Sample records for autoimmune connective tissue

  1. Autoimmune connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Østensen, Monika; Cetin, Irene

    2015-07-01

    Rheumatic diseases (RDs) occur preferentially in women, often during the childbearing age. The interaction of pregnancy and the RD is varied, ranging from spontaneous improvement to aggravation of disease symptoms or life-threatening flares. Risks for the mother with RD and the child differ in regard to the presence of organ manifestations, organ damage, disease activity, presence of specific autoantibodies, and therapy. Pregnancy complications comprise hypertension, preeclampsia, premature delivery, and side effects of therapy. Adverse pregnancy outcomes include recurrent miscarriage, intrauterine growth restriction, and fetal demise, and they are frequently encountered in RD with organ manifestations and harmful autoantibodies. Because of the difference in the prevalence of RDs, knowledge on the gestational course of disease and pregnancy outcome is limited to the fairly common RDs such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and antiphospholipid syndrome. Pregnancies in RD are connected with increased risks for mother and child and need interdisciplinary care and management. PMID:25891380

  2. Therapy of Autoimmune Connective Tissue Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy M. Wright; Dana P. Ascherman

    \\u000a The autoimmune diseases can be divided into two basic categories: organ specific and systemic. Organ specific autoimmune disease can affect virtually any tissue of the body and is associated most often with evidence\\u000a of both T and B cell autoimmune responses directed against the cells of the affected organ. Examples of organ specific autoimmune\\u000a disease include multiple sclerosis, Type I

  3. Skin cancer risk in autoimmune connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Kostaki, D; Antonini, A; Peris, K; Fargnoli, M C

    2014-10-01

    Cutaneous malignancies have been significantly associated with autoimmune connective tissue diseases (ACTDs). This review focuses on the current state of knowledge on skin cancer risk in the most prevalent ACTDs in dermatology including lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, dermatomyositis and Sjögren syndrome. Potential pathogenetic mechanisms for the association between ACTDs and malignancy involve disease-related impairment of immune system, sustained cutaneous inflammation, drug-associated immune suppression and increased susceptibility to acquired viral infections. An additional causal role might be played by environmental factors such as UV exposure and smoking. The occurrence of skin cancer can have a profound impact on the already compromised quality of life of ACTD patients. Therefore, effective screening and monitoring strategies are essential for ACTD patients as early detection and prompt therapeutic intervention can reduce morbidity and mortality in these patients. PMID:24975951

  4. Hair disorders associated with autoimmune connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Cassano, N; Amerio, P; D'Ovidio, R; Vena, G A

    2014-10-01

    Hair disorders are frequently observed in various systemic diseases, including autoimmune connective tissue diseases (CTDs), with predilection of lupus erythematosus (LE), followed by dermatomyositis (DM) and scleroderma. Hair disorders in CTDs may manifest as various clinical patterns, such as telogen hair loss, diffuse thinning or fragility of hair, and scarring alopecia. Less common hair disorders include anagen effluvium, alopecia areata, and trichomegaly. Some drugs used to treat CTDs may cause hair loss in a drug-related manner or hyperthrichosis. In the assessment of common hair loss patterns, such as telogen effluvium, the possible association with CTDs must be borne in mind and should not be overlooked. Alopecia appears to be a significant sign in the course of LE and especially systemic LE. In DM, the involvement of the scalp is common, and is often characterized by a diffuse, violaceous, scaly, non-scarring and symptomatic hair loss. Linear scleroderma en coup de sabre is an uncommon localized form of morphea with involvement of the paramedian forehead and frontal scalp, where it is associated with cicatricial alopecia. The most important variant of scarring alopecia in the context of CTDs is that associated with discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE). In the diagnostic work-up of DLE-related cicatrical alopecia, histopathological and immunopathological studies are useful, and a relevant role has been attributed to dermatoscopy (trichoscopy) over the last years. Hair loss has been reported in several other CTDs, including mixed and undifferentiated CTDs, and primary Sjögren's syndrome, although it is likely to be underestimated in such diseases. PMID:24975949

  5. Neutrophilic skin lesions in autoimmune connective tissue diseases: nine cases and a literature review.

    PubMed

    Hau, Estelle; Vignon Pennamen, Marie-Dominique; Battistella, Maxime; Saussine, Anne; Bergis, Maud; Cavelier-Balloy, Benedicte; Janier, Michel; Cordoliani, Florence; Bagot, Martine; Rybojad, Michel; Bouaziz, Jean-David

    2014-12-01

    The pathophysiology of neutrophilic dermatoses (NDs) and autoimmune connective tissue diseases (AICTDs) is incompletely understood. The association between NDs and AICTDs is rare; recently, however, a distinctive subset of cutaneous lupus erythematosus (LE, the prototypical AICTD) with neutrophilic histological features has been proposed to be included in the spectrum of lupus. The aim of our study was to test the validity of such a classification. We conducted a monocentric retrospective study of 7028 AICTDs patients. Among these 7028 patients, a skin biopsy was performed in 932 cases with mainly neutrophilic infiltrate on histology in 9 cases. Combining our 9 cases and an exhaustive literature review, pyoderma gangrenosum, Sweet syndrome (n = 49), Sweet-like ND (n = 13), neutrophilic urticarial dermatosis (n = 6), palisaded neutrophilic granulomatous dermatitis (n = 12), and histiocytoid neutrophilic dermatitis (n = 2) were likely to occur both in AICTDs and autoinflammatory diseases. Other NDs were specifically encountered in AICTDs: bullous LE (n = 71), amicrobial pustulosis of the folds (n = 28), autoimmunity-related ND (n = 24), ND resembling erythema gyratum repens (n = 1), and neutrophilic annular erythema (n = 1). The improvement of AICTDS neutrophilic lesions under neutrophil targeting therapy suggests possible common physiopathological pathways between NDs and AICTDs. PMID:25546688

  6. Evaluation of a multiplex ELISA for autoantibody profiling in patients with autoimmune connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Caro Pérez, Alejandro; Kumble, Sarita; Kumble, Krishnanand D; Alonso Cañizal, M Consuelo; Jiménez Jiménez, Luis M; Alonso Díez, Lorena; Durán Parejo, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    The performance of immunoassays for the detection of autoantibodies is of critical importance in the diagnosis and assessment of patients with autoimmune connective tissue diseases (ACTD). Our objective was to compare the features of two multiplexed assays-INNO-LIA ANA and Gennova-PictArray ENA ELISA-for measurement of multiple autoantibodies and their utility as a clinical tool in ACTD diagnosis. The antigens included SS-A/Ro (60 and 52), SSB/La, Sm, Sm/RNP, CENP-B, Jo-1, and Scl-70. Stored sera from 85 ACTD patients and 80 controls consisting of patients with vasculitis, rheumatoid arthritis and infectious diseases, as well as healthy subjects were analyzed jointly with clinical and laboratory data. Agreement between the two methods varied between 58 and 99% (Cohen's kappa: 0.21-0.71) mostly for SSA and SSB. The frequency of specific autoantibodies measured using the two methods was more variable for SSA, SSB, and RNP/Sm. There were a higher number of ambiguous results when using INNO-LIA. The optimized cut-off values of the Gennova-PictArray resulted in over 99% specificities in samples obtained from the control group. Sensitivity patterns were more accurate in Gennova-PictArray than in INNO-LIA, as suggested in previously reported studies. A third method could be applied to determine which of the two methods is more accurate. PMID:24527209

  7. Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vessels. Examples of connective tissue diseases include lupus , scleroderma , rheumatoid arthritis , Sjögren's syndrome , myositis , and vasculitis . There ... connective tissue diseases, such as lupus, Sjögren's or scleroderma. More UCTD Information Causes Diagnosis Symptoms Treatment Print ...

  8. The Role of Dendritic Cells in Tissue-Specific Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Langridge, William

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we explore the role of dendritic cell subsets in the development of tissue-specific autoimmune diseases. From the increasing list of dendritic cell subclasses, it is becoming clear that we are only at the beginning of understanding the role of these antigen presenting cells in mediating autoimmunity. Emerging research areas for the study of dendritic cell involvement in the onset and inhibition of tissue-specific autoimmunity are presented. Further, we compare tissue specific to systemic autoimmunity to demonstrate how development of dendritic cell-based therapies may be broadly applicable to both classes of autoimmunity. Continued development of these research areas will lead us closer to clinical assessment of novel immunosuppressive therapy for the reversal and prevention of tissue-specific autoimmunity. Through description of dendritic cell functions in the modulation of tissue-specific autoimmunity, we hope to stimulate a greater appreciation and understanding of the role dendritic cells play in the development and treatment of autoimmunity. PMID:24877157

  9. Autoimmunity to a 28-30 kD cell membrane DNA binding protein: occurrence in selected sera from patients with SLE and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD).

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, R M; Cornell, K A; Merritt, M J; Bakke, A C; Hsu, P H; Hefeneider, S H

    1991-01-01

    Previous experiments have established the presence of a 30-kD DNA binding protein on the surface of human leukocytes. Herein we report that selected sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and MCTD are reactive with a 28-30 kD protein on immunoblots of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) cell membrane preparations; the reactivity is abolished by prior incubation of the blot with DNA. Antibodies eluted from the 28-30 kD strip inhibited the binding of 3H. DNA to human PBMC. An immunomatrix of 28-30 kD reactive immunoglobulins was able to extract a 29-kD DNA binding protein from a PBMC cell membrane preparation. Flow cytometry experiments confirmed the cell surface IgG reactivity of sera with T lymphocytes. Additional experiments indicated that cell surface IgG binding was not due to antibodies binding to cell surface DNA, DNA anti-DNA immune complexes reacting with a DNA binding protein, anti-histone antibodies or anti-Sm antibodies. It is hypothesized that this autoimmune response could be one component of an idiotypic network involving anti-DNA antibodies. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:1747945

  10. Liver abnormalities in connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Maria; Crotti, Chiara; Selmi, Carlo

    2013-08-01

    The liver is a lymphoid organ involved in the immune response and in the maintenance of tolerance to self molecules, but it is also a target of autoimmune reactions, as observed in primary liver autoimmune diseases (AILD) such as autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Further, the liver is frequently involved in connective tissue diseases (CTD), most commonly in the form of liver function test biochemical changes with predominant cholestatic or hepatocellular patterns. CTD commonly affecting the liver include systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholypid syndrome, primary Sjögren's syndrome, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, polimyositis, and anti-synthetase syndrome, while overlap syndromes between AILD and CTD may also be diagnosed. Although liver cirrhosis and failure are extremely rare in patients with CTD, unusual liver conditions such as nodular regenerative hyperplasia or Budd-Chiari syndrome have been reported with increasing frequency in patients with CTD. Acute or progressing liver involvement is generally related to viral hepatitis reactivation or to a concomitant AILD, so it appears to be fundamental to screen patients for HBV and HCV infection, in order to provide the ideal therapeutic regimen and avoid life-threatening reactivations. Finally, it is important to remember that the main cause of biochemical liver abnormalities in patients with CTD is a drug-induced alteration or coexisting viral hepatitis. The present article will provide a general overview of the liver involvement in CTD to allow rheumatologists to discriminate the most common clinical scenarios. PMID:24090941

  11. Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in another connective tissue disorder, cutis laxa, deficient elastic fibers cause the skin to hang in folds. ... the annual Gordon Research Conference on Elastin and Elastic Fibers, which brings together basic scientists and clinicians ...

  12. The diagnosis and classification of undifferentiated connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Marta; Tani, Chiara; Vagnani, Sabrina; Carli, Linda; Bombardieri, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The term undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) refers to unclassifiable systemic autoimmune diseases which share clinical and serological manifestations with definite connective tissue diseases (CTDs) but not fulfilling any of the existing classification criteria. In this review we will go through the more recent evidence on UCTD and we will discuss in what extent the availability of new criteria for the CTDs could interfere with the "UCTD concept". The development of criteria able to identify early phases of defined CTD, may help in the differentiation of stable UCTD form their early stages and may offer a valuable guide to the treating physician to set up appropriate follow up schedules as well as therapeutic protocols. This simplified subset of CTD could offer a model to study clinic pathological correlations as well as the role of possible environmental factors in the development of autoimmunity. PMID:24518855

  13. Vasculitis associated with connective tissue disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mittie K. Doyle

    2006-01-01

    Vasculitis associated with connective tissue disorders is an important cause of secondary vasculitis about which little is\\u000a written. When vasculitis occurs in the setting of a preexisting connective tissue disorder, it often correlates with disease\\u000a severity and portends a poorer prognosis. It may involve virtually any organ system and present in a myriad of ways. Prompt\\u000a recognition and treatment of

  14. Evidence of Connective Tissue Involvement in Acupuncture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helene M. Langevin; David L. Churchill; Junru Wu; Gary J. Badger; Jason A. Yandow; James R. Fox; Martin H. Krag

    2002-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acupuncture needle manipulation gives rise to “needle grasp,” a biomechanical phenomenon characterized by an,increase in the force necessary to pull the needle out of the tissue (pullout force). This study investigates the hypothesis that winding of connective tissue, rather than muscle contraction, is the mechanism responsible for needle grasp. We performed 1) measurements of pullout ,force in humans with

  15. Role of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 in the development of autoimmune lymphoproliferation

    PubMed Central

    Boggio, Elena; Indelicato, Manuela; Orilieri, Elisabetta; Mesturini, Riccardo; Mazzarino, Maria Clorinda; Campagnoli, Maria Francesca; Ramenghi, Ugo; Dianzani, Umberto; Chiocchetti, Annalisa

    2010-01-01

    Background Inherited defects decreasing function of the Fas death receptor cause autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome and its variant Dianzani’s autoimmune lymphoproliferative disease. Analysis of the lymphocyte transcriptome from a patient with this latter condition detected striking over-expression of osteopontin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1. Since previous work on osteopontin had detected increased serum levels in these patients, associated with variations of its gene, the aim of this work was to extend the analysis to tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1. Design and Methods Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 levels were evaluated in sera and culture supernatants from patients and controls by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Activation- and Fas-induced cell death were induced, in vitro, using anti-CD3 and anti-Fas antibodies, respectively. Results Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 levels were higher in sera from 32 patients (11 with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome and 21 with Dianzani’s autoimmune lymphoproliferative disease) than in 50 healthy controls (P<0.0001), unassociated with variations of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 gene. Both groups of patients also had increased serum levels of osteopontin. In vitro experiments showed that osteopontin increased tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 secretion by peripheral blood monocytes. Moreover, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 significantly inhibited both Fas- and activation-induced cell death of lymphocytes. Conclusions These data suggest that high osteopontin levels may support high tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 levels in autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome and Dianzani’s autoimmune lymphoproliferative disease, and hence worsen the apoptotic defect in these diseases. PMID:20595097

  16. BIOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS FOR ENGINEERS Session #19 [cm: Connective tissues

    E-print Network

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    ME411/511 BIOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS FOR ENGINEERS Session #19 [cm: Connective tissues] General Objectives: Connective tissues are a group of tissues which bind structures together and provide a framework Mechanics of connective tissues and systems Central Framework: Connective tissues provide the mechanical

  17. BIOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS FOR ENGINEERS Session #19 [cm: Connective tissues

    E-print Network

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    ME498/599 BIOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS FOR ENGINEERS Session #19 [cm: Connective tissues] General Objectives: Connective tissues are a group of tissues which bind structures together and provide a framework Mechanics of connective tissues and systems Central Framework: Connective tissues provide the mechanical

  18. The diagnosis and classification of mixed connective tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Tani, Chiara; Carli, Linda; Vagnani, Sabrina; Talarico, Rosaria; Baldini, Chiara; Mosca, Marta; Bombardieri, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The term "mixed connective tissue disease" (MCTD) concerns a systemic autoimmune disease typified by overlapping features between two or more systemic autoimmune diseases and the presence of antibodies against the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein autoantigen (U1snRNP). Since the first description of this condition in 1972, the understanding of clinical manifestations and long-term outcome of MCTD have significantly advanced. Polyarthritis, Raynaud's phenomenon, puffy fingers, lung involvement and esophageal dysmotility are the most frequently reported symptoms among the different cohorts during the course of the disease. Moreover, in recent years a growing interest has been focused on severe organ involvement such as pulmonary arterial hypertension and interstitial lung disease which can accrue during the long-term follow-up and can still significantly influence disease prognosis. Over the last years, significant advances have been made also in disease pathogenesis understanding and a central pathogenetic role of anti-U1RNP autoantibodies has clearly emerged. Although controversies on disease definition and classification still persist, MCTD identifies a group of patients in whom increased surveillance for specific manifestations and prognostic stratification became mandatory to improve patient's outcomes. PMID:24461387

  19. [Calcinosis cutis associated with connective tissue diseases].

    PubMed

    Fabreguet, I; Saurat, J-H; Rizzoli, R; Ferrari, S

    2015-03-18

    Calcinosis cutis is characterized by calcified deposits in the skin and in subcutaneous tissues. The potential complications are ulceration, infection, functional limitation. According to serum calcium/phosphate levels, calcinosis cutis is classified in 4 subtypes: dystrophic, metastatic, iatrogenic, idiopathic. In dystrophic calcinosis, calcium/phosphate serum levels are within range. Dystrophic calcinosis occurs in damaged tissues and is associated with several connective tissue diseases (mainly systemic sclerosis and dermatopolymyositis). Its physiopathology remains unclear. Despite different therapeutic modalities in the litterature, there is no standard therapy for calcinosis. Thus, larger controlled studies are necessary. PMID:25962229

  20. Immunological features of diffuse connective tissue diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Burgio; A. Martini

    1990-01-01

    Diffuse connective tissue diseases (DCTD) represent an heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by systemic inflammatory reactions that are currently classified on clinical grounds. Their aetiopathogenesis is largely unknown and appears to be very complex, associating exogenous factors with an immunogenetic predisposition. In the last decade, studies on human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-disease associations and antinuclear antibodies have provided some useful clues

  1. [Hypophosphoremic osteomalacia of connective tissue tumors].

    PubMed

    Camus, J P; Crouzet, J; Prier, A; Koeger, A C

    1982-03-25

    The authors undertake a general review of the association between hypophosphoraemia and connective tissue tumour, based upon three personal cases and 27 cases of benign connective tissue tumours, as well as cases of hypophosphoraemia related to malignant tumours or to diffuse dysplasia of connective tissue origin, collected from the literature. This syndrome is distinguished from hypophosphoraemia induced by other tumours (myeloma, carcinoma of the prostate) which are based upon different mechanisms. Hypophosphoraemia, associated with a fall in plasma levels of 1-25 (OH)2 D3 by inhibition of renal 1 alpha hydroxylase, suggests the existence of a complex tubular deficit. Removal of the tumour, most often vascular and intra- or para-osseous, results in rapid normalisation of laboratory then radiological and clinical abnormalities. The physiopathology of the syndrome remains very mysterious. It may be likened to certain tubulotoxic syndromes due to cadmium and in particular to maleic acid. However no precise data yet exists regarding any possible abnormal tumour secretion. In practice, any case of hypophosphoraemic osteomalacia requires investigation to locate a possible tumour of connective tissue, and this all the more so when it is accompanied by very low plasma levels of 1-25(OH)2 D2. PMID:6283621

  2. [Peripartum cardiomyopathy, acute autoimmune pancreatitis and periadipose tissue inflammation - autoimmune reaction?].

    PubMed

    Kobielusz-Gembala, Iwona; Zmuda, Witold; Piecuch, Anna; Bo?dys, Aleksandra; Basiak, Marcin; Okopie?, Bogus?aw

    2013-01-01

    A case of 26 year-old female with peripartum cardiomyopathy, acute pancreatitis, periadipose tissue inflammation due to unknown cause and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome complication is presented. PMID:23797439

  3. Langerhans Cells Maintain Local Tissue Tolerance in a Model of Systemic Autoimmune Disease.

    PubMed

    King, Jennifer K; Philips, Rachael L; Eriksson, Anna U; Kim, Peter J; Halder, Ramesh C; Lee, Delphine J; Singh, Ram Raj

    2015-07-15

    Systemic autoimmune diseases such as lupus affect multiple organs, usually in a diverse fashion where only certain organs are affected in individual patients. It is unclear whether the "local" immune cells play a role in regulating tissue specificity in relation to disease heterogeneity in systemic autoimmune diseases. In this study, we used skin as a model to determine the role of tissue-resident dendritic cells (DCs) in local and systemic involvement within a systemic lupus disease model. Skin-resident DCs, namely, Langerhans cells (LCs), have been implicated in regulating tolerance or autoimmunity using elegant transgenic models, however, their role in local versus systemic immune regulation is unknown. We demonstrate that although lymphocytes from skin-draining lymph nodes of autoimmune-prone MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr/lp) (r) (MRL-lpr) mice react spontaneously to a physiological skin self-Ag desmoglein-3, epicutaneous applications of desmoglein-3 induced tolerance that is dependent on LCs. Inducible ablation of LCs in adult preclinical MRL-lpr and MRL/MpJ-Fas(+/+) mice resulted in increased autoantibodies against skin Ags and markedly accelerated lupus dermatitis with increased local macrophage infiltration, but had no effect on systemic autoantibodies such as anti-dsDNA Abs or disease in other organs such as kidneys, lung, and liver. Furthermore, skin-draining lymph nodes of LC-ablated MRL-lpr mice had significantly fewer CD4(+) T cells producing anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 than LC-intact controls. These results indicate that a skin-resident DC population regulates local tolerance in systemic lupus and emphasize the importance of the local immune milieu in preventing tissue-specific autoimmunity, yet have no effect on systemic autoimmunity. PMID:26071559

  4. Management of Raynaud’s Phenomenon in the Patient with Connective Tissue Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soumya Chatterjee

    2010-01-01

    Opinion statement  Raynaud’s phenomenon is characterized by intense vasospasm of digital arteries on cold exposure or with emotional stress,\\u000a leading to well-defined color changes of digital skin. It may be primary (Raynaud’s disease) or secondary to an underlying\\u000a condition, including autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Although Raynaud’s disease is predominantly a vasospastic condition, Raynaud’s\\u000a phenomenon in connective tissue diseases often is a result

  5. Generalized Connective Tissue Disease in Crtap-\\/- Mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dustin Baldridge; Jennifer Lennington; Maryann Weis; Erica P. Homan; Ming-Ming Jiang; Elda Munivez; Douglas R. Keene; William R. Hogue; Shawna Pyott; Peter H. Byers; Deborah Krakow; Daniel H. Cohn; David R. Eyre; Brendan Lee; Roy Morello; Christoph Winkler

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in CRTAP (coding for cartilage-associated protein), LEPRE1 (coding for prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 [P3H1]) or PPIB (coding for Cyclophilin B [CYPB]) cause recessive forms of osteogenesis imperfecta and loss or decrease of type I collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation. A comprehensive analysis of the phenotype of the Crtap-\\/- mice revealed multiple abnormalities of connective tissue, including in the lungs, kidneys, and skin,

  6. Latest advances in connective tissue disorders.

    PubMed

    Rao, Vijay; Bowman, Simon

    2013-08-01

    The connective tissue disorders comprise a number of related conditions that include systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the antiphospholipid (Hughes) syndrome, scleroderma, myositis and Sjögren's syndrome. They are characterized by autoantibody production and other immune-mediated dysfunction. There are common clinical and serological features with some patients having multiple overlapping connective tissue disorders. The latest advances include new approaches to therapy, including more focused utilization of existing therapies and the introduction of biological therapies in SLE, more precise protocols for assessment of severe disease manifestations such as in interstitial lung disease and pulmonary artery hypertension in scleroderma, new antibodies for disease characterization in myositis and new approaches to patient assessment in Sjögren's syndrome. B cells have a critical role in most, if not all of these disorders such that B-cell depletion or suppression of B-cell activating cytokines improves disease in many patients. In particular, the introduction of rituximab, a monoclonal antibody targeting the CD20 molecule on B cells, into clinical practice for rheumatoid arthritis and B-cell lymphoma has been a key driver of experimental approaches to therapy in connective tissue disorders. Genetic studies also suggest a role for the innate immune system in disease pathogenesis, suggesting further future targets for biological therapies over the next few years. PMID:23904866

  7. Latest advances in connective tissue disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    The connective tissue disorders comprise a number of related conditions that include systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the antiphospholipid (Hughes) syndrome, scleroderma, myositis and Sjögren’s syndrome. They are characterized by autoantibody production and other immune-mediated dysfunction. There are common clinical and serological features with some patients having multiple overlapping connective tissue disorders. The latest advances include new approaches to therapy, including more focused utilization of existing therapies and the introduction of biological therapies in SLE, more precise protocols for assessment of severe disease manifestations such as in interstitial lung disease and pulmonary artery hypertension in scleroderma, new antibodies for disease characterization in myositis and new approaches to patient assessment in Sjögren’s syndrome. B cells have a critical role in most, if not all of these disorders such that B-cell depletion or suppression of B-cell activating cytokines improves disease in many patients. In particular, the introduction of rituximab, a monoclonal antibody targeting the CD20 molecule on B cells, into clinical practice for rheumatoid arthritis and B-cell lymphoma has been a key driver of experimental approaches to therapy in connective tissue disorders. Genetic studies also suggest a role for the innate immune system in disease pathogenesis, suggesting further future targets for biological therapies over the next few years. PMID:23904866

  8. The influence of silicone implantation on experimental models of autoimmunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caralee Joyce Schaefer

    1997-01-01

    The use of silicone implants in cosmetic and reconstructive surgery has recently been implicated in the development of autoimmune connective tissue diseases (CTDs), including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We have investigated the influence of different forms of silicone, including elastomers, gel and oil, in two experimental models of autoimmunity, to determine whether silicone implantation exacerbates autoimmune

  9. Pulmonary hypertension complicating connective tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Joseph P; Belperio, John A; Saggar, Rajeev; Fishbein, Michael C; Saggar, Rajan

    2013-10-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) may complicate connective tissue disease (CTD), particularly systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma), and markedly increases mortality. More than 70% of cases of PH complicating CTD occur in SSc, which is the major focus of this article. Pulmonary complications (i.e., interstitial lung disease [ILD] and PH) are the leading causes of scleroderma-related deaths. "Isolated" PH (i.e., without ILD) complicates SSc in 7.5 to 20% of cases; secondary PH may also occur in patients with SSc-associated ILD. Several clinical markers and specific autoantibody profiles have been associated with PH in SSc. The role of PH-specific therapy is controversial, as prognosis and responsiveness to therapy are worse in SSc-associated PH compared with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. We discuss medical therapies for CTD-associated PH and the role of lung transplantation for patients failing medical therapy. PMID:24037627

  10. Drug induction in connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Verdelli, A; Antiga, E; Bonciolini, V; Bonciani, D; Volpi, W; Caproni, M

    2014-10-01

    Connective tissue diseases (CTDs) are defined as a group of acquired disorders resulting from persistent immuno-mediated inflammation. Several classes of drugs seem to be capable of inducing or exacerbating CTDs. A drug-induced (DI) syndrome is defined as a condition temporally related to continuous drug exposure, which resolves upon drug discontinuation. Among CTDs, lupus erythematosus is the most widely known and investigated DI syndrome. However, in recent years, the association between the onset of other CTDs, such as dermatomyositis (DM) and morphea/systemic sclerosis (SSc) has increased in patients with preceding exposure to particular substances. Herein, we conducted a review of published case reports including DM and morphea/SSc, evaluating the real causality among drugs and these syndromes. PMID:24975950

  11. Implementation of the Connective Tissue Screening Questionnaire in northeast Pennsylvania to identify comorbidities of connective tissue diseases in subjects with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Michael S; Wallace, Sean J; Clarke, Scott M; Tarafder, Mushfiqur R; McLaughlin, William A

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have described an increased risk of developing an additional connective tissue disease (CTD) when one such ailment is present. We examine here the likelihood that individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) screen positive for one or more of the following five autoimmune CTDs: Sjögren's syndrome, scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, dermatomyositis/polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disorder. Five hundred SLE-diagnosed subjects were asked to complete a CTD screening questionnaire (CSQ). The results were analyzed according to the set of diagnostic criteria given by the American College of Rheumatology to identify probable cases of each CTD. Significant standardized prevalence ratios and comorbidities indicate an increased risk for the other autoimmune CTDs. In all, 96% of the subjects screened positive for at least one additional CTD, and 13% screened positive for at least two additional CTDs. We see that the SLE-diagnosed population may benefit from further attention regarding the presence of additional CTDs, which may further inform treatment strategies. We also see the application of the CSQ as a potentially important tool for clinical practice, and we describe the present study's limitations along with possible ways that these can be addressed. PMID:24327597

  12. Relationship of acupuncture points and meridians to connective tissue planes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helene M. Langevin; Jason A. Yandow

    2002-01-01

    Acupuncture meridians traditionally are believed to constitute channels connecting the surface of the body to internal organs. We hypothesize that the network of acupuncture points and meridians can be viewed as a representation of the network formed by interstitial connective tissue. This hypothesis is supported by ultrasound images showing connective tissue cleavage planes at acupuncture points in normal human subjects.

  13. Microbiota and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Chervonsky, Alexander V.

    2013-01-01

    The commensal microbiota affects many aspects of mammalian health including control of the immune system to such a extent that a “commensalocentric” view of the maintenance of overall health could be suggested. Autoimmunity is a case of mistaken identity: The immune system reacts to self-tissues and cells as if they were pathogens. Autoimmune reactions can be both advanced or blocked by the commensal microbiota, which can affect innate and adaptive arms of immune responses as well as the mechanisms of “innate–adaptive connection.” Whether specific microbial lineages affect immunity and autoimmunity (the “specific lineage hypothesis”) or multiple lineages can tip the homeostatic balance that regulates host/microbiota homeostasis toward reduced or enhanced host reactivity (the “balanced signal hypothesis”) is yet unknown. The complexity of host/microbiota interactions needs to be fully appreciated in order to find the means for prophylaxis and treatment of autoimmune disorders. PMID:23457255

  14. Connective tissue disorders in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Halper, Jaroslava

    2014-01-01

    Though soft tissue disorders have been recognized and described to some detail in several types of domestic animals and small mammals for some years, not much progress has been made in our understanding of the biochemical basis and pathogenesis of these diseases in animals. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome described in dogs already in 1943 and later in cats affects mainly skin in these animals. The involved skin is thin and hyperextensible with easily inflicted injuries resulting in hemorrhagic wounds and atrophic scars. Joint laxity and dislocation common in people are less frequently found in dogs. No systemic complications, such as organ rupture or cardiovascular problems which have devastating consequences in people have been described in cats and dogs. The diagnosis is based on clinical presentation and on light or electron microscopic features of disorganized and fragmented collagen fibrils. Several cases of bovine and ovine dermatosparaxis analogous to human Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIIC were found to be caused by mutations in the procollagen I N-proteinase (pnPI) or ADAMTS2 gene, though mutations in other sites are likely responsible for other types of dermatosparaxis. Cattle suffering from a form of Marfan syndrome were described to have aortic dilatation and aneurysm together with ocular abnormalities and skeletal involvement. As in people mutations at different sites of bovine FBN1 may be responsible for Marfan phenotype. Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA), or hyperelastosis cutis, has been recognized in several horse breeds as affecting primarily skin, and, occasionally, tendons. A mutation in cyclophilin B, a chaperon involved in proper folding of collagens, has been identified in some cases. Degenerative suspensory ligament desmitis (DSLD) affects primarily tendons and ligaments of certain horse breeds. New data from our laboratory showed excessive accumulation of proteoglycans in organs with high content of connective tissues. We have identified an abnormal form of decorin with altered biological activity in these proteoglycan deposits, and more recently changes in processing of aggrecan were found by us and other investigators.The naturally occurring diseases of soft tissues in domestic animals described here have a potential to serve as good models for analogous human diseases. This is the case particularly relevant to dogs as a half out of the more than 400 naturally occurring hereditary canine diseases has the potential to serve as a model for human disease. PMID:24443030

  15. [Analysis of the evolution to defined connective tissue diseases of patients with "early unidifferentiated connective tissue diseases (UCTD)"].

    PubMed

    Mosca, M; Tani, C; Neri, C; Craig, F; Della Rossa, A; Baldini, C; Talarico, R; Carli, L; Bombardieri, S

    2008-01-01

    The term undifferentiated connective tissue diseases (UCTD) is used to identify systemic autoimmune diseases not fulfilling classificative criteria for defined connective tissue diseases (CTD). Aim of the present study was to evaluate the evolution to defined CTD of an historical cohort of 91 UCTD patients followed at our Unit and to describe clinical and serological characteristics of stable UCTD patients with a disease duration of more than 5 years. Patients, previously described, were selected for having an undifferentiated profile after 1 year of follow up. These patients have been regularly followed at our Unit and their diagnosis has been reassessed annually based on the existing classificative criteria. Seven UCTD patients with a follow up of less than 5 years have been excluded from the study, therefore 84 patients (F: 81, M: 3) have been analysed. During the follow up 28 patients (33%) developed a defined CTD. In particular 22 patients developed systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), while the remaining 6 patients developed other CTDs (2 primary Sjögren's syndrome, 2 overlap syndromes, 1 Systemic Sclerosis, 1 rheumatoid arthritis). The evolution to a defined CTD occurred after a mean disease duration of 80.6+/- 66.8 months (min 14, max 336, median 72); the evolution to SLE occurred after a mean disease duration of 66.8+/-43.3 months (min 17, max 216, median 57). Anti-cardiolipin antibodies were the only variable correlated with the evolution to SLE (p<0.05). Stable UCTD were characterized by a simplified clinical picture with no major organ involvement and by a simplified autoantibody profile (anti-Ro/SSA antibodies and anti-RNP antibodies were the single antibody specificities observed in 22% and 13% of patients respectively). These results confirm previous data showing that about 30% of UCTD patients will develop a defined CTD, the predictive role of anti-cardiolipin antibodies for the evolution to SLE, and the existence of stable UCTD, distinct clinical entities with a simplified clinico-serological profile. The early identification of stable UCTD is very important both from a clinical and a research point of view. Future research is needed to define a new set of classification criteria. PMID:18432323

  16. The red face revisited: connective tissue disorders.

    PubMed

    Kazandjieva, Jana; Tsankov, Nikolai; Pramatarov, Kyrill

    2014-01-01

    Red face is not a rare finding in patients with connective tissue disorders. The malar eruption is the most frequent cutaneous manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (LE). This condition is more apparent among fair-skinned individuals, and it usually appears after sun exposure. A very important clinical sign is that nasolabial folds remain free of any erythematous or other changes. With subacute cutaneous LE, sun exposure can provoke a red face that resembles the malar eruption of systemic LE. The typical clinical findings of chronic cutaneous LE are the discoid lesions. There is a clinical form of chronic cutaneous LE called erythema perstans faciei. This form is purely erythematous, and it usually appears on the face. Other rare "red face" forms of chronic cutaneous LE are LE tumidus and LE telangiectaticus. Red face is not typical of systemic sclerosis, but facial telangiectasias are frequent, especially with CREST (calcinosis, Raynaud phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia) syndrome. The differential diagnoses of other red face manifestations are easy due to the additional findings. Telangiectasias are accompanied by calcinosis, sclerodactyly, digital ischemia, and Raynaud disease. Many studies mention telangiectasias as markers of the severity of the systemic sclerosis, the disease duration, any pulmonary arterial hypertension, and any esophageal involvement. Purple- or violet-colored upper eyelids are the hallmark and one of the first clinical signs that is helpful for the diagnosis of dermatomyositis. This violaceous to dusky erythema can extend over the whole face and the upper aspects of the trunk. Erythematous changes on the face that are different from those of the heliotrope sign which occurs with dermatomyositis may be observed in both sun-exposed skin and non-sun-exposed skin. Malar and facial erythema, linear extensor erythema, V-sign or shawl sign, and other photodistributed eruptions can also appear. PMID:24314389

  17. Pectus Excavatum and Heritable Disorders of the Connective Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Tocchioni, Francesca; Ghionzoli, Marco; Messineo, Antonio; Romagnoli, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Pectus excavatum, the most frequent congenital chest wall deformity, may be rarely observed as a sole deformity or as a sign of an underlying connective tissue disorder. To date, only few studies have described correlations between this deformity and heritable connective tissue disorders such as Marfan, Ehlers-Danlos, Poland, MASS (Mitral valve prolapse, not progressive Aortic enlargement, Skeletal and Skin alterations) phenotype among others. When concurring with connective tissue disorder, cardiopulmonary and vascular involvement may be associated to the thoracic defect. Ruling out the concomitance of pectus excavatum and connective tissue disorders, therefore, may have a direct implication both on surgical outcome and long term prognosis. In this review we focused on biological bases of connective tissue disorders which may be relevant to the pathogenesis of pectus excavatum, portraying surgical and clinical implication of their concurrence. PMID:24198927

  18. The decrease in silicon concentration of the connective tissues with age in rats is a marker of connective tissue turnover.

    PubMed

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Watson, Abigail I E; Pedro, Liliana D; Powell, Jonathan J

    2015-06-01

    Silicon may be important for bone and connective tissue health. Higher concentrations of silicon are suggested to be associated with bone and the connective tissues, compared with the non-connective soft tissues. Moreover, in connective tissues it has been suggested that silicon levels may decrease with age based upon analyses of human aorta. These claims, however, have not been tested under controlled conditions. Here connective and non-connective tissues were collected and analysed for silicon levels from female Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages (namely, 3, 5, 8, 12, 26 and 43 weeks; n=8-10 per age group), all maintained on the same feed source and drinking water, and kept in the same environment from weaning to adulthood. Tissues (696 samples) were digested in nitric acid and analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for total silicon content. Fasting serum samples were also collected, diluted and analysed for silicon. Higher concentrations of silicon (up to 50-fold) were found associated with bone and the connective tissues compared with the non-connective tissues. Although total silicon content increased with age in all tissues, the highest connective tissue silicon concentrations (up to 9.98 ?g/g wet weight) were found in young weanling rats, decreasing thereafter with age (by 2-6 fold). Fasting serum silicon concentrations reflected the pattern of connective tissue silicon concentrations and, both measures, when compared to collagen data from a prior experiment in Sprague-Dawley rats, mirrored type I collagen turnover with age. Our findings confirm the link between silicon and connective tissues and would imply that young growing rats have proportionally higher requirements for dietary silicon than mature adults, for bone and connective tissue development, although this was not formally investigated here. However, estimation of total body silicon content suggested that actual Si requirements may be substantially lower than previously estimated which could explain why absolute silicon deficiency is difficult to achieve but, when it is achieved in young growing animals, it results in stunted growth and abnormal development of bone and other connective tissues. PMID:25687224

  19. The decrease in silicon concentration of the connective tissues with age in rats is a marker of connective tissue turnover?

    PubMed Central

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Watson, Abigail I.E.; Pedro, Liliana D.; Powell, Jonathan J.

    2015-01-01

    Silicon may be important for bone and connective tissue health. Higher concentrations of silicon are suggested to be associated with bone and the connective tissues, compared with the non-connective soft tissues. Moreover, in connective tissues it has been suggested that silicon levels may decrease with age based upon analyses of human aorta. These claims, however, have not been tested under controlled conditions. Here connective and non-connective tissues were collected and analysed for silicon levels from female Sprague–Dawley rats of different ages (namely, 3, 5, 8, 12, 26 and 43 weeks; n = 8–10 per age group), all maintained on the same feed source and drinking water, and kept in the same environment from weaning to adulthood. Tissues (696 samples) were digested in nitric acid and analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for total silicon content. Fasting serum samples were also collected, diluted and analysed for silicon. Higher concentrations of silicon (up to 50-fold) were found associated with bone and the connective tissues compared with the non-connective tissues. Although total silicon content increased with age in all tissues, the highest connective tissue silicon concentrations (up to 9.98 ?g/g wet weight) were found in young weanling rats, decreasing thereafter with age (by 2–6 fold). Fasting serum silicon concentrations reflected the pattern of connective tissue silicon concentrations and, both measures, when compared to collagen data from a prior experiment in Sprague–Dawley rats, mirrored type I collagen turnover with age. Our findings confirm the link between silicon and connective tissues and would imply that young growing rats have proportionally higher requirements for dietary silicon than mature adults, for bone and connective tissue development, although this was not formally investigated here. However, estimation of total body silicon content suggested that actual Si requirements may be substantially lower than previously estimated which could explain why absolute silicon deficiency is difficult to achieve but, when it is achieved in young growing animals, it results in stunted growth and abnormal development of bone and other connective tissues. PMID:25687224

  20. Autoimmune hepatitis

    MedlinePLUS

    Lupoid hepatitis; Chronic acute liver disease ... This form of hepatitis is an autoimmune disease . The body's immune system cannot tell the difference between healthy body tissue and harmful, outside ...

  1. Association of anti-phospholipid antibodies with connective tissue diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Reena; Swetha, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA) are directed against phospholipids and their binding proteins and are frequently found in association with connective tissue disorders. Systemic lupus erythematoses (SLE) with APLA may cause a diagnostic dilemma as there are several manifestations like haemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, neurologic manifestations, leg ulcerations, serositis proteinuria which overlap in both these conditions. We conducted a study to find out the association of antiphospholipid antibodies with connective tissue diseases and compared the clinical and laboratory parameters between antiphoshpolipid antibody positive and antiphoshpolipid antibody negative group. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in 102 patients diagnosed with connective tissue diseases. APLA testing was done at baseline and for those positive, the test was repeated after 12 weeks. Results: 14.7 % of patients with connective tissue diseases tissue had positive antiphoshpolipid antibodies. Positive antiphoshpolipid antibody was detected in 73.3% of patients with SLE group, 13.3% of patients with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) and 13.3% of patients with systemic sclerosis. APLA positivity was seen in SLE patients with leg ulcers (87.2%), neurologic manifestation (72.7%), hemolytic anemia (62.3%), thrombocytopenia (72.7%), serositis (27.8%) and proteinuria(19.6%). Conclusions: Antiphoshpolipid antibodies should be tested in all patients with connective tissue disease. PMID:25821728

  2. Unusual manifestation of histoplasmosis in connective tissue diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Ceccato; V. Gongora; A. Zunino; S. Roverano; S. Paira

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the coexistence of three patients with rheumatic diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid\\u000a arthritis, and dermatomyositis) and infections because of Histoplasma capsulatum. Connective tissue diseases and histoplasmosis share several clinical findings. Therefore, histoplasmosis could be misdiagnosed\\u000a as connective tissue disease or a flare of these diseases. Such cases highlight the importance of awareness of histoplasmosis\\u000a in immunocompromised patients,

  3. The Repertoires of Peptides Presented by MHC-II in the Thymus and in Peripheral Tissue: A Clue for Autoimmunity?

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Javier A.; Guitart, Carolina; Ciudad, M. Teresa; Alvarez, Iñaki; Jaraquemada, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    T-cell tolerance to self-antigens is established in the thymus through the recognition by developing thymocytes of self-peptide-MHC complexes and induced and maintained in the periphery. Efficient negative selection of auto-reactive T cells in the thymus is dependent on the in situ expression of both ubiquitous and tissue-restricted self-antigens and on the presentation of derived peptides. Weak or inadequate intrathymic expression of self-antigens increases the risk to generate an autoimmune-prone T-cell repertoire. Indeed, even small changes of self-antigen expression in the thymus affect negative selection and increase the predisposition to autoimmunity. Together with other mechanisms, tolerance is maintained in the peripheral lymphoid organs via the recognition by mature T cells of a similar set of self-peptides in homeostatic conditions. However, non-lymphoid peripheral tissue, where organ-specific autoimmunity takes place, often have differential functional processes that may lead to the generation of epitopes that are absent or non-presented in the thymus. These putative differences between peptides presented by MHC molecules in the thymus and in peripheral tissues might be a major key to the initiation and maintenance of autoimmune conditions. PMID:24381570

  4. Tissue banking for research: connecting the disconnected.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Geraldine

    2011-02-01

    Delivering the promise of personalised medicine is the challenge that the current generation of scientists face. The variations in human physiology and disease are considerable, and designing appropriate strategies to deliver what has been promised will require access to tissue from a large number of volunteers. The NHS provides an ideal infrastructure for sample acquisition, but requires two things to make this available-public consent and support for extra manpower and administration. There is a disconnection between the NHS and tissue based research that needs to be addressed on a number of levels to provide a translational platform. This should enable the path to be beaten to provide the ideal tailored treatment for future patients; one that preserves quality of life by curing the disease with minimal side effects. PMID:20824350

  5. Epithelial enhancement of connective tissue differentiation in explanted somites.

    PubMed

    Swalla, B J; Solursh, M

    1984-02-01

    This paper examines the differentiation of somites from stage-16 or -17 chick embryos cultured with or without notochord in explant cultures. Histological sections of the cultures were stained with a trichrome stain to identify the different kinds of connective tissues formed. Both anterior and posterior (epithelial) somites made muscle, cartilage and loose connective tissue in explant culture. The extent of cartilage differentiation was enhanced by the presence of the notochord, confirming earlier studies. The presence of 1 mM-dibutyryl cAMP in the culture medium increased the amount of muscle found in the explants but by histological criteria did not inhibit chondrogenesis, contrary to earlier reports. The addition of quail ectoderm to the explants stimulated loose connective tissue to form directly beneath it, suggesting for the first time a role of the ectoderm in dermatome differentiation. These results suggest that the epithelial somite has the capacity to differentiate into all three connective tissue types even before it has separated into sclerotome and dermamyotome. The relative amount of different connective tissue types can be influenced by environmental factors, such as adjacent epithelia like the notochord or ectoderm. PMID:6325573

  6. [50 years of connective tissue research: from the French Connective Tissue Club to the French Society of Extracellular Matrix Biology].

    PubMed

    Maquart, François-Xavier; Borel, Jacques-Paul

    2012-01-01

    The history of connective tissue research began in the late 18th century. However, it is only 50 years later that the concept of connective tissue was shaped. It took another fifty years before biochemical knowledge of extracellular matrix macromolecules began to emerge in the first half of the 20th century. In 1962, thanks to Ladislas and Barbara Robert, back from the US, the first society called "French Connective Tissue Club" was created in Paris. The first board was constituted of Albert Delaunay, Suzanne Bazin and Ladislas Robert. Very quickly, under the influence of these pioneers, national and international meetings were organized and, in 1967, a "Federation of the European Connective Tissue Clubs" was created at the initiative of Ladislas Robert (Paris) and John Scott (Manchester). It spread rapidly to the major European nations. In 1982 the transformation of "Clubs" in "Societies" occurred, a name more in line with the requirements of the time. In 2008, the "French Connective Tissue Society" became the "French Society of Extracellular Matrix Biology" ("Société Française de Biologie de la Matrice Extracellulaire", SFBMEc), to better highlight the importance of the extracellular matrix in the biology of living organisms. The SFBMEc's mission today is to promote and develop scientific exchanges between academic, industrial, and hospital laboratories involved in research on the extracellular matrix. SFBMEc organizes or subsidizes scientific meetings and awards scholarships to Ph.D. students or post-docs to participate in international conferences. It includes 200 to 250 members from different disciplines, developing strong interactions between scientists, clinicians and pathologists. It is present all around the French territory in many research laboratories. During these last 50 years, the extraordinary advances made possible by the development of new investigation techniques, in particular molecular biology, cell and tissue imaging, molecular modeling, etc., have permitted a considerable increase of the knowledge in the field of connective tissue. PMID:22748045

  7. Histopathology of lung disease in the connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Vivero, Marina; Padera, Robert F

    2015-05-01

    The pathologic correlates of interstitial lung disease (ILD) secondary to connective tissue disease (CTD) comprise a diverse group of histologic patterns. Lung biopsies in patients with CTD-associated ILD tend to demonstrate simultaneous involvement of multiple anatomic compartments of the lung. Certain histologic patterns tend to predominate in each defined CTD, and it is possible in many cases to confirm connective tissue-associated lung disease and guide patient management using surgical lung biopsy. This article will cover the pulmonary pathologies seen in rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, myositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, and mixed CTD. PMID:25836637

  8. Connective tissue anomalies in patients with spontaneous cervical artery dissection

    PubMed Central

    Giossi, Alessia; Ritelli, Marco; Costa, Paolo; Morotti, Andrea; Poli, Loris; Del Zotto, Elisabetta; Volonghi, Irene; Chiarelli, Nicola; Gamba, Massimo; Bovi, Paolo; Tomelleri, Giampaolo; Carletti, Monica; Checcarelli, Nicoletta; Meneghetti, Giorgio; Morra, Michele; Chinaglia, Mauro; De Giuli, Valeria; Colombi, Marina; Padovani, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of connective tissue abnormalities in patients with spontaneous cervical artery dissections (sCeAD). Methods: We systematically assessed clinically detectable signs of connective tissue aberration in a series of consecutive patients with sCeAD and of age- and sex-matched patients with ischemic stroke unrelated to CeAD (non-CeAD IS) by a standard examination protocol including 68 items, and performed extensive molecular investigation for hereditary connective tissue disorders in all patients with sCeAD. Results: The study group included 84 patients with sCeAD (mean age, 44.5 ± 7.8 years; 66.7% men) and 84 patients with non-CeAD IS. None of the patients with sCeAD met clinical or molecular diagnostic criteria for established hereditary connective tissue disorder. Connective tissue abnormalities were detected more frequently in the group of patients with sCeAD than in the group of those with non-CeAD IS (mean number of pathologic findings, 4.5 ± 3.5 vs 1.9 ± 2.3; p < 0.001). Eighty-one patients (96.4%) in the sCeAD group had at least one detectable sign compared with 55 patients (66.7%) in the group with non-CeAD IS (p < 0.001). Skeletal, ocular, and skin abnormalities, as well as craniofacial dysmorphisms, were the clinical signs more strongly associated with sCeAD. Signs suggesting connective tissue abnormality were also more frequently represented in patients with sCeAD than in patients with traumatic CeAD (28.6%, p < 0.001; mean number of pathologic findings, 1.7 ± 3.7, p = 0.045). Conclusions: Connective tissue abnormalities are frequent in patients with sCeAD. This reinforces the hypothesis that systemic aberrations of the connective tissue might be implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:25355826

  9. [Connective tissue: big unifying element of the organism].

    PubMed

    Kapandji, A-I

    2012-10-01

    The anatomical unity of the organism is realized by the connective tissue, which assumes five functions: the filling of the spaces between organs; the connexion between these organs; the driving of the vascular and nervous pedicles to these organs; the stocking of nutritive reserves in fat pads; an aesthetic role with hollows and bumps erasing. The space filling is done with jointed polyedric volumes, which are constituted, according to the theories of J.-C. Guimberteau, with microvacuoles, filled with under pressure fundamental substance. This is a status of preconstraint resulting in a form memory. So, the connective tissue under constraint get back its initial status after this constraint is over, according to the laws of a new science, the tensegrity. The explorations of the connective tissue with a 25× magnifying micro endoscopes are showing micro fibrillar structures, evoluting under constraint. Its arrangement, that seems chaotic, is in fractal disposition, in reality, and follows the "universal parcimony law" established by Williams of Ockham. The structure of the connective tissue can be integrated in a holistic conception of the organism. Many characteristics of this tissue have still to be discovered. PMID:22884219

  10. Ibuprofen-induced meningitis in mixed connective tissue disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hoffman; R. G. Gray

    1982-01-01

    Summary  A young Black woman with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) developed an aseptic meningitis after receiving ibuprofen. The meningeal reaction, reported infrequently in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and only once previously in MCTD, was characterized by a predominantly polymorphonu-clear cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis and depression of CSF glucose. Reversible renal insuffiency also occurred. Features suggestive of a hypersensitivity reaction included

  11. Smooth Muscle-Mediated Connective Tissue Remodeling in Pulmonary Hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecham, Robert P.; Whitehouse, Loren A.; Wrenn, David S.; Parks, William C.; Griffin, Gail L.; Senior, Robert M.; Crouch, Edmond C.; Stenmark, Kurt R.; Voelkel, Norbert F.

    1987-07-01

    Abnormal accumulation of connective tissue in blood vessels contributes to alterations in vascular physiology associated with disease states such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Elastin synthesis was studied in blood vessels from newborn calves with severe pulmonary hypertension induced by alveolar hypoxia in order to investigate the cellular stimuli that elicit changes in pulmonary arterial connective tissue production. A two- to fourfold increase in elastin production was observed in pulmonary artery tissue and medial smooth muscle cells from hypertensive calves. This stimulation of elastin production was accompanied by a corresponding increase in elastin messenger RNA consistent with regulation at the transcriptional level. Conditioned serum harvested from cultures of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells isolated from hypertensive animals contained one or more low molecular weight elastogenic factors that stimulated the production of elastin in both fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells and altered the chemotactic responsiveness of fibroblasts to elastin peptides. These results suggest that connective tissue changes in the pulmonary vasculature in response to pulmonary hypertension are orchestrated by the medial smooth muscle cell through the generation of specific differentiation factors that alter both the secretory phenotype and responsive properties of surrounding cells.

  12. Clinical Evaluation of Papilla Reconstruction Using Subepithelial Connective Tissue Graft

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Alka; PK, Pal; Chopra, Deepak; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Masamatti, Vinaykumar S; DK, Suresh; Babaji, Prashant

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aesthetics of the patient can be improved by surgical reconstruction of interdental papilla by using an advanced papillary flap interposed with subepithelial connective tissue graft. Materials and Methods: A total of fifteen sites from ten patients having black triangles/papilla recession in the maxillary anterior region were selected and subjected to presurgical evaluation. The sites were treated with interposed subepithelial connective tissue graft placed under a coronally advance flap. The integrity of the papilla was maintained by moving the whole of gingivopapillary unit coronally. The various parameters were analysed at different intervals. Results: There was a mean decrease in the papilla presence index score and distance from contact point to gingival margin, but it was statistically not significant. Also, there is increase in the width of the keratinized gingiva which was statistically highly significant. Conclusion: Advanced papillary flap with interposed sub–epithelial connective tissue graft can offer predictable results for the reconstruction of interdental papilla. If papilla loss occurs solely due to soft-tissue damage, reconstructive techniques can completely restore it; but if due to periodontal disease involving bone loss, reconstruction is generally incomplete and multiple surgical procedures may be required. PMID:25386529

  13. Autoimmunity in thyroid disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanne Collins; Stephen Gough

    2002-01-01

    The autoimmune thyroid diseases, Graves' disease and autoimmune hypothyroidism, represent the two ends of a disease spectrum where an immune response is directed against the thyroid gland. In Graves' disease, antibodies directed against the thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) lead to the development of glandular overactivity, while in autoimmune hypothyroidism, cell-mediated and humoral thyroid injury leads to destruction of thyroid tissue and

  14. A Framework for Modelling Connective Tissue Changes in VIIP Syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethier, C. R.; Best, L.; Gleason, R.; Mulugeta, L.; Myers, J. G.; Nelson, E. S.; Samuels, B. C.

    2014-01-01

    Insertion of astronauts into microgravity induces a cascade of physiological adaptations, notably including a cephalad fluid shift. Longer-duration flights carry an increased risk of developing Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome, a spectrum of ophthalmic changes including posterior globe flattening, choroidal folds, distension of the optic nerve sheath, kinking of the optic nerve and potentially permanent degradation of visual function. The slow onset of changes in VIIP, their chronic nature, and the similarity of certain clinical features of VIIP to ophthalmic findings in patients with raised intracranial pressure strongly suggest that: (i) biomechanical factors play a role in VIIP, and (ii) connective tissue remodeling must be accounted for if we wish to understand the pathology of VIIP. Our goal is to elucidate the pathophysiology of VIIP and suggest countermeasures based on biomechanical modeling of ocular tissues, suitably informed by experimental data, and followed by validation and verification. We specifically seek to understand the quasi-homeostatic state that evolves over weeks to months in space, during which ocular tissue remodeling occurs. This effort is informed by three bodies of work: (i) modeling of cephalad fluid shifts; (ii) modeling of ophthalmic tissue biomechanics in glaucoma; and (iii) modeling of connective tissue changes in response to biomechanical loading.

  15. Connective Tissue Growth Factor and Cardiac Fibrosis after Myocardial Infarction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachael G. Dean; Leanne C. Balding; Riccardo Candido; Wendy C. Burns; Zemin Cao; Stephen M. Twigg; Louise M. Burrell

    2005-01-01

    The temporal and spatial expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was assessed in the left ventricle of a myocardial infarction (MI) model of injury with and without angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. Coronary artery ligated rats were killed 1, 3, 7, 28, and 180 days after MI. TGF-?1, CTGF, and procollagen ?1(I) mRNA were localized

  16. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD) & tissue transglutaminase (anti-TTG) antibodies in patients with thyroid autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Marwaha, R.K.; Garg, M.K.; Tandon, N.; Kanwar, Ratnesh; Narang, A.; Sastry, A.; Saberwal, A.; Bhadra, Kuntal

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Several autoimmune disorders have been reported to be associated with autoimmune thyroiditis and may coexist with other organ-specific autoantibodies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of tissue transglutaminase (anti-TTG) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD) antibodies in patients suffering from autoimmune thyroiditis as diagnosed by anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies, which may indicate high risk for developing celiac disease or type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Five thousand children and 2800 adults were screening as part of a general health examination done on a voluntary basis in four different parts of Delhi. A total of 577 subjects positive for anti-TPO antibody constituted the cases. Equal number of age and sex matched anti-TPO antibody negative controls were randomly selected from the same cohort to form paired case control study. The cases and controls were further divided into two groups as follows: group-1 (children and adolescent <18 yr), group-2 (adults >18 yr). Serum samples of cases and controls were analysed for thyroid function test (FT3, FT4, and TSH), anti-TTG and anti-GAD antibodies. Results: A total of 1154 subjects (577 cases and 577 controls) were included in this study. Hypothyroidism was present in 40.2 per cent (232) cases compared to only 4.7 per cent (27) in controls (P<0.001). Anti-TTG and anti-GAD antibodies were present in 6.9 and 12.5 per cent subjects among cases compared to 3.5 per cent (P=0.015) and 4.3 per cent (P=0.001) in controls, respectively. Only anti-GAD antibody were significantly positive in cases among children and adolescents (P =0.0044) and adult (P=0.001) compared to controls. Levels of anti-TTG and anti-GAD antibodies increased with increasing titre of anti-TPO antibody. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed high positivity of anti-GAD and anti-TTG antibodies among subjects with thyroid autoimmunity. It is, therefore, important to have high clinical index of suspicion for celiac disease or type 1 diabetes mellitus in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:23481055

  17. An ultrastructural study of connective tissue in mollusc integument: II. Gastropoda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bairati; M. Comazzi; M. Gioria

    2001-01-01

    We studied the ultrastructure of the subepidermal connective tissue (SEC) in different zones of the integument in terrestrial, marine and freshwater gastropods (eight species). In all cases, the SEC was a layer of loose connective tissue between the basal membrane (BM) of the epidermis and the connective tissue of the deeper muscle layers. It was of monotonous structure and not

  18. Ultrasound evidence of altered lumbar connective tissue structure in human subjects with chronic low back pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helene M Langevin; Debbie Stevens-Tuttle; James R Fox; Gary J Badger; Nicole A Bouffard; Martin H Krag; Junru Wu; Sharon M Henry

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the connective tissues forming the fascial planes of the back have been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic low back pain (LBP), there have been no previous studies quantitatively evaluating connective tissue structure in this condition. The goal of this study was to perform an ultrasound-based comparison of perimuscular connective tissue structure in the

  19. Management of connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Chartrand, Sandra; Fischer, Aryeh

    2015-05-01

    A thorough, often multidisciplinary assessment to determine extrathoracic versus intrathoracic disease activity and degrees of impairment is needed to optimize the management of connective tissue disease (CTD)-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD). Pharmacologic intervention with immunosuppression is the mainstay of therapy for all forms of CTD-ILD, but should be reserved for those that show clinically significant and/or progressive disease. The management of CTD-ILD is not yet evidence based and there is a need for controlled trials across the spectrum of CTD-ILD. Nonpharmacologic management strategies and addressing comorbidities or aggravating factors should be included in the comprehensive treatment plan for CTD-ILD. PMID:25836643

  20. Purpura fulminans in a patient with mixed connective tissue disease

    PubMed Central

    Murad, Aizuri A; Jeffers, Michael; Tobin, Anne-Marie; Connolly, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    A 43-year-old lady was admitted to the intensive care unit with sepsis. She had a history of mixed connective tissue disease, Raynaud's syndrome and hypothyroidism. 2?days later, she developed a purpuric rash on her face and extremities with a livedoid background. Few days later, her distal fingers and toes became gangrenous which then had to be amputated. Laboratory investigations showed that she was coagulopathic and had multiple organ dysfunctions. Antiphospholipid antibodies were negative; however, protein C and antithrombin III levels were low. A skin biopsy showed fibrinoid necrosis in the vessel wall with microthrombi and red-cell extravasation. A diagnosis of purpura fulminans was made. PMID:23370948

  1. Purpura fulminans in a patient with mixed connective tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Murad, Aizuri A; Jeffers, Michael; Tobin, Anne-Marie; Connolly, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    A 43-year-old lady was admitted to the intensive care unit with sepsis. She had a history of mixed connective tissue disease, Raynaud's syndrome and hypothyroidism. 2 days later, she developed a purpuric rash on her face and extremities with a livedoid background. Few days later, her distal fingers and toes became gangrenous which then had to be amputated. Laboratory investigations showed that she was coagulopathic and had multiple organ dysfunctions. Antiphospholipid antibodies were negative; however, protein C and antithrombin III levels were low. A skin biopsy showed fibrinoid necrosis in the vessel wall with microthrombi and red-cell extravasation. A diagnosis of purpura fulminans was made. PMID:23370948

  2. Sustained deep-tissue pain alters functional brain connectivity Jieun Kim a,

    E-print Network

    Napadow, Vitaly

    Sustained deep-tissue pain alters functional brain connectivity Jieun Kim a, , Marco L. Loggia a connec- tivity change to more clinically relevant sustained deep-tissue pain. Connectivity in specific connectivity a b s t r a c t Recent functional brain connectivity studies have contributed to our understanding

  3. Immune response against ocular tissues after immunization with optic nerve antigens in a model of autoimmune glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Reinehr, Sabrina; Kuehn, Sandra; Laspas, Panagiotis; Gramlich, Oliver W.; Kuehn, Mathias; Tischoff, Iris; von Pein, Harald D.; Dick, H. Burkhard; Grus, Franz H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In recent years, numerous studies have investigated the involvement of immunological mechanisms in glaucoma. Until now, it has not been determined whether the altered antibody pattern detected in patients is harmful to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) or triggers disease formation in any way. In a model of experimental autoimmune glaucoma, RGC loss can be induced through immunization with certain ocular antigens. In the current study, the time course of the levels of autoreactivity against ocular tissues after immunization was examined. Methods Intraocular pressure was measured regularly. Ten weeks after immunization with an optic nerve homogenate antigen (ONA), the number of RGCs was determined. Immunoglobulin G levels in aqueous humor were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at the same time point. Serum from different time points was used to analyze the possible occurrence of autoreactive antibodies against the retina or optic nerve in this autoimmune glaucoma model. Additionally, optic nerve and brain sections were evaluated for possible pathological findings. Results Intraocular pressure stayed within the normal range throughout this study. A continuous increase of autoreactive antibodies against the optic nerve and retina sections was observed. At 4, 6, and 10 weeks, antibody reactivity was significantly higher in ONA animals (p<0.01). Aqueous humor immunoglobulin G levels were also significantly higher in the ONA group (p=0.006). Ten weeks after immunization, significantly fewer RGCs were noted in the ONA group (p=0.00003). The optic nerves from ONA animals exhibited damaged axons. No pathological findings appeared in any brain sections. Conclusions Our findings suggest that these modified antibodies play a substantial role in mechanisms leading to RGC death. The slow dissolution of RGCs observed in animals with autoimmune glaucoma is comparable to the slow progressive RGC loss in glaucoma patients, thus making this a useful model to develop neuroprotective therapies in the future. PMID:23946635

  4. Cell-based and biomaterial approaches to connective tissue repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalling, Simone Suzette

    Connective tissue injuries of skin, tendon and ligament, heal by a reparative process in adults, filling the wound site with fibrotic, disorganized scar tissue that poorly reflects normal tissue architecture or function. Conversely, fetal skin and tendon have been shown to heal scarlessly. Complete regeneration is not intrinsically ubiquitous to all fetal tissues; fetal diaphragmatic and gastrointestinal injuries form scars. In vivo studies suggest that the presence of fetal fibroblasts is essential for scarless healing. In the orthopaedic setting, adult anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) heals poorly; however, little is known about the regenerative capacity of fetal ACL or fetal ACL fibroblasts. We characterized in vitro wound healing properties of fetal and adult ACL fibroblasts demonstrating that fetal ACL fibroblasts migrate faster and elaborate greater quantities of type I collagen, suggesting the healing potential of the fetal ACL may not be intrinsically poor. Similar to fetal ACL fibroblasts, fetal dermal fibroblasts also exhibit robust cellular properties. We investigated the age-dependent effects of dermal fibroblasts on tendon-to-bone healing in rat supraspinatus tendon injuries, a reparative injury model. We hypothesized delivery of fetal dermal fibroblasts would increase tissue organization and mechanical properties in comparison to adult dermal fibroblasts. However, at 1 and 8 weeks, the presence of dermal fibroblasts, either adult or fetal, had no significant effect on tissue histology or mechanical properties. There was a decreasing trend in cross-sectional area of repaired tendons treated with fetal dermal fibroblasts in comparison to adult, but this finding was not significant in comparison to controls. Finally, we synthesized a novel polysaccharide, methacrylated methylcellulose (MA-MC), and fabricated hydrogels using a well-established photopolymerization technique. We characterized the physical and mechanical properties of MA-MC hydrogels in vitro as well as in a subcutaneous mouse model. Stable MA-MC hydrogels, of varying weight percentages, demonstrated tunable swelling and mechanical properties in the absence of cytotoxic degradation products. In vivo, 6wt% MA-MC hydrogels maintained their shape and mechanical integrity while eliciting a minimal inflammatory response; highly desirable properties for soft tissue reconstruction. These cellulose-based photopolymerizable hydrogels can be further optimized for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications to enhance wound repair.

  5. Connective tissue disease-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Luke S.

    2015-01-01

    Although rare in its idiopathic form, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is not uncommon in association with various associated medical conditions, most notably connective tissue disease (CTD). In particular, it develops in approximately 10% of patients with systemic sclerosis and so these patients are increasingly screened to enable early detection. The response of patients with systemic sclerosis to PAH-specific therapy appears to be worse than in other forms of PAH. Survival in systemic sclerosis-associated PAH is inferior to that observed in idiopathic PAH. Potential reasons for this include differences in age, the nature of the underlying pulmonary vasculopathy and the ability of the right ventricle to cope with increased afterload between patients with systemic sclerosis-associated PAH and idiopathic PAH, while coexisting cardiac and pulmonary disease is common in systemic sclerosis-associated PAH. Other forms of connective tissue-associated PAH have been less well studied, however PAH associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has a better prognosis than systemic sclerosis-associated PAH and likely responds to immunosuppression. PMID:25705389

  6. [Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with connective tissue diseases].

