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1

Therapy of Autoimmune Connective Tissue Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The autoimmune diseases can be divided into two basic categories: organ specific and systemic. Organ specific autoimmune disease can affect virtually any tissue of the body and is associated most often with evidence\\u000a of both T and B cell autoimmune responses directed against the cells of the affected organ. Examples of organ specific autoimmune\\u000a disease include multiple sclerosis, Type I

Timothy M. Wright; Dana P. Ascherman

2

Renal involvement in autoimmune connective tissue diseases  

PubMed Central

Connective tissue diseases (CTDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders that share certain clinical presentations and a disturbed immunoregulation, leading to autoantibody production. Subclinical or overt renal manifestations are frequently observed and complicate the clinical course of CTDs. Alterations of kidney function in Sjögren syndrome, systemic scleroderma (SSc), auto-immune myopathies (dermatomyositis and polymyositis), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), antiphospholipid syndrome nephropathy (APSN) as well as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are frequently present and physicians should be aware of that. In SLE, renal prognosis significantly improved based on specific classification and treatment strategies adjusted to kidney biopsy findings. Patients with scleroderma renal crisis (SRC), which is usually characterized by severe hypertension, progressive decline of renal function and thrombotic microangiopathy, show a significant benefit of early angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use in particular and strict blood pressure control in general. Treatment of the underlying autoimmune disorder or discontinuation of specific therapeutic agents improves kidney function in most patients with Sjögren syndrome, auto-immune myopathies, APSN and RA. In this review we focus on impairment of renal function in relation to underlying disease or adverse drug effects and implications on treatment decisions. PMID:23557013

2013-01-01

3

Hair disorders associated with autoimmune connective tissue diseases.  

PubMed

Hair disorders are frequently observed in various systemic diseases, including autoimmune connective tissue diseases (CTDs), with predilection of lupus erythematosus (LE), followed by dermatomyositis (DM) and scleroderma. Hair disorders in CTDs may manifest as various clinical patterns, such as telogen hair loss, diffuse thinning or fragility of hair, and scarring alopecia. Less common hair disorders include anagen effluvium, alopecia areata, and trichomegaly. Some drugs used to treat CTDs may cause hair loss in a drug-related manner or hyperthrichosis. In the assessment of common hair loss patterns, such as telogen effluvium, the possible association with CTDs must be borne in mind and should not be overlooked. Alopecia appears to be a significant sign in the course of LE and especially systemic LE. In DM, the involvement of the scalp is common, and is often characterized by a diffuse, violaceous, scaly, non-scarring and symptomatic hair loss. Linear scleroderma en coup de sabre is an uncommon localized form of morphea with involvement of the paramedian forehead and frontal scalp, where it is associated with cicatricial alopecia. The most important variant of scarring alopecia in the context of CTDs is that associated with discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE). In the diagnostic work-up of DLE-related cicatrical alopecia, histopathological and immunopathological studies are useful, and a relevant role has been attributed to dermatoscopy (trichoscopy) over the last years. Hair loss has been reported in several other CTDs, including mixed and undifferentiated CTDs, and primary Sjögren's syndrome, although it is likely to be underestimated in such diseases. PMID:24975949

Cassano, N; Amerio, P; D'Ovidio, R; Vena, G A

2014-10-01

4

Toll-like receptors as therapeutic targets for autoimmune connective tissue diseases  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune connective tissue diseases (ACTDs) are a family of consistent systemic autoimmune inflammatory disorders, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Sjögren’s syndrome (SS). Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are located on various cellular membranes and sense exogenous and endogenous danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), playing a critical role in innate immune responses. During the past decade, the investigation of TLRs in inflammation autoimmune diseases has been fruitful. In this report, we review the significant biochemical, physiological and pathological studies of the key functions of TLRs in ACTDs. Several proteins in the TLR signaling pathways (e.g., IKK-2 and MyD88) have been identified as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of ACTDs. Antibodies, oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs) and small molecular inhibitors (SMIs) have been tested to modulate TLR signaling. Some drug-like SMIs of TLR signaling, such as RDP58, ST2825, ML120B and PHA-408, have demonstrated remarkable potential, with promising safety and efficacy profiles, which should warrant further clinical investigation. Nonetheless, one should bear in mind that all TLRs exert both protective and pathogenic functions; the function of TLR4 in inflammatory bowel disease represents such an example. Therefore, an important aspect of TLR modulator development involves the identification of a balance between the suppression of disease-inducing inflammation, while retaining the beneficiary host immune response. PMID:23531543

Li, Jing; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Fengchun; Yin, Hang

2013-01-01

5

Evaluation of a Multiplex ELISA for Autoantibody Profiling in Patients with Autoimmune Connective Tissue Diseases  

PubMed Central

The performance of immunoassays for the detection of autoantibodies is of critical importance in the diagnosis and assessment of patients with autoimmune connective tissue diseases (ACTD). Our objective was to compare the features of two multiplexed assays—INNO-LIA ANA and Gennova-PictArray ENA ELISA—for measurement of multiple autoantibodies and their utility as a clinical tool in ACTD diagnosis. The antigens included SS-A/Ro (60 and 52), SSB/La, Sm, Sm/RNP, CENP-B, Jo-1, and Scl-70. Stored sera from 85 ACTD patients and 80 controls consisting of patients with vasculitis, rheumatoid arthritis and infectious diseases, as well as healthy subjects were analyzed jointly with clinical and laboratory data. Agreement between the two methods varied between 58 and 99% (Cohen's kappa: 0.21–0.71) mostly for SSA and SSB. The frequency of specific autoantibodies measured using the two methods was more variable for SSA, SSB, and RNP/Sm. There were a higher number of ambiguous results when using INNO-LIA. The optimized cut-off values of the Gennova-PictArray resulted in over 99% specificities in samples obtained from the control group. Sensitivity patterns were more accurate in Gennova-PictArray than in INNO-LIA, as suggested in previously reported studies. A third method could be applied to determine which of the two methods is more accurate. PMID:24527209

Caro Perez, Alejandro; Kumble, Sarita; Kumble, Krishnanand D.; Alonso Canizal, M. Consuelo; Jimenez Jimenez, Luis M.; Alonso Diez, Lorena; Duran Parejo, Pilar

2014-01-01

6

Connective tissue ulcers.  

PubMed

Connective tissue disorders (CTD), which are often also termed collagen vascular diseases, include a number of related inflammatory conditions. Some of these diseases include rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis (scleroderma), localized scleroderma (morphea variants localized to the skin), Sjogren's syndrome, dermatomyositis, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease. In addition to the systemic manifestations of these diseases, there are a number of cutaneous features that make these conditions recognizable on physical exam. Lower extremity ulcers and digital ulcers are an infrequent but disabling complication of long-standing connective tissue disease. The exact frequency with which these ulcers occur is not known, and the cause of the ulcerations is often multifactorial. Moreover, a challenging component of CTD ulcerations is that there are still no established guidelines for their diagnosis and treatment. The morbidity associated with these ulcerations and their underlying conditions is very substantial. Indeed, these less common but intractable ulcers represent a major medical and economic problem for patients, physicians and nurses, and even well organized multidisciplinary wound healing centers. PMID:23756459

Dabiri, Ganary; Falanga, Vincent

2013-11-01

7

Connective Tissue Ulcers  

PubMed Central

Connective tissue disorders (CTD), which are often also termed collagen vascular diseases, include a number of related inflammatory conditions. Some of these diseases include rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis (scleroderma), localized scleroderma (morphea variants localized to the skin), Sjogren’s syndrome, dermatomyositis, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease. In addition to the systemic manifestations of these diseases, there are a number of cutaneous features that make these conditions recognizable on physical exam. Lower extremity ulcers and digital ulcers are an infrequent but disabling complication of long-standing connective tissue disease. The exact frequency with which these ulcers occur is not known, and the cause of the ulcerations is often multifactorial. Moreover, a challenging component of CTD ulcerations is that there are still no established guidelines for their diagnosis and treatment. The morbidity associated with these ulcerations and their underlying conditions is very substantial. Indeed, these less common but intractable ulcers represent a major medical and economic problem for patients, physicians and nurses, and even well organized multidisciplinary wound healing centers. PMID:23756459

Dabiri, Ganary; Falanga, Vincent

2013-01-01

8

The Role of Dendritic Cells in Tissue-Specific Autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

In this review, we explore the role of dendritic cell subsets in the development of tissue-specific autoimmune diseases. From the increasing list of dendritic cell subclasses, it is becoming clear that we are only at the beginning of understanding the role of these antigen presenting cells in mediating autoimmunity. Emerging research areas for the study of dendritic cell involvement in the onset and inhibition of tissue-specific autoimmunity are presented. Further, we compare tissue specific to systemic autoimmunity to demonstrate how development of dendritic cell-based therapies may be broadly applicable to both classes of autoimmunity. Continued development of these research areas will lead us closer to clinical assessment of novel immunosuppressive therapy for the reversal and prevention of tissue-specific autoimmunity. Through description of dendritic cell functions in the modulation of tissue-specific autoimmunity, we hope to stimulate a greater appreciation and understanding of the role dendritic cells play in the development and treatment of autoimmunity. PMID:24877157

Langridge, William

2014-01-01

9

Rheumatic fever, autoimmunity, and molecular mimicry: the streptococcal connection.  

PubMed

The group A streptococcus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and its link to autoimmune sequelae, has acquired a new level of understanding. Studies support the hypothesis that molecular mimicry between the group A streptococcus and heart or brain are important in directing immune responses in rheumatic fever. Rheumatic carditis, Sydenham chorea and a new group of behavioral disorders called pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections are reviewed with consideration of autoantibody and T cell responses and the role of molecular mimicry between the heart, brain and group A streptococcus as well as how immune responses contribute to pathogenic mechanisms in disease. In rheumatic carditis, studies have investigated human monoclonal autoantibodies and T cell clones for their crossreactivity and their mechanisms leading to valve damage in rheumatic heart disease. Although studies of human and animal sera from group A streptococcal diseases or immunization models have been crucial in providing clues to molecular mimicry and its role in the pathogenesis of rheumatic fever, study of human monoclonal autoantibodies have provided important insights into how antibodies against the valve may activate the valve endothelium and lead to T cell infiltration. Passive transfer of anti-streptococcal T cell lines in a rat model of rheumatic carditis illustrates effects of CD4+ T cells on the valve. Although Sydenham chorea has been known as the neurological manifestation of rheumatic fever for decades, the combination of autoimmunity and behavior is a relatively new concept linking brain, behavior and neuropsychiatric disorders with streptococcal infections. In Sydenham chorea, human mAbs and their expression in transgenic mice have linked autoimmunity to central dopamine pathways as well as dopamine receptors and dopaminergic neurons in basal ganglia. Taken together, the studies reviewed provide a basis for understanding streptococcal sequelae and how immune responses against group A streptococci influence autoimmunity and inflammatory responses in the heart and brain. PMID:24892819

Cunningham, Madeleine W

2014-01-01

10

Pediatric-onset mixed connective tissue disease.  

PubMed

This article discusses the literature on pediatric-onset mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) and adds 34 new cases. Although not benign, pediatric-onset MCTD carries less mortality than adult-onset disease. PMID:16084320

Mier, Richard J; Shishov, Michael; Higgins, Gloria C; Rennebohm, Robert M; Wortmann, Dorothy W; Jerath, Rita; Alhumoud, Ekhlas

2005-08-01

11

Mechanisms of tissue injury in autoimmune liver diseases.  

PubMed

Autoimmune diseases affecting the liver are mainly represented by autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). The characteristic morphologic patterns of injury are a chronic hepatitis pattern of damage in AIH, destruction of small intrahepatic bile ducts in PBC and periductal fibrosis and inflammation involving larger bile ducts in PSC. The factors responsible for initiation and perpetuation of the injury in all the three autoimmune liver diseases are not understood completely but are likely to be environmental triggers on the background of genetic variation in immune regulation. In this review, we summarise the current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the breakdown of self-tolerance in autoimmune liver diseases. PMID:25082647

Liaskou, Evaggelia; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Gershwin, M Eric

2014-09-01

12

Connective Tissue Structure: Cell Binding To Collagen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Established lines of fibroblasts have been shown to adhere to collagen substrates via a serum-derived glycoprotein. The attachment of various other cells to collagen types I-IV is examined here. Cells such as human skin fibroblasts, periosteum, hepatocytes, connective tissue cells, and monocytes required the serum glycoprotein and adhered equally well to all collagens, but attachment of chondrocytes, epidermal cells, and

Hynda K. Kleinman; J. Clifford Murray; Ermona B. Mcgoodwin; George R. Martin

1978-01-01

13

PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS EXISTING IN CONNECTIVE TISSUE  

PubMed Central

The escape of a vital dye from the lymphatics of the ears of living mice and its subsequent movement through normal and pathological connective tissue have been observed at high magnification. The dye first appears outside such channels as bristly, wavy lines of color, which can be bent and twisted by pressure with a micro probe and spring back to their original positions when the pressure is removed, as if the dye were fixed upon or between some tissue elements. Our findings indicate that this is the case, that the bristly lines of color are formed by dye moving between connective tissue fibers or along them. With the onset of mild edema, such as the dye induces secondarily, the bristles disappear, the coloration becoming diffuse and freely movable with the micro probe. When edema is induced before dye is introduced into the lymphatics, the character of its escape is wholly different. It first appears as a colored cloud, freely movable in the edema fluid, the manner of its passage into the tissues being completely changed. In the ears of mice partly dehydrated by bleeding, or in those of dead animals, the bristly or wavy lines were more evident than in normal individuals. It was plain that dehydration did not change the mode of transportation of the dye through the tissue but merely emphasized some of the characteristics of its passage. In animals injected intravenously with large amounts of physiological saline, with result in the presence of more tissue fluid than usual, the colored bristles were seldom seen. It is plain that connective tissue fibers serve indirectly as pathways for the transport of substances of large molecule. We have not been able by the dye method to demonstrate the presence of any free fluid in the normal tissues of the mouse ear. PMID:19870845

McMaster, Philip D.; Parsons, Robert J.

1939-01-01

14

Role of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 in the development of autoimmune lymphoproliferation  

PubMed Central

Background Inherited defects decreasing function of the Fas death receptor cause autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome and its variant Dianzani’s autoimmune lymphoproliferative disease. Analysis of the lymphocyte transcriptome from a patient with this latter condition detected striking over-expression of osteopontin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1. Since previous work on osteopontin had detected increased serum levels in these patients, associated with variations of its gene, the aim of this work was to extend the analysis to tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1. Design and Methods Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 levels were evaluated in sera and culture supernatants from patients and controls by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Activation- and Fas-induced cell death were induced, in vitro, using anti-CD3 and anti-Fas antibodies, respectively. Results Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 levels were higher in sera from 32 patients (11 with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome and 21 with Dianzani’s autoimmune lymphoproliferative disease) than in 50 healthy controls (P<0.0001), unassociated with variations of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 gene. Both groups of patients also had increased serum levels of osteopontin. In vitro experiments showed that osteopontin increased tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 secretion by peripheral blood monocytes. Moreover, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 significantly inhibited both Fas- and activation-induced cell death of lymphocytes. Conclusions These data suggest that high osteopontin levels may support high tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 levels in autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome and Dianzani’s autoimmune lymphoproliferative disease, and hence worsen the apoptotic defect in these diseases. PMID:20595097

Boggio, Elena; Indelicato, Manuela; Orilieri, Elisabetta; Mesturini, Riccardo; Mazzarino, Maria Clorinda; Campagnoli, Maria Francesca; Ramenghi, Ugo; Dianzani, Umberto; Chiocchetti, Annalisa

2010-01-01

15

Identifying heritable connective tissue disorders in childhood.  

PubMed

Heritable connective tissue diseases are rare. Each disorder estimated at 1-10 per 100,000. However, as a group they are prevalent enough to constitute an important diagnostic challenge. Connective tissue disorders most significantly affect three systems: musculoskeletal, ocular and cardiovascular. The cardinal feature of the majority of these disorders is ligamentous laxity, or joint hypermobility. The joints show an increased range of movement, and the child may present with arthralgias, effusions and an increased risk of joint or soft tissue injury. Marfan syndrome is the most common heritable connective tissue disorder. It is an autosomal dominant condition with high penetrance but with striking pleiomorphism. In 25% of individuals there is no family history. The diagnosis is often not made until late childhood. Individuals are tall with a low upper: lower segment ratio and an arm span greater than height. Other skeletal characteristics include pectus deformity and scoliosis. Myopia and astigmatism are common. Cardiac abnormalities include mitral valve prolapse, mitral regurgitation and arrhythmias. Early diagnosis, meticulous echocardiographic follow-up and multidisciplinary assessment are essential. The Ehlers-Danlos syndromes share a triad of features: skin hyperextensibility, articular hypermobility, and tissue fragility. The abnormalities are caused by genetic defects resulting in the faulty synthesis or structure of collagen. There is a wide variety of phenotypes and mode of inheritance. Symptom management and joint protection are important to improve quality of life and prevent secondary complications. Osteogenesis imperfecta encompasses a group of rare heritable disorders associated with low bone mass and increased susceptibility to fractures. Increased bone fractures after minimal trauma is the cardinal feature. Other features include blue sclera, hearing loss, scoliosis, deafness, and hypermobility. PMID:22916581

Armon, Kate; Bale, Peter

2012-06-01

16

Connective tissue alterations in Fkbp10-/- mice.  

PubMed

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited brittle bone disorder characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. Loss of function mutations in FK506-binding protein 10 (FKBP10), encoding the FKBP65 protein, result in recessive OI and Bruck syndrome, of which the latter is additionally characterized by joint contractures. FKBP65 is thought to act as a collagen chaperone, but it is unknown how loss of FKBP65 affects collagen synthesis and extracellular matrix formation. We evaluated the developmental and postnatal expression of Fkbp10 and analyzed the consequences of its generalized loss of function. Fkbp10 is expressed at low levels in E13.5 mouse embryos, particularly in skeletal tissues, and steadily increases through E17.5 with expression in not only skeletal tissues, but also in visceral tissues. Postnatally, expression is limited to developing bone and ligaments. In contrast to humans, with complete loss of function mutations, Fkbp10(-/-) mice do not survive birth, and embryos present with growth delay and tissue fragility. Type I calvarial collagen isolated from these mice showed reduced stable crosslink formation at telopeptide lysines. Furthermore, Fkbp10(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts show retention of procollagen in the cell layer and associated dilated endoplasmic reticulum. These data suggest a requirement for FKBP65 function during embryonic connective tissue development in mice, but the restricted expression postnatally in bone, ligaments and tendons correlates with the bone fragility and contracture phenotype in humans. PMID:24777781

Lietman, Caressa D; Rajagopal, Abbhirami; Homan, Erica P; Munivez, Elda; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Bertin, Terry K; Chen, Yuqing; Hicks, John; Weis, MaryAnn; Eyre, David; Lee, Brendan; Krakow, Deborah

2014-09-15

17

Ultrastructural Connective Tissue Aberrations in Patients With Intracranial Aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—An unknown connective tissue defect might predispose for the development and rupture of intracranial aneurysms in some patients. This study of connective tissue samples of a series of patients with intracranial aneurysms investigates the morphology of the extracellular matrix with methods that are currently used in the routine diagnosis of inherited connective tissue disorders. Methods—Skin biopsies from 21

Caspar Grond-Ginsbach; Holger Schnippering; Ingrid Hausser; Ralf Weber; Inge Werner; Hans H. Steiner; Nina Lüttgen; Otto Busse; Armin Grau; Tobias Brandt

18

Fibroblast involvement in soft connective tissue calcification  

PubMed Central

Soft connective tissue calcification is not a passive process, but the consequence of metabolic changes of local mesenchymal cells that, depending on both genetic and environmental factors, alter the balance between pro- and anti-calcifying pathways. While the role of smooth muscle cells and pericytes in ectopic calcifications has been widely investigated, the involvement of fibroblasts is still elusive. Fibroblasts isolated from the dermis of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) patients and of patients exhibiting PXE-like clinical and histopathological findings offer an attractive model to investigate the mechanisms leading to the precipitation of mineral deposits within elastic fibers and to explore the influence of the genetic background and of the extracellular environment on fibroblast-associated calcifications, thus improving the knowledge on the role of mesenchymal cells on pathologic mineralization. PMID:23467434

Ronchetti, Ivonne; Boraldi, Federica; Annovi, Giulia; Cianciulli, Paolo; Quaglino, Daniela

2013-01-01

19

Drug induction in connective tissue diseases.  

PubMed

Connective tissue diseases (CTDs) are defined as a group of acquired disorders resulting from persistent immuno-mediated inflammation. Several classes of drugs seem to be capable of inducing or exacerbating CTDs. A drug-induced (DI) syndrome is defined as a condition temporally related to continuous drug exposure, which resolves upon drug discontinuation. Among CTDs, lupus erythematosus is the most widely known and investigated DI syndrome. However, in recent years, the association between the onset of other CTDs, such as dermatomyositis (DM) and morphea/systemic sclerosis (SSc) has increased in patients with preceding exposure to particular substances. Herein, we conducted a review of published case reports including DM and morphea/SSc, evaluating the real causality among drugs and these syndromes. PMID:24975950

Verdelli, A; Antiga, E; Bonciolini, V; Bonciani, D; Volpi, W; Caproni, M

2014-10-01

20

Pulmonary hypertension complicating connective tissue disease.  

PubMed

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) may complicate connective tissue disease (CTD), particularly systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma), and markedly increases mortality. More than 70% of cases of PH complicating CTD occur in SSc, which is the major focus of this article. Pulmonary complications (i.e., interstitial lung disease [ILD] and PH) are the leading causes of scleroderma-related deaths. "Isolated" PH (i.e., without ILD) complicates SSc in 7.5 to 20% of cases; secondary PH may also occur in patients with SSc-associated ILD. Several clinical markers and specific autoantibody profiles have been associated with PH in SSc. The role of PH-specific therapy is controversial, as prognosis and responsiveness to therapy are worse in SSc-associated PH compared with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. We discuss medical therapies for CTD-associated PH and the role of lung transplantation for patients failing medical therapy. PMID:24037627

Lynch, Joseph P; Belperio, John A; Saggar, Rajeev; Fishbein, Michael C; Saggar, Rajan

2013-10-01

21

Chondroitin sulphate inhibits connective tissue mast cells  

PubMed Central

Mast cells derive from the bone marrow and are responsible for the development of allergic and possibly inflammatory reactions. Mast cells are stimulated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific antigen, but also by a number of neuropeptides such as neurotensin (NT), somatostatin or substance P (SP), to secrete numerous pro-inflammatory molecules that include histamine, cytokines and proteolytic enzymes.Chondroitin sulphate, a major constituent of connective tissues and of mast cell secretory granules, had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on rat peritoneal mast cell release of histamine induced by the mast cell secretagogue compound 48/80 (48/80). This inhibition was stronger than that of the clinically available mast cell ‘stabilizer' disodium cromoglycate (cromolyn). Inhibition by chondroitin sulphate increased with the length of preincubation and persisted after the drug was washed off, while the effect of cromolyn was limited by rapid tachyphylaxis.Immunologic stimulation of histamine secretion from rat connective tissue mast cells (CTMC) was also inhibited, but this effect was weaker in umbilical cord-derived human mast cells and was absent in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells which are considered homologous to mucosal mast cells (MMC). Oligo- and monosaccharides were not as effective as the polysaccharides.Inhibition, documented by light and electron microscopy, involved a decrease of intracellular calcium ion levels shown by confocal microscopy and image analysis. Autoradiography at the ultrastructural level showed that chondroitin sulphate was mostly associated with plasma and perigranular membranes.Chondroitin sulphate appears to be a potent mast cell inhibitor of allergic and nonimmune stimulation with potential clinical implications. PMID:11082109

Theoharides, T C; Patra, P; Boucher, W; Letourneau, R; Kempuraj, D; Chiang, G; Jeudy, S; Hesse, Leah; Athanasiou, A

2000-01-01

22

Association of bronchiolitis with connective tissue disorders.  

PubMed Central

Among 173 consecutive open lung biopsies, nine gave a histopathological diagnosis of bronchiolitis. Seven of these patients had some connective tissue disorder (CTD), six of whom are presented in this report; two had classical and one possible rheumatoid arthritis (RA), one ankylosing spondylitis, one scleroderma, and one developed classical RA four years after biopsy. Four of the patients were smokers, most suffered from breathlessness and cough. In terms of lung function three patients had obstruction, one both restriction and obstruction and three a decreased diffusion capacity. For control purposes peripheral lung tissue was studied histologically from 24 consecutive smoking patients without CTD who underwent a lobectomy for cancer. Intraluminal plugs and mucosal lymphoplasmocytic infiltration of the bronchiolar walls were more prevalent and abundant in the CTD patients than in the controls (p less than 0.02 and p less than 0.001 respectively). Two CTD patients also showed some obliterative bronchiolitis. Corticosteroids were effective in one out of four patients treated. One patient improved and the others did not show any progression during the follow up. The results suggest that smoking alone does not explain the lesions of the small airways found in CTD patients, and that bronchiolitis may be specifically associated with the basic disorder in such cases. Images PMID:3740995

Hakala, M; Paakko, P; Sutinen, S; Huhti, E; Koivisto, O; Tarkka, M

1986-01-01

23

The relationship between connective tissue abnormality and pelvic floor dysfunction.  

E-print Network

??The University of Manchester, Doctor of Medicine, 2013Gemma FaulknerThe relationship between connective tissue abnormality and pelvic floor dysfunctionPerineal descent (PD) is a sign of connective… (more)

Faulkner, Gemma

2013-01-01

24

Pectus Excavatum and Heritable Disorders of the Connective Tissue  

PubMed Central

Pectus excavatum, the most frequent congenital chest wall deformity, may be rarely observed as a sole deformity or as a sign of an underlying connective tissue disorder. To date, only few studies have described correlations between this deformity and heritable connective tissue disorders such as Marfan, Ehlers-Danlos, Poland, MASS (Mitral valve prolapse, not progressive Aortic enlargement, Skeletal and Skin alterations) phenotype among others. When concurring with connective tissue disorder, cardiopulmonary and vascular involvement may be associated to the thoracic defect. Ruling out the concomitance of pectus excavatum and connective tissue disorders, therefore, may have a direct implication both on surgical outcome and long term prognosis. In this review we focused on biological bases of connective tissue disorders which may be relevant to the pathogenesis of pectus excavatum, portraying surgical and clinical implication of their concurrence. PMID:24198927

Tocchioni, Francesca; Ghionzoli, Marco; Messineo, Antonio; Romagnoli, Paolo

2013-01-01

25

Questions and Answers on Autoimmunity and Autoimmune Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... tissues. What are the types of autoimmunity? Particular autoimmune disorders are frequently classified into organ-specific disorders and ... dermatomyositis. What are some of the treatments for autoimmune diseases? Of first importance in treating any autoimmune disease ...

26

Autoimmune Diabetes Is Suppressed by Treatment with Recombinant Human Tissue Kallikrein-1  

PubMed Central

The kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) comprises a cascade of proteolytic enzymes and biogenic peptides that regulate several physiological processes. Over-expression of tissue kallikrein-1 and modulation of the KKS shows beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and other parameters relevant to type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, much less is known about the role of kallikreins, in particular tissue kallikrein-1, in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). We report that chronic administration of recombinant human tissue kallikrein-1 protein (DM199) to non-obese diabetic mice delayed the onset of T1D, attenuated the degree of insulitis, and improved pancreatic beta cell mass in a dose- and treatment frequency-dependent manner. Suppression of the autoimmune reaction against pancreatic beta cells was evidenced by a reduction in the relative numbers of infiltrating cytotoxic lymphocytes and an increase in the relative numbers of regulatory T cells in the pancreas and pancreatic lymph nodes. These effects may be due in part to a DM199 treatment-dependent increase in active TGF-beta1. Treatment with DM199 also resulted in elevated C-peptide levels, elevated glucagon like peptide-1 levels and a reduction in dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity. Overall, the data suggest that DM199 may have a beneficial effect on T1D by attenuating the autoimmune reaction and improving beta cell health. PMID:25259810

Maneva-Radicheva, Lilia; Amatya, Christina; Parker, Camille; Ellefson, Jacob; Radichev, Ilian; Raghavan, Arvind; Charles, Matthew L.; Williams, Mark S.; Robbins, Mark S.; Savinov, Alexei Y.

2014-01-01

27

Epidemiology of organic solvents and connective tissue disease  

PubMed Central

Case reports suggest that solvents are associated with various connective tissue diseases (systemic sclerosis, scleroderma, undifferentiated connective tissue disease, systemic lupus erythematosis, and rheumatoid arthritis), particularly systemic sclerosis. A small number of epidemiological studies have shown statistically significant but weak associations between solvent exposure, systemic sclerosis, and undifferentiated connective tissue disease. However, the interpretation of these positive findings is tempered by a lack of replication, an inability to specify which solvents convey risk, and an absence of increasing risk with increasing exposure. Existing studies, on aggregate, do not show conclusively that solvents (either as a group of chemicals or individual chemicals) are causally associated with any connective tissue disease. Further investigations should be carried out to replicate the positive existing findings and to specify the solvents and circumstances of exposure that carry risk. PMID:11094414

Garabrant, David H; Dumas, Constantine

2000-01-01

28

FIBROBLAST CYTOSKELETAL REMODELING CONTRIBUTES TO CONNECTIVE TISSUE TENSION  

PubMed Central

The viscoelastic behavior of connective tissue is generally attributed to the material properties of the extracellular matrix rather than cellular activity. We have previously shown that fibroblasts within areolar connective tissue exhibit dynamic cytoskeletal remodeling within minutes in response to tissue stretch ex vivo and in vivo. Here, we tested the hypothesis that fibroblasts, through this cytoskeletal remodeling, actively contribute to the viscoelastic behavior of the whole tissue. We measured significantly increased tissue tension when cellular function was broadly inhibited by sodium azide and when cytoskeletal dynamics were compromised by disrupting microtubules (with colchicine) or actomyosin contractility (via Rho kinase inhibition). These treatments led to a decrease in cell body cross-sectional area and cell field perimeter (obtained by joining the end of all of a fibroblast’s processes). Suppressing lamellipodia formation by inhibiting Rac-1 decreased cell body cross-sectional area but did not affect cell field perimeter or tissue tension. Thus, by changing shape, fibroblasts can dynamically modulate the viscoelastic behavior of areolar connective tissue through Rho-dependent cytoskeletal mechanisms. These results have broad implications for our understanding of the dynamic interplay of forces between fibroblasts and their surrounding matrix, as well as for the neural, vascular and immune cell populations residing within connective tissue. PMID:20945345

Langevin, Helene M.; Bouffard, Nicole A.; Fox, James R.; Palmer, Bradley M.; Wu, Junru; Iatridis, James C.; Barnes, William D.; Badger, Gary J.; Howe, Alan K.

2011-01-01

29

Interpretation of autoantibody positivity in interstitial lung disease and lung-dominant connective tissue disease.  

PubMed

The initial evaluation of patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) primarily involves a comprehensive, active search for the cause. Autoantibody assays, which can suggest the presence of a rheumatic disease, are routinely performed at various referral centers. When interstitial lung involvement is the condition that allows the definitive diagnosis of connective tissue disease and the classical criteria are met, there is little debate. However, there is still debate regarding the significance, relevance, specificity, and pathophysiological role of autoimmunity in patients with predominant pulmonary involvement and only mild symptoms or formes frustes of connective tissue disease. The purpose of this article was to review the current knowledge of autoantibody positivity and to discuss its possible interpretations in patients with ILD and without clear etiologic associations, as well as to enhance the understanding of the natural history of an allegedly new disease and to describe the possible prognostic implications. We also discuss the proposition of a new term to be used in the classification of ILDs: lung-dominant connective tissue disease. PMID:24473767

Pereira, Daniel Antunes Silva; Kawassaki, Alexandre de Melo; Baldi, Bruno Guedes

2013-01-01

30

[50 years of connective tissue research: from the French Connective Tissue Club to the French Society of Extracellular Matrix Biology].  

PubMed

The history of connective tissue research began in the late 18th century. However, it is only 50 years later that the concept of connective tissue was shaped. It took another fifty years before biochemical knowledge of extracellular matrix macromolecules began to emerge in the first half of the 20th century. In 1962, thanks to Ladislas and Barbara Robert, back from the US, the first society called "French Connective Tissue Club" was created in Paris. The first board was constituted of Albert Delaunay, Suzanne Bazin and Ladislas Robert. Very quickly, under the influence of these pioneers, national and international meetings were organized and, in 1967, a "Federation of the European Connective Tissue Clubs" was created at the initiative of Ladislas Robert (Paris) and John Scott (Manchester). It spread rapidly to the major European nations. In 1982 the transformation of "Clubs" in "Societies" occurred, a name more in line with the requirements of the time. In 2008, the "French Connective Tissue Society" became the "French Society of Extracellular Matrix Biology" ("Société Française de Biologie de la Matrice Extracellulaire", SFBMEc), to better highlight the importance of the extracellular matrix in the biology of living organisms. The SFBMEc's mission today is to promote and develop scientific exchanges between academic, industrial, and hospital laboratories involved in research on the extracellular matrix. SFBMEc organizes or subsidizes scientific meetings and awards scholarships to Ph.D. students or post-docs to participate in international conferences. It includes 200 to 250 members from different disciplines, developing strong interactions between scientists, clinicians and pathologists. It is present all around the French territory in many research laboratories. During these last 50 years, the extraordinary advances made possible by the development of new investigation techniques, in particular molecular biology, cell and tissue imaging, molecular modeling, etc., have permitted a considerable increase of the knowledge in the field of connective tissue. PMID:22748045

Maquart, François-Xavier; Borel, Jacques-Paul

2012-01-01

31

[Connective tissue: big unifying element of the organism].  

PubMed

The anatomical unity of the organism is realized by the connective tissue, which assumes five functions: the filling of the spaces between organs; the connexion between these organs; the driving of the vascular and nervous pedicles to these organs; the stocking of nutritive reserves in fat pads; an aesthetic role with hollows and bumps erasing. The space filling is done with jointed polyedric volumes, which are constituted, according to the theories of J.-C. Guimberteau, with microvacuoles, filled with under pressure fundamental substance. This is a status of preconstraint resulting in a form memory. So, the connective tissue under constraint get back its initial status after this constraint is over, according to the laws of a new science, the tensegrity. The explorations of the connective tissue with a 25× magnifying micro endoscopes are showing micro fibrillar structures, evoluting under constraint. Its arrangement, that seems chaotic, is in fractal disposition, in reality, and follows the "universal parcimony law" established by Williams of Ockham. The structure of the connective tissue can be integrated in a holistic conception of the organism. Many characteristics of this tissue have still to be discovered. PMID:22884219

Kapandji, A-I

2012-10-01

32

Bioreactors for Connective Tissue Engineering: Design and Monitoring Innovations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The challenges for the tissue engineering of connective tissue lie in creating off-the-shelf tissue constructs which are capable of providing organs for transplantation. These strategies aim to grow a complex tissue with the appropri ate mechanical integrity necessary for functional load bearing. Monolayer culture systems lack correlation with the in vivo environment and the naturally occur ring cell phenotypes. Part of the development of more recent models is to create growth environments or bioreactors which enable three-dimensional culture. Evidence suggests that in order to grow functional load-bearing tissues in a bioreactor, the cells must experience mechanical loading stimuli similar to that experienced in vivo which sets out the requirements for mechanical loading bioreactors. An essential part of developing new bioreactors for tissue growth is identifying ways of routinely and continuously measuring neo-tissue formation and in order to fully identify the successful generation of a tissue implant, the appropriate on-line monitoring must be developed. New technologies are being developed to advance our efforts to grow tissue ex vivo. The bioreactor is a critical part of these develop ments in supporting growth of biological implants and combining this with new advances in the detection of tissue formation allows us to refine our protocols and move nearer to off-the-shelf implants for clinical applications.

Haj, A. J. El; Hampson, K.; Gogniat, G.

33

Sustained deep-tissue pain alters functional brain connectivity  

PubMed Central

Recent functional brain connectivity studies have contributed to our understanding of the neurocircuitry supporting pain perception. However, evoked-pain connectivity studies have employed cutaneous and/or brief stimuli, which induce sensations that differ appreciably from the clinical pain experience. Sustained myofascial pain evoked by pressure cuff affords an excellent opportunity to evaluate functional connectivity change to more clinically-relevant sustained deep-tissue pain. Connectivity in specific networks known to be modulated by evoked pain (sensorimotor, salience, dorsal attention, fronto-parietal control and default mode networks; SMN, SLN, DAN, FCN and DMN) was evaluated with functional-connectivity MRI, both at rest and during a sustained (6-minute) pain state in healthy adults. We found that pain was stable with no significant changes of subjects’ pain ratings over the stimulation period. Sustained pain reduced connectivity between the SMN and the contralateral leg primary sensorimotor (S1/M1) representation. Such SMN-S1/M1 connectivity decreases were also accompanied by and correlated with increased SLN-S1/M1 connectivity, suggesting recruitment of activated S1/M1 from SMN to SLN. Sustained pain also increased DAN connectivity to pain processing regions such as mid-cingulate cortex, posterior insula and putamen. Moreover, greater connectivity during pain between contralateral S1/M1 and posterior insula, thalamus, putamen, and amygdala, was associated with lower cuff pressures needed to reach the targeted pain sensation. These results demonstrate that sustained pain disrupts resting S1/M1 connectivity by shifting it to a network known to process stimulus salience. Furthermore, increased connectivity between S1/M1 and both sensory and affective processing areas may be an important contribution to inter-individual differences in pain sensitivity. PMID:23718988

Kim, Jieun; Loggia, Marco L.; Edwards, Robert; Wasan, Ajay D.; Gollub, Randy L.; Napadow, Vitaly

2013-01-01

34

School of Architecture Graduation Exercises FINAL Simple Gifts/ Connective Tissues  

E-print Network

School of Architecture Graduation Exercises FINAL Simple Gifts/ Connective Tissues Appalachian in close ranks, in uniform, and as a group. The choreography has been literally amazing from the ridge a great, no greater School of Architecture, a metaphor for our collective if not frictional cultures

Whittle, Mark

35

The Repertoires of Peptides Presented by MHC-II in the Thymus and in Peripheral Tissue: A Clue for Autoimmunity?  

PubMed Central

T-cell tolerance to self-antigens is established in the thymus through the recognition by developing thymocytes of self-peptide-MHC complexes and induced and maintained in the periphery. Efficient negative selection of auto-reactive T cells in the thymus is dependent on the in situ expression of both ubiquitous and tissue-restricted self-antigens and on the presentation of derived peptides. Weak or inadequate intrathymic expression of self-antigens increases the risk to generate an autoimmune-prone T-cell repertoire. Indeed, even small changes of self-antigen expression in the thymus affect negative selection and increase the predisposition to autoimmunity. Together with other mechanisms, tolerance is maintained in the peripheral lymphoid organs via the recognition by mature T cells of a similar set of self-peptides in homeostatic conditions. However, non-lymphoid peripheral tissue, where organ-specific autoimmunity takes place, often have differential functional processes that may lead to the generation of epitopes that are absent or non-presented in the thymus. These putative differences between peptides presented by MHC molecules in the thymus and in peripheral tissues might be a major key to the initiation and maintenance of autoimmune conditions. PMID:24381570

Collado, Javier A.; Guitart, Carolina; Ciudad, M. Teresa; Alvarez, Iñaki; Jaraquemada, Dolores

2013-01-01

36

Force Transmission between Synergistic Skeletal Muscles through Connective Tissue Linkages  

PubMed Central

The classic view of skeletal muscle is that force is generated within its muscle fibers and then directly transmitted in-series, usually via tendon, onto the skeleton. In contrast, recent results suggest that muscles are mechanically connected to surrounding structures and cannot be considered as independent actuators. This article will review experiments on mechanical interactions between muscles mediated by such epimuscular myofascial force transmission in physiological and pathological muscle conditions. In a reduced preparation, involving supraphysiological muscle conditions, it is shown that connective tissues surrounding muscles are capable of transmitting substantial force. In more physiologically relevant conditions of intact muscles, however, it appears that the role of this myofascial pathway is small. In addition, it is hypothesized that connective tissues can serve as a safety net for traumatic events in muscle or tendon. Future studies are needed to investigate the importance of intermuscular force transmission during movement in health and disease. PMID:20396618

Maas, Huub; Sandercock, Thomas G.

2010-01-01

37

Smooth Muscle-Mediated Connective Tissue Remodeling in Pulmonary Hypertension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abnormal accumulation of connective tissue in blood vessels contributes to alterations in vascular physiology associated with disease states such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Elastin synthesis was studied in blood vessels from newborn calves with severe pulmonary hypertension induced by alveolar hypoxia in order to investigate the cellular stimuli that elicit changes in pulmonary arterial connective tissue production. A two- to fourfold increase in elastin production was observed in pulmonary artery tissue and medial smooth muscle cells from hypertensive calves. This stimulation of elastin production was accompanied by a corresponding increase in elastin messenger RNA consistent with regulation at the transcriptional level. Conditioned serum harvested from cultures of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells isolated from hypertensive animals contained one or more low molecular weight elastogenic factors that stimulated the production of elastin in both fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells and altered the chemotactic responsiveness of fibroblasts to elastin peptides. These results suggest that connective tissue changes in the pulmonary vasculature in response to pulmonary hypertension are orchestrated by the medial smooth muscle cell through the generation of specific differentiation factors that alter both the secretory phenotype and responsive properties of surrounding cells.

Mecham, Robert P.; Whitehouse, Loren A.; Wrenn, David S.; Parks, William C.; Griffin, Gail L.; Senior, Robert M.; Crouch, Edmond C.; Stenmark, Kurt R.; Voelkel, Norbert F.

1987-07-01

38

Clinical Evaluation of Papilla Reconstruction Using Subepithelial Connective Tissue Graft  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aesthetics of the patient can be improved by surgical reconstruction of interdental papilla by using an advanced papillary flap interposed with subepithelial connective tissue graft. Materials and Methods: A total of fifteen sites from ten patients having black triangles/papilla recession in the maxillary anterior region were selected and subjected to presurgical evaluation. The sites were treated with interposed subepithelial connective tissue graft placed under a coronally advance flap. The integrity of the papilla was maintained by moving the whole of gingivopapillary unit coronally. The various parameters were analysed at different intervals. Results: There was a mean decrease in the papilla presence index score and distance from contact point to gingival margin, but it was statistically not significant. Also, there is increase in the width of the keratinized gingiva which was statistically highly significant. Conclusion: Advanced papillary flap with interposed sub–epithelial connective tissue graft can offer predictable results for the reconstruction of interdental papilla. If papilla loss occurs solely due to soft-tissue damage, reconstructive techniques can completely restore it; but if due to periodontal disease involving bone loss, reconstruction is generally incomplete and multiple surgical procedures may be required. PMID:25386529

Kaushik, Alka; PK, Pal; Chopra, Deepak; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Masamatti, Vinaykumar S; DK, Suresh; Babaji, Prashant

2014-01-01

39

Role of PTP? in the destruction of periodontal connective tissues.  

PubMed

IL-1? contributes to connective tissue destruction in part by up-regulating stromelysin-1 (MMP-3), which in fibroblasts is a focal adhesion-dependent process. Protein tyrosine phosphatase-? (PTP?) is enriched in and regulates the formation of focal adhesions, but the role of PTP? in connective tissue destruction is not defined. We first examined destruction of periodontal connective tissues in adult PTP?(+/+) and PTP?(-/-) mice subjected to ligature-induced periodontitis, which increases the levels of multiple cytokines, including IL-1?. Three weeks after ligation, maxillae were processed for morphometry, micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry. Compared with unligated controls, there was ?1.5-3 times greater bone loss as well as 3-fold reduction of the thickness of the gingival lamina propria and 20-fold reduction of the amount of collagen fibers in WT than PTP?(-/-) mice. Immunohistochemical staining of periodontal tissue showed elevated expression of MMP-3 at ligated sites. Second, to examine mechanisms by which PTP? may regulate matrix degradation, human MMP arrays were used to screen conditioned media from human gingival fibroblasts treated with vehicle, IL-1? or TNF?. Although MMP-3 was upregulated by both cytokines, only IL-1? stimulated ERK activation in human gingival fibroblasts plated on fibronectin. TIRF microscopy and immunoblotting analyses of cells depleted of PTP? activity with the use of various mutated constructs or with siRNA or PTP?(KO) and matched wild type fibroblasts were plated on fibronectin to enable focal adhesion formation and stimulated with IL-1?. These data showed that the catalytic and adaptor functions of PTP? were required for IL-1?-induced focal adhesion formation, ERK activation and MMP-3 release. We conclude that inflammation-induced connective tissue degradation involving fibroblasts requires functionally active PTP? and in part is mediated by IL-1? signaling through focal adhesions. PMID:23940616

Rajshankar, Dhaarmini; Sima, Corneliu; Wang, Qin; Goldberg, Stephanie R; Kazembe, Mwayi; Wang, Yongqiang; Glogauer, Michael; Downey, Gregory P; McCulloch, Christopher A

2013-01-01

40

Extracellular matrix of connective tissues in the heads of teleosts.  

PubMed Central

The distribution of extracellular matrix molecules (chondroitin and keratan sulphates, type II collagen) is described in cranial connective tissues of teleosts. Hyaline cartilage was similar to that in mammals and usually contained all 3 molecules. The more cellular cartilages that are not normally present in mammals were more variable in composition. Scleral cartilage closely resembled hyaline cartilage, Zellknorpel in the gill filaments resembled it in some species but not in others, and elastic/cell-rich and hyaline-cell cartilages were unlike hyaline cartilage. These variations may be related to functional or developmental differences between the tissues. Bone and chondroid bone also varied in composition between species. Whilst both tissues contained chondroitin sulphate, bone contained type II collagen in 5 of the 12 species examined. This suggests that cartilage components are more widespread in teleost bone than has previously been shown. Type II collagen also occurred in dense connective tissues of some species. Notably, where this molecule was present in one of these tissues, it was present in all. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:1817131

Benjamin, M; Ralphs, J R

1991-01-01

41

Plasmapheresis and Autoimmune Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... the booklet in this Web page . Plasmapheresis and Autoimmune Disease Many diseases, including myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton syndrome, ... tissues has been the most common approach to autoimmune disease for more than 30 years. Many new immunosuppressants ...

42

Fibre reinforcing by collagen in cartilage and soft connective tissues.  

PubMed

Mechanical support in animals is performed by connective tissues. The soft tissues consist of collagen fibres embedded in a highly hydrated proteoglycan gel. By considering them as fibrous composite materials, a unifying theme can be found to explain their mechanical behaviour in terms of their structure and composition. Interactions between fibres and matrix are essential to their functioning in this way. Calculations are made of the maximum stress transfer per D-period required to enable collagen fibres of a given axial ratio to provide effective reinforcing. Weak non-specific interactions are shown to be sufficient. A mechanical function is proposed for type X collagen in the epiphyseal growth plate on the basis that it modifies and supplements the properties of the type II fibrils. This provides extra reinforcing and, hence, a greater stiffness to the cartilage to compensate for the reduced amount of extracellular matrix. PMID:7838856

Aspden, R M

1994-11-22

43

Connective Tissue Disease-associated Interstitial Lung Disease: A review  

PubMed Central

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is commonly encountered in patients with connective tissue diseases (CTD). Besides the lung parenchyma, the airways, pulmonary vasculature and structures of the chest wall may all be involved, depending on the type of CTD. As a result of this so-called multi-compartment involvement, airflow limitation, pulmonary hypertension, vasculitis and extrapulmonary restriction can occur alongside fibro-inflammatory parenchymal abnormalities in CTD. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic sclerosis (SSc), poly-/dermatomyositis (PM/DM), Sjögren’s syndrome (SjS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and undifferentiated (UCTD) as well as mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) can all be associated with the development of ILD. Non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is the most commonly observed histopathological pattern in CTD-ILD, but other patterns including usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), organizing pneumonia (OP), diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) may occur. Although the majority of patients with CTD-ILD experience stable or slowly advancing ILD, a small yet significant group exhibits a more severe and progressive course. Randomized placebo-controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of immunomodulatory treatments have been conducted only in SSc-associated ILD. However, clinical experience suggests that a handful of immunosuppressive medications are potentially effective in a sizeable portion of patients with ILD caused by other CTDs. In this manuscript, we review the clinical characteristics and management of the most common CTD-ILDs. PMID:23125954

Gutsche, Markus; Rosen, Glenn D.; Swigris, Jeffrey J.

