAH associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has a better prognosis than systemic sclerosis-associated PAH and likely responds to immunosuppression. PMID:25705389

  1. Connective tissue photodamage in the hairless mouse is partially reversible.

    PubMed

    Kligman, L H

    1987-03-01

    Photodamaged connective tissue in animal and human skin is characterized by excessive accumulations of elastic fibers, loss of mature collagen, concomitant overproduction of new collagen, and greatly increased levels of glycosaminoglycans. Formerly considered irreversible changes, we recently showed in hairless mice, post irradiation, that a band of normal connective tissue was laid down subepidermally. The present studies focused on 2 aspects of this repair: whether repair would occur if animals were protected by sunscreens after dermal damage was induced and irradiation continued; whether retinoic acid could enhance the repair process. To examine the first aspect, albino hairless mice were irradiated with Westinghouse FS 20 sunlamps thrice weekly for 30 weeks. Sunscreens of high sun-protection factors were applied after 10 and 20 weeks. Not only was further damage prevented, but the damage incurred before sunscreen application was repaired. This appeared as subepidermal reconstruction zones containing normal, mature collagen and a network of fine elastic fibers. The second aspect was examined by applying 0.05% retinoic acid, topically, to animals preirradiated for 10 weeks. In contrast to controls treated with vehicle, the reconstruction zone was significantly wider in retinoic acid-treated mice. The enhanced repair was dose-related. PMID:3819471

  2. Connective tissue photodamage in the hairless mouse is partially reversible

    SciTech Connect

    Kligman, L.H.

    1987-03-01

    Photodamaged connective tissue in animal and human skin is characterized by excessive accumulations of elastic fibers, loss of mature collagen, concomitant overproduction of new collagen, and greatly increased levels of glycosaminoglycans. Formerly considered irreversible changes, we recently showed in hairless mice, post irradiation, that a band of normal connective tissue was laid down subepidermally. The present studies focused on 2 aspects of this repair: whether repair would occur if animals were protected by sunscreens after dermal damage was induced and irradiation continued; whether retinoic acid could enhance the repair process. To examine the first aspect, albino hairless mice were irradiated with Westinghouse FS 20 sunlamps thrice weekly for 30 weeks. Sunscreens of high sun-protection factors were applied after 10 and 20 weeks. Not only was further damage prevented, but the damage incurred before sunscreen application was repaired. This appeared as subepidermal reconstruction zones containing normal, mature collagen and a network of fine elastic fibers. The second aspect was examined by applying 0.05% retinoic acid, topically, to animals preirradiated for 10 weeks. In contrast to controls treated with vehicle, the reconstruction zone was significantly wider in retinoic acid-treated mice. The enhanced repair was dose-related.

  3. Myoarchitecture and connective tissue in hearts with tricuspid atresia

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Quintana, D; Climent, V; Ho, S; Anderson, R

    1999-01-01

    ObjectiveTo compare the atrial and ventricular myoarchitecture in the normal heart and the heart with tricuspid atresia, and to investigate changes in the three dimensional arrangement of collagen fibrils.?MethodsBlunt dissection and cell maceration with scanning electron microscopy were used to study the architecture of the atrial and ventricular musculature and the arrangement of collagen fibrils in three specimens with tricuspid atresia and six normal human hearts.?ResultsThere were significant modifications in the myoarchitecture of the right atrium and the left ventricle, both being noticeably hypertrophied. The middle layer of the ventricle in the abnormal hearts was thicker than in the normal hearts. The orientation of the superficial layer in the left ventricle in hearts with tricuspid atresia was irregular compared with the normal hearts. Scanning electron microscopy showed coarser endomysial sheaths and denser perimysial septa in hearts with tricuspid atresia than in normal hearts.?ConclusionsThe overall architecture of the muscle fibres and its connective tissue matrix in hearts with tricuspid atresia differed from normal, probably reflecting modelling of the myocardium that is inherent to the malformation. This is in concordance with clinical observations showing deterioration in pump function of the dominant left ventricle from very early in life.?? Keywords: tricuspid atresia; congenital heart defects; connective tissue; fibrosis PMID:9922357

  4. Cell-based and biomaterial approaches to connective tissue repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalling, Simone Suzette

    Connective tissue injuries of skin, tendon and ligament, heal by a reparative process in adults, filling the wound site with fibrotic, disorganized scar tissue that poorly reflects normal tissue architecture or function. Conversely, fetal skin and tendon have been shown to heal scarlessly. Complete regeneration is not intrinsically ubiquitous to all fetal tissues; fetal diaphragmatic and gastrointestinal injuries form scars. In vivo studies suggest that the presence of fetal fibroblasts is essential for scarless healing. In the orthopaedic setting, adult anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) heals poorly; however, little is known about the regenerative capacity of fetal ACL or fetal ACL fibroblasts. We characterized in vitro wound healing properties of fetal and adult ACL fibroblasts demonstrating that fetal ACL fibroblasts migrate faster and elaborate greater quantities of type I collagen, suggesting the healing potential of the fetal ACL may not be intrinsically poor. Similar to fetal ACL fibroblasts, fetal dermal fibroblasts also exhibit robust cellular properties. We investigated the age-dependent effects of dermal fibroblasts on tendon-to-bone healing in rat supraspinatus tendon injuries, a reparative injury model. We hypothesized delivery of fetal dermal fibroblasts would increase tissue organization and mechanical properties in comparison to adult dermal fibroblasts. However, at 1 and 8 weeks, the presence of dermal fibroblasts, either adult or fetal, had no significant effect on tissue histology or mechanical properties. There was a decreasing trend in cross-sectional area of repaired tendons treated with fetal dermal fibroblasts in comparison to adult, but this finding was not significant in comparison to controls. Finally, we synthesized a novel polysaccharide, methacrylated methylcellulose (MA-MC), and fabricated hydrogels using a well-established photopolymerization technique. We characterized the physical and mechanical properties of MA-MC hydrogels in vitro as well as in a subcutaneous mouse model. Stable MA-MC hydrogels, of varying weight percentages, demonstrated tunable swelling and mechanical properties in the absence of cytotoxic degradation products. In vivo, 6wt% MA-MC hydrogels maintained their shape and mechanical integrity while eliciting a minimal inflammatory response; highly desirable properties for soft tissue reconstruction. These cellulose-based photopolymerizable hydrogels can be further optimized for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications to enhance wound repair.

  5. The integrin-collagen connection - a glue for tissue repair?

    PubMed

    Zeltz, Cédric; Gullberg, Donald

    2016-02-15

    The α1β1, α2β1, α10β1 and α11β1 integrins constitute a subset of the integrin family with affinity for GFOGER-like sequences in collagens. Integrins α1β1 and α2β1 were originally identified on a subset of activated T-cells, and have since been found to be expressed on a number of cell types including platelets (α2β1), vascular cells (α1β1, α2β1), epithelial cells (α1β1, α2β1) and fibroblasts (α1β1, α2β1). Integrin α10β1 shows a distribution that is restricted to mesenchymal stem cells and chondrocytes, whereas integrin α11β1 appears restricted to mesenchymal stem cells and subsets of fibroblasts. The bulk of the current literature suggests that collagen-binding integrins only have a limited role in adult connective tissue homeostasis, partly due to a limited availability of cell-binding sites in the mature fibrillar collagen matrices. However, some recent data suggest that, instead, they are more crucial for dynamic connective tissue remodeling events - such as wound healing - where they might act specifically to remodel and restore the tissue architecture. This Commentary discusses the recent development in the field of collagen-binding integrins, their roles in physiological and pathological settings with special emphasis on wound healing, fibrosis and tumor-stroma interactions, and include a discussion of the most recently identified newcomers to this subfamily - integrins α10β1 and α11β1. PMID:26857815

  6. Chest High Resolution Computed Tomography Findings in Connective Tissue Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Farrokh, Donya; Javanbakht, Aida; Raufi, Elahe

    2013-01-01

    Background Lung disorders are important for prognosis of connective tissue disease (CTD). Thus, chest radiography, High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) of the chest and ultrasonic echocardiogram are suggested after the diagnosis of these conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate chest HRCT findings in patients with CTD. Materials and Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study, we evaluated HRCT findings in patients with (CTD) hospitalized in Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad from 2006 - 2011. Patients age, sex, type of rheumatic disease and HRCT results were collected and analyzed by SPSS version 16.0 software. Results Out of 75 patients (78.67% females, 21.33% males with a mean age of 41.6 years), 56% had respiratory symptoms. Scleroderma was the most common disease (38.6%) followed by rheumatoid arthritis (26.6%) and systemic lupus erythematosus (14.6%). Interstitial tissue involvement of the lung was the most frequent finding in patients with scleroderma, dermatomyositis, polymyositis and Sjogren's syndrome (48.3%, 57.1%, 60% and 66.7%, respectively). Pleural thickening was the most common finding in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (45%). Pleural effusion was the most frequent finding in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (45.4%). Lymphadenopathy and bronchiectasis had the lowest prevalence (1.3%). Conclusion Our data shows that interstitial tissue involvement, pleural thickening and pleural effusion are common in patients with rheumatic diseases which is consistent with some previous studies. PMID:25191473

  7. T Cells with Low Avidity for a Tissue-Restricted Antigen Routinely Evade Central and Peripheral Tolerance and Cause Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Zehn, Dietmar; Bevan, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary T cells causing autoimmunity must escape tolerance. We observed that CD8+ T cells with high avidity for an antigen expressed in the pancreas, kidney, and thymic medulla were efficiently removed from a polyclonal repertoire by central and peripheral tolerance mechanisms. However, both mechanisms spared low-avidity T cells from elimination. Neither the introduction of activated, self-antigen-specific CD4+ helper T cells nor a global inflammatory stimulus were sufficient to activate the low-avidity CD8+ T cells and did not break tolerance. In contrast, challenge with a recombinant bacterium expressing the self antigen primed the low-avidity T cells, and the animals rapidly developed autoimmune diabetes. We suggest that whereas thymic and peripheral tolerance mechanisms remove cells that can be primed by endogenous amounts of self antigen, they do not guard against tissue destruction by low-avidity effector T cells, which have been primed by higher amounts of self antigen or by crossreactive antigens. PMID:16879996

  8. [Targeted therapies including monoclonal antibodies for connective tissue diseases].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Taichi; Sumida, Takayuki

    2009-03-01

    Recent advance of targeted therapies including monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins has allowed effective strategies in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. And now, TNF inhibitors are broadly used for rheumatoid arthritis and prevent the disease progression. Meanwhile, B cell targeted therapies and anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody treatment are not only used for second line biological agents for rheumatoid arthritis, but also expected for the treatments of various autoimmune diseases. Recent year, some of novel small molecules, which inhibit the signal transduction of various surface receptors of immune cells, are in clinical trials. These drugs will be a breakthrough for the treatment of some autoimmune disorders. PMID:19280937

  9. Connective tissue and immobilization. Key factors in musculoskeletal degeneration?

    PubMed

    Videman, T

    1987-08-01

    Periarticular connective tissue is one important part of the musculoskeletal system. Its unique ability to adapt to the shortest distance between its origin and insertion, however, produces harmful effects during immobilization. All situations that lead to immobilization can cause some degree of degenerative change in the musculoskeletal system. When immobilization, whatever its cause, cannot be avoided, every attempt should be made to minimize it and to try to treat its harmful effects. There is some evidence that early mobilization, traction, and continuous passive motion overcome the harmful effects of immobilization, but more knowledge on this subject is needed. Animal experiments play an important role in the attainment of knowledge of immobilization and mobilization processes in health and disease. PMID:3608308

  10. Management of interstitial lung disease associated with connective tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Mathai, Stephen C; Danoff, Sonye K

    2016-01-01

    The lung is a common site of complications of systemic connective tissue disease (CTD), and lung involvement can present in several ways. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) and pulmonary hypertension are the most common lung manifestations in CTD. Although it is generally thought that interstitial lung disease develops later on in CTD it is often the initial presentation ("lung dominant" CTD). ILD can be present in most types of CTD, including rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus, polymyositis or dermatomyositis, Sjögren's syndrome, and mixed connective tissue disease. Despite similarities in clinical and pathologic presentation, the prognosis and treatment of CTD associated ILD (CTD-ILD) can differ greatly from that of other forms of ILD, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) can present as a primary vasculopathy in pulmonary arterial hypertension or in association with ILD (PH-ILD). Therefore, detailed history, physical examination, targeted serologic testing, and, occasionally, lung biopsy are needed to diagnose CTD-ILD, whereas both non-invasive and invasive assessments of pulmonary hemodynamics are needed to diagnose pulmonary hypertension. Immunosuppression is the mainstay of treatment for ILD, although data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to support specific treatments are lacking. Furthermore, treatment strategies vary according to the clinical situation-for example, the treatment of a patient newly diagnosed as having CTD-ILD differs from that of someone with an acute exacerbation of the disease. Immunosuppression is indicated only in select cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension related to CTD; more commonly, selective pulmonary vasodilators are used. For both diseases, comorbidities such as sleep disordered breathing, symptoms of dyspnea, and cough should be evaluated and treated. Lung transplantation should be considered in patients with advanced disease but is not always feasible because of other manifestations of CTD and comorbidities. Clinical trials of novel therapies including immunosuppressive therapies are needed to inform best treatment strategies. PMID:26912511

  11. Connective tissue adaptations in the fingers of performance sport climbers.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Tonja; Allenspach, Philippe; Seifert, Burkhardt; Schweizer, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the changes of the connective tissue in the fingers of performance sport climbers resulting after a minimum of 15 years of climbing. Evaluation was performed by ultrasonography on the palmar side of the fingers (Dig) II-V to measure the thickness of the A2 and A4 annular pulleys, the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and profundus (FDP) tendons and the palmar plates (PP's) of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) as well as distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint in sagittal and axial direction. Totally, 31 experienced male sport climbers (mean age 37y, 30-48y grade French scale median 8b, range 7b+ to 9a+) participated in the study. The control-group consisted of 20 male non-climbers (age 37y, 30-51y). The A2 and A4 pulleys in climbers were all significantly thicker (A2 Dig III 62%, Dig IV 69%; A4 Dig III 69%, Dig IV 76%) as compared to non-climbers pulleys. All PP's of the DIP joints were also significantly thicker, particularly at Dig III and IV (76 and 67%), whereas the PP's at PIP joints were only scarce significant for three joints. Differences of the diameter of the flexor tendons were less distinct (1-21%) being significant only over the middle phalanx. High load to the fingers of rock climbers after a minimum of 15 years of climbing years induced considerable connective tissue adaptions in the fingers, most distinct at the flexor tendon pulleys and joint capsule (PP) of the DIP joints and well detectable by ultrasound. PMID:26267120

  12. A comparative study of mRNA and protein expression of the autoimmune regulator gene (Aire) in embryonic and adult murine tissues.

    PubMed

    Adamson, K A; Pearce, S H S; Lamb, J R; Seckl, J R; Howie, S E M

    2004-02-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) is a rare autosomal recessive human disorder caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE) and characterized by multiple autoimmune diseases. As reports of the tissue expression pattern of the murine Aire gene are discordant, a comprehensive survey of Aire expression was undertaken in adult and embryonic tissues at the mRNA and protein levels using real-time RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. In the adult, the highest Aire mRNA expression was in the thymus. All the other tissues investigated expressed Aire mRNA at low levels, but it was barely detectable in the adrenal gland. Aire protein expression was observed in the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes. A common pattern was observed in other tissues, with staining in epithelial cells. An exception to this was the gut, where staining was seen in the mucin spaces. In embryonic tissue, Aire mRNA and protein expression was detected from E14.5 in the thymus. In the fetal liver, unlike the adult, staining was observed at E14.5 and decreased towards term. Thus, Aire is expressed in immunologically relevant tissues and in a restricted number of extra-immunological tissues in the adult. Furthermore, the presence of Aire protein is reported in extra-thymic tissues of the embryo. PMID:14743500

  13. Deciphering Membrane-Associated Molecular Processes in Target Tissue of Autoimmune Uveitis by Label-Free Quantitative Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, Stefanie M.; Dietter, Johannes; Kramer, Roxane L.; Hofmaier, Florian; Zipplies, Johanna K.; Amann, Barbara; Feuchtinger, Annette; Deeg, Cornelia A.; Ueffing, Marius

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune uveitis is a blinding disease presenting with autoantibodies against eye-specific proteins as well as autoagressive T cells invading and attacking the immune-privileged target tissue retina. The molecular events enabling T cells to invade and attack the tissue have remained elusive. Changes in membrane protein expression patterns between diseased and healthy stages are especially interesting because initiating events of disease will most likely occur at membranes. Since disease progression is accompanied with a break-down of the blood-retinal barrier, serum-derived proteins mask the potential target tissue-related changes. To overcome this limitation, we used membrane-enriched fractions derived from retinas of the only available spontaneous animal model for the disease equine recurrent uveitis, and compared expression levels by a label-free LC-MSMS-based strategy to healthy control samples. We could readily identify a total of 893 equine proteins with 57% attributed to the Gene Ontology project term membrane. Of these, 179 proteins were found differentially expressed in equine recurrent uveitis tissue. Pathway enrichment analyses indicated an increase in proteins related to antigen processing and presentation, TNF receptor signaling, integrin cell surface interactions and focal adhesions. Additionally, loss of retina-specific proteins reflecting decrease of vision was observed as well as an increase in Mller glial cell-specific proteins indicating glial reactivity. Selected protein candidates (caveolin 1, integrin alpha 1 and focal adhesion kinase) were validated by immunohistochemistry and tissue staining pattern pointed to a significant increase of these proteins at the level of the outer limiting membrane which is part of the outer blood-retinal barrier. Taken together, the membrane enrichment in combination with LC-MSMSbased label-free quantification greatly increased the sensitivity of the comparative tissue profiling and resulted in detection of novel molecular pathways related to equine recurrent uveitis. PMID:20601722

  14. Deciphering membrane-associated molecular processes in target tissue of autoimmune uveitis by label-free quantitative mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Stefanie M; Dietter, Johannes; Kramer, Roxane L; Hofmaier, Florian; Zipplies, Johanna K; Amann, Barbara; Feuchtinger, Annette; Deeg, Cornelia A; Ueffing, Marius

    2010-10-01

    Autoimmune uveitis is a blinding disease presenting with autoantibodies against eye-specific proteins as well as autoagressive T cells invading and attacking the immune-privileged target tissue retina. The molecular events enabling T cells to invade and attack the tissue have remained elusive. Changes in membrane protein expression patterns between diseased and healthy stages are especially interesting because initiating events of disease will most likely occur at membranes. Since disease progression is accompanied with a break-down of the blood-retinal barrier, serum-derived proteins mask the potential target tissue-related changes. To overcome this limitation, we used membrane-enriched fractions derived from retinas of the only available spontaneous animal model for the disease equine recurrent uveitis, and compared expression levels by a label-free LC-MSMS-based strategy to healthy control samples. We could readily identify a total of 893 equine proteins with 57% attributed to the Gene Ontology project term "membrane." Of these, 179 proteins were found differentially expressed in equine recurrent uveitis tissue. Pathway enrichment analyses indicated an increase in proteins related to antigen processing and presentation, TNF receptor signaling, integrin cell surface interactions and focal adhesions. Additionally, loss of retina-specific proteins reflecting decrease of vision was observed as well as an increase in Mller glial cell-specific proteins indicating glial reactivity. Selected protein candidates (caveolin 1, integrin alpha 1 and focal adhesion kinase) were validated by immunohistochemistry and tissue staining pattern pointed to a significant increase of these proteins at the level of the outer limiting membrane which is part of the outer blood-retinal barrier. Taken together, the membrane enrichment in combination with LC-MSMS-based label-free quantification greatly increased the sensitivity of the comparative tissue profiling and resulted in detection of novel molecular pathways related to equine recurrent uveitis. PMID:20601722

  15. Skin involvement in systemic autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Rashtak, Shadi; Pittelkow, Mark R

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases present with varied and broad-ranging cutaneous manifestations. Connective tissue disorders have a plethora of skin manifestations such as rheumatoid nodules in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic plaques in psoriatic arthritis, acne and pustulosis in SAPHO syndrome, livedo reticularis and ulceration in antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and xerosis in Sjgren syndrome. Cutaneous manifestations of autoimmune vasculitides such as polyarteritis nodosa, Kawasaki disease, Henoch-Schnlein purpura, cryoglobulinemic vasculitis, Behcet disease, Wegener granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis and Churg-Strauss syndrome range from papules, subcutaneous nodules and livedo reticularis, to palpable purpura, hemorrhagic bulla and ulcerating lesions. Pathological skin manifestations in autoimmune endocrinopathies include pretibial myxedema/dermopathy in Graves' disease, diabetic dermopathy and necrobiosis lipoidica in type I autoimmune diabetes mellitus, candidiasis, ectodermal dysplasia, vitiligo and alopecia areata in APECED and uniform hyperpigmentation of the skin in Addison's disease. Autoimmune gastrointestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (with erythema nodosum), gluten-sensitive enteropathy (with dermatitis herpetiformis), autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis (with jaundice and pruritus), hematologic/oncologic disorders such as acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (with skin manifestations ranging from pruritic maculopapular eruptions and lichen planus-like lesions to generalized scleroderma), and paraneoplastic autoimmune dermatoses are discussed as well. PMID:18460895

  16. Sexual dimorphism in autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Rubtsova, Kira; Marrack, Philippa; Rubtsov, Anatoly V

    2015-06-01

    Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system attacks and destroys the organs and tissues of its own host. Autoimmunity is the third most common type of disease in the United States. Because there is no cure for autoimmunity, it is extremely important to study the mechanisms that trigger these diseases. Most autoimmune diseases predominantly affect females, indicating a strong sex bias. Various factors, including sex hormones, the presence or absence of a second X chromosome, and sex-specific gut microbiota can influence gene expression in a sex-specific way. These changes in gene expression may, in turn, lead to susceptibility or protection from autoimmunity, creating a sex bias for autoimmune diseases. In this Review we discuss recent findings in the field of sex-dependent regulation of gene expression and autoimmunity. PMID:25915581

  17. Meta-analysis reveals an association of PTPN22 C1858T with autoimmune diseases, which depends on the localization of the affected tissue.

    PubMed

    Zheng, J; Ibrahim, S; Petersen, F; Yu, X

    2012-12-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) is a strong susceptibility gene shared by many autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms underlying this relationship. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the association between PTPN22 polymorphism C1858T and autoimmune diseases. The results showed a remarkable pattern; PTPN22 C1858T was strongly associated with type I diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, immune thrombocytopenia, generalized vitiligo with concomitant autoimmune diseases, idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, Graves' disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, myasthenia gravis, systemic lupus erythematosus, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis and Addison's disease. By contrast, PTPN22 C1858T showed a negligible association with systemic sclerosis, celiac disease, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, ankylosing spondylitis, pemphigus vulgaris, ulcerative colitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, Crohn's disease and acute anterior uveitis. Further analysis revealed a clear distinction between the two groups of diseases with regard to their targeted tissues: most autoimmune diseases showing an insignificant association with PTPN22 C1858T manifest in skin, the gastrointestinal tract or in immune privileged sites. These results showed that the association of PTPN22 polymorphism with autoimmune diseases depends on the localization of the affected tissue, suggesting a role of targeted organ variation in the disease manifestations. PMID:23076337

  18. Vascularized interpositional periosteal connective tissue flap: A modern approach to augment soft tissue

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Chitra; Deora, Savita; Abraham, Dennis; Gaba, Rohini; Kumar, Baron Tarun; Kudva, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Context: Nowadays esthetics plays an important role in dentistry along with function of the prosthesis. Various soft tissue augmentation procedures are available to correct the ridge defects in the anterior region. The newer technique, vascularized interpositional periosteal connective tissue (VIP-CT) flap has been introduced, which has the potential to augment predictable amount of tissue and has many benefits when compared to other techniques. Aim: The study was designed to determine the efficacy of the VIP-CT flap in augmenting the ridge defect. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with Class III (Seibert's) ridge defects were treated with VIP-CT flap technique before fabricating fixed partial denture. Height and width of the ridge defects were measured before and after the procedure. Subsequent follow-up was done every 3 months for 1-year. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired t-test was performed to detect the significance of the procedure. Results: The surgical site healed uneventfully. The predictable amount of soft tissue augmentation had been achieved with the procedure. The increase in height and width of the ridge was statistically highly significant. Conclusion: The VIP-CT flap technique was effective in augmenting the soft tissue in esthetic area that remained stable over a long period. PMID:25810597

  19. Chondrosarcoma of the calcaneum and massive soft tissue calcification in a patient with hereditary and acquired connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Wicks, I P; Fleming, A

    1987-04-01

    We describe the first case of the coexistence of the hereditary connective tissue disorder multiple exostoses (HME) and an acquired connective tissue disorder manifest by the overlap of dermatomyositis (DM), scleroderma (PSS), high titre speckled pattern antinuclear antibodies, and increased antibodies to double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Furthermore this patient developed chondrosarcoma of the calcaneum (an unusual site for this malignancy) and massive soft tissue calcification (an unusual feature of PSS, adult DM, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)). PMID:3592793

  20. Development of mixed connective tissue disease and Sjögren's syndrome in a patient with trisomy X.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, M; Ikeda, K; Nakamura, T; Iwamoto, T; Furuta, S; Nakajima, H

    2015-10-01

    Increased risk of developing systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been reported in patients with Klinefelter syndrome. Here, we describe a 16-year-old Japanese patient with trisomy X (47,XXX) who developed mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) and Sjögren's syndrome. She had polyarthritis, edematous fingers with Raynaud's phenomenon, sicca syndrome, interstitial lung disease, possible myositis, and was positive for anti-nuclear antibody, anti-nRNP antibody and rheumatoid factor. This is the first report in the literature of a case of MCTD with female polysomy X, which further supports the link between the presence of extra X chromosome(s) and the development of autoimmune diseases. PMID:25854827

  1. Connective tissue growth factor is a substrate of ADAM28

    SciTech Connect

    Mochizuki, Satsuki; Tanaka, Rena; Shimoda, Masayuki; Onuma, Junko; Fujii, Yutaka; Jinno, Hiromitsu; Okada, Yasunori

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} The hyper-variable region in the cysteine-rich domain of ADAM28 binds to C-terminal domain of CTGF. {yields} ADAM28 cleaves CTGF alone and CTGF in the CTGF/VEGF{sub 165} complex. {yields} CTGF digestion by ADAM28 releases biologically active VEGF{sub 165} from the complex. {yields} ADAM28, CTGF and VEGF{sub 165} are commonly co-expressed by carcinoma cells in human breast carcinoma tissues. {yields} These suggest that ADAM28 promotes VEGF{sub 165}-induced angiogenesis in the breast carcinomas by selective CTGF digestion in the CTGF/VEGF{sub 165} complex. -- Abstract: ADAM28, a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) gene family, is over-expressed by carcinoma cells and the expression correlates with carcinoma cell proliferation and progression in human lung and breast carcinomas. However, information about substrates of ADAM28 is limited. We screened interacting molecules of ADAM28 in human lung cDNA library by yeast two-hybrid system and identified connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Binding of CTGF to proADAM28 was demonstrated by yeast two-hybrid assay and protein binding assay. ADAM28 cleaved CTGF in dose- and time-dependent manners at the Ala{sup 181}-Tyr{sup 182} and Asp{sup 191}-Pro{sup 192} bonds in the hinge region of the molecule. ADAM28 selectively digested CTGF in the complex of CTGF and vascular endothelial growth factor{sub 165} (VEGF{sub 165}), releasing biologically active VEGF{sub 165} from the complex. RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that ADAM28, CTGF and VEGF are commonly co-expressed in the breast carcinoma tissues. These data provide the first evidence that CTGF is a novel substrate of ADAM28 and suggest that ADAM28 may promote VEGF{sub 165}-induced angiogenesis in the breast carcinomas by the CTGF digestion in the CTGF/VEGF{sub 165} complex.

  2. Inhibition of rheumatoid arthritis by blocking connective tissue growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Nozawa, Kazuhisa; Fujishiro, Maki; Takasaki, Yoshinari; Sekigawa, Iwao

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains to be completely elucidated so far; however, it is known that proinflammatory cytokines play a pivotal role in the induction of RA. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?), in particular, is considered to play a central role in bone destruction by mediating the abnormal activation of osteoclasts or the production of proteolytic enzymes through direct or indirect mechanisms. The use of TNF-? blocking agents has a significant impact on RA therapy. Anti-TNF-? blocking agents such as infliximab are very effective for treatment of RA, especially for the prevention of articular destruction. We have previously shown that several proteins exhibited extensive changes in their expression after amelioration of RA with infliximab treatment. Among the proteins, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has a significant role for the development of RA. Herein, we review the function of CTGF in the pathogenesis of RA and discuss the possibility of a novel treatment for RA. We propose that CTGF is a potentially novel effector molecule in the pathogenesis of RA. Blocking the CTGF pathways by biological agents may have great beneficial effect in patients with RA. PMID:25405094

  3. Aging of connective tissues: experimental facts and theoretical considerations.

    PubMed

    Labat-Robert, J; Robert, L

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe in detail the age-dependent modifications of connective tissues, separately for their cellular and extracellular compartments. Cell aging was studied by the in vitro method established by Hayflick as well as by ex vivo explant cultures, and results with both methods are discussed. Follows then the description of age changes of macromolecular components of extracellular matrix as well as the decline with age of receptor-mediated cell-matrix interactions. These interactions mediated by several types of receptors, as integrins, the elastin receptor and others, play a crucial role for the definition and regulation of the differentiated cell phenotype. Age-related modifications of both matrix components and receptors are discussed in order to explain the mechanisms of the age-dependent modulations of cell-matrix interactions. Finally, we discuss the relations between age changes of matrix components and the onset of age-related diseases, especially cardiovascular pathologies mostly involved in age-dependence of functions and limitation of longevity. PMID:24862017

  4. Connective tissue growth factor induces cardiac hypertrophy through Akt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hayata, Nozomi; Fujio, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Iwakura, Tomohiko; Obana, Masanori; Takai, Mika; Mohri, Tomomi; Nonen, Shinpei; Maeda, Makiko; Azuma, Junichi

    2008-05-30

    In the process of cardiac remodeling, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is secreted from cardiac myocytes. Though CTGF is well known to promote fibroblast proliferation, its pathophysiological effects in cardiac myocytes remain to be elucidated. In this study, we examined the biological effects of CTGF in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. Cardiac myocytes stimulated with full length CTGF and its C-terminal region peptide showed the increase in cell surface area. Similar to hypertrophic ligands for G-protein coupled receptors, such as endothelin-1, CTGF activated amino acid uptake; however, CTGF-induced hypertrophy is not associated with the increased expression of skeletal actin or BNP, analyzed by Northern-blotting. CTGF treatment activated ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, JNK and Akt. The inhibition of Akt by transducing dominant-negative Akt abrogated CTGF-mediated increase in cell size, while the inhibition of MAP kinases did not affect the cardiac hypertrophy. These findings indicate that CTGF is a novel hypertrophic factor in cardiac myocytes.

  5. Infections, toxic chemicals and dietary peptides binding to lymphocyte receptors and tissue enzymes are major instigators of autoimmunity in autism.

    PubMed

    Vojdani, A; Pangborn, J B; Vojdani, E; Cooper, E L

    2003-01-01

    Similar to many complex autoimmune diseases, genetic and environmental factors including diet, infection and xenobiotics play a critical role in the development of autism. In this study, we postulated that infectious agent antigens such as streptokinase, dietary peptides (gliadin and casein) and ethyl mercury (xenobiotic) bind to different lymphocyte receptors and tissue enzyme (DPP IV or CD26). We assessed this hypothesis first by measuring IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies against CD26, CD69, streptokinase (SK), gliadin and casein peptides and against ethyl mercury bound to human serum albumin in patients with autism. A significant percentage of children with autism developed anti-SK, anti-gliadin and casein peptides and anti-ethyl mercury antibodies, concomitant with the appearance of anti-CD26 and anti-CD69 autoantibodies. These antibodies are synthesized as a result of SK, gliadin, casein and ethyl mercury binding to CD26 and CD69, indicating that they are specific. Immune absorption demonstrated that only specific antigens, like CD26, were capable of significantly reducing serum anti-CD26 levels. However, for direct demonstration of SK, gliadin, casein and ethyl mercury to CD26 or CD69, microtiter wells were coated with CD26 or CD69 alone or in combination with SK, gliadin, casein or ethyl mercury and then reacted with enzyme labeled rabbit anti-CD26 or anti-CD69. Adding these molecules to CD26 or CD69 resulted in 28-86% inhibition of CD26 or CD69 binding to anti-CD26 or anti-CD69 antibodies. The highest % binding of these antigens or peptides to CD26 or CD69 was attributed to SK and the lowest to casein peptides. We, therefore, propose that bacterial antigens (SK), dietary peptides (gliadin, casein) and Thimerosal (ethyl mercury) in individuals with pre-disposing HLA molecules, bind to CD26 or CD69 and induce antibodies against these molecules. In conclusion, this study is apparently the first to demonstrate that dietary peptides, bacterial toxins and xenobiotics bind to lymphocyte receptors and/or tissue enzymes, resulting in autoimmune reaction in children with autism. PMID:14611720

  6. Tertiary Lymphoid Tissue Forms in Retinas of Mice with Spontaneous Autoimmune Uveitis and Has Consequences on Visual Function.

    PubMed

    Kielczewski, Jennifer L; Horai, Reiko; Jittayasothorn, Yingyos; Chan, Chi-Chao; Caspi, Rachel R

    2016-02-01

    During chronic inflammation, tertiary lymphoid tissue (TLT) can form within an inflamed organ, including the CNS. However, little is known about TLT formation in the neuroretina. In a novel spontaneous autoimmune mouse model of uveitis (R161H), we identified well-organized lymphoid aggregates in the retina and examined them for TLT characteristics. Presence of immune cells, tissue-specific markers, and gene expression patterns typically associated with germinal centers and T follicular helper cells were examined using immunohistochemistry and gene analysis of laser capture microdissected retina. Our data revealed the retinal lymphoid structures contained CD4(+) T cells and B cells in well-defined zonal areas that expressed classic germinal center markers, peanut lectin (agglutinin) and GL-7. Gene expression analysis showed upregulation of T follicular helper cell markers, most notably CXCR5 and its ligand CXCL13, and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed CXCR5 expression, typically associated with CD4(+) T follicular helper cells. Highly organized stromal cell networks, a hallmark of organized lymphoid tissue, were also present. Positive staining for phospho-Zap70 in retina-specific T cells indicated CD4(+) T cells were being activated within these lymphoid structures. CD138(+)/B220(+) plasma cells were detected, suggesting the retinal lymphoid aggregates give rise to functional germinal centers, which produce Abs. Interestingly, eyes with lymphoid aggregates exhibited lower inflammatory scores by fundus examination and a slower initial rate of loss of visual function by electroretinography, compared with eyes without these structures. Our findings suggest that the lymphoid aggregates in the retina of R161H mice represent organized TLT, which impact the course of chronic uveitis. PMID:26712943

  7. Connective tissue growth factor: expression in human skin in vivo and inhibition by ultraviolet irradiation.

    PubMed

    Quan, Taihao; He, Tianyuan; Kang, Sewon; Voorhees, John J; Fisher, Gary J

    2002-03-01

    Connective tissue growth factor, which is induced by transforming growth factor beta, has been reported to mediate the stimulatory actions of transforming growth factor beta on type I procollagen synthesis. Connective tissue growth factor is expressed in fibrotic disease such as scleroderma, where it is believed to promote abnormal deposition of collagen. Connective tissue growth factor expression has not been described in normal human skin or cultured skin cells, however. We report here that connective tissue growth factor mRNA is constitutively expressed in normal human skin. In situ hybridization demonstrated that connective tissue growth factor mRNA was expressed in keratinocytes throughout the epidermis and in dermal cells. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that the level of connective tissue growth factor mRNA in the epidermis and dermis of normal human skin was comparable to the level of housekeeping gene 36B4. Ultraviolet irradiation (2 minimal erythema dose, UVB/A2 source) reduced connective tissue growth factor mRNA expression throughout the epidermis and dermis in normal human skin in vivo. Connective tissue growth factor mRNA was reduced (30%) within 4 h post ultraviolet irradiation, and remained reduced (50%) 8-24 h post ultraviolet. Connective tissue growth factor mRNA and protein were also constitutively highly expressed in normal cultured human skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Ultraviolet irradiation of cultured normal human skin fibroblasts resulted in a time-dependent inhibition of connective tissue growth factor mRNA expression. At 24 h post ultraviolet, connective tissue growth factor mRNA expression was reduced 80%. Transforming growth factor beta1 rapidly induced connective tissue growth factor mRNA levels (5-fold within 4 h) in skin fibroblasts, but not keratinocytes, and this induction was attenuated 80% by ultraviolet irradiation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that ultraviolet irradiation reduced protein binding to the transforming growth factor beta/Smad responsiveness elements in the connective tissue growth factor gene promoter, in human skin in vivo and human skin fibroblasts. Constitutive expression of connective tissue growth factor in normal human skin suggests that it is a physiologic regulator of procollagen synthesis. Ultraviolet reduction of connective tissue growth factor expression may contribute to reduced procollagen synthesis observed in ultraviolet-irradiated normal human skin and human skin fibroblasts. PMID:11874477

  8. Autoimmunity to collagen in adult periodontal disease: immunoglobulin classes in sera and tissue.

    PubMed

    Anusaksathien, O; Singh, G; Matthews, N; Dolby, A E

    1992-01-01

    The immunoglobulin class distribution of antibody to human collagen type I has been examined in sera and gingival extracts from patients with adult chronic periodontitis. Tissue extracts were made either by simple washing or ultrasonication. With either method, IgG and IgA antibodies to collagen were present in higher concentration in tissue extracts than in autologous serum when adjustment was made for dilution differences. No significant differences were found for IgM antibodies. Antibodies to human collagen type I are usually "natural antibodies" of the IgM class and, therefore, our findings suggest a class switch to IgG in inflamed gingivae, presumably due to prolonged antigenic stimulation. PMID:1531510

  9. Loss of the lupus autoantigen Ro52/Trim21 induces tissue inflammation and systemic autoimmunity by disregulating the IL-23-Th17 pathway.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Alexander; Dardalhon, Valerie; Brauner, Susanna; Ambrosi, Aurelie; Higgs, Rowan; Quintana, Fransisco J; Sjstrand, Maria; Eloranta, Maija-Leena; N Gabhann, Joan; Winqvist, Ola; Sundelin, Birgitta; Jefferies, Caroline A; Rozell, Bjrn; Kuchroo, Vijay K; Wahren-Herlenius, Marie

    2009-08-01

    Ro52/Trim21 is targeted as an autoantigen in systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjgren's syndrome. Polymorphisms in the Ro52 gene have been linked to these autoimmune conditions, but the molecular mechanism by which Ro52 may promote development of systemic autoimmune diseases has not been explored. To address this issue, we generated Ro52-null mice (Ro52(-/-)), which appear phenotypically normal if left unmanipulated. However, Ro52(-/-) mice develop severe dermatitis extending from the site of tissue injury induced by ear tags. The affected mice further develop several signs of systemic lupus with hypergammaglobulinemia, autoantibodies to DNA, proteinuria, and kidney pathology. Ro52, which was recently identified as an E3 ligase, mediates ubiquitination of several members of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family, and the Ro52-deficient mice have an enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokines that are regulated by the IRF transcription factors, including cytokines involved in the Th17 pathway (interleukin [IL] 6, IL-12/IL-23p40, and IL-17). Loss of IL-23/IL-17 by genetic deletion of IL-23/p19 in the Ro52(-/-) mice conferred protection from skin disease and systemic autoimmunity. These data reveal that the lupus-associated Ro52 protein is an important negative regulator of proinflammatory cytokine production, and they provide a mechanism by which a defective Ro52 function can lead to tissue inflammation and systemic autoimmunity through the IL-23-Th17 pathway. PMID:19635858

  10. Stem cell treatment for patients with autoimmune disease by systemic infusion of culture-expanded autologous adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Prolonged life expectancy, life style and environmental changes have caused a changing disease pattern in developed countries towards an increase of degenerative and autoimmune diseases. Stem cells have become a promising tool for their treatment by promoting tissue repair and protection from immune-attack associated damage. Patient-derived autologous stem cells present a safe option for this treatment since these will not induce immune rejection and thus multiple treatments are possible without any risk for allogenic sensitization, which may arise from allogenic stem cell transplantations. Here we report the outcome of treatments with culture expanded human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCs) of 10 patients with autoimmune associated tissue damage and exhausted therapeutic options, including autoimmune hearing loss, multiple sclerosis, polymyotitis, atopic dermatitis and rheumatoid arthritis. For treatment, we developed a standardized culture-expansion protocol for hAdMSCs from minimal amounts of fat tissue, providing sufficient number of cells for repetitive injections. High expansion efficiencies were routinely achieved from autoimmune patients and from elderly donors without measurable loss in safety profile, genetic stability, vitality and differentiation potency, migration and homing characteristics. Although the conclusions that can be drawn from the compassionate use treatments in terms of therapeutic efficacy are only preliminary, the data provide convincing evidence for safety and therapeutic properties of systemically administered AdMSC in human patients with no other treatment options. The authors believe that ex-vivo-expanded autologous AdMSCs provide a promising alternative for treating autoimmune diseases. Further clinical studies are needed that take into account the results obtained from case studies as those presented here. PMID:22017805

  11. Experimental diabetes and the lung. II. In vivo connective tissue metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ofulue, A F; Thurlbeck, W M

    1988-08-01

    In vivo lung connective tissue and DNA synthesis, following intraperitoneal injection of [14C]proline and [3H]thymidine, were studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed ad libitum. Insulin-treated diabetic and normal rats similarly fed, and undernourished rats weight-matched to the untreated diabetics, served as comparison groups. The ratio of unbound [14C]hydroxyproline to total [14C]hydroxyproline in the lung was used to assess connective tissue degradation. Compared to the normal group, the untreated diabetic animals showed similar synthesis of collagen and elastin, reduced synthesis of total protein and DNA, and decreased degradation of connective tissue. When compared with the normal group, the undernourished animals showed diminished synthesis of total protein, collagen, elastin, and DNA, and increased degradation of connective tissue. In comparison to the undernourished group, the untreated diabetic animals indicated increased synthesis of collagen and elastin, and diminished degradation of connective tissue; total protein and DNA syntheses were similar. The insulin-treated diabetic animals showed increased collagen and DNA synthesis. We conclude that experimental diabetes has a profound effect on lung connective tissue metabolism, supporting previous observations of connective tissue abnormalities and morphometric changes. The increase in lung collagen and elastin in diabetes is in part due to reduced breakdown of the connective tissue proteins. PMID:3057960

  12. Understanding Autoimmune Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Autoimmune Diseases Progress and Promise Key Words The Immune System Your immune system is the network of cells and tissues throughout ... having two parts: the acquired and the innate immune systems. The acquired (or adaptive) immune system develops as ...

  13. Application of C4d Immunohistochemistry on Routinely Processed Tissue Sections for the Diagnosis of Autoimmune Bullous Dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Villani, Axel P; Chouvet, Brigitte; Kanitakis, Jean

    2016-03-01

    The diagnosis of autoimmune bullous dermatoses relies greatly on direct immunofluorescence (DIF) examination performed on frozen tissue sections, showing deposits of immunoglobulins and/or C3 on specific cutaneous structures. However, frozen material is not always available for DIF; therefore, alternative techniques are needed in the diagnostic procedure. We therefore tested the usefulness of C4d immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections for the diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid (BP) and pemphigus (P). A retrospective immunohistochemical study was performed on biopsies of BP (n: 29) and P (n: 22, including 19 Pemphigus vulgaris and 3 paraneoplastic), submitted for routine histological examination and compared with DIF on the corresponding frozen sections. Twenty-five BP biopsies (86.2%) showed C4d deposits seen as a linear labeling along the dermal-epidermal junction and on the membrane of basal keratinocytes. Seventeen P biopsies (77.2%) showed C4d deposits in a classical "intercellular" pattern, predominating on the lower epidermal layers. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value reached 86%, 98%, 96%, and 92% in BP, respectively and 77%, 98%, 94%, and 92% in P, respectively. Furthermore, in the cases where serological tests were available, the sensitivity of C4d detection was higher than that of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay/indirect immunofluorescence in both BP (87% vs. 67%) and P (82% vs. 54.5%). We conclude that DIF on frozen sections still remains the gold standard for the immunopathological diagnosis of BP and P; however, in the absence of frozen material, C4d immunohistochemistry performed on routinely processed biopsy material can be of considerable help in confirming the diagnosis. PMID:25793311

  14. Experiment K-7-29: Connective Tissue Studies. Part 3; Rodent Tissue Repair: Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauber, W.; Fritz, V. K.; Burkovskaya, T. E.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.

    1994-01-01

    Myofiber injury-repair was studied in the rat gastrocnemius following a crush injury to the lower leg prior to flight in order to understand if the regenerative responses of muscles are altered by the lack of gravitational forces during Cosmos 2044 flight. After 14 days of flight, the gastrocnemius muscle was removed from the 5 injured flight rodents and various Earth-based treatment groups for comparison. The Earth-based animals consisted of three groups of five rats with injured muscles from a simulated, tail-suspended, and vivarium as well as an uninjured basal group. The gastrocnemius muscle from each was evaluated by histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques to document myofiber, vascular, and connective tissue alterations following injury. In general the repair process was somewhat similar in all injured muscle samples with regard to extracellular matrix organization and myofiber regeneration. Small and large myofibers were present with a newly organized extracellular matrix indicative of myogenesis and muscle regeneration. In the tail-suspended animals, a more complete repair was observed with no enlarged area of non-muscle cells or matrix material visible. In contrast, the muscle samples from the flight animals were less well differentiated with more macrophages and blood vessels in the repair region but small myofibers and proteoglycans, nevertheless, were in their usual configuration. Thus, myofiber repair did vary in muscles from the different groups, but for the most part, resulted in functional muscle tissue.

  15. In-body tissue-engineered collagenous connective tissue membranes (BIOSHEETs) for potential corneal stromal substitution.

    PubMed

    Takiyama, Naoaki; Mizuno, Takeshi; Iwai, Ryosuke; Uechi, Masami; Nakayama, Yasuhide

    2013-12-10

    There is a severe shortage of donor cornea for transplantation in many countries. Collagenous connective tissue membranes, named BIOSHEETs, grown in vivo were successfully implanted in rabbit corneal stroma for in vivo evaluation of their suitability as a corneal stromal substitute to solve this global donor shortage. BIOSHEETs were prepared by embedding silicone moulds into dorsal subcutaneous pouches in rabbits for 1?month and stored in glycerol. After re-swelling in saline and trephining, disk-shaped BIOSHEETs (4?mm diameter) were allogeneically implanted into stromal pockets prepared in the right cornea of seven rabbits. Clinical tests for corneal thickness and transparency, and tissue analyses were performed. Because the BIOSHEETs (thickness, 131??14?m) obtained were opaque immediately after implantation, the transparency of the cornea decreased. The total thickness of the BIOSHEET-implanted cornea increased from 364??21.0?m to 726??131?m. After 4?weeks' implantation, the thickness of the cornea stabilized (493??80?m at 4?weeks and 447??46?m at 8?weeks). The transparency of the cornea increased progressively with time of implantation. The random orientation of collagen fibrils in the original BIOSHEETs tended to be homogeneous, similar to that of the native stroma. No inflammatory cells accumulated and fibroblast-like cells infiltrated the implant. The BIOSHEETs showed high biocompatibility with stromal tissues; however, further studies are needed to test its functional aspects. Although this research is only intended as a proof of concept, BIOSHEETs may be considered a feasible corneal stromal replacement, especially for treating visual impairment caused by stromal haze. Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24668614

  16. Arthritis, a complex connective and synovial joint destructive autoimmune disease: animal models of arthritis with varied etiopathology and their significance.

    PubMed

    Naik, S R; Wala, S M

    2014-01-01

    Animal models play a vital role in simplifying the complexity of pathogenesis and understanding the indefinable processes and diverse mechanisms involved in the progression of disease, and in providing new knowledge that may facilitate the drug development program. Selection of the animal models has to be carefully done, so that there is morphologic similarity to human arthritic conditions that may predict as well as augment the effective screening of novel antiarthritic agents. The review describes exclusively animal models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). The development of RA has been vividly described using a wide variety of animal models with diverse insults (viz. collagen, Freund's adjuvant, proteoglycan, pristane, avridine, formaldehyde, etc.) that are able to simulate/trigger the cellular, biochemical, immunological, and histologic alterations, which perhaps mimic, to a great extent, the pathologic conditions of human RA. Similarly, numerous methods of inducing animal models with OA have also been described (such as spontaneous, surgical, chemical, and physical methods including genetically manipulated animals) which may give an insight into the events of alteration in connective tissues and their metabolism (synovial membrane/tissues along with cartilage) and bone erosion. The development of such arthritic animal models may throw light for better understanding of the etiopathogenic mechanisms of human arthritis and give new impetus for the drug development program on arthritis, a crippling disease. PMID:25121375

  17. Autoimmune statin-induced myopathy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jonathan B.; Ghobrial, Ibrahim I.

    2015-01-01

    A 58-year-old woman with a history of statin use presented with a 4-month history of progressive weakness of both shoulders and thighs. Laboratory and electromyography testing confirmed the presence of generalized proximal myopathy and ruled out connective tissue disease, malignancy, or active viral infection. Muscle biopsy was consistent with necrotizing autoimmune myopathy. PMID:26333863

  18. A Four-Step Model for the IL-6 Amplifier, a Regulator of Chronic Inflammations in Tissue-Specific MHC Class II-Associated Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    It is commonly thought that autoimmune diseases are caused by the breakdown of self-tolerance, which suggests the recognition of specific antigens by autoreactive CD4+ T cells contribute to the specificity of autoimmune diseases (Marrack et al., 2001; Mathis and Benoist, 2004). In several cases, however, even for diseases associated with class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles, the causative tissue-specific antigens recognized by memory/activated CD4+ T cells have not been established (Mocci et al., 2000; Skapenko et al., 2005). Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and arthritis in F759 knock-in mice (F759 mice) are such examples (Atsumi et al., 2002; Brennan et al., 2002; Falgarone et al., 2009). These include associations with class II MHC and CD4 molecules; increased numbers of memory/activated CD4+ T cells; and improved outcomes in response to suppressions and/or deficiencies in class II MHC molecules, CD4+ T cells, and the T cell survival cytokine IL-7. Regarding the development of arthritis in F759 mice, it is not only the immune system, but also non-immune tissue that are involved, indicating that the importance of their interactions (Sawa et al., 2006, 2009; Ogura et al., 2008; Hirano, 2010; Murakami et al., 2011). Furthermore, we have shown that local events such as microbleeding together with an accumulation of activated CD4+ T cells in a manner independent of tissue antigen-recognitions induces arthritis in the joints of F759 mice (Murakami et al., 2011). For example, local microbleeding-mediated CCL20 expression induce such an accumulation, causing arthritis development via chronic activation of an IL-17A-dependent IL-6 signaling amplification loop in type 1 collagen+ cells that is triggered by CD4+ T cell-derived cytokine(s) such as IL-17A, which leads to the synergistic activation of STAT3 and NF?B in non-hematopoietic cells in the joint (Murakami et al., 2011). We named this loop the IL-6-mediated inflammation amplifier, or IL-6 amplifier for short (Ogura et al., 2008; Hirano, 2010; Murakami et al., 2011). Thus, certain class II MHC-associated, tissue-specific autoimmune diseases, including some RA subtypes, may be induced by local events that cause an antigen-independent accumulation of effector CD4+ T cells followed by the induction of the IL-6 amplifier in the affected tissue. In other words, in certain cases, the target tissue itself may determine the specificity of the autoimmune disease via activation of the IL-6 amplifier. To explain this hypothesis, we have proposed a four-step model for MHC class II-associated autoimmune diseases (Murakami et al., 2011): (1) T cell activation regardless of antigen specificity; (2) local events inducing a tissue-specific accumulation of activated T cells; (3) transient activation of the IL-6 amplifier; and (4) enhanced sensitivity to cytokines in the target tissue. The interaction of these events results in chronic activation of the IL-6 amplifier and subsequent manifestation of autoimmune diseases. Thus, the IL-6 amplifier, which is chronically activated by these four events, is a critical regulator of chronic inflammations in tissue-specific MHC class II-associated autoimmune diseases. PMID:22566812

  19. Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes.

    PubMed

    Michels, Aaron W; Gottlieb, Peter A

    2010-05-01

    The autoimmune polyglandular syndromes-a group of syndromes comprising a combination of endocrine and nonendocrine autoimmune diseases-differ in their component diseases and in the immunologic features of their pathogenesis. One of the three main syndromes, type 1 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS-1), has a unique pathogenic mechanism owing to mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, which results in the loss of central tolerance-a process by which developing T cells with potential reactivity for self-antigens are eliminated during early differentiation in the thymus. Patients with IPEX (immune dysfunction, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked) syndrome harbor mutations in the forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) gene in regulatory T cells, which leads to severe autoimmunity and immune deficiency. Although both of these disorders are rare, their well-defined mechanisms of disease provide a basis for the understanding of the more common condition, APS-2. In this syndrome, alleles of human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) determine the targeting of specific tissues by autoreactive T cells, which leads to organ-specific autoimmunity as a result of this loss of tolerance. Non-HLA genes also contribute to autoimmunity in APS-2 and, depending on the polymorphism, potentially predispose to a loss of tolerance or influence which organ is specifically targeted. This Review discusses the genetic basis of APS-1, APS-2 and IPEX syndrome, with an emphasis on the mechanisms of autoimmunity and presents currently available therapies to treat their underlying autoimmune disorders. PMID:20309000

  20. Targeting CVD risk in chronic connective tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Malaviya, Anshuman P; Hall, Frances C

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory rheumatological conditions are associated with an increased burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) most excess mortality is cardiovascular. Increased CVD risk is also associated with psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, antiphospholipid syndrome and systemic sclerosis. Several studies report that CVD mortality increases early in disease in RA, with increased risk of MI within one year and increased risk of hospital admission for CVD within seven years of diagnosis. A linear association has been demonstrated between subclinical carotid atherosclerosis and raised inflammatory markers. SLE is associated with 2-10 times the risk of a CVD event compared with the general population. CVD is now a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in SLE. Antiphospholipid antibodies are associated with accelerated atherosclerosis, as well as thromboses. Atherogenesis in the context of autoimmune disease results from a complex interplay between traditional risk factors, disease-specific factors and drug-related adverse effects. Chronic inflammation itself modifies the lipid profile. PMID:22720456

  1. Clinical Features of Neuropsychiatric Syndromes in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Other Connective Tissue Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kasama, Tsuyoshi; Maeoka, Airi; Oguro, Nao

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and related disorders are chronic inflammatory diseases characterized by abnormalities and, in some cases, even complete failure of immune responses as the underlying pathology. Although almost all connective tissue diseases and related disorders can be complicated by various neuropsychiatric syndromes, SLE is a typical connective tissue disease that can cause neurological and psychiatric syndromes. In this review, neuropsychiatric syndromes complicating connective tissue diseases, especially SLE are outlined, and pathological and other conditions that should be considered in the differential diagnosis are also discussed. PMID:26819561

  2. MDSC in Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Cripps, James G.; Gorham, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) were first described nearly two decades ago. Until recently, however, descriptions of MDSC populations were found almost exclusively in animal models of cancer or in cancer patients. Over the last few years, an increasing number of reports have been published describing populations of myeloid cells with MDSC-like properties in murine models of autoimmune disease. In contrast to the proposed deleterious role of MDSC in cancer - where these cells likely inhibit tumor immunity - in the context of autoimmunity, MDSC have the potential to suppress the autoimmune response, thereby limiting tissue injury. A logical corollary of this hypothesis is that a failure of endogenous MDSC to appropriately control autoimmune T cell responses in vivo may actually contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. PMID:21310255

  3. Hypothalamic inflammation and thermogenesis: the brown adipose tissue connection.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Ana Paula; Milanski, Marciane; Velloso, Licio A

    2011-02-01

    Hypothalamic inflammation and dysfunction are common features of experimental obesity. An imbalance between caloric intake and energy expenditure is generated as a consequence of this inflammation, leading to the progressive increase of body adiposity. Thermogenesis, is one of the main functions affected by obesity-linked hypothalamic dysfunction and the complete characterization of the mechanisms involved in this process may offer new therapeutic perspectives for obesity. The brown adipose tissue is an important target for hypothalamic action in thermogenesis. This tissue has been thoroughly studied in rodents and hibernating mammals; however, until recently, its advocated role in human thermogenesis was neglected due to the lack of substantial evidence of its presence in adult humans. The recent demonstration of the presence of functional brown adipose tissue in adult humans has renovated the interest in this tissue. Here, we review some of the work that shows how inflammation and dysfunction of the hypothalamus can control brown adipose tissue activity and how this can impact on whole body thermogenesis and energy expenditure. PMID:21271281

  4. Metals and kidney autoimmunity.

    PubMed Central

    Bigazzi, P E

    1999-01-01

    The causes of autoimmune responses leading to human kidney pathology remain unknown. However, environmental agents such as microorganisms and/or xenobiotics are good candidates for that role. Metals, either present in the environment or administered for therapeutic reasons, are prototypical xenobiotics that cause decreases or enhancements of immune responses. In particular, exposure to gold and mercury may result in autoimmune responses to various self-antigens as well as autoimmune disease of the kidney and other tissues. Gold compounds, currently used in the treatment of patients with progressive polyarticular rheumatoid arthritis, can cause a nephrotic syndrome. Similarly, an immune-mediated membranous nephropathy frequently occurred when drugs containing mercury were commonly used. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that occupational exposure to mercury does not usually result in autoimmunity. However, mercury induces antinuclear antibodies, sclerodermalike disease, lichen planus, or membranous nephropathy in some individuals. Laboratory investigations have confirmed that the administration of gold or mercury to experimental animals leads to autoimmune disease quite similar to that observed in human subjects exposed to these metals. In addition, studies of inbred mice and rats have revealed that a few strains are susceptible to the autoimmune effects of gold and mercury, whereas the majority of inbred strains are resistant. These findings have emphasized the importance of genetic (immunogenetic and pharmacogenetic) factors in the induction of metal-associated autoimmunity. (italic)In vitro(/italic) and (italic)in vivo(/italic) research of autoimmune disease caused by mercury and gold has already yielded valuable information and answered a number of important questions. At the same time it has raised new issues about possible immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive mechanisms of xenobiotic activity. Thus it is evident that investigations of metal-induced renal autoimmunity have the potential to produce new knowledge with relevance to autoimmune disease caused by xenobiotics in general as well as to idiopathic autoimmunity. PMID:10502542

  5. Connective Tissue Disorders and Cardiovascular Complications: The indomitable role of Transforming Growth Factor-beta signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Jason B.; Ikonomidis, John S.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Marfan Syndrome (MFS) and Loeys-Dietz Syndrome (LDS) represent heritable connective tissue disorders that cosegregate with a similar pattern of cardiovascular defects (thoracic aortic aneurysm, mitral valve prolapse/regurgitation, and aortic dilatation with regurgitation). This pattern of cardiovascular defects appears to be expressed along a spectrum of severity in many heritable connective tissue disorders and raises suspicion of a relationship between the normal development of connective tissues and the cardiovascular system. Given the evidence of increased transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling in MFS and LDS, this signaling pathway may represent the common link in this relationship. To further explore this hypothetical link, this chapter will review the TGF-β signaling pathway, heritable connective tissue syndromes related to TGF-β receptor (TGFBR) mutations, and discuss the pathogenic contribution of TGF-β to these syndromes with a primary focus on the cardiovascular system. PMID:24443024

  6. Effects of microgravity on rat bone, cartlage and connective tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, S.

    1990-01-01

    The response to hypogravity by the skeletal system was originally thought to be the result of a reduction in weight bearing. Thus a reduced rate of new bone formation in the weight-bearing bones was accepted, when found, as an obvious result of hypogravity. However, data on non-weight-bearing tissues have begun to show that other physiological changes can be expected to occur to animals during spaceflight. This overview of the Cosmos 1887 data discusses these results as they pertain to individual bones or tissues because the response seems to depend on the architecture and metabolism of each tissue under study. Various effects were seen in different tissues from the rats flown on Cosmos 1887. The femur showed a reduced bone mineral content but only in the central region of the diaphysis. This same region in the tibia showed changes in the vascularity of bone as well as some osteocytic cell death. The humerus demonstrated reduced morphometric characteristics plus a decrease in mechanical stiffness. Bone mineral crystals did not mature normally as a result of flight, suggesting a defect in the matrix mineralization process. Note that these changes relate directly to the matrix portion of the bone or some function of bone which slowly responds to changes in the environment. However, most cellular functions of bone are rapid responders. The stimulation of osteoblast precursor cells, the osteoblast function in collagen synthesis, a change in the proliferation rate of cells in the epiphyseal growth plate, the synthesis and secretion of osteocalcin, and the movement of water into or out of tissues, are all processes which respond to environmental change. These rapidly responding events produced results from Cosmos 1887 which were frequently quite different from previous space flight data.