    PubMed

    Legendre, Paul; Mouthon, Luc

    2014-09-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a classical complication of connective tissue diseases (CTD), particularly in systemic sclerosis (SSc), systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) or mixed connective tissue diseases (MCTD). The prevalence of PAH in SSc, as measured by right heart catheterization (RHC), is estimated between 7.85 to 13%. The detection of PAH in SSc is based on trans-thoracic echocardiography. Early detection in pulmonary hypertension is the best way to improve the survival in these diseases. In the DETECT study, 19% of high-risk PAH patients with SSc (SSc diagnosed less than 3 years before and DLco<60% predicted) have PAH as measured by RHC. Specific treatments for PAH are less efficient in PAH related to SSc than in idiopathic PAH. The main characteristic of PAH related to CTD other than SSc is a good response to immunosuppressive treatment, with an improvement in 50% of cases in SLE or MCTD. The prognosis of PAH associated with CTD seem to improve with the diversification of treatments available, but remains reserved. Therapeutic combinations and new molecules should allow to improve the prognosis. PMID:25129118

  7. T cells and orbital connective tissue in endocrine orbitopathy.

    PubMed

    Kahaly, G; Otto, E; Förster, G; Gansen, K; Olivari, N; Beyer, J; Hansen, C

    1996-01-01

    In order to analyse the immunological changes in patients with endocrine orbitopathy (EO) the antigenic character of orbital connective tissue was studied. Counter-stimulation assays of patients' lymphocytes with autologous retrobulbar fibroblasts resulted in a markedly increased lymphocyte proliferation in comparison to incubation with retrobulbar control fibroblasts. Proliferation tests of retrobulbar T cell lines showed significant responses to autologous retro-orbital connective tissue proteins, with molecular weights of 6-10 kD and 19-26 kD. Phenotypic analysis of orbital T cell lines indicates that they consisted predominantly of CD4+ cells. Hyaluronic acid production of orbital fibro blasts following co-cultivation with lymphocytes of EO patients or controls revealed a threefold increased synthesis in patients with EO. Furthermore, distribution pattern of orbital extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycans (GAG) differs in EO patients in comparison to controls. The results suggest the presence of autoreactive T cells directed against antigens of orbital fibroblasts, whose stimulation results in an augmented GAG synthesis in patients with EO. PMID:8981008

  8. Sexual dimorphism in autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Rubtsova, Kira; Marrack, Philippa; Rubtsov, Anatoly V

    2015-06-01

    Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system attacks and destroys the organs and tissues of its own host. Autoimmunity is the third most common type of disease in the United States. Because there is no cure for autoimmunity, it is extremely important to study the mechanisms that trigger these diseases. Most autoimmune diseases predominantly affect females, indicating a strong sex bias. Various factors, including sex hormones, the presence or absence of a second X chromosome, and sex-specific gut microbiota can influence gene expression in a sex-specific way. These changes in gene expression may, in turn, lead to susceptibility or protection from autoimmunity, creating a sex bias for autoimmune diseases. In this Review we discuss recent findings in the field of sex-dependent regulation of gene expression and autoimmunity. PMID:25915581

  9. Carpal tunnel syndrome pathophysiology: role of subsynovial connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Werthel, Jean-David R; Zhao, Chunfeng; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2014-11-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a very common pathology. Its most common diagnosis is idiopathic. Although it is accepted that chronic increase in pressure within the carpal tunnel is responsible for median nerve neuropathy, the exact pathophysiology leading to this pressure increase remains unknown. All the histological studies of the carpal tunnel in the CTS find a noninflammatory thickening of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT), which seems to be a characteristic of this pathology. Numerous animal models have been developed to recreate CTS in vivo to develop and improve preventive strategies and effective conservative treatments by a better understanding of its pathophysiology. The creation of a shear injury of the SSCT in a rabbit model induced similar modifications to what is observed in CTS, suggesting that this could be a pathway leading to idiopathic CTS. PMID:25364632

  10. Vascularized interpositional periosteal connective tissue flap: A modern approach to augment soft tissue

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Chitra; Deora, Savita; Abraham, Dennis; Gaba, Rohini; Kumar, Baron Tarun; Kudva, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Context: Nowadays esthetics plays an important role in dentistry along with function of the prosthesis. Various soft tissue augmentation procedures are available to correct the ridge defects in the anterior region. The newer technique, vascularized interpositional periosteal connective tissue (VIP-CT) flap has been introduced, which has the potential to augment predictable amount of tissue and has many benefits when compared to other techniques. Aim: The study was designed to determine the efficacy of the VIP-CT flap in augmenting the ridge defect. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with Class III (Seibert's) ridge defects were treated with VIP-CT flap technique before fabricating fixed partial denture. Height and width of the ridge defects were measured before and after the procedure. Subsequent follow-up was done every 3 months for 1-year. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired t-test was performed to detect the significance of the procedure. Results: The surgical site healed uneventfully. The predictable amount of soft tissue augmentation had been achieved with the procedure. The increase in height and width of the ridge was statistically highly significant. Conclusion: The VIP-CT flap technique was effective in augmenting the soft tissue in esthetic area that remained stable over a long period. PMID:25810597

  11. Tensile Properties, Collagen Content, and Crosslinks in Connective Tissues of the Immature Knee Joint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sriram V. Eleswarapu; Donald J. Responte; Kyriacos A. Athanasiou; Alejandro Almarza

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundThe major connective tissues of the knee joint act in concert during locomotion to provide joint stability, smooth articulation, shock absorption, and distribution of mechanical stresses. These functions are largely conferred by the intrinsic material properties of the tissues, which are in turn determined by biochemical composition. A thorough understanding of the structure-function relationships of the connective tissues of the

  12. DSC investigation of connective tissues treated by IR-laser radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Yu. Ignatieva; V. V. Lunin; S. V. Averkiev; A. F. Maiorova; V. N. Bagratashvili; E. N. Sobol

    2004-01-01

    The structural changes of intact and laser treated connective tissues were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermomechanical analysis. Total collagen denaturation in the fibrous connective tissue was observed. Partial collagen denaturation in the cartilage tissue was proved. By means of enzymatic digestion it was shown that proteoglycans in the cartilage act as thermal stabilizers of the collagen, after their

  13. A Novel Esthetic Approach using Connective Tissue Graft for Soft Tissue Defect Following Surgical Excision of Gingival Fibrolipoma

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Harinath; Kumar, Praveenkrishna; Gajendran, Priyalochana; Appukuttan, Devapriya

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present case report is to evaluate the adjunctive use of a connective tissue graft to overcome soft tissue defects following excision of a gingival fibrolipoma in the aesthetic region. Connective tissue graft has been well documented for treating defects of esthetic concern. However, the literature does not contain many reports on the esthetic clinical outcome following the use of connective tissue graft secondary to excision of soft tissue tumours. A 28-year-old male patient reported with a complaint of a recurrent growth in relation to his lower front tooth region. The lesion which was provisionally diagnosed as fibroma was treated with a complete surgical excision, following which a modified coronally advanced flap and connective tissue graft was adopted to overcome the soft tissue defect. The excised growth was diagnosed histologically as fibrolipoma. One year follow up showed no recurrence of the lesion and good esthetics.The adjunctive use of the connective tissue graft and modified coronally advanced flap predictably yields optimal soft tissue fill and excellent esthetics. Hence, routine use of this procedure may be recommended for surgical excision of soft tissue growths in esthetically sensitive areas. PMID:25584336

  14. Tissue-Dependent Expression of Estrogen Receptor ? in 17?-Estradiol-Mediated Attenuation of Autoimmune CNS Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Richard E.; Kaler, Laurie; Murphy, Stephanie; Offner, Halina

    2010-01-01

    Treatment strategies using therapeutic estrogen are being developed and tested for multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is an autoimmune inflammatory disease that attacks the central nervous system, damages myelin and produces neurode-generative changes associated with periodic and chronic progression of functional neurological deficit. Experimental studies in chimeric bone marrow transplant mice treated with 17?-estradiol (E2) have revealed that the estrogen receptor-1 (Esr-1, or -alpha) expressed exclusively within the non-hematopoietic tissue compartment is sufficient for mediating a beneficial neuroprotective therapeutic response in mice lacking Esr-1 expression on T lymphocytes or other bone marrow-derived cells. Less is known regarding requirements for estrogen receptor-2 (Esr-2, or -beta) expression in E2-mediated therapy. Here, we tested and compared requirements for Esr-2 expression within distinct tissue compartments in bone marrow transplant mice. Our studies support a crucial role for Esr-1 in E2 treatment and demonstrate that Esr-2 expressed by non-bone marrow-derived cells plays a role in sustaining the neuroprotective response mediated through Esr-1. PMID:22242109

  15. TRPV1 Gates Tissue Access and Sustains Pathogenicity in Autoimmune Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Paltser, Geoffrey; Liu, Xue Jun; Yantha, Jason; Winer, Shawn; Tsui, Hubert; Wu, Ping; Maezawa, Yuko; Cahill, Lindsay S; Laliberté, Christine L; Ramagopalan, Sreeram V; DeLuca, Gabriele C; Sadovnick, A Dessa; Astsaturov, Igor; Ebers, George C; Henkelman, R Mark; Salter, Michael W; Dosch, H-Michael

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive, demyelinating condition whose therapeutic needs are unmet, and whose pathoetiology is elusive. We report that transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) expressed in a major sensory neuron subset, controls severity and progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice and likely in primary progressive MS. TRPV1?/? B6 congenics are protected from EAE. Increased survival reflects reduced central nervous systems (CNS) infiltration, despite indistinguishable T cell autoreactivity and pathogenicity in the periphery of TRPV1-sufficient and -deficient mice. The TRPV1+ neurovascular complex defining the blood-CNS barriers promoted invasion of pathogenic lymphocytes without the contribution of TRPV1-dependent neuropeptides such as substance P. In MS patients, we found a selective risk-association of the missense rs877610 TRPV1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in primary progressive disease. Our findings indicate that TRPV1 is a critical disease modifier in EAE, and we identify a predictor of severe disease course and a novel target for MS therapy. PMID:23689362

  16. Polymer-tethered epidermal growth factor as an inductive biomaterial surface for connective tissue progenitors

    E-print Network

    Fan, Vivian H. (Vivian Hanbing)

    2006-01-01

    Connective tissue progenitors (CTP) can act as a pluripotent source of reparative cells during injury and therefore have great potential in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. However, the response of CTP to most ...

  17. Viscoelastic properties of bovine orbital connective tissue and fat: constitutive models

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Lawrence; Gupta, Vijay; Lee, Choongyeop; Kavehpore, Pirouz

    2012-01-01

    Reported mechanical properties of orbital connective tissue and fat have been too sparse to model strain–stress relationships underlying biomechanical interactions in strabismus. We performed rheological tests to develop a multi-mode upper convected Maxwell (UCM) model of these tissues under shear loading. From 20 fresh bovine orbits, 30 samples of connective tissue were taken from rectus pulley regions and 30 samples of fatty tissues from the posterior orbit. Additional samples were defatted to determine connective tissue weight proportion, which was verified histologically. Mechanical testing in shear employed a triborheometer to perform: strain sweeps at 0.5–2.0 Hz; shear stress relaxation with 1% strain; viscometry at 0.01–0.5 s?1 strain rate; and shear oscillation at 1% strain. Average connective tissue weight proportion was 98% for predominantly connective tissue and 76% for fatty tissue. Connective tissue specimens reached a long-term relaxation modulus of 668 Pa after 1,500 s, while corresponding values for fatty tissue specimens were 290 Pa and 1,100 s. Shear stress magnitude for connective tissue exceeded that of fatty tissue by five-fold. Based on these data, we developed a multimode UCM model with variable viscosities and time constants, and a damped hyperelastic response that accurately described measured properties of both connective and fatty tissues. Model parameters differed significantly between the two tissues. Viscoelastic properties of predominantly connective orbital tissues under shear loading differ markedly from properties of orbital fat, but both are accurately reflected using UCM models. These viscoelastic models will facilitate realistic global modeling of EOM behavior in binocular alignment and strabismus. PMID:21207094

  18. [Mycophenolate mofetil in the treatment of selected connective tissue diseases].

    PubMed

    Batko, Bogdan; Krawiec, Piotr; Osieleniec, Jolanta; Su?owicz, W?adys?aw

    2013-01-01

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is an inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, which affects de novo purine synthesis and T- and B-cell proliferation. So far its efficacy and safety as an immunosuppressive treatment have been proven in organ transplantations and also in various autoimmune diseases. A literature search was conducted by using PubMed and the Cochrane library. This review focuses primarily on current treatment with MMF for systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, vasculitis and idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. PMID:24455833

  19. Connective tissue growth factor is a substrate of ADAM28

    SciTech Connect

    Mochizuki, Satsuki; Tanaka, Rena; Shimoda, Masayuki; Onuma, Junko [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0016 (Japan)] [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0016 (Japan); Fujii, Yutaka [Department of Molecular Biology and Chemistry, University of Fukui Faculty of Medical Sciences, 23-3, Matsuokashimoaizuki, Eiheiji-cho, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)] [Department of Molecular Biology and Chemistry, University of Fukui Faculty of Medical Sciences, 23-3, Matsuokashimoaizuki, Eiheiji-cho, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Jinno, Hiromitsu [Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0016 (Japan)] [Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0016 (Japan); Okada, Yasunori, E-mail: okada@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0016 (Japan)] [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0016 (Japan)

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} The hyper-variable region in the cysteine-rich domain of ADAM28 binds to C-terminal domain of CTGF. {yields} ADAM28 cleaves CTGF alone and CTGF in the CTGF/VEGF{sub 165} complex. {yields} CTGF digestion by ADAM28 releases biologically active VEGF{sub 165} from the complex. {yields} ADAM28, CTGF and VEGF{sub 165} are commonly co-expressed by carcinoma cells in human breast carcinoma tissues. {yields} These suggest that ADAM28 promotes VEGF{sub 165}-induced angiogenesis in the breast carcinomas by selective CTGF digestion in the CTGF/VEGF{sub 165} complex. -- Abstract: ADAM28, a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) gene family, is over-expressed by carcinoma cells and the expression correlates with carcinoma cell proliferation and progression in human lung and breast carcinomas. However, information about substrates of ADAM28 is limited. We screened interacting molecules of ADAM28 in human lung cDNA library by yeast two-hybrid system and identified connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Binding of CTGF to proADAM28 was demonstrated by yeast two-hybrid assay and protein binding assay. ADAM28 cleaved CTGF in dose- and time-dependent manners at the Ala{sup 181}-Tyr{sup 182} and Asp{sup 191}-Pro{sup 192} bonds in the hinge region of the molecule. ADAM28 selectively digested CTGF in the complex of CTGF and vascular endothelial growth factor{sub 165} (VEGF{sub 165}), releasing biologically active VEGF{sub 165} from the complex. RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that ADAM28, CTGF and VEGF are commonly co-expressed in the breast carcinoma tissues. These data provide the first evidence that CTGF is a novel substrate of ADAM28 and suggest that ADAM28 may promote VEGF{sub 165}-induced angiogenesis in the breast carcinomas by the CTGF digestion in the CTGF/VEGF{sub 165} complex.

  20. Inhibition of rheumatoid arthritis by blocking connective tissue growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Nozawa, Kazuhisa; Fujishiro, Maki; Takasaki, Yoshinari; Sekigawa, Iwao

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains to be completely elucidated so far; however, it is known that proinflammatory cytokines play a pivotal role in the induction of RA. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?), in particular, is considered to play a central role in bone destruction by mediating the abnormal activation of osteoclasts or the production of proteolytic enzymes through direct or indirect mechanisms. The use of TNF-? blocking agents has a significant impact on RA therapy. Anti-TNF-? blocking agents such as infliximab are very effective for treatment of RA, especially for the prevention of articular destruction. We have previously shown that several proteins exhibited extensive changes in their expression after amelioration of RA with infliximab treatment. Among the proteins, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has a significant role for the development of RA. Herein, we review the function of CTGF in the pathogenesis of RA and discuss the possibility of a novel treatment for RA. We propose that CTGF is a potentially novel effector molecule in the pathogenesis of RA. Blocking the CTGF pathways by biological agents may have great beneficial effect in patients with RA. PMID:25405094

  1. Connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) in blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Ponticos, Markella

    2013-03-01

    The CCN family comprise the products of six immediate-early response genes (Cyr61, Ctgf, Nov and Wisp1-3) and are multi-functional proteins, characterised by four discrete protein modules in which reside functional domains: an insulin-like growth factor binding protein-like module (IGFBP) but has low affinity for IGFBPs, a von Willebrand factor type C repeat module (VWC) which mediates integrin and growth factor binding, a thrombospondin type-1 repeat module (TSP-1), and a cysteine-knot-containing module (CT). These modules mediate a host of interactions such as growth factor binding, integrin recognition, and interaction(s) with heparin and proteoglycans (reviewed in Holbourn et al., 2008; Chen and Lau, 2009). The CCN family are involved in many normal and pathological cellular processes and have a plethora of functions including cell proliferation, angiogenesis, wound healing, and fibrogenesis, tumourigenesis. In addition, many roles have been described for CCN family members in the cardiovascular system (Table 1). The focus of this review is the role of connective tissue growth factor (CCN2, CTGF) in blood vessels and in vascular pathology. PMID:23380714

  2. The adaptation of perimuscular connective tissue during distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    De Deyne, P G; Meyer, R; Paley, D; Herzenberg, J E

    2000-10-01

    It is not known whether the decreased range of motion observed during distraction osteogenesis results from the lack of adaptation of muscle or from fibrosis in the perimysium. The adaptation of the perimysium in the tibialis anterior muscle in skeletally immature rabbits using two distraction regimens (0.7 and 1.4 mm/day with 15% lengthening) was characterized. The resulting data indicate that during distraction osteogenesis, the muscle adapts by reorganization of its connective tissue. At a lengthening rate of 1.4 mm/day, there is perimysial fibrosis without major cellular pathologic abnormalities in the muscle fibers. The increase in perimysial thickness is characterized by an increase of collagen Type I. In addition, collagen Type I is deposited around the endomysium. The increase in total collagen and its cross-linking are dependent on the lengthening rate. The faster lengthening rate also leads to a significant decreased passive plantar flexion. Supplemental growth of the tibia was not observed, and a lack of adaptation in the muscle (based on resting length) was not seen. Together, the data suggest that decreased range of motion during distraction osteogenesis may be a function of the adaptation of the perimysium rather than of the muscle fibers. PMID:11039815

  3. Connective tissue growth factor induces cardiac hypertrophy through Akt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hayata, Nozomi; Fujio, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Iwakura, Tomohiko; Obana, Masanori; Takai, Mika; Mohri, Tomomi; Nonen, Shinpei; Maeda, Makiko [Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacogenomics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Azuma, Junichi [Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacogenomics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail: azuma@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2008-05-30

    In the process of cardiac remodeling, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is secreted from cardiac myocytes. Though CTGF is well known to promote fibroblast proliferation, its pathophysiological effects in cardiac myocytes remain to be elucidated. In this study, we examined the biological effects of CTGF in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. Cardiac myocytes stimulated with full length CTGF and its C-terminal region peptide showed the increase in cell surface area. Similar to hypertrophic ligands for G-protein coupled receptors, such as endothelin-1, CTGF activated amino acid uptake; however, CTGF-induced hypertrophy is not associated with the increased expression of skeletal actin or BNP, analyzed by Northern-blotting. CTGF treatment activated ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, JNK and Akt. The inhibition of Akt by transducing dominant-negative Akt abrogated CTGF-mediated increase in cell size, while the inhibition of MAP kinases did not affect the cardiac hypertrophy. These findings indicate that CTGF is a novel hypertrophic factor in cardiac myocytes.

  4. Understanding Autoimmune Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Autoimmune Diseases Progress and Promise Key Words The Immune System Your immune system is the network of cells and tissues throughout ... having two parts: the acquired and the innate immune systems. The acquired (or adaptive) immune system develops as ...

  5. Mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus: is the cure for connective tissue diseases within connective tissue?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are now known to display not only adult stem cell multipotency but also robust anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties. After widespread in vitro and in vivo preclinical testing in several autoimmune disease models, allogenic MSCs have been successfully applied in patients with severe treatment-refractory systemic lupus erythematosus. The impressive results of these uncontrolled phase I and II trials - mostly in patients with non-responding renal disease - point to the need to perform controlled multicentric trials. In addition, they suggest that there is much to be learned from the basic and clinical science of MSCs in order to reap the full potential of these multifaceted progenitor cells in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:21586107

  6. Mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus: is the cure for connective tissue diseases within connective tissue?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flavio A Carrion; Fernando E Figueroa

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are now known to display not only adult stem cell multipotency but also robust anti-inflammatory\\u000a and regenerative properties. After widespread in vitro and in vivo preclinical testing in several autoimmune disease models, allogenic MSCs have been successfully applied in patients with\\u000a severe treatment-refractory systemic lupus erythematosus. The impressive results of these uncontrolled phase I and II

  7. Fine structure of the epineural connective tissue sheath of the subesophageal ganglion in Helix aspersa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Rogers

    1969-01-01

    The epineural connective tissue sheath investing the subesophageal ganglion of Helix aspersa consists of a superficial region and a deeper region. The superficial region contains masses of globular cells intermingled with smooth muscle cells and nerve fibers all embedded in a connective tissue matrix. The histochemical and fine structural features of the globular cells show seasonal changes. During autumn to

  8. The Arrangement and Function of Octopus Arm Musculature and Connective Tissue

    E-print Network

    Kier, William M.

    The Arrangement and Function of Octopus Arm Musculature and Connective Tissue William M. Kier-3280 ABSTRACT The morphology of the musculature and connective tissues of the arms of Octopus bimaculoides-hydrostat; muscle; octopus; skeletal support The eight arms of octopuses are capable of a re- markable diversity

  9. Influence of Different Sling Materials on Connective Tissue Metabolism in Stress Urinary Incontinent Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Falconer; M. Söderberg; B. Blomgren; U. Ulmsten

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence on the paraurethral connective tissue of different sling materials used in incontinence surgery. Biopsies from the paraurethral connective tissue were obtained intraoperatively from 16 women with stress urinary incontinence; all were operated on with the TVT procedure, 6 with Mersilene as the sling material and 10 with Prolene. Biopsies from

  10. Pulmonary arterial hypertension related to connective tissue disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Saman; Palevsky, Harold I

    2014-02-01

    PAH associated with connective tissue diseases is associated with significant functional impairment and morbidity, and carries with it a poor prognosis. The mortality is as high as 10% to 15% in the first year after diagnosis; making it a devastating disease. The availability of ever-increasing numbers of treatment options in the recent era have improved survival in this patient population and have made early and accurate diagnosis a more important goal. According to the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Disease Management (REVEAL), 1-year, 3-year, 5-year, and 7-year survival rates from time of diagnostic right-sided heart catheterization in patients with PAH were found to be 85%, 68%, 57%, and 49%, respectively, which is a considerable improvement since the National Institutes of Health registry 2 decades previously. In a study by Condliffe and colleagues, survival rates in patients with SSC-associated PAH have improved to 78%at 1 year and 47% at 3 years. Patients with SLE-related PAH have a much higher survival rate of up to 75% at 3 years. Proper screening, early diagnosis, and early treatment can have a significant impact in reducing morbidity and mortality. A small study to assess outcomes in patients with asymptomatic CTD found to have exercise induced PAH suggest that bosentan may be safe and effective in improving the hemodynamics and outcomes in these patients. This study included only 10 patients, and additional randomized trials with larger numbers of subjects are needed to affirm this hypothesis. Studies are under way to find additional therapeutic modalities in the form of PDGF receptor blockers, VEGF blockers, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, endothelial dysfunction inhibitors, multikinase inhibitor of Raf-1, serotonin receptor antagonists,and rho kinase inhibitors. Despite these, clinical suspicion, early diagnosis, early PMID:24268012

  11. A Four-Step Model for the IL-6 Amplifier, a Regulator of Chronic Inflammations in Tissue-Specific MHC Class II-Associated Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    It is commonly thought that autoimmune diseases are caused by the breakdown of self-tolerance, which suggests the recognition of specific antigens by autoreactive CD4+ T cells contribute to the specificity of autoimmune diseases (Marrack et al., 2001; Mathis and Benoist, 2004). In several cases, however, even for diseases associated with class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles, the causative tissue-specific antigens recognized by memory/activated CD4+ T cells have not been established (Mocci et al., 2000; Skapenko et al., 2005). Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and arthritis in F759 knock-in mice (F759 mice) are such examples (Atsumi et al., 2002; Brennan et al., 2002; Falgarone et al., 2009). These include associations with class II MHC and CD4 molecules; increased numbers of memory/activated CD4+ T cells; and improved outcomes in response to suppressions and/or deficiencies in class II MHC molecules, CD4+ T cells, and the T cell survival cytokine IL-7. Regarding the development of arthritis in F759 mice, it is not only the immune system, but also non-immune tissue that are involved, indicating that the importance of their interactions (Sawa et al., 2006, 2009; Ogura et al., 2008; Hirano, 2010; Murakami et al., 2011). Furthermore, we have shown that local events such as microbleeding together with an accumulation of activated CD4+ T cells in a manner independent of tissue antigen-recognitions induces arthritis in the joints of F759 mice (Murakami et al., 2011). For example, local microbleeding-mediated CCL20 expression induce such an accumulation, causing arthritis development via chronic activation of an IL-17A-dependent IL-6 signaling amplification loop in type 1 collagen+ cells that is triggered by CD4+ T cell-derived cytokine(s) such as IL-17A, which leads to the synergistic activation of STAT3 and NF?B in non-hematopoietic cells in the joint (Murakami et al., 2011). We named this loop the IL-6-mediated inflammation amplifier, or IL-6 amplifier for short (Ogura et al., 2008; Hirano, 2010; Murakami et al., 2011). Thus, certain class II MHC-associated, tissue-specific autoimmune diseases, including some RA subtypes, may be induced by local events that cause an antigen-independent accumulation of effector CD4+ T cells followed by the induction of the IL-6 amplifier in the affected tissue. In other words, in certain cases, the target tissue itself may determine the specificity of the autoimmune disease via activation of the IL-6 amplifier. To explain this hypothesis, we have proposed a four-step model for MHC class II-associated autoimmune diseases (Murakami et al., 2011): (1) T cell activation regardless of antigen specificity; (2) local events inducing a tissue-specific accumulation of activated T cells; (3) transient activation of the IL-6 amplifier; and (4) enhanced sensitivity to cytokines in the target tissue. The interaction of these events results in chronic activation of the IL-6 amplifier and subsequent manifestation of autoimmune diseases. Thus, the IL-6 amplifier, which is chronically activated by these four events, is a critical regulator of chronic inflammations in tissue-specific MHC class II-associated autoimmune diseases. PMID:22566812

  12. [National external quality assessment in auto-immunity: autoantibodies detected on liver, kidney and stomach tissues].

    PubMed

    Albarède, S; Guyard, A; Burg, E; Pham, B N

    2006-01-01

    In 2003, for the scheme of the French national external quality assessment, Afssaps organized for the first time a survey on auto-antibodies detected on liver, kidney and stomach tissues. This survey had two purposes: first to make an inventory of the methodology applied by the medical laboratories and secondly to assess the quality of the results. The survey sample contained M2 anti-mitochondrial antibodies. Overall results are satisfactory. Concerning the titer of antibodies, a broad dispersion of results was observed (12% of titers were upper than the expected titer). Delivered information to the participants, at the end of the survey, should improve analytical procedures applied by the biologists. An effort of standardization by using titrated internal controls would be suitable. PMID:16556531

  13. Proteolytic Processing of Connective Tissue Growth Factor in Normal Ocular Tissues and during Corneal Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Paulette M.; Smith, Tyler S.; Patel, Dilan; Dave, Meera; Lewin, Alfred S.; Pi, Liya; Scott, Edward W.; Tuli, Sonal S.; Schultz, Gregory S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a fibrogenic cytokine that is up-regulated by TGF-? and mediates most key fibrotic actions of TGF-?, including stimulation of synthesis of extracellular matrix and differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. This study addresses the role of proteolytic processing of CTGF in human corneal fibroblasts (HCF) stimulated with TGF-?, normal ocular tissues and wounded corneas. Methods. Proteolytic processing of CTGF in HCF cultures, normal animal eyes, and excimer laser wounded rat corneas were examined by Western blot. The identity of a 21-kDa band was determined by tandem mass spectrometry, and possible alternative splice variants of CTGF were assessed by 5? Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). Results. HCF stimulated by TGF-? contained full length 38-kDa CTGF and fragments of 25, 21, 18, and 13 kDa, while conditioned medium contained full length 38- and a 21-kDa fragment of CTGF that contained the middle “hinge” region of CTGF. Fragmentation of recombinant CTGF incubated in HCF extracts was blocked by the aspartate protease inhibitor, pepstatin. Normal mouse, rat, and rabbit whole eyes and rabbit ocular tissues contained abundant amounts of C-terminal 25- and 21-kDa fragments and trace amounts of 38-kDa CTGF, although no alternative transcripts were detected. All forms of CTGF (38, 25, and 21 kDa) were detected during healing of excimer ablated rat corneas, peaking on day 11. Conclusions. Proteolytic processing of 38-kDa CTGF occurs during corneal wound healing, which may have important implications in regulation of corneal scar formation. PMID:23139278

  14. In-body tissue-engineered collagenous connective tissue membranes (BIOSHEETs) for potential corneal stromal substitution.

    PubMed

    Takiyama, Naoaki; Mizuno, Takeshi; Iwai, Ryosuke; Uechi, Masami; Nakayama, Yasuhide

    2013-12-10

    There is a severe shortage of donor cornea for transplantation in many countries. Collagenous connective tissue membranes, named BIOSHEETs, grown in vivo were successfully implanted in rabbit corneal stroma for in vivo evaluation of their suitability as a corneal stromal substitute to solve this global donor shortage. BIOSHEETs were prepared by embedding silicone moulds into dorsal subcutaneous pouches in rabbits for 1?month and stored in glycerol. After re-swelling in saline and trephining, disk-shaped BIOSHEETs (4?mm diameter) were allogeneically implanted into stromal pockets prepared in the right cornea of seven rabbits. Clinical tests for corneal thickness and transparency, and tissue analyses were performed. Because the BIOSHEETs (thickness, 131?±?14?µm) obtained were opaque immediately after implantation, the transparency of the cornea decreased. The total thickness of the BIOSHEET-implanted cornea increased from 364?±?21.0?µm to 726?±?131?µm. After 4?weeks' implantation, the thickness of the cornea stabilized (493?±?80?µm at 4?weeks and 447?±?46?µm at 8?weeks). The transparency of the cornea increased progressively with time of implantation. The random orientation of collagen fibrils in the original BIOSHEETs tended to be homogeneous, similar to that of the native stroma. No inflammatory cells accumulated and fibroblast-like cells infiltrated the implant. The BIOSHEETs showed high biocompatibility with stromal tissues; however, further studies are needed to test its functional aspects. Although this research is only intended as a proof of concept, BIOSHEETs may be considered a feasible corneal stromal replacement, especially for treating visual impairment caused by stromal haze. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24668614

  15. Metals and kidney autoimmunity.

    PubMed Central

    Bigazzi, P E

    1999-01-01

    The causes of autoimmune responses leading to human kidney pathology remain unknown. However, environmental agents such as microorganisms and/or xenobiotics are good candidates for that role. Metals, either present in the environment or administered for therapeutic reasons, are prototypical xenobiotics that cause decreases or enhancements of immune responses. In particular, exposure to gold and mercury may result in autoimmune responses to various self-antigens as well as autoimmune disease of the kidney and other tissues. Gold compounds, currently used in the treatment of patients with progressive polyarticular rheumatoid arthritis, can cause a nephrotic syndrome. Similarly, an immune-mediated membranous nephropathy frequently occurred when drugs containing mercury were commonly used. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that occupational exposure to mercury does not usually result in autoimmunity. However, mercury induces antinuclear antibodies, sclerodermalike disease, lichen planus, or membranous nephropathy in some individuals. Laboratory investigations have confirmed that the administration of gold or mercury to experimental animals leads to autoimmune disease quite similar to that observed in human subjects exposed to these metals. In addition, studies of inbred mice and rats have revealed that a few strains are susceptible to the autoimmune effects of gold and mercury, whereas the majority of inbred strains are resistant. These findings have emphasized the importance of genetic (immunogenetic and pharmacogenetic) factors in the induction of metal-associated autoimmunity. (italic)In vitro(/italic) and (italic)in vivo(/italic) research of autoimmune disease caused by mercury and gold has already yielded valuable information and answered a number of important questions. At the same time it has raised new issues about possible immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive mechanisms of xenobiotic activity. Thus it is evident that investigations of metal-induced renal autoimmunity have the potential to produce new knowledge with relevance to autoimmune disease caused by xenobiotics in general as well as to idiopathic autoimmunity. PMID:10502542

  16. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF\\/CCN2) in hepatic fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy W. Rachfal; David R. Brigstock

    2003-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF\\/CCN2) is a highly profibrogenic molecule which is overexpressed in many fibrotic lesions, including those of the liver. CTGF\\/CCN2 is transcriptionally activated by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) and appears to mediate some of the extracellular matrix (ECM)-inducing properties that have been previously attributed to TGF-?. CTGF\\/CCN2 and TGF-? stimulate connective tissue cell proliferation and ECM synthesis

  17. Mixed connective tissue disease presenting as a peculiar myositis with poor muscle regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giorgio Tasca; Massimiliano Mirabella; Alfredo Berrettini; Mauro Monforte; Pietro Attilio Tonali; Enzo Ricci

    2011-01-01

    Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a rheumatological disease which has to be distinguished from other entities causing\\u000a inflammatory myopathy. The usual clinical presentation of inflammatory myopathy associated with connective tissue disease\\u000a is not different from isolated polymyositis or dermatomyositis, i.e., subacute onset of proximal weakness affecting both upper\\u000a and lower girdle with high serum CK level. Here we report

  18. Antigen-driven clonal proliferation of B cells within the target tissue of an autoimmune disease. The salivary glands of patients with Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Stott, D I; Hiepe, F; Hummel, M; Steinhauser, G; Berek, C

    1998-01-01

    Structures resembling germinal centers are seen in the salivary glands of patients with Sjögren's syndrome, but it is not known whether the microenvironment of these cell clusters is sufficient for the induction of a germinal center response. Therefore, we cloned and sequenced rearranged Ig V genes expressed by B cells isolated from sections of labial salivary gland biopsies from two Sjögren's syndrome patients. Rearranged V genes from B cells within one cell cluster were polyclonal and most had few somatic mutations. Two adjacent clusters from another patient each contained one dominant B cell clone expressing hypermutated V genes. None of the rearranged V genes was found in both clusters, suggesting that cells are unable to migrate out into the surrounding tissue and seed new clusters. The ratios of replacement to silent mutations in the framework and complementarity determining regions suggest antigen selection of high-affinity mutants. These results show that an antigen-driven, germinal center-type B cell response is taking place within the salivary glands of Sjögren's syndrome patients. In view of the recent demonstration of a germinal center response within the rheumatoid synovial membrane and the existence of similar structures in the target tissues of other autoimmune diseases, we propose that germinal center- type responses can be induced in the nonlymphoid target tissues of a variety of autoimmune diseases. PMID:9727062

  19. Effects of microgravity on rat bone, cartlage and connective tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, S.

    1990-01-01

    The response to hypogravity by the skeletal system was originally thought to be the result of a reduction in weight bearing. Thus a reduced rate of new bone formation in the weight-bearing bones was accepted, when found, as an obvious result of hypogravity. However, data on non-weight-bearing tissues have begun to show that other physiological changes can be expected to occur to animals during spaceflight. This overview of the Cosmos 1887 data discusses these results as they pertain to individual bones or tissues because the response seems to depend on the architecture and metabolism of each tissue under study. Various effects were seen in different tissues from the rats flown on Cosmos 1887. The femur showed a reduced bone mineral content but only in the central region of the diaphysis. This same region in the tibia showed changes in the vascularity of bone as well as some osteocytic cell death. The humerus demonstrated reduced morphometric characteristics plus a decrease in mechanical stiffness. Bone mineral crystals did not mature normally as a result of flight, suggesting a defect in the matrix mineralization process. Note that these changes relate directly to the matrix portion of the bone or some function of bone which slowly responds to changes in the environment. However, most cellular functions of bone are rapid responders. The stimulation of osteoblast precursor cells, the osteoblast function in collagen synthesis, a change in the proliferation rate of cells in the epiphyseal growth plate, the synthesis and secretion of osteocalcin, and the movement of water into or out of tissues, are all processes which respond to environmental change. These rapidly responding events produced results from Cosmos 1887 which were frequently quite different from previous space flight data.

  20. Inhibition of host connective tissue growth factor expression: a novel Trypanosoma cruzi-mediated response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MEERA UNNIKRISHNAN; BARBARA A. BURLEIGH

    2004-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a secreted cytokine that plays a fundamental role in the development of tissue fibrosis by mediating many of the profibrotic effects of TGF-. We present the novel finding that the intracellular pathogen Trypano- soma cruzi elicits immediate and sustained repression of basal CTGF expression in dermal fibroblasts, followed by down-regulation of the extracellular matrix

  1. Scattering of Light from Histologic Sections: A New Method for the Analysis of Connective Tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariel G. Ferdman; Ioannis V. Yannas

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a light scattering technique that can be used to analyze the orientation and diameter of collagen fibers in histologic sections of connective tissue. Scattering patterns obtained by transmitting laser light through sections of tissue contain information both on the orientation, degree of alignment, and size of the constituent collagen fibers. Analysis of the azimuthal intensity distribution of

  2. IgA and IgG tissue transglutaminase antibody prevalence and clinical significance in connective tissue diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, and primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Bizzaro, N; Villalta, D; Tonutti, E; Doria, A; Tampoia, M; Bassetti, D; Tozzoli, R

    2003-12-01

    An association between celiac disease (CD) and other autoimmune diseases such as connective tissue diseases (CTD), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) has been reported in several studies. However, a high rate of false positives in autoantibody testing was noted, especially when tissue transglutaminase (tTG) from guinea pig liver was used. Thus, the real prevalence of CD in CTD, IBD, and PBC is unclear. In a case-control study, 400 patients with CTD, 170 with IBD, 48 with PBC, and 120 healthy subjects were investigated for CD by the analysis of IgA and IgG tTG antibodies using the more specific human recombinant tTG immunoenzymatic assay. Patients and controls with positive findings were further tested for antiendomysial antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence and HLA typing, and those found positive by either of these tests underwent duodenal biopsy to confirm a possible diagnosis of CD. Twelve patients were positive for IgA or IgG tTG antibodies, showing an overall prevalence of 1.9%. Only 1 healthy subject (0.8%) had a low level positive reaction for IgA anti-tTG. Among the 12 patients and the healthy subject, only 2 (1 SLE and 1 ulcerative colitis patient) were subsequently confirmed to be affected with CD by positive EMA, HLA, and small bowel biopsy findings. The highest rate of false positives was found in PBC patients (10.4%). For these reasons, serological screening testing for CD is not recommended in CTD patients or in subjects affected with IBD or PBC, unless there is a relevant clinical suspicion of CD. PMID:14714625

  3. Efficacy of Connective Tissue with and without Periosteum in Regeneration of Intrabony Defects

    PubMed Central

    Esfahanian, Vahid; Golestaneh, Hedayatollah; Moghaddas, Omid; Ghafari, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Connective tissue grafts with and without periosteum is used in regenerative treatments of bone and has demonstrated successful outcomes in previous investigations. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of connective tissue graft with and without periosteum in regeneration of intrabony defects. Materials and methods. In this single-blind randomized split-mouth clinical trial, 15 pairs of intrabony defects in 15 patients with moderate to advanced periodontitis were treated by periosteal connective tissue graft + ABBM (test group) or non-periosteal connective tissue graft + ABBM (control group). Probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, free gingival margin position, bone crestal position, crest defect depth and defect depth to stent were measured at baseline and after six months by surgical re-entry. Data was analyzed by Student’s t-test and paired t-tests (?=0.05). Results. Changes in clinical parameters after 6 months in the test and control groups were as follows: mean of PPD reduction: 3.1±0.6 (P<0.0001); 2.5±1.0 mm (P<0.0001), CAL gain: 2.3±0.9 (P<0.0001); 2.2±1.0 mm (P<0.0001), bone fill: 2.2±0.7 mm (P<0.0001); 2.2±0.7 mm (P<0.0001), respectively. No significant differences in the position of free gingival margin were observed during 6 months compared to baseline in both groups. Conclusion. Combinations of periosteal connective tissue graft + ABBM and non-periosteal connective tissue graft + ABBM were similarly effective in treating intrabony defects without any favor for any group. Connective tissue and perio-steum can be equally effective in regeneration of intrabony defects. PMID:25587379

  4. Saudi Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension: Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Boueiz, Adel; Hassoun, Paul M

    2014-07-01

    The explosive growth of medical literature on pulmonary hypertension (PH) has led to a steady increase in awareness of this disease within the medical community during the past decade. The recent revision of the classification of PH is presented in in the main guidelines. Group 1 PH or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a heterogeneous group and includes PH due to inheritable, drug-induced, and toxin-induced causes and to such underlying systemic causes as connective tissue diseases, human immunodeficiency viral infection, portal hypertension, congenital heart disease, and schistosomiasis. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune multisystem disorder, which affects over 240 persons per million in the United States.[1] Its manifestations are not confined to the skin but may also involve the lungs, kidneys, peripheral circulation, musculoskeletal system, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. The outcome of PAH associated with SSc is worse when compared to other subtypes of PAH. In this review, we summarize available information about the pulmonary vascular and cardiac manifestations of SSc with special emphasis on their prognostic implications as well as the peculiarity of their detection. PMID:25076994

  5. Adipose tissue and sustainable development: a connection that needs protection

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Angelo; Picard-Deland, Éliane; Panahi, Shirin; Marette, André

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is generally considered as an excess body fat that increases the risk to develop ergonomic, metabolic, and psychosocial problems. As suggested in this paper, body fat gain is also a protective adaptation that prevents body lipotoxicity, contributes to the secretion of molecules involved in metabolic regulation, and dilutes lipid soluble persistent organic pollutants. Recent literature shows that this protective role of adipose tissue is more solicited in a modern context in which unsuspected factors can affect energy balance to a much greater extent than what is generally perceived by health care professionals. These factors include short sleep duration, demanding mental work, and chemical pollution whose impact is more detectable in a context dominated by economic productivity and competitiveness. Since these factors might also include the increase in atmospheric CO2, it is likely that obesity prevention will need the support of a promotion in sustainable development, whether it is for human health, and well-being or global ecological protection.

  6. Cells of the connective tissue differentiate and migrate into pollen sacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M. C. M.; Wijesekara, Kolitha B.

    2002-01-01

    In angiosperms, archesporial cells in the anther primordium undergo meiosis to form haploid pollen, the sole occupants of anther sacs. Anther sacs are held together by a matrix of parenchyma cells, the connective tissue. Cells of the connective tissue are not known to differentiate. We report the differentiation of parenchyma cells in the connective tissue of two Gordonia species into pollen-like structures (described as pseudopollen), which migrate into the anther sacs before dehiscence. Pollen and pseudopollen were distinguishable by morphology and staining. Pollen were tricolpate to spherical while pseudopollen were less rigid and transparent with a ribbed surface. Both types were different in size, shape, staining and surface architecture. The ratio of the number of pseudopollen to pollen was 1:3. During ontogeny in the connective tissue, neither cell division nor tetrad formation was observed and hence pseudopollen were presumed to be diploid. Only normal pollen germinated on a germination medium. Fixed preparations in time seemed to indicate that pseudopollen migrate from the connective tissue into the anther sac.

  7. Phototherapy, photodynamic therapy and photophoresis in the treatment of connective-tissue diseases: a review.

    PubMed

    Gordon Spratt, E A; Gorcey, L V; Soter, N A; Brauer, J A

    2015-07-01

    Connective-tissue disorders, which include lupus erythematosus, morphoea/scleroderma and dermatomyositis, are characterized by cutaneous manifestations that are sometimes resistant to conventional therapy. Light treatments, which include phototherapy, photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photopheresis, are routinely utilized in the treatment of dermatological conditions and may provide unique mechanisms of action in the treatment of these connective-tissue disorders. The objective of this study is to conduct a review of the literature that describes the use of phototherapy, PDT and photopheresis in the treatment of lupus erythematosus, morphoea/scleroderma and dermatomyositis. A MEDLINE search was conducted to find articles that discuss treatment of connective-tissue diseases with light therapies and more than 30 publications that discuss light therapy for these diseases were identified. These range in design from case reports to randomized, prospective trials. Study outcomes and details were summarized and presented within each connective-tissue disease by light therapy modality, which includes phototherapy, PDT and photopheresis. Although there is a known association between photosensitivity and connective-tissue diseases, light therapies, when used appropriately, may be legitimate therapeutic options for recalcitrant cutaneous manifestations in lupus erythematosus, morphoea/scleroderma and dermatomyositis. PMID:25400115

  8. [Abdominal vascular structural and functional features in patients with connective tissue dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Lialiukova, E A; Orlova, N I; Aksenov, S I

    2012-01-01

    Doppler ultrasound study records decreased volume blood flow in patients with connective tissue dysplasia. Their hemodynamic features are more marked during food testing. Dysplasia-dependent structural changes in the vascular system, such as vascular hypoplasia, wall-occluding lesions, different types of deformities, are one of the causes of lower volumetric blood flow in the abdominal vessels. The found abdominal vascular structural and functional features in patients with connective tissue dysplasia can serve as the basis for blood flow disproportion in different stages of digestion. PMID:23214026

  9. Cytoskeletal remodeling of connective tissue fibroblasts in response to static stretch is dependent on matrix material properties

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Rosalyn D; Koptiuch, Cathryn; Iatridis, James C; Howe, Alan K; Badger, Gary J; Langevin, Helene M

    2012-01-01

    In areolar “loose” connective tissue, fibroblasts remodel their cytoskeleton within minutes in response to static stretch resulting in increased cell body cross-sectional area that relaxes the tissue to a lower state of resting tension. It remains unknown whether the loosely arranged collagen matrix, characteristic of areolar connective tissue, is required for this cytoskeletal response to occur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate cytoskeletal remodeling of fibroblasts in and dissociated from areolar and dense connective tissue in response to 2 hours of static stretch in both native tissue and collagen gels of varying crosslinking. Rheometric testing indicated that the areolar connective tissue had a lower dynamic modulus and was more viscous than the dense connective tissue. In response to stretch, cells within the more compliant areolar connective tissue adopted a large “sheet-like” morphology that was in contrast to the smaller dendritic morphology in the dense connective tissue. By adjusting the in vitro collagen crosslinking, and the resulting dynamic modulus, it was demonstrated that cells dissociated from dense connective tissue are capable of responding when seeded into a compliant matrix, while cells dissociated from areolar connective tissue can lose their ability to respond when their matrix becomes stiffer. This set of experiments indicated stretch-induced fibroblast expansion was dependent on the distinct matrix material properties of areolar connective tissues as opposed to the cells’ tissue of origin. These results also suggest that disease and pathological processes with increased crosslinks, such as diabetes and fibrosis, could impair fibroblast responsiveness in connective tissues. PMID:22552950

  10. A small angle light scattering device for planar connective tissue microstructural analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael S. Sacks; David B. Smith; Erik D. Hiester

    1997-01-01

    The planar fibrous connective tissues of the body are composed of a dense extracellular network of collagen and elastin fibers\\u000a embedded in a ground matrix, and thus can be thought of as biocomposites. Thus, the quantification of fiber architecture is\\u000a an important step in developing an understanding of the mechanics of planar tissues in health and disease. We have used

  11. Attenuation of Experimental Autoimmune Myositis by Blocking ICOS-ICOS Ligand Interaction1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhiro Katsumata; Masayoshi Harigai; Tomoko Sugiura; Manabu Kawamoto; Yasushi Kawaguchi; Yoh Matsumoto; Kuniko Kohyama; Makoto Soejima; Naoyuki Kamatani; Masako Hara

    Polymyositis (PM) is an acquired, systemic, connective tissue disease characterized by the proximal muscle weakness and infil- tration of mononuclear cells into the affected muscles. To understand its etiology and immunopathogenesis, appropriate animal model is required. It has been demonstrated that immunization with native human skeletal C protein induces severe and repro- ducible experimental autoimmune myositis (EAM) in Lewis rats,

  12. [Autoimmune neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Hansen, P R

    1989-10-30

    Chronic progressive polyneuropathy is frequently cryptogenic but occurs in association with monoclonal gammopathy. In cases of this type, a relatively mild, mainly axonal sensomotor neuropathy is frequently present and may be difficult to distinguish from carcinomatous neuropathy in malignant conditions without the presence of the M-component. In benign essential gammopathy (MGUS) with an M-component of IgM-kappa class, the neuropathy is frequently demyelinizing and the paraprotein reacts specifically with carbohydrate determinants in myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and other glycoproteins and glycolipids in peripheral nerve tissue. Demonstration is undertaken by immune fluorescence investigation (eg on skin biopsy material) whereas serological diagnosis involves difficulties. There is much evidence to suggest that the autoimmune reaction is of significance for the development of nerve damage and uncontrolled trials have shown beneficial effects of immune suppression including plasmapherisis. The latter treatment should be considered in the Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuropathy and HIV-infection and also in motor neurone disease and IgM-MGUS, in which autoimmunological mechanisms may also be of pathophysiological significance. PMID:2686140

  13. Autoimmune disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hormone, vitamin B12, or insulin, due to the autoimmune disease Blood transfusions if blood is affected Physical therapy ... The outcome depends on the disease. Most autoimmune diseases are chronic ... disorders can come and go. When symptoms get worse, it is ...

  14. Pulmonary Manifestations of Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    COJOCARU, Manole; COJOCARU, Inimioara Mihaela; SILOSI, Isabela; VRABIE, Camelia Doina

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Systemic autoimmune diseases (SAD) are a heterogeneous group of immunologically mediated inflammatory disorders including multiorgan involvement. As expected in a multisystem disease, the entire pulmonary system is vulnerable to injury. Any of its compartments may be independently or simultaneously affected. It is difficult to assess the true prevalence of lung disease in cases of SAD. In this article, we will review the pulmonary manifestations caused by systemic lupus erithematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, Sjögren's syndrome, mixed connective tissue disease, Wegener's granulomatosis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, Goodpasture's syndrome, and ankylosing spondylitis. PMID:22368703

  15. Connective Tissue Growth Factor and Its Role in Lung Adenocarcinoma Invasion and Metastasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng-Chi Chang; Jin-Yuan Shih; Yung-Ming Jeng; Jen-Liang Su; Been-Zen Lin; Szu-Ta Chen; Yat-Pang Chau; Pan-Chyr Yang; Min-Liang Kuo

    Background: Tumor invasion and metastasis cause most deaths in cancer patients. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a secreted protein that binds to integrins, modu- lates the invasive behavior of certain human cancer cells, but few mechanistic details are known. We investigated the roles of CTGF and collapsin response mediator protein 1 (CRMP-1) in metastasis and invasion of human lung adeno-

  16. Dynamic morphometric characterization of local connective tissue network structure in humans using ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helene M Langevin; Donna M Rizzo; James R Fox; Gary J Badger; Junru Wu; Elisa E Konofagou; Debbie Stevens-Tuttle; Nicole A Bouffard; Martin H Krag

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In humans, connective tissue forms a complex, interconnected network throughout the body that may have mechanosensory, regulatory and signaling functions. Understanding these potentially important phenomena requires non-invasive measurements of collagen network structure that can be performed in live animals or humans. The goal of this study was to show that ultrasound can be used to quantify dynamic changes in

  17. Circulating 20S Proteasome Levels in Patients with Mixed Connective Tissue Disease and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus?

    PubMed Central

    Majetschak, Matthias; Perez, Magdalena; Sorell, Luis T.; Lam, Janet; Maldonado, Marcos E.; Hoffman, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    The associations of circulating 20S proteasomes (c20S) with clinical and serologic disease indices in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) are unknown. We present the initial report that c20S levels are elevated in MCTD and correlate with clinically relevant changes in disease activity in SLE and MCTD. PMID:18667633

  18. Durability of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair in patients with connective tissue disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Dardik; Teresa Krosnick; Bruce A. Perler; Glen S. Roseborough; G. Melville Williams

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) repair is a durable procedure performed with reasonable perioperative mortality and morbidity in patients with atherosclerotic aortic disease. However, the long-term outcome and durability of TAAA repair performed in patients with a connective tissue disorder (CTD) is not well known. Methods: The records of 257 patients who underwent TAAA repair at the Johns Hopkins Hospital

  19. [Mixed connective tissue disease in a male patient chronically exposed to toxic chemicals].

    PubMed

    Panaszek, B; Ma?olepszy, J; Wrzyszcz, M; Jutel, M; Machaj, Z

    A case of the mixed disease of the connective tissue (MCTD) in male patient occupationally exposed to PVC and other toxic agents is presented. Clinical symptoms consisted of the typical signs of SLE, rheumatoid arthritis and lupoid hepatitis. MCTD diagnosis was confirmed serologically by the presence of autoantibodies anti-RNP. Prednisone administered in the daily dose of 60 mg produced remission. PMID:8309826

  20. Ontogenetic Changes in Fibrous Connective Tissue Organization in the Oval Squid, Sepioteuthis

    E-print Network

    Kier, William M.

    Ontogenetic Changes in Fibrous Connective Tissue Organization in the Oval Squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana, the oval squid. Outer tunic fiber angle (the angle of a tunic collagen fiber relative to the long axis of the squid) decreased from 33.5° in newly hatched animals to 17.7° in the largest animals

  1. Microstructure alterations in beef intramuscular connective tissue caused by hydrodynamic pressure processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to evaluate microstructural changes in intramuscular connective tissue of beef semimembranosus muscle subjected to hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP). Samples were HDP treated in a plastic container (HDP-PC) or a steel commercial unit (HDP-CU). C...

  2. Mitral valve prolapse and joint hypermobility: evidence for a systemic connective tissue abnormality?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Pitcher; R Grahame

    1982-01-01

    Clinical evidence for an abnormally of extracardiac connective tissue was sought in 21 patients with idiopathic mitral valve prolapse and was compared to that in 21 matched controls. The incidence of rheumatic and orthopaedic complaints and the prevalence of hypermobile joints, Marfanoid habitus, and skeletal deformity were compared in the 2 groups. Skin thickness and elasticity were measured, and the

  3. Aortic tear and dissection related to connective tissues abnormalities resembling Marfan syndrome in a Great Dane.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Jennifer A; Bach, Jonathan F; Bell, Cynthia M; Stepien, Rebecca L

    2015-06-01

    Aortic tears and acute aortic dissection are rarely reported in dogs. This report describes a case of aortic dissection and probable sinus of Valsalva rupture in a young Great Dane with associated histopathologic findings suggestive of a connective tissue abnormality. PMID:25890485

  4. Tensile Properties, Collagen Content, and Crosslinks in Connective Tissues of the Immature Knee Joint

    PubMed Central

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The major connective tissues of the knee joint act in concert during locomotion to provide joint stability, smooth articulation, shock absorption, and distribution of mechanical stresses. These functions are largely conferred by the intrinsic material properties of the tissues, which are in turn determined by biochemical composition. A thorough understanding of the structure-function relationships of the connective tissues of the knee joint is needed to provide design parameters for efforts in tissue engineering. Methodology/Principal Findings The objective of this study was to perform a comprehensive characterization of the tensile properties, collagen content, and pyridinoline crosslink abundance of condylar cartilage, patellar cartilage, medial and lateral menisci, cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments (analogous to anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments in humans, respectively), medial and lateral collateral ligaments, and patellar ligament from immature bovine calves. Tensile stiffness and strength were greatest in the menisci and patellar ligament, and lowest in the hyaline cartilages and cruciate ligaments; these tensile results reflected trends in collagen content. Pyridinoline crosslinks were found in every tissue despite the relative immaturity of the joints, and significant differences were observed among tissues. Notably, for the cruciate ligaments and patellar ligament, crosslink density appeared more important in determining tensile stiffness than collagen content. Conclusions/Significance To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine tensile properties, collagen content, and pyridinoline crosslink abundance in a direct head-to-head comparison among all of the major connective tissues of the knee. This is also the first study to report results for pyridinoline crosslink density that suggest its preferential role over collagen in determining tensile stiffness for certain tissues. PMID:22022553

  5. Dielectric properties of biological tissues in which cells are connected by communicating junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asami, Koji

    2007-06-01

    The frequency dependence of the complex permittivity of biological tissues has been simulated using a simple model that is a cubic array of spherical cells in a parallel plate capacitor. The cells are connected by two types of communicating junctions: one is a membrane-lined channel for plasmodesmata in plant tissues, and the other is a conducting patch of adjoining plasma membranes for gap junctions in animal tissues. Both junctions provided similar effects on the dielectric properties of the tissue model. The model without junction showed a dielectric relaxation (called ?-dispersion) that was expected from an interfacial polarization theory for a concentrated suspension of spherical cells. The dielectric relaxation was the same as that of the model in which neighbouring cells were connected by junctions perpendicular to the applied electric field. When neighbouring cells were connected by junctions parallel to the applied electric field or in all directions, a dielectric relaxation appeared at a lower frequency side in addition to the ?-dispersion, corresponding to the so called ?-dispersion. When junctions were randomly introduced at varied probabilities Pj, the low-frequency (LF) relaxation curve became broader, especially at Pj of 0.2-0.5, and its intensity was proportional to Pj up to 0.7. The intensity and the characteristic frequency of the LF relaxation both decreased with decreasing junction conductance. The simulations indicate that communicating junctions are important for understanding the LF dielectric relaxation in tissues.

  6. Transcriptional landscapes of emerging autoimmunity: transient aberrations in the targeted tissue’s extracellular milieu precede immune responses in Sjögren’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Our understanding of autoimmunity is skewed considerably towards the late stages of overt disease and chronic inflammation. Defining the targeted organ’s role during emergence of autoimmune diseases is, however, critical in order to define their etiology, early and covert disease phases and delineate their molecular basis. Methods Using Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) as an exemplary rheumatic autoimmune disease and temporal global gene-expression profiling, we systematically mapped the transcriptional landscapes and chronological interrelationships between biological themes involving the salivary glands’ extracellular milieu. The time period studied spans from pre- to subclinical and ultimately to onset of overt disease in a well-defined model of spontaneous SS, the C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 strain. In order to answer this aim of great generality, we developed a novel bioinformatics-based approach, which integrates comprehensive data analysis and visualization within interactive networks. The latter are computed by projecting the datasets as a whole on a priori-defined consensus-based knowledge. Results Applying these methodologies revealed extensive susceptibility loci-dependent aberrations in salivary gland homeostasis and integrity preceding onset of overt disease by a considerable amount of time. These alterations coincided with innate immune responses depending predominantly on genes located outside of the SS-predisposing loci Aec1 and Aec2. Following a period of transcriptional stability, networks mapping the onset of overt SS displayed, in addition to natural killer, T- and B-cell-specific gene patterns, significant reversals of focal adhesion, cell-cell junctions and neurotransmitter receptor-associated alterations that had prior characterized progression from pre- to subclinical disease. Conclusions This data-driven methodology advances unbiased assessment of global datasets an allowed comprehensive interpretation of complex alterations in biological states. Its application delineated a major involvement of the targeted organ during the emergence of experimental SS. PMID:24286337

  7. Functional properties and connective tissue content of pediatric human detrusor muscle.

    PubMed

    Johal, Navroop; Wood, Dan N; Wagg, Adrian S; Cuckow, Peter; Fry, Christopher H

    2014-11-01

    The functional properties of human pediatric detrusor smooth muscle are poorly described, in contrast to those of adult tissue. Characterization is necessary for more informed management options of bladder dysfunction in children. We therefore compared the histological, contractile, intracellular Ca2+ concentration responses and biomechanical properties of detrusor biopsy samples from pediatric (3-48 mo) and adults (40-60 yr) patients who had functionally normal bladders and were undergoing open surgery. The smooth muscle fraction of biopsies was isolated to measure proportions of smooth muscle and connective tissue (van Gieson stain); in muscle strips, isometric tension to contractile agonists or electrical field stimulation and their passive biomechanical properties; in isolated myocytes, intracellular Ca2+ concentration responses to agonists. Pediatric detrusor tissue compared with adult tissue showed several differences: a smaller smooth muscle-to-connective tissue ratio, similar contractures to carbachol or ?,?-methylene ATP when corrected for smooth muscle content, and similar intracellular Ca2+ transients to carbachol, ?,?-methylene ATP, raised K+ concentration or caffeine, but smaller nerve-mediated contractions and greater passive stiffness with slower stress relaxation. In particular, there were significant atropine-resistant nerve-mediated contractions in pediatric samples. Detrusor smooth muscle from functionally normal pediatric human bladders is less contractile than that from adult bladders and exhibits greater passive stiffness. Reduced bladder contractile function is not due to reduced smooth muscle contractility but to greater connective tissue deposition and to functional denervation. Significant atropine resistance in pediatric detrusor, unlike in adult tissue, demonstrates a different profile of functional neurotransmitter activation. These data have implications for the management of pediatric bladder function by therapeutic approaches. PMID:25209864

  8. Fractal analysis of the structural complexity of the connective tissue in human carotid bodies

    PubMed Central

    Guidolin, Diego; Porzionato, Andrea; Tortorella, Cinzia; Macchi, Veronica; De Caro, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) may undergo different structural changes during perinatal development, aging, or in response to environmental stimuli. In the previous literature, morphometric approaches to evaluate these changes have considered quantitative first order parameters, such as volumes or densities, while changes in spatial disposition and/or complexity of structural components have not yet been considered. In the present study, different strategies for addressing morphological complexity of CB, apart from the overall amount of each tissue component, were evaluated and compared. In particular, we considered the spatial distribution of connective tissue in the carotid bodies of young control subjects, young opiate-related deaths and aged subjects, through analysis of dispersion (Morisita's index), gray level co-occurrence matrix (entropy, angular second moment, variance, correlation), and fractal analysis (fractal dimension, lacunarity). Opiate-related deaths and aged subjects showed a comparable increase in connective tissue with respect to young controls. However, the Morisita's index (p < 0.05), angular second moment (p < 0.05), fractal dimension (p < 0.01), and lacunarity (p < 0.01) permitted to identify significant differences in the disposition of the connective tissue between these two series. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was also calculated to evaluate the efficiency of each parameter. The fractal dimension and lacunarity, with areas under the ROC curve of 0.9651 (excellent accuracy) and 0.8835 (good accuracy), respectively, showed the highest discriminatory power. They evidenced higher level of structural complexity in the carotid bodies of opiate-related deaths than old controls, due to more complex branching of intralobular connective tissue. Further analyses will have to consider the suitability of these approaches to address other morphological features of the CB, such as different cell populations, vascularization, and innervation. PMID:25414672

  9. An ultrastructural study of connective tissue in mollusc integument: II. Gastropoda.

    PubMed

    Bairati, A; Comazzi, M; Gioria, M

    2001-10-01

    We studied the ultrastructure of the subepidermal connective tissue (SEC) in different zones of the integument in terrestrial, marine and freshwater gastropods (eight species). In all cases, the SEC was a layer of loose connective tissue between the basal membrane (BM) of the epidermis and the connective tissue of the deeper muscle layers. It was of monotonous structure and not differentiated into layers such as are found in mammalian dermis. The extracellular matrix (ECM) consisted of a network of collagen fibrils of variable diameter, with abundant anchoring devices and proteoglycans. In six species, variables quantities of haemocyanin were present within haemocoelic sinuses present in the SEC. The thickness and density of the BM varied from species to species, as well as within species in the various zones of integument. The ultrastructure of the lamina densa (LD) was indistinguishable from that of BM in bivalves and similar to that in mammals, although basotubules and double pegs were absent. An irregularly spaced lamina lucida was usually present and was often shot thorough with filaments and small protrusions of the LD that connected with epithelial plasma membrane or with hemidesmosomes. A lamina fibroreticularis was not present. LD protrusions characterize the connection between BM and the ECM of SEC. In the terrestrial gastropods, a spongy matrix with ultrastructure closely similar to LD occupied large tracts of the SEC. In the mantle region of Arion rufus, the integumental SEC contained large cavities filled with spherical concretions, probably representing rudiments of a shell. In the mantle where the integument contained abundant muscle fibres, the BM was thick and directly connected to the ECM of the SEC which consisted of compact laminae of collagen fibrils with abundant anchoring devices. Along the edge of the foot of Patella ulyssiponensis, the SEC contained a layer of paramyosinic muscle fibres adhering to the epidermis. No differences or gradations in integumental SEC structure could be related to the phylogenetic position of the species examined. PMID:11949779

  10. Recalcitrant hypocalcaemia in autoimmune enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Myfanwy; Fairchild, Jan; Moore, David; Moore, Lynette; Henning, Paul; Tham, Elaine

    2014-12-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy syndrome is a monogenic disorder associated with autoimmune destruction of both endocrine and nonendocrine tissues. The classic triad includes candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and Addison disease. Up to 25% of patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy syndrome also have gastrointestinal manifestations, which can have an impact on the management of other aspects of the disease. The management of the case discussed was challenging because of the complex interplay between the manifestations and treatment of his hypoparathyroidism, Addison disease, and autoimmune enteropathy. Attempts at management of hypocalcemia were largely unsuccessful until the introduction of immunosuppressive therapy for autoimmune enteropathy. This case supports early consideration of immunosuppression in this condition. PMID:25404718

  11. Mineralization/Anti-Mineralization Networks in the Skin and Vascular Connective Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiaoli; Uitto, Jouni

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic mineralization has been linked to several common clinical conditions with considerable morbidity and mortality. The mineralization processes, both metastatic and dystrophic, affect the skin and vascular connective tissues. There are several contributing metabolic and environmental factors that make uncovering of the precise pathomechanisms of these acquired disorders exceedingly difficult. Several relatively rare heritable disorders share phenotypic manifestations similar to those in common conditions, and, consequently, they serve as genetically controlled model systems to study the details of the mineralization process in peripheral tissues. This overview will highlight diseases with mineral deposition in the skin and vascular connective tissues, as exemplified by familial tumoral calcinosis, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, generalized arterial calcification of infancy, and arterial calcification due to CD73 deficiency. These diseases, and their corresponding mouse models, provide insight into the pathomechanisms of soft tissue mineralization and point to the existence of intricate mineralization/anti-mineralization networks in these tissues. This information is critical for understanding the pathomechanistic details of different mineralization disorders, and it has provided the perspective to develop pharmacological approaches to counteract the consequences of ectopic mineralization. PMID:23665350

  12. Specialized connective tissue: bone, the structural framework of the upper extremity

    PubMed Central

    Weatherholt, Alyssa M.; Fuchs, Robyn K.; Warden, Stuart J.

    2011-01-01

    Bone is a connective tissue containing cells, fibers and ground substance. There are many functions in the body in which the bone participates, such as storing minerals, providing internal support, protecting vital organs, enabling movement, and providing attachment sites for muscles and tendons. Bone is unique because its collagen framework absorbs energy, while the mineral encased within the matrix allows bone to resist deformation. This article provides an overview of the structure and function of bone tissue from a macroscopic to microscopic level and discusses the physiological processes contributing to upper extremity bone health. It concludes by discussing common conditions influencing upper extremity bone health. PMID:22047807

  13. Dysbalance of angiogenic and angiostatic mediators in patients with mixed connective tissue disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jörg H W Distler; Tobias Strapatsas; Dörte Huscher; Clara Dees; Alfiya Akhmetshina; Hans P Kiener; Ingo H Tarner; Britta Maurer; Marcel Walder; Beat Michel; Steffen Gay; Josef S Smolen; Ulf Müller-Ladner; Georg Schett; Oliver Distler

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveVascular disease is common in mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). The aim of the present study was to investigate, whether dysbalance of angiogenic and angiostatic factors occurs in MCTD.MethodsIn all, 38 patients with MCTD, and 40 patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) for comparison, were included. Four centres contributed to this cross-sectional analysis. A total of 66 healthy volunteers were used

  14. DEFECTS IN THE BIOCHEMISTRY OF COLLAGEN IN DISEASES OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jouni Uitto; Jack R. Lichtenstein

    1976-01-01

    The collagens are the major structural glycoproteins of connective tissues. A unique primary structure and a multiplicity of post-translational modification reactions are required for normal fibrillogenesis. The post-translational modifications include hydroxylation of prolyl and lysyl residues, glycosylation, folding of the molecule into triple-helical conformation, proteolytic conversion of precursor procollagen to collagen, and oxidative deamination of certain lysyl and hydroxylysyl residues.

  15. Indices of skeletal muscle damage and connective tissue breakdown following eccentric muscle contractions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Brown; R. B. Child; S. H. Day; A. E. Donnelly

    1997-01-01

    Indirect indices of exercise-induced human skeletal muscle damage and connective tissue breakdown were studied following\\u000a a single bout of voluntary eccentric muscle contractions. Subjects (six female, two male), mean (SD) age 22 (2) years performed\\u000a a bout of 50 maximum voluntary eccentric contractions of the knee extensors of a single leg. The eccentric exercise protocol\\u000a induced muscle soreness (P?