2012-01-01

44

Myoarchitecture and connective tissue in hearts with tricuspid atresia  

PubMed Central

Objective—To compare the atrial and ventricular myoarchitecture in the normal heart and the heart with tricuspid atresia, and to investigate changes in the three dimensional arrangement of collagen fibrils.?Methods—Blunt dissection and cell maceration with scanning electron microscopy were used to study the architecture of the atrial and ventricular musculature and the arrangement of collagen fibrils in three specimens with tricuspid atresia and six normal human hearts.?Results—There were significant modifications in the myoarchitecture of the right atrium and the left ventricle, both being noticeably hypertrophied. The middle layer of the ventricle in the abnormal hearts was thicker than in the normal hearts. The orientation of the superficial layer in the left ventricle in hearts with tricuspid atresia was irregular compared with the normal hearts. Scanning electron microscopy showed coarser endomysial sheaths and denser perimysial septa in hearts with tricuspid atresia than in normal hearts.?Conclusions—The overall architecture of the muscle fibres and its connective tissue matrix in hearts with tricuspid atresia differed from normal, probably reflecting modelling of the myocardium that is inherent to the malformation. This is in concordance with clinical observations showing deterioration in pump function of the dominant left ventricle from very early in life.?? Keywords: tricuspid atresia; congenital heart defects; connective tissue; fibrosis PMID:9922357

Sanchez-Quintana, D; Climent, V; Ho, S; Anderson, R

1999-01-01

45

Cell-based and biomaterial approaches to connective tissue repair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Connective tissue injuries of skin, tendon and ligament, heal by a reparative process in adults, filling the wound site with fibrotic, disorganized scar tissue that poorly reflects normal tissue architecture or function. Conversely, fetal skin and tendon have been shown to heal scarlessly. Complete regeneration is not intrinsically ubiquitous to all fetal tissues; fetal diaphragmatic and gastrointestinal injuries form scars. In vivo studies suggest that the presence of fetal fibroblasts is essential for scarless healing. In the orthopaedic setting, adult anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) heals poorly; however, little is known about the regenerative capacity of fetal ACL or fetal ACL fibroblasts. We characterized in vitro wound healing properties of fetal and adult ACL fibroblasts demonstrating that fetal ACL fibroblasts migrate faster and elaborate greater quantities of type I collagen, suggesting the healing potential of the fetal ACL may not be intrinsically poor. Similar to fetal ACL fibroblasts, fetal dermal fibroblasts also exhibit robust cellular properties. We investigated the age-dependent effects of dermal fibroblasts on tendon-to-bone healing in rat supraspinatus tendon injuries, a reparative injury model. We hypothesized delivery of fetal dermal fibroblasts would increase tissue organization and mechanical properties in comparison to adult dermal fibroblasts. However, at 1 and 8 weeks, the presence of dermal fibroblasts, either adult or fetal, had no significant effect on tissue histology or mechanical properties. There was a decreasing trend in cross-sectional area of repaired tendons treated with fetal dermal fibroblasts in comparison to adult, but this finding was not significant in comparison to controls. Finally, we synthesized a novel polysaccharide, methacrylated methylcellulose (MA-MC), and fabricated hydrogels using a well-established photopolymerization technique. We characterized the physical and mechanical properties of MA-MC hydrogels in vitro as well as in a subcutaneous mouse model. Stable MA-MC hydrogels, of varying weight percentages, demonstrated tunable swelling and mechanical properties in the absence of cytotoxic degradation products. In vivo, 6wt% MA-MC hydrogels maintained their shape and mechanical integrity while eliciting a minimal inflammatory response; highly desirable properties for soft tissue reconstruction. These cellulose-based photopolymerizable hydrogels can be further optimized for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications to enhance wound repair.

Stalling, Simone Suzette

46

Elevated plasma hydroxyprolineA possible risk factor associated with connective tissue injuries during overuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basal plasma hydroxyproline was measured in 104 male Navy Seal candidates 1 week into their intense physical training program, which lasted 7 weeks, and correlated to the incidence of connective tissue injuries incurred later in the training program. Eleven subjects (10.6%) were diagnosed as having connective tissue injuries. Those subjects with connective tissue injuries had a significantly higher (P <

M. J. Murguia; A. Vailas; B. Mandelbaum; J. Norton; J. Hodgdon; H. Goforth; M. Riedy

1988-01-01

47

Autoimmunity in thyroid disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autoimmune thyroid diseases, Graves' disease and autoimmune hypothyroidism, represent the two ends of a disease spectrum where an immune response is directed against the thyroid gland. In Graves' disease, antibodies directed against the thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) lead to the development of glandular overactivity, while in autoimmune hypothyroidism, cell-mediated and humoral thyroid injury leads to destruction of thyroid tissue and

Joanne Collins; Stephen Gough

2002-01-01

48

Tissue-resident exhausted effector memory CD8+ T cells accumulate in the retina during chronic experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis.  

PubMed

Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis is a model for noninfectious posterior segment intraocular inflammation in humans. Although this disease is CD4(+) T cell dependent, in the persistent phase of disease CD8(+) T cells accumulate. We show that these are effector memory CD8(+) T cells that differ from their splenic counterparts with respect to surface expression of CD69, CD103, and Ly6C. These retinal effector memory CD8(+) T cells have limited cytotoxic effector function, are impaired in their ability to proliferate in response to Ag-specific stimulation, and upregulate programmed death 1 receptor. Treatment with fingolimod (FTY720) during the late phase of disease revealed that retinal CD8(+) T cells were tissue resident. Despite signs of exhaustion, these cells were functional, as their depletion resulted in an expansion of retinal CD4(+) T cells and CD11b(+) macrophages. These results demonstrate that, during chronic autoimmune inflammation, exhausted CD8(+) T cells become established in the local tissue. They are phenotypically distinct from peripheral CD8(+) T cells and provide local signals within the tissue by expression of inhibitory receptors such as programmed death 1 that limit persistent inflammation. PMID:24740509

Boldison, Joanne; Chu, Colin J; Copland, David A; Lait, Philippa J P; Khera, Tarnjit K; Dick, Andrew D; Nicholson, Lindsay B

2014-05-15

49

Autoimmune Hepatitis  

MedlinePLUS

... with type 1 autoimmune hepatitis commonly have other autoimmune disorders, such as celiac disease, an autoimmune disease in ... 2 can also have any of the above autoimmune disorders. [ Top ] What are the symptoms of autoimmune hepatitis? ...

50

Gene Therapy Approaches for Autoimmune Diseases of the Central Nervous System and Other Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene therapy of autoimmunity has held many promises for the last ten years, owing to its potential as an alternative therapeutic\\u000a approach for diseases lacking a definitive cure and with a devastating social impact. However, there are still several issues\\u000a to solve before these approaches would be transferable to humans.\\u000a \\u000a Some studies are conceptually non applicable to human diseases.

Roberto Furlan; Erica Butti; Stefano Pluchino; Gianvito Martino

51

Characterisation of connective tissue from the hypertrophic skeletal muscle of myostatin null mice  

PubMed Central

Myostatin is a potent inhibitor of muscle development. Genetic deletion of myostatin in mice results in muscle mass increase, with muscles often weighing three times their normal values. Contracting muscle transfers tension to skeletal elements through an elaborate connective tissue network. Therefore, the connective tissue of skeletal muscle is an integral component of the contractile apparatus. Here we examine the connective tissue architecture in myostatin null muscle. We show that the hypertrophic muscle has decreased connective tissue content compared with wild-type muscle. Secondly, we show that the hypertrophic muscle fails to show the normal increase in muscle connective tissue content during ageing. Therefore, genetic deletion of myostatin results in an increase in contractile elements but a decrease in connective tissue content. We propose a model based on the contractile profile of muscle fibres that reconciles this apparent incompatible tissue composition phenotype. PMID:22463481

Elashry, Mohamed I; Collins-Hooper, Henry; Vaiyapuri, Sakthivel; Patel, Ketan

2012-01-01

52

In vivo anti-nuclear antibodies in epithelial biopsies in SLE and other connective tissue diseases.  

PubMed

In vivo anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) was observed by direct immunofluorescence microscopy in epithelial cell nuclei in forty-four biopsies from thirty-three patients. The tissue containing the ANA was macroscopically normal in twenty-seven patients. The thirty-three patients with in vivo biopsy ANA included twenty-three with SLE, three with mixed connective tissue disease, two each with multi-system Sjögren's syndrome, dermatomyositis, and progressive systemic sclerosis, and one with rheumatoid arthritis. Features of sicca syndrome were noted in seventeen patients. The patterns of the in vivo biopsy ANA in the thirty-three patients were speckled (21), homogeneous (6), nodular (2), and both speckled and homogeneous (4). Complement was not detected in the epithelial cell nuclei. Immunoglobulin(s) and/or complement were deposited along the dermoepidermal junction in thirty-two of the forty-four biopsies, and in dermal blood vessels in twenty-two biopsies. Each patient had serum ANA against rat liver substrate; twenty-seven had high titre ANA (1 in 1000 or greater). Elevated levels of DNA-binding were found in twenty patients (61%), but the level of DNA-binding did not correlate with the intensity of in vitro biopsy ANA staining. Serum antibody to ribonucleoprotein (RNP) was present in eight of the twenty-three patients tested (35%), all eight patients having clinical features of sicca syndrome. Hypocomplementaemia was found in thirteen patients (40%), all of whom had active SLE. In vivo biopsy ANA appears to be a real phenomenon of unknown aetiology, and not an artifact, which is found in some patients with active multisystem autoimmune disease, especially SLE. PMID:394890

Wells, J V; Webb, J; Van Deventer, M; Fry, B; Pollard, K M; Raftos, J; Monk, W; Nelson, D S

1979-12-01

53

Inhibition of rheumatoid arthritis by blocking connective tissue growth factor  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains to be completely elucidated so far; however, it is known that proinflammatory cytokines play a pivotal role in the induction of RA. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?), in particular, is considered to play a central role in bone destruction by mediating the abnormal activation of osteoclasts or the production of proteolytic enzymes through direct or indirect mechanisms. The use of TNF-? blocking agents has a significant impact on RA therapy. Anti-TNF-? blocking agents such as infliximab are very effective for treatment of RA, especially for the prevention of articular destruction. We have previously shown that several proteins exhibited extensive changes in their expression after amelioration of RA with infliximab treatment. Among the proteins, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has a significant role for the development of RA. Herein, we review the function of CTGF in the pathogenesis of RA and discuss the possibility of a novel treatment for RA. We propose that CTGF is a potentially novel effector molecule in the pathogenesis of RA. Blocking the CTGF pathways by biological agents may have great beneficial effect in patients with RA. PMID:25405094

Nozawa, Kazuhisa; Fujishiro, Maki; Takasaki, Yoshinari; Sekigawa, Iwao

2014-01-01

54

Angiotensin II Increases Connective Tissue Growth Factor in the Kidney  

PubMed Central

Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been described as a novel fibrotic mediator. CTGF is overexpressed in several kidney diseases and is induced by different factors involved in renal injury. Angiotensin II (AngII) participates in the pathogenesis of kidney damage, contributing to fibrosis; however, whether AngII regulates CTGF in the kidney has not been explored. Systemic infusion of AngII into normal rats for 3 days increased renal CTGF mRNA and protein levels. At day 7, AngII-infused rats presented overexpression of CTGF in glomeruli, tubuli, and renal arteries, as well as tubular injury and elevated fibronectin deposition. Only treatment with an AT1 receptor antagonist, but not an AT2, diminished CTGF and fibronectin overexpression and ameliorated tubular damage. In rats with immune complex nephritis, renal overexpression of CTGF was diminished by the ACE inhibitor quinapril, correlated with a diminution in fibrosis. In cultured renal cells (mesangial and tubular epithelial cells) AngII, via AT1, increased CTGF mRNA and protein production, and a CTGF antisense oligonucleotide decreased AngII-induced fibronectin synthesis. Our data show that AngII regulates CTGF in the kidney and cultured in mesangial and tubular cells. This novel finding suggests that CTGF could be a mediator of the profibrogenic effects of AngII in the kidney. PMID:14578193

Ruperez, Monica; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Esteban, Vanesa; Lorenzo, Oscar; Mezzano, Sergio; Plaza, Juan Jose; Egido, Jesus

2003-01-01

55

A Case of Hypertrophic Cranial Pachymeningitis Presenting with Scleritis in a Patient with Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease  

PubMed Central

Hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis (HCP) is an uncommon disorder that causes a localized or diffuse thickening of the dura mater and has been reported to be infrequently associated with systemic autoimmune disorders such as Wegener's granulomatosis, rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis, Behçet's disease, Sjögren syndrome, and temporal arteritis. Here, we report a case of HCP initially presented with scleritis and headache in a patient with undifferenciated connective tissue disease (UCTD). HCP was initially suspected on brain magnetic resonance imaging and defined pathologically on meningial biopsy. Immunologic studies showed the presence of anti-RNP antibody. After high dose corticosteroid therapy, the patient's symptoms and radiologic abnormalities of brain were improved. Our case suggested that HCP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of headache in a patient with UCTD presenting with scleritis. PMID:20514324

Kim, Ji-Hyeon; Joo, Young-Bin; Kim, Jeana

2010-01-01

56

Mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus: is the cure for connective tissue diseases within connective tissue?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are now known to display not only adult stem cell multipotency but also robust anti-inflammatory\\u000a and regenerative properties. After widespread in vitro and in vivo preclinical testing in several autoimmune disease models, allogenic MSCs have been successfully applied in patients with\\u000a severe treatment-refractory systemic lupus erythematosus. The impressive results of these uncontrolled phase I and II

Flavio A Carrion; Fernando E Figueroa

2011-01-01

57

Polymer-tethered epidermal growth factor as an inductive biomaterial surface for connective tissue progenitors  

E-print Network

Connective tissue progenitors (CTP) can act as a pluripotent source of reparative cells during injury and therefore have great potential in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. However, the response of CTP to most ...

Fan, Vivian H. (Vivian Hanbing)

2006-01-01

58

Silicone breast implants and connective tissue disease: no association.  

PubMed

The association of silicone breast implants with connective tissue diseases (CTDs), including systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and fibromyalgia, as well as a hypothesized new "atypical" disease, which does not meet established diagnostic criteria for any known CTD, has been extensively studied. We have reviewed the epidemiologic literature regarding an association between cosmetic breast implants and CTDs, with particular emphasis on results drawn from the most recent investigations, many of which are large cohort studies with long-term follow-up, as well as on those studies that address some of the misinformation and historically widespread claims regarding an association between breast implants and CTDs. These claims have been unequivocally refuted by the remarkably consistent evidence from published studies, as well as numerous independent meta-analyses and critical reviews, which have demonstrated that cosmetic breast implants are not associated with a subsequent increased occurrence of individual CTDs or all CTDs combined, including fibromyalgia. Moreover, there is no credible evidence for the conjectured excess of "atypical" CTD among women with cosmetic breast implants, or of a rheumatic symptom profile unique to these women. No increased risk of CTDs is evident in women with extracapsular ruptures in two studies, which evaluated risk by implant rupture status, and no consistent association has been observed between silicone breast implants and a variety of serologic markers or autoantibodies. Thus, any claims that remain regarding an association between cosmetic breast implants and CTDs are not supported by the scientific literature but rather are a residual byproduct of the unprecedented large-scale product liability litigation in the USA. PMID:21369953

Lipworth, Loren; Holmich, Lisbet R; McLaughlin, Joseph K

2011-05-01

59

Telomerase activity in connective tissue diseases: elevated in rheumatoid arthritis, but markedly decreased in systemic sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase enzyme contributing to the maintenance of the telomeric structure by adding telomere\\u000a repeat sequences to chromosomal ends, thus compensating for its shortening. Telomerase activity which is common in cancers\\u000a and human germ line tissue, may also be increased, although to a lesser extent, in systemic autoimmune diseases. We aimed\\u000a to evaluate telomerase activity in a

Figen Tarhan; Filiz Vural; Buket Kosova; Kenan Aksu; Ozgur Cogulu; Gokhan Keser; Cumhur Gündüz; Murat Tombuloglu; Gonca Oder; Emin Karaca; Eker Doganavsargil

2008-01-01

60

Assessing dyspnea and its impact on patients with connective tissue disease-related interstitial lung disease  

PubMed Central

Rationale Dyspnea is the cardinal symptom in patients with any type of interstitial lung disease (ILD); however, there are limited data on dyspnea among patients with connective tissue disease-related ILD (i.e., CTD-ILD). Objectives To explore the utility of two dyspnea instruments (the University of California San Diego Shortness of Breath Questionnaire [UCSD] and the Dyspnea-12 [D-12]) and use their scores to examine the impact of dyspnea on the lives of patients with CTD-ILD. Methods Subjects were enrolled from the Autoimmune Lung Database (ALD) at National Jewish Health. Chronbach’s alpha was used to assess the internal consistency reliability of the two dyspnea questionnaires. We used the Multi-Dimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire [MDHAQ] as a measure of health status and examined associations between health status and dyspnea by using Pearson product-moment correlation and linear regression. Results The internal consistency reliability of each of the two dyspnea questionnaires was excellent (alpha=0.9 for each). There were significant correlations between either of the two dyspnea measures and MDHAQ components. While controlling for ILD severity, dyspnea as assessed by the UCSD, was a significant predictor of physical function (p=0.04), psychological well-being (p=0.005), and fatigue (p=0.02); dyspnea as assessed the D-12, was a significant predictor of psychological well-being (p=0.01) and global status (p=0.03). Conclusion Dyspnea significantly affects day-to-day functioning and global well-being in patients with CTD-ILD. The UCSD and D-12 yield meaningful information about these patients that measures of pulmonary physiology can not. Future studies should examine other performance characteristics of these self-report measures in patients with CTD-ILD. PMID:20471238

Swigris, Jeffrey J.; Yorke, Janelle; Sprunger, David B.; Swearingen, Christopher; Pincus, Theodore; du Bois, Roland M.; Brown, Kevin K.; Fischer, Aryeh

2010-01-01

61

Expression of connective tissue growth factor mRNA in the fibrous stroma of mammary tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desmoplasia, the formation of highly cellular, excessive connective tissue stroma associated with some cancers, shares many features with the wound healing response. Since connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has previously been demonstrated to play a role in wound repair, we wanted to determine if it might be involved in the pathogenesis of stromal desmoplasia in mammary cancer. We assayed 11

Ken S. Frazier; Gary R. Grotendorst

1997-01-01

62

Fas and Fas Ligand Expressed on Cells of the Immune System, not on the Target Tissue, Control Induction of Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fas-Fas ligand (FasL) interaction is important for maintaining lymphocyte homeostasis by signaling for activation-induced cell death. Mice homozygous for the lpr or gld mutations do not express functional Fas or FasL, respectively, and spontaneously develop progressive autoimmune symptoms. Recent studies implicated expression of FasL on immunologically privileged tissues in protection from immune-mediated damage. Conversely, tissue expression of Fas may

Jennifer L. Wahlsten; Heather L. Gitchell; Chi-Chao Chan; Barbara Wiggert; Rachel R. Caspi

63

Experiment K-7-29: Connective Tissue Studies. Part 3; Rodent Tissue Repair: Skeletal Muscle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Myofiber injury-repair was studied in the rat gastrocnemius following a crush injury to the lower leg prior to flight in order to understand if the regenerative responses of muscles are altered by the lack of gravitational forces during Cosmos 2044 flight. After 14 days of flight, the gastrocnemius muscle was removed from the 5 injured flight rodents and various Earth-based treatment groups for comparison. The Earth-based animals consisted of three groups of five rats with injured muscles from a simulated, tail-suspended, and vivarium as well as an uninjured basal group. The gastrocnemius muscle from each was evaluated by histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques to document myofiber, vascular, and connective tissue alterations following injury. In general the repair process was somewhat similar in all injured muscle samples with regard to extracellular matrix organization and myofiber regeneration. Small and large myofibers were present with a newly organized extracellular matrix indicative of myogenesis and muscle regeneration. In the tail-suspended animals, a more complete repair was observed with no enlarged area of non-muscle cells or matrix material visible. In contrast, the muscle samples from the flight animals were less well differentiated with more macrophages and blood vessels in the repair region but small myofibers and proteoglycans, nevertheless, were in their usual configuration. Thus, myofiber repair did vary in muscles from the different groups, but for the most part, resulted in functional muscle tissue.

Stauber, W.; Fritz, V. K.; Burkovskaya, T. E.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.

1994-01-01

64

TRPV1 Gates Tissue Access and Sustains Pathogenicity in Autoimmune Encephalitis  

PubMed Central

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive, demyelinating condition whose therapeutic needs are unmet, and whose pathoetiology is elusive. We report that transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) expressed in a major sensory neuron subset, controls severity and progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice and likely in primary progressive MS. TRPV1?/? B6 congenics are protected from EAE. Increased survival reflects reduced central nervous systems (CNS) infiltration, despite indistinguishable T cell autoreactivity and pathogenicity in the periphery of TRPV1-sufficient and -deficient mice. The TRPV1+ neurovascular complex defining the blood-CNS barriers promoted invasion of pathogenic lymphocytes without the contribution of TRPV1-dependent neuropeptides such as substance P. In MS patients, we found a selective risk-association of the missense rs877610 TRPV1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in primary progressive disease. Our findings indicate that TRPV1 is a critical disease modifier in EAE, and we identify a predictor of severe disease course and a novel target for MS therapy. PMID:23689362

Paltser, Geoffrey; Liu, Xue Jun; Yantha, Jason; Winer, Shawn; Tsui, Hubert; Wu, Ping; Maezawa, Yuko; Cahill, Lindsay S; Laliberté, Christine L; Ramagopalan, Sreeram V; DeLuca, Gabriele C; Sadovnick, A Dessa; Astsaturov, Igor; Ebers, George C; Henkelman, R Mark; Salter, Michael W; Dosch, H-Michael

2013-01-01

65

Proteolytic Processing of Connective Tissue Growth Factor in Normal Ocular Tissues and during Corneal Wound Healing  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a fibrogenic cytokine that is up-regulated by TGF-? and mediates most key fibrotic actions of TGF-?, including stimulation of synthesis of extracellular matrix and differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. This study addresses the role of proteolytic processing of CTGF in human corneal fibroblasts (HCF) stimulated with TGF-?, normal ocular tissues and wounded corneas. Methods. Proteolytic processing of CTGF in HCF cultures, normal animal eyes, and excimer laser wounded rat corneas were examined by Western blot. The identity of a 21-kDa band was determined by tandem mass spectrometry, and possible alternative splice variants of CTGF were assessed by 5? Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). Results. HCF stimulated by TGF-? contained full length 38-kDa CTGF and fragments of 25, 21, 18, and 13 kDa, while conditioned medium contained full length 38- and a 21-kDa fragment of CTGF that contained the middle “hinge” region of CTGF. Fragmentation of recombinant CTGF incubated in HCF extracts was blocked by the aspartate protease inhibitor, pepstatin. Normal mouse, rat, and rabbit whole eyes and rabbit ocular tissues contained abundant amounts of C-terminal 25- and 21-kDa fragments and trace amounts of 38-kDa CTGF, although no alternative transcripts were detected. All forms of CTGF (38, 25, and 21 kDa) were detected during healing of excimer ablated rat corneas, peaking on day 11. Conclusions. Proteolytic processing of 38-kDa CTGF occurs during corneal wound healing, which may have important implications in regulation of corneal scar formation. PMID:23139278

Robinson, Paulette M.; Smith, Tyler S.; Patel, Dilan; Dave, Meera; Lewin, Alfred S.; Pi, Liya; Scott, Edward W.; Tuli, Sonal S.; Schultz, Gregory S.

2012-01-01

66

Absorption of Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate in Human Connective Tissue Using Iontophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Iontophoresis ostensibly facilitates the delivery of medications through the skin to underlying tissues using a direct electrical current. Dexamethasone is the most commonly used medication with iontophoresis to treat a variety of connective tissue disorders.Hypothesis: Iontophoresis will facilitate the absorption of dexamethasone into connective tissue compared with diffusion.Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.Methods: Twenty-nine adults undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstructive

A. Burke Gurney; Daniel C. Wascher

2008-01-01

67

Persistent Macrophage/Microglial Activation and Myelin Disruption after Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1-Deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

Increased leukocyte trafficking into the parenchyma during inflammatory responses in the central nervous system (CNS) is facilitated by the extracellular proteolytic activities of matrix metalloproteinases that are regulated, in part, by the endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), TIMP-1 gene expression is induced in astrocytes surrounding inflammatory lesions in the CNS. The physiological importance of this temporal and spatial relationship is not clear. Herein, we have addressed the functional role of TIMP-1 in a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55)-induced model of EAE using TIMP-1-deficient (TIMP-1?/?) C57BL/6 mice. Although CD4+ T-cell immune responses to myelin in wild-type (WT) and TIMP-1?/? mice were similar, analysis of CNS tissues from TIMP-1?/? mice after EAE revealed more severe myelin pathology than that of WT mice. This disruption of myelin was associated with both increased lymphocyte infiltration and microglial/macrophage accumulation in the brain parenchyma. These findings suggest that induction of TIMP-1 by astrocytes during EAE in WT mice represents an inherent cytoprotective response that mitigates CNS myelin injury through the regulation of both immune cell infiltration and microglial activation. PMID:17148673

Crocker, Stephen J.; Whitmire, Jason K.; Frausto, Ricardo F.; Chertboonmuang, Parntip; Soloway, Paul D.; Whitton, J. Lindsay; Campbell, Iain L.

2006-01-01

68

Dynamic ultrastructural changes of the connective tissue sheath of human hair follicles during hair cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrastructural changes of the connective tissue sheath (CTS), including the hyaline membrane, of human hair follicles during the hair cycle, were studied in normal scalp skin specimens. In early anagen, the CTS was composed of a thin basal lamina and surrounding collagen tissue. The collagen tissue gradually thickened during the development of the hair and hair follicle. In mature anagen

M. Ito; Y. Sato

1990-01-01

69

Infections, toxic chemicals and dietary peptides binding to lymphocyte receptors and tissue enzymes are major instigators of autoimmunity in autism.  

PubMed

Similar to many complex autoimmune diseases, genetic and environmental factors including diet, infection and xenobiotics play a critical role in the development of autism. In this study, we postulated that infectious agent antigens such as streptokinase, dietary peptides (gliadin and casein) and ethyl mercury (xenobiotic) bind to different lymphocyte receptors and tissue enzyme (DPP IV or CD26). We assessed this hypothesis first by measuring IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies against CD26, CD69, streptokinase (SK), gliadin and casein peptides and against ethyl mercury bound to human serum albumin in patients with autism. A significant percentage of children with autism developed anti-SK, anti-gliadin and casein peptides and anti-ethyl mercury antibodies, concomitant with the appearance of anti-CD26 and anti-CD69 autoantibodies. These antibodies are synthesized as a result of SK, gliadin, casein and ethyl mercury binding to CD26 and CD69, indicating that they are specific. Immune absorption demonstrated that only specific antigens, like CD26, were capable of significantly reducing serum anti-CD26 levels. However, for direct demonstration of SK, gliadin, casein and ethyl mercury to CD26 or CD69, microtiter wells were coated with CD26 or CD69 alone or in combination with SK, gliadin, casein or ethyl mercury and then reacted with enzyme labeled rabbit anti-CD26 or anti-CD69. Adding these molecules to CD26 or CD69 resulted in 28-86% inhibition of CD26 or CD69 binding to anti-CD26 or anti-CD69 antibodies. The highest % binding of these antigens or peptides to CD26 or CD69 was attributed to SK and the lowest to casein peptides. We, therefore, propose that bacterial antigens (SK), dietary peptides (gliadin, casein) and Thimerosal (ethyl mercury) in individuals with pre-disposing HLA molecules, bind to CD26 or CD69 and induce antibodies against these molecules. In conclusion, this study is apparently the first to demonstrate that dietary peptides, bacterial toxins and xenobiotics bind to lymphocyte receptors and/or tissue enzymes, resulting in autoimmune reaction in children with autism. PMID:14611720

Vojdani, A; Pangborn, J B; Vojdani, E; Cooper, E L

2003-01-01

70

Comparison of human adult stem cells from adipose tissue and bone marrow in the treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis  

PubMed Central

Introduction While administration of ex vivo culture-expanded stem cells has been used to study immunosuppressive mechanisms in multiple models of autoimmune diseases, less is known about the uncultured, nonexpanded stromal vascular fraction (SVF)-based therapy. The SVF is composed of a heterogeneous population of cells and has been used clinically to treat acute and chronic diseases, alleviating symptoms in a range of tissues and organs. Methods In this study, the ability of human SVF cells was compared with culture-expanded adipose stem cells (ASCs) and bone-derived marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) as a treatment of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (35–55)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalitis in C57Bl/6J mice, a well-studied multiple sclerosis model (MS). A total of 1?×?106 BMSCs, ASCs, or SVF cells were administered intraperitoneally concomitantly with the induction of disease. Mice were monitored daily for clinical signs of disease by three independent, blinded investigators and rated on a scale of 0 to 5. Spinal cords were obtained after euthanasia at day 30 and processed for histological staining using luxol fast blue, toluidine blue, and hematoxylin and eosin to measure myelin and infiltrating immune cells. Blood was collected from mice at day 30 and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure serum levels of inflammatory cytokines. Results The data indicate that intraperitoneal administration of all cell types significantly ameliorates the severity of disease. Furthermore, the data also demonstrate, for the first time, that the SVF was as effective as the more commonly cultured BMSCs and ASCs in an MS model. All cell therapies also demonstrated a similar reduction in tissue damage, inflammatory infiltrates, and sera levels of IFN? and IL-12. While IFN? levels were reduced to comparable levels between treatment groups, levels of IL-12 were significantly lower in SVF-treated than BMSC-treated or ASC-treated mice. Conclusions Based on these data, it is evident that SVF cells have relevant therapeutic potential in an animal model of chronic MS and might represent a valuable tool for stem cell-based therapy in chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. SVF offers advantages of direct and rapid isolation procedure in a xenobiotic-free environment. PMID:24405805

2014-01-01

71

Soluble peptide treatment reverses CD8 T cell-induced disease in a mouse model of spontaneous tissue-selective autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

Transgenic (Tg) mouse models of autoimmunity have been utilized to express model antigens that can be recognized by T cells or by autoantibodies. To identify mechanisms of CD8-mediated tissue-specific autoimmune reactions and to identify potential treatments, we generated a double transgenic (DTg) murine model of autoimmunity by crossing K14-sOVA mice, which express soluble chicken ovalbumin (OVA) predominantly in external ear skin, with OT-I mice whose CD8 T cells express V?2/V?5 regions of the T cell receptor and are specific for SIINFEKL peptide (OVA 257-264) in association with class I MHC. The K14-sOVA/OT-I DTg mice develop a destructive process selectively targeting the external ear pinnae in the first 6 days of life. The ear bud area develops an intense inflammatory infiltrate of OT-I cells. Administration of the SIINFEKL peptide i.v. to pregnant F1 mice and subsequently i.p. to newborn pups resulted in normal external ear development. Treatment with this self-peptide markedly reduced OT-I cell numbers as well as down-regulated the CD8 co-receptor. This model can be useful in studying localized, tissue-specific, immune-mediated skin disease and inform us about potential therapies for autoimmune diseases in which specific molecular targets are known. PMID:22089830

Paek, So Yeon; Miyagawa, Fumi; Zhang, Hong; Linton, Jay; Hoover, Shelley; Simpson, R. Mark; Katz, Stephen I

2012-01-01

72

Hypothalamic inflammation and thermogenesis: the brown adipose tissue connection.  

PubMed

Hypothalamic inflammation and dysfunction are common features of experimental obesity. An imbalance between caloric intake and energy expenditure is generated as a consequence of this inflammation, leading to the progressive increase of body adiposity. Thermogenesis, is one of the main functions affected by obesity-linked hypothalamic dysfunction and the complete characterization of the mechanisms involved in this process may offer new therapeutic perspectives for obesity. The brown adipose tissue is an important target for hypothalamic action in thermogenesis. This tissue has been thoroughly studied in rodents and hibernating mammals; however, until recently, its advocated role in human thermogenesis was neglected due to the lack of substantial evidence of its presence in adult humans. The recent demonstration of the presence of functional brown adipose tissue in adult humans has renovated the interest in this tissue. Here, we review some of the work that shows how inflammation and dysfunction of the hypothalamus can control brown adipose tissue activity and how this can impact on whole body thermogenesis and energy expenditure. PMID:21271281

Arruda, Ana Paula; Milanski, Marciane; Velloso, Licio A

2011-02-01

73

Stem cell treatment for patients with autoimmune disease by systemic infusion of culture-expanded autologous adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Prolonged life expectancy, life style and environmental changes have caused a changing disease pattern in developed countries towards an increase of degenerative and autoimmune diseases. Stem cells have become a promising tool for their treatment by promoting tissue repair and protection from immune-attack associated damage. Patient-derived autologous stem cells present a safe option for this treatment since these will not induce immune rejection and thus multiple treatments are possible without any risk for allogenic sensitization, which may arise from allogenic stem cell transplantations. Here we report the outcome of treatments with culture expanded human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCs) of 10 patients with autoimmune associated tissue damage and exhausted therapeutic options, including autoimmune hearing loss, multiple sclerosis, polymyotitis, atopic dermatitis and rheumatoid arthritis. For treatment, we developed a standardized culture-expansion protocol for hAdMSCs from minimal amounts of fat tissue, providing sufficient number of cells for repetitive injections. High expansion efficiencies were routinely achieved from autoimmune patients and from elderly donors without measurable loss in safety profile, genetic stability, vitality and differentiation potency, migration and homing characteristics. Although the conclusions that can be drawn from the compassionate use treatments in terms of therapeutic efficacy are only preliminary, the data provide convincing evidence for safety and therapeutic properties of systemically administered AdMSC in human patients with no other treatment options. The authors believe that ex-vivo-expanded autologous AdMSCs provide a promising alternative for treating autoimmune diseases. Further clinical studies are needed that take into account the results obtained from case studies as those presented here. PMID:22017805

Ra, Jeong Chan; Kang, Sung Keun; Shin, Il Seob; Park, Hyeong Geun; Joo, Sang Aun; Kim, Jeong Geun; Kang, Byeong-Cheol; Lee, Yong Soon; Nakama, Ken; Piao, Min; Sohl, Bertram; Kurtz, Andras

2011-01-01

74

Stem cell treatment for patients with autoimmune disease by systemic infusion of culture-expanded autologous adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells  

PubMed Central

Prolonged life expectancy, life style and environmental changes have caused a changing disease pattern in developed countries towards an increase of degenerative and autoimmune diseases. Stem cells have become a promising tool for their treatment by promoting tissue repair and protection from immune-attack associated damage. Patient-derived autologous stem cells present a safe option for this treatment since these will not induce immune rejection and thus multiple treatments are possible without any risk for allogenic sensitization, which may arise from allogenic stem cell transplantations. Here we report the outcome of treatments with culture expanded human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCs) of 10 patients with autoimmune associated tissue damage and exhausted therapeutic options, including autoimmune hearing loss, multiple sclerosis, polymyotitis, atopic dermatitis and rheumatoid arthritis. For treatment, we developed a standardized culture-expansion protocol for hAdMSCs from minimal amounts of fat tissue, providing sufficient number of cells for repetitive injections. High expansion efficiencies were routinely achieved from autoimmune patients and from elderly donors without measurable loss in safety profile, genetic stability, vitality and differentiation potency, migration and homing characteristics. Although the conclusions that can be drawn from the compassionate use treatments in terms of therapeutic efficacy are only preliminary, the data provide convincing evidence for safety and therapeutic properties of systemically administered AdMSC in human patients with no other treatment options. The authors believe that ex-vivo-expanded autologous AdMSCs provide a promising alternative for treating autoimmune diseases. Further clinical studies are needed that take into account the results obtained from case studies as those presented here. PMID:22017805

2011-01-01

75

Effects of microgravity on rat bone, cartlage and connective tissues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The response to hypogravity by the skeletal system was originally thought to be the result of a reduction in weight bearing. Thus a reduced rate of new bone formation in the weight-bearing bones was accepted, when found, as an obvious result of hypogravity. However, data on non-weight-bearing tissues have begun to show that other physiological changes can be expected to occur to animals during spaceflight. This overview of the Cosmos 1887 data discusses these results as they pertain to individual bones or tissues because the response seems to depend on the architecture and metabolism of each tissue under study. Various effects were seen in different tissues from the rats flown on Cosmos 1887. The femur showed a reduced bone mineral content but only in the central region of the diaphysis. This same region in the tibia showed changes in the vascularity of bone as well as some osteocytic cell death. The humerus demonstrated reduced morphometric characteristics plus a decrease in mechanical stiffness. Bone mineral crystals did not mature normally as a result of flight, suggesting a defect in the matrix mineralization process. Note that these changes relate directly to the matrix portion of the bone or some function of bone which slowly responds to changes in the environment. However, most cellular functions of bone are rapid responders. The stimulation of osteoblast precursor cells, the osteoblast function in collagen synthesis, a change in the proliferation rate of cells in the epiphyseal growth plate, the synthesis and secretion of osteocalcin, and the movement of water into or out of tissues, are all processes which respond to environmental change. These rapidly responding events produced results from Cosmos 1887 which were frequently quite different from previous space flight data.

Doty, S.

1990-01-01

76

Molecular substrate design for the selective adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of marrow connective tissue progenitors  

E-print Network

A multi-faceted approach was applied to the molecular design of substrates for the selective adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of connective tissue progenitors (CTPs) from human bone marrow aspirates. The basic ...

Au, Ada

2005-01-01

77

Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour-mixed connective tissue variant without oncogenic osteomalacia.  

PubMed

Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour-mixed connective tissue variant is a rare tumour classically associated with oncogenic osteomalacia. This report describes two patients with this distinct tumour type but with no evidence of the paraneoplastic syndrome. PMID:19638551

Winters, R; Bihlmeyer, S; McCahill, L; Cooper, K

2009-08-01

78

Stimulation of connective tissue cell growth by substance P and substance K  

Microsoft Academic Search

Connective tissue cells proliferate actively when cultured in the presence of serum. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), a basic protein of relative molecular mass ~30,000, has been identified as the major serum mitogen for these cells1; its main physiological\\/pathophysiological role may be to initiate wound healing in connection with tissue injury. However, growth of cultured cells is also influenced by several

Jan Nilsson; Anne M. von Euler; Carl-Johan Dalsgaard

1985-01-01

79

Connective tissue spectrum abnormalities associated with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks: a prospective study.  

PubMed

We aimed to assess the frequency of connective tissue abnormalities among patients with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks in a prospective study using a large cohort of patients. We enrolled a consecutive group of 50 patients, referred for consultation because of CSF leak. All patients have been carefully examined for the presence of connective tissue abnormalities, and based on findings, patients underwent genetic testing. Ancillary diagnostic studies included echocardiography, eye exam, and histopathological examinations of skin and dura biopsies in selected patients. We identified nine patients with heritable connective tissue disorders, including Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and other unclassified forms. In seven patients, spontaneous CSF leak was the first noted manifestation of the genetic disorder. We conclude that spontaneous CSF leaks are associated with a spectrum of connective tissue abnormalities and may be the first noted clinical presentation of the genetic disorder. We propose that there is a clinical basis for considering spontaneous CSF leak as a clinical manifestation of heritable connective tissue disorders, and we suggest that patients with CSF leaks should be screened for connective tissue and vascular abnormalities. PMID:22929030

Reinstein, Eyal; Pariani, Mitchel; Bannykh, Serguei; Rimoin, David L; Schievink, Wouter I

2013-04-01

80

Inductive action of epithelium on differentiation of intestinal connective tissue of Xenopus laevis tadpoles during metamorphosis in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The action of the epithelium on differentiation of connective tissue cells of Xenopus small intestine during metamorphosis was investigated by using culture and morphological techniques. Connective tissue fragments isolated from the small intestine at stage 57 were cultivated in the presence or absence of homologous epithelium. In the presence of the epithelium, metamorphic changes in the connective tissue were fully

Atsuko Ishizuya-Oka; Atsumi Shimozawa

1994-01-01

81

Genome-Wide Expression Analysis of Intra- and Extraarticular Connective Tissue  

PubMed Central

In comparison to extraarticular ligaments and tendons, the intraarticular ligaments such as the anterior and posterior cruciates exhibit different biochemical, biomechanical, and viscoelastic properties and most importantly, differential abilities to heal after surgical repair. Little is known about the underlying basis for these differences, in large measure due to the paucity of molecular markers distinguishing different classes of tendons and ligaments. To date, there has been no systematic analysis of gene expression differences between different types of connective tissues. We used Affymetrix expression arrays to analyze the differences in gene expression levels between the anterior cruciate, posterior cruciate, and medial collateral ligaments, the patellar and Achilles tendons and the synovium. We have identified five clusters of gene cohorts displaying similar expression patterns. These clusters group into three categories including: (1) genes that are strongly expressed in all connective tissues compared to the synovium control tissue; (2) genes that distinguish intraarticular connective tissues from extraarticular connective tissues; and (3) a group of genes expressed in common by the patellar tendon and the synovium. Our analysis identifies a new marker of tendons and ligaments (fibin2), demonstrates molecular diversity between subtypes of tendons and ligaments, and indicates that the primary molecular subdivision among dense regular connective tissues is intra- versus extraarticular rather than ligament versus tendon. PMID:18972360

Pearse, Richard V.; Esshaki, Diana; Tabin, Clifford J.; Murray, Martha M.

2010-01-01

82

Cartilage, bone, and intermandibular connective tissue in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi).  

PubMed

The connective tissue that links the bones of the mandible in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, has been described as an intermandibular cartilage, and as such has been considered important for phylogenetic analyses among lower vertebrates. However, light and electron microscopy of developing lungfish jaws demonstrates that the intermandibular tissue, like the connective tissue that links the bones of the upper jaw, contains fibroblasts and numerous bundles of collagen fibrils, extending from the trabeculae of the bones supporting the tooth plates. It differs significantly in structure and in staining reactions from the cartilage and the bone found in this species. In common with the cladistian Polypterus and with actinopterygians and some amphibians, lungfish have no intermandibular cartilage. The connective tissue linking the mandibular bones has no phylogenetic significance for systematic grouping of lungfish, as it is present in a range of different groups among lower vertebrates. PMID:23801584

Kemp, Anne

2013-10-01

83

Autoimmune diseases in gastroenterology.  

PubMed

There are several different diseases in gastroenterology with an important role of immunological mechanisms in their pathogenesis. We know autoimmune diseases with immunological reactions against liver or pancreatic tissue. In addition there are diseases like chronic inflammatory bowel diseases representing inappropriate immunological reactions followed by inflammation and tissue destruction. The research of the last decade has contributed significantly to the understanding of the pathogenesis of diseases based on immunological mechanisms and consequently to the development of novel therapeutic strategies targeting molecules. Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, autoimmune hepatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, autoimmune pancreatitis, and celiac disease are the most important diseases with immunological pathogenesis in Gastroenterology. Especially in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease with immunosuppressive drugs and monoclonal antibodies new preparations are used in therapy. Autoimmune pancreatitis was characterized as an own entity in the last years. Therefore, this review will focus on these diseases. PMID:22612745

Emmrich, Joerg; Jaster, Robert

2012-01-01

84

Recurrent Compartment Syndrome in a Patient with Clinical Features of a Connective Tissue Disorder  

PubMed Central

Arterial complications are common in vascular type Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS), accounting for 66% of first complications. Several cases in the literature have documented acute compartment syndrome (ACS) following vascular rupture in vascular type EDS. Other disorders of connective tissue have also demonstrated vascular fragility, leading to arterial aneurysm and rupture, but there have been no documented cases of ACS. Here, we report on a female patient with a history of recurrent compartment syndrome who exhibits some clinical findings seen in hypermobile and vascular EDS; however she does not meet clinical and molecular diagnostic criteria for either of them. We further review the literature on ACS in heritable connective tissue disorders and suggest that compartment syndrome may rarely complicate other heritable disorders of connective tissue. PMID:23633393

Barajas, Brenda D; Sun, Angela; Rimoin, David L; Reinstein, Eyal

2013-01-01

85

Recurrent compartment syndrome in a patient with clinical features of a connective tissue disorder.  

PubMed

Arterial complications are common in vascular type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), accounting for 66% of first complications. Several cases in the literature have documented acute compartment syndrome (ACS) following vascular rupture in vascular type EDS. Other disorders of connective tissue have also demonstrated vascular fragility, leading to arterial aneurysm and rupture, but there have been no documented cases of ACS. Here, we report on a female patient with a history of recurrent compartment syndrome who exhibits some clinical findings seen in hypermobile and vascular EDS; however she does not meet clinical and molecular diagnostic criteria for either of them. We further review the literature on ACS in heritable connective tissue disorders and suggest that compartment syndrome may rarely complicate other heritable disorders of connective tissue. PMID:23633393

Barajas, Brenda D; Sun, Angela; Rimoin, David L; Reinstein, Eyal

2013-06-01

86

Mechanical tension as a driver of connective tissue growth in vitro.  

PubMed

We propose the progressive mechanical expansion of cell-derived tissue analogues as a novel, growth-based approach to in vitro tissue engineering. The prevailing approach to producing tissue in vitro is to culture cells in an exogenous "scaffold" that provides a basic structure and mechanical support. This necessarily pre-defines the final size of the implantable material, and specific signals must be provided to stimulate appropriate cell growth, differentiation and matrix formation. In contrast, surgical skin expansion, driven by increments of stretch, produces increasing quantities of tissue without trauma or inflammation. This suggests that connective tissue cells have the innate ability to produce growth in response to elevated tension. We posit that this capacity is maintained in vitro, and that order-of-magnitude growth may be similarly attained in self-assembling cultures of cells and their own extracellular matrix. The hypothesis that growth of connective tissue analogues can be induced by mechanical expansion in vitro may be divided into three components: (1) tension stimulates cell proliferation and extracellular matrix synthesis; (2) the corresponding volume increase will relax the tension imparted by a fixed displacement; (3) the repeated application of static stretch will produce sustained growth and a tissue structure adapted to the tensile loading. Connective tissues exist in a state of residual tension, which is actively maintained by resident cells such as fibroblasts. Studies in vitro and in vivo have demonstrated that cellular survival, reproduction, and matrix synthesis and degradation are regulated by the mechanical environment. Order-of-magnitude increases in both bone and skin volume have been achieved clinically through staged expansion protocols, demonstrating that tension-driven growth can be sustained over prolonged periods. Furthermore, cell-derived tissue analogues have demonstrated mechanically advantageous structural adaptation in response to applied loading. Together, these data suggest that a program of incremental stretch constitutes an appealing way to replicate tissue growth in cell culture, by harnessing the constituent cells' innate mechanical responsiveness. In addition to offering a platform to study the growth and structural adaptation of connective tissues, tension-driven growth presents a novel approach to in vitro tissue engineering. Because the supporting structure is secreted and organised by the cells themselves, growth is not restricted by a "scaffold" of fixed size. This also minimises potential adverse reactions to exogenous materials upon implantation. Most importantly, we posit that the growth induced by progressive stretch will allow substantial volumes of connective tissue to be produced from relatively small initial cell numbers. PMID:24755458

Wilson, Cameron J; Pearcy, Mark J; Epari, Devakara R

2014-07-01

87

Autoimmune hepatitis  

MedlinePLUS

Autoimmune hepatitis is inflammation of the liver that occurs when immune cells mistake the liver's normal cells for ... lupus erythematosus Thyroiditis Type 1 diabetes Ulcerative colitis ... sometimes occurs in relatives of people with autoimmune ...

88

Hereditary Connective Tissue Diseases in Young Adult Stroke: A Comprehensive Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Though the genetic background of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke is often polygenetic or multifactorial, it can in some cases result from a monogenic disease, particularly in young adults. Besides arteriopathies and metabolic disorders, several connective tissue diseases can present with stroke. While some of these diseases have been recognized for decades as causes of stroke, such as the vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, others only recently came to attention as being involved in stroke pathogenesis, such as those related to Type IV collagen. This paper discusses each of these connective tissue disorders and their relation with stroke briefly, emphasizing the main clinical features which can lead to their diagnosis. PMID:21331163

Vanakker, Olivier M.; Hemelsoet, Dimitri; De Paepe, Anne

2011-01-01

89

[Abdominal vascular structural and functional features in patients with connective tissue dysplasia].  