  7. Connective tissue and the heart. Functional significance and regulatory mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Burlew, B S; Weber, K T

    2000-08-01

    The heart has a three-dimensional extracellular fibrillar collagen scaffolding that normally serves a variety of functions important to tissue integrity and efficiency of muscular systolic pump and diastolic suction pump function (see article by Kovcs). An adverse accumulation of extracellular matrix structural protein compromises tissue stiffness and adversely affects myocardial viscoelasticity, this leads to ventricular diastolic and systolic dysfunction. Hormonal factors, such as chronic, inappropriate (relative to dietary salt intake and intravascular volume) elevations in circulating angiotensin II and aldosterone, are accompanied by fibrosis of right and left sides of the heart. Hemodynamic factors regulate cardiac myocyte work and their adaptive hypertrophic growth. The relative contributions of hormonal and hemodynamic factors in regulating growth of muscular and nonmuscular compartments must form the basis for the selection of pharmacologic intervention that will optimize the management of symptomatic heart failure that accompanies hypertensive heart disease and ischemic cardiomyopathy. Cardioprotective strategies that prevent alteration of normal cardiac tissue structure by fibrosis and appearance of abnormal ventricular stiffness (viscoelasticity) are based on negating the generation of these hormones or interfering with their receptor-ligand binding. A regression of established cardiac fibrosis and improvement in abnormal ventricular stiffness is feasible. Experimental and clinical findings with lisinopril in hypertensive heart disease, where cardiac fibrosis and abnormal ventricular stiffness are present, indicate that such cardioreparation should be a targeted objective of pharmacologic intervention. Systematic analysis of this approach using a controlled clinical trial format is warranted. In recognizing the importance of viscoelastic elements in regulating the mechanical behavior of cardiac tissue, and in turn systolic and diastolic ventricular function, a broader tissue compartment based paradigm (ECM versus myocyte) for the management of heart failure emerges. PMID:10986582

  8. Life-threatening acute pneumonitis in mixed connective tissue disease: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Rath, Eva; Zandieh, Shahin; Lckinger, Alexander; Hirschl, Mirko; Klaushofer, Klaus; Zwerina, Jochen

    2015-10-01

    Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a rare connective tissue disease frequently involving the lungs. The main characteristic is a systemic sclerosis-like picture of slowly progressing interstitial lung disease consistent with lung fibrosis, while pulmonary arterial hypertension is rare. Herein, we present a case of a newly diagnosed MCTD patient developing life-threatening acute pneumonitis similar to lupus pneumonitis. Previous literature on this exceptionally rare complication of MCTD is reviewed and differential diagnosis and management discussed. PMID:26142172

  9. PTPN22: the archetypal non-HLA autoimmunity gene.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Stephanie M; Bottini, Nunzio

    2014-10-01

    PTPN22 encodes a tyrosine phosphatase that is expressed by haematopoietic cells and functions as a key regulator of immune homeostasis by inhibiting T-cell receptor signalling and by selectively promoting type I interferon responses after activation of myeloid-cell pattern-recognition receptors. A single nucleotide polymorphism of PTPN22, 1858C>T (rs2476601), disrupts an interaction motif in the protein, and is the most important non-HLA genetic risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis and the second most important for juvenile idiopathic arthritis. PTPN22 exemplifies a shared autoimmunity gene, affecting the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis and other autoimmune diseases. In this Review, we explore the role of PTPN22 in autoimmune connective tissue disease, with particular emphasis on candidate-gene and genome-wide association studies and clinical variability of disease. We also propose a number of PTPN22-dependent functional models of the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. PMID:25003765

  10. PTPN22: the archetypal non-HLA autoimmunity gene

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, Stephanie M.; Bottini, Nunzio

    2015-01-01

    PTPN22 encodes a tyrosine phosphatase that is expressed by haematopoietic cells and functions as a key regulator of immune homeostasis by inhibiting T-cell receptor signalling and by selectively promoting type I interferon responses after activation of myeloid-cell pattern-recognition receptors. A single nucleotide polymorphism of PTPN22, 1858C>T (rs2476601), disrupts an interaction motif in the protein, and is the most important non-HLA genetic risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis and the second most important for juvenile idiopathic arthritis. PTPN22 exemplifies a shared autoimmunity gene, affecting the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis and other autoimmune diseases. In this Review, we explore the role of PTPN22 in autoimmune connective tissue disease, with particular emphasis on candidate-gene and genome-wide association studies and clinical variability of disease. We also propose a number of PTPN22-dependent functional models of the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. PMID:25003765

  11. Silica-associated connective tissue disease. A study of 24 cases.

    PubMed

    Koeger, A C; Lang, T; Alcaix, D; Milleron, B; Rozenberg, S; Chaibi, P; Arnaud, J; Mayaud, C; Camus, J P; Bourgeois, P

    1995-09-01

    We prospectively studied all patients hospitalized for connective tissue disease (CTD) in our French rheumatology clinic from January 1979 to December 1989. Our aims were 1) to determine if CTDs associated with occupational exposure to silica (Si) are currently observed in a rheumatology clinic, and, if so, 2) to describe the major features of Si-associated CTD, and 3) to specify which individuals are affected by Si-associated CTD. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on their responses to a questionnaire: those who had been exposed to Si, and those who had no occupational exposure to Si. Among the 764 patients with CTD studied, 24 (3%) were patients with Si-associated CTD and 740 (97%) were patients with non-Si-associated CTD. The sex ratio between the 2 groups was significantly different with a high frequency of men and of immigrants in the Si-associated CTD group. Two thirds of the patients exposed to Si were male miners or sandblasters, but the other third had more unusual exposures to Si, which may involve members of all socio-economics sectors and both sexes, such as sculpture or exposure to abrasive powders. Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) was significantly more prevalent in the Si-associated CTD group. This group also consisted of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), dermatomyositis (DM), and other autoimmune diseases. Si-associated CTD was characterized by the frequency of radiologic lung fibrosis, impaired pulmonary function tests, secondary Sjgren syndrome, and antinuclear antibodies. The number of mineral particles and crystalline Si content were raised in all the bronchoalveolar lavage specimens of Si-exposed patients but in none of those of nonexposed patients. In some cases of Si-associated CTD, the disease was reversible after early cessation of Si exposure. Epidemiologic studies are required to confirm our hypothesis that not only PSS and RA but also SLE and DM are associated with occupational exposure to Si. Pending such results, exposure to Si should be sought in the history of any patient with CTD, especially in a male patient with pulmonary signs, and if present, exposure should be stopped. In the meantime, steps should be taken to ensure that workers exposed to Si in all environments have adequate protection. PMID:7565064

  12. Autoimmune disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... exact cause of autoimmune disorders is unknown. One theory is that some microorganisms (such as bacteria or ... The goals of treatment are to: Reduce symptoms Control the autoimmune process Maintain the body's ability to ...

  13. Connective tissue responses to some heavy metals. II. Lead: histology and ultrastructure.

    PubMed Central

    Ellender, G.; Ham, K. N.

    1987-01-01

    Lead loaded ion exchange resin beads implanted into the loose connective tissue of the rat pinna induced local lesions which differed widely from those of the control (sodium loaded) beads (Ellender & Ham 1987). These lesions were characterized by changes in the granulation tissue and the approximating connective tissue. Granulation tissue contained mononuclear phagocytes in various guises, and some cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies. The matrix of the granulation tissue contained collagen fibrils having a wide range of diameters suggestive of altered collagen biosynthesis. Foci of collagen mineralization occurred in zones of combined trauma and lead impregnation. Once mineralized they became enveloped by giant cells and epithelioid cells. Lead in damaged tissues is thought to modify the protective mechanism of calcification inhibition and the biosynthesis of the matrix. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:3040063

  14. Therapeutic effects of CTLA4Ig gene-transduced adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on established autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Wha; Lee, Jung Min; Lee, Hee Woo; Yang, Jehoon; Youn, Hwa Young

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the beneficial effects of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) and ASCs that overexpress the CTLA4Ig gene (CTLA4Ig-ASCs) on established autoimmune thyroiditis and to examine changes in clinical chemistry parameters and the presence of humoral responses upon repeated long-term administration of autologous ASCs. This study also aimed to acquire desirable results in a preclinical study by using large-sized lab animals and applying ASCs that overexpress therapeutic genes. Experimental autoimmune thyroiditis was induced by immunization with thyroglobulin. Experimental dogs were divided into five groups: (i) ASC IT + IV, (ii) ASC IV, (iii) CTLA4Ig-ASC IT + IV, (iv) CTLA4Ig-ASC IV, and (v) control IT + IV (saline only), and they received intrathyroidal (IT; 10 million cells/250 µl saline per thyroid) administration one time or intravenous (IV; 20 million cells/5 ml) administration seven times within a 101-day period. Blood samples were collected every week, and thyroids were harvested on days 104-106. After serial ASC or CTLA4Ig transplantation, the levels of canine thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAA) in serum and the infiltration of T-lymphocytes between the follicles of the thyroid glands were decreased. The expression of FoxP3 in submandibular lymph nodes was significantly increased. Repeated long-term administration of autologous ASCs or CTLA4Ig-ASCs did not generate changes in clinical chemistry parameters or humoral responses.The TgAA test can detect autoimmune thyroiditis years before clinical signs of hypothyroidism occur. Thus, ASC and CTLA4Ig-ASC transplantation in that period can be attractive candidates to ameliorate autoimmune thyroiditis and prevent the development of hypothyroidism. PMID:25299180

  15. Genome-Wide Expression Analysis of Intra- and Extraarticular Connective Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Pearse, Richard V.; Esshaki, Diana; Tabin, Clifford J.; Murray, Martha M.

    2010-01-01

    In comparison to extraarticular ligaments and tendons, the intraarticular ligaments such as the anterior and posterior cruciates exhibit different biochemical, biomechanical, and viscoelastic properties and most importantly, differential abilities to heal after surgical repair. Little is known about the underlying basis for these differences, in large measure due to the paucity of molecular markers distinguishing different classes of tendons and ligaments. To date, there has been no systematic analysis of gene expression differences between different types of connective tissues. We used Affymetrix expression arrays to analyze the differences in gene expression levels between the anterior cruciate, posterior cruciate, and medial collateral ligaments, the patellar and Achilles tendons and the synovium. We have identified five clusters of gene cohorts displaying similar expression patterns. These clusters group into three categories including: (1) genes that are strongly expressed in all connective tissues compared to the synovium control tissue; (2) genes that distinguish intraarticular connective tissues from extraarticular connective tissues; and (3) a group of genes expressed in common by the patellar tendon and the synovium. Our analysis identifies a new marker of tendons and ligaments (fibin2), demonstrates molecular diversity between subtypes of tendons and ligaments, and indicates that the primary molecular subdivision among dense regular connective tissues is intra- versus extraarticular rather than ligament versus tendon. PMID:18972360

  16. Efficacy of Connective Tissue with and without Periosteum in Regeneration of Intrabony Defects

    PubMed Central

    Esfahanian, Vahid; Golestaneh, Hedayatollah; Moghaddas, Omid; Ghafari, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Connective tissue grafts with and without periosteum is used in regenerative treatments of bone and has demonstrated successful outcomes in previous investigations. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of connective tissue graft with and without periosteum in regeneration of intrabony defects. Materials and methods. In this single-blind randomized split-mouth clinical trial, 15 pairs of intrabony defects in 15 patients with moderate to advanced periodontitis were treated by periosteal connective tissue graft + ABBM (test group) or non-periosteal connective tissue graft + ABBM (control group). Probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, free gingival margin position, bone crestal position, crest defect depth and defect depth to stent were measured at baseline and after six months by surgical re-entry. Data was analyzed by Student’s t-test and paired t-tests (α=0.05). Results. Changes in clinical parameters after 6 months in the test and control groups were as follows: mean of PPD reduction: 3.1±0.6 (P<0.0001); 2.5±1.0 mm (P<0.0001), CAL gain: 2.3±0.9 (P<0.0001); 2.2±1.0 mm (P<0.0001), bone fill: 2.2±0.7 mm (P<0.0001); 2.2±0.7 mm (P<0.0001), respectively. No significant differences in the position of free gingival margin were observed during 6 months compared to baseline in both groups. Conclusion. Combinations of periosteal connective tissue graft + ABBM and non-periosteal connective tissue graft + ABBM were similarly effective in treating intrabony defects without any favor for any group. Connective tissue and perio-steum can be equally effective in regeneration of intrabony defects. PMID:25587379

  17. Adipose tissue and sustainable development: a connection that needs protection

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Angelo; Picard-Deland, Éliane; Panahi, Shirin; Marette, André

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is generally considered as an excess body fat that increases the risk to develop ergonomic, metabolic, and psychosocial problems. As suggested in this paper, body fat gain is also a protective adaptation that prevents body lipotoxicity, contributes to the secretion of molecules involved in metabolic regulation, and dilutes lipid soluble persistent organic pollutants. Recent literature shows that this protective role of adipose tissue is more solicited in a modern context in which unsuspected factors can affect energy balance to a much greater extent than what is generally perceived by health care professionals. These factors include short sleep duration, demanding mental work, and chemical pollution whose impact is more detectable in a context dominated by economic productivity and competitiveness. Since these factors might also include the increase in atmospheric CO2, it is likely that obesity prevention will need the support of a promotion in sustainable development, whether it is for human health, and well-being or global ecological protection. PMID:26074821

  18. Functional role of periostin in development and wound repair: implications for connective tissue disease

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Integrity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for maintaining the normal structure and function of connective tissues. ECM is secreted locally by cells and organized into a complex meshwork providing physical support to cells, tissues, and organs. Initially thought to act only as a scaffold, the ECM is now known to provide a myriad of signals to cells regulating all aspects of their phenotype from morphology to differentiation. Matricellular proteins are a class of ECM related molecules defined through their ability to modulate cell–matrix interactions. Matricellular proteins are expressed at high levels during development, but typically only appear in postnatal tissue in wound repair or disease, where their levels increase substantially. Members of the CCN family, tenascin-C, osteopontin, secreted protein acidic rich in cysteine (SPARC), bone sialoprotein, thrombospondins, and galectins have all been classed as matricellular proteins. Periostin, a 90 kDa secreted homophilic cell adhesion protein, was recently added to matricellular class of proteins based on its expression pattern and function during development as well as in wound repair. Periostin is expressed in connective tissues including the periodontal ligament, tendons, skin and bone, and is also prominent in neoplastic tissues, cardiovascular disease, as well as in connective tissue wound repair. This review will focus on the functional role of periostin in tissue physiology. Fundamentally, it appears that periostin influences cell behaviour as well as collagen fibrillogenesis, and therefore exerts control over the structural and functional properties of connective tissues in both health and disease. Periostin is a novel matricellular protein with close homology to Drosophila fasciclin 1. In this review, the functional role of periostin is discussed in the context of connective tissue physiology, in development, disease, and wound repair. PMID:18642132

  19. Vaccines, adjuvants and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Guimares, Lusa Ea; Baker, Britain; Perricone, Carlo; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines and autoimmunity are linked fields. Vaccine efficacy is based on whether host immune response against an antigen can elicit a memory T-cell response over time. Although the described side effects thus far have been mostly transient and acute, vaccines are able to elicit the immune system towards an autoimmune reaction. The diagnosis of a definite autoimmune disease and the occurrence of fatal outcome post-vaccination have been less frequently reported. Since vaccines are given to previously healthy hosts, who may have never developed the disease had they not been immunized, adverse events should be carefully accessed and evaluated even if they represent a limited number of occurrences. In this review of the literature, there is evidence of vaccine-induced autoimmunity and adjuvant-induced autoimmunity in both experimental models as well as human patients. Adjuvants and infectious agents may exert their immune-enhancing effects through various functional activities, encompassed by the adjuvant effect. These mechanisms are shared by different conditions triggered by adjuvants leading to the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA syndrome). In conclusion, there are several case reports of autoimmune diseases following vaccines, however, due to the limited number of cases, the different classifications of symptoms and the long latency period of the diseases, every attempt for an epidemiological study has so far failed to deliver a connection. Despite this, efforts to unveil the connection between the triggering of the immune system by adjuvants and the development of autoimmune conditions should be undertaken. Vaccinomics is a field that may bring to light novel customized, personalized treatment approaches in the future. PMID:26275795

  20. Cells of the connective tissue differentiate and migrate into pollen sacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M. C. M.; Wijesekara, Kolitha B.

    2002-01-01

    In angiosperms, archesporial cells in the anther primordium undergo meiosis to form haploid pollen, the sole occupants of anther sacs. Anther sacs are held together by a matrix of parenchyma cells, the connective tissue. Cells of the connective tissue are not known to differentiate. We report the differentiation of parenchyma cells in the connective tissue of two Gordonia species into pollen-like structures (described as pseudopollen), which migrate into the anther sacs before dehiscence. Pollen and pseudopollen were distinguishable by morphology and staining. Pollen were tricolpate to spherical while pseudopollen were less rigid and transparent with a ribbed surface. Both types were different in size, shape, staining and surface architecture. The ratio of the number of pseudopollen to pollen was 1:3. During ontogeny in the connective tissue, neither cell division nor tetrad formation was observed and hence pseudopollen were presumed to be diploid. Only normal pollen germinated on a germination medium. Fixed preparations in time seemed to indicate that pseudopollen migrate from the connective tissue into the anther sac.

  1. Should Endovascular Therapy Be Considered for Patients With Connective Tissue Disorder?

    PubMed

    Gagn-Loranger, Maude; Voisine, Pierre; Dagenais, Franois

    2016-01-01

    Because of early diagnosis, strict imaging follow-up, and advances in medical and surgical management, life expectancy of Marfan patients has dramatically improved since the 1970s. Although disease of the root and ascending aorta are more frequent in patients with connective tissue disorders, a subset of patients present with diffuse disease that might involve any portion of the thoracoabdominal aorta. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has gained widespread acceptance for the treatment of different pathologies of the descending aorta. In contrast, TEVAR in patients with connective tissue disorders is associated with a high risk of early and mid-term complications and reinterventions. Currently, a consensus of experts recommend that an open approach should be reserved for use in acceptable risk candidates with connective tissue disorders. TEVAR should be considered solely in patients in a complex repeat surgical setting or in patients judged to have prohibitive open surgical risk. Finally, as a bridge to a definite open repair, TEVAR might be life-saving in patients with connective tissue disorders who present with exsanguination or severe malperfusion. Future developments in stent-graft technology might decrease stent-graft-related complications in patients with connective tissue disorders, although securing a device with radial force in a fragile aorta in the long-term will be challenging. PMID:26577892

  2. Pilot study of gingival connective tissue responses to 3-dimensional collagen nanofiber-coated dental implants.

    PubMed

    Raita, Yuki; Komatsu, Koichiro; Hayakawa, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the gingival connective tissue response to screw-type titanium implants coated with Type I collagen nanofibers, which were prepared using the electrospray deposition method. Implants were immediately inserted into the socket of maxillary first molars after the extraction. Undecalcified sections after 4 weeks implantation were histologically observed. Better contact of the gingival connective tissue was generally observed around the collagen nanofiber-coated implants than titanium and non-fibrous collagen-immobilized implants. Gingival connective tissue to implant contact was significantly greater with the collagen nanofiber-coated implants than with the titanium and collagen-immobilized implants at the distal side, but not at the mesial side. Polarized light microscopy revealed that some birefringent collagen fiber bundles are oriented perpendicularly to the implant surfaces in the gingival connective tissue adjacent to the collagen nanofiber-coated implants. Collagen nanofiber-coating may have a possibility for improving gingival connective tissue response to titanium implants. PMID:26632234

  3. The arrangement and function of octopus arm musculature and connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Kier, William M; Stella, Michael P

    2007-10-01

    The morphology of the musculature and connective tissues of the arms of Octopus bimaculoides was analyzed with light microscopy. We also studied O. briareus and O. digueti, which possess relatively more elongate and less elongate arms, respectively. The morphology of the arms was found to be remarkably uniform among species. The arms consist of a densely packed three-dimensional arrangement of muscle fibers and connective tissue fibers surrounding a central axial nerve cord. Three primary muscle fiber orientations were observed: 1) transverse muscle fibers oriented in planes perpendicular to the long axis of the arm; 2) longitudinal muscle fibers oriented parallel to the long axis; and 3) oblique muscle fibers arranged in helixes around the arm. The proportion of the arm cross section occupied by each of these muscle fiber groups (relative to the total cross sectional area of the musculature) remains constant along the length of the arm, even though the arm tapers from base to tip. A thin circular muscle layer wraps the arm musculature on the aboral side only. Much of this musculature has its origin and insertion on several robust connective tissue sheets including a layer surrounding the axial nerve cord and crossed-fiber connective tissue sheets located on the oral and the aboral sides of the arm. An additional thin layer of connective tissue wraps the arm musculature laterally and also serves as a site of origin and insertion of some of the muscle fibers. The fibers of the oral and aboral crossed-fiber connective tissue sheets are arranged oblique to the long axis of the arm with the same fiber angle as the oblique muscle layers that originate and insert on the sheets. The oblique muscle layers and the crossed-fiber connective tissue sheets thus form composite right- and left-handed helical fiber arrays. Analysis of arm morphology from the standpoint of biomechanics suggests that the transverse musculature is responsible for elongation of the arms, the longitudinal musculature is responsible for shortening, and the oblique muscle layers and associated connective tissues create torsion. Arm bending may involve unilateral contraction of longitudinal muscle bundles in combination with resistance to arm diameter increase due to contraction of the transverse musculature or passive stiffness of the arm tissues. The arms may also be bent by a combination of decrease in diameter due to contraction of the transverse musculature and maintenance of constant length on one side of the arm by unilateral activity of longitudinal muscle bundles. An increase in flexural stiffness of the arm may be achieved by cocontraction of the transverse and longitudinal muscle. Torsional stiffness may be increased by simultaneous contraction of both the right- and left-handed oblique muscle layers. PMID:17624930

  4. Diagnostic and management problems in a complex case of connective tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Yeap, S S; Deighton, C M; Powell, R J; Read, R C; Finch, R G

    1995-12-01

    A 28-year-old Nigerian woman presented with persistent pyrexia, marked pruritus, eosinophilia, myalgias, flitting arthralgias, serositis and massive splenomegaly. Intensive investigation for an infective or neoplastic aetiology proved negative. Empirical treatment for helminthic infections and tuberculosis was unhelpful. Although there were no specific clues to suggest an underlying connective tissue disease, a trial of steriods and azathioprine was introduced, with no obvious response. Her condition deteriorated to a point where it was decided that intravenous immunosuppressive therapy was needed and subsequently, her condition improved remarkably. This patient illustrates the problems in the diagnosis and management of complex disorders, particularly when classical tests for connective tissue diseases are absent. Also, we would like to report that marked pruritus can be associated with connective tissue disease. PMID:8552544

  5. Muscle connective tissue controls development of the diaphragm and is a source of congenital diaphragmatic hernias.

    PubMed

    Merrell, Allyson J; Ellis, Benjamin J; Fox, Zachary D; Lawson, Jennifer A; Weiss, Jeffrey A; Kardon, Gabrielle

    2015-05-01

    The diaphragm is an essential mammalian skeletal muscle, and defects in diaphragm development are the cause of congenital diaphragmatic hernias (CDHs), a common and often lethal birth defect. The diaphragm is derived from multiple embryonic sources, but how these give rise to the diaphragm is unknown, and, despite the identification of many CDH-associated genes, the etiology of CDH is incompletely understood. Using mouse genetics, we show that the pleuroperitoneal folds (PPFs), which are transient embryonic structures, are the source of the diaphragm's muscle connective tissue and regulate muscle development, and we show that the striking migration of PPF cells controls diaphragm morphogenesis. Furthermore, Gata4 mosaic mutations in PPF-derived muscle connective tissue fibroblasts result in the development of localized amuscular regions that are biomechanically weaker and more compliant, leading to CDH. Thus, the PPFs and muscle connective tissue are critical for diaphragm development, and mutations in PPF-derived fibroblasts are a source of CDH. PMID:25807280

  6. Autoimmune epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Greco, Antonio; Rizzo, Maria Ida; De Virgilio, Armando; Conte, Michela; Gallo, Andrea; Attanasio, Giuseppe; Ruoppolo, Giovanni; de Vincentiis, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Despite the fact that epilepsy is the third most common chronic brain disorder, relatively little is known about the processes leading to the generation of seizures. Accumulating data support an autoimmune basis in patients with antiepileptic drug-resistant seizures. Besides, recent studies show that epilepsy and autoimmune disease frequently co-occur. Autoimmune epilepsy is increasingly recognized in the spectrum of neurological disorders characterized by detection of neural autoantibodies in serum or spinal fluid and responsiveness to immunotherapy. An autoimmune cause is suspected based on frequent or medically intractable seizures and the presence of at least one neural antibody, inflammatory changes indicated in serum or spinal fluid or on MRI, or a personal or family history of autoimmunity. It is essential that an autoimmune etiology be considered in the initial differential diagnosis of new onset epilepsy, because early immunotherapy assures an optimal outcome for the patient. PMID:26626229

  7. Hereditary Connective Tissue Diseases in Young Adult Stroke: A Comprehensive Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Vanakker, Olivier M.; Hemelsoet, Dimitri; De Paepe, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Though the genetic background of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke is often polygenetic or multifactorial, it can in some cases result from a monogenic disease, particularly in young adults. Besides arteriopathies and metabolic disorders, several connective tissue diseases can present with stroke. While some of these diseases have been recognized for decades as causes of stroke, such as the vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, others only recently came to attention as being involved in stroke pathogenesis, such as those related to Type IV collagen. This paper discusses each of these connective tissue disorders and their relation with stroke briefly, emphasizing the main clinical features which can lead to their diagnosis. PMID:21331163

  8. [Paravasal connective tissue of the in-wall blood vessels of the heart during aging].

    PubMed

    Nikel', V V; Kasimtsev, A A; Efremova, V P

    2012-01-01

    The structural organization of the paravasal connective tissue of the in-wall myocardial blood vessels in the stages of postnatal ontogenesis was studied. The study was carried out on preparations of the heart 80 corpses of men in three age groups (the first period of adulthood (n = 20) and elderly (n = 30) and old (n = 30) ages.) The peculiarities of the structure as well as qualitative and quantitative transformation of fibrous component of the paravasal connective tissue in each age period were revealed. PMID:23734505

  9. [Abdominal vascular structural and functional features in patients with connective tissue dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Lialiukova, E A; Orlova, N I; Aksenov, S I

    2012-01-01

    Doppler ultrasound study records decreased volume blood flow in patients with connective tissue dysplasia. Their hemodynamic features are more marked during food testing. Dysplasia-dependent structural changes in the vascular system, such as vascular hypoplasia, wall-occluding lesions, different types of deformities, are one of the causes of lower volumetric blood flow in the abdominal vessels. The found abdominal vascular structural and functional features in patients with connective tissue dysplasia can serve as the basis for blood flow disproportion in different stages of digestion. PMID:23214026

  10. Cell density signal protein suitable for treatment of connective tissue injuries and defects

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Richard I.

    2002-08-13

    Identification, isolation and partial sequencing of a cell density protein produced by fibroblastic cells. The cell density signal protein comprising a 14 amino acid peptide or a fragment, variant, mutant or analog thereof, the deduced cDNA sequence from the 14 amino acid peptide, a recombinant protein, protein and peptide-specific antibodies, and the use of the peptide and peptide-specific antibodies as therapeutic agents for regulation of cell differentiation and proliferation. A method for treatment and repair of connective tissue and tendon injuries, collagen deficiency, and connective tissue defects.

  11. Monogenic autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Mickie H; Anderson, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    Monogenic autoimmune syndromes provide a rare yet powerful glimpse into the fundamental mechanisms of immunologic tolerance. Such syndromes reveal not only the contribution of an individual breakpoint in tolerance but also patterns in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. Disturbances in innate immunity, a system built for ubiquitous sensing of danger signals, tend to generate systemic autoimmunity. For example, defects in the clearance of self-antigens and chronic stimulation of type 1 interferons lead to the systemic autoimmunity seen in C1q deficiency, SPENCDI, and AGS. In contrast, disturbances of adaptive immunity, which is built for antigen specificity, tend to produce organ-specific autoimmunity. Thus, the loss of lymphocyte homeostasis, whether through defects in apoptosis, suppression, or negative selection, leads to organ-specific autoimmunity in ALPS, IPEX, and APS1. We discuss the unique mechanisms of disease in these prominent syndromes as well as how they contribute to the spectrum of organ-specific or systemic autoimmunity. The continued study of rare variants in autoimmune disease will inform future investigations and treatments directed at rare and common autoimmune diseases alike. PMID:22224765

  12. Role of apoptosis in autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Todaro, Matilde; Zeuner, Ann; Stassi, Giorgio

    2004-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases are characterized by the activity of autoreactive lymphocytes that produce antibodies targeting self tissue or organ for destruction. Although the pathogenesis of these diseases is poorly understood, during the past two decades basic research has indicated apoptosis as the pivotal molecular mechanism leading to autoimmunity. Recently cytokines have been invoked in the regulation of the apoptosis-related factors and death receptors in autoimmune target destruction. These research advances have contributed to the identification of mechanisms controlling autoimmunity for defining novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:14997028

  13. Autoimmunity in 2014.

    PubMed

    Selmi, Carlo

    2015-10-01

    Our PubMed search for peer-reviewed articles published in the 2014 solar year retrieved a significantly higher number of hits compared to 2013 with a net 28 % increase. Importantly, full articles related to autoimmunity constitute approximately 5 % of immunology articles. We confirm that our understanding of autoimmunity is becoming a translational paradigm with pathogenetic elements rapidly followed by new treatment options. Furthermore, numerous clinical and pathogenetic elements and features are shared among autoimmune diseases, and this is well illustrated in the recent literature. More specifically, the past year witnessed critical revisions of our understanding and management of antiphospholipid syndrome with new exciting data on the pathogenicity of the serum anti-beta2 glycoprotein autoantibody, a better understanding of the current and new treatments for rheumatoid arthritis, and new position papers on important clinical questions such as vaccinations in patients with autoimmune disease, comorbidities, or new classification criteria. Furthermore, data confirming the important connections between innate immunity and autoimmunity via toll-like receptors or the critical role of T regulatory cells in tolerance breakdown and autoimmunity perpetuation were also reported. Lastly, genetic and epigenetic data were provided to confirm that the mosaic of autoimmunity warrants a susceptible individual background which may be geographically determined and contribute to the geoepidemiology of diseases. The 2014 literature in the autoimmunity world should be cumulatively regarded as part of an annus mirabilis in which, on a different level, the 2014 Annual Meeting of the American College of Rheumatology in Boston was attended by over 16,000 participants with over selected 3000 abstracts. PMID:26335699

  14. The application of quantitative cytochemistry to the study of diseases of the connective tissues.

    PubMed

    Henderson, B

    1983-01-01

    The connective tissues are a complex organisation of tissues, cells and intercellular materials spread throughout the body and are subject to a large number of diseases. Such complexity makes the study of the metabolism of the connective tissues in health and more particularly in disease states difficult if one uses conventional biochemical methodology. Fortunately the techniques of quantitative cytochemistry, as developed in recent years, have made it possible to study the metabolism of even such complex and refractory connective tissues as bone. Using properly validated assays of enzyme activity in unfixed sections from various tissues a number of the diseases of the connective tissues have been studied. For example the synovia from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and related conditions have been studied using these techniques and marked alterations in the metabolism of the synovial lining cell population of this tissue have been demonstrated. These alterations in metabolism are believed to be related to the destruction of cartilage and bone found in such diseases. Investigations of the metabolism of the chondrocytes of articular cartilage in a strain of mice which spontaneously develops osteoarthritis has revealed a lack of certain key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in precisely those areas where degradation of the matrix of articular cartilage begins suggesting a causal relationship between these events. These same techniques have been used to study the cellular kinetics and metabolism of the dermis and epidermis in the disfiguring disease, psoriasis. The metabolism of healing bone fractures, the diagnosis and treatment of the mucopolysaccharidoses and the metabolic effects of currently used anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic drugs have also been examined. Perhaps the most exciting aspect of these studies has been the development and use of the technique of the cytochemical bioassay (CBA) to study hormonally mediated diseases of the connective tissues. Such studies have recently shed new light on the molecular lesion in pseudohypoparathyroidism. Though still in their relative infancy the studies described in this review show the potential inherent in the use of quantitative cytochemistry for the study of diseases of the connective tissues. PMID:6419282

  15. Optimizing Gingival Biotype Using Subepithelial Connective Tissue Graft: A Case Report and One-Year Followup

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Harpreet Singh; Yadav, Anil; Yadav, Priya; Nanda, Prashant

    2011-01-01

    Gingival recession is the exposure of root surfaces due to apical migration of the gingival tissue margins. The principal objectives of treating a gingival recession are to achieve better esthetics and reduce hypersensitivity. The gingival biotype is an important modifying factor in the treatment of gingival recession. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the significance of changing the soft tissue biotype to a more favorable one while attempting root coverage, to achieve more stable and long-lasting results using subepithelial connective tissue graft. PMID:22567432

  16. Silica, Silicosis, and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Kenneth Michael

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of dust containing crystalline silica is associated with a number of acute and chronic diseases including systemic autoimmune diseases. Evidence for the link with autoimmune disease comes from epidemiological studies linking occupational exposure to crystalline silica dust with the systemic autoimmune diseases systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Although little is known regarding the mechanism by which silica exposure leads to systemic autoimmune disease, there is a voluminous literature on silica exposure and silicosis that may help identify immune processes that precede development of autoimmunity. The pathophysiology of silicosis consists of deposition of silica particles in the alveoli of the lung. Ingestion of these particles by macrophages initiates an inflammatory response, which stimulates fibroblasts to proliferate and produce collagen. Silica particles are encased by collagen leading to fibrosis and the nodular lesions characteristic of the disease. The steps in the development of silicosis, including acute and chronic inflammation and fibrosis, have different molecular and cellular requirements, suggesting that silica-induced inflammation and fibrosis may be mechanistically separate. Significantly, it is unclear whether silica-induced inflammation and fibrosis contribute similarly to the development of autoimmunity. Nonetheless, the findings from human and animal model studies are consistent with an autoimmune pathogenesis that begins with activation of the innate immune system leading to proinflammatory cytokine production, pulmonary inflammation leading to activation of adaptive immunity, breaking of tolerance, and autoantibodies and tissue damage. The variable frequency of these immunological features following silica exposure suggests substantial genetic involvement and gene/environment interaction in silica-induced autoimmunity. However, numerous questions remain unanswered. PMID:27014276

  17. Tetramers reveal IL-17secreting CD4+ T cells that are specific for U1-70 in lupus and mixed connective tissue disease

    PubMed Central

    Kattah, Nicole H.; Newell, Evan W.; Jarrell, Justin Ansel; Chu, Alvina D.; Xie, Jianming; Kattah, Michael G.; Goldberger, Ofir; Ye, Jessica; Chakravarty, Eliza F.; Davis, Mark M.; Utz, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Antigen-specific CD4+ T cells are implicated in the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but little is known about the peptide antigens that they recognize and their precise function in disease. We generated a series of MHC class II tetramers of I-Ekcontaining peptides from the spliceosomal protein U1-70 that specifically stain distinct CD4+ T-cell populations in MRL/lpr mice. The T-cell populations recognize an epitope differing only by the presence or absence of a single phosphate residue at position serine140. The frequency of CD4+ T cells specific for U1-70(131-150):I-Ek (without phosphorylation) correlates with disease severity and antiU1-70 autoantibody production. These T cells also express ROR?t and produce IL-17A. Furthermore, the U1-70specific CD4+ T cells that produce IL-17A are detected in a subset of patients with SLE and are significantly increased in patients with mixed connective tissue disease. These studies provide tools for studying antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in lupus, and demonstrate an antigen-specific source of IL-17A in autoimmune disease. PMID:25713364

  18. Tetramers reveal IL-17-secreting CD4+ T cells that are specific for U1-70 in lupus and mixed connective tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Kattah, Nicole H; Newell, Evan W; Jarrell, Justin Ansel; Chu, Alvina D; Xie, Jianming; Kattah, Michael G; Goldberger, Ofir; Ye, Jessica; Chakravarty, Eliza F; Davis, Mark M; Utz, Paul J

    2015-03-10

    Antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells are implicated in the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but little is known about the peptide antigens that they recognize and their precise function in disease. We generated a series of MHC class II tetramers of I-E(k)-containing peptides from the spliceosomal protein U1-70 that specifically stain distinct CD4(+) T-cell populations in MRL/lpr mice. The T-cell populations recognize an epitope differing only by the presence or absence of a single phosphate residue at position serine(140). The frequency of CD4(+) T cells specific for U1-70(131-150):I-E(k) (without phosphorylation) correlates with disease severity and anti-U1-70 autoantibody production. These T cells also express ROR?t and produce IL-17A. Furthermore, the U1-70-specific CD4(+) T cells that produce IL-17A are detected in a subset of patients with SLE and are significantly increased in patients with mixed connective tissue disease. These studies provide tools for studying antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells in lupus, and demonstrate an antigen-specific source of IL-17A in autoimmune disease. PMID:25713364

  19. [Mixed connective tissue disease in a male patient chronically exposed to toxic chemicals].

    PubMed

    Panaszek, B; Ma?olepszy, J; Wrzyszcz, M; Jutel, M; Machaj, Z

    A case of the mixed disease of the connective tissue (MCTD) in male patient occupationally exposed to PVC and other toxic agents is presented. Clinical symptoms consisted of the typical signs of SLE, rheumatoid arthritis and lupoid hepatitis. MCTD diagnosis was confirmed serologically by the presence of autoantibodies anti-RNP. Prednisone administered in the daily dose of 60 mg produced remission. PMID:8309826

  20. Periostin Regulates Collagen Fibrillogenesis and the Biomechanical Properties of Connective Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Russell A.; Damon, Brook; Mironov, Vladimir; Kasyanov, Vladimir; Ramamurthi, Anand; Moreno-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Trusk, Thomas; Potts, Jay D.; Goodwin, Richard L.; Davis, Jeff; Hoffman, Stanley; Wen, Xuejun; Sugi, Yukiko; Kern, Christine B.; Mjaatvedt, Corey H.; Turner, Debi K.; Oka, Toru; Conway, Simon J.; Molkentin, Jeffery D.; Forgacs, Gabor; Markwald, Roger R.

    2012-01-01

    Periostin is predominantly expressed in collagen-rich fibrous connective tissues that are subjected to constant mechanical stresses including: heart valves, tendons, perichondrium, cornea, and the periodontal ligament (PDL). Based on these data we hypothesize that periostin can regulate collagen I fibrillogenesis and thereby affect the biomechanical properties of connective tissues. Immunoprecipitation and immunogold transmission electron microscopy experiments demonstrate that periostin is capable of directly interacting with collagen I. To analyze the potential role of periostin in collagen I fibrillogenesis, gene targeted mice were generated. Transmission electron microscopy and morphometric analyses demonstrated reduced collagen fibril diameters in skin dermis of periostin knockout mice, an indication of aberrant collagen I fibrillogenesis. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) demonstrated a lower collagen denaturing temperature in periostin knockout mice, reflecting a reduced level of collagen cross-linking. Functional biomechanical properties of periostin null skin specimens and atrioventricular (AV) valve explant experiments provided direct evidence of the role that periostin plays in regulating the viscoelastic properties of connective tissues. Collectively, these data demonstrate for the first time that periostin can regulate collagen I fibrillogenesis and thereby serves as an important mediator of the biomechanical properties of fibrous connective tissues. PMID:17226767

  1. Connective tissue integrity is lost in vitamin B-6-deficient chicks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masse, P. G.; Yamauchi, M.; Mahuren, J. D.; Coburn, S. P.; Muniz, O. E.; Howell, D. S.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to characterize further the connective tissue disorder produced by pyridoxine (vitamin B-6) deficiency, as previously evidenced by electron microscopy. Following the second post-natal week, fast growing male chicks were deprived of pyridoxine for a 1-mo period. Six weeks post-natally, blood concentrations in the experimental deficiency group had declined to deficiency levels as registered by low concentrations of pyridoxal phosphate (coenzyme form) in erythrocytes, but did not reach levels associated with neurological symptoms. Light microscopic study showed abnormalities in the extracellular matrix of the connective tissues. Collagen cross-links and the aldehyde contents were not significantly lower in cartilage and tendon collagens of vitamin B-6-deficient animals than in age-matched controls; also, their proteoglycan degrading protease and collagenase activities measured in articular cartilages were not greater. Thus, proteolysis was an unlikely alternative mechanism to account for the loss of connective tissue integrity. These results point to the need for further investigation into adhesive properties of collagen associated proteoglycans or other proteins in vitamin B-6-deficient connective tissue.

  2. Rn for treatment of periocular fibrous connective tissue sarcomas in the horse

    SciTech Connect

    Frauenfelder, H.C.; Blevins, W.E.; Page, E.H.

    1982-02-01

    Twelve periocular fibrous connective tissue sarcomas in 11 horses were treated with 222Rn. Follow-up periods ranged from 1 to 6 years; the overall nonrecurrence rate at 12 months after therapy was 92%. Two lesions recurred 2 years after treatment, and 1 after 3 years. One of the former lesions has not recurred after a 2nd 222Rn treatment.

  3. Elastin Cables Define the Axial Connective Tissue System in the Murine Lung.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Willi; Bennett, Robert D; Ackermann, Maximilian; Ysasi, Alexandra B; Belle, Janeil; Valenzuela, Cristian D; Pabst, Andreas; Tsuda, Akira; Konerding, Moritz A; Mentzer, Steven J

    2015-11-01

    The axial connective tissue system is a fiber continuum of the lung that maintains alveolar surface area during changes in lung volume. Although the molecular anatomy of the axial system remains undefined, the fiber continuum of the lung is central to contemporary models of lung micromechanics and alveolar regeneration. To provide a detailed molecular structure of the axial connective tissue system, we examined the extracellular matrix of murine lungs. The lungs were decellularized using a 24 hr detergent treatment protocol. Systematic evaluation of the decellularized lungs demonstrated no residual cellular debris; morphometry demonstrated a mean 39 ± 7% reduction in lung dimensions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated an intact structural hierarchy within the decellularized lung. Light, fluorescence, and SEM of precision-cut lung slices demonstrated that alveolar duct structure was defined by a cable line element encased in basement membrane. The cable line element arose in the distal airways, passed through septal tips and inserted into neighboring blood vessels and visceral pleura. The ropelike appearance, collagenase resistance and anti-elastin immunostaining indicated that the cable was an elastin macromolecule. Our results indicate that the helical line element of the axial connective tissue system is composed of an elastin cable that not only defines the structure of the alveolar duct, but also integrates the axial connective tissue system into visceral pleura and peripheral blood vessels. PMID:26285785

  4. Foreign body in the oral cavity mimicking a benign connective tissue tumor.

    PubMed

    Puliyel, Divya; Balouch, Amir; Ram, Saravanan; Sedghizadeh, Parish P

    2013-01-01

    Foreign bodies may be embedded in the oral cavity either by traumatic injury or iatrogenically. The commonly encountered iatrogenic foreign bodies are restorative materials like amalgam, obturation materials, broken instruments, needles, and impression materials. This paper describes an asymptomatic presentation of a foreign body in the oral mucosa which clinically appeared like a benign connective tissue tumor. PMID:23634307

  5. Mediastinal lymphadenopathy and pulmonary arterial hypertension in mixed connective tissue disease

    SciTech Connect

    Guit, G.L.; Shaw, P.C.; Ehrlich, J.; Kroon, H.M.; Oudkerk, M.

    1985-02-01

    A case of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is presented in which mediastinal lymphadenopathy was the most prominent radiological finding detected by plain chest radiographs and computed tomography. Pulmonary arterial hypertension, which is a rare and often fatal complication of MCTD, also developed in this patient.

  6. Microstructure alterations in beef intramuscular connective tissue caused by hydrodynamic pressure processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to evaluate microstructural changes in intramuscular connective tissue of beef semimembranosus muscle subjected to hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP). Samples were HDP treated in a plastic container (HDP-PC) or a steel commercial unit (HDP-CU). C...

  7. Roles of ?? T Cells in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Su, Dinglei; Shen, Minning; Li, Xia; Sun, Lingyun

    2013-01-01

    ? ? T cells are a minor population of T cells that express the TCR ?? chains, mainly distributed in the mucosal and epithelial tissue and accounting for less than 5% of the total T cells in the peripheral blood. By bridging innate and adaptive immunity, ?? T cells play important roles in the anti-infection, antitumor, and autoimmune responses. Previous research on ?? T cells was primarily concentrated on infectious diseases and tumors, whereas their functions in autoimmune diseases attracted much attention. In this paper, we summarized the various functions of ?? T cells in two prototypical autoimmune connective tissue diseases, that is, SLE and RA, elaborating on their antigen-presenting capacity, secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, immunomodulatory effects, and auxiliary function for B cells, which contribute to overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines and pathogenic autoantibodies, ultimately leading to the onset of these autoimmune diseases. Elucidation of the roles of ?? T cells in autoimmune diseases is not only conducive to in-depth understanding of the pathogenesis of these diseases, but also beneficial in providing theoretical support for the development of ?? T-cell-targeted therapy. PMID:23533458

  8. Aberrant Type I Interferon Regulation in Autoimmunity: Opposite Directions in MS and SLE, Shaped by Evolution and Body Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Reder, Anthony T.; Feng, Xuan

    2013-01-01

    Studying the action of mechanisms of type I interferon (IFN) provides the insight to elucidate the cause and therapy for autoimmune diseases. There are high IFN responses in some diseases such as connective tissue diseases, but low responses in multiple sclerosis. Distinct IFN features lead us to understand pathology of a spectrum of autoimmune diseases and help us to search genetic changes, gene expression, and biomarkers for diagnosis, disease progression, and treatment response. PMID:24062747

  9. Mitral valve prolapse and joint hypermobility: evidence for a systemic connective tissue abnormality?

    PubMed Central

    Pitcher, D; Grahame, R

    1982-01-01

    Clinical evidence for an abnormally of extracardiac connective tissue was sought in 21 patients with idiopathic mitral valve prolapse and was compared to that in 21 matched controls. The incidence of rheumatic and orthopaedic complaints and the prevalence of hypermobile joints, Marfanoid habitus, and skeletal deformity were compared in the 2 groups. Skin thickness and elasticity were measured, and the mean values in the 2 groups were compared. hypermobile joints were significantly commoner in patients with mitral valve prolapse. Easy bruising was reported significantly more commonly by patients with mitral prolapse; the incidence of other rheumatic complaints was similar in the 2 groups. There was no significant difference in skin thickness, skin elasticity, and the prevalence of either skeletal deformity or Marfanoid habitus between patients with mitral valve prolapse and controls. The results support previous evidence of an association between mitral valve prolapse and benign hypermobility of the joints, but emphasise that many patients with mitral valve prolapse have no clinically apparent connective tissue abnormality outside the heart. It remains uncertain whether the valve lesion in these patients represents a tissue-specific abnormality of mitral valve collagen or the only clinical expression of a minor systemic connective tissue abnormality. PMID:7114917

  10. Fractal analysis of the structural complexity of the connective tissue in human carotid bodies

    PubMed Central

    Guidolin, Diego; Porzionato, Andrea; Tortorella, Cinzia; Macchi, Veronica; De Caro, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) may undergo different structural changes during perinatal development, aging, or in response to environmental stimuli. In the previous literature, morphometric approaches to evaluate these changes have considered quantitative first order parameters, such as volumes or densities, while changes in spatial disposition and/or complexity of structural components have not yet been considered. In the present study, different strategies for addressing morphological complexity of CB, apart from the overall amount of each tissue component, were evaluated and compared. In particular, we considered the spatial distribution of connective tissue in the carotid bodies of young control subjects, young opiate-related deaths and aged subjects, through analysis of dispersion (Morisita's index), gray level co-occurrence matrix (entropy, angular second moment, variance, correlation), and fractal analysis (fractal dimension, lacunarity). Opiate-related deaths and aged subjects showed a comparable increase in connective tissue with respect to young controls. However, the Morisita's index (p < 0.05), angular second moment (p < 0.05), fractal dimension (p < 0.01), and lacunarity (p < 0.01) permitted to identify significant differences in the disposition of the connective tissue between these two series. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was also calculated to evaluate the efficiency of each parameter. The fractal dimension and lacunarity, with areas under the ROC curve of 0.9651 (excellent accuracy) and 0.8835 (good accuracy), respectively, showed the highest discriminatory power. They evidenced higher level of structural complexity in the carotid bodies of opiate-related deaths than old controls, due to more complex branching of intralobular connective tissue. Further analyses will have to consider the suitability of these approaches to address other morphological features of the CB, such as different cell populations, vascularization, and innervation. PMID:25414672

  11. Telomere Dysfunction, Autoimmunity and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Hohensinner, Philipp J.; Goronzy, Jörg J.; Weyand, Cornelia M.

    2011-01-01

    Immune aging is associated with loss of critical immune functions, such as host protection from infection and malignancy. Unexpectedly, immunosenescence also renders the host susceptible to inflammation, which may translate into tissue-damaging disease as the senescent immune system loses its ability to maximize inflammatory protection while minimizing inflammatory injury. On the other hand, chronic inflammation associated with immune-mediated disease represents a profound stress factor for the immune system, affecting cellular turn-over, replication and exhaustion. Immune cell longevity is tightly connected to the functional integrity of telomeres which are regulated by cell multiplication, exposure to oxidative stress and DNA repair mechanisms. Lymphocytes are amongst the few cell types that can actively elongate telomeres through the action of telomerase. In patients with the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis (RA), telomerase deficiency is associated with prematurity of immune aging. Patients with RA have other defects in DNA repair mechanisms, including the kinase Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), critically involved in the repair of DNA double strand breaks. ATM deficiency in RA shortens lymphocyte survival. Dynamics of telomeric length and structure are beginning to be understood and have distinct patterns in different autoimmune diseases, suggesting a multitude of molecular mechanisms defining the interface between chronic immune stimulation and progressive aging of the immune system. PMID:22396899

  12. Connective tissue growth factor is expressed in bone marrow stromal cells and promotes interleukin-7-dependent B lymphopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Laurence C; Strickland, Deborah H; Howlett, Meegan; Ford, Jette; Charles, Adrian K; Lyons, Karen M; Brigstock, David R; Goldschmeding, Roel; Cole, Catherine H; Alexander, Warren S; Kees, Ursula R

    2014-07-01

    Hematopoiesis occurs in a complex bone marrow microenvironment in which bone marrow stromal cells provide critical support to the process through direct cell contact and indirectly through the secretion of cytokines and growth factors. We report that connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf, also known as Ccn2) is highly expressed in murine bone marrow stromal cells. In contrast, connective tissue growth factor is barely detectable in unfractionated adult bone marrow cells. While connective tissue growth factor has been implicated in hematopoietic malignancies, and is known to play critical roles in skeletogenesis and regulation of bone marrow stromal cells, its role in hematopoiesis has not been described. Here we demonstrate that the absence of connective tissue growth factor in mice results in impaired hematopoiesis. Using a chimeric fetal liver transplantation model, we show that absence of connective tissue growth factor has an impact on B-cell development, in particular from pro-B to more mature stages, which is linked to a requirement for connective tissue growth factor in bone marrow stromal cells. Using in vitro culture systems, we demonstrate that connective tissue growth factor potentiates B-cell proliferation and promotes pro-B to pre-B differentiation in the presence of interleukin-7. This study provides a better understanding of the functions of connective tissue growth factor within the bone marrow, showing the dual regulatory role of the growth factor in skeletogenesis and in stage-specific B lymphopoiesis. PMID:24727816

  13. Autoimmune Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of CAM are herbal products, chiropractic , acupuncture , and hypnosis . If you have an autoimmune disease, you might ... help you to feel your best. Meditation, self-hypnosis, and guided imagery, are simple relaxation techniques that ...

  14. Autoimmune thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Alessandro; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Corrado, Alda; Di Domenicantonio, Andrea; Fallahi, Poupak

    2015-02-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) result from a dysregulation of the immune system leading to an immune attack on the thyroid. AITD are T cell-mediated organ-specific autoimmune disorders. The prevalence of AITD is estimated to be 5%; however, the prevalence of antithyroid antibodies may be even higher. The AITD comprise two main clinical presentations: Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), both characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid parenchyma. The clinical hallmarks of GD and HT are thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism, respectively. The mechanisms that trigger the autoimmune attack to the thyroid are still under investigation. Epidemiological data suggest an interaction among genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers as the key factor leading to the breakdown of tolerance and the development of disease. Recent studies have shown the importance of cytokines and chemokines in the pathogenesis of AT and GD. In thyroid tissue, recruited T helper 1 (Th1) lymphocytes may be responsible for enhanced IFN-γ and TNF-α production, which in turn stimulates CXCL10 (the prototype of the IFN-γ-inducible Th1 chemokines) secretion from the thyroid cells, therefore creating an amplification feedback loop, initiating and perpetuating the autoimmune process. Associations exist between AITD and other organ specific (polyglandular autoimmune syndromes), or systemic autoimmune disorders (Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, cryoglobulinemia, sarcoidosis, psoriatic arthritis). Moreover, several studies have shown an association of AITD and papillary thyroid cancer. These data suggest that AITD patients should be accurately monitored for thyroid dysfunctions, the appearance of thyroid nodules, and other autoimmune disorders. PMID:25461470

  15. Mineralization/Anti-Mineralization Networks in the Skin and Vascular Connective Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiaoli; Uitto, Jouni

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic mineralization has been linked to several common clinical conditions with considerable morbidity and mortality. The mineralization processes, both metastatic and dystrophic, affect the skin and vascular connective tissues. There are several contributing metabolic and environmental factors that make uncovering of the precise pathomechanisms of these acquired disorders exceedingly difficult. Several relatively rare heritable disorders share phenotypic manifestations similar to those in common conditions, and, consequently, they serve as genetically controlled model systems to study the details of the mineralization process in peripheral tissues. This overview will highlight diseases with mineral deposition in the skin and vascular connective tissues, as exemplified by familial tumoral calcinosis, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, generalized arterial calcification of infancy, and arterial calcification due to CD73 deficiency. These diseases, and their corresponding mouse models, provide insight into the pathomechanisms of soft tissue mineralization and point to the existence of intricate mineralization/anti-mineralization networks in these tissues. This information is critical for understanding the pathomechanistic details of different mineralization disorders, and it has provided the perspective to develop pharmacological approaches to counteract the consequences of ectopic mineralization. PMID:23665350

  16. Mineralization/anti-mineralization networks in the skin and vascular connective tissues.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiaoli; Uitto, Jouni

    2013-07-01

    Ectopic mineralization has been linked to several common clinical conditions with considerable morbidity and mortality. The mineralization processes, both metastatic and dystrophic, affect the skin and vascular connective tissues. There are several contributing metabolic and environmental factors that make uncovering of the precise pathomechanisms of these acquired disorders exceedingly difficult. Several relatively rare heritable disorders share phenotypic manifestations similar to those in common conditions, and, consequently, they serve as genetically controlled model systems to study the details of the mineralization process in peripheral tissues. This overview will highlight diseases with mineral deposition in the skin and vascular connective tissues, as exemplified by familial tumoral calcinosis, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, generalized arterial calcification of infancy, and arterial calcification due to CD73 deficiency. These diseases, and their corresponding mouse models, provide insight into the pathomechanisms of soft tissue mineralization and point to the existence of intricate mineralization/anti-mineralization networks in these tissues. This information is critical for understanding the pathomechanistic details of different mineralization disorders, and it has provided the perspective to develop pharmacological approaches to counteract the consequences of ectopic mineralization. PMID:23665350

  17. Specialized connective tissue: bone, the structural framework of the upper extremity

    PubMed Central

    Weatherholt, Alyssa M.; Fuchs, Robyn K.; Warden, Stuart J.

    2011-01-01

    Bone is a connective tissue containing cells, fibers and ground substance. There are many functions in the body in which the bone participates, such as storing minerals, providing internal support, protecting vital organs, enabling movement, and providing attachment sites for muscles and tendons. Bone is unique because its collagen framework absorbs energy, while the mineral encased within the matrix allows bone to resist deformation. This article provides an overview of the structure and function of bone tissue from a macroscopic to microscopic level and discusses the physiological processes contributing to upper extremity bone health. It concludes by discussing common conditions influencing upper extremity bone health. PMID:22047807

  18. Gingival Cyst of the Adult as Early Sequela of Connective Tissue Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Gil Escalante, Mariana; Tatakis, Dimitris N.