  16. Real-time immune cell interactions in target tissue during autoimmune-induced damage and graft tolerance.

    PubMed

    Miska, Jason; Abdulreda, Midhat H; Devarajan, Priyadharshini; Lui, Jen Bon; Suzuki, Jun; Pileggi, Antonello; Berggren, Per-Olof; Chen, Zhibin

    2014-03-10

    Real-time imaging studies are reshaping immunological paradigms, but a visual framework is lacking for self-antigen-specific T cells at the effector phase in target tissues. To address this issue, we conducted intravital, longitudinal imaging analyses of cellular behavior in nonlymphoid target tissues to illustrate some key aspects of T cell biology. We used mouse models of T cell-mediated damage and protection of pancreatic islet grafts. Both CD4(+) and CD8(+) effector T (Teff) lymphocytes directly engaged target cells. Strikingly, juxtaposed ? cells lacking specific antigens were not subject to bystander destruction but grew substantially in days, likely by replication. In target tissue, Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells persistently contacted Teff cells with or without involvement of CD11c(+) dendritic cells, an observation conciliating with the in vitro "trademark" of Treg function, contact-dependent suppression. This study illustrates tolerance induction by contact-based immune cell interaction in target tissues and highlights potentials of tissue regeneration under antigenic incognito in inflammatory settings. PMID:24567447

  17. Real-time immune cell interactions in target tissue during autoimmune-induced damage and graft tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Miska, Jason; Abdulreda, Midhat H.; Devarajan, Priyadharshini; Lui, Jen Bon; Suzuki, Jun; Pileggi, Antonello; Berggren, Per-Olof

    2014-01-01

    Real-time imaging studies are reshaping immunological paradigms, but a visual framework is lacking for self-antigen-specific T cells at the effector phase in target tissues. To address this issue, we conducted intravital, longitudinal imaging analyses of cellular behavior in nonlymphoid target tissues to illustrate some key aspects of T cell biology. We used mouse models of T cell–mediated damage and protection of pancreatic islet grafts. Both CD4+ and CD8+ effector T (Teff) lymphocytes directly engaged target cells. Strikingly, juxtaposed ? cells lacking specific antigens were not subject to bystander destruction but grew substantially in days, likely by replication. In target tissue, Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells persistently contacted Teff cells with or without involvement of CD11c+ dendritic cells, an observation conciliating with the in vitro “trademark” of Treg function, contact-dependent suppression. This study illustrates tolerance induction by contact-based immune cell interaction in target tissues and highlights potentials of tissue regeneration under antigenic incognito in inflammatory settings. PMID:24567447

  18. Neurological autoimmunity targeting aquaporin-4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Hinson; A. McKeon; V. A. Lennon

    2010-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is the first inflammatory autoimmune demyelinating disease of the CNS for which a specific tissue target molecule has been identified—the astrocytic water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). Immunological insights have propelled significant advances in understanding the clinical, radiologic and immunopathologic characteristics of the disease in the last 5 years. In this review, we describe features distinguishing CNS AQP4 autoimmunity

  19. The autoimmune diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, N.R.; Mackay, I.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 25 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Genetic Predisposition to Autoimmune Diseases; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Autoimmune Aspects of Rheumatoid Arthritis; Immunology of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes; and Adrenal Autoimmunity and Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes.

  20. A physiological role for connective tissue growth factor in early wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Alfaro, Maria P; Deskins, Desirae L; Wallus, Meredith; DasGupta, Jayasri; Davidson, Jeffrey M; Nanney, Lillian B; Guney, Michelle A; Gannon, Maureen; Young, Pampee P

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that overexpress secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) exhibit an enhanced reparative phenotype. The secretomes of sFRP2-overexpressing MSCs and vector control-MSCs were compared through liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Proteomic profiling revealed that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; CCN2) was overrepresented in the conditioned media of sFRP2-overexpressing MSCs and MSC-derived CTGF could thus be an important paracrine effector. Subcutaneously implanted, MSC-loaded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponges and stented excisional wounds were used as wound models to study the dynamics of CTGF expression. Granulation tissue generated within the sponges and full-thickness skin wounds showed transient upregulation of CTGF expression by MSCs and fibroblasts, implying a role for this molecule in early tissue repair. Although collagen and COL1A2 mRNA were not increased when recombinant CTGF was administered to sponges during the early phase (day 1–6) of tissue repair, prolonged administration (>15 days) of exogenous CTGF into PVA sponges resulted in fibroblast proliferation and increased deposition of collagen within the experimental granulation tissue. In support of its physiological role, CTGF immunoinhibition during early repair (days 0–7) reduced the quantity, organizational quality and vascularity of experimental granulation tissue in the sponge model. However, CTGF haploinsufficiency was not enough to reduce collagen deposition in excisional wounds. Similar to acute murine wound models, CTGF was transiently present in the early phase of human acute burn wound healing. Together, these results further support a physiological role for CTGF in wound repair and demonstrate that when CTGF expression is confined to early tissue repair, it serves a pro-reparative role. These data also further illustrate the potential of MSC-derived paracrine modulators to enhance tissue repair. PMID:23212098

  1. A physiological role for connective tissue growth factor in early wound healing.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, Maria P; Deskins, Desirae L; Wallus, Meredith; DasGupta, Jayasri; Davidson, Jeffrey M; Nanney, Lillian B; A Guney, Michelle; Gannon, Maureen; Young, Pampee P

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that overexpress secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) exhibit an enhanced reparative phenotype. The secretomes of sFRP2-overexpressing MSCs and vector control-MSCs were compared through liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Proteomic profiling revealed that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; CCN2) was overrepresented in the conditioned media of sFRP2-overexpressing MSCs and MSC-derived CTGF could thus be an important paracrine effector. Subcutaneously implanted, MSC-loaded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponges and stented excisional wounds were used as wound models to study the dynamics of CTGF expression. Granulation tissue generated within the sponges and full-thickness skin wounds showed transient upregulation of CTGF expression by MSCs and fibroblasts, implying a role for this molecule in early tissue repair. Although collagen and COL1A2 mRNA were not increased when recombinant CTGF was administered to sponges during the early phase (day 1-6) of tissue repair, prolonged administration (>15 days) of exogenous CTGF into PVA sponges resulted in fibroblast proliferation and increased deposition of collagen within the experimental granulation tissue. In support of its physiological role, CTGF immunoinhibition during early repair (days 0-7) reduced the quantity, organizational quality and vascularity of experimental granulation tissue in the sponge model. However, CTGF haploinsufficiency was not enough to reduce collagen deposition in excisional wounds. Similar to acute murine wound models, CTGF was transiently present in the early phase of human acute burn wound healing. Together, these results further support a physiological role for CTGF in wound repair and demonstrate that when CTGF expression is confined to early tissue repair, it serves a pro-reparative role. These data also further illustrate the potential of MSC-derived paracrine modulators to enhance tissue repair. PMID:23212098

  2. Autoimmune encephalopathies.

    PubMed

    Leypoldt, Frank; Armangue, Thaís; Dalmau, Josep

    2015-03-01

    Over the past 10 years, the continual discovery of novel forms of encephalitis associated with antibodies to cell-surface or synaptic proteins has changed the paradigms for diagnosing and treating disorders that were previously unknown or mischaracterized. We review here the process of discovery, the symptoms, and the target antigens of 11 autoimmune encephalitic disorders, grouped by syndromes and approached from a clinical perspective. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, several subtypes of limbic encephalitis, stiff-person spectrum disorders, and other autoimmune encephalitides that result in psychosis, seizures, or abnormal movements are described in detail. We include a novel encephalopathy with prominent sleep dysfunction that provides an intriguing link between chronic neurodegeneration and cell-surface autoimmunity (IgLON5). Some of the caveats of limited serum testing are outlined. In addition, we review the underlying cellular and synaptic mechanisms that for some disorders confirm the antibody pathogenicity. The multidisciplinary impact of autoimmune encephalitis has been expanded recently by the discovery that herpes simplex encephalitis is a robust trigger of synaptic autoimmunity, and that some patients may develop overlapping syndromes, including anti-NMDAR encephalitis and neuromyelitis optica or other demyelinating diseases. PMID:25315420

  3. Tbx4 and Tbx5 acting in connective tissue are required for limb muscle and tendon patterning

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, Peleg; DeLaurier, April; Bennett, Michael; Grigorieva, Elena; Naiche, L. A.; Papaioannou, Virginia E.; Mohun, Timothy J.; Logan, Malcolm P.O.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Proper functioning of the musculo-skeletal system requires the precise integration of bones, muscles and tendons. Complex morphogenetic events ensure that these elements are linked together in the appropriate 3D configuration. It has been difficult, however, to tease apart the mechanisms that regulate tissue morphogenesis. We find that deletion of Tbx5 in forelimb (or Tbx4 in hindlimbs) specifically affects muscle and tendon patterning without disrupting skeletal development thus suggesting that distinct cues regulate these processes. We identify muscle connective tissue as the site of action of these transcription factors and show that N-Cadherin and ?-Catenin are key downstream effectors acting in muscle connective tissue regulating soft-tissue morphogenesis. In humans, TBX5 mutations lead to Holt-Oram syndrome, which is characterised by forelimb musculo-skeletal defects. Our results suggest that a focus on connective tissue is required to understand the aetiology of diseases affecting soft tissue formation. PMID:20152185

  4. Brain leukocyte infiltration initiated by peripheral inflammation or experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis occurs through pathways connected to the CSF-filled compartments of the forebrain and midbrain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been considered as a preferential pathway of circulation for immune cells during neuroimmune surveillance. In order to evaluate the involvement of CSF-filled spaces in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple sclerosis, we performed a time-course analysis of immune cell association with the CSF-containing ventricles, velae, and cisterns in two active models of this disease. Methods Guinea-pig spinal cord homogenate-induced EAE in rat and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced EAE in mouse were used. Leukocyte distribution and phenotypes were investigated by immunohistochemistry in serial sections of brain areas of interest, as well as in CSF withdrawn from rat. Immune cells associated with the choroid plexuses were quantified. Results Freund’s adjuvant-induced peripheral inflammation in the absence of brain antigen led to a subtle but definite increase in the number of myeloid cells in the extraventricular CSF spaces. In both rats and mice, EAE was characterized by a sustained and initial infiltration of lymphocytes and monocytes within forebrain/midbrain fluid-filled compartments such as the velum interpositum and ambient cisterns, and certain basal cisterns. Leukocytes further infiltrated periventricular and pericisternal parenchymal areas, along perivascular spaces or following a downward CSF-to-tissue gradient. Cells quantified in CSF sampled from rats included lymphocytes and neutrophils. The distinctive pattern of cell distribution suggests that both the choroid plexus and the vessels lying in the velae and cisterns are gates for early leukocyte entry in the central nervous system. B-cell infiltration observed in the mouse model was restricted to CSF-filled extraventricular compartments. Conclusion These results identified distinctive velae and cisterns of the forebrain and midbrain as preferential sites of immune cell homing following peripheral and early central inflammation and point to a role of CSF in directing brain invasion by immune cells during EAE. PMID:22870891

  5. Autophagy and Autoimmunity Crosstalks

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Abhisek; Eissa, N. Tony

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy, initially viewed as a conserved bulk-degradation mechanism, has emerged as a central player in a multitude of immune functions. Autophagy is important in host defense against intracellular and extracellular pathogens, metabolic syndromes, immune cell homeostasis, antigen processing and presentation, and maintenance of tolerance. The observation that the above processes are implicated in triggering or exacerbating autoimmunity raises the possibility that autophagy is involved in mediating autoimmune processes, either directly or as a consequence of innate or adaptive functions mediated by the pathway. Genome-wide association studies have shown association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in autophagy related gene 5 (Atg5), and Atg16l1 with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Crohn’s disease, respectively. Enhanced expression of Atg5 was also reported in blood of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS), and in T cells isolated from blood or brain tissues from patients with active relapse of MS. This review explores the roles of autophagy pathway in the innate and adaptive immune systems on regulating or mediating the onset, progression, or exacerbation of autoimmune processes. PMID:23596443

  6. The association between autoimmune thyroiditis, autoimmune gastritis and type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lam-Tse, Wai-Kwan; Batstra, Manou R; Koeleman, Bobby P C; Roep, Bart O; Bruining, Mu G J; Aanstoot, Henk Jan; Drexhage, Hemmo A

    2003-09-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1), autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) and autoimmune gastritis often occur together forming the so-called autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS) type 3. Thyroid autoimmunity is evident in up to one third and gastric autoimmunity in up to a quarter of patients with DM1. Also relatives of DM1 patients, particularly mothers, have higher frequencies of these autoimmune conditions. Vice versa, gastric autoimmunity is present in one third of ATD patients and islet autoimmunity in one out ten. The BB-DP rat, the NOD mouse, the OS chicken and the neonatal thymectomy mouse model are animal models of APS type 3. In these models the autoimmune destruction of the various target tissues has been shown to be a multi-step process in which several genetic polymorphisms need to converge to induce both local anomalies in the target gland and anomalies in the immune system. With regard to environmental factors, excess iodine is well known to elicit/aggravate thyroid autoimmunity in these animal models. Screening DM1 patients and their relatives (particularly females) for thyroid autoimmunity is recommended. If positive, excess iodine should be avoided and thyroxin treatment considered. Whether autoimmune thyroiditis and autoimmune gastritis patients should be screened for islet Ab is not clarified. PMID:16437010

  7. Structure and function of the mammalian fibrillin gene family: implications for human connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Davis, Margaret R; Summers, Kim M

    2012-12-01

    Fibrillins and latent transforming growth factor ? binding proteins (LTBPs) are components of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue. While fibrillins are integral to the 10nm microfibrils, and often associated with elastin, all family members are likely to have an additional role in regulating the bioavailability of transforming growth factor ? (TGB?). Both fibrillins and LTBPs are large glycoproteins, containing a series of calcium binding epidermal growth factor domains as well as a number of copies of a unique 8 cysteine domain found only in this protein superfamily. There are three mammalian fibrillins and four LTBPs. Fibrillin monomers link head to tail in microfibrils which can then form two and three dimensional structures. In some tissues elastin is recruited to the fibrillin microfibrils to provide elasticity to the tissue. LTBPs are part of the TGB? large latent complex which sequesters TGB? in the extracellular matrix. Fibrillin-1 appears to bind to LTBPs to assist in this process and is thus involved in regulating the bioavailability of TGB?. Mutation of fibrillin genes results in connective tissue phenotypes which reflect both the increased level of active TGB? and the structural failure of the extracellular matrix due to the absence or abnormality of fibrillin protein. Fibrillinopathies include Marfan syndrome, familial ectopia lentis, familial thoracic aneurysm (mutations of FBN1) and congenital contractural arachnodactyly (mutation of FBN2). There are no diseases currently associated with mutation of FBN3 in humans, and this gene is no longer active in rodents. Expression patterns of fibrillin genes are consistent with their role in extracellular matrix structure of connective tissue. FBN1 expression is high in most cell types of mesenchymal origin, particularly bone. Human and mouse FBN2 expression is high in fetal cells and has more restricted expression in mesenchymal cell types postnatally. FBN3 is expressed early in development (embryonic and fetal tissues) in humans. The fibrillins are thus important in maintaining the structure and integrity of the extracellular matrix and, in combination with their sequence family members the LTBPs, also contribute to the regulation of the TGF? family of major growth factors. PMID:22921888

  8. Use of growth factors and adhesive ligands to promote connective tissue progenitor colony formation from fresh marrow

    E-print Network

    Marcantonio, Nicholas A. (Nicholas Alexander)

    2008-01-01

    The current gold standard for bone graft material is autologous bone, which provides mechanical support, possesses factors that promote bone formation, and contains connective tissue progenitors (CTPs), a heterogeneous ...

  9. QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF BOVINE MEAT. I. CONTENT OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE IN RELATION TO INDIVIDUAL MUSCLES, AGE AND SEX OF ANIMALS AND CARCASS QUALITY GRADE 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Prost; E. Pel; A. W. Kotula

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The content of connective tissue was deter- mined in seven muscles of 80 bovine carcasses, in relation to age and sex of animals and post-slaughter carcass grade, by the hydroxy- proline and the histometric methods. Among the seven muscles, differences in connective tissue were large and significant. No consistent change in level of connective tissue was asso- ciated with

  10. Mutation of fibulin-1 causes a novel syndrome involving the central nervous system and connective tissues.

    PubMed

    Bohlega, Saeed; Al-Ajlan, Huda; Al-Saif, Amr

    2014-05-01

    Fibulin-1 is an extracellular matrix protein that has an important role in the structure of elastic fibers and basement membranes of various tissues. Using homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing, we discovered a missense mutation, p.(Cys397Phe), in fibulin-1 in three patients from a consanguineous family presented with a novel syndrome of syndactyly, undescended testes, delayed motor milestones, mental retardation and signs of brain atrophy. The mutation discovered segregated with the phenotype and was not found in 374 population-matched alleles. The affected cysteine is highly conserved across vertebrates and its mutation is predicted to abolish a disulfide bond that defines the tertiary structure of fibulin-1. Our findings emphasize the crucial role fibulin-1 has in development of the central nervous system and various connective tissues. PMID:24084572

  11. The muscular force transmission system: role of the intramuscular connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Turrina, Andrea; Martínez-González, Miguel Antonio; Stecco, Carla

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review is to analyze in detail the microscopic structure and relations among muscular fibers, endomysium, perimysium, epimysium and deep fasciae. In particular, the multilayer organization and the collagen fiber orientation of these elements are reported. The endomysium, perimysium, epimysium and deep fasciae have not just a role of containment, limiting the expansion of the muscle with the disposition in concentric layers of the collagen tissue, but are fundamental elements for the transmission of muscular force, each one with a specific role. From this review it appears that the muscular fibers should not be studied as isolated elements, but as a complex inseparable from their fibrous components. The force expressed by a muscle depends not only on its anatomical structure, but also the angle at which its fibers are attached to the intramuscular connective tissue and the relation with the epimysium and deep fasciae. PMID:23294690

  12. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profiling Reveals Connective Tissue Mast Cell Accumulation in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Soumyaroop; Go, Diana; Krenitsky, Daria L.; Huyck, Heidi L.; Solleti, Siva Kumar; Lunger, Valerie A.; Metlay, Leon; Srisuma, Sorachai; Wert, Susan E.; Pryhuber, Gloria S.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a major complication of premature birth. Risk factors for BPD are complex and include prenatal infection and O2 toxicity. BPD pathology is equally complex and characterized by inflammation and dysmorphic airspaces and vasculature. Due to the limited availability of clinical samples, an understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this disease and its causal mechanisms and associated biomarkers is limited. Objectives: Apply genome-wide expression profiling to define pathways affected in BPD lungs. Methods: Lung tissue was obtained at autopsy from 11 BPD cases and 17 age-matched control subjects without BPD. RNA isolated from these tissue samples was interrogated using microarrays. Standard gene selection and pathway analysis methods were applied to the data set. Abnormal expression patterns were validated by quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Measurements and Main Results: We identified 159 genes differentially expressed in BPD tissues. Pathway analysis indicated previously appreciated (e.g., DNA damage regulation of cell cycle) as well as novel (e.g., B-cell development) biological functions were affected. Three of the five most highly induced genes were mast cell (MC)-specific markers. We confirmed an increased accumulation of connective tissue MCTC (chymase expressing) mast cells in BPD tissues. Increased expression of MCTC markers was also demonstrated in an animal model of BPD-like pathology. Conclusions: We present a unique genome-wide expression data set from human BPD lung tissue. Our data provide information on gene expression patterns associated with BPD and facilitated the discovery that MCTC accumulation is a prominent feature of this disease. These observations have significant clinical and mechanistic implications. PMID:22723293

  13. A novel primate model of delayed wound healing in diabetes: dysregulation of connective tissue growth factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Thomson; S. V. McLennan; A. Hennessy; P. Boughton; J. Bonner; H. Zoellner; D. K. Yue; S. M. Twigg

    2010-01-01

    Aims\\/hypothesis  Chronic non-healing wounds are a common complication of diabetes. Prolonged inflammation and decreased matrix accumulation\\u000a may contribute. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is induced during normal wound healing, but its regulation in diabetic\\u000a wounds is unknown. We developed a primate model for the study of in vivo wound healing in baboons with long diabetes duration.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Drum implants were placed subcutaneously

  14. Determining respiratory impairment in connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Assayag, Deborah; Ryerson, Christopher J

    2015-05-01

    Connective tissue diseases (CTDs) can affect the lungs through diseases of the chest wall, pleura, vasculature, airways, and parenchyma. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common complication of CTD associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This article describes the evaluation of respiratory impairment in patients with CTD and summarizes the evidence that guides diagnosis and management of CTD-ILD. Patients with CTD with suspected ILD should undergo clinical, physiologic, and radiologic studies to evaluate for the presence of ILD, and these results should be integrated in a multidisciplinary setting to guide diagnosis and management. Screening for ILD may also be appropriate in asymptomatic patients with high-risk features. PMID:25836638

  15. Scanning electron microscope study of connective tissue in raw and cooked muscles 

    E-print Network

    Percy, Mary Lou

    1976-01-01

    in 2. 5% gluta?aldehyde buffered with . 014 sodium diphosphate and . 082N sodium monophosphate at a pH of 7. 4 for two hours at room temperature. The glutaraldehyde fixative also contained . 086M sodium chloride. Other samples from the same muscles... biceps femoris (Figs. 2 and 3), which has been shown to contain more connective tissue (Cover et al. , 1962). In the raw tom biceps fe- moris (Fig. 2), the perimysium appears thicker than the psoas, with several rope-like strands of collagen (C) which...

  16. Local delivery of nitric oxide: targeted delivery of therapeutics to bone and connective tissues

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Scott P.; Storm, Wesley L.; Koh, Ahyeon; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Non-invasive treatment of injuries and disorders affecting bones and connective tissue is a significant challenge facing the medical community. A treatment route that has recently been proposed is nitric oxide (NO) therapy. Nitric oxide plays several roles in physiology with many conditions lacking adequate levels of NO. As NO is a radical, localized delivery via NO donors is essential to promoting biological activity. Herein, we review current literature related to therapeutic NO delivery in the treatment of bone, skin and tendon repair. PMID:22433782

  17. Mixed Connective Tissue Disease Associated with Skin Defects of Livedoid Vasculitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. B. Oh; J.-B. Jun; C. K. Kim; C. W. Lee; C. K. Park; T.-Y. Kim; D.-H. Yoo; S. Y. Kim

    2000-01-01

    :   A 21-year-old woman who had a 2-year history of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) developed rapidly evolving ulcers\\u000a consistent with livedoid vasculitis (LV) in all distal extremities. She presented clinically with Raynaud’s phenomenon, polyarthritis\\u000a and swollen hands; serologically with high titres of ANA and anti-nRNP; and immunogenetically with HLA-DR4 and HLA-DR53. Although\\u000a there was initial success in treatment except

  18. AUTOIMMUNE POLYGLANDULAR SYNDROME TYPE II ? CASE REPORT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mira Misjak; Miljenko Solter; Milan Vrkljan

    SUMMARY ? Presentation is made of a 41-year-old man with Addison's disease and coexistent Hashimoto's thyroiditis and hypothyroidism. The two diseases are presumed to be of autoimmune etiology and to manifest as part of the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type II, as also sug- gested by tissue typing for HLA B8 locus. Inadequate TSH suppression with standard levothyroxine substitution therapy for

  19. Stress and AutoImmune Endocrine Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Leclère; G. Weryha

    1989-01-01

    Auto-immunity may occur in all endocrine tissues, with a particular prevalence in thyroid and pancreatic islets. The most demonstrative clinical expressions of this auto-immunity are Graves’ disease and insulin dependent diabetes. In the former, extensive data are available upon the immunological disorders seen in peripheral blood as well as in the thyroid itself. The predisposal profile of such diseases is

  20. Celiac Disease-Associated Autoimmune Endocrinopathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay Kumar; Manoj Rajadhyaksha; Jacobo Wortsman

    2001-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder induced by gluten intake in genetically susceptible individ- uals. It is characterized by the presence of serum antibodies to endomysium, reticulin, gliadin, and tissue transglutaminase. The incidence of CD in various autoimmune disorders is increased 10- to 30-fold in comparison to the general population, although in many cases CD is clinically asymptomatic or

  1. Evaluation of muscular lesions in connective tissue diseases: thallium 201 muscular scans

    SciTech Connect

    Guillet, G.; Guillet, J.; Sanciaume, C.; Maleville, J.; Geniaux, M.; Morin, P.

    1988-04-01

    We performed thallium 201 muscle scans to assess muscular involvement in 40 patients with different connective tissue diseases (7 with dermatomyositis, 7 with systemic lupus erythematosus, 12 with progressive systemic scleroderma, 2 with calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal involvement, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia (CREST) syndrome, 3 with monomelic scleroderma, 6 with morphea, and 3 with Raynaud's disease). Only 12 of these patients complained of fatigability and/or myalgia. Electromyography was performed and serum levels of muscle enzymes were measured in all patients. Comparison of thallium 201 exercise recording with the other tests revealed that scan sensitivity is greater than electromyographic and serum muscle enzymes levels. Thallium 201 scans showed abnormal findings in 32 patients and revealed subclinical lesions in 18 patients, while electromyography findings were abnormal in 25 of these 32 patients. Serum enzyme levels were raised in only 8 patients. Thallium 201 scanning proved to be a useful guide for modifying therapy when laboratory data were conflicting. It was useful to evaluate treatment efficacy. Because our data indicate a 100% positive predictive value, we believe that thallium 201 scanning should be advised for severe systemic connective tissue diseases with discordant test results.

  2. Leucine Supplementation Accelerates Connective Tissue Repair of Injured Tibialis Anterior Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Marcelo G.; Silva, Meiricris T.; Carlassara, Eduardo O. C.; Gonçalves, Dawit A.; Abrahamsohn, Paulo A.; Kettelhut, Isis C.; Moriscot, Anselmo S.; Aoki, Marcelo S.; Miyabara, Elen H.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of leucine supplementation on the skeletal muscle regenerative process, focusing on the remodeling of connective tissue of the fast twitch muscle tibialis anterior (TA). Young male Wistar rats were supplemented with leucine (1.35 g/kg per day); then, TA muscles from the left hind limb were cryolesioned and examined after 10 days. Although leucine supplementation induced increased protein synthesis, it was not sufficient to promote an increase in the cross-sectional area (CSA) of regenerating myofibers (p > 0.05) from TA muscles. However, leucine supplementation reduced the amount of collagen and the activation of phosphorylated transforming growth factor-? receptor type I (T?R-I) and Smad2/3 in regenerating muscles (p < 0.05). Leucine also reduced neonatal myosin heavy chain (MyHC-n) (p < 0.05), increased adult MyHC-II expression (p < 0.05) and prevented the decrease in maximum tetanic strength in regenerating TA muscles (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that leucine supplementation accelerates connective tissue repair and consequent function of regenerating TA through the attenuation of T?R-I and Smad2/3 activation. Therefore, future studies are warranted to investigate leucine supplementation as a nutritional strategy to prevent or attenuate muscle fibrosis in patients with several muscle diseases. PMID:25268835

  3. Citrullination and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Valesini, Guido; Gerardi, Maria C; Iannuccelli, Cristina; Pacucci, Viviana A; Pendolino, Monica; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-06-01

    Autoimmune diseases are characterized by the body's own immune system attack to the self-tissues, a condition enabled, in predisposed subjects, by the reduction of self-tolerance. A central role has been recently recognized to post-translational modifications, since they can promote generation of neo-(auto)antigens and in turn an autoimmune response. During the last years great attention has been paid to citrullination, because of its role in inducing anti-citrullinated proteins/peptide antibodies (ACPA), a class of autoantibodies with diagnostic, predictive and prognostic value for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Nonetheless, citrullination has been reported to be a process present in a wide range of inflammatory tissues. Indeed, citrullinated proteins have been detected also in other inflammatory arthritides and in inflammatory conditions other than arthritides (polymyositis, inflammatory bowel disease and chronic tonsillitis). Moreover, environmental exposure to cigarette smoke and nanomaterials of air pollution may be able to induce citrullination in lung cells prior to any detectable onset of inflammatory responses, suggesting that protein citrullination could be considered as a sign of early cellular damage. Accordingly, citrullination seems to be implicated in all those para-physiological processes, such as cells death pathways, in which intracellular calcium concentration raises to higher levels than in physiologic conditions: hence, peptidylarginine deiminases enzymes are activated during apoptosis, autophagy and NETosis, processes which are well-known to be implicated in autoimmunity. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that rather than being a disease-dependent process, citrullination is an inflammatory-dependent condition that plays a central role in autoimmune diseases. PMID:25636595

  4. Autoimmune hepatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diego Vergani; Maria Serena Longhi; Dimitrios P. Bogdanos; Yun Ma; Giorgina Mieli-Vergani

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an inflammatory liver disease affecting mainly females and characterised histologically by interface\\u000a hepatitis, biochemically by elevated transaminase levels and serologically by the presence of autoantibodies and increased\\u000a levels of immunoglobulin G. AIH responds to immunosuppressive treatment, which should be instituted as soon as diagnosis is\\u000a made. Seropositivity for smooth muscle and\\/or anti-nuclear antibody defines type 1

  5. Characterization of connective tissue progenitors through phase contrast and multicolor fluorescence time-lapse microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwee, Edward; Powell, Kimerly; Muschler, George

    2015-03-01

    Connective tissue progenitors (CTPs) are defined as the heterogeneous population of tissue resident stem and progenitor cells capable of proliferating and differentiating into connective tissue phenotypes. The prevalence and variation in clonal progeny of CTPs can be characterized using a colony formation assay. However, colony assays do not directly assess the characteristics of the colony founding CTP. We developed a large field of view, time lapse microscopy system with phase contrast and fluorescence capabilities that enables tracking from seeding through colony formation. Cells derived from the trabecular surface of bone were prepared and seeded in an Ibidi-Ph+ chamber slide. Phase contrast images of the slide were obtained every hour using a DMI6000 Leica microscope, 10X objective, and Retiga 2000R camera. Cells were stained using fluorescent antibodies for multiple markers at the time of plating to determine marker expression on seeded cells and re-stained to determine expression on their progeny. Colonies were identified and characterized using automated image processing and quantitative analysis methods. Following colony identification, the time lapse was reversed to identify and characterize the colony founding CTP according to morphology and marker expression. As a representative example, a CD73+/CD90-/CD105- and a CD73+/CD90+/CD105- CTP resulted in a colony with an area of 3720826 microns2 and percent area expression of 2.98%, 3.62%, and 1.13% for CD73, CD90, and CD105, respectively. This method can be used to study CTPs and other stem and progenitor cell populations to benefit point-of-care methods for assay and isolation in cell based therapies.

  6. Celiac disease as an autoimmune condition

    PubMed Central

    Sur, Genel; Lupan, Iulia; Tilinca, Mariana; Deleanu, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have become a major medical problem of recent years. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease model. The aim of our study was to follow the changes in the clinical autoimmunity picture of the celiac disease from recent years. The study of autoimmunity in celiac disease has focused on associated diseases with the aforementioned disease: type 1 diabetes mellitus, thyroid autoimmunity disease, Graves’ disease, Hashimoto's disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, spondyloarthritis, hyperprolactinemia, Turner syndrome, Addison's disease, sensory neuronopathies. Immune reactivity to tissue transglutaminase targeted autoantibodies and other autoantigens, including transglutaminase 3, actin, ganglioside, collagen, calreticulin or zonulin which have been reported in the celiac disease. New research directions given by celiac disease autoimmunity, interleukin 1, interleukin 2, protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22, CD4+CD25+ T lymphocytes, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4, infection with Necator americanus and definitive identification of pathogenic T cell epitopes, seem to provide a solution in celiac disease treatment.

  7. Assessment of T Regulatory Cells and Expanded Profiling of Autoantibodies May Offer Novel Biomarkers for the Clinical Management of Systemic Sclerosis and Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cordiali-Fei, Paola; Mussi, Anna; D'Agosto, Giovanna; Trento, Elisabetta; Bordignon, Valentina; Trincone, Silvana; Vento, Antonella; Sperduti, Isabella; Cristaudo, Antonio; Ensoli, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify disease biomarkers for the clinical and therapeutic management of autoimmune diseases such as systemic sclerosis (SSc) and undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD), we have explored the setting of peripheral T regulatory (T reg) cells and assessed an expanded profile of autoantibodies in patients with SSc, including either limited (lcSSc) or diffuse (dcSSc) disease, and in patients presenting with clinical signs and symptoms of UCTD. A large panel of serum antibodies directed towards nuclear, nucleolar, and cytoplasmic antigens, including well-recognized molecules as well as less frequently tested antigens, was assessed in order to determine whether different antibody profiles might be associated with distinct clinical settings. Beside the well-recognized association between lcSSc and anti-centromeric or dcSSC and anti-topoisomerase-I antibodies, we found a significative association between dcSSc and anti-SRP or anti-PL-7/12 antibodies. In addition, two distinct groups emerged on the basis of anti-RNP or anti-PM-Scl 75/100 antibody production among UCTD patients. The levels of T reg cells were significantly lower in patients with SSc as compared to patients with UCTD or to healthy controls; in patients with lcSSc, T reg cells were inversely correlated to disease duration, suggesting that their levels may represent a marker of disease progression. PMID:23818915

  8. Connective tissue growth factor regulates interneuron survival and information processing in the olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Khodosevich, Konstantin; Lazarini, Françoise; von Engelhardt, Jakob; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Lledo, Pierre-Marie; Monyer, Hannah

    2013-09-18

    Neurogenesis underlies plastic changes in defined neuronal circuits in the postnatal and adult brain. Here we identify connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) as a critical factor in the mouse olfactory bulb (OB) in determining the efficiency of incorporation of postnatally born inhibitory neurons, thus gating the output of glomeruli, the first relay station of olfactory processing in the brain. In the OB, CTGF expression was restricted to prenatally born external tufted cells. CTGF enhanced the proapoptotic activity of glial-derived TGF-?2, decreasing the survival of periglomerular inhibitory neurons. Changes in CTGF expression levels in the OB led to modifications in local neuronal circuitry and olfactory behaviors. We show that the odorant-specific recruitment of distinct glomeruli resulted in enhanced local CTGF expression levels in the activated glomeruli. Collectively our data reveal a molecular mechanism controlling the survival of defined postnatally born neurons, thus adapting neuronal integration to the sensory experiences. PMID:23993699

  9. Effects of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene silencing on the radiosensitivity of glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Han, Na; Shahveranov, Allahverdi; Cheng, Yi; Qin, Kai; Yu, Shi-Ying; Zhang, Meng-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The effects of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene silencing on the radiosensitivity of glioblastoma cells (GBM) were investigated. The lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector targeting CTGF was constructed and transinfected into U87MG human GBM cell line. The CTGF gene expression in U87MG cells was significantly down-regulated. After irradiation with 6 MV X-rays at a dose rate of 2.5 Gy/min, the clonogenicity, proliferation and migration of U87MG cells were assayed in vitro. The survival, proliferation and migration of U87MG cells were all remarkably inhibited by CTGF silencing (p < 0.05 vs control). Our results demonstrate that CTGF is important for GBM and CTGF gene silencing can be a potential tool to enhance the sensitivity of GBM to radiotherapy. PMID:25356109

  10. Athlete's nodules: sports-related connective tissue nevi of the collagen type (collagenomas).

    PubMed

    Cohen, P R; Eliezri, Y D; Silvers, D N

    1992-08-01

    Sports-related connective tissue nevi of the collagen type (collagenomas) have been referred to as athlete's nodules. Surfers, boxers, marbles players, and football players are some of the athletes in whom these lesions have been observed. The nodules can be found on the dorsal aspect of the feet, knees, or knuckles and can readily be differentiated from other conditions by either clinical history or microscopic features or both. Treatment options include conservative measures or surgical intervention. Recurrent trauma and friction to the involved location are likely causative factors. Although the ultrastructural pathogenesis remains to be established, changes in the molecular metabolism of collagen resulting in enhanced synthesis and/or accumulation of collagen may have a contributory role. PMID:1511619

  11. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Sahebjam, Farhad; Vierling, John M

    2015-06-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic liver disease putatively caused by loss of tolerance to hepatocytespecific autoantigens. It is characterized by female predilection, elevated aminotransferase levels, autoantibodies, increased ?-globulin or IgG levels and biopsy evidence of interface hepatitis. It is currently divided into types 1 and 2, based on expression of autoantibodies. Autoantigenic epitopes have been identified only for the less frequent type 2. Although autoimmune hepatitis occurs in childhood, this review focuses on disease in adults. In the absence of pathognomonic biomarkers, diagnosis requires consideration of clinical, biochemical, serological and histological features, which have been codified into validated diagnostic scoring systems. Since many features also occur in other chronic liver diseases, these scoring systems aid evaluation of the differential diagnosis. New practice guidelines have redefined criteria for remission to include complete biochemical and histological normalization on immunosuppressive therapy. Immunosuppression is most often successful using prednisone or prednisolone and azathioprine; however, the combination of budesonide and azathioprine for non-cirrhotic patients offers distinct advantages. Patients failing standard immunosuppression are candidates for alternative immunosuppressive regimens, yet none of the options has been studied in a randomized, controlled trial. Overlap syndromes with either primary sclerosing cholangitis or primary biliary cirrhosis occur in a minority. Liver transplantation represents a life-saving option for patients presenting with acute liver failure, severely decompensated cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Transplant recipients are at risk for recurrent autoimmune hepatitis in the allograft, and de novo disease may occur in patients transplanted for other indications. Patients transplanted for AIH are also at risk for recurrent or de novo inflammatory bowel disease. Progress in our understanding of the immunopathogenesis should lead to identification of specific diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and new therapeutic strategies. PMID:25749982

  12. Connective Tissue Reflex Massage for Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida María; Moreno-Lorenzo, Carmen; Matarán-Peñarrocha, Guillermo A.; Feriche-Fernández-Castanys, Belen; Granados-Gámez, Genoveva; Quesada-Rubio, José Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of connective tissue massage to improve blood circulation and intermittent claudication symptoms in type 2 diabetic patients. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken. Ninety-eight type 2 diabetes patients with stage I or II-a peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (Leriche-Fontaine classification) were randomly assigned to a massage group or to a placebo group treated using disconnected magnetotherapy equipment. Peripheral arterial circulation was determined by measuring differential segmental arterial pressure, heart rate, skin temperature, oxygen saturation and skin blood flow. Measurements were taken before and at 30?min, 6 months and 1 year after the 15-week treatment. After the 15-week program, the groups differed (P < .05) in differential segmental arterial pressure in right lower limb (lower one-third of thigh, upper and lower one-third of leg) and left lower limb (lower one-third of thigh and upper and lower one-third of leg). A significant difference (P < .05) was also observed in skin blood flow in digits 1 and 4 of right foot and digits 2, 4 and 5 of left foot. ANOVA results were significant (P < .05) for right and left foot oxygen saturation but not for heart rate and temperature. At 6 months and 1 year, the groups differed in differential segmental arterial pressure in upper third of left and right legs. Connective tissue massage improves blood circulation in the lower limbs of type 2 diabetic patients at stage I or II-a and may be useful to slow the progression of PAD. PMID:19933770

  13. Recommendations for Screening and Detection of Connective-Tissue Disease Associated Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Dinesh; Gladue, Heather; Channick, Richard; Chung, Lorinda; Distler, Oliver; Furst, Daniel E.; Hachulla, Eric; Humbert, Marc; Langleben, David; Mathai, Stephen C.; Saggar, Rajeev; Visovatti, Scott; Altorok, Nezam; Townsend, Whitney; FitzGerald, John; McLaughlin, Vallerie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) affects up to 15% of patients with connective tissue diseases (CTD). Previous recommendations developed as part of larger efforts in PAH did not provide detailed recommendations for patients with CTD-PAH. Therefore, we sought to develop recommendations for screening and early detection of CTD-PAH. Methods We performed a systematic review for the screening and diagnosis of PAH in CTD by searching the literature. Using the RAND/UCLA methodology, we developed case scenarios followed by 2 stages of voting—first international experts from a variety of specialties voted anonymously on the appropriateness of each case scenario and then the experts met in a face-to-face meeting to discuss and resolve discrepant votes to arrive at consensus recommendations. Results The key recommendations state that patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) should be screened for PAH. In addition, mixed connective tissue diseases (MCTD) or other CTD’s with scleroderma features should also be screened for PAH (scleroderma-spectrum disorder). Initial screening evaluation in patients with SSc and scleroderma-spectrum disorders include pulmonary function test (PFT) including diffusion capacity carbon monoxide (DLCO), transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE), and NT- Pro BNP. In SSc and spectrum disorders, TTE and PFT should be performed on annual basis. The full screening panel (TTE, PFT, and NT-ProBNP) should be performed as soon as any new signs or symptoms are present. Conclusion We provide consensus-based, evidence-driven recommendations for screening and early detection of CTD-PAH. It is our hope that these recommendations will lead to earlier detection of CTD-PAH and ultimately improve patient outcomes. PMID:24022584

  14. Regulatory mechanisms of anthrax toxin receptor 1-dependent vascular and connective tissue homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Besschetnova, Tatiana Y; Ichimura, Takaharu; Katebi, Negin; St Croix, Brad; Bonventre, Joseph V; Olsen, Bjorn R

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that angiogenesis is linked to fibrotic processes in fibroproliferative diseases, but insights into pathophysiological processes are limited, due to lack of understanding of molecular mechanisms controlling endothelial and fibroblastic homeostasis. We demonstrate here that the matrix receptor anthrax toxin receptor 1 (ANTXR1), also known as tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8), is an essential component of these mechanisms. Loss of TEM8 function in mice causes reduced synthesis of endothelial basement membrane components and hyperproliferative and leaky blood vessels in skin. In addition, endothelial cell alterations in mutants are almost identical to those of endothelial cells in infantile hemangioma lesions, including activated VEGF receptor signaling in endothelial cells, increased expression of the downstream targets VEGF and CXCL12, and increased numbers of macrophages and mast cells. In contrast, loss of TEM8 in fibroblasts leads to increased rates of synthesis of fiber-forming collagens, resulting in progressive fibrosis in skin and other organs. Compromised interactions between TEM8-deficient endothelial and fibroblastic cells cause dramatic reduction in the activity of the matrix-degrading enzyme MMP2. In addition to insights into mechanisms of connective tissue homeostasis, our data provide molecular explanations for vascular and connective tissue abnormalities in GAPO syndrome, caused by loss-of-function mutations in ANTXR1. Furthermore, the loss of MMP2 activity suggests that fibrotic skin abnormalities in GAPO syndrome are, in part, the consequence of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying syndromes (NAO, Torg and Winchester) with multicentric skin nodulosis and osteolysis caused by homozygous loss-of-function mutations in MMP2. PMID:25572963

  15. Copper-dependent antioxidase defenses in inflammatory and autoimmune rheumatic diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Miesel; Margit Zuber

    1993-01-01

    Gel-filtered sera of patients with various inflammatory and autoimmune rheumatic diseases (N=354) were screened for the presence of the inflammation marker Cu-thionein. The concentrations of Cu-thionein were significantly diminished in patients with connective tissue diseases (P 0.001). Sera of patients suffering from inflammatory rheumatic diseases were almost totally depleted of this low-molecular-weight copper protein that exerts pronounced Superoxide dismutase activity

  16. Age-dependent remodeling of connective tissue: role of fibronectin and laminin.

    PubMed

    Labat-Robert, J

    2003-12-01

    Connective tissues differ from other tissues in their more abundant extracellular matrix (ECM). This matrix is composed of a relatively large number of macromolecules interacting with each other as well as with the cells they are surrounding. Such cells, fibroblasts, chondrocytes and others, secrete the macromolecules of ECM according to a genetically and environmentally regulated "program". It appeared recently that one type of macromolecular interactions is characterized by the selective cleavage of some of the ECM components. Some of these proteolytic cleavage products were shown to possess remarkable biological activities absent from the parent molecules. Such mechanisms were shown to play an important role in aging processes. Also called matricryptins such peptides and their activities are produced from several matrix components. Of special interest are these matricryptins which are derived from fibronectin, laminin and elastin. Their production by proteolytic attack of the original ECM components, followed by their novel biological activities, form in some instances autoamplifying vicious circles. Such "epigenetic", post-translational mechanisms are not coded in the genome, they are neither "accidental", nor "chaotic" but remarkably predictable, the result of the presence in several ECM components of "matricryptic" sites and coregulated synthesis of matrix components carrying such sites and of proteolytic enzymes producing the matricryptins. Some examples will be discussed, derived from the experiments carried out in our laboratory and others over the years, involved in aging and in some of the age-dependent pathologies. PMID:14622946

  17. Activated alveolar epithelial cells initiate fibrosis through autocrine and paracrine secretion of connective tissue growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jibing; Velikoff, Miranda; Canalis, Ernesto; Horowitz, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrogenesis involves a pathological accumulation of activated fibroblasts and extensive matrix remodeling. Profibrotic cytokines, such as TGF-?, stimulate fibroblasts to overexpress fibrotic matrix proteins and induce further expression of profibrotic cytokines, resulting in progressive fibrosis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a profibrotic cytokine that is indicative of fibroblast activation. Epithelial cells are abundant in the normal lung, but their contribution to fibrogenesis remains poorly defined. Profibrotic cytokines may activate epithelial cells with protein expression and functions that overlap with the functions of active fibroblasts. We found that alveolar epithelial cells undergoing TGF-?-mediated mesenchymal transition in vitro were also capable of activating lung fibroblasts through production of CTGF. Alveolar epithelial cell expression of CTGF was dramatically reduced by inhibition of Rho signaling. CTGF reporter mice demonstrated increased CTGF promoter activity by lung epithelial cells acutely after bleomycin in vivo. Furthermore, mice with lung epithelial cell-specific deletion of CTGF had an attenuated fibrotic response to bleomycin. These studies provide direct evidence that epithelial cell activation initiates a cycle of fibrogenic effector cell activation during progressive fibrosis. Therapy targeted at epithelial cell production of CTGF offers a novel pathway for abrogating this progressive cycle and limiting tissue fibrosis. PMID:24508728

  18. Slowing the Onset of Hypoxia Increases Colony Forming Efficiency of Connective Tissue Progenitor Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Caralla, Tonya N.; Boehm, Cynthia A.; Patterson, Thomas E.; Muschler, George F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Survival and colony formation by transplanted tissue derived connective tissue progenitor cells (CTPs) are thought to be important factors in the success of clinical tissue engineering strategies for bone regeneration. Transplantation of cells into defects larger than a few millimeters expose cells to a profoundly hypoxic environment. This study tested the hypothesis that delaying the onset of hypoxia will improve the survival and performance of CTPs in vitro. Methods To mimic declines seen in an avascular in vivo bone defect, colony forming efficiency by marrow derived nucleated cells was assessed under osteogenic conditions. Variation in the rate of oxygen decline from an oxygen tension of 21% to 0.1% oxygen was explored using an incubator with programmable active control of gas concentrations. The effect of doping cultures with defined concentrations of RBCs was also used to evaluate the potential for RBCs to serve as a natural buffer in the setting of declining oxygen levels. Results A delay in onset of hypoxia over 96 hours resulted in a 3-fold increase in the relative colony forming efficiency (rCFE) of CTPs as compared to an immediate onset of hypoxia. The presence of RBCs in vitro inhibited the rCFE of CTPs. Given the negative effects of RBCs, methods of RBC removal were evaluated and compared for their effectiveness of RBC removal and retention of colony forming efficiency. Conclusions These data suggest that conditions of hypoxia compromise colony forming efficiency in marrow derived CTPs. However, slowing the rate of decline of oxygen preserved colony forming efficiency at levels achieved in a stable normoxic (3% O2) environment. These data also suggest that RBCs are detrimental to the rCFE of CTPs and that buffy coat is an effective and preferred method for removing RBCs from marrow aspirates while preserving CTPs. These findings may inform clinical strategies for CTP transplantation. PMID:24371519

  19. Subcutaneous Connective Tissue Reactions to Various Endodontic Biomaterials: An Animal Study

    PubMed Central

    Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Tanideh, Nader; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Karamifar, Kasra; Amanat, Dariush

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Biocompatibility of root-end filling materials is a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to compare the biocompatibility of a variety of commercial ProRoot WMTA cements and a resin-based cement (Geristore®) with different pH values of setting reaction and different aluminum contents, implanted into the subcutaneous connective tissue of rats at various time intervals. Materials and methods Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Polyethylene tubes were filled with Angelus WMTA, ProRoot WMTA, Bioaggregate, and Geristore. Empty control tubes were implanted into subcutaneous tissues and harvested at 7-, 14-, 28- and 60-day intervals. Tissue sections of 5 ?m were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and observed under a light microscope. Inflammatory reactions were categorized as 0, none (without inflammatory cells); 1, mild (inflammatory cells ?25); 2, moderate (25–125 inflammatory cells); and 3, severe (>125 inflammatory cells). Statistical analysis was performed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests. Results ProRoot WMTA and Angelus elicited significantly less inflammation than other materials (P<0.05). After 7 days, however, all the materials induced significantly more inflammation than the controls (P<0.05). Angelus-MTA group exhi-bited no significant differences from the Bioaggregate group (P=0.15); however, ProRoot WMTA elicited significantly less inflammation than Bioaggregate (P=0.02). Geristore induced significantly more inflammation than other groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Geristore induced an inflammatory response higher than ProRoot WMTA; therefore, it is not recommended for clinical use. PMID:23486841

  20. Viruses, cytokines, antigens, and autoimmunity.

    PubMed Central

    Gianani, R; Sarvetnick, N

    1996-01-01

    To explain the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, we hypothesize that following an infection the immune response spreads to tissue-specific autoantigens in genetically predisposed individuals eventually determining progression to disease. Molecular mimicry between viral and self antigens could, in some instances, initiate autoimmunity. Local elicitation of inflammatory cytokines following infection probably plays a pivotal role in determining loss of functional tolerance to self autoantigens and the destructive activation of autoreactive cells. We also describe the potential role of interleukin 10, a powerful B-cell activator, in increasing the efficiency of epitope recognition, that could well be crucial to the progression toward disease. PMID:8637859

  1. TissuesTissues TissuesTissues group of similar cell types thatgroup of similar cell types that

    E-print Network

    Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

    has four basic types of tissue:tissue: EpithelialEpithelial ConnectiveConnective Muscle TissuesTissues­­ Connective TissueConnective Tissue Loosely organized and composed ofLoosely organizedUsually binds organs or tissues to one anotherone another #12;3 TissuesTissues ­­ Connective TissueConnective

  2. Role of Osteopontin in Calcification in Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroki Takada; Takahiro Nakazawa; Hirotaka Ohara; Tomoaki Ando; Kazuki Hayashi; Itaru Naito; Fumihiro Okumura; Hajime Tanaka; Tamaki Yamada; Satoru Takahashi; Takashi Joh

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the potential for pancreatic calcification in autoimmune pancreatitis by investigating\\u000a osteopontin and CD44 expression. Methods Human pancreatic tissues in normal pancreas, chronic pancreatitis, and autoimmune pancreatitis were obtained from the surgical\\u000a specimens of 42 patients. Pancreatic tissues from male Wistar Bonn\\/Kobori rats were also used as an animal autoimmune pancreatitis

  3. Histological and histomorphometrical study of connective tissue around calcium phosphate coated titanium dental implants in a canine model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bao Hong Zhao; Inho Han; Hai Lan Feng; Wei Bai; Fu-Zhai Cui; In-Seop Lee

    2007-01-01

    Connective tissue reaction and collagen fiber orientation were evaluated on the calcium phosphate coated implants made by ion beam assisted deposition, and compared with the uncoated titanium implants. Twelve implants of each group were randomly placed in mandibles after 3 months of premolars extraction in beagle dogs. All the implants were firmly anchored in the bone and had no clinical signs

  4. Ectopic mineralization disorders of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue: Molecular genetics and pathomechanisms of aberrant calcification

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiaoli; Jiang, Qiujie; Uitto, Jouni

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic mineralization of connective tissues is a complex process leading to deposition of calcium phosphate complexes in the extracellular matrix, particularly affecting the skin and the arterial blood vessels and common in age-associated disorders. A number of initiating and contributing metabolic and environmental factors are linked to aberrant mineralization in these diseases, making the identification of precise pathomechanistic pathways exceedingly difficult. However, there has been significant recent progress in understanding the ectopic mineralization processes through study of heritable single-gene disorders, which have allowed identification of discreet pathways and contributing factors leading to aberrant connective tissue mineralization. These studies have provided support for the concept of an intricate mineralization/anti-mineralization network present in peripheral connective tissues, providing a perspective to development of pharmacologic approaches to limit the phenotypic consequences of ectopic mineralization. This overview summarizes the current knowledge of ectopic heritable mineralization disorders, with accompanying animal models, focusing on pseudoxanthoma elasticum and generalized arterial calcification of infancy, two autosomal recessive diseases manifesting with extensive connective tissue mineralization in the skin and the cardiovascular system. PMID:23891698

  5. Imaging the Effect of Acupuncture Needling On Human Connective Tissue in Vivo E.E. Konofagou1

    E-print Network

    Konofagou, Elisa E.

    Imaging the Effect of Acupuncture Needling On Human Connective Tissue in Vivo E.E. Konofagou1 , G, Burlington, VT, USA; E-mail: ek2191@columbia.edu Abstract - The therapeutic effects of acupuncture have been estimation techniques are used in order to understand the effect of acupuncture. It is expected

  6. Undifferentiated connective tissue disease: Natural history and evolution into definite CTD assessed in 84 patients initially diagnosed as early UCTD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Danieli; P. Fraticelli; A. Salvi; A. Gabrielli; G. Danieli

    1998-01-01

    Connective tissue diseases (CTDs) are chronic multisystemic inflammatory disorders whose indicative signs or symptoms have a high sensitivity but poor specificity in predicting the evolution into a given CTD. We have analysed 84 consecutive patients initially diagnosed as having an early undifferentiated CTD (early UCTD) with the aim of verifying the evolution into one definite CTD and of evaluating the

  7. STAT3-independent inhibition of lysophosphatidic acid-mediated upregulation of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) by cucurbitacin I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Graness; Valeria Poli; Margarete Goppelt-Struebe

    2006-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are recognised as anti-tumour agents because of their interference with STAT3 signalling, but may also affect the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton. In the present study the effect of cucurbitacin I was investigated in fibroblasts. In these cells, cucurbitacin I interfered with lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signalling. It inhibited tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion proteins and induction of connective tissue

  8. Evaluation of lymphocyte activation in skin lesions of patients with mixed connective tissue disease and discoid lupus erythematodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Bergroth; Y. T. Konttinen; H. Piirainen; E. Johansson; D. Nordström; M. Malmström

    1988-01-01

    Biopsy specimens from mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) and discoid lupus erythematodes (DLE) skin lesions were stained with monoclonal antibodies to differentiation and activation antigens. In addition, the blast cells were studied by combining autoradiography with immunoperoxidase staining. In both disease conditions most of the inflammatory cells in situ were positive for T11 antigen, the CD4\\/CD8 ratio being low. Only

  9. Six1 is not involved in limb tendon development, but is expressed in limb connective tissue under Shh regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Ange Bonnin; Christine Laclef; Régis Blaise; Sophie Eloy-Trinquet; Frédéric Relaix; Pascal Maire; Delphine Duprez

    2005-01-01

    Mice deficient for the homeobox gene Six1 display defects in limb muscles consistent with the Six1 expression in myogenic cells. In addition to its myogenic expression domain, Six1 has been described as being located in digit tendons and as being associated with connective tissue patterning in mouse limbs. With the aim of determining a possible involvement of Six1 in tendon

  10. Ectopic mineralization disorders of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue: molecular genetics and pathomechanisms of aberrant calcification.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiaoli; Jiang, Qiujie; Uitto, Jouni

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic mineralization of connective tissues is a complex process leading to deposition of calcium phosphate complexes in the extracellular matrix, particularly affecting the skin and the arterial blood vessels and common in age-associated disorders. A number of initiating and contributing metabolic and environmental factors are linked to aberrant mineralization in these diseases, making the identification of precise pathomechanistic pathways exceedingly difficult. However, there has been significant recent progress in understanding the ectopic mineralization processes through study of heritable single-gene disorders, which have allowed identification of discrete pathways and contributing factors leading to aberrant connective tissue mineralization. These studies have provided support for the concept of an intricate mineralization/anti-mineralization network present in peripheral connective tissues, providing a perspective to development of pharmacologic approaches to limit the phenotypic consequences of ectopic mineralization. This overview summarizes the current knowledge of ectopic heritable mineralization disorders, with accompanying animal models, focusing on pseudoxanthoma elasticum and generalized arterial calcification of infancy, two autosomal recessive diseases manifesting with extensive connective tissue mineralization in the skin and the cardiovascular system. PMID:23891698

  11. Connective tissue growth factor modulates adult ?-cell maturity and proliferation to promote ?-cell regeneration in mice.

    PubMed

    Riley, Kimberly G; Pasek, Raymond C; Maulis, Matthew F; Peek, Jennifer; Thorel, Fabrizio; Brigstock, David R; Herrera, Pedro L; Gannon, Maureen

    2015-04-01

    Stimulation of endogenous ?-cell expansion could facilitate regeneration in patients with diabetes. In mice, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is expressed in embryonic ?-cells and in adult ?-cells during periods of expansion. We discovered that in embryos CTGF is necessary for ?-cell proliferation, and increased CTGF in ?-cells promotes proliferation of immature (MafA(-)) insulin-positive cells. CTGF overexpression, under nonstimulatory conditions, does not increase adult ?-cell proliferation. In this study, we tested the ability of CTGF to promote ?-cell proliferation and regeneration after partial ?-cell destruction. ?-Cell mass reaches 50% recovery after 4 weeks of CTGF treatment, primarily via increased ?-cell proliferation, which is enhanced as early as 2 days of treatment. CTGF treatment increases the number of immature ?-cells but promotes proliferation of both mature and immature ?-cells. A shortened ?-cell replication refractory period is also observed. CTGF treatment upregulates positive cell-cycle regulators and factors involved in ?-cell proliferation, including hepatocyte growth factor, serotonin synthesis, and integrin ?1. Ex vivo treatment of whole islets with recombinant human CTGF induces ?-cell replication and gene expression changes consistent with those observed in vivo, demonstrating that CTGF acts directly on islets to promote ?-cell replication. Thus, CTGF can induce replication of adult mouse ?-cells given a permissive microenvironment. PMID:25392241

  12. Autoantibody testing for connective tissue diseases. Comparison of immunodiffusion, immunoblot, and enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Bridges, A J; Lorden, T E; Havighurst, T C

    1997-10-01

    We evaluated 500 consecutive patient serum samples for the presence of six autoantibodies by three antibody detection methods: immunodiffusion, immunoblot, and enzyme immunoassay. Clinical data were reviewed for each patient with positive antibody test results. Serum samples from 60 patients revealed antibodies to Sm, ribonucleoprotein (RNP), SSA/Ro, SSB/La, Scl-70, or Jo-1. There were 7 false-positive test results (1%). All three methods detected autoantibodies in 36 (68%) of 53 patients with connective tissue disease. Immunoblot was the most sensitive method to detect autoantibodies (92%). Enzyme immunoassay and immunodiffusion were less sensitive (81% and 74%, respectively). Antiribonucleoprotein and anti-SSB/La antibodies were more often detected by immunoblotting, whereas anti-SSA/Ro antibodies were more often detected by enzyme immunoassay. Newer antibody detection methods (immunoblot and enzyme immunoassay) are less time consuming than immunodiffusion and show good interassay sensitivity without loss of specificity. A combination of immunoblot and enzyme immunoassay yielded excellent assay sensitivity (100%) and specificity (99%) for detection of autoantibodies. PMID:9322593

  13. Significance of Pulmonary Arterial Pressure as a Prognostic Indicator in Lung-Dominant Connective Tissue Disease

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Naohiro; Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Tomoki; Kataoka, Kensuke; Matsuda, Toshiaki; Yokoyama, Toshiki; Sakamoto, Koji; Nishiyama, Osamu; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Background Lung-dominant connective tissue disease (LD-CTD) is a new concept for classifying the subset of patients with interstitial pneumonia who have clinical features suggesting an associated CTD, but whose features fall short of a clear diagnosis of CTD under the current rheumatologic classification systems. The impact of mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP) in LD-CTD has not been sufficiently elucidated. Objectives To evaluate the survival impact of MPAP measured during the initial evaluation in patients with LD-CTD. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the initial evaluation data of 100 LD-CTD patients undergoing pulmonary function test, 6-min walk test (6MWT), and right heart catheterization (RHC). Results The mean MPAP was 16.2±4.4 mm Hg, and 18 patients had MPAP?20 mm Hg. A univariate Cox proportional hazard model showed that MPAP and several variables have a statistically significant impact on survival. With stepwise, multivariate Cox proportional analysis, MPAP (HR ?=?1.293; 95% CI 1.130–1.480; p<0.001) and mean forced vital capacity (FVC) % predicted (HR?=?0.958; 95% CI 0.930–0.986; p?=?0.004) were shown to be independent determinants of survival. Conclusions Higher MPAP and lower %FVC at the initial evaluation were significant independent prognostic factors of LD-CTD. MPAP evaluation provides additional information of disease status and will help physicians to predict mortality in LD-CTD. PMID:25268705

  14. Induction of Ovarian Primordial Follicle Assembly by Connective Tissue Growth Factor CTGF

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Ryan; Nilsson, Eric; Skinner, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Primordial follicle assembly is a process that occurs when oocyte nests break down to form individual primordial follicles. The size of this initial pool of primordial follicles in part determines the reproductive lifespan of the female. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was identified as a potential regulatory candidate for this process in a previous microarray analysis of follicle development. The current study examines the effects of CTGF and associated transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF?-1) on follicle assembly. Ovaries were removed from newborn rat pups and placed in an organ culture system. The ovaries treated with CTGF for two days were found to have an increased proportion of assembled follicles. CTGF was found to regulate the ovarian transcriptome during primordial follicle assembly and an integrative network of genes was identified. TGF?-1 had no effect on primordial follicle assembly and in combination with CTGF decreased oocyte number in the ovary after two days of culture. Over ten days of treatment only the combined treatment of CTGF and TGF?-1 was found to cause an increase in the proportion of assembled follicles. Interestingly, treatment with TGF?-1 alone resulted in fewer total oocytes in the ovary and decreased the primordial follicle pool size after ten days of culture. Observations indicate that CTGF alone or in combination with TGF?-1 stimulates primordial follicle assembly and TGF?-1 can decrease the primordial follicle pool size. These observations suggest the possibility of manipulating primordial follicle pool size and influencing female reproductive lifespan. PMID:20886044

  15. Accumulation of connective tissue growth factor+ cells during the early phase of rat traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Glial scar formation is a common histopathological feature of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Astrogliosis and expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) are key components of scar formation and blood-brain barrier modulation. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is considered a cytokine mediating the effects of TGF-?. Methods Here, we studied the CTGF expression in an open-skull weight-drop-induced TBI, with a focus on the early phase, most amenable to therapy. Results In normal rat brains of our study, CTGF+ cells were rarely observed. Significant parenchymal accumulation of CTGF+ non-neuron cells was observed 72 h post-TBI and increased continuously during the investigating time. We also observed that the accumulated CTGF+ non-neuron cells were mainly distributed in the perilesional areas and showed activated astrocyte phenotypes with typical stellate morphologic characteristics. Conclusion Our observations demonstrated the time-dependent and lesion-associated accumulation of cellular CTGF expression in TBI, suggesting a pathological role of CTGF in TBI. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/3963462091241165 PMID:25012526

  16. Direct determination of fatty acids in fish tissues: quantifying top predator trophic connections.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Christopher C; Nichols, Peter D; Pethybridge, Heidi; Young, Jock W

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids are a valuable tool in ecological studies because of the large number of unique structures synthesized. They provide versatile signatures that are being increasingly employed to delineate the transfer of dietary material through marine and terrestrial food webs. The standard procedure for determining fatty acids generally involves lipid extraction followed by methanolysis to produce methyl esters for analysis by gas chromatography. By directly transmethylating ~50 mg wet samples and adding an internal standard it was possible to greatly simplify the analytical methodology to enable rapid throughput of 20-40 fish tissue fatty acid analyses a day including instrumental analysis. This method was verified against the more traditional lipid methods using albacore tuna and great white shark muscle and liver samples, and it was shown to provide an estimate of sample dry mass, total lipid content, and a condition index. When large fatty acid data sets are generated in this way, multidimensional scaling, analysis of similarities, and similarity of percentages analysis can be used to define trophic connections among samples and to quantify them. These routines were used on albacore and skipjack tuna fatty acid data obtained by direct methylation coupled with literature values for krill. There were clear differences in fatty acid profiles among the species as well as spatial differences among albacore tuna sampled from different locations. PMID:25376156

  17. Nail changes in connective tissue diseases: a study of 39 cases

    PubMed Central

    Elmansour, Imane; Chiheb, Soumia; Benchikhi, Hakima

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to identify nail unit changes associated with connective tissue diseases (CTD) and evaluate their frequency. We carried a prospective study between March 2012 and March2013 in our department. All patients with CTD were included. A clinical examination of the fingernails was done by the same dermatologist. Nail features were noted and classified and photos taken. Thirty nine patients were enrolled including: 16 systemic sclerosis, 14 lupus erythematosus (SLE), 8 dermatomyositis (DM), 1 primary Sjorgen's syndrome. The mean age was 40 years old. The mean duration of the disease was 6 years. Nail unit changes were present in 27 patients (69%). The abnormalities observed were Longitidunal ridging in 11 patients, Peri ungueal erythema in 10 patients, Peri-ungual telangiectasia in 11 patients, Ragged cuticle in 10 patients fingertips scars in 9 patients, Increase of longitudinal curvature and beaking of the nail in 4 patients, Increase in transverse curvature in 4 patients, dyschromia of the proximal nail fold in 3 patients, Subungual hyperkeratosis in 3 patients, onycholysis in 2 patients, splinter haemorrhages in 3 patients, nail plate pigmentation in 2 patients, pseudoclubbing in 1 patient, macrolunula in 1 patients, Red lunulae in one patient, bluish- black discoloration of the nail plate in one patient. The proximal nailfold was found to be most sites affected. PMID:25419288

  18. Nail changes in connective tissue diseases: a study of 39 cases.

    PubMed

    Elmansour, Imane; Chiheb, Soumia; Benchikhi, Hakima

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to identify nail unit changes associated with connective tissue diseases (CTD) and evaluate their frequency. We carried a prospective study between March 2012 and March2013 in our department. All patients with CTD were included. A clinical examination of the fingernails was done by the same dermatologist. Nail features were noted and classified and photos taken. Thirty nine patients were enrolled including: 16 systemic sclerosis, 14 lupus erythematosus (SLE), 8 dermatomyositis (DM), 1 primary Sjorgen's syndrome. The mean age was 40 years old. The mean duration of the disease was 6 years. Nail unit changes were present in 27 patients (69%). The abnormalities observed were Longitidunal ridging in 11 patients, Peri ungueal erythema in 10 patients, Peri-ungual telangiectasia in 11 patients, Ragged cuticle in 10 patients fingertips scars in 9 patients, Increase of longitudinal curvature and beaking of the nail in 4 patients, Increase in transverse curvature in 4 patients, dyschromia of the proximal nail fold in 3 patients, Subungual hyperkeratosis in 3 patients, onycholysis in 2 patients, splinter haemorrhages in 3 patients, nail plate pigmentation in 2 patients, pseudoclubbing in 1 patient, macrolunula in 1 patients, Red lunulae in one patient, bluish-black discoloration of the nail plate in one patient. The proximal nailfold was found to be most sites affected. PMID:25419288

  19. Molecular mechanisms for uremic toxin-induced oxidative tissue damage via a cardiovascular-renal connection.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD), marked by a progressive loss in renal function, is a leading cause of hemodialysis initiation and cardiovascular disease (CVD). There are currently 13.3 million patients with CKD and 300 thousand patients are currently undergoing hemodialysis in Japan. Therefore, preventing the initiation of dialysis and reducing the risk of cardiovascular death are high-priority issues from the viewpoint of public health and economic implications. Understanding the molecular mechanism responsible for the progression of CKD and cardiovascular damage regarding crosstalk between the kidney and cardiovascular system is an important issue in controlling the pathogenesis of CKD-CVD. However, the mechanisms involved in CKD-CVD are not well understood. This hinders the development of new treatment strategies. We have been investigating the role of protein bound uremic toxins, that are difficult to remove by hemodialysis, on the onset and progression of CKD and CVD. The relationship between their redox properties and the pathogenesis of CKD-CVD was examined. In this review, we focus on two sulfate conjugated uremic toxins, namely, indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS), and summarize recent studies that provide new insights on the molecular mechanisms responsible for uremic toxin-induced oxidative tissue damage via a cardiovascular-renal connection. PMID:23903229

  20. Connective Tissue Mineralization in Abcc6?/? Mice, a Model for Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum

    PubMed Central

    Kavukcuoglu, N. Beril; Li, Qiaoli; Pleshko, Nancy; Uitto, Jouni

    2012-01-01

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a heritable multisystem disorder characterized by ectopic mineralization. However, the structure of the mineral deposits, their interactions with the connective tissue matrix, and the details of the progressive maturation of the mineral crystals are currently unknown. In this study, we examined the mineralization processes in Abcc6?/? mice, a model system for PXE, by energy dispersive X-ray, and Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS). The results indicated that the principal components of the mineral deposits were calcium and phosphate which co-localized within the histologically demonstrable lesions determined by topographic mapping. The Ca/P ratio increased in samples with progressive mineralization reaching the value comparable to that in endochondral bone. A progressive increase in mineralization was also reflected by increased mineral-to-matrix ratio determined by FT-IRIS. Determination of the mineral phases by FT-IRIS suggested progressive maturation of the mineral deposits from amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite. These results provide critical information of the mechanisms of mineralization in PXE, with potential pharmacologic implications. PMID:22421595

  1. The Effect of Displacement on the Mechanical Properties of Human Cadaver Subsynovial Connective Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Vanhees, Matthias; Morizaki, Yutaka; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Larson, Dirk; Zhao, Chunfeng; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    The subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) in the carpal tunnel may participate in the origin of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), yet material properties of the SSCT have not been well-characterized. We investigated the response of the SSCT to repeated ramp stretch tests. Eight human cadaver wrists were used. The physiological excursion of the flexor digitorum superficialis of the third digit (FDS 3) was measured, starting from a neutral position to maximal flexion of the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints. The FDS 3 tendon was pulled to 40, 60, 90, and 120% of the physiological excursion. Two ‘ramp stretch’ cycles were performed at every excursion level, except for 120% of excursion, where 3 cycles were performed. The ratio of energy absorbed between the second (E2) and first (E1) ramp-stretch was 0.94 (Std. Dev. = 0.07) for 60%, 0.84 (Std. Dev. = 0.11) for 90%, and 0.68 (Std. Dev. = 0.11) for 120% of the physiological excursion. A significant decrease occurred in energy absorbed after the first ramp-stretch cycle at 90% and 120% of the physiological excursion, which was not seen at 60%. Our data are consistent with a stepwise damage occurring in the SSCT. Furthermore, the damage seems to initiate within the physiological range of tendon excursion. This finding may be important in understanding the pathophysiology of conditions that are associated with SSCT pathology, such as carpal tunnel syndrome. PMID:22573580

  2. Leaky gut and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Fasano, Alessio

    2012-02-01

    Autoimmune diseases are characterized by tissue damage and loss of function due to an immune response that is directed against specific organs. This review is focused on the role of impaired intestinal barrier function on autoimmune pathogenesis. Together with the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and the neuroendocrine network, the intestinal epithelial barrier, with its intercellular tight junctions, controls the equilibrium between tolerance and immunity to non-self antigens. Zonulin is the only physiologic modulator of intercellular tight junctions described so far that is involved in trafficking of macromolecules and, therefore, in tolerance/immune response balance. When the zonulin pathway is deregulated in genetically susceptible individuals, autoimmune disorders can occur. This new paradigm subverts traditional theories underlying the development of these diseases and suggests that these processes can be arrested if the interplay between genes and environmental triggers is prevented by re-establishing the zonulin-dependent intestinal barrier function. Both animal models and recent clinical evidence support this new paradigm and provide the rationale for innovative approaches to prevent and treat autoimmune diseases. PMID:22109896

  3. New coupled-particle light-scattering assay for detection of Ro/SSA (52 and 60 kilodaltons) and La/SSB autoantibodies in connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Bizzaro, N; Bonelli, F; Tonutti, E; Tozzoli, R; Villalta, D

    2001-09-01

    The diagnostic and analytical performance of the coupled-particle light-scattering assay in detecting anti-Ro/SSA autoantibodies (the 60-kDa [Ro60] and the 52-kDa [Ro52] antibodies) and anti-La/SSB autoantibodies was evaluated. The antigens were obtained by recombinant DNA procedures to include the most immunogenic epitopes for each protein by using a prokaryotic expression system. Serum samples from 151 patients with connective tissue diseases and 52 control subjects (including patients with viral infections, patients with Lyme disease, and healthy subjects) were studied. Sensitivities for detection of anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB were 88.2 and 95.2%, respectively; specificities were 97.6 and 98.1%, respectively. The intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) ranged from 4.3 to 10.9% for anti-Ro/SSA and from 2.8 to 12.5% for anti-La/SSB; interassay CVs ranged from 6.5 to 13.2% and from 8.2 to 14.5%, respectively. Among the anti-Ro/SSA-positive samples, Ro60 was recognized by 66% of the test sera and Ro52 was recognized by 95% of the test sera. Thirty-four percent of the Ro/SSA-positive sera were reactive only with the Ro52 antigen, indicating that anti-Ro52 is the most common antibody specificity recognized by anti-Ro/SSA autoantibodies. No differences were found between the prevalences of anti-Ro60 and anti-Ro52 in relation to systemic lupus erythematosus or Sjögren's syndrome. The results of the present study indicate that this new immunoassay is an efficient diagnostic tool for the detection of anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB antibodies in patients with autoimmune disorders. PMID:11527804

  4. Methotrexate inhibits neutrophil function by stimulating adenosine release from connective tissue cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cronstein, B N; Eberle, M A; Gruber, H E; Levin, R I

    1991-01-01

    Although commonly used to control a variety of inflammatory diseases, the mechanism of action of a low dose of methotrexate remains a mystery. Methotrexate accumulates intracellularly where it may interfere with purine metabolism. Therefore, we determined whether a 48-hr pretreatment with methotrexate affected adenosine release from [14C]adenine-labeled human fibroblasts and umbilical vein endothelial cells. Methotrexate significantly increased adenosine release by fibroblasts from 4 +/- 1% to 31 +/- 6% of total purine released (EC50, 1 nM) and by endothelial cells from 24 +/- 4% to 42 +/- 7%. Methotrexate-enhanced adenosine release from fibroblasts was further increased to 51 +/- 4% (EC50, 6 nM) and from endothelial cells was increased to 58 +/- 5% of total purine released by exposure to stimulated (fMet-Leu-Phe at 0.1 microM) neutrophils. The effect of methotrexate on adenosine release was not due to cytotoxicity since cells treated with maximal concentrations of methotrexate took up [14C]adenine and released 14C-labeled purine (a measure of cell injury) in a manner identical to control cells. Methotrexate treatment of fibroblasts dramatically inhibited adherence to fibroblasts by both unstimulated neutrophils (IC50, 9 nM) and stimulated neutrophils (IC50, 13 nM). Methotrexate treatment inhibited neutrophil adherence by enhancing adenosine release from fibroblasts since digestion of extracellular adenosine by added adenosine deaminase completely abrogated the effect of methotrexate on neutrophil adherence without, itself, affecting adherence. One hypothesis that explains the effect of methotrexate on adenosine release is that, by inhibition of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) transformylase, methotrexate induces the accumulation of AICAR, the nucleoside precursor of which (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside referred to hereafter as acadesine) has previously been shown to cause adenosine release from ischemic cardiac tissue. We found that acadesine also promotes adenosine release from and inhibits neutrophil adherence to connective tissue cells. The observation that the antiinflammatory actions of methotrexate are due to the capacity of methotrexate to induce adenosine release may form the basis for the development of an additional class of antiinflammatory drugs. PMID:2006182

  5. Anetoderma: Is It a Sign of Autoimmunity?

    PubMed Central

    Al Buainain, Hessa; Allam, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Anetoderma is a rare elastolytic disorder characterized by circumscribed areas of flaccid skin due to the loss of elastic tissue in the dermis. Primary anetoderma is frequently observed in patients with autoimmune diseases or abnormalities especially with antiphospholipid antibodies with or without antiphospholipid syndrome. In this case report we discuss a patient with primary anetoderma with positive antithyroid peroxidase antibodies, which is consistent with autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:20652064

  6. Autophagy in autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Goronzy, Jörg J; Weyand, Cornelia M

    2015-07-01

    Autophagy is a protective and life-sustaining process in which cytoplasmic components are packaged into double-membrane vesicles and targeted to lysosomes for degradation. This process of cellular self-digestion is an essential stress response and is cytoprotective by removing damaged organelles and proteins that threaten the cell's survival. Key outcomes include energy generation and recycling of metabolic precursors. In the immune system, autophagy regulates processes such as antigen uptake and presentation, removal of pathogens, survival of short- and long-lived immune cells, and cytokine-dependent inflammation. In all cases, a window of optimal autophagic activity appears critical to balance catabolic, reparative, and inflammation-inducing processes. Dysregulation of autophagosome formation and autophagic flux can have deleterious consequences, ranging from a failure to "clean house" to the induction of autophagy-induced cell death. Abnormalities in the autophagic pathway have been implicated in numerous autoimmune diseases. Genome-wide association studies have linked polymorphisms in autophagy-related genes with predisposition for tissue-destructive inflammatory disease, specifically in inflammatory bowel disease and systemic lupus erythematosus. Although the precise mechanisms by which dysfunctional autophagy renders the host susceptible to continuous inflammation remain unclear, autophagy's role in regulating the long-term survival of adaptive immune cells has recently surfaced as a defect in multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Efforts are underway to identify autophagy-inducing and autophagy-suppressing pharmacologic interventions that can be added to immunosuppressive therapy to improve outcomes of patients with autoimmune disease. PMID:26054920

  7. Screening and Diagnostic Modalities for Connective Tissue Dieases-Associated Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gladue, Heather; Altorok, Nezam; Townsend, Whitney; McLaughlin, Vallerie; Khanna, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Objective Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a frequent complication in connective tissue diseases (CTD), especially in systemic sclerosis (SSc), and is associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. We undertook a systematic review for the screening tests for CTD-PAH. Methods A systematic literature search of PAH in CTD was performed in available databases through June 2012. Our evaluation of diagnostic tests was focused on patients with PAH confirmed by right heart catheterization (RHC). Results The search resulted in 2805 titles and 838 abstracts. Our final inclusion encompassed 21 manuscripts – 6 of which were case control studies and 15 were cohort studies. Twelve studies assessed the tricuspid regurgitation velocity (VTR) or equivalent right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) using transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) as a threshold for RHC in patients suspected as having PAH. The screening threshold for RHC was VTR from >2.73 to >3.16 m/s without symptoms or 2.5 to 3.0 m/s with symptoms and resulted in 20–67% of patients having RHC proven PAH. Three studies looked at pulmonary function tests and found that a low lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) (45–70% of predicted) is associated with a 5.6–7.4% development of PAH, and a decline in DLCO% is associated with an increase in the specificity (for DLCO?60% spec= 45%, and for DLCO?50% spec=90%) for PAH. Five studies assessed N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-ProBNP) where a cut-off >239pg/ml has a sensitivity of 90–100%. Conclusions Our systematic review revealed that most evidence exists for TTE, pulmonary function tests, and NT-ProBNP for screening and diagnosis of SSc-PAH, however more robust studies are needed. PMID:24012044

  8. [Three dimensional structure of the connective tissue papillae of the tongue in Suncus murinus].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, K; Miyata, K; Iwasaki, S; Takahashi, K

    1989-08-01

    The surface structure of the connective tissue papillae (CP) of Suncus murinus tongue was observed by SEM after fixing with Karnovsky's fixative and removal of the epithelial cell layer with 3N or 8N HCl. On the surface of the slender conical tongue, there are densely distributed filiform papillae among which fungiform papillae are seen sporadically. A pair of vallate papillae are situated in the posterior region of the tongue. Filiform papillae appear somewhat different externally depending on the dorsal surface of the anterior tongue. At the tip of the tongue, filiform papillae are of a slender conical shape and have a slight depression in the anterior basal portion. The CP of these is seen as a spherical protrusion on which a shallow groove runs in the anteroposterior direction. In the middle region, somewhat large filiform papillae contain CP having one or two small round head-like structures on each spherical protrusion. These head-like structures are increased in number in the posterior region. In the most posterior region of the anterior tongue, there are distributed large filiform papillae having several slender protrusions that surround a basal anterior depression. These large branched filiform papillae have a glove finger like CP. Small conical filiform papillae are distributed in the posterior marginal region of the anterior tongue which have CP of a horse-shoe like protrusion that opens in the anterior direction. Spherical fungiform papillae have CP which are thick columnar in shape with many lateral thin folds running vertically and having a round depression on the top of each. CP of the vallate papillae appear as a beehive like structure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2519278

  9. The regulation of connective tissue growth factor expression influences the viability of human trabecular meshwork cells.

    PubMed

    Kuespert, Sabrina; Junglas, Benjamin; Braunger, Barbara M; Tamm, Ernst R; Fuchshofer, Rudolf

    2015-05-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) induces extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and contractility in human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells. Both processes are involved in the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma. To date, little is known about regulation and function of CTGF expression in the trabecular meshwork (TM). Therefore, we analysed the effects of different aqueous humour proteins and stressors on CTGF expression in HTM cells. HTM cells from three different donors were treated with endothelin-1, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, angiotensin-II, H2 O2 and heat shock and were analysed by immunohistochemistry, real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Viability after H2 O2 treatment was measured in CTGF silenced HTM-N cells and their controls. Latrunculin A reduced expression of CTGF by about 50% compared to untreated HTM cells, whereas endothelin-1, IGF-1, angiotensin-II, heat shock and oxidative stress led to a significant increase. Silencing of CTGF resulted in a delayed expression of ?B-crystallin and in reduced cell viability in comparison to the controls after oxidative stress. Conversely, CTGF treatment led to a higher cell viability rate after H2 O2 treatment. CTGF expression is induced by factors that have been linked to glaucoma. An increased level of CTGF appears to protect TM cells against damage induced by stress. The beneficial effect of CTGF for viability of TM cells is likely associated with the effects on increased ECM synthesis and higher contractility of the TM, thereby contributing to reduced aqueous humour outflow facility causing increased intraocular pressure. PMID:25704370

  10. Perspectives on autoimmunity

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, I.R.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: HLA and Autoimmunity; Self-Recognition and Symmetry in the Immune System; Immunology of Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus; Multiple Sclerosis; Autoimmunity and Immune Pathological Aspects of Virus Disease; Analyses of the Idiotypes and Ligand Binding Characteristics of Human Monoclonal Autoantibodies to DNA: Do We Understand Better Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Autoimmunity and Rheumatic Fever; Autoimmune Arthritis Induced by Immunization to Mycobacterial Antigens; and The Interaction Between Genetic Factors and Micro-Organisms in Ankylosing Spondylitis: Facts and Fiction.

  11. Fatal cardiac arrest in an adult patient with euthyroid anti-SSA\\/Ro-positive connective tissue disease: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele Adami; Michele Nardin; Enrico Morello; Claudio Crivellaro; Christian J Wiedermann

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Until recently, anti-SSA\\/Ro antibodies were not considered pathogenic for severe heart disease in adults. Prolongation of the mean QTc interval in electrocardiograms of adult patients with anti-SSA\\/Ro-positive connective tissue disease has been reported and could contribute to complex arrhythmias in such patients. Furthermore, complete heart block may also be related to these autoantibodies. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the occurrence

  12. Reduced Expression of Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF\\/CCN2) Mediates Collagen Loss in Chronologically Aged Human Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TaiHao Quan; Yuan Shao; Tianyuan He; John J Voorhees; Gary J Fisher

    2010-01-01

    Reduced production of type I procollagen is a prominent feature of chronologically aged human skin. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF\\/CCN2), a downstream target of the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?)\\/Smad pathway, is highly expressed in numerous fibrotic disorders, in which it is believed to stimulate excessive collagen production. CTGF is constitutively expressed in normal human dermis in vivo, suggesting that CTGF

  13. Regulation of angiogenesis and endothelial cell function by connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and cysteine-rich 61 (CYR61)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Brigstock

    2002-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and cysteine-rich 61 (CYR61) are prototypical members of the CCN family which also contains nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV) and Wnt-induced secreted proteins-1, -2 and -3 (WISP-1, -2, -3). These proteins function as extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated signaling molecules that contain structural modules allowing them to bind directly with other moieties in the pericellular environment. Although multiple target

  14. Coordination between catch connective tissue and muscles through nerves in the spine joint of the sea urchin Diadema setosum.

    PubMed

    Motokawa, Tatsuo; Fuchigami, Yoshiro

    2015-03-01

    Echinoderms have catch connective tissues that change their stiffness as a result of nervous control. The coordination between catch connective tissue and muscles was studied in the spine joint of the sea urchin Diadema setosum. Spine joints are equipped with two kinds of effector: spine muscles and a kind of catch connective tissue, which is called the catch apparatus (CA). The former is responsible for spine movements and the latter for maintenance of spine posture. Diadema show a shadow reaction in which they wave spines when a shadow falls on them, which is a reflex involving the radial nerves. Dynamic mechanical tests were performed on the CA in a joint at which the muscles were severed so as not to interfere with the mechanical measurements. The joint was on a piece of the test that contained other spines and a radial nerve. Darkening of the preparation invoked softening of the CA and spine waving (the shadow reaction). Electrical stimulation of the radial nerve invoked a similar response. These responses were abolished after the nerve pathways from the radial nerve to spines had been cut. A touch applied to the CA stiffened it and the adjacent spines inclined toward the touched CA. A touch to the base of the adjacent spine softened the CA and the spines around the touched spine inclined towards it. The softening of the CA can be interpreted as a response that reduces the resistance of the ligaments to spine movements. Our results clearly show coordination between catch connective tissue and muscles through nerves. PMID:25740901

  15. Quantification of immature and mature collagen crosslinks by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in connective tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Gineyts; O. Borel; R. Chapurlat; P. Garnero

    2010-01-01

    We describe a novel high performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-MS) method for the simultaneous quantification of enzymatic immature (dihydroxylysinonorleucine DHLNL, hydroxylysinonorleucine HLNL) and mature (pyridinoline PYD, deoxypyridinoline DPD) collagen crosslinks in connective tissues. The crosslinks were separated on a C18 Atlantis® T3 reversed-phase column with heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA) as volatile ion-pairing reagent in an acetonitrile–water mobile phase. Detection

  16. UVA/UVA1 phototherapy and PUVA photochemotherapy in connective tissue diseases and related disorders: a research based review

    PubMed Central

    Breuckmann, Frank; Gambichler, Thilo; Altmeyer, Peter; Kreuter, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Background Broad-band UVA, long-wave UVA1 and PUVA treatment have been described as an alternative/adjunct therapeutic option in a number of inflammatory and malignant skin diseases. Nevertheless, controlled studies investigating the efficacy of UVA irradiation in connective tissue diseases and related disorders are rare. Methods Searching the PubMed database the current article systematically reviews established and innovative therapeutic approaches of broad-band UVA irradiation, UVA1 phototherapy and PUVA photochemotherapy in a variety of different connective tissue disorders. Results Potential pathways include immunomodulation of inflammation, induction of collagenases and initiation of apoptosis. Even though holding the risk of carcinogenesis, photoaging or UV-induced exacerbation, UVA phototherapy seems to exhibit a tolerable risk/benefit ratio at least in systemic sclerosis, localized scleroderma, extragenital lichen sclerosus et atrophicus, sclerodermoid graft-versus-host disease, lupus erythematosus and a number of sclerotic rarities. Conclusions Based on the data retrieved from the literature, therapeutic UVA exposure seems to be effective in connective tissue diseases and related disorders. However, more controlled investigations are needed in order to establish a clear-cut catalogue of indications. PMID:15380024

  17. Frequency of Autoantibodies and Connective Tissue Diseases in Chinese Patients with Optic Neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Zuohuizi; Huang, Dehui; Wei, Shihui

    2014-01-01

    Background Optic neuritis (ON) is often associated with other clinical or serological markers of connective tissue diseases (CTDs). To date, the effects of autoantibodies on ON are not clear. Purpose To assess the prevalence, clinical patterns, and short outcomes of autoantibodies and Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) involvement in Chinese ON patients and evaluate the relationship between ON, including their subtypes, and autoantibodies. Methods A total of 190 ON patients were divided into recurrent ON (RON), bilateral ON (BON), and isolated monocular ON (ION). Demographic, clinical, and serum autoantibodies data were compared between them with and without SS involvement. Serum was drawn for antinuclear antibody (ANA), extractable nuclear antigen antibodies (SSA/SSB), rheumatoid factor (RF), anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA), and anti-double-stranded DNA antibody (A-ds DNA), anticardiolipin antibody (ACLs), anti-?2-glycoprotein I (?2-GPI) and Aquaporin-4 antibodies (AQP4-Ab). Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was used to evaluate the atrophy of the optic nerve. Results 68 patients (35.79%) had abnormal autoantibodies, 26(13.68%) patients met diagnostic criteria for CTDs, including 15(7.89%) patients meeting the criteria for SS. Antibodies including SSA/SSB 23 (30.26%) (p1 and p 2<0.001) and AQP4–Ab10 (13.16%) (p1?=?0.044, p2?=?0.01) were significantly different in patients in the RON group when compared with those in the BON (P1?=?RON VS ION) and ION (p2?=?RON VS ION) groups. SS was more common in RON patients (p1?=?0.04, p2?=?0.028). There was no significant difference between SSA/SSB positive and negative patients in disease characteristics or severity. Similar results were obtained when SS was diagnosed in SSA/SSB positive patients. Conclusion RON and BON were more likely associated with abnormal autoantibodies; furthermore, AQP4 antibody, SSA/SSB and SS were more common in the RON patients. AQP4 antibodydetermination is crucial in RON patients who will develop NMO. However, when compared with other autoantibodies, SSA/SSB detected in patients was not significantly associated with disease characteristics or severity. PMID:24950188

  18. Optimum scratch assay condition to evaluate connective tissue growth factor expression for anti-scar therapy.

    PubMed

    Moon, Heekyung; Yong, Hyeyoung; Lee, Ae-Ri Cho

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate a potential anti-scar therapy, we first need to have a reliable in vitro wound model to understand dermal fibroblast response upon cell injury and how cytokine levels are changed upon different wound heal phases. An in vitro wound model with different scratch assay conditions on primary human foreskin fibroblast monolayer cultures was prepared and cytokine levels and growth properties were evaluated with the aim of determining optimum injury conditions and observation time. Morphological characteristics of differently scratched fibroblasts from 0 to 36 h post injury (1 line, 2 lines and 3 lines) were investigated. The expression of connective tissue growth factor, CTGF, which is a key mediator in hyper-tropic scarring, and relative intensity of CTGF as a function of time were determined by western blot and gelatin Zymography. After injury (1 line), CTGF level was increased more than 2-fold within 1 h and continuously increased up to 3-fold at 6 h and was leveled down to reach normal value at 36 h, at which cell migration was complete. In more serious injury (2 lines), higher expression of CTGF was observed. The down regulation of CTGF expression after CTGF siRNA/lipofectamine transfection in control, 1 line and 2 lines scratch conditions were 40%, 75% and 55%, respectively. As a model anti-CTGF based therapy, CTGF siRNA with different ratios of linear polyethyleneimine (PEI) complexes (1:1, 1:5, 1:10, 1:20 and 1:30) were prepared and down-regulation efficacy of CTGF was evaluated with our optimized scratch assay, which is 1 line injury at 6 h post injury observation time. As the cationic linear PEI ratio increased, the down regulation efficacy was increased from 20% (1:20) to 55% (1:30). As CTGF level was increased to the highest at 6 h and leveled down afterwards, CTGF level at 6 h could provide the most sensitive response upon CTGF siRNA transfection. The scratch assay in the present study can be employed as a useful experimental tool to differentiate between anti-scar therapies for their down regulation efficacy of CTGF. PMID:22370794

  19. Cardiovascular Involvement in Connective Tissue Disease: The Role of Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, XiaoBing; Lou, MeiNa; Li, Yongji; Ye, WenJing; Zhang, ZhiYong; Jia, Xiufen; Shi, HongYing; Zhu, XiaoChun; Wang, LiangXing

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess cardiovascular involvement in patients with connective tissue disease (CTD), and determine whether interstitial lung disease (ILD) in these patients is associated with elevated cardiovascular risk. Methods This study evaluated a retrospective cohort of 436 CTD patients admitted to a large teaching hospital in Zhejiang province, China, along with an additional 436 participants of an annual community health screening conducted in the physical examination center who served as age- and gender-matched controls. Demographic, clinical, serologic and imaging characteristics, as well as medications used by each participant were recorded. Cardiovascular involvement was defined by uniform criteria. Correlations between clinical/serologic factors and cardiovascular involvement were determined by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results CTD patients had a significantly higher cardiovascular involvement rate than controls (64.7% vs 23.4%), with higher rates of diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, elevated systolic and diastolic pressures, C-reactive protein, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and lower albumin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (all p < 0.05). Furthermore, CTP patients with cardiovascular involvement were significantly older, had higher systolic and diastolic pressures, C-reactive protein, glucose, and uric acid, higher rates of diabetes, hypertension, and use of moderate- to high-dose glucocorticoids, and longer disease duration compared to patients without involvement (all p < 0.05). Moreover, CTD in patients with cardiovascular involvement was more likely to be complicated by ILD (p < 0.01), which manifested as a higher alveolar inflammation score (p < 0.05). In the multivariate analysis, cardiovascular involvement in CTD patients was associated with age, systolic pressure, body mass index, uric acid, disease duration > 2 years, use of moderate- to high-dose glucocorticoids, and ILD with a high alveolar inflammation score. Conclusion Cardiovascular involvement is increased in CTD patients, and is associated with ILD with a higher alveolar inflammation score. Thus, early-stage echocardiography and CT scans should be used to detect potential cardiovascular complications in these patients. PMID:25775471

  20. Markers of Inflammation and Fibrosis in the Orbital Fat/Connective Tissue of Patients with Graves' Orbitopathy: Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Pawlowski, Przemyslaw; Eckstein, Anja; Johnson, Kristian; Chyczewski, Lech; Mysliwiec, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To assess FGF-?, TGF-?, and COX2 expression and immunocompetent cells in the orbital tissue of patients with severe and mild Graves' orbitopathy. Patients and Methods. Orbital tissue was taken from 27 patients with GO: (1) severe GO (n = 18), the mean clinical activity score (CAS) being 8.5 (SD 2.5); and (2) mild GO (n = 9), the mean CAS being 2.2 (SD 0.8), and from 10 individuals undergoing blepharoplasty. The expression of CD4+, CD8+, CD20+, and CD68 and FGF-?, TGF-?, and COX2 in the orbital tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemical methods. Results. We demonstrated predominant CD4+ T cells in severe GO. CD68 expression was observed in the fibrous connective area of mild GO and was robust in severe GO, while the prominent TGF-? expression was seen in all GO. Increased FGF-? expression was observed in the fibroblasts and adipocytes of severe GO. No expression of COX2 was found in patients with GO. Conclusions. Macrophages and CD4 T lymphocytes are both engaged in the active/severe and long stage of inflammation in the orbital tissue. FGF-? and TGF-? expression may contribute to tissue remodeling, fibrosis, and perpetuation of inflammation in the orbital tissue of GO especially in severe GO. PMID:25309050

  1. B-LINK: a hemicentin, plakin, and integrin-dependent adhesion system that links tissues by connecting adjacent basement membranes.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Meghan A; Keeley, Daniel P; Hagedorn, Elliott J; McClatchey, Shelly T H; Chi, Qiuyi; Hall, David H; Sherwood, David R

    2014-11-10

    Basement membrane (BM), a sheet-like form of extracellular matrix, surrounds most tissues. During organogenesis, specific adhesions between adjoining tissues frequently occur; however, their molecular basis is unclear. Using live-cell imaging and electron microscopy, we identify an adhesion system that connects the uterine and gonadal tissues through their juxtaposed BMs at the site of anchor cell (AC) invasion in C. elegans. We find that the extracellular matrix component hemicentin (HIM-4), found between BMs, forms punctate accumulations under the AC and controls BM linkage to promote rapid invasion. Through targeted screening, we identify the integrin-binding cytolinker plakin (VAB-10A) and integrin (INA-1/PAT-3) as key BM-BM linkage regulators: VAB-10A localizes to the AC-BM interface and tethers hemicentin to the AC while integrin promotes hemicentin punctae formation. Together, plakin, integrin, and hemicentin are founding components of a cell-directed adhesion system, which we name a BM-LINKage (B-LINK), that connects adjacent tissues through adjoining BMs. PMID:25443298

  2. Gastrointestinal Manifestations in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    COJOCARU, M.; COJOCARU, Inimioara Mihaela; SILOSI, Isabela; VRABIE, Camelia Doina

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT In an autoimmune disease, the immune system attacks and harms the body's own tissues. The systemic autoimmune diseases include collagen vascular diseases, the systemic vasculitides, Wegener granulomatosis, and Churg-Strauss syndrome. These disorders can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract, hepatobiliary system and pancreas. They can cause a variety of gastrointestinal manifestations that are influenced by the pathophysiologic characteristics of the underlying disease process. There is a wide variation of gastrointestinal manifestations from these autoimmune disorders including, but not limited to: oral ulcers, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, fecal incontinence, pseudo-obstruction, perforation and gastrointestinal bleeding. Clinical workup should be initiated by the patient's subjective complaints. In this review, we analyze the effects of autoimmune diseases on the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21977190

  3. Comparison of ADM and Connective Tissue Graft as the Membrane in Class II Furcation Defect Regeneration: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Esfahanian, Vahid; Farhad, Shirin; Sadighi Shamami, Mehrnaz

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Furcally-involved teeth present unique challenges to the success of periodontal therapy and influence treatment outcomes. This study aimed to assess to compare use of ADM and connective tissue membrane in class II furcation defect regeneration. Materials and methods. 10 patient with 2 bilaterally class II furcation defects in first and/or second maxilla or man-dibular molar without interproximal furcation involvement, were selected. Four weeks after initial phase of treatment, before and thorough the surgery pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment level to stent (CAL-S), free gingival margin to stent(FGM-S) , crestal bone to stent (Crest-S), horizontal defect depth to stent (HDD-S) and vertical defect depth to stent (VDD-S) and crestal bone to defect depth measured from stent margin. Thereafter, one side randomly treated using connective tissue and DFDBA (study group) and opposite side received ADM and DFDBA (control group). After 6 months, soft and hard tissue parameters measured again in re-entry. Results. Both groups presented improvements after therapies (P & 0.05). No inter-group differences were seen in PD re-duction (P = 0.275), CAL gain (P = 0.156), free gingival margin (P = 0.146), crest of the bone (P = 0.248), reduction in horizontal defects depth (P = 0.139) and reduction in vertical defects depth (P = 0.149). Conclusion. Both treatments modalities have potential of regeneration without any adverse effect on healing process. Connective tissue grafts did not have significant higher bone fill compared to that of ADM. PMID:25093054

  4. Comparison of ADM and Connective Tissue Graft as the Membrane in Class II Furcation Defect Regeneration: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Esfahanian, Vahid; Farhad, Shirin; Sadighi Shamami, Mehrnaz

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Furcally-involved teeth present unique challenges to the success of periodontal therapy and influence treatment outcomes. This study aimed to assess to compare use of ADM and connective tissue membrane in class II furcation defect regeneration. Materials and methods. 10 patient with 2 bilaterally class II furcation defects in first and/or second maxilla or man-dibular molar without interproximal furcation involvement, were selected. Four weeks after initial phase of treatment, before and thorough the surgery pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment level to stent (CAL-S), free gingival margin to stent(FGM-S) , crestal bone to stent (Crest-S), horizontal defect depth to stent (HDD-S) and vertical defect depth to stent (VDD-S) and crestal bone to defect depth measured from stent margin. Thereafter, one side randomly treated using connective tissue and DFDBA (study group) and opposite side received ADM and DFDBA (control group). After 6 months, soft and hard tissue parameters measured again in re-entry. Results. Both groups presented improvements after therapies (P & 0.05). No inter-group differences were seen in PD re-duction (P = 0.275), CAL gain (P = 0.156), free gingival margin (P = 0.146), crest of the bone (P = 0.248), reduction in horizontal defects depth (P = 0.139) and reduction in vertical defects depth (P = 0.149). Conclusion. Both treatments modalities have potential of regeneration without any adverse effect on healing process. Connective tissue grafts did not have significant higher bone fill compared to that of ADM. PMID:25093054

  5. Autoimmunity, Not a Developmental Defect, is the Cause for Subfertility of Autoimmune Regulator (Aire) Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Kekäläinen, E; Pöntynen, N; Meri, S; Arstila, T P; Jarva, H

    2015-05-01

    Autoimmune regulator's (AIRE) best characterized role is in the generation immunological tolerance, but it is also involved in many other processes such as spermatogenesis. Loss-of-function mutations in AIRE cause a disease called autoimmune polyendocrinopathy, candidiasis and ectodermal dystrophy (APECED; also called autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1, APS-1) that is dominated by various autoimmune manifestations, mainly endocrinopathies. Both patients with APECED and Aire(-/-) mice suffer from varying levels of infertility, but it is not clear if it is a result of an autoimmune tissue damage or more of a developmental defect. In this study, we wanted to resolve whether or not the reduced fertility of Aire(-/-) mice is dependent on the adaptive immune system and therefore a manifestation of autoimmunity in these mice. We generated lymphopenic mice without Aire expression that were devoid of the autoimmune manifestations previously reported in immunocompetent Aire(-/-) mice. These Aire(-/-) Rag1(-/-) mice regained full fertility. This confirms that the development of infertility in Aire(-/-) mice requires a functional adaptive immune system. We also show that only the male Aire(-/-) mice are subfertile, whereas Aire(-/-) females produce litters normally. Moreover, the male subfertility can be adoptively transferred with lymphocytes from Aire(-/-) donor mice to previously fertile lymphopenic Aire(-/-) recipients. Our data show that subfertility in Aire(-/-) mice is dependent on a functional adaptive immune system thus confirming its autoimmune aetiology. PMID:25689230

  6. Practical Modeling Concepts for Connective Tissue Stem Cell and Progenitor Compartment Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Stem cell activation and development is central to skeletal development, maintenance, and repair, as it is for all tissues. However, an integrated model of stem cell proliferation, differentiation, and transit between functional compartments has yet to evolve. In this paper, the authors review current concepts in stem cell biology and progenitor cell growth and differentiation kinetics in the context of bone formation. A cell-based modeling strategy is developed and offered as a tool for conceptual and quantitative exploration of the key kinetic variables and possible organizational hierarchies in bone tissue development and remodeling, as well as in tissue engineering strategies for bone repair. PMID:12975533

  7. Vaccination and Autoimmunity—‘vaccinosis’: A Dangerous Liaison?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shoenfeld Y; Aron-Maor A

    2000-01-01

    The question of a connection between vaccination and autoimmune illness (or phenomena) is surrounded by controversy. A heated debate is going on regarding the causality between vaccines, such as measles and anti-hepatits B virus (HBV), and multiple sclerosis (MS). Brain antibodies as well as clinical symptoms have been found in patients vaccinated against those diseases. Other autoimmune illnesses have been

  8. On the connection between autoimmunity, tic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders: a meta-analysis on anti-streptolysin O titres.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Marco; Pellegrino, Paolo; Carnovale, Carla; Perrone, Valentina; Antoniazzi, Stefania; Perrotta, Cristiana; Radice, Sonia; Clementi, Emilio

    2014-12-01

    Anti-streptolysin O (ASO) titration is useful in the context of autoimmune pathologies, including specific cases of tic and obsessive-compulsive disorders occurring after streptococcal infections. There is currently a lack of consensus on the use of ASO titres; therefore we performed a meta-analysis to systematise available data and clarify the role of ASO titres in the context of neuropsychiatric disorders. A meta-analysis was performed on ASO titration in neuropsychiatric patients, including tic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Included studies reported numbers of positive subjects, depending on a chosen threshold, or detailed ASO titrations. Three hundred and twenty nine studies were identified, of which 13 were eligible for meta-analysis. Due to limited available data, only tic disorders were evaluated. The odds ratio of finding an abnormal ASO titre in patients was 3.22 (95% C.I. 1.51-6.88) as compared to healthy controls and 16.14 (95% C.I. 8.11-32.11) as compared to non-psychiatric patients. Studies using different thresholds were generally concordant. ASO titres were also compared quantitatively, finding an overall difference of the means of 70.50 U/ml (95% C.I. 25.21-115.80) in favour of patients with tic disorders. Based on current evidence, tic disorders are associated with a significant increase in ASO titres, evident both in a threshold-level perspective and on a quantitative level. These results encourage the systematisation of ASO titration in the context of tic disorders. PMID:25091468

  9. Analytical and numerical analyses of the micromechanics of soft fibrous connective tissues

    E-print Network

    Gal deBotton; Tal Oren

    2012-01-02

    State of the art research and treatment of biological tissues require accurate and efficient methods for describing their mechanical properties. Indeed, micromechanics motivated approaches provide a systematic method for elevating relevant data from the microscopic level to the macroscopic one. In this work the mechanical responses of hyperelastic tissues with one and two families of collagen fibers are analyzed by application of a new variational estimate accounting for their histology and the behaviors of their constituents. The resulting, close form expressions, are used to determine the overall response of the wall of a healthy human coronary artery. To demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method these predictions are compared with corresponding 3-D finite element simulations of a periodic unit cell of the tissue with two families of fibers. Throughout, the analytical predictions for the highly nonlinear and anisotropic tissue are in agreement with the numerical simulations.

  10. Autoimmune diseases and autoimmunity post-bone marrow transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Sherer; Y Shoenfeld

    1998-01-01

    BMT can both transmit and eliminate autoimmune diseases, and hence it has been suggested as an optional treatment for severe autoimmune conditions. In this communication we deal with the question of whether chronic GVHD is an autoimmune disease in itself, review the literature reports of autoimmune diseases following BMT in humans, and describe the autoimmune nature of the post-BMT state.

  11. Expression of smooth muscle actin in connective tissue cells participating in fracture healing in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Kinner, B; Gerstenfeld, L C; Einhorn, T A; Spector, M

    2002-05-01

    The role of alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-expressing fibroblasts in the contraction of skin wounds has been known for three decades. Recent studies have demonstrated that osteoblasts can also express the gene for this contractile muscle actin isoform and can contract a collagen-glycosaminoglycan analog of extracellular matrix in vitro. These findings provided rationale for the hypothesis that SMA-expressing cells contribute to fracture healing by drawing the bone ends together. To begin to test this hypothesis, immunohistochemistry was employed to evaluate the distribution of connective tissue cells expressing SMA in a mouse model of successful fracture healing. The results demonstrated that the majority of the cells comprising the mesenchymal tissue interposed between the fracture ends contained SMA after 7 and 21 days, supporting the working hypothesis. Most of the osteoblasts lining the surfaces of newly forming bone and the chondrocytes comprising the cartilaginous callus also expressed this contractile actin isoform. The maximal SMA expression extended from 7 to 21 days postfracture. The finding of high levels of SMA expression in connective tissue cells participating in fracture healing suggests that SMA-enabled contraction may be playing a role in the healing process. These results warrant further study of the specific SMA-dependent cell behavior. PMID:11996913

  12. The saddle connective tissue graft: a periodontal plastic surgery technique to obtain soft tissue coronal gain on immediate implants. A case report.

    PubMed

    González, David; Cabello, Gustavo; Olmos, Gema; Niñoles, Carlos L

    2015-01-01

    Based on recent studies regarding the advantages of flapless immediate implants on the maintenance of the soft tissue architecture (especially at papillae level) in those situations where it is necessary to extract an anterior tooth, this case report describes a clinical procedure designed to replace a hopeless central incisor (2.1) showing root resorption adjacent to an implant-supported crown (1.1), whose gingival margin is 2 mm coronal regarding the hopeless tooth to be replaced. After the extraction of the hopeless tooth (2.1), a flapless immediate implant was placed. The implant-bone gap was then filled with bone substitute and a palatal connective tissue graft was placed ad modum saddle extending at buccal level from apical to the mucogingival line, sealing the socket and extending until 6 mm at palatal level ad modum saddle. This procedure allowed symmetry of the soft tissue margins between the two implants (1.1 and 2.1) to be obtained as well as the preservation of the inter-implant papillae (1.1). PMID:26171446

  13. Autoimmune diseases arise following a breakdown in the balance between autoregulatory immune pathways

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Autoimmune diseases arise following a breakdown in the balance between autoregulatory immune directed against antigens expressed by the host's own tissues. Over 80 diseases have been purported to have an autoimmune aetiology. Therefore, autoimmune-associated morbidity and mortality ranks third highest

  14. Connective Tissue Growth Factor Does Not Affect Transforming Growth Factor-Beta 1Induced Smad3 Phosphorylation and T Lymphocyte Proliferation Inhibition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kunzmann; A. Seher; B. W. Kramer; R. Schenk; N. Schütze; F. Jakob; W. Sebald; C. P. Speer

    2008-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-?1) is a key regulator of immune tolerance. TGF-?1 controls T lymphocte activation and is involved in the immunosuppressive function and generation of regulatory T lymphocytes. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has an essential role in the formation of connective tissue and blood vessels. CTGF expression is induced by TGF-?1 in several cell types and CTGF

  15. The effects of pH, NaCl and CaCl 2 on thermal denaturation characteristics of intramuscular connective tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Akta?

    2003-01-01

    The research was conducted with two different experiments on intramuscular connective tissue obtained from Longissimus dorsi muscle of 4-year-old beef carcasses. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to determine the denaturation onset temperature (To), denaturation peak temperature (Tp), and denaturation enthalpy (?HD) of intramuscular connective tissue. In the first experiment, equilibration of the collagen in citrate buffers in the pH

  16. Autoimmune effector memory T cells: the bad and the good.

    PubMed

    Devarajan, Priyadharshini; Chen, Zhibin

    2013-12-01

    Immunological memory is a hallmark of adaptive immunity, a defense mechanism endowed to vertebrates during evolution. However, an autoimmune pathogenic role of memory lymphocytes is also emerging with accumulating evidence, despite reasonable skepticism on their existence in a chronic setting of autoimmune damage. It is conceivable that autoimmune memory would be particularly harmful since memory cells would constantly "remember" and attack the body's healthy tissues. It is even more detrimental given the resistance of memory T cells to immunomodulatory therapies. In this review, we focus on self-antigen-reactive CD(+) effector memory T (TEM) cells, surveying the evidence for the role of the T(EM) compartment in autoimmune pathogenesis. We will also discuss the role of T(EM) cells in chronic and acute infectious disease settings and how they compare to their counterparts in autoimmune diseases. With their long-lasting potency, the autoimmune T(EM) cells could also play a critical role in anti-tumor immunity, which may be largely based on their reactivity to self-antigens. Therefore, although autoimmune T(EM) cells are "bad" due to their role in relentless perpetration of tissue damage in autoimmune disease settings, they are unlikely a by-product of industrial development along the modern surge of autoimmune disease prevalence. Rather, they may be a product of evolution for their "good" in clearing damaged host cells in chronic infections and malignant cells in cancer settings. PMID:24203440

  17. Connective tissue growth factor stimulates the proliferation, migration and differentiation of lung fibroblasts during paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    YANG, ZHIZHOU; SUN, ZHAORUI; LIU, HONGMEI; REN, YI; SHAO, DANBING; ZHANG, WEI; LIN, JINFENG; WOLFRAM, JOY; WANG, FENG; NIE, SHINAN

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that paraquat (PQ) poisoning can cause severe lung injury during the early stages of exposure, finally leading to irreversible pulmonary fibrosis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is an essential growth factor that is involved in tissue repair and pulmonary fibrogenesis. In the present study, the role of CTGF was examined in a rat model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by PQ poisoning. Histological examination revealed interstitial edema and extensive cellular thickening of interalveolar septa at the early stages of poisoning. At 2 weeks after PQ administration, lung tissue sections exhibited a marked thickening of the alveolar walls with an accumulation of interstitial cells with a fibroblastic appearance. Masson’s trichrome staining revealed a patchy distribution of collagen deposition, indicating pulmonary fibrogenesis. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining of tissue samples demonstrated that CTGF expression was significantly upregulated in the PQ-treated group. Similarly, PQ treatment of MRC-5 human lung fibroblast cells caused an increase in CTGF in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the addition of CTGF to MRC-5 cells triggered cellular proliferation and migration. In addition, CTGF induced the differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, as was evident from increased expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and collagen. These findings demonstrate that PQ causes increased CTGF expression, which triggers proliferation, migration and differentiation of lung fibroblasts. Therefore, CTGF may be important in PQ-induced pulmonary fibrogenesis, rendering this growth factor a potential pharmacological target for reducing lung injury. PMID:25815693

  18. Unusual Glycosaminoglycans from a Deep Sea Hydrothermal Bacterium Improve Fibrillar Collagen Structuring and Fibroblast Activities in Engineered Connective Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Senni, Karim; Gueniche, Farida; Changotade, Sylvie; Septier, Dominique; Sinquin, Corinne; Ratiskol, Jacqueline; Lutomski, Didier; Godeau, Gaston; Guezennec, Jean; Colliec-Jouault, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    Biopolymers produced by marine organisms can offer useful tools for regenerative medicine. Particularly, HE800 exopolysaccharide (HE800 EPS) secreted by a deep-sea hydrothermal bacterium displays an interesting glycosaminoglycan-like feature resembling hyaluronan. Previous studies demonstrated its effectiveness to enhance in vivo bone regeneration and to support osteoblastic cell metabolism in culture. Thus, in order to assess the usefulness of this high-molecular weight polymer in tissue engineering and tissue repair, in vitro reconstructed connective tissues containing HE800 EPS were performed. We showed that this polysaccharide promotes both collagen structuring and extracellular matrix settle by dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, from the native HE800 EPS, a low-molecular weight sulfated derivative (HE800 DROS) displaying chemical analogy with heparan-sulfate, was designed. Thus, it was demonstrated that HE800 DROS mimics some properties of heparan-sulfate, such as promotion of fibroblast proliferation and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) secretion. Therefore, we suggest that the HE800EPS family can be considered as an innovative biotechnological source of glycosaminoglycan-like compounds useful to design biomaterials and drugs for tissue engineering and repair. PMID:23612369

  19. Connective tissue growth factor stimulates the proliferation, migration and differentiation of lung fibroblasts during paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhizhou; Sun, Zhaorui; Liu, Hongmei; Ren, Yi; Shao, Danbing; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Jinfeng; Wolfram, Joy; Wang, Feng; Nie, Shinan

    2015-07-01

    It is well established that paraquat (PQ) poisoning can cause severe lung injury during the early stages of exposure, finally leading to irreversible pulmonary fibrosis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is an essential growth factor that is involved in tissue repair and pulmonary fibrogenesis. In the present study, the role of CTGF was examined in a rat model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by PQ poisoning. Histological examination revealed interstitial edema and extensive cellular thickening of interalveolar septa at the early stages of poisoning. At 2 weeks after PQ administration, lung tissue sections exhibited a marked thickening of the alveolar walls with an accumulation of interstitial cells with a fibroblastic appearance. Masson's trichrome staining revealed a patchy distribution of collagen deposition, indicating pulmonary fibrogenesis. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining of tissue samples demonstrated that CTGF expression was significantly upregulated in the PQ-treated group. Similarly, PQ treatment of MRC-5 human lung fibroblast cells caused an increase in CTGF in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the addition of CTGF to MRC-5 cells triggered cellular proliferation and migration. In addition, CTGF induced the differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, as was evident from increased expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and collagen. These findings demonstrate that PQ causes increased CTGF expression, which triggers proliferation, migration and differentiation of lung fibroblasts. Therefore, CTGF may be important in PQ-induced pulmonary fibrogenesis, rendering this growth factor a potential pharmacological target for reducing lung injury. PMID:25815693

  20. Softenin, a Novel Protein That Softens the Connective Tissue of Sea Cucumbers through Inhibiting Interaction between Collagen Fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Takehana, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Akira; Tamori, Masaki; Motokawa, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    The dermis in the holothurian body wall is a typical catch connective tissue or mutable collagenous tissue that shows rapid changes in stiffness. Some chemical factors that change the stiffness of the tissue were found in previous studies, but the molecular mechanisms of the changes are not yet fully understood. Detection of factors that change the stiffness by working directly on the extracellular matrix was vital to clarify the mechanisms of the change. We isolated from the body wall of the sea cucumber Stichopus chloronotus a novel protein, softenin, that softened the body-wall dermis. The apparent molecular mass was 20 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of 17 amino acids had low homology to that of known proteins. We performed sequential chemical and physical dissections of the dermis and tested the effects of softenin on each dissection stage by dynamic mechanical tests. Softenin softened Triton-treated dermis whose cells had been disrupted by detergent. The Triton-treated dermis was subjected to repetitive freeze-and-thawing to make Triton-Freeze-Thaw (TFT) dermis that was softer than the Triton-treated dermis, implying that some force-bearing structure had been disrupted by this treatment. TFT dermis was stiffened by tensilin, a stiffening protein of sea cucumbers. Softenin softened the tensilin-stiffened TFT dermis while it had no effect on the TFT dermis without tensilin treatment. We isolated collagen from the dermis. When tensilin was applied to the suspending solution of collagen fibrils, they made a large compact aggregate that was dissolved by the application of softenin or by repetitive freeze-and-thawing. These results strongly suggested that softenin decreased dermal stiffness through inhibiting cross-bridge formation between collagen fibrils; the formation was augmented by tensilin and the bridges were broken by the freeze-thaw treatment. Softenin is thus the first softener of catch connective tissue shown to work on the cross-bridges between extracellular materials. PMID:24454910

  1. Softenin, a novel protein that softens the connective tissue of sea cucumbers through inhibiting interaction between collagen fibrils.

    PubMed

    Takehana, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Akira; Tamori, Masaki; Motokawa, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    The dermis in the holothurian body wall is a typical catch connective tissue or mutable collagenous tissue that shows rapid changes in stiffness. Some chemical factors that change the stiffness of the tissue were found in previous studies, but the molecular mechanisms of the changes are not yet fully understood. Detection of factors that change the stiffness by working directly on the extracellular matrix was vital to clarify the mechanisms of the change. We isolated from the body wall of the sea cucumber Stichopus chloronotus a novel protein, softenin, that softened the body-wall dermis. The apparent molecular mass was 20 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of 17 amino acids had low homology to that of known proteins. We performed sequential chemical and physical dissections of the dermis and tested the effects of softenin on each dissection stage by dynamic mechanical tests. Softenin softened Triton-treated dermis whose cells had been disrupted by detergent. The Triton-treated dermis was subjected to repetitive freeze-and-thawing to make Triton-Freeze-Thaw (TFT) dermis that was softer than the Triton-treated dermis, implying that some force-bearing structure had been disrupted by this treatment. TFT dermis was stiffened by tensilin, a stiffening protein of sea cucumbers. Softenin softened the tensilin-stiffened TFT dermis while it had no effect on the TFT dermis without tensilin treatment. We isolated collagen from the dermis. When tensilin was applied to the suspending solution of collagen fibrils, they made a large compact aggregate that was dissolved by the application of softenin or by repetitive freeze-and-thawing. These results strongly suggested that softenin decreased dermal stiffness through inhibiting cross-bridge formation between collagen fibrils; the formation was augmented by tensilin and the bridges were broken by the freeze-thaw treatment. Softenin is thus the first softener of catch connective tissue shown to work on the cross-bridges between extracellular materials. PMID:24454910

  2. Autoimmunity and reproduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eli Geva; Ami Amit; Liat Lerner-Geva; Joseph B. Lessing

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To review the association between autoimmunity and reproductive failure.Design: A MEDLINE search done from 1965 to 1996. More than 300 original and review articles were evaluated, from which the most relevant were selected.Result(s): Autoimmune processes now are accepted widely as one of the possible mechanisms of many human diseases. The presence of autoimmune disorders has been associated repeatedly with

  3. Autoimmune primary ovarian insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Silva, C A; Yamakami, L Y S; Aikawa, N E; Araujo, D B; Carvalho, J F; Bonfá, E

    2014-01-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is defined as sustained amenorrhea, increased follicle-stimulating hormone and low estrogen levels, whereas diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) is characterized as regular menses and alterations of ovarian reserve tests. POI of autoimmune origin may be associated with adrenal autoimmunity, non-adrenal autoimmunity or isolated. This autoimmune disease is characterized by serum ovarian, adrenocortical or steroidogenic cell autoantibodies. POI of adrenal autoimmune origin is the most frequent type observed in 60-80% of patients. Clinically, amenorrhea is the hallmark of POI, however before menstruation stops completely, irregular cycles occur. Infertility, hot flushes, vaginal atrophy, and dyspareunia are also common. Autoimmune oophoritis is characterized by mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate in the theca cells of growing follicles, with early stage follicles without lymphocytic infiltration. This infiltrate includes plasma, B and T-cells. A novel classification criterion for autoimmune POI/DOR is proposed subdividing in three distinct categories (possible, probable and confirmed) according to autoantibodies, autoimmune disease and ovarian histology. Unfortunately, up to date guidelines for the treatment of autoimmune oophoritis are not available. Strategies to POI treatment include hormone replacement and infertility therapy. Assisted conception with donated oocytes has been proven to achieve pregnancy by intra cytoplasmic sperm injection in POI women. PMID:24418305

  4. [Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopien, Bogustaw; Bo?dys, Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes are conditions characterised by the association of two or more organ-specific disorders. On the basis of the clinical picture, they are divided into four different types. Type 1 is a monogenic autoimmune syndrome, which is caused by defect in AIRE gene located on chromosome 21. Its major components include mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism and Addison's disease. Type 2 is defined as the combination of autoimmune adrenal insufficiency with autoimmune thyroid disease and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus. Type 3 is composed of autoimmune thyroid diseases associated with other autoimmune conditions with the exception of Addison's disease. The remaining autoimmune combinations not included in the previous groups belong to type 4. Proper care of individuals with autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes requires knowledge of the problems that may arise, and the best approaches to detect and care for the manifestations of these incurable, but manageable, diseases. The objective of this paper is to review the aetiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune polyglandular syndromes with a special emphasis on the most recent literature. PMID:19140388

  5. Pristimerin, a naturally occurring triterpenoid, protects against autoimmune arthritis by modulating the cellular and soluble immune mediators of inflammation and tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Tong, Li; Nanjundaiah, Siddaraju M; Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H; Astry, Brian; Yu, Hua; Moudgil, Kamal D

    2014-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disorder affecting the synovial joints. The currently available drugs for RA are effective only in a proportion of patients and their prolonged use is associated with severe adverse effects. Thus, new anti-arthritic agents are being sought. We tested Pristimerin, a naturally occurring triterpenoid, for its therapeutic activity against rat adjuvant arthritis. Pristimerin effectively inhibited both arthritic inflammation and cartilage and bone damage in the joints. Pristimerin-treated rats exhibited a reduction in the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-17, IL-18, and IL-23) and the IL-6/IL-17-associated transcription factors (pSTAT3 and ROR-?t), coupled with an increase in the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10. Also increased was IFN-?, which can inhibit IL-17 response. In addition, the Th17/Treg ratio was altered in favor of immune suppression and the RANKL/OPG ratio was skewed towards anti-osteoclastogenesis. This is the first report on testing Pristimerin in arthritis. We suggest further evaluation of Pristimerin in RA patients. PMID:25308129

  6. Thyrotropin Receptor Expression in Graves' Orbital Adipose\\/Connective Tissues: Potential Autoantigen in Graves' Ophthalmopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Bahn; C. M. DUTTON; N. NATT; W. JOBA; C. SPITZWEG; A. E. HEUFELDER

    1998-01-01

    It is acknowledged that the TSH receptor (TSHr) on thyroid fol- licular cells is the autoantigen involved in the hyperthyroidism of Graves' disease. However, whether this receptor is expressed in ex- trathyroidal tissues, and whether it participates directly in the patho- genesis of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) are unclear. We sought to detect the expression of TSHr messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA)

  7. NK Cell Autoreactivity and Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Poggi, Alessandro; Zocchi, Maria Raffaella

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidences have pointed out the relevance of natural killer (NK) cells in organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases. NK cells bear a plethora of activating and inhibiting receptors that can play a role in regulating reactivity with autologous cells. The activating receptors recognize natural ligands up-regulated on virus-infected or stressed or neoplastic cells. Of note, several autoimmune diseases are thought to be linked to viral infections as one of the first event in inducing autoimmunity. Also, it is conceivable that autoimmunity can be triggered when a dysregulation of innate immunity occurs, activating T and B lymphocytes to react with self-components. This would imply that NK cells can play a regulatory role during adaptive immunity; indeed, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), comprising the classical CD56+ NK cells, have a role in maintaining or alternating tissue homeostasis secreting protective and/or pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, NK cells display activating receptors involved in natural cytotoxicity and the activating isoforms of receptors for HLA class I that can interact with healthy host cells and induce damage without any evidence of viral infection or neoplastic-induced alteration. In this context, the interrelationship among ILC, extracellular-matrix components, and mesenchymal stromal cells can be considered a key point for the control of homeostasis. Herein, we summarize evidences for a role of NK cells in autoimmune diseases and will give a point of view of the interplay between NK cells and self-cells in triggering autoimmunity. PMID:24550913

  8. (AutoimmuneSearch), ( 20072013) 2344, . . 8903/692011,

    E-print Network

    for targeted therapeutics using Systemic Lupus Erythematosus as prototype" ­ (Autoimmune as microRNA analysis in tissue biopsies and correlation with previous results in the peripheral blood and molecular biology. Experience in Genetics / gene expression and regulation is desirable. Candidates

  9. Scurfy mice: A model for autoimmune disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Godfrey

    1993-01-01

    Autoimmune disease-the condition in which the body attacks its own tissue-has been an object of public concern recently. Former President George Bush and his wife Barbara both are afflicted with Graves' disease in which the body's own immune system attakcs the thyroid gland. The safety of breast implants was called into question because of evidence that some recipients had developed

  10. Human Cytomegalovirus and Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) represents a prototypic pathogenic member of the ?-subgroup of the herpesvirus family. A range of HCMV features like its lytic replication in multiple tissues, the lifelong persistence through periods of latency and intermitting reactivation, the extraordinary large proteome, and extensive manipulation of adaptive and innate immunity make HCMV a high profile candidate for involvement in autoimmune disorders. We surveyed the available literature for reports on HCMV association with onset or exacerbation of autoimmune disease. A causative linkage between HCMV and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), diabetes mellitus type 1, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is suggested by the literature. However, a clear association of HCMV seroprevalence and disease could not be established, leaving the question open whether HCMV could play a coresponsible role for onset of disease. For convincing conclusions population-based prospective studies must be performed in the future. Specific immunopathogenic mechanisms by which HCMV could contribute to the course of autoimmune disease have been suggested, for example, molecular mimicry by UL94 in SSc and UL83/pp65 in SLE patients, as well as aggravation of joint inflammation by induction and expansion of CD4+/CD28? T-cells in RA patients. Further studies are needed to validate these findings and to lay the grounds for targeted therapeutic intervention. PMID:24967373

  11. Autoimmune markers in children with chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cukrowska, Bo?ena; Kierku?, Jaros?aw; Ry?ko, Józef

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the last decade we can observe a gradual increase in the incidence of autoimmune diseases. The aetiology of chronic pancreatitis (CP) in children is varied and includes gene mutations, anatomic anomalies and others. The reported paediatric experience with chronic CP is scarce and little is known about the role of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Aim To assess the frequency of autoimmune markers in children with CP. Material and methods One hundred and twenty-nine children hospitalised between 2005 and 2012 at the Department of Gastroenterology, The Children's Memorial Health Institute, were examined for the presence of AIP; the level of IgG4 was determined, and tests for anti-tissue antibodies (ANA, ASMA, AMA, ANCA, AHA) were conducted. Clinical data were recorded and analysed. Results Anti-tissue antibodies were detected in 75/129 children (58%), and 24/68 patients (35.3%) showed an increased IgG4 level. Based on the International Association of Pancreatology criteria, a suspicion of AIP was raised in 6 patients (4.6%). We found gene mutations predisposing to CP in 32/75 (42.6%) patients with autoimmune markers. In 16/75 children (21.3%), anatomic anomalies were found. There was no difference in the severity of the disease and clinical course between children with evidence of autoimmune process and patients without autoimmune markers (p = NS). Conclusions In children with CP, similarly to adults, there is a high frequency of biochemical markers of autoimmunity. It is worth remembering that AIP can occur in children. PMID:25097710

  12. Relationships between structural characteristics of bovine intramuscular connective tissue assessed by image analysis and collagen and proteoglycan content.

    PubMed

    Dubost, Annabelle; Micol, Didier; Meunier, Bruno; Lethias, Claire; Listrat, Anne

    2013-03-01

    Three muscles (Longissimus thoracis, Semimembranosus, Biceps femoris) of 40 young bulls from 3 breeds were used to quantify structural characteristics of bovine connective tissue by image analysis, with both macroscopic and microscopic approaches. Collagen and proteoglycan content was also investigated. Perimysium occupied a greater area (8 vs 6%), and was wider (42 vs 2 ?m) and shorter per unit area (1.9 vs 30 mm mm(-2)) than endomysium. Perimysium and endomysium from Longissimus were thinner, less ramified than in Biceps. Longissimus showed less total collagen and cross-linking and more proteoglycans (P<0.0001) than Biceps muscle. Blond d'Aquitaine perimysium occupied less area, was more ramified and muscles contained less collagen, cross-linking and more proteoglycans than Angus (P<0.001). Limousin was intermediate. High proteoglycan content in muscle containing less total collagen suggested a complementarity between these molecules. They might influence mechanical properties of intramuscular connective tissue. This was especially true given that proteoglycans and total collagen were negatively and positively linked with structural parameters, respectively. PMID:23273440

  13. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Hypermobility Type: An Underdiagnosed Hereditary Connective Tissue Disorder with Mucocutaneous, Articular, and Systemic Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Castori, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type, constituting a phenotypic continuum with or, perhaps, corresponding to the joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS/EDS-HT), is likely the most common, though the least recognized, heritable connective tissue disorder. Known for decades as a hereditary condition with predominant rheumatologic manifestations, it is now emerging as a multisystemic disorder with widespread manifestations. Nevertheless, the practitioners' awareness of this condition is generally poor and most patients await years or, perhaps, decades before reaching the correct diagnosis. Among the various sites of disease manifestations, skin and mucosae represent a neglected organ where the dermatologist can easily spot diagnostic clues, which consistently integrate joint hypermobility and other orthopedic/neurologic manifestations at physical examination. In this paper, actual knowledge on JHS/EDS-HT is summarized in various sections. Particular attention has been posed on overlooked manifestations, including cutaneous, mucosal, and oropharyngeal features, and early diagnosis techniques, as a major point of interest for the practicing dermatologist. Actual research progresses on JH/EDS-HT envisage an unexpected link between heritable dysfunctions of the connective tissue and a wide range of functional somatic syndromes, most of them commonly diagnosed in the office of various specialists, comprising dermatologists. PMID:23227356

  14. Pulmonary Autoimmunity as a Feature of Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 1 and Identification of KCNRG as a Bronchial Autoantigen

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -specific autoantigens. Endocrine and also non-endocrine organs such as skin, hair follicles and liver are targeted) suffer from multiple organ-specific autoimmunity with autoantibodies against target tissue

  15. Alpha smooth muscle actin distribution in cytoplasm and nuclear invaginations of connective tissue fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Storch, Kirsten N; Taatjes, Douglas J; Bouffard, Nicole A; Locknar, Sarah; Bishop, Nicole M; Langevin, Helene M

    2007-05-01

    Alpha smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) was recently shown to be present in mouse subcutaneous tissue fibroblasts in the absence of tissue injury. In this study, we used a combination of immunohistochemistry and correlative confocal scanning laser and electron microscopy to investigate the structural organization of alpha-SMA in relation to the nucleus. Furthermore, we explored colocalization analysis as a method for quantifying the amount of alpha-SMA in close approximation to the nucleic acid marker, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenyl-indole, dihydrochloride. Our findings indicate the presence of alpha-SMA within nuclear invaginations in close proximity to the nuclear membrane, but not in the nucleoplasm. Although the function of these alpha-SMA-rich nuclear invaginations is at present unknown, the morphology of these structures suggests their possible involvement in cellular and nuclear mechanotransduction as well as nuclear transport. PMID:17310383

  16. Increased connective tissue attachment to silicone implants by a water vapor plasma treatment.

    PubMed

    Jensen, C; Gurevich, L; Patriciu, A; Struijk, J J; Zachar, V; Pennisi, C P

    2012-12-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is the most common type of silicone polymer for the fabrication of implantable medical devices. Because of its inherent hydrophobic nature, the PDMS surface does not readily promote cellular adhesion, which leads to diverse clinical issues. Previously, we reported a simple water vapor plasma treatment of PDMS surfaces that resulted in stable long-term wettability and excellent in vitro cell compatibility. In this work, we report investigation of the in vivo local responses to PDMS implants treated by water vapor plasma using a subcutaneous rat model. The local tissue responses were assessed after 2 and 4 weeks of implantation by means of macroscopic and histomorphometric analysis. After 2 weeks of implantation, the plasma-treated implants elicited the formation of fibrous tissue capsules that were significantly thinner, more adherent, and vascularized than the control counterparts. The improved cell adhesion was correlated with an increased amount of cells attached to the implant surface after retrieval. There was no difference in the inflammatory response between untreated and treated samples. This study provides a rational approach to optimize the long-term performance of silicone implants, which is likely to have a significant impact in clinical applications demanding enhanced tissue integration of the implants. PMID:22767530

  17. Detection of Luse bodies, spiralled collagen, dysplastic collagen, and intracellular collagen in rheumatoid connective tissues: an electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Neurath, M F

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease leading to alterations of the extracellular matrix in tendons, ligaments, and cartilage. The structural changes of the collagenous systems in rheumatoid connective tissues are largely unknown, however. METHODS--Thirty four samples of menisci, 36 cruciate ligaments, and four tendons were taken during joint surgery in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Eighteen menisci, 35 ligaments, and 30 tendons obtained at necropsy served as a control group. The extracellular matrix in the two groups was analysed by the combined use of transmission and scanning electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies recognising collagen types IV and VI, and ultramorphometry. RESULTS--Normal tendons and ligaments predominantly showed a unidirectional fibril arrangement. Whereas type IV collagen showed a positive staining pattern along all basement membranes, type VI collagen formed fine, filaments aligned in parallel. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis a significant reduction of the mean diameter of the collagen fibrils was found owing to the presence of thin collagenous fibrils 20-60 nm in diameter. Most of these fibrils showed considerable changes in their arrangement with irregular courses (so-called interfibrillar dysplastic collagen). Up to 410 nm thick frayed fibrils with irregular outlines (spiralled collagen) and intracellular collagen forms were found in rheumatoid tissues. In addition, atypical thick collagenous structures with 41 nm periodicity (Luse bodies) were detected in the matrix. The upregulation of type IV collagen in rheumatoid arthritis was associated with an increase in the vascular density. The expression of type VI collagen was upregulated in fibrotic zones. CONCLUSIONS--The dramatic ultrastructural collagen changes lead to a structural and functional insufficiency of the extracellular matrix in rheumatoid connective tissues. The results suggest that collagen alterations may contribute to the development of tendon and ligament ruptures in rheumatoid arthritis. Images PMID:8484694

  18. Controlling the Fibroblastic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Via the Combination of Fibrous Scaffolds and Connective Tissue Growth Factor

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Zhixiang; Sant, Shilpa

    2011-01-01

    Controlled differentiation of multi-potent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into vocal fold-specific, fibroblast-like cells in vitro is an attractive strategy for vocal fold repair and regeneration. The goal of the current study was to define experimental parameters that can be used to control the initial fibroblastic differentiation of MSCs in vitro. To this end, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and micro-structured, fibrous scaffolds based on poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) and poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) were used to create a three-dimensional, connective tissue-like microenvironment. MSCs readily attached to and elongated along the microfibers, adopting a spindle-shaped morphology during the initial 3 days of preculture in an MSC maintenance medium. The cell-laden scaffolds were subsequently cultivated in a conditioned medium containing CTGF and ascorbic acids for up to 21 days. Cell morphology, proliferation, and differentiation were analyzed collectively by quantitative PCR analyses, and biochemical and immunocytochemical assays. F-actin staining showed that MSCs maintained their fibroblastic morphology during the 3 weeks of culture. The addition of CTGF to the constructs resulted in an enhanced cell proliferation, elevated expression of fibroblast-specific protein-1, and decreased expression of mesenchymal surface epitopes without markedly triggering chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, adipogenesis, or apoptosis. At the mRNA level, CTGF supplement resulted in a decreased expression of collagen I and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, but an increased expression of decorin and hyaluronic acid synthesase 3. At the protein level, collagen I, collagen III, sulfated glycosaminoglycan, and elastin productivity was higher in the conditioned PGS-PCL culture than in the normal culture. These findings collectively demonstrate that the fibrous mesh, when combined with defined biochemical cues, is capable of fostering MSC fibroblastic differentiation in vitro. PMID:21689062

  19. Autoimmunity: Alopecia Areata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Hordinsky; Marna Ericson

    2004-01-01

    Strong direct and indirect evidence supports an autoimmune etiology for alopecia areata. T lymphocytes that have been shown to be oligoclonal and autoreactive are predominantly present in the peribulbar inflammatory infiltrate. Alopecia areata frequently occurs in association with other autoimmune diseases, such as thyroiditis and vitiligo, and autoantibodies to follicular components have been detected. Finally, the use of immune modulating

  20. Infections and autoimmune diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-François Bach

    2005-01-01

    The high percentage of disease-discordant pairs of monozygotic twins demonstrates the central role of environmental factors in the etiology of autoimmune diseases. Efforts were first focussed on the search for triggering factors. The study of animal models has clearly shown that infections may trigger autoimmune diseases, as in the case of Coxsackie B4 virus in type I diabetes and the

  1. Neutropénies auto-immunes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Martin; M. Audrain; C. Durant; M. Rimbert; P. Fromont; M. Hamidou

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune neutropenias (AIN) are classically divided into primary AIN and secondary AIN. The latter are associated with autoimmune disorders, hematologic malignancies, primary immune deficiencies, drug exposure or infections. In this review we will focus on the major aetiologies of AIN, their differential diagnosis, the various methods in biological diagnosis, and the treatment.