PubMed

Doppler ultrasound study records decreased volume blood flow in patients with connective tissue dysplasia. Their hemodynamic features are more marked during food testing. Dysplasia-dependent structural changes in the vascular system, such as vascular hypoplasia, wall-occluding lesions, different types of deformities, are one of the causes of lower volumetric blood flow in the abdominal vessels. The found abdominal vascular structural and functional features in patients with connective tissue dysplasia can serve as the basis for blood flow disproportion in different stages of digestion. PMID:23214026

Lialiukova, E A; Orlova, N I; Aksenov, S I

2012-01-01

90

Cell density signal protein suitable for treatment of connective tissue injuries and defects  

DOEpatents

Identification, isolation and partial sequencing of a cell density protein produced by fibroblastic cells. The cell density signal protein comprising a 14 amino acid peptide or a fragment, variant, mutant or analog thereof, the deduced cDNA sequence from the 14 amino acid peptide, a recombinant protein, protein and peptide-specific antibodies, and the use of the peptide and peptide-specific antibodies as therapeutic agents for regulation of cell differentiation and proliferation. A method for treatment and repair of connective tissue and tendon injuries, collagen deficiency, and connective tissue defects.

Schwarz, Richard I. (Oakland, CA)

2002-08-13

91

Autoimmune Keratitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoimmune keratitis can present with a number of clinical profiles and with a number of underlying autoimmune systemic diseases.\\u000a Autoimmune keratitis should be suspected in all cases of unexplained stromal ulceration and should be closely monitored for\\u000a rate of progression if autoimmune keratitis is identified. Rapidly progressive ulcerative disease needs prompt and appropriate\\u000a immunosuppression.\\u000a \\u000a Most patients with collagen vascular stromal

John D. Gottsch

92

Functional role of periostin in development and wound repair: implications for connective tissue disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for maintaining the normal structure and function of connective tissues.\\u000a ECM is secreted locally by cells and organized into a complex meshwork providing physical support to cells, tissues, and organs.\\u000a Initially thought to act only as a scaffold, the ECM is now known to provide a myriad of signals to cells regulating

Douglas W. Hamilton

2008-01-01

93

Opposing Effects of CTLA4 Insufficiency on Regulatory versus Conventional T Cells in Autoimmunity Converge on Effector Memory in Target Tissue.  

PubMed

Quantitative variations in CTLA4 expression, because of genetic polymorphisms, are associated with various human autoimmune conditions, including type 1 diabetes (T1D). Extensive studies have demonstrated that CTLA4 is not only essential for the suppressive role of regulatory T cells (Treg) but also required for intrinsic control of conventional T (Tconv) cells. We report that a modest insufficiency of CTLA4 in mice, which mimics the effect of some human CTLA4 genetic polymorphisms, accompanied by a T1D-permissive MHC locus, was sufficient to induce juvenile-onset diabetes on an otherwise T1D-resistant genetic background. Reduction in CTLA4 levels had an unanticipated effect in promoting Treg function both in vivo and in vitro. It led to an increase in Treg memory in both lymphoid and nonlymphoid target tissue. Conversely, modulating CTLA4 by either RNA interference or Ab blockade promoted conventional effector memory T cell formation in the Tconv compartment. The CD4(+) conventional effector memory T cells, including those within target tissue, produced IL-17 or IFN-?. Blocking IL-7 signaling reduced the Th17 autoimmune compartment but did not suppress the T1D induced by CTLA4 insufficiency. Enhanced effector memory formation in both Tconv and Treg lineages may underpin the apparently dichotomized impact of CTLA4 insufficiency on autoimmune pathogenesis. Therefore, although the presence of CTLA4 plays a critical role in controlling homeostasis of T cells, its quantitative variation may impose diverse or even opposing effects on distinct lineages of T cells, an optimal sum of which is necessary for preservation of T cell immunity while suppressing tissue damage. PMID:25246499

Devarajan, Priyadharshini; Miska, Jason; Lui, Jen Bon; Swieboda, Dominika; Chen, Zhibin

2014-11-01

94

Foreign Body in the Oral Cavity Mimicking a Benign Connective Tissue Tumor  

PubMed Central

Foreign bodies may be embedded in the oral cavity either by traumatic injury or iatrogenically. The commonly encountered iatrogenic foreign bodies are restorative materials like amalgam, obturation materials, broken instruments, needles, and impression materials. This paper describes an asymptomatic presentation of a foreign body in the oral mucosa which clinically appeared like a benign connective tissue tumor. PMID:23634307

Ram, Saravanan; Sedghizadeh, Parish P.

2013-01-01

95

Mandibular phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor-mixed connective tissue variant in a young girl.  

PubMed

Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor-mixed connective tissue variant (PMTMCT) is an extremely rare tumor associated with tumor-induced osteomalacia. The majority occur in middle age and arise from the extremities. This report describes a young girl with PMTMCT arising in the mandible and with no evidence of paraneoplastic syndrome. PMID:23394315

Luo, Lisa; Low, Nelson; Vandervord, John

2013-11-01

96

Mitral valve prolapse and joint hypermobility: evidence for a systemic connective tissue abnormality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical evidence for an abnormally of extracardiac connective tissue was sought in 21 patients with idiopathic mitral valve prolapse and was compared to that in 21 matched controls. The incidence of rheumatic and orthopaedic complaints and the prevalence of hypermobile joints, Marfanoid habitus, and skeletal deformity were compared in the 2 groups. Skin thickness and elasticity were measured, and the

D Pitcher; R Grahame

1982-01-01

97

Joint hypermobility and skin elasticity: the hereditary disorders of connective tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hereditary disorders of connective tissues (HDCTs) encompass a spectrum of conditions linked pathophysiologically by abnormalities of collagen, fibrillin, and matrix proteins. The clinical picture ranges from morbidity because of musculoskeletal, skin, ocular and visceral pathologies to mortality from acute vascular collapse. For many of the conditions, there is a considerable overlap in clinical features, although severity varies; appreciating the

Alan J. Hakim; Anshoo Sahota

2006-01-01

98

Connective tissue integrity is lost in vitamin B-6-deficient chicks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the present investigation was to characterize further the connective tissue disorder produced by pyridoxine (vitamin B-6) deficiency, as previously evidenced by electron microscopy. Following the second post-natal week, fast growing male chicks were deprived of pyridoxine for a 1-mo period. Six weeks post-natally, blood concentrations in the experimental deficiency group had declined to deficiency levels as registered by low concentrations of pyridoxal phosphate (coenzyme form) in erythrocytes, but did not reach levels associated with neurological symptoms. Light microscopic study showed abnormalities in the extracellular matrix of the connective tissues. Collagen cross-links and the aldehyde contents were not significantly lower in cartilage and tendon collagens of vitamin B-6-deficient animals than in age-matched controls; also, their proteoglycan degrading protease and collagenase activities measured in articular cartilages were not greater. Thus, proteolysis was an unlikely alternative mechanism to account for the loss of connective tissue integrity. These results point to the need for further investigation into adhesive properties of collagen associated proteoglycans or other proteins in vitamin B-6-deficient connective tissue.

Masse, P. G.; Yamauchi, M.; Mahuren, J. D.; Coburn, S. P.; Muniz, O. E.; Howell, D. S.

1995-01-01

99

Ontogenetic Changes in Fibrous Connective Tissue Organization in the Oval Squid, Sepioteuthis  

E-print Network

Ontogenetic Changes in Fibrous Connective Tissue Organization in the Oval Squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana, the oval squid. Outer tunic fiber angle (the angle of a tunic collagen fiber relative to the long axis of the squid) decreased from 33.5° in newly hatched animals to 17.7° in the largest animals

Kier, William M.

100

Homologous peptide of connective tissue growth factor ameliorates epithelial to mesenchymal transition of tubular epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hallmark of failing renal transplants is tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. The cytokine connective tissue growth factor (CTGF or CCN2) plays an important role in epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tubular epithelial cells (TECs). A unique domain within CTGF (IRTPKISKPIKFELSG) which binds to its potential receptor integrin ?v?3 has been identified. This study was carried out to further characterize a

Yujun Shi; Zhidan Tu; Wei Wang; Qing Li; Feng Ye; Jinjing Wang; Jing Qiu; Li Zhang; Hong Bu; Youping Li

2006-01-01

101

Clinical outcome and changes in connective tissue metabolism after intravaginal slingplasty in stress incontinent women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intravaginal slingplasty procedure (IVS) was carried out on 75 patients with genuine stress urinary incontinence. The main aims of the operation are to create an artificial pubourethral ligament and to tighten the suburethral vaginal wall. An important ingredient in the supportive structures of the genitourinary region is fibrous connective tissue, consisting mainly of collagen. To analyse thi component biopsies

C. Falconer; G. Ekman-Ordeberg; A. Malmström; U. Ulmsten

1996-01-01

102

Ultrasound evidence of altered lumbar connective tissue structure in human subjects with chronic low back pain  

PubMed Central

Background Although the connective tissues forming the fascial planes of the back have been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic low back pain (LBP), there have been no previous studies quantitatively evaluating connective tissue structure in this condition. The goal of this study was to perform an ultrasound-based comparison of perimuscular connective tissue structure in the lumbar region in a group of human subjects with chronic or recurrent LBP for more than 12 months, compared with a group of subjects without LBP. Methods In each of 107 human subjects (60 with LBP and 47 without LBP), parasagittal ultrasound images were acquired bilaterally centered on a point 2 cm lateral to the midpoint of the L2-3 interspinous ligament. The outcome measures based on these images were subcutaneous and perimuscular connective tissue thickness and echogenicity measured by ultrasound. Results There were no significant differences in age, sex, body mass index (BMI) or activity levels between LBP and No-LBP groups. Perimuscular thickness and echogenicity were not correlated with age but were positively correlated with BMI. The LBP group had ~25% greater perimuscular thickness and echogenicity compared with the No-LBP group (ANCOVA adjusted for BMI, p < 0.01 and p < 0.001 respectively). Conclusion This is the first report of abnormal connective tissue structure in the lumbar region in a group of subjects with chronic or recurrent LBP. This finding was not attributable to differences in age, sex, BMI or activity level between groups. Possible causes include genetic factors, abnormal movement patterns and chronic inflammation. PMID:19958536

2009-01-01

103

Reaction of rat connective tissue to a new calcium hydroxide-based sealer.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to histopathologically examine the reaction of the connective tissue of rats to 2 calcium hydroxide-based sealers, Acroseal and Sealapex. Dentin tubes containing the materials and empty control tubes were implanted into the dorsal connective tissue of 36 Wistar albino rats. The animals were killed after 7 or 30 days, and the specimens were prepared for histologic analysis with hematoxylin and eosin, Von Kossa technique, and polarized light. Results were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Both materials caused mild or moderate inflammatory reactions on the 7th day, but these reactions decreased by the 30th day with no significant difference at any time (P > .05). Mineralization of the subcutaneous tissue of the rats was observed only with Sealapex. PMID:18554956

Gomes-Filho, João Eduardo; Bernabé, Pedro Felício Estrada; Nery, Mauro Juvenal; Otoboni-Filho, José Arlindo; Dezan-Júnior, Eloi; de Moraes Costa, Mariana Machado Teixeira; de Faria, Max Douglas; Watanabe, Simone; Gomes, Alessandra Cristina

2008-08-01

104

Functional properties and connective tissue content of pediatric human detrusor muscle.  

PubMed

The functional properties of human pediatric detrusor smooth muscle are poorly described, in contrast to those of adult tissue. Characterization is necessary for more informed management options of bladder dysfunction in children. We therefore compared the histological, contractile, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration responses and biomechanical properties of detrusor biopsy samples from pediatric (3-48 mo) and adults (40-60 yr) patients who had functionally normal bladders and were undergoing open surgery. The smooth muscle fraction of biopsies was isolated to measure proportions of smooth muscle and connective tissue (van Gieson stain); in muscle strips, isometric tension to contractile agonists or electrical field stimulation and their passive biomechanical properties; in isolated myocytes, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration responses to agonists. Pediatric detrusor tissue compared with adult tissue showed several differences: a smaller smooth muscle-to-connective tissue ratio, similar contractures to carbachol or ?,?-methylene ATP when corrected for smooth muscle content, and similar intracellular Ca(2+) transients to carbachol, ?,?-methylene ATP, raised K(+) concentration or caffeine, but smaller nerve-mediated contractions and greater passive stiffness with slower stress relaxation. In particular, there were significant atropine-resistant nerve-mediated contractions in pediatric samples. Detrusor smooth muscle from functionally normal pediatric human bladders is less contractile than that from adult bladders and exhibits greater passive stiffness. Reduced bladder contractile function is not due to reduced smooth muscle contractility but to greater connective tissue deposition and to functional denervation. Significant atropine resistance in pediatric detrusor, unlike in adult tissue, demonstrates a different profile of functional neurotransmitter activation. These data have implications for the management of pediatric bladder function by therapeutic approaches. PMID:25209864

Johal, Navroop; Wood, Dan N; Wagg, Adrian S; Cuckow, Peter; Fry, Christopher H

2014-11-01

105

Mitral valve prolapse and joint hypermobility: evidence for a systemic connective tissue abnormality?  

PubMed Central

Clinical evidence for an abnormally of extracardiac connective tissue was sought in 21 patients with idiopathic mitral valve prolapse and was compared to that in 21 matched controls. The incidence of rheumatic and orthopaedic complaints and the prevalence of hypermobile joints, Marfanoid habitus, and skeletal deformity were compared in the 2 groups. Skin thickness and elasticity were measured, and the mean values in the 2 groups were compared. hypermobile joints were significantly commoner in patients with mitral valve prolapse. Easy bruising was reported significantly more commonly by patients with mitral prolapse; the incidence of other rheumatic complaints was similar in the 2 groups. There was no significant difference in skin thickness, skin elasticity, and the prevalence of either skeletal deformity or Marfanoid habitus between patients with mitral valve prolapse and controls. The results support previous evidence of an association between mitral valve prolapse and benign hypermobility of the joints, but emphasise that many patients with mitral valve prolapse have no clinically apparent connective tissue abnormality outside the heart. It remains uncertain whether the valve lesion in these patients represents a tissue-specific abnormality of mitral valve collagen or the only clinical expression of a minor systemic connective tissue abnormality. PMID:7114917

Pitcher, D; Grahame, R

1982-01-01

106

Fractal analysis of the structural complexity of the connective tissue in human carotid bodies  

PubMed Central

The carotid body (CB) may undergo different structural changes during perinatal development, aging, or in response to environmental stimuli. In the previous literature, morphometric approaches to evaluate these changes have considered quantitative first order parameters, such as volumes or densities, while changes in spatial disposition and/or complexity of structural components have not yet been considered. In the present study, different strategies for addressing morphological complexity of CB, apart from the overall amount of each tissue component, were evaluated and compared. In particular, we considered the spatial distribution of connective tissue in the carotid bodies of young control subjects, young opiate-related deaths and aged subjects, through analysis of dispersion (Morisita's index), gray level co-occurrence matrix (entropy, angular second moment, variance, correlation), and fractal analysis (fractal dimension, lacunarity). Opiate-related deaths and aged subjects showed a comparable increase in connective tissue with respect to young controls. However, the Morisita's index (p < 0.05), angular second moment (p < 0.05), fractal dimension (p < 0.01), and lacunarity (p < 0.01) permitted to identify significant differences in the disposition of the connective tissue between these two series. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was also calculated to evaluate the efficiency of each parameter. The fractal dimension and lacunarity, with areas under the ROC curve of 0.9651 (excellent accuracy) and 0.8835 (good accuracy), respectively, showed the highest discriminatory power. They evidenced higher level of structural complexity in the carotid bodies of opiate-related deaths than old controls, due to more complex branching of intralobular connective tissue. Further analyses will have to consider the suitability of these approaches to address other morphological features of the CB, such as different cell populations, vascularization, and innervation.

Guidolin, Diego; Porzionato, Andrea; Tortorella, Cinzia; Macchi, Veronica; De Caro, Raffaele

2014-01-01

107

Subcutaneous connective tissue reactions to three types of bioactive glass nanopowders.  

PubMed

Silica-based bioactive glasses are considered promising bone substitutes and tissue regeneration matrices, because of their bioactivity, biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and possibly even osteoinductivity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the subcutaneous connective tissue reactions to 58S, 63S, and 72S bioactive glass nanopowders. Our previous study showed the antibacterial activities of 58S and 63S bioactive glass nanopowders on aerobic bacteria, while 72S showed no antibacterial effects at all. Bioactive glass nanopowders were prepared via the sol-gel technique. Characterization techniques such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray fluorescent (XRF) were utilized to carry out the phase analysis, study of the structure, particle size and the composition of the synthesized bioactive glasses. To evaluate the subcutaneous connective tissue reactions, the specimens were placed in polyethylene tubes and implanted into the dorsal connective tissue of rats. Empty polyethylene tubes were used as the control and bioactive glass micropowders (NovaBone) was used as a FDA approved bone graft. The evaluation of inflammatory reactions was performed 3, 7, 15, and 28 days after implantation. Results showed a particle size of below 100 nm for samples with amorphous structure. The samples were well tolerated by the tissues over a 28-day evaluation period. The extra tissue reactions of the 72S specimen in comparison with 58S and 63S specimens could be attributed to its higher silica content. It may be concluded that biocompatible 58S and 63S bioactive glass nanopowders with antibacterial activities can be synthesized for the treatment of osseous defects. PMID:21830490

Mehdikhani-Nahrkhalajil, M; Fathi, M H; Mortazavi, V; Mousavi, S B; Razavi, S M

2011-06-01

108

Protease phenotype of constitutive connective tissue and of induced mucosal mast cells in mice is regulated by the tissue  

PubMed Central

Mouse mast cells (MCs) express a large number of serine proteases including tryptases, mouse mast cell protease (mMCP)-6 and -7; chymases, mMCP-1, -2, and -4; and an elastase, mMCP-5; along with carboxypeptidase-A3 (CPA3). In helminth-infected mouse intestine, distinct protease phenotypes are observed for connective tissue MCs (CTMCs) (mMCP-4+–7+, and CPA3+) and mucosal MCs (MMCs) (mMCP-1+ and 2+). To determine whether the protease phenotype was regulated by the tissue, we compared the phenotype of constitutive CTMCs and induced MMCs in trachea and large airways in antigen-sensitized unchallenged and challenged mice to MCs in skin and helminthic-infected intestine. We found that in the trachea, unlike in skin and intestine, CTMCs and MMCs both express all six serine proteases and CPA3 (mMCP-1+, -2+, 4+–7+, CPA3+). This phenotype also holds for the lung CTMCs in the proximal bronchi, whereas the induced MMCs express only four proteases, mMCP-1, -2, -6, and -7. Thus, the T-cell–dependent induction of MMCs in trachea, large bronchi, and small intestine provides numbers but does not determine the protease phenotype. Furthermore, the CTMCs, which are constitutive, also show striking differences at these tissue sites, supporting the view that the differences in expression are tissue directed and not dependent on inflammation. PMID:21825171

Xing, Wei; Austen, K. Frank; Gurish, Michael F.; Jones, Tatiana G.

2011-01-01

109

Connective tissue growth factor is expressed in bone marrow stromal cells and promotes interleukin-7-dependent B lymphopoiesis  

PubMed Central

Hematopoiesis occurs in a complex bone marrow microenvironment in which bone marrow stromal cells provide critical support to the process through direct cell contact and indirectly through the secretion of cytokines and growth factors. We report that connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf, also known as Ccn2) is highly expressed in murine bone marrow stromal cells. In contrast, connective tissue growth factor is barely detectable in unfractionated adult bone marrow cells. While connective tissue growth factor has been implicated in hematopoietic malignancies, and is known to play critical roles in skeletogenesis and regulation of bone marrow stromal cells, its role in hematopoiesis has not been described. Here we demonstrate that the absence of connective tissue growth factor in mice results in impaired hematopoiesis. Using a chimeric fetal liver transplantation model, we show that absence of connective tissue growth factor has an impact on B-cell development, in particular from pro-B to more mature stages, which is linked to a requirement for connective tissue growth factor in bone marrow stromal cells. Using in vitro culture systems, we demonstrate that connective tissue growth factor potentiates B-cell proliferation and promotes pro-B to pre-B differentiation in the presence of interleukin-7. This study provides a better understanding of the functions of connective tissue growth factor within the bone marrow, showing the dual regulatory role of the growth factor in skeletogenesis and in stage-specific B lymphopoiesis. PMID:24727816

Cheung, Laurence C.; Strickland, Deborah H.; Howlett, Meegan; Ford, Jette; Charles, Adrian K.; Lyons, Karen M.; Brigstock, David R.; Goldschmeding, Roel; Cole, Catherine H.; Alexander, Warren S.; Kees, Ursula R.

2014-01-01

110

Oncogenic osteomalacia associated with phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour, mixed connective tissue type of the knee.  

PubMed

One of the most unusual and uncommon types of osteomalacia is the oncogenic osteomalacia that is predominantly caused by a soft tissue or bone tumour, mostly by a phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour, mixed connective tissue type (PMTMCT). We report a case of a 27-year-old male presented with complaints of progressive and generalized muscle weakness, bone pains and multiple fractures. Intra-articular PMTMCT of the knee was diagnosed and surgically removed. We describe histopathological features of PMTMCT and review the most recent studies concerning this diagnostic problem. PMID:20200786

Szumera-Cie?kiewicz, Anna; Ptaszy?ski, Konrad; Pawe?as, Andrzej; Rutkowski, Piotr

2009-01-01

111

[Principles of polarization-optical analysis in the study of connective tissue].  

PubMed

Possibilities of polarization-optic methods for studying macromolecular organization of the intercellular matrix of the connective tissue are demonstrated. Topo-optic reactions, being histochemical, make it possible to reveal not only presence of the molecules studied, but also quantitatively determine degree of their orientational regularity in the structural organization of the intercellular matrix. Determination of changes in the orientational regularity of single molecules contributes to revealing morphogenetic peculiarities of the intercellular matrix of the connective tissue, normal and under development of the destructive-distrophic process. Methodological principles of reactions to collagen, glycosaminoglycanes, glycoproteins, elastin and non-collagenous proteins are presented. Their advantages comparing certain known histochemical reactions, as well as their limitations are demonstrated. Certain illustrative material is presented. PMID:2413825

Kern, M; Modish, L; Dedukh, N V; Malyshkina, S V; Pankov, E Ia

1985-06-01

112

Genetic Dissection of Marfan Syndrome and Related Connective Tissue Disorders: An Update 2012  

PubMed Central

Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of the connective tissue characterized by early development of thoracic aortic aneurysms/dissections together with symptoms of the ocular and skeletal systems. While most patients/families with a classic phenotypic expression of MFS harbour mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin-1 (FBN1), genetic studies of the recent years revealed that the clinical features, as well as the mutated genes, show a high degree of overlap between MFS and other connective tissue diseases (e.g. Loeys-Dietz syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, familial thoracic aneurysms and dissections and others). We summarize herein the current knowledge about the wide spectrum of differential diagnoses and their genetic background as well as novel therapeutic approaches in order to provide appropriate counselling and clinical follow-up for the patients. PMID:23326250

Hoffjan, S.

2012-01-01

113

Genetic dissection of marfan syndrome and related connective tissue disorders: an update 2012.  

PubMed

Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of the connective tissue characterized by early development of thoracic aortic aneurysms/dissections together with symptoms of the ocular and skeletal systems. While most patients/families with a classic phenotypic expression of MFS harbour mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin-1 (FBN1), genetic studies of the recent years revealed that the clinical features, as well as the mutated genes, show a high degree of overlap between MFS and other connective tissue diseases (e.g. Loeys-Dietz syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, familial thoracic aneurysms and dissections and others). We summarize herein the current knowledge about the wide spectrum of differential diagnoses and their genetic background as well as novel therapeutic approaches in order to provide appropriate counselling and clinical follow-up for the patients. PMID:23326250

Hoffjan, S

2012-08-01

114

Effect of thermal process on connective tissue from jumbo squid ( Dosidicus gigas) mantle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of two thermal treatments (fast freezing at ?40°C and vapor cooking at 100°C) on connective tissue extract (CTE) from jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) was investigated. Samples of CTE frozen at ?40°C were taken at 0, 3, 5 and 12min. Also CTE was cooked at 100°C and samples were taken at 0, 1, 2.5 and 5min. Light microscopic observations

Adriana Zulema Valencia-Pérez; Miriam Hiessu García-Morales; José Luis Cárdenas-López; José Ronaldo Herrera-Urbina; Ofelia Rouzaud-Sández; Josafat Marina Ezquerra-Brauer

2008-01-01

115

Indices of skeletal muscle damage and connective tissue breakdown following eccentric muscle contractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indirect indices of exercise-induced human skeletal muscle damage and connective tissue breakdown were studied following\\u000a a single bout of voluntary eccentric muscle contractions. Subjects (six female, two male), mean (SD) age 22 (2) years performed\\u000a a bout of 50 maximum voluntary eccentric contractions of the knee extensors of a single leg. The eccentric exercise protocol\\u000a induced muscle soreness (P?

S. J. Brown; R. B. Child; S. H. Day; A. E. Donnelly

1997-01-01

116

Characterizing the mechanical contribution of fiber angular distribution in connective tissue: comparison of two modeling approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling of connective tissues often includes collagen fibers explicitly as one of the components. These fibers can be oriented\\u000a in many directions; therefore, several studies have considered statistical distributions to describe the fiber arrangement.\\u000a One approach to formulate a constitutive framework for distributed fibers is to express the mechanical parameters, such as\\u000a strain energy and stresses, in terms of angular

Daniel H. Cortes; Spencer P. Lake; Jennifer A. Kadlowec; Louis J. Soslowsky; Dawn M. Elliott

2010-01-01

117

Cell-mediated immunity against connective tissue in experimental pulmonary fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell-mediated immunity against an extract of homologous normal lung connective tissue was determined in vitro in spleen cells\\u000a from CD1 mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Blastoid transformation and macrophage migration inhibitory factor\\u000a (MIF) were measured at intervals in spleen lymphocytes for a total of seven weeks after the initiation of the fibrogenic process.\\u000a MIF production was evident from the third

R. E. Carvajal; R. González; M. Selman

1982-01-01

118

Low-Dose Cyclosporin for Multiple Colonic Ulcers Associated with Mixed Connective Tissue Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   This report describes a patient with multiple colonic ulcers and mixed connective tissue disease. The histological findings\\u000a of the colonic lesions showed vasculitis with T-cell infiltration, and the peripheral T cells were frequently in the activated\\u000a phase of the cell cycle. In this patient, low-dose cyclosporin treatment (2.5 mg\\/kg\\/day) inhibited the T-cell activation in\\u000a the peripheral lymphocytes and was

N. Maeda; S. Abe; T. Yoshizawa; K. Ogawa; I. Sekigawa; N. Iida; M. Eguchi; M. Matsumoto; H. Hashimoto; S. Hirose

1999-01-01

119

Connective tissue growth factor: Potential role in glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Connective tissue growth factor: Potential role in glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) is a pivotal driver of glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in renal diseases. Because TGF-? also plays important anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative roles in mammalian systems, there has been a recent drive to elucidate downstream mediators of TGF-?'s pro-fibrotic effects with the ultimate goal of developing

Sunil Gupta; Michael R. Clarkson; Joseph Duggan; Hugh R. Brady

2000-01-01

120

A cytogenetic analysis of 2 cases of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor of mixed connective tissue type.  

PubMed

Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor of mixed connective tissue type is a rare, histologically distinctive mesenchymal neoplasm associated with tumor-induced osteomalacia resulting from production of the phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor 23. Because of its rarity, specific genetic alterations that contribute to the pathogenesis of these tumors have yet to be elucidated. Herein, we report the abnormal karyotypes from 2 cases of confirmed phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor of mixed connective tissue type. G-banded analysis demonstrated the first tumor to have a karyotype of 46,Y,t(X;3;14)(q13;p25;q21)[15]/46XY[5], and the second tumor to have a karyotype of 46, XY,add(2)(q31),add(4)(q31.1)[2]/92,slx2[3]/46,sl,der(2)t(2;4)(q14.2;p14),der(4)t(2;4)(q14.2;p14),add(4)(q31.1)[10]/46,sdl,add(13)(q34)[4]/92,sdl2x2[1]. These represent what is, to our knowledge, the first examples of abnormal karyotypes obtained from phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor of mixed connective tissue type. PMID:22503486

Graham, Rondell P; Hodge, Jennelle C; Folpe, Andrew L; Oliveira, Andre M; Meyer, Kevin J; Jenkins, Robert B; Sim, Franklin H; Sukov, William R

2012-08-01

121

A nonphosphaturic mesenchymal tumor mixed connective tissue variant of the sacrum.  

PubMed

Tumor-induced or oncogenic osteomalacia is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by overproduction of fibroblast growth factor-23 as a phosphaturic agent and renal phosphate wasting. A range of predominantly mesenchymal neoplasms have been associated with tumor-induced osteomalacia and classified as phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor mixed connective tissues. However, phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor mixed connective tissues could be nonphosphaturic in the first stage of the disease, either because the tumors are resected early in the clinical course or because the patient's osteomalacia was attributed to another cause. This article presents a case of a 42-year-old woman with a 2-year history of low back and right leg pain. Laboratory examinations including serum and urine calcium and phosphorous were within normal values. Imaging of the lumbar spine and pelvis showed an osteolytic lesion occupying the right sacral wing. Histology was unclear. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis for fibroblast growth factor-23 was positive and confirmed the diagnosis of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor mixed connective tissues. Preoperative selective arterial embolization and complete intralesional excision, bone grafting, and instrumented fusion from L4 to L5 to the iliac wings bilaterally was performed. Postoperative recovery was uneventful. Neurological deficits were not observed. A lumbopelvic corset was applied for 3 months. At 12 months, the patient was asymptomatic. Serum and urine values of calcium and phosphorous were normal throughout the follow-up evaluation. PMID:21053876

Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Sakellariou, Vasileios I; Soultanis, Konstantinos; Mahera, Helen; Korres, Demetrios S; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

2010-11-01

122

Elevated Dietary Magnesium Prevents Connective Tissue Mineralization in a Mouse Model of Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum (Abcc6?/?)  

PubMed Central

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is an autosomal recessive multi-system disorder characterized by ectopic connective tissue mineralization, with clinical manifestations primarily in the skin, eyes and the cardiovascular system. There is considerable, both intra-and inter-familial variability in the spectrum of phenotypic presentation. Previous studies have suggested that mineral content of the diet may modify the severity of the clinical phenotype in PXE. In this study, we utilized a targeted mutant mouse (Abcc6?/?) as a model system for PXE. We examined the effects of changes in dietary phosphate and magnesium on the mineralization process using calcification of the connective tissue capsule surrounding the vibrissae as an early phenotypic biomarker. Mice placed on custom-designed diets either high or low in phosphate did not show changes in mineralization, which was similar to that noted in Abcc6?/? mice on control diet. However, mice placed on diet enriched in magnesium (5-fold) showed no evidence of connective tissue mineralization in this mouse model of PXE. The inhibitory capacity of magnesium was confirmed in a cell-based mineralization assay system in vitro. Collectively, our observations suggest that assessment of dietary magnesium in patients with PXE may be warranted. PMID:19122649

LaRusso, Jennifer; Li, Qiaoli; Jiang, Qiujie; Uitto, Jouni

2010-01-01

123

Autoimmune disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... hormone, vitamin B12, or insulin, due to the autoimmune disease Blood transfusions if blood is affected Physical therapy ... The outcome depends on the disease. Most autoimmune diseases are chronic ... disorders can come and go. When symptoms get worse, it is ...

124

Roles of ?? T Cells in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Diseases  

PubMed Central

? ? T cells are a minor population of T cells that express the TCR ?? chains, mainly distributed in the mucosal and epithelial tissue and accounting for less than 5% of the total T cells in the peripheral blood. By bridging innate and adaptive immunity, ?? T cells play important roles in the anti-infection, antitumor, and autoimmune responses. Previous research on ?? T cells was primarily concentrated on infectious diseases and tumors, whereas their functions in autoimmune diseases attracted much attention. In this paper, we summarized the various functions of ?? T cells in two prototypical autoimmune connective tissue diseases, that is, SLE and RA, elaborating on their antigen-presenting capacity, secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, immunomodulatory effects, and auxiliary function for B cells, which contribute to overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines and pathogenic autoantibodies, ultimately leading to the onset of these autoimmune diseases. Elucidation of the roles of ?? T cells in autoimmune diseases is not only conducive to in-depth understanding of the pathogenesis of these diseases, but also beneficial in providing theoretical support for the development of ?? T-cell-targeted therapy. PMID:23533458

Su, Dinglei; Shen, Minning; Li, Xia; Sun, Lingyun

2013-01-01

125

A physiological role for connective tissue growth factor in early wound healing.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that overexpress secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) exhibit an enhanced reparative phenotype. The secretomes of sFRP2-overexpressing MSCs and vector control-MSCs were compared through liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Proteomic profiling revealed that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; CCN2) was overrepresented in the conditioned media of sFRP2-overexpressing MSCs and MSC-derived CTGF could thus be an important paracrine effector. Subcutaneously implanted, MSC-loaded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponges and stented excisional wounds were used as wound models to study the dynamics of CTGF expression. Granulation tissue generated within the sponges and full-thickness skin wounds showed transient upregulation of CTGF expression by MSCs and fibroblasts, implying a role for this molecule in early tissue repair. Although collagen and COL1A2 mRNA were not increased when recombinant CTGF was administered to sponges during the early phase (day 1-6) of tissue repair, prolonged administration (>15 days) of exogenous CTGF into PVA sponges resulted in fibroblast proliferation and increased deposition of collagen within the experimental granulation tissue. In support of its physiological role, CTGF immunoinhibition during early repair (days 0-7) reduced the quantity, organizational quality and vascularity of experimental granulation tissue in the sponge model. However, CTGF haploinsufficiency was not enough to reduce collagen deposition in excisional wounds. Similar to acute murine wound models, CTGF was transiently present in the early phase of human acute burn wound healing. Together, these results further support a physiological role for CTGF in wound repair and demonstrate that when CTGF expression is confined to early tissue repair, it serves a pro-reparative role. These data also further illustrate the potential of MSC-derived paracrine modulators to enhance tissue repair. PMID:23212098

Alfaro, Maria P; Deskins, Desirae L; Wallus, Meredith; DasGupta, Jayasri; Davidson, Jeffrey M; Nanney, Lillian B; A Guney, Michelle; Gannon, Maureen; Young, Pampee P

2013-01-01

126

The Effect of Connective Tissue Material Uncertainties on Knee Joint Mechanics under Isolated Loading Conditions  

PubMed Central

Although variability in connective tissue parameters is widely reported and recognized, systematic examination of the effect of such parametric uncertainties on predictions derived from a full anatomical joint model is lacking. As such, a sensitivity analysis was performed to consider the behavior of a three-dimensional, non-linear, finite element knee model with connective tissue material parameters that varied within a given interval. The model included the coupled mechanics of the tibio-femoral and patellofemoral degrees of freedom. Seven primary connective tissues modeled as nonlinear continua, articular cartilages described by a linear elastic model, and menisci modeled as transverse isotropic elastic materials were included. In this study, a multi-factorial global sensitivity analysis is proposed, which can detect the contribution of influential material parameters while maintaining the potential effect of parametric interactions. To illustrate the effect of material uncertainties on model predictions, exemplar loading conditions reported in a number of isolated experimental paradigms were used. Our findings illustrated that the inclusion of material uncertainties in a coupled tibio-femoral and patello-femoral model reveals biomechanical interactions that otherwise would remain unknown. For example, our analysis revealed that the effect of anterior cruciate ligament parameter variations on the patello-femoral kinematic and kinetic response sensitivities were significantly larger, over a range of flexion angles, when compared to variations associated with material parameters of tissues intrinsic to the patello-femoral joint. We argue that the systematic sensitivity framework presented herein will help identify key material uncertainties that merit further research, as well as provide insight on those uncertainties that may not be as relative to a given response. PMID:20810114

Dhaher, Yasin Y.; Kwon, Tae-Hyun; Barry, Megan

2012-01-01

127

Structure and function of the mammalian fibrillin gene family: implications for human connective tissue diseases.  

PubMed

Fibrillins and latent transforming growth factor ? binding proteins (LTBPs) are components of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue. While fibrillins are integral to the 10nm microfibrils, and often associated with elastin, all family members are likely to have an additional role in regulating the bioavailability of transforming growth factor ? (TGB?). Both fibrillins and LTBPs are large glycoproteins, containing a series of calcium binding epidermal growth factor domains as well as a number of copies of a unique 8 cysteine domain found only in this protein superfamily. There are three mammalian fibrillins and four LTBPs. Fibrillin monomers link head to tail in microfibrils which can then form two and three dimensional structures. In some tissues elastin is recruited to the fibrillin microfibrils to provide elasticity to the tissue. LTBPs are part of the TGB? large latent complex which sequesters TGB? in the extracellular matrix. Fibrillin-1 appears to bind to LTBPs to assist in this process and is thus involved in regulating the bioavailability of TGB?. Mutation of fibrillin genes results in connective tissue phenotypes which reflect both the increased level of active TGB? and the structural failure of the extracellular matrix due to the absence or abnormality of fibrillin protein. Fibrillinopathies include Marfan syndrome, familial ectopia lentis, familial thoracic aneurysm (mutations of FBN1) and congenital contractural arachnodactyly (mutation of FBN2). There are no diseases currently associated with mutation of FBN3 in humans, and this gene is no longer active in rodents. Expression patterns of fibrillin genes are consistent with their role in extracellular matrix structure of connective tissue. FBN1 expression is high in most cell types of mesenchymal origin, particularly bone. Human and mouse FBN2 expression is high in fetal cells and has more restricted expression in mesenchymal cell types postnatally. FBN3 is expressed early in development (embryonic and fetal tissues) in humans. The fibrillins are thus important in maintaining the structure and integrity of the extracellular matrix and, in combination with their sequence family members the LTBPs, also contribute to the regulation of the TGF? family of major growth factors. PMID:22921888

Davis, Margaret R; Summers, Kim M

2012-12-01

128

Functional anatomy of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle and its connective tissue system.  

PubMed Central

AIMS/BACKGROUND: The connective tissue system of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle (LPS) consists of the septa surrounding its muscle sheath, the superior transverse ligament (STL) commonly referred to as 'Whitnall's ligament' and the common sheath which is the fascia between the LPS and the superior rectus muscle (SRM). The anterior band-like component of the common sheath is called transverse superior fascial expansion (TSFE) of the SRM and LPS. It mainly extends from the connective tissue of the trochlea to the fascia of the lacrimal gland. A detailed description of the relation between the LPS and its connective tissue is presented. Furthermore, the course of the LPS in the orbit is described. The study was conducted to provide a morphological basis for biomechanical and clinical considerations regarding ptosis surgery. METHODS: Postmortem dissections were performed in 16 orbits from eight cadavers. The microscopical anatomy was demonstrated in six formalin preserved orbits from six cadavers which had been sectioned in the frontal and sagittal plane and stained with haematoxylin and azophloxin. Surface coil magnetic resonance imaging in the sagittal and coronal plane was performed in five orbits from five normal volunteers using a T1 weighted spin echo sequence. RESULTS: The STL and the TSFE surround the LPS to form a fascial sleeve around the muscle which has attachments to the medial and lateral orbital wall. The TSFE, which is thicker than the STL, blends with Tenon's capsule. The STL and the fascial sheath of the LPS muscle are suspended from the orbital roof by a framework of radial connective tissue septa. MR images show that the TSFE is located between the anterior third of the superior rectus muscle and the segment of the LPS muscle where it changes its course from upwards to downwards. In this area, the LPS reaches its highest point in the orbit (culmination point). The culmination point is located a few millimetres posterior to the equator and superior to the globe. CONCLUSION: Whitnall's ligament can be considered to consist of two distinct parts--the TSFE inferior to the LPS and the STL superior to the LPS. Since the medial and lateral main attachments of Whitnall's ligament are situated inferior to the level of the culmination point of the LPS, the ligament itself is unlikely to suspend the levator muscle. However, a suspension of the LPS may be achieved by the radial connective tissue septa of the superior orbit. The TSFE in connection with the globe may have an additional supporting function. The elasticity of Whitnall's ligament and its connections with highly elastic structures including Tenon's capsule, may provide the morphological substrate for the previously proposed passive (that is, without orbicularis action) lowering of the lid during downward saccades. Images PMID:8949713

Ettl, A; Priglinger, S; Kramer, J; Koornneef, L

1996-01-01

129

Satellite cells, connective tissue fibroblasts and their interactions are crucial for muscle regeneration  

PubMed Central

Muscle regeneration requires the coordinated interaction of multiple cell types. Satellite cells have been implicated as the primary stem cell responsible for regenerating muscle, yet the necessity of these cells for regeneration has not been tested. Connective tissue fibroblasts also are likely to play a role in regeneration, as connective tissue fibrosis is a hallmark of regenerating muscle. However, the lack of molecular markers for these fibroblasts has precluded an investigation of their role. Using Tcf4, a newly identified fibroblast marker, and Pax7, a satellite cell marker, we found that after injury satellite cells and fibroblasts rapidly proliferate in close proximity to one another. To test the role of satellite cells and fibroblasts in muscle regeneration in vivo, we created Pax7CreERT2 and Tcf4CreERT2 mice and crossed these to R26RDTA mice to genetically ablate satellite cells and fibroblasts. Ablation of satellite cells resulted in a complete loss of regenerated muscle, as well as misregulation of fibroblasts and a dramatic increase in connective tissue. Ablation of fibroblasts altered the dynamics of satellite cells, leading to premature satellite cell differentiation, depletion of the early pool of satellite cells, and smaller regenerated myofibers. Thus, we provide direct, genetic evidence that satellite cells are required for muscle regeneration and also identify resident fibroblasts as a novel and vital component of the niche regulating satellite cell expansion during regeneration. Furthermore, we demonstrate that reciprocal interactions between fibroblasts and satellite cells contribute significantly to efficient, effective muscle regeneration. PMID:21828091

Murphy, Malea M.; Lawson, Jennifer A.; Mathew, Sam J.; Hutcheson, David A.; Kardon, Gabrielle

2011-01-01

130

Scanning electron microscope study of connective tissue in raw and cooked muscles  

E-print Network

University Co-Chairmen of Adv1sory Committee: Dr. G. L. Schroeter Dr. T. R. Dutson This work describes the differences in connective tissue mor- phology between a tough muscle, the biceps femoris, and a tender muscle, the psoas major. Comparisons... but not in the biceps femoris due to the thickness of the perimysial sheet. In the raw muscles, the endomysium closely adhers to the muscle fibers. During cooking, the endomysi um separates from the muscle fibers. The morphological differences in the two muscles...

Percy, Mary Lou

2012-06-07

131

Use of growth factors and adhesive ligands to promote connective tissue progenitor colony formation from fresh marrow  

E-print Network

The current gold standard for bone graft material is autologous bone, which provides mechanical support, possesses factors that promote bone formation, and contains connective tissue progenitors (CTPs), a heterogeneous ...

Marcantonio, Nicholas A. (Nicholas Alexander)

2008-01-01

132

Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: manipulating meat tenderness by increasing the turnover of intramuscular connective tissue.  

PubMed

Controlled reduction of the connective tissue contribution to cooked meat toughness is an objective that would have considerable financial impact in terms of added product value. The amount of intramuscular connective tissue in a muscle appears connected to its in vivo function, so reduction of the overall connective tissue content is not thought to be a viable target. However, manipulation of the state of maturity of the collagenous component is a biologically viable target; by increasing connective tissue turnover, less mature structures can be produced that are functional in vivo but more easily broken down on cooking at temperatures above 60°C, thus improving cooked meat tenderness. Recent work using cell culture models of fibroblasts derived from muscle and myoblasts has identified a range of factors that alter the activity of the principal enzymes responsible for connective tissue turnover, the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). Fibroblasts cultured from 3 different skeletal muscles from the same animal show different cell proliferation and MMP activity, which may relate to the different connective tissue content and architecture in functionally different muscles. Expression of MMP by fibroblasts is increased by vitamins that can counter the negative effects of oxidative stress on new collagen synthesis. Preliminary work using in situ zymography of myotubes in culture also indicates increased MMP activity in the presence of epinephrine and reactive oxidative species. Comparison of the relative changes in MMP expression from muscle cells vs. fibroblasts shows that myoblasts are more responsive to a range of stimuli. Muscle cells are likely to produce more of the total MMP in muscle tissue as a whole, and the expression of latent forms of the enzymes (i.e., pro-MMP) may vary between oxidative and glycolytic muscle fibers within the same muscle. The implication is that the different muscle fiber composition of different muscles eaten as meat may influence the potential for manipulation of their connective tissue turnover. PMID:21890505

Purslow, P P; Archile-Contreras, A C; Cha, M C

2012-03-01

133

Leucine Supplementation Accelerates Connective Tissue Repair of Injured Tibialis Anterior Muscle  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effect of leucine supplementation on the skeletal muscle regenerative process, focusing on the remodeling of connective tissue of the fast twitch muscle tibialis anterior (TA). Young male Wistar rats were supplemented with leucine (1.35 g/kg per day); then, TA muscles from the left hind limb were cryolesioned and examined after 10 days. Although leucine supplementation induced increased protein synthesis, it was not sufficient to promote an increase in the cross-sectional area (CSA) of regenerating myofibers (p > 0.05) from TA muscles. However, leucine supplementation reduced the amount of collagen and the activation of phosphorylated transforming growth factor-? receptor type I (T?R-I) and Smad2/3 in regenerating muscles (p < 0.05). Leucine also reduced neonatal myosin heavy chain (MyHC-n) (p < 0.05), increased adult MyHC-II expression (p < 0.05) and prevented the decrease in maximum tetanic strength in regenerating TA muscles (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that leucine supplementation accelerates connective tissue repair and consequent function of regenerating TA through the attenuation of T?R-I and Smad2/3 activation. Therefore, future studies are warranted to investigate leucine supplementation as a nutritional strategy to prevent or attenuate muscle fibrosis in patients with several muscle diseases. PMID:25268835

Pereira, Marcelo G.; Silva, Meiricris T.; Carlassara, Eduardo O. C.; Goncalves, Dawit A.; Abrahamsohn, Paulo A.; Kettelhut, Isis C.; Moriscot, Anselmo S.; Aoki, Marcelo S.; Miyabara, Elen H.