    2015-01-01

    The subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) is a highly predictable procedure with low complication rate. The reported early complications consist of typical postsurgical sequelae, such as pain and swelling. This case report describes the development and management of a gingival cyst following SCTG to obtain root coverage. Three weeks after SCTG procedure, a slightly raised, indurated, ~5?mm diameter asymptomatic lesion was evident. Excisional biopsy was performed and the histopathological evaluation confirmed the gingival cyst diagnosis. At the 1-year follow-up, the site had complete root coverage and normal tissue appearance and the patient remained asymptomatic. PMID:26236510

  19. [Autoimmune encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Davydovskaya, M V; Boyko, A N; Beliaeva, I A; Martynov, M Yu; Gusev, E I

    2015-01-01

    The authors consider the issues related to pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune encephalitis. It has been demonstrated that the development of autoimmune encephalitis can be associated with the oncologic process or be of idiopathic character. The pathogenesis of autoimmune encephalitis is caused by the production of antibodies that directly or indirectly (via T-cell mechanism) damage exo-and/or endocellular structures of the nerve cells. The presence of antobodies to endocellular structures of neurons in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with autoimmune encephalitis in the vast majority of cases (> 95%) indicates the concomitant oncologic process, the presence of antibodies to membranes or neuronal synapses can be not associated with the oncologic process. Along with complex examination, including neuroimaging, EEG, cerebrospinal fluid and antibodies, the diagnostic algorithm in autoimmune encephalitis should include the search for the nidus of cancer. The treatment algorithm in autoimmune encephalitis included the combined immunosupressive therapy, plasmapheresis, immunoglobulines, cytostatics as well as treatment of the oncologic process. PMID:26322363

  20. Interstitial lung disease in connective tissue diseases: evolving concepts of pathogenesis and management

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a challenging clinical entity associated with multiple connective tissue diseases, and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Effective therapies for connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD) are still lacking. Multidisciplinary clinics dedicated to the early diagnosis and improved management of patients with CTD-ILD are now being established. There is rapid progress in understanding and identifying the effector cells, the proinflammatory and profibrotic mediators, and the pathways involved in the pathogenesis of CTD-ILD. Serum biomarkers may provide new insights as risk factors for pulmonary fibrosis and as measures of disease progression. Despite these recent advances, the management of patients with CTD-ILD remains suboptimal. Further studies are therefore urgently needed to better understand these conditions, and to develop effective therapeutic interventions. PMID:20735863

  1. Genetic Dissection of Marfan Syndrome and Related Connective Tissue Disorders: An Update 2012

    PubMed Central

    Hoffjan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of the connective tissue characterized by early development of thoracic aortic aneurysms/dissections together with symptoms of the ocular and skeletal systems. While most patients/families with a classic phenotypic expression of MFS harbour mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin-1 (FBN1), genetic studies of the recent years revealed that the clinical features, as well as the mutated genes, show a high degree of overlap between MFS and other connective tissue diseases (e.g. Loeys-Dietz syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, familial thoracic aneurysms and dissections and others). We summarize herein the current knowledge about the wide spectrum of differential diagnoses and their genetic background as well as novel therapeutic approaches in order to provide appropriate counselling and clinical follow-up for the patients. PMID:23326250

  2. Application of exogenous enzymes to beef muscle of high and low-connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, G A; Calkins, C R

    2010-08-01

    Exogenous enzymes tenderize meat through proteolysis. Triceps brachii and Supraspinatus were randomly assigned to the seven enzyme treatments, papain, ficin, bromelain, homogenized fresh ginger, Bacillus subtilis protease, and two Aspergillus oryzae proteases or control to determine the extent of tenderization (Warner-Bratzler shear and sensory evaluation) and mode of action (myofibrillar or collagen degradation). Sensory evaluation showed improvement (P<0.0009) for tenderness and connective tissue component and all except ginger had a lower shear force than the control (P<0.003). Ginger produced more off-flavor than all other treatments (P<0.0001). Only papain increased soluble collagen (P<0.0001). Control samples were only significantly less than ficin for water soluble (P=0.0002) and A. oryzae concentrate for salt soluble proteins (P=0.0148). All enzyme treatments can increase tenderness via myofibrillar and collagenous protein degradation with no difference among high and low-connective tissue muscles. PMID:20416788

  3. Prevalence of Connective Tissue Diseases in Egyptian Patients Presenting with Fever of Unknown Origin

    PubMed Central

    Abdelbaky, Mohamad S.; Mansour, Howaida E.; Ibrahim, Shafika I.; Hassan, Iman A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of connective tissue diseases in patients presenting with fever of unknown origin (FUO). Patients and methods: In this study thirty patients diagnosed as FUO (Group 1), in 2008, were included in an observational study and diagnostic workup. Additionally, retrospective analysis of seventy patients’ files (Group 2), for patients who presented with prolonged unexplained pyrexia to the same hospital in the previous two years, was performed. Patients were subjected to: full clinical assessment including full history taking, thorough clinical examination, laboratory investigations including the basic investigations for patients with prolonged fever, complete blood count, erythrocytes sedimentation rate, urine analysis and culture, blood culture, sputum culture and plain chest X ray. Further diagnostic work up and/or procedures were requested according to the potential diagnostic clues (PDC) present in every patient. Results: Out of 100 FUO patients, 50% were found to have infectious diseases, 24% were found to have connective tissue diseases, 8% miscellaneous causes and 7% neoplastic diseases (P < 0.05). In 11 patients no definite cause for FUO could be identified. Connective tissue patients were: eight systemic lupus patients (33.3%), five patients with familial mediterranean fever (20.8%), four patients with rheumatoid arthritis (16.6%), three patients (12.5%) with Still’s disease and Rheumatic fever and one patient with Behçet syndrome/Crohn’s disease (4.3%), (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Despite the advanced technology, FUO remains a challenging medical problem. Infections were the most common cause of FUO in Egypt, confirming the trends found in other parts of the world. There was an increased prevalence of connective tissue patients presented with prolonged unexplained fever. A keen clinical eye, meticulous history taking and repeated physical examination remained the most important diagnostic tools in FUO patients. PMID:21789030

  4. Progressive Overgrowth of the Cerebriform Connective Tissue Nevus in Patients with Proteus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Beachkofsky, Thomas M.; Sapp, Julie C.; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Darling, Thomas N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Proteus syndrome is a rare overgrowth disorder that almost always affects the skin. Objective Our purpose was to evaluate progression of skin lesions in patients with Proteus syndrome. Methods Skin findings were documented in 36 patients with Proteus syndrome. Progression of skin lesions in 16 of these patients was assessed by comparing photographs obtained on repeat visits for an average total duration of 53 months. Results The skin lesion most characteristic of Proteus syndrome, the cerebriform connective tissue nevus showed progression in 13 children but not in 3 adults. The cerebriform connective tissue nevus progressed by expansion into previously uninvolved skin, increased thickness, and development of new lesions. Lipomas increased in size and/or number in 8/10 children with lipomas. In contrast, epidermal nevi and vascular malformations generally did not spread or increase in number. Limitations Only 3 adults with Proteus syndrome were evaluated longitudinally. Conclusion The cerebriform connective tissue nevus in Proteus syndrome grows throughout childhood but tends to remain stable in adulthood. PMID:20709429

  5. Mixed connective tissue disease presenting with progressive scleroderma symptoms in a 10-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Latu?kiewicz-Potemska, Joanna; Biernacka-Zieli?ska, Ma?gorzata; Sta?czyk, Jerzy; Smolewska, El?bieta

    2013-01-01

    Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a systemic inflammatory disease affecting connective tissue with the underlying autoimmunological mechanism. The core of MCTD is an appearance of symptoms of several other inflammatory diseases of connective tissue systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic scleroderma, poly- or dermatomyositis, rheumatoid arthritis at the same time, accompanied by a high level of anti-ribonucleoprotein antibodies (anti-U1RNP). The disease was described more than 40 years ago by Sharp et al. During recent years, many efforts to better understand clinical and serological features of MCTD have been made. Diagnosis of MCTD can be difficult. Obligatory international diagnostic criteria are required to be fulfilled. Several versions of such criteria have been proposed, but the most widely used one was described by Kasukawa. There is no consensus about treatment a choice of drugs depends on symptoms. We present a case of a 10-year-old girl with sclerodactyly and trophic damages of fingers accompanied by symptoms of Raynaud's phenomenon. After an almost 2-year course of the disease, a diagnosis of MCTD has been established. PMID:24353496

  6. Recalcitrant hypocalcaemia in autoimmune enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Myfanwy; Fairchild, Jan; Moore, David; Moore, Lynette; Henning, Paul; Tham, Elaine

    2014-12-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy syndrome is a monogenic disorder associated with autoimmune destruction of both endocrine and nonendocrine tissues. The classic triad includes candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and Addison disease. Up to 25% of patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy syndrome also have gastrointestinal manifestations, which can have an impact on the management of other aspects of the disease. The management of the case discussed was challenging because of the complex interplay between the manifestations and treatment of his hypoparathyroidism, Addison disease, and autoimmune enteropathy. Attempts at management of hypocalcemia were largely unsuccessful until the introduction of immunosuppressive therapy for autoimmune enteropathy. This case supports early consideration of immunosuppression in this condition. PMID:25404718

  7. Beneficial Autoimmunity at Body Surfaces – Immune Surveillance and Rapid Type 2 Immunity Regulate Tissue Homeostasis and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dalessandri, Tim; Strid, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial cells (ECs) line body surface tissues and provide a physicochemical barrier to the external environment. Frequent microbial and non-microbial challenges such as those imposed by mechanical disruption, injury or exposure to noxious environmental substances including chemicals, carcinogens, ultraviolet-irradiation, or toxins cause activation of ECs with release of cytokines and chemokines as well as alterations in the expression of cell-surface ligands. Such display of epithelial stress is rapidly sensed by tissue-resident immunocytes, which can directly interact with self-moieties on ECs and initiate both local and systemic immune responses. ECs are thus key drivers of immune surveillance at body surface tissues. However, ECs have a propensity to drive type 2 immunity (rather than type 1) upon non-invasive challenge or stress – a type of immunity whose regulation and function still remain enigmatic. Here, we review the induction and possible role of type 2 immunity in epithelial tissues and propose that rapid immune surveillance and type 2 immunity are key regulators of tissue homeostasis and carcinogenesis. PMID:25101088

  8. Histopathologic study of rat connective tissue responses to maxillofacial silicone elastomers.

    PubMed

    Bal, Bilge Turhan; Yilmaz, Handan; Aydin, Cemal; Karakoca, Seçil; Tokman, Benay

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this histopathologic study was to assess and compare the subcutaneous connective tissue reaction to three different maxillofacial silicone elastomers (Cosmesil, Multisil, Episil). The test materials were directly inserted subcutaneously into the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of Wistar albino rats. Histopathological examinations were done at 7, 30, and 90 days after the implantation procedure. The presence of inflammation, presence of inflammatory giant cells, and the thickness of fibrous connective tissue adjacent to each inserted sample were recorded. Data was evaluated by analysis of variance, Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Kruskal Wallis test. Cosmesil, Multisil and Episil silicone elastomers at 7 days elicited a severe inflammatory reaction. However, these reactions decreased by the 30 and 90 days. All silicone elastomers elicited a moderate inflammatory reaction at 30 and 90 days. There were no significant differences in tissue reaction between the materials at 7, 30, and 90 days (P > 0.05). All the maxillofacial silicone elastomers evaluated can not be assigned a favorable biocompatibility level based on this study's histologic findings. PMID:19399592

  9. Reaction of rat connective tissue to mineral trioxide aggregate and diaket

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the reaction of rat connective tissue to two root-end filling materials: white Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (WMTA) and Diaket. Methods Each of the materials was placed in dentine tubes and implanted subcutaneously in the dorsal connective tissue of 21 Wistar albino rats. Tissue biopsies were collected 7, 30, and 60 days after the implantation procedure. The specimens were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined microscopically. After determining inflammatory cell numbers in sections from each specimen, inflammatory reaction scores were defined as follows: 0; no or few inflammatory cells (no reaction), 1; less than 25 cells (mild reaction), 2; 25 to 125 cells, (moderate reaction), and 3; 125 or more cells (severe reaction). Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results There were statistically significant differences in the median inflammatory cell numbers throughout the three test periods, with the most severe degree of inflammation observed at the one-week period. Few cases of necrosis were observed with WMTA. Diaket exhibited the most severe degree of inflammation and necrosis. After 30 days, both materials provoked moderate inflammatory reaction. The eight-week period showed the least severe degree of inflammation in all groups. Conclusions It was concluded that WMTA exhibits a more favourable tissue response compared with Diaket which induced more severe inflammatory reaction than WMTA and the control. PMID:21569463

  10. Connective tissue reaction of rats to a new zinc-oxide-eugenol endodontic sealer.

    PubMed

    Trichs, Karen Melina; Jnior, Jacy Simi; Calixto, Joo Batista; Machado, Ricardo; Rosa, Tiago Pereira; Silva, Emmanuel Joo Nogueira Leal; Vansan, Luiz Pascoal

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility in rat subcutaneous connective tissue of a new zinc oxide endodontic sealer (Endomethasone N) compared to those provided by Endofill and Sealer 26. Polyethylene tubes containing the test materials were implanted into dorsal subcutaneous connective tissue of Wistar albino rats. After 7 and 42 days, the implants with the surrounding tissue were collected, fixed, and processed for histologic evaluation. Sections were evaluated for the presence of inflammatory cells (poly or monomorfonuclear), blood vessels, necrosis area, and thickness of fibrous capsule. Comparisons between groups and time-periods were performed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U non-parametric tests for 5% significance level. No differences in the biocompatibility patterns among the materials for the 2 experimental periods were observed. Independently of the sealer, the tissue behavior showed a tendency to decrease the irritation effect over time. It can be concluded that all sealers are irritant, but its toxicity decreased with time. Endomethsone N showed biocompatible characteristics comparable with those provided by Endofill and Sealer 26. PMID:24123537

  11. Repair of dense connective tissues via biomaterial-mediated matrix reprogramming of the wound interface.

    PubMed

    Qu, Feini; Pintauro, Michael P; Haughan, Joanne E; Henning, Elizabeth A; Esterhai, John L; Schaer, Thomas P; Mauck, Robert L; Fisher, Matthew B

    2015-01-01

    Repair of dense connective tissues in adults is limited by their intrinsic hypocellularity and is exacerbated by a dense extracellular matrix (ECM) that impedes cellular migration to and local proliferation at the wound site. Conversely, healing in fetal tissues occurs due in part to an environment conducive to cell mobility and division. Here, we investigated whether the application of a degradative enzyme, collagenase, could reprogram the adult wound margin to a more fetal-like state, and thus abrogate the biophysical impediments that hinder migration and proliferation. We tested this concept using the knee meniscus, a commonly injured structure for which few regenerative approaches exist. To focus delivery and degradation to the wound interface, we developed a system in which collagenase was stored inside poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) electrospun nanofibers and released upon hydration. Through a series of invitro and invivo studies, our findings show that partial digestion of the wound interface improves repair by creating a more compliant and porous microenvironment that expedites cell migration to and/or proliferation at the wound margin. This innovative approach of targeted manipulation of the wound interface, focused on removing the naturally occurring barriers to adult tissue repair, may find widespread application in the treatment of injuries to a variety of dense connective tissues. PMID:25477175

  12. Dynamic morphometric characterization of local connective tissue network structure in humans using ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Langevin, Helene M; Rizzo, Donna M; Fox, James R; Badger, Gary J; Wu, Junru; Konofagou, Elisa E; Stevens-Tuttle, Debbie; Bouffard, Nicole A; Krag, Martin H

    2007-01-01

    Background In humans, connective tissue forms a complex, interconnected network throughout the body that may have mechanosensory, regulatory and signaling functions. Understanding these potentially important phenomena requires non-invasive measurements of collagen network structure that can be performed in live animals or humans. The goal of this study was to show that ultrasound can be used to quantify dynamic changes in local connective tissue structure in vivo. We first performed combined ultrasound and histology examinations of the same tissue in two subjects undergoing surgery: in one subject, we examined the relationship of ultrasound to histological images in three dimensions; in the other, we examined the effect of a localized tissue perturbation using a previously developed robotic acupuncture needling technique. In ten additional non-surgical subjects, we quantified changes in tissue spatial organization over time during needle rotation vs. no rotation using ultrasound and semi-variogram analyses. Results 3-D renditions of ultrasound images showed longitudinal echogenic sheets that matched with collagenous sheets seen in histological preparations. Rank correlations between serial 2-D ultrasound and corresponding histology images resulted in high positive correlations for semi-variogram ranges computed parallel (r = 0.79, p < 0.001) and perpendicular (r = 0.63, p < 0.001) to the surface of the skin, indicating concordance in spatial structure between the two data sets. Needle rotation caused tissue displacement in the area surrounding the needle that was mapped spatially with ultrasound elastography and corresponded to collagen bundles winding around the needle on histological sections. In semi-variograms computed for each ultrasound frame, there was a greater change in the area under the semi-variogram curve across successive frames during needle rotation compared with no rotation. The direction of this change was heterogeneous across subjects. The frame-to-frame variability was 10-fold (p < 0.001) greater with rotation than with no rotation indicating changes in tissue structure during rotation. Conclusion The combination of ultrasound and semi-variogram analyses allows quantitative assessment of dynamic changes in the structure of human connective tissue in vivo. PMID:17550618

  13. Titanium-coated Dacron velour: a study of interfacial connective tissue formation.

    PubMed

    Yan, J Y; Cooke, F W; Vaskelis, P S; von Recum, A F

    1989-02-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate in textile form (Dacron) has been used extensively as a surgical implant material for applications such as vascular grafts and percutaneous access devices. It is moderately histocompatible eliciting a chronic inflammatory reaction predominately in tissue which has grown into the pores of the fabric. Titanium implants on the other hand, induce only the slightest inflammatory response and connective tissue adhesion to the titanium oxide surface is excellent. It was, therefore, hypothesized that a titanium coating on Dacron fabric might improve its histocompatibility while leaving its desirable mechanical properties unaffected. To test this idea, Dacron velour specimens were coated with titanium by vacuum deposition and were implanted together with uncoated controls in rabbits subcutis. After various implantation times, the specimens were recovered and the associated tissue was examined histologically. Qualitative and semiquantitative analysis revealed that tissue ingrowth quantity and quality was highly variable, not only between test and control specimens, but also between animals and even between specimens within the same animal. This indicated that there may be a number of factors influencing tissue ingrowth that were not adequately controlled in this study. The titanium coating which was undoubtedly highly oxidized had a profound qualitative and quantitative effect on fibroblast activity (ground substance formation) and fibroblast adhesion to the Dacron fibers. The results obtained after these short-term implantation periods indicate that titanium coating affects the quality of the interfacing tissue and may actually improve long-term histocompatibility. Long-term studies will have to confirm these preliminary data. PMID:2523396

  14. Adjuvants and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Israeli, E; Agmon-Levin, N; Blank, M; Shoenfeld, Y

    2009-11-01

    Some adjuvants may exert adverse effects upon injection or, on the other hand, may not trigger a full immunological reaction. The mechanisms underlying adjuvant adverse effects are under renewed scrutiny because of the enormous implications for vaccine development. In the search for new and safer adjuvants, several new adjuvants were developed by pharmaceutical companies utilizing new immunological and chemical innovations. The ability of the immune system to recognize molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens is, in part, due to the presence of special immune receptors called toll-like receptors (TLRs) that are expressed on leukocyte membranes. The very fact that TLR activation leads to adaptive immune responses to foreign entities explains why so many adjuvants used today in vaccinations are developed to mimic TLR ligands. Alongside their supportive role, adjuvants were found to inflict by themselves an illness of autoimmune nature, defined as 'the adjuvant diseases'. The debatable question of silicone as an adjuvant and connective tissue diseases, as well as the Gulf War syndrome and macrophagic myofaciitis which followed multiple injections of aluminium-based vaccines, are presented here. Owing to the adverse effects exerted by adjuvants, there is no doubt that safer adjuvants need to be developed and incorporated into future vaccines. Other needs in light of new vaccine technologies are adjuvants suitable for use with mucosally delivered vaccines, DNA vaccines, cancer and autoimmunity vaccines. In particular, there is demand for safe and non-toxic adjuvants able to stimulate cellular (Th1) immunity. More adjuvants were approved to date besides alum for human vaccines, including MF59 in some viral vaccines, MPL, AS04, AS01B and AS02A against viral and parasitic infections, virosomes for HBV, HPV and HAV, and cholera toxin for cholera. Perhaps future adjuvants occupying other putative receptors will be employed to bypass the TLR signaling pathway completely in order to circumvent common side effects of adjuvant-activated TLRs such as local inflammation and the general malaise felt because of the costly whole-body immune response to antigen. PMID:19880572

  15. Autoimmune encephalopathies

    PubMed Central

    Leypoldt, Frank; Armangue, Thas; Dalmau, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 10 years the continual discovery of novel forms of encephalitis associated with antibodies to cell-surface or synaptic proteins has changed the paradigms for diagnosing and treating disorders that were previously unknown or mischaracterized. We review here the process of discovery, the symptoms, and the target antigens of twelve autoimmune encephatilic disorders, grouped by syndromes and approached from a clinical perspective. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis, several subtypes of limbic encephalitis, stiff-person spectrum disorders, and other autoimmune encephalitides that result in psychosis, seizures, or abnormal movements are described in detail. We include a novel encephalopathy with prominent sleep dysfunction that provides an intriguing link between chronic neurodegeneration and cell-surface autoimmunity (IgLON5). Some of the caveats of limited serum testing are outlined. In addition, we review the underlying cellular and synaptic mechanisms that for some disorders confirm the antibody pathogenicity. The multidisciplinary impact of autoimmune encephalitis has been expanded recently by the discovery that herpes simplex encephalitis is a robust trigger of synaptic autoimmunity, and that some patients may develop overlapping syndromes, including anti-NMDAR encephalitis and neuromyelitis optica or other demyelinating diseases. PMID:25315420

  16. The autoimmune diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, N.R.; Mackay, I.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 25 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Genetic Predisposition to Autoimmune Diseases; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Autoimmune Aspects of Rheumatoid Arthritis; Immunology of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes; and Adrenal Autoimmunity and Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes.

  17. Neuroinflammatory Mechanisms of Connective Tissue Fibrosis: Targeting Neurogenic and Mast Cell Contributions

    PubMed Central

    Monument, Michael J.; Hart, David A.; Salo, Paul T.; Befus, A. Dean; Hildebrand, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: The pathogenesis of fibrogenic wound and connective tissue healing is complex and incompletely understood. Common observations across a vast array of human and animal models of fibroproliferative conditions suggest neuroinflammatory mechanisms are important upstream fibrogenic events. Recent Advances: As detailed in this review, mast cell hyperplasia is a common observation in fibrotic tissue. Recent investigations in human and preclinical models of hypertrophic wound healing and post-traumatic joint fibrosis provides evidence that fibrogenesis is governed by a maladaptive neuropeptide-mast cell-myofibroblast signaling pathway. Critical Issues: The blockade and manipulation of these factors is providing promising evidence that if timed correctly, the fibrogenic process can be appropriately regulated. Clinically, abnormal fibrogenic healing responses are not ubiquitous to all patients and the identification of those at-risk remains an area of priority. Future Directions: Ultimately, an integrated appreciation of the common pathobiology shared by many fibrogenic connective tissue conditions may provide a scientific framework to facilitate the development of novel antifibrotic prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:25785237

  18. State-of-the-Art Imaging of the Lung for Connective Tissue Disease (CTD).

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Koyama, Hisanobu; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Seki, Shinichiro

    2015-12-01

    Involvement of the respiratory system is common in connective tissue diseases (CTDs), and the resultant lung injury can affect every part of the lung: the pleura, alveoli, interstitium, vasculature, lymphatic tissue, and large and/or small airways. Most of the parenchymal manifestations of CTD are similar to those found in interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), especially idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, and can be classified using the same system. Although there is some overlap, each CTD is associated with a characteristic pattern of pulmonary involvement. For this reason, thin-section CT as well as pulmonary function tests and serum markers are utilized for diagnosis, disease severity assessment, and therapeutic efficacy evaluation of ILD associated with CTD. In addition, newly developed pulmonary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures have been recommended as useful alternative imaging options for patients with CTD. This review article will (1) address radiological findings for chest radiography and conventional or thin-section CT currently used for six major types of CTD, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma (progressive systemic sclerosis), polymyositis/dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjgren syndrome and mixed connective tissue disease; (2) briefly deal with radiation dose reduction for thin-section CT examination; and (3) discuss clinically applicable or state-of-the-art MR imaging for CTD patients. PMID:26483318

  19. Effect of Hormones on the Turnover of Polysaccharides in Connective Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Dziewiatkowski, Dominic D.

    1964-01-01

    A number of hormones somehow modify the turnover of the polysaccharides in a variety of connective tissues. In hypophysectomized animals the turnover of chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid is decreased; when such animals are given growth hormone the turnover of chondroitin sulfate is enhanced but that of hyaluronic acid is unaltered. The effect of parathyroid extracts may be of a dual nature: in some connective tissues there may be an increase in the rate at which chondroitin sulfate is catabolized, in other tissues its synthesis may be stimulated. Thyroxine effectively restores toward normal the depressed synthesis and breakdown of polysaccharides in hypothyroid animals. Estradiol, in addition to inhibiting the resorption of the metaphyses in rats, inhibits the synthesis of chondroitin sulfate in cartilage and aorta. Cortisone too inhibits the synthesis of chondroitin sulfates and hyaluronic acid; its effect on their catabolism is not as striking. ImagesFigure 1Figure 9Figure 5Figure 6Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15 PMID:14104083

  20. Autoimmunity in periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Anusaksathien, O; Dolby, A E

    1991-03-01

    Periodontal disease in characterized by the loss of the normal supporting tissues of the teeth and a humoral and cellular immune response to bacterial antigen of dental plaque which accumulates at the dento-gingival junction. This review considers the evidence for the existence of an autoimmune component of the host immune response, the possible origin of such a response and the way in which such a host response may contribute to the changes observed in the periodontium in the disease. PMID:2037971

  1. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Orts Costa, J A; Ziga Cabrera, A; Alarcn Torres, I

    2004-07-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a hepatocellular inflammation that is characterised by a wide range of histopathologic (periportal interface hepatitis with plasma cell infiltration and piecemeal necrosis), biochemical (hypertransaminasemia, hypergammaglobulinaemia) and autoimmune (several autoantibodies presence) features. This relatively rare disorder frequently affects middle-aged women. There is no pathognomonic marker for AIH diagnosis, therefore it requires a careful rule out of other causes of liver disease together with the detection of a suggestive pattern of clinical and laboratory abnormalities. Scoring system for AIH diagnosis proposed by International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group has been used as a tool in clinical practice but is not sufficiently exclusive in terms of defining prognosis or treatment. AIH has been classified in two subtypes according to autoantibodies detected: 1 and 2, but this classification results in poor clinical implications. Previously known as subtype 3 is at the present included in subtype 1 because no clinical significant differences has been found between them. Aetiology, and molecular mechanisms still remain to be elucitaded in this disease, although viruses, drugs and molecular mimicry act presumably as a trigger in genetically predisposed patients (associated with HLA-DR3 and DR4 haplotypes). On the other hand, immunosuppressive therapy (corticosteroid or azathioprine) generally offers favourable response. Our aim is to review this disease from different points of view, considering: clinical, histopathological, etiologic, genetic, biochemical, autoimmune, treatment and prognosis features. PMID:15347241

  2. Familial occurrence and heritable connective tissue disorders in cervical artery dissection

    PubMed Central

    Goeggel Simonetti, Barbara; Schilling, Sabrina; Martin, Juan Jos; Kloss, Manja; Sarikaya, Hakan; Hausser, Ingrid; Engelter, Stefan; Metso, Tiina M.; Pezzini, Alessandro; Thijs, Vincent; Touz, Emmanuel; Paolucci, Stefano; Costa, Paolo; Sessa, Maria; Samson, Yves; Bjot, Yannick; Altintas, Ayse; Metso, Antti J.; Herv, Dominique; Lichy, Christoph; Jung, Simon; Fischer, Urs; Lamy, Chantal; Grau, Armin; Chabriat, Hugues; Caso, Valeria; Lyrer, Philippe A.; Stapf, Christian; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Brandt, Tobias; Tournier-Lasserve, Elisabeth; Germain, Dominique P.; Frank, Michael; Baumgartner, Ralf W.; Grond-Ginsbach, Caspar; Bousser, Marie-Germaine; Leys, Didier; Dallongeville, Jean; Bersano, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In a large series of patients with cervical artery dissection (CeAD), a major cause of ischemic stroke in young and middle-aged adults, we aimed to examine frequencies and correlates of family history of CeAD and of inherited connective tissue disorders. Methods: We combined data from 2 large international multicenter cohorts of consecutive patients with CeAD in 23 neurologic departments participating in the CADISP-plus consortium, following a standardized protocol. Frequency of reported family history of CeAD and of inherited connective tissue disorders was assessed. Putative risk factors, baseline features, and 3-month outcome were compared between groups. Results: Among 1,934 consecutive patients with CeAD, 20 patients (1.0%, 95% confidence interval: 0.6%1.5%) from 17 families (0.9%, 0.5%1.3%) had a family history of CeAD. Family history of CeAD was significantly more frequent in patients with carotid location of the dissection and elevated cholesterol levels. Two patients without a family history of CeAD had vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome with a mutation in COL3A1. This diagnosis was suspected in 2 additional patients, but COL3A1 sequencing was negative. Two patients were diagnosed with classic and hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, one patient with Marfan syndrome, and one with osteogenesis imperfecta, based on clinical criteria only. Conclusions: In this largest series of patients with CeAD to date, family history of symptomatic CeAD was rare and inherited connective tissue disorders seemed exceptional. This finding supports the notion that CeAD is a multifactorial disease in the vast majority of cases. PMID:25355833

  3. Satellite cells, connective tissue fibroblasts and their interactions are crucial for muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Malea M.; Lawson, Jennifer A.; Mathew, Sam J.; Hutcheson, David A.; Kardon, Gabrielle

    2011-01-01

    Muscle regeneration requires the coordinated interaction of multiple cell types. Satellite cells have been implicated as the primary stem cell responsible for regenerating muscle, yet the necessity of these cells for regeneration has not been tested. Connective tissue fibroblasts also are likely to play a role in regeneration, as connective tissue fibrosis is a hallmark of regenerating muscle. However, the lack of molecular markers for these fibroblasts has precluded an investigation of their role. Using Tcf4, a newly identified fibroblast marker, and Pax7, a satellite cell marker, we found that after injury satellite cells and fibroblasts rapidly proliferate in close proximity to one another. To test the role of satellite cells and fibroblasts in muscle regeneration in vivo, we created Pax7CreERT2 and Tcf4CreERT2 mice and crossed these to R26RDTA mice to genetically ablate satellite cells and fibroblasts. Ablation of satellite cells resulted in a complete loss of regenerated muscle, as well as misregulation of fibroblasts and a dramatic increase in connective tissue. Ablation of fibroblasts altered the dynamics of satellite cells, leading to premature satellite cell differentiation, depletion of the early pool of satellite cells, and smaller regenerated myofibers. Thus, we provide direct, genetic evidence that satellite cells are required for muscle regeneration and also identify resident fibroblasts as a novel and vital component of the niche regulating satellite cell expansion during regeneration. Furthermore, we demonstrate that reciprocal interactions between fibroblasts and satellite cells contribute significantly to efficient, effective muscle regeneration. PMID:21828091

  4. Connective tissue fibroblast properties are position-dependent during mouse digit tip regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Karen; Karapetyan, Adrine; Fernando, Warnakulusuriya Akash; Simkin, Jennifer; Han, Manjong; Rugg, Elizabeth L; Muneoka, Ken

    2013-01-01

    A key factor that contributes to the regenerative ability of regeneration-competent animals such as the salamander is their use of innate positional cues that guide the regeneration process. The limbs of mammals has severe regenerative limitations, however the distal most portion of the terminal phalange is regeneration competent. This regenerative ability of the adult mouse digit is level dependent: amputation through the distal half of the terminal phalanx (P3) leads to successful regeneration, whereas amputation through a more proximal location, e.g. the subterminal phalangeal element (P2), fails to regenerate. Do the connective tissue cells of the mammalian digit play a role similar to that of the salamander limb in controlling the regenerative response? To begin to address this question, we isolated and cultured cells of the connective tissue surrounding the phalangeal bones of regeneration competent (P3) and incompetent (P2) levels. Despite their close proximity and localization, these cells show very distinctive profiles when characterized in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies comparing their proliferation and position-specific interactions reveal that cells isolated from the P3 and P2 are both capable of organizing and differentiating epithelial progenitors, but with different outcomes. The difference in interactions are further characterized with three-dimension cultures, in which P3 regenerative cells are shown to lack a contractile response that is seen in other fibroblast cultures, including the P2 cultures. In in vivo engraftment studies, the difference between these two cell lines is made more apparent. While both P2 and P3 cells participated in the regeneration of the terminal phalanx, their survival and proliferative indices were distinct, thus suggesting a key difference in their ability to interact within a regeneration permissive environment. These studies are the first to demonstrate distinct positional characteristics of connective tissue cells that are associated with their regenerative capabilities. PMID:23349966

  5. Autoimmune pancreatitis and cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Jani, Niraj; Buxbaum, James

    2015-11-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is part of a systemic fibrosclerotic process characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with immunoglobulin G subtype-4 (IgG4) positive cells. It characteristically presents with biliary obstruction due to mass-like swelling of the pancreas. Frequently AIP is accompanied by extra-pancreatic manifestations including retroperitoneal fibrosis, thyroid disease, and salivary gland involvement. Auto-antibodies, hypergammaglobulemia, and prompt resolution of pancreatic and extrapancreatic findings with steroids signify its autoimmune nature. Refractory cases are responsive to immunomodulators and rituximab. Involvement of the biliary tree, termed IgG4 associated cholangiopathy, mimics primary sclerosing cholangitis and is challenging to manage. High IgG4 levels and swelling of the pancreas with a diminutive pancreatic duct are suggestive of autoimmune pancreatitis. Given similarities in presentation but radical differences in management and outcome, differentiation from pancreatic malignancy is of paramount importance. There is controversy regarding the optimal diagnostic criterion and steroid trials to make the diagnosis. Additionally, the retroperitoneal location of the pancreas and requirement for histologic sampling, makes tissue acquisition challenging. Recently, a second type of autoimmune pancreatitis has been recognized with similar clinical presentation and steroid response though different histology, serologic, and extrapancreatic findings. PMID:26558153

  6. Autoimmune pancreatitis and cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Niraj; Buxbaum, James

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is part of a systemic fibrosclerotic process characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with immunoglobulin G subtype-4 (IgG4) positive cells. It characteristically presents with biliary obstruction due to mass-like swelling of the pancreas. Frequently AIP is accompanied by extra-pancreatic manifestations including retroperitoneal fibrosis, thyroid disease, and salivary gland involvement. Auto-antibodies, hypergammaglobulemia, and prompt resolution of pancreatic and extrapancreatic findings with steroids signify its autoimmune nature. Refractory cases are responsive to immunomodulators and rituximab. Involvement of the biliary tree, termed IgG4 associated cholangiopathy, mimics primary sclerosing cholangitis and is challenging to manage. High IgG4 levels and swelling of the pancreas with a diminutive pancreatic duct are suggestive of autoimmune pancreatitis. Given similarities in presentation but radical differences in management and outcome, differentiation from pancreatic malignancy is of paramount importance. There is controversy regarding the optimal diagnostic criterion and steroid trials to make the diagnosis. Additionally, the retroperitoneal location of the pancreas and requirement for histologic sampling, makes tissue acquisition challenging. Recently, a second type of autoimmune pancreatitis has been recognized with similar clinical presentation and steroid response though different histology, serologic, and extrapancreatic findings. PMID:26558153

  7. Retropneumoperitoneum and pneumatosis intestinalis in 2 patients with mixed connective tissue disease and the overlap syndrome.

    PubMed

    Goulet, J R; Hurtubise, M; Sencal, J L

    1988-01-01

    Two patients with pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) and mixed connective tissue disease/overlap syndrome are discussed. One patient also presented a retropneumoperitoneum, a feature as yet undescribed in PI. A review of previously reported cases revealed that PI should be suspected in those patients known to have systemic sclerosis-type involvement of the oesophagus and the small bowel, and who present with abdominal distension. PI may occur early in the course of the disease, may resolve rapidly through medical intervention only, and is compatible with a 2-year survival rate. PMID:3135134

  8. The muscular force transmission system: role of the intramuscular connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Turrina, Andrea; Martnez-Gonzlez, Miguel Antonio; Stecco, Carla

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review is to analyze in detail the microscopic structure and relations among muscular fibers, endomysium, perimysium, epimysium and deep fasciae. In particular, the multilayer organization and the collagen fiber orientation of these elements are reported. The endomysium, perimysium, epimysium and deep fasciae have not just a role of containment, limiting the expansion of the muscle with the disposition in concentric layers of the collagen tissue, but are fundamental elements for the transmission of muscular force, each one with a specific role. From this review it appears that the muscular fibers should not be studied as isolated elements, but as a complex inseparable from their fibrous components. The force expressed by a muscle depends not only on its anatomical structure, but also the angle at which its fibers are attached to the intramuscular connective tissue and the relation with the epimysium and deep fasciae. PMID:23294690

  9. Irradiation by pulsed Nd:YAG laser induces the production of extracellular matrix molecules by cells of the connective tissues: a tool for tissue repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monici, Monica; Basile, Venere; Cialdai, Francesca; Romano, Giovanni; Fusi, Franco; Conti, Antonio

    2008-04-01

    Many studies demonstrated that mechanical stress is a key factor for tissue homeostasis, while unloading induce loss of mass and impairment of function. Because of their physiological function, muscle, connective tissue, bone and cartilage dynamically interact with mechanical and gravitational stress, modifying their properties through the continuous modification of their composition. Indeed, it is known that mechanical stress increases the production of extracellular matrix (ECM) components by cells, but the mechanotransduction mechanisms and the optimal loading conditions required for an optimal tissue homeostasis are still unknown. Considering the importance of cell activation and ECM production in tissue regeneration, a proper use of mechanical stimulation could be a powerful tool in tissue repair and tissue engineering. Studies exploring advanced modalities for supplying mechanical stimuli are needed to increase our knowledge on mechanobiology and to develop effective clinical applications. Here we describe the effect of photomechanical stress, supplied by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser on ECM production by cells of connective tissues. Cell morphology, production of ECM molecules (collagens, fibronectin, mucopolysaccharides), cell adhesion and cell energy metabolism have been studied by using immunofluorescence and autofluorescence microscopy. The results show that photomechanical stress induces cytoskeleton remodelling, redistribution of membrane integrins, increase in production of ECM molecules. These results could be of consequence for developing clinical protocols for the treatment of connective tissue dideases by pulsed Nd:YAG laser.

  10. Connective tissue, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome(s), and head and cervical pain.

    PubMed

    Castori, Marco; Morlino, Silvia; Ghibellini, Giulia; Celletti, Claudia; Camerota, Filippo; Grammatico, Paola

    2015-03-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is an umbrella term for a growing group of hereditary disorders of the connective tissue mainly manifesting with generalized joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility, and vascular and internal organ fragility. In contrast with other well known heritable connective tissue disorders with severe cardiovascular involvement (e.g., Marfan syndrome), most EDS patients share a nearly normal life span, but are severely limited by disabling features, such as pain, fatigue and headache. In this work, pertinent literature is reviewed with focus on prevalence, features and possible pathogenic mechanisms of headache in EDSs. Gathered data are fragmented and generally have a low level of evidence. Headache is reported in no less than 1/3 of the patients. Migraine results the most common type in the hypermobility type of EDS. Other possibly related headache disorders include tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache, headache attributed to spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leakage, headache secondary to Chiari malformation, cervicogenic headache and neck-tongue syndrome, whose association still lacks of reliable prevalence studies. The underlying pathogenesis seems complex and variably associated with cardiovascular dysautonomia, cervical spine and temporomandibular joint instability/dysfunction, meningeal fragility, poor sleep quality, pain-killer drugs overuse and central sensitization. Particular attention is posed on a presumed subclinical cervical spine dysfunction. Standard treatment is always symptomatic and usually unsuccessful. Assessment and management procedures are discussed in order to put some basis for ameliorating the actual patients' needs and nurturing future research. PMID:25655119

  11. Evaluation of muscular lesions in connective tissue diseases: thallium 201 muscular scans

    SciTech Connect

    Guillet, G.; Guillet, J.; Sanciaume, C.; Maleville, J.; Geniaux, M.; Morin, P.

    1988-04-01

    We performed thallium 201 muscle scans to assess muscular involvement in 40 patients with different connective tissue diseases (7 with dermatomyositis, 7 with systemic lupus erythematosus, 12 with progressive systemic scleroderma, 2 with calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal involvement, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia (CREST) syndrome, 3 with monomelic scleroderma, 6 with morphea, and 3 with Raynaud's disease). Only 12 of these patients complained of fatigability and/or myalgia. Electromyography was performed and serum levels of muscle enzymes were measured in all patients. Comparison of thallium 201 exercise recording with the other tests revealed that scan sensitivity is greater than electromyographic and serum muscle enzymes levels. Thallium 201 scans showed abnormal findings in 32 patients and revealed subclinical lesions in 18 patients, while electromyography findings were abnormal in 25 of these 32 patients. Serum enzyme levels were raised in only 8 patients. Thallium 201 scanning proved to be a useful guide for modifying therapy when laboratory data were conflicting. It was useful to evaluate treatment efficacy. Because our data indicate a 100% positive predictive value, we believe that thallium 201 scanning should be advised for severe systemic connective tissue diseases with discordant test results.

  12. Leucine supplementation accelerates connective tissue repair of injured tibialis anterior muscle.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marcelo G; Silva, Meiricris T; Carlassara, Eduardo O C; Gonalves, Dawit A; Abrahamsohn, Paulo A; Kettelhut, Isis C; Moriscot, Anselmo S; Aoki, Marcelo S; Miyabara, Elen H

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of leucine supplementation on the skeletal muscle regenerative process, focusing on the remodeling of connective tissue of the fast twitch muscle tibialis anterior (TA). Young male Wistar rats were supplemented with leucine (1.35 g/kg per day); then, TA muscles from the left hind limb were cryolesioned and examined after 10 days. Although leucine supplementation induced increased protein synthesis, it was not sufficient to promote an increase in the cross-sectional area (CSA) of regenerating myofibers (p > 0.05) from TA muscles. However, leucine supplementation reduced the amount of collagen and the activation of phosphorylated transforming growth factor-? receptor type I (T?R-I) and Smad2/3 in regenerating muscles (p < 0.05). Leucine also reduced neonatal myosin heavy chain (MyHC-n) (p < 0.05), increased adult MyHC-II expression (p < 0.05) and prevented the decrease in maximum tetanic strength in regenerating TA muscles (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that leucine supplementation accelerates connective tissue repair and consequent function of regenerating TA through the attenuation of T?R-I and Smad2/3 activation. Therefore, future studies are warranted to investigate leucine supplementation as a nutritional strategy to prevent or attenuate muscle fibrosis in patients with several muscle diseases. PMID:25268835

  13. High prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with inherited connective tissue disorders

    PubMed Central

    Abonia, J. Pablo; Wen, Ting; Stucke, Emily M.; Grotjan, Tommie; Griffith, Molly S.; Kemme, Katherine A.; Collins, Margaret H.; Putnam, Philip E.; Franciosi, James P.; von Tiehl, Karl F.; Tinkle, Brad T.; Marsolo, Keith A.; Martin, Lisa J.; Ware, Stephanie M.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging chronic inflammatory disease mediated by immune hypersensitization to multiple foods and strongly associated with atopy and esophageal remodeling. Objective We provide clinical and molecular evidence indicating a high prevalence of EoE in patients with inherited connective tissue disorders (CTDs). Methods We examined the rate of EoE among patients with CTDs and subsequently analyzed esophageal mRNA transcript profiles in patients with EoE with or without CTD features. Results We report a cohort of 42 patients with EoE with a CTD-like syndrome, representing 0.8% of patients with CTDs and 1.3% of patients with EoE within our hospital-wide electronic medical record database and our EoE research registry, respectively. An 8-fold risk of EoE in patients with CTDs (relative risk, 8.1; 95% confidence limit, 5.1-12.9; ?21 = 112.0; P < 10?3) was present compared with the general population. Esophageal transcript profiling identified a distinct subset of genes, including COL8A2, in patients with EoE and CTDs. Conclusion There is a remarkable association of EoE with CTDs and evidence for a differential expression of genes involved in connective tissue repair in this cohort. Thus, we propose stratification of patients with EoE and CTDs into a subset referred to as EoE-CTD. PMID:23608731

  14. Leucine Supplementation Accelerates Connective Tissue Repair of Injured Tibialis Anterior Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Marcelo G.; Silva, Meiricris T.; Carlassara, Eduardo O. C.; Gonalves, Dawit A.; Abrahamsohn, Paulo A.; Kettelhut, Isis C.; Moriscot, Anselmo S.; Aoki, Marcelo S.; Miyabara, Elen H.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of leucine supplementation on the skeletal muscle regenerative process, focusing on the remodeling of connective tissue of the fast twitch muscle tibialis anterior (TA). Young male Wistar rats were supplemented with leucine (1.35 g/kg per day); then, TA muscles from the left hind limb were cryolesioned and examined after 10 days. Although leucine supplementation induced increased protein synthesis, it was not sufficient to promote an increase in the cross-sectional area (CSA) of regenerating myofibers (p > 0.05) from TA muscles. However, leucine supplementation reduced the amount of collagen and the activation of phosphorylated transforming growth factor-? receptor type I (T?R-I) and Smad2/3 in regenerating muscles (p < 0.05). Leucine also reduced neonatal myosin heavy chain (MyHC-n) (p < 0.05), increased adult MyHC-II expression (p < 0.05) and prevented the decrease in maximum tetanic strength in regenerating TA muscles (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that leucine supplementation accelerates connective tissue repair and consequent function of regenerating TA through the attenuation of T?R-I and Smad2/3 activation. Therefore, future studies are warranted to investigate leucine supplementation as a nutritional strategy to prevent or attenuate muscle fibrosis in patients with several muscle diseases. PMID:25268835

  15. Clinical evaluation of subepithelial connective tissue graft and guided tissue regeneration for treatment of Millers class 1 gingival recession (comparative, split mouth, six months study)

    PubMed Central

    Bhavsar, Neeta-V.; Dulani, Kirti; Trivedi, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The present study aims to clinically compare and evaluate subepithelial connective tissue graft and the GTR based root coverage in treatment of Millers Class I gingival recession. Study Design: 30 patients with at least one pair of Millers Class I gingival recession were treated either with Subepithelial connective tissue graft (Group A) or Guided tissue regeneration (Group B). Clinical parameters monitored included recession RD, width of keratinized gingiva (KG), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), attached gingiva (AG), residual probing depth (RPD) and % of Root coverage(%RC). Measurements were taken at baseline, three months and six months. A standard surgical procedure was used for both Group A and Group B. Data were recorded and statistical analysis was done for both intergroup and intragroup. Results: At end of six months % RC obtained were 84.47% (Group A) and 81.67% (Group B). Both treatments resulted in statistically significant improvement in clinical parameters. When compared, no statistically significant difference was found between both groups except in RPD, where it was significantly greater in Group A. Conclusions: GTR technique has advantages over subepithelial connective tissue graft for shallow Millers Class I defects and this procedure can be used to avoid patient discomfort and reduce treatment time. Key words:Collagen membrane, comparative split mouth study, gingival recession, subepithelial connective tissue graft, guided tissue regeneration (GTR). PMID:25136420

  16. Regulation of Connective Tissue Growth Factor Gene Expression and Fibrosis in Human Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Koshman, Yevgeniya E.; Patel, Nilamkumar; Chu, Miensheng; Iyengar, Rekha; Kim, Taehoon; Ersahin, Cagatay; Lewis, William; Heroux, Alain; Samarel, Allen M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF) is associated with excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and abnormal ECM degradation leading to cardiac fibrosis. Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) modulates ECM production during inflammatory tissue injury, but available data on CTGF gene expression in failing human heart and its response to mechanical unloading are limited. Methods and Results LV tissue from patients undergoing cardiac transplantation for ischemic (ICM; n=20) and dilated (DCM; n=20) cardiomyopathies, and from nonfailing (NF; n=20) donor hearts were examined. Paired samples (n=15) from patients undergoing LV assist device (LVAD) implantation as bridge to transplant (34-1145 days) were also analyzed. There was more interstitial fibrosis in both ICM and DCM compared to NF hearts. Hydroxyproline concentration was also significantly increased in DCM relative to NF samples. The expression of CTGF,TGFB1, COL1-A1, COL3-A1, MMP2 and MMP9 mRNAs in ICM and DCM were also significantly elevated as compared to NF controls. Although TGFB1, CTGF, COL1-A1, and COL3-A1 mRNA levels were reduced by unloading, there was only a modest reduction in tissue fibrosis and no difference in protein-bound hydroxyproline concentration between pre- and post-LVAD tissue samples. The persistent fibrosis may be related to a concomitant reduction in MMP9 mRNA and protein levels following unloading. Conclusions CTGF may be a key regulator of fibrosis during maladaptive remodeling and progression to HF. Although mechanical unloading normalizes most genotypic and functional abnormalities, its effect on ECM remodeling during HF is incomplete. PMID:23582094

  17. Transcription factor redundancy and tissue-specific regulation: evidence from functional and physical network connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Steven G; Williams, Brian A; Sternberg, Paul W; Wold, Barbara J

    2012-10-01

    Two major transcriptional regulators of Caenorhabditis elegans bodywall muscle (BWM) differentiation, hlh-1 and unc-120, are expressed in muscle where they are known to bind and regulate several well-studied muscle-specific genes. Simultaneously mutating both factors profoundly inhibits formation of contractile BWM. These observations were consistent with a simple network model in which the muscle regulatory factors drive tissue-specific transcription by binding selectively near muscle-specific targets to activate them. We tested this model by measuring the number, identity, and tissue-specificity of functional regulatory targets for each factor. Some joint regulatory targets (218) are BWM-specific and enriched for nearby HLH-1 binding. However, contrary to the simple model, the majority of genes regulated by one or both muscle factors are also expressed significantly in non-BWM tissues. We also mapped global factor occupancy by HLH-1, and created a genetic interaction map that identifies hlh-1 collaborating transcription factors. HLH-1 binding did not predict proximate regulatory action overall, despite enrichment for binding among BWM-specific positive regulatory targets of hlh-1. We conclude that these tissue-specific factors contribute much more broadly to the transcriptional output of muscle tissue than previously thought, offering a partial explanation for widespread HLH-1 occupancy. We also identify a novel regulatory connection between the BWM-specific hlh-1 network and the hlh-8/twist nonstriated muscle network. Finally, our results suggest a molecular basis for synthetic lethality in which hlh-1 and unc-120 mutant phenotypes are mutually buffered by joint additive regulation of essential target genes, with additional buffering suggested via newly identified hlh-1 interacting factors. PMID:22730465

  18. Autoimmune pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ketwaroo, Gyanprakash A.; Sheth, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare, heterogeneous, fibroinflammatory disorder of the pancreas. It has gained increasing recognition due to a presentation that can mimic difficult-to-treat disorders such as pancreatic cancer, cholangiocarcinoma and primary sclerosing cholangitis. In contrast, autoimmune pancreatitis is a benign disease that is very responsive to therapy with corticosteroids. There are two types of AIP. Type 1 disease is the most common worldwide and is associated with extrapancreatic manifestations and elevated levels of IgG4-positive cells. Type 2 AIP is characterized by a paucity of IgG4-positive cells and is more difficult to diagnose. This review provides an update on the diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of AIP, with special emphasis on the two subtypes. PMID:24040625

  19. Characterization of connective tissue progenitors through phase contrast and multicolor fluorescence time-lapse microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwee, Edward; Powell, Kimerly; Muschler, George

    2015-03-01

    Connective tissue progenitors (CTPs) are defined as the heterogeneous population of tissue resident stem and progenitor cells capable of proliferating and differentiating into connective tissue phenotypes. The prevalence and variation in clonal progeny of CTPs can be characterized using a colony formation assay. However, colony assays do not directly assess the characteristics of the colony founding CTP. We developed a large field of view, time lapse microscopy system with phase contrast and fluorescence capabilities that enables tracking from seeding through colony formation. Cells derived from the trabecular surface of bone were prepared and seeded in an Ibidi-Ph+ chamber slide. Phase contrast images of the slide were obtained every hour using a DMI6000 Leica microscope, 10X objective, and Retiga 2000R camera. Cells were stained using fluorescent antibodies for multiple markers at the time of plating to determine marker expression on seeded cells and re-stained to determine expression on their progeny. Colonies were identified and characterized using automated image processing and quantitative analysis methods. Following colony identification, the time lapse was reversed to identify and characterize the colony founding CTP according to morphology and marker expression. As a representative example, a CD73+/CD90-/CD105- and a CD73+/CD90+/CD105- CTP resulted in a colony with an area of 3720826 microns2 and percent area expression of 2.98%, 3.62%, and 1.13% for CD73, CD90, and CD105, respectively. This method can be used to study CTPs and other stem and progenitor cell populations to benefit point-of-care methods for assay and isolation in cell based therapies.

  20. Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour mixed connective tissue variant: report of three cases with unusual histological findings

    PubMed Central

    Shustik, David A; Ng, David CE; Sittampalam, Kesavan

    2015-01-01

    Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour mixed connective tissue variant (PMTMCT) is a rare tumour occurring in bone and soft tissue that usually behaves in a benign manner. Elaboration of biologically active substances by this tumour gives rise to a paraneoplastic syndrome known as oncogenic osteomalacia, manifesting clinically as bone pain, generalized weakness and pathological fractures. Recognition of PMTMCT and its associated syndrome is important, as resection of the tumour in most instances results in prompt resolution of symptoms. Previously reported cases of this tumour have emphasized the consistent presence of certain histological features that are considered prerequisite for making the diagnosis of PMTMCT. We describe three cases of PMTMCT, of which two first presented with progressive symptoms of osteomalacia and one remained clinically silent aside from the symptom of a palpable lump. Our cases highlight the wide-ranging histological patterns displayed by these tumours, and draw attention to certain microscopic findings that until now have been given little if any mention. Tentacular growth pattern and satellite nodules appear to be common findings in PMTMCTs, and can make complete surgical excision of these tumours challenging. The ability of this otherwise histologically benign tumour to permeate vascular spaces has to our knowledge never been described previously. One tumour lacked the characteristic calcifying matrix of PMTMCT, suggesting that in some tumours this defining feature may be focal if not entirely absent. PMTMCT shares features with and can resemble a variety of bone and soft tissue neoplasms, requiring the surgical pathologist to be familiar with this entity. PMID:26261662

  1. Citrullination and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Valesini, Guido; Gerardi, Maria C; Iannuccelli, Cristina; Pacucci, Viviana A; Pendolino, Monica; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-06-01

    Autoimmune diseases are characterized by the body's own immune system attack to the self-tissues, a condition enabled, in predisposed subjects, by the reduction of self-tolerance. A central role has been recently recognized to post-translational modifications, since they can promote generation of neo-(auto)antigens and in turn an autoimmune response. During the last years great attention has been paid to citrullination, because of its role in inducing anti-citrullinated proteins/peptide antibodies (ACPA), a class of autoantibodies with diagnostic, predictive and prognostic value for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Nonetheless, citrullination has been reported to be a process present in a wide range of inflammatory tissues. Indeed, citrullinated proteins have been detected also in other inflammatory arthritides and in inflammatory conditions other than arthritides (polymyositis, inflammatory bowel disease and chronic tonsillitis). Moreover, environmental exposure to cigarette smoke and nanomaterials of air pollution may be able to induce citrullination in lung cells prior to any detectable onset of inflammatory responses, suggesting that protein citrullination could be considered as a sign of early cellular damage. Accordingly, citrullination seems to be implicated in all those para-physiological processes, such as cells death pathways, in which intracellular calcium concentration raises to higher levels than in physiologic conditions: hence, peptidylarginine deiminases enzymes are activated during apoptosis, autophagy and NETosis, processes which are well-known to be implicated in autoimmunity. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that rather than being a disease-dependent process, citrullination is an inflammatory-dependent condition that plays a central role in autoimmune diseases. PMID:25636595

  2. Application of WGA lectin staining for visualization of the connective tissue in skeletal muscle, bone and ligament/tendon studies

    PubMed Central

    Kostrominova, Tatiana Y.

    2010-01-01

    During immunostaining of specific proteins in tissue sections using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies visualization of general tissue staining/background or major structural features is helpful to pinpoint precise localization of the protein of interest. Often in skeletal muscle research immunostaining with antibodies against connective tissue or plasma membrane proteins (collagen 1, laminin, caveolin 3) are used for this purpose. Although immunostaining for these proteins works well, it is time consuming, costly, limits the number of antibodies against protein of interest that can be used on a single section, and is not applicable to some staining techniques. Lectins were frequently used in earlier publications for skeletal muscle fiber boundaries and connective tissue visualization, but are not common in the current research studies. The present paper investigates co-staining of muscle, bone, ligament and tendon tissue sections with fluorescently tagged wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) lectin as a tool for visualization of connective tissue. The results of the current study show that fluorescent WGA lectin co-staining is a cost-effective, fast and convenient method for connective tissue visualization, especially in the studies where extensive washes reduce staining of the structures that are the primary interest of the investigation. PMID:21181705

  3. Assessment of T Regulatory Cells and Expanded Profiling of Autoantibodies May Offer Novel Biomarkers for the Clinical Management of Systemic Sclerosis and Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cordiali-Fei, Paola; Mussi, Anna; D'Agosto, Giovanna; Trento, Elisabetta; Bordignon, Valentina; Trincone, Silvana; Vento, Antonella; Sperduti, Isabella; Cristaudo, Antonio; Ensoli, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify disease biomarkers for the clinical and therapeutic management of autoimmune diseases such as systemic sclerosis (SSc) and undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD), we have explored the setting of peripheral T regulatory (T reg) cells and assessed an expanded profile of autoantibodies in patients with SSc, including either limited (lcSSc) or diffuse (dcSSc) disease, and in patients presenting with clinical signs and symptoms of UCTD. A large panel of serum antibodies directed towards nuclear, nucleolar, and cytoplasmic antigens, including well-recognized molecules as well as less frequently tested antigens, was assessed in order to determine whether different antibody profiles might be associated with distinct clinical settings. Beside the well-recognized association between lcSSc and anti-centromeric or dcSSC and anti-topoisomerase-I antibodies, we found a significative association between dcSSc and anti-SRP or anti-PL-7/12 antibodies. In addition, two distinct groups emerged on the basis of anti-RNP or anti-PM-Scl 75/100 antibody production among UCTD patients. The levels of T reg cells were significantly lower in patients with SSc as compared to patients with UCTD or to healthy controls; in patients with lcSSc, T reg cells were inversely correlated to disease duration, suggesting that their levels may represent a marker of disease progression. PMID:23818915

  4. Assessment of T regulatory cells and expanded profiling of autoantibodies may offer novel biomarkers for the clinical management of systemic sclerosis and undifferentiated connective tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Cordiali-Fei, Paola; Mussi, Anna; D'Agosto, Giovanna; Trento, Elisabetta; Bordignon, Valentina; Trincone, Silvana; Vento, Antonella; Sperduti, Isabella; Cristaudo, Antonio; Ensoli, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify disease biomarkers for the clinical and therapeutic management of autoimmune diseases such as systemic sclerosis (SSc) and undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD), we have explored the setting of peripheral T regulatory (T reg) cells and assessed an expanded profile of autoantibodies in patients with SSc, including either limited (lcSSc) or diffuse (dcSSc) disease, and in patients presenting with clinical signs and symptoms of UCTD. A large panel of serum antibodies directed towards nuclear, nucleolar, and cytoplasmic antigens, including well-recognized molecules as well as less frequently tested antigens, was assessed in order to determine whether different antibody profiles might be associated with distinct clinical settings. Beside the well-recognized association between lcSSc and anti-centromeric or dcSSC and anti-topoisomerase-I antibodies, we found a significative association between dcSSc and anti-SRP or anti-PL-7/12 antibodies. In addition, two distinct groups emerged on the basis of anti-RNP or anti-PM-Scl 75/100 antibody production among UCTD patients. The levels of T reg cells were significantly lower in patients with SSc as compared to patients with UCTD or to healthy controls; in patients with lcSSc, T reg cells were inversely correlated to disease duration, suggesting that their levels may represent a marker of disease progression. PMID:23818915

  5. Substance P and Chronic Pain in Patients with Chronic Inflammation of Connective Tissue

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evidence suggests that substance P (SP) is involved in chronic joint inflammation, such as the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. The goal of the research was to evaluate the correlation between chronic pain and changes in the SP level in patients with chronic inflammation of the connective tissue. Methods Patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis were enrolled in this study. The relationship between chronic pain intensity and the serum SP concentration was evaluated in these groups of patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Results The results showed a positive correlation between the serum SP concentrations and chronic pain intensity. Conclusions 1. The SP serum concentration was significantly different between the groups of patients with OA and RA. 2. There was a positive correlation between the serum SP concentration and chronic pain intensity in OA and RA patients. PMID:26444559

  6. Antinuclear antibodies and their detection methods in diagnosis of connective tissue diseases: a journey revisited

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Yashwant; Bhatia, Alka; Minz, Ranjana Walker

    2009-01-01

    It has been more than 50 years since antinuclear antibodies were first discovered and found to be associated with connective tissue diseases. Since then different methods have been described and used for their detection or confirmation. For many decades immunofluorescent antinuclear antibody test has been the "gold standard" in the diagnosis of these disorders. However to increase the sensitivity and specificity of antinuclear antibody detection further approaches were explored. Today a battery of newer techniques are available some of which are now considered better and are competing with the older methods. This article provides an overview on advancement in antinuclear antibody detection methods, their future prospects, advantages, disadvantages and guidelines for use of these tests. PMID:19121207

  7. Antinuclear antibodies and their detection methods in diagnosis of connective tissue diseases: a journey revisited.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Yashwant; Bhatia, Alka; Minz, Ranjana Walker

    2009-01-01

    It has been more than 50 years since antinuclear antibodies were first discovered and found to be associated with connective tissue diseases. Since then different methods have been described and used for their detection or confirmation. For many decades immunofluorescent antinuclear antibody test has been the "gold standard" in the diagnosis of these disorders. However to increase the sensitivity and specificity of antinuclear antibody detection further approaches were explored. Today a battery of newer techniques are available some of which are now considered better and are competing with the older methods. This article provides an overview on advancement in antinuclear antibody detection methods, their future prospects, advantages, disadvantages and guidelines for use of these tests. PMID:19121207

  8. Photothermal effects in connective tissues mediated by laser-activated gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Ratto, Fulvio; Matteini, Paolo; Rossi, Francesca; Menabuoni, Luca; Tiwari, Neha; Kulkarni, Sulabha K; Pini, Roberto

    2009-06-01

    We report a study on the application of laser-activated nanoparticles in the direct welding of connective tissues, which may become a valuable technology in biomedicine. We use colloidal gold nanorods as new near-infrared chromophores to mediate functional photothermal effects in the eye lens capsules. Samples obtained ex vivo from porcine eyes are treated to simulate heterotransplants with 810-nm diode laser radiation in association with a stain of gold nanorods of aspect ratio approximately 4. This stain is applied at the interface between a patch of capsule from a donor eye and the capsule of a recipient eye. Then, by administration of laser pulses of 40 msec and approximately 100-140 J/cm(2), we achieved the local denaturation of the endogenous collagen filaments, which reveals that the treated area reached temperatures above 50 degrees C. The thermal damage is confined within 50-70 mum in a radial distance from the irradiated area. PMID:19223241

  9. New developments on the role of intramuscular connective tissue in meat toughness.

    PubMed

    Purslow, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    Intramuscular connective tissue (IMCT) forms a series of continuous networks integrating muscle fibers and fascicles into a whole organ. The contributions of IMCT to cooked meat toughness have long been recognized. This review concentrates on (a) the potential to manipulate IMCT in the growing animal, (b) postmortem effects on structure and properties of IMCT, and (c) developments in techniques to quantify IMCT in meat. A new hypothesis can explain why IMCT is enzymatically degraded in postmortem aging; however, after cooking, no differences are seen in the IMCT contribution to toughness. This hypothesis proposes that heat-insoluble collagen occurs in a weak pool and a strong pool, where the weak pool is most easily degraded by both proteolysis and heat. Far from being a constant background feature, the IMCT contribution to cooked meat toughness can be varied and deserves fresh research on how to achieve this. PMID:24437687

  10. Ischemic Colitis Due to a Mesenteric Arteriovenous Malformation in a Patient with a Connective Tissue Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Poullos, Peter D.; Thompson, Atalie C.; Holz, Grant; Edelman, Lauren A.; Jeffrey, R. Brooke

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic colitis is a rare, life-threatening, consequence of mesenteric arteriovenous malformations. Ischemia ensues from a steal phenomenon through shunting, and may be compounded by the resulting portal hypertension. Computed tomographic angiography is the most common first-line test because it is quick, non-invasive, and allows for accurate anatomic characterization. Also, high-resolution three-dimensional images can be created for treatment planning. Magnetic resonance angiography is similarly sensitive for vascular mapping. Conventional angiography remains the gold standard for diagnosis and also allows for therapeutic endovascular embolization. Our patient underwent testing using all three of these modalities. We present the first reported case of this entity in a patient with a vascular connective tissue disorder. PMID:25926912

  11. Athlete's nodules: sports-related connective tissue nevi of the collagen type (collagenomas).

    PubMed

    Cohen, P R; Eliezri, Y D; Silvers, D N

    1992-08-01

    Sports-related connective tissue nevi of the collagen type (collagenomas) have been referred to as athlete's nodules. Surfers, boxers, marbles players, and football players are some of the athletes in whom these lesions have been observed. The nodules can be found on the dorsal aspect of the feet, knees, or knuckles and can readily be differentiated from other conditions by either clinical history or microscopic features or both. Treatment options include conservative measures or surgical intervention. Recurrent trauma and friction to the involved location are likely causative factors. Although the ultrastructural pathogenesis remains to be established, changes in the molecular metabolism of collagen resulting in enhanced synthesis and/or accumulation of collagen may have a contributory role. PMID:1511619

  12. Uptake and intracellular transport of the connective tissue growth factor: a potential mode of action.

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, N A; Brinkman, H; Mason, R M

    2001-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a secreted cysteine-rich protein now considered as an important effector molecule in both physiological and pathological processes. An increasing amount of evidence indicates that CTGF plays a key role in the pathogenesis of different fibrotic disorders including diabetic nephropathy. However, the molecular mechanisms by which CTGF exerts its effects are not known. Here we provide the first evidence for the existence of an intracellular transport pathway for the growth factor in human mesangial cells. Our results demonstrate that CTGF is internalized from the cell surface in endosomes and accumulates in a juxtanuclear organelle from which the growth factor is then translocated into the cytosol. In the cytosol CTGF is phosphorylated by protein kinase C and PMA treatment can enhance this phosphorylation. Phosphorylated CTGF may have an important role in the cytosol, but it is also translocated into the nucleus where it may directly affect transcription. PMID:11563972

  13. Contribution of Underlying Connective Tissue Cells to Taste Buds in Mouse Tongue and Soft Palate.

    PubMed

    Boggs, Kristin; Venkatesan, Nandakumar; Mederacke, Ingmar; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Stice, Steve; Schwabe, Robert F; Mistretta, Charlotte M; Mishina, Yuji; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Taste buds, the sensory organs for taste, have been described as arising solely from the surrounding epithelium, which is in distinction from other sensory receptors that are known to originate from neural precursors, i.e., neural ectoderm that includes neural crest (NC). Our previous study suggested a potential contribution of NC derived cells to early immature fungiform taste buds in late embryonic (E18.5) and young postnatal (P1-10) mice. In the present study we demonstrated the contribution of the underlying connective tissue (CT) to mature taste buds in mouse tongue and soft palate. Three independent mouse models were used for fate mapping of NC and NC derived connective tissue cells: (1) P0-Cre/R26-tdTomato (RFP) to label NC, NC derived Schwann cells and derivatives; (2) Dermo1-Cre/RFP to label mesenchymal cells and derivatives; and (3) Vimentin-CreER/mGFP to label Vimentin-expressing CT cells and derivatives upon tamoxifen treatment. Both P0-Cre/RFP and Dermo1-Cre/RFP labeled cells were abundant in mature taste buds in lingual taste papillae and soft palate, but not in the surrounding epithelial cells. Concurrently, labeled cells were extensively distributed in the underlying CT. RFP signals were seen in the majority of taste buds and all three types (I, II, III) of differentiated taste bud cells, with the neuronal-like type III cells labeled at a greater proportion. Further, Vimentin-CreER labeled cells were found in the taste buds of 3-month-old mice whereas Vimentin immunoreactivity was only seen in the CT. Taken together, our data demonstrate a previously unrecognized origin of taste bud cells from the underlying CT, a conceptually new finding in our knowledge of taste bud cell derivation, i.e., from both the surrounding epithelium and the underlying CT that is primarily derived from NC. PMID:26741369

  14. Connective tissue reflex massage for type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Castro-Snchez, Adelaida Mara; Moreno-Lorenzo, Carmen; Matarn-Pearrocha, Guillermo A; Feriche-Fernndez-Castanys, Belen; Granados-Gmez, Genoveva; Quesada-Rubio, Jos Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of connective tissue massage to improve blood circulation and intermittent claudication symptoms in type 2 diabetic patients. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken. Ninety-eight type 2 diabetes patients with stage I or II-a peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (Leriche-Fontaine classification) were randomly assigned to a massage group or to a placebo group treated using disconnected magnetotherapy equipment. Peripheral arterial circulation was determined by measuring differential segmental arterial pressure, heart rate, skin temperature, oxygen saturation and skin blood flow. Measurements were taken before and at 30?min, 6 months and 1 year after the 15-week treatment. After the 15-week program, the groups differed (P < .05) in differential segmental arterial pressure in right lower limb (lower one-third of thigh, upper and lower one-third of leg) and left lower limb (lower one-third of thigh and upper and lower one-third of leg). A significant difference (P < .05) was also observed in skin blood flow in digits 1 and 4 of right foot and digits 2, 4 and 5 of left foot. ANOVA results were significant (P < .05) for right and left foot oxygen saturation but not for heart rate and temperature. At 6 months and 1 year, the groups differed in differential segmental arterial pressure in upper third of left and right legs. Connective tissue massage improves blood circulation in the lower limbs of type 2 diabetic patients at stage I or II-a and may be useful to slow the progression of PAD. PMID:19933770

  15. Contribution of Underlying Connective Tissue Cells to Taste Buds in Mouse Tongue and Soft Palate

    PubMed Central

    Mederacke, Ingmar; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Stice, Steve; Schwabe, Robert F.; Mistretta, Charlotte M.; Mishina, Yuji; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Taste buds, the sensory organs for taste, have been described as arising solely from the surrounding epithelium, which is in distinction from other sensory receptors that are known to originate from neural precursors, i.e., neural ectoderm that includes neural crest (NC). Our previous study suggested a potential contribution of NC derived cells to early immature fungiform taste buds in late embryonic (E18.5) and young postnatal (P1-10) mice. In the present study we demonstrated the contribution of the underlying connective tissue (CT) to mature taste buds in mouse tongue and soft palate. Three independent mouse models were used for fate mapping of NC and NC derived connective tissue cells: (1) P0-Cre/R26-tdTomato (RFP) to label NC, NC derived Schwann cells and derivatives; (2) Dermo1-Cre/RFP to label mesenchymal cells and derivatives; and (3) Vimentin-CreER/mGFP to label Vimentin-expressing CT cells and derivatives upon tamoxifen treatment. Both P0-Cre/RFP and Dermo1-Cre/RFP labeled cells were abundant in mature taste buds in lingual taste papillae and soft palate, but not in the surrounding epithelial cells. Concurrently, labeled cells were extensively distributed in the underlying CT. RFP signals were seen in the majority of taste buds and all three types (I, II, III) of differentiated taste bud cells, with the neuronal-like type III cells labeled at a greater proportion. Further, Vimentin-CreER labeled cells were found in the taste buds of 3-month-old mice whereas Vimentin immunoreactivity was only seen in the CT. Taken together, our data demonstrate a previously unrecognized origin of taste bud cells from the underlying CT, a conceptually new finding in our knowledge of taste bud cell derivation, i.e., from both the surrounding epithelium and the underlying CT that is primarily derived from NC. PMID:26741369

  16. Connective Tissue Reflex Massage for Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Snchez, Adelaida Mara; Moreno-Lorenzo, Carmen; Matarn-Pearrocha, Guillermo A.; Feriche-Fernndez-Castanys, Belen; Granados-Gmez, Genoveva; Quesada-Rubio, Jos Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of connective tissue massage to improve blood circulation and intermittent claudication symptoms in type 2 diabetic patients. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken. Ninety-eight type 2 diabetes patients with stage I or II-a peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (Leriche-Fontaine classification) were randomly assigned to a massage group or to a placebo group treated using disconnected magnetotherapy equipment. Peripheral arterial circulation was determined by measuring differential segmental arterial pressure, heart rate, skin temperature, oxygen saturation and skin blood flow. Measurements were taken before and at 30?min, 6 months and 1 year after the 15-week treatment. After the 15-week program, the groups differed (P < .05) in differential segmental arterial pressure in right lower limb (lower one-third of thigh, upper and lower one-third of leg) and left lower limb (lower one-third of thigh and upper and lower one-third of leg). A significant difference (P < .05) was also observed in skin blood flow in digits 1 and 4 of right foot and digits 2, 4 and 5 of left foot. ANOVA results were significant (P < .05) for right and left foot oxygen saturation but not for heart rate and temperature. At 6 months and 1 year, the groups differed in differential segmental arterial pressure in upper third of left and right legs. Connective tissue massage improves blood circulation in the lower limbs of type 2 diabetic patients at stage I or II-a and may be useful to slow the progression of PAD. PMID:19933770

  17. Regulatory mechanisms of anthrax toxin receptor 1-dependent vascular and connective tissue homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Besschetnova, Tatiana Y; Ichimura, Takaharu; Katebi, Negin; St Croix, Brad; Bonventre, Joseph V; Olsen, Bjorn R

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that angiogenesis is linked to fibrotic processes in fibroproliferative diseases, but insights into pathophysiological processes are limited, due to lack of understanding of molecular mechanisms controlling endothelial and fibroblastic homeostasis. We demonstrate here that the matrix receptor anthrax toxin receptor 1 (ANTXR1), also known as tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8), is an essential component of these mechanisms. Loss of TEM8 function in mice causes reduced synthesis of endothelial basement membrane components and hyperproliferative and leaky blood vessels in skin. In addition, endothelial cell alterations in mutants are almost identical to those of endothelial cells in infantile hemangioma lesions, including activated VEGF receptor signaling in endothelial cells, increased expression of the downstream targets VEGF and CXCL12, and increased numbers of macrophages and mast cells. In contrast, loss of TEM8 in fibroblasts leads to increased rates of synthesis of fiber-forming collagens, resulting in progressive fibrosis in skin and other organs. Compromised interactions between TEM8-deficient endothelial and fibroblastic cells cause dramatic reduction in the activity of the matrix-degrading enzyme MMP2. In addition to insights into mechanisms of connective tissue homeostasis, our data provide molecular explanations for vascular and connective tissue abnormalities in GAPO syndrome, caused by loss-of-function mutations in ANTXR1. Furthermore, the loss of MMP2 activity suggests that fibrotic skin abnormalities in GAPO syndrome are, in part, the consequence of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying syndromes (NAO, Torg and Winchester) with multicentric skin nodulosis and osteolysis caused by homozygous loss-of-function mutations in MMP2. PMID:25572963

  18. Autoimmune liver disease panel

    MedlinePLUS

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis. This group of tests helps your health care provider diagnose ...