  2. Autoimmune hypophysitis: new developments.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune hypophysitis, often referred to as lymphocytic hypophysitis, is defined as an inflammatory condition of the pituitary gland of autoimmune etiology that leads to pituitary dysfunction. However, the pathogenesis of autoimmune hypophysitis is still incompletely defined. Although pathogenic autoantibodies in autoimmune hypophysitis have not yet been reported, it has been suggested that several antibodies may be closely related to pathogenesis. Novel clinical entities that are associated with hypophysitis, such as IgG4-related hypophysitis and anti-PIT-1 antibody syndrome, have recently been reported. The findings demonstrate the heterogeneity of the disease and provide important clues for understanding the pathogenesis and definition of hypophysitis, as well as the significance of antipituitary antibodies. This review focuses on new developments in autoimmune hypophysitis. PMID:25248604

  3. MicroRNAs in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zigang; Li, Wenhui; Fu, Baoquan

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are featured by body's immune responses being directed towards its own specific target organs or multiple organ systems, causing persistent inflammation and consequent tissue damage. miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs in a size of approximately 22?nt that play important regulatory roles in many organisms by cleavage or translational inhibition of targeted mRNAs. Many miRNAs are reported to be differentially expressed in ADs and may play a pivotal role in regulating immune responses and autoimmunity. In this review, current research progress in the miRNAs in ADs was elucidated. PMID:24991561

  4. MicroRNAs in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Zigang; Li, Wenhui; Fu, Baoquan

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are featured by body's immune responses being directed towards its own specific target organs or multiple organ systems, causing persistent inflammation and consequent tissue damage. miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs in a size of approximately 22?nt that play important regulatory roles in many organisms by cleavage or translational inhibition of targeted mRNAs. Many miRNAs are reported to be differentially expressed in ADs and may play a pivotal role in regulating immune responses and autoimmunity. In this review, current research progress in the miRNAs in ADs was elucidated. PMID:24991561

  5. Revisiting the role of mast cells in autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xinhua; Kasprick, Anika; Petersen, Frank

    2015-09-01

    Beside their well known role in allergy, mast cells (MCs) are capable to sense multiple signals and have therefore the potential to be involved in many immune responses. MCs are actively present in the target tissues of some autoimmune disorders, suggesting a possible function in the manifestation of such diseases. This idea is strengthened by the evidence that KIT-dependent MC-deficient mice are protected from disease in many mouse models of autoimmunity, including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and autoimmune skin blistering diseases. Thus, the essential role of MCs in autoimmunity not only significantly extends the knowledge of MCs in the immune response but also provides novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of such diseases. However, recent studies using a new generation of KIT-independent MC-deficient strains could not confirm an essential participation of MCs in autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the observed discrepancies and to elucidate the role of MCs in autoimmune diseases. Here, we review the impact of MCs on the development of autoimmune diseases with focus on the controversial effects of MC deficiency in different mouse models of autoimmune diseases. We also try to clarify contradictory findings in mouse studies to finally elucidate the role of MCs in autoimmunity. PMID:25913139

  6. Ovarian autoimmune disease: clinical concepts and animal models

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Bryce D; Kinsey, William K; McGinnis, Lynda K; Christenson, Lane K; Jasti, Susmita; Stevens, Anne M; Petroff, Brian K; Petroff, Margaret G

    2014-01-01

    The ovary is not an immunologically privileged organ, but a breakdown in tolerogenic mechanisms for ovary-specific antigens has disastrous consequences on fertility in women, and this is replicated in murine models of autoimmune disease. Isolated ovarian autoimmune disease is rare in women, likely due to the severity of the disease and the inability to transmit genetic information conferring the ovarian disease across generations. Nonetheless, autoimmune oophoritis is often observed in association with other autoimmune diseases, particularly autoimmune adrenal disease, and takes a toll on both society and individual health. Studies in mice have revealed at least two mechanisms that protect the ovary from autoimmune attack. These mechanisms include control of autoreactive T cells by thymus-derived regulatory T cells, as well as a role for the autoimmune regulator (AIRE), a transcriptional regulator that induces expression of tissue-restricted antigens in medullary thymic epithelial cells during development of T cells. Although the latter mechanism is incompletely defined, it is well established that failure of either results in autoimmune-mediated targeting and depletion of ovarian follicles. In this review, we will address the clinical features and consequences of autoimmune-mediated ovarian infertility in women, as well as the possible mechanisms of disease as revealed by animal models. PMID:25327908

  7. Ovarian autoimmune disease: clinical concepts and animal models.

    PubMed

    Warren, Bryce D; Kinsey, William K; McGinnis, Lynda K; Christenson, Lane K; Jasti, Susmita; Stevens, Anne M; Petroff, Brian K; Petroff, Margaret G

    2014-11-01

    The ovary is not an immunologically privileged organ, but a breakdown in tolerogenic mechanisms for ovary-specific antigens has disastrous consequences on fertility in women, and this is replicated in murine models of autoimmune disease. Isolated ovarian autoimmune disease is rare in women, likely due to the severity of the disease and the inability to transmit genetic information conferring the ovarian disease across generations. Nonetheless, autoimmune oophoritis is often observed in association with other autoimmune diseases, particularly autoimmune adrenal disease, and takes a toll on both society and individual health. Studies in mice have revealed at least two mechanisms that protect the ovary from autoimmune attack. These mechanisms include control of autoreactive T cells by thymus-derived regulatory T cells, as well as a role for the autoimmune regulator (AIRE), a transcriptional regulator that induces expression of tissue-restricted antigens in medullary thymic epithelial cells during development of T cells. Although the latter mechanism is incompletely defined, it is well established that failure of either results in autoimmune-mediated targeting and depletion of ovarian follicles. In this review, we will address the clinical features and consequences of autoimmune-mediated ovarian infertility in women, as well as the possible mechanisms of disease as revealed by animal models. PMID:25327908

  8. The neuroimmune connection interferes with tissue regeneration and chronic inflammatory disease in the skin.

    PubMed

    Peters, Eva M J; Liezmann, Christiane; Klapp, Burghard F; Kruse, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    Research over the past decades has revealed close interactions between the nervous and immune systems that regulate peripheral inflammation and link psychosocial stress with chronic somatic disease. Besides activation of the sympathetic and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, stress leads to increased neurotrophin and neuropeptide production in organs at the self-environment interface. The scope of this short review is to discuss key functions of these stress mediators in the skin, an exemplary stress-targeted and stress-sensitive organ. We will focus on the skin's response to acute and chronic stress in tissue regeneration and pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, psoriasis, and skin cancer to illustrate the impact of local stress-induced neuroimmune interaction on chronic inflammation. PMID:22823443

  9. Mycobacterium chelonae cutaneous infection in a patient with mixed connective tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Lage, Renan; Biccigo, Danilo Guerreiro Zeolo; Santos, Felipe Borba Calixto; Chimara, Erica; Pereira, Elisangela Samartin Pegas; Costa, Adilson da

    2015-01-01

    Around 50 mycobacteria species cause human disease. Immunosuppressive states predispose to non-tuberculous mycobaterium infection, such as Mycobacterium chelonae: AFB, non-tuberculous, fast growth of low virulence and uncommon as a human pathogen. It may compromise the skin and soft tissues, lungs, lymph nodes and there is also a disseminated presentation. The diagnosis involves AFB identification and culture on Agar and Lowenstein-Jensen medium base. A 41-year-old female with MCTD (LES predominance) is reported, presenting painless nodules in the right forearm. She denied local trauma. Immunosuppressed with prednisone and cyclophosphamide for 24 months. Lesion biopsy has demonstrated positive bacilloscopy (Ziehl-Neelsen stain) and M.chelonae in culture (Lowenstein-Jensen medium base), therefore clarithromycin treatment has been started (best therapy choice in the literature). PMID:25672306

  10. Epstein-Barr Virus in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Duus, Karen; Houen, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) are a group of connective tissue diseases with diverse, yet overlapping, symptoms and autoantibody development. The etiology behind SADs is not fully elucidated, but a number of genetic and environmental factors are known to influence the incidence of SADs. Recent findings link dysregulation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with SAD development. EBV causes a persistent infection with a tight latency programme in memory B-cells, which enables evasion of the immune defence. A number of immune escape mechanisms and immune-modulating proteins have been described for EBV. These immune modulating functions make EBV a good candidate for initiation of autoimmune diseases and exacerbation of disease progression. This review focuses on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and sum up the existing data linking EBV with these diseases including elevated titres of EBV antibodies, reduced T-cell defence against EBV, and elevated EBV viral load. Together, these data suggest that uncontrolled EBV infection can develop diverse autoreactivities in genetic susceptible individuals with different manifestations depending on the genetic background and the site of reactivation. PMID:24062777

  11. [SEM studies on the connective tissue cores of the lingual papillae of the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis)].

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2008-09-01

    The lingual papillae and their connective tissue cores (CTCs) of the northern goshawk were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The length of the tongue was approximately 2.5 cm. The median groove divided the body of the tongue into symmetrical parts. At a point approximately 2/3 of the length, there were large conical papillae between the body and the root of the tongue, the apices of which were pointed towards the posterior part of the tongue. Under the light microscopy, the filiform papillae of the dorsal surface in the lingual body showed the desquamate cells of non-keratinized epithelium. There were openings of the lingual glands on the anterior part and root of the tongue. The lingual papillae and their CTCs of the northern goshawk had a structure similar to those of the white tailed eagle and black kite. PMID:18807946

  12. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Ram, Maya; Sherer, Yaniv; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2006-07-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (also named matrixin or MMPs) are a major group of enzymes that regulate cell-matrix composition by using zinc for their proteolytic activities. They are essential for various normal biological processes such as embryonic development, morphogenesis, reproduction tissue resorption, and remodeling. Metalloproteinases also play a role in pathological processes including inflammation, arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases and cancer. Herein we review the involvement of MMP-9 in a variety of autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, polymyositis and atherosclerosis. MMP-9 plays either a primary or secondary role in each one of those autoimmune diseases by its up or down-regulation. It is not expressed constantly but rather is induced or suppressed by many regulating molecules. This feature of MMP-9 along with its involvement in disease pathogenesis turns it into a target for therapy of autoimmune diseases. PMID:16652230

  13. Everything is autoimmune until proven otherwise.

    PubMed

    Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2013-10-01

    It is astounding to consider that virtually, every textbook of physiology in every medical school in the world does not include a chapter on immunology. On the other hand, virtually, in every textbook in internal medicine, immunology and immune response overlaps with every tissue and every organ. Indeed, historically, the concept of the immune response was recognized primarily in the setting of allergy and/or anaphylaxis. Indeed, the very concepts of infection, microbiology and host protection are relatively new sciences. In fact, it was little more than 100 years ago when washing hands became what is now coined "standard of care." How different it is in 2013, where one finds Handi Wipes for shoppers to use at grocery stores to protect themselves from the flora on shopping cart handles. Autoimmunity is even a newer concept without going into the well-known history of Paul Ehrlich and hemolytic anemias, the LE cell, and the beginning field of serology (and rheumatoid factor discovery). It is apparent that our understanding of autoimmunity has become linked hand-in-glove with new tools and investigational probes into serology and, more recently, the cellular immune response. With such discoveries, a number of key observations stand out. Firstly, there are a great deal more autoantibodies than there are autoimmune diseases. Second, there are a great deal more of autoimmune diseases than was believed in 1963 on the occasion of the publication of the first textbook of autoimmune diseases. Third, autoimmune diseases are, for the most part, orphan diseases, with many entities afflicting too few patients to excite the financial limb of pharmaceutical companies. In this special issue, we have grouped a number of papers, many of which were presented at the recent Congress of Autoimmunity that focus on issues that are not commonly discussed in autoimmunity. It reminds us that due to the ubiquitous nature of the innate and adaptive response, that there are a large number of diseases that have either an inflammatory and/or specific autoimmune response, we have to keep an open eye because everything is potentially autoimmune until proven otherwise. PMID:23907711

  14. Cutaneous expressions of interleukin-6 and neutrophil elastase as well as levels of serum IgA antibodies to gliadin nonapeptides, tissue transglutaminase and epidermal transglutaminase: implications for both autoimmunity and autoinflammation involvement in dermatitis herpetiformis

    PubMed Central

    Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika; Seraszek-Jaros, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, El?bieta; Pietkiewicz, Pawe?; Dmochowski, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) seems to be a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disease of partially known origin. In light of its known biological functions and its involvement in tissue pathology in other disease states, particularly in nickel-induced allergic contact dermatitis coexisting with DH, it would appear that the central and peripheral response by neutrophils and their mediators (e.g. neutrophil elastase – NE) in DH may be partially mediated by interleukin-6 (IL-6). The aim of the study was to assess the role of IL -6 in DH lesions by examining the relationships between IL -6/NE cutaneous expression and levels of serum anti-nonapeptides of gliadin (npG) IgA, anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG) immunoglobulin A (IgA), anti-epidermal transglutaminase (eTG) IgA in DH. Material and methods In total, 24 DH patients having IgA cutaneous deposition were studied. Immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded sections with quantitative digital morphometry was used to measure the intensity of IL -6 and NE cutaneous expressions. Levels of serum anti-npG IgA, anti-tTG IgA and anti-eTG IgA were evaluated with ELISA. Results We found no statistically significant correlation between the NE and IL -6 expression intensities. Our results revealed also a lack of correlations between NE/IL -6 expressions and levels of anti-npG IgA, anti-tTG IgA, anti-eTG IgA in DH. However, the IL -6 expression level was significantly lower than that of NE. Conclusions The lack of correlations suggested no substantial interactions between IL -6, NE, IgA/npG, IgA/tTG or IgA/eTG in DH. Presented results might indicate the heterogenetic nature of DH pathogenesis suggesting further that both autoimmune and autoinflammatory phenomena may be involved in DH cutaneous pathology.

  15. Histological assessment of the palatal mucosa and greater palatine artery with reference to subepithelial connective tissue grafting

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kwang-Hee; Yu, Sun-Kyoung; Lee, Myoung-Hwa; Lee, Dong-Seol

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to measure the thickness of the epithelium and lamina propria of the palatal mucosa and to elucidate the location of the greater palatine artery to provide the anatomical basis for subepithelial connective tissue grafting. Thirty-two maxillary specimens, taken from the canine distal area to the first molar distal area, were embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. The thickness of the epithelium and lamina propria of the palatal mucosa was measured at three positions on these specimens, starting from 3 mm below the alveolar crest and in 3-mm intervals. The location of the greater palatine artery was evaluated by using image-processing software. The mean epithelial thickness decreased significantly in the posterior teeth; it was 0.41, 0.36, 0.32, and 0.30 mm in the canine, first premolar, second premolar, and first molar distal areas, respectively. The lamina propria was significantly thicker in the canine distal; it was 1.36, 1.08, 1.09, and 1.05 mm, respectively. The mean length from the alveolar crest to the greater palatine artery increased toward the posterior molar; it was 7.76, 9.21, 10.93, and 11.28 mm, respectively. The mean depth from the surface of the palatal mucosa to the greater palatine artery decreased from the canine distal to the first premolar distal but increased again toward the posterior molar; it was 3.97, 3.09, 3.58, and 5.50 mm, respectively. Detailed histological assessments of the lamina propria of the palatal mucosa and the greater palatine artery are expected to provide useful anatomical guidelines for subepithelial connective tissue grafting. PMID:24179691

  16. Autoimmunity-related neutrophilic dermatosis: a newly described entity that is not exclusive of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Saeb-Lima, Marcela; Charli-Joseph, Yann; Rodríguez-Acosta, Elva Dalia; Domínguez-Cherit, Judith

    2013-08-01

    Neutrophilic dermatoses have long been known to be associated with autoinmune systemic diseases. Recently, a small number of cases of a disorder distinct from Sweet syndrome or bullous lupus erythematosus (LE) have been described as specifically related to systemic LE under diverse terms, including nonbullous neutrophilic dermatosis, nonbullous neutrophilic LE, and Sweet-like neutrophilic dermatosis. We describe 7 patients that developed urticarial lesions in the context of a known or concurrently diagnosed autoimmune connective tissue disease. Of a total of 7 patients, 6 were afflicted by systemic LE and 1 by rheumatoid arthritis and secondary Sjögren syndrome. Histological findings in all patients included an interstitial and perivascular neutrophilic infiltrate with leukocytoclasia, vacuolar alteration along the dermal-edidermal junction, and no vasculitis. Most patients had active systemic disease at the time of the cutaneous eruption. Skin lesions resolved rapidly after the administration of immunomodulating agents. In conclusion, we provide additional evidence of the existence of a recently defined nonbullous neutrophilic dermatosis in the context of autoimmune connective tissue diseases and propose the term autoimmunity-related neutrophilic dermatosis as an appropriate designation. Furthermore, we believe that this entity should prompt physicians to screen the presence of an active systemic disorder in afflicted patients. PMID:23518639

  17. Connective Tissue Disease Following Hepatitis B Vaccination; Topiramate-Associated Fatal Heat Stroke; Ramelteon-Induced Autoimmune Hepatitis; Acute Oxaliplatin-Induced Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: mmancano@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested. This feature is provided by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in cooperation with the FDA’s MedWatch program and Temple University School of Pharmacy. ISMP is an FDA MedWatch partner. PMID:24715739

  18. Changes in bone tissue under conditions of hypokinesia and in connection with age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podrushnyak, E. P.; Suslov, E. I.

    1980-01-01

    X-ray micrography was used to study the optical density of the blackening of X-ray photographs made of five bones in 9 young people (ages 24 to 29) before and after strict bed rest for 16 to 37 days. Photometric studies of the X-ray film determined the relative concentration of bone structure before and after hypokinesia. In addition, the bone tissues of 25 cadavers of practically healthy individuals (aged 18 to 70) who died from injuries were investigated using X-ray structural analysis. Results show that the reaction to the state of hypokinesia is not uniform in different individuals and is quite often directly reversed. It was established that pronounced osteoporosis can be found in a relatively short time after conditions of hypokinesia in healthy young individuals. Results show that the stabilization of the crystalline structure of hydroxyapatite, especially its crystal formation, is finished by the age of 20 to 25. From 25 to 60, the crystal lattice remains in stable condition but X-ray analysis shows a reduction in the hydroxyapatite density.

  19. Decorin Interacts with Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF)/CCN2 by LRR12 Inhibiting Its Biological Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Vial, Cecilia; Gutiérrez, Jaime; Santander, Cristian; Cabrera, Daniel; Brandan, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Fibrotic disorders are the end point of many chronic diseases in different tissues, where an accumulation of the extracellular matrix occurs, mainly because of the action of the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2). Little is known about how this growth factor activity is regulated. We found that decorin null myoblasts are more sensitive to CTGF than wild type myoblasts, as evaluated by the accumulation of fibronectin or collagen III. Decorin added exogenously negatively regulated CTGF pro-fibrotic activity and the induction of actin stress fibers. Using co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro interaction assays, decorin and CTGF were shown to interact in a saturable manner with a Kd of 4.4 nm. This interaction requires the core protein of decorin. Experiments using the deletion mutant decorin indicated that the leucine-rich repeats (LRR) 10–12 are important for the interaction with CTGF and the negative regulation of the cytokine activity, moreover, a peptide derived from the LRR12 was able to inhibit CTGF-decorin complex formation and CTGF activity. Finally, we showed that CTGF specifically induced the synthesis of decorin, suggesting a mechanism of autoregulation. These results suggest that decorin interacts with CTGF and regulates its biological activity. PMID:21454550

  20. Connective Tissue Growth Factor Promotes Fibrosis Downstream of TGF? and IL-6 in Chronic Cardiac Allograft Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Booth, A. J.; Csencsits-Smith, K.; Wood, S. C.; Lu, G.; Lipson, K. E.; Bishop, D. K.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac transplantation is an effective treatment for multiple types of heart failure refractive to therapy. Although immunosuppressive therapeutics have increased survival rates within the first year post-transplant, chronic rejection (CR) remains a significant barrier to long term graft survival. Indicators of CR include patchy interstitial fibrosis, vascular occlusion, and progressive loss of graft function. Multiple factors have been implicated in the onset and progression of CR, including TGF?, IL-6, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). While associated with CR, the role of CTGF in CR and the factors necessary for CTGF induction in vivo are not understood. To this end, we utilized forced expression and neutralizing antibody approaches. Transduction of allografts with CTGF significantly increased fibrotic tissue development, though not to levels observed with TGF? transduction. Further, intragraft CTGF expression was inhibited by IL-6 neutralization while TGF? expression remained unchanged, indicating that IL-6 effects may potentiate TGF?-mediated induction of CTGF. Finally, neutralizing CTGF significantly reduced graft fibrosis without reducing TGF? and IL-6 expression levels. These findings indicate that CTGF functions as a downstream mediator of fibrosis in CR, and that CTGF neutralization may ameliorate fibrosis and hypertrophy associated with CR. PMID:19788504

  1. [Evaluation of systemic involving of the connective tissue in children with different localisation of isolated abnormal chords of the left ventricle (ACLV)].

    PubMed

    Kondrashova, V H; She?ko, L P; Kondrashova, N S

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of the systemic involving of the connective tissue (SICT) under the new Ghent nosology (2010) showed that in children with isolated ACLV born to parents exposed to the Chernobyl disaster, its expression is associated with their location and quantity. The degree of systemic involvement of connective tissue is confirmed by the results of the analysis of features echostructure of isolated ACLV (the presence of thickening and calcification), echomorphometry, assessment of systolic (hypokinetic organization of the central hemodynamics), and the relaxation functions of the heart (initiation of diastolic dysfunction). High level of SICT (score greater than 5) indicates systemic damage to the body and particularly the heart, which requires dynamic monitoring and preventive measures. Found that the diagnostic and monitoring of children with isolated ACLV may be based on registration of systemic involvement of connective tissue with the calculation of points under the new Ghent nosology of 2010. PMID:25286592

  2. Restricting dietary magnesium accelerates ectopic connective tissue mineralization in a mouse model of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (Abcc6?/?)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qiujie; Uitto, Jouni

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic mineralization, linked to a number of diseases, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a heritable multisystem disorder characterized by calcium phosphate deposition in various tissues. The mineral content of diet has been suggested to modify the disease severity in PXE. The aim of this study is to explore the role of diet with reduced magnesium in modifying tissue mineralization in a mouse model of PXE. Abcc6?/? mice were placed on either standard rodent diet (control) or an experimental diet low in magnesium at weaning (4 wks) and examined for mineralization in the skin and internal organs at the ages of 1.5, 2 or 6 months by computerized morphometric analysis of histopathologic sections and by chemical assay of calcium and phosphate. Experimental Abcc6?/? mice demonstrated an accelerated, early-onset mineralization of connective tissues, as compared to control mice. Wild-type or heterozygous mice on experimental diet did not show evidence of mineralization up to 6 months of age. All mice on experimental diet showed decreased urinary calcium, increased urinary phosphate and elevated parathyroid serum levels. However, no difference in bone density at 6 months of age was noted. Our findings indicate that the mineral content, particularly magnesium, can modify the extent and the onset of mineralization in Abcc6?/? mice, and suggest that dietary magnesium levels may contribute to the phenotypic variability of PXE. The control of mineralization by dietary magnesium may have broader implications in general population in the context of vascular mineralization. PMID:22897576

  3. A comparison between connective tissue grafts combined with either double pedicle grafts or coronally positioned pedicle grafts: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Pendor, Sunil; Baliga, Vidya; Bhongade, Manohar L.; Turakia, Viral; Shori, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Background: Various surgical techniques have been proposed for treating gingival recession. This randomized clinical study compared the effectiveness of using a sub-epithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) combined with an overlying double pedical graft (DPG) or a coronally positioned flap (CPF) in the treatment of isolated gingival recession. Materials and Methods: A total of 20, healthy, non-smoking subjects with single Miller's Class I or Class II recession defects were selected. The defects, at least 3.0 mm deep, were randomly assigned to the test (DPG + SCTG) or control group (CPF + SCTG). Gingival recession (REC), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), width of keratinized gingival tissue (WKG), plaque index and papillary bleeding index were assessed at baseline and 6 months post-operatively. Results: Recession depth was significantly reduced 6 months post-operatively (P < 0.05) for both groups. Mean root coverage was 88% and 84% in the test and control groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups in REC, PPD, CAL, or WKG at baseline. However, at 6 months post-operatively, there were statistically significant changes in REC, CAL and WKG in favor of the test group (P < 0.05) from the baseline, but the comparison between the two was not statistically significant. The percentage of teeth with complete root coverage was greater in the test group when compared to the control group, but the results were not statistically significant. Conclusions: The results indicate that both surgical approaches are effective in addressing root coverage. Furthermore, when an increase in keratinized tissue width is a desired outcome, both the treatment modalities have shown comparable outcomes. PMID:25024546

  4. Immune and Autoimmune Enteropathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip M. Sherman; Ernest Cutz; Olivier Goulet

    2006-01-01

    Autoimmune enteropathy characteristically presents in infancy with protracted diarrhea. Underlying disorders of immune function, including regulatory T cells, must be excluded. Treatment options include nutritional rehabilitation, immune suppression, and, in select cases, bone marrow transplant.

  5. Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Syndrome (ALPS) Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare genetic disorder of the immune system that affects both children and adults. In ALPS, unusually high numbers of ...

  6. Hyperprolactinemia and autoimmune diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hedi Orbach; Yehuda Shoenfeld

    2007-01-01

    The autoimmune diseases are more common in females.The sex hormones have an important role in this gender bias, mainly estrogen and prolactin (PRL) which modulate the immune response.PRL is secreted from the pituitary gland and other organs and cells mainly the lymphocytes. PRL has an immunostimulatory effect and promotes autoimmunity:PRL impairs the negative selection of autoreactive B lymphocytes occurring during

  7. Boosting skin elasticity and revitalising the dermis in cellulite and connective tissue weakness by means of extracorporeal Acoustic Wave Therapy (AWT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Christ; R. Brenke; G. Sattler; G. Gabriel; W. Siems; A. Daser

    2008-01-01

    Extracorporeal Acoustic Wave Therapy (AWT) has been suc- cessfully used in dermatology in the course of several clinical application studies, initially as a non-invasive method for pro- viding effective long-term therapy for age-related connective tissue weakness at the extremities, specifically the cosmetically blemishing condition referred to as cellulite. The acoustic pressure waves improve microcirculation in the fatty tissue and existing

  8. The architecture of the connective tissue in the musculoskeletal system-an often overlooked functional parameter as to proprioception in the locomotor apparatus.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    The architecture of the connective tissue, including structures such as fasciae, sheaths, and membranes, is more important for understanding functional meaning than is more traditional anatomy, whose anatomical dissection method neglects and denies the continuity of the connective tissue as integrating matrix of the body.The connective tissue anatomy and architecture exhibits two functional tendencies that are present in all areas of the body in different ways and relationships. In body cavities, the "disconnecting" quality of shaping space enables mobility; between organs and body parts, the "connecting" dimension enables functional mechanical interactions. In the musculoskeletal system, those two features of the connective tissue are also present. They cannot be found by the usual analytic dissection procedures. An architectural description is necessary.This article uses such a methodologic approach and gives such a description for the lateral elbow region. The result is an alternative architectural view of the anatomic substrate involved in the transmission and conveyance of forces over synovial joints. An architectural description of the muscular and connective tissue organized in series with each other to enable the transmission of forces over these dynamic entities is more appropriate than is the classical concept of "passive" force-guiding structures such as ligaments organized in parallel to actively force-transmitting structures such as muscles with tendons.The discrimination between so-called joint receptors and muscle receptors is an artificial distinction when function is considered. Mechanoreceptors, also the so-called muscle receptors, are arranged in the context of force circumstances-that is, of the architecture of muscle and connective tissue rather than of the classical anatomic structures such as muscle, capsules, and ligaments. In the lateral cubital region of the rat, a spectrum of mechanosensitive substrate occurs at the transitional areas between regular dense connective tissue layers and the muscle fascicles organized in series with them. This substrate exhibits features of type and location of the mechanosensitive nerve terminals that usually are considered characteristic for "joint receptors" as well as for "muscle receptors."The receptors for proprioception are concentrated in those areas where tensile stresses are conveyed over the elbow joint. Structures cannot be divided into either joint receptors or muscle receptors when muscular and collagenous connective tissue structures function in series to maintain joint integrity and stability. In vivo, those connective tissue structures are strained during movements of the skeletal parts, those movements in turn being induced and led by tension in muscular tissue. In principle, because of the architecture, receptors can also be stimulated by changes in muscle tension without skeletal movement, or by skeletal movement without change in muscle tension. A mutual relationship exists between structure (and function) of the mechanoreceptors and the architecture of the muscular and regular dense connective tissue. Both are instrumental in the coding of proprioceptive information to the central nervous system. PMID:21589740

  9. Anti Tumor Immunity Can Be Uncoupled From Autoimmunity Following Hsp70-Mediated Inflammatory Killing Of Normal Pancreas1

    PubMed Central

    Kottke, Timothy; Pulido, Jose; Thompson, Jill; Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Chong, Heung; Calderwood, Stuart K.; Selby, Peter; Harrington, Kevin; Melcher, Alan; Vile, Richard

    2009-01-01

    We have a long term interest in the connectivity between autoimmunity and tumor rejection. However, outside of the melanocyte/melanoma paradigm, little is known about whether autoimmune responses to normal tissue can induce rejection of tumors of the same histological type. Here, we induced direct, pathogen-like cytotoxicity to the normal pancreas in association with the immune adjuvant hsp70. In sharp contrast to our studies with a similar approach for the treatment of prostate cancer, inflammatory killing of the normal pancreas induced a Th-1-like, anti-self response to pancreatic antigens which was rapidly suppressed by a concomitant suppressive regulatory T cell (Treg) response. Interestingly, even when Treg cells were depleted, the Th-1-like response was insufficient to induce significant ongoing autoimmunity. However, the Th-1-like response to antigens expressed in the pancreas at the time of damage was sufficient to induce rejection of tumors expressing either a foreign (ova) antigen, or fully syngeneic tumor antigens (on PancO2 tumor cells), provided that Treg were depleted prior to inflammatory killing of the normal pancreas. Taken together, these data indicate that profound differences exist between the immunoprotective mechanisms in place between different tissues (pancreas and prostate) in their response to pathogen-like damage. Moreover, they also show that, although multiple layers of immunological safeguards are in place to prevent the development of severe autoimmune consequences in the pancreas (in contrast to the prostate), tumor rejection responses can still be de-coupled from pathological autoimmune responses in vivo, which may provide novel insights into the immunotherapeutic treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:19738045

  10. Nitric oxide in autoimmune disease: cytotoxic or regulatory mediator?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hubert Kolb; Victoria Kolb-Bachofen

    1998-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is released locally during inflammatory autoimmune diseases and is believed to contribute to tissue destruction. However, recent studies are not fully consistent with such a simple role for NO. Here, Hubert Kolb and Victoria Kolb-Bachofen discuss data that suggest a role for NO in autoimmune diseases as an important regulator of the T helper 1 (Th1)\\/Th2 balance.

  11. Role of Microglia in CNS Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in the Western world. The disease is characterized histologically by the infiltration of encephalitogenic TH1/TH17-polarized CD4+ T cells, B cells, and a plethora of myeloid cells, resulting in severe demyelination ultimately leading to a degeneration of neuronal structures. These pathological processes are substantially modulated by microglia, the resident immune competent cells of the CNS. In this overview, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the highly diverse and complex function of microglia during CNS autoimmunity in either promoting tissue injury or tissue repair. Hence, understanding microglia involvement in MS offers new exciting paths for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23840238

  12. Detailed evaluation of 2959 allogeneic and xenogeneic dense connective tissue grafts (fascia lata, pericardium, and dura mater) used in the course of 20 years for duraplasty in neurosurgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Pa?ízek; P. M??i?ka; Z. Hušek; P. Šuba; J. Špa?ek; S. N?me?ek; J. N?me?ková; M. Šercl; P. Eliáš

    1997-01-01

    Summary Surgical experience with 2959 allogeneic and xenogeneic dense connective tissue grafts (1767 of fascia lata, 909 of pericardium, and 283 of dura mater), used in 2665 neurosurgical operations performed in the course of 20 years (1976 to 1995) is reported.

  13. Identification of nerve plexi in connective tissues of the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima by using a novel nerve-specific antibody.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A; Santacana-Laffitte, Guido; San Miguel-Ruíz, José E; Tossas, Karen; Valentín-Tirado, Griselle; Rives-Sánchez, Marisela; Mesleh, Akram; Torres, Irma I; García-Arrarás, José E

    2007-08-01

    The echinoderm nervous system is one of the least studied among invertebrates, partly because the tools available to study the neurobiology of this phylum are limited. We have now produced a monoclonal antibody (RN1) that labels a nervous system component of the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima. Western blots show that our antibody recognizes a major band of 66 kDa and a minor band of 53 kDa. Immunohistological experiments show that, in H. glaberrima, the antibody distinctly labels most of the known nervous system structures and some components that were previously unknown or little studied. A surprising finding was the labeling of nervous plexi within the connective tissue compartments of all organs studied. Double labeling with holothurian neuropeptides and an echinoderm synaptotagmin showed that RN1 labeled most, if not all, of the fibers labeled by these neuronal markers, but also a larger component of cells and fibers. The presence of a distinct connective tissue plexus in holothurians is highly significant since these organisms possess mutable connective tissues that change viscosity under the control of the nervous system. Therefore, the cells and fibers recognized by our monoclonal antibodies may be involved in controlling tensility changes in echinoderm connective tissue. PMID:17679718

  14. Study of chemical properties and evaluation of collagen in mantle, epidermal connective tissue and tentacle of Indian Squid, Loligo duvauceli Orbigny.

    PubMed

    Raman, Maya; Mathew, Saleena

    2014-08-01

    The chemical composition and evaluation of Indian squid (Loligo duvauceli) mantle, epidermal connective tissue and tentacle is investigated in this current study. It is observed that squid mantle contains 22.2% total protein; 63.5% of the total protein is myofibrillar protein. The unique property of squid myofibrillar protein is its water solubility. Squid mantle contains 12.0% total collagen. Epidermal connective tissue has highest amounts of total collagen (17.8%). SDS-PAGE of total collagen identified high molecular weight ?-, ?- and ?- sub-chains. Amino acid profile analysis indicates that mantle and tentacle contain essential amino acids. Arginine forms a major portion of mantle collagen (272.5 g/100 g N). Isoleucine, glutamic acid and lysine are other amino acids that are found in significantly high amounts in the mantle. Sulphur containing cystine is deficit in mantle collagen. Papain digest of mantle and epidermal connective tissue is rich in uronic acid, while papain digest, collagenase digest and urea digest of epidermal connective tissue has significant amounts of sialic acid (25.2, 33.2 and 99.8 ?mol /100 g, respectively). PAS staining of papain digest, collagenase digest and urea digest also identify the association of hexoses with low molecular weight collagen fragments. Histochemical sectioning also emphasized the localized distribution of collagen in epidermal and dermal region and very sparse fibres traverse the myotome bundles. PMID:25114341

  15. Expression changes and novel interaction partners of talin 1 in effector cells of autoimmune uveitis.

    PubMed

    Degroote, Roxane L; Hauck, Stefanie M; Treutlein, Gudrun; Amann, Barbara; Fröhlich, Kristina J H; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Merl, Juliane; Stangassinger, Manfred; Ueffing, Marius; Deeg, Cornelia A

    2013-12-01

    Autoimmune uveitis is characterized by crossing of blood-retinal barrier (BRB) by autoaggressive immune cells. Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is a valuable spontaneous model for autoimmune uveitis and analyses of differentially expressed proteins in ERU unraveled changed protein clusters in target tissues and immune system. Healthy eyes are devoid of leukocytes. In ERU, however, leukocytes enter the inner eye and subsequently destroy it. Molecular mechanisms enabling cell migration through BRB still remain elusive. Previously, we detected decreased talin 1 expression in blood-derived granulocytes of ERU cases, linking the innate immune system to ERU. Because changes in leukocyte protein expression pattern may play a role in pathological abnormalities leading to migration ability, we aimed at identifying interactors of talin 1 in leukocytes with immunoprecipitation, followed by LC-MS/MS for candidate identification. This enabled us to identify CD90 (Thy1) as novel interactor of talin 1 besides several other interactors. In blood-derived granulocytes from healthy individuals, CD90 was highly abundant and significantly reduced in ERU, especially in effector cells. Connection between talin 1 and CD90 and their expression differences in inflammation is an interesting novel finding allowing deeper insight into immune response of innate immune system and granulocyte migration ability in this organ-specific autoimmune disease. PMID:24144192

  16. Autoimmunity and Asbestos Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pfau, Jean C.; Serve, Kinta M.; Noonan, Curtis W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a body of evidence supporting an association between asbestos exposure and autoantibodies indicative of systemic autoimmunity, such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA), a strong epidemiological link has never been made to specific autoimmune diseases. This is in contrast with another silicate dust, crystalline silica, for which there is considerable evidence linking exposure to diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Instead, the asbestos literature is heavily focused on cancer, including mesothelioma and pulmonary carcinoma. Possible contributing factors to the absence of a stronger epidemiological association between asbestos and autoimmune disease include (a) a lack of statistical power due to relatively small or diffuse exposure cohorts, (b) exposure misclassification, (c) latency of clinical disease, (d) mild or subclinical entities that remain undetected or masked by other pathologies, or (e) effects that are specific to certain fiber types, so that analyses on mixed exposures do not reach statistical significance. This review summarizes epidemiological, animal model, and in vitro data related to asbestos exposures and autoimmunity. These combined data help build toward a better understanding of the fiber-associated factors contributing to immune dysfunction that may raise the risk of autoimmunity and the possible contribution to asbestos-related pulmonary disease. PMID:24876951

  17. Experimental Autoimmune Breast Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kesaraju, Pavani; Jaini, Ritika; Johnson, Justin M.; Altuntas, Cengiz Z.; Gruden, Jessica J.; Sakalar, Cagri; Tuohy, Vincent K.

    2013-01-01

    Mastitis is a substantial clinical problem in lactating women that may result in severe pain and abrupt termination of breastfeeding, thereby predisposing infants to long-term health risks. Many cases of mastitis involve no known infectious agent and may fundamentally be due to autoimmune-mediated inflammation of the breast. Herein, we develop a murine model of autoimmune mastitis and provide a detailed characterization of its resulting phenotype of breast failure and lactation insufficiency. To generate breast-specific autoimmunity, we immunized SWXJ mice with recombinant mouse ?-lactalbumin, a lactation-dependent, breast-specific differentiation protein critical for production of lactose. Mice immunized with ?-lactalbumin showed extensive T-cell–mediated inflammation in lactating normal breast parenchyma but none in nonlactating normal breast parenchyma. This targeted autoimmune attack resulted in breast failure characterized by lactation insufficiency and decreased ability to nurture offspring. Although immunization with ?-lactalbumin had no effect on fertility and birth numbers, pups nursed by ?-lactalbumin–immunized mice showed significantly disrupted growth often accompanied by kwashiorkor-like nutritional abnormalities, including alopecia, liver toxicity, and runting. This experimental model of autoimmune breast failure has useful applications for prophylactic breast cancer vaccination and for addressing inflammatory complications during breastfeeding. In addition, this model is suited for investigating nutritionally based “failure-to-thrive” issues, particularly regarding the long-term implications of postnatal nutritional deprivation. PMID:22901749

  18. Animal models of endocrine\\/organ-specific autoimmune diseases: do they really help us to understand human autoimmunity?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. K. Lam-Tse; A. Lernmark; H. A. Drexhage

    2002-01-01

    .   Organ-specific or endocrine autoimmune diseases are complex, polygenic afflictions the penetrance of which is heavily dependent\\u000a on various environmental influences. Important target tissues are the thyroid, the islets of Langerhans, gastric parietal\\u000a cells and steroid-producing cells in the adrenal and ovary. The etiology of these diseases remains to be clarified. The pathogenesis\\u000a is strongly associated with autoimmune phenomena. None

  19. Celiac disease in autoimmune cholestatic liver disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Umberto Volta; Luis Rodrigo; Alessandro Granito; Nunzio Petrolini; Paolo Muratori; Luigi Muratori; Antonio Linares; Lorenza Veronesi; Dolores Fuentes; Daniela Zauli; Francesco B. Bianchi

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:In this study, serological screening for celiac disease (CD) was performed in patients with autoimmune cholestasis to define the prevalence of such an association and to evaluate the impact of gluten withdrawal on liver disease associated with gluten sensitive enteropathy.METHODS:Immunoglobulin A endomysial, human and guinea pig tissue transglutaminase antibodies, and immunoglobulin A and G gliadin antibodies were sought in 255

  20. Collagen gel contraction as a measure of fibroblast function in an animal model of subsynovial connective tissue fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tai-Hua; Thoreson, Andrew R; Gingery, Anne; Larson, Dirk R; Passe, Sandra M; An, Kai-Nan; Zhao, Chunfeng; Amadio, Peter C

    2015-05-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a peripheral neuropathy characterized by non-inflammatory fibrosis of the subsynovial connective tissues (SSCT). A rabbit model of CTS was developed to test the hypothesis that SSCT fibrosis causes the neuropathy. We used a cell-seeded collagen-gel contraction model to characterize the fibrosis in this model in terms of cellular mechanics, specifically to compare the ability of SSCT cells from the rabbit model and normal rabbits to contract the gel, and to assess the effect of transforming growth factor-?1,which is upregulated in CTS, on these cells. SSCT fibrosis was induced in six retired breeder female rabbits which were sacrificed at 6 weeks (N?=?3) and 12 weeks (n?=?3). An additional two rabbits served as controls. SSCT was harvested according to a standard protocol. Gels seeded with SSCT cells from rabbits sacrificed at 6 weeks had significantly higher tensile strength (p?

  1. Targeting connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia preclinical models: anti-CTGF monoclonal antibody attenuates leukemia growth.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongbo; Kojima, Kensuke; Battula, Venkata Lokesh; Korchin, Borys; Shi, Yuexi; Chen, Ye; Spong, Suzanne; Thomas, Deborah A; Kantarjian, Hagop; Lock, Richard B; Andreeff, Michael; Konopleva, Marina

    2014-03-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is involved in extracellular matrix production, tumor cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, and metastasis. Recent studies have shown that CTGF expression is elevated in precursor B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and that increased expression of CTGF is associated with inferior outcome in B-ALL. In this study, we characterized the functional role and downstream signaling pathways of CTGF in ALL cells. First, we utilized lentiviral shRNA to knockdown CTGF in RS4;11 and REH ALL cells expressing high levels of CTGF mRNA. Silencing of CTGF resulted in significant suppression of leukemia cell growth compared to control vector, which was associated with AKT/mTOR inactivation and increased levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27. CTGF knockdown sensitized ALL cells to vincristine and methotrexate. Treatment with an anti-CTGF monoclonal antibody, FG-3019, significantly prolonged survival of mice injected with primary xenograft B-ALL cells when co-treated with conventional chemotherapy (vincristine, L-asparaginase and dexamethasone). Data suggest that CTGF represents a targetable molecular aberration in B-ALL, and blocking CTGF signaling in conjunction with administration of chemotherapy may represent a novel therapeutic approach for ALL patients. PMID:24154679

  2. Subepithelial connective tissue graft with and without the use of plasma rich in growth factors for treating root exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lafzi, Ardeshir; Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Behrozian, Ahmad; Kashefimehr, Atabak; Khashabi, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficiency of the subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) with and without plasma rich in growth factor (PRGF) in the treatment of gingival recessions. Methods Twenty bilateral buccal gingival Miller's Class I and II recessions were selected. Ten of the recessions were treated with SCTG and PRGF (test group). The rest ten of the recessions were treated with SCTG (control group). The clinical parameters including recession depth (RD), percentage of root coverage (RC), mucogingival junction (MGJ) position, clinical attachment level (CAL), and probing depth (PD) were measured at the baseline, and 1 and 3 months later. The data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed rank and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results After 3 months, both groups showed a significant improvement in all of the mentioned criteria except PD. Although the amount of improvement was better in the SCTG+PRGF group than the SCTG only group, this difference was not statistically significant. The mean RC was 70.85±12.57 in the test group and 75.83±24.68 in the control group. Conclusions Both SCTG+PRGF and SCTG only result in favorable clinical outcomes, but the added benefit of PRGF is not evident. PMID:23346462

  3. Elevated Urinary Connective Tissue Growth Factor in Diabetic Nephropathy Is Caused by Local Production and Tubular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Gerritsen, Karin G. F.; Leeuwis, Jan Willem; Koeners, Maarten P.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; van Oeveren, Willem; Aten, Jan; Tarnow, Lise; Rossing, Peter; Wetzels, Jack F. M.; Joles, Jaap A.; Kok, Robbert Jan; Goldschmeding, Roel; Nguyen, Tri Q.

    2015-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; CCN2) plays a role in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Urinary CTGF (uCTGF) is elevated in DN patients and has been proposed as a biomarker for disease progression, but it is unknown which pathophysiological factors contribute to elevated uCTGF. We studied renal handling of CTGF by infusion of recombinant CTGF in diabetic mice. In addition, uCTGF was measured in type 1 DN patients and compared with glomerular and tubular dysfunction and damage markers. In diabetic mice, uCTGF was increased and fractional excretion (FE) of recombinant CTGF was substantially elevated indicating reduced tubular reabsorption. FE of recombinant CTGF correlated with excretion of endogenous CTGF. CTGF mRNA was mainly localized in glomeruli and medullary tubules. Comparison of FE of endogenous and recombinant CTGF indicated that 60% of uCTGF had a direct renal source, while 40% originated from plasma CTGF. In DN patients, uCTGF was independently associated with markers of proximal and distal tubular dysfunction and damage. In conclusion, uCTGF in DN is elevated as a result of both increased local production and reduced reabsorption due to tubular dysfunction. We submit that uCTGF is a biomarker reflecting both glomerular and tubulointerstitial hallmarks of diabetic kidney disease. PMID:26171399

  4. Development of a kinematic model to predict finger flexor tendon and subsynovial connective tissue displacement in the carpal tunnel.

    PubMed

    Kociolek, Aaron M; Keir, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    Finger flexor tendinopathies and carpal tunnel syndrome are histologically characterised by non-inflammatory fibrosis of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) in the carpal tunnel, which is indicative of excessive and repetitive shear forces between the finger flexor tendons and SSCT. We assessed flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) tendon and adjacent SSCT displacements with colour Doppler ultrasound as 16 healthy participants completed long finger flexion/extension movements captured by a motion capture system. FDS tendon displacements fit a second-order regression model based on metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joint flexion angles (R(2) = 0.92 ± 0.01). SSCT displacements were 33.6 ± 1.7% smaller than FDS tendon displacements and also fit a second-order regression model (R(2) = 0.89 ± 0.01). FDS tendon and SSCT displacement both correlated with finger joint thickness, enabling participant-specific anthropometric scaling. We propose the current regression models as an ergonomic method to determine relative displacements between the finger flexor tendons and SSCT. PMID:25679821

  5. Finite Element Model of Subsynovial Connective Tissue Deformation due to Tendon Excursion in the Human Carpal Tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Jacqueline; Thoreson, Andrew; Yoshii, Yuichi; Zhao, Kristin D.; Amadio, Peter C.; An, Kai-Nan

    2010-01-01

    Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is a nerve entrapment disease which has been extensively studied by the engineering and medical community. Although the direct cause is unknown, in vivo and in vitro medical research has shown that tendon excursion creates micro tears in the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) surrounding the tendon in the carpal tunnel. One proposed mechanism for the SSCT injury is shearing which is believed to cause fibrosis of the SSCT. Few studies have reported quantitative observations of SSCT response to mechanical loading. Our proposed model is a 2-D section that consists of an FDS tendon, interstitial SSCT and adjacent stationary tendons. We believe that developing this model will allow the most complete quantitative observations of SSCT response to mechanical loading reported thus far. Boundary conditions were applied to the FEA model to simulate single finger flexion. A velocity was applied to the FDS tendon in the model to match loading conditions of the documented cadaver wrist kinematics studies. The cadaveric and FEA displacement results were compared to investigate the magnitude of stiffness required for the SSCT section of the model. The relative motions between the model and cadavers matched more closely than the absolute displacements. Since cadaveric models do not allow identification of the SSCT layers, an FEA model will help determine the displacement and stress experienced by each SSCT layer. Thus, we believe this conceptual model is a first step in understanding how the SSCT layers are recruited during tendon excursion. PMID:20887993

  6. Comparative morphology of the lingual papillae and their connective tissue cores in the tongue of the American mink, Neovison vison.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Ken; Fukue, Yuko; Kishimoto, Ryosuke; Shindo, Junji; Kageyama, Ikuo

    2014-05-01

    We observed the morphology of the lingual papillae (filiform, conical, fungiform, and vallate papillae, and lateral organ) and their connective tissue cores (CTCs) in the American mink (Neovison vison) using light and scanning electron microscopy. Filiform papillae were distributed on the apex linguae and rostral regions of the corpus linguae. Conical papillae were distributed over the caudal region and absent in the radix linguae. Numerous ridges were present in the radix linguae. Four to six vallate papillae were situated at the border between the corpus and radix linguae. Instead of foliate papillae, a pair of lateral organs was situated on the caudal edge of the corpus. The epithelial surface of each filiform papilla consisted of a single main process and 10-12 accessory processes. Notably, filiform papillae in the apex linguae exhibited morphological variation, and some were dome-like and lacked processes. In contrast, filiform papillae on the rostral part were not variable, were extended to a sharp tip, were associated with an eosinophilic stratum corneum, and lacked nuclei. The CTCs of the filiform papillae consisted of a main core and slender accessory cores surrounding a concavity. Those in the apex linguae were similar in appearance and consisted of main and adjacent accessory cores. The fungiform papillae had a dome-like epithelial surface and their CTCs were columnar, with upper concavities and flanges. The simplified lingual morphology of the American mink, particularly in the filiform papillae in the apex linguae, may be influenced by its diet and semiaquatic lifestyle. PMID:24832902

  7. Altered Expression of Autoimmune Regulator in Infant Down Syndrome Thymus, a Possible Contributor to an Autoimmune Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, Vanja; Lindgren, Susanne; Gudmundsdottir, Judith; Sandström, Kerstin; Kämpe, Olle; Annerén, Göran; Gustafsson, Jan; Sunnegårdh, Jan; van der Post, Sjoerd; Telemo, Esbjörn; Berglund, Martin; Ekwall, Olov

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy of chromosome 21, is associated with immunological dysfunctions such as increased frequency of infections and autoimmune diseases. Patients with DS share clinical features, such as autoimmune manifestations and specific autoantibodies, with patients affected by autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 is caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, located on chromosome 21, which regulates the expression of tissue-restricted Ags (TRAs) in thymic epithelial cells. We investigated the expression of AIRE and TRAs in DS and control thymic tissue using quantitative PCR. AIRE mRNA levels were elevated in thymic tissue from DS patients, and trends toward increased expression of the AIRE-controlled genes INSULIN and CHRNA1 were found. Immunohistochemical stainings showed altered cell composition and architecture of the thymic medulla in DS individuals with increased frequencies of AIRE-positive medullary epithelial cells and CD11c-positive dendritic cells as well as enlarged Hassall’s corpuscles. In addition, we evaluated the proteomic profile of thymic exosomes in DS individuals and controls. DS exosomes carried a broader protein pool and also a larger pool of unique TRAs compared with control exosomes. In conclusion, the increased AIRE gene dose in DS could contribute to an autoimmune phenotype through multiple AIRE-mediated effects on homeostasis and function of thymic epithelial cells that affect thymic selection processes. PMID:25038256

  8. Evaluation of autoimmune phenomena in patients with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS).

    PubMed

    Stagi, Stefano; Rigante, Donato; Lepri, Gemma; Bertini, Federico; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Falcini, Fernanda

    2014-12-01

    The pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) are basically characterized by obsessive-compulsive symptoms and/or tics triggered by group-A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus infections. Poor data are available about the clear definition of PANDAS's autoimmune origin. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of autoimmune phenomena, including thyroid function abnormalities, specific celiac disease antibodies, and positivity of organ- or nonorgan-specific autoantibodies in a large cohort of Caucasian children and adolescents with PANDAS. Seventy-seven consecutive patients (59 males, 18 females; mean age 6.3±2.5 years, range 2.0-14.5 years) strictly fulfilling the clinical criteria for PANDAS diagnosis were recruited. In all subjects we evaluated serum concentrations of free-T3, free-T4, thyrotropin, and the following auto-antibodies: anti-thyroperoxidase, anti-thyroglobulin, anti-thyrotropin receptor, anti-gliadin, anti-endomysium, anti-tissue transglutaminase, anti-nuclear, anti-smooth muscle, anti-extractable nuclear antigens, anti-phospholipid, plus lupus-like anticoagulant. The results were compared with those obtained from 197 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (130 males, 67 females; mean age 6.8±2.9 years, range 2.3-14.8 years). The frequencies of subclinical (3.8% vs 3.6%) and overt hypothyroidism (1.2% vs 0%), autoimmune thyroiditis (2.46% vs 1.14%), celiac disease (1.2% vs 0.05%), and positivity of organ- and nonorgan-specific autoantibodies (5.1% vs 4.8%) were not statistically significant between patients with PANDAS and controls. Evaluating the overall disease duration, we did not observe any significant difference between patients with (3.4±2.15 years) and without (3.4±2.89 years) autoimmune abnormalities. However, PANDAS patients with autoimmune diseases or positivity for any organ- and nonorgan-specific antibodies showed significantly higher anti-streptolysin O and anti-DNAse B titers, as well as a history of more frequent throat infections than controls (p<0.0001). Abnormalities of thyroid function and thyroid autoimmune diseases, as well as the association with celiac disease or organ- and nonorgan-specific autoimmunity seem not more frequent in children and adolescents with PANDAS than in healthy controls. A potential relationship between autoimmunity and PANDAS should be assessed further in larger studies. Children and adolescents with PANDAS should not be actually screened for thyroid function, celiac disease and/or autoimmune diseases. PMID:25151976

  9. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia: From lab to bedside.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, R K; Das, Sudipta Sekhar

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is not an uncommon clinical disorder and requires advanced, efficient immunohematological and transfusion support. Many AIHA patients have underlying disorder and therefore, it is incumbent upon the clinician to investigate these patients in detail, as the underlying condition can be of a serious nature such as lymphoproliferative disorder or connective tissue disorder. Despite advances in transfusion medicine, simple immunohematological test such as direct antiglobulin test (DAT) still remains the diagnostic hallmark of AIHA. The sensitive gel technology has enabled the immunohematologist not only to diagnose serologically such patients, but also to characterize red cell bound autoantibodies with regard to their class, subclass and titer in a rapid and simplified way. Detailed characterization of autoantibodies is important, as there is a relationship between in vivo hemolysis and strength of DAT; red cell bound multiple immunoglobulins, immunoglobulin G subclass and titer. Transfusing AIHA patient is a challenge to the immunohematologist as it is encountered with difficulties in ABO grouping and cross matching requiring specialized serological tests such as alloadsorption or autoadsorption. At times, it may be almost impossible to find a fully matched unit to transfuse these patients. However, transfusion should not be withheld in a critically ill patient even in the absence of compatible blood. The "best match" or "least incompatible units" can be transfused to such patients under close supervision without any serious side-effects. All blood banks should have the facilities to perform the necessary investigations required to issue "best match" packed red blood cells in AIHA. Specialized techniques such as elution and adsorption, which at times are helpful in enhancing blood safety in AIHA should be established in all transfusion services. PMID:24678166

  10. Scurfy mice: A model for autoimmune disease

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, V.L.

    1993-01-01

    Autoimmune disease-the condition in which the body attacks its own tissue-has been an object of public concern recently. Former President George Bush and his wife Barbara both are afflicted with Graves' disease in which the body's own immune system attakcs the thyroid gland. The safety of breast implants was called into question because of evidence that some recipients had developed autoimmune disorders such a rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and scleroderma. Women, the media pointed out, have a higher-than-average incidence of many autoimmune disorders. These events suggest the need to know more about what makes the immune system work so well and what makes it go awry. At ORNL's Biology Division, progress is being in understanding the underlying causes of immune disease by studying mice having a disease that causes them to be underdeveloped; to have scaly skin, small ears, and large spleens; to open their eyes late; and to die early. These [open quotes]scurfy[close quotes]mice are helping us better understand the role of the thymus gland in autoimmune disease.

  11. Autoimmune Channelopathies of the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Kleopa, Kleopas A

    2011-01-01

    Ion channels are complex transmembrane proteins that orchestrate the electrical signals necessary for normal function of excitable tissues, including the central nervous system, peripheral nerve, and both skeletal and cardiac muscle. Progress in molecular biology has allowed cloning and expression of genes that encode channel proteins, while comparable advances in biophysics, including patch-clamp electrophysiology and related techniques, have made the functional assessment of expressed proteins at the level of single channel molecules possible. The role of ion channel defects in the pathogenesis of numerous disorders has become increasingly apparent over the last two decades. Neurological channelopathies are frequently genetically determined but may also be acquired through autoimmune mechanisms. All of these autoimmune conditions can arise as paraneoplastic syndromes or independent from malignancies. The pathogenicity of autoantibodies to ion channels has been demonstrated in most of these conditions, and patients may respond well to immunotherapies that reduce the levels of the pathogenic autoantibodies. Autoimmune channelopathies may have a good prognosis, especially if diagnosed and treated early, and if they are non-paraneoplastic. This review focuses on clinical, pathophysiologic and therapeutic aspects of autoimmune ion channel disorders of the nervous system. PMID:22379460

  12. Anticytokine gene therapy of autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Prud'homme, G J; Lawson, B R; Theofilopoulos, A N

    2001-05-01

    Viral and nonviral gene therapy vectors have been successfully employed to deliver inflammatory cytokine inhibitors (anticytokines), or anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta 1), which protect against experimental autoimmune diseases. These vectors carry the relevant genes into a variety of tissues, for either localised or systemic release of the encoded protein. Administration of cDNA encoding soluble IFN-gamma receptor (IFN-gamma R)/IgG-Fc fusion proteins, soluble TNF-alpha receptors, or IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), protects against either lupus, various forms of arthritis, autoimmune diabetes, or other autoimmune diseases. These inhibitors, unlike many cytokines, have little or no toxic potential. Similarly, TGF-beta 1 gene therapy protects against numerous forms of autoimmunity, though its administration entails more risk than anticytokine therapy. We have relied on the injection of naked plasmid DNA into skeletal muscle, with or without enhancement of gene transfer by in vivo electroporation. Expression plasmids offer interesting advantages over viral vectors, since they are simple to produce, non-immunogenic and nonpathogenic. They can be repeatedly administered and after each treatment the encoded proteins are produced for relatively long periods, ranging from weeks to months. Moreover, soluble receptors which block cytokine action, encoded by gene therapy vectors, can be constructed from non-immunogenic self elements that are unlikely to be neutralised by the host immune response (unlike monoclonal antibodies [mAbs]), allowing long-term gene therapy of chronic inflammatory disorders. PMID:11727511

  13. Compromised central tolerance of ICA69 induces multiple organ autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yong; Gualtierotti, Giulio; Tajima, Asako; Grupillo, Maria; Coppola, Antonina; He, Jing; Bertera, Suzanne; Owens, Gregory; Pietropaolo, Massimo; Rudert, William A; Trucco, Massimo

    2014-09-01

    For reasons not fully understood, patients with an organ-specific autoimmune disease have increased risks of developing autoimmune responses against other organs/tissues. We identified ICA69, a known ?-cell autoantigen in Type 1 diabetes, as a potential common target in multi-organ autoimmunity. NOD mice immunized with ICA69 polypeptides exhibited exacerbated inflammation not only in the islets, but also in the salivary glands. To further investigate ICA69 autoimmunity, two genetically modified mouse lines were generated to modulate thymic ICA69 expression: the heterozygous ICA69(del/wt) line and the thymic medullary epithelial cell-specific deletion Aire-?ICA69 line. Suboptimal central negative selection of ICA69-reactive T-cells was observed in both lines. Aire-?ICA69 mice spontaneously developed coincident autoimmune responses to the pancreas, the salivary glands, the thyroid, and the stomach. Our findings establish a direct link between compromised thymic ICA69 expression and autoimmunity against multiple ICA69-expressing organs, and identify a potential novel mechanism for the development of multi-organ autoimmune diseases. PMID:25088457

  14. Nerve growth factor induces development of connective tissue-type mast cells in vitro from murine bone marrow cells

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on proliferation/differentiation of mast cells was investigated in vitro. Although NGF alone neither supported colony formation of bone marrow- derived cultured mast cells (BMCMC) nor induced development of mast cell colonies from nonadherent bone marrow cells (NBMC), addition of NGF to the suboptimal dose of interleukin 3 (IL-3) significantly increased the numbers of mast cell colonies produced by BMCMC or NBMC in methylcellulose. When stimulated by IL-3 alone, cells in mast cell colonies were not stained by berberine sulfate, a fluorescent dye. In contrast, mast cells developing in methylcellulose cultures obtaining both IL-3 and NGF were stained by berberine sulfate. The fluorescence was abolished by the treatment of heparinase but not of chondroitinase ABC, suggesting that mast cells stimulated by IL-3 and NGF produced and stored heparin proteoglycan. The histamine content of BMCMC maintained by IL-3 was also increased by addition of NGF. Since BMCMC showed mucosal mast cell-like phenotype, NGF appeared to induce the phenotypic change to connective tissue-type mast cells (CTMC). In the culture containing BMCMC, 3T3 fibroblasts, and IL-3, the phenotypic change of BMCMC to CTMC was observed as well. Since NGF was detected in this coculture and since addition of anti-NGF monoclonal antibody suppressed the phenotypic change, NGF produced by fibroblasts appeared to induce the phenotypic change. Neither BMCMC alone nor IL-3 alone increased the concentration of NGF. Therefore, there is a possibility that BMCMC stimulated by IL-3 may induce the production and/or release of NGF by fibroblasts. PMID:1711569

  15. Adverse effects of high glucose and free fatty acid on cardiomyocytes are mediated by connective tissue growth factor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; McLennan, Susan V; Allen, Terri J; Tsoutsman, Tatiana; Semsarian, Christopher; Twigg, Stephen M

    2009-12-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterized by interstitial fibrosis and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis. Also known as CCN2, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is implicated in the fibrosis; however, whether it contributes to cardiomyocytes changes and adverse effects of high glucose and lipids on these cells remains unknown. Hearts from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats had elevated CTGF and changes of pathological myocardial hypertrophy, fibrosis, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Rat H9c2 cardiomyocytes were then treated with recombinant human (rh)CTGF, high glucose, or the saturated free fatty acid palmitate. Each reagent induced cell hypertrophy, as indicated by the ratio of total protein to cell number, cell size, and gene expression of cardiac hypertrophy marker genes atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and alpha-skeletal actin. Each treatment also caused apoptosis measured by increased caspase3/7 activity, apoptotic cells by transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and lower viable cell number. Further studies showed CTGF mRNA was rapidly induced by high glucose and palmitate in H9c2 cells and in mouse neonatal cardiomyocyte primary cultures. small interfering RNA against CTGF blocked the high glucose and palmitate induction of hypertrophy and apoptosis. In addition, these CTGF effects were through the tyrosine kinase A (TrkA) receptor with tyrosine kinase activity, which has previously been implicated in CTGF signaling: TrkA was phosphorylated by CTGF, and a specific TrkA blocker abrogated CTGF-induced effects on hypertrophy and apoptosis. For the first time in any system, fatty acid is newly identified as a regulator of CTGF, and this work implicates autocrine CTGF as a mediator of adverse effects of high glucose and fatty acids in cardiomyocytes. PMID:19625611

  16. Connective tissue growth factor/CCN2-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts retain intact transforming growth factor-{beta} responsiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Yasuji; Hinchcliff, Monique; Wu, Minghua; Warner-Blankenship, Matthew [Division of Rheumatology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 240 E Huron Street, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Lyons, Karen M. [OH/UCLA Department of Orthopedic Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Varga, John [Division of Rheumatology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 240 E Huron Street, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States)], E-mail: j-varga@northwestern.edu

    2008-03-10

    Background: The matricellular protein connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) has been implicated in pathological fibrosis, but its physiologic role remains elusive. In vitro, transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) induces CCN2 expression in mesenchymal cells. Because CCN2 can enhance profibrotic responses elicited by TGF-{beta}, it has been proposed that CCN2 functions as an essential downstream signaling mediator for TGF-{beta}. To explore this notion, we characterized TGF-{beta}-induced activation of fibroblasts from CCN2-null (CCN2{sup -/-}) mouse embryos. Methods: The regulation of CCN2 expression was examined in vivo in a model of fibrosis induced by bleomycin. Cellular TGF-{beta} signal transduction and regulation of collagen gene expression were examined in CCN2{sup -/-} MEFs by immunohistochemistry, Northern, Western and RT-PCR analysis, immunocytochemistry and transient transfection assays. Results: Bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis in the mouse was associated with substantial CCN2 up-regulation in lesional fibroblasts. Whereas in vitro proliferation rate of CCN2{sup -/-} MEFs was markedly reduced compared to wild type MEFs, TGF-{beta}-induced activation of the Smad pathways, including Smad2 phosphorylation, Smad2/3 and Smad4 nuclear accumulation and Smad-dependent transcriptional responses, were unaffected by loss of CCN2. The stimulation of COL1A2 and fibronectin mRNA expression and promoter activity, and of corresponding protein levels, showed comparable time and dose-response in wild type and CCN2{sup -/-} MEFs, whereas stimulation of alpha smooth muscle actin and myofibroblast transdifferentiation showed subtle impairment in MEFs lacking CCN2. Conclusion: Whereas endogenous CCN2 plays a role in regulation of proliferation and TGF-{beta}-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation, it appears to be dispensable for Smad-dependent stimulation of collagen and extracellular matrix synthesis in murine embryonic fibroblasts.

  17. MicroRNA control in the development of systemic autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian immune responses are intended to eradicate microbial pathogens and thus protect individuals from the harmful effects of such infections. However, unresolved inflammation can be devastating to the host and cause tissue damage and organ malfunction. Immune responses can even mistakenly target self-antigens and mediate autoimmune inflammation. Consequently, a variety of cellular and molecular mechanisms have evolved to control the inflammatory responses, and many of these safeguards or triggers are perturbed in the setting of autoimmunity. In this review, we discuss the emerging roles of cellular non-coding RNAs, and in particular microRNAs (miRNAs), in the regulation of autoimmune inflammation. How miRNAs function to impact the onset, magnitude, and resolution of inflammatory responses and recent observations regarding links between miRNAs and specific autoimmune disorders will be addressed. Finally, the diagnostic and therapeutic relevance of miRNAs involved in autoimmunity will be considered. It is clear that, taken together, mammalian miRNAs are integral to the pathogenesis of mammalian autoimmune diseases and may be effective targets of next-generation therapeutics aimed at eradicating tissue inflammation. PMID:23379780

  18. Degradation of connective tissue matrices by macrophages. II. Influence of matrix composition on proteolysis of glycoproteins, elastin, and collagen by macrophages in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.A. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles); Werb, Z.