2014-01-01

134

High prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with inherited connective tissue disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging chronic inflammatory disease mediated by immune hypersensitization to multiple foods and strongly associated with atopy and esophageal remodeling. Objective We provide clinical and molecular evidence indicating a high prevalence of EoE in patients with inherited connective tissue disorders (CTDs). Methods We examined the rate of EoE among patients with CTDs and subsequently analyzed esophageal mRNA transcript profiles in patients with EoE with or without CTD features. Results We report a cohort of 42 patients with EoE with a CTD-like syndrome, representing 0.8% of patients with CTDs and 1.3% of patients with EoE within our hospital-wide electronic medical record database and our EoE research registry, respectively. An 8-fold risk of EoE in patients with CTDs (relative risk, 8.1; 95% confidence limit, 5.1-12.9; ?21 = 112.0; P < 10?3) was present compared with the general population. Esophageal transcript profiling identified a distinct subset of genes, including COL8A2, in patients with EoE and CTDs. Conclusion There is a remarkable association of EoE with CTDs and evidence for a differential expression of genes involved in connective tissue repair in this cohort. Thus, we propose stratification of patients with EoE and CTDs into a subset referred to as EoE-CTD. PMID:23608731

Abonia, J. Pablo; Wen, Ting; Stucke, Emily M.; Grotjan, Tommie; Griffith, Molly S.; Kemme, Katherine A.; Collins, Margaret H.; Putnam, Philip E.; Franciosi, James P.; von Tiehl, Karl F.; Tinkle, Brad T.; Marsolo, Keith A.; Martin, Lisa J.; Ware, Stephanie M.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

2013-01-01

135

Comparative Anatomy of the Subsynovial Connective Tissue in the Carpal Tunnel of the Rat, Rabbit, Dog, Baboon, and Human  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tenosynovium in the human carpal tunnel is connected to the flexor tendons and the median nerve by the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT). The most common histological finding in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), a compression neuropathy of the median nerve, is noninflammatory fibrosis of the SSCT. The relationship, if any, between the fibrosis and nerve pathology is unknown, although some

Anke M. Ettema; Chunfeng Zhao; Kai-Nan An; Peter C. Amadio

2006-01-01

136

The role of infections in autoimmune disease  

PubMed Central

Autoimmunity occurs when the immune system recognizes and attacks host tissue. In addition to genetic factors, environmental triggers (in particular viruses, bacteria and other infectious pathogens) are thought to play a major role in the development of autoimmune diseases. In this review, we (i) describe the ways in which an infectious agent can initiate or exacerbate autoimmunity; (ii) discuss the evidence linking certain infectious agents to autoimmune diseases in humans; and (iii) describe the animal models used to study the link between infection and autoimmunity. PMID:19076824

Ercolini, A M; Miller, S D

2009-01-01

137

Real-time immune cell interactions in target tissue during autoimmune-induced damage and graft tolerance  

PubMed Central

Real-time imaging studies are reshaping immunological paradigms, but a visual framework is lacking for self-antigen-specific T cells at the effector phase in target tissues. To address this issue, we conducted intravital, longitudinal imaging analyses of cellular behavior in nonlymphoid target tissues to illustrate some key aspects of T cell biology. We used mouse models of T cell–mediated damage and protection of pancreatic islet grafts. Both CD4+ and CD8+ effector T (Teff) lymphocytes directly engaged target cells. Strikingly, juxtaposed ? cells lacking specific antigens were not subject to bystander destruction but grew substantially in days, likely by replication. In target tissue, Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells persistently contacted Teff cells with or without involvement of CD11c+ dendritic cells, an observation conciliating with the in vitro “trademark” of Treg function, contact-dependent suppression. This study illustrates tolerance induction by contact-based immune cell interaction in target tissues and highlights potentials of tissue regeneration under antigenic incognito in inflammatory settings. PMID:24567447

Miska, Jason; Abdulreda, Midhat H.; Devarajan, Priyadharshini; Lui, Jen Bon; Suzuki, Jun; Pileggi, Antonello; Berggren, Per-Olof

2014-01-01

138

Computer-assisted analysis of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new computerized imaging, circular polarized light microscopy technique was developed to measure the orientation of collagen fibers in images of serial sections of connective tissue. The system consists of a modified Olympus BX50 polarized microscope, a Sony AVC-D7 video camera, and a Silicon Graphics Indy computer. Both methods required the initial segmentation of fibers and used binary images. Segments of fiber midlines were traced with vertical and horizontal scanlines, or alternately the whole midlines were identified recursively from the Euclidean Distance Map of the image suing the novel definition of the Medial Axis Transform. The last technique produced connected midlines of the fibers and handled sinuous fibers well. The fiber midlines produced by this technique were traversed by a midline traversal algorithm , and the orientation distribution was obtained by least squares line fitting. The accuracy of the developed techniques was evaluated against synthetic images, composed of straight lines and sinuous curves. Kupier's statistic was used to evaluate the consistency of the fiber orientation calculations. Statistical analysis of the results showed, that the proposed Medial Axis Transform with Hilditch's connectivity preserving skeletonization produced the most accurate results. The developed method was used to measure collagen fiber orientation in microscopy images of canine meniscus, porcine aortic valve leaflet, bovine pericardium and bio- textiles.

Krucinski, Slawomir; Krucinska, Izabella; Veeravanallur, Srinivasan; Slot, Krzysztof

1997-04-01

139

Functional Connectivity in Islets of Langerhans from Mouse Pancreas Tissue Slices  

PubMed Central

We propose a network representation of electrically coupled beta cells in islets of Langerhans. Beta cells are functionally connected on the basis of correlations between calcium dynamics of individual cells, obtained by means of confocal laser-scanning calcium imaging in islets from acute mouse pancreas tissue slices. Obtained functional networks are analyzed in the light of known structural and physiological properties of islets. Focusing on the temporal evolution of the network under stimulation with glucose, we show that the dynamics are more correlated under stimulation than under non-stimulated conditions and that the highest overall correlation, largely independent of Euclidean distances between cells, is observed in the activation and deactivation phases when cells are driven by the external stimulus. Moreover, we find that the range of interactions in networks during activity shows a clear dependence on the Euclidean distance, lending support to previous observations that beta cells are synchronized via calcium waves spreading throughout islets. Most interestingly, the functional connectivity patterns between beta cells exhibit small-world properties, suggesting that beta cells do not form a homogeneous geometric network but are connected in a functionally more efficient way. Presented results provide support for the existing knowledge of beta cell physiology from a network perspective and shed important new light on the functional organization of beta cell syncitia whose structural topology is probably not as trivial as believed so far. PMID:23468610

Stozer, Andraz; Gosak, Marko; Dolensek, Jurij; Perc, Matjaz; Marhl, Marko; Rupnik, Marjan Slak; Korosak, Dean

2013-01-01

140

Irradiation by pulsed Nd:YAG laser induces the production of extracellular matrix molecules by cells of the connective tissues: a tool for tissue repair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies demonstrated that mechanical stress is a key factor for tissue homeostasis, while unloading induce loss of mass and impairment of function. Because of their physiological function, muscle, connective tissue, bone and cartilage dynamically interact with mechanical and gravitational stress, modifying their properties through the continuous modification of their composition. Indeed, it is known that mechanical stress increases the production of extracellular matrix (ECM) components by cells, but the mechanotransduction mechanisms and the optimal loading conditions required for an optimal tissue homeostasis are still unknown. Considering the importance of cell activation and ECM production in tissue regeneration, a proper use of mechanical stimulation could be a powerful tool in tissue repair and tissue engineering. Studies exploring advanced modalities for supplying mechanical stimuli are needed to increase our knowledge on mechanobiology and to develop effective clinical applications. Here we describe the effect of photomechanical stress, supplied by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser on ECM production by cells of connective tissues. Cell morphology, production of ECM molecules (collagens, fibronectin, mucopolysaccharides), cell adhesion and cell energy metabolism have been studied by using immunofluorescence and autofluorescence microscopy. The results show that photomechanical stress induces cytoskeleton remodelling, redistribution of membrane integrins, increase in production of ECM molecules. These results could be of consequence for developing clinical protocols for the treatment of connective tissue dideases by pulsed Nd:YAG laser.

Monici, Monica; Basile, Venere; Cialdai, Francesca; Romano, Giovanni; Fusi, Franco; Conti, Antonio

2008-04-01

141

Connective tissue is involved in adult epithelial development of the small intestine during anuran metamorphosis in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of connective tissue in metamorphic changes of the small intestinal epithelium inXenopus laevis tadpoles was investigated by using organ culture techniques and electron microscopy. Tissue fragments isolated from various parts of the small intestine at stage 57 were cultivated. Larval cell death of the epithelium was induced by thyroid hormone in all fragments, whereas adult epithelial development was

Atsuko Ishizuya-Oka; Atsumi Shimozawa

1992-01-01

142

Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor (mixed connective tissue variant): a case report with spectral analysis.  

PubMed

We present a further case of a rare mesenchymal neoplasm termed phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor (mixed connective tissue variant). The patient was a 42-year-old man with a long history of osteomalacia of unknown etiology with pathological bone fracture, abnormality of parathyroid glands, kyphosis, scoliosis, and spondylosis. Laboratory investigation disclosed hypophosphatemia, elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity, and normal serum calcium level. The patient had a soft tissue mass in the right inguinal area, measuring 11 x 6 x 5 cm, which was previously interpreted as a calcified hematoma on sonography. The tumor was surgically removed. Grossly, the tumor was well circumscribed, unencapsulated, and had soft to dense consistency. The cut surface had a variegated appearance due to the presence of large hemorrhagic areas admixed with foci of grey-yellow tissue. Histologically, the tumor was composed of primitive mesenchymal cells, osteoclast-like cells, and cells showing myofibroblastic features without cytologic atypia. There were a well developed vascular network, microcystic areas, and poorly formed cartilaginous foci. Unusual and hitherto unpublished prominent features were flower-like, slate-gray crystals, widespread hemosiderin deposits and large areas of hemorrhages, with the latter comprising approximately 60% of the tumor. A spectral analysis indicated that chemically, the crystals mainly consisted of calcium phosphate and sodium nitrate. PMID:16447065

Shelekhova, Ksenya V; Kazakov, Dmitry V; Hes, Ondrej; Treska, Vladislav; Michal, Michal

2006-02-01

143

Diagnosis of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor (mixed connective tissue type) by cytopathology.  

PubMed

Oncogenic osteomalacia (OO) is a rare paraneoplastic condition in which a bone or soft tissue tumor induces biochemical and clinical signs and symptoms of osteomalacia (or rickets) most often by the production of the phosphaturic protein, fibroblast growth factor-23. Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue type (PMTMCT) is a rare, histologically distinct tumor that represents the most common cause of OO. As the clinical diagnosis of OO is typically suspected on the basis of clinical and biochemical features and the presence of a bone or soft tissue tumor, cytologic examination might potentially provide the necessary pathologic confirmation of OO. In this case of a 46-year-old female with clinical stigmata of OO and a right distal humeral mass, we report that the fine-needle aspiration findings of short, cytologically bland spindled cells embedded in a fine, fibrillary stromal-rich matrix and the presence of osteoclast-type giant cells associated with the stromal matrix provide strong pathological evidence for PMTMCT and assist in pathologically confirming the clinical impression of OO, thus alleviating the need for a more invasive diagnostic surgical procedure. PMID:22927293

William, Josette; Laskin, William; Nayar, Ritu; De Frias, Denise

2012-08-01

144

Integrin ?1: A Mechanosignaling Sensor Essential for Connective Tissue Deposition by Fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Significance There is no effective drug treatment for fibrosis (i.e., pathological scarring). Identifying the fundamental mechanisms responsible for normal and pathological connective tissue deposition is likely to yield novel insights into how to control fibrotic conditions. Recent Advances An increasing body of evidence suggests a link between mechanical tension and the development of scar tissue. Integrins are the cell surface receptors that mediate interactions between the cell and the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). Recent evidence has suggested that, in fibroblasts, the integrin ?1–subunit plays an essential role in mechanosignaling and in dermal homeostasis, repair, and fibrosis. The mechanism underlying these activities of integrin ?1 appears to involve its ability to (1) mediate activation of latent transforming growth factor beta-1 via ECM contraction and (2) modulate collagen production via a focal adhesion kinase/rac1/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX)/reactive oxygen species (ROS) pathway. Moreover, the integrin ?1–binding protein CCN2, a secreted matricellular protein located within the cellular microenvironment, is required for dermal fibrogenesis. Critical Issues Mechanical tension is a key feature underlying the development of scar tissue. The mechanosignaling sensor integrin ?1 is an essential, central mediator of dermal fibrosis, wound healing, and homeostasis. Future Directions Drugs targeting the molecular mechanism underlying integrin ?1–mediated signaling may represent a novel therapeutic approach for treating fibroproliferative disorders. Clinical trials directly testing this hypothesis are warranted. PMID:24527339

Leask, Andrew

2013-01-01

145

Photobleaching as a tool to measure the local strain field in fibrous membranes of connective tissues.  

PubMed

Connective tissues are complex structures which contain collagen and elastin fibers. These fiber-based structures have a great influence on material mechanical properties and need to be studied at the microscopic scale. Several microscopy techniques have been developed in order to image such microstructures; among them are two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy and second harmonic generation. These observations have been coupled with mechanical characterization to link microstructural kinematics to macroscopic material parameter evolution. In this study, we present a new approach to measure local strain in soft biological tissues using a side-effect of fluorescence microscopy: photobleaching. Controlling the loss of fluorescence induced by photobleaching, we create a pattern on our sample that we can monitor during mechanical loading. The image analysis allows three-dimensional displacements of the patterns at various loading levels to be computed. Then, local strain distribution is derived using the finite element discretization on a four-node element mesh created from our photobleached pattern. Photobleaching tests on a human liver capsule have revealed that this technique is non-destructive and does not have any impact on mechanical properties. This method is likely to have other applications in biological material studies, considering that all collagen-elastin fiber-based biological tissues possess autofluorescence properties and thus can be photobleached. PMID:24568925

Jayyosi, C; Fargier, G; Coret, M; Bruyère-Garnier, K

2014-06-01

146

The autoimmune diseases  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 25 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Genetic Predisposition to Autoimmune Diseases; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Autoimmune Aspects of Rheumatoid Arthritis; Immunology of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes; and Adrenal Autoimmunity and Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes.

Rose, N.R.; Mackay, I.R.

1985-01-01

147

INFECTIONS, TOXIC CHEMICALS AND DIETARY PEPTIDES BINDING TO LYMPHOCYTE RECEPTORS AND TISSUE ENZYMES ARE MAJOR INSTIGATORS OF AUTOIMMUNITY IN AUTISM  

Microsoft Academic Search

infection and xenobiotics play a critical role in the development of autism. In this study, we postulated that infectious agent antigens such as streptokinase, dietary peptides (gliadin and casein) and ethyl mercury (xenobiotic) bind to different lymphocyte receptors and tissue enzyme (DPP IV or CD26). We assessed this hypothesis first by measuring IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies against CD26, CD69,

A. VOJDANI; J. B. PANGBORN; E. VOJDANI; E. L. COOPER

2003-01-01

148

Application of WGA lectin staining for visualization of the connective tissue in skeletal muscle, bone and ligament/tendon studies  

PubMed Central

During immunostaining of specific proteins in tissue sections using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies visualization of general tissue staining/background or major structural features is helpful to pinpoint precise localization of the protein of interest. Often in skeletal muscle research immunostaining with antibodies against connective tissue or plasma membrane proteins (collagen 1, laminin, caveolin 3) are used for this purpose. Although immunostaining for these proteins works well, it is time consuming, costly, limits the number of antibodies against protein of interest that can be used on a single section, and is not applicable to some staining techniques. Lectins were frequently used in earlier publications for skeletal muscle fiber boundaries and connective tissue visualization, but are not common in the current research studies. The present paper investigates co-staining of muscle, bone, ligament and tendon tissue sections with fluorescently tagged wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) lectin as a tool for visualization of connective tissue. The results of the current study show that fluorescent WGA lectin co-staining is a cost-effective, fast and convenient method for connective tissue visualization, especially in the studies where extensive washes reduce staining of the structures that are the primary interest of the investigation. PMID:21181705

Kostrominova, Tatiana Y.

2010-01-01

149

Malignant phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue variant of the tongue.  

PubMed

The majority of the oncogenic osteomalacia-associated mesenchymal tumors are considered to belong to the category of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors, mixed connective tissue (PMTMCT) variant, of which malignant cases are very rare. Here we report a case of a recurrent malignant PMTMCT variant which arose in the tongue. The patient was treated with surgery at an initial treatment and the first recurrence. In accordance with the tumor recurrence and resection, the hypophosphatemia progressed and improved. However, hypophosphatemia did not progress after receiving radiation therapy at the second recurrence even though the recurrent tumor gradually increased its size. These results suggest clinical feature of malignant PMTMCT could be changed by radiation therapy. Thus, this report could add an insight to the nature of PMTMCT. PMID:18329207

Uramoto, Naoki; Furukawa, Mitsuru; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu

2009-02-01

150

Effects of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene silencing on the radiosensitivity of glioblastoma  

PubMed Central

The effects of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene silencing on the radiosensitivity of glioblastoma cells (GBM) were investigated. The lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector targeting CTGF was constructed and transinfected into U87MG human GBM cell line. The CTGF gene expression in U87MG cells was significantly down-regulated. After irradiation with 6 MV X-rays at a dose rate of 2.5 Gy/min, the clonogenicity, proliferation and migration of U87MG cells were assayed in vitro. The survival, proliferation and migration of U87MG cells were all remarkably inhibited by CTGF silencing (p < 0.05 vs control). Our results demonstrate that CTGF is important for GBM and CTGF gene silencing can be a potential tool to enhance the sensitivity of GBM to radiotherapy. PMID:25356109

Han, Na; Shahveranov, Allahverdi; Cheng, Yi; Qin, Kai; Yu, Shi-Ying; Zhang, Meng-Xian

2014-01-01

151

CCN2: a mechanosignaling sensor modulating integrin-dependent connective tissue remodeling in fibroblasts?  

PubMed

Tensegrity (tensional integrity) is an emerging concept governing the structure of the body. Integrin-mediated mechanical tension is essential for connective tissue function in vivo. For example, in adult skin fibroblasts, the integrin ?1 subunit mediates adhesion to collagen and fibronectin. Moreover, integrin ?1, through its abilities to activate latent TGF?1 and promote collagen production through focal adhesion kinase/rac1/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX)/reactive oxygen species (ROS), is essential for dermal homeostasis, repair and fibrosis. The integrin ?1-interacting protein CCN2, a member of the CCN family of proteins, is induced by TGF?1; yet, CCN2 is not a simple downstream mediator of TGF?1, but instead synergistically promote TGF?1-induced adhesive signaling and fibrosis. Due to its selective ability to sense mechanical forces in the microenvironment, CCN2 may represent an exquisitely precise target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23729366

Leask, Andrew

2013-08-01

152

Spontaneous Esophageal Perforation in a Patient with Mixed Connective Tissue Disease  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous esophageal perforation is a rare and life-threatening disorder. Failure to diagnosis within the first 24-48 hours of presentation portends a poor prognosis. A patient with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) on low-dose prednisone and methotrexate presented moribund with chest and shoulder pain, a left hydropneumothorax, progressive respiratory failure and shock. Initial management focussed on presumed community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in a patient on immunosuppressants. Bilateral yeast empyemas were treated and attributed to immunosuppression. On day 26, the patient developed mediastinitis, and the diagnosis of esophageal perforation was first considered. A review of the literature suggests that the diagnosis and management of spontaneous esophageal perforation could have been more timely and the outcome less catastrophic. PMID:22279514

Lyman, David

2011-01-01

153

Exome analysis of connective tissue dysplasia: death and rebirth of clinical genetics?  

PubMed

Exome results are reported for two patients with connective tissue dysplasia, one refining a clinical diagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos to Marfan syndrome, the other suggesting arthrogryposis derived from maternofetal Stickler syndrome. Patient 1 had mutations in transthyretin (TTR), fibrillin (FBN1), and a calcium channel (CACNA1A) gene suggesting diagnoses of transthyretin amyloidosis, Marfan syndrome, and familial hemiplegic migraines, respectively. Patient 2 presented with arthrogryposis that was correlated with his mother's habitus and arthritis once COL2A1 mutations suggestive of Stickler syndrome were defined. Although DNA results often defy prediction by the best of clinicians, these patients illustrate needs for ongoing clinical scholarship (e.g., to delineate guidelines for management of mutations like that for hyperekplexia in Patient 2) and for interpretation of polygenic change that is optimized by clinical genetic/syndromology experience (e.g., suggesting acetazolamide therapy for Patient 1 and explaining arthrogryposis in Patient 2). PMID:24664531

Wilson, Golder N

2014-05-01

154

Pulmonary nocardiosis in patients with connective tissue disease: A report of two cases  

PubMed Central

Summary Reported here are 2 patients with connective tissue disease who developed pulmonary nocardiosis. Case 1 involved a 73-year-old man with malignant rheumatoid arthritis treated with prednisolone 25 mg/day. Chest X-rays revealed a pulmonary cavity and bronchoscopy detected Nocardia species. The patient was successfully treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Case 2 involved a 41-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus. The patient received remission induction therapy with 50 mg/day of prednisolone and tacrolimus. Six weeks later, a chest CT scan revealed a pulmonary cavity; bronchoscopy resulted in a diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis. The patient had difficulty tolerating trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, so she was switched to and successfully treated with imipenem/cilastatin and amikacin. PMID:25343123

Hagiwara, Shinya; Tsuboi, Hiroto; Hagiya, Chihiro; Yokosawa, Masahiro; Hirota, Tomoya; Ebe, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Ogishima, Hiroshi; Asashima, Hiromitsu; Kondo, Yuya; Umeda, Naoto; Suzuki, Takeshi; Hitomi, Shigemi; Matsumoto, Isao; Sumida, Takayuki

2014-01-01

155

Cutaneous Manifestations of Mixed Connective Tissue Disease: Study from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern India  

PubMed Central

Context: Mixed connective tissue disorder is an uncommon disease. Some scientists are reluctant to recognize it as a separate entity. Some others have defined this ailment. Cutaneous features of this condition are unique. Researchers from India have described these features to relate to those described in the studies from other parts of the globe. Aims: This study aims to delineate the skin manifestations of clearly defined mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) patients, to compare them with those established as overlap syndrome, and to relate them with studies from other parts of the globe. Settings and Design: Successive patients who fulfilled the specific criteria for MCTD presenting in the skin outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in eastern India were clinically examined from 2009 for 3 years. Materials and Methods: The number of participants was 23 and the dermatological features of these were compared with 22 patients with overlap syndrome. The antibody to uridine-rich U1 ribonucleoprotein was measured for all patients. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS (Version 17) and MedCalc (Version 11.6). Results: The Male: Female ratio among the MCTD patients was 1:6.67 and that of the overlap syndrome was 1:10. Twenty patients of the MCTD group presented with synovitis as against only seven in the overlap group. Raynaud's phenomenon was present in some of the subjects. Puffy fingers were rare in our study. Facial numbness was reported by four of those suffering from MCTD. Antinuclear antibody (ANA) was essentially of a speckled pattern in this disease Conclusions: Cutaneous indicators of MCTD are distinct from overlap syndrome. Knowledge of these manifestations prevalent in a region may lead to early diagnosis of the disease. PMID:24470658

Sen, Sumit; Sinhamahapatra, Pradyot; Choudhury, Supriyo; Gangopadhyay, Anusree; Bala, Sanchaita; Sircar, Geetabali; Chatterjee, Gobinda; Ghosh, Alakendu

2014-01-01

156

Connective Tissue Reflex Massage for Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease: Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of connective tissue massage to improve blood circulation and intermittent claudication symptoms in type 2 diabetic patients. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken. Ninety-eight type 2 diabetes patients with stage I or II-a peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (Leriche-Fontaine classification) were randomly assigned to a massage group or to a placebo group treated using disconnected magnetotherapy equipment. Peripheral arterial circulation was determined by measuring differential segmental arterial pressure, heart rate, skin temperature, oxygen saturation and skin blood flow. Measurements were taken before and at 30?min, 6 months and 1 year after the 15-week treatment. After the 15-week program, the groups differed (P < .05) in differential segmental arterial pressure in right lower limb (lower one-third of thigh, upper and lower one-third of leg) and left lower limb (lower one-third of thigh and upper and lower one-third of leg). A significant difference (P < .05) was also observed in skin blood flow in digits 1 and 4 of right foot and digits 2, 4 and 5 of left foot. ANOVA results were significant (P < .05) for right and left foot oxygen saturation but not for heart rate and temperature. At 6 months and 1 year, the groups differed in differential segmental arterial pressure in upper third of left and right legs. Connective tissue massage improves blood circulation in the lower limbs of type 2 diabetic patients at stage I or II-a and may be useful to slow the progression of PAD. PMID:19933770

Castro-Sanchez, Adelaida Maria; Moreno-Lorenzo, Carmen; Mataran-Penarrocha, Guillermo A.; Feriche-Fernandez-Castanys, Belen; Granados-Gamez, Genoveva; Quesada-Rubio, Jose Manuel

2011-01-01

157

Detection of human and murine common idiotypes of DNA antibodies in tissues and sera of patients with autoimmune diseases.  

PubMed Central

The expression in tissue and serum of a panel of murine and human common DNA antibody idiotypes (Ids) (BEG 2, PR 4, F-423, I-402, II-28, IV-228, V-88) has been investigated. The murine V-88 Id was detected in eight out of 10 and the human BEG 2 Id in five out of 10 labial biopsies from patients with Sjögren's syndrome. The murine F-423, I-402 and IV-228 Ids were identified in one out of 10 biopsies. In each case the pattern of staining was similar with staining of the acinar basement membrane and a cell population. Using double-labelling immunohistochemistry this cell population were identified as plasma cells. No staining was seen in four normal labial biopsies. The V-88 Id was detected on the epithelial aspect of the thickened basement membrane in three out of nine renal biopsies from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). None of the other Ids (BEG 2, PR4, IV-228, F-423 or I-402) could be detected in renal tissue. None of the Ids were found in skin biopsies from SLE patients. Id V-88 may, like the 16/6 Id to which it is phenotypically related, play a role in the pathogenesis of renal lesions in SLE. The BEG 2 Id could be detected in the serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and active untreated tuberculosis. Ids II-28, V-88 and I-402 were elevated in serum from patients with Sjögren's syndrome and II-28 Id in serum from patients with myositis and RA. None of the Ids were elevated in serum from patients with SLE. Apart from the BEG 2 Id, none of the Ids were elevated in serum from patients with tuberculosis or Gram-negative infections. The presence of murine Ids in human tissue and serum suggests that they are cross-species idiotypes and have been conserved through evolution. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:1993360

Watts, R A; Ravirajan, C T; Wilkinson, L S; Williams, W; Griffiths, M; Butcher, D; Horsfall, A T; Staines, N A; Isenberg, D A

1991-01-01

158

Autoantibodies and their Cytoplasmic Antigens in Autoimmune Chronic Active Hepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A loss of tolerance against autologous liver tissue is regarded as the principal pathogenetic mechanism in autoimmune liver\\u000a diseases. Autoimmune type chronic active hepatitis (AI-CAH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis\\u000a (PSC) are the three major autoimmune liver diseases. While the primary target of tissue destruction in autoimmune chronic\\u000a active hepatitis is the hepatocyte, biliary tract epithelia are

M. P. Manns; K.-H. Meyer Zum Büschenfelde

159

Intracranial phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue variant presenting without oncogenic osteomalacia  

PubMed Central

Background: Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue variant (PMTMCT) is a rare tumor typically occurring in soft tissues and bone, causing oncogenic (tumor-induced) osteomalacia (TIO) through secretion of the phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23). Rare tumors identical to PMTMCT occur without known TIO. Intracranial localization of PMTMCT is extremely rare, with only two cases reported in the literature. We present a very unusual case of a patient with an intracranial PMTMCT that presented with neurologic changes without osteomalacia. Case Description: A 67-year-old woman presented with progressive incontinence, apathy, and abulia after having undergone a total knee replacement 1 month earlier. Imaging disclosed a large left frontal anterior fossa mass. She underwent uncomplicated surgical resection of this tumor. Surprisingly, histopathology suggested PMTMCT. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay demonstrating FGF-23 expression in the tumor confirmed the diagnosis. Serum FGF-23 levels postoperatively were normal and she had no clinical or laboratory evidence of osteomalacia or phosphaturia. Conclusion: This report should serve to alert clinicians to the possibility that PMTMCT can be included in the differential diagnosis of intracranial masses even in the absence of tumor-induced osteomalacia. PMID:23372968

Bower, Regina S.; Daugherty, Wilson P.; Giannini, Caterina; Parney, Ian F.

2012-01-01

160

Control of connective tissue metabolism by lasers: recent developments and future prospects  

SciTech Connect

Various laser modalities are currently in extensive use in dermatology and plastic surgery, particularly for treatment of vascular and pigmented lesions. A relatively new area of laser utilization involves the possible biologic effects of the lasers. In this overview, recent studies are summarized which indicate that lasers at specific wavelengths and energy densities modulate the connective tissue metabolism by skin fibroblasts both in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, the neodymium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd: YAG) laser was shown to selectively suppress collagen production both in fibroblast cultures and in normal skin in vivo, thus suggesting that this laser modality may be useful for the treatment of fibrotic conditions such as keloids and hypertrophic scars. Furthermore, two low-energy lasers, helium-neon (He-Ne) and gallium-arsenide (Ga-As), were shown to stimulate collagen production in human skin fibroblast cultures, suggesting that these lasers could be used for enhancement of wound healing processes. These experimental approaches illustrate the future possibilities for applying lasers for the modulation of various biologic functions of cells in tissues and attest to the potential role of lasers in the treatment of cutaneous disorders.

Abergel, R.P.; Meeker, C.A.; Lam, T.S.; Dwyer, R.M.; Lesavoy, M.A.; Uitto, J.

1984-12-01

161

Cold acclimation alters the connective tissue content of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) heart.  

PubMed

Thermal acclimation can alter cardiac function and morphology in a number of fish species, but little is known about the regulation of these changes. The purpose of the present study was to determine how cold acclimation affects zebrafish (Danio rerio) cardiac morphology, collagen composition and connective tissue regulation. Heart volume, the thickness of the compact myocardium, collagen content and collagen fiber composition were compared between control (27°C) and cold-acclimated (20°C) zebrafish using serially sectioned hearts stained with Picrosirius Red. Collagen content and fiber composition of the pericardial membrane were also examined. Cold acclimation did not affect the volume of the contracted heart; however, there was a significant decrease in the thickness of the compact myocardium. There was also a decrease in the collagen content of the compact myocardium and in the amount of thick collagen fibers throughout the heart. Cold-acclimated zebrafish also increased expression of the gene transcript for matrix metalloproteinase 2, matrix metalloproteinase 9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 and collagen Type I ?1. We propose that the reduction in the thickness of the compact myocardium as well as the change in collagen content may help to maintain the compliance of the ventricle as temperatures decrease. Together, these results clearly demonstrate that the zebrafish heart undergoes significant remodeling in response to cold acclimation. PMID:24577447

Johnson, Amy C; Turko, Andy J; Klaiman, Jordan M; Johnston, Elizabeth F; Gillis, Todd E

2014-06-01

162

Connective tissue growth factor is required for skeletal development and postnatal skeletal homeostasis in male mice.  

PubMed

Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a member of the cysteine-rich 61 (Cyr 61), CTGF, nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV) (CCN) family of proteins, is synthesized by osteoblasts, and its overexpression inhibits osteoblastogenesis and causes osteopenia. The global inactivation of Ctgf leads to defective endochondral bone formation and perinatal lethality; therefore, the consequences of Ctgf inactivation on the postnatal skeleton are not known. To study the function of CTGF, we generated Ctgf(+/LacZ) heterozygous null mice and tissue-specific null Ctgf mice by mating Ctgf conditional mice, where Ctgf is flanked by lox sequences with mice expressing the Cre recombinase under the control of the paired-related homeobox gene 1 (Prx1) enhancer (Prx1-Cre) or the osteocalcin promoter (Oc-Cre). Ctgf(+/LacZ) heterozygous mice exhibited transient osteopenia at 1 month of age secondary to decreased trabecular number. A similar osteopenic phenotype was observed in 1-month-old Ctgf conditional null male mice generated with Prx1-Cre, suggesting that the decreased trabecular number was secondary to impaired endochondral bone formation. In contrast, when the conditional deletion of Ctgf was achieved by Oc-Cre, an osteopenic phenotype was observed only in 6-month-old male mice. Osteoblast and osteoclast number, bone formation, and eroded surface were not affected in Ctgf heterozygous or conditional null mice. In conclusion, CTGF is necessary for normal skeletal development but to a lesser extent for postnatal skeletal homeostasis. PMID:20534727

Canalis, Ernesto; Zanotti, Stefano; Beamer, Wesley G; Economides, Aris N; Smerdel-Ramoya, Anna

2010-08-01

163

Age-dependent remodeling of connective tissue: role of fibronectin and laminin.  

PubMed

Connective tissues differ from other tissues in their more abundant extracellular matrix (ECM). This matrix is composed of a relatively large number of macromolecules interacting with each other as well as with the cells they are surrounding. Such cells, fibroblasts, chondrocytes and others, secrete the macromolecules of ECM according to a genetically and environmentally regulated "program". It appeared recently that one type of macromolecular interactions is characterized by the selective cleavage of some of the ECM components. Some of these proteolytic cleavage products were shown to possess remarkable biological activities absent from the parent molecules. Such mechanisms were shown to play an important role in aging processes. Also called matricryptins such peptides and their activities are produced from several matrix components. Of special interest are these matricryptins which are derived from fibronectin, laminin and elastin. Their production by proteolytic attack of the original ECM components, followed by their novel biological activities, form in some instances autoamplifying vicious circles. Such "epigenetic", post-translational mechanisms are not coded in the genome, they are neither "accidental", nor "chaotic" but remarkably predictable, the result of the presence in several ECM components of "matricryptic" sites and coregulated synthesis of matrix components carrying such sites and of proteolytic enzymes producing the matricryptins. Some examples will be discussed, derived from the experiments carried out in our laboratory and others over the years, involved in aging and in some of the age-dependent pathologies. PMID:14622946

Labat-Robert, J

2003-12-01

164

Autoimmune hepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a rare disease, characterized by female predominance, hypergammaglobulinemia, autoantibodies, association with HLA DR3 and HLA DR4 and a good response to immunosuppression. Different subtypes of AIH may be distinguished, based on differences in the autoantibody patterns. AIH type 1 is characterized by anti-nuclear (ANA) and\\/or anti-smooth muscular (SMA) autoantibodies. AIH type 2 is characterized by liver\\/kidney

Petra Obermayer-Straub; Christian P. Strassburg; Michael P. Manns

2000-01-01

165

Autoimmune Hepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an inflammatory liver disease with a strong female preponderance, characterized by elevated\\u000a levels of transaminases and immunoglobulin G (IgG), seropositivity for organ and non-organ-specific autoantibodies, and a\\u000a histological picture of interface hepatitis. The major pathogenic mechanism is believed to be immune reaction against host\\u000a liver antigens. AIH responds well to immuno-suppressive treatment. The diagnosis should be

Diego Vergani; Giorgina Mieli-Vergani

166

Hypoxia in Human Trophoblasts Stimulates the Expression and Secretion of Connective Tissue Growth Factor  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms underlying cellular injury when human placental trophoblasts are exposed to hypoxia are unclear. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mediates cell injury and fibrosis in diverse tissues. We hypothesized that hypoxia enhances the production of CTGF in primary term human trophoblasts. Using cultured term primary human trophoblasts as well as villous biopsies from term human placentas, we showed that CTGF protein is expressed in trophoblasts. When compared with cells cultured in standard conditions (FiO2 = 20%), exposure of primary human trophoblasts to low oxygen concentration (FiO2 = 8% or ? 1%) enhanced the expression of CTGF mRNA in a time-dependent manner, with a significant increase in CTGF levels after 16 h (2.7 ± 0.7-fold; P < 0.01), reaching a maximum of 10.9 ± 3.2-fold at 72 h. Whereas exposure to hypoxia had no effect on cellular CTGF protein levels, secretion of CTGF to the medium was increased after 16 h in hypoxia and remained elevated through 72 h. The increase in cellular CTGF transcript levels and CTGF protein secretion was recapitulated by exposure of trophoblasts to agents that enhance the activity of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1?, including cobalt chloride or the proline hydroxylase inhibitor dimethyloxaloylglycine, and attenuated using the HIF1? inhibitor 2-methoxyestradiol. Although all TGF? isoforms stimulated the expression of CTGF in trophoblasts, only the expression of TGF?1 mRNA was enhanced by hypoxia. We conclude that hypoxia increases cellular CTGF mRNA levels and CTGF protein secretion from cultured trophoblasts, likely in a HIF1?-dependent manner. PMID:18292194

Rimon, Eli; Chen, Baosheng; Shanks, Anthony L.; Nelson, D. Michael; Sadovsky, Yoel

2008-01-01

167

Hypoxia in human trophoblasts stimulates the expression and secretion of connective tissue growth factor.  

PubMed

The mechanisms underlying cellular injury when human placental trophoblasts are exposed to hypoxia are unclear. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mediates cell injury and fibrosis in diverse tissues. We hypothesized that hypoxia enhances the production of CTGF in primary term human trophoblasts. Using cultured term primary human trophoblasts as well as villous biopsies from term human placentas, we showed that CTGF protein is expressed in trophoblasts. When compared with cells cultured in standard conditions (FiO2 = 20%), exposure of primary human trophoblasts to low oxygen concentration (FiO2 = 8% or

Rimon, Eli; Chen, Baosheng; Shanks, Anthony L; Nelson, D Michael; Sadovsky, Yoel

2008-06-01

168

Stress transfer in collagen fibrils reinforcing connective tissues: effects of collagen fibril slenderness and relative stiffness.  

PubMed

Unlike engineering fibre composite materials which comprise of fibres that are uniform cylindrical in shape, collagen fibrils reinforcing the proteoglycan-rich (PG) gel in the extra-cellular matrices (ECMs) of connective tissues are taper-ended (paraboloidal in shape). In an earlier paper we have discussed how taper of a fibril leads to an axial stress up-take which differs from that of a uniform cylindrical fibre and implications for fibril fracture. The present paper focuses on the influence of fibre aspect ratio, q (slenderness), and Young's modulus (stiffness), relative to that of the gel phase, E(R), on the magnitude of the axial tensile stresses generated within a fibril and wider implications on failure at tissue level. Fibre composite models were evaluated using finite element (FE) and mathematical analyses. When the applied force is low, there is elastic stress transfer between the PG gel and a fibril. FE modelling shows that the stress in a fibril increases with E(R) and q. At higher applied forces, there is plastic stress transfer. Mathematical modelling predicts that the stress in a fibril increases linearly with q. For small q values, fibrils may be regarded as fillers with little ability to provide tensile reinforcement. Large q values lead to high stress in a fibril. Such high stresses are beneficial provided they do not exceed the fracture stress of collagen. Modulus difference regulates the strain energy release density, u, for interfacial rupture; large E(R) not only leads to high stress in a fibril but also insures against interfacial rupture by raising the value of u. PMID:17123548

Goh, Kheng Lim; Meakin, Judith R; Aspden, Richard M; Hukins, David W L

2007-03-21

169

Development of oral and extra-oral endosseous craniofacial implants by using a mesh structure for connective tissue attachment.  

PubMed

Connective tissue attachment to a mesh structure incorporated on the surface of oral implants and extra-oral endosseous craniofacial implants (EOECI) was investigated. Two types of implants were prepared: TI and TI-Mesh. TI was composed of an upper and a lower component, both comprised of a titanium cylinder, which could be connected using a titanium screw. The composition of the TIMesh was similar, but the lower cylinder had a lateral groove that was covered with a titanium mesh. In animal experiments performed using rat calvaria, the lower component was first implanted and was left submerged for 3 weeks, then the upper component was mounted percutaneously. After an additional 2 weeks, each implant and the surrounding tissues were harvested and evaluated. Histological observations revealed collagen fibers originating from surrounding hypodermal tissues anchored to the mesh structures of the TI-Mesh whereas no such collagen fibers were observed around TI. Significantly greater values of the attachment strength, the thickness of the dermal tissue, the thickness of hypodermal tissue, and the attachment lengths were observed in TI-Mesh than those of TI. Thus connective tissue attachment with collagen fibers anchored to the mesh was achieved by incorporating mesh structures into the percutaneously placed implants. PMID:24658962

Mita, Atsushi; Yagihara, Atsushi; Wang, Wei; Takakuda, Kazuo

2014-01-01

170

Celiac Disease-Associated Autoimmune Endocrinopathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder induced by gluten intake in genetically susceptible individ- uals. It is characterized by the presence of serum antibodies to endomysium, reticulin, gliadin, and tissue transglutaminase. The incidence of CD in various autoimmune disorders is increased 10- to 30-fold in comparison to the general population, although in many cases CD is clinically asymptomatic or

Vijay Kumar; Manoj Rajadhyaksha; Jacobo Wortsman

2001-01-01

171

Arachnodactyly--a key to diagnosing heritable disorders of connective tissue.  

PubMed

Arachnodactyly literally means spidery fingers, and describes the long, slender fingers typical of patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS). Many clinicians regard arachnodactyly as pathognomonic of MFS; however, this view is misleading as arachnodactyly is a key element of the marfanoid habitus, which is present in several heritable disorders of connective tissue (HDCTs). Other features of the marfanoid habitus include long hands and feet, increased skin stretch, joint hypermobility and characteristic changes in the physiology of the pectum. Here, we focus on the differential diagnosis of diseases with features of the marfanoid habitus. Ectopia lentis (lens dislocation) and aortic root dilation or dissection are cardinal features of MFS. Distinguishing MFS from other HCDTs has important implications for treatment, as cardiovascular and ocular complications commonly seen in patients with MFS are not seen in all HDCTs. Joint hypermobility syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome are also HDCTs, neither of which is associated with ectopia lentis or aortic changes. Some of the rarer forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome are associated with severe vascular, dental and skin pathologies. This Review serves as a guide for correctly diagnosing members of the HDCT family. PMID:23478494

Grahame, Rodney; Hakim, Alan J

2013-06-01

172

Repetitive differential finger motion increases shear strain between the flexor tendon and subsynovial connective tissue.  

PubMed

Non-inflammatory fibrosis and thickening of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) are characteristic in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients. These pathological changes have been linked to repetitive hand tasks that create shear forces between the flexor tendons and SSCT. We measured the relative motion of the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon and SSCT during two repetitive finger tasks using color Doppler ultrasound. Twelve participants performed flexion-extension cycles for 30?min with the long finger alone (differential movement) and with all four fingers together (concurrent movement). Shear strain index (SSI, a relative measure of excursion in flexion and extension) and maximum velocity ratio (MVR, the ratio of SSCT versus tendon during flexion and extension) were used to represent shear. A linear effect of exertion time was significant and corresponded with larger tendon shear in differential motion. The flexion SSI increased 20.4% from the first to the 30th minute, while MVR decreased 8.9% in flexion and 8.7% in extension. No significant changes were found during concurrent motion. These results suggest that exposure to repetitive differential finger tasks may increase the risk of shear injury in the carpal tunnel. PMID:23729391

Tat, Jimmy; Kociolek, Aaron M; Keir, Peter J

2013-10-01

173

Connective tissue disease-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension in Chinese patients.  

PubMed

We sought to investigate the characteristics, survival and risk factors for mortality in Chinese patients with connective tissue disease (CTD)-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (APAH) in modern therapy era. 129 consecutive adult patients who visited one of three referral centres in China with a diagnosis of CTD-APAH confirmed by right heart catheterisation during the previous 5 years were enrolled. The end-point was all-cause death or data censoring. Systemic lupus erythematosus was the most common underlying CTD (49%) and systemic sclerosis just accounted for 6% in this cohort. The overall survival at 1 and 3 years was 92% and 80%, respectively. Pericardial effusion, a shorter 6-min walk distance, lower mixed venous oxygen saturation, higher pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lower total cholesterol levels were all associated with a higher risk of death among the study population. Higher PVR and ALP were independent predictors of mortality. In conclusion, unlike in western patients, systemic lupus erythematosus is the most common underlying disease in Chinese patients with CTD-APAH. The survival of Chinese patients with CTD-APAH in the modern treatment era is similar to that in western countries. Elevated PVR and ALP are independent risk factors for poor outcomes. PMID:24791829

Hao, Yan-Jie; Jiang, Xin; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Yong; Gao, Lan; Wang, Yu; Li, Guang-Tao; Hong, Tao; Huo, Yong; Jing, Zhi-Cheng; Zhang, Zhuo-Li

2014-10-01

174

Significance of Pulmonary Arterial Pressure as a Prognostic Indicator in Lung-Dominant Connective Tissue Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Lung-dominant connective tissue disease (LD-CTD) is a new concept for classifying the subset of patients with interstitial pneumonia who have clinical features suggesting an associated CTD, but whose features fall short of a clear diagnosis of CTD under the current rheumatologic classification systems. The impact of mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP) in LD-CTD has not been sufficiently elucidated. Objectives To evaluate the survival impact of MPAP measured during the initial evaluation in patients with LD-CTD. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the initial evaluation data of 100 LD-CTD patients undergoing pulmonary function test, 6-min walk test (6MWT), and right heart catheterization (RHC). Results The mean MPAP was 16.2±4.4 mm Hg, and 18 patients had MPAP?20 mm Hg. A univariate Cox proportional hazard model showed that MPAP and several variables have a statistically significant impact on survival. With stepwise, multivariate Cox proportional analysis, MPAP (HR ?=?1.293; 95% CI 1.130–1.480; p<0.001) and mean forced vital capacity (FVC) % predicted (HR?=?0.958; 95% CI 0.930–0.986; p?=?0.004) were shown to be independent determinants of survival. Conclusions Higher MPAP and lower %FVC at the initial evaluation were significant independent prognostic factors of LD-CTD. MPAP evaluation provides additional information of disease status and will help physicians to predict mortality in LD-CTD. PMID:25268705

Suzuki, Atsushi; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Naohiro; Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Tomoki; Kataoka, Kensuke; Matsuda, Toshiaki; Yokoyama, Toshiki; Sakamoto, Koji; Nishiyama, Osamu; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

2014-01-01

175

Activation of PPAR-? inhibits differentiation of rat osteoblasts by reducing expression of connective tissue growth factor.  

PubMed

Long-term treatment with an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? is associated with bone fractures in the clinical practice. However, the mechanisms underlying the fractures are not fully understood. This study was aimed to examine the effect of rosiglitazone (an agonist of PPAR-?) of different doses on the proliferation, differentiation, and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1)-induced expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in primary rat osteoblasts in vitro. Osteoblasts were isolated from newly born SD rats and treated with different doses of rosiglitazone (0-20 ?mol/L). The proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts were measured by MTT assay and NPP assay, respectively. The expression of CTGF was determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The results showed that most isolated osteoblasts displayed strong alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and treatment with different doses of rosiglitazone did not affect their proliferation, but significantly inhibited the differentiation of osteoblasts in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, treatment with different doses of rosiglitazone significantly reduced the TGF-?1-induced CTGF mRNA transcription and protein expression in a dose-dependent manner in rat osteoblasts. It was concluded that the activation of PPAR-? may inhibit the differentiation of osteoblasts by reducing the TGF-?1-induced CTGF expression in vitro. PMID:25318873

Yu, Wei-Wei; Xia, Qin; Wu, Yan; Bu, Qiao-Yun

2014-10-01

176

Silymarin decreases connective tissue growth factor to improve liver fibrosis in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride.  

PubMed

Silymarin is an herbal product showing potential as protection against hepatic disorders. In an attempt to develop the agent for the treatment of hepatic fibrosis, we screened the effects of silymarin on a rat model of hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl?). Intraperitoneal administration of CCl? to rats for 8?weeks not only increased the plasma levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) but also induced a marked increase in the formation of hepatic fibrosis. Moreover, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were also reduced in the liver of rats treated with CCl?. Oral administration of silymarin (200?mg/kg, three times daily), in parallel, decreased the plasma levels of GOT and GPT. Furthermore, in addition to the improvement of hepatic fibrosis, the hepatic levels of hydroxyproline and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were both markedly decreased by silymarin. Silymarin also elevated the activities of SOD and GPx in liver isolated from CCl?-treated rats. The results suggest that oral administration of silymarin protects against CCl?-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats, likely due to the decrease in fibrotic parameters such as CTGF. PMID:22933420

Tzeng, Jann-Inn; Chen, Mei-Fen; Chung, Hsien-Hui; Cheng, Juei-Tang

2013-07-01

177

Angiogenesis Is Not Impaired in Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) Knock-out Mice  

PubMed Central

Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a member of the CCN family of growth factors. CTGF is important in scarring, wound healing, and fibrosis. It has also been implicated to play a role in angiogenesis, in addition to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In the eye, angiogenesis and subsequent fibrosis are the main causes of blindness in conditions such as diabetic retinopathy. We have applied three different models of angiogenesis to homozygous CTGF?/? and heterozygous CTGF+/? mice to establish involvement of CTGF in neovascularization. CTGF?/? mice die around birth. Therefore, embryonic CTGF?/?, CTGF+/?, and CTGF+/+ bone explants were used to study in vitro angiogenesis, and neonatal and mature CTGF+/? and CTGF+/+ mice were used in models of oxygen-induced retinopathy and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization. Angiogenesis in vitro was independent of the CTGF genotype in both the presence and the absence of VEGF. Oxygen-induced vascular pathology in the retina, as determined semi-quantitatively, and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization, as determined quantitatively, were also not affected by the CTGF genotype. Our data show that downregulation of CTGF levels does not affect neovascularization, indicating distinct roles of VEGF and CTGF in angiogenesis and fibrosis in eye conditions. PMID:17625227

Kuiper, Esther J.; Roestenberg, Peggy; Ehlken, Christoph; Lambert, Vincent; van Treslong-de Groot, Henny Bloys; Lyons, Karen M.; Agostini, Hans-Jurgen T.; Rakic, Jean-Marie; Klaassen, Ingeborg; Van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Goldschmeding, Roel; Schlingemann, Reinier O.