  19. Autoimmune encephalopathies.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ming; Hacohen, Yael; Vincent, Angela

    2015-06-01

    Antibody-mediated diseases of the central nervous system are a relatively new and challenging field in autoimmune neurologic disease and of major clinical importance in children and adults. The antibodies bind to cell-surface epitopes on neuronal or glial proteins, and the patients demonstrate either focal or more generalized clinical signs depending on the extent of brain regions targeted by the antibodies. The presence of seizures, movement disorders, autonomic dysfunction and sleep disorders, alongside neuroimaging and electrophysiological features may indicate a specific antibody-mediated disorder. However, phenotypic variation may be observed in children with the same antibody. Regardless, many patients benefit from immunotherapy with substantial improvement. PMID:26022169

  20. Celiac disease as an autoimmune condition

    PubMed Central

    Sur, Genel; Lupan, Iulia; Tilinca, Mariana; Deleanu, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have become a major medical problem of recent years. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease model. The aim of our study was to follow the changes in the clinical autoimmunity picture of the celiac disease from recent years. The study of autoimmunity in celiac disease has focused on associated diseases with the aforementioned disease: type 1 diabetes mellitus, thyroid autoimmunity disease, Graves disease, Hashimoto's disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, spondyloarthritis, hyperprolactinemia, Turner syndrome, Addison's disease, sensory neuronopathies. Immune reactivity to tissue transglutaminase targeted autoantibodies and other autoantigens, including transglutaminase 3, actin, ganglioside, collagen, calreticulin or zonulin which have been reported in the celiac disease. New research directions given by celiac disease autoimmunity, interleukin 1, interleukin 2, protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22, CD4+CD25+ T lymphocytes, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4, infection with Necator americanus and definitive identification of pathogenic T cell epitopes, seem to provide a solution in celiac disease treatment. PMID:26155154

  1. Activin A-Smad Signaling Mediates Connective Tissue Growth Factor Synthesis in Liver Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ze-Yang; Jin, Guan-Nan; Wang, Wei; Sun, Yi-Min; Chen, Wei-Xun; Chen, Lin; Liang, Hui-Fang; Datta, Pran K; Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Zhang, Bixiang; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Liver progenitor cells (LPCs) are activated in chronic liver damage and may contribute to liver fibrosis. Our previous investigation reported that LPCs produced connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2), an inducer of liver fibrosis, yet the regulatory mechanism of the production of CTGF/CCN2 in LPCs remains elusive. In this study, we report that Activin A is an inducer of CTGF/CCN2 in LPCs. Here we show that expression of both Activin A and CTGF/CCN2 were upregulated in the cirrhotic liver, and the expression of Activin A positively correlates with that of CTGF/CCN2 in liver tissues. We go on to show that Activin A induced de novo synthesis of CTGF/CCN2 in LPC cell lines LE/6 and WB-F344. Furthermore, Activin A contributed to autonomous production of CTGF/CCN2 in liver progenitor cells (LPCs) via activation of the Smad signaling pathway. Smad2, 3 and 4 were all required for this induction. Collectively, these results provide evidence for the fibrotic role of LPCs in the liver and suggest that the Activin A-Smad-CTGF/CCN2 signaling in LPCs may be a therapeutic target of liver fibrosis. PMID:27011166

  2. [Reparative regeneration of connective tissue structures of mammals under antioxidant therapy conditions].

    PubMed

    Belova, S V; Norkin, I A; Puchin'ian, D M

    2015-01-01

    The influence of administration of the antioxidant complexes consisting of nonenzymatic antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol acetate preparation) and enzymatic antioxidants (ceruloplasmin) has been studied in rabbits with experimental arthritis. The introduction of alpha-tocopherol acetate (at a daily dose of 4 mg) improved metabolic processes in the organism (decreased in the rate of erythrocyte precipitation, total leukocytes and their stub and segmental forms; increased in erythrocyte count; reduced the glycosaminoglycan content as determined from uronic acid and hexose level; decreased ceruloplasmin activity and malonic dialdehyde level ion blood serum, all at p < 0.05), thus favoring reduction in the total activity of the inflammatory process as judged from hematological and biochemical data. Intra-articular introduction of ceruloplasmin (1.5 mg/kg, once per week) positively influenced the state of joint structures in damaged knee joints of the animals: decreased the activity of ceruloplasmin (from 5.28 ± 0.06 to 3.94 ± 0.01 AU), and malonic dialdehyde level (0.18 ± 0.02 to 0.08 ± 0.01 μM) in the articular fluid (all at p < 0.05). These effects are probably related to the elimination of inefficiency of the antioxidant system in the synovial medium, thus preventing inflammatory destruction of articular tissues, hindering the development of pannus, and assisting the activation of reparative regeneration of connective tissue structures. PMID:25826874

  3. Activated alveolar epithelial cells initiate fibrosis through autocrine and paracrine secretion of connective tissue growth factor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jibing; Velikoff, Miranda; Canalis, Ernesto; Horowitz, Jeffrey C; Kim, Kevin K

    2014-04-15

    Fibrogenesis involves a pathological accumulation of activated fibroblasts and extensive matrix remodeling. Profibrotic cytokines, such as TGF-?, stimulate fibroblasts to overexpress fibrotic matrix proteins and induce further expression of profibrotic cytokines, resulting in progressive fibrosis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a profibrotic cytokine that is indicative of fibroblast activation. Epithelial cells are abundant in the normal lung, but their contribution to fibrogenesis remains poorly defined. Profibrotic cytokines may activate epithelial cells with protein expression and functions that overlap with the functions of active fibroblasts. We found that alveolar epithelial cells undergoing TGF-?-mediated mesenchymal transition in vitro were also capable of activating lung fibroblasts through production of CTGF. Alveolar epithelial cell expression of CTGF was dramatically reduced by inhibition of Rho signaling. CTGF reporter mice demonstrated increased CTGF promoter activity by lung epithelial cells acutely after bleomycin in vivo. Furthermore, mice with lung epithelial cell-specific deletion of CTGF had an attenuated fibrotic response to bleomycin. These studies provide direct evidence that epithelial cell activation initiates a cycle of fibrogenic effector cell activation during progressive fibrosis. Therapy targeted at epithelial cell production of CTGF offers a novel pathway for abrogating this progressive cycle and limiting tissue fibrosis. PMID:24508728

  4. Examining the connectivity between different cellular processes in the Barrett tissue microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Phelan, J J; Feighery, R; Eldin, O S; Meachair, S ; Cannon, A; Byrne, R; MacCarthy, F; O'Toole, D; Reynolds, J V; O'Sullivan, J

    2016-02-28

    In Barrett associated tumorigenesis, oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis are reprogrammed early in the disease sequence and act mutually to promote disease progression. However, the link between energy metabolism and its connection with other central cellular processes within the Barrett microenvironment is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between metabolism (ATP5B/GAPDH), hypoxia (HIF1?), inflammation (IL1?/SERPINA3), p53 and obesity status using in-vivo and ex-vivo models of Barrett oesophagus. At the protein level, ATP5B (r?=?0.71, P?tissue between metabolism, p53, hypoxia, inflammation and angiogenesis (P?tissue microenvironment. PMID:26688097

  5. Connective Tissue Growth Factor Is Required for Skeletal Development and Postnatal Skeletal Homeostasis in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Canalis, Ernesto; Zanotti, Stefano; Beamer, Wesley G.; Economides, Aris N.; Smerdel-Ramoya, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a member of the cysteine-rich 61 (Cyr 61), CTGF, nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV) (CCN) family of proteins, is synthesized by osteoblasts, and its overexpression inhibits osteoblastogenesis and causes osteopenia. The global inactivation of Ctgf leads to defective endochondral bone formation and perinatal lethality; therefore, the consequences of Ctgf inactivation on the postnatal skeleton are not known. To study the function of CTGF, we generated Ctgf+/LacZ heterozygous null mice and tissue-specific null Ctgf mice by mating Ctgf conditional mice, where Ctgf is flanked by lox sequences with mice expressing the Cre recombinase under the control of the paired-related homeobox gene 1 (Prx1) enhancer (Prx1-Cre) or the osteocalcin promoter (Oc-Cre). Ctgf+/LacZ heterozygous mice exhibited transient osteopenia at 1 month of age secondary to decreased trabecular number. A similar osteopenic phenotype was observed in 1-month-old Ctgf conditional null male mice generated with Prx1-Cre, suggesting that the decreased trabecular number was secondary to impaired endochondral bone formation. In contrast, when the conditional deletion of Ctgf was achieved by Oc-Cre, an osteopenic phenotype was observed only in 6-month-old male mice. Osteoblast and osteoclast number, bone formation, and eroded surface were not affected in Ctgf heterozygous or conditional null mice. In conclusion, CTGF is necessary for normal skeletal development but to a lesser extent for postnatal skeletal homeostasis. PMID:20534727

  6. Subsynovial Connective Tissue is Sensitive to Surgical Interventions in a Rabbit Model of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu-Long; Moriya, Tamami; Zhao, Chunfeng; Kirk, Ramona L.; Chikenji, Takako; Passe, Sandra M.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    The most common histological finding in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is non-inflammatory fibrosis and thickening of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) in the tunnel. While the cause of SSCT fibrosis and the relationship of SSCT fibrosis and CTS are unknown, one hypothesis is that SSCT injury causes fibrosis, and that the fibrosis then leads to CTS. We investigated the sensitivity of the SSCT to injuries. Two types of surgical intervention were performed in a rabbit model: a skin incision with tendon laceration and SSCT stretching sufficient to damage the SSCT, and skin incision alone,. Twelve weeks after surgery, the rabbit carpal tunnel tissues were studied with immunochemistry for TGF-? receptors 1, 2, and 3, collagen III, and collagen VI. All TGF-? receptors were expressed. The percentages of the TGF-? receptors expressions were less in the control SSCT fibroblasts than in the fibroblasts from rabbits with surgical interventions. The surgical interventions did not result in any alteration of collagen III expression. However, both surgical interventions resulted in a significant decrease in collagen VI expression compared to the control group. The two surgical interventions achieved similar expression of TGF-? receptors and collagens. Our results provide evidence that the SSCT is sensitive to surgical interventions, even when these are modest. Since SSCT fibrosis is a hallmark of carpal tunnel syndrome, these data also suggest that such fibrosis could result from relatively minor trauma. PMID:22009518

  7. In vitro selection and characterization of deoxyribonucleic acid aptamers against connective tissue growth factor.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang; Huo, Yongwei; Tian, Hong; Zhang, Qiannan; Lv, Yifei; Hao, Zhiming

    2015-02-20

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a secreted matricellular protein possessing complex biological functions. CTGF modulates a number of signaling pathways that are involved in cell adhesion, migration, angiogenesis, myofibroblast activation, extracellular matrix deposition and tissue remodeling. Aptamers are oligonucleic acid chains or polypeptides that bind with specific target molecules hence have the potential to be used in the detection and blockade of the targets. In this study, we selected CTGF-targeting DNA aptamers by using systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). After 8 iterative rounds of selection, cloning, DNA sequencing and affinity determination, six aptamers with high affinities to CTGF were obtained. Among them, one (C-ap17P) binds with the N-terminal region (aa 1-190) and the other five (C-ap11, 12, 14, 15 and 18) bind with the C-terminal region (aa 191-350) of hCTGF specifically. The biological stability assay indicated that a representative aptamer, C-ap17P, could keep its integrity at a rather high level for at least 24 h in complete DMEM cell culture medium. These CTGF aptamers might be used as a easy and fast detection tool for CTGF and be developed as CTGF-specific inhibitors for both research works and clinical applications. PMID:25603056

  8. Mercury species in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues after exposure to methyl mercury: Correlation with autoimmune parameters during and after treatment in susceptible mice

    SciTech Connect

    Havarinasab, Said; Bjoern, Erik; Nielsen, Jesper B.; Hultman, Per . E-mail: perhu@imk.liu.se

    2007-05-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is present in the environment as a result of the global cycling of mercury, although anthropogenic sources may dramatically increase the availability in confined geographical areas. Accumulation of MeHg in the aquatic food chain is the dominating way of exposure in mammals, which accumulate MeHg in all organs, including Brain. Demethylation has been described in the organs, especially in phagocytic cells, but mainly in the flora of the intestinal tract. While most of the inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) formed in the intestine is excreted, a fraction is reabsorbed which together with the local demethylation increases the organ Hg{sup 2+} concentration. MeHg is a well-known immunosuppressive agent, while Hg{sup 2+} is associated with immunostimulation and autoimmunity especially in genetically susceptible rodents, creating a syndrome, i.e. mercury-induced autoimmunity (HgIA). This study aimed at exploring the effect of MeHg with regard to HgIA, and especially the immunological events after stopping treatment, correlated with the presence of MeHg and Hg{sup 2+} in the organs. Treatment of A.SW mice for 30 days with 4.2 mg MeHg/L drinking water (corresponding to approximately 420 {mu}g Hg/kg body weight/day) caused all the HgIA features observed after primary treatment with inorganic Hg, except systemic immune complex deposits. The total Hg concentration was 5-fold higher in the kidneys as compared with lymph nodes, but the fraction of Hg{sup 2+} was similar (17-20%). After stopping treatment, the renal and lymph node MeHg concentration declined according to first order kinetics during the initial 4-6 weeks, but then slower. A similar decline in the organ Hg{sup 2+} concentration occurred during the initial 2 weeks after stopping treatment but then ceased, causing the Hg{sup 2+} concentration to exceed that of MeHg in the lymph nodes and kidneys after 3 and 8 weeks, respectively. The selective increase in lymph node Hg{sup 2+} fraction is likely to be due to demethylation of MeHg in the macrophage-rich lymphoid tissue. The major autoantibody in HgIA, anti-fibrillarin antibodies, tended to increase during the initial 6 weeks after stopping treatment, while all other HgIA features including antichromatin antibodies declined to control levels after 2-4 weeks. This indicates differences in either dose requirement or induction mechanisms for the different HgIA parameters. The selective accumulation of Hg{sup 2+} in lymph nodes following MeHg treatment should be taken into account when the effect of MeHg on the immune system is evaluated.

  9. Autoimmune thyrotoxicosis: diagnostic challenges.

    PubMed

    Ponto, Katharina A; Kahaly, George J

    2012-09-01

    Autoimmune thyrotoxicosis or Graves' disease (GD) is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in the United States (full text available online: http://education.amjmed.com/pp1/249). GD occurs more often in women (ratio 5:1) and has a population prevalence of 1-2%. A genetic determinant to the susceptibility to GD is suspected because of familial clustering of the disease, a high sibling recurrence risk, and the familial occurrence of thyroid autoantibodies. GD is a systemic autoimmune thyroid disorder characterized by the infiltration of immune effector cells and thyroid-antigen-specific T cells into the thyroid and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) expressing tissues, i.e. orbit, skin, with the production of autoantibodies to well-defined thyroidal antigens. Stimulatory autoantibodies in GD activate the TSHR leading to thyroid hyperplasia and unregulated thyroid hormone production and secretion. Diagnosis of GD is straightforward in a patient with a diffusely enlarged, heterogeneous, hypervascular (increased Doppler flow on neck ultrasound) thyroid gland, associated orbitopathy, biochemically confirmed thyrotoxicosis, positive TSHR autoantibodies, and often a family history of autoimmune disorders. PMID:22938935

  10. Herpesviruses and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Posnett, David N

    2008-05-01

    Herpesvirus infection, in particular EBV infection, has been implicated in several major autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), multiple sclerosis (MS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Herpesvirus infection has potential roles in both initiating the autoimmune process and exacerbating disease progression. In particular, EBV has a proposed role in initiating the anti-nucleoprotein antibodies that are characteristic of SLE through molecular mimicry. There is also evidence to suggest that there is productive infection with EBV in the brain lesions of MS patients and in the synovium of RA patients. Research has been conducted in a mouse gamma-herpesvirus model, as it serves as a useful model for productive infection within autoimmune target tissues. The novel mechanisms by which EBV could contribute bystander effects by amplification of innate immune responses, along with preclinical and epidemiological studies into the role of herpesviruses in SLE, MS and RA, and clinical studies into the potential benefit of antiviral therapy, are discussed in this review. PMID:18465661

  11. Subcutaneous Connective Tissue Reactions to Various Endodontic Biomaterials: An Animal Study

    PubMed Central

    Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Tanideh, Nader; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Karamifar, Kasra; Amanat, Dariush

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Biocompatibility of root-end filling materials is a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to compare the biocompatibility of a variety of commercial ProRoot WMTA cements and a resin-based cement (Geristore) with different pH values of setting reaction and different aluminum contents, implanted into the subcutaneous connective tissue of rats at various time intervals. Materials and methods Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Polyethylene tubes were filled with Angelus WMTA, ProRoot WMTA, Bioaggregate, and Geristore. Empty control tubes were implanted into subcutaneous tissues and harvested at 7-, 14-, 28- and 60-day intervals. Tissue sections of 5 ?m were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and observed under a light microscope. Inflammatory reactions were categorized as 0, none (without inflammatory cells); 1, mild (inflammatory cells ?25); 2, moderate (25125 inflammatory cells); and 3, severe (>125 inflammatory cells). Statistical analysis was performed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests. Results ProRoot WMTA and Angelus elicited significantly less inflammation than other materials (P<0.05). After 7 days, however, all the materials induced significantly more inflammation than the controls (P<0.05). Angelus-MTA group exhi-bited no significant differences from the Bioaggregate group (P=0.15); however, ProRoot WMTA elicited significantly less inflammation than Bioaggregate (P=0.02). Geristore induced significantly more inflammation than other groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Geristore induced an inflammatory response higher than ProRoot WMTA; therefore, it is not recommended for clinical use. PMID:23486841

  12. Cytosolic aconitase activity sustains adipogenic capacity of adipose tissue connecting iron metabolism and adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Mara; Ortega, Francisco; Xifra, Gemma; Ricart, Wifredo; Fernndez-Real, Jos Manuel; Moreno-Navarrete, Jos Mara

    2015-04-01

    To gain insight into the regulation of intracellular iron homeostasis in adipose tissue, we investigated the role of iron regulatory protein 1/cytosolic aconitase 1 (ACO1). ACO1 gene expression and activity increased in parallel to expression of adipogenic genes during differentiation of both murine 3T3-L1 cells and human preadipocytes. Lentiviral knockdown (KD) of Aco1 in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes led to diminished cytosolic aconitase activity and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (NADP(+)), soluble (Idh1) mRNA levels, decreased intracellular NADPH:NADP ratio, and impaired adipogenesis during adipocyte differentiation. In addition, Aco1 KD in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes decreased lipogenic, Idh1, Adipoq, and Glut4 gene expression. A bidirectional cross-talk was found between intracellular iron levels and ACO1 gene expression and protein activity. Although iron in excess, known to increase reactive oxygen species production, and iron depletion both resulted in decreased ACO1 mRNA levels and activity, Aco1 KD led to reduced gene expression of transferrin receptor (Tfrc) and transferrin, disrupting intracellular iron uptake. In agreement with these findings, in 2 human independent cohorts (n = 85 and n = 38), ACO1 gene expression was positively associated with adipogenic markers in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. ACO1 gene expression was also positively associated with the gene expression of TFRC while negatively linked to ferroportin (solute carrier family 40 (iron-regulated transporter), member 1) mRNA levels. Altogether, these results suggest that ACO1 activity is required for the normal adipogenic capacity of adipose tissue by connecting iron, energy metabolism, and adipogenesis. PMID:25550467

  13. Fibroblastic connective tissue nevus: a rare cutaneous lesion analyzed in a series of 25 cases.

    PubMed

    de Feraudy, Sbastien; Fletcher, Christopher D M

    2012-10-01

    Fibroblastic connective tissue nevus (FCTN) represents a rare and distinct benign cutaneous mesenchymal lesion of fibroblastic/myofibroblastic lineage, which broadens the spectrum of lesions presently recognized as connective tissue nevus. A series of 25 cases of FCTN has been analyzed to further characterize the clinicopathologic spectrum and immunohistochemical features of this entity. Sixteen patients were female (64%) and 9 were male (36%), with age at presentation ranging from 1.5 months to 58 years (median, 10 y). Most patients presented with a solitary, slowly growing, painless plaque-like or nodular skin lesion. Eleven cases (44%) arose on the trunk, 9 (36%) on the head and neck, and 5 (20%) on the limbs. The lesion was present for a median duration of 11.5 months (mean, 13.2 mo). Grossly, the lesions were tan-brown to tan-white, smooth, and firm. Their size ranged from 0.3 to 2.0 cm in greatest dimension (mean size, 0.67 cm; median, 0.6 cm). All tumors showed poor circumscription and were situated primarily in the reticular deep dermis, extending into the superficial subcutis in 13 cases (52%). The lesion was associated with papillomatous epidermis in 17 cases (70%) and the presence of adipose tissue in the reticular dermis in 14 cases (60.9%). All tumors were composed of a proliferation of bland intradermal fibroblastic/myofibroblastic cells with indistinct palely eosinophilic cytoplasm and tapering nuclei, with no significant cytologic atypia or pleomorphism, arranged in short-intersecting fascicles and entrapping appendages. No mitoses were identified. Immunostains showed positivity for CD34 in 20 of 23 cases (87%) and weak focal positivity for smooth muscle actin in 9 of 19 cases (47%). No case stained positively for desmin or S100 protein. Clinical follow-up was obtained for 14 patients (median duration, 4 y). No tumor recurred locally, even when surgical excision was incomplete. No lesion metastasized. FCTN occurs most commonly as a plaque on the trunk and head/neck of children, involves deep dermis and superficial subcutis, and stains mainly for CD34. FCTN most likely represents a localized developmental dermal anomaly; it is entirely benign and should not be confused with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans or other neoplasms such as dermatomyofibroma. PMID:22892597

  14. Tissue types (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    There are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports other tissues and binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue ...

  15. Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grush, Mary, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Connectivity has dramatically changed the landscape of higher education IT. From "on-demand" services for net-gen students and advanced eLearning systems for faculty, to high-performance computing grid resources for researchers, IT now provides more networked services than ever to connect campus constituents to each other and to the world.

  16. Hierarchical mechanics of connective tissues: integrating insights from nano to macroscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Gohl, Kheng Lim; Listrat, Anne; Bchet, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    As the key component of the musculoskeletal system, the extracellular matrix of soft connective tissues such as ligaments and tendons is a biological example of fibre-reinforced composite but with a complex hierarchical architecture. To establish a comprehensive structure-function relationship at the respective levels (i.e., from molecule to tissue) of the hierarchical architecture is challenging and requires a multidisciplinary approach, involving the integration of findings from the fields of molecular biology, biochemistry, structural biology, materials science and biophysics. Accordingly, in recent years, some of these fields, namely structural biology, materials science and biophysics, have made significant progress in the microscale and nanoscale studies of extracellular matrix using new tools, such as microelectromechanical systems, optical tweezers and atomic force microscopy, complemented by new techniques in simultaneous imaging and mechanical testing and computer modelling. The intent of this paper is to review the key findings on the mechanical response of extracellular matrix at the respective levels of the hierarchical architecture. The main focus is on the structure and function--the findings are compared across the different levels to provide insights that support the goal of establishing a comprehensive structure-function relationship of extracellular matrix. For this purpose, the review is divided into two parts. The first part explores the features of key structural units of extracellular matrix, namely tropocollagen molecule (the lowest level), microfibril, collagen fibril, collagen fibre and fascicle. The second part examines the mechanics of the structural units at the respective levels. Finally a framework for extracellular matrix mechanics is proposed to support the goal to establish a comprehensive structure-function relationship. The framework describes the integration of the mechanisms of reinforcement by the structural units at the respective levels of the hierarchical architecture in a consistent manner, both to allow comparison of these mechanisms, and to make prediction of the interconnection of these mechanisms that can also assist in the identification of effective mechanical pathways. From a design perspective, this is a step in the direction towards the development of effective strategies for engineering materials to replace or repair damaged tissues, and for exogenous cross-linking therapy to enhance the mechanical properties of injured tissues. PMID:25992406

  17. Alteration of Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) Expression in Orbital Fibroblasts from Patients with Graves Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Pei-Chen; Wei, Yau-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) is a disfiguring and sometimes blinding disease, which is characterized by inflammation and swelling of orbital tissues, with fibrosis and adipogenesis being predominant features. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the expression levels of fibrosis-related genes, especially that of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), are altered in orbital fibroblasts of patients with GO. The role of oxidative stress in the regulation of CTGF expression in GO orbital fibroblasts is also examined. By a SYBR Green-based real time quantitative PCR (RT-QPCR), we demonstrated that the mRNA expression levels of fibronectin, apolipoprotein J, and CTGF in cultured orbital fibroblasts from patients with GO were significantly higher than those of age-matched normal controls (p = 0.007, 0.037, and 0.002, respectively). In addition, the protein expression levels of fibronectin, apolipoprotein J, and CTGF analyzed by Western blot were also significantly higher in GO orbital fibroblasts (p = 0.046, 0.032, and 0.008, respectively) as compared with the control. Furthermore, after treatment of orbital fibroblasts with a sub-lethal dose of hydrogen peroxide (200 ?M H2O2), we found that the H2O2-induced increase of CTGF expression was more pronounced in the GO orbital fibroblasts as compared with those in normal controls (20% vs. 7%, p = 0.007). Importantly, pre-incubation with antioxidants including N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and vitamin C, respectively, resulted in significant attenuation of the induction of CTGF in GO orbital fibroblasts in response to H2O2 (p = 0.004 and 0.015, respectively). Taken together, we suggest that oxidative stress plays a role in the alteration of the expression of CTGF in GO orbital fibroblasts that may contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of GO. Antioxidants may be used in combination with the therapeutic agents for effective treatment of GO. PMID:26599235

  18. The cytotoxic evaluation of mineral trioxide aggregate and bioaggregate in the subcutaneous connective tissue of rats

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Gzde; Yalcin, Yagmur; Dindar, Seckin; Sancakli, Hande; Erdemir, Ugur

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the cytotoxic effects of ProRoot MTA and DiaRoot BA, a bioceramic nanoparticulate cement, on subcutaneous rat tissue. Study Design: Fifty Sprouge Dawley rats were used in this study. Polyethylene tubes filled with ProRoot MTA and DiaRoot BioAggregate, along with a control group of empty, were implanted into dorsal connective tissue of rats for 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days. After estimated time intervals the rats were sacrificed. The specimens were fixed, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and then evaluated under a light microscope for inflammatory reactions and mineralization. Results: All groups evoked a severe to moderate chronic inflammatory reaction at 7 and 15 days, which decreased with time. Both the MTA and BioAggregate groups showed similar inflammatory reactions, except at 90 days when MTA showed statistically significant greater inflammation (p>0.05). The MTA group showed foreign body reaction at all times. Compared to BioAggregate, MTA showed significantly more foreign body reaction at 60 and 90 days (p<0.0001). After 30 days foreign body reaction of BioAggregate decreased significantly. Both MTA and BioAggregate groups showed similar necrosis at 7 and 15 days (p=0.094 and p=0.186 respectively). No necrosis was observed after 15 days. Similarly there was no fibrosis after 30 days for both MTA and BioAggregate groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: Since DiaRoot BioAggregate showed significantly better results than MTA, we can conclude that it is more biocompatible. However, further studies are required to confirm this result. Key words:Biocompatibility, mineral trioxide aggregate, bioAggregate. PMID:23722144

  19. Development of a hyperelastic material model of subsynovial connective tissue using finite element modeling.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Yusuke; Thoreson, Andrew R; Zhao, Chunfeng; Amadio, Peter C; An, Kai-Nan

    2016-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is one of the most common disorders of the hand. Assessment of carpal tunnel tissue mechanical behavior, especially that of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT), is important to better understand the mechanisms of CTS. The aim of this study was to develop a hyperelastic material model of human SSCT using mechanical test data and finite element modeling (FEM). Experimental shear test data of SSCT from 7 normal subjects and 7 CTS patients collected in a prior study was used to define material response. Hyperelastic coefficients (μ and α) from the first-order Ogden material property definition were iteratively solved using specimen-specific FEM models simulating the mechanical test conditions. A typical Ogden hyperelastic response for the normal and CTS SSCT was characterized by doing the same with data from all samples averaged together. The mean Ogden coefficients (μ/α) for the normal cadaver and CTS patient SSCT were 1.25×10(-5)MPa/4.51 and 1.99×10(-6)MPa/10.6, respectively when evaluating coefficients for individual specimens. The Ogden coefficients for the typical (averaged data) model for normal cadaver and CTS patient SSCT were 1.63×10(-5)MPa/3.93 and 5.00×10(-7)MPa/9.55, respectively. Assessment of SSCT mechanical response with a hyperelastic material model demonstrated significant differences between patient and normal cadaver. The refined assessment of these differences with this model may be important for future model development and in understanding clinical presentation of CTS. PMID:26482734

  20. STUDIES ON THE CHANGES PRODUCED BY ROENTGEN RAYS IN INFLAMED CONNECTIVE TISSUE.

    PubMed

    Maximow, A A

    1923-02-28

    The action of x-rays upon inflamed tissue manifests itself in the first place by a considerable depression of the usual reaction on the part of the fibroblasts. Under normal circumstances these elements begin to divide mitotically during the first 24 hours and soon form a layer of new connective tissue, surrounding the foreign body. After treatment with x-rays they remain idle, do not multiply at all, or start very late and often the division is abnormal. They undergo a high degree of pathological hypertrophy of protoplasm and nucleus. Instead of mitosis often amitotic constrictions appear in the nucleus. The capacity for collagen formation seems also to be lost. Simultaneously with these changes of the fibroblasts an intensive edema of the connective tissue surrounding the foreign body is to be noted and in the immediate neighborhood of the latter a thick layer of net-like clotted fibrinous exudate is formed. No distinctive qualitative changes could be found in the leucocytes and polyblasts. Degeneration was present here only to the same extent as in common aseptic inflammation. But first the rate and the duration of the emigration of all the cells coming from the blood were increased, and secondly there was always a distinct delay in the process of the common transformations usually undergone by the polyblasts on the field of inflammation. The transformation of the polyblasts into fixed resting forms seems above all to be delayed. Therefore, even in late stages, the tissue is overcrowded with granular special leucocytes and with mostly young, lymphocyte-like polyblasts, whereas in the early stages the local resting wandering cells only slowly undergo mobilization. Furthermore, in the blood vessels swelling of the endothelial cells with fragmentation of the nuclei and, in the striated muscles, degeneration of the fibers can be detected. In the latter there occur partly typical coagulation necrosis, partly atrophy, accompanied by loss of striation, separation of fibrillae from one another, relative increase of sarcoplasm, and amitotic division of nuclei. What the ultimate result of all these changes would be, is as yet not clear. In the case of longest duration, in which 60 days had elapsed since the last exposure, no distinct difference could be found between the exposed and control preparations. Thus one might believe that the cell injuries caused by the x-rays, and above all the inability of the fibroblasts to multiply and to elaborate collagen, are again repaired in due time. However, my material is decidedly inadequate in this respect and several cases of long duration should be examined. It is surprising that the results obtained seem not to agree with the predominating views on the action of x-rays on cells. Apart from the endothelium of the blood vessels, of all the cells present in the field of inflammation the fibroblasts undoubtedly are to be considered as the elements most highly differentiated in a specific sense. I have shown that, as a rule, they do not round up in inflammation and do not produce ameboid cells, but remain unchanged in morphology and, through mitotic division, give rise to the new connective tissue. On the other hand, there can be no doubt that the lymphocytes and the polyblasts are to be looked upon as relatively indifferent cells, endowed with great prospective potencies of development. Thus it might be expected that just the lymphocytes of the inflamed area would be affected in the first place by the rays, as they are in the blood-forming organs, and that the fibroblasts, on the contrary, would be refractory. But the facts have proved that the most conspicuous and constant changes concern the fibroblasts. They are paralyzed for a long time and made unable to build up new tissue. The fibrinous exudate and the edema might perhaps also depend partly on a direct injury of the colloidal intercellular substance, partly on changes of the endothelium of the blood vessels, cells which are again to be considered as highly differentiated. Noteworthy signs of degeneration could not be found in the l

  1. Experiment K-6-02. Biomedical, biochemical and morphological alterations of muscle and dense, fibrous connective tissues during 14 days of spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vailas, A.; Zernicke, R.; Grindeland, R.; Kaplanski, A.

    1990-01-01

    Findings on the connective tissue response to short-term space flight (12 days) are discussed. Specifically, data regarding the biochemical, biomechanical and morphological characteristics of selected connective tissues (humerus, vertebral body, tendon and skeletal muscle) of growing rats is given. Results are given concerning the humerus cortical bone, the vertebral bone, nutritional effects on bone biomechanical properties, and soft tense fiber connective tissue response.

  2. Deregulated expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is linked to poor outcome in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Wells, Julia E; Howlett, Meegan; Cole, Catherine H; Kees, Ursula R

    2015-08-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) has long been associated with human cancers. The role it plays in these neoplasms is diverse and tumour specific. Recurring patterns in clinical outcome, histological desmoplasia and mechanisms of action have been found. When CTGF is overexpressed compared to low-expressing normal tissue or is underexpressed compared to high-expressing normal tissue, the functional outcome favours tumour survival and disease progression. CTGF acts by altering proliferation, drug resistance, angiogenesis, adhesion and migration contributing to metastasis. The pattern of CTGF expression and tumour response helps to clarify the role of this matricellular protein across a multitude of human cancers. PMID:24832082

  3. Connective tissue growth factor modulates adult ?-cell maturity and proliferation to promote ?-cell regeneration in mice.

    PubMed

    Riley, Kimberly G; Pasek, Raymond C; Maulis, Matthew F; Peek, Jennifer; Thorel, Fabrizio; Brigstock, David R; Herrera, Pedro L; Gannon, Maureen

    2015-04-01

    Stimulation of endogenous ?-cell expansion could facilitate regeneration in patients with diabetes. In mice, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is expressed in embryonic ?-cells and in adult ?-cells during periods of expansion. We discovered that in embryos CTGF is necessary for ?-cell proliferation, and increased CTGF in ?-cells promotes proliferation of immature (MafA(-)) insulin-positive cells. CTGF overexpression, under nonstimulatory conditions, does not increase adult ?-cell proliferation. In this study, we tested the ability of CTGF to promote ?-cell proliferation and regeneration after partial ?-cell destruction. ?-Cell mass reaches 50% recovery after 4 weeks of CTGF treatment, primarily via increased ?-cell proliferation, which is enhanced as early as 2 days of treatment. CTGF treatment increases the number of immature ?-cells but promotes proliferation of both mature and immature ?-cells. A shortened ?-cell replication refractory period is also observed. CTGF treatment upregulates positive cell-cycle regulators and factors involved in ?-cell proliferation, including hepatocyte growth factor, serotonin synthesis, and integrin ?1. Ex vivo treatment of whole islets with recombinant human CTGF induces ?-cell replication and gene expression changes consistent with those observed in vivo, demonstrating that CTGF acts directly on islets to promote ?-cell replication. Thus, CTGF can induce replication of adult mouse ?-cells given a permissive microenvironment. PMID:25392241

  4. NBAS mutations cause a multisystem disorder involving bone, connective tissue, liver, immune system, and retina.

    PubMed

    Segarra, Nuria Garcia; Ballhausen, Diana; Crawford, Heather; Perreau, Matthieu; Campos-Xavier, Belinda; van Spaendonck-Zwarts, Karin; Vermeer, Cees; Russo, Michel; Zambelli, Pierre-Yves; Stevenson, Brian; Royer-Bertrand, Beryl; Rivolta, Carlo; Candotti, Fabio; Unger, Sheila; Munier, Francis L; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Bonafé, Luisa

    2015-12-01

    We report two unrelated patients with a multisystem disease involving liver, eye, immune system, connective tissue, and bone, caused by biallelic mutations in the neuroblastoma amplified sequence (NBAS) gene. Both presented as infants with recurrent episodes triggered by fever with vomiting, dehydration, and elevated transaminases. They had frequent infections, hypogammaglobulinemia, reduced natural killer cells, and the Pelger-Huët anomaly of their granulocytes. Their facial features were similar with a pointed chin and proptosis; loose skin and reduced subcutaneous fat gave them a progeroid appearance. Skeletal features included short stature, slender bones, epiphyseal dysplasia with multiple phalangeal pseudo-epiphyses, and small C1-C2 vertebrae causing cervical instability and myelopathy. Retinal dystrophy and optic atrophy were present in one patient. NBAS is a component of the synthaxin-18 complex and is involved in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay control. Putative loss-of-function mutations in NBAS are already known to cause disease in humans. A specific founder mutation has been associated with short stature, optic nerve atrophy and Pelger-Huët anomaly of granulocytes (SOPH) in the Siberian Yakut population. A more recent report associates NBAS mutations with recurrent acute liver failure in infancy in a group of patients of European descent. Our observations indicate that the phenotypic spectrum of NBAS deficiency is wider than previously known and includes skeletal, hepatic, metabolic, and immunologic aspects. Early recognition of the skeletal phenotype is important for preventive management of cervical instability. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26286438

  5. The core proteins of large and small interstitial proteoglycans from various connective tissues form distinct subgroups.

    PubMed Central

    Heinegrd, D; Bjrne-Persson, A; Cster, L; Franzn, A; Gardell, S; Malmstrm, A; Paulsson, M; Sandfalk, R; Vogel, K

    1985-01-01

    Large and small proteoglycans were separately isolated from a number of connective tissues and compared to determine the extent of structural similarity. This was studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and by the peptide patterns obtained when 125I-labelled proteoglycans were digested with trypsin. All the large proteoglycans, i.e. from tendon, sclera, cartilage and aorta, appear to contain the structure typical for the hyaluronic acid-binding region, both shown by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by content of peptides unique for this region. These proteoglycans also share other structural features of the protein core, as indicated by immunological cross-reactivity and similar peptide patterns. The large proteoglycans from aorta in addition show the presence of unique structures both upon immunoassay and with regard to peptide pattern. Among the small proteoglycans two groups can be identified, although amino acid composition and protein core sizes are grossly similar. One group consists of the small proteoglycans from aorta and cartilage having similar peptide maps and showing immunological cross-reactivity in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The other distinctly different group consists of the small proteoglycans from bone, cornea, sclera and tendon, which among them show identity in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and similar peptide patterns. Proteoglycans from the two groups, however, show partial immunological cross-reactivity. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:4052035

  6. Downregulation of connective tissue growth factor reduces migration and invasiveness of osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yinjun; Zhao, Shichang; Zhang, Changqing; Li, Xiaolin

    2016-02-01

    As one of the most serious types of primary bone tumor, osteosarcoma (OSA) features metastatic lesions, and resistance to chemotherapy is common. The underlying mechanisms of these characteristics may account for the failure of treatments and the poor prognosis of patients with OSA. It has been reported that inhibition of Cyr61 suppresses OSA cell proliferation as it represents a target of statins. In addition to cystein?rich protein61 (Cyr61) and nephroblastoma overexpression, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a member of the CCN family and may therefore exhibit effects on human OSA cells similar to those of Cyr61. In the current study, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining were used to determine the rate of apoptosis. The present study demonstrated that small interfering RNA?mediated silencing of CTGF promoted cell death and suppressed OSA cell migration and invasion, as indicated by wound healing and Transwell assays, while lentivirus?mediated overexpression of CTGF reversed these effects. Furthermore, a colorimetric caspase assay demonstrated that CTGF knockdown enhanced the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs. The results of the present study provided a novel molecular target which may be utilized for the treatment of metastatic OSA. PMID:26707502

  7. Accumulation of connective tissue growth factor+ cells during the early phase of rat traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Glial scar formation is a common histopathological feature of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Astrogliosis and expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) are key components of scar formation and blood-brain barrier modulation. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is considered a cytokine mediating the effects of TGF-?. Methods Here, we studied the CTGF expression in an open-skull weight-drop-induced TBI, with a focus on the early phase, most amenable to therapy. Results In normal rat brains of our study, CTGF+ cells were rarely observed. Significant parenchymal accumulation of CTGF+ non-neuron cells was observed 72h post-TBI and increased continuously during the investigating time. We also observed that the accumulated CTGF+ non-neuron cells were mainly distributed in the perilesional areas and showed activated astrocyte phenotypes with typical stellate morphologic characteristics. Conclusion Our observations demonstrated the time-dependent and lesion-associated accumulation of cellular CTGF expression in TBI, suggesting a pathological role of CTGF in TBI. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/3963462091241165 PMID:25012526

  8. Laryngeal Involvement in Connective Tissue Disorders. Is it Important for Patient Management?

    PubMed

    Iacovou, Emily; Vlastarakos, Petros V; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P

    2014-01-01

    Connective tissue disorders (CTDs) involve multiple organ systems and may have a significant impact on the overall health and quality of life of the affected individuals. The present paper aims to review the current knowledge on the laryngeal manifestations of CDTs, and describe the available diagnostic and treatment options. Systematic literature review in Medline and other database sources. Information from related books was also included. Prospective controlled, double-blind prospective, prospective, and transversal cohort studies, case series, case reports, systematic reviews, and consensus papers. Laryngeal involvement mostly occurs in rheumatoid arthritis (13-75% of patients). It is not uncommon in active and progressive clinical course, though can also occur in silent or inactive CDTs. The crico-arytenoid joint is the most commonly affected site. Common symptoms include throat pain, dyphonia and hoarseness. Careful clinical assessment of the larynx by flexible naso-endoscopy, video-stroboscopy, or direct laryngoscopy, and appropriate imaging are required for pertinent patient management. Stridor is a sign of a life-threatening condition, and may require prompt surgical intervention. However, mild symptomatology may mislead clinicians, and the related diagnosis may be significantly delayed. The current evidence as identified in the present study suggest that laryngeal manifestations of CDTs are often underdiagnosed, due to a range of non- specific symptoms. A multidisciplinary team approach with ENT input is necessary to improve the overall patient management. PMID:24533356

  9. Angiogenesis Is Not Impaired in Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) Knock-out Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kuiper, Esther J.; Roestenberg, Peggy; Ehlken, Christoph; Lambert, Vincent; van Treslong-de Groot, Henny Bloys; Lyons, Karen M.; Agostini, Hans-Jrgen T.; Rakic, Jean-Marie; Klaassen, Ingeborg; Van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Goldschmeding, Roel; Schlingemann, Reinier O.

    2007-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a member of the CCN family of growth factors. CTGF is important in scarring, wound healing, and fibrosis. It has also been implicated to play a role in angiogenesis, in addition to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In the eye, angiogenesis and subsequent fibrosis are the main causes of blindness in conditions such as diabetic retinopathy. We have applied three different models of angiogenesis to homozygous CTGF?/? and heterozygous CTGF+/? mice to establish involvement of CTGF in neovascularization. CTGF?/? mice die around birth. Therefore, embryonic CTGF?/?, CTGF+/?, and CTGF+/+ bone explants were used to study in vitro angiogenesis, and neonatal and mature CTGF+/? and CTGF+/+ mice were used in models of oxygen-induced retinopathy and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization. Angiogenesis in vitro was independent of the CTGF genotype in both the presence and the absence of VEGF. Oxygen-induced vascular pathology in the retina, as determined semi-quantitatively, and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization, as determined quantitatively, were also not affected by the CTGF genotype. Our data show that downregulation of CTGF levels does not affect neovascularization, indicating distinct roles of VEGF and CTGF in angiogenesis and fibrosis in eye conditions. PMID:17625227

  10. Differential regulation of connective tissue growth factor in renal cells by histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Komorowsky, Claudiu; Ocker, Matthias; Goppelt-Struebe, Margarete

    2009-08-01

    Regulation of the profibrotic and angiogenesis modulating cytokine connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) occurs primarily at the transcriptional level. Therefore, we hypothesized that histone deacetylating enzymes (HDAC), which modulate the accessibility of transcriptionally active promoter regions, might play a role in the regulation of CTGF gene expression. We analyzed microvascular endothelial cells, which showed immunoreactivity for acetylated histone in kidney sections, and compared them with renal tubular epithelial cells. Treatment of cultured endothelial cells with different HDAC inhibitors up-regulated CTGF mRNA and protein. Pre-treatment with HDAC inhibitors facilitated induction of CTGF by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) or lysophosphatidic acid. Transcription factors of the FoxO family were involved in the up-regulation of CTGF as shown at protein level and by reporter gene analyses. In tubular epithelial cells, up-regulation of CTGF was only observed when these cells were cultured as subconfluent cells. Dense cells, which are more likely to resemble tubular cells in vivo, showed no up-regulation upon treatment with HDAC inhibitors and were protected against CTGF induction by TGF-beta. Taken together, our data indicate that the effect of HDAC inhibitors on CTGF expression is largely cell dependent in non-tumour cells. Different cell type-specific transcription factors seem to determine whether CTGF expression is reduced or increased in cells exposed to HDAC inhibitors. PMID:20141616

  11. Efficient delivery of connective tissue growth factor shRNA using PAMAM nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Z J; Yi, B; Yuan, H; Yang, G P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the anti-fibrosis activity of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) small hairpin RNA (shRNA) mediated by polyamidoamine dendrimer nanoparticles in rat myocardial cell lines and myocardium. CTGF shRNAs were constructed from inverted oligonucleotides and a polyamidoamine nanoparticle vector was used to transfer shRNA into H9c2 myocardial cells and spontaneously hypertensive rats. The expression of CTGF, transforming growth factor-b1, and laminin were measured by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. pCTGF-shRNA significantly reduced CTGF upregulation induced by angiotensin II in H9c2 myocardial cells. The mRNA and protein expression of CTGF and laminin in pCTGF-shRNA-transferred spontaneously hypertensive rats decreased significantly compared to the control group and pHK-shRNA group (P < 0.05). The expression of transforming growth factor-b1 showed no significant difference among the 3 groups (P > 0.05). pCTGF-shRNA mediated by polyamidoamine can be used to successfully reduce myocardial CTGF and laminin expression, suggesting that this system can be used to improve myocardial fibrosis therapy. PMID:25177951

  12. The Skeletal Site-Specific Role of Connective Tissue Growth Factor in Prenatal Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lambi, Alex G.; Pankratz, Talia L.; Mundy, Christina; Gannon, Maureen; Barbe, Mary F.; Richtsmeier, Joan T.; Popoff, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is a matricellular protein that is highly expressed during bone development. Mice with global CTGF ablation (knockout, KO) have multiple skeletal dysmorphisms and perinatal lethality. A quantitative analysis of the bone phenotype has not been conducted. Results We demonstrated skeletal site-specific changes in growth plate organization, bone microarchitecture, and shape and gene expression levels in CTGF KO compared with wild-type mice. Growth plate malformations included reduced proliferation zone and increased hypertrophic zone lengths. Appendicular skeletal sites demonstrated decreased metaphyseal trabecular bone, while having increased mid-diaphyseal bone and osteogenic expression markers. Axial skeletal analysis showed decreased bone in caudal vertebral bodies, mandibles, and parietal bones in CTGF KO mice, with decreased expression of osteogenic markers. Analysis of skull phenotypes demonstrated global and regional differences in CTGF KO skull shape resulting from allometric (size-based) and nonallometric shape changes. Localized differences in skull morphology included increased skull width and decreased skull length. Dysregulation of the transforming growth factor-?-CTGF axis coupled with unique morphologic traits provides a potential mechanistic explanation for the skull phenotype. Conclusions We present novel data on a skeletal phenotype in CTGF KO mice, in which ablation of CTGF causes site-specific aberrations in bone formation. PMID:23073844

  13. Connective Tissue Growth Factor Is Required for Normal Follicle Development and Ovulation

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Takashi; Kim, Jaeyeon; Li, Qinglei; Lydon, John P.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Lyons, Karen M.

    2011-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a cysteine-rich protein the synthesis and secretion of which are hypothesized to be selectively regulated by activins and other members of the TGF-β superfamily. To investigate the in vivo roles of CTGF in female reproduction, we generated Ctgf ovarian and uterine conditional knockout (cKO) mice. Ctgf cKO mice exhibit severe subfertility and multiple reproductive defects including disrupted follicle development, decreased ovulation rates, increased numbers of corpus luteum, and smaller but functionally normal uterine horns. Steroidogenesis is disrupted in the Ctgf cKO mice, leading to increased levels of serum progesterone. We show that disrupted follicle development is accompanied by a significant increase in granulosa cell apoptosis. Moreover, despite normal cumulus expansion, Ctgf cKO mice exhibit a significant decrease in oocytes ovulated, likely due to impaired ovulatory process. During analyses of mRNA expression, we discovered that Ctgf cKO granulosa cells show gene expression changes similar to our previously reported granulosa cell-specific knockouts of activin and Smad4, the common TGF-β family intracellular signaling protein. We also discovered a significant down-regulation of Adamts1, a progesterone-regulated gene that is critical for the remodeling of extracellular matrix surrounding granulosa cells of preovulatory follicles. These findings demonstrate that CTGF is a downstream mediator in TGF-β and progesterone signaling cascades and is necessary for normal follicle development and ovulation. PMID:21868453

  14. Nail changes in connective tissue diseases: a study of 39 cases

    PubMed Central

    Elmansour, Imane; Chiheb, Soumia; Benchikhi, Hakima

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to identify nail unit changes associated with connective tissue diseases (CTD) and evaluate their frequency. We carried a prospective study between March 2012 and March2013 in our department. All patients with CTD were included. A clinical examination of the fingernails was done by the same dermatologist. Nail features were noted and classified and photos taken. Thirty nine patients were enrolled including: 16 systemic sclerosis, 14 lupus erythematosus (SLE), 8 dermatomyositis (DM), 1 primary Sjorgen's syndrome. The mean age was 40 years old. The mean duration of the disease was 6 years. Nail unit changes were present in 27 patients (69%). The abnormalities observed were Longitidunal ridging in 11 patients, Peri ungueal erythema in 10 patients, Peri-ungual telangiectasia in 11 patients, Ragged cuticle in 10 patients fingertips scars in 9 patients, Increase of longitudinal curvature and beaking of the nail in 4 patients, Increase in transverse curvature in 4 patients, dyschromia of the proximal nail fold in 3 patients, Subungual hyperkeratosis in 3 patients, onycholysis in 2 patients, splinter haemorrhages in 3 patients, nail plate pigmentation in 2 patients, pseudoclubbing in 1 patient, macrolunula in 1 patients, Red lunulae in one patient, bluish- black discoloration of the nail plate in one patient. The proximal nailfold was found to be most sites affected. PMID:25419288

  15. Connective tissue growth factor as a novel therapeutic target in high grade serous ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moran-Jones, Kim; Gloss, Brian S.; Murali, Rajmohan; Chang, David K.; Colvin, Emily K.; Jones, Marc D.; Yuen, Samuel; Howell, Viive M.; Brown, Laura M.; Wong, Carol W.; Spong, Suzanne M.; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Hacker, Neville F.; Ghosh, Sue; Mok, Samuel C.; Birrer, Michael J.; Samimi, Goli

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of death among women with gynecologic cancer. We examined molecular profiles of fibroblasts from normal ovary and high-grade serous ovarian tumors to identify novel therapeutic targets involved in tumor progression. We identified 2,300 genes that are significantly differentially expressed in tumor-associated fibroblasts. Fibroblast expression of one of these genes, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. CTGF protein expression in ovarian tumor fibroblasts significantly correlated with gene expression levels. CTGF is a secreted component of the tumor microenvironment and is being pursued as a therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer. We examined its effect in in vitro and ex vivo ovarian cancer models, and examined associations between CTGF expression and clinico-pathologic characteristics in patients. CTGF promotes migration and peritoneal adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. These effects are abrogated by FG-3019, a human monoclonal antibody against CTGF, currently under clinical investigation as a therapeutic agent. Immunohistochemical analyses of high-grade serous ovarian tumors reveal that the highest level of tumor stromal CTGF expression was correlated with the poorest prognosis. Our findings identify CTGF as a promoter of peritoneal adhesion, likely to mediate metastasis, and a potential therapeutic target in high-grade serous ovarian cancer. These results warrant further studies into the therapeutic efficacy of FG-3019 in high-grade serous ovarian cancer. PMID:26575166

  16. Paraquat increases connective tissue growth factor expression and impairs lung fibroblast proliferation and viscoelasticity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, N; Xie, Y-P; Pang, L; Zang, X-X; Wang, J; Shi, D; Wu, Y; Liu, X-L; Wang, G-H

    2014-12-01

    This in vitro study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of paraquat-induced damage using cultured human fetal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5 cells), in order to promote the development of improved therapies for paraquat poisoning. Paraquat's effects on proliferation were examined by flow cytometry, on viscoelasticity by the micropipette aspiration technique, and on connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Paraquat was found to significantly reduce the proliferation index of MRC-5 cells in a concentration-dependent manner (p < 0.05) and to significantly impair the viscoelastic properties in a time-independent manner (p < 0.05). Exposure to paraquat led to a significant and time-dependent increase in CTGF expression (p < 0.05) and induced changes in the morphology and biomechanical characteristics of the MRC-5 cells. These findings not only provide novel insights into the mechanisms of paraquat-induced lung fibrosis but may represent useful targets of improved molecular-based therapies for paraquat poisoning. PMID:24556028

  17. Direct determination of fatty acids in fish tissues: quantifying top predator trophic connections.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Christopher C; Nichols, Peter D; Pethybridge, Heidi; Young, Jock W

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids are a valuable tool in ecological studies because of the large number of unique structures synthesized. They provide versatile signatures that are being increasingly employed to delineate the transfer of dietary material through marine and terrestrial food webs. The standard procedure for determining fatty acids generally involves lipid extraction followed by methanolysis to produce methyl esters for analysis by gas chromatography. By directly transmethylating ~50 mg wet samples and adding an internal standard it was possible to greatly simplify the analytical methodology to enable rapid throughput of 20-40 fish tissue fatty acid analyses a day including instrumental analysis. This method was verified against the more traditional lipid methods using albacore tuna and great white shark muscle and liver samples, and it was shown to provide an estimate of sample dry mass, total lipid content, and a condition index. When large fatty acid data sets are generated in this way, multidimensional scaling, analysis of similarities, and similarity of percentages analysis can be used to define trophic connections among samples and to quantify them. These routines were used on albacore and skipjack tuna fatty acid data obtained by direct methylation coupled with literature values for krill. There were clear differences in fatty acid profiles among the species as well as spatial differences among albacore tuna sampled from different locations. PMID:25376156

  18. Assessment and management of connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Aryeh; Chartrand, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The intersection of the connective tissue diseases (CTD) and the interstitial lung diseases (ILD) is complex. Although often considered as a single entity, "CTD-ILD" actually reflects a heterogeneous spectrum of diverse CTDs and a variety of patterns of interstitial pneumonia. The evaluation of patients with CTD that develop ILD, or the assessment for underlying CTD in those presenting with presumed "idiopathic" ILD can be challenging and these evaluations can be optimized by effective multidisciplinary collaboration. When a diagnosis of CTD-ILD is confirmed, careful and thorough assessments to determine extra- versus intra-thoracic disease activity, and degrees of impairment are needed. Pharmacologic intervention with immunosuppression is the mainstay of therapy for all forms of CTD-ILD, but should be reserved only for those that demonstrate clinically significant and/or progressive disease. The management of CTD-ILD is not yet evidence based and there is a desperate need for controlled trials across the spectrum of CTD-ILD. Non-pharmacologic management strategies and addressing comorbidities or aggravating factors should be part of a comprehensive treatment plan for individuals with CTD-ILD. PMID:26237351

  19. Repetitive differential finger motion increases shear strain between the flexor tendon and subsynovial connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Tat, Jimmy; Kociolek, Aaron M; Keir, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    Non-inflammatory fibrosis and thickening of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) are characteristic in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients. These pathological changes have been linked to repetitive hand tasks that create shear forces between the flexor tendons and SSCT. We measured the relative motion of the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon and SSCT during two repetitive finger tasks using color Doppler ultrasound. Twelve participants performed flexion-extension cycles for 30?min with the long finger alone (differential movement) and with all four fingers together (concurrent movement). Shear strain index (SSI, a relative measure of excursion in flexion and extension) and maximum velocity ratio (MVR, the ratio of SSCT versus tendon during flexion and extension) were used to represent shear. A linear effect of exertion time was significant and corresponded with larger tendon shear in differential motion. The flexion SSI increased 20.4% from the first to the 30th minute, while MVR decreased 8.9% in flexion and 8.7% in extension. No significant changes were found during concurrent motion. These results suggest that exposure to repetitive differential finger tasks may increase the risk of shear injury in the carpal tunnel. PMID:23729391

  20. Orthotic considerations for dense connective tissue and articular cartilage--the need for optimal movement and stress.