    1980-12-01

    Thioglycollate-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages were cultured in contact with the mixture of extracellular matrix proteins produced by rat smooth muscle cells in culture. Both live macrophages and their conditioned media hydrolyzed glycoproteins, elastin, and collagen. Live macrophages also degraded extracellular connective tissue proteins secreted by endothelial cells and fibroblasts. The glycoproteins in the matrix markedly inhibited the rate of digestion of the other macromolecules, particularly elastin. When plasminogen was added to the matrix, activation of plasminogen to plasmin resulted in the hydrolysis of the glycoprotein components, which then allowed the macrophage elastase easier access to its substrate, elastin. Thus, although plasmin has no direct elastinolytic activity, its presence accelerated the rate of hydrolysis of elastin and therefore the rate of matrix degradation. These findings may be important in an understanding of disease states, such as emphysema and atherosclerosis, that are characterized by the destruction of connective tissue.

  19. Connective tissue cells, but not muscle cells, are involved in establishing the proximo-distal outcome of limb regeneration in the axolotl.

    PubMed

    Nacu, Eugen; Glausch, Mareen; Le, Huy Quang; Damanik, Febriyani Fiain Rochel; Schuez, Maritta; Knapp, Dunja; Khattak, Shahryar; Richter, Tobias; Tanaka, Elly M

    2013-02-01

    During salamander limb regeneration, only the structures distal to the amputation plane are regenerated, a property known as the rule of distal transformation. Multiple cell types are involved in limb regeneration; therefore, determining which cell types participate in distal transformation is important for understanding how the proximo-distal outcome of regeneration is achieved. We show that connective tissue-derived blastema cells obey the rule of distal transformation. They also have nuclear MEIS, which can act as an upper arm identity regulator, only upon upper arm amputation. By contrast, myogenic cells do not obey the rule of distal transformation and display nuclear MEIS upon amputation at any proximo-distal level. These results indicate that connective tissue cells, but not myogenic cells, are involved in establishing the proximo-distal outcome of regeneration and are likely to guide muscle patterning. Moreover, we show that, similarly to limb development, muscle patterning in regeneration is influenced by ?-catenin signalling. PMID:23293283

  20. A double blind, randomised, multicentre comparison of two doses of intravenous iloprost in the treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon secondary to connective tissue diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H I Torley; R Madhok; H A Capell; R M Brouwer; P J Maddison; C M Black; H Englert; J A Dormandy; H R Watson

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare low (0.5 ng\\/kg\\/min) and standard dose (2 ng\\/kg\\/min) iloprost (a stable carbacyclin analogue of prostacyclin) in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon secondary to connective tissue disorders. DESIGN--Double blind, random allocation, three six hour infusions on consecutive days. Follow up period eight weeks. SETTING--Rheumatology units, five teaching hospitals. PATIENTS--55 Patients with Raynaud's phenomenon (greater than seven attacks per week), 32

  1. Fluctuations in anti-nRNP levels in patients with mixed connective tissue disease are related to disease activity as part of a polyclonal B cell response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P M Houtman; C G Kallenberg; P C Limburg; M A van Leeuwen; M H van Rijswijk; T H The

    1986-01-01

    In a follow up study of 11 patients with mixed connective tissue disease the levels of antibodies to nuclear ribonucleoprotein (nRNP) as measured by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were related to clinical activity of disease. To assess the relation between anti-nRNP levels and disease activity the levels of total immunoglobulin G, IgM rheumatoid factor (IgM RF), and antibodies

  2. Inhibition of Integrin-Linked Kinase via a siRNA Expression Plasmid Attenuates Connective Tissue Growth Factor-Induced Human Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells to Mesenchymal Transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bi-Cheng Liu; Min-Xia Li; Jian-Dong Zhang; Xiao-Cong Liu; Xiao-Liang Zhang; Aled O. Phillips

    2008-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence suggests that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is involved in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The exact intracellular events that drive this process, however, are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the role of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) in mediating CTGF-induced EMT. Methods: The expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and E-cadherin upon the stimulation by recombinant

  3. Irbesartan Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy by Reducing the Expression of Connective Tissue Growth Factor and Alpha-Smooth-Muscle Actin in the Tubulointerstitium of Diabetic Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaojun Ren; Guangju Guan; Gang Liu; Gaohong Liu

    2009-01-01

    The effect of irbesartan on the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and ?-smooth-muscle actin (?-SMA) in the renal tubulointerstitium of diabetic rats was investigated in our study. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (STZ), 60 mg·kg–1 body weight. The rats were then randomized to a diabetic group (DM) and an irbesartan therapy

  4. Leishmaniasis and autoimmune diseases in pediatric age.

    PubMed

    Nozzi, M; Del Torto, M; Chiarelli, F; Breda, L

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a group of diseases caused by the protozoa Leishmania, endemic in the Mediterranean countries. Clinical manifestations can be divided into three different forms: cutaneous leishmaniasis, mucosal leishmaniasis and the visceral leishmaniasis, the most severe form which is potentially lethal if untreated. Immunology and pathogenesis are complex: many different aspects of immune response, resistance and susceptibility to Leishmania have been studied but many others remain to be clarified. The gold standard in diagnosis of visceral Leishmaniasis is the presence of amastigotes in bone marrow or tissue sections. Patients can be initially misdiagnosed as having an autoimmune disease because it may mimic diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus, autoimmune hepatitis, dermatomyositis or others disorders. As in pediatric age the risk of life-threatening complications is very high, leishmaniasis, must be kept in mind to the clinician, in order to avoid wrong diagnosis and an inappropriate immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:25240149

  5. Integrin Mediated Adhesion of Osteoblasts to Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF/CCN2) Induces Cytoskeleton Reorganization and Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Hendesi, Honey; Barbe, Mary F.; Safadi, Fayez F.; Monroy, M. Alexandra; Popoff, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-osteoblast adhesion and interaction with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins through integrin receptors result in activation of signaling pathways regulating osteoblast differentiation. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is a matricellular protein secreted into the ECM. Prior studies in various cell types have shown that cell adhesion to CTGF via integrin receptors results in activation of specific signaling pathways that regulate cell functions, such as differentiation and cytoskeletal reorganization. To date, there are no studies that have examined whether CTGF can serve as an adhesive substrate for osteoblasts. In this study, we used the MC3T3-E1 cell line to demonstrate that CTGF serves as an adhesive matrix for osteoblasts. Anti-integrin blocking experiments and co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that the integrin ?v?1 plays a key role in osteoblast adhesion to a CTGF matrix. Immunofluorescence staining of osteoblasts cultured on a CTGF matrix confirmed actin cytoskeletal reorganization, enhanced spreading, formation of focal adhesions, and activation of Rac1. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and activity assays, as well as Alizarin red staining demonstrated that osteoblast attachment to CTGF matrix enhanced maturation, bone nodule formation and matrix mineralization. To investigate whether the effect of CTGF on osteoblast differentiation involves integrin-mediated activation of specific signaling pathways, we performed Western blot, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and qPCR assays. Osteoblasts cultured on a CTGF matrix showed increased total and phosphorylated (activated) forms of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Inhibition of ERK blocked osteogenic differentiation in cells cultured on a CTGF matrix. There was an increase in runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) binding to the osteocalcin gene promoter, and in the expression of osteogenic markers regulated by Runx2. Collectively, the results of this study are the first to demonstrate CTGF serves as a suitable matrix protein, enhancing osteoblast adhesion (via ?v?1 integrin) and promoting cell spreading via cytoskeletal reorganization and Rac1 activation. Furthermore, integrin-mediated activation of ERK signaling resulted in increased osteoblast differentiation accompanied by an increase in Runx2 binding to the osteocalcin promoter and in the expression of osteogenic markers. PMID:25714841

  6. Leptin in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Procaccini, Claudio; Pucino, Valentina; Mantzoros, Christos S; Matarese, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The past twenty years of research on leptin has provided crucial information on the link between metabolic state and immune system function. Adipocytes influence not only the endocrine system but also the immune response, through several cytokine-like mediators known as adipokines, which include leptin. Initially described as an antiobesity hormone, leptin has subsequently been shown also to influence hematopoiesis, thermogenesis, reproduction, angiogenesis, and more importantly immune homeostasis. As a cytokine, leptin can affect thymic homeostasis and the secretion of acute-phase reactants such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor-necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?). Leptin links nutritional status and proinflammatory T helper 1 (Th1) immune responses and the decrease in leptin plasma concentration during food deprivation leads to impaired immune function. Conversely, elevated circulating leptin levels in obesity appear to contribute to the low-grade inflammatory background which makes obese individuals more susceptible to increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, or degenerative disease including autoimmunity and cancer. In this review, we provide an overview of recent advances on the role of leptin in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune disorders that may be of particular relevance in the modulation of the autoimmune attack through metabolic-based therapeutic approaches. PMID:25467840

  7. Current and Future Immunomodulation Strategies to Restore Tolerance in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bluestone, Jeffrey A.; Bour-Jordan, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases reflect a breakdown in self-tolerance that results from defects in thymic deletion of potentially autoreactive T cells (central tolerance) and in T-cell intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms that normally control potentially autoreactive T cells in the periphery (peripheral tolerance). The mechanisms leading to autoimmune diseases are multifactorial and depend on a complex combination of genetic, epigenetic, molecular, and cellular elements that result in pathogenic inflammatory responses in peripheral tissues driven by self-antigen-specific T cells. In this article, we describe the different checkpoints of tolerance that are defective in autoimmune diseases as well as specific events in the autoimmune response which represent therapeutic opportunities to restore long-term tolerance in autoimmune diseases. We present evidence for the role of different pathways in animal models and the therapeutic strategies targeting these pathways in clinical trials in autoimmune diseases. PMID:23125012

  8. Targeting Dendritic Cell Function during Systemic Autoimmunity to Restore Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Mackern-Oberti, Juan P.; Vega, Fabián; Llanos, Carolina; Bueno, Susan M.; Kalergis, Alexis M.

    2014-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases can damage nearly every tissue or cell type of the body. Although a great deal of progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, current therapies have not been improved, remain unspecific and are associated with significant side effects. Because dendritic cells (DCs) play a major role in promoting immune tolerance against self-antigens (self-Ags), current efforts are focusing at generating new therapies based on the transfer of tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs) during autoimmunity. However, the feasibility of this approach during systemic autoimmunity has yet to be evaluated. TolDCs may ameliorate autoimmunity mainly by restoring T cell tolerance and, thus, indirectly modulating autoantibody development. In vitro induction of tolDCs loaded with immunodominant self-Ags and subsequent cell transfer to patients would be a specific new therapy that will avoid systemic immunosuppression. Herein, we review recent approaches evaluating the potential of tolDCs for the treatment of systemic autoimmune disorders. PMID:25229821

  9. Do extracellular matrix protein expressions change with cyclic reproductive hormones in pelvic connective tissue from women with stress urinary incontinence?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Wen; Mary Lake Polan; Bertha Chen

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate differential expression of transforming growth factor (TGF-b1), latent transforming factor-binding proteins (LTBP-1, LTBP-2) and elastin microfibril components (fibrillin-1 and fibrillin-2) in vaginal tissue from women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). METHODS: In this case-control study, vaginal tissue from women in both phases of the menstrual cycle was obtained. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of LTBP-1, LTBP-2, fibrillin-1, fibrillin-2

  10. Differential expression of fibrillin-3 adds to microfibril variety in human and avian, but not rodent, connective tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glen M. Corson; Noe L. Charbonneau; Douglas R. Keene; Lynn Y. Sakai

    2004-01-01

    The human genome contains three fibrillins: FBN1 and FBN2, both well characterized, and FBN3, reported only as a cDNA sequence. Like FBN2, the highest expression levels of FBN3 were found in fetal tissues, with only low levels in postnatal tissues. Immunolocalization demonstrated fibrillin-3 in extracellular microfibrils abundant in developing skeletal elements, skin, lung, kidney, and skeletal muscle. Unlike the other

  11. 4-Dechloro-14-deoxy-oxacyclododecindione and 14-deoxy-oxacylododecindione, two inhibitors of inducible connective tissue growth factor expression from the imperfect fungus Exserohilum rostratum.

    PubMed

    Richter, Julia; Sandjo, Louis P; Liermann, Johannes C; Opatz, Till; Erkel, Gerhard

    2015-02-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2), a member of the CCN superfamily of secreted cysteine-rich glycoproteins, is a central mediator of tissue remodeling and fibrosis. CTGF is suggested to be an important down-stream effector of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) signaling and has therefore reached considerable pathophysiological relevance because of its involvement in the pathogenesis of fibrotic diseases, atherosclerosis, skin scarring, and other conditions with excess production of connective tissue. In a search for inhibitors of inducible CTGF expression from fungi, two new macrocyclic lactones, namely 4-dechloro-14-deoxy-oxacyclododecindione (1) and 14-deoxy-oxacylododecindione, (2) along with the previously described congener oxacyclododecindione (3) were isolated from fermentations of the imperfect fungus Exserohilum rostratum. The structure of the compounds were elucidated by a combination of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Compounds 1 and 2 turned out to inhibit TGF-? induced CTGF promoter activity in transiently transfected HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 1.8 ?M and 336 nM, respectively, and also antagonized TGF-? induced cellular effects including CTGF mRNA levels, CTGF protein expression and tube formation. PMID:25537529

  12. Fueling Autoimmunity: Type I Interferon in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Di Domizio, Jeremy; Cao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Summary In recent years, active research using genomic, cellular and animal modeling approaches has revealed the fundamental forces driving the development of autoimmune diseases. Type I IFN (IFN) imprints unique molecular signatures in a list of autoimmune diseases. IFN is induced by diverse nucleic acid-containing complexes, which trigger innate immune activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). IFN primes, activates or differentiates various leukocyte populations to promote autoimmunity. Accordingly, IFN signaling is essential for the initiation and/or progression of lupus in several experimental models. However, the heterogeneous nature of SLE requires better characterization on how IFN pathways are activated and subsequently promote the advancement of autoimmune diseases. Given the central role of type I IFN, various strategies are devised to target these cytokines or related pathways to curtail the progression of autoimmune diseases. PMID:23445195

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Guillain-Barre syndrome), or the connective tissues (systemic lupus erythematosus) that provide strength and flexibility to structures ... involves lymphoproliferation and the tendency to develop systemic lupus erythematosus. Individuals with this form of the disorder ...

  14. An autoimmune myositis-overlap syndrome associated with autoantibodies to nuclear pore complexes: description and long-term follow-up of the anti-Nup syndrome.

    PubMed

    Senécal, Jean-Luc; Isabelle, Catherine; Fritzler, Marvin J; Targoff, Ira N; Goldstein, Rose; Gagné, Michel; Raynauld, Jean-Pierre; Joyal, France; Troyanov, Yves; Dabauvalle, Marie-Christine

    2014-11-01

    Autoimmune myositis encompasses various myositis-overlap syndromes, each being identified by the presence of serum marker autoantibodies. We describe a novel myositis-overlap syndrome in 4 patients characterized by the presence of a unique immunologic marker, autoantibodies to nuclear pore complexes. The clinical phenotype was characterized by prominent myositis in association with erosive, anti-CCP, and rheumatoid factor-positive arthritis, trigeminal neuralgia, mild interstitial lung disease, Raynaud phenomenon, and weight loss. The myositis was typically chronic, relapsing, and refractory to corticosteroids alone, but remitted with the addition of a second immunomodulating drug. There was no clinical or laboratory evidence for liver disease. The prognosis was good with 100% long-term survival (mean follow-up 19.5 yr).By indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells, sera from all 4 patients displayed a high titer of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) with a distinct punctate peripheral (rim) fluorescent pattern of the nuclear envelope characteristic of nuclear pore complexes. Reactivity with nuclear pore complexes was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. In a cohort of 100 French Canadian patients with autoimmune myositis, the nuclear pore complex fluorescent ANA pattern was restricted to these 4 patients (4%). It was not observed in sera from 393 adult patients with systemic sclerosis (n?=?112), mixed connective tissue disease (n?=?35), systemic lupus (n?=?94), rheumatoid arthritis (n?=?45), or other rheumatic diseases (n?=?107), nor was it observed in 62 normal adults.Autoantibodies to nuclear pore complexes were predominantly of IgG isotype. No other IgG autoantibody markers for defined connective tissue diseases or overlap syndromes were present, indicating a selective and highly focused immune response. In 3 patients, anti-nuclear pore complex autoantibody titers varied in parallel with myositis activity, suggesting a pathogenic link to pathophysiology. The nuclear pore complex proteins, that is, nucleoporins (nup), recognized by these sera were heterogeneous and included Nup358/RanBP2 (n?=?2 patients), Nup90 (n?=?1), Nup62 (n?=?1), and gp210 (n?=?1). Taken together the data suggest that nup autoantigens themselves drive the anti-nup autoimmune response. Immunogenetically, the 4 patients shared the DQA1*0501 allele associated with an increased risk for autoimmune myositis.In conclusion, we report an apparent novel subset of autoimmune myositis in our population of French Canadian patients with connective tissue diseases. This syndrome is recognized by the presence of a unique immunologic marker, autoantibodies to nuclear pore complexes that react with nups, consistent with an "anti-nup syndrome." PMID:25500708

  15. Mast Cell and Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yunzhi; Chen, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells are important in innate immune system. They have been appreciated as potent contributors to allergic reaction. However, increasing evidence implicates the important role of mast cells in autoimmune disease like rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Here we review the current stage of knowledge about mast cells in autoimmune diseases. PMID:25944979

  16. Extraintestinal Manifestations of Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomica Milosavljevic; Mirjana Kostic-Milosavljevic; Ivan Jovanovic; Miodrag Krstic

    2012-01-01

    The term autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) was first used in Japan in 1995 to describe a newly recognized form of chronic pancreatitis, after the description of Yoshida and colleagues. But Sarles in 1961, first described a form of idiopathic chronic inflammatory sclerosis of the pancreas, suspected to be due to an autoimmune process. AIP has become a widely accepted term because

  17. Novel autoantigens in autoimmune hypophysitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabella Lupi; Karl W. Broman; Shey-Cherng Tzou; Angelika Gutenberg; Enio Martino; Patrizio Caturegli

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Pituitary autoantibodies are found in autoimmune hypophysitis and other conditions. They are a marker of pituitary autoimmunity but currently have limited clinical value. The methods used for their detection lack adequate sensitivity and specificity, mainly because the pathogenic pituitary autoantigen(s) are not known and therefore antigen-based immunoassays have not been developed. Objectives This study aimed to identify novel

  18. The Protein Precursors of Peptides That Affect the Mechanics of Connective Tissue and/or Muscle in the Echinoderm Apostichopus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Elphick, Maurice R.

    2012-01-01

    Peptides that cause muscle relaxation or contraction or that modulate electrically-induced muscle contraction have been discovered in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Phylum Echinodermata; Class Holothuroidea). By analysing transcriptome sequence data, here the protein precursors of six of these myoactive peptides (the SALMFamides Sticho-MFamide-1 and -2, NGIWYamide, stichopin, GN-19 and GLRFA) have been identified, providing novel insights on neuropeptide and endocrine-type signalling systems in echinoderms. The A. japonicus SALMFamide precursor comprises eight putative neuropeptides including both L-type and F-type SALMFamides, which contrasts with previous findings from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus where L-type and F-type SALMFamides are encoded by different genes. The NGIWYamide precursor contains five copies of NGIWYamide but, unlike other NG peptide-type neuropeptide precursors in deuterostomian invertebrates, the NGIWYamide precursor does not have a C-terminal neurophysin domain, indicating loss of this character in holothurians. NGIWYamide was originally discovered as a muscle contractant, but it also causes stiffening of mutable connective tissue in the body wall of A. japonicus, whilst holokinins (PLGYMFR and derivative peptides) cause softening of the body wall. However, the mechanisms by which these peptides affect the stiffness of body wall connective tissue are unknown. Interestingly, analysis of the A. japonicus transcriptome reveals that the only protein containing the holokinin sequence PLGYMFR is an alpha-5 type collagen. This suggests that proteolysis of collagen may generate peptides (holokinins) that affect body wall stiffness in sea cucumbers, providing a novel perspective on mechanisms of mutable connective tissue in echinoderms. PMID:22952987

  19. A kindred exhibiting cosegregation of an overlap connective tissue disorder and the chromosome 16 linked form of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Somlo, S; Rutecki, G; Giuffra, L A; Reeders, S T; Cugino, A; Whittier, F C

    1993-12-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a disorder of adult onset manifested by bilaterally enlarged cystic kidneys frequently associated with progressive renal failure. The mutated gene (PKD1) responsible for 85 to 95% of cases has been localized to a small segment on the distal tip of the short arm of chromosome 16. A clinical spectrum of heritable connective tissue disorders that remain unclassifiable under the present nosology but that contain elements of the Marfan's syndrome have previously been described. The genetic localization and molecular basis of such overlap connective tissue disorders (OCTD) have not been elucidated. In this report, a kindred in which ADPKD and OCTD appear to cosegregate is described. The connective tissue phenotype in this family includes aortic root dilation, aortic and vertebral artery aneurysms with dissection, and aortic valve incompetence, as well as pectus abnormalities, pes planus, joint laxity, arachnodactyly, scoliosis, dolichostenomelia, and high arched palate. ADPKD was manifest primarily as bilateral renal cysts with or without renal failure. The DNA of all living family members was studied with markers recognizing polymorphic loci flanking the PKD1 region (3'HVR and O90a), as well as markers from the loci of chromosomes 15 and 5, associated with fibrillin genes FBN1 and FBN2, respectively. In this kindred of 20 family members traced through five generations, cosegregation of ADPKD and the OCTD phenotype was observed in 12 of 12 meioses and 3 of 3 phase known. Both markers for PKD1 were tightly linked to both ADPKD and OCTD, whereas there was no evidence for linkage with either fibrillin locus. In this family, the ADPKD and OCTD mutations are genetically linked. The presence of OCTD with ADPKD identifies a group of patients at significantly greater risk for sudden death from aortic root and other vascular aneurysmal dissection and rupture. PMID:8130364

  20. Putative approaches to bypass the citrulline-specific autoimmune response in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gertel, Smadar; Amital, Howard

    2014-09-01

    The major autoantigens in the inflamed synovium in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are citrullinated peptides. Citrullinated peptides are employed in diagnostic kits for detection of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA), a serological marker with high specificity and sensitivity in the diagnosis of RA, and have been included in the new ACR/EULAR classification criteria for RA. ACPA-positive R patients suffer from an erosive and more aggressive disease compared to ACPA-negative patients. In view of the mounting indications that ACPA plays a seminal role in the pathogenesis of RA, it might be valuable to. pursue a specific treatment aiming ACPA as a target. We found that citrullinated peptides, which contain a unique amino acid, citrulli`ne, alter the protein structure within the connective tissue, leading to tolerance breakdown and triggering the autoimmune response in RA. However, with different doses and routes of administration, citrullinated peptides can promote immune tolerance rather than induction of disease. PMID:25351021

  1. The expanding field of IgG4-mediated neurological autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    Huijbers, M G; Querol, L A; Niks, E H; Plomp, J J; van der Maarel, S M; Graus, F; Dalmau, J; Illa, I; Verschuuren, J J

    2015-08-01

    At least 13 different disease entities affecting the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and connective tissue of the skin or kidneys are associated with immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) immune reactivity. IgG4 has always been considered a benign, non-inflammatory subclass of IgG, in contrast to the well-known complement-activating pro-inflammatory IgG1 subclass. A comprehensive review of these IgG4 autoimmune disorders reveals striking similarities in epitope binding and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) associations. Mechanical interference of extracellular ligand-receptor interactions by the associated IgG4 antibodies seems to be the common/converging disease mechanism in these disorders. PMID:26032110

  2. PRKDC mutations associated with immunodeficiency, granuloma, and autoimmune regulator–dependent autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Anne-Laure; Verronese, Estelle; Rice, Gillian I.; Fouyssac, Fanny; Bertrand, Yves; Picard, Capucine; Chansel, Marie; Walter, Jolan E.; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Butte, Manish J.; Nadeau, Kari Christine; Csomos, Krisztian; Chen, David J.; Chen, Karin; Delgado, Ana; Rigal, Chantal; Bardin, Christine; Schuetz, Catharina; Moshous, Despina; Reumaux, Héloïse; Plenat, François; Phan, Alice; Zabot, Marie-Thérèse; Balme, Brigitte; Viel, Sébastien; Bienvenu, Jacques; Cochat, Pierre; van der Burg, Mirjam; Caux, Christophe; Kemp, E. Helen; Rouvet, Isabelle; Malcus, Christophe; Méritet, Jean-Francois; Lim, Annick; Crow, Yanick J.; Fabien, Nicole; Ménétrier-Caux, Christine; De Villartay, Jean-Pierre; Walzer, Thierry; Belot, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Background PRKDC encodes for DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), a kinase that forms part of a complex (DNA-dependent protein kinase [DNA-PK]) crucial for DNA double-strand break repair and V(D)J recombination. In mice DNA-PK also interacts with the transcription factor autoimmune regulator (AIRE) to promote central T-cell tolerance. Objective We sought to understand the causes of an inflammatory disease with granuloma and autoimmunity associated with decreasing T- and B-cell counts over time that had been diagnosed in 2 unrelated patients. Methods Genetic, molecular, and functional analyses were performed to characterize an inflammatory disease evocative of a combined immunodeficiency. Results We identified PRKDC mutations in both patients. These patients exhibited a defect in DNA double-strand break repair and V(D)J recombination. Whole-blood mRNA analysis revealed a strong interferon signature. On activation, memory T cells displayed a skewed cytokine response typical of TH2 and TH1 but not TH17. Moreover, mutated DNA-PKcs did not promote AIRE-dependent transcription of peripheral tissue antigens in vitro. The latter defect correlated in vivo with production of anti–calcium-sensing receptor autoantibodies, which are typically found in AIRE-deficient patients. In addition, 9 months after bone marrow transplantation, patient 1 had Hashimoto thyroiditis, suggesting that organ-specific autoimmunity might be linked to nonhematopoietic cells, such as AIRE-expressing thymic epithelial cells. Conclusion Deficiency of DNA-PKcs, a key AIRE partner, can present as an inflammatory disease with organ-specific autoimmunity, suggesting a role for DNA-PKcs in regulating autoimmune responses and maintaining AIRE-dependent tolerance in human subjects. PMID:25842288

  3. B Cells in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hampe, Christiane S.

    2012-01-01

    The role of B cells in autoimmune diseases involves different cellular functions, including the well-established secretion of autoantibodies, autoantigen presentation and ensuing reciprocal interactions with T cells, secretion of inflammatory cytokines, and the generation of ectopic germinal centers. Through these mechanisms B cells are involved both in autoimmune diseases that are traditionally viewed as antibody mediated and also in autoimmune diseases that are commonly classified as T cell mediated. This new understanding of the role of B cells opened up novel therapeutic options for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. This paper includes an overview of the different functions of B cells in autoimmunity; the involvement of B cells in systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 diabetes; and current B-cell-based therapeutic treatments. We conclude with a discussion of novel therapies aimed at the selective targeting of pathogenic B cells. PMID:23807906

  4. Aquaporin-4 autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Zekeridou, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and a related spectrum of inflammatory CNS disorders are unified by detection of a serum autoantibody specific for the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel, which is abundant in astrocytic foot processes. The classic clinical manifestations of NMO are optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Newly recognized manifestations of AQP4 autoimmunity include lesions of circumventricular organs and skeletal muscle. NMO is commonly relapsing, is frequently accompanied by other autoimmune disorders, and sometimes occurs in a paraneoplastic context. The goals of treatment are to minimize neurologic disability in the acute attack and thereafter to prevent relapses and cumulative disability. The disease specificity of AQP4 immunoglobulin (Ig) G approaches 100% using optimized molecular-based detection assays. Clinical, immunohistopathologic, and in vitro evidence support this antibody being central to NMO pathogenesis. Current animal models yield limited histopathologic characteristics of NMO, with no clinical deficits to date. Recent descriptions of a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein autoantibody in a minority of patients with NMO spectrum phenotype who lack AQP4-IgG predict serologic delineation of additional distinctive disease entities. PMID:26185772

  5. Aquaporin-4 autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Zekeridou, Anastasia; Lennon, Vanda A

    2015-08-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and a related spectrum of inflammatory CNS disorders are unified by detection of a serum autoantibody specific for the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel, which is abundant in astrocytic foot processes. The classic clinical manifestations of NMO are optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Newly recognized manifestations of AQP4 autoimmunity include lesions of circumventricular organs and skeletal muscle. NMO is commonly relapsing, is frequently accompanied by other autoimmune disorders, and sometimes occurs in a paraneoplastic context. The goals of treatment are to minimize neurologic disability in the acute attack and thereafter to prevent relapses and cumulative disability. The disease specificity of AQP4 immunoglobulin (Ig) G approaches 100% using optimized molecular-based detection assays. Clinical, immunohistopathologic, and in vitro evidence support this antibody being central to NMO pathogenesis. Current animal models yield limited histopathologic characteristics of NMO, with no clinical deficits to date. Recent descriptions of a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein autoantibody in a minority of patients with NMO spectrum phenotype who lack AQP4-IgG predict serologic delineation of additional distinctive disease entities. PMID:26185772

  6. Prolactin in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Neidhart, M

    1998-04-01

    The immune system is still regarded by many as autonomous, and prolactin (Prl) has traditionally been considered as a lactogenic hormone. Over the last 10 years, the total number of publications considering Prl is decreasing, while the number of those investigating its role in immunity sustainly increased. In addition to the pituitary gland, Prl-like peptides can be produced by activated leukocytes and fibroblasts. Elevated serum levels of Prl in (rat) adjuvant arthritis, (murine) collagen type II-induced arthritis, (murine and human) systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and (murine and rat) autoimmune type I diabetes may influence the outcome of the disease. It is suggested that mild hyperprolactinemia is a risk factor for the development of autoimmunity. This can occur under certain circumstances, for example adrenocortical deficiency or postpartum. In human SLE, Prl appears to favor the production of anti-double stranded DNA. While glucocorticoids would damp the immune reactivity, Prl constitutes a stimulatory link between the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Future directions should include: 1) multicenter projects for evaluation of the therapy with Prl-inhibiting compounds in SLE, considering for example the HLA-DRB1 *0301 status; and 2) the regulation of extra-pituitary Prl-like cytokines ("proliferins") (e.g., in rheumatoid arthritis synovium) and their role in the production of catabolic enzymes. PMID:9521087

  7. Ionizing radiation and autoimmunity: Induction of autoimmune disease in mice by high dose fractionated total lymphoid irradiation and its prevention by inoculating normal T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaguchi, N.; Sakaguchi, S. (Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (United States) Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States) PRESTO, JRDC, Institute of Phical and Chemical Research, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)); Miyai, K. (Univ. of California, San Diego, LA Jolla, CA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    Ionizing radiation can functionally alter the immune system and break self-tolerance. High dose (42.5 Gy), fractionated (2.5 Gy 17 times) total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on mice caused various organ-specific autoimmune diseases, such as gastritis, thyroiditis, and orchitis, depending on the radiation dosages, the extent of lymphoid irradiation, and the genetic background of the mouse strains. Radiation-induced tissue damage is not the primary cause of the autoimmune disease because irradiation of the target organs alone failed to elicit the autoimmunity and shielding of the organs from irradiation was unable to prevent it. In contrast, irradiation of both the thymus and the peripheral lymphoid organs/tissues was required for efficient induction of autoimmune disease by TLI. TLI eliminated the majority of mature thymocytes and the peripheral T cells for 1 mo, and inoculation of spleen cell, thymocyte, or bone marrow cell suspensions (prepared from syngeneic nonirradiated mice) within 2 wk after TLI effectively prevented the autoimmune development. Depletion of T cells from the inocula abrogated the preventive activity. CD4[sup +] T cells mediated the autoimmune prevention but CD8[sup +] T cells did not. CD4[sup +] T cells also appeared to mediate the TLI-induced autoimmune disease because CD4[sup +] T cells from disease-bearing TLI mice adoptively transferred the autoimmune disease to syngeneic naive mice. Taken together, these results indicate that high dose, fractionated ionizing radiation on the lymphoid organs/tissues can cause autoimmune disease by affecting the T cell immune system, rather than the target self-Ags, presumably by altering T cell-dependent control of self-reactive T cells. 62 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Connecting fractional anisotropy from medical images with mechanical anisotropy of a hyperviscoelastic fibre-reinforced constitutive model for brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Chiara; Kleiven, Svein

    2014-01-01

    Brain tissue modelling has been an active area of research for years. Brain matter does not follow the constitutive relations for common materials and loads applied to the brain turn into stresses and strains depending on tissue local morphology. In this work, a hyperviscoelastic fibre-reinforced anisotropic law is used for computational brain injury prediction. Thanks to a fibre-reinforcement dispersion parameter, this formulation accounts for anisotropic features and heterogeneities of the tissue owing to different axon alignment. The novelty of the work is the correlation of the material mechanical anisotropy with fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion tensor images. Finite-element (FE) models are used to investigate the influence of the fibre distribution for different loading conditions. In the case of tensile–compressive loads, the comparison between experiments and simulations highlights the validity of the proposed FA–k correlation. Axon alignment affects the deformation predicted by FE models and, when the strain in the axonal direction is large with respect to the maximum principal strain, decreased maximum deformations are detected. It is concluded that the introduction of fibre dispersion information into the constitutive law of brain tissue affects the biofidelity of the simulations. PMID:24258158

  9. 3T3 fibroblasts induce cloned interleukin 3-dependent mouse mast cells to resemble connective tissue mast cells in granular constituency

    SciTech Connect

    Dayton, E.T.; Pharr, P.; Ogawa, M.; Serafin, W.E.; Austen, K.F.; Levi-Schaffer, F.; Stevens, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    As assessed by ultrastructure, histochemical staining, and T-cell dependency, in vitro-differentiated interleukin 3-dependent mouse mast cells are comparable to the mast cells that reside in the gastrointestinal mucosa but not in the skin or the serosal cavity of the mouse. The authors now demonstrate that when cloned interleukin 3-dependent mast cells are cocultured with mouse skin-derived 3T3 fibroblasts in the presence of WEHI-3 conditioned medium for 28 days, the mast cells acquire the ability to stain with safranin, increase their histamine content approx. 50-fold and their carboxypeptidase. A content approx. 100-fold, and augment approx. their biosynthesis of proteoglycans bearing /sup 35/S-labeled haparin relative to /sup 35/S-labeled chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans. Thus, fibroblasts induce interleukin 3-dependent mouse mast cells to change phenotype from mucosal-like to connective tissue-like, indicating that the biochemical and functional characteristics of this mast cell type are strongly influenced by the connective tissue microenvironment.

  10. Three-Dimensional Aspects of the Lingual Papillae and Their Connective Tissue Cores in the Tongue of Rats: A Scanning Electron Microscope Study

    PubMed Central

    Reginato, Gabriela de Souza; Watanabe, Ii-sei; Ciena, Adriano Polican

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the tridimensional morphological characteristics of the lingual papillae and their connective tissue cores (CTCs) in Sprague Dawley rats. Four types of papillae were reported on the dorsal surface. Filiform papillae were distributed on the tongue surface and after epithelial maceration a conic and multifilamentary shape of the CTCs was revealed. Fungiform papillae were reported on the rostral and middle regions covered by a squamous epithelium. After the removal of the epithelium, the shape of a volcano with the taste orifice at its top was noted. Foliate papillae were composed of five pairs of epithelial folds situated on the lateral-caudal margin of the tongue. After the removal of the epithelium, they were shown to be limited by thin laminar projections. The vallate papilla with an oval shape was present in the caudal region and delimited by an incomplete groove. The morphological characteristics of the lingual papillae of Sprague Dowley rats, three-dimensional SEM images, and the types of papillae on the dorsal surface were similar to those reported previously in other rodent mammals. The maceration technique revealed the details of extracellular matrix with varied shapes form of connective tissue cores. PMID:25436229

  11. Age-associated differences in triceps surae muscle composition and strength – an MRI-based cross-sectional comparison of contractile, adipose and connective tissue

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In human skeletal muscles, the aging process causes a decrease of contractile and a concomitant increase of intramuscular adipose (IMAT) and connective (IMCT) tissues. The accumulation of non-contractile tissues may contribute to the significant loss of intrinsic muscle strength typically observed at older age but their in vivo quantification is challenging. The purpose of this study was to establish MR imaging-based methods to quantify the relative amounts of IMCT, IMAT and contractile tissues in young and older human cohorts, and investigate their roles in determining age-associated changes in skeletal muscle strength. Methods Five young (31.6?±?7.0 yrs) and five older (83.4?±?3.2 yrs) Japanese women were subject to a detailed MR imaging protocol, including Fast Gradient Echo, Quantitative Fat/Water (IDEAL) and Ultra-short Echo Time (UTE) sequences, to determine contractile muscle tissue and IMAT within the entire Triceps Surae complex, and IMCT within both heads of the Gastrocnemius muscle. Specific force was calculated as the ratio of isometric plantarflexor force and the physiological cross-sectional area of the Triceps Surae complex. Results In the older cohort, total Triceps Surae volume was smaller by 17.5%, while the relative amounts of Triceps Surae IMAT and Gastrocnemius IMCT were larger by 55.1% and 48.9%, respectively. Differences of 38.6% and 42.1% in plantarflexor force and specific force were observed. After subtraction of IMAT and IMCT from total muscle volume, differences in intrinsic strength decreased to 29.6%. Conclusions Our data establishes that aging causes significant changes in skeletal muscle composition, with marked increases in non-contractile tissues. Such quantification of the remodeling process is likely to be of functional and clinical importance in elucidating the causes of the disproportionate age-associated decrease of force compared to that of muscle volume. PMID:24939372

  12. Differential expression of fibrillin-3 adds to microfibril variety in human and avian, but not rodent, connective tissues.

    PubMed

    Corson, Glen M; Charbonneau, Noe L; Keene, Douglas R; Sakai, Lynn Y

    2004-03-01

    The human genome contains three fibrillins: FBN1 and FBN2, both well characterized, and FBN3, reported only as a cDNA sequence. Like FBN2, the highest expression levels of FBN3 were found in fetal tissues, with only low levels in postnatal tissues. Immunolocalization demonstrated fibrillin-3 in extracellular microfibrils abundant in developing skeletal elements, skin, lung, kidney, and skeletal muscle. Unlike the other two fibrillins, FBN3 expression is high in brain, and FBN3 is alternatively spliced, removing the exon encoding cbEGF2. Like FBN1, FBN3 contains three alternate exons in the 5' UTR. While FBN3 orthologs were identified in cow and chicken, Fbn3 appears to have been inactivated in the mouse genome, perhaps during chromosome fission events. Located on chromosome 19p13.3-13.2, FBN3 is a candidate gene for Weill-Marchesani syndrome. PMID:14962672

  13. Treating endometriosis as an autoimmune disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warren B Nothnick

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on the role of autoimmunity in the etiology of endometriosis, compare the similarities in the pathophysiologies between endometriosis and autoimmune diseases, and discuss the use of immunomodulators currently used to treat autoimmune diseases as potential therapies for endometriosis.Design: The literature on endometriosis and other autoimmune diseases was reviewed, and summary data are presented.Results: Endometriosis shares

  14. Psychoneuroimmunology - psyche and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Ziemssen, Tjalf

    2012-01-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology is a relatively young field of research that investigates interactions between central nervous and immune system. The brain modulates the immune system by the endocrine and autonomic nervous system. Vice versa, the immune system modulates brain activity including sleep and body temperature. Based on a close functional and anatomical link, the immune and nervous systems act in a highly reciprocal manner. From fever to stress, the influence of one system on the other has evolved in an intricate manner to help sense danger and to mount an appropriate adaptive response. Over recent decades, reasonable evidence has emerged that these brain-to-immune interactions are highly modulated by psychological factors which influence immunity and autoimmune disease. For several diseases, the relevance of psychoneuroimmunological findings has already been demonstrated. PMID:22612750

  15. Putting together the autoimmunity puzzle.

    PubMed

    La Cava, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    Autoimmune diseases classically present with a complex etiology in which different factors concur in the generation and maintenance of autoreactive immune responses. Some mechanisms and pathways that lead to the development of imbalanced immune homeostasis and loss of self-tolerance have been identified as common to multiple autoimmune disorders. This Review series focuses on the general concepts of development and progression to pathogenic autoimmune phenotypes. A mechanistic discussion of the most recent advances in the field, together with related considerations of possible therapies, make this series of particular interest to both the basic and translational science communities. PMID:26030226

  16. Comparative evaluation of a bioabsorbable collagen membrane and connective tissue graft in the treatment of localized gingival recession: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Harsha Mysore; Gujjari, Sheela Kumar; Prasad, Deepak; Sehgal, Praveen Kumar; Srinivasan, Aishwarya

    2011-01-01

    Background: Gingival recession (GR) can result in root sensitivity, esthetic concern to the patient, and predilection to root caries. The purpose of this randomized clinical study was to evaluate (1) the effect of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) procedure using a bioabsorbable collagen membrane, in comparison to autogenous subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) for root coverage in localized gingival recession defects; and (2) the change in width of keratinized gingiva following these two procedures. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 cases, showing at least two localized Miller's Class I or Class II gingival recession, participated in this study. In a split mouth design, the pairs of defects were randomly assigned for treatment with either SCTG (SCTG Group) or GTR-based collagen membrane (GTRC Group). Both the grafts were covered with coronally advanced flap. Recession depth (RD), recession width (RW), width of keratinized gingiva (KG), probing depth (PD), relative attachment level (RAL), plaque index (PI), and gingival index (GI) were recorded at baseline, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Results: Six months following root coverage procedures, the mean root coverage was found to be 84.84% ± 16.81% and 84.0% ± 15.19% in SCTG Group and GTRC Group, respectively. The mean keratinized gingival width increase was 1.50 ± 0.70 mm and 2.30 ± 0.67 mm in the SCTG and GTRC group, respectively, which was not statistically significant. Conclusion: It may be concluded that resorbable collagen membrane can be a reliable alternative to autogenous connective tissue graft in the treatment of gingival recession. PMID:22368359

  17. Speckle Tracking Ultrasound for Assessment of the Relative Motion of Flexor Tendon and Subsynovial Connective Tissue in the Human Carpal Tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Yoshii, Yuichi; Villarraga, Hector R.; Henderson, Jacqueline; Zhao, Chunfeng; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare tissue Doppler imaging and speckle tracking ultrasound to assess the relative motion of flexor tendon and surrounding subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT). Twenty normal human wrists were imaged with an ultrasound scanner. The two ultrasound methods measured the excursion and maximum velocity of the tendon and SSCT while subjects gripped three different sized acrylic tubes, and these were correlated with tendon excursions estimated from finger joint angle changes. The maximum velocity ratio (=SSCT/tendon velocity) and the shear index (=[(Tendon excursion?SSCT excursion)/Tendon excursion]×100%) were calculated. The intraclass correlation coefficient was higher for joint angle/speckle tracking tendon excursion (0.642) than for joint angle/tissue Doppler excursion (0.377). The speckle tracking method could also discriminate differences in maximum velocity ratio and shear index for different tube sizes. We conclude that speckle tracking may be useful in assessing the relative motion of tendon and SSCT. PMID:19828231

  18. Role of Interstitial Branching in the Development of Visual Corticocortical Connections: A Time-Lapse and Fixed-Tissue Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ruthazer, Edward S.; Bachleda, Amelia R.; Olavarria, Jaime F.

    2013-01-01

    We combined fixed-tissue and time-lapse analyses to investigate the axonal branching phenomena underlying the development of topographically organized ipsilateral projections from area 17 to area 18a in the rat. These complementary approaches allowed us to relate static, large-scale information provided by traditional fixed-tissue analysis to highly dynamic, local, small-scale branching phenomena observed with two-photon time-lapse microscopy in acute slices of visual cortex. Our fixed-tissue data revealed that labeled area 17 fibers invaded area 18a gray matter at topographically restricted sites, reaching superficial layers in significant numbers by postnatal day 6 (P6). Moreover, most parental axons gave rise to only one or occasionally a small number of closely spaced interstitial branches beneath 18a. Our time-lapse data showed that many filopodium-like branches emerged along parental axons in white matter or deep layers in area 18a. Most of these filopo-dial branches were transient, often disappearing after several minutes to hours of exploratory extension and retraction. These dynamic behaviors decreased significantly from P4, when the projection is first forming, through the second postnatal week, suggesting that the expression of, or sensitivity to, cortical cues promoting new branch addition in the white matter is developmentally down-regulated coincident with gray matter innervation. Together, these data demonstrate that the development of topographically organized corticocortical projections in rats involves extensive exploratory branching along parental axons and invasion of cortex by only a small number of interstitial branches, rather than the widespread innervation of superficial cortical layers by an initially exuberant population of branches. PMID:21031561

  19. Role of interstitial branching in the development of visual corticocortical connections: a time-lapse and fixed-tissue analysis.

    PubMed

    Ruthazer, Edward S; Bachleda, Amelia R; Olavarria, Jaime F

    2010-12-15

    We combined fixed-tissue and time-lapse analyses to investigate the axonal branching phenomena underlying the development of topographically organized ipsilateral projections from area 17 to area 18a in the rat. These complementary approaches allowed us to relate static, large-scale information provided by traditional fixed-tissue analysis to highly dynamic, local, small-scale branching phenomena observed with two-photon time-lapse microscopy in acute slices of visual cortex. Our fixed-tissue data revealed that labeled area 17 fibers invaded area 18a gray matter at topographically restricted sites, reaching superficial layers in significant numbers by postnatal day 6 (P6). Moreover, most parental axons gave rise to only one or occasionally a small number of closely spaced interstitial branches beneath 18a. Our time-lapse data showed that many filopodium-like branches emerged along parental axons in white matter or deep layers in area 18a. Most of these filopodial branches were transient, often disappearing after several minutes to hours of exploratory extension and retraction. These dynamic behaviors decreased significantly from P4, when the projection is first forming, through the second postnatal week, suggesting that the expression of, or sensitivity to, cortical cues promoting new branch addition in the white matter is developmentally down-regulated coincident with gray matter innervation. Together, these data demonstrate that the development of topographically organized corticocortical projections in rats involves extensive exploratory branching along parental axons and invasion of cortex by only a small number of interstitial branches, rather than the widespread innervation of superficial cortical layers by an initially exuberant population of branches. PMID:21031561

  20. Dyslipidaemia in Rheumatological Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Toms, Tracey E; Panoulas, Vasileios F; Kitas, George D

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmunity forms the basis of many rheumatological diseases, and may contribute not only to the classical clinical manifestations but also to the complications. Many of the autoimmune rheumatological diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus are associated with an excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Much of this excess cardiovascular risk can be attributed to atherosclerotic disease. Atherosclerosis is a complex pathological process, with dyslipidaemia and inflammation fundamental to all stages of plaque evolution. The heightened inflammatory state seen in conjunction with many rheumatological diseases may accelerate plaque formation, both through direct effects on the arterial wall and indirectly through inflammation-mediated alterations in the lipid profile. Alongside these factors, antibodies produced as part of the autoimmune nature of these conditions may lead to alterations in the lipid profile and promote atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss the association between several of the rheumatological autoimmune diseases and dyslipidaemia, and the potential cardiovascular impact this may confer. PMID:21660202

  1. Dyslipidaemia in rheumatological autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Toms, Tracey E; Panoulas, Vasileios F; Kitas, George D

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmunity forms the basis of many rheumatological diseases, and may contribute not only to the classical clinical manifestations but also to the complications. Many of the autoimmune rheumatological diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus are associated with an excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Much of this excess cardiovascular risk can be attributed to atherosclerotic disease. Atherosclerosis is a complex pathological process, with dyslipidaemia and inflammation fundamental to all stages of plaque evolution. The heightened inflammatory state seen in conjunction with many rheumatological diseases may accelerate plaque formation, both through direct effects on the arterial wall and indirectly through inflammation-mediated alterations in the lipid profile. Alongside these factors, antibodies produced as part of the autoimmune nature of these conditions may lead to alterations in the lipid profile and promote atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss the association between several of the rheumatological autoimmune diseases and dyslipidaemia, and the potential cardiovascular impact this may confer. PMID:21660202

  2. Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy Candidiasis Ectodermal Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Kisand, Kai; Peterson, Pärt

    2015-07-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. This review focuses on the clinical and immunological features of APECED, summarizes the current knowledge on the function of AIRE and discusses the importance of autoantibodies in disease diagnosis and prognosis. Additionally, we review the outcome of recent immunomodulatory treatments in APECED patients. PMID:26141571

  3. [Autoimmune diseases and seasonal variations].

    PubMed

    Ogura, Takehisa; Kameda, Hideto

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that the exacerbation or development of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis may have seasonality, although the seasonal characteristic depends on each disease. For example, the sunlight (ultraviolet) and infectious pathogens are involved in important environmental factors contributing the seasonality of the diseases. Furthermore, recent advances include the association between vitamin D and autoimmune diseases, and the different pathogenesis among the same clinical category according to the autoantibodies. PMID:24598065

  4. Associated Autoimmunity in Addison's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre M. J. Zelissen; Egbert J. E. G. Bast; Ronald J. M. Croughs

    1995-01-01

    As the last extensive series of patients with Addison's disease and coincident autoimmune phenomena were published approximately two decades ago, we studied the cause of the disease, the prevalence of autoimmune disorders and the frequency of occurrence of autoantibodies in 91 patients (31 men and 60 women, mean age 45.3-years-old, range 12–77) with Addison's disease.The cause of Addison's disease in

  5. Local delivery of cytokines by retrovirally transduced antigen-specific TCR+ hybridoma cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Dal Canto, R A; Costa, G; Shaw, M D; Seroogy, C; Nolan, G P; Fathman, C G

    1998-09-01

    Autoimmune diseases in humans represent an immune attack on self tissue. Current therapies for almost all autoimmune diseases utilize potent and nonspecific immunosuppressive regimens. These therapies are complicated by their side effects and also place the patient at increased risk for opportunistic infections and malignancies. Our current understanding of immune mechanisms underlying autoimmune diseases remains limited. Ongoing studies include identifying genes that predispose an individual to developing autoimmunity, identification of autoantigens that trigger or perpetuate autoimmunity, and studies of immune cell interactions that lead to immune response. Although it may be many years before a full understanding of autoimmunity is obtained, treatment in animal models of autoimmune disease and some human clinical trials have begun to study alternative treatment approaches to therapy of autoimmune disease. Future therapies for autoimmune diseases should target the inappropriate autoimmune response. This article will describe the use of gene therapy in the treatment of autoimmune disease. We believe that autoimmunity can be ameliorated by delivering trans-acting immunoregulatory molecules by retrovirally transduced autoantigen specific T cells that home to lesions of autoimmunity. Until recently, there has not been a practical alternative to systemic delivery of immunoregulatory molecules, however systemic delivery suffers from toxic side effects and dangerous global immunosuppression. In order to study immune regulation using retroviral transduction for local delivery of immunoregulatory products, we used myelin basic protein (MBP) reactive T cell hybridomas in the murine model of multiple sclerosis (MS), experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). In this report, we show that MBP reactive T cell hybridomas transduced to express IL-4 or TNF, ameliorated or exacerbated disease, respectively. Additionally, the effects of these cells were dependent on T cell receptor (TCR) expression, indicating that the effects were due to homing of the T cells and the local delivery of cytokines. We believe that gene therapy, allowing local delivery of immunoregulatory proteins by autoantigen specific T cells, represents an interesting potential therapy for autoimmune disease. PMID:9831193

  6. Eggshell membrane: A possible new natural therapeutic for joint and connective tissue disorders. Results from two open-label human clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, Kevin J; DeVore, Dale P; Leu, Michael D; Robinson, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Natural Eggshell Membrane (NEM®) is a novel dietary supplement that contains naturally occurring glycosaminoglycans and proteins essential for maintaining healthy joint and connective tissues. Two single center, open-label human clinical studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of NEM® as a treatment for pain and inflexibility associated with joint and connective tissue disorders. Methods: Eleven (single-arm trial) and 28 (double-arm trial) patients received oral NEM® 500 mg once daily for four weeks. The primary outcome measure was to evaluate the change in general pain associated with the treatment joints/areas (both studies). In the single-arm trial, range of motion (ROM) and related ROM-associated pain was also evaluated. The primary treatment response endpoints were at seven and 30 days. Both clinical assessments were performed on the intent-to-treat (ITT) population within each study. Results: Single-arm trial: Supplementation with NEM® produced a significant treatment response at seven days for flexibility (27.8% increase; P = 0.038) and at 30 days for general pain (72.5% reduction; P = 0.007), flexibility (43.7% increase; P = 0.006), and ROM-associated pain (75.9% reduction; P = 0.021). Double-arm trial: Supplementation with NEM® produced a significant treatment response for pain at seven days for both treatment arms (X: 18.4% reduction; P = 0.021. Y: 31.3% reduction; P = 0.014). There was no clinically meaningful difference between treatment arms at seven days, so the Y arm crossed over to the X formulation for the remainder of the study. The significant treatment response continued through 30 days for pain (30.2% reduction; P = 0.0001). There were no adverse events reported during either study and the treatment was reported to be well tolerated by study participants. Conclusions: Natural Eggshell Membrane (NEM®) is a possible new effective and safe therapeutic option for the treatment of pain and inflexibility associated with joint and connective tissue (JCT) disorders. Supplementation with NEM®, 500 mg taken once daily, significantly reduced pain, both rapidly (seven days) and continuously (30 days). It also showed clinically meaningful results from a brief responder analysis, demonstrating that significant proportions of treated patients may be helped considerably from NEM® supplementation. The Clinical Trial Registration numbers for these trials are: NCT00750230 and NCT00750854. PMID:19554094

  7. Is atherosclerosis an autoimmune disease?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Immunologic research into pathogenic mechanisms operating in autoimmune-mediated atherosclerosis initially focused on adaptive immunity. Current interest is directed to more basic inflammatory mechanisms. Chronic inflammation (innate immunity-associated) may trigger initial events that can lead to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This chronic inflammation may start early in life and be perpetuated by classic atherosclerosis risk factors. Lipid peroxidation of low-density lipoprotein seems to be a key event in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein triggers inflammatory and immunogenic events that promote endothelial dysfunction and the synthesis and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to an autoimmune response capable of accelerating the intracellular accumulation of lipids within atherosclerotic plaques. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein binds ?2-glycoprotein I to form circulating complexes found in both autoimmune and non-autoimmune atherosclerosis. It is likely that ?2-glycoprotein I and/or these complexes contribute to early atherogenesis by stimulating pro-inflammatory innate immunity through endogenous sensors and inflammasome/interleukin-1 pathways. We discuss the chronic inflammatory (innate) and autoimmune (adaptive) responses operating in atherosclerosis to discern the role of autoimmunity in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:24642015

  8. Modulation by Melatonin of the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Gu-Jiun; Huang, Shing-Hwa; Chen, Shyi-Jou; Wang, Chih-Hung; Chang, Deh-Ming; Sytwu, Huey-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin is the major secretory product of the pineal gland during the night and has multiple activities including the regulation of circadian and seasonal rhythms, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. It also possesses the ability to modulate immune responses by regulation of the T helper 1/2 balance and cytokine production. Autoimmune diseases, which result from the activation of immune cells by autoantigens released from normal tissues, affect around 5% of the population. Activation of autoantigen-specific immune cells leads to subsequent damage of target tissues by these activated cells. Melatonin therapy has been investigated in several animal models of autoimmune disease, where it has a beneficial effect in a number of models excepting rheumatoid arthritis, and has been evaluated in clinical autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and ulcerative colitis. This review summarizes and highlights the role and the modulatory effects of melatonin in several inflammatory autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:23727938

  9. Connective tissue synthesis by cultured scleroderma fibroblasts. II. Incorporation of 3h-glucosamine and synthesis of glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Bashey, R I; Perlish, S; Nochumson, S; Stephens, R E; Fleischmajer, R

    1977-04-01

    Fibroblasts from normal and scleroderma skin, grown tissue culture, were incubated with 3H-glucosamine for 24 hours. No definite trends could be established in 3H-glucosamin incorporation or glycosaminoglycan synthesis. Over 90% of the total 3H activity as well as the glycosaminoglycans synthesized were secreted into the medium. Characterization of glycosaminoglycans showed that in both the medium and cells, hyaluronic acid ins the major glycosaminoglycan in normal and scleroderma fibroblasts. In the medium, hyaluronic acid represented 87% of the total glycosaminoglycans; it was slightly decreased in the cells. Fibroblasts were compared from the upper and lower areas of the affected dermis and an uninvolved dermal area of the same scleroderma patients. PMID:856218

  10. Dendritic cells in autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Kabel, P J; Voorbij, H A; van der Gaag, R D; Wiersinga, W M; de Haan, M; Drexhage, H A

    1987-01-01

    Dendritic cells form a morphologically distinct class of cells characterized by shape, reniform nucleus, absent to weak acid-phosphatase activity and strong Class II MHC determinant positivity. Functionally they are the most efficient cells in antigen presentation to T-lymphocytes which indicates their role in the initiation of an immune response. Using immunehistochemical techniques we studied the presence of dendritic cells in normal Wistar rat and human thyroids, in thyroids of BBW rats developing thyroid autoimmunity and in Graves' goitres. Dendritic cells could be identified in all thyroids studied and were positioned underneath the thyrocytes in between the follicles. Skin dendritic cells travel via lymphatics to draining lymph nodes, thus forming an antigen presenting cell system. It is likely that a similar cell system exists on the level of the thyroid for dendritic cells have also been detected in thyroid draining lymph nodes. In normal thyroid tissue of both human and rat dendritic cells were relatively scarce. During the initial phases of the thyroid autoimmune response in the BBW rat (before the appearance of Tg-antibodies in the circulation) numbers of thyroid dendritic cells increased. Intrathyroidal T-helper cells, B-cells or plasma cells could not be found. The thyroid draining lymph node contained large numbers of plasma cells. During the later stages of the thyroid autoimmune response in the BB/W rat (after the appearance of Tg-antibodies in the circulation) and in Graves' goitres dendritic cells were not only present in high number, but 20-30% were seen in contact with now-present intrathyroidal T-helper lymphocytes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3475920

  11. Myasthenia Gravis: paradox versus paradigm in autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Berrih-Aknin, Sonia

    2014-08-01

    Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is a paradigm of organ-specific autoimmune disease (AID). It is mediated by antibodies that target the neuromuscular junction. The purpose of this review is to place MG in the general context of autoimmunity, to summarize the common mechanisms between MG and other AIDs, and to describe the specific mechanisms of MG. We have chosen the most common organ-specific AIDs to compare with MG: type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), multiple sclerosis (MS), some systemic AIDs (systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjogren's syndrome (SS)), as well as inflammatory diseases of the gut and liver (celiac disease (CeD), Crohn's disease (CD), and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC)). Several features are similar between all AIDs, suggesting that common pathogenic mechanisms lead to their development. In this review, we address the predisposing factors (genetic, epigenetic, hormones, vitamin D, microbiota), the triggering components (infections, drugs) and their interactions with the immune system [1,2]. The dysregulation of the immune system is detailed and includes the role of B cells, Treg cells, Th17 and cytokines. We particularly focused on the role of TNF-? and interferon type I whose role in MG is very analogous to that in several other AIDS. The implication of AIRE, a key factor in central tolerance is also discussed. Finally, if MG is a prototype of AIDS, it has a clear specificity compared to the other AIDS, by the fact that the target organ, the muscle, is not the site of immune infiltration and B cell expansion, but exclusively that of antibody-mediated pathogenic mechanisms. By contrast, the thymus in the early onset subtype frequently undergoes tissue remodeling, resulting in the development of ectopic germinal centers surrounded by high endothelial venules (HEV), as observed in the target organs of many other AIDs. PMID:24934596

  12. Diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Kakushima, Naomi; Takizawa, Kohei; Tanaka, Masaki; Imai, Kenichiro; Hotta, Kinichi; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a distinct form of chronic pancreatitis that is increasingly being reported. The presentation and clinical image findings of AIP sometimes resemble those of several pancreatic malignancies, but the therapeutic strategy differs appreciably. Therefore, accurate diagnosis is necessary for cases of AIP. To date, AIP is classified into two distinct subtypes from the viewpoints of etiology, serum markers, histology, other organ involvements, and frequency of relapse: type 1 is related to IgG4 (lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis) and type 2 is related to a granulocytic epithelial lesion (idiopathic duct-centric chronic pancreatitis). Both types of AIP are characterized by focal or diffuse pancreatic enlargement accompanied with a narrowing of the main pancreatic duct, and both show dramatic responses to corticosteroid. Unlike type 2, type 1 is characteristically associated with increasing levels of serum IgG4 and positive serum autoantibodies, abundant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasmacytes, frequent extrapancreatic lesions, and relapse. These findings have led several countries to propose diagnostic criteria for AIP, which consist of essentially similar diagnostic items; however, several differences exist for each country, mainly due to differences in the definition of AIP and the modalities used to diagnose this disease. An attempt to unite the diagnostic criteria worldwide was made with the publication in 2011 of the international consensus diagnostic criteria for AIP, established at the 2010 Congress of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP). PMID:25469024

  13. Defective initiation of glycosaminoglycan synthesis due to B3GALT6 mutations causes a pleiotropic Ehlers-Danlos-syndrome-like connective tissue disorder.

    PubMed

    Malfait, Fransiska; Kariminejad, Ariana; Van Damme, Tim; Gauche, Caroline; Syx, Delfien; Merhi-Soussi, Faten; Gulberti, Sandrine; Symoens, Sofie; Vanhauwaert, Suzanne; Willaert, Andy; Bozorgmehr, Bita; Kariminejad, Mohamad Hasan; Ebrahimiadib, Nazanin; Hausser, Ingrid; Huysseune, Ann; Fournel-Gigleux, Sylvie; De Paepe, Anne

    2013-06-01

    Proteoglycans are important components of cell plasma membranes and extracellular matrices of connective tissues. They consist of glycosaminoglycan chains attached to a core protein via a tetrasaccharide linkage, whereby the addition of the third residue is catalyzed by galactosyltransferase II (?3GalT6), encoded by B3GALT6. Homozygosity mapping and candidate gene sequence analysis in three independent families, presenting a severe autosomal-recessive connective tissue disorder characterized by skin fragility, delayed wound healing, joint hyperlaxity and contractures, muscle hypotonia, intellectual disability, and a spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with bone fragility and severe kyphoscoliosis, identified biallelic B3GALT6 mutations, including homozygous missense mutations in family 1 (c.619G>C [p.Asp207His]) and family 3 (c.649G>A [p.Gly217Ser]) and compound heterozygous mutations in family 2 (c.323_344del [p.Ala108Glyfs(?)163], c.619G>C [p.Asp207His]). The phenotype overlaps with several recessive Ehlers-Danlos variants and spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint hyperlaxity. Affected individuals' fibroblasts exhibited a large decrease in ability to prime glycosaminoglycan synthesis together with impaired glycanation of the small chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan decorin, confirming ?3GalT6 loss of function. Dermal electron microcopy disclosed abnormalities in collagen fibril organization, in line with the important regulatory role of decorin in this process. A strong reduction in heparan sulfate level was also observed, indicating that ?3GalT6 deficiency alters synthesis of both main types of glycosaminoglycans. In vitro wound healing assay revealed a significant delay in fibroblasts from two index individuals, pointing to a role for glycosaminoglycan defect in impaired wound repair in vivo. Our study emphasizes a crucial role for ?3GalT6 in multiple major developmental and pathophysiological processes. PMID:23664118

  14. Defective Initiation of Glycosaminoglycan Synthesis due to B3GALT6 Mutations Causes a Pleiotropic Ehlers-Danlos-Syndrome-like Connective Tissue Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Malfait, Fransiska; Kariminejad, Ariana; Van Damme, Tim; Gauche, Caroline; Syx, Delfien; Merhi-Soussi, Faten; Gulberti, Sandrine; Symoens, Sofie; Vanhauwaert, Suzanne; Willaert, Andy; Bozorgmehr, Bita; Kariminejad, Mohamad Hasan; Ebrahimiadib, Nazanin; Hausser, Ingrid; Huysseune, Ann; Fournel-Gigleux, Sylvie; De Paepe, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Proteoglycans are important components of cell plasma membranes and extracellular matrices of connective tissues. They consist of glycosaminoglycan chains attached to a core protein via a tetrasaccharide linkage, whereby the addition of the third residue is catalyzed by galactosyltransferase II (?3GalT6), encoded by B3GALT6. Homozygosity mapping and candidate gene sequence analysis in three independent families, presenting a severe autosomal-recessive connective tissue disorder characterized by skin fragility, delayed wound healing, joint hyperlaxity and contractures, muscle hypotonia, intellectual disability, and a spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with bone fragility and severe kyphoscoliosis, identified biallelic B3GALT6 mutations, including homozygous missense mutations in family 1 (c.619G>C [p.Asp207His]) and family 3 (c.649G>A [p.Gly217Ser]) and compound heterozygous mutations in family 2 (c.323_344del [p.Ala108Glyfs?163], c.619G>C [p.Asp207His]). The phenotype overlaps with several recessive Ehlers-Danlos variants and spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint hyperlaxity. Affected individuals’ fibroblasts exhibited a large decrease in ability to prime glycosaminoglycan synthesis together with impaired glycanation of the small chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan decorin, confirming ?3GalT6 loss of function. Dermal electron microcopy disclosed abnormalities in collagen fibril organization, in line with the important regulatory role of decorin in this process. A strong reduction in heparan sulfate level was also observed, indicating that ?3GalT6 deficiency alters synthesis of both main types of glycosaminoglycans. In vitro wound healing assay revealed a significant delay in fibroblasts from two index individuals, pointing to a role for glycosaminoglycan defect in impaired wound repair in vivo. Our study emphasizes a crucial role for ?3GalT6 in multiple major developmental and pathophysiological processes. PMID:23664118

  15. Type 1 Diabetes and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease caused by the autoimmune response against pancreatic ? cells. T1D is often complicated with other autoimmune diseases, and anti-islet autoantibodies precede the clinical onset of disease. The most common coexisting organ-specific autoimmune disease in patients with T1D is autoimmune thyroid disease, and its frequency is estimated at > 90% among patients with T1D and autoimmune diseases. The prevalence of anti-thyroid antibodies in children with T1D at disease onset is about 20% and is particularly common in girls. Furthermore, patients with anti-thyroid antibodies are 18 times more likely to develop thyroid disease than patients without anti-thyroid antibodies. Therefore, for early detection of autoimmune thyroid disease in children with T1D, measurement of anti-thyroid antibodies and TSH at T1D onset and in yearly intervals after the age of 12 yr is recommended. Anti-islet autoantibodies are predictive and diagnostic markers for T1D. The most frequently detected autoantibodies in Japanese patients are GAD autoantibodies (~80%) followed by IA-2 autoantibodies (~60%), insulin autoantibodies (~55%) and ZnT8 autoantibodies (~50%). In a combined analysis, 94% of Japanese patients with T1D can be defined as having type 1A diabetes. Furthermore, autoantibodies to ZnT8 and IA-2 are associated with childhood-onset and acute-onset patients. Thus, it is important to develop a diagnostic strategy for patients with type 1A diabetes in consideration of the age or mode of disease onset. PMID:25374439

  16. Immune-Neuroendocrine Interactions and Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jara, Luis J.; Navarro, Carmen; Medina, Gabriela; Vera-Lastra, Olga; Blanco, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between immune-neuroendocrine system is firmly established. The messengers of this connection are hormones, neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and cytokines. The immune-neuroendocrine system have the capacity to synthesize and release these molecules, which, in turn, can stimulate or suppress the activity of immune or neuroendocrine cells by binding to receptors. In fact, hormones, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters participate in innate and adaptive immune response.Autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARD) are characterized by aberrant production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are a potent activator of the HPA axis. In consequence, high levels of pro-inflammatory hormones such as estrogens and prolactin, and low levels of glucocorticoids, an anti-inflammatory hormone, have been described in the active phase of ARD. In addition, high levels of pro-inflammatory hormones and cytokines have also been frequently detected in organ involvement of patients with ARD, suggesting an abnormal local neuroendocrine immune interaction. There is evidence that hormonal changes may appear before the symptomatic phase of the disease. Therefore, it is possible that a pro-inflammatory hormone favors the rupture of tolerance, which is a key feature of autoimmune diseases. The interactions between the immune-neuroendocrine system have a major impact on our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms, diagnosis and therapy of ARD. PMID:17162354

  17. Innate Immune Responses and Modified Extracellular Matrix Regulation Characterize Bacterial Infection and Cellular/Connective Tissue Changes in Scarring Trachoma

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Helen A.; Ramadhani, Athumani M.; Tolbert, Sonda B.; Massae, Patrick; Mabey, David C. W.; Holland, Martin J.; Bailey, Robin L.; Burton, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Trachoma is the most common infectious cause of blindness and a major public health problem in many developing countries. It is caused by recurrent ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in childhood, with conjunctival scarring seen later in life. The pathogenesis of trachomatous scarring, however, is poorly understood, and this study was carried out to investigate the immunofibrogenic correlates of trachomatous conjunctival scarring. A case-control study of 363 cases with conjunctival scarring and 363 control participants was conducted. Investigations included in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) assessment, quantitative real-time PCR gene expression, C. trachomatis detection, and nonchlamydial bacterial culture. Trachomatous scarring was found to be strongly associated with a proinflammatory, innate immune response with increased expression of psoriasin, interleukin-1?, tumor necrosis factor alpha, defensin-?4A, chemokine ligand 5, and serum amyloid A1. There was also differential expression of various modifiers of the extracellular matrix, including metalloproteinases 7, 9, 10, and 12, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1, and secreted protein acidic cystein-rich-like 1. The expression of many of these genes was also significantly associated with the presence of nonchlamydial bacterial infection. These infections had a marked effect on conjunctival immune processes, including an increased inflammatory infiltrate and edema seen with IVCM. This study supports the possibility that the immunofibrogenic response in scarring trachoma is partly stimulated by nonchlamydial bacterial infection, which is characterized by the expression of innate factors. PMID:22038912

  18. Suppression of experimentally induced autoimmune encephalomyelitis by cytolytic TT cell interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deming Sun; Yufen Qin; Johanna Chluba; Jörg T. Epplen; Hartmut Wekerle

    1988-01-01

    Down-regulatory phenomena have been described in several experimental models of tissue-specific, T-cell-mediated autoimmunity. For example, resistance to active induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) can be induced by pretreating animals with non-pathogenic inocula of autoantigen1 or effector cells2,3. Moreover, animals that have recovered from one EAE episode are resistant to subsequent induction of EAE4-6. In some models, resistance to EAE

  19. [Research of the durability of connective tissue complexes formed in the implantation area of various types of allograft during the experiment].