2007-01-01

178

Imaging the Effect of Acupuncture Needling On Human Connective Tissue in Vivo E.E. Konofagou1  

E-print Network

Imaging the Effect of Acupuncture Needling On Human Connective Tissue in Vivo E.E. Konofagou1 , G, Burlington, VT, USA; E-mail: ek2191@columbia.edu Abstract - The therapeutic effects of acupuncture have been estimation techniques are used in order to understand the effect of acupuncture. It is expected

Konofagou, Elisa E.

179

Detection of Connective Tissue Growth Factor in Subretinal Fluid following Retinal Detachment: Possible Contribution to Subretinal Scar Formation, Preliminary Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been shown to be substantially involved in various processes of fibrosis. Herein we report on the presence of CTGF in the subretinal fluid (SRF) of patients with retinal detachment. Methods: Samples of SRF were collected from 10 patients during retinal detachment surgery. Specific ELISA analysis was performed with goat IgG against human CTGF. Results:

Gysbert van Setten; Lennart Berglin; Timothy D. Blalock; Gregory Schultz

2005-01-01

180

[Adrenoreactivity in patients with arrhythmic syndrome associated with connective tissue dysplasia at the background of intake of the magnezium orotate].  

PubMed

Elevated level of -adrenoreception of membranes is observed in patients with disturbances of heart rhythm at the background of connective tissue dysplasia. It is not related to characteristics of the arrhythmic syndrome. At the background of 4-months intake of preparation magnezium orotate significant decrease of degree of desensitization of of erythrocytes has been noted. PMID:21627614

Moskvina, Iu V; Nechaeva, G I

2011-01-01

181

Experiment K-6-02. Biomedical, biochemical and morphological alterations of muscle and dense, fibrous connective tissues during 14 days of spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Findings on the connective tissue response to short-term space flight (12 days) are discussed. Specifically, data regarding the biochemical, biomechanical and morphological characteristics of selected connective tissues (humerus, vertebral body, tendon and skeletal muscle) of growing rats is given. Results are given concerning the humerus cortical bone, the vertebral bone, nutritional effects on bone biomechanical properties, and soft tense fiber connective tissue response.

Vailas, A.; Zernicke, R.; Grindeland, R.; Kaplanski, A.

1990-01-01

182

Associated Autoimmune Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... individuals with autoimmune diseases are women. In an autoimmune disorder, the cells of the immune system produce antibodies ... damage. This is not a complete listing of autoimmune diseases associated with celiac disease. Anyone who has unexplained, ...

183

[Connective tissue growth factors, CTGF and Cyr61 in drug-induced gingival overgrowth--an animal model].  

PubMed

Human gingival overgrowth may occur as a side effect of chronic administration of some therapeutic agents. The mechanisms responsible for the gingival tissues lesions, fibrosis and inflamation, involve an impaired balance between the production and the degradation of type I collagen. It has been demonstrated that CCN2/CTGF, a connective tissue growth factor, is highly expressed in the gingival tissues and positively correlated with the degree of fibrosis in the drug-induced gingival overgrowth. The aim of this study was to identify the presence and localization of CCN2/CTGF and CCN1/Cyr61, members of the same molecular family, in gingival tissues of cyclosporin A- and nifedipine-treated rats, by immunohistochemistry. Staining was evaluated with light microscope and the results show cellular and extracellular CTGF in nifedipin gingival overgrowth tissues with intensity of labeling higher compared to the CsA gingival overgrowth tissues or the controls. The staining for Cyr61 shows its intracellular localization with no diference of labeling intensity between drug-induced gingival overgrowth and normal tissues. Also, we were interested in the gingival TGF-â expression in those animals. We didn't find any commercial anti-rat TGF antibody and our anti-human antibody shows no cross-reactivity with rat tissues. The data from our study sustain the involvement of CTGF and Cyr61 as growth factors in the gingival tissues and the CTGF association with drug-induced gingival overgrowth. PMID:20209781

Ciobanic?, Mihaela; Cianga, Corina; C?runtu, Irina-Draga; Grigore, Georgiana; Cianga, P

2008-01-01

184

Unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms and joint hypermobility: is connective tissue the missing link?  

PubMed

BACKGROUND Unexplained gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and joint hypermobility (JHM) are common in the general population, the latter described as benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS) when associated with musculo-skeletal symptoms. Despite overlapping clinical features, the prevalence of JHM or BJHS in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders has not been examined. METHODS The incidence of JHM was evaluated in 129 new unselected tertiary referrals (97 female, age range 16-78 years) to a neurogastroenterology clinic using a validated 5-point questionnaire. A rheumatologist further evaluated 25 patients with JHM to determine the presence of BJHS. Groups with or without JHM were compared for presentation, symptoms and outcomes of relevant functional GI tests. KEY RESULTS Sixty-three (49%) patients had evidence of generalized JHM. An unknown aetiology for GI symptoms was significantly more frequent in patients with JHM than in those without (P < 0.0001). The rheumatologist confirmed the clinical impression of JHM in 23 of 25 patients, 17 (68%) of whom were diagnosed with BJHS. Patients with co-existent BJHS and GI symptoms experienced abdominal pain (81%), bloating (57%), nausea (57%), reflux symptoms (48%), vomiting (43%), constipation (38%) and diarrhoea (14%). Twelve of 17 patients presenting with upper GI symptoms had delayed gastric emptying. One case is described in detail. CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES In a preliminary retrospective study, we have found a high incidence of JHM in patients referred to tertiary neurogastroenterology care with unexplained GI symptoms and in a proportion of these a diagnosis of BJHS is made. Symptoms and functional tests suggest GI dysmotility in a number of these patients. The possibility that a proportion of patients with unexplained GI symptoms and JHM may share a common pathophysiological disorder of connective tissue warrants further investigation. PMID:19840271

Zarate, N; Farmer, A D; Grahame, R; Mohammed, S D; Knowles, C H; Scott, S M; Aziz, Q

2010-03-01

185

Connective tissue responses to some heavy metals. III. Silver and dietary supplements of ascorbic acid. Histology and ultrastructure.  

PubMed Central

Silver-loaded ion exchange resin beads implanted into loose connective tissue of the rat pinna produced a local reaction. Initially the lesion comprised local necrosis and tissue disruption with predominantly small round cell infiltration. The subsequent organization was delayed and disordered. Fibroblasts developed grossly dilated cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The matrix contained poorly orientated collagen fibrils of varying size and ground substance appeared condensed and granular. Distorted collagen fibrils were identified within membrane-bound vacuoles in the cytoplasm of both fibroblasts and macrophages. Abnormalities of the silver lesion were indicative of disordered collagen biosynthesis. Silver interfered with the biosynthesis and assembly of matrix components of the connective tissue. The reaction to silver beads in rats maintained on a diet heavily supplemented with ascorbic acid approached that of the control (sodium-loaded bead) with respect to the time scale, tissue reaction and tissue organization. The collagen matrix which formed was more organized and of greater density than that in the rat maintained on a normal diet. However, the repair tissue retained some of the morphological features of the legacy of silver toxicity, in particular delayed repair and dense intracellular fibrils within fibroblasts and macrophages. The excess of ascorbic acid partially ameliorated the effect of silver, possibly by compensating catabolysis of ascorbic acid caused by the presence of the released silver. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2923787

Ellender, G.; Ham, K. N.

1989-01-01

186

AntiInterferon Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy Syndrome Type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene influences thymic self-tolerance induction. In autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1 (APS1; OMIM 240300), recessive AIRE mutations lead to autoimmunity targetting endocrine and other epithelial tissues, although chronic candidiasis usually appears first. Autoimmunity and chronic candidiasis can associate with thymomas as well. Patients with these tumours frequently also have high titre immunoglobulin G autoantibodies neutralising type

Anthony Meager; Kumuthini Visvalingam; Pärt Peterson; Kaidi Möll; Astrid Murumägi; Kai Krohn; Petra Eskelin; Jaakko Perheentupa; Eystein Husebye; Yoshihisa Kadota; Nick Willcox

2006-01-01

187

Tissue-specific up-regulation of B7-1 expression and function during the course of murine relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.  

PubMed

B7/CD28-mediated costimulation is a promising target for therapeutic intervention in autoimmune diseases. However, studies addressing the differential functional roles of B7-1 and B7-2 in several autoimmune models have resulted in conflicting data, perhaps due to the temporal dynamics of B7-1 and B7-2 surface expression on different cell types and/or at different sites during an autoimmune response. We examined the temporal expression of B7 costimulatory molecules in the CNS and in various lymphoid organs during the course of murine relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (R-EAE). Following immunization of SJL mice with the immunodominant proteolipid protein epitope, PLP139-151, surface expression of B7-1 was up-regulated on B cells, T cells, and macrophages, relative to B7-2, on CNS-infiltrating cells and on splenocytes. Similar enhancement in splenic B7-1 expression could be induced in SJL mice by the adoptive transfer of PLP139-151-specific cells or by immunization with CFA alone. These changes were not observed on lymph node cells, including those isolated from lymph nodes draining the immunization site, which maintained the predominant B7-2 expression pattern seen in naive mice. These phenotypic expression patterns correlated with the functional predominance of B7-1 in costimulating T cell activation when employing APCs from the spleen or CNS of mice with ongoing R-EAE, while B7-2 remained functionally predominant on lymph node APCs. Variation of phenotypic expression and functional dominance of costimulatory molecule expression in different lymphoid compartments during an active inflammatory autoimmune response has important implications in immune regulation, autoimmune pathogenesis, and therapeutic strategies. PMID:9647224

Karandikar, N J; Vanderlugt, C L; Eagar, T; Tan, L; Bluestone, J A; Miller, S D

1998-07-01

188

Hair loss in autoimmune systemic diseases.  

PubMed

Hair loss is commonly seen in autoimmune diseases. In pemphigus, although scalp involvement is common, hair loss is rarely reported. In classical bullous pemphigoid, alopecia is not reported while it is described in the Brusting-Perry variant of bullous pemphigoid and in epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. In these two diseases alopecia is cicatricial. In connective tissue diseases, in lupus erythematosus (LE) hair loss is frequent; in particular in LE there are two types of alopecia: non scarring and scarring alopecia. The non scarring form is a finding of acute systemic LE and the scarring form develops when a typical discoid lesion is located on the scalp. In dermatomyositis alopecia is usually non scarring and generalized. In scleroderma, alopecia is associated with en coupe de sabre morphea. PMID:24566567

Parodi, A; Cozzani, E

2014-02-01

189

Safety of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin in systemic autoimmune diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is reported that the usage of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (HD-IVIG) in systemic autoimmune iseases is associated\\u000a with various adverse events in a wide range of severity. We aimed to investigate the frequency and profile of adverse events\\u000a in a group of patients with diffuse connective tissue diseases and Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG) who were administrated HD-IVIG\\u000a for different indications. We

Fatih Tufan; Sevil Kamali; Burak Erer; Ahmet Gul; Murat Inanc; Lale Ocal; Meral Konice; Orhan Aral

2007-01-01

190

NEWS AND COMMENTARY Autoimmunity  

E-print Network

-cell-depen- dent autoimmune diabetes. NOD mice are also prone to multiple other autoimmune disorders, spontaneouslyNEWS AND COMMENTARY Autoimmunity Beyond the immune system Adrian Liston Immunology and Cell Biology the susceptibility of an individual to autoimmune disease. In this study, Lonyai et al. use the non- obese diabetic

Cai, Long

191

Connective tissue diseases in primary biliary cirrhosis: A population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

AIM: To establish the frequency and clinical features of connective tissue diseases (CTDs) in a cohort of Chinese patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). METHODS: Three-hundred and twenty-two Chinese PBC patients were screened for the presence of CTD, and the systemic involvement was assessed. The differences in clinical features and laboratory findings between PBC patients with and without CTD were documented. The diversity of incidence of CTDs in PBC of different countries and areas was discussed. For the comparison of normally distributed data, Student’s t test was used, while non-parametric test (Wilcoxon test) for the non-normally distributed data and 2 × 2 ?2 or Fisher’s exact tests for the ratio. RESULTS: One-hundred and fifty (46.6%) PBC patients had one or more CTDs. The most common CTD was Sjögren’s syndrome (SS, 121 cases, 36.2%). There were nine cases of systemic sclerosis (SSc, 2.8%), 12 of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, 3.7%), nine of rheumatoid arthritis (RA, 2.8%), and 10 of polymyositis (PM, 3.1%) in this cohort. Compared to patients with PBC only, the PBC + SS patients were more likely to have fever and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), higher serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels and more frequent rheumatoid factor (RF) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) incidences; PBC + SSc patients had higher frequency of ILD; PBC + SLE patients had lower white blood cell (WBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb), platelet count, ?-glutamyl transpeptidase and immunoglobulin M levels, but higher frequency of renal involvement; PBC + RA patients had lower Hb, higher serum IgG, alkaline phosphatase, faster ESR and a higher ratio of RF positivity; PBC + PM patients had higher WBC count and a tendency towards myocardial involvement. CONCLUSION: Besides the common liver manifestation of PBC, systemic involvement and overlaps with other CTDs are not infrequent in Chinese patients. When overlapping with other CTDs, PBC patients manifested some special clinical and laboratory features which may have effect on the prognosis. PMID:23964148

Wang, Li; Zhang, Feng-Chun; Chen, Hua; Zhang, Xuan; Xu, Dong; Li, Yong-Zhe; Wang, Qian; Gao, Li-Xia; Yang, Yun-Jiao; Kong, Fang; Wang, Ke

2013-01-01

192

Frequency of Autoantibodies and Connective Tissue Diseases in Chinese Patients with Optic Neuritis  

PubMed Central

Background Optic neuritis (ON) is often associated with other clinical or serological markers of connective tissue diseases (CTDs). To date, the effects of autoantibodies on ON are not clear. Purpose To assess the prevalence, clinical patterns, and short outcomes of autoantibodies and Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) involvement in Chinese ON patients and evaluate the relationship between ON, including their subtypes, and autoantibodies. Methods A total of 190 ON patients were divided into recurrent ON (RON), bilateral ON (BON), and isolated monocular ON (ION). Demographic, clinical, and serum autoantibodies data were compared between them with and without SS involvement. Serum was drawn for antinuclear antibody (ANA), extractable nuclear antigen antibodies (SSA/SSB), rheumatoid factor (RF), anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA), and anti-double-stranded DNA antibody (A-ds DNA), anticardiolipin antibody (ACLs), anti-?2-glycoprotein I (?2-GPI) and Aquaporin-4 antibodies (AQP4-Ab). Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was used to evaluate the atrophy of the optic nerve. Results 68 patients (35.79%) had abnormal autoantibodies, 26(13.68%) patients met diagnostic criteria for CTDs, including 15(7.89%) patients meeting the criteria for SS. Antibodies including SSA/SSB 23 (30.26%) (p1 and p 2<0.001) and AQP4–Ab10 (13.16%) (p1?=?0.044, p2?=?0.01) were significantly different in patients in the RON group when compared with those in the BON (P1?=?RON VS ION) and ION (p2?=?RON VS ION) groups. SS was more common in RON patients (p1?=?0.04, p2?=?0.028). There was no significant difference between SSA/SSB positive and negative patients in disease characteristics or severity. Similar results were obtained when SS was diagnosed in SSA/SSB positive patients. Conclusion RON and BON were more likely associated with abnormal autoantibodies; furthermore, AQP4 antibody, SSA/SSB and SS were more common in the RON patients. AQP4 antibodydetermination is crucial in RON patients who will develop NMO. However, when compared with other autoantibodies, SSA/SSB detected in patients was not significantly associated with disease characteristics or severity. PMID:24950188

Yi, Zuohuizi; Huang, Dehui; Wei, Shihui

2014-01-01

193

Predictors of mortality in connective tissue disease-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a major cause of mortality in connective tissue disease (CTD). We sought to quantify survival and determine factors predictive of mortality in a cohort of patients with CTD-associated PAH (CTD-PAH) in the current era of advanced PAH therapy. Methods Patients with right heart catheter proven CTD-PAH were recruited from six specialised PAH treatment centres across Australia and followed prospectively. Using survival methods including Cox proportional hazards regression, we modelled for all-cause mortality. Independent variables included demographic, clinical and hemodynamic data. Results Among 117 patients (104 (94.9%) with systemic sclerosis), during 2.6 ± 1.8 (mean ± SD) years of follow-up from PAH diagnosis, there were 32 (27.4%) deaths. One-, two- and three-year survivals were 94%, 89% and 73%, respectively. In multiple regression analysis, higher mean right atrial pressure (mRAP) at diagnosis (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.24, P = 0.007), lower baseline six-minute walk distance (HR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43 to 0.97, P = 0.04), higher baseline World Health Organization functional class (HR = 3.42, 95% CI: 1.25 to 9.36, P = 0.04) and presence of a pericardial effusion (HR = 3.39, 95% CI: 1.07 to 10.68, P = 0.04) were predictive of mortality. Warfarin (HR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.78, P = 0.02) and combination PAH therapy (HR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.83, P = 0.03) were protective. Conclusions In this cohort of CTD-PAH patients, three-year survival was 73%. Independent therapeutic predictors of survival included warfarin and combination PAH therapy. Our findings suggest that anticoagulation and combination PAH therapy may improve survival in CTD-PAH. This observation merits further evaluation in randomised controlled trials. PMID:23039366

2012-01-01

194

Transforming Growth Factor-? (TGF-?) Expression Is Increased in the Subsynovial Connective Tissue in a Rabbit Model of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is an idiopathic disease that results from increased fibrosis of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT). A recent study found overexpression of both transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in the SSCT of CTS patients. This study investigated TGF-? and CTGF expression in a rabbit model of CTS, in which SSCT fibrosis is induced by a surgical injury. Levels of TGF-?1 and CTGF at 6, 12, 24 weeks after injury were determined by immunohistochemistry A significant increase in TGF-?1 and a concomitant significant increase in CTGF were found at 6 weeks, in addition to higher cell density compared to normal (all p<0.05), Interestingly, CTGF expression was reduced at 12 and 24 weeks, suggesting that an initial insult results in a time limited response. We conclude that this rabbit model mimics the fibrosis found in human CTS, and may be useful to study pathogenetic mechanisms of CTS in vivo. PMID:25269071

Chikenji, Takako; Gingery, Anne; Zhao, Chunfeng; Vanhees, Matthias; Moriya, Tamami; Reisdorf, Ramona; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

2014-01-01

195

An Evaluation of Collagen Metabolism in Non Human Primates Associated with the Bion 11 Space Program-Markers of Urinary Collagen Turnover and Muscle Connective Tissue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Patients exhibiting changes in connective tissue and bone metabolism also show changes in urinary by-products of tissue metabolism. Furthermore, the changes in urinary connective tissue and bone metabolites precede alterations at the tissue macromolecular level. Astronauts and Cosmonauts have also shown suggestive increases in urinary by-products of mineralized and non-mineralized tissue degradation. Thus, the idea of assessing connective tissue and bone response in spaceflight monkeys by measurement of biomarkers in urine has merit. Other investigations of bone and connective histology, cytology and chemistry in the Bion 11 monkeys will allow for further validation of the relationship of urinary biomarkers and tissue response. In future flights the non-invasive procedure of urinary analysis may be useful in early detection of changes in these tissues. Purpose: The purpose of this grant investigation was to evaluate mineralized and non-mineralized connective tissue responses of non-human primates to microgravity by the non-invasive analysis of urinary biomarkers. Secondly, we also wanted to assess muscle connective tissue adaptive changes in three weight-bearing skeletal muscles: the soleus, medial gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior by obtaining pre-flight and post-flight small biopsy specimens in collaboration with Dr. V. Reggie Edgerton's laboratory at the University of California at Los Angeles.

Vailas, Arthur C.; Martinez, Daniel A.

1999-01-01

196

An Evaluation of Collagen Metabolism in Non Human Primates Associated with the Bion 11 Space Program-Markers of Urinary Collagen Turnover and Muscle Connective Tissue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Patients exhibiting changes in connective tissue and bone metabolism also show changes in urinary by-products of tissue metabolism. Furthermore, the changes in urinary connective tissue and bone metabolites precede alterations at the tissue macromolecular level. Astronauts and Cosmonauts have also shown suggestive increases in urinary by-products of mineralized and non-mineralized tissue degradation. Thus, the idea of assessing connective tissue and bone response in spaceflight monkeys by measurement of biomarkers in urine has merit. Other investigations of bone and connective histology, cytology and chemistry in the Bion 11 monkeys will allow for further validation of the relationship of urinary biomarkers and tissue response. In future flights the non-invasive procedure of urinary analysis may be useful in early detection of changes in these tissues. The purpose of this grant investigation was to evaluate mineralized and non-mineralized connective tissue responses of non-human primates to microgravity by the non-invasive analysis of urinary biomarkers. Secondly, we also wanted to assess muscle connective tissue adaptive changes in three weight-bearing skeletal muscles: the soleus, media] gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior by obtaining pre-flight and post-flight small biopsy specimens in collaboration with Dr. V. Reggie Edgerton's laboratory at the University of California at Los Angeles.

Vailas, Arthur C.; Martinez, Daniel A.

1999-01-01

197

[Experimental study of the effect of glucosamine hydrochloride on metabolic and repair processes in connective tissue structures].  

PubMed

The effects of glucosamine hydrochloride on the metabolic and repair processes were studied on a model of post-traumatic osteoarthrosis in the articular cartilage and on a model of post-traumatic keratitis in the cornea. The administration of glucosamine hydrochloride stimulated repair and favored inhibition of dystrophic post-traumatic processes in the connective-tissue structures. It is suggested that a probable mechanism of the drug action consists in stimulation of the synthesis of glucosaminoglycanes and collagen. PMID:12596539

Zupanets, I A; Bezdetko, N V; Dedukh, N V; Otrishko, I A

2002-01-01

198

Regulation of angiogenesis and endothelial cell function by connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and cysteine-rich 61 (CYR61)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and cysteine-rich 61 (CYR61) are prototypical members of the CCN family which also contains nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV) and Wnt-induced secreted proteins-1, -2 and -3 (WISP-1, -2, -3). These proteins function as extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated signaling molecules that contain structural modules allowing them to bind directly with other moieties in the pericellular environment. Although multiple target

David R. Brigstock

2002-01-01

199

Dextrose-Induced Subsynovial Connective Tissue Fibrosis in the Rabbit Carpal Tunnel: A Potential Model to Study Carpal Tunnel Syndrome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this pilot study, hypertonic dextrose solution was used to induce fibrosis of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT)\\u000a and create an animal model of potential use in the study of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The SSCT of the carpal tunnel in\\u000a 15 New Zealand white rabbits were injected with 0.05 ml of 10% dextrose solution in 1 paw and 0.05 ml of

Sangho Oh; Anke M. Ettema; Chunfeng Zhao; Mark E. Zobitz; Lester E. Wold; Kai-Nan An; Peter C. Amadio

2008-01-01

200

Effect of Cyclosporine and Sirolimus on the Expression of Connective Tissue Growth Factor in Rat Experimental Chronic Nephrotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a pro-fibrotic growth factor that acts downstream of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?. However, CTGF regulation remains unknown. We tried to determine the effect of two commonly used immunosuppressants, cyclosporine (CsA) and sirolimus (SRL), on CTGF expression in a model of chronic nephrotoxicity. Methods: Adult Sprague-Dawley rats kept on a low-salt diet were treated

Fuad S. Shihab; William M. Bennett; Hong Yi; Takeshi F. Andoh

2006-01-01

201

Tonic inhibitory effect of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1)-mediated signaling on human connective tissue and mucosal type mast cell  

E-print Network

connective tissue and mucosal type mast cell functions in situ via endocannabinoids Koji Sugawara1,4, Tamás 2 3 ** ** NumberofKit+cells pervisualfield control AEA AM251 AEA+AM251 0 1 2 3 *** *** *** NumberofKit+cells pervisualfield control AM251 0.0 0.2 0.4 N.S. NumberofKit/Ki67double+cells pervisualfield control AM251 AM251

Groppe, Jinghua

202

Connective Tissue Growth Factor Is Up-Regulated in the Diabetic Retina: Amelioration by Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been postulated to have prosclerotic and angiogenic properties. The aim of this present study was to characterize retinal CTGF expres- sion in the absence and presence of diabetes and in the context of treatment with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, perindopril. Retinas were obtained from control, diabetic, and diabetic plus perindopril-treated (3 mg\\/d) rats.

CHRISTOS TIKELLIS; MARK E. COOPER; M. TWIGG; WENDY C. BURNS; MARY TOLCOS

2003-01-01

203

Changes in connective tissue in patients with pelvic organ prolapse—a review of the current literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the pathophysiology of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). In 1996, Jackson presented a hypothesis on pelvic\\u000a floor connective tissue that tried to explain the development of POP on a molecular level. The objective of this review is\\u000a to test the hypothesis against recent literature. The method used was a review of literature. The association between POP\\u000a and

M. H. Kerkhof; L. Hendriks; H. A. M. Brölmann

2009-01-01

204

Connective tissue growth factor mediates transforming growth factor b-induced collagen synthesis: down- regulation by cAMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a cysteine-rich peptide synthesized and secreted by fibroblastic cells after activation with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-b) that acts as a downstream mediator of TGF-b-induced fibroblast proliferation. We performed in vitro and in vivo studies to determine whether CTGF is also essential for TGF-b-induced fibroblast collagen synthesis. In vitro studies with normal rat kidney

MATTHEW R. DUNCAN; KEN S. FRAZIER; SUSAN ABRAMSON; SHAWN WILLIAMS; HELENE KLAPPER; XINFAN HUANG; GARY R. GROTENDORST

205

Tight-skin, a new mutation of the mouse causing excessive growth of connective tissue and skeleton.  

PubMed Central

A new dominant mutation, tight-skin (Tsk), is located on Chromosome 2, two recombination units distal to pallid (pa). Heterozygotes (Tsk/+) have tight skins with marked hyperplasia of the subcutaneous loose connective tissues, increased growth of cartilage and bone, and small tendons with hyperplasia of the tendon sheaths. In the loose connective tissue there are large accumulations of microfibrils in the intercellular space. In spite of the increased skeletal size, body weight is not increased. Increase in size of the thoracic skeleton is especially pronounced and leads to pathologic distentsion of the hollow thoracic viscera. Concentration of growth hormone in the pituitary and plasma is normal. Homozygotes (Tsk/TSK) die in utero at 7 to 8 days of gestation. We propose the hypothesis that Tsk might act by causing defective cell receptors with high affinity for a somatomedin-like factor promoting growth of cartilage, bone, and connective tissue and low affinity for a multiplication-stimulating factor promoting embryonic growth. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:176891

Green, M. C.; Sweet, H. O.; Bunker, L. E.

1976-01-01

206

UVA/UVA1 phototherapy and PUVA photochemotherapy in connective tissue diseases and related disorders: a research based review  

PubMed Central

Background Broad-band UVA, long-wave UVA1 and PUVA treatment have been described as an alternative/adjunct therapeutic option in a number of inflammatory and malignant skin diseases. Nevertheless, controlled studies investigating the efficacy of UVA irradiation in connective tissue diseases and related disorders are rare. Methods Searching the PubMed database the current article systematically reviews established and innovative therapeutic approaches of broad-band UVA irradiation, UVA1 phototherapy and PUVA photochemotherapy in a variety of different connective tissue disorders. Results Potential pathways include immunomodulation of inflammation, induction of collagenases and initiation of apoptosis. Even though holding the risk of carcinogenesis, photoaging or UV-induced exacerbation, UVA phototherapy seems to exhibit a tolerable risk/benefit ratio at least in systemic sclerosis, localized scleroderma, extragenital lichen sclerosus et atrophicus, sclerodermoid graft-versus-host disease, lupus erythematosus and a number of sclerotic rarities. Conclusions Based on the data retrieved from the literature, therapeutic UVA exposure seems to be effective in connective tissue diseases and related disorders. However, more controlled investigations are needed in order to establish a clear-cut catalogue of indications. PMID:15380024

Breuckmann, Frank; Gambichler, Thilo; Altmeyer, Peter; Kreuter, Alexander

2004-01-01

207

Transforming growth factor-?-independent role of connective tissue growth factor in the development of liver fibrosis.  

PubMed

We previously identified transforming growth factor (TGF)-? signaling as a fibronectin-independent mechanism of type I collagen fibrillogenesis following adult liver injury. To address the contribution of TGF-? signaling during the development of liver fibrosis, we generated adult mice lacking TGF-? type II receptor (TGF-?IIR) from the liver. TGF-?IIR knockout livers indeed showed a dominant effect in reducing fibrosis, but fibrosis still remained approximately 45% compared with control and fibronectin knockout livers. Unexpectedly, this was accompanied by significant up-regulation of connective tissue growth factor mRNA levels. Organized type I collagen networks in TGF-?IIR knockout livers colocalized well with fibronectin. We provide evidence that elimination of TGF-?IIR is not sufficient to completely prevent liver fibrosis. Our results indicate a TGF-?-independent mechanism of type I collagen production and suggest connective tissue growth factor as its potent mediator. We advocate combined elimination of TGF-? signaling and connective tissue growth factor as a potential therapeutic target by which to attenuate liver fibrosis. PMID:25108224

Sakai, Keiko; Jawaid, Safdar; Sasaki, Takako; Bou-Gharios, George; Sakai, Takao

2014-10-01

208

Purification and characterization of pepsin-solubilized collagen from skin and connective tissue of giant red sea cucumber (Parastichopus californicus).  

PubMed

Pepsin-solubilized collagen (PSC) was extracted from giant red sea cucumbers ( Parastichopus californicus ) and characterized for denaturation temperature (T(d)), maximum transition temperature (T(m)), enzyme-digested peptide maps, and gel-forming capability. SDS-PAGE showed that PSCs from giant red sea cucumber skin and connective tissue were both type I collagens, consisting of three alpha(1) chains of approximately 138 kDa each. The amino acid composition and peptide maps of PSCs digested by V8 protease were different from those of calf skin type I collagen. The T(d) and T(m) are 18.5 and 33.2 degrees C, respectively, for skin PSC and are 17.9 and 32.7 degrees C, respectively, for connective tissue PSC. Both skin and connective tissue PSCs exhibited good gel-forming capability at pH 6.5 and at an ionic strength of 300 mM salt (NaCl). Collagen isolated from giant red sea cucumbers might be used as an alternative to mammalian collagen in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:20085374

Liu, Zunying; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Su, Yi-Cheng

2010-01-27

209

Markers of Inflammation and Fibrosis in the Orbital Fat/Connective Tissue of Patients with Graves' Orbitopathy: Clinical Implications  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To assess FGF-?, TGF-?, and COX2 expression and immunocompetent cells in the orbital tissue of patients with severe and mild Graves' orbitopathy. Patients and Methods. Orbital tissue was taken from 27 patients with GO: (1) severe GO (n = 18), the mean clinical activity score (CAS) being 8.5 (SD 2.5); and (2) mild GO (n = 9), the mean CAS being 2.2 (SD 0.8), and from 10 individuals undergoing blepharoplasty. The expression of CD4+, CD8+, CD20+, and CD68 and FGF-?, TGF-?, and COX2 in the orbital tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemical methods. Results. We demonstrated predominant CD4+ T cells in severe GO. CD68 expression was observed in the fibrous connective area of mild GO and was robust in severe GO, while the prominent TGF-? expression was seen in all GO. Increased FGF-? expression was observed in the fibroblasts and adipocytes of severe GO. No expression of COX2 was found in patients with GO. Conclusions. Macrophages and CD4 T lymphocytes are both engaged in the active/severe and long stage of inflammation in the orbital tissue. FGF-? and TGF-? expression may contribute to tissue remodeling, fibrosis, and perpetuation of inflammation in the orbital tissue of GO especially in severe GO. PMID:25309050

Pawlowski, Przemyslaw; Eckstein, Anja; Johnson, Kristian; Chyczewski, Lech; Mysliwiec, Janusz

2014-01-01

210

Endothelial cell markers reflecting endothelial cell dysfunction in patients with mixed connective tissue disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between cardiovascular risk factors and endothelial dysfunction in patients with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) and to determine which biomarkers are associated with atherosclerotic complications, such as cardiovascular disease. Methods Fifty MCTD patients and 38 healthy age-matched and sex-matched controls were enrolled in this study. In order to describe endothelial dysfunction, we assessed flow-mediated dilation (FMD), nitrate-mediated dilation (NMD) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). We investigated FMD of the brachial artery after reactive hyperemia and NMD after sublingual nitroglycerin administration, while the IMT of the common carotid artery was determined by ultrasound. Anti-U1 ribonucleoprotein (anti-U1RNP) antibodies, anti-cardiolipin (anti-CL) antibodies, anti-endothelial cell antibody (AECA) and endothelial cell markers, such as soluble thrombomodulin (TM) and von Willebrand factor antigen (vWFAg), were assessed. Results The endothelium-dependent vasodilation (FMD) was significantly impaired in patients with MCTD, as compared with controls (%FMD: 4.7 ± 4.2% vs. 8.7 ± 5.0%; P < 0.001), while the percentage NMD did not differ (%NMD: 14.3 ± 6.6% vs. 17.1 ± 6.7%; P = 0.073). Mean carotid IMT values were higher in patients than in controls (IMT: MCTD, 0.64 ± 0.13 mm vs. controls, 0.53 ± 0.14 mm; P < 0.001). FMD negatively correlated with disease duration, the levels of apolipoprotein A1, the paraoxonase-1 activity, and systolic blood pressure in MCTD patients. The percentage FMD was significantly lower in MCTD patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), than in those without CVD (%FMD: 3.5 ± 2.9 vs. 5.8 ± 4.8, P < 0.0002), while percentage NMD did not differ between patients with and without CVDs. Serum levels of autoantibodies (anti-U1RNP, AECA and anti-CL) were significantly higher in MCTD patients and differed between MCTD patients with and without CVD. Endothelial cell markers such as soluble TM (12.2 ± 8.1 ng/ml vs. 3.2 ± 1.3 ng/ml; P < 0.001) and vWFAg (224.1 ± 115% vs. 89.4 ± 27.1%, P < 0.001) were the highest in MCTD patients with CVD. Conclusions FMD is a reliable sensitive marker of endothelial cell dysfunction in MCTD. Beside the traditional risk factors, anti-U1RNP, AECA and anti-CL antibodies may be important not only in the pathogenesis of MCTD but in the induction of endothelial cell activation, and may play crucial roles in the development of early atherosclerosis in MCTD. PMID:20459625

2010-01-01

211

Amplification of autoimmune disease by infection  

PubMed Central

Reports of infection with certain chronic persistent microbes (herpesviruses or Chlamydiae) in human autoimmune diseases are consistent with the hypothesis that these microbes are reactivated in the setting of immunodeficiency and often target the site of autoimmune inflammation. New experimental animal models demonstrate the principle. A herpesvirus or Chlamydia species can be used to infect mice with induced transient autoimmune diseases. This results in increased disease severity and even relapse. The evidence suggests that the organisms are specifically imported to the inflammatory sites and cause further tissue destruction, especially when the host is immunosuppressed. We review the evidence for the amplification of autoimmune inflammatory disease by microbial infection, which may be a general mechanism applicable to many human diseases. We suggest that patients with autoimmune disorders receiving immunosuppressing drugs should benefit from preventive antiviral therapy. PMID:15743493

Posnett, David N; Yarilin, Dmitry

2005-01-01

212

On the Connection Between Autoimmunity, tic Disorders and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders: A Meta-Analysis on Anti-Streptolysin O Titres.  

PubMed

Anti-streptolysin O (ASO) titration is useful in the context of autoimmune pathologies, including specific cases of tic and obsessive-compulsive disorders occurring after streptococcal infections. There is currently a lack of consensus on the use of ASO titres; therefore we performed a meta-analysis to systematise available data and clarify the role of ASO titres in the context of neuropsychiatric disorders. A meta-analysis was performed on ASO titration in neuropsychiatric patients, including tic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Included studies reported numbers of positive subjects, depending on a chosen threshold, or detailed ASO titrations. Three hundred and twenty nine studies were identified, of which 13 were eligible for meta-analysis. Due to limited available data, only tic disorders were evaluated. The odds ratio of finding an abnormal ASO titre in patients was 3.22 (95 % C.I. 1.51-6.88) as compared to healthy controls and 16.14 (95 % C.I. 8.11-32.11) as compared to non-psychiatric patients. Studies using different thresholds were generally concordant. ASO titres were also compared quantitatively, finding an overall difference of the means of 70.50 U/ml (95 % C.I. 25.21-115.80) in favour of patients with tic disorders. Based on current evidence, tic disorders are associated with a significant increase in ASO titres, evident both in a threshold-level perspective and on a quantitative level. These results encourage the systematisation of ASO titration in the context of tic disorders. PMID:25091468

Pozzi, Marco; Pellegrino, Paolo; Carnovale, Carla; Perrone, Valentina; Antoniazzi, Stefania; Perrotta, Cristiana; Radice, Sonia; Clementi, Emilio

2014-12-01

213

Leaky gut and autoimmune diseases.  

PubMed

Autoimmune diseases are characterized by tissue damage and loss of function due to an immune response that is directed against specific organs. This review is focused on the role of impaired intestinal barrier function on autoimmune pathogenesis. Together with the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and the neuroendocrine network, the intestinal epithelial barrier, with its intercellular tight junctions, controls the equilibrium between tolerance and immunity to non-self antigens. Zonulin is the only physiologic modulator of intercellular tight junctions described so far that is involved in trafficking of macromolecules and, therefore, in tolerance/immune response balance. When the zonulin pathway is deregulated in genetically susceptible individuals, autoimmune disorders can occur. This new paradigm subverts traditional theories underlying the development of these diseases and suggests that these processes can be arrested if the interplay between genes and environmental triggers is prevented by re-establishing the zonulin-dependent intestinal barrier function. Both animal models and recent clinical evidence support this new paradigm and provide the rationale for innovative approaches to prevent and treat autoimmune diseases. PMID:22109896

Fasano, Alessio

2012-02-01

214

Contribution of myofibrillar and connective tissue components to the Warner-Bratzler shear force of cooked beef.  

PubMed

Myofibrillar (MF-SF) and connective tissue (CT-SF) peak shear forces were interpolated from Warner-Bratzler shear force (SF) deformation curves of cooked bovine M. gluteus medius (GM) and M. semitendinosus (ST) from 112 crossbred steers in a 2×2×2 factorial experiment examining the interactions between slaughter age, growth promotants and breed cross (British versus Continental). Mixed model analyses, Pearson correlations and stepwise multiple regression identified relationships between shear forces, meat quality measurements and production treatments. Connective tissue contribution to SF increased with slaughter age and implantation in the ST and with slaughter age only in the GM. Myofibrillar contribution to SF increased with slaughter age for the ST and with Continental genetics for the GM. Variation in ST SF and MF-SF was best described by muscle weight, which increased with animal age, while GM SF and MF-SF variation was best described by cooking loss, indicating that ST and GM SF were most affected by connective and myofibrillar proteins, respectively. PMID:22842042

Girard, I; Bruce, H L; Basarab, J A; Larsen, I L; Aalhus, J L

2012-12-01

215

Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) expression is increased in the subsynovial connective tissues of patients with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome.  

PubMed

Non-inflammatory fibrosis of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) is a hallmark of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The etiology of this finding and its relationship to the development of CTS remain poorly understood. Recent studies have found that transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) plays a central role in fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of TGF-? and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a downstream mediator of TGF-?, in the pathogenesis of CTS. We compared SSCT specimens from 26 idiopathic CTS patients with specimens from 10 human cadaver controls with no previous diagnosis of CTS. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine levels TGF-?1, CTGF, collagen 1(Col1) and collagen 3 (Col3) expression. TGF-?1 (p < 0.01), CTGF (p < 0.01), and Col3 (p < 0.01) were increased in SSCT of CTS patients compared with control tissue. In addition, a strong positive correlation was found between TGF-?1 and CTGF, (R(2) = 0.80, p < 0.01) and a moderate positive correlation between Col3 and TGF-?1 (R(2) = 0.49, p < 0.01). These finding suggest that there is an increased expression of TGF-? and CTGF, a TGF-? regulated protein, and that this TGF-? activation may be responsible for SSCT fibrosis in CTS patients. PMID:24014274

Chikenji, Takako; Gingery, Anne; Zhao, Chunfeng; Passe, Sandra M; Ozasa, Yasuhiro; Larson, Dirk; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

2014-01-01

216

Natural antibody mediated innate autoimmune response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advance in autoimmunity research reveals that the innate immune system is able to recognize self-targets and initiate inflammatory response in a similar way as with pathogens. This review describes one novel example of this innate autoimmunity, ischemia–reperfusion (I\\/R) injury. Studies of intestinal, skeletal muscle, and heart I\\/R models showed that reperfusion of ischemic tissues elicits an acute inflammatory response

Ming Zhang; Michael C. Carroll

2007-01-01

217

Understanding Autoimmune Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... the understanding of the genetics and causes of autoimmune disorders and result in improvements in diagnosing and treating ... privately supported clinical trials for a variety of autoimmune disorders, visit www.clinicaltrials.gov . Key Words Acquired immune ...

218

Toxicology of Autoimmune Diseases  

PubMed Central

Susceptibility to most autoimmune diseases is dependent on polygenic inheritance, environmental factors, and poorly defined stochastic events. One of the significant challenges facing autoimmune disease research is in identifying the specific events that trigger loss of tolerance and autoimmunity. Although many intrinsic factors, including age, sex, and genetics, contribute to autoimmunity, extrinsic factors such as drugs, chemicals, microbes, or other environmental factors can also act as important initiators. This review explores how certain extrinsic factors, namely drugs and chemicals, can promote the development of autoimmunity, focusing on a few better characterized agents that, in most instances, have been shown to produce autoimmune manifestations in human populations. Mechanisms of autoimmune disease induction are discussed in terms of research obtained using specific animal models. Although a number of different pathways have been delineated for drug/chemical-induced autoimmunity some similarities do exist and a working model is proposed. PMID:20078109

Hultman, Per; Kono, Dwight H.

2010-01-01

219

Sustained Remission of Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Mediated Glomerulonephritis and Nephrotic Syndrome in Mixed Connective Tissue Disease  

PubMed Central

A woman diagnosed with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) developed an anti-myeloperoxidase (MPO) antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) and nephrotic syndrome with normal serum creatinine. Percutaneous kidney biopsy showed pauci-immune glomerulonephritis with superimposed immune complex deposition. After treatment with cyclophophamide and prednisone, proteinuria decreased progressively to a level of 0.4 g/g creatinine, ANCA became undetectable, while serum creatinine remained normal seven years after the beginning of treatment. Sustained remission of nephrotic proteinuria with preserved renal function may follow treatment of ANCA-mediated disease developing in patients with MCTD. PMID:23864923

Konstantinov, Konstantin N.; Harris, Alexis A.; Barry, Marc; Murata, Glen H.; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H.

2013-01-01

220

Transcriptional landscapes of emerging autoimmunity: transient aberrations in the targeted tissue's extracellular milieu precede immune responses in Sj?gren's syndrome  

PubMed Central

Introduction Our understanding of autoimmunity is skewed considerably towards the late stages of overt disease and chronic inflammation. Defining the targeted organ’s role during emergence of autoimmune diseases is, however, critical in order to define their etiology, early and covert disease phases and delineate their molecular basis. Methods Using Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) as an exemplary rheumatic autoimmune disease and temporal global gene-expression profiling, we systematically mapped the transcriptional landscapes and chronological interrelationships between biological themes involving the salivary glands’ extracellular milieu. The time period studied spans from pre- to subclinical and ultimately to onset of overt disease in a well-defined model of spontaneous SS, the C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 strain. In order to answer this aim of great generality, we developed a novel bioinformatics-based approach, which integrates comprehensive data analysis and visualization within interactive networks. The latter are computed by projecting the datasets as a whole on a priori-defined consensus-based knowledge. Results Applying these methodologies revealed extensive susceptibility loci-dependent aberrations in salivary gland homeostasis and integrity preceding onset of overt disease by a considerable amount of time. These alterations coincided with innate immune responses depending predominantly on genes located outside of the SS-predisposing loci Aec1 and Aec2. Following a period of transcriptional stability, networks mapping the onset of overt SS displayed, in addition to natural killer, T- and B-cell-specific gene patterns, significant reversals of focal adhesion, cell-cell junctions and neurotransmitter receptor-associated alterations that had prior characterized progression from pre- to subclinical disease. Conclusions This data-driven methodology advances unbiased assessment of global datasets an allowed comprehensive interpretation of complex alterations in biological states. Its application delineated a major involvement of the targeted organ during the emergence of experimental SS. PMID:24286337

2013-01-01

221

Comparison of Characteristics of Connective Tissue Disease-Associated Interstitial Lung Diseases, Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease-Associated Interstitial Lung Diseases, and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis in Chinese Han Population: A Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

Our study compared the prevalence and characteristics of patients with connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD), undifferentiated connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease (UCTD-ILD), or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) between January 2009 and December 2012 in West China Hospital, western China. Patients who met the criteria for ILD were included and were assigned to CTD-ILD, UCTD-ILD, or IPF group when they met the criteria for CTD, UCTD, or IPF, respectively. Clinical characteristics, laboratory tests, and high-resolution CT images were analyzed and compared among three groups. 203 patients were included, and all were Han nationality. CTD-ILD was identified in 31%, UCTD-ILD in 32%, and IPF in 37%. Gender and age differed among groups. Pulmonary symptoms were more common in IPF, while extrapulmonary symptoms were more common in CTD-ILD and UCTD-ILD group. Patients with CTD-ILD had more abnormal antibody tests than those of UCTD-ILD and IPF. Little significance was seen in HRCT images among three groups. A systematic evaluation of symptoms and serologic tests in patients with ILD can identify CTD-ILD, UCTD-ILD, and IPF. PMID:24171031

Pan, Lin; Liu, Yuan; Sun, Rongfei; Fan, Mingyu; Shi, Guixiu

2013-01-01

222

Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autoimmune polyglandular syndromes—a group of syndromes comprising a combination of endocrine and nonendocrine autoimmune diseases—differ in their component diseases and in the immunologic features of their pathogenesis. One of the three main syndromes, type 1 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS-1), has a unique pathogenic mechanism owing to mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, which results in the loss of

Peter A. Gottlieb; Aaron W. Michels

2010-01-01

223

Perspectives on autoimmunity  

SciTech Connect

The contents of this book are: HLA and Autoimmunity; Self-Recognition and Symmetry in the Immune System; Immunology of Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus; Multiple Sclerosis; Autoimmunity and Immune Pathological Aspects of Virus Disease; Analyses of the Idiotypes and Ligand Binding Characteristics of Human Monoclonal Autoantibodies to DNA: Do We Understand Better Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Autoimmunity and Rheumatic Fever; Autoimmune Arthritis Induced by Immunization to Mycobacterial Antigens; and The Interaction Between Genetic Factors and Micro-Organisms in Ankylosing Spondylitis: Facts and Fiction.

Cohen, I.R.

1987-01-01

224

Softenin, a Novel Protein That Softens the Connective Tissue of Sea Cucumbers through Inhibiting Interaction between Collagen Fibrils  

PubMed Central

The dermis in the holothurian body wall is a typical catch connective tissue or mutable collagenous tissue that shows rapid changes in stiffness. Some chemical factors that change the stiffness of the tissue were found in previous studies, but the molecular mechanisms of the changes are not yet fully understood. Detection of factors that change the stiffness by working directly on the extracellular matrix was vital to clarify the mechanisms of the change. We isolated from the body wall of the sea cucumber Stichopus chloronotus a novel protein, softenin, that softened the body-wall dermis. The apparent molecular mass was 20 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of 17 amino acids had low homology to that of known proteins. We performed sequential chemical and physical dissections of the dermis and tested the effects of softenin on each dissection stage by dynamic mechanical tests. Softenin softened Triton-treated dermis whose cells had been disrupted by detergent. The Triton-treated dermis was subjected to repetitive freeze-and-thawing to make Triton-Freeze-Thaw (TFT) dermis that was softer than the Triton-treated dermis, implying that some force-bearing structure had been disrupted by this treatment. TFT dermis was stiffened by tensilin, a stiffening protein of sea cucumbers. Softenin softened the tensilin-stiffened TFT dermis while it had no effect on the TFT dermis without tensilin treatment. We isolated collagen from the dermis. When tensilin was applied to the suspending solution of collagen fibrils, they made a large compact aggregate that was dissolved by the application of softenin or by repetitive freeze-and-thawing. These results strongly suggested that softenin decreased dermal stiffness through inhibiting cross-bridge formation between collagen fibrils; the formation was augmented by tensilin and the bridges were broken by the freeze-thaw treatment. Softenin is thus the first softener of catch connective tissue shown to work on the cross-bridges between extracellular materials. PMID:24454910

Takehana, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Akira; Tamori, Masaki; Motokawa, Tatsuo

2014-01-01

225

Softenin, a novel protein that softens the connective tissue of sea cucumbers through inhibiting interaction between collagen fibrils.  