    PubMed

    McKee, Pat; Hannah, Susan; Priganc, Victoria W

    2012-01-01

    Orthotic intervention is an essential component of hand rehabilitation, addressing biological factors that affect activity and participation. Functional, pain-free joint mobility requires skeletal stability, healthy articular cartilage, and appropriate extensibility of periarticular dense connective tissues (DCTs). This article addresses basic science underlying clinical reasoning when considering orthoses to maintain or restore structural integrity, mobility and function of DCT structures, and articular cartilage. However, these tissues often have different and sometimes conflicting requirements for the maintenance and restoration of integrity and health. The duration of immobilization, especially at end range, should be carefully considered, as it impairs nutrition of tissues and adversely compresses articular cartilage, causing injury that may not be reversible. Immobilization also reduces extensibility of DCT. Thus, an intermittent orthotic wearing schedule is suggested, allowing movement wherever possible to promote tissue health. To optimize benefits and minimize harmful effects of orthotic intervention, further research on physiological responses of human tissues to immobilization and tension is needed. PMID:22507215

  1. Methotrexate inhibits neutrophil function by stimulating adenosine release from connective tissue cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cronstein, B N; Eberle, M A; Gruber, H E; Levin, R I

    1991-01-01

    Although commonly used to control a variety of inflammatory diseases, the mechanism of action of a low dose of methotrexate remains a mystery. Methotrexate accumulates intracellularly where it may interfere with purine metabolism. Therefore, we determined whether a 48-hr pretreatment with methotrexate affected adenosine release from [14C]adenine-labeled human fibroblasts and umbilical vein endothelial cells. Methotrexate significantly increased adenosine release by fibroblasts from 4 +/- 1% to 31 +/- 6% of total purine released (EC50, 1 nM) and by endothelial cells from 24 +/- 4% to 42 +/- 7%. Methotrexate-enhanced adenosine release from fibroblasts was further increased to 51 +/- 4% (EC50, 6 nM) and from endothelial cells was increased to 58 +/- 5% of total purine released by exposure to stimulated (fMet-Leu-Phe at 0.1 microM) neutrophils. The effect of methotrexate on adenosine release was not due to cytotoxicity since cells treated with maximal concentrations of methotrexate took up [14C]adenine and released 14C-labeled purine (a measure of cell injury) in a manner identical to control cells. Methotrexate treatment of fibroblasts dramatically inhibited adherence to fibroblasts by both unstimulated neutrophils (IC50, 9 nM) and stimulated neutrophils (IC50, 13 nM). Methotrexate treatment inhibited neutrophil adherence by enhancing adenosine release from fibroblasts since digestion of extracellular adenosine by added adenosine deaminase completely abrogated the effect of methotrexate on neutrophil adherence without, itself, affecting adherence. One hypothesis that explains the effect of methotrexate on adenosine release is that, by inhibition of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) transformylase, methotrexate induces the accumulation of AICAR, the nucleoside precursor of which (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside referred to hereafter as acadesine) has previously been shown to cause adenosine release from ischemic cardiac tissue. We found that acadesine also promotes adenosine release from and inhibits neutrophil adherence to connective tissue cells. The observation that the antiinflammatory actions of methotrexate are due to the capacity of methotrexate to induce adenosine release may form the basis for the development of an additional class of antiinflammatory drugs. PMID:2006182

  2. Amplification of autoimmune disease by infection

    PubMed Central

    Posnett, David N; Yarilin, Dmitry

    2005-01-01

    Reports of infection with certain chronic persistent microbes (herpesviruses or Chlamydiae) in human autoimmune diseases are consistent with the hypothesis that these microbes are reactivated in the setting of immunodeficiency and often target the site of autoimmune inflammation. New experimental animal models demonstrate the principle. A herpesvirus or Chlamydia species can be used to infect mice with induced transient autoimmune diseases. This results in increased disease severity and even relapse. The evidence suggests that the organisms are specifically imported to the inflammatory sites and cause further tissue destruction, especially when the host is immunosuppressed. We review the evidence for the amplification of autoimmune inflammatory disease by microbial infection, which may be a general mechanism applicable to many human diseases. We suggest that patients with autoimmune disorders receiving immunosuppressing drugs should benefit from preventive antiviral therapy. PMID:15743493

  3. Mechanisms of bradykinin-induced expression of connective tissue growth factor and nephrin in podocytes.

    PubMed

    Msallem, J Abou; Chalhoub, H; Al-Hariri, M; Saad, L; Jaffa, M A; Ziyadeh, F N; Jaffa, A A

    2015-12-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes and is characterized by mesangial matrix deposition and podocytopathy, including podocyte loss. The risk factors and mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of DN are still not completely defined. In the present study, we aimed to understand the cellular mechanisms through which activation of B2 kinin receptors contribute to the initiation and progression of DN. Stimulation of cultured rat podocytes with bradykinin (BK) resulted in a significant increase in ROS generation, and this was associated with a significant increase in NADPH oxidase (NOX)1 and NOX4 protein and mRNA levels. BK stimulation also resulted in a signicant increase in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt, and this effect was inhibited in the presence of NOX1 and Nox4 small interfering (si)RNA. Furthermore, podocytes stimulated with BK resulted in a significant increase in protein and mRNA levels of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and, at the same time, a significant decrease in protein and mRNA levels of nephrin. siRNA targeted against NOX1 and NOX4 significantly inhibited the BK-induced increase in CTGF. Nephrin expression was increased in response to BK in the presence of NOX1 and NOX4 siRNA, thus implicating a role for NOXs in modulating the BK response in podocytes. Moreover, nephrin expression in response to BK was also significantly increased in the presence of siRNA targeted against CTGF. These findings provide novel aspects of BK signal transduction pathways in pathogenesis of DN and identify novel targets for interventional strategies. PMID:26447218

  4. Regulation of pancreatic inflammation by connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2).

    PubMed

    Charrier, Alyssa; Chen, Ruju; Kemper, Sherri; Brigstock, David R

    2014-04-01

    Pancreatitis is caused by long-term heavy alcohol consumption, which results in injury and death of pancreatic acinar cells (PAC). The PAC play a pivotal role in mediating early inflammatory responses but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Treatment of C57BL/6 mice with ethanol and cerulein resulted in increased staining for acinar interleukin- 1b (IL-1b), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3), or connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) by Day 16 and this was associated with increased infiltration of F4/80-positive macrophages and increased expression of pancreatic CTGF/CCN2 mRNA. Compared with wild-type Swiss Webster mice, ethanol treatment of pan-green fluorescent protein (GFP)-CTGF/CCN2 transgenic mice caused enhanced acinar staining for GFP or CTGF/CCN2 and a significant increase in pancreatic infiltration of F4/80-positive macrophages or NIMP-R14-positive neutrophils. Treatment of primary mouse PAC or the rat AR42J PAC line with ethanol or CTGF/CCN2 resulted in enhanced expression of IL-1b or CCL3. Conditioned medium from CTGF/CCN2-treated AR42J cells induced chemotaxis in NR8383 macrophages and this response was abrogated in a dose dependent manner by addition of BX471, an inhibitor of chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 1. These results reveal that acinar CTGF/CCN2 plays a novel role in alcohol-induced inflammatory processes in the pancreas by increasing infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils and increasing acinar production of inflammatory mediators such as IL-1b or CCL3. The early production of CTGF/CCN2 by PAC to drive inflammation is distinct from its previously reported production by pancreatic stellate cells to drive fibrosis at later stages of pancreatic injury. PMID:24754049

  5. Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) Expression Modulates Response to High Glucose

    PubMed Central

    James, Leighton R.; Le, Catherine; Doherty, Heather; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Maeda, Nobuyo

    2013-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is an important mediator of fibrosis; emerging evidence link changes in plasma and urinary CTGF levels to diabetic kidney disease. To further ascertain the role of CTGF in responses to high glucose, we assessed the consequence of 4 months of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in wild type (+/+) and CTGF heterozygous (+/?) mice. Subsequently, we studied the influence of glucose on gene expression and protein in mice embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) cells derived from wildtype and heterozygous mice. At study initiation, plasma glucose, creatinine, triglyceride and cholesterol levels were similar between non-diabetic CTGF+/+ and CTGF+/? mice. In the diabetic state, plasma glucose levels were increased in CTGF+/+ and CTGF+/? mice (28.2 3.3 mmol/L vs 27.0 3.1 mmol/L), plasma triglyceride levels were lower in CTGF+/? mice than in CTGF+/+ (0.7 0.2 mmol/L vs 0.5 0.1 mmol/L, p<0.05), but cholesterol was essentially unchanged in both groups. Plasma creatinine was higher in diabetic CTGF+/+ group (11.71.2 vs 7.90.6 mol/L p<0.01), while urinary albumin excretion and mesangial expansion were reduced in diabetic CTGF+/? animals. Cortices from diabetic mice (both CTGF +/+ and CTGF +/?) manifested higher expression of CTGF and thrombospondin 1 (TSP1). Expression of nephrin was reduced in CTGF +/+ animals; this reduction was attenuated in CTGF+/? group. In cultured MEF from CTGF+/+ mice, glucose (25 mM) increased expression of pro-collagens 1, IV and XVIII as well as fibronectin and thrombospondin 1 (TSP1). In contrast, activation of these genes by high glucose was attenuated in CTGF+/? MEF. We conclude that induction of Ctgf mediates expression of extracellular matrix proteins in diabetic kidney. Thus, genetic variability in CTGF expression directly modulates the severity of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:23950936

  6. Lung transplantation in patients with connective tissue disorders and esophageal dysmotility.

    PubMed

    Gasper, Warren J; Sweet, Matthew P; Golden, Jeffrey A; Hoopes, Charles; Leard, Lorriana E; Kleinhenz, Mary Ellen; Hays, Steven R; Patti, Marco G

    2008-01-01

    Lung and esophageal dysfunction are common in patients with connective tissue disease (CTD). Recent reports have suggested a link between pathologic gastroesophageal reflux and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after lung transplant. Because patients with CTD have a high incidence of esophageal dysmotility and reflux, this group may be at increased risk of allograft dysfunction after lung transplantation. Little is known about antireflux surgery in these patients. Our aims were to describe: (i) the esophageal motility and reflux profile of patients with CTD referred for lung transplantation; and (ii) the safety and outcomes of laparoscopic fundoplication in this group. A retrospective review of 26 patients with CTD referred for lung transplantation between July 2003 and June 2007 at a single center. Esophageal studies included manometry and ambulatory 24-h pH monitoring. Twenty-three patients had esophageal manometry and ambulatory 24-h pH monitoring. Nineteen patients (83%) had pathologic distal reflux and 7 (30%) also had pathologic proximal reflux. Eighteen patients (78%) had impaired or absent peristalsis. Eleven of 26 patients underwent lung transplantation. Ten patients are alive at a median follow-up of 26 months (range 3-45) and one has bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome-1. Six patients had a laparoscopic fundoplication, 1 before transplantation and 5 after. All fundoplication patients are alive at median follow-up of 25 months (range 19-45). In conclusion, esophageal dysmotility and reflux are common in CTD patients referred for lung transplant. For this group, laparoscopic fundoplication is safe in experienced hands. PMID:18459990

  7. Molecular insights into connective tissue growth factor action in rat pancreatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Karger, Anna; Fitzner, Brit; Brock, Peter; Sparmann, Gisela; Emmrich, Jrg; Liebe, Stefan; Jaster, Robert

    2008-10-01

    Pancreatic fibrosis, a key feature of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, is mediated by activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSC). Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been suggested to play a major role in fibrogenesis by enhancing PSC activation after binding to alpha5beta1 integrin. Here, we have focussed on molecular determinants of CTGF action. Inhibition of CTGF expression in PSC by siRNA was associated with decreased proliferation, while application of exogenous CTGF stimulated both cell growth and collagen synthesis. Real-time PCR studies revealed that CTGF target genes in PSC not only include mediators of matrix remodelling but also the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6. CTGF stimulated binding of NF-kappaB to the IL-6 promoter, and siRNA targeting the NF-kappaB subunit RelA interfered with CTGF-induced IL-6 expression, implicating the NF-kappaB pathway in the mediation of the CTGF effect. In further studies, we have analyzed regulation of CTGF expression in PSC. Transforming growth factor-beta1, activin A and tumor necrosis factor-alpha enhanced expression of the CTGF gene, while interferon-gamma displayed the opposite effect. The region from -74 to -125 of the CTGF promoter was revealed to be critical for its activity in PSC as well as for the inhibitory effect of interferon-gamma. Taken together, our results indicate a tight control of CTGF expression in PSC at the transcriptional level. CTGF promotes fibrogenesis both directly by enhancing PSC proliferation and matrix protein synthesis, and indirectly through the release of proinflammatory cytokines that may accelerate the process of chronic inflammation. PMID:18639630

  8. A patient with ascending aortic dilatation, similar to phenotypes of connective tissue disorders.

    PubMed

    Onrat, S T; Emmiler, M; Sivaci, Y; Sylemez, Z; Ozgz, A; Imirzalio?lu, N

    2009-01-01

    We report on the clinical and molecular findings of a patient who presented alopecia, epicanthus, micrognathia, retrognathia, high arched palate, hypertelorism, Chiari type I malformation, mixed-type hearing loss but with normal heartbeat Q-T interval, malformed earlobes, down-slanted palpebral fissures, downturned corners of the mouth, syndactyly, atopic eczema, and seizures. The patient was a male adult, 23 years old, with short stature (153 cm) and low weight (50.5 kg), due to severe aortic insufficiency and dilatation of the ascending aorta. Conventional cytogenetic screening did not show any chromosomal gains or losses. Molecular genetic screening was conducted for gene mutations involved in various syndromes; the mutations found included [beta-fibrinogen -455 G>A wt/wt (wt/mut), PAI-1 4G/5G (4G/4G), HPA1 a/b (a/a), MTHFR C677T wt/wt (wt/mut), ACE I/D (I/I), and Apo E E3/E4]. Many clinical and molecular genetics findings overlapped with other conditions associated with arterial tortuosity and arterial aneurysms, including the Marfan, Ehler-Danlos, Shprintzen-Goldberg, and Loeys-Dietz syndromes. Although a diagnosis of Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome was based on clinical findings and radiographic findings indicate other syndromes, aortic root dilatation seems to be a new symptom, similar to phenotypes of connective tissue disorders. The unique grouping of clinical manifestations in this patient and the molecular genetics findings lead us to suggest that this case could be an example of a previously unrecognized syndrome. PMID:19551629

  9. Brachial Neuritis With Phrenic Nerve Involvement in a Patient With a Possible Connective Tissue Disease

    PubMed Central

    Subash, Meera; Patel, Gaurav; Welker, John

    2014-01-01

    Background. Brachial neuritis (BN) is a rare inflammatory condition of peripheral nerves, usually involving the cervicobrachial plexus. These patients present with sudden onset of shoulder and arm pain that evolves into muscle weakness and atrophy.. Case Report. A 33-year-old woman presented with a 1-month history of diffuse pain in her thorax. She had no trauma or inciting incident prior to the onset of this pain and was initially treated for muscle spasms. The patient was seen in the emergency room multiple times and was treated with several courses of antibiotics for pneumonia on the basis of clinical symptoms and abnormal x-rays. The pleuritic chest pain persisted for at least 4 months, and the patient was eventually admitted for worsening pain and dyspnea. On physical examination, crackles were heard at both lung bases, and chest inspection revealed increased expansion in the upper thorax but poor expansion of the lower thorax and mild paradoxical respiration. Sniff test revealed no motion of the left hemidiaphragm and reduced motion on the right hemidiaphragm. Her computed tomography scan revealed bilateral atelectasis, more severe at the left base. She reported no symptoms involving her joints or skin or abdomen. Her presentation and clinical course are best explained by BN with a bilateral diaphragmatic weakness. However, she had a positive ANA, RF, anti-RNP antibody, and anti SS-A. Conclusion. Patients with BN can present with diffuse thoracic pain, pleuritic chest pain, and diaphragmatic weakness. Our patient may represent a case of connective tissue disease presenting with brachial plexus neuritis. PMID:26425609

  10. Heterogeneous pathogenic processes of thrombotic microangiopathies in patients with connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Tomomi; Kuwana, Masataka; Matsumoto, Masanori; Isonishi, Ayami; Inokuma, Shigeko; Fujimura, Yoshihiro

    2009-08-01

    To clarify the pathogenic processes of thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) in patients with connective tissue disease (CTD), we analysed clinical characteristics and plasma ADAMTS13 levels in 127 patients with CTD-TMAs, including patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 64 patients with acquired idiopathic thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (ai-TTP). Plasma levels of ADAMTS13 activity, antigen, and inhibitors were determined by enzyme immunoassays. IgG type anti-ADAMTS13 antibodies were also detected by immunoblots using purified ADAMTS13. ADAMTS13 activity was significantly decreased in CTD-TMAs, regardless of the underlying disease, but the frequency of severe deficiency (defined as <0.5% of normal) was lower in CTD-TMA patients than in ai-TTP patients (16.5% vs. 70.3%, p < 0.01). Severe deficiency of ADAMTS13 activity was predominantly detected in patients with RA- and SLE-TMAs, and was closely associated with the presence of anti-ADAMTS13 IgG antibodies. CTD-TMA patients with severe deficiency of ADAMTS13 activity appeared to have lower platelet counts and better therapeutic outcomes. At least two phenotypic TMAs occur in patients with CTDs: a minor population with deficient ADAMTS13 activity caused by neutralising autoantibodies, and a major population with normal or moderately reduced activity. Classifying CTD-TMAs by ADAMTS13 activity may be useful in predicting the clinical course and therapeutic outcomes, as patients with moderately reduced activity are likely to have more prominent renal impairment and poor prognoses. PMID:19652889

  11. Role of connective tissue growth factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, N A; Yevdokimova, N; Weston, B S; Roberts, T; Li, X J; Brinkman, H; Mason, R M

    2001-01-01

    We characterized a rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against human recombinant connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). The antibody recognised a higher molecular mass form (approx. 56 kDa) of CTGF in mesangial cell lysates as well as the monomeric (36-38 kDa) and lower molecular mass forms (<30 kDa) reported previously. Immunohistochemistry detected CTGF protein in glomeruli of kidneys of non-obese diabetic mice 14 days after the onset of diabetes, and this was prominent by 70 days. CTGF protein is also present in glomeruli of human patients with diabetic nephropathy. No CTGF was detected in either normal murine or human glomeruli. Transient transfection of a transformed human mesangial cell line with a CTGF-V5 epitope fusion protein markedly increased fibronectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 synthesis in cultures maintained in normal glucose (4 mM) conditions; a CTGF-antisense construct reduced the elevated synthesis of these proteins in high glucose (30 mM) cultures. Culture of primary human mesangial cells for 14 days in high glucose, or in low glucose supplemented with recombinant CTGF or transforming growth factor beta1, markedly increased CTGF mRNA levels and fibronectin synthesis. However, whilst co-culture with a CTGF-antisense oligonucleotide reduced the CTGF mRNA pool by greater than 90% in high glucose, it only partially reduced fibronectin mRNA levels and synthesis. A chick anti-CTGF neutralizing antibody had a similar effect on fibronectin synthesis. Thus both CTGF and CTGF-independent pathways mediate increased fibronectin synthesis in high glucose. Nevertheless CTGF expression in diabetic kidneys is likely to be a key event in the development of glomerulosclerosis by affecting both matrix synthesis and, potentially through plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, its turnover. PMID:11563971

  12. Presence of Antiphospholipid Antibodies as a Risk Factor for Thrombotic Events in Patients with Connective Tissue Diseases and Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura.

    PubMed

    Habe, Koji; Wada, Hideo; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Ohishi, Kohshi; Ikejiri, Makoto; Matsubara, Kimiko; Morioka, Tatsuhiko; Kamimoto, Yuki; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Katayama, Naoyuki; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a well-known complication of habitual abortion and/or thrombosis and is frequently associated with autoimmune diseases. Methods We retrospectively investigated the relationships between the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) and the incidence of thrombotic events (THEs) in 147 patients with various connective tissue diseases (CTD) suspected of having APS and 86 patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). THEs were observed in 41 patients, including 14 cases of venous thrombosis, 21 cases of arterial thrombosis and eight cases of complications of pregnancy. Results The prevalence of THE was significantly high in the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with the other CTD patients and ITP patients. The frequency of lupus anticoagulant (LA), anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL)-β2-glycoprotein (GPI) complex IgG and aPL was significantly high in the SLE patients compared with the ITP patients. Subsequently, the rate of development of THE was significantly high in the patients with aPLs. In particular, the incidence of THE was significantly high in the SLE or ITP patients with LA, aCL-β2GPI IgG or aPL. The optimal cut-off values for LA, aCL IgG and aCL-β2GPI complex IgG for the risk of THEs were higher in the SLE patients in comparison to the values obtained when using the kit provided by the manufacturer. Conclusion Although aPLs is frequently associated with SLE and is a causative factor for thrombosis, the optimal cut-off value for aPL for predicting the occurrence of THEs varies among different underlying diseases. PMID:26984073

  13. Changes in Testicular Interstitial Connective Tissue of Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) During Ageing and After Exposure to Short Photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Beltrn-Frutos, E; Seco-Rovira, V; Ferrer, C; Martnez-Hernndez, J; Madrid, J F; Sez, F J; Canteras, M; Pastor, L M

    2016-02-01

    The testicular interstitium of Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) was studied during ageing and in testicular regression after exposure to a short photoperiod, in relation to the interstitial cells and their connective tissue. This tissue was assessed histochemically using Masson's trichrome technique and the expression of Heat Shock Protein 47 (HSP-47) and collagen IV (?5) was assessed in Leydig cells. Finally, an ultrastructural analysis of some cells of the testicular interstitium was made. Leydig cells were positive for HSP-47 and collagen IV (?5). Ageing did not change the parameters studied while the short photoperiod altered the synthetic activity of Leydig cells. The positivity index of these cells for HSP-47 was significantly higher in the regressed testis, but was lower for collagen IV (?5). During ageing no change were observed. Ultrastructural Leydig cells showed a discontinuous basal lamina that did not change during ageing. The basal lamina was not identified in Leydig cells regressed by exposure to a short photoperiod. In conclusion; the intertubular connective tissue suffers little change with age. By contrast, in the testis regressed after exposure to a short photoperiod the studied parameters related to the intertubular connective tissue were altered. These changes are probably related with the low synthetic activity of regressed Leydig cell. PMID:26602183

  14. Cyclic distension of fibrin-based tissue constructs: Evidence of adaptation during growth of engineered connective tissue

    PubMed Central

    Syedain, Zeeshan H.; Weinberg, Justin S.; Tranquillo, Robert T.

    2008-01-01

    Tissue engineering provides a means to create functional living tissue replacements. Here, we examine the effects of 3 weeks of cyclic distension (CD) on fibrin-based tubular tissue constructs seeded with porcine valve interstitial cells. CD with circumferential strain amplitude ranging from 2.5% to 20% was applied to evaluate the effects of CD on fibrin remodeling into tissue. We hypothesized that during long-term CD cells adapt to cyclic strain of constant strain amplitude (constant CD), diminishing tissue growth. We thus also subjected constructs to CD with strain amplitude that was incremented from 5% to 15% over the 3 weeks of CD [incremental CD (ICD)]. For constant CD, improvement occurred in construct mechanical properties and composition, peaking at 15% strain: ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and tensile modulus increased 47% and 45%, respectively, over statically incubated controls (to 1.1 and 4.7 MPa, respectively); collagen density increased 29% compared with controls (to 27 mg/ml). ICD further improved outcomes. UTS increased 98% and modulus increased 62% compared with the largest values with constant CD, and collagen density increased 34%. Only in the case of ICD was the ratio of collagen content to cell number greater (70%) than controls, consistent with increased collagen deposition per cell. Studies with human dermal fibroblasts showed similar improvements, generalizing the findings, and revealed a 255% increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling for ICD vs. constant CD. These results suggest cell adaptation may limit conventional strategies of stretching with constant strain amplitude and that new approaches might optimize bioreactor operation. PMID:18436647

  15. Proteoglycan metabolism in the connective tissue of pregnant and non-pregnant human cervix. An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Norman, M; Ekman, G; Ulmsten, U; Barchan, K; Malmstrm, A

    1991-04-15

    Profound changes occur in the cervix during pregnancy. In particular, the connective tissue is remodelled. To elucidate the mechanisms behind this process, the metabolism of cervical connective tissue was studied using tissue cultures. Cervical biopsies from non-pregnant and pregnant women were incubated with [35S]sulphate. The proteoglycans of the tissue specimens were purified by ion-exchange and gel chromatography and characterized by SDS/PAGE and by enzymic degradation. In the non-pregnant cervix, the incorporation of [35S]sulphate into the proteoglycans was linear for 48 h. During the first 6 h of incubation the accumulation of chiefly one small labelled proteoglycan (apparent Mr 110,000) substituted with dermatan sulphate was recorded. This is in accordance with the known proteoglycan composition of non-pregnant cervical tissue. In addition, small amounts of two larger radioactive dermatan/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (apparent Mr values 220,000 and greater than 500,000) were recorded. After longer periods of incubation the proportion of heparan sulphate proteoglycans increased considerably. The pregnant tissue showed a clearly different composition of labelled proteoglycans. An increased accumulation of the two larger dermatan/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans was seen in addition to the dominant small dermatan sulphate proteoglycan of the non-pregnant cervix. The rate of accumulation of these two proteoglycans was about 3 times higher in the pregnant tissue, whereas that of the small dermatan sulphate proteoglycan was only increased 2-fold. The fact that the concentration of proteoglycans in the pregnant cervix is approximately one-half of that in the non-pregnant cervix indicates that the turnover of proteoglycans in pregnant cervical tissue is significantly increased. The major effect of this profound change of metabolism was a 50% decrease in proteoglycan content and a 2-fold increased proportion of a dermatan sulphate proteoglycan with an apparent Mr of 220,000. PMID:2025230

  16. Proteoglycan metabolism in the connective tissue of pregnant and non-pregnant human cervix. An in vitro study.

    PubMed Central

    Norman, M; Ekman, G; Ulmsten, U; Barchan, K; Malmstrm, A

    1991-01-01

    Profound changes occur in the cervix during pregnancy. In particular, the connective tissue is remodelled. To elucidate the mechanisms behind this process, the metabolism of cervical connective tissue was studied using tissue cultures. Cervical biopsies from non-pregnant and pregnant women were incubated with [35S]sulphate. The proteoglycans of the tissue specimens were purified by ion-exchange and gel chromatography and characterized by SDS/PAGE and by enzymic degradation. In the non-pregnant cervix, the incorporation of [35S]sulphate into the proteoglycans was linear for 48 h. During the first 6 h of incubation the accumulation of chiefly one small labelled proteoglycan (apparent Mr 110,000) substituted with dermatan sulphate was recorded. This is in accordance with the known proteoglycan composition of non-pregnant cervical tissue. In addition, small amounts of two larger radioactive dermatan/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (apparent Mr values 220,000 and greater than 500,000) were recorded. After longer periods of incubation the proportion of heparan sulphate proteoglycans increased considerably. The pregnant tissue showed a clearly different composition of labelled proteoglycans. An increased accumulation of the two larger dermatan/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans was seen in addition to the dominant small dermatan sulphate proteoglycan of the non-pregnant cervix. The rate of accumulation of these two proteoglycans was about 3 times higher in the pregnant tissue, whereas that of the small dermatan sulphate proteoglycan was only increased 2-fold. The fact that the concentration of proteoglycans in the pregnant cervix is approximately one-half of that in the non-pregnant cervix indicates that the turnover of proteoglycans in pregnant cervical tissue is significantly increased. The major effect of this profound change of metabolism was a 50% decrease in proteoglycan content and a 2-fold increased proportion of a dermatan sulphate proteoglycan with an apparent Mr of 220,000. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 7. PMID:2025230

  17. Autophagy in autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Goronzy, Jrg J; Weyand, Cornelia M

    2015-07-01

    Autophagy is a protective and life-sustaining process in which cytoplasmic components are packaged into double-membrane vesicles and targeted to lysosomes for degradation. This process of cellular self-digestion is an essential stress response and is cytoprotective by removing damaged organelles and proteins that threaten the cell's survival. Key outcomes include energy generation and recycling of metabolic precursors. In the immune system, autophagy regulates processes such as antigen uptake and presentation, removal of pathogens, survival of short- and long-lived immune cells, and cytokine-dependent inflammation. In all cases, a window of optimal autophagic activity appears critical to balance catabolic, reparative, and inflammation-inducing processes. Dysregulation of autophagosome formation and autophagic flux can have deleterious consequences, ranging from a failure to "clean house" to the induction of autophagy-induced cell death. Abnormalities in the autophagic pathway have been implicated in numerous autoimmune diseases. Genome-wide association studies have linked polymorphisms in autophagy-related genes with predisposition for tissue-destructive inflammatory disease, specifically in inflammatory bowel disease and systemic lupus erythematosus. Although the precise mechanisms by which dysfunctional autophagy renders the host susceptible to continuous inflammation remain unclear, autophagy's role in regulating the long-term survival of adaptive immune cells has recently surfaced as a defect in multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Efforts are underway to identify autophagy-inducing and autophagy-suppressing pharmacologic interventions that can be added to immunosuppressive therapy to improve outcomes of patients with autoimmune disease. PMID:26054920

  18. Structural changes in connective tissues caused by a moderate laser heating

    SciTech Connect

    Bagratashvili, Viktor N; Bagratashvili, N V; Sviridov, A P; Shakh, G Sh; Ignat'eva, Natalia Yu; Lunin, Valery V; Grokhovskaya, T E; Averkiev, S V

    2002-10-31

    The structural changes in adipose and fibrous tissues caused by 2- and 3-W IR laser irradiation are studied by the methods of IR and Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. It is shown that heating of fibrous tissue samples to 50 {sup 0}C and adipose tissue samples to 75 {sup 0}C by IR laser radiation changes the supramolecular structure of their proteins and triacylglycerides, respectively, without the intramolecular bond breaking. Heating of fibrous tissue to 70 {sup 0}C and adipose tissue to 90 - 110 {sup 0}C leads to a partial reversible denaturation of proteins and to oxidation of fats.

  19. An Evaluation of Collagen Metabolism in Non Human Primates Associated with the Bion 11 Space Program-Markers of Urinary Collagen Turnover and Muscle Connective Tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vailas, Arthur C.; Martinez, Daniel A.

    1999-01-01

    Patients exhibiting changes in connective tissue and bone metabolism also show changes in urinary by-products of tissue metabolism. Furthermore, the changes in urinary connective tissue and bone metabolites precede alterations at the tissue macromolecular level. Astronauts and Cosmonauts have also shown suggestive increases in urinary by-products of mineralized and non-mineralized tissue degradation. Thus, the idea of assessing connective tissue and bone response in spaceflight monkeys by measurement of biomarkers in urine has merit. Other investigations of bone and connective histology, cytology and chemistry in the Bion 11 monkeys will allow for further validation of the relationship of urinary biomarkers and tissue response. In future flights the non-invasive procedure of urinary analysis may be useful in early detection of changes in these tissues. Purpose: The purpose of this grant investigation was to evaluate mineralized and non-mineralized connective tissue responses of non-human primates to microgravity by the non-invasive analysis of urinary biomarkers. Secondly, we also wanted to assess muscle connective tissue adaptive changes in three weight-bearing skeletal muscles: the soleus, medial gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior by obtaining pre-flight and post-flight small biopsy specimens in collaboration with Dr. V. Reggie Edgerton's laboratory at the University of California at Los Angeles.

  20. An Evaluation of Collagen Metabolism in Non Human Primates Associated with the Bion 11 Space Program-Markers of Urinary Collagen Turnover and Muscle Connective Tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vailas, Arthur C.; Martinez, Daniel A.

    1999-01-01

    Patients exhibiting changes in connective tissue and bone metabolism also show changes in urinary by-products of tissue metabolism. Furthermore, the changes in urinary connective tissue and bone metabolites precede alterations at the tissue macromolecular level. Astronauts and Cosmonauts have also shown suggestive increases in urinary by-products of mineralized and non-mineralized tissue degradation. Thus, the idea of assessing connective tissue and bone response in spaceflight monkeys by measurement of biomarkers in urine has merit. Other investigations of bone and connective histology, cytology and chemistry in the Bion 11 monkeys will allow for further validation of the relationship of urinary biomarkers and tissue response. In future flights the non-invasive procedure of urinary analysis may be useful in early detection of changes in these tissues. The purpose of this grant investigation was to evaluate mineralized and non-mineralized connective tissue responses of non-human primates to microgravity by the non-invasive analysis of urinary biomarkers. Secondly, we also wanted to assess muscle connective tissue adaptive changes in three weight-bearing skeletal muscles: the soleus, media] gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior by obtaining pre-flight and post-flight small biopsy specimens in collaboration with Dr. V. Reggie Edgerton's laboratory at the University of California at Los Angeles.

  1. Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Patient Health Information ... with a hearing loss. How Does the Healthy Ear Work? The ear has three main parts: the ...

  2. Toxicology of Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hultman, Per; Kono, Dwight H.

    2010-01-01

    Susceptibility to most autoimmune diseases is dependent on polygenic inheritance, environmental factors, and poorly defined stochastic events. One of the significant challenges facing autoimmune disease research is in identifying the specific events that trigger loss of tolerance and autoimmunity. Although many intrinsic factors, including age, sex, and genetics, contribute to autoimmunity, extrinsic factors such as drugs, chemicals, microbes, or other environmental factors can also act as important initiators. This review explores how certain extrinsic factors, namely drugs and chemicals, can promote the development of autoimmunity, focusing on a few better characterized agents that, in most instances, have been shown to produce autoimmune manifestations in human populations. Mechanisms of autoimmune disease induction are discussed in terms of research obtained using specific animal models. Although a number of different pathways have been delineated for drug/chemical-induced autoimmunity some similarities do exist and a working model is proposed. PMID:20078109

  3. Autoimmune Autonomic Ganglionopathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rare Disease Day More Search for News on Rare Diseases Search Go Advanced News Search About GARD ... Home Diseases Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy Diseases Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) Print friendly version Autoimmune ...

  4. Optimum scratch assay condition to evaluate connective tissue growth factor expression for anti-scar therapy.

    PubMed

    Moon, Heekyung; Yong, Hyeyoung; Lee, Ae-Ri Cho

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate a potential anti-scar therapy, we first need to have a reliable in vitro wound model to understand dermal fibroblast response upon cell injury and how cytokine levels are changed upon different wound heal phases. An in vitro wound model with different scratch assay conditions on primary human foreskin fibroblast monolayer cultures was prepared and cytokine levels and growth properties were evaluated with the aim of determining optimum injury conditions and observation time. Morphological characteristics of differently scratched fibroblasts from 0 to 36 h post injury (1 line, 2 lines and 3 lines) were investigated. The expression of connective tissue growth factor, CTGF, which is a key mediator in hyper-tropic scarring, and relative intensity of CTGF as a function of time were determined by western blot and gelatin Zymography. After injury (1 line), CTGF level was increased more than 2-fold within 1 h and continuously increased up to 3-fold at 6 h and was leveled down to reach normal value at 36 h, at which cell migration was complete. In more serious injury (2 lines), higher expression of CTGF was observed. The down regulation of CTGF expression after CTGF siRNA/lipofectamine transfection in control, 1 line and 2 lines scratch conditions were 40%, 75% and 55%, respectively. As a model anti-CTGF based therapy, CTGF siRNA with different ratios of linear polyethyleneimine (PEI) complexes (1:1, 1:5, 1:10, 1:20 and 1:30) were prepared and down-regulation efficacy of CTGF was evaluated with our optimized scratch assay, which is 1 line injury at 6 h post injury observation time. As the cationic linear PEI ratio increased, the down regulation efficacy was increased from 20% (1:20) to 55% (1:30). As CTGF level was increased to the highest at 6 h and leveled down afterwards, CTGF level at 6 h could provide the most sensitive response upon CTGF siRNA transfection. The scratch assay in the present study can be employed as a useful experimental tool to differentiate between anti-scar therapies for their down regulation efficacy of CTGF. PMID:22370794

  5. Frequency of Autoantibodies and Connective Tissue Diseases in Chinese Patients with Optic Neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Zuohuizi; Huang, Dehui; Wei, Shihui

    2014-01-01

    Background Optic neuritis (ON) is often associated with other clinical or serological markers of connective tissue diseases (CTDs). To date, the effects of autoantibodies on ON are not clear. Purpose To assess the prevalence, clinical patterns, and short outcomes of autoantibodies and Sjgrens syndrome (SS) involvement in Chinese ON patients and evaluate the relationship between ON, including their subtypes, and autoantibodies. Methods A total of 190 ON patients were divided into recurrent ON (RON), bilateral ON (BON), and isolated monocular ON (ION). Demographic, clinical, and serum autoantibodies data were compared between them with and without SS involvement. Serum was drawn for antinuclear antibody (ANA), extractable nuclear antigen antibodies (SSA/SSB), rheumatoid factor (RF), anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA), and anti-double-stranded DNA antibody (A-ds DNA), anticardiolipin antibody (ACLs), anti-?2-glycoprotein I (?2-GPI) and Aquaporin-4 antibodies (AQP4-Ab). Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was used to evaluate the atrophy of the optic nerve. Results 68 patients (35.79%) had abnormal autoantibodies, 26(13.68%) patients met diagnostic criteria for CTDs, including 15(7.89%) patients meeting the criteria for SS. Antibodies including SSA/SSB 23 (30.26%) (p1 and p 2<0.001) and AQP4Ab10 (13.16%) (p1?=?0.044, p2?=?0.01) were significantly different in patients in the RON group when compared with those in the BON (P1?=?RON VS ION) and ION (p2?=?RON VS ION) groups. SS was more common in RON patients (p1?=?0.04, p2?=?0.028). There was no significant difference between SSA/SSB positive and negative patients in disease characteristics or severity. Similar results were obtained when SS was diagnosed in SSA/SSB positive patients. Conclusion RON and BON were more likely associated with abnormal autoantibodies; furthermore, AQP4 antibody, SSA/SSB and SS were more common in the RON patients. AQP4 antibodydetermination is crucial in RON patients who will develop NMO. However, when compared with other autoantibodies, SSA/SSB detected in patients was not significantly associated with disease characteristics or severity. PMID:24950188

  6. Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF/CCN2) Is Negatively Regulated during Neuron-Glioblastoma Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Feitosa, Natalia M.; Faria, Jane Cristina O.; Coelho-Aguiar, Juliana M.; de Souza, Jorge Marcondes; Neto, Vivaldo Moura; Abreu, José Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Connective-tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is a matricellular-secreted protein involved in complex processes such as wound healing, angiogenesis, fibrosis and metastasis, in the regulation of cell proliferation, migration and extracellular matrix remodeling. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the major malignant primary brain tumor and its adaptation to the central nervous system microenvironment requires the production and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Previously, we published an in vitro approach to test if neurons can influence the expression of the GBM extracellular matrix. We demonstrated that neurons remodeled glioma cell laminin. The present study shows that neurons are also able to modulate CTGF expression in GBM. CTGF immnoreactivity and mRNA levels in GBM cells are dramatically decreased when these cells are co-cultured with neonatal neurons. As proof of particular neuron effects, neonatal neurons co-cultured onto GBM cells also inhibit the reporter luciferase activity under control of the CTGF promoter, suggesting inhibition at the transcription level. This inhibition seems to be contact-mediated, since conditioned media from embryonic or neonatal neurons do not affect CTGF expression in GBM cells. Furthermore, the inhibition of CTGF expression in GBM/neuronal co-cultures seems to affect the two main signaling pathways related to CTGF. We observed inhibition of TGFβ luciferase reporter assay; however phopho-SMAD2 levels did not change in these co-cultures. In addition levels of phospho-p44/42 MAPK were decreased in co-cultured GBM cells. Finally, in transwell migration assay, CTGF siRNA transfected GBM cells or GBM cells co-cultured with neurons showed a decrease in the migration rate compared to controls. Previous data regarding laminin and these results demonstrating that CTGF is down-regulated in GBM cells co-cultured with neonatal neurons points out an interesting view in the understanding of the tumor and cerebral microenvironment interactions and could open up new strategies as well as suggest a new target in GBM control. PMID:23383241

  7. Connective tissue response to fractionated thermo-ablative Erbium: YAG skin laser treatment.

    PubMed

    Bodendorf, M O; Willenberg, A; Anderegg, U; Grunewald, S; Simon, J C; Paasch, U

    2010-12-01

    Indications for and prevalence of laser therapies with a fractionated laser beam have risen significantly. However, as of yet, little is known about the underlying molecular changes, especially with respect to dermal extracellular-matrix remodelling, wound healing and inflammation. This study aimed at the investigation of the connective tissue response of sun-damaged skin following fractionated laser treatment. Seven patients received a laser therapy on the lateral side of the neck of wrinkles grade III-IV (Glogau scale) using a fractionated thermo-ablative erbium yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) laser (2940 nm, BURANE XL; Quantel Derma, Erlangen, Germany). Skin biopsies were taken at baseline from untreated skin, 1 and 6 weeks after laser intervention to investigate hyaluronan (HA), collagen-I (Coll-I) and collagen-III (Coll-III) remodelling as well as alteration of matrix metalloproteinase 1 expression (MMP-1). To address this issue, HA synthesizing (HA synthetases, HAS) and degrading (hyaluronidases, HYAL) enzymes were measured at mRNA-level using a real-time PCR. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining for HA was performed by using the HA binding protein (HAbP) and for Coll-I, Coll-III and MMP-1 by using monoclonal antibodies. The degree of inflammation was correlated descriptively. Our findings were that at the two examined read out points, HAS and HYAL showed a slight response alluding to HA synthesis under minimal signs of inflammatory reaction. Concordantly, although to a varying degree, an increase in the HA content of the skin after laser treatment could be detected by immunhistochemistry. During remodelling, Coll-I, Coll-III and MMP-1 showed a cyclic course with a peak after 1 week. Conclusively, our results indicate a light alteration of the HA metabolism towards synthesis and a transient collagen neogenesis caused by a single fractionated thermo-ablative laser skin intervention. Clinical improvement might be attributed to synergistic effects between collagen neogenesis and the water binding capacities of HA and its influence on skin contraction and remodelling. PMID:20384901

  8. Surgical treatment of localized gingival recessions using coronally advanced flaps with or without subepithelial connective tissue graft

    PubMed Central

    Bellver-Fernández, Ricardo; Martínez-Rodriguez, Ana-María; Gioia-Palavecino, Claudio; Caffesse, Raul-Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Background A coronally advanced flap with subepithelial connective tissue graft is the gold standard surgical treatment of gingival recessions, since it offers a higher probability of achieving complete root coverage compared with other techniques. However, optimum short- and middle-term clinical results have also been obtained with coronally advanced flaps alone. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the results obtained by the surgical treatment of localized gingival recessions using coronally advanced flaps with or without subepithelial connective tissue graft. Material and Methods The reduction of recession height was assessed, together with the gain in gingival attachment apical to the recession, and total reduction of recession, in a comparative study of two techniques. Twenty-two gingival recessions were operated upon: 13 in the control group (coronally advanced flap) and 9 in the test group (coronally advanced flap associated to subepithelial connective tissue graft). Results After 18 months, the mean reduction of recession height was 2.2 ± 0.8 mm in the control group and 2.3 ± 0.7 mm in the test group, with a mean gain in gingival attachment of 1.3 ± 0.9 mm and 2.3 ± 1.3 mm, respectively. In percentage terms, the mean reduction of recession height was 84.6 ± 19.6% in the control group and 81.7 ± 17.8% in the test group, with a mean gain in gingival attachment of 20.5 ± 37.4% and 184.4 ± 135.5%, respectively. Conclusions Significant reduction of gingival recession was achieved with both techniques, though the mean gain in gingival attachment (in mm and as a %) was greater in test group. Key words:Gingival recession, coronally advanced flap, subepthelial connective tissue graft. PMID:26595836

  9. Coordination between catch connective tissue and muscles through nerves in the spine joint of the sea urchin Diadema setosum.

    PubMed

    Motokawa, Tatsuo; Fuchigami, Yoshiro

    2015-03-01

    Echinoderms have catch connective tissues that change their stiffness as a result of nervous control. The coordination between catch connective tissue and muscles was studied in the spine joint of the sea urchin Diadema setosum. Spine joints are equipped with two kinds of effector: spine muscles and a kind of catch connective tissue, which is called the catch apparatus (CA). The former is responsible for spine movements and the latter for maintenance of spine posture. Diadema show a shadow reaction in which they wave spines when a shadow falls on them, which is a reflex involving the radial nerves. Dynamic mechanical tests were performed on the CA in a joint at which the muscles were severed so as not to interfere with the mechanical measurements. The joint was on a piece of the test that contained other spines and a radial nerve. Darkening of the preparation invoked softening of the CA and spine waving (the shadow reaction). Electrical stimulation of the radial nerve invoked a similar response. These responses were abolished after the nerve pathways from the radial nerve to spines had been cut. A touch applied to the CA stiffened it and the adjacent spines inclined toward the touched CA. A touch to the base of the adjacent spine softened the CA and the spines around the touched spine inclined towards it. The softening of the CA can be interpreted as a response that reduces the resistance of the ligaments to spine movements. Our results clearly show coordination between catch connective tissue and muscles through nerves. PMID:25740901

  10. A case of mixed connective tissue disease with pseudo-pseudo Meigs' syndrome (PPMS)-like features.

    PubMed

    Cheah, C K; Ramanujam, S; Mohd Noor, N; Gandhi, C; D Souza, Beryl A; Gun, S C

    2016-02-01

    Pseudo-pseudo Meigs' syndrome (PPMS) has been reported to be a rare presentation of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, such a presentation is not common in other forms of connective tissue disease. We presented a case of gross ascites, pleural effusion, and marked elevation of CA-125 level (PPMS-like features) that led to a diagnosis of MCTD. The patient responded to systemic steroid therapy. PMID:26377236

  11. Perspectives on autoimmunity

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, I.R.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: HLA and Autoimmunity; Self-Recognition and Symmetry in the Immune System; Immunology of Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus; Multiple Sclerosis; Autoimmunity and Immune Pathological Aspects of Virus Disease; Analyses of the Idiotypes and Ligand Binding Characteristics of Human Monoclonal Autoantibodies to DNA: Do We Understand Better Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Autoimmunity and Rheumatic Fever; Autoimmune Arthritis Induced by Immunization to Mycobacterial Antigens; and The Interaction Between Genetic Factors and Micro-Organisms in Ankylosing Spondylitis: Facts and Fiction.

  12. Thyroid autoimmunity as a window to autoimmunity: An explanation for sex differences in the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Stephen J; Mu, Ying

    2015-06-21

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs), predominately Graves׳ disease and Hashimoto׳s thyroiditis, comprise the most common autoimmune diseases in humans. Both have the production of anti-thyroid antibody as an important aspect and both are much more prevalent in females, being at least 10 times more common than in males. Using these two clues, a hypothesis for the initiation of thyroid autoimmunity is proposed that helps to make the case that the thyroid is one of the most sensitive sites for autoimmunity and helps account for the prevalence and the observed sex differences in AITDs and associated diseases, such as type 1 diabetes and Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA). The primary mechanisms proposed involve the underlying state of inflammation as a result of the adipokines, especially leptin, TNF-α, and IL-6, and the receptors able to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP׳s) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMP׳s) through Toll-like receptors (TLR) and others receptors present on thyrocytes. The adipokines are produced by adipose tissue, but have hormone-like and immune modulating properties. As the levels of leptin are significantly higher in females, an explanation for the sex difference in thyroid autoimmunity emerges. The ability of the thyrocytes to participate in innate immunity through the TLR provides an adjuvant-like signal and allows for the action of other agents, such as environmental factors, viruses, bacteria, and even stress to provide the initiation step to break tolerance to thyroid self-antigens. Seeing the thyroid as one of the most sensitive sites for autoimmunity, means that for many autoimmune disorders, if autoimmunity is present, it is likely to also be present in the thyroid - and that that condition in the thyroid was probably earlier. The evidence is seen in multiple autoimmune syndrome. PMID:25576242

  13. Lipoic acid prevents suppression of connective tissue proliferation in the rat liver induced by n-3 PUFAs. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Arend, A; Zilmer, M; Vihalemm, T; Selstam, G; Sepp, E

    2000-01-01

    As previously shown, dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) suppress connective tissue proliferation in the rat liver wound concurrent with an elevated level of lipid peroxidation. The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of alpha-lipoic acid (LA), a natural anti-oxidant, on these effects of n-3 PUFAs. Rats were fed with a commercial pellet diet (control group) or with diets enriched with 10% of sunflower oil (n-6 group) or 10% of fish oil (n-3 group) for 8 weeks followed by addition of LA to the same diets for 10 days. Then a liver thermic wound was induced and the administration of LA was continued for 6 days. The proliferation of the connective tissue, the level of lipid peroxidation and their peroxidizability and the content of prostaglandins E2 and F2alpha were measured in the liver wounds. LA prevented the suppression of connective tissue proliferation in the healing wound induced by n-3 PUFAs, avoided the increase in peroxidation of lipids, reduced peroxidizability of lipids and modulated the decrease in PGE2 and PGF2alpha. The results indicate that dietary LA may prevent the suppression of liver wound healing induced by n-3 PUFAs. PMID:11146327

  14. Spatial arrangement of the heart muscle fascicles and intramyocardial connective tissue in the Spanish fighting bull (Bos taurus).

    PubMed Central

    Snchez-Quintana, D; Climent, V; Garcia-Martinez, V; Rojo, M; Hurl, J M

    1994-01-01

    The spatial arrangement of the muscle fascicles and intramyocardial connective tissue was examined in the ventricles of the heart of the Spanish fighting bull (Bos taurus). In both ventricles, the muscle fascicles of the myocardium are arranged in 3 main directions, forming 3 muscle layers within the ventricular wall. The preferentially vertical arrangement of the muscle fascicles in the superficial and deep layers at the level of the fibrous aortic rings and the base of the semilunar valve leaflets suggests that these fascicles are actively involved in valvular dynamics. After controlled digestion of myocytes and elastic fibres with NaOH, a 3-dimensional arrangement of the scaffolding of connective tissue that supports the muscle fascicles and myocytes was observed. The arrangement and structure of this scaffolding may influence the order of contraction of muscle fascicles in different layers of the ventricle. In addition, differences were observed between the connective tissue scaffolding surrounding the myocytes of the 2 ventricles; these variations were correlated with the different biomechanical properties. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:8014119

  15. Transforming Growth Factor-?Independent Role of Connective Tissue Growth Factor in the Development of Liver Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Keiko; Jawaid, Safdar; Sasaki, Takako; Bou-Gharios, George; Sakai, Takao

    2015-01-01

    We previously identified transforming growth factor (TGF)-? signaling as a fibronectin-independent mechanism of type I collagen fibrillogenesis following adult liver injury. To address the contribution of TGF-? signaling during the development of liver fibrosis, we generated adult mice lacking TGF-? type II receptor (TGF-?IIR) from the liver. TGF-?IIR knockout livers indeed showed a dominant effect in reducing fibrosis, but fibrosis still remained approximately 45% compared with control and fibronectin knockout livers. Unexpectedly, this was accompanied by significant up-regulation of connective tissue growth factor mRNA levels. Organized type I collagen networks in TGF-?IIR knockout livers colocalized well with fibronectin. We provide evidence that elimination of TGF-?IIR is not sufficient to completely prevent liver fibrosis. Our results indicate a TGF-?independent mechanism of type I collagen production and suggest connective tissue growth factor as its potent mediator. We advocate combined elimination of TGF-? signaling and connective tissue growth factor as a potential therapeutic target bywhich to attenuate liver fibrosis. PMID:25108224

  16. B-LINK: A hemicentin, plakin and integrin-dependent adhesion system that links tissues by connecting adjacent basement membranes

    PubMed Central

    Morrissey, Meghan A.; Keeley, Daniel P.; Hagedorn, Elliott J.; McClatchey, Shelly T. H.; Chi, Qiuyi; Hall, David H.; Sherwood, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Basement membrane (BM), a sheet-like form of extracellular matrix, surrounds most tissues. During organogenesis specific adhesions between adjoining tissues frequently occur, however their molecular basis is unclear. Using live-cell imaging and electron microscopy we identify an adhesion system that connects the uterine and gonadal tissues through their juxtaposed BMs at the site of anchor cell (AC) invasion in C. elegans. We find that the extracellular matrix component hemicentin (HIM-4), found between BMs, forms punctate accumulations under the AC and controls BM linkage to promote rapid invasion. Through targeted screening we identify the integrin-binding cytolinker plakin (VAB-10A) and integrin (INA-1/PAT-3) as key BM-BM linkage regulators: VAB-10A localizes to the AC-BM interface and tethers hemicentin to the AC while integrin promotes hemicentin punctae formation. Together, plakin, integrin and hemicentin are founding components of a cell-directed adhesion system, which we name a B-LINK (Basement membrane-LINKage), that connects adjacent tissues through adjoining BMs. PMID:25443298

  17. Markers of Inflammation and Fibrosis in the Orbital Fat/Connective Tissue of Patients with Graves' Orbitopathy: Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Pawlowski, Przemyslaw; Eckstein, Anja; Johnson, Kristian; Chyczewski, Lech; Mysliwiec, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To assess FGF-?, TGF-?, and COX2 expression and immunocompetent cells in the orbital tissue of patients with severe and mild Graves' orbitopathy. Patients and Methods. Orbital tissue was taken from 27 patients with GO: (1) severe GO (n = 18), the mean clinical activity score (CAS) being 8.5 (SD 2.5); and (2) mild GO (n = 9), the mean CAS being 2.2 (SD 0.8), and from 10 individuals undergoing blepharoplasty. The expression of CD4+, CD8+, CD20+, and CD68 and FGF-?, TGF-?, and COX2 in the orbital tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemical methods. Results. We demonstrated predominant CD4+ T cells in severe GO. CD68 expression was observed in the fibrous connective area of mild GO and was robust in severe GO, while the prominent TGF-? expression was seen in all GO. Increased FGF-? expression was observed in the fibroblasts and adipocytes of severe GO. No expression of COX2 was found in patients with GO. Conclusions. Macrophages and CD4 T lymphocytes are both engaged in the active/severe and long stage of inflammation in the orbital tissue. FGF-? and TGF-? expression may contribute to tissue remodeling, fibrosis, and perpetuation of inflammation in the orbital tissue of GO especially in severe GO. PMID:25309050

  18. Autoimmunity: a decision theory model.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, J A

    1987-01-01

    Concepts from statistical decision theory were used to analyse the detection problem faced by the body's immune system in mounting immune responses to bacteria of the normal body flora. Given that these bacteria are potentially harmful, that there can be extensive cross reaction between bacterial antigens and host tissues, and that the decisions are made in uncertainty, there is a finite chance of error in immune response leading to autoimmune disease. A model of ageing in the immune system is proposed that is based on random decay in components of the decision process, leading to a steep age dependent increase in the probability of error. The age incidence of those autoimmune diseases which peak in early and middle life can be explained as the resultant of two processes: an exponentially falling curve of incidence of first contact with common bacteria, and a rapidly rising error function. Epidemiological data on the variation of incidence with social class, sibship order, climate and culture can be used to predict the likely site of carriage and mode of spread of the causative bacteria. Furthermore, those autoimmune diseases precipitated by common viral respiratory tract infections might represent reactions to nasopharyngeal bacterial overgrowth, and this theory can be tested using monoclonal antibodies to search the bacterial isolates for cross reacting antigens. If this model is correct then prevention of autoimmune disease by early exposure to low doses of bacteria might be possible. PMID:3818985

  19. Smell and autoimmunity: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Perricone, Carlo; Shoenfeld, Netta; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; de Carolis, Caterina; Perricone, Roberto; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2013-08-01

    The sense of smell is an ancient sensory modality vital for sampling and perceiving the chemical composition of surrounding environments. Olfaction involves a pathway of biochemical and electrophysiological processes, which allows the conversion of molecular information into sensations. Disturbances in the olfactory function have been investigated mainly in neurological/neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases; impaired sense of smell has been associated with depressed mood. Only recently, smell capability was tested in other diseases, particularly autoimmune diseases. Shoenfeld and colleagues opened this chapter showing that patients affected with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have disturbances in their olfactory functions and revealed its association with neuropsychiatric manifestations of the disease. This evidence was confirmed in experimental models and replicated in other SLE populations. The connection between autoimmunity and the sense of smell was lately emphasized by studies on patients with Sjgren's syndrome and in patients with other autoimmune/immune-mediated diseases, such as polydermatomyositis, recurrent spontaneous abortion, and hereditary angioedema. Genetic susceptibility and hormonal and environmental factors may play a role in these conditions. Olfactory receptor gene clusters are located in proximity to key locus of susceptibility for autoimmune diseases such as the major histocompatibility complex, suggesting not only a physic linkage, but a functional association. Nonetheless, gender- and hormone-mediated effects are fundamental in the development of autoimmune diseases. The different connections between smell and autoimmunity, genes and hormones may suggest that this is another tessera of a mosaic which is waiting the answer of Oedipus. PMID:23233263

  20. [Narcolepsy as an autoimmune disease].

    PubMed

    Givaty, Gili; Ganelin-Cohen, Esther

    2013-03-01

    Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and irresistible sleep attacks that occur during the activities of daily living. Falling asleep in the middle of essential activities such as driving or crossing the street may lead to life-threatening situations. Narcolepsy is estimated to affect 0.002% of the Israeli population. By using animal models, human autopsies and brain biopsies, it has recently been shown that the destruction of the orexin-secreting neurons underlies the pathogenicity of this disease. Orexin is a neurotransmitter involved in the sleep arousal cycle and also in the development of hunger sensations. Based on circumstantial evidence, it is estimated that the autoimmune system is responsible for the destruction of the orexin-secreting neurons. There are several findings in the literature that might connect the autoimmunity with the narcolepsy existence. For instance: narcolepsy is associated with high frequency of specific HLA system alleles, especially DQB1*0602. Furthermore, polymorphism in the alpha chain of the T cell receptors was found among narcolepsy patients. A more direct connection is the discovery of the Trib--an autoantigen. This protein is presented by orexin-secreting neurons and was recently found in narcoleptic patients exclusively, and not in the healthy control group. Nevertheless, there is still no agreement within the scientific community since a direct link between the autoimmune mechanism and narcolepsy has not yet been proved. Several trials using immune modulator therapy did not show any significant improvement. PMID:23713377

  1. Insights into IL-37, the role in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wang-Dong; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Autoimmune diseases are characterized by the impaired function and the destruction of tissues that are caused by an immune response in which aberrant antibodies are generated and attack the body's own cells and tissues. Interleukin (IL) -37, a new member of the IL-1 family, broadly reduces innate inflammation as well as acquired immune responses. Recently, studies have shown that expression of IL-37 was abnormal in autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriasis, Graves' disease (GD). In addition, functional analysis indicated that IL-37 is negatively involved in the development and pathogenesis of these autoimmune disorders. The strong association of this cytokine with autoimmune diseases promotes us to systematically review what had been published recently on the crucial nature of IL-37 in relation to autoimmune diseases gaining attention for its regulatory capability in these autoimmune disorders. PMID:26264940

  2. Human autoimmune diseases: a comprehensive update.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifeng; Wang, Fu-Sheng; Gershwin, M Eric

    2015-10-01

    There have been significant advances in our understanding of human autoimmunity that have led to improvements in classification and diagnosis and, most importantly, research advances in new therapies. The importance of autoimmunity and the mechanisms that lead to clinical disease were first recognized about 50 years ago following the pioneering studies of Macfarlane Burnett and his Nobel Prize-winning hypothesis of the 'forbidden clone'. Such pioneering efforts led to a better understanding not only of autoimmunity, but also of lymphoid cell development, thymic education, apoptosis and deletion of autoreactive cells. Contemporary theories suggest that the development of an autoimmune disease requires a genetic predisposition and environmental factors that trigger the immune pathways that lead, ultimately, to tissue destruction. Despite extensive research, there are no genetic tools that can be used clinically to predict the risk of autoimmune disease. Indeed, the concordance of autoimmune disease in identical twins is 12-67%, highlighting not only a role for environmental factors, but also the potential importance of stochastic or epigenetic phenomena. On the other hand, the identification of cytokines and chemokines, and their cognate receptors, has led to novel therapies that block pathological inflammatory responses within the target organ and have greatly improved the therapeutic effect in patients with autoimmune disease, particularly rheumatoid arthritis. Further advances involving the use of multiplex platforms for diagnosis and identification of new therapeutic agents should lead to major breakthroughs within the next decade. PMID:26212387

  3. Diagnostic Exome Sequencing Identifies a Novel Gene, EMILIN1, Associated with Autosomal‐Dominant Hereditary Connective Tissue Disease

    PubMed Central

    Capuano, Alessandra; Bucciotti, Francesco; Farwell, Kelly D.; Tippin Davis, Brigette; Mroske, Cameron; Hulick, Peter J.; Weissman, Scott M.; Gao, Qingshen; Spessotto, Paola; Doliana, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Heritable connective tissue diseases are a highly heterogeneous family of over 200 disorders that affect the extracellular matrix. While the genetic basis of several disorders is established, the etiology has not been discovered for a large portion of patients, likely due to rare yet undiscovered disease genes. By performing trio‐exome sequencing of a 55‐year‐old male proband presenting with multiple symptoms indicative of a connective disorder, we identified a heterozygous missense alteration in exon 1 of the Elastin Microfibril Interfacer 1 (EMILIN1) gene, c.64G>A (p.A22T). The proband presented with ascending and descending aortic aneurysms, bilateral lower leg and foot sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy, arthropathy, and increased skin elasticity. Sanger sequencing confirmed that the EMILIN1 alteration, which maps around the signal peptide cleavage site, segregated with disease in the affected proband, mother, and son. The impaired secretion of EMILIN‐1 in cells transfected with the mutant p.A22T coincided with abnormal protein accumulation within the endoplasmic reticulum. In skin biopsy of the proband, we detected less EMILIN‐1 with disorganized and abnormal coarse fibrils, aggregated deposits underneath the epidermis basal lamina, and dermal cells apoptosis. These findings collectively suggest that EMILIN1 may represent a new disease gene associated with an autosomal‐dominant connective tissue disorder. PMID:26462740

  4. Expression of smooth muscle actin in connective tissue cells participating in fracture healing in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Kinner, B; Gerstenfeld, L C; Einhorn, T A; Spector, M

    2002-05-01

    The role of alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-expressing fibroblasts in the contraction of skin wounds has been known for three decades. Recent studies have demonstrated that osteoblasts can also express the gene for this contractile muscle actin isoform and can contract a collagen-glycosaminoglycan analog of extracellular matrix in vitro. These findings provided rationale for the hypothesis that SMA-expressing cells contribute to fracture healing by drawing the bone ends together. To begin to test this hypothesis, immunohistochemistry was employed to evaluate the distribution of connective tissue cells expressing SMA in a mouse model of successful fracture healing. The results demonstrated that the majority of the cells comprising the mesenchymal tissue interposed between the fracture ends contained SMA after 7 and 21 days, supporting the working hypothesis. Most of the osteoblasts lining the surfaces of newly forming bone and the chondrocytes comprising the cartilaginous callus also expressed this contractile actin isoform. The maximal SMA expression extended from 7 to 21 days postfracture. The finding of high levels of SMA expression in connective tissue cells participating in fracture healing suggests that SMA-enabled contraction may be playing a role in the healing process. These results warrant further study of the specific SMA-dependent cell behavior. PMID:11996913

  5. Sirolimus for Autoimmune Disease of Blood Cells

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-20

    Autoimmune Pancytopenia; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS); Evans Syndrome; Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura; Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune; Autoimmune Neutropenia; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic; Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Rheumatoid Arthritis

  6. Autoimmunity, Not a Developmental Defect, is the Cause for Subfertility of Autoimmune Regulator (Aire) Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Keklinen, E; Pntynen, N; Meri, S; Arstila, T P; Jarva, H

    2015-05-01

    Autoimmune regulator's (AIRE) best characterized role is in the generation immunological tolerance, but it is also involved in many other processes such as spermatogenesis. Loss-of-function mutations in AIRE cause a disease called autoimmune polyendocrinopathy, candidiasis and ectodermal dystrophy (APECED; also called autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1, APS-1) that is dominated by various autoimmune manifestations, mainly endocrinopathies. Both patients with APECED and Aire(-/-) mice suffer from varying levels of infertility, but it is not clear if it is a result of an autoimmune tissue damage or more of a developmental defect. In this study, we wanted to resolve whether or not the reduced fertility of Aire(-/-) mice is dependent on the adaptive immune system and therefore a manifestation of autoimmunity in these mice. We generated lymphopenic mice without Aire expression that were devoid of the autoimmune manifestations previously reported in immunocompetent Aire(-/-) mice. These Aire(-/-) Rag1(-/-) mice regained full fertility. This confirms that the development of infertility in Aire(-/-) mice requires a functional adaptive immune system. We also show that only the male Aire(-/-) mice are subfertile, whereas Aire(-/-) females produce litters normally. Moreover, the male subfertility can be adoptively transferred with lymphocytes from Aire(-/-) donor mice to previously fertile lymphopenic Aire(-/-) recipients. Our data show that subfertility in Aire(-/-) mice is dependent on a functional adaptive immune system thus confirming its autoimmune aetiology. PMID:25689230

  7. The saddle connective tissue graft: a periodontal plastic surgery technique to obtain soft tissue coronal gain on immediate implants. A case report.