    PubMed

    Ioffe, O Iu; Shvets', I M; Stetsenko, O P; Tsiura, Iu P; Tarasiuk, T V; Lamashevs'ky?, V P; Makovets'ky?, I V; Furmanov, Iu O

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine in the experiment on the animals the mechanical properties of connective tissue complexes formed in alloplasty area using the intraperitoneal on lay mesh and sublay methodologies with further comparison of them. The experiment has been conducted on 12 rabbits of Russian chinchilla breed. Animals were distributed in the following way: the first group--operated by intraperitoneal on lay mesh methodology (n = 6) through implantation of composite grid Proceed with one-side celullose coating produced by "Ethicon" company. The second group--performed modeling of preperitoneal plastic using two-component composite grid with large-pores Ultrapro produced by "Ethicon" company (n = 6). For the tensometric evaluation of the strength of implant integration into the red wall was used entire area of anterior red wall together with the implanted transplant. According to the deflection diagrams and dynamometer rates defined the maximum burden rates which is equivalent of muscular tissue budge against polymeric matrix. Statistically significant distinctions during 14 days were not detected; however strength during 30 days in the first group was 3 times higher than in the second group. We consider that the methodology of intraperitoneal on lay mesh can be considered as operation of choice of surgery treatment of the umbilical hernias. PMID:25906664

  20. Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue type, non-phosphaturic variant: report of a case and review of 32 cases from the Japanese published work.

    PubMed

    Honda, Rie; Kawabata, Yuka; Ito, Shusaku; Kikuchi, Fumihito

    2014-09-01

    Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue type (PMTMCT) is a rare neoplasm that can cause tumor-induced osteomalacia due to overproduction of a phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). We report here a case of subcutaneous PMTMCT, non-phosphaturic variant, in the sole. We also review 32 Japanese cases of PMTMCT reported in detail. They occurred in 16 men and 15 women (one was unknown), with ages ranging 20-73 years (median, 48). Tumors were found in soft tissue, bone and sinuses in 17, 11 and four, respectively. A history of long-standing osteomalacia was noted in all cases except two non-phosphaturic variant cases. Serum FGF23 level was elevated in 11 of 12 cases examined. In terms of follow-up information, metastases were found in four patients, and two patients died of disease. In conclusion, PMTMCT is histologically a benign lesion; however, there may be rare metastatic and malignant cases. Wider recognition of the histological features of this unique neoplasm would aid its distinction from the large number of mesenchymal tumors for which it may be mistaken and should enable correct diagnosis of tumors with osteomalacia. PMID:25182295

  1. Probing the mystery of Chinese medicine meridian channels with special emphasis on the connective tissue interstitial fluid system, mechanotransduction, cells durotaxis and mast cell degranulation.

    PubMed

    Fung, Peter Chin Wan

    2009-01-01

    This article hypothesizes that the Chinese medicine meridian system is a special channel network comprising of skin with abundant nerves and nociceptive receptors of various types, and deeper connective tissues inside the body with the flowing interstitial fluid system. These meridian channels provide efficient migratory tracks mainly due to durotaxis (also including chemotaxis) for mast cells, fibroblasts and other cells to migrate and carry out a number of physiological functions. Acupuncture acting on meridian channel causes cytoskeletal remodeling through mechanotransduction, leading to regulation of gene expression and the subsequent production of related proteins. Also, stimulation on cell surface can trigger Ca2+ activities, resulting in a cascade of intra- and inter-cellular signaling. Moreover, nerve endings in the meridian channels interact with mast cells and induce the degranulation of these cells, leading to the release of many specific biomolecules needed for homeostasis, immune surveillance, wound healing and tissue repair. Acupoint along a meridian channel is a functional site to trigger the above functions with specificity and high efficiency. PMID:19480699

  2. Autoimmune diseases and venous thromboembolism: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Zöller, Bengt; Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is major health problem and is sometimes complicated by lethal pulmonary embolism (PE). Disturbances of the coagulation and anticoagulation systems are important risk factors for VTE. Comparative studies suggest that coagulation and innate immunity have a shared evolutionary origin. It is therefore unsurprising that the immune and coagulation systems are linked, with many molecular components being important for both systems. Systemic inflammation modulates thrombotic responses by suppressing fibrinolysis, upregulating procoagulant, and downregulating anticoagulants, and autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and Behçet’s syndrome have been linked to an increased risk of VTE. Recent reports have further shown that a majority of autoimmune and immune-mediated disorders are linked to an increased risk of venous thrombosis, PE, or VTE. For instance, a Swedish nationwide study found that the risk of PE was increased in the first year after hospitalization for 33 different autoimmune disorders. Especially high risks were noted for several autoimmune diseases such as immune thrombocytopenic purpura, polyarteritis nodosa, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, ulcerative colitis, and SLE. Another study from England, also based on hospitalization data, found that immune-mediated disorders were associated with an increased risk of VTE compared with other medical causes of hospitalization. Multiple mechanisms may operate and disease-specific factors, such as cardiolipin antibodies, have been identified. However, inflammation by itself appears to change the hemostatic balance in a thrombogenic direction. Recent epidemiological studies, together with previous experimental and clinical studies, indicate that autoimmune disorders should not only be viewed as inflammatory disorders, but also hypercoagulable disorders. Research to identify thrombotic risk factors, elucidate the mechanisms involved, and investigate prophylactic regiments is needed. The present review describes the epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence for the connection between VTE and autoimmune and immune-mediated disorders. PMID:22937487

  3. Autoimmunity in Experimental Trypanosoma congolense Infections of Rabbits 1

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, John M.; Kreier, Julius P.

    1972-01-01

    Autoimmunity in rabbits with experimental Trypanosoma congolense infections was investigated. Complement-fixing (CF) and precipitating autoantibodies to normal allogeneic and autologous tissues were found in the sera of all infected rabbits tested; the titers of CF autoantibody occurring during infection were significantly higher than normally occurring titers of autoantibody in pre-infection serum samples. Autoantibody did not cross-react with trypanosome antigens, and Wassermann antibody was not detected in normal or infected rabbit sera. Passive transfer of autoantibody to normal rabbits did not produce observable pathology or death. Physicochemical methods of analysis revealed that the autoantibody was exclusively of the immunoglobulin M class. That cell-mediated autoimmunity to normal tissue antigens did not occur during T. congolense infections was shown by histological analyses, skin tests, migration inhibitory factor, and skin reactive factor tests. Images PMID:4629248

  4. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Is a Generalized Autoimmune Epithelitis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jun; Qiao, Liang; Wang, Bingyuan

    2015-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic progressive autoimmune cholestatic liver disease characterized by highly specific antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) and the specific immune-mediated injury of small intrahepatic bile ducts. Unique apoptotic feature of biliary epithelial cells (BECs) may contribute to apotope presentation to the immune system, causing unique tissue damage in PBC. Perpetuation of inflammation may result in senescence of BECs, contributing to irreversible loss of bile duct. In addition to the classic liver manifestations, focal inflammation and tissue damage are also seen in salivary glands and urinary tract in a significant proportion of PBC patients. These findings provide potent support to the idea that molecular mimicry may be involved in the breakdown of autoimmune tolerance and mucosal immunity may lead to a systematic epithelitis in PBC patients. Thus, PBC is considered a generalized epithelitis in clinical practice. PMID:25803105

  5. CD25 is expressed by canine cutaneous mast cell tumors but not by cutaneous connective tissue mast cells.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A; Gruber, A D; Klopfleisch, R

    2012-11-01

    Canine cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCT) of different histological grades have distinct biological behaviors. However, little is known about underlying molecular mechanisms that lead to tumor development and increasing malignancy with higher tumor grade. Recent studies have identified the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) subunits CD25 and CD2 as markers that distinguish nonneoplastic from neoplastic mast cells in human systemic mastocytosis. In this study, their potential as a marker for canine MCT and their possible impact on MCT carcinogenesis were evaluated. mRNA expression levels of both genes were compared between grade 1 (n = 12) and grade 3 (n = 8) MCT, and protein expression levels of CD25 were compared in 90 MCT of different tumor grades. mRNA expression levels of both CD25 and CD2 were upregulated in grade 3 MCT. In contrast, CD25 protein was expressed by fewer tumor cells and at decreased levels in grade 3 tumors, while most grade 1 MCT had strong CD25 protein expression. Moreover, CD25 was not expressed by nonneoplastic, resting cutaneous mast cells, while few presumably activated mast cells in tissue samples from dogs with allergic dermatitis had weak CD25 expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that CD25 may play a critical role in early MCT development and may be a stimulatory factor in grade 1 MCT, while grade 3 MCT seem to be less dependent on CD25. Because of the low number of CD25-positive tumor cells in high-grade tumors, the usefulness of CD25 as a tumor marker is, however, questionable. PMID:22446323

  6. Long palatal connective tissue rolled pedicle graft with demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft plus platelet-rich fibrin combination: A novel technique for ridge augmentation - Three case reports.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Pathakota Krishnajaneya; Bolla, Vijayalakshmi; Koppolu, Pradeep; Srujan, Peruka

    2015-01-01

    Replacement of missing maxillary anterior tooth with localized residual alveolar ridge defect is challenging, considering the high esthetic demand. Various soft and hard tissue procedures were proposed to correct alveolar ridge deformities. Novel techniques have evolved in treating these ridge defects to improve function and esthetics. In the present case reports, a novel technique using long palatal connective tissue rolled pedicle graft with demineralized freeze-dried bone allografts (DFDBAs) plus Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) combination was proposed to correct the Class III localized anterior maxillary anterior alveolar ridge defect. The present technique resulted in predictable ridge augmentation, which can be attributed to the soft and hard tissue augmentation with a connective tissue pedicle and DFDBA plus PRF combination. This technique suggests a variation in roll technique with DFDBA plus PRF and appears to promise in gaining predictable volume in the residual ridge defect and can be considered for the treatment of moderate to severe maxillary anterior ridge defects. PMID:26015679

  7. Th17 cells in immunity and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Bedoya, Simone Kennedy; Lam, Brandon; Lau, Kenneth; Larkin, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Th17 and IL-17 play important roles in the clearance of extracellular bacterial and fungal infections. However, strong evidence also implicates the Th17 lineage in several autoimmune disorders including multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and asthma. The Th17 subset has also been connected with type I diabetes, although whether it plays a role in the pathogenicity of or protection from the disease remains a controversial issue. In this review we have provided a comprehensive overview of Th17 pathogenicity and function, including novel evidence for a protective role of Th17 cells in conjunction with the microbiota gut flora in T1D onset and progression. PMID:24454481

  8. PD-1, gender, and autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Dinesh, Ravi K.; Hahn, Bevra H.; Singh, Ram Pyare

    2010-01-01

    Programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligands (PD-L1 and PD-L2) are responsible for inhibitory T cell signaling that helps mediate the mechanisms of tolerance and immune homeostasis. The PD-1:PD-L signaling pathway has been shown to play an important role in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune conditions, chronic infection, and cancer. Recently, investigators have explored the role of sex hormones in modulating the pathway in autoimmune conditions. Exploring the effects of sex hormones on the PD-1:PD-L pathway could shed light on the gender biased nature of many autoimmune conditions as well as aide in the development of therapeutics targeting the immune system. PMID:20433954

  9. Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome: current concepts.

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, J; Lechuga-Gomez, E E; Bigazzi, P E; Walfish, P G

    1988-01-01

    The polyglandular autoimmune syndrome (PGAS) is characterized by the association of two or more endocrine disorders that are mediated by autoimmune mechanisms and usually lead to a hypofunctional state. In this review we classify the various types of PGAS and discuss their clinical features and the pathophysiologic autoimmune mechanisms that are thought to play an important role. Circulating organ- and cell-specific autoantibodies are frequently detected in patients with the syndrome and may be a marker of future organ failure. PGAS should be considered in patients with one or more of the disorders constituting the syndrome; this should facilitate early diagnosis and perhaps even prevention of other components of the disease. Early recognition and replacement therapy can be life-saving, particularly when there is adrenal or thyroid insufficiency. PMID:3281737

  10. Kidney transplantation during autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Ounissi, M; Abderrahim, E; Hedri, H; Sfaxi, M; Fayala, H; Turki, S; Ben Maïz, H; Ben Abdallah, T; Chebil, M; Kheder, A

    2009-09-01

    Herein, we report the results of kidney transplantation in 9 of 376 patients who underwent kidney transplantation at our center between 1986 and 2007 because of chronic renal failure associated with autoimmune disease. Four of the 9 patients had systemic lupus erythematosus, 3 had Wegener granulomatosis, and 2 had Goodpasture syndrome. Six patients received organs from living donors, and 3 received cadaver organs. Infections were frequent and included cytomegalovirus and urinary tract infection in most cases. There was no difference in occurrence of metabolic and cardiovascular complications in our study patients compared with other transplant recipients. Incidence of allograft loss (n = 1) was similar to that in our entire transplantation population, with an overall rate of 2.9%. We conclude that kidney transplantation is a reasonable therapeutic option in patients with autoimmune disease with end-stage renal disease because of good graft and patient survival compared with kidney recipients without autoimmune diseases. PMID:19765434

  11. Autoimmune Myocarditis, Valvulitis, and Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jennifer M.; Cunningham, Madeleine W.; Fairweather, DeLisa; Huber, Sally A.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac myosin-induced autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) is a model of inflammatory heart disease initiated by CD4+ T cells (Smith and Allen 1991; Li, Heuser et al. 2004). It is a paradigm of the immune-mediated cardiac damage believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of a subset of postinfectious human cardiomyopathies (Rose, Herskowitz et al. 1993). Myocarditis is induced in susceptible mice by immunization with purified cardiac myosin (Neu, Rose et al. 1987) or specific peptides derived from cardiac myosin (Donermeyer, Beisel et al. 1995; Pummerer, Luze et al. 1996) (see Basic Protocol 1), or by adoptive transfer of myosin-reactive T cells (Smith and Allen 1991) (see Alternate Protocol). Myocarditis has been induced in Lewis rats by immunization with purified rat or porcine cardiac myosin (Kodama, Matsumoto et al. 1990; Li, Heuser et al. 2004) (see Basic Protocol 2) or S2-16 peptide (Li, Heuser et al. 2004), or by adoptive transfer of T cells stimulated by specific peptides derived from cardiac myosin (Wegmann, Zhao et al. 1994). Myocarditis begins 12 to 14 days after the first immunization, and is maximal after 21 days. Other animal models commonly used to study myocarditis development include the pathogen-induced models in which disease is initiated by viral infection. The first murine model of acute viral myocarditis causes sudden death via viral damage to cardiomyocytes (Huber, Gauntt et al. 1998; Horwitz, La Cava et al. 2000; Fong 2003; Fuse, Chan et al. 2005; Fairweather and Rose 2007; Cihakova and Rose 2008) whereas the second model is based on inoculation with heart-passaged coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) that includes damaged heart proteins (Fairweather, Frisancho-Kiss et al. 2004; Fairweather D 2004; Fairweather and Rose 2007; Cihakova and Rose 2008) In addition to the protocols used to induce EAM in mice and rats, support protocols are included for preparing purified cardiac myosin using mouse or rat heart tissue (see Support Protocol 1), preparing purified cardiac myosin for injection (see Support Protocol 2), and collecting and assessing hearts by histopathological means (see Support Protocol 3). PMID:23564686

  12. Spontaneous development of autoimmune uveitis Is CCR2 dependent.

    PubMed

    Chen, YuTing Feeling; Zhou, Delu; Metzger, Todd; Gallup, Marianne; Jeanne, Marion; Gould, Douglas B; Anderson, Mark S; McNamara, Nancy A

    2014-06-01

    Development of novel strategies to treat noninfectious posterior uveitis is an ongoing challenge, in part because of limited availability of animal models that mimic the naturally occurring disease in humans. Mice deficient in the autoimmune regulatory gene Aire develop a spontaneous T-cell and macrophage-mediated autoimmune uveitis that closely recapitulates human endogenous uveitis and thus provide a useful model for mechanistic and therapeutic investigations. Lymphocytic and mononuclear infiltration of the retina in Aire knockout (KO) mice triggers the onset of uveitis from initial retinal inflammation to eventual destruction of the neuroretina with loss of photoreceptors. The C-C chemokine receptor type 2 protein (CCR2) functions in directing monocyte and macrophage migration to inflamed tissues via interaction with monocyte chemotactic proteins. Using the Aire KO mouse model, we demonstrated an essential role for CCR2 in the pathogenesis of autoimmune-mediated uveitis. Loss of functional CCR2 effectively reduced immune cell infiltration and rescued the retina from destruction. CCR2-dependent migration of bone marrow-derived cells provided the driving force for retinal inflammation, with CCR2-expressing mononuclear cells contributing to retinal damage via recruitment of CD4(+) T cells. These studies identify the CCR2 pathway as a promising therapeutic target that may prove an effective approach to treat uveitis associated with autoimmunity. PMID:24736166

  13. Invited Review Autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease

    E-print Network

    Engman, David M.

    Invited Review Autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease J.S. Leon, D.M. Engman* Northwestern University the genesis of autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease: (i) What mechanism(s) are potentially responsible for Parasitology Inc. Keywords: Myocarditis; Chagas heart disease Myosin; Autoimmunity 1. Introduction After

  14. Ancestral Myf5 gene activity in periocular connective tissue identifies a subset of fibro/adipogenic progenitors but does not connote a myogenic origin.

    PubMed

    Stuelsatz, Pascal; Shearer, Andrew; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora

    2014-01-15

    Extraocular muscles (EOM) represent a unique muscle group that controls eye movements and originates from head mesoderm, while the more typically studied body and limb muscles are somite-derived. Aiming to investigate myogenic progenitors (satellite cells) in EOM versus limb and diaphragm of adult mice, we have been using flow cytometry in combination with myogenic-specific Cre-loxP lineage marking for cell isolation. While analyzing cells from the EOM of mice that harbor Myf5(Cre)-driven GFP expression, we identified in addition to the expected GFP(+) myogenic cells (presumably satellite cells), a second dominant GFP(+) population distinguished as being Sca1(+), non-myogenic, and exhibiting a fibro/adipogenic potential. This unexpected population was not only unique to EOM compared to the other muscles but also specific to the Myf5(Cre)-driven reporter when compared to the MyoD(Cre) driver. Histological studies of periocular tissue preparations demonstrated the presence of Myf5(Cre)-driven GFP(+) cells in connective tissue locations adjacent to the muscle masses, including cells in the vasculature wall. These vasculature-associated GFP(+) cells were further identified as mural cells based on the presence of the specific XLacZ4 transgene. Unlike the EOM satellite cells that originate from a Pax3-negative lineage, these non-myogenic Myf5(Cre)-driven GFP(+) cells appear to be related to cells of a Pax3-expressing origin, presumably derived from the neural crest. In all, our lineage tracing based on multiple reporter lines has demonstrated that regardless of common ancestral expression of Myf5, there is a clear distinction between periocular myogenic and non-myogenic cell lineages according to their mutually exclusive antecedence of MyoD and Pax3 gene activity. PMID:23969310

  15. Ancestral Myf5 gene activity in periocular connective tissue identifies a subset of fibro/adipogenic progenitors but does not connote a myogenic origin

    PubMed Central

    Stuelsatz, Pascal; Shearer, Andrew; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora

    2014-01-01

    Extraocular muscles (EOM) represent a unique muscle group that controls eye movements and originates from head mesoderm, while the more typically studied body and limb muscles are somite-derived. Aiming to investigate myogenic progenitors (satellite cells) in EOM versus limb and diaphragm of adult mice, we have been using flow cytometry in combination with myogenic-specific Cre-loxP lineage marking for cell isolation. While analyzing cells from the EOM of mice that harbor Myf5Cre-driven GFP expression, we identified in addition to the expected GFP+ myogenic cells (presumably satellite cells), a second dominant GFP+ population distinguished as being Sca1+, non-myogenic, and exhibiting a fibro/adipogenic potential. This unexpected population was not only unique to EOM compared to the other muscles but also specific to the Myf5Cre-driven reporter when compared to the MyoDCre driver. Histological studies of periocular tissue preparations demonstrated the presence of Myf5Cre-driven GFP+ cells in connective tissue locations adjacent to the muscle masses, including cells in the vasculature wall. These vasculature-associated GFP+ cells were further identified as mural cells based on the presence of the specific XLacZ4 transgene. Unlike the EOM satellite cells that originate from a Pax3-negative lineage, these non-myogenic Myf5Cre-driven GFP+ cells appear to be related to cells of a Pax3-expressing origin, presumably derived from the neural crest. In all, our lineage tracing based on multiple reporter lines has demonstrated that regardless of common ancestral expression of Myf5, there is a clear distinction between periocular myogenic and non-myogenic cell lineages according to their mutually exclusive antecedence of MyoD and Pax3 gene activity. PMID:23969310

  16. Differential cellular accumulation of connective tissue growth factor defines a subset of reactive astrocytes, invading fibroblasts, and endothelial cells following central nervous system injury in rats and humans.

    PubMed

    Schwab, J M; Beschorner, R; Nguyen, T D; Meyermann, R; Schluesener, H J

    2001-04-01

    In brain injury, the primary trauma is followed by a cascade of cellular and molecular mechanisms resulting in secondary injury and scar formation. Astrogliosis and expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) are key components of scar formation. A cytokine mediating the effects of TGF-beta is connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a fibrogenic peptide encoded by an immediate early gene with suggested roles in tissue regeneration and aberrant deposition of extracellular matrix. In order to investigate CTGF in traumatic lesions, we evaluated 20 human brains with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 18 rat brains with stab wound injury. Compared to remote areas and unaltered control brains, CTGF+ cells accumulated in border zones of the traumatic lesion site (p < 0.0001). In the direct peri-lesional rim, CTGF expression was confined to invading vimentin+, GFAP- fibroblastoid cells, endothelial and smooth muscle cells of laminin+ vessels, and GFAP+ reactive astrocytes. In the direct peri-lesional rim, CTGF+ astrocytes (>80%) co-expressed the activation associated intermediate filaments nestin and vimentin. In injured rat brains, numbers of CTGF+ cells peaked at day 3 and 7 and decreased to almost base level 3 weeks postinjury, whereas in humans, CTGF+ cells remained persistently elevated up to 6 months (p < 0.0001). The restricted accumulation of CTGF+-reactive astrocytes and CTGF+ fibroblastoid cells lining the adjacent laminin+ basal lamina suggests participation of these cells in scar formation. Furthermore, peri-lesional upregulation of endothelial CTGF expression points to a role in blood-brain barrier function and angiogenesis. In addition, CTGF appears to be a sensitive marker of early astrocyte activation. PMID:11336439

  17. DARC shuttles inflammatory chemokines across the blood–brain barrier during autoimmune central nervous system inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Minten, Carsten; Alt, Carsten; Gentner, Melanie; Frei, Elisabeth; Deutsch, Urban; Lyck, Ruth; Schaeren-Wiemers, Nicole; Rot, Antal

    2014-01-01

    The Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines, DARC, belongs to the family of atypical heptahelical chemokine receptors that do not couple to G proteins and therefore fail to transmit conventional intracellular signals. Here we show that during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis, the expression of DARC is upregulated at the blood–brain barrier. These findings are corroborated by the presence of a significantly increased number of subcortical white matter microvessels staining positive for DARC in human multiple sclerosis brains as compared to control tissue. Using an in vitro blood–brain barrier model we demonstrated that endothelial DARC mediates the abluminal to luminal transport of inflammatory chemokines across the blood–brain barrier. An involvement of DARC in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis pathogenesis was confirmed by the observed ameliorated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Darc?/? C57BL/6 and SJL mice, as compared to wild-type control littermates. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis studies in bone marrow chimeric Darc?/? and wild-type mice revealed that increased plasma levels of inflammatory chemokines in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis depended on the presence of erythrocyte DARC. However, fully developed experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis required the expression of endothelial DARC. Taken together, our data show a role for erythrocyte DARC as a chemokine reservoir and that endothelial DARC contributes to the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by shuttling chemokines across the blood–brain barrier. PMID:24625696

  18. Diet, microbiota and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Vieira, S M; Pagovich, O E; Kriegel, M A

    2014-05-01

    There is growing evidence that the commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (the gut microbiota) influence the development of autoimmunity in rodent models. Since humans have co-evolved with commensals for millennia, it is likely that people, who are genetically predisposed to autoimmunity, harbor gut microbial communities that similarly influence the onset and/or severity of disease. Beyond the current efforts to identify such disease-promoting or -preventing commensals ("pathobionts" or "symbionts"), it will be important to determine what factors modulate them. Dietary changes are known to affect both the composition and function of the gut microbial communities, which in turn can alter the innate and adaptive immune system. In this review, we focus on the relationships between diet, microbiota, and autoimmune diseases. We hypothesize that the beneficial and life-prolonging effects of caloric restriction on a variety of autoimmune models including lupus might partly be mediated by its effects on the gut microbiome and associated virome, the collection of all viruses in the gut. We give recent examples of the immunomodulatory potential of select gut commensals and their products or diet-derived metabolites in murine models of arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes. Lastly, we summarize the published phenotypes of germ-free mouse models of lupus and speculate on any role of the diet-sensitive microbiome and virome in systemic lupus and the related antiphospholipid syndrome. PMID:24763536

  19. Adaptive Immunity in Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Serena Longhi; Yun Ma; Giorgina Mieli-Vergani; Diego Vergani

    2010-01-01

    The histological lesion of interface hepatitis, with its dense portal cell infiltrate consisting of lymphocytes, monocytes\\/macrophages and plasma cells, was the first to suggest an autoaggressive cellular immune attack in the pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Immunohistochemical studies, focused on the phenotype of inflammatory cells infiltrating the liver parenchyma, have shown a predominance of ??-T cells. Amongst these cells, the

  20. Cell therapy for autoimmune diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Dazzi; Jacob M van Laar; Andrew Cope; Alan Tyndall

    2007-01-01

    Cell therapy, pioneered for the treatment of malignancies in the form of bone marrow transplantation, has subsequently been tested and successfully employed in autoimmune diseases. Autologous haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has become a curative option for conditions with very poor prognosis such as severe forms of scleroderma, multiple sclerosis, and lupus, in which targeted therapies have little or no

  1. Treating infertility in autoimmune patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Coli

    2008-01-01

    In Western countries, the rate of infertility is about 10-20% and is age dependent. Since the infertile partner among couples can be either the man or the woman, specification of which sex con- tributes to infertility is necessary in studies of patients with autoimmune diseases. This review focuses on patients with SLE—the only group for which extensive data are available.

  2. Cytopénies auto-immunes périphériques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Suarez; D. Ghez; R. Delarue; O. Hermine

    2005-01-01

    Immune cytopenias constitute a difficult diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Because of the heterogeneity of their etiologies and of their clinical presentations (infections, auto-immune and lymphoproliferative disorders), they are frequently underrecognized by nonspecialists. Nevertheless, immune cytopenias can be life threatening and require intensive care. Several mechanisms can account for hematopoietic cell destruction by the immune system. Pathogenic auto-antibody coated cells can

  3. Reconciling Healthcare Professional and Patient Perspectives in the Development of Disease Activity and Response Criteria in Connective Tissue Disease Related Interstitial Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Saketkoo, LA; Mittoo, S; Frankel, S; LeSage, D; Sarver, C; Phillips, K; Strand, V; Matteson, EL

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILD), including connective tissue disease (CTD) related and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), carry a high morbidity and mortality. Great efforts are underway to develop and investigate meaningful treatments in the context of clinical trials. However, these efforts have been challenged by the lack of validated outcome measures and inconsistent use of measures in the context of clinical trials. This lack of consensus has fragmented effective use of investigative in CTD-ILD and IPF with a history of resultant difficulties in agency approval of treatment interventions. Patient perspective in determination of domains and outcome measures in CTD-ILD and IPF, prior to this effort, has never occurred. These efforts demonstrate unequivocally the value and impact of patient involvement on core set development. Regarding CTD-ILD, this is the first OMERACT working group to directly address a manifestation/co-morbidity of a rheumatic disease (ILD) as well as a disease not considered rheumatic (IPF). The OMERACT 11 proceedings of the CTD-ILD Working Group describe the forward and lateral process to include both the medical and patient perspectives in the urgently needed identification of a core set of preliminary domains and outcome measures in CTD-ILD and IPF. PMID:24488412

  4. TGF-?1 Up-Regulates Connective Tissue Growth Factor Expression in Human Granulosa Cells through Smad and ERK1/2 Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jung-Chien; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Fang, Lanlan; Sun, Ying-Pu; Leung, Peter C. K.

    2015-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), which is also called CCN2, is a secreted matricellular protein. CTGF regulates various important cellular functions by interacting with multiple molecules in the microenvironment. In the ovary, CTGF is mainly expressed in granulosa cells and involved in the regulation of follicular development, ovulation and luteinization. TGF-?1 has been shown to up-regulate CTGF expression in rat and hen granulosa cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this up-regulation remain undefined. More importantly, whether the stimulatory effect of TGF-?1 on CTGF expression can be observed in human granulosa cells remains unknown. In the present study, our results demonstrated that TGF-?1 treatment up-regulates CTGF expression in both immortalized human granulosa cells and primary human granulosa cells. Using a siRNA-mediated knockdown approach and a pharmacological inhibitor, we demonstrated that the inhibition of Smad2, Smad3 or ERK1/2 attenuates the TGF-?1-induced up-regulation of CTGF. This study provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms that mediate TGF-?1-up-regulated CTGF expression in human granulosa cells. PMID:25955392

  5. Reconciling healthcare professional and patient perspectives in the development of disease activity and response criteria in connective tissue disease-related interstitial lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Saketkoo, Lesley Ann; Mittoo, Shikha; Frankel, Sid; LeSage, Daphne; Sarver, Catherine; Phillips, Kristine; Strand, Vibeke; Matteson, Eric L

    2014-04-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILD), including those related to connective tissue disease (CTD), and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) carry high morbidity and mortality. Great efforts are under way to develop and investigate meaningful treatments in the context of clinical trials. However, efforts have been challenged by a lack of validated outcome measures and by inconsistent use of measures in clinical trials. Lack of consensus has fragmented effective use of strategies in CTD-ILD and IPF, with a history of resultant difficulties in obtaining agency approval of treatment interventions. Until recently, the patient perspective to determine domains and outcome measures in CTD-ILD and IPF had never been applied. Efforts described here demonstrate unequivocally the value and influence of patient involvement on core set development. Regarding CTD-ILD, this is the first OMERACT working group to directly address a manifestation/comorbidity of a rheumatic disease (ILD) as well as a disease not considered rheumatic (IPF). The OMERACT 11 proceedings of the CTD-ILD Working Group describe the forward and lateral process to include both the medical and patient perspectives in the urgently needed identification of a core set of preliminary domains and outcome measures in CTD-ILD and IPF. PMID:24488412

  6. Preliminary Report of Endovascular Treatment for Critical Limb Ischemia Patients with Connective Tissue Disease: Cases Series and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Obara, Hideaki; Matsubara, Kentaro; Fujimura, Naoki; Sekimoto, Yasuhito; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2015-06-01

    Only few studies have addressed the surgical revascularization in patients with both connective tissue disease (CTD) and critical limb ischemia (CLI), and the evidence for the endovascular treatment (EVT) is lacking in such patients. The main purpose of this study is to assess our outcome of EVT in patients with CTD and ischemic leg ulcers and review the current situation of the revascularization in such patients. Medical records of 10 consecutive patients with coexistent CTD and CLI-related leg ulcers (in 11 limbs) treated endovascularly at our institution between 2009 and 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. The patients had rheumatoid arthritis (n?=?5), systemic lupus erythematosus (n?=?1), progressive systemic scleroderma (n?=?3), or polyarteritis nodosa (n?=?1). EVT was technically successful in all the cases. No procedure-related morbidity or mortality occurred. During the mean follow-up period of 26 months, there were no major amputations, and sustained clinical improvement (ulcer healing and reduction in Rutherford category) was observed in eight limbs. The overall 1-year rates of amputation-free survival and freedom from reintervention were 89 and 81%, respectively. In our series of patients with CTD and ischemic leg ulcers, EVT had acceptable outcomes and may be recommended as a safe and reasonably effective initial treatment option for such patients. PMID:26060386

  7. Comparative morphological study on the stereo-structure of the lingual papillae and their connective tissue cores of the American beaver (Castor canadensis).

    PubMed

    Shindo, Junji; Yoshimura, Ken; Kobayashi, Kan

    2006-02-01

    The lingual papillae and the connective tissue cores (CTC) of the American beaver were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. The tongue of American beaver was about 9 cm in length, 3.5 cm in width, and has a lingual prominence. Four types of papillae (filiform, fungiform, vallate and foliate papillae) were observed. The filiform papillae can be classified into three types (filiform, large filiform and dorm-like papillae). Filiform papillae distributed on the anterior tongue and posterior of the lingual prominence consisted of a posterior thick main process and several small accessory processes. After removal of the epithelium, the CTCs of the filiform papillae had U-shaped, horseshoe-like primary cores with 10-15 rod-shaped small accessory cores. Large filiform papillae were distributed at the anterior margin of the lingual prominence. Dome-like papillae were distributed at the top of lingual prominence. Fungiform papillae were observed two types. Fungiform papillae, which were distributed at the anterior tongue, were round shaped. Fungiform papillae of the posterior of the lingual prominence were large and surrounded with a papillary groove. At the posterior of the tongue, three vallate papillae were arranged in a triangular pattern. Foliate papillae were on 22 to 25 parallel ridges and grooves. PMID:16526571

  8. Therapeutic Potential of IL-17-Mediated Signaling Pathway in Autoimmune Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiyan; Bernuzzi, Francesca; Lleo, Ana; Ma, Xiong; Invernizzi, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence reveals that various cytokines and tissue microenvironments contribute to liver inflammation and autoimmunity, and IL-17 family is one of highlights acknowledged. Although the implication of IL-17 family in most common autoimmune diseases (such as psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, and rheumatoid arthritis) has been extensively characterized, the role of this critical family in pathophysiology of autoimmune liver diseases (AILD) still needs to be clarified. In the review, we look into the intriguing biology of IL-17 family and further dissect on the intricate role of IL-17-mediated pathway in AILD. Considering encouraging data from preclinical and clinical trials, IL-17 targeted therapy has shown promises in several certain autoimmune conditions. However, blocking IL-17-mediated pathway is just beginning, and more fully investigation and reflection are required. Taking together, targeting IL-17-mediated responses may open up new areas of potential clinical treatment for AILD. PMID:26146463

  9. Pouring fuel on the fire: Th17 cells, the environment, and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Burkett, Patrick R; Meyer Zu Horste, Gerd; Kuchroo, Vijay K

    2015-06-01

    Cytokines play a critical role in controlling the differentiation of CD4 Th cells into distinct subsets, including IL-17-producing Th17 cells. Unfortunately, the incidence of a number of autoimmune diseases, particularly those in which the IL-23/IL-17 axis has been implicated, has risen in the last several decades, suggesting that environmental factors can promote autoimmunity. Here we review the role of cytokines in Th17 differentiation, particularly the role of IL-23 in promoting the differentiation of a pathogenic subset of Th17 cells that potently induce autoimmune tissue inflammation. Moreover, we highlight emerging data that indicate that environmental factors, including the intestinal microbiota and changes in diet, can alter normal cytokine regulation with potent effects on Th17 differentiation and thus promote autoimmunity, which has strong implications for human disease. PMID:25961452

  10. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor- ? in Thyroid Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Fallahi, Poupak; Vita, Roberto; Antonelli, Alessandro; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR-) ? expression has been shown in thyroid tissue from patients with thyroiditis or Graves' disease and furthermore in the orbital tissue of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), such as in extraocular muscle cells. An increasing body of evidence shows the importance of the (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3) and cognate chemokines (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, in the T helper 1 immune response and in inflammatory diseases such as thyroid autoimmune disorders. PPAR-? agonists show a strong inhibitory effect on the expression and release of CXCR3 chemokines, in vitro, in various kinds of cells, such as thyrocytes, and in orbital fibroblasts, preadipocytes, and myoblasts from patients with GO. Recently, it has been demonstrated that rosiglitazone is involved in a higher risk of heart failure, stroke, and all-cause mortality in old patients. On the contrary, pioglitazone has not shown these effects until now; this favors pioglitazone for a possible use in patients with thyroid autoimmunity. However, further studies are ongoing to explore the use of new PPAR-? agonists in the treatment of thyroid autoimmune disorders. PMID:25722716

  11. The PD-1 Pathway in Tolerance and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Loise M.; Sage, Peter T.; Sharpe, Arlene H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and the PD-1: PD-ligand (PD-L) pathway are both critical to terminating immune responses. Elimination of either can result in the breakdown of tolerance and the development of autoimmunity. The PD-1: PD-L pathway can thwart self-reactive T cells and protect against autoimmunity in many ways. In this review, we highlight how PD-1 and its ligands defend against potentially pathogenic self-reactive effector T cells by simultaneously harnessing two mechanisms of peripheral tolerance: (i) the promotion of Treg development and function and (ii) the direct inhibition of potentially pathogenic self-reactive T cells that have escaped into the periphery. Treg cells induced by the PD-1 pathway may also assist in maintaining immune homeostasis, keeping the threshold for T-cell activation high enough to safeguard against autoimmunity. PD-L1 expression on non-hematopoietic cells as well as hematopoietic cells endows PD-L1 with the capacity to promote Treg development and enhance Treg function in lymphoid organs and tissues that are targets of autoimmune attack. At sites where transforming growth factor-? is present (e.g. sites of immune privilege or inflammation), PD-L1 may promote the de novo generation of Tregs. When considering the consequences of uncontrolled immunity, it would be therapeutically advantageous to manipulate Treg development and sustain Treg function. Thus, this review also discusses how the PD-1 pathway regulates a number of autoimmune diseases and the therapeutic potential of PD-1: PD-L modulation. PMID:20636820

  12. Distinct genetic control of autoimmune neuropathy and diabetes in the non-obese diabetic background

    PubMed Central

    Bour-Jordan, Hélène; Thompson, Heather L.; Giampaolo, Jennifer R.; Davini, Dan; Rosenthal, Wendy; Bluestone, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is susceptible to the development of autoimmune diabetes but also multiple other autoimmune diseases. Over twenty susceptibility loci linked to diabetes have been identified in NOD mice and progress has been made in the definition of candidate genes at many of these loci (termed Idd for insulin-dependent diabetes). The susceptibility to multiple autoimmune diseases in the NOD background is a unique opportunity to examine susceptibility genes that confer a general propensity for autoimmunity versus susceptibility genes that control individual autoimmune diseases. We previously showed that NOD mice deficient for the costimulatory molecule B7-2 (NOD-B7-2KO mice) were protected from diabetes but spontaneously developed an autoimmune peripheral neuropathy. Here, we took advantage of multiple NOD mouse strains congenic for Idd loci to test the role of these Idd loci the development of neuropathy and determine if B6 alleles at Idd loci that are protective for diabetes will also be for neuropathy. Thus, we generated NOD-B7-2KO strains congenic at Idd loci and examined the development of neuritis and clinical neuropathy. We found that the NOD-H-2g7 MHC region is necessary for development of neuropathy in NOD-B7-2KO mice. In contrast, other Idd loci that significantly protect from diabetes did not affect neuropathy when considered individually. However, we found potent genetic interactions of some Idd loci that provided almost complete protection from neuritis and clinical neuropathy. In addition, defective immunoregulation by Tregs could supersede protection by some, but not other, Idd loci in a tissue-specific manner in a model where neuropathy and diabetes occurred concomitantly. Thus, our study helps identify Idd loci that control tissue-specific disease or confer general susceptibility to autoimmunity, and brings insight to the Treg-dependence of autoimmune processes influenced by given Idd region in the NOD background. PMID:23850635

  13. Role of vitamin D in acquired immune and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Delvin, Edgard; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Viard, Jean-Paul; Salle, Bernard

    2014-08-01

    Vitamin D has been attributed roles in the pathogenesis and prevention of several diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, autism and autoimmune diseases. The concomitant expression of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1?-hydroxylase and of the vitamin D3 receptor in animal and human tissues and organs other than bone supports this paradigm. Translated into the clinical field, meta-analyses and systematic reviews have also revealed an association between vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency and non-osseous diseases. Although relying on the large databases, they are diverse in nature and involve participants of varying age and evolving in different environments. Furthermore, they do not allow any analysis of a possible causal relationship between vitamin D supplementation and clinical outcomes. Following a brief historical account, this review addresses these caveats, and gives examples of randomized controlled trials conducted in the fields of acquired immune and autoimmune diseases. PMID:24813330

  14. Increased Polyamines Alter Chromatin and Stabilize Autoantigens in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Wesley H.

    2013-01-01

    Polyamines are small cations with unique combinations of charge and length that give them many putative interactions in cells. Polyamines are essential since they are involved in replication, transcription, translation, and stabilization of macro-molecular complexes. However, polyamine synthesis competes with cellular methylation for S-adenosylmethionine, the methyl donor. Also, polyamine degradation can generate reactive molecules like acrolein. Therefore, polyamine levels are tightly controlled. This control may be compromised in autoimmune diseases since elevated polyamine levels are seen in autoimmune diseases. Here a hypothesis is presented explaining how polyamines can stabilize autoantigens. In addition, the hypothesis explains how polyamines can inappropriately activate enzymes involved in NETosis, a process in which chromatin is modified and extruded from cells as extracellular traps that bind pathogens during an immune response. This polyamine-induced enzymatic activity can lead to an increase in NETosis resulting in release of autoantigenic material and tissue damage. PMID:23616785

  15. CXCL12 Induces Connective Tissue Growth Factor Expression in Human Lung Fibroblasts through the Rac1/ERK, JNK, and AP-1 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Chih-Chieh; Yu, Chung-Chi; Tsai, Yuan-Jhih; Bien, Mauo-Ying; Chen, Bing-Chang

    2014-01-01

    CXCL12 (stromal cell-derived factor-1, SDF-1) is a potent chemokine for homing of CXCR4+ fibrocytes to injury sites of lung tissue, which contributes to pulmonary fibrosis. Overexpression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) plays a critical role in pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the roles of Rac1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and activator protein-1 (AP-1) in CXCL12-induced CTGF expression in human lung fibroblasts. CXCL12 caused concentration- and time-dependent increases in CTGF expression and CTGF-luciferase activity. CXCL12-induced CTGF expression was inhibited by a CXCR4 antagonist (AMD3100), small interfering RNA of CXCR4 (CXCR4 siRNA), a dominant negative mutant of Rac1 (RacN17), a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MEK) inhibitor (PD98059), a JNK inhibitor (SP600125), a p21-activated kinase inhibitor (PAK18), c-Jun siRNA, and an AP-1 inhibitor (curcumin). Treatment of cells with CXCL12 caused activations of Rac1, Rho, ERK, and c-Jun. The CXCL12-induced increase in ERK phosphorylation was inhibited by RacN17. Treatment of cells with PD98059 and SP600125 both inhibited CXCL12-induced c-Jun phosphorylation. CXCL12 caused the recruitment of c-Jun and c-Fos binding to the CTGF promoter. Furthermore, CXCL12 induced an increase in ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) expression, a myofibroblastic phenotype, and actin stress fiber formation. CXCL12-induced actin stress fiber formation and ?-SMA expression were respectively inhibited by AMD3100 and CTGF siRNA. Taken together, our results suggest that CXCL12, acting through CXCR4, activates the Rac/ERK and JNK signaling pathways, which in turn initiates c-Jun phosphorylation, and recruits c-Jun and c-Fos to the CTGF promoter and ultimately induces CTGF expression in human lung fibroblasts. Moreover, overexpression of CTGF mediates CXCL12-induced ?-SMA expression. PMID:25121739

  16. Naive T Cell Recruitment to Nonlymphoid Tissues: A Role for Endothelium-Expressed CC Chemokine Ligand 21 in

    E-print Network

    von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    Ligand 21 in Autoimmune Disease and Lymphoid Neogenesis1 Wolfgang Weninger,2 * Hege S. Carlsen,§ Mahmoud are subjected to chronic inflam- mation, such as in some (but not all) autoimmune diseases, are naive T cells autoimmune diseases. Most blood vessels in tissue samples from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (85 10

  17. Sonographic presentation in autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Lai, S M; Chang, T C; Chang, C C; Kuo, S H; Chen, F W

    1990-12-01

    We used real-time ultrasonography to examine 60 patients with autoimmune thyroiditis, then correlated the ultrasonic pictures with thyroid function, thyroid autoantibodies and fine needle aspiration cytology. In these 60 patients, 45 (75%) showed diffuse goiter, 6 (10%) showed multinodular goiter, and 9 (15%) had a solitary thyroid nodule sonographically. One of the 9 patients with a solitary nodule was a case of autoimmune thyroiditis combined with papillary carcinoma. The echogenicity of the thyroid was more than, the same as, or less than that of the adjacent muscles in 17, 22, and 21 patients, respectively. The groups were classified as hyperechoic, isoechoic, and hypoechoic, respectively. The mean serum T4 level was significantly lower in the hypoechoic group than in the hyperechoic or isoechoic groups (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.05, respectively), and the incidence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in the hypoechoic group than in the hyperechoic or isoechoic groups (p less than 0.001 and p less than 0.005, respectively). In addition, high titers of the antithyroid microsomal antibody (greater than or equal to 1280) were present more frequently in the hypoechoic group than in the hyperechoic or isoechoic groups (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.05, respectively). There was no significant correlation between the cytomorphology and echogenicity of the thyroid in these cases. We conclude that sonography has two major uses in evaluating autoimmune thyroiditis: First, it is useful in excluding the coexistence of thyroid nodules; and second, marked hypoechogenicity of the thyroid implies an active cytotoxic autoimmune process and possibly a hypothyroid state. PMID:1982673

  18. Infections and Autoimmunity: A Panorama

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Pordeus; M. Szyper-Kravitz; R. A. Levy; N. M. Vaz; Y. Shoenfeld

    2008-01-01

    For more than 2,000 years, it was thought that malignant spirits caused diseases. By the end of nineteenth century, these\\u000a beliefs were displaced by more modern concepts of disease, namely, the formulation of the “germ theory,” which asserted that\\u000a bacteria or other microorganisms caused disease. With the emergence of chronic degenerative and of autoimmune diseases in\\u000a the last century, the causative

  19. Extraintestinal manifestations of autoimmune pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Milosavljevic, Tomica; Kostic-Milosavljevic, Mirjana; Jovanovic, Ivan; Krstic, Miodrag

    2012-01-01

    The term autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) was first used in Japan in 1995 to describe a newly recognized form of chronic pancreatitis, after the description of Yoshida and colleagues. But Sarles in 1961, first described a form of idiopathic chronic inflammatory sclerosis of the pancreas, suspected to be due to an autoimmune process. AIP has become a widely accepted term because clinical, serologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical findings suggest an autoimmune mechanism. Most affected patients have hypergammaglobulinemia and increased serum levels of IgG, particularly IgG4. Recently published International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria for Autoimmune Pancreatitis include Guidelines of the International Association of Pancreatology, classifying AIP into types 1 and 2, using five cardinal features of AIP, namely imaging of pancreatic parenchyma and duct, serology, other organ involvement, pancreatic histology, and an optional criterion of response to steroid therapy. Extrapancreatic presentations can include sclerosing cholangitis, retroperitoneal fibrosis, sclerosing sialadenitis (Küttner tumor), lymphadenopathy, nephritis, and interstitial pneumonia. Increased IgG4+ plasma cell infiltrate has been reported in sclerosing lesions from other organ sites, including inflammatory pseudotumors of the liver, breast, mediastinum, orbit, and aorta, and it has been observed with hypophysitis and IgG4-associated prostatitis. Abundant IgG4+ plasma cells were also confirmed in Riedel thyroiditis, sclerosing mesenteritis, and inflammatory pseudotumor of the orbit and stomach. Extrapancreatic lesions could be synchronously or metachronously diagnosed with AIP, sharing the same pathological conditions, showing also a favorable result to corticosteroid therapy and distinct differentiation between IgG4-related diseases from the inherent lesions of the corresponding organs. PMID:22722443

  20. Pancreatic Tuberculosis or Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Isolated pancreatic and peripancreatic tuberculosis is a challenging diagnosis due to its rarity and variable presentation. Pancreatic tuberculosis can mimic pancreatic carcinoma. Similarly, autoimmune pancreatitis can appear as a focal lesion resembling pancreatic malignancy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration provides an effective tool for differentiating between benign and malignant pancreatic lesions. The immune processes involved in immunoglobulin G4 related systemic diseases and tuberculosis appear to have some similarities. Case Report. We report a case of a 59-year-old Southeast Asian male who presented with fever, weight loss, and obstructive jaundice. CT scan revealed pancreatic mass and enlarged peripancreatic lymph nodes. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration confirmed the presence of mycobacterium tuberculosis. Patient also had high immunoglobulin G4 levels suggestive of autoimmune pancreatitis. He was started on antituberculosis medications and steroids. Clinically, he responded to treatment. Follow-up imaging showed findings suggestive of chronic pancreatitis. Discussion. Pancreatic tuberculosis and autoimmune pancreatitis can mimic pancreatic malignancy. Accurate diagnosis is imperative as unnecessary surgical intervention can be avoided. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration seems to be the diagnostic test of choice for pancreatic masses. Long-term follow-up is warranted in cases of chronic pancreatitis. PMID:24839445

  1. Pancreatic tuberculosis or autoimmune pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Salahuddin, Ayesha; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Isolated pancreatic and peripancreatic tuberculosis is a challenging diagnosis due to its rarity and variable presentation. Pancreatic tuberculosis can mimic pancreatic carcinoma. Similarly, autoimmune pancreatitis can appear as a focal lesion resembling pancreatic malignancy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration provides an effective tool for differentiating between benign and malignant pancreatic lesions. The immune processes involved in immunoglobulin G4 related systemic diseases and tuberculosis appear to have some similarities. Case Report. We report a case of a 59-year-old Southeast Asian male who presented with fever, weight loss, and obstructive jaundice. CT scan revealed pancreatic mass and enlarged peripancreatic lymph nodes. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration confirmed the presence of mycobacterium tuberculosis. Patient also had high immunoglobulin G4 levels suggestive of autoimmune pancreatitis. He was started on antituberculosis medications and steroids. Clinically, he responded to treatment. Follow-up imaging showed findings suggestive of chronic pancreatitis. Discussion. Pancreatic tuberculosis and autoimmune pancreatitis can mimic pancreatic malignancy. Accurate diagnosis is imperative as unnecessary surgical intervention can be avoided. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration seems to be the diagnostic test of choice for pancreatic masses. Long-term follow-up is warranted in cases of chronic pancreatitis. PMID:24839445

  2. Rho-dependent inhibition of the induction of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) by HMG CoA reductase inhibitors (statins)

    PubMed Central

    Eberlein, Michael; Heusinger-Ribeiro, Juliane; Goppelt-Struebe, Margarete

    2001-01-01

    It was supposed that inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase (statins) might inhibit the expression of the fibrosis-related factor CTGF (connective tissue growth factor) by interfering with the isoprenylation of Rho proteins. The human renal fibroblast cell line TK173 was used as an in vitro model system to study the statin-mediated modulation of the structure of the actin cytoskeleton and of the expression of CTGF mRNA. Incubation of the cells with simvastatin or lovastatin time-dependently and reversibly changed cell morphology and the actin cytoskeleton with maximal effects observed after about 18?h. Within the same time period, statins reduced the basal expression of CTGF and interfered with CTGF induction by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) or transforming growth factor beta. Simvastatin and lovastatin proved to be much more potent than pravastatin (IC50 1–3??M compared to 500??M). The inhibition of CTGF expression was prevented when the cells were incubated with mevalonate or geranylgeranylpyrophosphate (GGPP) but not by farnesylpyrophosphate (FPP). Specific inhibition of geranylgeranyltransferase-I by GTI-286 inhibited LPA-mediated CTGF expression whereas an inhibitor of farnesyltransferases FTI-276 was ineffective. Simvastatin reduced the binding of the small GTPase RhoA to cellular membranes. The effect was prevented by mevalonate and GGPP, but not FPP. These data are in agreement with the hypothesis that interference of statins with the expression of CTGF mRNA is primarily due to interference with the isoprenylation of RhoA, in line with previous studies, which have shown that RhoA is an essential mediator of CTGF induction. The direct interference of statins with the synthesis of CTGF, a protein functionally related to the development of fibrosis, may thus be a novel mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of statins observed in renal diseases. PMID:11487529

  3. [Effect of tetramethylpyrazine and rat CTGF miRNA plasmids on connective tissue growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta in high glucose stimulated hepatic stellate cells].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Li, Jun; Xing, Nini; Xiang, Ying; Shen, Yan; Li, Xiaosheng

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) miRNA plasmids on the expressive levels of CTGF, transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) and type I collagen of rat hepatic stellate cells (HSC) which are stimulated by high glucose. The rat HSCs which were successfully transfected rat CTGF miRNA plasmids and the rat HSCs which were successfully transfected negative plasmids were cultured in vitro. After stimulus of the TMP and the high glucose, the protein levels and gene expressive levels of CTGF, TGF-beta and type I collagen were tested. The results indicated that high glucose increased the expression of CTGF mRNA, CTGF protein, TGF-beta mRNA,TGF-beta protein and type I collagen (P < 0.05). The expressive levels of CTGF mRNA, CTGF protein, TGF-beta mRNA, TGF-beta and type I collagen in TMP group were lower than those in high glucose group and showed statistically significant differences (P < 0.05). Compared with high glucose group, the expressive levels of CTGF mRNA, CTGF protein, TGF-beta mRNA, TGF-beta and type I collagen in rat CTGF miRNA plasmid interference group were significantly lower (P < 0.05). However, no statistically significant difference was found in CTGF mRNA and CTGF protein levels between TMP group and CTGF miRNA group (P > 0.05), while type I collagen levels showed statistically significant differences (P < 0.05). It is concluded that high glucose could promote the expressions of CTGF, TGF-beta and type I collagen, and TMP and rat CTGF miRNA plasmids could reduce the expressions of CTGF, TGF-beta, type I collagen. PMID:25039149

  4. Extracellular acidification induces connective tissue growth factor production through proton-sensing receptor OGR1 in human airway smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuzaki, Shinichi [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi 371-8511 (Japan)] [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi 371-8511 (Japan); Ishizuka, Tamotsu, E-mail: tamotsui@showa.gunma-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi 371-8511 (Japan)] [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi 371-8511 (Japan); Yamada, Hidenori; Kamide, Yosuke; Hisada, Takeshi; Ichimonji, Isao; Aoki, Haruka; Yatomi, Masakiyo [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi 371-8511 (Japan)] [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi 371-8511 (Japan); Komachi, Mayumi [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512 (Japan); Tsurumaki, Hiroaki; Ono, Akihiro; Koga, Yasuhiko [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi 371-8511 (Japan)] [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi 371-8511 (Japan); Dobashi, Kunio [Gunma University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Maebashi 371-8511 (Japan)] [Gunma University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Maebashi 371-8511 (Japan); Mogi, Chihiro; Sato, Koichi; Tomura, Hideaki [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512 (Japan); Mori, Masatomo [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi 371-8511 (Japan)] [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi 371-8511 (Japan); Okajima, Fumikazu [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512 (Japan)

    2011-10-07

    Highlights: {yields} The involvement of extracellular acidification in airway remodeling was investigated. {yields} Extracellular acidification alone induced CTGF production in human ASMCs. {yields} Extracellular acidification enhanced TGF-{beta}-induced CTGF production in human ASMCs. {yields} Proton-sensing receptor OGR1 was involved in acidic pH-stimulated CTGF production. {yields} OGR1 may play an important role in airway remodeling in asthma. -- Abstract: Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation, hyper-responsiveness and remodeling. Extracellular acidification is known to be associated with severe asthma; however, the role of extracellular acidification in airway remodeling remains elusive. In the present study, the effects of acidification on the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a critical factor involved in the formation of extracellular matrix proteins and hence airway remodeling, were examined in human airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). Acidic pH alone induced a substantial production of CTGF, and enhanced transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta}-induced CTGF mRNA and protein expression. The extracellular acidic pH-induced effects were inhibited by knockdown of a proton-sensing ovarian cancer G-protein-coupled receptor (OGR1) with its specific small interfering RNA and by addition of the G{sub q/11} protein-specific inhibitor, YM-254890, or the inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) receptor antagonist, 2-APB. In conclusion, extracellular acidification induces CTGF production through the OGR1/G{sub q/11} protein and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced Ca{sup 2+} mobilization in human ASMCs.

  5. Primary hyperaldosteronism associated with vitiligo vulgaris and autoimmune hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Molina-Garrido, Maria José; Enríquez, Ricardo; Mora-Rufete, Antonia; Sirvent, Ana Esther; Guillen-Ponce, Carmen

    2007-03-01

    Type 3 polyendocrine autoimmune syndrome (PAS) is defined as the association between an autoimmune thyroid disease and 1 or more other autoimmune diseases, except for autoimmune Addison disease or hypoparathyroidism. Here we report an extremely rare case of type 3 PAS in which vitiligo vulgaris and symptomless autoimmune hypothyroidism were observed during the study of primary hyperaldosteronism. PMID:17496738

  6. The role of dendritic cells in autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Dipyaman; Haak, Stefan; Sisirak, Vanja; Reizis, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) initiate and shape both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Accordingly, recent evidence from clinical studies and experimental models implicates DCs in the pathogenesis of most autoimmune diseases. However, fundamental questions remain unanswered concerning the actual roles of DCs in autoimmunity, both in general and, in particular, in specific diseases. In this Review, we discuss the proposed roles of DCs in immunological tolerance, the effect of the gain or loss of DCs on autoimmunity and DC-intrinsic molecular regulators that help to prevent the development of autoimmunity. We also review the emerging roles of DCs in several autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune myocarditis, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, type 1 diabetes and systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:23827956

  7. Modulation of autoimmunity with artificial peptides

    PubMed Central

    La Cava, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The loss of immune tolerance to self antigens leads to the development of autoimmune responses. Since self antigens are often multiple and/or their sequences may not be known, one approach to restore immune tolerance uses synthetic artificial peptides that interfere or compete with self peptides in the networks of cellular interactions that drive the autoimmune process. This review describes the rationale behind the use of artificial peptides in autoimmunity and their mechanisms of action. Examples of use of artificial peptides in preclinical studies and in the management of human autoimmune diseases are provided. PMID:20807590

  8. [Associations of autoimmune disorders in endocrine diseases].

    PubMed

    Balázs, Csaba; Fehér, János

    2009-08-23

    Increasing data are known for dialogue between neuroendocrine and immune systems recently. Results of molecular genetic studies provided evidences for common languages of these systems by various signals including neurotransmitters, hormones, cytokines. It is proved the immune system is able to produce neurotransmitters and hormones and endocrine organs can even result in cytokines. This new integrative approach allows to investigate the physiologic events and diseases as interactions between the psycho-neuro-endocrine-immune systems. The autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes constitute a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by loss of immune tolerance to self-antigens. In spite of distinct clinical pictures, molecular genetic studies revealed a common molecular mechanism in the associations of organ-specific diseases. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome-1 is characterized by associations at least two out of three cardinal signs: Addison's disease, autoimmune hypoparathyroidism and mucocutaneous candidiasis. This is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome induced by mutations in autoimmune regulator gene. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome-2 occurs more frequently and defined as the coexistence of Addison's disease, autoimmune thyroid disease and/or type-1 diabetes mellitus. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome-3 is characterized by association of autoimmune thyroid disease and type-1 diabetes mellitus. The HLA and other genes proved to be important in associations of the syndrome-2 and 3 in contrast to autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome-1. Identification of predisposing genetic helps to understand the common mechanisms and provide possibility for early therapy and prevention as well. PMID:19648077

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, type 1

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, type 1 On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... August 2007 What is autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, type 1? Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, type 1 is an inherited ...

  10. Light and scanning electron microscopic study on the lingual papillae and their connective tissue cores of the Cape hyrax Procavia capensis

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Ken; Hama, Natsuki; Shindo, Junji; Kobayashi, Kan; Kageyama, Ikuo

    2008-01-01

    We examined the epithelial surface and connective tissue cores (CTCs) of each lingual papilla on the Paenungulata, Cape hyrax (Procavia capensis), by scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. The tongue consisted of a lingual apex, lingual body and lingual root. Filiform, fungiform and foliate papillae were observed on the dorsal surface of the tongue; however, fungiform papillae were quite diminished on the lingual prominence. Moreover, no clearly distinguishable vallate papillae were found on the tongue. Instead of vallate papillae, numerous dome-like large fungiform papillae were arranged in a row just in front of the rather large foliate papillae. Foliate papillae were situated in the one-third postero-lateral margin of the lingual body. The epithelium of filiform papillae was covered by a keratinized layer with kerato-hyaline granules, whereas weak keratinization was observed on the interpapillary epithelium. The external surface of the filiform papillae was conical in shape. CTCs of the filiform papillae were seen as a hood-like core with a semicircular concavity in the anterior portion of each core. Large filiform papillae were distributed on the lingual prominence. The CTCs of large filiform papillae after exfoliation of their epithelium consisted of a concave primary core and were associated with several small protrusions. The surface of fungiform papillae was smooth and dome-like. After removal of the epithelium, CTCs appeared as a flower bud-like primary core and were associated with several protrusions that were arranged on the rim of the primary core. Several taste buds were found on the top of the dorsal part of the epithelium of both fungiform and large fungiform papillae. Well-developed foliate papillae were seen and numerous taste buds could be observed in the lateral wall of the epithelium in a slit-like groove. The morphological characteristics of the tongue of the Cape hyrax had similarities with other Paenungulata such as Sirenia. However, three-dimensional characteristics, especially CTCs of lingual papillae, exhibited multiple similarities with rodents, insectivores and artiodactyls. PMID:18713236

  11. A musculoskeletal model of low grade connective tissue inflammation in patients with thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO): the WOMED concept of lateral tension and its general implications in disease

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, Roy; Moncayo, Helga

    2007-01-01

    Background Low level connective tissue inflammation has been proposed to play a role in thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). The aim of this study was to investigate this postulate by a musculoskeletal approach together with biochemical parameters. Methods 13 patients with TAO and 16 controls were examined. Erythrocyte levels of Zn, Cu, Ca2+, Mg, and Fe were determined. The musculoskeletal evaluation included observational data on body posture with emphasis on the orbit-head region. The angular foot position in the frontal plane was quantified following gait observation. The axial orientation of the legs and feet was evaluated in an unloaded supine position. Functional propioceptive tests based on stretch stimuli were done by using foot inversion and foot rotation. Results Alterations in the control group included neck tilt in 3 cases, asymmetrical foot angle during gait in 2, and a reaction to foot inversion in 5 cases. TAO patients presented facial asymmetry with displaced eye fissure inclination (mean 9.1°) as well as tilted head-on-neck position (mean 5.7°). A further asymmetry feature was external rotation of the legs and feet (mean 27°). Both foot inversion as well as foot rotation induced a condition of neuromuscular deficit. This condition could be regulated by gentle acupressure either on the lateral abdomen or the lateral ankle at the acupuncture points gall bladder 26 or bladder 62, respectively. In 5 patients, foot rotation produced a phenomenon of moving toes in the contra lateral foot. In addition foot rotation was accompanied by an audible tendon snapping. Lower erythrocyte Zn levels and altered correlations between Ca2+, Mg, and Fe were found in TAO. Conclusion This whole body observational study has revealed axial deviations and body asymmetry as well as the phenomenon of moving toes in TAO. The most common finding was an arch-like displacement of the body, i.e. eccentric position, with foot inversion and head tilt to the contra lateral side and tendon snapping. We propose that eccentric muscle action over time can be the basis for a low grade inflammatory condition. The general implications of this model and its relations to Zn and Se will be discussed. PMID:17319961

  12. Epigenetic regulation of connective tissue growth factor by microRNA-214 delivery in exosomes from mouse or human hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Charrier, Alyssa; Zhou, Yu; Chen, Ruju; Yu, Bo; Agarwal, Kitty; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Lee, L. James; Paulaitis, Michael E; Brigstock, David R

    2013-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) drives fibrogenesis in hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Here we show that CCN2 up-regulation in fibrotic or steatotic livers, or in culture-activated or ethanol-treated primary mouse HSC is associated with a reciprocal down-regulation of microRNA-214 (miR-214). By using protector or reporter assays to investigate the 3?-untranslated region (UTR) of CCN2 mRNA, we found that induction of CCN2 expression in HSC by fibrosis-inducing stimuli was due to reduced expression of miR-214 which otherwise inhibited CCN2 expression by directly binding to the CCN2 3?-UTR. Additionally, miR-214 was present in HSC exosomes, which were bi-membrane vesicles, 50–150nm in diameter, negatively charged (?26mV), and positive for CD9. MiR-214 levels in exosomes but not in cell lysates were reduced by pre-treatment of the cells with the exosome inhibitor, GW4869. Co-culture of miR-214-transfected donor HSC with CCN2 3?-UTR luciferase reporter-transfected recipient HSC resulted in miR-214- and exosome-dependent regulation of a wild type CCN2 3?-UTR reporter but not of a mutant CCN2 3?-UTR reporter lacking the miR-214 binding site. Exosomes from HSC were a conduit for uptake of miR-214 by primary mouse hepatocytes. Down-regulation of CCN2 expression by miR-214 also occurred in human LX-2 HSC, consistent with a conserved miR-214 binding site in the human CCN2 3?-UTR. MiR-214 in LX-2 cells was shuttled via exosomes to recipient LX-2 cells or human HepG2 hepatocytes, resulting in suppression of CCN2 3?-UTR activity or expression of CCN2 downstream targets, including ?SMA or collagen. Experimental fibrosis in mice was associated with reduced circulating miR-214 levels. Conclusion Exosomal transfer of miR-214 is a paradigm for the regulation of CCN2-dependent fibrogenesis and identifies fibrotic pathways as targets of epigenetic regulation by exosomal miRs. PMID:24122827

  13. Update on autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corrado Betterle; Renato Zanchetta

    2003-01-01

    Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndromes (APS) were initially defined as a multiple endocrine gland insufficiency associated to an autoimmune disease in a patient. Neufeld & Blizzard (1980) suggested a classification of APS, based on clinical criteria only, describing four main types. APS-1 is characterized by presence of chronic candidiasis, chronic hypoparathyroidism, Addison's disease. It is a very rare syndrome in- teresting young

  14. [Type 1 diabetes and autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes].