PubMed

The dermis in the holothurian body wall is a typical catch connective tissue or mutable collagenous tissue that shows rapid changes in stiffness. Some chemical factors that change the stiffness of the tissue were found in previous studies, but the molecular mechanisms of the changes are not yet fully understood. Detection of factors that change the stiffness by working directly on the extracellular matrix was vital to clarify the mechanisms of the change. We isolated from the body wall of the sea cucumber Stichopus chloronotus a novel protein, softenin, that softened the body-wall dermis. The apparent molecular mass was 20 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of 17 amino acids had low homology to that of known proteins. We performed sequential chemical and physical dissections of the dermis and tested the effects of softenin on each dissection stage by dynamic mechanical tests. Softenin softened Triton-treated dermis whose cells had been disrupted by detergent. The Triton-treated dermis was subjected to repetitive freeze-and-thawing to make Triton-Freeze-Thaw (TFT) dermis that was softer than the Triton-treated dermis, implying that some force-bearing structure had been disrupted by this treatment. TFT dermis was stiffened by tensilin, a stiffening protein of sea cucumbers. Softenin softened the tensilin-stiffened TFT dermis while it had no effect on the TFT dermis without tensilin treatment. We isolated collagen from the dermis. When tensilin was applied to the suspending solution of collagen fibrils, they made a large compact aggregate that was dissolved by the application of softenin or by repetitive freeze-and-thawing. These results strongly suggested that softenin decreased dermal stiffness through inhibiting cross-bridge formation between collagen fibrils; the formation was augmented by tensilin and the bridges were broken by the freeze-thaw treatment. Softenin is thus the first softener of catch connective tissue shown to work on the cross-bridges between extracellular materials. PMID:24454910

Takehana, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Akira; Tamori, Masaki; Motokawa, Tatsuo

2014-01-01

226

In the beginning there were soft collagen-cell gels: towards better 3D connective tissue models?  

PubMed

In the 40 years since Elsdale and Bard's analysis of fibroblast culture in collagen gels we have moved far beyond the concept that such 3D fibril network systems are better models than monolayer cultures. This review analyses key aspects of that progression of models, against a background of what exactly each model system tries to mimic. This story tracks our increasing understanding of fibroblast responses to soft collagen gels, in particularly their cytoskeletal contraction, migration and integrin attachment. The focus on fibroblast mechano-function has generated models designed to directly measure the overall force generated by fibroblast populations, their reaction to external loads and the role of the matrix structure. Key steps along this evolution of 3D collagen models have been designed to mimic normal skin, wound repair, tissue morphogenesis and remodelling, growth and contracture during scarring/fibrosis. As new models are developed to understand cell-mechanical function in connective tissues the collagen material has become progressively more important, now being engineered to mimic more complex aspects of native extracellular matrix structure. These have included collagen fibril density, alignment and hierarchical structure, controlling material stiffness and anisotropy. But of these, tissue-like collagen density is key in that it contributes to control of the others. It is concluded that across this 40 year window major progress has been made towards establishing a family of 3D experimental collagen tissue-models, suitable to investigate normal and pathological fibroblast mechano-functions. PMID:23856376

Brown, Robert A

2013-10-01

227

Association between COX-2 rs 6681231 Genotype and Interleukin-6 in Periodontal Connective Tissue. A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this pilot study was to investigate associations between IL-6 and COX-2 expression in gingival biopsies and both clinical diagnosis and genotypes in the IL-6 and COX-2 genes. Design A case-control study included 41 gingival biopsies obtained from Caucasian patients grouped according to clinical diagnosis of gingival health (n?=?10), gingivitis (n?=?15) or chronic periodontitis (n?=?16). Immunohistochemistry analyses were performed to determine COX-2 expression in lamina propria, IL-6 expression in lamina propria and gingival epithelium and level of inflammatory cell infiltrate. Individual DNA was extracted and genotyped by real-time PCR for IL6 SNPs rs 2069827 and rs 2069825 and for COX-2 rs 6681231. Results The percentage of cellular COX-2 expression was associated with the extent of periodontal disease (Arbes index p?=?0.026) and inflammatory infiltrate (p<0.0001). No association was observed between IL6 haplotypes and cells positive to IL-6 or COX-2 in gingival tissues. The COX-2 rs 6681231 was associated with cells positive to IL-6 in the connective tissue (p?=?0.032). Conclusions COX-2 expression in gingival tissues may be a marker of periodontal disease severity. COX-2 rs 6681231 may be associated with IL-6 local production in gingival tissues. PMID:24551049

Mesa, Francisco; O'Valle, Francisco; Rizzo, Manfredi; Cappello, Francesco; Donos, Nikos; Parkar, Mohamed; Chaudhary, Navidah; Carini, Francesco; Munoz, Ricardo; Nibali, Luigi

2014-01-01

228

Unusual Glycosaminoglycans from a Deep Sea Hydrothermal Bacterium Improve Fibrillar Collagen Structuring and Fibroblast Activities in Engineered Connective Tissues  

PubMed Central

Biopolymers produced by marine organisms can offer useful tools for regenerative medicine. Particularly, HE800 exopolysaccharide (HE800 EPS) secreted by a deep-sea hydrothermal bacterium displays an interesting glycosaminoglycan-like feature resembling hyaluronan. Previous studies demonstrated its effectiveness to enhance in vivo bone regeneration and to support osteoblastic cell metabolism in culture. Thus, in order to assess the usefulness of this high-molecular weight polymer in tissue engineering and tissue repair, in vitro reconstructed connective tissues containing HE800 EPS were performed. We showed that this polysaccharide promotes both collagen structuring and extracellular matrix settle by dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, from the native HE800 EPS, a low-molecular weight sulfated derivative (HE800 DROS) displaying chemical analogy with heparan-sulfate, was designed. Thus, it was demonstrated that HE800 DROS mimics some properties of heparan-sulfate, such as promotion of fibroblast proliferation and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) secretion. Therefore, we suggest that the HE800EPS family can be considered as an innovative biotechnological source of glycosaminoglycan-like compounds useful to design biomaterials and drugs for tissue engineering and repair. PMID:23612369

Senni, Karim; Gueniche, Farida; Changotade, Sylvie; Septier, Dominique; Sinquin, Corinne; Ratiskol, Jacqueline; Lutomski, Didier; Godeau, Gaston; Guezennec, Jean; Colliec-Jouault, Sylvia

2013-01-01

229

HIV and autoimmunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association of immune dysfunction in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS and the development of autoimmune diseases is intriguing. Yet, the spectrum of reported autoimmune phenomena in these patients is increasing. An infectious trigger for immune activation is one of the postulated mechanisms and derives from molecular mimicry. During frank loss of immunocompetence, autoimmune diseases that

Gisele Zandman-Goddard; Yehuda Shoenfeld

2002-01-01

230

Coordination of murine limb muscle, skeleton and connective tissue development by Lmx1b  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underlying genetic defects of a congenital disease Nail-Patella Syndrome are loss-of-function mutations in the LMX1B gene. Lmx1b encodes a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor that is expressed specifically in the dorsal limb bud mesenchyme. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments suggest that Lmx1b is both necessary and sufficient to specify dorsal limb patterning. However, how Lmx1b coordinates patterning of the dorsal tissues in

Ying Li

2009-01-01

231

Hormonal modulation of connective tissue homeostasis and sex differences in risk for osteoarthritis of the knee.  

PubMed

Young female athletes experience a higher incidence of ligament injuries than their male counterparts, females experience a higher incidence of joint hypermobility syndrome (a risk factor for osteoarthritis development), and post-menopausal females experience a higher prevalence of osteoarthritis than age-matched males. These observations indicate that fluctuating sex hormone levels in young females and loss of ovarian sex hormone production due to menopause likely contribute to observed sex differences in knee joint function and risk for loss of function. In studies of osteoarthritis, however, there is a general lack of appreciation for the heterogeneity of hormonal control in both women and men. Progress in this field is limited by the relatively few preclinical osteoarthritis models, and that most of the work with established models uses only male animals. To elucidate sex differences in osteoarthritis, it is important to examine sex hormone mechanisms in cells from knee tissues and the sexual dimorphism in the role of inflammation at the cell, tissue, and organ levels. There is a need to determine if the risk for loss of knee function and integrity in females is restricted to only the knee or if sex-specific changes in other tissues play a role. This paper discusses these gaps in knowledge and suggests remedies. PMID:23374322

Boyan, Barbara D; Hart, David A; Enoka, Roger M; Nicolella, Daniel P; Resnick, Eileen; Berkley, Karen J; Sluka, Kathleen A; Kwoh, C Kent; Tosi, Laura L; O'Connor, Mary I; Coutts, Richard D; Kohrt, Wendy M

2013-01-01

232

Increased connective tissue attachment to silicone implants by a water vapor plasma treatment.  

PubMed

Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is the most common type of silicone polymer for the fabrication of implantable medical devices. Because of its inherent hydrophobic nature, the PDMS surface does not readily promote cellular adhesion, which leads to diverse clinical issues. Previously, we reported a simple water vapor plasma treatment of PDMS surfaces that resulted in stable long-term wettability and excellent in vitro cell compatibility. In this work, we report investigation of the in vivo local responses to PDMS implants treated by water vapor plasma using a subcutaneous rat model. The local tissue responses were assessed after 2 and 4 weeks of implantation by means of macroscopic and histomorphometric analysis. After 2 weeks of implantation, the plasma-treated implants elicited the formation of fibrous tissue capsules that were significantly thinner, more adherent, and vascularized than the control counterparts. The improved cell adhesion was correlated with an increased amount of cells attached to the implant surface after retrieval. There was no difference in the inflammatory response between untreated and treated samples. This study provides a rational approach to optimize the long-term performance of silicone implants, which is likely to have a significant impact in clinical applications demanding enhanced tissue integration of the implants. PMID:22767530

Jensen, C; Gurevich, L; Patriciu, A; Struijk, J J; Zachar, V; Pennisi, C P

2012-12-01

233

Muscle Degeneration in Neuramindase 1 Deficient Mice Results from Infiltration of the Muscle Fibers by Expanded Connective Tissue  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Neuraminidase 1 (NEU1) regulates the catabolism of sialoglycoconjugates in lysosomes. Congenital NEU1 deficiency in children is the basis of sialidosis, a severe neurosomatic disorder in which patients experience a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations varying in the age of onset and severity. Osteoskeletal deformities and muscle hypotonia have been described in patients with sialidosis. Here we present the first comprehensive analysis of the skeletal muscle pathology associated with loss of Neu1 function in mice. In this animal model, skeletal muscles showed an expansion of the epimysial and perimysial spaces, associated with proliferation of fibroblast-like cells and abnormal deposition of collagens. Muscle fibers located adjacent to the expanded connective tissue underwent extensive invagination of their sarcolemma, which resulted in the infiltration of the fibers by fibroblast-like cells and extracellular matrix, and in their progressive cytosolic fragmentation. Both the expanded connective tissue and the juxtaposed infiltrated muscle fibers were strongly positive for lysosomal markers, and displayed increased proteolytic activity of lysosomal cathepsins and metalloproteinases. These combined features could lead to abnormal remodeling of the extracellular matrix that could be responsible for sarcolemmal invagination and progressive muscle fiber degeneration, ultimately resulting in an overt atrophic phenotype. This unique pattern of muscle damage, which has never been described in any myopathy, might explain the neuromuscular manifestations reported in patients with the type II severe form of sialidosis. More broadly, these findings point to a potential role of NEU1 in cell proliferation and extracellular matrix remodeling. PMID:20388541

Zanoteli, Edmar; van de Vlekkert, Diantha; Bonten, Erik J.; Hu, Huimin; Mann, Linda; Gomero, Elida M.; Harris, A. John; Ghersi, Giulio; d'Azzo, Alessandra

2010-01-01

234

Ehlers-danlos syndrome, hypermobility type: an underdiagnosed hereditary connective tissue disorder with mucocutaneous, articular, and systemic manifestations.  

PubMed

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type, constituting a phenotypic continuum with or, perhaps, corresponding to the joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS/EDS-HT), is likely the most common, though the least recognized, heritable connective tissue disorder. Known for decades as a hereditary condition with predominant rheumatologic manifestations, it is now emerging as a multisystemic disorder with widespread manifestations. Nevertheless, the practitioners' awareness of this condition is generally poor and most patients await years or, perhaps, decades before reaching the correct diagnosis. Among the various sites of disease manifestations, skin and mucosae represent a neglected organ where the dermatologist can easily spot diagnostic clues, which consistently integrate joint hypermobility and other orthopedic/neurologic manifestations at physical examination. In this paper, actual knowledge on JHS/EDS-HT is summarized in various sections. Particular attention has been posed on overlooked manifestations, including cutaneous, mucosal, and oropharyngeal features, and early diagnosis techniques, as a major point of interest for the practicing dermatologist. Actual research progresses on JH/EDS-HT envisage an unexpected link between heritable dysfunctions of the connective tissue and a wide range of functional somatic syndromes, most of them commonly diagnosed in the office of various specialists, comprising dermatologists. PMID:23227356

Castori, Marco

2012-01-01

235

Vascular and connective tissue anomalies associated with X-linked periventricular heterotopia due to mutations in Filamin A.  

PubMed

Mutations conferring loss of function at the FLNA (encoding filamin A) locus lead to X-linked periventricular nodular heterotopia (XL-PH), with seizures constituting the most common clinical manifestation of this disorder in female heterozygotes. Vascular dilatation (mainly the aorta), joint hypermobility and variable skin findings are also associated anomalies, with some reports suggesting that this might represents a separate syndrome allelic to XL-PH, termed as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome-periventricular heterotopia variant (EDS-PH). Here, we report a cohort of 11 males and females with both hypomorphic and null mutations in FLNA that manifest a wide spectrum of connective tissue and vascular anomalies. The spectrum of cutaneous defects was broader than previously described and is inconsistent with a specific type of EDS. We also extend the range of vascular anomalies associated with XL-PH to included peripheral arterial dilatation and atresia. Based on these observations, we suggest that there is little molecular or clinical justification for considering EDS-PH as a separate entity from XL-PH, but instead propose that there is a spectrum of vascular and connective tissues anomalies associated with this condition for which all individuals with loss-of-function mutations in FLNA should be evaluated. In addition, since some patients with XL-PH can present primarily with a joint hypermobility syndrome, we propose that screening for cardiovascular manifestations should be offered to those patients when there are associated seizures or an X-linked pattern of inheritance. PMID:23032111

Reinstein, Eyal; Frentz, Sophia; Morgan, Tim; García-Miñaúr, Sixto; Leventer, Richard J; McGillivray, George; Pariani, Mitchel; van der Steen, Anthony; Pope, Michael; Holder-Espinasse, Muriel; Scott, Richard; Thompson, Elizabeth M; Robertson, Terry; Coppin, Brian; Siegel, Robert; Bret Zurita, Montserrat; Rodríguez, Jose I; Morales, Carmen; Rodrigues, Yuri; Arcas, Joaquín; Saggar, Anand; Horton, Margaret; Zackai, Elaine; Graham, John M; Rimoin, David L; Robertson, Stephen P

2013-05-01

236

Vascular and connective tissue anomalies associated with X-linked periventricular heterotopia due to mutations in Filamin A  

PubMed Central

Mutations conferring loss of function at the FLNA (encoding filamin A) locus lead to X-linked periventricular nodular heterotopia (XL-PH), with seizures constituting the most common clinical manifestation of this disorder in female heterozygotes. Vascular dilatation (mainly the aorta), joint hypermobility and variable skin findings are also associated anomalies, with some reports suggesting that this might represents a separate syndrome allelic to XL-PH, termed as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome-periventricular heterotopia variant (EDS-PH). Here, we report a cohort of 11 males and females with both hypomorphic and null mutations in FLNA that manifest a wide spectrum of connective tissue and vascular anomalies. The spectrum of cutaneous defects was broader than previously described and is inconsistent with a specific type of EDS. We also extend the range of vascular anomalies associated with XL-PH to included peripheral arterial dilatation and atresia. Based on these observations, we suggest that there is little molecular or clinical justification for considering EDS-PH as a separate entity from XL-PH, but instead propose that there is a spectrum of vascular and connective tissues anomalies associated with this condition for which all individuals with loss-of-function mutations in FLNA should be evaluated. In addition, since some patients with XL-PH can present primarily with a joint hypermobility syndrome, we propose that screening for cardiovascular manifestations should be offered to those patients when there are associated seizures or an X-linked pattern of inheritance. PMID:23032111

Reinstein, Eyal; Frentz, Sophia; Morgan, Tim; Garcia-Minaur, Sixto; Leventer, Richard J; McGillivray, George; Pariani, Mitchel; van der Steen, Anthony; Pope, Michael; Holder-Espinasse, Muriel; Scott, Richard; Thompson, Elizabeth M; Robertson, Terry; Coppin, Brian; Siegel, Robert; Bret Zurita, Montserrat; Rodriguez, Jose I; Morales, Carmen; Rodrigues, Yuri; Arcas, Joaquin; Saggar, Anand; Horton, Margaret; Zackai, Elaine; Graham, John M; Rimoin, David L; Robertson, Stephen P

2013-01-01

237

Passive mechanical properties of rat abdominal wall muscles suggest an important role of the extracellular connective tissue matrix.  

PubMed

Abdominal wall muscles have a unique morphology suggesting a complex role in generating and transferring force to the spinal column. Studying passive mechanical properties of these muscles may provide insights into their ability to transfer force among structures. Biopsies from rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transverse abdominis (TrA) were harvested from male Sprague-Dawley rats, and single muscle fibers and fiber bundles (4-8 fibers ensheathed in their connective tissue matrix) were isolated and mechanically stretched in a passive state. Slack sarcomere lengths were measured and elastic moduli were calculated from stress-strain data. Titin molecular mass was also measured from single muscle fibers. No significant differences were found among the four abdominal wall muscles in terms of slack sarcomere length or elastic modulus. Interestingly, across all four muscles, slack sarcomere lengths were quite long in individual muscle fibers (>2.4 µm), and demonstrated a significantly longer slack length in comparison to fiber bundles (p < 0.0001). Also, the extracellular connective tissue matrix provided a stiffening effect and enhanced the resistance to lengthening at long muscle lengths. Titin molecular mass was significantly less in TrA compared to each of the other three muscles (p < 0.0009), but this difference did not correspond to hypothesized differences in stiffness. PMID:22267257

Brown, Stephen H M; Carr, John Austin; Ward, Samuel R; Lieber, Richard L

2012-08-01

238

Ectopic mineralization of connective tissue in Abcc6?/? mice: Effects of dietary modifications and a phosphate binder - a preliminary study  

PubMed Central

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a heritable multisystem disorder, is caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene. We have developed a murine model for PXE by targeted inactivation of the corresponding mouse gene. A feature of this mouse model is ectopic mineralization of connective tissue capsule surrounding the bulb of vibrissae. This study was designed to investigate the effect of dietary sevelamer hydrochloride (Renagel®), a phosphate binder, and specific mineral modifications on ectopic mineralization of connective tissue in Abcc6?/? mice. Three groups were fed a specific diet: (1) a standard rodent diet, (2) a standard rodent diet supplemented with sevelamer hydrochloride, and (3) a custom experimental diet with specific mineral modifications (high phosphorus, low calcium and low magnesium). The degree of mineralization was determined in H&E stained sections using computerized morphometric analysis and by chemical assays to measure the calcium and phosphorus content of the vibrissae. The results indicated increased mineralization in the Abcc6?/? mice fed a standard diet or a diet with mineral modifications as compared to control mice fed a standard diet. Furthermore, feeding Abcc6?/? mice with diet supplemented with sevelamer hydrochloride did not improve mineralization, in comparison to mice fed with normal diet. Collectively, these results suggest that the mineralization process in PXE may be exacerbated by changes in mineral intake. The role of dietary minerals, and phosphorus in particular,, as well as that of phosphate binders, in ectopic mineralization of PXE, merits further investigation. PMID:17979973

LaRusso, Jennifer; Jiang, Qiujie; Li, Qiaoli; Uitto, Jouni

2012-01-01

239

Magnesium Carbonate-Containing Phosphate Binder Prevents Connective Tissue Mineralization in Abcc6-/- Mice - Potential for Treatment of Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum  

PubMed Central

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a heritable disorder characterized by ectopic mineralization of connective tissues primarily in the skin, eyes, and the cardiovascular system. PXE is caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene. While PXE is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, there is currently no effective or specific treatment. In this study, we tested oral phosphate binders for treatment of a mouse model of PXE which we have developed by targeted ablation of the corresponding mouse gene (Abcc6-/-). This “knock-out” (KO) mouse model recapitulates features of PXE and demonstrates mineralization of a number of tissues, including the connective tissue capsule surrounding vibrissae in the muzzle skin which serves as an early biomarker of the mineralization process. Treatment of these mice with a magnesium carbonate-enriched diet (magnesium concentration being 5-fold higher than in the control diet) completely prevented mineralization of the vibrissae up to six months of age, as demonstrated by computerized morphometric analysis of histopathology as well as by calcium and phosphate chemical assays. The magnesium carbonate-enriched diet also prevented the progression of mineralization when the mice were placed on that experimental diet at three months of age and followed up to six months of age. Treatment with magnesium carbonate was associated with a slight increase in the serum concentration of magnesium, with no effect on serum calcium and phosphorus levels. In contrast, concentration of calcium in the urine was increased over ten-fold while the concentration of phosphorus was markedly decreased being essentially undetectable after long term (> 4 month) treatment. No significant changes were noted in the serum parathyroid hormone levels. Computerized axial tomography scan of bones in mice placed on magnesium carbonate-enriched diet showed no differences in the bone density compared to mice on the control diet, and chemical assays showed a small increase in the calcium and phosphate content of the femurs by chemical assay, in comparison to mice on control diet. Similar experiments with another experimental diet supplemented with lanthanum carbonate did not interfere with the mineralization process in Abcc6-/- mice. These results suggest that magnesium carbonate may offer a potential treatment modality for PXE, a currently intractable disease, as well as for other conditions characterized by ectopic mineralization of connective tissues. PMID:20443931

Li, Qiaoli; LaRusso, Jennifer; Grand-Pierre, Alix E.; Uitto, Jouni

2010-01-01

240

Matrix Metalloproteinase-dependent turnover of cartilage, synovial membrane, and connective tissue is elevated in rats with collagen induced arthritis  

PubMed Central

Background Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease affecting the extracellular matrix of especially synovial joints. The thickness of the synovial membrane increases and surrounding tissue degrades, leading to altered collagen balance in the tissues. In this study, we investigated the altered tissue balance of cartilage, synovial membrane, and connective tissue in collagen induced arthritis (CIA) in rats. Methods Six newly developed ELISAs quantifying MMP-derived collagen degradation (C1M, C2M, and C3M) and formation (P1NP, P2NP, and P3NP) was used to detect cartilage turnover in rats with CIA. Moreover, CTX-II was used to detect alternative type II collagen degradation and as control of the model. 10 Lewis rats were injected with porcrine type II collagen twice with a 7 day interval and 10 rats was injected with 0.05 M acetic acid as control. The experiment ran for 26 days. Results A significant increase in the degradation of type I, II, and III collagen (C1M, C2M, and C3M, respectively) was detected on day 22 (P?=?0.0068, P?=?0.0068, P?tissues of the synovial joints, leading to increased pain and degeneration of the synovial joints. PMID:22992383

2012-01-01

241

Controlling the Fibroblastic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Via the Combination of Fibrous Scaffolds and Connective Tissue Growth Factor  

PubMed Central

Controlled differentiation of multi-potent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into vocal fold-specific, fibroblast-like cells in vitro is an attractive strategy for vocal fold repair and regeneration. The goal of the current study was to define experimental parameters that can be used to control the initial fibroblastic differentiation of MSCs in vitro. To this end, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and micro-structured, fibrous scaffolds based on poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) and poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) were used to create a three-dimensional, connective tissue-like microenvironment. MSCs readily attached to and elongated along the microfibers, adopting a spindle-shaped morphology during the initial 3 days of preculture in an MSC maintenance medium. The cell-laden scaffolds were subsequently cultivated in a conditioned medium containing CTGF and ascorbic acids for up to 21 days. Cell morphology, proliferation, and differentiation were analyzed collectively by quantitative PCR analyses, and biochemical and immunocytochemical assays. F-actin staining showed that MSCs maintained their fibroblastic morphology during the 3 weeks of culture. The addition of CTGF to the constructs resulted in an enhanced cell proliferation, elevated expression of fibroblast-specific protein-1, and decreased expression of mesenchymal surface epitopes without markedly triggering chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, adipogenesis, or apoptosis. At the mRNA level, CTGF supplement resulted in a decreased expression of collagen I and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, but an increased expression of decorin and hyaluronic acid synthesase 3. At the protein level, collagen I, collagen III, sulfated glycosaminoglycan, and elastin productivity was higher in the conditioned PGS-PCL culture than in the normal culture. These findings collectively demonstrate that the fibrous mesh, when combined with defined biochemical cues, is capable of fostering MSC fibroblastic differentiation in vitro. PMID:21689062

Tong, Zhixiang; Sant, Shilpa

2011-01-01

242

Integrin-extracellular matrix interactions in connective tissue remodeling and osteoblast differentiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The differentiaton of bone cells is a complex multistep process. Bone is somewhat unusual in that it is very actively and continually remodeled in the adult and that maintenance of its mass in the mature organism is exquisitely sensitive to mechanical as well as chemical signals. Bone is also unique because it consists of a very large amount of extracellular matrix (ECM) that is mineralized. The integrin family of ECM receptors has been shown to play an important role in tissue morphogenesis in several systems. Our studies on the regulation of matrix remodeling enzymes by integrins in rabbit synovial fibroblasts show that two b1 integrin fibronectin (FN) receptor complexes (alpha 5 beta 1 and alpha 4 beta 1) cooperate in detecting subtle changes in the composition of the ECM. As a result of signal transduction by these integrins, the levels of mRNA and protein for several members of the metalloproteinase family are regulated in these cells. We have also used antibody and RGD peptide perturbation studies to determine the significance of cell/ECM interactions to normal osteogenesis. We found that interactions between the cell binding domain of FN and integrins are required for both normal morphogenesis and gene expression in cultured osteoblasts that differentiate to form bone-like tissue in culture. These data lead us to propose that beta 1 integrins play an important role in osteoblast differentiation as well as in bone remodeling.

Globus, R. K.; Moursi, A.; Zimmerman, D.; Lull, J.; Damsky, C.

1995-01-01

243

T-Cell-Mediated Autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

Histological samples of autopsy or biopsy tissue provide the best available evidence that autoreactive T cells are involved in the immunopathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. However, morphology alone does not provide information on the antigen-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) of these cells, let alone on their antigen specificity. In this review article we discuss a number of emerging possibilities for identifying TCR sequences directly from biopsy tissue. We also review the methods for expressing presumably autoreactive TCR molecules and speculate on how the expressed TCR might be used to identify target antigens. Such information should eventually provide new insights into disease pathogenesis which lead to better therapies. PMID:14507631

Dornmair, Klaus; Goebels, Norbert; Weltzien, Hans-Ulrich; Wekerle, Hartmut; Hohlfeld, Reinhard

2003-01-01

244

AntiInterferon Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy Syndrome Type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene influences thymic self-tolerance induction. In autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1 (APS1; OMIM 240300), recessive AIRE mutations lead to autoimmunity targetting endocrine and other epithelial tissues, although chroniccandidiasisusuallyappearsfirst.Autoimmunityandchroniccandidiasiscanassociatewith thymomas as well.Patientswiththesetumours frequentlyalsohavehightitreimmunoglobulinG autoantibodies neutralising type I interferon (IFN)-a and IFN-x, which are secreted signalling proteins of the cytokine superfamily involved in both innate and adaptive

Anthony Meager; Kumuthini Visvalingam; Pärt Peterson; Kaidi Möll; Astrid Murumägi; Kai Krohn; Petra Eskelin; Jaakko Perheentupa; Eystein Husebye; Yoshihisa Kadota; Nick Willcox

2006-01-01

245

Vaccination and Autoimmunity—‘vaccinosis’: A Dangerous Liaison?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of a connection between vaccination and autoimmune illness (or phenomena) is surrounded by controversy. A heated debate is going on regarding the causality between vaccines, such as measles and anti-hepatits B virus (HBV), and multiple sclerosis (MS). Brain antibodies as well as clinical symptoms have been found in patients vaccinated against those diseases. Other autoimmune illnesses have been

Shoenfeld Y; Aron-Maor A

2000-01-01

246

Sirolimus for Autoimmune Disease of Blood Cells  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Autoimmune Pancytopenia; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS); Evans Syndrome; Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura; Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune; Autoimmune Neutropenia; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic; Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Rheumatoid Arthritis

2014-02-03

247

Autoimmune diseases and autoimmunity post-bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BMT can both transmit and eliminate autoimmune diseases, and hence it has been suggested as an optional treatment for severe autoimmune conditions. In this communication we deal with the question of whether chronic GVHD is an autoimmune disease in itself, review the literature reports of autoimmune diseases following BMT in humans, and describe the autoimmune nature of the post-BMT state.

Y Sherer; Y Shoenfeld

1998-01-01

248

A heart-adipose tissue connection in the regulation of energy metabolism.  

PubMed

Almost 20 years ago, the protein encoded by the ob locus in mice was identified as an adipocyte-secreted hormone, now termed leptin, which functions as a peripheral signal to communicate the organism's energy reserve--and thereby protects against starvation due to insufficient caloric resources. Additional peripheral factors have since been identified that coordinate interorgan crosstalk to manage energy resources. The heart is included in this network through its regulated release of natriuretic peptides A and B--cardiac hormones originally identified as important in blood pressure control. Emerging evidence that natriuretic peptide receptors are expressed in adipose tissue, and that circulating levels of these peptides are decreased in animals and humans with obesity, could imply that natriuretic peptides are also involved in the regulation of energy metabolism. The natriuretic peptides stimulate triglyceride lipolysis in adipocytes, a process also regulated by the sympathetic nervous system. In addition, these two pathways promote uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration and thermogenesis in brown adipocytes. This Review focuses on the roles of the natriuretic peptides and the sympathetic nervous system in regulating adipocyte metabolism. The potential for manipulating the natriuretic peptide pathway to increase energy expenditure in obesity and manage the complications of cardiometabolic disease is also discussed. PMID:24296515

Collins, Sheila

2014-03-01

249

Methotrexate inhibits neutrophil function by stimulating adenosine release from connective tissue cells  

SciTech Connect

Although commonly used to control a variety of inflammatory diseases, the mechanism of action of a low dose of methotrexate remains a mystery. Methotrexate accumulates intracellularly where it may interfere with purine metabolism. Therefore, the authors determined whether a 48-hr pretreatment with methotrexate affected adenosine release from ({sup 14}C)adenine-labeled human fibroblasts and umbilical vein endothelial cells. Methotrexate significantly increased adenosine release by fibroblasts. The effect of methotrexate on adenosine release was not due to cytotoxicity since cells treated with maximal concentrations of methotrexate took up ({sup 14}C)adenine and released {sup 14}C-labeled purine (a measure of cell injury) in a manner identical to control cells. Methotrexate treatment of fibroblasts dramatically inhibited adherence to fibroblasts by both unstimulated neutrophils and stimulated neutrophils. One hypothesis that explains the effect of methotrexate on adenosine release is that, by inhibition of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) transformylase, methotrexate induces the accumulation of AICAR, the nucleoside precursor of which has previously been shown to cause adenosine release from ischemic cardiac tissue. The observation that the antiinflammatory actions of methotrexate are due to the capacity of methotrexate to induce adenosine release may form the basis for the development of an additional class of antiinflammatory drugs.

Cronstein, B.N.; Eberle, M.A.; Levin, R.I. (New York Univ. Medical Center, New York (United States)); Gruber, H.E. (Gensia Pharmaceuticals, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States))

1991-03-15

250

The expression of acidic ribosomal phosphoproteins on the surface membrane of different tissues in autoimmune and normal mice which are the target molecules for anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies.  

PubMed Central

Affinity-purified polyclonal anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) exert a cytostatic effect on cultured rat glomerular mesangial cells (MC). The cognate antigens expressed on the surface of MC have been proved to be acidic ribosomal phosphoproteins (P proteins) in our previous study. The mesangial cytostatic effect of anti-dsDNA antibodies is attributed to the cross-reactivity of the antibodies with membrane-expressed P proteins, but not to the effect of minute amounts of anti-ribosomal P proteins antibodies contained in the anti-dsDNA preparations. Immunofluorescence staining of the native cells demonstrated that anti-dsDNA antibodies bound to the surface of rat mesangial cells, rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1) and mouse fibroblasts (3T3). Anti-dsDNA antibodies also exert potent cytostatic effects on these cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the plasma membranes of different cell lines and tissues from normal and autoimmune mice were isolated and probed by anti-dsDNA antibodies in Western blot analysis. We found the actively proliferating cells such as MC, RBA-1 and 3T3 may express both P0 (38,000 MW) and P1 (19,000 MW) on the surface membrane. In addition, the kidney, liver and spleen from either autoimmune MRL-lpr/lpr or BALB/c mice may constantly express P0 protein, but the expression of P1 is inconsistent. In contrast, brain and muscle from either mice failed to express P proteins on their surface. Unexpectedly, a high molecular weight substance (larger than 205,000 MW) with unknown nature appears in the membrane of brain and muscle tissues in both mice. Immunoprecipitation of the surface-biotinylated MC-lysate by anti-dsDNA antibodies further confirmed that P1 (19,000 MW) and P2 (17,000 MW) are really expressed on the cell surface. These results suggest that P proteins expressed on the surface of different tissues become the targets for anti-dsDNA antibodies mediating pleomorphic tissue damage in patients with SLE. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8778020

Sun, K H; Liu, W T; Tang, S J; Tsai, C Y; Hsieh, S C; Wu, T H; Han, S H; Yu, C L

1996-01-01

251

Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue variant, of the mandible: report of a case and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome that results in renal phosphate wasting with hypophosphatemia. In most cases, the underlying cause of TIO is a small mesenchymal neoplasm that is often difficult to detect, resulting in delayed diagnosis. One such neoplasm is the phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue variant (PMTMCT), an unusual entity with unique morphologic and biochemical features. Most of these tumors are found at appendicular sites with only rare cases reported in the jaws. We describe a PMTMCT involving the mandible in a patient with a protracted history of osteomalacia. A review of the current literature is provided with emphasis on the clinical and histologic features, etiopathogenesis, and management of PMTMCT in the setting of TIO. PMID:19828339

Woo, Victoria L; Landesberg, Regina; Imel, Erik A; Singer, Steven R; Folpe, Andrew L; Econs, Michael J; Kim, Taeyun; Harik, Lara R; Jacobs, Thomas P

2009-12-01

252

Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue variant, of the mandible: Report of a case and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome that results in renal phosphate wasting with hypophosphatemia. In most cases, the underlying cause of TIO is a small mesenchymal neoplasm that is often difficult to detect, resulting in delayed diagnosis. One such neoplasm is the phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue variant (PMTMCT), an unusual entity with unique morphologic and biochemical features. The majority of these tumors are found at appendicular sites with only rare cases reported in the jaws. We describe a PMTMCT involving the mandible in a patient with a protracted history of osteomalacia. A review of the current literature is provided with emphasis on the clinical and histologic features, etiopathogenesis, and management of PMTMCT in the setting of TIO. PMID:19828339

Woo, Victoria L.; Landesberg, Regina; Imel, Erik A.; Singer, Steven R.; Folpe, Andrew L.; Econs, Michael J.; Kim, Taeyun; Harik, Lara R.; Jacobs, Thomas P.

2009-01-01

253

[SEM studies on the connective tissue cores of the lingual papillae of the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis)].  

PubMed

The lingual papillae and their connective tissue cores (CTCs) of the northern goshawk were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The length of the tongue was approximately 2.5 cm. The median groove divided the body of the tongue into symmetrical parts. At a point approximately 2/3 of the length, there were large conical papillae between the body and the root of the tongue, the apices of which were pointed towards the posterior part of the tongue. Under the light microscopy, the filiform papillae of the dorsal surface in the lingual body showed the desquamate cells of non-keratinized epithelium. There were openings of the lingual glands on the anterior part and root of the tongue. The lingual papillae and their CTCs of the northern goshawk had a structure similar to those of the white tailed eagle and black kite. PMID:18807946

Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

2008-09-01

254

Experiment K-7-29: Connective Tissue Studies. Part 1; Rat Skin, Normal and Repair  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The skin repair studies started to be problematic for the following reasons: (1) It was very difficult to locate the wound and many lesions were not of the same dimensions. A considerable amount of time was devoted to the identification of the wound using polarized light. We understand that this experiment was added on to the overall project. Marking of the wound site and standard dimensions should be recommended for the next flight experiment. (2) The tissue was frozen, therefore thawing and fixation caused problems with some of the immunocytochemical staining for obtaining better special resolution with light microscopy image processing. Despite these problems, we were unable to detect any significant qualitative differences for the following wound markers: (1) Collagen Type 3, (2) Hematotoxylin and Eosin, and (3) Macrophage Factor 13. All protein markers were isolated from rat sources and antibodies prepared and tested for cross reactivity with other molecules at the University of Wisconsin Hybridoma Facility. However, rat skin from the non lesioned site 'normal' showed interesting biochemical results. Skin was prepared for the following measurements: (1) DNA content, (2) Collagen content by hydroxyproline, and (3) uronic acid content and estimation of ground substance. The results indicated there was a non-significant increase (10%) in the DNA concentration of skin from flight animals. However, the data expressed as a ratio DNA/Collagen estimates the cell or nuclear density that supports a given quantity of collagen showed a dramatic increase in the flight group (33%). This means flight conditions may have slowed down collagen secretion and/or increased cell proliferation in adult rat skin. Further biochemical tests are being done to determine the crosslinking of elastin which will enhance the insight to assessing changes in skin turnover.

Vailas, A. C.; Grindeland, R.; Ashman, R.; Choy, V.; Durnova, G.; Graf, B.; Griffith, P.; Kaplansky, A. S.; Kolis, S.; Martinez, D.; Rao, J. S.; Rayford, A. R.; Reddy, B. R.; Sears, J.; Thielke, R.; Ulm, M.; Vanderby, R.

1994-01-01

255

Elevated Adiponectin Serum Levels in Women with Systemic Autoimmune Diseases  

PubMed Central

Adipose tissue produces a wide range of proteins that may influence the immune system. In this study, we assessed the serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin, in association with the measurements of body composition, in 15 female patients with various autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, primary Sjögren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, mixed connective tissue disease, vasculitis, CREST syndrome, and polymyositis) and in 15 healthy female controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the patients and controls with regard to serum leptin, serum ghrelin, global fat mass, adiposity, and fat mass in the android or gynoid regions, whereas serum adiponectin levels were higher in patients than controls (16.3 ± 1.6??g/mL versus 9.7 ± 0.6??g/mL; P = .01). As adiponectin is known to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory properties, a high adiponectinemia in patients with systemic autoimmune disease may mitigate the inflammatory response. However, the precise consequences of these elevated serum adiponectin levels on the metabolic syndrome development and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in this patient population still needs to be determined. PMID:21234350

Toussirot, Eric; Gaugler, Beatrice; Bouhaddi, Malika; Nguyen, Nhu Uyen; Saas, Philippe; Dumoulin, Gilles

2010-01-01

256

Elevated adiponectin serum levels in women with systemic autoimmune diseases.  

PubMed

Adipose tissue produces a wide range of proteins that may influence the immune system. In this study, we assessed the serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin, in association with the measurements of body composition, in 15 female patients with various autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, primary Sjögren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, mixed connective tissue disease, vasculitis, CREST syndrome, and polymyositis) and in 15 healthy female controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the patients and controls with regard to serum leptin, serum ghrelin, global fat mass, adiposity, and fat mass in the android or gynoid regions, whereas serum adiponectin levels were higher in patients than controls (16.3 ± 1.6 ?g/mL versus 9.7 ± 0.6 ?g/mL; P = .01). As adiponectin is known to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory properties, a high adiponectinemia in patients with systemic autoimmune disease may mitigate the inflammatory response. However, the precise consequences of these elevated serum adiponectin levels on the metabolic syndrome development and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in this patient population still needs to be determined. PMID:21234350

Toussirot, Eric; Gaugler, Béatrice; Bouhaddi, Malika; Nguyen, Nhu Uyen; Saas, Philippe; Dumoulin, Gilles

2010-01-01

257

The role of innate immune responses in autoimmune disease development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoimmune diseases are systemic or organ-specific disorders that are the result of an attack of the immune system against the body's own tissue. Development of autoimmune disease is generally avoided by distinct mechanisms that silence adaptive self-reactive T or B cells. The innate immune system is critically involved in the defense against pathogens and the induction of primary adaptive immune

Hanspeter Waldner

2009-01-01

258

Impact of Microbes on Autoimmune Diseases  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases arise as a consequence of complex interactions of environmental factors with genetic traits. Although specific allelic variations cluster in predisposed individuals and promote the generation and/or expansion of autoreactive T and B lymphocytes, auto-immunity appears in various disease phenotypes and localizes to diverging tissues. Furthermore, the discovery that allelic variations within genes encoding components of the innate immune system drive self-reactive immune responses as well, led to the distinction of immune responses against host tissues into auto-immune and autoinflammatory diseases. In both categories of disorders, different pathogenic mechanisms and/or subsequent orders of tissue assaults may underlie the target cell specificity of the respective autoimmune attack. Furthermore, the transition from the initial tissue assault to the development of full-blown disease is likely driven by several factors. Thus, the development of specific forms of autoimmunity and autoinflammation reflects a multi-factorial process. The delineation of the specific factors involved in the pathogenic process is hampered by the fact that certain symptoms are assembled under the umbrella of a specific disease, although they might originate from diverging pathogenic pathways. These multi-factorial triggers and pathogenic pathways may also explain the inter-individual divergent courses and outcomes of diseases among humans. Here, we will discuss the impact of different environmental factors in general and microbial pathogens in particular on the regulation/ expression of genes encoded within susceptibility alleles, and its consequences on subsequent autoimmune and/or autoinflammatory tissue damage utilizing primarily the chronic cholestatic liver disease primary biliary cirrhosis as model. PMID:23417246

Danzer, Claudia

2014-01-01

259

Autoimmunity and reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the association between autoimmunity and reproductive failure.Design: A MEDLINE search done from 1965 to 1996. More than 300 original and review articles were evaluated, from which the most relevant were selected.Result(s): Autoimmune processes now are accepted widely as one of the possible mechanisms of many human diseases. The presence of autoimmune disorders has been associated repeatedly with

Eli Geva; Ami Amit; Liat Lerner-Geva; Joseph B. Lessing

1997-01-01

260

Autoimmune paediatric liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver disorders with a likely autoimmune pathogenesis in childhood include autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC), and de novo AIH after liver transplantation. AIH is divided into two subtypes according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and\\/or antinuclear antibody (SMA\\/ANA, type 1) or liver kidney microsomal antibody (LKM1, type 2). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients

Giorgina Mieli-Vergani; Diego Vergani

2008-01-01

261

Autoimmune pancreatitis: A review  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune pancreatitis has emerged over the last 40 years from a proposed concept to a well established and recognized entity. As an efficient mimicker of pancreatic carcinoma, its early and appropriate recognition are crucial. With mounting understanding of its pathogenesis and natural history, significant advances have been made in the diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis. The characteristic laboratory features and imaging seen in autoimmune pancreatitis are reviewed along with some of the proposed diagnostic criteria and treatment algorithms. PMID:18081220

Zandieh, Iman; Byrne, Michael F

2007-01-01

262

Biocompatibility of RealSeal, its primer and AH Plus implanted in subcutaneous connective tissue of rats  

PubMed Central

Objective This study tested rat connective tissue response to RealSeal, RealSeal primer or AH Plus after 7, 15, 30, 60 and 90 days of implantation. Material and methods Thirty Wistar rats had subcutaneous sockets created on their back and received four implants each of polyethylene tubes containing one of the materials tested according to the groups: AH (AH Plus Sealer); RS (RealSeal Sealer); RP (RealSeal Primer); CG (control group – empty tube). After histological processing, sections were analyzed to identify the presence of neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells, eosinophils, macrophages and giant cells, as well as fibrous capsule and abscesses, by an examiner using light microscope. Kruskal- Wallis and multiple-comparisons test were used for statistical analysis. Significance level was set at 5%. Results Lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate scores significantly higher than those of the control group were observed at 14 and 60 days in AH group, and at 90 days in RS group (p<0.05). There were no differences in terms of presence of macrophages, giant cells, eosinophils, neutrophils or fibrosis. AH Plus group scored higher for abscesses at 7 days than after any other period (p=0.031). RP group scored higher for lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate at 14 days than at 90 days (p=0.04). Conclusion The main contribution of this study was to demonstrate that issues involved with tissue tolerance of a Resilon-containing sealer, RealSeal Sealer, cannot be attributed to its primer content. PMID:21437470

GRECCA, Fabiana Soares; KOPPER, Patrícia Maria Poli; dos SANTOS, Régis Burmeister; FOSSATI, Anna Christina; CARRARD, Vinicius Coelho; ACASIGUA, Gerson Arison Xavier; de FIGUEIREDO, José Antônio Poli

2011-01-01

263

Differences in irradiation susceptibility and turnover between mucosal and connective tissue-type mast cells of mice  

SciTech Connect

Although precursors of mast cells are derived from the bone marrow, phenotypes of mast cells are influenced by the tissues in which final differentiation occurs. Connective tissue-type mast cells (CTMC) and mucosal mast cells (MMC) are different in morphological, biochemical, immunological, and functional criteria. The purpose of the present study was to obtain information about the differentiation process of MMC. First, we compared changes in irradiation susceptibility in mice during the differentiation process of CTMC and MMC. The decrease in irradiation susceptibility was remarkable in the CTMC differentiation process, but it was moderate in that of MMC. Some morphologically identifiable CTMC in the peritoneal cavity had proliferative potential and were highly radioresistant, whereas such a radioresistant population of MMC was not detectable in the gastric mucosa. Second, we estimated the turnover of CTMC and MMC by determining the proportion of mast cells that were labeled with continuously administered bromodeoxyuridine. The turnover of MMC was significantly faster than that of CTMC. The absence of the radioresistant mast cell population in the gastric mucosa appeared to be related to the short life span of MMC.

Fukuzumi, T.; Waki, N.; Kanakura, Y.; Nagoshi, J.; Hirota, S.; Yoshikawa, K.; Kitamura, Y. (Osaka Univ. Medical School (Japan))

1990-08-01

264

Autoimmune primary ovarian insufficiency.  