    PubMed

    González, David; Cabello, Gustavo; Olmos, Gema; Niñoles, Carlos L

    2015-01-01

    Based on recent studies regarding the advantages of flapless immediate implants on the maintenance of the soft tissue architecture (especially at papillae level) in those situations where it is necessary to extract an anterior tooth, this case report describes a clinical procedure designed to replace a hopeless central incisor (2.1) showing root resorption adjacent to an implant-supported crown (1.1), whose gingival margin is 2 mm coronal regarding the hopeless tooth to be replaced. After the extraction of the hopeless tooth (2.1), a flapless immediate implant was placed. The implant-bone gap was then filled with bone substitute and a palatal connective tissue graft was placed ad modum saddle extending at buccal level from apical to the mucogingival line, sealing the socket and extending until 6 mm at palatal level ad modum saddle. This procedure allowed symmetry of the soft tissue margins between the two implants (1.1 and 2.1) to be obtained as well as the preservation of the inter-implant papillae (1.1). PMID:26171446

  8. The fine structure of experimentally induced connective tissue complexes in the human.

    PubMed

    Stinson, W W; Richter, K M; Schilling, J A

    1974-07-01

    The growth, development and cellular activity of fibrocollagenous tissue complexes induced by the implantation of specially structured wire mesh cylinders in 22 human male volunteers were studied during the time course of fibroplasia utilizing light and electron microscopic techniques. The fibrocollagenous tissue complexes after 4 to 16 weeks of development demonstrated highly ordered lamellations made of zones consisting primarily of fibroblasts and zones consisting primarily of collagenous fibers. The development of the ordered lamellations is referable to specific fibrillogenic activities by the constituent fibroblasts. The initial role of the fibroblast in fibrillogenesis is indicative of an apocrine-like secretory process followed by a holocrine-like role which results in cytodestruction and concurrent formation of an avascular collagenic tissue referable to an organizing cicatrix in a healing wound. PMID:4599224

  9. Rho Kinases in Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Pernis, Alessandra B; Ricker, Edd; Weng, Chien-Huan; Rozo, Cristina; Yi, Woelsung

    2016-01-14

    The Rho kinases, or ROCKs, are a family of serine-threonine kinases that serve as key downstream effectors for Rho GTPases. The ROCKs are increasingly recognized as critical coordinators of a tissue response to injury due to their ability to modulate a wide range of biological processes. Dysregulated ROCK activity has been implicated in several human pathophysiological conditions ranging from cardiovascular and renal disorders to fibrotic diseases. In recent years, an important role for the ROCKs in the regulation of immune responses is also being uncovered. We provide an overview of the role of the ROCKs in immune cells and discuss studies that highlight the emerging involvement of this family of kinases in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Given the potential promise of the ROCKs as therapeutic targets, we also outline the approaches that could be employed to inhibit the ROCKs in autoimmune disorders. PMID:26768244

  10. Sex steroids in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Martocchia, A; Stefanelli, M; Cola, S; Falaschi, P

    2011-01-01

    A sexual dysmorphism in the immune response has been described and females display an increased incidence of autoimmune diseases. Experimental data show that sex steroids influence immune cell development and have immunomodulatory effects. The distribution, the action (genomic and nongenomic), the sex and tissue-depending expression pattern of estrogen, progesterone and androgen receptors and their functional disruptions in corresponding receptor knockout animals will be discussed, pointing out the difference among sex steroid hormones. Recent advances indicate an immunomodulatory role of sex steroids in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. The outcomes of the clinical trials will help to find the best use of sex steroids in combination with current therapeutic drugs in autoimmune diseases. Sex steroid receptor modulating drugs will provide new therapeutic approaches in these pathologies. PMID:21463254

  11. [Effect of metabolic therapy on the course of heart failure in patients after myocarditis complicated with systemic connecting tissue diseases].

    PubMed

    Kuriata, A V; Karavanskaia, I L; Pavlichenko, N A

    2010-01-01

    In the course of observation over 40 patients after an old myocarditis against general systemic diseases of connective tissue who had been given a pharmacotherapy regarding main disease and a chronic heart failure, additionally Vazonat (campaign of "Olajnfarm", Latvia), preparation of the myocardial cytoprotection was prescribed in a therapeutic dose of 500 mg per day. Vazonat inclusion in basic therapy during 1 month was accompanied by improvement of a clinical condition of the patients, reduction of heart failure signs, and improvement of life quality. PMID:21488376

  12. Effect of hydroxyapatite content on physical properties and connective tissue reactions to a chitosan-hydroxyapatite composite membrane.

    PubMed

    Ito, M; Hidaka, Y; Nakajima, M; Yagasaki, H; Kafrawy, A H

    1999-06-01

    The present study investigated the effect on certain physical properties of adding various amounts of hydroxyapatite (HAP) to chitosan sol. Also investigated were connective tissue reactions to a composite membrane that is being developed for possible use in guided tissue regeneration and for the limitation of HA particle migration at sites of implantation. The physical properties evaluated were shrinkage, tensile strength, hardness, calcium ion release, and morphology. Assessment of physical properties indicated that a ratio of HA to chitosan sol of 4/11 by weight is optimal in the preparation of the composite membrane. Subperiosteal implantation of the membranes over rat calvaria revealed that the membranes were well tolerated, with fibrous encapsulation and occasional areas of osteogenesis. Increasing the hydroxyapatite content seems to enhance membrane degradation. PMID:10397977

  13. Computational modeling of type I collagen fibers to determine the extracellular matrix structure of connective tissues.

    PubMed

    Israelowitz, Meir; Rizvi, Syed W H; Kramer, James; von Schroeder, Herbert P

    2005-07-01

    A method is presented for generating computer models of biological tissues. The method uses properties of extracellular matrix proteins to predict the structure and physical chemistry of the elements that make up the tissue. The method begins with Protein Data Bank coordinate positions of amino acids as input into TissueLab software. From the amino acid sequence, a type I collagen-like triple helix backbone was computationally constructed and boundary spheres were added based on known chemical and physical properties of the amino acids. Boundary spheres determined the contact surface characteristics of the collagen molecules and intermolecular interactions were then determined by considering the relationships of the contact surfaces and by resolving the energy-minimum state using feasible sequential quadratic programming. From this, the software created fibrils that corresponded exactly to known collagen parameters and were further confirmed by finite element modeling. Computationally derived fibrils were then used to create collagen fibers and three-dimensional collagen matrices. By resolving the energy-minimum state, large complex components of the extracellular space as well as other structures can be determined to provide three-dimensional structure of molecules, molecular interactions and the tissues that they form. PMID:15980018

  14. Dynamics of connective-tissue localization during chronic Borrelia burgdorferi infection.

    PubMed

    Imai, Denise M; Feng, Sunlian; Hodzic, Emir; Barthold, Stephen W

    2013-08-01

    The etiologic agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, localizes preferentially in the extracellular matrix during persistence. In chronically infected laboratory mice, there is a direct association between B. burgdorferi and the proteoglycan decorin, which suggests that decorin has a role in defining protective niches for persistent spirochetes. In this study, the tissue colocalization of B. burgdorferi with decorin and the dynamics of borrelial decorin tropism were evaluated during chronic infection. Spirochetes were found to colocalize absolutely with decorin, but not collagen I in chronically infected immunocompetent C3H mice. Passive immunization of infected C3H-scid mice with B. burgdorferi-specific immune serum resulted in the localization of spirochetes in decorin-rich microenvironments, with clearance of spirochetes from decorin-poor microenvironments. In passively immunized C3H-scid mice, tissue spirochete burdens were initially reduced, but increased over time as the B. burgdorferi-specific antibody levels waned. Concurrent repopulation of the previously cleared decorin-poor microenvironments was observed with the rising tissue spirochete burden and declining antibody titer. These findings indicate that the specificity of B. burgdorferi tissue localization during chronic infection is determined by decorin, driven by the borrelia-specific antibody response, and fluctuates with the antibody response. PMID:23797360

  15. Softenin, a Novel Protein That Softens the Connective Tissue of Sea Cucumbers through Inhibiting Interaction between Collagen Fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Takehana, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Akira; Tamori, Masaki; Motokawa, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    The dermis in the holothurian body wall is a typical catch connective tissue or mutable collagenous tissue that shows rapid changes in stiffness. Some chemical factors that change the stiffness of the tissue were found in previous studies, but the molecular mechanisms of the changes are not yet fully understood. Detection of factors that change the stiffness by working directly on the extracellular matrix was vital to clarify the mechanisms of the change. We isolated from the body wall of the sea cucumber Stichopus chloronotus a novel protein, softenin, that softened the body-wall dermis. The apparent molecular mass was 20 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of 17 amino acids had low homology to that of known proteins. We performed sequential chemical and physical dissections of the dermis and tested the effects of softenin on each dissection stage by dynamic mechanical tests. Softenin softened Triton-treated dermis whose cells had been disrupted by detergent. The Triton-treated dermis was subjected to repetitive freeze-and-thawing to make Triton-Freeze-Thaw (TFT) dermis that was softer than the Triton-treated dermis, implying that some force-bearing structure had been disrupted by this treatment. TFT dermis was stiffened by tensilin, a stiffening protein of sea cucumbers. Softenin softened the tensilin-stiffened TFT dermis while it had no effect on the TFT dermis without tensilin treatment. We isolated collagen from the dermis. When tensilin was applied to the suspending solution of collagen fibrils, they made a large compact aggregate that was dissolved by the application of softenin or by repetitive freeze-and-thawing. These results strongly suggested that softenin decreased dermal stiffness through inhibiting cross-bridge formation between collagen fibrils; the formation was augmented by tensilin and the bridges were broken by the freeze-thaw treatment. Softenin is thus the first softener of catch connective tissue shown to work on the cross-bridges between extracellular materials. PMID:24454910

  16. Circulating Protein Fragments of Cartilage and Connective Tissue Degradation Are Diagnostic and Prognostic Markers of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Ankylosing Spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Bay-Jensen, Anne C.; Wichuk, Stephanie; Byrjalsen, Inger; Leeming, Diana J.; Morency, Nathalie; Christiansen, Claus; Karsdal, Morten A.; Maksymowych, Walter P.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation driven connective tissue turnover is key in rheumatic diseases, such as ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Few biomarkers are available for measuring disease prognosis or the efficacy of interventions applied in these tissue-related conditions. Type II collagen is the primary structural protein of cartilage and type III collagen of connective tissues, and obvious targets for the collagenalytic, which increase during tissue inflammation. The objective of the study was to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic utility of cartilage, C2M, and synovial, C3M, turnover biomarkers in AS. Serum samples were retrieved from patients suffering from AS (n = 103), RA (n = 47) and healthy controls (n = 56). AS progressors were defined as having new vertebral syndesmophytes or more that 3 unit change in mSASSS over a two-year period. Type II collagen degradation markers in serum were measured by the C2M ELISA, and type III collagen degradation by the C3M ELISA. Logistic regression and dichotomized decision tree were used to analyze the prognostic value of the markers individually or in combination. Both C2M and C3M levels were significantly higher in RA patients than in healthy controls (p<0.0001). Diagnostic utility was analyzed by ROC and areas under the curve (AUCs) were 72% and 89% for C2M and C3M, respectively. Both C2M and C3M, were significantly higher in serum samples from AS patient than from healthy controls (p<0.0001). The AUCs of C2M and C3M, respectively, were 70% and 81% for AS. A combination of C2M and C3M, dichotomized according to best cut-offs for individual markers, could correctly identify 80% of the progressors and 61% of the non-progressors. The present study is the first to show that specific biomarkers of cartilage and connective tissue degradation facilitate both diagnosis and prediction of progression of RA and AS. PMID:23365672

  17. Connective tissue growth factor is crucial to inducing a profibrotic environment in "fibrosis-resistant" BALB/c mouse lungs.

    PubMed

    Bonniaud, Philippe; Martin, Gail; Margetts, Peter J; Ask, Kjetil; Robertson, Jennifer; Gauldie, Jack; Kolb, Martin

    2004-11-01

    The individual susceptibility to pulmonary fibrosis (PF) remains a mystery, suggesting a role for genetic predisposition. The pathogenesis of PF involves a multitude of factors mediating crosstalk between various tissue components. Some factors, such as transforming growth factor beta, are recognized as key elements in the process, whereas the role of others, such as connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), is unclear. We investigated if Balb/c mice, known to be fibrosis resistant partly due to lack of CTGF induction upon stimulation with bleomycin, can be transformed into fibrosis-sensitive individuals by generation of a CTGF-rich environment using transient overexpression of CTGF by adenoviral gene transfer (AdCTGF). We show that AdCTGF is not sufficient to cause fibrosis, and that bleomycin challenge results in inflammation, but not fibrosis, in Balb/c mouse lungs. This inflammation is accompanied by lower levels of CTGF and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 gene expression compared with fibrosis-prone C57BL/6 mice. However, concomitant administration of AdCTGF and bleomycin leads to a persistent upregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 gene and a significant fibrotic response in Balb/c similar to that in C57BL/6 mice. We propose that CTGF is an important mediator in the pathogenesis of PF in that it provides a local microenvironment in the lung that causes individual susceptibility. CTGF should be considered as a novel drug target and as a potential marker for identifying individuals at risk. PMID:15256388

  18. Connective tissue growth factor stimulates the proliferation, migration and differentiation of lung fibroblasts during paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    YANG, ZHIZHOU; SUN, ZHAORUI; LIU, HONGMEI; REN, YI; SHAO, DANBING; ZHANG, WEI; LIN, JINFENG; WOLFRAM, JOY; WANG, FENG; NIE, SHINAN

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that paraquat (PQ) poisoning can cause severe lung injury during the early stages of exposure, finally leading to irreversible pulmonary fibrosis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is an essential growth factor that is involved in tissue repair and pulmonary fibrogenesis. In the present study, the role of CTGF was examined in a rat model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by PQ poisoning. Histological examination revealed interstitial edema and extensive cellular thickening of interalveolar septa at the early stages of poisoning. At 2 weeks after PQ administration, lung tissue sections exhibited a marked thickening of the alveolar walls with an accumulation of interstitial cells with a fibroblastic appearance. Massons trichrome staining revealed a patchy distribution of collagen deposition, indicating pulmonary fibrogenesis. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining of tissue samples demonstrated that CTGF expression was significantly upregulated in the PQ-treated group. Similarly, PQ treatment of MRC-5 human lung fibroblast cells caused an increase in CTGF in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the addition of CTGF to MRC-5 cells triggered cellular proliferation and migration. In addition, CTGF induced the differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, as was evident from increased expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and collagen. These findings demonstrate that PQ causes increased CTGF expression, which triggers proliferation, migration and differentiation of lung fibroblasts. Therefore, CTGF may be important in PQ-induced pulmonary fibrogenesis, rendering this growth factor a potential pharmacological target for reducing lung injury. PMID:25815693

  19. Connective tissue growth factor stimulates the proliferation, migration and differentiation of lung fibroblasts during paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhizhou; Sun, Zhaorui; Liu, Hongmei; Ren, Yi; Shao, Danbing; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Jinfeng; Wolfram, Joy; Wang, Feng; Nie, Shinan

    2015-07-01

    It is well established that paraquat (PQ) poisoning can cause severe lung injury during the early stages of exposure, finally leading to irreversible pulmonary fibrosis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is an essential growth factor that is involved in tissue repair and pulmonary fibrogenesis. In the present study, the role of CTGF was examined in a rat model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by PQ poisoning. Histological examination revealed interstitial edema and extensive cellular thickening of interalveolar septa at the early stages of poisoning. At 2 weeks after PQ administration, lung tissue sections exhibited a marked thickening of the alveolar walls with an accumulation of interstitial cells with a fibroblastic appearance. Masson's trichrome staining revealed a patchy distribution of collagen deposition, indicating pulmonary fibrogenesis. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining of tissue samples demonstrated that CTGF expression was significantly upregulated in the PQ-treated group. Similarly, PQ treatment of MRC-5 human lung fibroblast cells caused an increase in CTGF in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the addition of CTGF to MRC-5 cells triggered cellular proliferation and migration. In addition, CTGF induced the differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, as was evident from increased expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and collagen. These findings demonstrate that PQ causes increased CTGF expression, which triggers proliferation, migration and differentiation of lung fibroblasts. Therefore, CTGF may be important in PQ-induced pulmonary fibrogenesis, rendering this growth factor a potential pharmacological target for reducing lung injury. PMID:25815693

  20. In the beginning there were soft collagen-cell gels: towards better 3D connective tissue models?

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert A

    2013-10-01

    In the 40 years since Elsdale and Bard's analysis of fibroblast culture in collagen gels we have moved far beyond the concept that such 3D fibril network systems are better models than monolayer cultures. This review analyses key aspects of that progression of models, against a background of what exactly each model system tries to mimic. This story tracks our increasing understanding of fibroblast responses to soft collagen gels, in particularly their cytoskeletal contraction, migration and integrin attachment. The focus on fibroblast mechano-function has generated models designed to directly measure the overall force generated by fibroblast populations, their reaction to external loads and the role of the matrix structure. Key steps along this evolution of 3D collagen models have been designed to mimic normal skin, wound repair, tissue morphogenesis and remodelling, growth and contracture during scarring/fibrosis. As new models are developed to understand cell-mechanical function in connective tissues the collagen material has become progressively more important, now being engineered to mimic more complex aspects of native extracellular matrix structure. These have included collagen fibril density, alignment and hierarchical structure, controlling material stiffness and anisotropy. But of these, tissue-like collagen density is key in that it contributes to control of the others. It is concluded that across this 40 year window major progress has been made towards establishing a family of 3D experimental collagen tissue-models, suitable to investigate normal and pathological fibroblast mechano-functions. PMID:23856376

  1. Unusual Glycosaminoglycans from a Deep Sea Hydrothermal Bacterium Improve Fibrillar Collagen Structuring and Fibroblast Activities in Engineered Connective Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Senni, Karim; Gueniche, Farida; Changotade, Sylvie; Septier, Dominique; Sinquin, Corinne; Ratiskol, Jacqueline; Lutomski, Didier; Godeau, Gaston; Guezennec, Jean; Colliec-Jouault, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    Biopolymers produced by marine organisms can offer useful tools for regenerative medicine. Particularly, HE800 exopolysaccharide (HE800 EPS) secreted by a deep-sea hydrothermal bacterium displays an interesting glycosaminoglycan-like feature resembling hyaluronan. Previous studies demonstrated its effectiveness to enhance in vivo bone regeneration and to support osteoblastic cell metabolism in culture. Thus, in order to assess the usefulness of this high-molecular weight polymer in tissue engineering and tissue repair, in vitro reconstructed connective tissues containing HE800 EPS were performed. We showed that this polysaccharide promotes both collagen structuring and extracellular matrix settle by dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, from the native HE800 EPS, a low-molecular weight sulfated derivative (HE800 DROS) displaying chemical analogy with heparan-sulfate, was designed. Thus, it was demonstrated that HE800 DROS mimics some properties of heparan-sulfate, such as promotion of fibroblast proliferation and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) secretion. Therefore, we suggest that the HE800EPS family can be considered as an innovative biotechnological source of glycosaminoglycan-like compounds useful to design biomaterials and drugs for tissue engineering and repair. PMID:23612369

  2. Expression of transforming growth factor-β1 and connective tissue growth factor in congenital biliary atresia and neonatal hepatitis liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Li, F B; Zhao, H; Peng, K R; Gao, Z G; Huang, S J; Tou, J F; Shu, X L; Gu, W Z

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in the liver tissue of infants with congenital biliary atresia and neonatal hepatitis, as well as the relationship between the expression of the two factors and liver fibrosis. Thirty-six infants who met the cholestasis criteria were classified into congenital biliary atresia and neonatal hepatitis groups. All specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome, and the degree of liver fibrosis was assessed. The scope and level of CTGF and TGF-β1 expression in the different specimens was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and observation. Liver fibrosis in the congenital biliary atresia group was more advanced than that in the neonatal hepatitis group, and the difference was significant (P < 0.01). In the neonatal hepatitis patients, CTGF and TGF-β1 were mainly expressed in the hepatocytes, while they were expressed in both hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells in the congenital biliary atresia patients, and in these patients the expression was significantly stronger than in the neonatal hepatitis patients (P < 0.01). With the aggravation of hepatic fibrosis, CTGF and TGF-β1 expression levels in liver tissue gradually increased, and their expression levels were significantly correlated (P < 0.01). Liver fibrosis is present in both congenital biliary atresia and neonatal hepatitis patients. The gradual increase of CTGF and TGF-β1 expression levels in liver tissue is associated with liver fibrosis. Early expression of CTGF and TGF-β1 in biliary epithelial cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of congenital biliary atresia. PMID:26909983

  3. Non-marfan idiopathic medionecrosis (cystic medial necrosis) presenting with multiple visceral artery aneurysms and diffuse connective tissue fragility: Two brothers

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Jun; Tsunemura, Mami; Amano, Shigeko; Tokizawa, Shigemi; Oowada, Susumu; Shinkai, Hiroko; Maehara, Yasunobu; Endo, Keigo

    1997-05-15

    Two brothers with multiple visceral artery aneurysms or dilatations and diffuse connective tissue fragility who did not have clinical features of Marfan syndrome are reported. One presented with retroperitoneal hemorrhage during angiography, and idiopathic medionecrosis was proved by resection of the aneurysms. These cases belong to the heterogeneous group of Marfan syndrome. The angiographical features (multiple dilation of visceral arteries) suggests fragility of connective tissue and is predictive of hazards during and after a catheterization and operation.

  4. Pristimerin, a naturally occurring triterpenoid, protects against autoimmune arthritis by modulating the cellular and soluble immune mediators of inflammation and tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Tong, Li; Nanjundaiah, Siddaraju M; Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H; Astry, Brian; Yu, Hua; Moudgil, Kamal D

    2014-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disorder affecting the synovial joints. The currently available drugs for RA are effective only in a proportion of patients and their prolonged use is associated with severe adverse effects. Thus, new anti-arthritic agents are being sought. We tested Pristimerin, a naturally occurring triterpenoid, for its therapeutic activity against rat adjuvant arthritis. Pristimerin effectively inhibited both arthritic inflammation and cartilage and bone damage in the joints. Pristimerin-treated rats exhibited a reduction in the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-17, IL-18, and IL-23) and the IL-6/IL-17-associated transcription factors (pSTAT3 and ROR-?t), coupled with an increase in the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10. Also increased was IFN-?, which can inhibit IL-17 response. In addition, the Th17/Treg ratio was altered in favor of immune suppression and the RANKL/OPG ratio was skewed towards anti-osteoclastogenesis. This is the first report on testing Pristimerin in arthritis. We suggest further evaluation of Pristimerin in RA patients. PMID:25308129

  5. Structural arrangement of collagen fibrils in the periarterial connective tissue of the kidney: their functional relevance as a structural stabilizer against arterial pressure.

    PubMed

    Hosoyamada, Yasue; Sakai, Tatsuo

    2012-06-01

    Periarterial connective tissue with a moderate amount of collagen fibrils is known to be a specialized domain in the renal interstitium. This study aimed to clarify the microscopic architecture of the periarterial connective tissue as a mechanical supportive structure of the intrarenal arteries. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy revealed two populations of collagen fibrils in the periarterial connective tissue. The major one was composed of many bundles of collagen fibrils running in longitudinal directions, whereas the minor one was represented by a few circumferential bundles adjacent to the smooth muscles. The amount of collagen fibrils was obviously variable and correlated with the arterial caliber. The correlation between abundance of collagen fibrils and the arterial caliber was confirmed by morphometric analysis of the collagen fibril area per arterial perimeter on electron micrographs. The size of individual collagen fibrils was measured in periarterial connective tissue of arteries with various calibers. A positive correlation between the diameter of collagen fibrils and arterial caliber was confirmed, indicating the supportive function of collagen fibrils in the periarterial connective tissue. The accumulated morphological findings supported the hypothesis that the collagen fibrils in the periarterial connective tissue develop longitudinal tension with their tensile strength, whereas the smooth muscle cells in the media develop circumferential tension with active regulation of contracting force. PMID:22187217

  6. The Fine Structure of Experimentally Induced Connective Tissue Complexes in the Human

    PubMed Central

    Stinson, W. W.; Richter, K. M.; Schilling, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The growth, development and cellular activity of fibrocollagenous tissue complexes induced by the implantation of specially structured wire mesh cylinders in 22 human male volunteers were studied during the time course of fibroplasia utilizing light and electron microscopic techniques. The fibrocollagenous tissue complexes after 4 to 16 weeks of development demonstrated highly ordered lamellations made of zones consisting primarily of fibroblasts and zones consisting primarily of collagenous fibers. The development of the ordered lamellations is referable to specific fibrillogenic activities by the constituent fibroblasts. The initial role of the fibroblast in fibrillogenesis is indicative of an apocrine-like secretory process followed by a holocrine-like role which results in cytodestruction and concurrent formation of an avascular collagenic tissue referable to an organizing cicatrix in a healing wound. ImagesFigs. 1-3.Figs. 4-9.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Fig. 12.Figs. 13, 14.Fig. 15.Fig. 16.Fig. 17.Fig. 18, 19.Figs. 20-22.Fig. 23.Fig. 24. PMID:4599224

  7. Hormonal modulation of connective tissue homeostasis and sex differences in risk for osteoarthritis of the knee

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Young female athletes experience a higher incidence of ligament injuries than their male counterparts, females experience a higher incidence of joint hypermobility syndrome (a risk factor for osteoarthritis development), and post-menopausal females experience a higher prevalence of osteoarthritis than age-matched males. These observations indicate that fluctuating sex hormone levels in young females and loss of ovarian sex hormone production due to menopause likely contribute to observed sex differences in knee joint function and risk for loss of function. In studies of osteoarthritis, however, there is a general lack of appreciation for the heterogeneity of hormonal control in both women and men. Progress in this field is limited by the relatively few preclinical osteoarthritis models, and that most of the work with established models uses only male animals. To elucidate sex differences in osteoarthritis, it is important to examine sex hormone mechanisms in cells from knee tissues and the sexual dimorphism in the role of inflammation at the cell, tissue, and organ levels. There is a need to determine if the risk for loss of knee function and integrity in females is restricted to only the knee or if sex-specific changes in other tissues play a role. This paper discusses these gaps in knowledge and suggests remedies. PMID:23374322

  8. Effect of Th17 and Treg Axis Disorder on Outcomes of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Connective Tissue Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lilei; Zhou, Xiaohui; Yang, Kang

    2014-01-01

    This prospective cohort study is to verify the hypothesis that the balance of Th17 and Treg cells frequencies in the peripheral circulation is disturbed in patients with varying degrees of connective tissue diseases-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (CTD-aPAH) and to prove the influence of Th17/Treg imbalance on prognosis. We detected the frequencies and absolute counts of Th17 and Treg cells and related serum cytokines secretion and expressions of key transcription factors in 117 patients with connective tissue diseases (CTD), 53 patients with CTD-aPAH, and 48 healthy volunteers. Moreover, the median value according to levels of Th17/Treg ratios in patients with CTD-aPAH was chosen as basis of group division for survival analysis. CTD-aPAH patients revealed significant increase in peripheral Th17 cells, Th17-related cytokines, and ROR γt mRNA levels. They also presented a significant decrease in Treg cells, Treg-related cytokines, and Foxp3 mRNA levels as compared with CTD patients and healthy controls. More importantly, the Th17/Treg ratio was significantly related to the severity and prognosis of CTD-aPAH. This study indicated that the Th17/Treg axis disorder plays a critical role in CTD-aPAH. Furthermore, the dynamic balance between Th17 and Treg cells was likely to influence prognosis of patients with CTD-aPAH. PMID:25214713

  9. Cure of urinary and fecal incontinence by pelvic ligament reconstruction suggests a connective tissue etiology for both.

    PubMed

    Papa Petros, P E

    1999-01-01

    The aim was to prospectively follow a group of 25 patients (mean age 60.5 years) presenting with double incontinence, urinary and fecal. Other than endoanal ultrasound, no allowance was made for fecal incontinence. All patients were treated exclusively according to an anatomical classification used for the management of urinary incontinence. Initially, all patients underwent surgical reconstruction of their pubourethral neoligaments with intravaginal slingplasty. All 25 patients reported complete cure of their fecal incontinence for a minimum of 6 months (mean 26 months, range 6-48 months) after surgery, and 22 patients of their urinary incontinence as well. The external anal sphincter was normal in all 25 patients (100%). The internal anal sphincter (IAS) was normal in 18 patients (72%). In 3 patients fecal incontinence recurred simultaneously with the occurrence of herniations in the posterior and middle parts of the vagina. Subsequent surgical repair of the uterosacral and arcus tendineus fasciae pelvis ligaments cured the recurrence. The results appear to indicate that non-traumatic ('idiopathic') fecal incontinence may have the same cause as urinary incontinence. As only connective tissue was repaired, it is suggested that connective tissue damage may be an important cause of fecal as well as urinary incontinence. PMID:10614969

  10. Muscle Degeneration in Neuramindase 1 Deficient Mice Results from Infiltration of the Muscle Fibers by Expanded Connective Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Zanoteli, Edmar; van de Vlekkert, Diantha; Bonten, Erik J.; Hu, Huimin; Mann, Linda; Gomero, Elida M.; Harris, A. John; Ghersi, Giulio; dAzzo, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Neuraminidase 1 (NEU1) regulates the catabolism of sialoglycoconjugates in lysosomes. Congenital NEU1 deficiency in children is the basis of sialidosis, a severe neurosomatic disorder in which patients experience a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations varying in the age of onset and severity. Osteoskeletal deformities and muscle hypotonia have been described in patients with sialidosis. Here we present the first comprehensive analysis of the skeletal muscle pathology associated with loss of Neu1 function in mice. In this animal model, skeletal muscles showed an expansion of the epimysial and perimysial spaces, associated with proliferation of fibroblast-like cells and abnormal deposition of collagens. Muscle fibers located adjacent to the expanded connective tissue underwent extensive invagination of their sarcolemma, which resulted in the infiltration of the fibers by fibroblast-like cells and extracellular matrix, and in their progressive cytosolic fragmentation. Both the expanded connective tissue and the juxtaposed infiltrated muscle fibers were strongly positive for lysosomal markers, and displayed increased proteolytic activity of lysosomal cathepsins and metalloproteinases. These combined features could lead to abnormal remodeling of the extracellular matrix that could be responsible for sarcolemmal invagination and progressive muscle fiber degeneration, ultimately resulting in an overt atrophic phenotype. This unique pattern of muscle damage, which has never been described in any myopathy, might explain the neuromuscular manifestations reported in patients with the type II severe form of sialidosis. More broadly, these findings point to a potential role of NEU1 in cell proliferation and extracellular matrix remodeling. PMID:20388541

  11. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Hypermobility Type: An Underdiagnosed Hereditary Connective Tissue Disorder with Mucocutaneous, Articular, and Systemic Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Castori, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type, constituting a phenotypic continuum with or, perhaps, corresponding to the joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS/EDS-HT), is likely the most common, though the least recognized, heritable connective tissue disorder. Known for decades as a hereditary condition with predominant rheumatologic manifestations, it is now emerging as a multisystemic disorder with widespread manifestations. Nevertheless, the practitioners' awareness of this condition is generally poor and most patients await years or, perhaps, decades before reaching the correct diagnosis. Among the various sites of disease manifestations, skin and mucosae represent a neglected organ where the dermatologist can easily spot diagnostic clues, which consistently integrate joint hypermobility and other orthopedic/neurologic manifestations at physical examination. In this paper, actual knowledge on JHS/EDS-HT is summarized in various sections. Particular attention has been posed on overlooked manifestations, including cutaneous, mucosal, and oropharyngeal features, and early diagnosis techniques, as a major point of interest for the practicing dermatologist. Actual research progresses on JH/EDS-HT envisage an unexpected link between heritable dysfunctions of the connective tissue and a wide range of functional somatic syndromes, most of them commonly diagnosed in the office of various specialists, comprising dermatologists. PMID:23227356

  12. [Narcolepsy as an autoimmune disease].

    PubMed

    Sarkanen, Tomi; Vaarala, Outi; Julkunen, Ilkka; Partinen, Markku

    2015-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder of central origin. Hypocretin deficiency is the essential feature of type 1 narcolepsy. The biological background of type 2 narcolepsy (without cataplexy) is less clear. Infections or other external factors are thought to function as triggers of narcolepsy. After the H1N1 vaccination campaign, the incidence of narcolepsy increased clearly in countries where a vaccine boosted with the AS03 adjuvant was used. According to the current view, the increase of narcolepsy in connection with the pandemic vaccine especially in children and adolescents was associated with the virus component of the vaccine, but the adjuvant may also have boosted the development of autoimmune response. PMID:26245045

  13. American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... WITH #25FOR25 CAMPAIGN DURING NATIONAL AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE AWARENESS MONTH AARDA officially kicks of National Autoimmune DIsease Awareness ... Click here to read more. Autoimmune Disease Awareness Month AARDA and the NCAPG held two important events ...

  14. Autoimmune effector memory T cells: the bad and the good

    PubMed Central

    Devarajan, Priyadharshini; Chen, Zhibin

    2014-01-01

    Immunological memory is a hallmark of adaptive immunity, a defense mechanism endowed to vertebrates during evolution. However, an autoimmune pathogenic role of memory lymphocytes is also emerging with accumulating evidence, despite reasonable skepticism on their existence in a chronic setting of autoimmune damage. It is conceivable that autoimmune memory would be particularly harmful since memory cells would constantly remember and attack the body's healthy tissues. It is even more detrimental given the resistance of memory T cells to immunomodulatory therapies. In this review, we focus on self-antigen-reactive CD4+ effector memory T (TEM) cells, surveying the evidence for the role of the TEM compartment in autoimmune pathogenesis. We will also discuss the role of TEM cells in chronic and acute infectious disease settings and how they compare to their counterparts in autoimmune diseases. With their long-lasting potency, the autoimmune TEM cells could also play a critical role in anti-tumor immunity, which may be largely based on their reactivity to self-antigens. Therefore, although autoimmune TEM cells are bad due to their role in relentless perpetration of tissue damage in autoimmune disease settings, they are unlikely a by-product of industrial development along the modern surge of autoimmune disease prevalence. Rather, they may be a product of evolution for their good in clearing damaged host cells in chronic infections and malignant cells in cancer settings. PMID:24203440

  15. Possible role of human herpesvirus 6 as a trigger of autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Broccolo, Francesco; Fusetti, Lisa; Ceccherini-Nelli, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infection is common and has a worldwide distribution. Recently, HHV-6A and HHV-6B have been reclassified into two distinct species based on different biological features (genetic, antigenic, and cell tropism) and disease associations. A role for HHV-6A/B has been proposed in several autoimmune disorders (AD), including multiple sclerosis (MS), autoimmune connective tissue diseases, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The focus of this review is to discuss the above-mentioned AD associated with HHV-6 and the mechanisms proposed for HHV-6A/B-induced autoimmunity. HHV-6A/B could trigger autoimmunity by exposing high amounts of normally sequestered cell antigens, through lysis of infected cells. Another potential trigger is represented by molecular mimicry, with the synthesis of viral proteins that resemble cellular molecules, as a mechanism of immune escape. The virus could also induce aberrant expression of histocompatibility molecules thereby promoting the presentation of autoantigens. CD46-HHV-6A/B interaction is a new attractive mechanism proposed: HHV-6A/B (especially HHV-6A) could participate in neuroinflammation in the context of MS by promoting inflammatory processes through CD46 binding. Although HHV-6A/B has the ability to trigger all the above-mentioned mechanisms, more studies are required to fully elucidate the possible role of HHV-6A/B as a trigger of AD. PMID:24282390

  16. Detection of Luse bodies, spiralled collagen, dysplastic collagen, and intracellular collagen in rheumatoid connective tissues: an electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Neurath, M F

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease leading to alterations of the extracellular matrix in tendons, ligaments, and cartilage. The structural changes of the collagenous systems in rheumatoid connective tissues are largely unknown, however. METHODS--Thirty four samples of menisci, 36 cruciate ligaments, and four tendons were taken during joint surgery in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Eighteen menisci, 35 ligaments, and 30 tendons obtained at necropsy served as a control group. The extracellular matrix in the two groups was analysed by the combined use of transmission and scanning electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies recognising collagen types IV and VI, and ultramorphometry. RESULTS--Normal tendons and ligaments predominantly showed a unidirectional fibril arrangement. Whereas type IV collagen showed a positive staining pattern along all basement membranes, type VI collagen formed fine, filaments aligned in parallel. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis a significant reduction of the mean diameter of the collagen fibrils was found owing to the presence of thin collagenous fibrils 20-60 nm in diameter. Most of these fibrils showed considerable changes in their arrangement with irregular courses (so-called interfibrillar dysplastic collagen). Up to 410 nm thick frayed fibrils with irregular outlines (spiralled collagen) and intracellular collagen forms were found in rheumatoid tissues. In addition, atypical thick collagenous structures with 41 nm periodicity (Luse bodies) were detected in the matrix. The upregulation of type IV collagen in rheumatoid arthritis was associated with an increase in the vascular density. The expression of type VI collagen was upregulated in fibrotic zones. CONCLUSIONS--The dramatic ultrastructural collagen changes lead to a structural and functional insufficiency of the extracellular matrix in rheumatoid connective tissues. The results suggest that collagen alterations may contribute to the development of tendon and ligament ruptures in rheumatoid arthritis. Images PMID:8484694

  17. NK Cell Autoreactivity and Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Poggi, Alessandro; Zocchi, Maria Raffaella

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidences have pointed out the relevance of natural killer (NK) cells in organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases. NK cells bear a plethora of activating and inhibiting receptors that can play a role in regulating reactivity with autologous cells. The activating receptors recognize natural ligands up-regulated on virus-infected or stressed or neoplastic cells. Of note, several autoimmune diseases are thought to be linked to viral infections as one of the first event in inducing autoimmunity. Also, it is conceivable that autoimmunity can be triggered when a dysregulation of innate immunity occurs, activating T and B lymphocytes to react with self-components. This would imply that NK cells can play a regulatory role during adaptive immunity; indeed, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), comprising the classical CD56+ NK cells, have a role in maintaining or alternating tissue homeostasis secreting protective and/or pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, NK cells display activating receptors involved in natural cytotoxicity and the activating isoforms of receptors for HLA class I that can interact with healthy host cells and induce damage without any evidence of viral infection or neoplastic-induced alteration. In this context, the interrelationship among ILC, extracellular-matrix components, and mesenchymal stromal cells can be considered a key point for the control of homeostasis. Herein, we summarize evidences for a role of NK cells in autoimmune diseases and will give a point of view of the interplay between NK cells and self-cells in triggering autoimmunity. PMID:24550913

  18. Human Cytomegalovirus and Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) represents a prototypic pathogenic member of the ?-subgroup of the herpesvirus family. A range of HCMV features like its lytic replication in multiple tissues, the lifelong persistence through periods of latency and intermitting reactivation, the extraordinary large proteome, and extensive manipulation of adaptive and innate immunity make HCMV a high profile candidate for involvement in autoimmune disorders. We surveyed the available literature for reports on HCMV association with onset or exacerbation of autoimmune disease. A causative linkage between HCMV and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), diabetes mellitus type 1, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is suggested by the literature. However, a clear association of HCMV seroprevalence and disease could not be established, leaving the question open whether HCMV could play a coresponsible role for onset of disease. For convincing conclusions population-based prospective studies must be performed in the future. Specific immunopathogenic mechanisms by which HCMV could contribute to the course of autoimmune disease have been suggested, for example, molecular mimicry by UL94 in SSc and UL83/pp65 in SLE patients, as well as aggravation of joint inflammation by induction and expansion of CD4+/CD28? T-cells in RA patients. Further studies are needed to validate these findings and to lay the grounds for targeted therapeutic intervention. PMID:24967373

  19. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes.

    PubMed

    Cutolo, Maurizio

    2014-02-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS), also called polyglandular autoimmune syndromes (PGAS), are a heterogeneous group of rare diseases characterized by autoimmune activity against more than one endocrine organs, although non-endocrine organs can be affected. The two major autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes, (type1-type2/APS-1 and APS-2), both have Addison's disease as a prominent component. Further autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes include APS3 and APS4. The major autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes have a strong genetic component with the type 2 syndrome occurring in multiple generations and the type I syndrome in siblings. It is well recognized that more than 20years may elapse between the onset on one endocrinopathy and the diagnosis of the next, for example, almost 40-50% of subjects with Addison's disease will develop an associated endocrinopathy. The discovery of the polyendocrine autoimmune syndromes offered the possibility to understand autoimmune disorders with particular interest for type 1A diabetes and the neuroendocrine immunology (NEI) is further contributing to understand the links. PMID:24055063

  20. Integrin-extracellular matrix interactions in connective tissue remodeling and osteoblast differentiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, R. K.; Moursi, A.; Zimmerman, D.; Lull, J.; Damsky, C.

    1995-01-01

    The differentiaton of bone cells is a complex multistep process. Bone is somewhat unusual in that it is very actively and continually remodeled in the adult and that maintenance of its mass in the mature organism is exquisitely sensitive to mechanical as well as chemical signals. Bone is also unique because it consists of a very large amount of extracellular matrix (ECM) that is mineralized. The integrin family of ECM receptors has been shown to play an important role in tissue morphogenesis in several systems. Our studies on the regulation of matrix remodeling enzymes by integrins in rabbit synovial fibroblasts show that two b1 integrin fibronectin (FN) receptor complexes (alpha 5 beta 1 and alpha 4 beta 1) cooperate in detecting subtle changes in the composition of the ECM. As a result of signal transduction by these integrins, the levels of mRNA and protein for several members of the metalloproteinase family are regulated in these cells. We have also used antibody and RGD peptide perturbation studies to determine the significance of cell/ECM interactions to normal osteogenesis. We found that interactions between the cell binding domain of FN and integrins are required for both normal morphogenesis and gene expression in cultured osteoblasts that differentiate to form bone-like tissue in culture. These data lead us to propose that beta 1 integrins play an important role in osteoblast differentiation as well as in bone remodeling.

  1. Molecular Diagnosis in Autoimmune Skin Blistering Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Otten, J.V.; Hashimoto, T.; Hertl, M.; Payne, A.S.; Sitaru, C.

    2014-01-01

    Blister formation in skin and mucous membranes results from a loss of cell-cell or cell-matrix adhesion and is a common outcome of pathological events in a variety of conditions, including autoimmune and genetic diseases, viral and bacterial infections, or injury by physical and chemical factors. Autoantibodies against structural components maintaining cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion induce tissue damage in autoimmune blistering diseases. Detection of these autoantibodies either tissue-bound or circulating in serum is essential to diagnose the autoimmune nature of disease. Various immunofluorescence methods as well as molecular immunoassays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting, belong to the modern diagnostic algorithms for these disorders. There is still a considerable need to increase awareness of the rare autoimmune blistering diseases, which often show a severe, chronic-relapsing course, among physicians and the public. This review article describes the immunopathological features of autoimmune bullous diseases and the molecular immunoassays currently available for their diagnosis and monitoring. PMID:24160488

  2. Mycobacterium chelonae cutaneous infection in a patient with mixed connective tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Lage, Renan; Biccigo, Danilo Guerreiro Zeolo; Santos, Felipe Borba Calixto; Chimara, Erica; Pereira, Elisangela Samartin Pegas; Costa, Adilson da

    2015-01-01

    Around 50 mycobacteria species cause human disease. Immunosuppressive states predispose to non-tuberculous mycobaterium infection, such as Mycobacterium chelonae: AFB, non-tuberculous, fast growth of low virulence and uncommon as a human pathogen. It may compromise the skin and soft tissues, lungs, lymph nodes and there is also a disseminated presentation. The diagnosis involves AFB identification and culture on Agar and Lowenstein-Jensen medium base. A 41-year-old female with MCTD (LES predominance) is reported, presenting painless nodules in the right forearm. She denied local trauma. Immunosuppressed with prednisone and cyclophosphamide for 24 months. Lesion biopsy has demonstrated positive bacilloscopy (Ziehl-Neelsen stain) and M.chelonae in culture (Lowenstein-Jensen medium base), therefore clarithromycin treatment has been started (best therapy choice in the literature). PMID:25672306

  3. Mycobacterium chelonae cutaneous infection in a patient with mixed connective tissue disease*

    PubMed Central

    Lage, Renan; Biccigo, Danilo Guerreiro Zeolo; Santos, Felipe Borba Calixto; Chimara, Erica; Pereira, Elisangela Samartin Pegas; da Costa, Adilson

    2015-01-01

    Around 50 mycobacteria species cause human disease. Immunosuppressive states predispose to non-tuberculous mycobaterium infection, such as Mycobacterium chelonae: AFB, non-tuberculous, fast growth of low virulence and uncommon as a human pathogen. It may compromise the skin and soft tissues, lungs, lymph nodes and there is also a disseminated presentation. The diagnosis involves AFB identification and culture on Agar and Lowenstein-Jensen medium base. A 41-year-old female with MCTD (LES predominance) is reported, presenting painless nodules in the right forearm. She denied local trauma. Immunosuppressed with prednisone and cyclophosphamide for 24 months. Lesion biopsy has demonstrated positive bacilloscopy (Ziehl-Neelsen stain) and M.chelonae in culture (Lowenstein-Jensen medium base), therefore clarithromycin treatment has been started (best therapy choice in the literature). PMID:25672306

  4. Influence of laser photobiomodulation upon connective tissue remodeling during wound healing.

    PubMed

    Medrado, Alena P; Soares, Ana Prates; Santos, Elisngela T; Reis, Slvia Regina A; Andrade, Zilton A

    2008-09-18

    The modulation of collagen fibers during experimental skin wound healing was studied in 112 Wistar rats submitted to laser photobiomodulation treatment. A standardized 8mm-diameter wound was made on the dorsal skin of all animals. In half of them, 0.2ml of a silica suspension was injected along the border of the wound in order to enhance collagen deposition and facilitate observation. The others received saline as vehicle. The treatment was carried out by means of laser rays from an aluminum-gallium arsenide diode semiconductor with 9mW applied every other day (total dose=4J/cm2) on the borders of the wound. Tissue sections obtained from four experimental groups representing sham-irradiated animals, laser, silica and the association of both, were studied after 3, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 60 days from the laser application. The wounded skin area was surgically removed and submitted to histological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and immunofluorescent studies. Besides the degree and arrangement of collagen fibers and of their isotypes, the degree of edema, the presence of several cell types especially pericytes and myofibroblasts, were described and measured. The observation of Sirius-red stained slides under polarized microscopy revealed to be of great help during the morphological analysis of the collagen tissue dynamic changes. It was demonstrated that laser application was responsible for edema regression and a diminution in the number of inflammatory cells (p<0.05). An evident increase in the number of actin-positive cells was observed in the laser-treated wounds. Collagen deposition was less than expected in silica-treated wounds, and laser treatment contributed to its better differentiation and modulation in all irradiated groups. Thus, laser photobiomodulation was able to induce several modifications during the cutaneous healing process, especially in favoring newly-formed collagen fibers to be better organized and compactedly disposed. PMID:18602833

  5. Cell Damage and Autoimmunity: A Critical Appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Leskovek, Natasha V.; Mackay, Ian R.; Rose, Noel R.

    2008-01-01

    In April 2007, an international Colloquium bridging scientific and clinical disciplines was held to discuss the role of cellular and tissue damage in the initiation, development and persistence of autoimmune disease. Five potential etiologic and pathophysiologic processes fundamental to autoimmune disease (i.e. inflammation, infection, apoptosis, environmental exposure and genetics were the focus of the presentations and integrative discussions at the Colloquium. The information presented on these topics is condensed in this review. Inflammation has close clinico-pathologic associations with autoimmunity, but future analyses will require better definition and metrics of inflammation, particularly for the earliest cellular and molecular components dependent on recruitment of elements of innate immunity. Although infection may be associated with increased levels of autoantibodies, most infections and virtually all vaccinations in humans lack well-established links to autoimmune diseases. Further application of well designed, long-term epidemiologic and population-based studies are urgently needed to relate antecedent exposures with later occurring stigmata of autoimmunity with a goal of discerning potentially susceptible individuals or subpopulations. Suspect infections requiring closer interrogation include EB virus (SLE and other diseases), HCV (autoimmune hepatitis), beta hemolytic streptococci (rheumatic carditis) and H. pylori (autoimmune gastritis) among others. And even if a micro-organism were to be incriminated, mechanisms of initiation/perpetuation of autoimmunity continue to challenge investigators. Plausible mechanisms include potentiation and diversion of innate immunity; exposure or spillage of intracellular autoantigens; or provision of autoantigenic mimics. Integrity of apoptosis as a critical safeguard against autoimmunity was discussed in the contexts of overreactivity causing autoantigens to gain enhanced exposure to the immune system, or under-reactivity producing insufficient elimination of autoreactive clones of lymphocytes. Although environmental agents are widely believed to serve as necessary triggers of autoimmune disease in genetically predisposed individuals, only a few such agents (mainly drugs and some nutrients) have been clearly identified and their mechanism of action defined. Finally an essential genetic foundation underlies all these hazards for autoimmunity in the form of risk-associated polymorphisms in immunoregulatory genes. They may be predictive of future or impending disease. PMID:18194728

  6. Female-Specific Downregulation of Tissue Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils Drives Impaired Regulatory T Cell and Amplified Effector T Cell Responses in Autoimmune Dry Eye Disease.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Min, Kyungji; Zhang, Yibing; Su, John; Greenwood, Matthew; Gronert, Karsten

    2015-10-01

    Immune-driven dry eye disease primarily affects women; the cause for this sex-specific prevalence is unknown. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) have distinct phenotypes that drive inflammation but also regulate lymphocytes and are the rate-limiting cell for generating anti-inflammatory lipoxin A4 (LXA4). Estrogen regulates the LXA4 circuit to induce delayed female-specific wound healing in the cornea. However, the role of PMNs in dry eye disease remains unexplored. We discovered an LXA4-producing tissue PMN population in the corneal limbus, lacrimal glands, and cervical lymph nodes of healthy male and female mice. These tissue PMNs, unlike inflammatory PMNs, expressed a highly amplified LXA4 circuit and were sex-specifically regulated during immune-driven dry eye disease. Desiccating stress in females, unlike in males, triggered a remarkable decrease in lymph node PMN and LXA4 formation that remained depressed during dry eye disease. Depressed lymph node PMN and LXA4 in females correlated with an increase in effector T cells (Th1 and Th17), a decrease in regulatory T cells (Treg), and increased dry eye pathogenesis. Ab depletion of tissue PMN abrogated LXA4 formation in lymph nodes, as well as caused a marked increase in Th1 and Th17 cells and a decrease in Tregs. To establish an immune-regulatory role for PMN-derived LXA4 in dry eye, females were treated with LXA4. LXA4 treatment markedly inhibited Th1 and Th17 and amplified Treg in draining lymph nodes, while reducing dry eye pathogenesis. These results identify female-specific regulation of LXA4-producing tissue PMN as a potential key factor in aberrant effector T cell activation and initiation of immune-driven dry eye disease. PMID:26324767

  7. Autoimmune Cholangitis: A Variant Syndrome of Autoimmune Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Brij; Raina, Sujeet; Sharma, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune cholangitis (AIC) or autoimmune cholangiopathy is a chronic inflammation of liver and a variant syndrome of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). We present a case of an adult female who had biochemical features of cholestasis and transaminasemia but aminotransferases were not in the hepatitis range and had histological evidence of bile duct injury which was subsequently diagnosed as autoimmune cholangitis. PMID:25374727

  8. Connective Tissue Disease Following Hepatitis B Vaccination; Topiramate-Associated Fatal Heat Stroke; Ramelteon-Induced Autoimmune Hepatitis; Acute Oxaliplatin-Induced Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administrations (FDAs) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: mmancano@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested. This feature is provided by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in cooperation with the FDAs MedWatch program and Temple University School of Pharmacy. ISMP is an FDA MedWatch partner. PMID:24715739

  9. Autoimmunity in Coxsackievirus B3 induced myocarditis: role of estrogen in suppressing autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Picornaviruses are small, non-enveloped, single stranded, positive sense RNA viruses which cause multiple diseases including myocarditis/dilated cardiomyopathy, type 1 diabetes, encephalitis, myositis, orchitis and hepatitis. Although picornaviruses directly kill cells, tissue injury primarily results from autoimmunity to self antigens. Viruses induce autoimmunity by: aborting deletion of self-reactive T cells during T cell ontogeny; reversing anergy of peripheral autoimmune T cells; eliminating T regulatory cells; stimulating self-reactive T cells through antigenic mimicry or cryptic epitopes; and acting as an adjuvant for self molecules released during virus infection. Most autoimmune diseases (SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, Graves disease) predominate in females, but diseases associated with picornavirus infections predominate in males. T regulatory cells are activated in infected females because of the combined effects of estrogen and innate immunity. PMID:20963181

  10. Development of diagnostic and treatment strategies for glaucoma through understanding and modification of scleral and lamina cribrosa connective tissue

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Harry A.; Cone, Frances E.

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that the state of ocular connective tissues and their response in glaucomatous disease affects the degree of glaucoma damage. Both experimental and clinical data suggest that improved diagnostic and prognostic information could be derived from assessment of the mechanical responsiveness of the sclera and lamina cribrosa to intraocular pressure (IOP). Controlled mutagenesis of the sclera has produced a mouse strain that is relatively resistant to increased IOP. Alteration of the baseline scleral state could be accomplished through either increased cross-linking of fibrillar components or their reduction. The sclera is a dynamic structure, altering its structure and behavior in response to IOP change. The biochemical pathways that control these responses are fertile areas for new glaucoma treatments. PMID:23535950

  11. Neutral lipid synthesis and accumulation during in vitro induction of the lipocyte phenotype in hepatic connective tissue cells.

    PubMed

    Guaragna, R M; Trugo, L; Borojevic, R

    1991-08-20

    Connective tissue cells of liver parenchyma are known as hepatic myofibroblasts and lipocytes (fat-storing cells, Ito-cells). They are considered to belong to a single cell lineage, that may switch between these two phenotypes. We have studied cellular and molecular parameters and controls of this switch in the murine GRX cell line, established from liver fibro-granulomatous lesions induced by schistosomal infection. Accumulation of neutral lipids (triacylglycerols, monoalkyl-diacylglycerol, cholesterol) was monitored. It was dependent upon induction with indomethacin. Insulin alone did not induce lipid accumulation in GRX cells, but in cells induced by indomethacin it increased the quantity of stored lipids. We propose that hepatic lipocytes are not cells directly involved in energy storage, but that they represent a particular cell population specialized in storage and in controls of the homoeostasis of lipid-soluble substances at the systemic level. PMID:1892875

  12. A case report of successful treatment with immunoadsorption onto protein A in mixed connective tissue disease in childhood.

    PubMed

    Rummler, Silke; Althaus, Karina; Maak, Bernhard; Barz, Dagmar

    2008-08-01

    An 11-year-old male patient suffering mixed connective tissue disease with life-threatening pulmonary arterial hypertension, progressive heart failure (New York Heart Association class III-IV), skin ulcers, Raynaud's phenomenon and arthritis, showing no improvement after intensive immunosuppressive therapy or high dose steroids, was treated with immunoadsorption onto protein A. With a combined therapy of low-dose cortisone and bosentan and 22 sessions of immunoadsorption, his condition improved significantly and he continues in clinical remission. At the time of writing no further immunosuppressive therapy or immunoadsorption had been necessary. The patient is now 15 years old and healthy with an age-based constitution comparable to the normal population. PMID:18789123

  13. Using T-Cells for Transplantation and Autoimmune Therapy

    Cancer.gov

    Transplant complications and autoimmune diseases are primarily caused by T-cell immune responses against normal host tissue or transplanted tissues. Current treatment for these disorders is often not effective, and is typically associated with significant side effects, including global immune suppression. Researchers at NCI's Experimental Transplantation and Immunology Branch have developed a cellular therapy to treat graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) that results from hematopoetic transplant and other autoimmune disorders.

  14. Changes in bone tissue under conditions of hypokinesia and in connection with age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podrushnyak, E. P.; Suslov, E. I.

    1980-01-01

    X-ray micrography was used to study the optical density of the blackening of X-ray photographs made of five bones in 9 young people (ages 24 to 29) before and after strict bed rest for 16 to 37 days. Photometric studies of the X-ray film determined the relative concentration of bone structure before and after hypokinesia. In addition, the bone tissues of 25 cadavers of practically healthy individuals (aged 18 to 70) who died from injuries were investigated using X-ray structural analysis. Results show that the reaction to the state of hypokinesia is not uniform in different individuals and is quite often directly reversed. It was established that pronounced osteoporosis can be found in a relatively short time after conditions of hypokinesia in healthy young individuals. Results show that the stabilization of the crystalline structure of hydroxyapatite, especially its crystal formation, is finished by the age of 20 to 25. From 25 to 60, the crystal lattice remains in stable condition but X-ray analysis shows a reduction in the hydroxyapatite density.

  15. Methotrexate inhibits neutrophil function by stimulating adenosine release from connective tissue cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cronstein, B.N.; Eberle, M.A.; Levin, R.I. ); Gruber, H.E. )

    1991-03-15

    Although commonly used to control a variety of inflammatory diseases, the mechanism of action of a low dose of methotrexate remains a mystery. Methotrexate accumulates intracellularly where it may interfere with purine metabolism. Therefore, the authors determined whether a 48-hr pretreatment with methotrexate affected adenosine release from ({sup 14}C)adenine-labeled human fibroblasts and umbilical vein endothelial cells. Methotrexate significantly increased adenosine release by fibroblasts. The effect of methotrexate on adenosine release was not due to cytotoxicity since cells treated with maximal concentrations of methotrexate took up ({sup 14}C)adenine and released {sup 14}C-labeled purine (a measure of cell injury) in a manner identical to control cells. Methotrexate treatment of fibroblasts dramatically inhibited adherence to fibroblasts by both unstimulated neutrophils and stimulated neutrophils. One hypothesis that explains the effect of methotrexate on adenosine release is that, by inhibition of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) transformylase, methotrexate induces the accumulation of AICAR, the nucleoside precursor of which has previously been shown to cause adenosine release from ischemic cardiac tissue. The observation that the antiinflammatory actions of methotrexate are due to the capacity of methotrexate to induce adenosine release may form the basis for the development of an additional class of antiinflammatory drugs.

  16. An Autoimmune Myositis-Overlap Syndrome Associated With Autoantibodies to Nuclear Pore Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Sencal, Jean-Luc; Isabelle, Catherine; Fritzler, Marvin J.; Targoff, Ira N.; Goldstein, Rose; Gagn, Michel; Raynauld, Jean-Pierre; Joyal, France; Troyanov, Yves; Dabauvalle, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Autoimmune myositis encompasses various myositis-overlap syndromes, each being identified by the presence of serum marker autoantibodies. We describe a novel myositis-overlap syndrome in 4 patients characterized by the presence of a unique immunologic marker, autoantibodies to nuclear pore complexes. The clinical phenotype was characterized by prominent myositis in association with erosive, anti-CCP, and rheumatoid factor-positive arthritis, trigeminal neuralgia, mild interstitial lung disease, Raynaud phenomenon, and weight loss. The myositis was typically chronic, relapsing, and refractory to corticosteroids alone, but remitted with the addition of a second immunomodulating drug. There was no clinical or laboratory evidence for liver disease. The prognosis was good with 100% long-term survival (mean follow-up 19.5 yr). By indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells, sera from all 4 patients displayed a high titer of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) with a distinct punctate peripheral (rim) fluorescent pattern of the nuclear envelope characteristic of nuclear pore complexes. Reactivity with nuclear pore complexes was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. In a cohort of 100 French Canadian patients with autoimmune myositis, the nuclear pore complex fluorescent ANA pattern was restricted to these 4 patients (4%). It was not observed in sera from 393 adult patients with systemic sclerosis (n?=?112), mixed connective tissue disease (n?=?35), systemic lupus (n?=?94), rheumatoid arthritis (n?=?45), or other rheumatic diseases (n?=?107), nor was it observed in 62 normal adults. Autoantibodies to nuclear pore complexes were predominantly of IgG isotype. No other IgG autoantibody markers for defined connective tissue diseases or overlap syndromes were present, indicating a selective and highly focused immune response. In 3 patients, anti-nuclear pore complex autoantibody titers varied in parallel with myositis activity, suggesting a pathogenic link to pathophysiology. The nuclear pore complex proteins, that is, nucleoporins (nup), recognized by these sera were heterogeneous and included Nup358/RanBP2 (n?=?2 patients), Nup90 (n?=?1), Nup62 (n?=?1), and gp210 (n?=?1). Taken together the data suggest that nup autoantigens themselves drive the anti-nup autoimmune response. Immunogenetically, the 4 patients shared the DQA1?0501 allele associated with an increased risk for autoimmune myositis. In conclusion, we report an apparent novel subset of autoimmune myositis in our population of French Canadian patients with connective tissue diseases. This syndrome is recognized by the presence of a unique immunologic marker, autoantibodies to nuclear pore complexes that react with nups, consistent with an anti-nup syndrome. PMID:25500708

  17. Lung-dominant connective tissue disease among patients with interstitial lung disease: prevalence, functional stability, and common extrathoracic features*

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Daniel Antunes Silva; Dias, Olvia Meira; de Almeida, Guilherme Eler; Araujo, Mariana Sponholz; Kawano-Dourado, Letcia Barbosa; Baldi, Bruno Guedes; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of a cohort of patients with lung-dominant connective tissue disease (LD-CTD). METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD), positive antinuclear antibody (ANA) results (? 1/320), with or without specific autoantibodies, and at least one clinical feature suggestive of connective tissue disease (CTD). RESULTS: Of the 1,998 patients screened, 52 initially met the criteria for a diagnosis of LD-CTD: 37% were male; the mean age at diagnosis was 56 years; and the median follow-up period was 48 months. During follow-up, 8 patients met the criteria for a definitive diagnosis of a CTD. The remaining 44 patients comprised the LD-CTD group, in which the most prevalent extrathoracic features were arthralgia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and Raynaud's phenomenon. The most prevalent autoantibodies in this group were ANA (89%) and anti-SSA (anti-Ro, 27%). The mean baseline and final FVC was 69.5% and 74.0% of the predicted values, respectively (p > 0.05). Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia patterns were found in 45% and 9% of HRCT scans, respectively; 36% of the scans were unclassifiable. A similar prevalence was noted in histological samples. Diffuse esophageal dilatation was identified in 52% of HRCT scans. Nailfold capillaroscopy was performed in 22 patients; 17 showed a scleroderma pattern. CONCLUSIONS: In our LD-CTD group, there was predominance of females and the patients showed mild spirometric abnormalities at diagnosis, with differing underlying ILD patterns that were mostly unclassifiable on HRCT and by histology. We found functional stability on follow-up. Esophageal dilatation on HRCT and scleroderma pattern on nailfold capillaroscopy were frequent findings and might come to serve as diagnostic criteria. PMID:25972968

  18. Clinical and biochemical profiles suggest fibromuscular dysplasia is a systemic disease with altered TGF-? expression and connective tissue features

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Santhi K.; Xu, Zhi; Schoenhoff, Florian; Griswold, Benjamin F.; Yang, Jiandong; Tong, Lan; Yang, Min-Lee; Hunker, Kristina; Sloper, Leslie; Kuo, Shinie; Raza, Rafi; Milewicz, Dianna M.; Francomano, Clair A.; Dietz, Harry C.; Van Eyk, Jennifer; McDonnell, Nazli B.