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Márcia S

    2008-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with autoimmune thyroid disease (AIT), celiac disease (CD), Addison's disease (AD), and other autoimmune diseases. These diseases can occur simultaneously in defined syndromes with distinct pathophysiology and characteristics: autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APSs) and the immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy X-linked syndrome (IPEX). APSs were initially defined as a multiple endocrine gland insufficiency associated to an autoimmune disease in a patient. APS-1 is characterized by the evidence of chronic candidiasis, chronic hypoparathyroidism, AD and T1D could be present as part of this syndrome. The combination of autoimmune adrenal insufficiency with AIT and/or type 1 autoimmune diabetes mellitus defines APS-2. AIT associated to other autoimmune diseases (excluding AD and/or hypoparathyroidism) are the main characteristics of APS-3. Different clinical combinations of autoimmune diseases which were not included in the previous groups are the characteristics of APS-4. IPEX is a recessive disorder characterized by the neonatal onset of T1D, infections, enteropathy, thrombocytopenia and anemia, as well as endocrinopathy, eczema and cachexia. These disorders are not common, but their consequences can be life threatening when the diagnosis is overlooked, and the treatment is the same prescribed for isolated disease presentation. PMID:18438530

  15. Cardiac contractile proteins and autoimmune myocarditis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tohru Izumi; Haruo Hanawa; Makihiko Saeki; Makoto Kodama

    1993-01-01

    Concerning cardiac contractile proteins, antigenicity and myocarditogenicity were discussed. In normal states, these proteins are immunologically tolerant, and can not provoke any heart-specific disease. Why the proteins can provoke such lethal autoimmune myocarditis has not been completely elucidated. Shortly after cardiac infection or myocardial ischemia, these proteins may work as the antigen for the autoimmune myocardites. First of all, the

  16. Multiple sclerosis: a complicated picture of autoimmunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Martin; Henry F McFarland

    2007-01-01

    Understanding of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, has expanded considerably in recent years. New insights have been provided by not only animal models but also studies of patients, often in conjunction with experimental therapies. It is accepted that autoimmune T cells mediate the early steps of new multiple sclerosis lesions, and although uncertainties remain about the specific targets of autoreactive

  17. Environmental estrogen bisphenol A and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Jochmanová, I; Lazúrová, Z; Rudnay, M; Ba?ová, I; Mareková, M; Lazúrová, I

    2015-04-01

    Over the past few years, there has been evidence of the increasing prevalence of autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune diseases consist of many complex disorders of unknown etiology resulting in immune responses to self-antigens. The immune system, and its function, is under complex and integrated control and its disruption can be triggered by multiple factors. Autoimmunity development is influenced by multiple factors and is thought to be a result of interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Here, we review the role of a specific environmental factor, bisphenol A (BPA), in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. BPA belongs to the group of environmental estrogens that have been identified as risk factors involved in the development of autoimmune diseases. PMID:25801882

  18. Role of Autoimmune Responses in Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Soumya; Faizuddin, Mohamed; Dharmapalan, Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are characterized by localized infections and inflammatory conditions that directly affect teeth supporting structures which are the major cause of tooth loss. Several studies have demonstrated the involvement of autoimmune responses in periodontal disease. Evidences of involvement of immunopathology have been reported in periodontal disease. Bacteria in the dental plaque induce antibody formation. Autoreactive T cells, natural killer cells, ANCA, heat shock proteins, autoantibodies, and genetic factors are reported to have an important role in the autoimmune component of periodontal disease. The present review describes the involvement of autoimmune responses in periodontal diseases and also the mechanisms underlying these responses. This review is an attempt to throw light on the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease highlighting the autoimmunity aspect of the etiopathogenesis involved in the initiation and progression of the disease. However, further clinical trials are required to strengthen the role of autoimmunity as a cause of periodontal disease. PMID:24963400

  19. Autoimmune mechanisms in pernicious anaemia & thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Osborne, David; Sobczy?ska-Malefora, Agata

    2015-09-01

    Pernicious anaemia (PA) and some types of thyroid disease result from autoimmune processes. The autoimmune mechanisms in these conditions have not been fully elucidated. This review discusses the autoimmune mechanisms involved in PA and how these affect diagnosis and disease progression. In addition to gastric antibodies, antibodies to the vitamin B12 binding protein transcobalamin which can result in high serum B12 levels are also addressed with regard to how they affect clinical practice. The role of autoimmune susceptibility is investigated by comparing PA to one of its most common comorbidities, autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). Thyroid disease (although not exclusively AITD) and B12 deficiency are both also implicated in the pathology of hyperhomocysteinemia, an elevated homocysteine in plasma. Since hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular occlusive disease, this review also addresses how thyroid disease in particular leads to changes in homocysteine levels. PMID:25936607

  20. A Few Autoreactive Cells in an Autoimmune Infiltrate Control a Vast Population of Nonspecific Cells: A Tale of Smart Bombs and the Infantry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence Steinman

    1996-01-01

    Inflammatory infiltrates in tissue-specific autoimmune disease comprise a collection of T cells with specificity for an antigen in the target organ. These specific cells recruit a population of nonspecific T cells and macrophages. The rare tissue-specific T cells in the infiltrate have the capacity to regulate both the influx and the efflux of cells from the tissue. Administration of an

  1. Autoimmunity in Chagas Disease Cardiopathy: Biological Relevance of a Cardiac Myosin-Specific Epitope Crossreactive to an Immunodominant Trypanosoma cruzi Antigen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edecio Cunha-Neto; Marcia Duranti; Arthur Gruber; Bianca Zingales; Iara de Messias; Noedir Stolf; Giovanni Bellotti; Manoel E. Patarroyo; Fulvio Pilleggi; Jorge Kalil

    1995-01-01

    Heart tissue destruction in chronic Chagas disease cardiopathy (CCC) may be caused by autoimmune recognition of heart tissue by a mononuclear cell infiltrate decades after Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Indirect evidence suggests that there is antigenic crossreactivity between T. cruzi and heart tissue. As there is evidence for immune recognition of cardiac myosin in CCC, we searched for a putative myosin-crossreactive

  2. Cardiovascular involvement in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Montoya-Sánchez, Laura; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AD) represent a broad spectrum of chronic conditions that may afflict specific target organs or multiple systems with a significant burden on quality of life. These conditions have common mechanisms including genetic and epigenetics factors, gender disparity, environmental triggers, pathophysiological abnormalities, and certain subphenotypes. Atherosclerosis (AT) was once considered to be a degenerative disease that was an inevitable consequence of aging. However, research in the last three decades has shown that AT is not degenerative or inevitable. It is an autoimmune-inflammatory disease associated with infectious and inflammatory factors characterized by lipoprotein metabolism alteration that leads to immune system activation with the consequent proliferation of smooth muscle cells, narrowing arteries, and atheroma formation. Both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms have been proposed to participate in the onset and progression of AT. Several risk factors, known as classic risk factors, have been described. Interestingly, the excessive cardiovascular events observed in patients with ADs are not fully explained by these factors. Several novel risk factors contribute to the development of premature vascular damage. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of how traditional and nontraditional risk factors contribute to pathogenesis of CVD in AD. PMID:25177690

  3. Susceptibility Genes in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Yoshiyuki; Tomer, Yaron

    2005-01-01

    The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are complex diseases which are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental triggers. Genetic susceptibility in combination with external factors (e.g. dietary iodine) is believed to initiate the autoimmune response to thyroid antigens. Abundant epidemiological data, including family and twin studies, point to a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. Various techniques have been employed to identify the genes contributing to the etiology of AITD, including candidate gene analysis and whole genome screening. These studies have enabled the identification of several loci (genetic regions) that are linked with AITD, and in some of these loci, putative AITD susceptibility genes have been identified. Some of these genes/loci are unique to Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and some are common to both the diseases, indicating that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to GD and HT. The putative GD and HT susceptibility genes include both immune modifying genes (e.g. HLA, CTLA-4) and thyroid specific genes (e.g. TSHR, Tg). Most likely, these loci interact and their interactions may influence disease phenotype and severity. PMID:15712599

  4. Cardiovascular Involvement in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Amaya-Amaya, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AD) represent a broad spectrum of chronic conditions that may afflict specific target organs or multiple systems with a significant burden on quality of life. These conditions have common mechanisms including genetic and epigenetics factors, gender disparity, environmental triggers, pathophysiological abnormalities, and certain subphenotypes. Atherosclerosis (AT) was once considered to be a degenerative disease that was an inevitable consequence of aging. However, research in the last three decades has shown that AT is not degenerative or inevitable. It is an autoimmune-inflammatory disease associated with infectious and inflammatory factors characterized by lipoprotein metabolism alteration that leads to immune system activation with the consequent proliferation of smooth muscle cells, narrowing arteries, and atheroma formation. Both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms have been proposed to participate in the onset and progression of AT. Several risk factors, known as classic risk factors, have been described. Interestingly, the excessive cardiovascular events observed in patients with ADs are not fully explained by these factors. Several novel risk factors contribute to the development of premature vascular damage. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of how traditional and nontraditional risk factors contribute to pathogenesis of CVD in AD. PMID:25177690

  5. Hygiene hypothesis and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Rook, Graham A W

    2012-02-01

    Throughout the twentieth century, there were striking increases in the incidences of many chronic inflammatory disorders in the rich developed countries. These included autoimmune disorders such as Type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Although genetics and specific triggering mechanisms such as molecular mimicry and viruses are likely to be involved, the increases have been so rapid that any explanation that omits environmental change is incomplete. This chapter suggests that a series of environmental factors, most of them microbial, have led to a decrease in the efficiency of our immunoregulatory mechanisms because we are in a state of evolved dependence on organisms with which we co-evolved (and that had to be tolerated) as inducers of immunoregulatory circuits. These organisms ("Old Friends") are depleted from the modern urban environment. Rather than considering fetal programming by maternal microbial exposures, neonatal programming, the hygiene hypothesis, gut microbiota, and diet as separate and competing hypotheses, I attempt here to integrate these ideas under a single umbrella concept that can provide the missing immunoregulatory environmental factor that is needed to explain the recent increases in autoimmune disease. PMID:22090147

  6. [Autoimmune states correction for pathologic component (link) elimination that hinder physiologic osteogenesis].

    PubMed

    Bolotanova, M K; Orlov, A A; Potemkin, A V; Mamaev, S V; Maevski?, E I; Serebriakova, L E; Gorelik, E I

    2010-01-01

    Technological progress widens the possibility to treat patients with serious diseases influencing the reparative processes in human organism. In their clinical practice stomatologists come across with the failure of healing up processes in bone and soft tissues of post operational wounds. Big group of patients was with autoimmune diseases. By the individually selected methods of gravitational blood surgery we managed to stabilize autoimmune diseases and to correct the immune system status that gave the possibility to run reconstructive operations in the maxillofacial region without complications. PMID:20436406

  7. Characteristics of filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae and surface of interface epithelium-connective tissue of the maned sloth tongue mucosa (Bradypus torquatus, Iliger, 1811): Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Benetti, E J; Pícoli, L C; Guimarães, J P; Motoyama, A A; Miglino, M A; Watanabe, L-S

    2009-02-01

    The study of lingual surfaces and the surface of interface epithelium-connective tissue of the tongue of Bradypus torquatus was performed by employing the light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results revealed that the rostral part of the tongue presents a round apex and covered by filiform and fungiform lingual papillae and a ventral smooth surface. It was observed that the epithelial layer of the dorsal surface possesses the basal, spinosum, granular and cornified epithelial cells. The lamina propria is characterized by a dense connective tissue forming the long, short and round papillae. Numerous typical filiform papillae are located especially in the rostral part intermingled for few fungiform papillae, which were revealed in three-dimensional SEM images. Usually, the fungiform papillae are located in the border of rostral apex of the tongue exhibiting the rounded form. They are covered by keratinized epithelial cells. In the fungiform papillae, several taste pores were observed on the surface. The vallate papillae presented numerous taste buds in the wall of epithelial cells, being that the major number of taste buds is located on the superior half of vallate papilla. The taste pores are surrounded by several laminae of keratinized epithelial cells. The samples treated with NaOH solution and examined by SEM revealed, after removal of the epithelial layer, the dense connective core in original disposition, presenting different sizes and shapes. The specimens stained with Picrosirius and examined by polarized light microscopy revealed the connective tissue, indicating the collagen fibres type I and type III. PMID:19143682

  8. Soft tissue surgery for implants.

    PubMed

    Batal, Hussam; Yavari, Amir; Mehra, Pushkar

    2015-04-01

    Adequate quality and quantity of soft tissue plays an integral part in the esthetic outcome of dental implants. Adequate band of attached tissue decreases the incidence of mucositis and improves hygiene around implants. This article discusses a variety of techniques for soft tissue augmentation. Soft tissue grafting can be achieved at various stages of implant therapy. Epithelial connective tissue grafts are commonly used to increase the band of attached tissue. Subepithelial connective tissue grafts are great for increasing soft tissue thickness and improving the gingival biotype. PMID:25835804

  9. Clusters of nerve cell bodies enclosed within a common connective tissue envelope in the spinal ganglia of the lizard and rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Pannese; M. Ledda; G. Arcidiacono; L. Rigamonti

    1991-01-01

    A careful search for groups of nerve cell bodies enclosed within a common connective envelope was made in the spinal ganglia of the lizard and rat using a serial-section technique. Nerve cell bodies sharing a common connective envelope were found to be more common in the lizard (9.4%) than in the rat (5.6%). These nerve cell bodies were arranged in

  10. Update on autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS).

    PubMed

    Betterle, Corrado; Zanchetta, Renato

    2003-04-01

    Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndromes (APS) were initially defined as a multiple endocrine gland insufficiency associated to an autoimmune disease in a patient. Neufeld & Blizzard (1980) suggested a classification of APS, based on clinical criteria only, describing four main types. APS-1 is characterized by presence of chronic candidiasis, chronic hypoparathyroidism, Addison's disease. It is a very rare syndrome interesting young subjects correlating to different mutations of AIRE (AutoImmuneRegulator) gene on chromosome 21. APS-2 is characterized by presence of Addison's disease (always present), autoimmune thyroid diseases and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus. It is a rare syndrome interesting particularly adult females and associated to a genetic pattern of HLA DR3/DR4. Autoimmune thyroid diseases associated to other autoimmune diseases (excluding Addison's disease and/or hypoparathyroidism), are the main characteristics of APS-3. The different clinical combinations of autoimmune diseases not included in the previous groups are characteristics of APS-4. In this paper criteria for defining a disease as autoimmune are presented. Furthermore, the classification, epidemiology, pathogenesis, genetic, animal models, clinical features, laboratory's tests, imaging, therapy, recent progresses in understanding the APS and a detailed analysis of large group of our patients affected by different types of APS are proposed and discussed. PMID:12817789

  11. Effect of fenbendazole on an autoimmune mouse model.

    PubMed

    Cray, Carolyn; Watson, Toshiba; Zaias, Julia; Altman, Norman H

    2013-01-01

    Fenbendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used to treat and prevent pinworm infection in laboratory rodents. Data regarding possible side effects of fenbendazole on the immune system are conflicting, potentially due to the design of treatment protocols. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of 2 fenbendazole therapeutic regimens (continuous for 5 wk and alternating weeks [that is, 1 wk on, 1 wk off] for 9 wk) on the development of autoimmune disease in (NZB × NZW)F1 mice. No significant differences in survival curves or weight were observed between the treatment groups and cohort mice receiving nonmedicated feed. At the termination of the experiment, there were no differences in tissue pathology. Hematocrit decreased and BUN increased over time in all groups, but no significant differences were present between groups. After the cessation of treatment, mice fed the medicated diet continuously for 5 wk showed an increase in antiDNA antibody. Although this difference was significant, it did not affect survival curves or disease-related tissue or blood changes. These data indicate that common protocols of fenbendazole treatment do not alter the progression of autoimmune disease in (NZB × NZW)F1 mice. PMID:23849411

  12. Effect of Fenbendazole on an Autoimmune Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Cray, Carolyn; Watson, Toshiba; Zaias, Julia; Altman, Norman H

    2013-01-01

    Fenbendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used to treat and prevent pinworm infection in laboratory rodents. Data regarding possible side effects of fenbendazole on the immune system are conflicting, potentially due to the design of treatment protocols. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of 2 fenbendazole therapeutic regimens (continuous for 5 wk and alternating weeks [that is, 1 wk on, 1 wk off] for 9 wk) on the development of autoimmune disease in (NZB × NZW)F1 mice. No significant differences in survival curves or weight were observed between the treatment groups and cohort mice receiving nonmedicated feed. At the termination of the experiment, there were no differences in tissue pathology. Hematocrit decreased and BUN increased over time in all groups, but no significant differences were present between groups. After the cessation of treatment, mice fed the medicated diet continuously for 5 wk showed an increase in antiDNA antibody. Although this difference was significant, it did not affect survival curves or disease-related tissue or blood changes. These data indicate that common protocols of fenbendazole treatment do not alter the progression of autoimmune disease in (NZB × NZW)F1 mice. PMID:23849411

  13. Extracellular Matrix Remodeling: The Common Denominator in Connective Tissue DiseasesPossibilities for Evaluation and Current Understanding of the Matrix as More Than a Passive Architecture, but a Key Player in Tissue Failure

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Mette J.; Sand, Jannie M.; Henriksen, Kim; Genovese, Federica; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Smith, Victoria; Adamkewicz, Joanne I.; Christiansen, Claus; Leeming, Diana J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Increased attention is paid to the structural components of tissues. These components are mostly collagens and various proteoglycans. Emerging evidence suggests that altered components and noncoded modifications of the matrix may be both initiators and drivers of disease, exemplified by excessive tissue remodeling leading to tissue stiffness, as well as by changes in the signaling potential of both intact matrix and fragments thereof. Although tissue structure until recently was viewed as a simple architecture anchoring cells and proteins, this complex grid may contain essential information enabling the maintenance of the structure and normal functioning of tissue. The aims of this review are to (1) discuss the structural components of the matrix and the relevance of their mutations to the pathology of diseases such as fibrosis and cancer, (2) introduce the possibility that post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as protease cleavage, citrullination, cross-linking, nitrosylation, glycosylation, and isomerization, generated during pathology, may be unique, disease-specific biochemical markers, (3) list and review the range of simple enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) that have been developed for assessing the extracellular matrix (ECM) and detecting abnormal ECM remodeling, and (4) discuss whether some PTMs are the cause or consequence of disease. New evidence clearly suggests that the ECM at some point in the pathogenesis becomes a driver of disease. These pathological modified ECM proteins may allow insights into complicated pathologies in which the end stage is excessive tissue remodeling, and provide unique and more pathology-specific biochemical markers. PMID:23046407

  14. Lipopolysaccharide injection induces relapses of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in nontransgenic mice via bystander activation of autoreactive CD4+ cells.

    PubMed

    Nogai, Axel; Siffrin, Volker; Bonhagen, Kerstin; Pfueller, Caspar F; Hohnstein, Thordis; Volkmer-Engert, Rudolf; Brück, Wolfgang; Stadelmann, Christine; Kamradt, Thomas

    2005-07-15

    Infections sometimes associate with exacerbations of autoimmune diseases through pathways that are poorly understood. Ag-specific mechanisms such as cross-reactivity between a microbial Ag and a self-Ag have received no direct support. In this study, we show that injection of LPS induces experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in TCR-transgenic mice and relapse of encephalomyelitis in normal mice. This form of treatment induces proliferation and cytokine production in a fraction of effector/memory Th lymphocytes in vitro via physical contact of Th cells with CD4(-) LPS-responsive cells. TCR-mediated signals are not necessary; rather what is required is ligation of costimulatory receptors on Th cells by costimulatory molecules on the CD4(-) cells. This form of bystander activation provides an Ag-independent link between infection and autoimmunity that might fit the clinical and epidemiological data on the connection between infection and autoimmunity better than the Ag-specific models. PMID:16002695

  15. Toxins Targeting the KV1.3 Channel: Potential Immunomodulators for Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yipeng; Huang, Jie; Yuan, Xiaolu; Peng, Biwen; Liu, Wanhong; Han, Song; He, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases are usually accompanied by tissue injury caused by autoantigen-specific T-cells. KV1.3 channels participate in modulating calcium signaling to induce T-cell proliferation, immune activation and cytokine production. Effector memory T (TEM)-cells, which play major roles in many autoimmune diseases, are controlled by blocking KV1.3 channels on the membrane. Toxins derived from animal venoms have been found to selectively target a variety of ion channels, including KV1.3. By blocking the KV1.3 channel, these toxins are able to suppress the activation and proliferation of TEM cells and may improve TEM cell-mediated autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and type I diabetes mellitus. PMID:25996605

  16. More than Meets the Eye: Monogenic Autoimmunity Strikes Again.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mark S; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2015-06-16

    Autoimmunity is often familial, suggesting that inborn genetic variations might underlie its development. Curiously, autoimmunity has long been thought to be typically polygenic. Contrary to this prediction and consistent with growing discoveries of monogenic autoimmunity, Oftedal et al. discovered heterozygous dominant-negative AIRE mutations in patients with certain forms of autoimmunity. PMID:26084018

  17. Transmethylation in immunity and autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Brian R.; Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Tardif, Virginie; Gonzalez-Quintial, Rosana; Baccala, Roberto; Kono, Dwight H.; Theofilopoulos, Argyrios N.

    2013-01-01

    The activation of immune cells is mediated by a network of signaling proteins that can undergo post-translational modifications critical for their activity. Methylation of nucleic acids or proteins can have major effects on gene expression as well as protein repertoire diversity and function. Emerging data indicate that indeed many immunologic functions, particularly those of T cells, including thymic education, differentiation and effector function are highly dependent on methylation events. The critical role of methylation in immunocyte biology is further documented by evidence that autoimmune phenomena may be curtailed by methylation inhibitors. Additionally, epigenetic alterations imprinted by methylation can also exert effects on normal and abnormal immune responses. Further work in defining methylation effects in the immune system is likely to lead to a more detailed understanding of the immune system and may point to the development of novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:22364920

  18. Novel Targeted Therapies for Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    St.Clair, E. William

    2009-01-01

    Summary The emergence of new targeted therapies is rapidly improving the treatment of autoimmune disease. These drugs have been variably designed to deplete specific T and B cell subsets, interrupt receptor-ligand interactions, and inhibit the activity of inflammatory mediators relevant to immune function. Abatacept, a costimulatory blocker, and rituximab, a B cell depleting antibody are among the approved therapies seeking new indications, while the newer therapies include Fc receptor-non-binding CD3-specific antibodies, IL-12/23 antibodies, an IL-6 receptor antagonist, a sphingosine-1-phosphate agonist, and small molecule inhibitors of intracellular protein kinases. Antigen-specific therapies are in their infancy, but the latest results administering glutamic acid dehydrogenase peptide to type 1 diabetics are promising. In the future, treatment strategies may increasingly explore the use of drug combinations acting at multiple sites of aberrant immunoregulation to achieve disease quiescence and immune tolerance. PMID:19828300

  19. Autoimmune pancreatitis: a surgical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Saavedra-Perez, David; Vaquero, Eva C; Ayuso, Juan R; Fernandez-Cruz, Laureano

    2014-12-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is defined as a particular form of pancreatitis that often manifests as obstructive jaundice associated with a pancreatic mass or an obstructive bile duct lesion, and that has an excellent response to corticosteroid treatment. The prevalence of AIP worldwide is unknown, and it is considered as a rare entity. The clinical and radiological presentation of AIP can mimic bilio-pancreatic cancer, presenting difficulties for diagnosis and obliging the surgeon to balance decision-making between the potential risk presented by the misdiagnosis of a deadly disease against the desire to avoid unnecessary major surgery for a disease that responds effectively to corticosteroid treatment. In this review we detail the current and critical points for the diagnosis, classification and treatment for AIP, with a special emphasis on surgical series and the methods to differentiate between this pathology and bilio-pancreatic cancer. PMID:25066570

  20. The role of microRNAs in autoimmune diseases with skin involvement.

    PubMed

    Deng, X; Su, Y; Wu, H; Wu, R; Zhang, P; Dai, Y; Chan, T-M; Zhao, M; Lu, Q

    2015-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that negatively modulate gene expression by binding to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs), which leads to the degradation or translational repression of their target mRNAs. Previous research on miRNAs has revealed a new paradigm of gene regulations and pathways involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders and malignant diseases. The roles of miRNAs in cellular processes, including cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis and immune functions, are not clearly understood. MiRNAs are easily detected in a variety of sources, including tissues, serum and other body fluids, and this make them a good biological sample for pathogenic studies and disease biomarker development. This review encompasses the current understanding of the roles of miRNAs in autoimmunity and the cellular and molecular mechanisms of miRNAs in various autoimmune diseases (AIMDs). Specifically, we focus on the target genes of miRNAs and the biological processes associated with autoimmune diseases with skin involvement, including systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, systemic sclerosis, Behcet's disease and dermatomyositis. In addition, the diagnostic and therapeutic relevance of miRNAs that are involved in autoimmunity are elucidated to provide information for clinical implications. PMID:25430682

  1. Development of a secondary autoimmune disorder after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for autoimmune diseases: role of conditioning regimen used

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yvonne Loh; Yu Oyama; Laisvyde Statkute; Kathleen Quigley; Kimberly Yaung; Elizabeth Gonda; Walter Barr; Borko Jovanovic; Robert Craig; Dusan Stefoski; Bruce Cohen; Richard K. Burt

    2007-01-01

    Patients undergoing autologous hemato- poietic stem cell transplantation (auto- HSCT) for autoimmune disease may have an added propensity to develop a second autoimmune disorder, given the genetic predisposition to autoimmunity. There- fore, we undertook a retrospective analy- sis of all patients who have undergone auto-HSCT for an autoimmune disease in our institution to determine the occur- rence of a second

  2. Type 2 polyglandular autoimmune disease (Schmidt's syndrome).

    PubMed

    Betterle, C; Volpato, M; Greggio, A N; Presotto, F

    1996-03-01

    Data on clinical, genetic, and immunological aspects of sixty patients with type 2 polyglandular autoimmune disease (PGAD) are presented. The literature on this is reviewed and discussed. PMID:8887161

  3. Hepatitis C virus infection and autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Paroli, Marino; Iannucci, Gino; Accapezzato, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with a number of extrahepatic disorders. The most studied conditions associated with HCV are type II mixed cryoglobulinemia and B cell lymphoma. However, many reports suggest that HCV might also be associated with a number of autoimmune disorders, both organ-specific and not organ-specific. Although concomitant treatment of HCV infection is a confounding factor when ascertaining the actual role of HCV in inducing autoimmune disease, a considerable amount of experimental data indicates that HCV is able to subvert the immune system and consequently induce autoimmunity. In the present review, we report a series of observations which associate chronic HCV infection with the onset of autoimmune disorders. PMID:23118549

  4. P-glycoprotein in autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    García-Carrasco, M; Mendoza-Pinto, C; Macias Díaz, S; Vera-Recabarren, M; Vázquez de Lara, L; Méndez Martínez, S; Soto-Santillán, P; González-Ramírez, R; Ruiz-Arguelles, A

    2015-07-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is a transmembrane protein of 170 kD encoded by the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR-1) gene, localized on chromosome 7. More than 50 polymorphisms of the MDR-1 gene have been described; a subset of these has been shown to play a pathophysiological role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease, femoral head osteonecrosis induced by steroids, lung cancer and renal epithelial tumors. Polymorphisms that have a protective effect on the development of conditions such as Parkinson disease have also been identified. P-glycoprotein belongs to the adenosine triphosphate binding cassette transporter superfamily and its structure comprises a chain of approximately 1280 aminoacid residues with an N-C terminal structure, arranged as 2 homologous halves, each of which has 6 transmembrane segments, with a total of 12 segments with 2 cytoplasmic nucleotide binding domains. Many cytokines like interleukin 2 and tumor necrosis factor alpha increase Pgp expression and activity. Pgp functions as an efflux pump for a variety of toxins in order to protect particular organs and tissues as the central nervous system. Pgp transports a variety of substrates including glucocorticoids while other drugs such as tacrolimus and cyclosporine A act as modulators of this protein. The most widely used method to measure Pgp activity is flow cytometry using naturally fluorescent substrates such as anthracyclines or rhodamine 123. The study of drug resistance and its association to Pgp began with the study of resistance to chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer and antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus; however, the role of Pgp in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis has been a focus of study lately and has emerged as an important mechanism by which treatment failure occurs. The present review analyzes the role of Pgp in these autoimmune diseases. PMID:25712147

  5. Role of neutrophils in systemic autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Neutrophils have emerged as important regulators of innate and adaptive immune responses. Recent evidence indicates that neutrophils display marked abnormalities in phenotype and function in various systemic autoimmune diseases, and may play a central role in initiation and perpetuation of aberrant immune responses and organ damage in these conditions. This review discusses the putative roles that neutrophils and aberrant neutrophil cell death play in the pathogenesis of various systemic autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus, small vessel vasculitis and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:24286137

  6. Coherent Somatic Mutation in Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Kenneth Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Many aspects of autoimmune disease are not well understood, including the specificities of autoimmune targets, and patterns of co-morbidity and cross-heritability across diseases. Prior work has provided evidence that somatic mutation caused by gene conversion and deletion at segmentally duplicated loci is relevant to several diseases. Simple tandem repeat (STR) sequence is highly mutable, both somatically and in the germ-line, and somatic STR mutations are observed under inflammation. Results Protein-coding genes spanning STRs having markers of mutability, including germ-line variability, high total length, repeat count and/or repeat similarity, are evaluated in the context of autoimmunity. For the initiation of autoimmune disease, antigens whose autoantibodies are the first observed in a disease, termed primary autoantigens, are informative. Three primary autoantigens, thyroid peroxidase (TPO), phogrin (PTPRN2) and filaggrin (FLG), include STRs that are among the eleven longest STRs spanned by protein-coding genes. This association of primary autoantigens with long STR sequence is highly significant (). Long STRs occur within twenty genes that are associated with sixteen common autoimmune diseases and atherosclerosis. The repeat within the TTC34 gene is an outlier in terms of length and a link with systemic lupus erythematosus is proposed. Conclusions The results support the hypothesis that many autoimmune diseases are triggered by immune responses to proteins whose DNA sequence mutates somatically in a coherent, consistent fashion. Other autoimmune diseases may be caused by coherent somatic mutations in immune cells. The coherent somatic mutation hypothesis has the potential to be a comprehensive explanation for the initiation of many autoimmune diseases. PMID:24988487

  7. Stem cell transplantation for autoimmune diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Moore; P. Brooks

    2001-01-01

    Conclusion  HSCT in autoimmune diseases has now become one of the potential therapeutic options for physicians looking after patients\\u000a with severe intractable autoimmune diseases. It has now progressed beyond theory based on animal and human case reports, but\\u000a at this stage it has been appropriately reserved for patients with resistant disease in a clinical trial setting. Ongoing\\u000a analysis of the safety

  8. PTX cruiser: driving autoimmunity via TLR4.

    PubMed

    Racke, Michael K; Hu, Wei; Lovett-Racke, Amy E

    2005-06-01

    Although the cause of autoimmune diseases is unknown, it has long been speculated that an infectious agent might have a role in their initiation and progression. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), has been used to study factors in disease pathogenesis. A recent study shows that pertussis toxin, which is used as an adjuvant in EAE, uses Toll-like receptor 4 signaling to mediate its disease-inducing effect. PMID:15922942

  9. Celiac Disease and Autoimmune Endocrinologic Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katri Kaukinen; Pekka Collin; Anna-Helena Mykkanen; Jukka Partanen; Markku Maki; Jorma Salmi

    1999-01-01

    Patients with insulin-dependent diabetesmellitus, autoimmune thyroid disease, Addison's disease,and alopecia areata are at increased risk of celiacdisease. We investigated whether patients with more than one autoimmune endocrinologic disorder areeven more susceptible to celiac disease or haveceliac-type mucosal inflammation. All 62 patients foundto have such multiple diseases in 1994-1996 were investigated. Small bowel biopsy was performedon all voluntary nonceliac subjects. The

  10. Heat shock proteins and autoimmunity in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pieter Res; Jelle Thole; René de Vries

    1991-01-01

    Summary T cells and antibodies against self and non-self hsp are present in both patients and healthy controls. T cells responding to hsp65 can be involved in autoimmune diseases, this was demonstrated for two site-specific animal autoimmune diseases: AA in Lewis rats and diabetes (IDDM) in NOD mice. In human ReA there is evidence for a direct stimulation of joint

  11. Paraneoplastic Pemphigus: A Paraneoplastic Autoimmune Multiorgan Syndrome or Autoimmune Multiorganopathy?

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Vikram K.; Sharma, Vikas; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Sharma, Anju Lath; Abhinav, C.; Khatri, Gayatri; Prabha, Neel; Sharma, Saurabh; Negi, Muninder

    2012-01-01

    Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP), a clinically and immunopathologically distinct mucocutaneous blistering dermatosis, is a severe form of autoimmune multiorgan syndrome generally associated with poor therapeutic outcome and high mortality. This IgG-mediated disease is initiated by an obvious or occult lymphoproliferative disorder in most cases. Clinically severe mucositis, and polymorphic blistering skin eruptions, and histologically acantholysis, keratinocyte necrosis and interface dermatitis are its hallmark features. A 58-year-old female presented with recurrent, severe, recalcitrant stomatitis and widespread erosions/blistering lesions of one-year duration. Treatment with repeated courses of systemic corticosteroids at a peripheral center would provide temporary relief. She also had fever, productive cough, odynophagia and poor oral intake, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, pain in the abdomen, and watery diarrhea. An array of investigations revealed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), mediastinal and para-aortic lymphadenopathy, bronchiolitis obliterans, and vertebral osteoporosis/fractures. With the diagnosis of CLL-associated PNP she was managed with dexamethasone-cyclophosphamide pulse (DCP) therapy for 3 cycles initially, followed by COP regimen (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone) for 5 cycles. Remission is being maintained with chlorambucil and prednisolone pulse therapy once in 3 weeks with complete resolution of skin lesions and adequate control of CLL. PMID:23316398

  12. Solving the puzzle of autoimmunity: critical questions

    PubMed Central

    Smilek, Dawn E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances in delineating the pathogenic mechanisms of autoimmune disease, the puzzle that reveals the true picture of these diverse immunological disorders is yet to be solved. We know that the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci as well as many different genetic susceptibility loci with relatively small effect sizes predispose to various autoimmune diseases and that environmental factors are involved in triggering disease. Models for mechanisms of disease become increasingly complex as relationships between components of both the adaptive and innate immune systems are untangled at the molecular level. In this article, we pose some of the important questions about autoimmunity where the answers will advance our understanding of disease pathogenesis and improve the rational design of novel therapies. How is autoimmunity triggered, and what components of the immune response drive the clinical manifestations of disease? What determines whether a genetically predisposed individual will develop an autoimmune disease? Is restoring immune tolerance the secret to finding cures for autoimmune disease? Current research efforts seek answers to these big questions. PMID:25750735

  13. Clinical aspects of autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Goldblatt, Fiona; O'Neill, Sean G

    2013-08-31

    Multisystem autoimmune rheumatic diseases are heterogeneous rare disorders associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Efforts to create international consensus within the past decade have resulted in the publication of new classification or nomenclature criteria for several autoimmune rheumatic diseases, specifically for systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, and the systemic vasculitides. Substantial progress has been made in the formulation of new criteria in systemic sclerosis and idiopathic inflammatory myositis. Although the autoimmune rheumatic diseases share many common features and clinical presentations, differentiation between the diseases is crucial because of important distinctions in clinical course, appropriate drugs, and prognoses. We review some of the dilemmas in the diagnosis of these autoimmune rheumatic diseases, and focus on the importance of new classification criteria, clinical assessment, and interpretation of autoimmune serology. In this era of improvement of mortality rates for patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases, we pay particular attention to the effect of leading complications, specifically cardiovascular manifestations and cancer, and we update epidemiology and prognosis. PMID:23993190

  14. Please mark these dates in your calendars! For more details, please visit the AAN website: www.autoantibodynetwork.com

    E-print Network

    Haykin, Simon

    · Autoantibody Profiles Testing · Autoantibodies in Connective Tissue Diseases · Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Bowel Diseases · Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Liver Diseases · Autoantibodies in PNS, Autoimmune Encephalitis and Other Neuronal Diseases · Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Kidney Diseases · Autoantibodies

  15. New autoimmune diseases after cord blood transplantation: a retrospective study of EUROCORD and the Autoimmune Disease Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Daikeler, Thomas; Labopin, Myriam; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Crotta, Alessandro; Abinun, Mario; Hussein, Ayad Ahmed; Carlson, Kristina; Cornillon, Jérôme; Diez-Martin, Jose L; Gandemer, Virginie; Faraci, Maura; Lindemans, Caroline; O'Meara, Anne; Mialou, Valerie; Renard, Marleen; Sedlacek, Petr; Sirvent, Anne; Socié, Gérard; Sora, Federica; Varotto, Stefania; Sanz, Jaime; Voswinkel, Jan; Vora, Ajay; Yesilipek, M Akif; Herr, Andree-Laure; Gluckman, Eliane; Farge, Dominique; Rocha, Vanderson

    2013-02-01

    To describe the incidence, risk factors, and treatment of autoimmune diseases (ADs) occurring after cord blood transplantation (CBT), we analyzed both CBT recipients reported to EUROCORD who had developed at least 1 new AD and those who had not. Fifty-two of 726 reported patients developed at least 1 AD within 212 days (range, 27-4267) after CBT. Cumulative incidence of ADs after CBT was 5.0% +/- 1% at 1 year and 6.6% +/- 1% at 5 years. Patients developing ADs were younger and had more nonmalignant diseases (P < .001). ADs target hematopoietic (autoimmune hemolytic anemia, n = 20; Evans syndrome, n = 9; autoimmune thrombocytopenia, n = 11; and immune neutropenia, n = 1) and other tissues (thyroiditis, n = 3; psoriasis, n = 2; Graves disease, n 1; membranous glomerulonephritis, n = 2; rheumatoid arthritis, n = 1; ulcerative colitis, n = 1; and systemic lupus erythematosus, n = 1). Four patients developed 2 ADs (3 cases of immune thrombocytopenia followed by autoimmune hemolytic anemia and 1 Evans syndrome with rheumatoid arthritis). By multivariate analysis, the main risk factor for developing an AD was nonmalignant disease as an indication for CBT (P = .0001). Hematologic ADs were most often treated with steroids, rituximab, and cyclosporine. With a median follow-up of 26 months (range, 2-91), 6 of 52 patients died as a consequence of ADs. We conclude that CBT may be followed by potentially life-threatening, mainly hematologic ADs. PMID:23247725

  16. Do MHCII-Presented Neoantigens Drive Type 1 Diabetes and Other Autoimmune Diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Marrack, Philippa; Kappler, John W.

    2012-01-01

    The strong association between particular MHCII alleles and type 1 diabetes is not fully understood. Two ideas that have been considered for many years are that autoimmunity is driven by (1) low-affinity CD4+ T cells that escape thymic negative selection and respond to certain autoantigen peptides that are particularly well presented by particular MHCII molecules, or (2) CD4+ T cells responding to neoantigens that are absent in the thymus, but uniquely created in the target tissue in the periphery and presented by particular MHCII alleles. Here we discuss the recent structural data in favor of the second idea. We review studies suggesting that peptide antigens recognized by autoimmune T cells are uniquely proteolytically processed and/or posttranslationally modified in the target tissue, thus allowing these T cells to escape deletion in the thymus during T-cell development. We postulate that an encounter with these tissue-specific neoantigenic peptides presented by the particular susceptible MHCII alleles in the peripheral tissues when accompanied by the appropriate inflammatory milieu activates these T-cell escapees leading to the onset of autoimmune disease. PMID:22951444

  17. Is there a Common Genetic Basis for Autoimmune Diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Gómez, LuisMiguel; Castiblanco, John

    2006-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) represent a diverse collection of diseases in terms of their demographic profile and primary clinical manifestations. The commonality between them however, is the damage to tissues and organs that arises from the response to self-antigens. The presence of shared pathophysiological mechanisms within ADs has stimulated searches for common genetic roots to these diseases. Two approaches have been undertaken to sustain the “common genetic origin” theory of ADs. Firstly, a clinical genetic analysis showed that autoimmunity aggregates within families of probands diagnosed with primary Sjögren's (pSS) syndrome or type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). A literature review supported the establishment of a familiar cluster of ADs depending upon the proband's disease phenotype. Secondly, in a same and well-defined population, a large genetic association study indicated that a number of polymorphic genes (i.e. HLA-DRB1, TNF and PTPN22) influence the susceptibility for acquiring different ADs. Likewise, association and linkage studies in different populations have revealed that several susceptibility loci overlap in ADs, and clinical studies have shown that frequent clustering of several ADs occurs. Thus, the genetic factors for ADs consist of two types: those which are common to many ADs (acting in epistatic pleitropy) and those that are specific to a given disorder. Their identification and functional characterization will allow us to predict their effect as well as to indicate potential new therapeutic interventions. Both autoimmunity family history and the co-occurrence of ADs in affected probands should be considered when performing genetic association and linkage studies. PMID:17162361

  18. Direct Detection of Reactive Nitrogen Species in Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guey Shuang; Sevanian, Alex; Schultz, Brian E.; Zamir, Ehud; Rao, Narsing A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Demonstrate unequivocally the generation of nitric oxide in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) using ferrous iron complex of N-methyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate, (MGD)2-Fe2+, as a spin trap. Methods Experimental autoimmune uveitis was induced in Lewis rats, and at the peak of the intraocular inflammation, the animals received intravitreous injections of the spin trap. The retina and choroid dissected from the enucleated globes were subjected to ESR. Similarly, the retina and choroid obtained at the peak of experimental autoimmune uveo-retinitis (EAU) were placed in a vial containing luminal, and chemiluminescence was counted on a Packard liquid scintillation analyzer. Results The ESR three-line spectrum (g=2.04; aN=12.5 G) obtained was characteristic of the adduct [(MGD)2-Fe2+-NO]. The majority of this signal was eliminated by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) specific inhibitor aminoguanidine injected inflamed retina was detected when compared with that of the non inflamed controls. The chemiluminescent activity was further increased two-fold by the addition of bicarbonate to the inflamed retina; the phenomenon is attributable only to the presence of a high steady-state concentration of peroxynitrite. Conclusions The study shows an unequivocal presence of nitric oxide in EAU retina and choroid and the generation of peroxynitrite. High levels of these reactive nitrogen species generated in the inflamed retina and choroids are certain to cause irreversible tissue damage, especially at the susceptible sites such as photoreceptors. PMID:17460428

  19. Peptides targeting inflamed synovial vasculature attenuate autoimmune arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying-Hua; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, frequently target one major tissue/organ despite the systemic nature of the immune response. This is particularly perplexing in the case of ubiquitously distributed antigens invoked in arthritis induction. We reasoned that selective targeting of the synovial joints in autoimmune arthritis might be due in part to the unique attributes of the joint vasculature. We examined this proposition using the adjuvant-induced arthritis model of human rheumatoid arthritis, and profiled the synovial vasculature using ex vivo and in vivo screening of a defined phage peptide-display library. We identified phage that preferentially homed to the inflamed joints. The corresponding synthetic peptides showed binding to the joint-derived endothelial cells, as well as specificity in inhibiting binding of the respective phage to the synovial vasculature. Intriguingly, the treatment of arthritic rats with one such peptide resulted in efficient inhibition of the progression of arthritis. The suppression of arthritis was attributable in part to the peptide-induced reduction of T-cell trafficking into the joints and the inhibition of angiogenesis. This peptide differed in sequence, in receptor binding specificity, and in angiogenesis/inflammation-related cell signaling from the previously characterized arginine-glycine-aspartic acid–containing peptide. Thus, our study reveals joint-homing peptides that can be further exploited for the selective delivery of antiarthritic agents into the inflamed joints to enhance their efficacy while reducing systemic toxicity, and also for examining intricacies of the pathogenesis of arthritis. This approach can be customized for application to other organ-specific autoimmune diseases as well. PMID:21768392

  20. Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Ponranjini, Vedeswari C.; Jayachandran, S; Kayal, L; Bakyalakshmi, K

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome (APS) Type 1 is a rare hereditary disorder that damages organs in the body. This disease entity is the result of a mutation in the AIRE gene. It is characterized by three classic clinical features - hypoparathyroidism, Addison's disease, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. For a patient to be diagnosed as having APS Type 1 syndrome at least two of these features needs to be present. The third entity may develop as the disease progresses. We report a case of a 35-year-old female patient with a history of seizure from the age of 11 years, who was managed with anticonvulsant drugs. With worsening of the seizure episodes, patient was diagnosed to have hypoparathyroidism together with the manifestations of oral candidiasis, nails dystrophy, enamel hypoplasia, and hypogonadism. A diagnosis of APS-1 was considered. The facility for genetic analysis of the AIRE gene mutation was not accessible, as the test costs were prohibitive and not affordable for the patient. Patient management was directed to treating individual disease components. However, cerebral and dental changes were irreversible. PMID:23230544

  1. Treatment of autoimmune hemolytic anemias

    PubMed Central

    Zanella, Alberto; Barcellini, Wilma

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a relatively uncommon disorder caused by autoantibodies directed against self red blood cells. It can be idiopathic or secondary, and classified as warm, cold (cold hemagglutinin disease (CAD) and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria) or mixed, according to the thermal range of the autoantibody. AIHA may develop gradually, or have a fulminant onset with life-threatening anemia. The treatment of AIHA is still not evidence-based. The first-line therapy for warm AIHA are corticosteroids, which are effective in 70–85% of patients and should be slowly tapered over a time period of 6–12 months. For refractory/relapsed cases, the current sequence of second-line therapy is splenectomy (effective approx. in 2 out of 3 cases but with a presumed cure rate of up to 20%), rituximab (effective in approx. 80–90% of cases), and thereafter any of the immunosuppressive drugs (azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporin, mycophenolate mofetil). Additional therapies are intravenous immunoglobulins, danazol, plasma-exchange, and alemtuzumab and high-dose cyclophosphamide as last resort option. As the experience with rituximab evolves, it is likely that this drug will be located at an earlier point in therapy of warm AIHA, before more toxic immunosuppressants, and in place of splenectomy in some cases. In CAD, rituximab is now recommended as first-line treatment. PMID:25271314

  2. The Autoimmune Basis of Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Mahlios, Josh; De la Herrán-Arita, Alberto K.; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagonic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, and disturbed nocturnal sleep patterns. Narcolepsy is caused by the loss of hypocretin (orexin)-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Evidence, such as a strong association with HLA DQB1*06:02, strongly suggests an autoimmune basis targeting hypocretin neurons. Genome-wide association studies have strengthened the association between narcolepsy and immune system gene polymorphisms, including the identification of polymorphisms in the T cell receptor alpha locus, TNFSF4 (also called OX40L), Cathepsin H (CTSH) the purinergic receptor P2RY11, and the DNA methyltransferase DNMT1. Recently, attention has been raised regarding a spike in cases of childhood narcolepsy in 2010 following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic (pH1N1) in China and vaccination with Pandemrix, an adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine that was used in Europe. How the immune system may be involved in disease initiation and/or progression remains a challenge to researchers. Potential immunological pathways that could lead to the specific elimination of hypocretin producing neurons include molecular mimicry or bystander activation, and are likely a combination of genetic and environmental factors, such as upper airway infections. PMID:23725858

  3. The autoimmune basis of narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Mahlios, Josh; De la Herrán-Arita, Alberto K; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2013-10-01

    Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagonic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, and disturbed nocturnal sleep patterns. Narcolepsy is caused by the loss of hypocretin (orexin)-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Evidence, such as a strong association with HLA DQB1*06:02, strongly suggests an autoimmune basis targeting hypocretin neurons. Genome-wide association studies have strengthened the association between narcolepsy and immune system gene polymorphisms, including the identification of polymorphisms in the T cell receptor alpha locus, TNFSF4 (also called OX40L), Cathepsin H (CTSH) the purinergic receptor P2RY11, and the DNA methyltransferase DNMT1. Recently, attention has been raised regarding a spike in cases of childhood narcolepsy in 2010 following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic (pH1N1) in China and vaccination with Pandemrix, an adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine that was used in Europe. How the immune system may be involved in disease initiation and/or progression remains a challenge to researchers. Potential immunological pathways that could lead to the specific elimination of hypocretin producing neurons include molecular mimicry or bystander activation, and are likely a combination of genetic and environmental factors, such as upper airway infections. PMID:23725858

  4. New Coupled-Particle Light-Scattering Assay for Detection of Ro\\/SSA (52 and 60 Kilodaltons) and La\\/SSB Autoantibodies in Connective Tissue Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NICOLA BIZZARO; FABRIZIO BONELLI; ELIO TONUTTI; RENATO TOZZOLI; DANILO VILLALTA

    2001-01-01

    The diagnostic and analytical performance of the coupled-particle light-scattering assay in detecting anti- Ro\\/SSA autoantibodies (the 60-kDa (Ro60) and the 52-kDa (Ro52) antibodies) and anti-La\\/SSB autoantibod- ies was evaluated. The antigens were obtained by recombinant DNA procedures to include the most immuno- genic epitopes for each protein by using a prokaryotic expression system. Serum samples from 151 patients with connective

  5. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders without and with autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) can coexist with non-organ-specific or organ-specific autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the features between NMOSD without and with autoimmune diseases, and NMOSD with non-organ-specific and organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Methods One hundred and fifty five NMOSD patients without autoimmune diseases (n?=?115) and with autoimmune diseases (n?=?40) were enrolled. NMOSD with autoimmune diseases were divided by organ-specific autoimmune diseases. The clinical, laboratory and magnetic resonance imaging features between two groups were assessed. Results Motor deficit was less frequent in NMOSD patients with non-organ-specific autoimmune diseases (p?=?0.024). Cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell and protein, serum C-reactive protein and immunoglobulin G were lower in NMOSD patients without autoimmune diseases, while several autoantibodies seropositivity and thyroid indexes were significantly higher in NMOSD patients with autoimmune diseases (p??0.05). NMOSD patients with autoimmune diseases had higher brain abnormalities than NMOSD without autoimmune diseases (p?autoimmune diseases were similar. NMOSD with autoimmune diseases have high frequency of brain abnormalities. PMID:25135481

  6. Autoimmunity in isolated Addison's disease and in polyglandular autoimmune diseases type 1, 2 and 4.

    PubMed

    Betterle, C; Dalpra, C; Greggio, N; Volpato, M; Zanchetta, R

    2001-04-01

    Sera from 300 Italian patients with Addison's disease were collected over a 30 year period. Among these patients, 82% had autoimmune disease, 13% had tuberculosis and 5% had another causal condition. In 59% of the cases, autoimmune disease was associated with the autoimmune manifestations contributing to the description of polyglandular autoimmune disease (PGAD). In PGAD type 1, the disease was associated with chronic candidiasis and/or chronic hypoparathyroidism. In PGAD type 2, the patients had autoimmune thyroid disease and/or diabetes mellitus type 1, and in PGAD type 4, they presented a combination with other autoimmune diseases excluding those previously mentioned. Finally, the autoimmune disease was apparently isolated in 41% of the cases. In addition, patients with these four forms of disease exhibited a different genetic pattern, sex distribution, and age at presentation in addition to minor frequency of autoimmune diseases. Adrenal cortex autoantibodies directed against 21-hydroxylase were common serological markers for these four main clinical forms, showing a very high frequency at clinical onset of adrenal insufficiency. In some patients, steroid-producing cell autoantibodies were also present and correlated with gonadal failure and they recognize of 17alpha-hydroxylase or P450 side chain cleavage enzymes as target antigens. PMID:11353894

  7. [INFLUENCE OF HYPERICUM PERFORATUM L. HERB POLYPHENOLS PREPARATION WITH MINERALS ON THE STATE OF PERIODONTAL CONNECTIVE TISSUE MATRIX OF RATS IN CONDITION OF PERIODONTITIS MODELING].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    In experiments on 22 white 1.5-month-old rats-males there were studied influence of Hypericum perforatum L. and minerales from Dyovit® on periodont's tissues under periodontits modelling. Examined preparation normalizes level of glicosaminoglicanes in gum, but did not completely show protective effects relative to collagen's fraction. In periodont's bone preparation decreases resorbrtion; increases activity of AlP and in the same time normalizes activity of AcP. PMID:26118091

  8. Detection and characterisation of an overmodified type III collagen by analysis of non-cutaneous connective tissues in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome IV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Nuytinck; P Narcisi; A Nicholls; J P Renard; F M Pope; A De Paepe

    1992-01-01

    The clinical and biochemical observations in a patient with a mild form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type IV are described. The patient's skin fibroblasts produced markedly diminished amounts of type III collagen. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of collagens produced by cells obtained from other, non-cutaneous tissues showed two forms of collagen alpha 1(III) chains, a normal and a slow migrating, mutant

  9. Shaping the (auto)immune response in the gut: the role of intestinal immune regulation in the prevention of type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sorini, Chiara; Falcone, Marika

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of organ-specific autoimmune diseases such as Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is regulated by genetic and environmental factors. There is increasing evidence that environmental factors acting at the intestinal level, with a special regard to the diverse bacterial species that constitute the microbiota, influence the course of autoimmune diseases in tissues outside the intestine both in humans and in preclinical models. In this review we recapitulate current knowledge on the intestinal immune system, its role in local and systemic immune responses and how multiple environmental factors can shape these responses with pathologic or beneficial outcomes for autoimmune diseases such T1D. PMID:23885333

  10. Unique Gene Expression and MR T2 Relaxometry Patterns Define Chronic Murine Dextran Sodium Sulphate Colitis as a Model for Connective Tissue Changes in Human Crohn’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Breynaert, Christine; Dresselaers, Tom; Perrier, Clémentine; Arijs, Ingrid; Cremer, Jonathan; Van Lommel, Leentje; Van Steen, Kristel; Ferrante, Marc; Schuit, Frans; Vermeire, Séverine; Rutgeerts, Paul; Himmelreich, Uwe; Ceuppens, Jan L.; Geboes, Karel; Van Assche, Gert

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Chronically relapsing inflammation, tissue remodeling and fibrosis are hallmarks of inflammatory bowel diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in connective tissue in a chronic murine model resulting from repeated cycles of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) ingestion, to mimic the relapsing nature of the human disease. Materials and Methods C57BL/6 mice were exposed to DSS in drinking water for 1 week, followed by a recovery phase of 2 weeks. This cycle of exposure was repeated for up to 3 times (9 weeks in total). Colonic inflammation, fibrosis, extracellular matrix proteins and colonic gene expression were studied. In vivo MRI T2 relaxometry was studied as a potential non-invasive imaging tool to evaluate bowel wall inflammation and fibrosis. Results Repeated cycles of DSS resulted in a relapsing and remitting disease course, which induced a chronic segmental, transmural colitis after 2 and 3 cycles of DSS with clear induction of fibrosis and remodeling of the muscular layer. Tenascin expression mirrored its expression in Crohn’s colitis. Microarray data identified a gene expression profile different in chronic colitis from that in acute colitis. Additional recovery was associated with upregulation of unique genes, in particular keratins, pointing to activation of molecular pathways for healing and repair. In vivo MRI T2 relaxometry of the colon showed a clear shift towards higher T2 values in the acute stage and a gradual regression of T2 values with increasing cycles of DSS. Conclusions Repeated cycles of DSS exposure induce fibrosis and connective tissue changes with typical features, as occurring in Crohn’s disease. Colonic gene expression analysis revealed unique expression profiles in chronic colitis compared to acute colitis and after additional recovery, pointing to potential new targets to intervene with the induction of fibrosis. In vivo T2 relaxometry is a promising non-invasive assessment of inflammation and fibrosis. PMID:23894361

  11. A Few Autoreactive Cells in an Autoimmune Infiltrate Control a Vast Population of Nonspecific Cells: A Tale of Smart Bombs and the Infantry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinman, Lawrence

    1996-03-01

    Inflammatory infiltrates in tissue-specific autoimmune disease comprise a collection of T cells with specificity for an antigen in the target organ. These specific cells recruit a population of nonspecific T cells and macrophages. The rare tissue-specific T cells in the infiltrate have the capacity to regulate both the influx and the efflux of cells from the tissue. Administration of an altered peptide ligand for the specific T cell which triggers autoimmunity can lead to the regression of the entire inflammatory ensemble in a few hours. Interleukin 4 is a critical cytokine involved in the regression of the inflammatory infiltrate.

  12. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type II - a case report.

    PubMed

    Azad, A K; Islam, M S; Quayum, S L

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome also known as autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS) type II is characterized by the presence of Addison's disease, in association with autoimmune thyroid disease and/or type I diabetes mellitus. Here a 14 year old girl is reported with Addison's disease, autoimmune hypothyroidism and primary hypogonadism. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS) type II occurs most often in middle aged female and is quite rare in children but one should think to autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type II in patient at any age especially in patients with Addison's disease. PMID:25725692

  13. Inhibition of TGF1 by Anti-TGF1 Antibody or Lisinopril Reduces Thyroid Fibrosis in Granulomatous Experimental Autoimmune Thyroiditis1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kemin Chen; Yongzhong Wei; Gordon C. Sharp; Helen Braley-Mullen

    2002-01-01

    In this study, a murine model of granulomatous experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (G-EAT) was used to determine the role of TGF1 in fibrosis initiated by an autoimmune inflammatory response. The fibrotic process was evaluated by staining thyroid tissue for collagen, -smooth muscle actin, TGF1, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and measuring serum thyroxine in mice given anti-TGF1 or the ACE inhibitor lisinopril.

  14. Pathogenesis of Chagas' Disease: Parasite Persistence and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Antonio R. L.; Hecht, Mariana M.; Guimaro, Maria C.; Sousa, Alessandro O.; Nitz, Nadjar

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Acute Trypanosoma cruzi infections can be asymptomatic, but chronically infected individuals can die of Chagas' disease. The transfer of the parasite mitochondrial kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircle to the genome of chagasic patients can explain the pathogenesis of the disease; in cases of Chagas' disease with evident cardiomyopathy, the kDNA minicircles integrate mainly into retrotransposons at several chromosomes, but the minicircles are also detected in coding regions of genes that regulate cell growth, differentiation, and immune responses. An accurate evaluation of the role played by the genotype alterations in the autoimmune rejection of self-tissues in Chagas' disease is achieved with the cross-kingdom chicken model system, which is refractory to T. cruzi infections. The inoculation of T. cruzi into embryonated eggs prior to incubation generates parasite-free chicks, which retain the kDNA minicircle sequence mainly in the macrochromosome coding genes. Crossbreeding transfers the kDNA mutations to the chicken progeny. The kDNA-mutated chickens develop severe cardiomyopathy in adult life and die of heart failure. The phenotyping of the lesions revealed that cytotoxic CD45, CD8+ ??, and CD8?+ T lymphocytes carry out the rejection of the chicken heart. These results suggest that the inflammatory cardiomyopathy of Chagas' disease is a genetically driven autoimmune disease. PMID:21734249

  15. Autoimmune thyroid disorders in juvenile chronic arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Mihailova, D; Grigorova, R; Vassileva, B; Mladenova, G; Ivanova, N; Stephanov, S; Lissitchky, K; Dimova, E

    1999-01-01

    The appearance of autoimmune thyroiditis in the course of other autoimmune diseases, which do not affect specific organs (systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis and others), is more frequent than is usually believed. Nevertheless, it is scarcely studied, especially in children. The purpose of this study was to look for autoimmune lesions of the thyroid gland in children suffering from juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Twenty seven children having JCA and twelve children with SLE, aged 5 to 18 years, were enrolled into study. In all of them the disease was in an active phase. The serum levels of total thyroid hormones (T3, T4) and TSH, thyroid antibodies (TAB and MAB) and antinuclear antibodies (ANAB) were analyzed using respectively fluoroimmunologic, microhemagglutination and indirect immunofluorescention tests. According to our results, autoimmune thyroiditis was found in 12 out of 27 children with JCA (44.4%); 85.2% of them were euthyroid, 11.1% had a compensated hypothyroidism, and 3.7% had Hashi-toxicosis. From a clinical point of view, very interesting was the combination of JCA, autoimmune thyroiditis and pseudoxanthoma elasticum in a 13-year old girl. Positive thyroglobulin antibodies (1:80-1:5120) were found in 17 out of 27 cases of JCA (63%). The microsomal antibodies were elevated (1:100-1:1600) in 7 out of 27 (25.9%); antinuclear antibodies (1:80-1:640) were detected in 15 out of 27 cases of JCA (55.5%). A simultaneous elevation of all three kinds of antibodies was found in 14.8% of children with JCA, and of TAB and MAB--in 18.5%. Thyroid gland disorders were detected also in children suffering from SLE. Thyroglobulin antibodies were positive (1:80-1:5120) in 7 out of 12 cases. Antinuclear antibodies (1:320-1:2560) were detected in 8 out of 12 cases (66.7%). The serum levels of T3, T4 and TSH were in the reference limits in all children with SLE. The present study suggests that involvement of the thyroid gland is not uncommon in autoimmune disease in Autoimmune thyroiditis can occur in association with other autoimmune diseases, affecting some organs or systems, such as the insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, pernicious anaemia, thrombocytopenia, vitiligo, as well as some chromosomal aberrations--Turner's syndrome, Noonan's syndrome and Down's disease [1]. The appearance of autoimmune thyroiditis together with other autoimmune diseases which do not affect specific organs (such as systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome) is the reason to classify them in a common subgroup of the autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes--type IIID [2]. The rheumatic diseases are--more frequently than suspected--associated with autoimmune thyroiditis, but this connection is not well studied. The literature offers very scarce information on the problem, especially for the childhood. The purpose of this study was to look for autoimmune lesions of the thyroid gland in children suffering from juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). PMID:10599323

  16. The implications of autoimmunity and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Andrea T; Naguwa, Stanley M; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-05-01

    There are multiple epidemiological studies that document the potential adverse affects of autoimmunity on nearly every aspect of reproduction, even in the absence of clinically manifest autoimmune disease. Two decades ago, it was suggested that women with autoimmune diseases avoid pregnancy due to inordinate risks to the mother and the child. In contrast, newer epidemiological data demonstrated that advances in the treatment of autoimmune diseases and the management of pregnant women with these diseases have similarly improved the prognosis for mother and child. In particular, if pregnancy is planned during periods of inactive or stable disease, the result often is giving birth to healthy full-term babies without increased risks of pregnancy complications. Nonetheless, pregnancies in most autoimmune diseases are still classified as high risk because of the potential for major complications. These complications include disease exacerbations during gestation and increased perinatal mortality and morbidity in most autoimmune diseases, whereas fetal mortality is characteristic of the anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS). In this review, we will discuss these topics, including issues of hormones, along with potential long-term effects of the microchimerism phenomenon. With respect to pregnancy and autoimmune diseases, epidemiological studies have attempted to address the following questions: 1) Is it safe for the mother to become pregnant or are there acute or chronic effects of pregnancy on the course of the disease? 2) Does the disease alter the course and/or the outcome of a pregnancy and thereby represent an inordinate risk for the fetus and infant? And do new therapeutic and management approaches improve the pregnancy outcomes in women with autoimmune diseases? 3) Does passage of maternal autoantibodies represent a risk to the child? 4) Do pregnancy, parity, or other factors influencing hormonal status explain the female predominance of many autoimmune diseases, and is the pregnancy effect related to microchimerism? Answering these questions has taken on additional importance in recent decades as women in western countries now frequently choose to delay pregnancies and have some or all of their pregnancies after disease onset. In this paper, we primarily focus on APS, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and type 1 diabetes (T1D). PMID:20031371

  17. Recent Advances in Autoimmune Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Hart, Phil A; Zen, Yoh; Chari, Suresh T

    2015-07-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a form of chronic pancreatitis that is characterized clinically by frequent presentation with obstructive jaundice, histologically by a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with fibrosis, and therapeutically by a dramatic response to corticosteroid therapy. Two distinct diseases, type 1 and type 2 AIP, share these features. However, these 2 diseases have unique pancreatic histopathologic patterns and differ significantly in their demographic profiles, clinical presentation, and natural history. Recognizing the popular and long-standing association of the term "AIP" with what is now called "type 1 AIP," we suggest using "AIP" solely for type 1 AIP and to acknowledge its own distinct disease status by using "idiopathic duct-centric chronic pancreatitis" (IDCP) for type 2 AIP. AIP is the pancreatic manifestation of immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD). The etiopathogenesis of AIP and IgG4-RD is largely unknown. However, the remarkable effectiveness of B-cell depletion therapy with rituximab in patients with AIP and IgG4-RD highlights the crucial role of B cells in its pathogenesis. IDCP is less commonly recognized, and little is known about its pathogenesis. IDCP has no biomarker but is associated with inflammatory bowel disease in ?25% of patients. Recently, the international consensus diagnostic criteria for AIP identified combinations of features that are diagnostic of both diseases. Both AIP and IDCP are corticosteroid responsive; however, relapses are common in AIP and rare in IDCP. Therefore, maintenance therapy with either an immunomodulator (eg, azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, or mycophenolate mofetil) or rituximab is often necessary for patients with AIP. Long-term survival is excellent for both patients with AIP and patients with IDCP. PMID:25770706

  18. How I treat autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, João Bosco

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) represents a failure of apoptotic mechanisms to maintain lymphocyte homeostasis, permitting accumulation of lymphoid mass and persistence of autoreactive cells that often manifest in childhood with chronic nonmalignant lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and recurring multilineage cytopenias. Cytopenias in these patients can be the result of splenic sequestration as well as autoimmune complications manifesting as autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia. More than 300 families with hereditary ALPS have now been described; nearly 500 patients from these families have been studied and followed worldwide over the last 20 years by our colleagues and ourselves. Some of these patients with FAS mutations affecting the intracellular portion of the FAS protein also have an increased risk of B-cell lymphoma. The best approaches to diagnosis, follow-up, and management of ALPS, its associated cytopenias, and other complications resulting from infiltrative lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity are presented. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrial.gov as #NCT00001350. PMID:21885601

  19. Psychopathological manifestations of joint hypermobility and joint hypermobility syndrome/ Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type: The link between connective tissue and psychological distress revised.

    PubMed

    Sinibaldi, Lorenzo; Ursini, Gianluca; Castori, Marco

    2015-03-01

    Psychological distress is a known feature of generalized joint hypermobility (gJHM), as well as of its most common syndromic presentation, namely Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (a.k.a. joint hypermobility syndrome - JHS/EDS-HT), and significantly contributes to the quality of life of affected individuals. Most published articles dealt with the link between gJHM (or JHS/EDS-HT) and anxiety-related conditions, and a novel generation of studies is emerging aimed at investigating the psychopathologic background of such an association. In this paper, literature review was carried out with a semi-systematic approach spanning the entire spectrum of psychopathological findings in gJHM and JHS/EDS-HT. Interestingly, in addition to the confirmation of a tight link between anxiety and gJHM, preliminary connections with depression, attention deficit (and hyperactivity) disorder, autism spectrum disorders, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder were also found. Few papers investigated the relationship with schizophrenia with contrasting results. The mind-body connections hypothesized on the basis of available data were discussed with focus on somatotype, presumed psychopathology, and involvement of the extracellular matrix in the central nervous system. The hypothesis of positive Beighton score and alteration of interoceptive/proprioceptive/body awareness as possible endophenotypes in families with symptomatic gJHM or JHS/EDS-HT is also suggested. Concluding remarks addressed the implications of the psychopathological features of gJHM and JHS/EDS-HT in clinical practice. PMID:25821094

  20. The function of programmed cell death 1 and its ligands in regulating autoimmunity and infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E John Wherry; Rafi Ahmed; Gordon J Freeman; Arlene H Sharpe

    2007-01-01

    The programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) surface receptor binds to two ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2. Studies have shown that PD-1–PD-L interactions control the induction and maintenance of peripheral T cell tolerance and indicate a previously unknown function for PD-L1 on nonhematopoietic cells in protecting tissues from autoimmune attack. PD-1 and its ligands have also been exploited by a variety of