PubMed

Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is defined as sustained amenorrhea, increased follicle-stimulating hormone and low estrogen levels, whereas diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) is characterized as regular menses and alterations of ovarian reserve tests. POI of autoimmune origin may be associated with adrenal autoimmunity, non-adrenal autoimmunity or isolated. This autoimmune disease is characterized by serum ovarian, adrenocortical or steroidogenic cell autoantibodies. POI of adrenal autoimmune origin is the most frequent type observed in 60-80% of patients. Clinically, amenorrhea is the hallmark of POI, however before menstruation stops completely, irregular cycles occur. Infertility, hot flushes, vaginal atrophy, and dyspareunia are also common. Autoimmune oophoritis is characterized by mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate in the theca cells of growing follicles, with early stage follicles without lymphocytic infiltration. This infiltrate includes plasma, B and T-cells. A novel classification criterion for autoimmune POI/DOR is proposed subdividing in three distinct categories (possible, probable and confirmed) according to autoantibodies, autoimmune disease and ovarian histology. Unfortunately, up to date guidelines for the treatment of autoimmune oophoritis are not available. Strategies to POI treatment include hormone replacement and infertility therapy. Assisted conception with donated oocytes has been proven to achieve pregnancy by intra cytoplasmic sperm injection in POI women. PMID:24418305

Silva, C A; Yamakami, L Y S; Aikawa, N E; Araujo, D B; Carvalho, J F; Bonfá, E

2014-01-01

265

The Zinc Transporter SLC39A13/ZIP13 Is Required for Connective Tissue Development; Its Involvement in BMP/TGF-? Signaling Pathways  

PubMed Central

Background Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element and it is abundant in connective tissues, however biological roles of Zn and its transporters in those tissues and cells remain unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report that mice deficient in Zn transporter Slc39a13/Zip13 show changes in bone, teeth and connective tissue reminiscent of the clinical spectrum of human Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). The Slc39a13 knockout (Slc39a13-KO) mice show defects in the maturation of osteoblasts, chondrocytes, odontoblasts, and fibroblasts. In the corresponding tissues and cells, impairment in bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and TGF-? signaling were observed. Homozygosity for a SLC39A13 loss of function mutation was detected in sibs affected by a unique variant of EDS that recapitulates the phenotype observed in Slc39a13-KO mice. Conclusions/Significance Hence, our results reveal a crucial role of SLC39A13/ZIP13 in connective tissue development at least in part due to its involvement in the BMP/TGF-? signaling pathways. The Slc39a13-KO mouse represents a novel animal model linking zinc metabolism, BMP/TGF-? signaling and connective tissue dysfunction. PMID:18985159

Shimoda, Shinji; Mishima, Kenji; Higashiyama, Hiroyuki; Idaira, Yayoi; Asada, Yoshinobu; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Satoru; Hojyo, Shintaro; Nakayama, Manabu; Ohara, Osamu; Koseki, Haruhiko; dos Santos, Heloisa G.; Bonafe, Luisa; Ha-Vinh, Russia; Zankl, Andreas; Unger, Sheila; Kraenzlin, Marius E.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Saito, Ichiro; Rivolta, Carlo; Ikegawa, Shiro; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Hirano, Toshio

2008-01-01

266

Restricting dietary magnesium accelerates ectopic connective tissue mineralization in a mouse model of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (Abcc6?/?)  

PubMed Central

Ectopic mineralization, linked to a number of diseases, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a heritable multisystem disorder characterized by calcium phosphate deposition in various tissues. The mineral content of diet has been suggested to modify the disease severity in PXE. The aim of this study is to explore the role of diet with reduced magnesium in modifying tissue mineralization in a mouse model of PXE. Abcc6?/? mice were placed on either standard rodent diet (control) or an experimental diet low in magnesium at weaning (4 wks) and examined for mineralization in the skin and internal organs at the ages of 1.5, 2 or 6 months by computerized morphometric analysis of histopathologic sections and by chemical assay of calcium and phosphate. Experimental Abcc6?/? mice demonstrated an accelerated, early-onset mineralization of connective tissues, as compared to control mice. Wild-type or heterozygous mice on experimental diet did not show evidence of mineralization up to 6 months of age. All mice on experimental diet showed decreased urinary calcium, increased urinary phosphate and elevated parathyroid serum levels. However, no difference in bone density at 6 months of age was noted. Our findings indicate that the mineral content, particularly magnesium, can modify the extent and the onset of mineralization in Abcc6?/? mice, and suggest that dietary magnesium levels may contribute to the phenotypic variability of PXE. The control of mineralization by dietary magnesium may have broader implications in general population in the context of vascular mineralization. PMID:22897576

Jiang, Qiujie; Uitto, Jouni

2012-01-01

267

Autoimmune diseases arise following a breakdown in the balance between autoregulatory immune pathways  

E-print Network

Autoimmune diseases arise following a breakdown in the balance between autoregulatory immune directed against antigens expressed by the host's own tissues. Over 80 diseases have been purported to have an autoimmune aetiology. Therefore, autoimmune-associated morbidity and mortality ranks third highest

Cai, Long

268

[Evaluation of systemic involving of the connective tissue in children with different localisation of isolated abnormal chords of the left ventricle (ACLV)].  

PubMed

Evaluation of the systemic involving of the connective tissue (SICT) under the new Ghent nosology (2010) showed that in children with isolated ACLV born to parents exposed to the Chernobyl disaster, its expression is associated with their location and quantity. The degree of systemic involvement of connective tissue is confirmed by the results of the analysis of features echostructure of isolated ACLV (the presence of thickening and calcification), echomorphometry, assessment of systolic (hypokinetic organization of the central hemodynamics), and the relaxation functions of the heart (initiation of diastolic dysfunction). High level of SICT (score greater than 5) indicates systemic damage to the body and particularly the heart, which requires dynamic monitoring and preventive measures. Found that the diagnostic and monitoring of children with isolated ACLV may be based on registration of systemic involvement of connective tissue with the calculation of points under the new Ghent nosology of 2010. PMID:25286592

Kondrashova, V H; She?ko, L P; Kondrashova, N S

2014-01-01

269

NK Cell Autoreactivity and Autoimmune Diseases  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidences have pointed out the relevance of natural killer (NK) cells in organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases. NK cells bear a plethora of activating and inhibiting receptors that can play a role in regulating reactivity with autologous cells. The activating receptors recognize natural ligands up-regulated on virus-infected or stressed or neoplastic cells. Of note, several autoimmune diseases are thought to be linked to viral infections as one of the first event in inducing autoimmunity. Also, it is conceivable that autoimmunity can be triggered when a dysregulation of innate immunity occurs, activating T and B lymphocytes to react with self-components. This would imply that NK cells can play a regulatory role during adaptive immunity; indeed, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), comprising the classical CD56+ NK cells, have a role in maintaining or alternating tissue homeostasis secreting protective and/or pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, NK cells display activating receptors involved in natural cytotoxicity and the activating isoforms of receptors for HLA class I that can interact with healthy host cells and induce damage without any evidence of viral infection or neoplastic-induced alteration. In this context, the interrelationship among ILC, extracellular-matrix components, and mesenchymal stromal cells can be considered a key point for the control of homeostasis. Herein, we summarize evidences for a role of NK cells in autoimmune diseases and will give a point of view of the interplay between NK cells and self-cells in triggering autoimmunity. PMID:24550913

Poggi, Alessandro; Zocchi, Maria Raffaella

2014-01-01

270

Progesterone and Autoimmune Disease  

PubMed Central

Sexual dimorphism in human immune systems is most apparent in the female predominance of certain autoimmune diseases (ADs) like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Epidemiologic, observational and experimental evidence strongly suggest sex steroids are important modulators of genetic risk in human AD. In this regard, the roles of progesterone (Pg), an immunomodulatory female sex steroid, are poorly understood. Several lines of investigation indicate Pg and synthetic progestins impact risk of AD and immune-mediated injury in different ways depending on their concentrations and their engagement of various Pg receptors expressed in immune organs, immune cells or tissues targeted by immune attack. At low physiologic levels, Pg may enhance interferon-alpha (IFN-?) pathways important in SLE pathogenesis. Commonly used synthetic progestins may have the opposite effect. At pregnancy levels, Pg may suppress disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS) via inhibition of T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th17 pathways and induction of anti-inflammatory molecules. Importantly, Pg’s immunomodulatory effects differ from those of estrogens and androgens. An additional layer of complexity arises from apparent interdependence of sex hormone signaling pathways. Identifying mechanisms by which Pg and other sex steroids modulate risk of AD and immune-mediated injury will require clarification of their cellular and molecular targets in vivo. These future studies should be informed by recent genetic discoveries in human AD, particularly those revealing their sex-specific genetic associations. PMID:22193289

Hughes, Grant C.

2011-01-01

271

Molecular Diagnosis in Autoimmune Skin Blistering Conditions  

PubMed Central

Blister formation in skin and mucous membranes results from a loss of cell-cell or cell-matrix adhesion and is a common outcome of pathological events in a variety of conditions, including autoimmune and genetic diseases, viral and bacterial infections, or injury by physical and chemical factors. Autoantibodies against structural components maintaining cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion induce tissue damage in autoimmune blistering diseases. Detection of these autoantibodies either tissue-bound or circulating in serum is essential to diagnose the autoimmune nature of disease. Various immunofluorescence methods as well as molecular immunoassays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting, belong to the modern diagnostic algorithms for these disorders. There is still a considerable need to increase awareness of the rare autoimmune blistering diseases, which often show a severe, chronic-relapsing course, among physicians and the public. This review article describes the immunopathological features of autoimmune bullous diseases and the molecular immunoassays currently available for their diagnosis and monitoring. PMID:24160488

Otten, J.V.; Hashimoto, T.; Hertl, M.; Payne, A.S.; Sitaru, C.

2014-01-01

272

Response of bone marrow derived connective tissue progenitor cell morphology and proliferation on geometrically modulated microtextured substrates  

PubMed Central

Varying geometry and layout of microposts on a cell culture substrate provides an effective technique for applying mechanical stimuli to living cells. In the current study, the optimal geometry and arrangement of microposts on the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces to enhance cell growth behavior were investigated. Human bone marrow derived connective tissue progenitor cells were cultured on PDMS substrates comprising unpatterned smooth surfaces and cylindrical post microtextures that were 10 µm in diameter, 4 heights (5, 10, 20 and 40 µm) and 3 pitches (10, 20, and 40 µm). With the same 10 µm diameter, post heights ranging from 5 to 40 µm resulted in a more than 535000 fold range of rigidity from 0.011 nNµm?1 (40 µm height) up to 5888 nNµm?1(5 µm height). Even though shorter microposts result in higher effective stiffness, decreasing post heights below the optimal value, 5 µm height micropost in this study decreased cell growth behavior. The maximum number of cells was observed on the post microtextures with 20 µm height and 10 µm inter-space, which exhibited a 675% increase relative to the smooth surfaces. The cells on all heights of post microtextures with 10 µm and 20 µm inter-spaces exhibited highly contoured morphology. Elucidating the cellular response to various external geometry cues enables us to better predict and control cellular behavior. In addition, knowledge of cell response to surface stimuli could lead to the incorporation of specific size post microtextures into surfaces of implants to achieve surface-textured scaffold materials for tissue engineering applications. PMID:23378044

Kim, Eun Jung; Fleischman, Aaron J.; Muschler, George F.; Roy, Shuvo

2013-01-01

273

Using T-Cells for Transplantation and Autoimmune Therapy  

Cancer.gov

Transplant complications and autoimmune diseases are primarily caused by T-cell immune responses against normal host tissue or transplanted tissues. Current treatment for these disorders is often not effective, and is typically associated with significant side effects, including global immune suppression. Researchers at NCI's Experimental Transplantation and Immunology Branch have developed a cellular therapy to treat graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) that results from hematopoetic transplant and other autoimmune disorders.

274

Autoimmune Cholangitis: A Variant Syndrome of Autoimmune Hepatitis  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune cholangitis (AIC) or autoimmune cholangiopathy is a chronic inflammation of liver and a variant syndrome of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). We present a case of an adult female who had biochemical features of cholestasis and transaminasemia but aminotransferases were not in the hepatitis range and had histological evidence of bile duct injury which was subsequently diagnosed as autoimmune cholangitis. PMID:25374727

Sharma, Brij; Raina, Sujeet; Sharma, Rajesh

2014-01-01

275

Comparative morphology of the lingual papillae and their connective tissue cores in the tongue of the American mink, Neovison vison.  

PubMed

We observed the morphology of the lingual papillae (filiform, conical, fungiform, and vallate papillae, and lateral organ) and their connective tissue cores (CTCs) in the American mink (Neovison vison) using light and scanning electron microscopy. Filiform papillae were distributed on the apex linguae and rostral regions of the corpus linguae. Conical papillae were distributed over the caudal region and absent in the radix linguae. Numerous ridges were present in the radix linguae. Four to six vallate papillae were situated at the border between the corpus and radix linguae. Instead of foliate papillae, a pair of lateral organs was situated on the caudal edge of the corpus. The epithelial surface of each filiform papilla consisted of a single main process and 10-12 accessory processes. Notably, filiform papillae in the apex linguae exhibited morphological variation, and some were dome-like and lacked processes. In contrast, filiform papillae on the rostral part were not variable, were extended to a sharp tip, were associated with an eosinophilic stratum corneum, and lacked nuclei. The CTCs of the filiform papillae consisted of a main core and slender accessory cores surrounding a concavity. Those in the apex linguae were similar in appearance and consisted of main and adjacent accessory cores. The fungiform papillae had a dome-like epithelial surface and their CTCs were columnar, with upper concavities and flanges. The simplified lingual morphology of the American mink, particularly in the filiform papillae in the apex linguae, may be influenced by its diet and semiaquatic lifestyle. PMID:24832902

Yoshimura, Ken; Fukue, Yuko; Kishimoto, Ryosuke; Shindo, Junji; Kageyama, Ikuo

2014-05-01

276

Plasmid-based short hairpin RNA against connective tissue growth factor attenuated monocrotaline-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling in rats.  

PubMed

Pulmonary hypertension is a life-threatening medical condition, and a growing body of evidence shows that the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is significantly associated with its pathogenesis, making it an attractive therapeutic target. Our earlier work revealed that plasmid-based CTGF-specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA) could attenuate pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation and pulmonary vascular remodeling in rats exposed to cigarette smoke. In this study, we explored the therapeutic role of this shRNA plasmid in the treatment of monocrotaline-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling in rats, and demonstrated that the upregulation of CTGF in PASMCs following a single injection of monocrotaline could be attenuated by administration of the shRNA. Accordingly, this shRNA was found to repress monocrotaline-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling, as evidenced by its ability to reduce the percentage of muscularized vessels and the wall thickness of pulmonary vessels. We concluded that plasmid-based shRNA against CTGF attenuated pulmonary vascular remodeling in monocrotaline-treated rats. CTGF might be a potential target for the treatment of pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25077774

Wang, R; Zhou, S-J; Zeng, D-X; Xu, R; Fei, L-M; Zhu, Q-Q; Zhang, Y; Sun, G-Y

2014-11-01

277

Connective tissue growth factor regulates adipocyte differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells and facilitates leukemia bone marrow engraftment  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a major component of the leukemia bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is highly expressed in MSCs, but its role in the BM stroma is unknown. Therefore, we knocked down (KD) CTGF expression in human BM-derived MSCs by CTGF short hairpin RNA. CTGF KD MSCs exhibited fivefold lower proliferation compared with control MSCs and had markedly fewer S-phase cells. CTGF KD MSCs differentiated into adipocytes at a sixfold higher rate than controls in vitro and in vivo. To study the effect of CTGF on engraftment of leukemia cells into BM, an in vivo model of humanized extramedullary BM (EXM-BM) was developed in NOD/SCID/IL-2rgnull mice. Transplanted Nalm-6 or Molm-13 human leukemia cells engrafted at a threefold higher rate in adipocyte-rich CTGF KD MSC-derived EXM-BM than in control EXM-BM. Leptin was found to be highly expressed in CTGF KD EXM-BM and in BM samples of patients with acute myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukemia, whereas it was not expressed in normal controls. Given the established role of the leptin receptor in leukemia cells, the data suggest an important role of CTGF in MSC differentiation into adipocytes and of leptin in homing and progression of leukemia. PMID:23741006

Battula, V. Lokesh; Chen, Ye; Cabreira, Maria da Graca; Ruvolo, Vivian; Wang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Wencai; Konoplev, Sergej; Shpall, Elizabeth; Lyons, Karen; Strunk, Dirk; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Davis, Richard Eric; Konopleva, Marina

2013-01-01

278

The prefabricated scapula flap consists of syngeneic bone, connective tissue, and a self-assembled epithelial coating.  

PubMed

The reconstruction of maxillary defects is a challenge in plastic surgery. The so-called prefabricated scapula flap consists of syngeneic bone covered with syngeneic dermis and is used to reconstruct maxillary defects. After placing these flaps into the oral cavity, they are reepithelialized within a short time period, raising the question of the cellular origin of the "neomucosa." We therefore obtained sequential biopsy samples of the prefabricated flap and of the flap after being placed into the oral cavity and analyzed the keratin expression profile of epithelial cells. We expected that after placing the prefabricated flap into the oral cavity, keratinocytes from adnexal structures of the dermal component of the graft would migrate onto the surface and reepithelialize the flap. Unexpectedly, reepithelialization occurred earlier. The flap had acquired a mucosa-like epithelium at the interface between the Gore-Tex coating and the dermis while still being positioned within the scapular region. The keratin expression profile of this epithelium was very similar to that of mucosal epithelium. Thus, the prefabricated scapula flap not only consisted of bone covered with connective tissue, but was also covered with epithelial cells derived from adnexal structures of the dermal graft. This seems to be the reason for the rapid restoration of an intact mucosa and the excellent outcome achieved with this surgical technique. PMID:11743375

Kunstfeld, R; Petzelbauer, P; Wickenhauser, G; Schlenz, I; Korak, K; Vinzenz, K; Holle, J

2001-12-01

279

Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review. Studies have been published in the field of autoimmune thyroid diseases since January 2005. The review is organized into areas of etiology, autoimmune features, autoantibodies, mechanism of thyroid cell injury, B-cell responses, and T-cell responses. Also it reviews the diagnosis and the relationship between autoimmune thyroid disease, neoplasm, and kidney disorders. Recent Findings. Autoimmune thyroid diseases have been reported in people living in different parts of the world including North America, Europe, Baalkans, Asia, Middle East, South America, and Africa though the reported figures do not fully reflect the number of people infected per year. Cases are unrecognized due to inaccurate diagnosis and hence are treated as other diseases. However, the most recent studies have shown that the human autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) affect up to 5% of the general population and are seen mostly in women between 30 and 50 years. Summary. Autoimmune thyroid disease is the result of a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Overall, this review has expanded our understanding of the mechanism involved in pathogenesis of AITD and the relationship between autoimmune thyroid disease, neoplasm, and kidney disease. It has opened new lines of investigations that will ultimately result in a better clinical practice. PMID:23878745

Iddah, M. A.; Macharia, B. N.

2013-01-01

280

MicroRNAs in Autoimmune Diseases  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are featured by body's immune responses being directed towards its own specific target organs or multiple organ systems, causing persistent inflammation and consequent tissue damage. miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs in a size of approximately 22?nt that play important regulatory roles in many organisms by cleavage or translational inhibition of targeted mRNAs. Many miRNAs are reported to be differentially expressed in ADs and may play a pivotal role in regulating immune responses and autoimmunity. In this review, current research progress in the miRNAs in ADs was elucidated. PMID:24991561

Qu, Zigang; Li, Wenhui; Fu, Baoquan

2014-01-01

281

A Comparison of the Size Distribution of Collagen Fibrils in Connective Tissues as a Function of Age and a Possible Relation between Fibril Size Distribution and Mechanical Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the distribution of collagen fibril diameters in various connective tissues have been collected and analysed for common features. The diameter distributions of the collagen fibrils at birth and in the foetal stages of development are unimodal, whereas at maturity the mass-average diameter of the collagen fibrils is generally larger than at birth and the distributions of fibril sizes

D. A. D. Parry; G. R. G. Barnes; A. S. Craig

1978-01-01

282

Endothelin1, via ETA Receptor and Independently of Transforming Growth Factor, Increases the Connective Tissue Growth Factor in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endothelin (ET)-1 is a potent vasoconstrictor that participates in cardiovascular diseases. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a novel fibrotic mediator that is overexpressed in human atherosclerotic lesions, myocardial infarction, and experimental models of hypertension. In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), CTGF regulates cell proliferation\\/apoptosis, migration, and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation. Our aim was to investigate whether ET-1 could regulate

Juan Rodriguez-Vita; Marta Ruiz-Ortega; Monica Ruperez; Vanessa Esteban; Elsa Sanchez-Lopez; Juan JosePlaza; Jesus Egido

2010-01-01

283

Smad3 and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1\\/2 Coordinately Mediate Transforming Growth Factor-?-Induced Expression of Connective Tissue Growth Factor in Human Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is secreted by fibroblasts stimulated with transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?). CTGF is a potent enhancer of fibroblast proliferation, chemotaxis, and extracellular matrix deposition, and it is thought to mediate some of the fibrogenic effects of TGF-?. Here, we have elucidated signaling pathways involved in regulating the TGF-?-induced production of CTGF in primary fibroblasts. TGF-? induced

Suvi-Katri Leivonen; Lari Häkkinen; David Liu; Veli-Matti Kähäri

2005-01-01

284

Structure and function of blood and connective tissue cells of the fresh water pulmonate Lymnaea stagnalis studied by electron microscopy and enzyme histochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology and the ultrastructure of the blood and connective tissue cells of Lymnaea stagnalis were studied. Special attention was paid to the role of these cells in the cellular defense mechanism (phagocytosis). This problem was investigated in injection experiments with enzyme histochemistry and electron microscopy.

T. Sminia

1972-01-01

285

Study of chemical properties and evaluation of collagen in mantle, epidermal connective tissue and tentacle of Indian Squid, Loligo duvauceli Orbigny.  

PubMed

The chemical composition and evaluation of Indian squid (Loligo duvauceli) mantle, epidermal connective tissue and tentacle is investigated in this current study. It is observed that squid mantle contains 22.2% total protein; 63.5% of the total protein is myofibrillar protein. The unique property of squid myofibrillar protein is its water solubility. Squid mantle contains 12.0% total collagen. Epidermal connective tissue has highest amounts of total collagen (17.8%). SDS-PAGE of total collagen identified high molecular weight ?-, ?- and ?- sub-chains. Amino acid profile analysis indicates that mantle and tentacle contain essential amino acids. Arginine forms a major portion of mantle collagen (272.5 g/100 g N). Isoleucine, glutamic acid and lysine are other amino acids that are found in significantly high amounts in the mantle. Sulphur containing cystine is deficit in mantle collagen. Papain digest of mantle and epidermal connective tissue is rich in uronic acid, while papain digest, collagenase digest and urea digest of epidermal connective tissue has significant amounts of sialic acid (25.2, 33.2 and 99.8 ?mol /100 g, respectively). PAS staining of papain digest, collagenase digest and urea digest also identify the association of hexoses with low molecular weight collagen fragments. Histochemical sectioning also emphasized the localized distribution of collagen in epidermal and dermal region and very sparse fibres traverse the myotome bundles. PMID:25114341

Raman, Maya; Mathew, Saleena

2014-08-01

286

Autoimmunity in Immunodeficiency  

PubMed Central

Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) comprise a diverse group of clinical disorders with varied genetic defects. Paradoxically, a substantial proportion of PID patients develop autoimmune phenomena in addition to having increased susceptibility to infections from their impaired immunity. Although much of our understanding comes from data gathered through experimental models, there are several well-characterized PID that have improved our knowledge of the pathways that drive autoimmunity. The goals of this review will be to discuss these immunodeficiencies and to review the literature with respect to the proposed mechanisms for autoimmunity within each put forth to date. PMID:23591608

Todoric, Krista; Koontz, Jessica B.; Mattox, Daniel; Tarrant, Teresa K.

2013-01-01

287

Autoimmunity and the Gut  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune diseases have increased dramatically worldwide since World War II. This is coincidental with the increased production and use of chemicals both in industrial countries and agriculture, as well as the ease of travel from region to region and continent to continent, making the transfer of a pathogen or pathogens from one part of the world to another much easier than ever before. In this review, triggers of autoimmunity are examined, principally environmental. The number of possible environmental triggers is vast and includes chemicals, bacteria, viruses, and molds. Examples of these triggers are given and include the mechanism of action and method by which they bring about autoimmunity. PMID:24900918

Campbell, Andrew W.

2014-01-01

288

Ovarian autoimmune disease: clinical concepts and animal models  

PubMed Central

The ovary is not an immunologically privileged organ, but a breakdown in tolerogenic mechanisms for ovary-specific antigens has disastrous consequences on fertility in women, and this is replicated in murine models of autoimmune disease. Isolated ovarian autoimmune disease is rare in women, likely due to the severity of the disease and the inability to transmit genetic information conferring the ovarian disease across generations. Nonetheless, autoimmune oophoritis is often observed in association with other autoimmune diseases, particularly autoimmune adrenal disease, and takes a toll on both society and individual health. Studies in mice have revealed at least two mechanisms that protect the ovary from autoimmune attack. These mechanisms include control of autoreactive T cells by thymus-derived regulatory T cells, as well as a role for the autoimmune regulator (AIRE), a transcriptional regulator that induces expression of tissue-restricted antigens in medullary thymic epithelial cells during development of T cells. Although the latter mechanism is incompletely defined, it is well established that failure of either results in autoimmune-mediated targeting and depletion of ovarian follicles. In this review, we will address the clinical features and consequences of autoimmune-mediated ovarian infertility in women, as well as the possible mechanisms of disease as revealed by animal models. PMID:25327908

Warren, Bryce D; Kinsey, William K; McGinnis, Lynda K; Christenson, Lane K; Jasti, Susmita; Stevens, Anne M; Petroff, Brian K; Petroff, Margaret G

2014-01-01

289

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and autoimmune disease.  

PubMed

The etiology and pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases have long been an enigmatic subject that have involved genetic and environmental factors. Recent intriguing data has contributed to the mechanisms involved, including the relationship of infectious agents and loss of tolerance. This loss of tolerance is illustrated by the data on the immune response to Hepatitis B virus such as the molecular mimicry between HBV antigens and self proteins, the generation of immune complexes between HBV antigens and antibodies, and apoptosis/tissue damage resulting in the exposure of intracellular antigens to the immune system. In this paper, we review the current database related to HBV infection and a variety of autoimmune conditions, including autoimmune hepatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, aplastic anemia, antiphospholipid syndrome, polyarteritis nodosa, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, thyroid disease and uveitis. PMID:18270862

Maya, Ram; Gershwin, M Eric; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

2008-02-01

290

Diagnosing and Treating the Predominantly Female Problems of Systemic Autoimmune Diseases.  

PubMed

Autoimmune diseases with rheumatic manifestations are predominantly diseases of women. Any woman with new onset arthralgia or arthritis should have a thorough history and physical to rule out autoimmune connective-tissue disease. Screening serologic tests, however, are not necessarily recommended because of high false-positive rates. Serologic tests are most useful in confirming or ruling out the diagnosis; for example, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is rarely present when antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are absent; the absence of rheumatoid factor will not rule out rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but its presence confirms it. Most autoantibodies (RF [rheumatoid factor], ANA, ENA [extractable nuclear antigen], anti-Jo-1, etc) do not vary with disease flare-ups and remissions. Plain radiographs of the joints are not useful except as a baseline and in detecting erosion at end of long bones associated with RA. Polymyalgia rheumatica and RA, with an incidence of 1 in 2000 to 3000, are the most common autoimmune disorders. Other autoimmune diseases such as SLE, vasculitis, polymyositis, and dermatomyositis are seen infrequently in general practice. Pregnancy, menopause, or breast implantation may affect disease prognosis and treatment. For example, in pregnancy, RA symptoms generally improve, whereas those of SLE may worsen; both diseases may flare postpartum. Oral contraceptives have been associated with an increase in disease flare-ups, but there is little or no evidence that estrogen in the dose level used for replacement is harmful to SLE patients. Although relatively rare, autoimmune diseases can be devastating to the patient if not promptly recognized and properly treated. PMID:9746680

Davidson; Keiser

1997-02-01

291

Connective tissue growth factor/CCN2-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts retain intact transforming growth factor-{beta} responsiveness  

SciTech Connect

Background: The matricellular protein connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) has been implicated in pathological fibrosis, but its physiologic role remains elusive. In vitro, transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) induces CCN2 expression in mesenchymal cells. Because CCN2 can enhance profibrotic responses elicited by TGF-{beta}, it has been proposed that CCN2 functions as an essential downstream signaling mediator for TGF-{beta}. To explore this notion, we characterized TGF-{beta}-induced activation of fibroblasts from CCN2-null (CCN2{sup -/-}) mouse embryos. Methods: The regulation of CCN2 expression was examined in vivo in a model of fibrosis induced by bleomycin. Cellular TGF-{beta} signal transduction and regulation of collagen gene expression were examined in CCN2{sup -/-} MEFs by immunohistochemistry, Northern, Western and RT-PCR analysis, immunocytochemistry and transient transfection assays. Results: Bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis in the mouse was associated with substantial CCN2 up-regulation in lesional fibroblasts. Whereas in vitro proliferation rate of CCN2{sup -/-} MEFs was markedly reduced compared to wild type MEFs, TGF-{beta}-induced activation of the Smad pathways, including Smad2 phosphorylation, Smad2/3 and Smad4 nuclear accumulation and Smad-dependent transcriptional responses, were unaffected by loss of CCN2. The stimulation of COL1A2 and fibronectin mRNA expression and promoter activity, and of corresponding protein levels, showed comparable time and dose-response in wild type and CCN2{sup -/-} MEFs, whereas stimulation of alpha smooth muscle actin and myofibroblast transdifferentiation showed subtle impairment in MEFs lacking CCN2. Conclusion: Whereas endogenous CCN2 plays a role in regulation of proliferation and TGF-{beta}-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation, it appears to be dispensable for Smad-dependent stimulation of collagen and extracellular matrix synthesis in murine embryonic fibroblasts.

Mori, Yasuji; Hinchcliff, Monique; Wu, Minghua; Warner-Blankenship, Matthew [Division of Rheumatology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 240 E Huron Street, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Lyons, Karen M. [OH/UCLA Department of Orthopedic Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Varga, John [Division of Rheumatology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 240 E Huron Street, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States)], E-mail: j-varga@northwestern.edu

2008-03-10

292

Serum proteins and paraproteins in women with silicone implants and connective tissue disease: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Prior studies have suggested abnormalities of serum proteins, including paraproteins, in women with silicone implants but did not control for the presence of connective-tissue disease (CTD). This retrospective case–control study, performed in tertiary-care academic centers, assessed possible alterations of serum proteins, including paraproteins, in such a population. Seventy-four women with silicone implants who subsequently developed CTD, and 74 age-matched and CTD-matched women without silicone implants, were assessed in the primary study; other groups were used for additional comparisons. Routine serum protein determinations and high-sensitivity protein electrophoresis and immunofixation electrophoresis were performed for detection of paraproteins. Women with silicone implants, either with or without CTD, had significantly lower serum total protein and ?1-globulin, ?2-globulin, ?-globulin, ?-globulin, and IgG levels compared with those without silicone implants. There was no significant difference, however, in the frequency of paraproteinemia between women with silicone implants and CTD (9.5%) and age-matched and CTD-matched women without silicone implants (5.4%) (odds ratio, 1.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.51–6.45). Paraprotein isotypes were similar in the two groups, and the clinical characteristics of the 13 women with paraproteinemia were comparable with an independent population of 10 women with silicone breast implants, CTD, and previously diagnosed monoclonal gammopathies. In summary, this first comprehensive study of serum proteins in women with silicone implants and CTD found no substantially increased risk of monoclonal gammopathy. Women with silicone implants, however, had unexpectedly low serum globulin and immunoglobulin levels, with or without the subsequent development of CTD. The causes and clinical implications of these findings require further investigation. PMID:17875216

Csako, Gyorgy; Costello, Rene; Shamim, Ejaz A; O'Hanlon, Terrance P; Tran, Anthony; Clauw, Daniel J; Williams, H James; Miller, Frederick W

2007-01-01

293

Nerve growth factor induces development of connective tissue-type mast cells in vitro from murine bone marrow cells  

PubMed Central

The effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on proliferation/differentiation of mast cells was investigated in vitro. Although NGF alone neither supported colony formation of bone marrow- derived cultured mast cells (BMCMC) nor induced development of mast cell colonies from nonadherent bone marrow cells (NBMC), addition of NGF to the suboptimal dose of interleukin 3 (IL-3) significantly increased the numbers of mast cell colonies produced by BMCMC or NBMC in methylcellulose. When stimulated by IL-3 alone, cells in mast cell colonies were not stained by berberine sulfate, a fluorescent dye. In contrast, mast cells developing in methylcellulose cultures obtaining both IL-3 and NGF were stained by berberine sulfate. The fluorescence was abolished by the treatment of heparinase but not of chondroitinase ABC, suggesting that mast cells stimulated by IL-3 and NGF produced and stored heparin proteoglycan. The histamine content of BMCMC maintained by IL-3 was also increased by addition of NGF. Since BMCMC showed mucosal mast cell-like phenotype, NGF appeared to induce the phenotypic change to connective tissue-type mast cells (CTMC). In the culture containing BMCMC, 3T3 fibroblasts, and IL-3, the phenotypic change of BMCMC to CTMC was observed as well. Since NGF was detected in this coculture and since addition of anti-NGF monoclonal antibody suppressed the phenotypic change, NGF produced by fibroblasts appeared to induce the phenotypic change. Neither BMCMC alone nor IL-3 alone increased the concentration of NGF. Therefore, there is a possibility that BMCMC stimulated by IL-3 may induce the production and/or release of NGF by fibroblasts. PMID:1711569

1991-01-01

294

Clinical and Immunologic Manifestations of Mixed Connective Tissue Disease in a Miami Population Compared to a Midwestern US Caucasian Population  

PubMed Central

Objective A cross-sectional study of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) was performed to determine if there were identifiable differences in the clinical expression of MCTD associated with race or ethnicity. Methods Miami, Florida, and Midwestern US (Missouri) Caucasian MCTD cohorts were studied. Clinical and laboratory features of the 2 MCTD cohorts were compared. A concurrently collected cohort of Sm-positive patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was studied as a control. Disease activity and severity and functional status were measured. CD4+CD25high-expressing T-regulatory cells were enumerated and serum soluble L selectin was measured as biomarkers of disease activity. Results The Miami and Missouri Caucasian MCTD groups, while differing from the SLE group, were largely similar; however, gastroesophageal reflux, sclerodactyly, and malar rash were significantly more frequent in the Missouri MCTD group and alopecia was more frequent in the Miami MCTD group. Significant clinical and laboratory differences were found between the Miami MCTD and Miami SLE groups despite similar disease duration, activity, severity and functional status. Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), hand swelling, synovitis, myositis, and sclerodactyly were all significantly more common in RNP-positive MCTD versus Sm-positive SLE subjects. Conclusion Ethnic differences were observed in the frequency of end-organ involvement in the Miami MCTD versus the Missouri Caucasian MCTD groups. Clinical and laboratory features of all MCTD groups were clearly different from the SLE group, despite similar disease activity, disease severity, and functional status. Disease activity measures appeared to behave similarly as valid measures of disease activity in SLE and MCTD. PMID:18260175

Maldonado, Marcos E.; Perez, Magdalena; Pignac-Kobinger, Judith; Marx, Emily Triana; Tozman, Elaine M.; Greidinger, Eric L.; Hoffman, Robert W.

2010-01-01

295

Autoimmunity-related neutrophilic dermatosis: a newly described entity that is not exclusive of systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

Neutrophilic dermatoses have long been known to be associated with autoinmune systemic diseases. Recently, a small number of cases of a disorder distinct from Sweet syndrome or bullous lupus erythematosus (LE) have been described as specifically related to systemic LE under diverse terms, including nonbullous neutrophilic dermatosis, nonbullous neutrophilic LE, and Sweet-like neutrophilic dermatosis. We describe 7 patients that developed urticarial lesions in the context of a known or concurrently diagnosed autoimmune connective tissue disease. Of a total of 7 patients, 6 were afflicted by systemic LE and 1 by rheumatoid arthritis and secondary Sjögren syndrome. Histological findings in all patients included an interstitial and perivascular neutrophilic infiltrate with leukocytoclasia, vacuolar alteration along the dermal-edidermal junction, and no vasculitis. Most patients had active systemic disease at the time of the cutaneous eruption. Skin lesions resolved rapidly after the administration of immunomodulating agents. In conclusion, we provide additional evidence of the existence of a recently defined nonbullous neutrophilic dermatosis in the context of autoimmune connective tissue diseases and propose the term autoimmunity-related neutrophilic dermatosis as an appropriate designation. Furthermore, we believe that this entity should prompt physicians to screen the presence of an active systemic disorder in afflicted patients. PMID:23518639

Saeb-Lima, Marcela; Charli-Joseph, Yann; Rodríguez-Acosta, Elva Dalia; Domínguez-Cherit, Judith

2013-08-01

296

Age-related autoimmunity.  

PubMed

Older persons have higher autoimmunity but a lower prevalence of autoimmune diseases. A possible explanation for this is the expansion of many protective regulatory mechanisms highly characteristic in the elderly. Of note is the higher production of peripheral T-regulatory cells.The frequent development of autoimmunity in the elderly was suggested to take place in part due to the selection of T cells with increased affinity to self-antigens or to latent viruses. These cells were shown to have a greater ability to be pro-inflammatory, thereby amplifying autoimmunity. During aging, thymic T-regulatory cell output decreases in association with the loss of thymic capacity to generate new T cells. However, to balance the above mentioned autoimmunity and prevent the development of autoimmune diseases, there is an age-related increase in peripheral CD4+ CD25highFoxP3+ T-regulatory cells. It remains unclear whether this is an age-related immune dysfunction or a defense response. Whatever the reason, the expansion of T-regulatory cells requires payment in terms of an increased incidence of cancer and higher susceptibility to infections. PMID:23556986

Vadasz, Zahava; Haj, Tharwat; Kessel, Aharon; Toubi, Elias

2013-01-01

297

The epigenetics of autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

The etiology of autoimmune diseases remains largely unknown. Concordance rates in monozygotic twins are lower than 50% while genome-wide association studies propose numerous significant associations representing only a minority of patients. These lines of evidence strongly support other complementary mechanisms involved in the regulation of genes expression ultimately causing overt autoimmunity. Alterations in the post-translational modification of histones and DNA methylation are the two major epigenetic mechanisms that may potentially cause a breakdown of immune tolerance and the perpetuation of autoimmune diseases. In recent years, several studies both in clinical settings and experimental models proposed that the epigenome may hold the key to a better understanding of autoimmunity initiation and perpetuation. More specifically, data support the impact of epigenetic changes in systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases, in some cases based on mechanistical observations. We herein discuss what we currently know and what we expect will come in the next future. Ultimately, epigenetic treatments already being used in oncology may soon prove beneficial also in autoimmune diseases. PMID:21278766

Meda, Francesca; Folci, Marco; Baccarelli, Andrea; Selmi, Carlo

2011-01-01

298

Autoimmunity in 2013.  

PubMed

The peer-reviewed publications in the field of autoimmunity published in 2013 represented a significant proportion of immunology articles and grew since the previous year to indicate that more immune-mediated phenomena may recognize an autoimmune mechanism and illustrated by osteoarthritis and atherosclerosis. As a result, our understanding of the mechanisms of autoimmunity is becoming the paradigm for translational research in which the progress in disease pathogenesis for both tolerance breakdown and inflammation perpetuation is rapidly followed by new treatment approaches and clinical management changes. The similarities across the autoimmune disease spectrum outnumber differences, particularly when treatments are compared. Indeed, the therapeutics of autoimmune diseases are based on a growing armamentarium that currently includes monoclonal antibodies and small molecules which act by targeting molecular markers or intracellular mediators with high specificity. Among the over 100 conditions considered as autoimmune, the common grounds are well illustrated by the data reported for systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis or by the plethora of studies on Th17 cells and biomarkers, particularly serum autoantibodies. Further, we are particularly intrigued by studies on the genomics, epigenetics, and microRNA at different stages of disease development or on the safe and effective use of abatacept acting on the costimulation of T and B cells in rheumatoid arthritis. We are convinced that the data published in 2013 represent a promising background for future developments that will exponentially impact the work of laboratory and clinical scientists over the next years. PMID:24819586

Selmi, Carlo

2014-08-01

299

A whole-brain voxel based measure of intrinsic connectivity contrast reveals local changes in tissue connectivity with anesthetic without a priori assumptions on thresholds or regions of interest.  

PubMed

The analysis of spontaneous fluctuations of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals has recently gained attention as a powerful tool for investigating brain circuits in a non-invasive manner. Correlation-based connectivity analysis investigates the correlations of spontaneous fluctuations of the fMRI signal either between a single seed region of interest (ROI) and the rest of the brain or between multiple ROIs. To do this, a priori knowledge is required for defining the ROI(s) and without such knowledge functional connectivity fMRI cannot be used as an exploratory tool for investigating the functional organization of the brain and its modulation under different conditions. In this work we examine two indices that provide voxel based maps reflecting the intrinsic connectivity contrast (ICC) of individual tissue elements without the need for defining ROIs and hence require no a priori information or assumptions. These voxel based ICC measures can also be used to delineate regions of interest for further functional or network analyses. The indices were applied to the study of sevoflurane anesthesia-induced alterations in intrinsic connectivity. In concordance with previous studies, the results show that sevoflurane affects different brain circuits in a heterogeneous manner. In addition ICC analyses revealed changes in regions not previously identified using conventional ROI connectivity analyses, probably because of an inappropriate choice of the ROI in the earlier studies. This work highlights the importance of such voxel based connectivity methodology. PMID:21763437

Martuzzi, Roberto; Ramani, Ramachandran; Qiu, Maolin; Shen, Xilin; Papademetris, Xenophon; Constable, R Todd

2011-10-15

300

Alternative splicing in multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing is a general mechanism for regulating gene expression that affects the RNA products of more than 90% of human genes. Not surprisingly, alternative splicing is observed among gene products of metazoan immune systems, which have evolved to efficiently recognize pathogens and discriminate between “self” and “non-self”, and thus need to be both diverse and flexible. In this review we focus on the specific interface between alternative splicing and autoimmune diseases, which result from a malfunctioning of the immune system and are characterized by the inappropriate reaction to self-antigens. Despite the widespread recognition of alternative splicing as one of the major regulators of gene expression, the connections between alternative splicing and autoimmunity have not been apparent. We summarize recent findings connecting splicing and autoimmune disease, and attempt to find common patterns of splicing regulation that may advance our understanding of autoimmune diseases and open new avenues for therapy. PMID:20639696

Evsyukova, Irina; Somarelli, Jason A; Gregory, Simon G

2010-01-01

301

Interferon-? and Systemic Autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

The term interferon describes a family of proteins consisting of three major types (I, II, III) which differ in their primary protein sequences, cognate receptors, genetic loci, and cell types responsible for their production. The interferons, especially types I and II, overlap significantly in the genes they control resulting in a shared spectrum of diverse biological effects which includes regulation of both the innate and adaptive immune responses. As such, the interferons are major effectors in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, especially systemic autoimmunity. The type I IFNs, because they are produced during the early stages of the innate immune response, are thought to play the foremost role in autoimmune responses. However, numerous studies have found that the single type II IFN, IFN-?, plays an essential role in the development and severity of systemic autoimmunity, particularly systemic lupus erythematosus. This is supported by animal studies where IFN-? is uniformly required in both spontaneous and induced models of lupus. Although expression of IFN-? in cells of the innate immune system is almost immediate after activation, expression in adaptive immunity requires a complex orchestration of cellular interactions, signaling events and epigenetic modifications. The multifaceted nature of IFN-? in adaptive immunity identifies numerous possible therapeutic targets that, because of the essential contribution of IFN-? to systemic autoimmunity, have the potential for producing significant benefits. PMID:23998448

Pollard, K.M.; Cauvi, D.M.; Toomey, C.B; Morris, K.V.; Kono, D.H.

2014-01-01

302

Autoimmunity and asbestos exposure.  

PubMed

Despite a body of evidence supporting an association between asbestos exposure and autoantibodies indicative of systemic autoimmunity, such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA), a strong epidemiological link has never been made to specific autoimmune diseases. This is in contrast with another silicate dust, crystalline silica, for which there is considerable evidence linking exposure to diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Instead, the asbestos literature is heavily focused on cancer, including mesothelioma and pulmonary carcinoma. Possible contributing factors to the absence of a stronger epidemiological association between asbestos and autoimmune disease include (a) a lack of statistical power due to relatively small or diffuse exposure cohorts, (b) exposure misclassification, (c) latency of clinical disease, (d) mild or subclinical entities that remain undetected or masked by other pathologies, or (e) effects that are specific to certain fiber types, so that analyses on mixed exposures do not reach statistical significance. This review summarizes epidemiological, animal model, and in vitro data related to asbestos exposures and autoimmunity. These combined data help build toward a better understanding of the fiber-associated factors contributing to immune dysfunction that may raise the risk of autoimmunity and the possible contribution to asbestos-related pulmonary disease. PMID:24876951

Pfau, Jean C; Serve, Kinta M; Noonan, Curtis W

2014-01-01

303

Autoimmunity and Asbestos Exposure  

PubMed Central

Despite a body of evidence supporting an association between asbestos exposure and autoantibodies indicative of systemic autoimmunity, such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA), a strong epidemiological link has never been made to specific autoimmune diseases. This is in contrast with another silicate dust, crystalline silica, for which there is considerable evidence linking exposure to diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Instead, the asbestos literature is heavily focused on cancer, including mesothelioma and pulmonary carcinoma. Possible contributing factors to the absence of a stronger epidemiological association between asbestos and autoimmune disease include (a) a lack of statistical power due to relatively small or diffuse exposure cohorts, (b) exposure misclassification, (c) latency of clinical disease, (d) mild or subclinical entities that remain undetected or masked by other pathologies, or (e) effects that are specific to certain fiber types, so that analyses on mixed exposures do not reach statistical significance. This review summarizes epidemiological, animal model, and in vitro data related to asbestos exposures and autoimmunity. These combined data help build toward a better understanding of the fiber-associated factors contributing to immune dysfunction that may raise the risk of autoimmunity and the possible contribution to asbestos-related pulmonary disease. PMID:24876951

Pfau, Jean C.; Serve, Kinta M.; Noonan, Curtis W.

2014-01-01

304

Severe eczema and Hyper-IgE in Loeys-Dietz-syndrome - contribution to new findings of immune dysregulation in connective tissue disorders.  

PubMed

Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a connective tissue disorder caused by monoallelic mutations in TGFBR1 and TGFBR2, which encode for subunits of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF?) receptor. Affected patients are identified by vascular aneurysms with tortuosity and distinct morphological presentations similar to Marfan syndrome; however, an additional predisposition towards asthma and allergy has recently been found. We describe two patients with a novel missense mutation in TGFBR1 presenting with highly elevated levels of IgE and severe eczema similar to autosomal-dominant Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES). Mild allergic manifestations with normal up to moderately increased IgE were observed in 3 out of 6 additional LDS patients. A comparison of this cohort with 4 HIES patients illustrates the significant overlap of both syndromes including eczema and elevated IgE as well as skeletal and connective tissue manifestations. PMID:24333532

Felgentreff, Kerstin; Siepe, Matthias; Kotthoff, Stefan; von Kodolitsch, Yskert; Schachtrup, Kristina; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Walter, Jolan E; Ehl, Stephan

2014-01-01

305

Thrombin induced connective tissue growth factor expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells via the PAR1\\/JNK\\/AP1 pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:To investigate the signaling pathways involved in thrombin-induced connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs).Methods:Experiments were preformed on primary rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) and a rat VSMC line (A10). CTGF protein levels were measured using Western blotting. Luciferase reporter genes and dominant negative mutants (DNs) were used to investigate the signaling pathways

Wen-chin Ko; Bing-chang Chen; Ming-jen Hsu; Chia-ti Tsai; Chuang-ye Hong; Chien-huang Lin

2012-01-01

306

Aesthetic management of gingival recession by root biomodification with carbon dioxide laser and subepithelial connective tissue graft with lateral repositioned flap technique  

PubMed Central

Localised gingival recessions continue to represent an important aesthetic condition requiring treatment in periodontics. Various techniques have been tried to treat exposed root surfaces to improve aesthetics with high percentage of success and minimal discomfort. Root biomodification is done to improve the predictability of these procedures. This clinical report describes periodontal plastic procedure involving subepithelial connective tissue graft with lateral repositioned flap technique and root biomodification with CO2 laser for the management of gingival recession. PMID:22778454

Rastogi, Pavitra Kumar; Lal, Nand; Garg, Nimit; Anand, Vishal; Singhal, Rameshwari

2012-01-01

307

Cellular Targeting in Autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

Many biologic agents that were first approved for the treatment of malignancies are now being actively investigated and used in a variety of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and Sjogren’s syndrome. The relatively recent advance of selective immune targeting has significantly changed the management of autoimmune disorders, and in part, can be attributed to the progress made in understanding effector cell function and their signaling pathways. In this review, we will discuss the recent FDA approved biologic therapies that directly target immune cells as well as the most promising investigational drugs affecting immune cell function and signaling for the treatment of autoimmune disease. PMID:23054625

Rogers, Jennifer L.; Serafin, Donald S.; Timoshchenko, Roman G.; Tarrant, Teresa K.