    2014-01-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a rare, nonatherosclerotic arterial disease for which the molecular basis is unknown. We comprehensively studied 47 subjects with FMD, including physical examination, spine magnetic resonance imaging, bone densitometry, and brain magnetic resonance angiography. Inflammatory biomarkers in plasma and transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) cytokines in patient-derived dermal fibroblasts were measured by ELISA. Arterial pathology other than medial fibrodysplasia with multifocal stenosis included cerebral aneurysm, found in 12.8% of subjects. Extra-arterial pathology included low bone density (P<0.001); early onset degenerative spine disease (95.7%); increased incidence of Chiari I malformation (6.4%) and dural ectasia (42.6%); and physical examination findings of a mild connective tissue dysplasia (95.7%). Screening for mutations causing known genetically mediated arteriopathies was unrevealing. We found elevated plasma TGF-?1 (P=0.009), TGF-?2 (P=0.004) and additional inflammatory markers, and increased TGF-?1 (P=0.0009) and TGF-?2 (P=0.0001) secretion in dermal fibroblast cell lines from subjects with FMD compared to age- and gender-matched controls. Detailed phenotyping of patients with FMD allowed us to demonstrate that FMD is a systemic disease with alterations in common with the spectrum of genetic syndromes that involve altered TGF-? signaling and offers TGF-? as a marker of FMD.Ganesh, S. K., Morissette, R., Xu, Z., Schoenhoff, F., Griswold, B. F., Yang, J., Tong, L., Yang, M.-L., Hunker, K., Sloper, L., Kuo, S., Raza, R., Milewicz, D. M., Francomano, C. A., Dietz, H. C., Van Eyk, J., McDonnell, N. B. Clinical and biochemical profiles suggest fibromuscular dysplasia is a systemic disease with altered TGF-? expression and connective tissue features. PMID:24732132

  19. Does autoimmunity against thyroglobulin play a role in the pathogenesis of Graves’ ophthalmopathy: a review

    PubMed Central

    Shanmuganathan, Thayalini; Girgis, Christian; Lahooti, Hooshang; Champion, Bernard; Wall, Jack R

    2015-01-01

    While most authors believe that autoimmunity against the TSH receptor expressed in the orbital connective tissue cells is the main reaction that leads to the development of ophthalmopathy in patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism, an older hypothesis that deserves fresh consideration is based on the notion that thyroglobulin (Tg) in the thyroid gland passes in a retrograde fashion to the orbit where it is recognized by Tg autoantibodies, leading to inflammation. Here, we review new evidence that supports a role of Tg and propose a new hypothesis based on the notion that Tg is targeted in the orbit leading to a complex cascade of reactions that leads to Graves’ ophthalmopathy. PMID:26664042

  20. Does autoimmunity against thyroglobulin play a role in the pathogenesis of Graves' ophthalmopathy: a review.

    PubMed

    Shanmuganathan, Thayalini; Girgis, Christian; Lahooti, Hooshang; Champion, Bernard; Wall, Jack R

    2015-01-01

    While most authors believe that autoimmunity against the TSH receptor expressed in the orbital connective tissue cells is the main reaction that leads to the development of ophthalmopathy in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism, an older hypothesis that deserves fresh consideration is based on the notion that thyroglobulin (Tg) in the thyroid gland passes in a retrograde fashion to the orbit where it is recognized by Tg autoantibodies, leading to inflammation. Here, we review new evidence that supports a role of Tg and propose a new hypothesis based on the notion that Tg is targeted in the orbit leading to a complex cascade of reactions that leads to Graves' ophthalmopathy. PMID:26664042

  1. Experiment K-7-29: Connective Tissue Studies. Part 1; Rat Skin, Normal and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vailas, A. C.; Grindeland, R.; Ashman, R.; Choy, V.; Durnova, G.; Graf, B.; Griffith, P.; Kaplansky, A. S.; Kolis, S.; Martinez, D.; Rao, J. S.; Rayford, A. R.; Reddy, B. R.; Sears, J.; Thielke, R.; Ulm, M.; Vanderby, R.

    1994-01-01

    The skin repair studies started to be problematic for the following reasons: (1) It was very difficult to locate the wound and many lesions were not of the same dimensions. A considerable amount of time was devoted to the identification of the wound using polarized light. We understand that this experiment was added on to the overall project. Marking of the wound site and standard dimensions should be recommended for the next flight experiment. (2) The tissue was frozen, therefore thawing and fixation caused problems with some of the immunocytochemical staining for obtaining better special resolution with light microscopy image processing. Despite these problems, we were unable to detect any significant qualitative differences for the following wound markers: (1) Collagen Type 3, (2) Hematotoxylin and Eosin, and (3) Macrophage Factor 13. All protein markers were isolated from rat sources and antibodies prepared and tested for cross reactivity with other molecules at the University of Wisconsin Hybridoma Facility. However, rat skin from the non lesioned site 'normal' showed interesting biochemical results. Skin was prepared for the following measurements: (1) DNA content, (2) Collagen content by hydroxyproline, and (3) uronic acid content and estimation of ground substance. The results indicated there was a non-significant increase (10%) in the DNA concentration of skin from flight animals. However, the data expressed as a ratio DNA/Collagen estimates the cell or nuclear density that supports a given quantity of collagen showed a dramatic increase in the flight group (33%). This means flight conditions may have slowed down collagen secretion and/or increased cell proliferation in adult rat skin. Further biochemical tests are being done to determine the crosslinking of elastin which will enhance the insight to assessing changes in skin turnover.

  2. MicroRNAs in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Zigang; Li, Wenhui; Fu, Baoquan

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are featured by body's immune responses being directed towards its own specific target organs or multiple organ systems, causing persistent inflammation and consequent tissue damage. miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs in a size of approximately 22?nt that play important regulatory roles in many organisms by cleavage or translational inhibition of targeted mRNAs. Many miRNAs are reported to be differentially expressed in ADs and may play a pivotal role in regulating immune responses and autoimmunity. In this review, current research progress in the miRNAs in ADs was elucidated. PMID:24991561

  3. Autoimmunity and the Gut

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have increased dramatically worldwide since World War II. This is coincidental with the increased production and use of chemicals both in industrial countries and agriculture, as well as the ease of travel from region to region and continent to continent, making the transfer of a pathogen or pathogens from one part of the world to another much easier than ever before. In this review, triggers of autoimmunity are examined, principally environmental. The number of possible environmental triggers is vast and includes chemicals, bacteria, viruses, and molds. Examples of these triggers are given and include the mechanism of action and method by which they bring about autoimmunity. PMID:24900918

  4. Molecular mechanisms mediated by human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) in autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Balada, Eva; Ordi-Ros, Josep; Vilardell-Tarrs, Miquel

    2009-09-01

    Eight per cent of the human genome is derived from the integration of retroviral sequences that were incorporated in our DNA more than 25 million years ago. Although some of these elements show mutations and deletions, some HERVs are transcriptionally active and produce functional proteins. Different mechanisms have been described which link HERVs to some chronic diseases such as several cancers, nervous system diseases and autoimmune rheumatic and connective tissue diseases. They could cause disease because of their capacity for being moved and inserted next to certain genes whose expression would be consequentially altered. Another way in which disease could potentially arise is when HERV-encoded proteins are expressed. These proteins would be considered as [foreign] and they could trigger B-cells to produce antibodies against them, which, in turn, might cross-react with other proteins of our bodies. This mechanism could give rise to autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), lupus erythematosus, Sjgren's syndrome (SJS), mixed connective tissue diseases and inflammatory neurological disease. Furthermore, it should be pointed out that HERV-proteins may act as superantigens. Interestingly, some environmental agents seem to induce the expression of HERVs. Thus, ultraviolet light and several chemical agents could reactivate such sequences by altering their structure without modifying their nucleotide composition when the methylation pattern is changed. Therefore, the epigenetic changes observed in pathological conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or cancer could be translated into an effect on the activation of some of the retroelements present in our genome which ultimately could have a direct or indirect role on the initiation and clinical evolution of certain chronic diseases. PMID:19714703

  5. Differences in irradiation susceptibility and turnover between mucosal and connective tissue-type mast cells of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuzumi, T.; Waki, N.; Kanakura, Y.; Nagoshi, J.; Hirota, S.; Yoshikawa, K.; Kitamura, Y. )

    1990-08-01

    Although precursors of mast cells are derived from the bone marrow, phenotypes of mast cells are influenced by the tissues in which final differentiation occurs. Connective tissue-type mast cells (CTMC) and mucosal mast cells (MMC) are different in morphological, biochemical, immunological, and functional criteria. The purpose of the present study was to obtain information about the differentiation process of MMC. First, we compared changes in irradiation susceptibility in mice during the differentiation process of CTMC and MMC. The decrease in irradiation susceptibility was remarkable in the CTMC differentiation process, but it was moderate in that of MMC. Some morphologically identifiable CTMC in the peritoneal cavity had proliferative potential and were highly radioresistant, whereas such a radioresistant population of MMC was not detectable in the gastric mucosa. Second, we estimated the turnover of CTMC and MMC by determining the proportion of mast cells that were labeled with continuously administered bromodeoxyuridine. The turnover of MMC was significantly faster than that of CTMC. The absence of the radioresistant mast cell population in the gastric mucosa appeared to be related to the short life span of MMC.

  6. Ovarian autoimmune disease: clinical concepts and animal models.

    PubMed

    Warren, Bryce D; Kinsey, William K; McGinnis, Lynda K; Christenson, Lane K; Jasti, Susmita; Stevens, Anne M; Petroff, Brian K; Petroff, Margaret G

    2014-11-01

    The ovary is not an immunologically privileged organ, but a breakdown in tolerogenic mechanisms for ovary-specific antigens has disastrous consequences on fertility in women, and this is replicated in murine models of autoimmune disease. Isolated ovarian autoimmune disease is rare in women, likely due to the severity of the disease and the inability to transmit genetic information conferring the ovarian disease across generations. Nonetheless, autoimmune oophoritis is often observed in association with other autoimmune diseases, particularly autoimmune adrenal disease, and takes a toll on both society and individual health. Studies in mice have revealed at least two mechanisms that protect the ovary from autoimmune attack. These mechanisms include control of autoreactive T cells by thymus-derived regulatory T cells, as well as a role for the autoimmune regulator (AIRE), a transcriptional regulator that induces expression of tissue-restricted antigens in medullary thymic epithelial cells during development of T cells. Although the latter mechanism is incompletely defined, it is well established that failure of either results in autoimmune-mediated targeting and depletion of ovarian follicles. In this review, we will address the clinical features and consequences of autoimmune-mediated ovarian infertility in women, as well as the possible mechanisms of disease as revealed by animal models. PMID:25327908

  7. Type 1 diabetes and polyglandular autoimmune syndrome: A review

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Martin P; Matheis, Nina; Kahaly, George J

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disorder caused by inflammatory destruction of the pancreatic tissue. The etiopathogenesis and characteristics of the pathologic process of pancreatic destruction are well described. In addition, the putative susceptibility genes for T1D as a monoglandular disease and the relation to polyglandular autoimmune syndrome (PAS) have also been well explored. The incidence of T1D has steadily increased in most parts of the world, especially in industrialized nations. T1D is frequently associated with autoimmune endocrine and non-endocrine diseases and patients with T1D are at a higher risk for developing several glandular autoimmune diseases. Familial clustering is observed, which suggests that there is a genetic predisposition. Various hypotheses pertaining to viral- and bacterial-induced pancreatic autoimmunity have been proposed, however a definitive delineation of the autoimmune pathomechanism is still lacking. In patients with PAS, pancreatic and endocrine autoantigens either colocalize on one antigen-presenting cell or are expressed on two/various target cells sharing a common amino acid, which facilitates binding to and activation of T cells. The most prevalent PAS phenotype is the adult type 3 variant or PAS type III, which encompasses T1D and autoimmune thyroid disease. This review discusses the findings of recent studies showing noticeable differences in the genetic background and clinical phenotype of T1D either as an isolated autoimmune endocrinopathy or within the scope of polyglandular autoimmune syndrome. PMID:25685279

  8. Type 1 diabetes and polyglandular autoimmune syndrome: A review.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Martin P; Matheis, Nina; Kahaly, George J

    2015-02-15

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disorder caused by inflammatory destruction of the pancreatic tissue. The etiopathogenesis and characteristics of the pathologic process of pancreatic destruction are well described. In addition, the putative susceptibility genes for T1D as a monoglandular disease and the relation to polyglandular autoimmune syndrome (PAS) have also been well explored. The incidence of T1D has steadily increased in most parts of the world, especially in industrialized nations. T1D is frequently associated with autoimmune endocrine and non-endocrine diseases and patients with T1D are at a higher risk for developing several glandular autoimmune diseases. Familial clustering is observed, which suggests that there is a genetic predisposition. Various hypotheses pertaining to viral- and bacterial-induced pancreatic autoimmunity have been proposed, however a definitive delineation of the autoimmune pathomechanism is still lacking. In patients with PAS, pancreatic and endocrine autoantigens either colocalize on one antigen-presenting cell or are expressed on two/various target cells sharing a common amino acid, which facilitates binding to and activation of T cells. The most prevalent PAS phenotype is the adult type 3 variant or PAS type III, which encompasses T1D and autoimmune thyroid disease. This review discusses the findings of recent studies showing noticeable differences in the genetic background and clinical phenotype of T1D either as an isolated autoimmune endocrinopathy or within the scope of polyglandular autoimmune syndrome. PMID:25685279

  9. Ovarian autoimmune disease: clinical concepts and animal models

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Bryce D; Kinsey, William K; McGinnis, Lynda K; Christenson, Lane K; Jasti, Susmita; Stevens, Anne M; Petroff, Brian K; Petroff, Margaret G

    2014-01-01

    The ovary is not an immunologically privileged organ, but a breakdown in tolerogenic mechanisms for ovary-specific antigens has disastrous consequences on fertility in women, and this is replicated in murine models of autoimmune disease. Isolated ovarian autoimmune disease is rare in women, likely due to the severity of the disease and the inability to transmit genetic information conferring the ovarian disease across generations. Nonetheless, autoimmune oophoritis is often observed in association with other autoimmune diseases, particularly autoimmune adrenal disease, and takes a toll on both society and individual health. Studies in mice have revealed at least two mechanisms that protect the ovary from autoimmune attack. These mechanisms include control of autoreactive T cells by thymus-derived regulatory T cells, as well as a role for the autoimmune regulator (AIRE), a transcriptional regulator that induces expression of tissue-restricted antigens in medullary thymic epithelial cells during development of T cells. Although the latter mechanism is incompletely defined, it is well established that failure of either results in autoimmune-mediated targeting and depletion of ovarian follicles. In this review, we will address the clinical features and consequences of autoimmune-mediated ovarian infertility in women, as well as the possible mechanisms of disease as revealed by animal models. PMID:25327908

  10. Restricting dietary magnesium accelerates ectopic connective tissue mineralization in a mouse model of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (Abcc6?/?)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qiujie; Uitto, Jouni

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic mineralization, linked to a number of diseases, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a heritable multisystem disorder characterized by calcium phosphate deposition in various tissues. The mineral content of diet has been suggested to modify the disease severity in PXE. The aim of this study is to explore the role of diet with reduced magnesium in modifying tissue mineralization in a mouse model of PXE. Abcc6?/? mice were placed on either standard rodent diet (control) or an experimental diet low in magnesium at weaning (4 wks) and examined for mineralization in the skin and internal organs at the ages of 1.5, 2 or 6 months by computerized morphometric analysis of histopathologic sections and by chemical assay of calcium and phosphate. Experimental Abcc6?/? mice demonstrated an accelerated, early-onset mineralization of connective tissues, as compared to control mice. Wild-type or heterozygous mice on experimental diet did not show evidence of mineralization up to 6 months of age. All mice on experimental diet showed decreased urinary calcium, increased urinary phosphate and elevated parathyroid serum levels. However, no difference in bone density at 6 months of age was noted. Our findings indicate that the mineral content, particularly magnesium, can modify the extent and the onset of mineralization in Abcc6?/? mice, and suggest that dietary magnesium levels may contribute to the phenotypic variability of PXE. The control of mineralization by dietary magnesium may have broader implications in general population in the context of vascular mineralization. PMID:22897576

  11. In vitro and in vivo assessment of oral autologous artificial connective tissue characteristics that influence its performance as a graft.

    PubMed

    Fontanilla, Marta Raquel; Espinosa, Lady Giovanna

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have evaluated proteins secreted by fibroblasts comprising skin substitutes, finding that they are secreted in combinations and concentrations that promote wound healing. However, assessment of proteins secreted by oral fibroblasts forming a part of oral substitutes is scarce. In our previous work, collagen type-I scaffolds (CSs) and autologous artificial connective tissue (AACT) were produced and implanted in rabbit oral lesions, evidencing that AACT outperforms CS. The present work determined the secreted factor profile of AACT in the time of grafting as well as that of the AACT embedded in the clot. It also evaluated the proliferation and viability of AACT fibroblasts to establish the dwell time of these cells in the grafted area. Finally, it assessed whether CS, AACT, and clot-embedded AACT increase fibroblast recruitment induced by a fibrin clot, because the cell migratory response has been associated with the wound-healing outcome. We found that some of the factors secreted by AACT fibroblasts are significantly different from those secreted by clot-embedded AACT fibroblasts. Also, that the profile of proteins secreted by AACT fibroblasts and clot-embedded AACT fibroblasts is different from already reported protein secretion profiles of other engineered tissues used in treating oral mucosa wounds. It was also found that AACT fibroblasts are viable when grafted and remain in the treated area for almost 2 weeks, and that the migratory response of fibroblasts to tissue-substitute stimulus is significantly less than the migratory response induced by the clot alone. Overall, data suggest that AACT secretion of proteins is modulated by three-dimensionality and environment factors. This bioactivity and the fact that AACT does not increase fibroblast migration can be held accountable for AACT's good performance as a graft. PMID:22559831

  12. Duplicated connective tissue growth factor genes in hypoxia-sensitive blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala and their in vivo expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao; Li, Fu-Gui; Qin, Bo; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Xia-Yun; Zou, Shu-Ming

    2015-03-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a peptide involved in tissue growth and development, and can be regulated by hypoxia stress. This study aimed to isolate and characterize duplicate Ctgf genes in blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala, and determine their expression patterns and response to hypoxia. The blunt snout bream Ctgfa and Ctgfb were found to be highly divergent, sharing a relatively low sequence identity of 57%. During embryogenesis, Ctgfa mRNA expression levels were low, gradually decreased from zygotes to 12h post-fertilization (hpf), markedly increased from 16 hpf, and then stabilized from 32 to 40 hpf. Ctgfb expression levels were constant but low from zygotes to 20 hpf, then gradually increased from 24 to 40 hpf. Ctgfa mRNA was expressed in the adaxial cells of the somites, floor plate, and tailbud at 24 hpf, and in the notochord and ethmoid plate at 36 hpf, whereas Ctgfb mRNA was weakly expressed in the adaxial cells and floor plate at 24 hpf, and in the notochord at 36 hpf. In adult fish, Ctgfa mRNA was strongly expressed in the kidney, brain, intestine, muscles, and skin, while Ctgfb mRNA was detected in all examined tissues. During hypoxic treatment, the mRNA levels of both Ctgfa and -b were significantly upregulated in the gill and liver, whereas Ctgfa mRNAs in the brain and kidney and Ctgfb mRNAs in the kidney significantly decreased. These results provide new insights into the functional conservation and divergence of Ctgf genes and reveal their responses to hypoxia. PMID:25455470

  13. A comparison between connective tissue grafts combined with either double pedicle grafts or coronally positioned pedicle grafts: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Pendor, Sunil; Baliga, Vidya; Bhongade, Manohar L.; Turakia, Viral; Shori, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Background: Various surgical techniques have been proposed for treating gingival recession. This randomized clinical study compared the effectiveness of using a sub-epithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) combined with an overlying double pedical graft (DPG) or a coronally positioned flap (CPF) in the treatment of isolated gingival recession. Materials and Methods: A total of 20, healthy, non-smoking subjects with single Miller's Class I or Class II recession defects were selected. The defects, at least 3.0 mm deep, were randomly assigned to the test (DPG + SCTG) or control group (CPF + SCTG). Gingival recession (REC), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), width of keratinized gingival tissue (WKG), plaque index and papillary bleeding index were assessed at baseline and 6 months post-operatively. Results: Recession depth was significantly reduced 6 months post-operatively (P < 0.05) for both groups. Mean root coverage was 88% and 84% in the test and control groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups in REC, PPD, CAL, or WKG at baseline. However, at 6 months post-operatively, there were statistically significant changes in REC, CAL and WKG in favor of the test group (P < 0.05) from the baseline, but the comparison between the two was not statistically significant. The percentage of teeth with complete root coverage was greater in the test group when compared to the control group, but the results were not statistically significant. Conclusions: The results indicate that both surgical approaches are effective in addressing root coverage. Furthermore, when an increase in keratinized tissue width is a desired outcome, both the treatment modalities have shown comparable outcomes. PMID:25024546

  14. Connective Tissue Growth Factor Reporter Mice Label a Subpopulation of Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells that Reside in the Trabecular Bone Region

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen; Strecker, Sara; Liu, Yaling; Wang, Liping; Assanah, Fayekah; Smith, Spenser; Maye, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Few gene markers selectively identify mesenchymal progenitor cells inside the bone marrow. We have investigated a cell population located in the mouse bone marrow labeled by Connective Tissue Growth Factor reporter expression (CTGF-EGFP). Bone marrow flushed from CTGF reporter mice yielded an EGFP+ stromal cell population. Interestingly, the percentage of stromal cells retaining CTGF reporter expression decreased with age in vivo and was half the frequency in females compared to males. In culture, CTGF reporter expression and endogenous CTGF expression marked the same cell types as those labeled using Twist2-Cre and Osterix-Cre fate mapping approaches, which previously has been shown to identify mesenchymal progenitors in vitro. Consistent with this past work, sorted CTGF+ cells displayed an ability to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes in vitro and into osteoblast, adipocyte, and stromal cell lineages after transplantation into a parietal bone defect. In vivo examination of CTGF reporter expression in bone tissue sections revealed it marked cells highly localized to the trabecular bone region and was not expressed in the perichondrium or periosteum. Mesenchymal cells retaining high CTGF reporter expression were adjacent to, but distinct from mature osteoblasts lining bone surfaces and endothelial cells forming the vascular sinuses. Comparison of CTGF and Osterix reporter expression in bone tissue sections indicated an inverse correlation between the strength of CTGF expression and osteoblast maturation. Down-regulation of CTGF reporter expression also occurred during in vitro osteogenic differentiation. Collectively, our studies indicate that CTGF reporter mice selectively identify a subpopulation of bone marrow mesenchymal progenitor cells that reside in the trabecular bone region. PMID:25464947

  15. Survival of Danish cancer patients 1943-1987. Eye, brain and nervous system, thyroid, bone and connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Frisch, M; Olsen, J H

    1993-01-01

    The cancers covered in this chapter are those of the eye, brain and nervous system, thyroid, bone and connective tissue. Generally, detailed interpretations of data on cancers of the bone and connective tissue are inadvisable owing to small numbers of patients and major changes in diagnosis and registration over time. A slight but steady increase in survival was observed among patients diagnosed in 1943-87 with cancer of the eye. Relative five year survival increased from 60 to 68% in men and from 61 to 74% in women during the 45-year period. The predominant type of eye cancer seen in children, retinoblastoma, had a very favourable prognosis, with a relative five year survival rate of more than 80% since around 1960. Since that time, overall survival for patients with cancers of the brain and nervous system also increased. Relative five year survival improved from 25 to 36% in men and from 34 to 48% in women during 1960-85. Our data do not indicate to which extent therapeutic and diagnostic advances underlie the improvement in survival. Overall survival of patients with thyroid cancer also increased during 1943-87. Relative five-year survival improved from 26 to 58% in men and from 28 to 68% in women. Some of the improvement reflects earlier diagnosis of localized tumours, particularly in young women. A substantial improvement in survival was observed among children and adolescents (< 20 years) diagnosed in 1943-87 with primary bone cancers. Over the study period, the relative five-year survival in that age category and increased from 25 to 48% in males and from 16 to 52% in females. Use of adjuvant chemotherapy in cases of Ewing's sarcoma and osteosarcoma contributed importantly to the improvement in prognosis. Overall survival of patients with soft-tissue cancer associated with no specific organ increased until approximately 1970, after which time no further improvement was observed. The decreased survival seen in women during the last decade of the study is puzzling; the increase in mean age at diagnosis would only partially explain it. PMID:8512738

  16. Stress proteins, autoimmunity, and autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Winfield, J B; Jarjour, W N

    1991-01-01

    At birth, the immune system is biased toward recognition of microbial antigens in order to protect the host from infection. Recent data suggest that an important initial line of defense in this regard involves autologous stress proteins, especially conserved peptides of hsp60, which are presented to T cells bearing gamma delta receptors by relatively nonpolymorphic class lb molecules. Natural antibodies may represent a parallel B cell mechanism. Through an evolving process of "physiological" autoreactivity and selection by immunodominant stress proteins common to all prokaryotes, B and T cell repertoires expand during life to meet the continuing challenge of infection. Because stress proteins of bacteria are homologous with stress proteins of the host, there exists in genetically susceptible individuals a constant risk of autoimmune disease due to failure of mechanisms for self-nonself discrimination. That stress proteins actually play a role in autoimmune processes is supported by a growing body of evidence which, collectively, suggests that autoreactivity in chronic inflammatory arthritis involves, at least initially, gamma delta cells which recognize epitopes of the stress protein hsp60. Alternate mechanisms for T cell stimulation by stress proteins undoubtedly also exist, e.g., molecular mimicry of the DR beta third hypervariable region susceptibility locus for rheumatoid arthritis by a DnaJ stress protein epitope in gram-negative bacteria. While there still is confusion with respect to the most relevant stress protein epitopes, a central role for stress proteins in the etiology of arthritis appears likely. Furthermore, insight derived from the work thus far in adjuvant-induced arthritis already is stimulating analyses of related phenomena in autoimmune diseases other than those involving joints. Only limited data are available in the area of humoral autoimmunity to stress proteins. Autoantibodies to a number of stress proteins have been identified in SLE and rheumatoid arthritis, but their pathogenetic significance remains to be established. Nevertheless, the capacity of certain stress proteins to bind to multiple proteins in the nucleus and cytoplasm both physiologically and during stress or injury to cells, suggests that stress proteins may be important elements in the "immunogenic particle" concept of the origin of antinuclear and other autoantibodies. In short, this fascinating group of proteins, so mysterious only a few years ago, has impelled truly extraordinary new lines of investigation into the nature of autoimmunity and autoimmune disease. PMID:2055095

  17. The Relationship between Frontotemporal Effective Connectivity during Picture Naming, Behavior, and Preserved Cortical Tissue in Chronic Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Erin L.; Kapse, Kushal J.; Kiran, Swathi

    2016-01-01

    While several studies of task-based effective connectivity of normal language processing exist, little is known about the functional reorganization of language networks in patients with stroke-induced chronic aphasia. During oral picture naming, activation in neurologically intact individuals is found in “classic” language regions involved with retrieval of lexical concepts [e.g., left middle temporal gyrus (LMTG)], word form encoding [e.g., left posterior superior temporal gyrus, (LpSTG)], and controlled retrieval of semantic and phonological information [e.g., left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG)] as well as domain-general regions within the multiple demands network [e.g., left middle frontal gyrus (LMFG)]. After stroke, lesions to specific parts of the left hemisphere language network force reorganization of this system. While individuals with aphasia have been found to recruit similar regions for language tasks as healthy controls, the relationship between the dynamic functioning of the language network and individual differences in underlying neural structure and behavioral performance is still unknown. Therefore, in the present study, we used dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to investigate differences between individuals with aphasia and healthy controls in terms of task-induced regional interactions between three regions (i.e., LIFG, LMFG, and LMTG) vital for picture naming. The DCM model space was organized according to exogenous input to these regions and partitioned into separate families. At the model level, random effects family wise Bayesian Model Selection revealed that models with driving input to LIFG best fit the control data whereas models with driving input to LMFG best fit the patient data. At the parameter level, a significant between-group difference in the connection strength from LMTG to LIFG was seen. Within the patient group, several significant relationships between network connectivity parameters, spared cortical tissue, and behavior were observed. Overall, this study provides some preliminary findings regarding how neural networks for language reorganize for individuals with aphasia and how brain connectivity relates to underlying structural integrity and task performance. PMID:27014039

  18. Associated Autoimmune Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation, and dehydration. Autoimmune Chronic Active Hepatitis Adisease of the liver that may be mistaken for alcoholic liver disease. 70% of patients are female. Symptoms can include fatigue, abdominal discomfort, ...

  19. Autoimmunity in Waldenstrm's macroglobulinaemia.

    PubMed

    Jnsson, V; Kierkegaard, A; Salling, S; Molander, S; Andersen, L P; Christiansen, M; Wiik, A

    1999-07-01

    Fifty-seven consecutive patients with Waldenstrm's Macroglobuliemia were studied retrospectively for autoimmune manifestations. 28 patients or 51% (16 women and 13 men) had clinical and/or serological autoimmune manifestations, two or more of these being concomitant in 20 (12 women and 8 men). The predominant findings were Coombs' positive autoimmune hemolytic anemia (16%), seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (16%), inflammatory gastric ulcer with parietal cell autoantibodies (12%), and IgM-cardiolipin syndrome (11%). 40% of the autoimmune manifestations were present at the time of diagnosis of the Waldenstrm's Macroglobulinaemia and 60% were observed over a mean period of 4.7 years. All patients had an IgM M-component. There was no correlation between autoimmunity and the size of the M-component or the degree of hypo-IgG and hypo-IgA gammaglobulinemia. The only correlation between autoimmunity and infection was found in patients with gastric ulcer and parietal cell autoantibodies, in whom the infection was caused by Helicobacter pylori. PMID:10439374

  20. The epigenetics of autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Meda, Francesca; Folci, Marco; Baccarelli, Andrea; Selmi, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of autoimmune diseases remains largely unknown. Concordance rates in monozygotic twins are lower than 50% while genome-wide association studies propose numerous significant associations representing only a minority of patients. These lines of evidence strongly support other complementary mechanisms involved in the regulation of genes expression ultimately causing overt autoimmunity. Alterations in the post-translational modification of histones and DNA methylation are the two major epigenetic mechanisms that may potentially cause a breakdown of immune tolerance and the perpetuation of autoimmune diseases. In recent years, several studies both in clinical settings and experimental models proposed that the epigenome may hold the key to a better understanding of autoimmunity initiation and perpetuation. More specifically, data support the impact of epigenetic changes in systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases, in some cases based on mechanistical observations. We herein discuss what we currently know and what we expect will come in the next future. Ultimately, epigenetic treatments already being used in oncology may soon prove beneficial also in autoimmune diseases. PMID:21278766

  1. Autoimmunity in 2013.

    PubMed

    Selmi, Carlo

    2014-08-01

    The peer-reviewed publications in the field of autoimmunity published in 2013 represented a significant proportion of immunology articles and grew since the previous year to indicate that more immune-mediated phenomena may recognize an autoimmune mechanism and illustrated by osteoarthritis and atherosclerosis. As a result, our understanding of the mechanisms of autoimmunity is becoming the paradigm for translational research in which the progress in disease pathogenesis for both tolerance breakdown and inflammation perpetuation is rapidly followed by new treatment approaches and clinical management changes. The similarities across the autoimmune disease spectrum outnumber differences, particularly when treatments are compared. Indeed, the therapeutics of autoimmune diseases are based on a growing armamentarium that currently includes monoclonal antibodies and small molecules which act by targeting molecular markers or intracellular mediators with high specificity. Among the over 100 conditions considered as autoimmune, the common grounds are well illustrated by the data reported for systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis or by the plethora of studies on Th17 cells and biomarkers, particularly serum autoantibodies. Further, we are particularly intrigued by studies on the genomics, epigenetics, and microRNA at different stages of disease development or on the safe and effective use of abatacept acting on the costimulation of T and B cells in rheumatoid arthritis. We are convinced that the data published in 2013 represent a promising background for future developments that will exponentially impact the work of laboratory and clinical scientists over the next years. PMID:24819586

  2. The epigenetics of autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Meda, Francesca; Folci, Marco; Baccarelli, Andrea; Selmi, Carlo

    2011-05-01

    The etiology of autoimmune diseases remains largely unknown. Concordance rates in monozygotic twins are lower than 50% while genome-wide association studies propose numerous significant associations representing only a minority of patients. These lines of evidence strongly support other complementary mechanisms involved in the regulation of genes expression ultimately causing overt autoimmunity. Alterations in the post-translational modification of histones and DNA methylation are the two major epigenetic mechanisms that may potentially cause a breakdown of immune tolerance and the perpetuation of autoimmune diseases. In recent years, several studies both in clinical settings and experimental models proposed that the epigenome may hold the key to a better understanding of autoimmunity initiation and perpetuation. More specifically, data support the impact of epigenetic changes in systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases, in some cases based on mechanistical observations. We herein discuss what we currently know and what we expect will come in the next future. Ultimately, epigenetic treatments already being used in oncology may soon prove beneficial also in autoimmune diseases. PMID:21278766

  3. Autoimmunity-related neutrophilic dermatosis: a newly described entity that is not exclusive of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Saeb-Lima, Marcela; Charli-Joseph, Yann; Rodrguez-Acosta, Elva Dalia; Domnguez-Cherit, Judith

    2013-08-01

    Neutrophilic dermatoses have long been known to be associated with autoinmune systemic diseases. Recently, a small number of cases of a disorder distinct from Sweet syndrome or bullous lupus erythematosus (LE) have been described as specifically related to systemic LE under diverse terms, including nonbullous neutrophilic dermatosis, nonbullous neutrophilic LE, and Sweet-like neutrophilic dermatosis. We describe 7 patients that developed urticarial lesions in the context of a known or concurrently diagnosed autoimmune connective tissue disease. Of a total of 7 patients, 6 were afflicted by systemic LE and 1 by rheumatoid arthritis and secondary Sjgren syndrome. Histological findings in all patients included an interstitial and perivascular neutrophilic infiltrate with leukocytoclasia, vacuolar alteration along the dermal-edidermal junction, and no vasculitis. Most patients had active systemic disease at the time of the cutaneous eruption. Skin lesions resolved rapidly after the administration of immunomodulating agents. In conclusion, we provide additional evidence of the existence of a recently defined nonbullous neutrophilic dermatosis in the context of autoimmune connective tissue diseases and propose the term autoimmunity-related neutrophilic dermatosis as an appropriate designation. Furthermore, we believe that this entity should prompt physicians to screen the presence of an active systemic disorder in afflicted patients. PMID:23518639

  4. The architecture of the connective tissue in the musculoskeletal system-an often overlooked functional parameter as to proprioception in the locomotor apparatus.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    The architecture of the connective tissue, including structures such as fasciae, sheaths, and membranes, is more important for understanding functional meaning than is more traditional anatomy, whose anatomical dissection method neglects and denies the continuity of the connective tissue as integrating matrix of the body.The connective tissue anatomy and architecture exhibits two functional tendencies that are present in all areas of the body in different ways and relationships. In body cavities, the "disconnecting" quality of shaping space enables mobility; between organs and body parts, the "connecting" dimension enables functional mechanical interactions. In the musculoskeletal system, those two features of the connective tissue are also present. They cannot be found by the usual analytic dissection procedures. An architectural description is necessary.This article uses such a methodologic approach and gives such a description for the lateral elbow region. The result is an alternative architectural view of the anatomic substrate involved in the transmission and conveyance of forces over synovial joints. An architectural description of the muscular and connective tissue organized in series with each other to enable the transmission of forces over these dynamic entities is more appropriate than is the classical concept of "passive" force-guiding structures such as ligaments organized in parallel to actively force-transmitting structures such as muscles with tendons.The discrimination between so-called joint receptors and muscle receptors is an artificial distinction when function is considered. Mechanoreceptors, also the so-called muscle receptors, are arranged in the context of force circumstances-that is, of the architecture of muscle and connective tissue rather than of the classical anatomic structures such as muscle, capsules, and ligaments. In the lateral cubital region of the rat, a spectrum of mechanosensitive substrate occurs at the transitional areas between regular dense connective tissue layers and the muscle fascicles organized in series with them. This substrate exhibits features of type and location of the mechanosensitive nerve terminals that usually are considered characteristic for "joint receptors" as well as for "muscle receptors."The receptors for proprioception are concentrated in those areas where tensile stresses are conveyed over the elbow joint. Structures cannot be divided into either joint receptors or muscle receptors when muscular and collagenous connective tissue structures function in series to maintain joint integrity and stability. In vivo, those connective tissue structures are strained during movements of the skeletal parts, those movements in turn being induced and led by tension in muscular tissue. In principle, because of the architecture, receptors can also be stimulated by changes in muscle tension without skeletal movement, or by skeletal movement without change in muscle tension. A mutual relationship exists between structure (and function) of the mechanoreceptors and the architecture of the muscular and regular dense connective tissue. Both are instrumental in the coding of proprioceptive information to the central nervous system. PMID:21589740

  5. The Architecture of the Connective Tissue in the Musculoskeletal SystemAn Often Overlooked Functional Parameter as to Proprioception in the Locomotor Apparatus

    PubMed Central

    van der Wal, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    The architecture of the connective tissue, including structures such as fasciae, sheaths, and membranes, is more important for understanding functional meaning than is more traditional anatomy, whose anatomical dissection method neglects and denies the continuity of the connective tissue as integrating matrix of the body. The connective tissue anatomy and architecture exhibits two functional tendencies that are present in all areas of the body in different ways and relationships. In body cavities, the disconnecting quality of shaping space enables mobility; between organs and body parts, the connecting dimension enables functional mechanical interactions. In the musculoskeletal system, those two features of the connective tissue are also present. They cannot be found by the usual analytic dissection procedures. An architectural description is necessary. This article uses such a methodologic approach and gives such a description for the lateral elbow region. The result is an alternative architectural view of the anatomic substrate involved in the transmission and conveyance of forces over synovial joints. An architectural description of the muscular and connective tissue organized in series with each other to enable the transmission of forces over these dynamic entities is more appropriate than is the classical concept of passive force-guiding structures such as ligaments organized in parallel to actively force-transmitting structures such as muscles with tendons. The discrimination between so-called joint receptors and muscle receptors is an artificial distinction when function is considered. Mechanoreceptors, also the so-called muscle receptors, are arranged in the context of force circumstancesthat is, of the architecture of muscle and connective tissue rather than of the classical anatomic structures such as muscle, capsules, and ligaments. In the lateral cubital region of the rat, a spectrum of mechanosensitive substrate occurs at the transitional areas between regular dense connective tissue layers and the muscle fascicles organized in series with them. This substrate exhibits features of type and location of the mechanosensitive nerve terminals that usually are considered characteristic for joint receptors as well as for muscle receptors. The receptors for proprioception are concentrated in those areas where tensile stresses are conveyed over the elbow joint. Structures cannot be divided into either joint receptors or muscle receptors when muscular and collagenous connective tissue structures function in series to maintain joint integrity and stability. In vivo, those connective tissue structures are strained during movements of the skeletal parts, those movements in turn being induced and led by tension in muscular tissue. In principle, because of the architecture, receptors can also be stimulated by changes in muscle tension without skeletal movement, or by skeletal movement without change in muscle tension. A mutual relationship exists between structure (and function) of the mechanoreceptors and the architecture of the muscular and regular dense connective tissue. Both are instrumental in the coding of proprioceptive information to the central nervous system. PMID:21589740

  6. Heart rate recovery is an important predictor of outcomes in patients with connective tissue diseaseassociated pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quyen; Mummadi, Srinivas; Walker, Esteban; McCarthy, Kevin; Dweik, Raed A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Reduced heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise is associated with increased mortality in cardiac and pulmonary diseases. We sought to evaluate the association between HRR after the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and outcomes in patients with connective tissue diseaseassociated pulmonary hypertension (CTD-PH). Data were obtained by review of the medical records. HRR was defined as the difference in heart rate at the end of the 6MWT and after 1 minute (HRR1), 2 minutes (HRR2), and 3 minutes (HRR3) of rest. All patients with pulmonary hypertension and a diagnosis of systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or mixed connective tissue disease who underwent the 6MWT between August 1, 2009, and October 30, 2011, were included (n = 66). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, HRR1, HRR2, and HRR3 at different cutoff points were all good predictors, with HRR1 of <16 being the best predictor of time to clinical worsening (log-rank P < 0.0001), hospitalization (log-rank P = 0.0001), and survival (log-rank P < 0.003). By proportional hazards regression, patients with HRR1 of <16 were at increased risk of clinical worsening (hazard ratio [HR]: 6.4 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.619.2]; P < 0.0001], hospitalization (HR: 6.6 [95% CI: 2.423]; P < 0.0001), and death (HR: 4.5 [95% CI: 1.615.7]; P = 0.003). Patients in the highest tercile (HRR1 of ?19) were unlikely to have a clinical worsening event (HR: 0.1 [95% CI: 0.040.5]; P = 0.001], to be hospitalized (HR: 0.1 [95% CI: 0.020.5]; P = 0.001), or to die (HR: 0.3 [95% CI: 0.070.9]; P = 0.04]. In conclusion, in patients with CTD-PH, abnormal HRR1 (defined as HRR1 of <16) after the 6MWT is a strong predictor of clinical worsening, time to clinical worsening, survival, and hospitalization. PMID:26401258

  7. Cloning the full-length cDNA for rat connective tissue growth factor: implications for skeletal development.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Smock, S L; Safadi, F F; Rosenzweig, A B; Odgren, P R; Marks, S C; Owen, T A; Popoff, S N

    2000-02-01

    The mammalian osteopetroses represent a pathogenetically diverse group of skeletal disorders characterized by excess bone mass resulting from reduced osteoclastic bone resorption. Abnormalities involving osteoblast function and skeletal development have also been reported in many forms of the disease. In this study, we used the rat mutation, osteopetrosis (op), to examine differences in skeletal gene expression between op mutants and their normal littermates. RNA isolated from calvaria and long bones was used as a template for mRNA-differential display. Sequence information for one of the many cDNA that were selectively expressed in either normal or mutant bone suggested that it is the rat homologue of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) previously cloned in the human, mouse, and other species. A consensus sequence was assembled from overlapping 5'-RACE clones and used to confirm the rat CTGF cDNA protein coding region. Northern blot analysis confirmed that this message was highly (8- to 10-fold) over-expressed in op versus normal bone; it was also upregulated in op kidney but none of the other tissues (brain, liver, spleen, thymus) examined. In primary rat osteoblast cultures, the CTGF message exhibits a temporal pattern of expression dependent on their state of differentiation. Furthermore, CTGF expression is regulated by prostaglandin E(2), a factor known to modulate osteoblast differentiation. Since members of the CTGF family regulate the expression of specific genes, such as collagen and fibronectin, we propose that CTGF may play a previously unreported role in normal skeletal modeling/remodeling. Its dramatic over-expression in the op mutant skeleton may be secondary to the uncoupling of bone resorption and bone formation resulting in dysregulation of osteoblast gene expression and function. PMID:10679821

  8. Clinical evaluation of expanded mesh connective tissue graft in the treatment for multiple adjacent gingival recessions in the esthetic zone

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, M.; Shivakumar, B.; Meenapriya, B.; Anitha, V.; Ashwath, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple approaches have been used to replace lost, damaged or diseased gingival tissues. The connective tissue graft (CTG) procedure is the golden standard method for root coverage. Although multiple sites often need grafting, the palatal mucosa supplies only a limited area of grafting material. To overcome this limitation, expanded mesh graft provides a method whereby a graft can be stretched to cover a large area. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and the predictability of expanded mesh CTG (e-MCTG) in the treatment of adjacent multiple gingival recessions. Materials and Methods: Sixteen patients aged 2050 years contributed to 55 sites, each site falling into at least three adjacent Miller's Class 1 or Class 2 gingival recession. The CTG obtained from the palatal mucosa was expanded to cover the recipient bed, which was 1.5 times larger than the graft. Clinical measurements were recorded at baseline and 3 months, 12 months postoperatively. Results: A mean coverage of 1.96 mm 0.66 mm and 2.22 mm 0.68 mm was obtained at the end of 3rd and 12th month, respectively. Twelve months after surgery a statistically significant increase in CAL (2.2 mm 0.68 mm, P < 0.001) and increasing WKT (1.75 0.78, P < 0.001) were obtained. In 80% of the treated sites, 100% root coverage was achieved (mean 93.5%). Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that multiple adjacent recessions were treated by using e-MCTG technique can be applied and highly predictable root coverage can be achieved. PMID:26321829

  9. A Mouse Strain Where Basal Connective Tissue Growth Factor Gene Expression Can Be Switched from Low to High

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Heather E.; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Hiller, Sylvia; Sulik, Kathleen K.; Maeda, Nobuyo

    2010-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a signaling molecule that primarily functions in extracellular matrix maintenance and repair. Increased Ctgf expression is associated with fibrosis in chronic organ injury. Studying the role of CTGF in fibrotic disease in vivo, however, has been hampered by perinatal lethality of the Ctgf null mice as well as the limited scope of previous mouse models of Ctgf overproduction. Here, we devised a new approach and engineered a single mutant mouse strain where the endogenous Ctgf-3? untranslated region (3?UTR) was replaced with a cassette containing two 3?UTR sequences arranged in tandem. The modified Ctgf allele uses a 3?UTR from the mouse FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene (c-Fos) and produces an unstable mRNA, resulting in 60% of normal Ctgf expression (Lo allele). Upon Cre-expression, excision of the c-Fos-3?UTR creates a transcript utilizing the more stable bovine growth hormone (bGH) 3?UTR, resulting in increased Ctgf expression (Hi allele). Using the Ctgf Lo and Hi mutants, and crosses to a Ctgf knockout or Cre-expressing mice, we have generated a series of strains with a 30-fold range of Ctgf expression. Mice with the lowest Ctgf expression, 30% of normal, appear healthy, while a global nine-fold overexpression of Ctgf causes abnormalities, including developmental delay and craniofacial defects, and embryonic death at E10-12. Overexpression of Ctgf by tamoxifen-inducible Cre in the postnatal life, on the other hand, is compatible with life. The Ctgf Lo-Hi mutant mice should prove useful in further understanding the function of CTGF in fibrotic diseases. Additionally, this method can be used for the production of mouse lines with quantitative variations in other genes, particularly with genes that are broadly expressed, have distinct functions in different tissues, or where altered gene expression is not compatible with normal development. PMID:20877562

  10. Oral mucosal manifestations of autoimmune skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Mayson B; Porter, Stephen R; Smoller, Bruce R; Sitaru, Cassian

    2015-10-01

    A group of autoimmune diseases is characterised by autoantibodies against epithelial adhesion structures and/or tissue-tropic lymphocytes driving inflammatory processes resulting in specific pathology at the mucosal surfaces and the skin. The most frequent site of mucosal involvement in autoimmune diseases is the oral cavity. Broadly, these diseases include conditions affecting the cell-cell adhesion causing intra-epithelial blistering and those where autoantibodies or infiltration lymphocytes cause a loss of cell-matrix adhesion or interface inflammation. Clinically, patients present with blistering, erosions and ulcers that may affect the skin as well as further mucosal surfaces of the eyes, nose and genitalia. While the autoimmune disease may be suspected based on clinical manifestations, demonstration of tissue-bound and circulating autoantibodies, or lymphocytic infiltrates, by various methods including histological examination, direct and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblotting and quantitative immunoassay is a prerequisite for definitive diagnosis. Given the frequency of oral involvement and the fact that oral mucosa is the initially affected site in many cases, the informed practitioner should be well acquainted with diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of autoimmune dermatosis with oral involvement. This paper reviews the pathogenesis and clinical presentation of these conditions in the oral cavity with a specific emphasis on their differential diagnosis and current management approaches. PMID:26117595

  11. Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

    MedlinePLUS

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  12. A Connective Tissue Graft as a Biologic Alternative to Class V Restorations in Miller Class I and II Recession Defects: Case Series.

    PubMed

    Nordland, W Peter; de Souza, Laura M; Swift, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    Although cervical lesions are commonly treated using restorative materials, the esthetics and durability of the restoration can be problematic. Despite improvements in bonding to dentin, the performance of resin-based cervical restorations suffers from a variety of clinical problems. Biologic options using connective tissue grafts to replace the lost soft tissues have proven longevity and esthetic benefits. A collection of case reports is presented to demonstrate a surgical alternative to correct carious and noncarious cervical lesions. Clinicians should consider the biologic option of replacing the missing gingival tissue prior to placement of restorative materials on exposed root surfaces. PMID:26697550

  13. Adrenal autoimmunity: results and developments.

    PubMed

    Peterson, P; Uibo, R; Krohn, K J

    2000-09-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (autoimmune adrenalitis) often occurs in autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndromes APS1 (APECED) and APS2. Although the genetic background and etiology of the two syndromes is remarkably different, they both result in a similar autoimmune destruction of the adrenal cortex. Recently, the defective gene in APS1, AIRE (autoimmune regulator) was identified, whereas in APS2, the major genetic factor remains to be found in the human major histocompatibility complex haplotype (HLA) region. In addition to the genetic factors, the recent findings in genetics and immunity leading to the pathogenesis of adrenal autoimmunity in polyendocrinopathy syndromes are discussed. PMID:10920386

  14. Targeting connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia preclinical models: anti-CTGF monoclonal antibody attenuates leukemia growth.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongbo; Kojima, Kensuke; Battula, Venkata Lokesh; Korchin, Borys; Shi, Yuexi; Chen, Ye; Spong, Suzanne; Thomas, Deborah A; Kantarjian, Hagop; Lock, Richard B; Andreeff, Michael; Konopleva, Marina

    2014-03-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is involved in extracellular matrix production, tumor cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, and metastasis. Recent studies have shown that CTGF expression is elevated in precursor B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and that increased expression of CTGF is associated with inferior outcome in B-ALL. In this study, we characterized the functional role and downstream signaling pathways of CTGF in ALL cells. First, we utilized lentiviral shRNA to knockdown CTGF in RS4;11 and REH ALL cells expressing high levels of CTGF mRNA. Silencing of CTGF resulted in significant suppression of leukemia cell growth compared to control vector, which was associated with AKT/mTOR inactivation and increased levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27. CTGF knockdown sensitized ALL cells to vincristine and methotrexate. Treatment with an anti-CTGF monoclonal antibody, FG-3019, significantly prolonged survival of mice injected with primary xenograft B-ALL cells when co-treated with conventional chemotherapy (vincristine, L-asparaginase and dexamethasone). Data suggest that CTGF represents a targetable molecular aberration in B-ALL, and blocking CTGF signaling in conjunction with administration of chemotherapy may represent a novel therapeutic approach for ALL patients. PMID:24154679

  15. The Prevalence of Atherosclerosis in Those with Inflammatory Connective Tissue Disease by Race, Age, and Traditional Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Alenghat, Francis J

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammation promotes cardiovascular disease. Inflammatory connective tissue diseases (CTD) like lupus and rheumatoid arthritis associate with cardiovascular risk, but it is unknown whether particular groups of patients have enhanced propensity for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) associated with their CTD. Analysis of aggregate health record data at a large U.S. academic center identified CTD and ASCVD status for 287,467 African American and white adults. ASCVD prevalence in those with CTD was 29.7% for African Americans and 14.7% for white patients with prevalence ratios, compared to those without CTD, of 3.1 and 1.8, respectively. When different types of CTD were analyzed individually (rheumatoid arthritis; lupus; scleroderma; Sjgren Syndrome; dermatomyositis/polymyositis; unspecified/mixed CTD; other inflammatory arthropathy), increased ASCVD rates were found in nearly all subsets, always with higher prevalence ratios in African Americans. The prevalence ratio of ASCVD was particularly high in young African Americans. Furthermore, individuals lacking traditional cardiovascular risk factors had more ASCVD if they had CTD (prevalence ratio 2.9). Multivariate analysis confirmed a positive interaction between CTD and African-American race and a negative interaction between CTD and age. The factors driving the observed disproportionate CTD-associated ASCVD in African Americans, young adults, and those without traditional risk factors warrant further study. PMID:26842423

  16. Inhibition of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) in gallbladder cancer cells leads to decreased growth in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Patricia; Leal, Pamela; Ili, Carmen; Brebi, Priscilla; Alvarez, Hector; Roa, Juan C

    2013-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an aggressive neoplasm associated with late diagnosis, unsatisfactory treatment and poor prognosis. Previous work showed that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression is increased in this malignancy. This matricellular protein plays an important role in various cellular processes and its involvement in the tumorigenesis of several human cancers has been demonstrated. However, the precise function of CTGF expression in cancer cells is yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the CTGF expression in gallbladder cancer cell lines, and its effect on cell viability, colony formation and in vitro cell migration. CTGF expression was evaluated in seven GBC cell lines by Western blot assay. Endogenous CTGF expression was downregulated by lentiviral shRNA directed against CTGF mRNA in G-415 cells, and the effects on cell viability, anchorage-independent growth and migration was assessed by comparing them to scrambled vector-transfected cells. Knockdown of CTGF resulted in significant reduction in cell viability, colony formation and anchorage-independent growth (P<0.05). An increased p27 expression was observed in G-415 cells with loss of CTGF function. Our results suggest that high expression of this protein in gallbladder cancer may confer a growth advantage for neoplastic cells. PMID:23593935

  17. Cucurbitacin I Attenuates Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy via Inhibition of Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CCN2) and TGF- ?/Smads Signalings.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Moon Hee; Kim, Shang-Jin; Kang, Hara; Park, Kye Won; Park, Woo Jin; Yang, Seung Yul; Yang, Dong Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Cucurbitacin I is a naturally occurring triterpenoid derived from Cucurbitaceae family plants that exhibits a number of potentially useful pharmacological and biological activities. However, the therapeutic impact of cucurbitacin I on the heart has not heretofore been reported. To evaluate the functional role of cucurbitacin I in an in vitro model of cardiac hypertrophy, phenylephrine (PE)-stimulated cardiomyocytes were treated with a sub-cytotoxic concentration of the compound, and the effects on cell size and mRNA expression levels of ANF and ?-MHC were investigated. Consequently, PE-induced cell enlargement and upregulation of ANF and ?-MHC were significantly suppressed by pretreatment of the cardiomyocytes with cucurbitacin I. Notably, cucurbitacin I also impaired connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and MAPK signaling, pro-hypertrophic factors, as well as TGF-?/Smad signaling, the important contributing factors to fibrosis. The protective impact of cucurbitacin I was significantly blunted in CTGF-silenced or TGF-?1-silenced hypertrophic cardiomyocytes, indicating that the compound exerts its beneficial actions through CTGF. Taken together, these findings signify that cucurbitacin I protects the heart against cardiac hypertrophy via inhibition of CTGF/MAPK, and TGF- ?/Smad-facilitated events. Accordingly, the present study provides new insights into the defensive capacity of cucurbitacin I against cardiac hypertrophy, and further suggesting cucurbitacin I's utility as a novel therapeutic agent for the management of heart diseases. PMID:26296085

  18. Mechanically relevant consequences of the composite laminate-like design of the abdominal wall muscles and connective tissues.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephen H M

    2012-05-01

    Together, three abdominal wall muscles (external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis) form a tightly bound muscular sheet that has been likened to a composite-laminate structure. Previous work has demonstrated the ability of force generated by these three muscles to be passed between one another through connective tissue linkages. Muscle fibres in each muscle are obliquely oriented with respect to its neighbouring muscles. It is proposed here is that this unique morphology of the abdominal wall muscles functions, through the application of constraining forces amongst the muscles, to increase force- and stiffness-generating capabilities. This paper presents a mathematical formulation of the stress-strain relationship for a transversely isotropic fibrous composite, and establishes a strengthening and stiffening effect when stress can be transferred between the fibrous layers. Application of empirical mechanical properties to this formulation demonstrates this effect for the abdominal wall muscles and, in greater proportion, for the anterior aponeurosis of the abdominal wall. This has implications for increasing the stiffness and passive load bearing ability of the abdominal wall muscles, and has the potential to modulate the whole muscle force-length and force-velocity relationships during contraction. PMID:22137674

  19. Is it necessary to perform connective tissue disorders laboratory tests when a patient experiences the first demyelinating attack?

    PubMed Central

    Etemadifar, Masoud; Fatemi, Alimohammad; Hashemijazi, Hourossadat; Kazemizadeh, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Background: It may be difficult to differentiate between the first demyelinating attack and the neurological manifestations of connective tissue diseases. Materials and Methods: A total of 79 patients with optic neuritis were compared with 79 healthy controls. Their blood samples were tested for erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), anti?2-Glycoprotein I antibody (IgG, IgM), anticardiolipin antibody (IgM, IgG), lupus anticoagulant, anti-double strand DNA (anri-ds DNA), antinuclear antibody (ANA), anti-myeloperoxidae (p-ANCA), and anti-Proteinase 3 (C-ANCA). Results: In clinically isolated syndrome group ?2-Glycoprotein (IgM) and lupus anti-coagulant were positive in 1.3% of patients whereas ANA was positive in 1.3% and anti-?2-Glycoprotein I (IgM) was positive in 2.5% of control group. No rheumatologic disease was found in objects with positive tests. Conclusion: This study shows no specific difference between two groups. PMID:24516496

  20. CCN2/Connective Tissue Growth Factor Is Essential for Pericyte Adhesion and Endothelial Basement Membrane Formation during Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bau-Lin; van Handel, Ben; Hofmann, Jennifer J.; Chen, Tom T.; Choi, Aaron; Ong, Jessica R.; Benya, Paul D.; Mikkola, Hanna; Iruela-Arispe, M. Luisa; Lyons, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    CCN2/Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) is a matricellular protein that regulates cell adhesion, migration, and survival. CCN2 is best known for its ability to promote fibrosis by mediating the ability of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) to induce excess extracellular matrix production. In addition to its role in pathological processes, CCN2 is required for chondrogenesis. CCN2 is also highly expressed during development in endothelial cells, suggesting a role in angiogenesis. The potential role of CCN2 in angiogenesis is unclear, however, as both pro- and anti-angiogenic effects have been reported. Here, through analysis of Ccn2-deficient mice, we show that CCN2 is required for stable association and retention of pericytes by endothelial cells. PDGF signaling and the establishment of the endothelial basement membrane are required for pericytes recruitment and retention. CCN2 induced PDGF-B expression in endothelial cells, and potentiated PDGF-B-mediated Akt signaling in mural (vascular smooth muscle/pericyte) cells. In addition, CCN2 induced the production of endothelial basement membrane components in vitro, and was required for their expression in vivo. Overall, these results highlight CCN2 as an essential mediator of vascular remodeling by regulating endothelial-pericyte interactions. Although most studies of CCN2 function have focused on effects of CCN2 overexpression on the interstitial extracellular matrix, the results presented here show that CCN2 is required for the normal production of vascular basement membranes. PMID:22363445

  1. Cucurbitacin I Attenuates Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy via Inhibition of Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CCN2) and TGF- ?/Smads Signalings

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hara; Park, Kye Won; Park, Woo Jin; Yang, Seung Yul; Yang, Dong Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Cucurbitacin I is a naturally occurring triterpenoid derived from Cucurbitaceae family plants that exhibits a number of potentially useful pharmacological and biological activities. However, the therapeutic impact of cucurbitacin I on the heart has not heretofore been reported. To evaluate the functional role of cucurbitacin I in an in vitro model of cardiac hypertrophy, phenylephrine (PE)-stimulated cardiomyocytes were treated with a sub-cytotoxic concentration of the compound, and the effects on cell size and mRNA expression levels of ANF and ?-MHC were investigated. Consequently, PE-induced cell enlargement and upregulation of ANF and ?-MHC were significantly suppressed by pretreatment of the cardiomyocytes with cucurbitacin I. Notably, cucurbitacin I also impaired connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and MAPK signaling, pro-hypertrophic factors, as well as TGF-?/Smad signaling, the important contributing factors to fibrosis. The protective impact of cucurbitacin I was significantly blunted in CTGF-silenced or TGF-?1-silenced hypertrophic cardiomyocytes, indicating that the compound exerts its beneficial actions through CTGF. Taken together, these findings signify that cucurbitacin I protects the heart against cardiac hypertrophy via inhibition of CTGF/MAPK, and TGF- ?/Smad-facilitated events. Accordingly, the present study provides new insights into the defensive capacity of cucurbitacin I against cardiac hypertrophy, and further suggesting cucurbitacin Is utility as a novel therapeutic agent for the management of heart diseases. PMID:26296085

  2. The Prevalence of Atherosclerosis in Those with Inflammatory Connective Tissue Disease by Race, Age, and Traditional Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Alenghat, Francis J.

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammation promotes cardiovascular disease. Inflammatory connective tissue diseases (CTD) like lupus and rheumatoid arthritis associate with cardiovascular risk, but it is unknown whether particular groups of patients have enhanced propensity for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) associated with their CTD. Analysis of aggregate health record data at a large U.S. academic center identified CTD and ASCVD status for 287,467 African American and white adults. ASCVD prevalence in those with CTD was 29.7% for African Americans and 14.7% for white patients with prevalence ratios, compared to those without CTD, of 3.1 and 1.8, respectively. When different types of CTD were analyzed individually (rheumatoid arthritis; lupus; scleroderma; Sjögren Syndrome; dermatomyositis/polymyositis; unspecified/mixed CTD; other inflammatory arthropathy), increased ASCVD rates were found in nearly all subsets, always with higher prevalence ratios in African Americans. The prevalence ratio of ASCVD was particularly high in young African Americans. Furthermore, individuals lacking traditional cardiovascular risk factors had more ASCVD if they had CTD (prevalence ratio 2.9). Multivariate analysis confirmed a positive interaction between CTD and African-American race and a negative interaction between CTD and age. The factors driving the observed disproportionate CTD-associated ASCVD in African Americans, young adults, and those without traditional risk factors warrant further study. PMID:26842423

  3. Expression variations of connective tissue growth factor in pulmonary arteries from smokers with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Si-jing; Li, Min; Zeng, Da-xiong; Zhu, Zhong-ming; Hu, Xian-Wei; Li, Yong-huai; Wang, Ran; Sun, Geng-yun

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking contributes to the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) complicated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the pulmonary vascular remodeling, the structural basis of PH, could be attributed to abnormal proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs).In this study, morphometrical analysis showed that the pulmonary vessel wall thickness in smoker group and COPD group was significantly greater than in nonsmokers. In addition, we determined the expression patterns of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and cyclin D1 in PASMCs harvested from smokers with normal lung function or mild to moderate COPD, finding that the expression levels of CTGF and cyclin D1 were significantly increased in smoker group and COPD group. In vitro experiment showed that the expression of CTGF, cyclin D1 and E2F were significantly increased in human PASMCs (HPASMCs) treated with 2% cigarette smoke extract (CSE), and two CTGF siRNAs with different mRNA hits successfully attenuated the upregulated cyclin D1 and E2F, and significantly restored the CSE-induced proliferation of HPASMCs by causing cell cycle arrest in G0. These findings suggest that CTGF may contribute to the pathogenesis of abnormal proliferation of HPASMCs by promoting the expression of its downstream effectors in smokers with or without COPD. PMID:25708588

  4. Inhibition of collagen production in scleroderma fibroblast cultures by a connective tissue glycoprotein extracted from normal dermis

    SciTech Connect

    Maquart, F.X.; Bellon, G.; Cornillet-Stoupy, J.; Randoux, A.; Triller, R.; Kalis, B.; Borel, J.P.

    1985-08-01

    It was shown in a previous paper that a connective tissue glycoprotein (CTGP) extracted from normal rabbit dermis was able to inhibit total protein and collagen syntheses by normal dermis fibroblast cultures. In the present study, the effects of CTGP on scleroderma fibroblasts were investigated. (/sup 14/C)Proline incorporation into total proteins of the supernatant was not significantly different from that found in controls. By contrast, the amount of collagen, expressed as percentage of total secreted protein, was far higher in scleroderma cultures than in normal ones (14.4% +/- 6.0% vs 4.6% +/- 0.9%). Addition of CTGP to the medium induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of (/sup 14/C)proline incorporation into proteins from both control and scleroderma cells. In control cultures, no significant decrease of the percentage of collagen was observed, but over 60 micrograms/ml, both cytotoxic effects and inhibition of protein synthesis occurred. In scleroderma cultures, the inhibition was twice as effective on collagen as on noncollagen protein synthesis. The inhibition of collagen secretion was not related either to changes in collagen hydroxylation or to the intracellular catabolism of newly synthesized procollagen.

  5. Personal Authentication Analysis Using Finger-Vein Patterns in Patients with Connective Tissue Diseases—Possible Association with Vascular Disease and Seasonal Change -

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Miyuki; Miura, Naoto; Fujii, Takao; Ohmura, Koichiro; Yoshifuji, Hajime; Yukawa, Naoichiro; Imura, Yoshitaka; Nakashima, Ran; Ikeda, Takaharu; Umemura, Shin-ichiro; Miyatake, Takafumi; Mimori, Tsuneyo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine how connective tissue diseases affect finger-vein pattern authentication. Methods The finger-vein patterns of 68 patients with connective tissue diseases and 24 healthy volunteers were acquired. Captured as CCD (charge-coupled device) images by transmitting near-infrared light through fingers, they were followed up in once in each season for one year. The similarity of the follow-up patterns and the initial one was evaluated in terms of their normalized cross-correlation C. Results The mean C values calculated for patients tended to be lower than those calculated for healthy volunteers. In midwinter (February in Japan) they showed statistically significant reduction both as compared with patients in other seasons and as compared with season-matched healthy controls, whereas the values calculated for healthy controls showed no significant seasonal changes. Values calculated for patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) or mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) showed major reductions in November and, especially, February. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and patients with dermatomyositis or polymyositis (DM/PM) did not show statistically significant seasonal changes in C values. Conclusions Finger-vein patterns can be used throughout the year to identify patients with connective tissue diseases, but some attention is needed for patients with advanced disease such as SSc. PMID:26701644

  6. Study of chemical properties and evaluation of collagen in mantle, epidermal connective tissue and tentacle of Indian Squid, Loligo duvauceli Orbigny.

    PubMed

    Raman, Maya; Mathew, Saleena

    2014-08-01

    The chemical composition and evaluation of Indian squid (Loligo duvauceli) mantle, epidermal connective tissue and tentacle is investigated in this current study. It is observed that squid mantle contains 22.2% total protein; 63.5% of the total protein is myofibrillar protein. The unique property of squid myofibrillar protein is its water solubility. Squid mantle contains 12.0% total collagen. Epidermal connective tissue has highest amounts of total collagen (17.8%). SDS-PAGE of total collagen identified high molecular weight α-, β- and γ- sub-chains. Amino acid profile analysis indicates that mantle and tentacle contain essential amino acids. Arginine forms a major portion of mantle collagen (272.5 g/100 g N). Isoleucine, glutamic acid and lysine are other amino acids that are found in significantly high amounts in the mantle. Sulphur containing cystine is deficit in mantle collagen. Papain digest of mantle and epidermal connective tissue is rich in uronic acid, while papain digest, collagenase digest and urea digest of epidermal connective tissue has significant amounts of sialic acid (25.2, 33.2 and 99.8 μmol /100 g, respectively). PAS staining of papain digest, collagenase digest and urea digest also identify the association of hexoses with low molecular weight collagen fragments. Histochemical sectioning also emphasized the localized distribution of collagen in epidermal and dermal region and very sparse fibres traverse the myotome bundles. PMID:25114341

  7. Reconceiving autoimmunity: An overview.

    PubMed

    Tauber, Alfred I

    2015-06-21

    Three interconnected positions are advocated: (1) although serving as a useful model, the immune self does not exist as such; (2) instead of a self/nonself demarcation, the immune system 'sees' itself, i.e., it does not ignore the 'self' or attack the 'other;' but exhibits a spectrum of responses, which when viewed from outside the system appear as discrimination of 'self' and 'nonself' based on certain criteria of reactivity. When immune reactions are conceived in terms of normal physiology and open exchange with the environment, where borders dividing host and foreign are elusive and changing, host defense is only part of the immune system's functions, which actually comprise two basic tasks: protection, i.e., to preserve host integrity, and maintenance of organismic identity. And thus (3) if the spectrum of immunity is enlarged, differentiating low reactive 'autoimmune' reactions from activated immune responses against the 'other' is only a matter of degree. Simply, all immunity is 'autoimmunity,' and the pathologic state of immunity directed at normal constituents of the organism is a particular case of dis-regulation, which appropriately is designated, autoimmune. Other uses of 'autoimmunity' and its congeners function as the semantic remnants of Burnet's original self/nonself theory and should be replaced. A new nomenclature is proposed, concinnity, which more accurately designates the physiology of the animal's ordinary housekeeping economy mediated by the immune system than 'autoimmunity' when used to describe such normal functions. PMID:24880023

  8. Epigenetics in human autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    STRICKLAND, FAITH M.; RICHARDSON, BRUCE C.

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and function of the immune system. Similarly, a failure to maintain epigenetic homeostasis in the immune response due to factors including environmental influences, leads to aberrant gene expression, contributing to immune dysfunction and in some cases the development of autoimmunity in genetically predisposed individuals. This is exemplified by systemic lupus erythematosus, where environmentally induced epigenetic changes contribute to disease pathogenesis in those genetically predisposed. Similar interactions between genetically determined susceptibility and environmental factors are implicated in other systemic autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and scleroderma, as well as in organ specific autoimmunity. The skin is exposed to a wide variety of environmental agents, including UV radiation, and is prone to the development of autoimmune conditions such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and some forms of vitiligo, depending on environmental and genetic influences. Herein we review how disruption of epigenetic mechanisms can alter immune function using lupus as an example, and summarize how similar mechanisms may contribute to other human autoimmune rheumatic and skin diseases. PMID:18432408

  9. Questions and Answers on Autoimmunity and Autoimmune Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Email AARDA Feedback Newsroom In The News> Statistics Questions and Answers Questions & Answers What is autoimmunity? One of the functions ... Autoimmunity The Common Thread Coping Tools InFocus Newsletter Questions & Answers Fundraising Grassroots Fundraising Workplace Giving Special Events ...

  10. Chagas Disease and the Autoimmunity Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Kierszenbaum, Felipe

    1999-01-01

    The notion that the pathology of Chagas disease has an autoimmune component was initially based on the finding of circulating antibodies binding heart tissue antigens in patients and mice chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Later, T lymphocytes reactive with heart or nerve tissue antigens were found in chagasic mice and patients, extending the concept to include cell-mediated immunity. However, there is disagreement about whether the observed immunologic autoreactivities are triggered by T. cruzi epitopes and then affect host tissue antigens by virtue of molecular mimicry or are elicited by host antigens exposed to lymphocytes after tissue damage caused by the parasite. There is also disagreement about the relevance of immunologic autoreactivities to the pathogenesis of Chagas disease because of the lack of reproducibility of some key reports supporting the autoimmunity hypothesis, conflicting data from independent laboratories, conclusions invalidated by advances in our understanding of the immunologic mechanisms underlying cell lysis, and, last but not least, a lack of direct, incontrovertible evidence that cross-reacting antibodies or autoreactive cells mediate the typical pathologic changes associated with human Chagas disease. The data and views backing and questioning the autoimmunity hypothesis for Chagas disease are summarized in this review. PMID:10194457

  11. Cystic Lesions in Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Gompertz, Macarena; Morales, Claudia; Aldana, Hernán; Castillo, Jaime; Berger, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) can be chronic or recurrent, but frequently completely reversible after steroid treatment. A cystic lesion in AIP is a rare finding, and it can mimic a pancreatic cystic neoplasm. Difficulties in an exact diagnosis interfere with treatment, and surgery cannot be avoided in some cases. We report the history of a 63-year-old male presenting with jaundice and pruritus. AIP was confirmed by imaging and elevated IgG4 blood levels, and the patient completely recovered after corticosteroid therapy. One year later, he presented with a recurrent episode of AIP with elevated IgG4 levels, accompanied by the appearance of multiple intrapancreatic cystic lesions. All but 1 of these cysts disappeared after steroid treatment, but the remaining cyst in the pancreatic head was even somewhat larger 1 year later. Pancreatoduodenectomy was finally performed. Histology showed the wall of the cystic lesion to be fibrotic; the surrounding pancreatic tissue presented fibrosis, atrophy and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration by IgG4-positive cells, without malignant elements. Our case illustrates the rare possibility that cystic lesions can be part of AIP. These pseudocysts appear in the pancreatic segments involved in the autoimmune disease and can be a consequence of the local inflammation or related to ductal strictures. Steroid treatment should be initiated, after which these cysts can completely disappear with recovery from AIP. Surgical intervention may be necessary in some exceptional cases. PMID:26675058

  12. Cellular Targeting in Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Jennifer L.; Serafin, Donald S.; Timoshchenko, Roman G.; Tarrant, Teresa K.

    2012-01-01

    Many biologic agents that were first approved for the treatment of malignancies are now being actively investigated and used in a variety of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and Sjogren’s syndrome. The relatively recent advance of selective immune targeting has significantly changed the management of autoimmune disorders, and in part, can be attributed to the progress made in understanding effector cell function and their signaling pathways. In this review, we will discuss the recent FDA approved biologic therapies that directly target immune cells as well as the most promising investigational drugs affecting immune cell function and signaling for the treatment of autoimmune disease. PMID:23054625

  13. Inflammasomes and autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Patrick J.; McDermott, Michael F.; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2010-01-01

    The NOD-like receptor (NLR) family members are cytosolic sensors of microbial components and danger signals. A subset of NLRs control inflammasome assembly that results in caspase-1 activation and, in turn, IL-1β and IL-18 production. Excessive inflammasome activation can cause autoinflammatory disorders, including the hereditary periodic fevers. Autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases form a disease spectrum of aberrant, immune-mediated inflammation against self, through innate and adaptive immunity. However, the role of inflammasomes in autoimmune disease is less clear than in autoinflammation, despite the numerous effects IL-1β and IL-18 can have on shaping adaptive immunity. We summarize the role of inflammasomes in autoimmune disorders, highlight the need for a better understanding of inflammasomes in these conditions and offer suggestions for future research directions. PMID:21163704

  14. Epigenetics and Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Quintero-Ronderos, Paula; Montoya-Ortiz, Gladis

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetics is defined as the study of all inheritable and potentially reversible changes in genome function that do not alter the nucleotide sequence within the DNA. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modification, nucleosome positioning, and microRNAs (miRNAs) are essential to carry out key functions in the regulation of gene expression. Therefore, the epigenetic mechanisms are a window to understanding the possible mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of complex diseases such as autoimmune diseases. It is noteworthy that autoimmune diseases do not have the same epidemiology, pathology, or symptoms but do have a common origin that can be explained by the sharing of immunogenetic mechanisms. Currently, epigenetic research is looking for disruption in one or more epigenetic mechanisms to provide new insights into autoimmune diseases. The identification of cell-specific targets of epigenetic deregulation will serve us as clinical markers for diagnosis, disease progression, and therapy approaches. PMID:22536485

  15. EBV and Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Ascherio, Alberto; Munger, Kassandra L

    2015-01-01

    Although a role of EBV in autoimmunity is biologically plausible and evidence of altered immune responses to EBV is abundant in several autoimmune diseases, inference on causality requires the determination that disease risk is higher in individuals infected with EBV than in those uninfected and that in the latter it increases following EBV infection. This determination has so far been possible only for multiple sclerosis (MS) and, to some extent, for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), whereas evidence is either lacking or not supportive for other autoimmune conditions. In this chapter, we present the main epidemiological findings that justify the conclusion that EBV is a component cause of MS and SLE and possible mechanisms underlying these effects. PMID:26424654

  16. Autoimmune encephalitis update

    PubMed Central

    Dalmau, Josep; Rosenfeld, Myrna R.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer-associated immune-mediated disorders of the central nervous system are a heterogeneous group. These disorders include the classic paraneoplastic neurologic disorders and the more recently described autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies to neuronal cell-surface or synaptic receptors that occur with and without a cancer association. Autoimmune encephalitis is increasingly recognized as the cause of a variety of neuropsychiatric syndromes that can be severe and prolonged. In contrast to the classic paraneoplastic disorders that are poorly responsive to tumor treatment and immunotherapy, autoimmune encephalitis often responds to these treatments, and patients can have full or marked recoveries. As early treatment speeds recovery, reduces disability, and decreases relapses that can occur in about 20% of cases, it is important that the immune pathogenesis of these disorders is recognized. PMID:24637228

  17. Inflammasomes and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Patrick J; McDermott, Michael F; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2011-02-01

    The NOD-like receptor (NLR) family members are cytosolic sensors of microbial components and danger signals. A subset of NLRs control inflammasome assembly that results in caspase-1 activation and, in turn, IL-1? and IL-18 production. Excessive inflammasome activation can cause autoinflammatory disorders, including the hereditary periodic fevers. Autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases form a disease spectrum of aberrant, immune-mediated inflammation against self, through innate and adaptive immunity. However, the role of inflammasomes in autoimmune disease is less clear than in autoinflammation, despite the numerous effects IL-1? and IL-18 can have on shaping adaptive immunity. We summarize the role of inflammasomes in autoimmune disorders, highlight the need for a better understanding of inflammasomes in these conditions and offer suggestions for future research directions. PMID:21163704

  18. Cellular targeting in autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Jennifer L; Serafin, Donald S; Timoshchenko, Roman G; Tarrant, Teresa K

    2012-12-01

    Many biologic agents that were first approved for the treatment of malignancies are now being actively investigated and used in a variety of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and Sjogren's syndrome. The relatively recent advance of selective immune targeting has significantly changed the management of autoimmune disorders and in part can be attributed to the progress made in understanding effector cell function and their signaling pathways. In this review, we will discuss the recent FDA-approved biologic therapies that directly target immune cells as well as the most promising investigational drugs affecting immune cell function and signaling for the treatment of autoimmune disease. PMID:23054625

  19. Anti Tumor Immunity Can Be Uncoupled From Autoimmunity Following Hsp70-Mediated Inflammatory Killing Of Normal Pancreas1

    PubMed Central

    Kottke, Timothy; Pulido, Jose; Thompson, Jill; Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Chong, Heung; Calderwood, Stuart K.; Selby, Peter; Harrington, Kevin; Melcher, Alan; Vile, Richard

    2009-01-01

    We have a long term interest in the connectivity between autoimmunity and tumor rejection. However, outside of the melanocyte/melanoma paradigm, little is known about whether autoimmune responses to normal tissue can induce rejection of tumors of the same histological type. Here, we induced direct, pathogen-like cytotoxicity to the normal pancreas in association with the immune adjuvant hsp70. In sharp contrast to our studies with a similar approach for the treatment of prostate cancer, inflammatory killing of the normal pancreas induced a Th-1-like, anti-self response to pancreatic antigens which was rapidly suppressed by a concomitant suppressive regulatory T cell (Treg) response. Interestingly, even when Treg cells were depleted, the Th-1-like response was insufficient to induce significant ongoing autoimmunity. However, the Th-1-like response to antigens expressed in the pancreas at the time of damage was sufficient to induce rejection of tumors expressing either a foreign (ova) antigen, or fully syngeneic tumor antigens (on PancO2 tumor cells), provided that Treg were depleted prior to inflammatory killing of the normal pancreas. Taken together, these data indicate that profound differences exist between the immunoprotective mechanisms in place between different tissues (pancreas and prostate) in their response to pathogen-like damage. Moreover, they also show that, although multiple layers of immunological safeguards are in place to prevent the development of severe autoimmune consequences in the pancreas (in contrast to the prostate), tumor rejection responses can still be de-coupled from pathological autoimmune responses in vivo, which may provide novel insights into the immunotherapeutic treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:19738045

  20. Treating Human Autoimmunity: Current Practice and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Michael D.; Gratz, Iris K.; Paw, Jonathan S.; Abbas, Abul K.

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases are caused by immune cells attacking the host tissues they are supposed to protect. Recent advances suggest that maintaining a balance of effector and regulatory immune function is critical for avoiding autoimmunity. New therapies, including costimulation blockade, regulatory T cell therapy, antigen-specific immunotherapy, and manipulating the interleukin-2 pathway, attempt to restore this balance. This review discusses these advances as well as the challenges that must be overcome to target these therapies to patients suffering from autoimmune disease while avoiding the pitfalls of general immunosuppression. PMID:22422994

  1. The management of autoimmunity in patients with cholestatic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmad H; Carey, Elizabeth J; Lindor, Keith D

    2016-01-01

    Cholestatic liver diseases are rare diseases that often lead to cirrhosis and its consequent complications. In addition to liver-related morbidity, patients with cholestatic liver diseases often suffer from autoimmune diseases that affect several organs and tissues. The robust and efficient data collection and collaboration between hepatologists and rheumatologists have led to significant advancements in understanding the relationship between the cholestatic liver diseases and associated autoimmune diseases. In this paper, we discuss the cholestatic liver diseases (primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis and immunoglobulin G4 associated cholangitis) and associated autoimmune diseases. PMID:26523975

  2. Cutaneous expressions of interleukin-6 and neutrophil elastase as well as levels of serum IgA antibodies to gliadin nonapeptides, tissue transglutaminase and epidermal transglutaminase: implications for both autoimmunity and autoinflammation involvement in dermatitis herpetiformis

    PubMed Central

    Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika; Seraszek-Jaros, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, El?bieta; Pietkiewicz, Pawe?; Dmochowski, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) seems to be a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disease of partially known origin. In light of its known biological functions and its involvement in tissue pathology in other disease states, particularly in nickel-induced allergic contact dermatitis coexisting with DH, it would appear that the central and peripheral response by neutrophils and their mediators (e.g. neutrophil elastase NE) in DH may be partially mediated by interleukin-6 (IL-6). The aim of the study was to assess the role of IL -6 in DH lesions by examining the relationships between IL -6/NE cutaneous expression and levels of serum anti-nonapeptides of gliadin (npG) IgA, anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG) immunoglobulin A (IgA), anti-epidermal transglutaminase (eTG) IgA in DH. Material and methods In total, 24 DH patients having IgA cutaneous deposition were studied. Immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded sections with quantitative digital morphometry was used to measure the intensity of IL -6 and NE cutaneous expressions. Levels of serum anti-npG IgA, anti-tTG IgA and anti-eTG IgA were evaluated with ELISA. Results We found no statistically significant correlation between the NE and IL -6 expression intensities. Our results revealed also a lack of correlations between NE/IL -6 expressions and levels of anti-npG IgA, anti-tTG IgA, anti-eTG IgA in DH. However, the IL -6 expression level was significantly lower than that of NE. Conclusions The lack of correlations suggested no substantial interactions between IL -6, NE, IgA/npG, IgA/tTG or IgA/eTG in DH. Presented results might indicate the heterogenetic nature of DH pathogenesis suggesting further that both autoimmune and autoinflammatory phenomena may be involved in DH cutaneous pathology. PMID:26155144

  3. Vaccination and autoimmunity-'vaccinosis': a dangerous liaison?

    PubMed

    Shoenfeld, Y; Aron-Maor, A

    2000-02-01

    The question of a connection between vaccination and autoimmune illness (or phenomena) is surrounded by controversy. A heated debate is going on regarding the causality between vaccines, such as measles and anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV), and multiple sclerosis (MS). Brain antibodies as well as clinical symptoms have been found in patients vaccinated against those diseases. Other autoimmune illnesses have been associated with vaccinations. Tetanus toxoid, influenza vaccines, polio vaccine, and others, have been related to phenomena ranging from autoantibodies production to full-blown illness (such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA)). Conflicting data exists regarding also the connection between autism and vaccination with measles vaccine. So far only one controlled study of an experimental animal model has been published, in which the possible causal relation between vaccines and autoimmune findings has been examined: in healthy puppies immunized with a variety of commonly given vaccines, a variety of autoantibodies have been documented but no frank autoimmune illness was recorded. The findings could also represent a polyclonal activation (adjuvant reaction). The mechanism (or mechanisms) of autoimmune reactions following immunization has not yet been elucidated. One of the possibilities is molecular mimicry; when a structural similarity exists between some viral antigen (or other component of the vaccine) and a self-antigen. This similarity may be the trigger to the autoimmune reaction. Other possible mechanisms are discussed. Even though the data regarding the relation between vaccination and autoimmune disease is conflicting, it seems that some autoimmune phenomena are clearly related to immunization (e.g. Guillain-Barre syndrome). The issue of the risk of vaccination remains a philosophical one, since to date the advantages of this policy have not been refuted, while the risk for autoimmune disease has not been irrevocably proved. We discuss the pros and cons of this issue (although the temporal relationship (i.e. always 2-3 months following immunization) is impressive). PMID:10648110

  4. [Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in children].

    PubMed

    Becheur, M; Bouslama, B; Slama, H; Toumi, N E H

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a rare condition in children which differs from the adult form. It is defined by immune-mediated destruction of red blood cells caused by autoantibodies. Characteristics of the autoantibodies are responsible for the various clinical entities. Classifications of autoimmune hemolytic anemia include warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia, cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria. For each classification, this review discusses the epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, laboratory evaluation, and treatment options. PMID:26575109

  5. Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Marmosets.

    PubMed

    Jagessar, S Anwar; Dijkman, Karin; Dunham, Jordon; 't Hart, Bert A; Kap, Yolanda S

    2016-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the common marmoset, a small-bodied Neotropical primate, is a well-known and validated animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS). This model can be used for exploratory research, i.e., investigating the pathogenic mechanisms involved in MS, and applied research, testing the efficacy of new potential drugs.In this chapter, we will describe a method to induce EAE in the marmoset. In addition, we will explain the most common immunological techniques involved in the marmoset EAE research, namely isolation of mononuclear cells (MNC) from peripheral blood and lymphoid tissue, assaying T cell proliferation by thymidine incorporation, MNC phenotyping by flow cytometry, antibody measurement by ELISA, generation of B cell lines and antigen-specific T cell lines, and assaying cytotoxic T cells. PMID:25208751

  6. Clinical and biometrical evaluation of socket preservation using demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft with and without the palatal connective tissue as a biologic membrane

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddas, Hamid; Amjadi, Mohammad Reza; Naghsh, Narges

    2012-01-01

    Background: Alveolar ridge preservation following tooth extraction has the ability to maintain the ridge dimensions and allow the implant placement in an ideal position fulfilling both functional and aesthetic results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the palatal connective tissue as a biological membrane for socket preservation with demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA). Materials and Methods: Twelve extraction sites were treated with DFDBA with (case group) and without (control group) using autogenous palatal connective tissue membrane before placement of implants. Alveolar width and height, amount of keratinized tissue, and gingival level were measured at pre-determined points using a surgical stent at two times, the time of socket preservation surgery Results: In both groups a decrease in all socket dimensions was found. The average decrease in socket width, height, keratinized tissue, and gingival level in case group was 1.16, 0.72, 3.58, and 1.27 mm, and in control group was 2.08, 0.86, 4.52, and 1.58 mm respectively. Statistical analysis showed that decrease in socket width (P = 0.012), keratinized tissue (P ≤ 0.001), and gingival level (P = 0.031) in case group was significantly lower than that of the control group. Results showed no meaningful difference in socket height changes when compared with case and control groups (P = 0.148). Conclusion: Under the limits of this study, connective tissue membrane could preserve socket width, amount of keratinized tissue, and the gingival level more effectively than DFDBA alone. PMID:23559955

  7. Lysophosphatidic acid upregulates connective tissue growth factor expression in osteoblasts through the GPCR/PKC and PKA pathways.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zi-Li; Li, Dian-Qi; Huang, Xiang-Yu; Xing, Xin; Yu, Ru-Qing; Li, Zhi; Li, Zu-Bing

    2016-02-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid(LPA) is an efficient, bioactive phospholipid involved in various biological processes. In this study, LPA-induced connective tissue growth factor(CTGF/CCN2) expression and the underlying mechanisms were investigated using the MC3T3-E1 cell line. The MC3T3-E1 cells were stimulated with an inhibitor of LPA receptors, an activator and inhibitor of protein kinaseC(PKC) and protein kinaseA(PKA) for indicated periods of time. RT-qPCR and western blot analyses were used to measure the expression levels of CCN2. Immunofluorescence staining was used to observe the translocation of PKC. The mRNA expression level of CCN2 was increased following stimulation of the cells with LPA; LPA transiently induced the mRNA expression of CCN2; maximum expression levels were observed 2h following stimulation with LPA. This increase was accompanied by CCN2 protein synthesis. LPA receptor1/3 was inhibited by Ki16425, a specific inhibitor of LPA1/3; as a result, the LPA-induced increase in CCN2 expression was abrogated. LPA also induced the membrane translocation of PKC and enhanced PKC activity in the osteoblasts. Pre-treatment of the osteoblasts with staurosporine prevented the increase in CCN2 expression by induced by LPA, and the activation of PKC by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate(PMA) enhanced CCN2 expression, indicating that the PKC pathway is involved in the LPA-induced increase in CCN2 expression. The interference of PKA signaling also led to the induction of CCN2 expresion by LPA. These data indicate that LPA increases CCN2 expression through the activation of PKC and PKA. Thus, the regulatory functions of the PKC and PKA pathways are implicated in the LPA-induced increase in CCN2 expression. PMID:26743816

  8. Clinical characteristics and survival in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and connective tissue disease-associated usual interstitial pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported conflicting survival rates for connective tissue disease (CTD)-associated usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF/UIP). This study investigated the differences in the clinical characteristics and prognoses of patients diagnosed with CTD-UIP and IPF/UIP. Methods A retrospective review of patients with IPF (n=88) and CTD-UIP (n=67) from January 2008 to June 2013 was completed. We compared the demographics and clinical characteristics between the two groups. Survival rates were compared using a log-rank and Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. Results Undifferentiated-CTD (UCTD) accounted for 33% of the established CTD-UIP cases. No significant differences were identified in the demographic characteristics or physiological parameters between the UCTD and CTD patients (all P>0.05). However, the CTD-UIP patients were more likely to be young, female, and nonsmokers compared with the IPF/UIP group (all P<0.01). There was no difference in survival between the IPF/UIP and CTD-UIP patients [hazard ratio (HR), 1.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.86-3.50; P=0.113]. However, the removal of the UCTD patients from the CTD group revealed that IPF/UIP was associated with a 2.47-fold increased risk of mortality compared with CTD-UIP (HR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.01-6.09; P=0.049). Conclusions Our findings indicate that the survival of CTD-UIP patients was similar compared with that of IPF/UIP patients. However, it appears that UCTD influences the survival rate of CTD-UIP patients. PMID:25922716

  9. Regulation of Connective Tissue Growth Factor and Cardiac Fibrosis by an SRF/MicroRNA-133a Axis

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Aude; Li, Zhenlin; Mericskay, Mathias; Decaux, Jean-Franois

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial fibrosis contributes to the remodeling of heart and the loss of cardiac function leading to heart failure. SRF is a transcription factor implicated in the regulation of a large variety of genes involved in cardiac structure and function. To investigate the impact of an SRF overexpression in heart, we developed a new cardiac-specific and tamoxifen-inducible SRF overexpression mouse model by the Cre/loxP strategy. Here, we report that a high level overexpression of SRF leads to severe modifications of cardiac cytoarchitecture affecting the balance between cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts and also a profound alteration of cardiac gene expression program. The drastic development of fibrosis was characterized by intense sirius red staining and associated with an increased expression of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin, procollagen type 1?1 and type 3?1 and especially connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Furthermore miR-133a, one of the most predominant cardiac miRNAs, is strongly downregulated when SRF is overexpressed. By comparison a low level overexpression of SRF has minor impact on these different processes. Investigation with miR-133a, antimiR-133a and AdSRF-VP16 experiments in H9c2 cardiac cells demonstrated that: 1)miR-133a acts as a repressor of SRF and CTGF expression; 2)a simultaneous overexpression of SRF by AdSRF-VP16 and inhibition of miR-133a by a specific antimiR increase CTGF expression; 3)miR-133a overexpression can block the upregulation of CTGF induced by AdSRF-VP16. Taken together, these findings reveal a key role of the SRF/CTGF/miR-133a axis in the regulation of cardiac fibrosis. PMID:26440278

  10. Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF/CCN2) Negatively Regulates BMP-2 Induced Osteoblast Differentiation and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mundy, Christina; Gannon, Maureen; Popoff, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 are both produced and secreted by osteoblasts. Both proteins have been shown to have independent effects in regulating osteoblast proliferation, maturation and mineralization. However, how these two proteins interact during osteoblast differentiation remains unknown. In this study, we utilized two cell culture model systems, osteoblasts derived from CTGF knockout (KO) mice and osteoblasts infected with an adenovirus which over-expresses CTGF (Ad-CTGF), to investigate the effects of CTGF and BMP-2 on osteoblast development and function in vitro. Contrary to a previously published report, osteoblast maturation and mineralization were similar in osteogenic cultures derived from KO and WT calvaria in the absence of BMP-2 stimulation. Interestingly, in KO and WT osteoblast cultures stimulated with BMP-2, the KO osteoblasts exhibited enhanced osteoblast differentiation. This increase in osteoblast differentiation was accompanied by increased protein levels of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8 and mRNA expression levels of bone morphogenetic protein receptor Ib. We also examined osteoblast differentiation in cultures that were infected with an adenoviral-CTGF vector (Ad-CTGF) and in controls. Continuous over-expression of CTGF resulted in decreased osteoblast maturation and mineralization in both unstimulated and BMP-2 stimulated cultures. Impaired osteoblast differentiation in cultures over-expressing CTGF was accompanied by decreased protein levels of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8. Collectively, the data from these studies demonstrate that CTGF acts to negatively regulate BMP-2 induced signaling and osteoblast differentiation, and warrant additional studies to determine the precise mechanism(s) responsible for this effect. PMID:24127409

  11. mTOR Complexes Repress Hypertrophic Agonist-Stimulated Expression of Connective Tissue Growth Factor in Adult Cardiac Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Sundararaj, Kamala; Pleasant, Dorea L; Moschella, Phillip C; Panneerselvam, Kavin; Balasubramanian, Sundaravadivel; Kuppuswamy, Dhandapani

    2016-02-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a fibrogenic cytokine that promotes fibrosis in various organs. In the heart, both cardiomyocytes (CM) and cardiac fibroblasts have been reported as a source of CTGF expression, aiding cardiac fibrosis. Although the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) forms 2 distinct complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, and plays a central role in integrating biochemical signals for protein synthesis and cellular homeostasis, we explored its role in CTGF expression in adult feline CM. CM were stimulated with 10 μM phenylephrine (PE), 200 nM angiotensin (Ang), or 100 nM insulin for 24 hours. PE and Ang, but not insulin, caused an increase in CTGF mRNA expression with the highest expression observed with PE. Inhibition of mTOR with torin1 but not rapamycin significantly enhanced PE-stimulated CTGF expression. Furthermore, silencing of raptor and rictor using shRNA adenoviral vectors to suppress mTORC1 and mTORC2, respectively, or blocking phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling with LY294002 (LY) or Akt signaling by dominant-negative Akt expression caused a substantial increase in PE-stimulated CTGF expression as measured by both mRNA and secreted protein levels. However, studies with dominant-negative delta isoform of protein kinase C demonstrate that delta isoform of protein kinase C is required for both agonist-induced CTGF expression and mTORC2/Akt-mediated CTGF suppression. Finally, PE-stimulated CTGF expression was accompanied with a corresponding increase in Smad3 phosphorylation and pretreatment of cells with SIS3, a Smad3 specific inhibitor, partially blocked the PE-stimulated CTGF expression. Therefore, a PI3K/mTOR/Akt axis plays a suppressive role on agonist-stimulated CTGF expression where the loss of this mechanism could be a contributing factor for the onset of cardiac fibrosis in the hypertrophying myocardium. PMID:26371948

  12. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of CXCL8/IL-8 gene expression induced by connective tissue growth factor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Huang; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Chen, Yu-Wen; Lin, Yu-Liang; Chen, Bing-Chang; Chen, Mei-Chieh

    2016-04-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a CCN family member, is a secreted protein regulating cellular functions, including fibrosis, apoptosis, adhesion, migration, differentiation, proliferation, angiogenesis, and chondrogenesis. CTGF increases proinflammatory factor production; however, inflammatory cytokine regulation by CTGF is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify novel biological functions and elucidate the functional mechanisms of CTGF. Specifically, the study focused on the ability of CTGF-primed monocytes to secrete interleukin 8 (CXCL8/IL-8) and determined the signaling pathways involved in CTGF-induced CXCL8/IL-8 gene regulation during inflammation. We transfected wild-type or mutant CXCL8/IL-8 promoter-derived luciferase reporter constructs into 293T cells to examine the effect of CTGF on the CXCL8/IL-8 promoter. The results showed that the activator protein-1 and nuclear factor κB binding sites of the CXCL8/IL-8 promoter are essential for CTGF-induced CXCL8/IL-8 transcription. Moreover, the CTGF-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), c-Jun-N-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is involved in this process. In addition, adenosine-uridine-rich elements (AREs) of the CXCL8/IL-8 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) reduce CXCL8/IL-8 mRNA stability. To investigate whether CTGF regulates CXCL8/IL-8 gene expression at the posttranscriptional level, we transfected 293 cells with serial luciferase constructs containing different segments of the CXCL8/IL-8 3'-UTR and then stimulated the cells with CTGF. The results suggested that CTGF stabilized luciferase mRNA and increased luciferase activity by regulating the CXCL8/IL-8 3'-UTR. Moreover, the p38 MAPK pathway may contribute to CTGF-induced CXCL8/IL-8 mRNA stabilization. PMID:26071024

  13. Connective tissue growth factor/CCN2-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts retain intact transforming growth factor-{beta} responsiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Yasuji; Hinchcliff, Monique; Wu, Minghua; Warner-Blankenship, Matthew; Lyons, Karen M.

    2008-03-10

    Background: The matricellular protein connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) has been implicated in pathological fibrosis, but its physiologic role remains elusive. In vitro, transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) induces CCN2 expression in mesenchymal cells. Because CCN2 can enhance profibrotic responses elicited by TGF-{beta}, it has been proposed that CCN2 functions as an essential downstream signaling mediator for TGF-{beta}. To explore this notion, we characterized TGF-{beta}-induced activation of fibroblasts from CCN2-null (CCN2{sup -/-}) mouse embryos. Methods: The regulation of CCN2 expression was examined in vivo in a model of fibrosis induced by bleomycin. Cellular TGF-{beta} signal transduction and regulation of collagen gene expression were examined in CCN2{sup -/-} MEFs by immunohistochemistry, Northern, Western and RT-PCR analysis, immunocytochemistry and transient transfection assays. Results: Bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis in the mouse was associated with substantial CCN2 up-regulation in lesional fibroblasts. Whereas in vitro proliferation rate of CCN2{sup -/-} MEFs was markedly reduced compared to wild type MEFs, TGF-{beta}-induced activation of the Smad pathways, including Smad2 phosphorylation, Smad2/3 and Smad4 nuclear accumulation and Smad-dependent transcriptional responses, were unaffected by loss of CCN2. The stimulation of COL1A2 and fibronectin mRNA expression and promoter activity, and of corresponding protein levels, showed comparable time and dose-response in wild type and CCN2{sup -/-} MEFs, whereas stimulation of alpha smooth muscle actin and myofibroblast transdifferentiation showed subtle impairment in MEFs lacking CCN2. Conclusion: Whereas endogenous CCN2 plays a role in regulation of proliferation and TGF-{beta}-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation, it appears to be dispensable for Smad-dependent stimulation of collagen and extracellular matrix synthesis in murine embryonic fibroblasts.

  14. Coagulation and Autoimmunity in Scleroderma Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ludwicka-Bradley, Anna; Silver, Richard M.; Bogatkevich, Galina S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis (SSc-ILD) is often an irreversible and progressive fibrosing process that now is the leading cause of scleroderma-related deaths. In this review we present our current understanding of the role played by coagulation and particularly by thrombin in autoimmune-mediated tissue injury and fibrosis, mainly as it relates to SSc-ILD. Methods We used PubMed to search for articles published up to October 2010 for keywords referring to autoimmunity, coagulation, pulmonary fibrosis, and scleroderma. Results SSc-ILD is an autoimmune disease associated with lymphocyte activation and release of various cytokines and growth factors. The production of autoantibodies is a central feature in SSc. Activation of the coagulation cascade with release of thrombin is 1 of the earliest events following tissue injury. Thrombin contributes to autoimmune responses by activating of pathogenic Th2 lymphocyte profile in SSc. Thrombin also modulates tissue repair responses, stimulates transformation of epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts into myofibroblast phenotype, and induces secretion of several pro-immune and profibrotic factors, which serve as antigens for pathogenic autoantibodies production in SSc-ILD. Conclusions The identification of links between autoimmunity and coagulation would provide new insights into the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis associated with autoimmune diseases and further acknowledge the importance of thrombin in the development of SSc-ILD. PMID:21168185

  15. Evaluation of autoimmune phenomena in patients with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS).

    PubMed

    Stagi, Stefano; Rigante, Donato; Lepri, Gemma; Bertini, Federico; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Falcini, Fernanda

    2014-12-01

    The pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) are basically characterized by obsessive-compulsive symptoms and/or tics triggered by group-A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus infections. Poor data are available about the clear definition of PANDAS's autoimmune origin. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of autoimmune phenomena, including thyroid function abnormalities, specific celiac disease antibodies, and positivity of organ- or nonorgan-specific autoantibodies in a large cohort of Caucasian children and adolescents with PANDAS. Seventy-seven consecutive patients (59 males, 18 females; mean age 6.32.5 years, range 2.0-14.5 years) strictly fulfilling the clinical criteria for PANDAS diagnosis were recruited. In all subjects we evaluated serum concentrations of free-T3, free-T4, thyrotropin, and the following auto-antibodies: anti-thyroperoxidase, anti-thyroglobulin, anti-thyrotropin receptor, anti-gliadin, anti-endomysium, anti-tissue transglutaminase, anti-nuclear, anti-smooth muscle, anti-extractable nuclear antigens, anti-phospholipid, plus lupus-like anticoagulant. The results were compared with those obtained from 197 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (130 males, 67 females; mean age 6.82.9 years, range 2.3-14.8 years). The frequencies of subclinical (3.8% vs 3.6%) and overt hypothyroidism (1.2% vs 0%), autoimmune thyroiditis (2.46% vs 1.14%), celiac disease (1.2% vs 0.05%), and positivity of organ- and nonorgan-specific autoantibodies (5.1% vs 4.8%) were not statistically significant between patients with PANDAS and controls. Evaluating the overall disease duration, we did not observe any significant difference between patients with (3.42.15 years) and without (3.42.89 years) autoimmune abnormalities. However, PANDAS patients with autoimmune diseases or positivity for any organ- and nonorgan-specific antibodies showed significantly higher anti-streptolysin O and anti-DNAse B titers, as well as a history of more frequent throat infections than controls (p<0.0001). Abnormalities of thyroid function and thyroid autoimmune diseases, as well as the association with celiac disease or organ- and nonorgan-specific autoimmunity seem not more frequent in children and adolescents with PANDAS than in healthy controls. A potential relationship between autoimmunity and PANDAS should be assessed further in larger studies. Children and adolescents with PANDAS should not be actually screened for thyroid function, celiac disease and/or autoimmune diseases. PMID:25151976

  16. Scurfy mice: A model for autoimmune disease

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, V.L.

    1993-01-01

    Autoimmune disease-the condition in which the body attacks its own tissue-has been an object of public concern recently. Former President George Bush and his wife Barbara both are afflicted with Graves' disease in which the body's own immune system attakcs the thyroid gland. The safety of breast implants was called into question because of evidence that some recipients had developed autoimmune disorders such a rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and scleroderma. Women, the media pointed out, have a higher-than-average incidence of many autoimmune disorders. These events suggest the need to know more about what makes the immune system work so well and what makes it go awry. At ORNL's Biology Division, progress is being in understanding the underlying causes of immune disease by studying mice having a disease that causes them to be underdeveloped; to have scaly skin, small ears, and large spleens; to open their eyes late; and to die early. These [open quotes]scurfy[close quotes]mice are helping us better understand the role of the thymus gland in autoimmune disease.

  17. Altered expression of autoimmune regulator in infant down syndrome thymus, a possible contributor to an autoimmune phenotype.

    PubMed

    Skogberg, Gabriel; Lundberg, Vanja; Lindgren, Susanne; Gudmundsdottir, Judith; Sandstrm, Kerstin; Kmpe, Olle; Annern, Gran; Gustafsson, Jan; Sunnegrdh, Jan; van der Post, Sjoerd; Telemo, Esbjrn; Berglund, Martin; Ekwall, Olov

    2014-09-01

    Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy of chromosome 21, is associated with immunological dysfunctions such as increased frequency of infections and autoimmune diseases. Patients with DS share clinical features, such as autoimmune manifestations and specific autoantibodies, with patients affected by autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 is caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, located on chromosome 21, which regulates the expression of tissue-restricted Ags (TRAs) in thymic epithelial cells. We investigated the expression of AIRE and TRAs in DS and control thymic tissue using quantitative PCR. AIRE mRNA levels were elevated in thymic tissue from DS patients, and trends toward increased expression of the AIRE-controlled genes INSULIN and CHRNA1 were found. Immunohistochemical stainings showed altered cell composition and architecture of the thymic medulla in DS individuals with increased frequencies of AIRE-positive medullary epithelial cells and CD11c-positive dendritic cells as well as enlarged Hassall's corpuscles. In addition, we evaluated the proteomic profile of thymic exosomes in DS individuals and controls. DS exosomes carried a broader protein pool and also a larger pool of unique TRAs compared with control exosomes. In conclusion, the increased AIRE gene dose in DS could contribute to an autoimmune phenotype through multiple AIRE-mediated effects on homeostasis and function of thymic epithelial cells that affect thymic selection processes. PMID:25038256

  18. Altered Expression of Autoimmune Regulator in Infant Down Syndrome Thymus, a Possible Contributor to an Autoimmune Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, Vanja; Lindgren, Susanne; Gudmundsdottir, Judith; Sandstrm, Kerstin; Kmpe, Olle; Annern, Gran; Gustafsson, Jan; Sunnegrdh, Jan; van der Post, Sjoerd; Telemo, Esbjrn; Berglund, Martin; Ekwall, Olov

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy of chromosome 21, is associated with immunological dysfunctions such as increased frequency of infections and autoimmune diseases. Patients with DS share clinical features, such as autoimmune manifestations and specific autoantibodies, with patients affected by autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 is caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, located on chromosome 21, which regulates the expression of tissue-restricted Ags (TRAs) in thymic epithelial cells. We investigated the expression of AIRE and TRAs in DS and control thymic tissue using quantitative PCR. AIRE mRNA levels were elevated in thymic tissue from DS patients, and trends toward increased expression of the AIRE-controlled genes INSULIN and CHRNA1 were found. Immunohistochemical stainings showed altered cell composition and architecture of the thymic medulla in DS individuals with increased frequencies of AIRE-positive medullary epithelial cells and CD11c-positive dendritic cells as well as enlarged Hassalls corpuscles. In addition, we evaluated the proteomic profile of thymic exosomes in DS individuals and controls. DS exosomes carried a broader protein pool and also a larger pool of unique TRAs compared with control exosomes. In conclusion, the increased AIRE gene dose in DS could contribute to an autoimmune phenotype through multiple AIRE-mediated effects on homeostasis and function of thymic epithelial cells that affect thymic selection processes. PMID:25038256

  19. Nonsegmental vitiligo and autoimmune mechanism.

    PubMed

    Oiso, Naoki; Suzuki, Tamio; Fukai, Kazuyoshi; Katayama, Ichiro; Kawada, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Nonsegmental vitiligo is a depigmented skin disorder showing acquired, progressive, and depigmented lesions of the skin, mucosa, and hair. It is believed to be caused mainly by the autoimmune loss of melanocytes from the involved areas. It is frequently associated with other autoimmune diseases, particularly autoimmune thyroid diseases including Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, psoriasis, pernicious anemia, systemic lupus erythematosus, Addison's disease, and alopecia areata. This indicates the presence of genetically determined susceptibility to not only vitiligo but also to other autoimmune disorders. Here, we summarize current understanding of autoimmune pathogenesis in non-segmental vitiligo. PMID:21804820

  20. Degradation of connective tissue matrices by macrophages. II. Influence of matrix composition on proteolysis of glycoproteins, elastin, and collagen by macrophages in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.A.; Werb, Z.

    1980-12-01

    Thioglycollate-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages were cultured in contact with the mixture of extracellular matrix proteins produced by rat smooth muscle cells in culture. Both live macrophages and their conditioned media hydrolyzed glycoproteins, elastin, and collagen. Live macrophages also degraded extracellular connective tissue proteins secreted by endothelial cells and fibroblasts. The glycoproteins in the matrix markedly inhibited the rate of digestion of the other macromolecules, particularly elastin. When plasminogen was added to the matrix, activation of plasminogen to plasmin resulted in the hydrolysis of the glycoprotein components, which then allowed the macrophage elastase easier access to its substrate, elastin. Thus, although plasmin has no direct elastinolytic activity, its presence accelerated the rate of hydrolysis of elastin and therefore the rate of matrix degradation. These findings may be important in an understanding of disease states, such as emphysema and atherosclerosis, that are characterized by the destruction of connective tissue.

  1. Connective tissue cells, but not muscle cells, are involved in establishing the proximo-distal outcome of limb regeneration in the axolotl.

    PubMed

    Nacu, Eugen; Glausch, Mareen; Le, Huy Quang; Damanik, Febriyani Fiain Rochel; Schuez, Maritta; Knapp, Dunja; Khattak, Shahryar; Richter, Tobias; Tanaka, Elly M

    2013-02-01

    During salamander limb regeneration, only the structures distal to the amputation plane are regenerated, a property known as the rule of distal transformation. Multiple cell types are involved in limb regeneration; therefore, determining which cell types participate in distal transformation is important for understanding how the proximo-distal outcome of regeneration is achieved. We show that connective tissue-derived blastema cells obey the rule of distal transformation. They also have nuclear MEIS, which can act as an upper arm identity regulator, only upon upper arm amputation. By contrast, myogenic cells do not obey the rule of distal transformation and display nuclear MEIS upon amputation at any proximo-distal level. These results indicate that connective tissue cells, but not myogenic cells, are involved in establishing the proximo-distal outcome of regeneration and are likely to guide muscle patterning. Moreover, we show that, similarly to limb development, muscle patterning in regeneration is influenced by β-catenin signalling. PMID:23293283

  2. Severe eczema and Hyper-IgE in Loeys-Dietz-syndrome - contribution to new findings of immune dysregulation in connective tissue disorders.

    PubMed

    Felgentreff, Kerstin; Siepe, Matthias; Kotthoff, Stefan; von Kodolitsch, Yskert; Schachtrup, Kristina; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Walter, Jolan E; Ehl, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a connective tissue disorder caused by monoallelic mutations in TGFBR1 and TGFBR2, which encode for subunits of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF?) receptor. Affected patients are identified by vascular aneurysms with tortuosity and distinct morphological presentations similar to Marfan syndrome; however, an additional predisposition towards asthma and allergy has recently been found. We describe two patients with a novel missense mutation in TGFBR1 presenting with highly elevated levels of IgE and severe eczema similar to autosomal-dominant Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES). Mild allergic manifestations with normal up to moderately increased IgE were observed in 3 out of 6 additional LDS patients. A comparison of this cohort with 4 HIES patients illustrates the significant overlap of both syndromes including eczema and elevated IgE as well as skeletal and connective tissue manifestations. PMID:24333532

  3. Parallel Aspects of the Microenvironment in Cancer and Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rahat, Michal A.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer and autoimmune diseases are fundamentally different pathological conditions. In cancer, the immune response is suppressed and unable to eradicate the transformed self-cells, while in autoimmune diseases it is hyperactivated against a self-antigen, leading to tissue injury. Yet, mechanistically, similarities in the triggering of the immune responses can be observed. In this review, we highlight some parallel aspects of the microenvironment in cancer and autoimmune diseases, especially hypoxia, and the role of macrophages, neutrophils, and their interaction. Macrophages, owing to their plastic mode of activation, can generate a pro- or antitumoral microenvironment. Similarly, in autoimmune diseases, macrophages tip the Th1/Th2 balance via various effector cytokines. The contribution of neutrophils, an additional plastic innate immune cell population, to the microenvironment and disease progression is recently gaining more prominence in both cancer and autoimmune diseases, as they can secrete cytokines, chemokines, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as acquire an enhanced ability to produce neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that are now considered important initiators of autoimmune diseases. Understanding the contribution of macrophages and neutrophils to the cancerous or autoimmune microenvironment, as well as the role their interaction and cooperation play, may help identify new targets and improve therapeutic strategies. PMID:26997761

  4. Compromised central tolerance of ICA69 induces multiple organ autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yong; Gualtierotti, Giulio; Tajima, Asako; Grupillo, Maria; Coppola, Antonina; He, Jing; Bertera, Suzanne; Owens, Gregory; Pietropaolo, Massimo; Rudert, William A.; Trucco, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    For reasons not fully understood, patients with an organ-specific autoimmune disease have increased risks of developing autoimmune responses against other organs/tissues. We identified ICA69, a known ?-cell autoantigen in Type 1 diabetes, as a potential common target in multi-organ autoimmunity. NOD mice immunized with ICA69 polypeptides exhibited exacerbated inflammation not only in the islets, but also in the salivary glands. To further investigate ICA69 autoimmunity, two genetically modified mouse lines were generated to modulate thymic ICA69 expression: the heterozygous ICA69del/wt line and the thymic medullary epithelial cell-specific deletion Aire-?ICA69 line. Suboptimal central negative selection of ICA69-reactive T-cells was observed in both lines. Aire-?ICA69 mice spontaneously developed coincident autoimmune responses to the pancreas, the salivary glands, the thyroid, and the stomach. Our findings establish a direct link between compromised thymic ICA69 expression and autoimmunity against multiple ICA69-expressing organs, and identify a potential novel mechanism for the development of multi-organ autoimmune diseases. PMID:25088457

  5. Autoimmune disorders in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Boitard, C; Debray-Sachs, M; Bach, J F

    1986-01-01

    The development of IDDM correlates with the presence of biologic markers pointing to the involvement of the immune system in the disease process. In addition to clinical observations of association of IDDM with other autoimmune disease and morphologic evidence of a mononuclear cell infiltration of the islets of Langerhans at the onset of the disease, anti-islet cell antibodies are detected in the serum of IDDM patients. Moreover, a strong genetic association with HL-A DR3 and DR4 identifies a genetic background compatible with autoimmune phenomena. Whether autoimmune phenomena are primary or secondary to an initial damage of the islets by infectious agents or other environmental factors is unknown. Whether or not the autoimmune response participates in the selective destruction of insulin-secreting cells has been a major issue in the past five years. The presence of T lymphocytes and anti-islet cell antibodies, which selectively inhibit or lyse insulin-secreting cells in vitro, strongly suggests that it may be the case. A definitive demonstration is difficult to provide in human IDDM. The development of animal models for IDDM has allowed useful insight into the pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for IDDM. In both the BB rat and the low-dose streptozotocin mouse model, the role of the immune system in the destruction of the islets of Langerhans is supported by the prevention of the disease by treatments interfering with the immune system. The BB rat develops a spontaneous autoimmune disease on a genetic background defined by the association with a major histocompatibility complex allele without any evidence for a role in initial damage of islets of a triggering infectious or chemical process. The low-dose streptozotocin model is an autoimmune IDDM secondary to the selective damage of islet cells by a toxin. The present scheme of an islet cell target and specific autoreactive T and B lymphocyte clones raises two major issues: what is the target antigen on islet cells and what is the role at the molecular level of class II major histocompatibility complex genes in susceptibility for IDDM? The first issue is presently being addressed in several laboratories using the hybridoma technology. The second issue is addressed at the biochemical level by studying restriction site polymorphism of major histocompatibility genes in susceptible individuals and IDDM patients, and at the functional level by studying the action of monoclonal antibodies to class II antigen on the development of IDDM in animal models. These steps are likely to be a prerequisite to antigen-specific immunotherapy in IDDM. PMID:3082114

  6. Utility of a simplified ultrasound assessment to assess interstitial pulmonary fibrosis in connective tissue disorders - preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a frequent manifestation in patients with connective tissue disorders (CTD). Recently the ultrasound (US) criterion validity for its assessment has been proposed; however, the US scoring systems adopted include the study of several lung intercostal spaces (LIS), which could be time-consuming in daily clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of a simplified US B-lines scoring system compared with both the US comprehensive assessment and the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of IPF in CTD patients. Methods Thirty-six patients with a diagnosis of CTD were enrolled. Each patient underwent chest HRCT and lung US by an experienced radiologist and rheumatologist, respectively. Both comprehensive and simplified US B-lines assessments were scanned. The comprehensive US assessment was performed at 50 LIS level, whereas the simplified US assessment included bilaterally 14 LIS; for the anterior chest: the second LIS along the para-sternal lines, the fourth LIS along the mid-clavear, anterior axillary and mid-axillary lines; for the posterior chest: the eighth LIS along the paravertebral, sub-scapular and posterior axillary lines. For criterion validity, HRCT was considered the gold standard. Feasibility, inter and intra-observer reliability was also investigated. Results A highly significant correlation between comprehensive and simplified US assessment was found (P = 0.0001). A significant correlation was also found between the simplified US assessment and HRCT findings (P = 0.0006). Kappa values for the inter-observer simplified US assessment were in a range from 0.769 to 0.885, whereas the concordance correlation coefficient values for the intra-observer were from 0.856 to 0.955. There was a relevant difference in time spent on comprehensive (mean 23.3 SD 4.5 minutes) with respect to the simplified US assessment (mean 8.6 SD 1.4) (P < 0.00001). Conclusions Our results provide a new working hypothesis in favor of the utility of a simplified US B-lines assessment as an adjunct method to assess IPF in patients with CTD. PMID:21851634

  7. Connective-Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF/CCN2) Induces Astrogenesis and Fibronectin Expression of Embryonic Neural Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Suzana A.; Reis, Alice H.; Dubois, Luiz Gustavo; Romo, Luciana Ferreira; Ferreira, Lais S. S.; Chneiweiss, Herv; Moura Neto, Vivaldo; Abreu, Jos G.

    2015-01-01

    Connective-tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a modular secreted protein implicated in multiple cellular events such as chondrogenesis, skeletogenesis, angiogenesis and wound healing. CTGF contains four different structural modules. This modular organization is characteristic of members of the CCN family. The acronym was derived from the first three members discovered, cysteine-rich 61 (CYR61), CTGF and nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV). CTGF is implicated as a mediator of important cell processes such as adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation. Extensive data have shown that CTGF interacts particularly with the TGF?, WNT and MAPK signaling pathways. The capacity of CTGF to interact with different growth factors lends it an important role during early and late development, especially in the anterior region of the embryo. ctgf knockout mice have several cranio-facial defects, and the skeletal system is also greatly affected due to an impairment of the vascular-system development during chondrogenesis. This study, for the first time, indicated that CTGF is a potent inductor of gliogenesis during development. Our results showed that in vitro addition of recombinant CTGF protein to an embryonic mouse neural precursor cell culture increased the number of GFAP- and GFAP/Nestin-positive cells. Surprisingly, CTGF also increased the number of Sox2-positive cells. Moreover, this induction seemed not to involve cell proliferation. In addition, exogenous CTGF activated p44/42 but not p38 or JNK MAPK signaling, and increased the expression and deposition of the fibronectin extracellular matrix protein. Finally, CTGF was also able to induce GFAP as well as Nestin expression in a human malignant glioma stem cell line, suggesting a possible role in the differentiation process of gliomas. These results implicate ctgf as a key gene for astrogenesis during development, and suggest that its mechanism may involve activation of p44/42 MAPK signaling. Additionally, CTGF-induced differentiation of glioblastoma stem cells into a less-tumorigenic state could increase the chances of successful intervention, since differentiated cells are more vulnerable to cancer treatments. PMID:26241738

  8. Differential diagnosis and diagnostic flow chart of joint hypermobility syndrome/ehlers-danlos syndrome hypermobility type compared to other heritable connective tissue disorders.

    PubMed

    Colombi, Marina; Dordoni, Chiara; Chiarelli, Nicola; Ritelli, Marco

    2015-03-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT) is an evolving and protean disorder mostly recognized by generalized joint hypermobility and without a defined molecular basis. JHS/EDS-HT also presents with other connective tissue features affecting a variety of structures and organs, such as skin, eye, bone, and internal organs. However, most of these signs are present in variable combinations and severity in many other heritable connective tissue disorders. Accordingly, JHS/EDS-HT is an "exclusion" diagnosis which needs the absence of any consistent feature indicative of other partially overlapping connective tissue disorders. While both Villefranche and Brighton criteria include such an exclusion as a mandatory item, a systematic approach for reaching a stringent clinical diagnosis of JHS/EDS-HT is still lacking. The absence of a consensus on the diagnostic approach to JHS/EDS-HT concerning its clinical boundaries with similar conditions contribute to limit our actual understanding of the pathologic and molecular bases of this disorder. In this review, we revise the differential diagnosis of JHS/EDS-HT with those heritable connective tissue disorders which show a significant overlap with the former and mostly include EDS classic, vascular and kyphoscoliotic types, osteogenesis imperfecta, Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, arterial tortuosity syndrome, and lateral meningocele syndrome. A diagnostic flow chart is also offered with the attempt to support the less experienced clinician in stringently recognizing JHS/EDS-HT and stimulate the debate in the scientific community for both management and research purposes. PMID:25821090

  9. Proteome-wide survey of the autoimmune target repertoire in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1

    PubMed Central

    Landegren, Nils; Sharon, Donald; Freyhult, Eva; Hallgren, Åsa; Eriksson, Daniel; Edqvist, Per-Henrik; Bensing, Sophie; Wahlberg, Jeanette; Nelson, Lawrence M.; Gustafsson, Jan; Husebye, Eystein S.; Anderson, Mark S.; Snyder, Michael; Kämpe, Olle

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) is a monogenic disorder that features multiple autoimmune disease manifestations. It is caused by mutations in the Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, which promote thymic display of thousands of peripheral tissue antigens in a process critical for establishing central immune tolerance. We here used proteome arrays to perform a comprehensive study of autoimmune targets in APS1. Interrogation of established autoantigens revealed highly reliable detection of autoantibodies, and by exploring the full panel of more than 9000 proteins we further identified MAGEB2 and PDILT as novel major autoantigens in APS1. Our proteome-wide assessment revealed a marked enrichment for tissue-specific immune targets, mirroring AIRE’s selectiveness for this category of genes. Our findings also suggest that only a very limited portion of the proteome becomes targeted by the immune system in APS1, which contrasts the broad defect of thymic presentation associated with AIRE-deficiency and raises novel questions what other factors are needed for break of tolerance. PMID:26830021

  10. Proteome-wide survey of the <