2012-01-01

308

Role of Microglia in CNS Autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in the Western world. The disease is characterized histologically by the infiltration of encephalitogenic TH1/TH17-polarized CD4+ T cells, B cells, and a plethora of myeloid cells, resulting in severe demyelination ultimately leading to a degeneration of neuronal structures. These pathological processes are substantially modulated by microglia, the resident immune competent cells of the CNS. In this overview, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the highly diverse and complex function of microglia during CNS autoimmunity in either promoting tissue injury or tissue repair. Hence, understanding microglia involvement in MS offers new exciting paths for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23840238

Prinz, Marco

2013-01-01

309

Nitric oxide in autoimmune disease: cytotoxic or regulatory mediator?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) is released locally during inflammatory autoimmune diseases and is believed to contribute to tissue destruction. However, recent studies are not fully consistent with such a simple role for NO. Here, Hubert Kolb and Victoria Kolb-Bachofen discuss data that suggest a role for NO in autoimmune diseases as an important regulator of the T helper 1 (Th1)\\/Th2 balance.

Hubert Kolb; Victoria Kolb-Bachofen

1998-01-01

310

Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease (AIED)  

MedlinePLUS

... debris in the ear can cause problems. Some autoimmune disorders that can affect the ear include Cogan’s syndrome, ... even indistinguishable, from other vestibular disorders. Diagnosing an autoimmune disorder as the cause of inner ear symptoms can ...

311

American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association  

MedlinePLUS

... MA – “What Every American Need to Know About Autoimmune Disease” on Saturday, November 15, 2014 from 10:00- ... speakers are Dr. Noel Rose, head of the Autoimmune Disease Research Center at Johns Hopkins, speaking about “What ...

312

Autoimmune blistering skin diseases.  

PubMed

Emergency physicians, at the front line of patient care, are often confronted with a wide variety of dermatologic conditions. Prompt recognition is essential, especially for the autoimmune blistering skin diseases, many of which have considerable morbidity and mortality. Therefore, an accurate diagnosis is imperative for appropriate referral and initiation of therapy. This review article provides a concise yet thorough discussion of the clinical presentation, incidence, differential diagnosis and management of the commonly encountered autoimmune blistering skin diseases, some of which include pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid, and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. PMID:10830686

Cotell, S; Robinson, N D; Chan, L S

2000-05-01

313

B cells in autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

B-cell development is tightly regulated, including the induction of B-cell memory and antibody-secreting plasmablasts and plasma cells. In the last decade, we have expanded our understanding of effector functions of B cells as well as their roles in human autoimmune diseases. The current review addresses the role of certain stages of B-cell development as well as plasmablasts/plasma cells in immune regulation under normal and autoimmune conditions with particular emphasis on systemic lupus erythematosus. Based on preclinical and clinical data, B cells have emerged increasingly as both effector cells as well as cells with immunoregulatory potential. PMID:19849820

2009-01-01

314

Mutations in B3GALT6, which Encodes a Glycosaminoglycan Linker Region Enzyme, Cause a Spectrum of Skeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders  

PubMed Central

Proteoglycans (PGs) are a major component of the extracellular matrix in many tissues and function as structural and regulatory molecules. PGs are composed of core proteins and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains. The biosynthesis of GAGs starts with the linker region that consists of four sugar residues and is followed by repeating disaccharide units. By exome sequencing, we found that B3GALT6 encoding an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the GAG linker region is responsible for a severe skeletal dysplasia, spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity type 1 (SEMD-JL1). B3GALT6 loss-of-function mutations were found in individuals with SEMD-JL1 from seven families. In a subsequent candidate gene study based on the phenotypic similarity, we found that B3GALT6 is also responsible for a connective tissue disease, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (progeroid form). Recessive loss-of-function mutations in B3GALT6 result in a spectrum of disorders affecting a broad range of skeletal and connective tissues characterized by lax skin, muscle hypotonia, joint dislocation, and spinal deformity. The pleiotropic phenotypes of the disorders indicate that B3GALT6 plays a critical role in a wide range of biological processes in various tissues, including skin, bone, cartilage, tendon, and ligament. PMID:23664117

Nakajima, Masahiro; Mizumoto, Shuji; Miyake, Noriko; Kogawa, Ryo; Iida, Aritoshi; Ito, Hironori; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Aya; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Osamu; Kosaki, Rika; Horikawa, Reiko; Lai, Angeline; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Dupuis, Lucie; Chitayat, David; Howard, Andrew; Leal, Gabriela F.; Cavalcanti, Denise; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Watanabe, Shigehiko; Lausch, Ekkehart; Unger, Sheila; Bonafé, Luisa; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Nishimura, Gen; Ikegawa, Shiro

2013-01-01

315

Celiac disease in autoimmune cholestatic liver disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:In this study, serological screening for celiac disease (CD) was performed in patients with autoimmune cholestasis to define the prevalence of such an association and to evaluate the impact of gluten withdrawal on liver disease associated with gluten sensitive enteropathy.METHODS:Immunoglobulin A endomysial, human and guinea pig tissue transglutaminase antibodies, and immunoglobulin A and G gliadin antibodies were sought in 255

Umberto Volta; Luis Rodrigo; Alessandro Granito; Nunzio Petrolini; Paolo Muratori; Luigi Muratori; Antonio Linares; Lorenza Veronesi; Dolores Fuentes; Daniela Zauli; Francesco B. Bianchi

2002-01-01

316

Animal models of endocrine\\/organ-specific autoimmune diseases: do they really help us to understand human autoimmunity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Organ-specific or endocrine autoimmune diseases are complex, polygenic afflictions the penetrance of which is heavily dependent\\u000a on various environmental influences. Important target tissues are the thyroid, the islets of Langerhans, gastric parietal\\u000a cells and steroid-producing cells in the adrenal and ovary. The etiology of these diseases remains to be clarified. The pathogenesis\\u000a is strongly associated with autoimmune phenomena. None

W. K. Lam-Tse; A. Lernmark; H. A. Drexhage

2002-01-01

317

Leukocyte trafficking in experimental autoimmune uveitis in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leukocyte trafficking from blood into tissue is a fundamental process in immune surveil- lance and the immune response to stimuli. Experi- mental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) is an animal model for posterior uveitis and is mediated by T lymphocytes and macrophages that infiltrate the posterior segment of the eye. To analyze leukocyte migration into retinal tissue during the course of EAU,

Adrian Parnaby-Price; Miles R. Stanford; John Biggerstaff; Lucy Howe; Roy A. Whiston; John Marshall; Graham R. Wallace

1998-01-01

318

Altered Expression of Autoimmune Regulator in Infant Down Syndrome Thymus, a Possible Contributor to an Autoimmune Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy of chromosome 21, is associated with immunological dysfunctions such as increased frequency of infections and autoimmune diseases. Patients with DS share clinical features, such as autoimmune manifestations and specific autoantibodies, with patients affected by autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 is caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, located on chromosome 21, which regulates the expression of tissue-restricted Ags (TRAs) in thymic epithelial cells. We investigated the expression of AIRE and TRAs in DS and control thymic tissue using quantitative PCR. AIRE mRNA levels were elevated in thymic tissue from DS patients, and trends toward increased expression of the AIRE-controlled genes INSULIN and CHRNA1 were found. Immunohistochemical stainings showed altered cell composition and architecture of the thymic medulla in DS individuals with increased frequencies of AIRE-positive medullary epithelial cells and CD11c-positive dendritic cells as well as enlarged Hassall’s corpuscles. In addition, we evaluated the proteomic profile of thymic exosomes in DS individuals and controls. DS exosomes carried a broader protein pool and also a larger pool of unique TRAs compared with control exosomes. In conclusion, the increased AIRE gene dose in DS could contribute to an autoimmune phenotype through multiple AIRE-mediated effects on homeostasis and function of thymic epithelial cells that affect thymic selection processes. PMID:25038256

Lundberg, Vanja; Lindgren, Susanne; Gudmundsdottir, Judith; Sandström, Kerstin; Kämpe, Olle; Annerén, Göran; Gustafsson, Jan; Sunnegårdh, Jan; van der Post, Sjoerd; Telemo, Esbjörn; Berglund, Martin; Ekwall, Olov

2014-01-01

319

Autoimmune blistering skin diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergency physicians, at the front line of patient care, are often confronted with a wide variety of dermatologic conditions. Prompt recognition is essential, especially for the autoimmune blistering skin diseases, many of which have considerable morbidity and mortality. Therefore, an accurate diagnosis is imperative for appropriate referral and initiation of therapy. This review article provides a concise yet thorough discussion

Stephanie Cotell; Neha D Robinson; Lawrence S Chan

2000-01-01

320

Autoimmunity in psychiatry.  

PubMed

Current knowledge of the role of autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of the main psychiatric disorders is briefly outlined. The significance of immunological effects on synaptic transmission and associated neuropsychiatric syndromes is emphasised. Clinical psychiatrists are encouraged to keep abreast of developments in this increasingly important area. PMID:22550326

Davison, Kenneth

2012-05-01

321

Difficult treatment decisions in autoimmune hepatitis  

PubMed Central

Treatment decisions in autoimmune hepatitis are complicated by the diversity of its clinical presentations, uncertainties about its natural history, evolving opinions regarding treatment end points, varied nature of refractory disease, and plethora of alternative immunosuppressive agents. The goals of this article are to review the difficult treatment decisions and to provide the bases for making sound therapeutic judgments. The English literature on the treatment problems in autoimmune hepatitis were identified by Medline search up to October 2009 and 32 years of personal experience. Autoimmune hepatitis may have an acute severe presentation, mild inflammatory activity, lack autoantibodies, exhibit atypical histological changes (centrilobular zone 3 necrosis or bile duct injury), or have variant features reminiscent of another disease (overlap syndrome). Corticosteroid therapy must be instituted early, applied despite the absence of symptoms, or modified in an individualized fashion. Pursuit of normal liver tests and tissue is the ideal treatment end point, but this objective must be tempered against the risk of side effects. Relapse after treatment withdrawal requires long-term maintenance therapy, preferably with azathioprine. Treatment failure or an incomplete response warrants salvage therapy that can include conventional medications in modified dose or empirical therapies with calcineurin inhibitors or mycophenolate mofetil. Liver transplantation supersedes empirical drug therapy in decompensated patients. Elderly and pregnant patients warrant treatment modifications. Difficult treatment decisions in autoimmune hepatitis can be simplified by recognizing its diverse manifestations and individualizing treatment, pursuing realistic goals, applying appropriate salvage regimens, and identifying problematic patients early. PMID:20180231

Czaja, Albert J

2010-01-01

322

Scurfy mice: A model for autoimmune disease  

SciTech Connect

Autoimmune disease-the condition in which the body attacks its own tissue-has been an object of public concern recently. Former President George Bush and his wife Barbara both are afflicted with Graves' disease in which the body's own immune system attakcs the thyroid gland. The safety of breast implants was called into question because of evidence that some recipients had developed autoimmune disorders such a rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and scleroderma. Women, the media pointed out, have a higher-than-average incidence of many autoimmune disorders. These events suggest the need to know more about what makes the immune system work so well and what makes it go awry. At ORNL's Biology Division, progress is being in understanding the underlying causes of immune disease by studying mice having a disease that causes them to be underdeveloped; to have scaly skin, small ears, and large spleens; to open their eyes late; and to die early. These [open quotes]scurfy[close quotes]mice are helping us better understand the role of the thymus gland in autoimmune disease.

Godfrey, V.L.

1993-01-01

323

Differential expression of fibrillin-3 adds to microfibril variety in human and avian, but not rodent, connective tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human genome contains three fibrillins: FBN1 and FBN2, both well characterized, and FBN3, reported only as a cDNA sequence. Like FBN2, the highest expression levels of FBN3 were found in fetal tissues, with only low levels in postnatal tissues. Immunolocalization demonstrated fibrillin-3 in extracellular microfibrils abundant in developing skeletal elements, skin, lung, kidney, and skeletal muscle. Unlike the other

Glen M. Corson; Noe L. Charbonneau; Douglas R. Keene; Lynn Y. Sakai

2004-01-01

324

Human adipose CD34+ CD90+ stem cells and collagen scaffold constructs grafted in vivo fabricate loose connective and adipose tissues.  

PubMed

Stem cell based therapies for the repair and regeneration of various tissues are of great interest for a high number of diseases. Adult stem cells, instead, are more available, abundant and harvested with minimally invasive procedures. In particular, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multi-potent progenitors, able to differentiate into bone, cartilage, and adipose tissues. Human adult adipose tissue seems to be the most abundant source of MSCs and, due to its easy accessibility; it is able to give a considerable amount of stem cells. In this study, we selected MSCs co-expressing CD34 and CD90 from adipose tissue. This stem cell population displayed higher proliferative capacity than CD34(-) CD90(-) cells and was able to differentiate in vitro into adipocytes (PPAR?(+) and adiponectin(+)) and endothelial cells (CD31(+) VEGF(+) Flk1(+)). In addition, in methylcellulose without VEGF, it formed a vascular network. The aim of this study was to investigate differentiation potential of human adipose CD34(+) /CD90(+) stem cells loaded onto commercial collagen sponges already used in clinical practice (Gingistat) both in vitro and in vivo. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that human adult adipose and loose connective tissues can be obtained in vivo, highlighting that CD34(+) /CD90 ASCs are extremely useful for regenerative medicine. PMID:23129214

Ferraro, Giuseppe A; De Francesco, Francesco; Nicoletti, Gianfranco; Paino, Francesca; Desiderio, Vincenzo; Tirino, Virginia; D'Andrea, Francesco

2013-05-01

325

Introduction to immunology and autoimmunity.  

PubMed

Autoimmune disease occurs when the immune system attacks self-molecules as a result of a breakdown of immunologic tolerance to autoreactive immune cells. Many autoimmune disorders have been strongly associated with genetic, infectious, and/or environmental predisposing factors. Comprising multiple disorders and symptoms ranging from organ-specific to systemic, autoimmune diseases include insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, thyroiditis, and multiple sclerosis. There are also implications of autoimmune pathology in such common health problems as arteriosclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, schizophrenia, and certain types of infertility. Largely of unknown etiology, autoimmune disorders affect approximately 3% of the North American and European populations, > 75% of those affected being women. This discussion provides a brief introduction to the immune system and tolerance maintenance, an overview of selected autoimmune diseases and possible mechanisms of immune autoreactivity, and a review of experimental autoimmune models. PMID:10502528

Smith, D A; Germolec, D R

1999-10-01

326

Use of cis-[18F]fluoro-proline for assessment of exercise-related collagen synthesis in musculoskeletal connective tissue.  

PubMed

Protein turnover in collagen rich tissue is influenced by exercise, but can only with difficulty be studied in vivo due to use of invasive procedure. The present study was done to investigate the possibility of applying the PET-tracer, cis-[(18)F]fluoro-proline (cis-Fpro), for non-invasive assessment of collagen synthesis in rat musculoskeletal tissues at rest and following short-term (3 days) treadmill running. Musculoskeletal collagen synthesis was studied in rats at rest and 24 h post-exercise. At each session, rats were PET scanned at two time points following injection of cis-FPro: (60 and 240 min p.i). SUV were calculated for Achilles tendon, calf muscle and tibial bone. The PET-derived results were compared to mRNA expression of collagen type I and III. Tibial bone had the highest SUV that increased significantly (p<0.001) from the early (60 min) to the late (240 min) PET scan, while SUV in tendon and muscle decreased (p<0.001). Exercise had no influence on SUV, which was contradicted by an increased gene expression of collagen type I and III in muscle and tendon. The clearly, visible uptake of cis-Fpro in the collagen-rich musculoskeletal tissues is promising for multi-tissue studies in vivo. The tissue-specific differences with the highest basal uptake in bone are in accordance with earlier studies relying on tissue incorporation of isotopic-labelled proline. A possible explanation of the failure to demonstrate enhanced collagen synthesis following exercise, despite augmented collagen type I and III transcription, is that SUV calculations are not sensitive enough to detect minor changes in collagen synthesis. Further studies including kinetic compartment modeling must be performed to establish whether cis-Fpro can be used for non-invasive in-vivo assessment of exercise-induced changes in musculoskeletal collagen synthesis. PMID:21347251

Skovgaard, Dorthe; Kjaer, Andreas; Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Brandt-Larsen, Malene; Madsen, Jacob; Kjaer, Michael

2011-01-01

327

The Protein Precursors of Peptides That Affect the Mechanics of Connective Tissue and/or Muscle in the Echinoderm Apostichopus japonicus  

PubMed Central

Peptides that cause muscle relaxation or contraction or that modulate electrically-induced muscle contraction have been discovered in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Phylum Echinodermata; Class Holothuroidea). By analysing transcriptome sequence data, here the protein precursors of six of these myoactive peptides (the SALMFamides Sticho-MFamide-1 and -2, NGIWYamide, stichopin, GN-19 and GLRFA) have been identified, providing novel insights on neuropeptide and endocrine-type signalling systems in echinoderms. The A. japonicus SALMFamide precursor comprises eight putative neuropeptides including both L-type and F-type SALMFamides, which contrasts with previous findings from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus where L-type and F-type SALMFamides are encoded by different genes. The NGIWYamide precursor contains five copies of NGIWYamide but, unlike other NG peptide-type neuropeptide precursors in deuterostomian invertebrates, the NGIWYamide precursor does not have a C-terminal neurophysin domain, indicating loss of this character in holothurians. NGIWYamide was originally discovered as a muscle contractant, but it also causes stiffening of mutable connective tissue in the body wall of A. japonicus, whilst holokinins (PLGYMFR and derivative peptides) cause softening of the body wall. However, the mechanisms by which these peptides affect the stiffness of body wall connective tissue are unknown. Interestingly, analysis of the A. japonicus transcriptome reveals that the only protein containing the holokinin sequence PLGYMFR is an alpha-5 type collagen. This suggests that proteolysis of collagen may generate peptides (holokinins) that affect body wall stiffness in sea cucumbers, providing a novel perspective on mechanisms of mutable connective tissue in echinoderms. PMID:22952987

Elphick, Maurice R.

2012-01-01

328

A kindred exhibiting cosegregation of an overlap connective tissue disorder and the chromosome 16 linked form of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a disorder of adult onset manifested by bilaterally enlarged cystic kidneys frequently associated with progressive renal failure. The mutated gene (PKD1) responsible for 85 to 95% of cases has been localized to a small segment on the distal tip of the short arm of chromosome 16. A clinical spectrum of heritable connective tissue disorders that remain unclassifiable under the present nosology but that contain elements of the Marfan's syndrome have previously been described. The genetic localization and molecular basis of such overlap connective tissue disorders (OCTD) have not been elucidated. In this report, a kindred in which ADPKD and OCTD appear to cosegregate is described. The connective tissue phenotype in this family includes aortic root dilation, aortic and vertebral artery aneurysms with dissection, and aortic valve incompetence, as well as pectus abnormalities, pes planus, joint laxity, arachnodactyly, scoliosis, dolichostenomelia, and high arched palate. ADPKD was manifest primarily as bilateral renal cysts with or without renal failure. The DNA of all living family members was studied with markers recognizing polymorphic loci flanking the PKD1 region (3'HVR and O90a), as well as markers from the loci of chromosomes 15 and 5, associated with fibrillin genes FBN1 and FBN2, respectively. In this kindred of 20 family members traced through five generations, cosegregation of ADPKD and the OCTD phenotype was observed in 12 of 12 meioses and 3 of 3 phase known. Both markers for PKD1 were tightly linked to both ADPKD and OCTD, whereas there was no evidence for linkage with either fibrillin locus. In this family, the ADPKD and OCTD mutations are genetically linked. The presence of OCTD with ADPKD identifies a group of patients at significantly greater risk for sudden death from aortic root and other vascular aneurysmal dissection and rupture. PMID:8130364

Somlo, S; Rutecki, G; Giuffra, L A; Reeders, S T; Cugino, A; Whittier, F C

1993-12-01

329

Experimental models of autoimmune inflammatory ocular diseases.  

PubMed

Ocular inflammation is one of the leading causes of blindness and loss of vision. Human uveitis is a complex and heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by inflammation of intraocular tissues. The eye may be the only organ involved, or uveitis may be part of a systemic disease. A significant number of cases are of unknown etiology and are labeled idiopathic. Animal models have been developed to the study of the physiopathogenesis of autoimmune uveitis due to the difficulty in obtaining human eye inflamed tissues for experiments. Most of those models are induced by injection of specific photoreceptors proteins (e.g., S-antigen, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein, rhodopsin, recoverin, phosducin). Non-retinal antigens, including melanin-associated proteins and myelin basic protein, are also good inducers of uveitis in animals. Understanding the basic mechanisms and pathogenesis of autoimmune ocular diseases are essential for the development of new treatment approaches and therapeutic agents. The present review describes the main experimental models of autoimmune ocular inflammatory diseases. PMID:22760810

Gasparin, Fabio; Takahashi, Beatriz Sayuri; Scolari, Mariana Ramos; Gasparin, Filipe; Pedral, Lycia Sampaio; Damico, Francisco Max

2012-01-01

330

A new paradigm in the periodontal disease progression: Gingival connective tissue remodeling with simultaneous collagen degradation and fibers thickening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial dental plaque is considered to be the main cause of periodontal diseases, but progression of the disease is also related to the host inflammatory response. The earliest affected tissue is the gingiva, but the specific mechanisms involved in the onset of this condition remain unclear. Frequently, collagen degradation is pointed as the main marker of periodontal disease progression, but

M. Lorencini; J. A. F. Silva; C. A. Almeida; A. Bruni-Cardoso; H. F. Carvalho; D. R. Stach-Machado

2009-01-01

331

Administration of vitamin K does not counteract the ectopic mineralization of connective tissues in Abcc6?/? mice, a model for pseudoxanthoma elasticum  

PubMed Central

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a heritable multisystem disorder manifesting with ectopic calcification of peripheral connective tissues, caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene. Alterations in vitamin K metabolism have been suggested to contribute to the pathomechanisms of the mineralization process. In this study we administered vitamin K or its glutathione conjugate (K3-GSH) into Abcc6?/? mice that recapitulate features of PXE. Oral administration of vitamin K2, in dosages that vastly exceed the amounts in control diet or the recommended amounts for humans, did not alter the ectopic mineralization in Abcc6?/? mice. Similarly, intravenous administration of K3-GSH did not alter the degree of mineralization. Testing of vitamin K2, K3 and K3-GSH in an in vitro calcification system provided no evidence of mineralization inhibition. Collectively, our data suggest that vitamin K deficiency in the peripheral tissues is not a simple explanation for development of mineral deposits in PXE. PMID:21304270

Grand-Pierre, Alix E; Schurgers, Leon J

2011-01-01

332

Preliminary histological study of connective tissue response to Zinalco and stainless steel 316L implants after 120 days.  

PubMed

Circular plates of Zinalco alloy (80 wt% Zn, 1.5 wt% Cu, 18.5 wt% Al) and stainless steel (SS) 316L were implanted in 12 female Wistar rats subcutaneously and intramuscularly to compare organism response, 120 days after implantation. The tissues surrounding the implants were analysed employing hematoxilin and eosin (H-E) and Gallego's trichromic techniques (GTT). Findings indicate that the reaction to Zinalco alloy was similar to the reaction to SS 316L. The Zn, Al and Cu concentrations in blood were measured, without evidence of any alteration due to implants. The presence and distribution of Zn, Al and Cu components of Zinalco alloy were detected in tissues by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. PMID:15348914

Piña, C; Torres, C K; Guzmán, J

1998-02-01

333

Differential expression of fibrillin-3 adds to microfibril variety in human and avian, but not rodent, connective tissues.  

PubMed

The human genome contains three fibrillins: FBN1 and FBN2, both well characterized, and FBN3, reported only as a cDNA sequence. Like FBN2, the highest expression levels of FBN3 were found in fetal tissues, with only low levels in postnatal tissues. Immunolocalization demonstrated fibrillin-3 in extracellular microfibrils abundant in developing skeletal elements, skin, lung, kidney, and skeletal muscle. Unlike the other two fibrillins, FBN3 expression is high in brain, and FBN3 is alternatively spliced, removing the exon encoding cbEGF2. Like FBN1, FBN3 contains three alternate exons in the 5' UTR. While FBN3 orthologs were identified in cow and chicken, Fbn3 appears to have been inactivated in the mouse genome, perhaps during chromosome fission events. Located on chromosome 19p13.3-13.2, FBN3 is a candidate gene for Weill-Marchesani syndrome. PMID:14962672

Corson, Glen M; Charbonneau, Noe L; Keene, Douglas R; Sakai, Lynn Y

2004-03-01

334

Cutaneous Manifestations as Presenting Sign of Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome in Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome is a disorder due to a defect of lymphocyte apoptosis, whose clinical manifestations consist of hyperplasia of lymphoid tissues and autoimmune diseases. We report on a 26-month-old child who presented with frequent eruptions of weals and angioedema without any apparent triggering factor, who subsequently developed an erythematopapular rash with a histological pattern of a lymphoplasmacellular infiltrate. Familial

Luigi Auricchio; Laura Vitiello; Marsilio Adriani; Pasqualina Ferri; Annalisa Chiocchetti; Guido Pettinato; Luigi Racioppi; Luigi Maiuri; Umberto Dianzani; Claudio Pignata

2005-01-01

335

Effects of pre- and postnatal protein deprivation on rat's hard palatine mucosae: a scanning electron microscopic study of the connective tissue papillae.  

PubMed

The primary (connective tissue papillae) and secondary projections of the subepithelial connective tissue of the lamina propria were studied in the hard palate of normal (control group), and in protein-deficient pups (experimental group) obtained through maternal protein deprivation during pregnancy and lactation. At birth, the primary projections in the control group are more developed in width whereas in the experimental group they are thin with a crest-like shape. On day 7 of lactation, the primary projections are abundant, well developed and regularly arranged in the control group. They are few in number and are irregular in shape and disposition in the experimental group. The secondary projections are located posterior to the primary ones in the control group and are intercalated with them in the experimental group. On day 21 of lactation, the characteristic foliate aspect of the primary projections are noted in the control group. In the experimental group they remain thin with a crest-like aspect. PMID:9795695

Boldrini, S C; Watanabe, I; König Júnior, B; Liberti, E A

1998-10-01

336

3T3 fibroblasts induce cloned interleukin 3-dependent mouse mast cells to resemble connective tissue mast cells in granular constituency  

SciTech Connect

As assessed by ultrastructure, histochemical staining, and T-cell dependency, in vitro-differentiated interleukin 3-dependent mouse mast cells are comparable to the mast cells that reside in the gastrointestinal mucosa but not in the skin or the serosal cavity of the mouse. The authors now demonstrate that when cloned interleukin 3-dependent mast cells are cocultured with mouse skin-derived 3T3 fibroblasts in the presence of WEHI-3 conditioned medium for 28 days, the mast cells acquire the ability to stain with safranin, increase their histamine content approx. 50-fold and their carboxypeptidase. A content approx. 100-fold, and augment approx. their biosynthesis of proteoglycans bearing /sup 35/S-labeled haparin relative to /sup 35/S-labeled chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans. Thus, fibroblasts induce interleukin 3-dependent mouse mast cells to change phenotype from mucosal-like to connective tissue-like, indicating that the biochemical and functional characteristics of this mast cell type are strongly influenced by the connective tissue microenvironment.

Dayton, E.T.; Pharr, P.; Ogawa, M.; Serafin, W.E.; Austen, K.F.; Levi-Schaffer, F.; Stevens, R.L.

1988-01-01

337

Three-Dimensional Aspects of the Lingual Papillae and Their Connective Tissue Cores in the Tongue of Rats: A Scanning Electron Microscope Study  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to describe the tridimensional morphological characteristics of the lingual papillae and their connective tissue cores (CTCs) in Sprague Dawley rats. Four types of papillae were reported on the dorsal surface. Filiform papillae were distributed on the tongue surface and after epithelial maceration a conic and multifilamentary shape of the CTCs was revealed. Fungiform papillae were reported on the rostral and middle regions covered by a squamous epithelium. After the removal of the epithelium, the shape of a volcano with the taste orifice at its top was noted. Foliate papillae were composed of five pairs of epithelial folds situated on the lateral-caudal margin of the tongue. After the removal of the epithelium, they were shown to be limited by thin laminar projections. The vallate papilla with an oval shape was present in the caudal region and delimited by an incomplete groove. The morphological characteristics of the lingual papillae of Sprague Dowley rats, three-dimensional SEM images, and the types of papillae on the dorsal surface were similar to those reported previously in other rodent mammals. The maceration technique revealed the details of extracellular matrix with varied shapes form of connective tissue cores.

Reginato, Gabriela de Souza; Watanabe, Ii-sei; Ciena, Adriano Polican

2014-01-01

338

Connective tissue disease related interstitial lung diseases and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: provisional core sets of domains and instruments for use in clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Rationale Clinical trial design in interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) has been hampered by lack of consensus on appropriate outcome measures for reliably assessing treatment response. In the setting of connective tissue diseases (CTDs), some measures of ILD disease activity and severity may be confounded by non-pulmonary comorbidities. Methods The Connective Tissue Disease associated Interstitial Lung Disease (CTD-ILD) working group of Outcome Measures in Rheumatology—a non-profit international organisation dedicated to consensus methodology in identification of outcome measures—conducted a series of investigations which included a Delphi process including >248 ILD medical experts as well as patient focus groups culminating in a nominal group panel of ILD experts and patients. The goal was to define and develop a consensus on the status of outcome measure candidates for use in randomised controlled trials in CTD-ILD and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Results A core set comprising specific measures in the domains of lung physiology, lung imaging, survival, dyspnoea, cough and health-related quality of life is proposed as appropriate for consideration for use in a hypothetical 1-year multicentre clinical trial for either CTD-ILD or IPF. As many widely used instruments were found to lack full validation, an agenda for future research is proposed. Conclusion Identification of consensus preliminary domains and instruments to measure them was attained and is a major advance anticipated to facilitate multicentre RCTs in the field. PMID:24368713

Saketkoo, Lesley Ann; Mittoo, Shikha; Huscher, Dorte; Khanna, Dinesh; Dellaripa, Paul F; Distler, Oliver; Flaherty, Kevin R; Frankel, Sid; Oddis, Chester V; Denton, Christopher P; Fischer, Aryeh; Kowal-Bielecka, Otylia M; LeSage, Daphne; Merkel, Peter A; Phillips, Kristine; Pittrow, David; Swigris, Jeffrey; Antoniou, Katerina; Baughman, Robert P; Castelino, Flavia V; Christmann, Romy B; Christopher-Stine, Lisa; Collard, Harold R; Cottin, Vincent; Danoff, Sonye; Highland, Kristin B; Hummers, Laura; Shah, Ami A; Kim, Dong Soon; Lynch, David A; Miller, Frederick W; Proudman, Susanna M; Richeldi, Luca; Ryu, Jay H; Sandorfi, Nora; Sarver, Catherine; Wells, Athol U; Strand, Vibeke; Matteson, Eric L; Brown, Kevin K; Seibold, James R

2014-01-01

339

Academic and molecular matrices: a study of the transformations of connective tissue research at the University of Manchester (1947-1996).  

PubMed

This paper explores the different identities adopted by connective tissue research at the University of Manchester during the second half of the 20th century. By looking at the long-term redefinition of a research programme, it sheds new light on the interactions between different and conflicting levels in the study of biomedicine, such as the local and the global, or the medical and the biological. It also addresses the gap in the literature between the first biomedical complexes after World War II and the emergence of biotechnology. Connective tissue research in Manchester emerged as a field focused on new treatments for rheumatic diseases. During the 1950s and 60s, it absorbed a number of laboratory techniques from biology, namely cell culture and electron microscopy. The transformations in scientific policy during the late 70s and the migration of Manchester researchers to the US led them to adopt recombinant DNA methods, which were borrowed from human genetics. This resulted in the emergence of cell matrix biology, a new field which had one of its reference centres in Manchester. The Manchester story shows the potential of detailed and chronologically wide local studies of patterns of work to understand the mechanisms by which new biomedical tools and institutions interact with long-standing problems and existing affiliations. PMID:21486662

García-Sancho, Miguel

2011-06-01

340

Clinicopathological evaluation of 164 dental follicles and dentigerous cysts with emphasis on the presence of odontogenic epithelium in the connective tissue. The hypothesis of "focal ameloblastoma"  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Some ameloblastomas presumably originate from odontogenic epithelium within the connective tissue of dental follicles and dentigerous cysts. Therefore, it would seem reasonable to discuss as whether odontogenic epithelium proliferations, frankly displaying ameloblastomatous features (“focal ameloblastoma”), should be considered as an “early” ameloblastoma. Study Design: Histopathological reports from 164 dental follicles and dentigerous cysts from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology of the VU Free University medical center in Amsterdam, The Ne-therlands, were reviewed. Histopathological slides from 39 cases reporting the presence of odontogenic epithelium within the connective tissue were re-evaluated in order to assess the possible presence of focal ameloblastomas. Results: Focal ameloblastomas were detected in one dental follicle and in two dentigerous cysts. During a follow-up period of 6, 8 and 22 years, respectively, no clinical signs of (recurrent) ameloblastoma have occurred in these patients. Conclusions: Focal ameloblastoma possibly represents the early stage of ameloblastoma development. Key words:Ameloblastoma, odontogenic epithelium, dentigerous cyst, dental follicle. PMID:23085710

Meleti, Marco

2013-01-01

341

Hepatitis C virus and autoimmunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis C virus infection is associated with several extrahepatic manifestations. About 60% of patients infected with HCV\\u000a develop at least one extrahepatic manifestation. The majority of these diseases seem to be triggered through autoimmune mechanisms,\\u000a such as autoantibody production, autoreactive T cells and complex autoimmune mechanisms leading to systemic autoimmune disorders.\\u000a In this review we categorize these diseases into three

Barbara C. Böckle; Norbert T. Sepp

2010-01-01

342

Role of Interstitial Branching in the Development of Visual Corticocortical Connections: A Time-Lapse and Fixed-Tissue Analysis  

PubMed Central

We combined fixed-tissue and time-lapse analyses to investigate the axonal branching phenomena underlying the development of topographically organized ipsilateral projections from area 17 to area 18a in the rat. These complementary approaches allowed us to relate static, large-scale information provided by traditional fixed-tissue analysis to highly dynamic, local, small-scale branching phenomena observed with two-photon time-lapse microscopy in acute slices of visual cortex. Our fixed-tissue data revealed that labeled area 17 fibers invaded area 18a gray matter at topographically restricted sites, reaching superficial layers in significant numbers by postnatal day 6 (P6). Moreover, most parental axons gave rise to only one or occasionally a small number of closely spaced interstitial branches beneath 18a. Our time-lapse data showed that many filopodium-like branches emerged along parental axons in white matter or deep layers in area 18a. Most of these filopo-dial branches were transient, often disappearing after several minutes to hours of exploratory extension and retraction. These dynamic behaviors decreased significantly from P4, when the projection is first forming, through the second postnatal week, suggesting that the expression of, or sensitivity to, cortical cues promoting new branch addition in the white matter is developmentally down-regulated coincident with gray matter innervation. Together, these data demonstrate that the development of topographically organized corticocortical projections in rats involves extensive exploratory branching along parental axons and invasion of cortex by only a small number of interstitial branches, rather than the widespread innervation of superficial cortical layers by an initially exuberant population of branches. PMID:21031561

Ruthazer, Edward S.; Bachleda, Amelia R.; Olavarria, Jaime F.

2013-01-01

343

Heat shock protein and gliadin peptide promote development of peptidase antibodies in children with autism and patients with autoimmune disease.  

PubMed

Searching for a mechanism underlying autoimmunity in autism, we postulated that gliadin peptides, heat shock protein 60 (HSP-60), and streptokinase (SK) bind to different peptidases resulting in autoantibody production against these components. We assessed this hypothesis in patients with autism and in those with mixed connective tissue diseases. Associated with antigliadin and anti-HSP antibodies, children with autism and patients with autoimmune disease developed anti-dipeptidylpeptidase I (DPP I), anti-dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPP IV [or CD26]) and anti-aminopeptidase N (CD13) autoantibodies. A significant percentage of autoimmune and autistic sera were associated with elevated immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, or IgA antibodies against three peptidases, gliadin, and HSP-60. These antibodies are specific, since immune absorption demonstrated that only specific antigens (e.g., DPP IV absorption of anti-DPP IV), significantly reduced IgG, IgM, and IgA antibody levels. For direct demonstration of SK, HSP-60, and gliadin peptide binding to DPP IV, microtiter wells coated with DPP IV were reacted with SK, HSP-60, and gliadin. They were then reacted with anti-DPP IV or anti-SK, anti-HSP, and antigliadin antibodies. Adding SK, HSP-60, and gliadin peptides to DPP IV resulted in 27 to 43% inhibition of the DPP IV-anti-DPP IV reaction, but DPP IV-positive peptides caused 18 to 20% enhancement of antigen-antibody reactions. We propose that (i) superantigens (e.g., SK and HSP-60) and dietary proteins (e.g., gliadin peptides) in individuals with predisposing HLA molecules bind to aminopeptidases and (ii) they induce autoantibodies to peptides and tissue antigens. Dysfunctional membrane peptidases and autoantibody production may result in neuroimmune dysregulation and autoimmunity. PMID:15138176

Vojdani, Aristo; Bazargan, Mohsen; Vojdani, Elroy; Samadi, John; Nourian, Alen A; Eghbalieh, Navid; Cooper, Edwin L

2004-05-01

344

Action of Group A Streptococcus Extracellular Product(s) on the Connective Tissue of the Bovine Heart Valve  

PubMed Central

Group A streptococcal strains isolated from rheumatic fever patients were cultivated in the presence of bovine heart valves in a medium devoid of components from animal origin. Other group A streptococci and various bacteria were used as controls. The supernatant of these cultures was extracted and analyzed chemically and immunologically. The extracts prepared from cultures of two “rheumatogenic” strains in the presence of bovine heart valves showed fraction(s) containing proteins, oses (neutral and amined), and uronic and sialic acids. This fraction(s) was immunologically active with both anti-group A streptococcus and antisoluble connective glycoprotein antisera, with a partial identity reaction. Experiments with a diffusion chamber and attempts to precipitate a postulated enzyme from the culture of these strains by ammonium sulfate suggest that this action is due to an extracellular product of the bacteria. The meaning of these data in the physiopathology of rheumatic cardiac lesions is briefly discussed. PMID:4202889

Goldstein, Israël; Caravano, René; Parlebas, Janine

1974-01-01

345

Action of group A streptococcus extracellular product(s) on the connective tissue of the bovine heart valve.  

PubMed

Group A streptococcal strains isolated from rheumatic fever patients were cultivated in the presence of bovine heart valves in a medium devoid of components from animal origin. Other group A streptococci and various bacteria were used as controls. The supernatant of these cultures was extracted and analyzed chemically and immunologically. The extracts prepared from cultures of two "rheumatogenic" strains in the presence of bovine heart valves showed fraction(s) containing proteins, oses (neutral and amined), and uronic and sialic acids. This fraction(s) was immunologically active with both anti-group A streptococcus and antisoluble connective glycoprotein antisera, with a partial identity reaction. Experiments with a diffusion chamber and attempts to precipitate a postulated enzyme from the culture of these strains by ammonium sulfate suggest that this action is due to an extracellular product of the bacteria. The meaning of these data in the physiopathology of rheumatic cardiac lesions is briefly discussed. PMID:4202889

Goldstein, I; Caravano, R; Parlebas, J

1974-01-01

346

Abnormal glycosylation of alpha 2-macroglobulin, a non-acute-phase protein in patients with autoimmune diseases.  

PubMed

Previous studies from this and other laboratories have shown that abnormal glycosylation of several acute-phase proteins can be detected in various pathological conditions including autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we have investigated if abnormal glycosylation is limited to acute-phase proteins. We used the concanavalin A (Con A) blots in conjunction with the peptide mapping techniques to analyze serum samples and cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) obtained from patients with autoimmune diseases: systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), scleroderma (SCL), Sjögren's syndrome (SS), and polymyositis (PM); diseases of probable autoimmune origin: hepatopathies (HP); diseases of suspected autoimmune origin: schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease (AZ); and conditions not related to autoimmunity: pregnancy (PG) and elevation of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), in comparison to normal donors (NHS). We have micropurified two human proteins; alpha 2-macroglobulin, a non-acute-phase protein and beta-chain of haptoglobin, a known acute-phase protein, from serum samples of individual patients with SLE, RA, MCTD, SCL and SS, and from PG and NHS for analysis. The identity of the purified proteins was confirmed by immunoblots using either monospecific polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies, and by direct N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Peptide maps for each of these proteins were generated using Staphylococcus aureus protease V8, a Glu-C endopeptidase. When the peptide fragments of alpha 2-macroglobulin were resolved by SDS-PAGE and visualized using silver staining, no differences were noted between patient samples and controls. However, when they were examined by lectin blots using Con A, the Con A-reactive fragments increased specifically and significantly in samples derived from patients of SLE, SCL, MCTD, and RA. Similarly when the peptide fragments of the beta-chain of haptoglobin were visualized by silver staining, no differences were noted; however, the Con A reactivity of specific fragments increased in SLE, RA, SCL, and SS patients. Analysis of these results indicated that there has been a selective increase in Con A-reactive fragments in both acute-phase and non-acute-phase proteins in autoimmune conditions. Thus, the study of changes in glycosylation patterns in selected serum proteins may be a valuable diagnostic approach to define the pathophysiology of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. PMID:7691738

Saso, L; Silvestrini, B; Guglielmotti, A; Lahita, R; Cheng, C Y

1993-08-01

347

Genetics Home Reference: Autoimmune Addison disease  

MedlinePLUS

... of each kidney. It is classified as an autoimmune disorder because it results from a malfunctioning immune system ... disease or their family members often have another autoimmune disorder, most commonly autoimmune thyroid disease or type 1 ...

348

Referral Centres for Systemic Autoimmune Diseases, Fondazione  

E-print Network

S-18 1 Referral Centres for Systemic Autoimmune Diseases, Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore correspondence to: Dr Lorenzo Beretta, Referral Centres for Systemic Autoimmune Diseases, Fondazione IRCCS sclerosis (SSc) is a complex autoimmune disease with multiorgan involvement that results in significant

Chawla, Nitesh V.

349

Autoimmune Thyroiditis in Childhood  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) is the most common thyroid disorder in the pediatric age range. The disease results from an as yet poorly characterized defect or defects in immunoregulation and a cascade of events progressing from lymphocyte infiltration of the thyroid, to T-cell- and cytokine-mediated thyroid follicular cell injury, and apoptotic cell death. Approximately 70% of disease risk has been attributed to genetic background with environmental factors being important in triggering disease in susceptible individuals. The contribution of individual genes is small and probably polymorphisms in multiple genes play a role. Some immunosusceptibility genes affect immune recognition or response in general, while others are thyroid-specific. Environmental agents may act through an epigenetic mechanism. Antibodies (Abs) to a variety of thyroid-specific antigens are detectable in a majority of patients, but the role of Abs in mediating cell injury and death is unclear and only thyrotropin (TSH) receptor Abs significantly affect thyroid function by interfering with (or stimulating) the action of TSH. Nonetheless, thyroid peroxidase (TPO) Abs and thyroglobulin (Tg) Abs, present in a majority of patients, are valuable diagnostically as markers of underlying autoimmune thyroid destruction. TSH receptor blocking Abs are found in ˜18% of children and adolescents with severe hypothyroidism and, when persistent, may identify an adolescent likely to have a baby with TSH receptor blocking Ab-induced congenital hypothyroidism. AIT may coexist with other organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Although the most common age at presentation is adolescence, the disease may occur rarely in children <1 year of life. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23154164

Brown, Rosalind S.

2013-01-01

350

Fueling Autoimmunity: Type I Interferon in Autoimmune Diseases  

PubMed Central

Summary In recent years, active research using genomic, cellular and animal modeling approaches has revealed the fundamental forces driving the development of autoimmune diseases. Type I IFN (IFN) imprints unique molecular signatures in a list of autoimmune diseases. IFN is induced by diverse nucleic acid-containing complexes, which trigger innate immune activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). IFN primes, activates or differentiates various leukocyte populations to promote autoimmunity. Accordingly, IFN signaling is essential for the initiation and/or progression of lupus in several experimental models. However, the heterogeneous nature of SLE requires better characterization on how IFN pathways are activated and subsequently promote the advancement of autoimmune diseases. Given the central role of type I IFN, various strategies are devised to target these cytokines or related pathways to curtail the progression of autoimmune diseases. PMID:23445195

Di Domizio, Jeremy; Cao, Wei

2013-01-01

351

Targeting Dendritic Cell Function during Systemic Autoimmunity to Restore Tolerance  

PubMed Central

Systemic autoimmune diseases can damage nearly every tissue or cell type of the body. Although a great deal of progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, current therapies have not been improved, remain unspecific and are associated with significant side effects. Because dendritic cells (DCs) play a major role in promoting immune tolerance against self-antigens (self-Ags), current efforts are focusing at generating new therapies based on the transfer of tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs) during autoimmunity. However, the feasibility of this approach during systemic autoimmunity has yet to be evaluated. TolDCs may ameliorate autoimmunity mainly by restoring T cell tolerance and, thus, indirectly modulating autoantibody development. In vitro induction of tolDCs loaded with immunodominant self-Ags and subsequent cell transfer to patients would be a specific new therapy that will avoid systemic immunosuppression. Herein, we review recent approaches evaluating the potential of tolDCs for the treatment of systemic autoimmune disorders. PMID:25229821

Mackern-Oberti, Juan P.; Vega, Fabian; Llanos, Carolina; Bueno, Susan M.; Kalergis, Alexis M.

2014-01-01

352

Targeting dendritic cell function during systemic autoimmunity to restore tolerance.  

PubMed

Systemic autoimmune diseases can damage nearly every tissue or cell type of the body. Although a great deal of progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, current therapies have not been improved, remain unspecific and are associated with significant side effects. Because dendritic cells (DCs) play a major role in promoting immune tolerance against self-antigens (self-Ags), current efforts are focusing at generating new therapies based on the transfer of tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs) during autoimmunity. However, the feasibility of this approach during systemic autoimmunity has yet to be evaluated. TolDCs may ameliorate autoimmunity mainly by restoring T cell tolerance and, thus, indirectly modulating autoantibody development. In vitro induction of tolDCs loaded with immunodominant self-Ags and subsequent cell transfer to patients would be a specific new therapy that will avoid systemic immunosuppression. Herein, we review recent approaches evaluating the potential of tolDCs for the treatment of systemic autoimmune disorders. PMID:25229821

Mackern-Oberti, Juan P; Vega, Fabián; Llanos, Carolina; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M

2014-01-01

353

Lyme borreliosis: from infection to autoimmunity.  

PubMed

Lyme borreliosis in humans is an inflammatory disease affecting multiple organ systems, including the nervous system, cardiovascular system, joints and muscles. The causative agent, the spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi, is transmitted to the host by a tick bite. The pathogenesis of the disease in its early stages is associated largely with the presence of viable bacteria at the site of inflammation, whereas in the later stages of disease, autoimmune features seem to contribute significantly. In addition, it has been suggested that chronic persistence of B. burgdorferi in affected tissues is of pathogenic relevance. Long-term exposure of the host immune system to spirochaetes and/or borrelial compounds may induce chronic autoimmune disease. The study of bacterium-host interactions has revealed a variety of proinflammatory and also immunomodulatory-immunosuppressive features caused by the pathogen. Therapeutic strategies using antibiotics are generally successful, but chronic disease may require immunosuppressive treatment. Effective and safe vaccines using recombinant outer surface protein A have been developed, but have not been propagated because of fears that autoimmunity might be induced. Nevertheless, new insights into the modes of transmission of B. burgdorferi to the warm-blooded host have been generated by studying the action of these vaccines. PMID:15214872

Singh, S K; Girschick, H J

2004-07-01

354

Eggshell membrane: A possible new natural therapeutic for joint and connective tissue disorders. Results from two open-label human clinical studies  

PubMed Central

Background: Natural Eggshell Membrane (NEM®) is a novel dietary supplement that contains naturally occurring glycosaminoglycans and proteins essential for maintaining healthy joint and connective tissues. Two single center, open-label human clinical studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of NEM® as a treatment for pain and inflexibility associated with joint and connective tissue disorders. Methods: Eleven (single-arm trial) and 28 (double-arm trial) patients received oral NEM® 500 mg once daily for four weeks. The primary outcome measure was to evaluate the change in general pain associated with the treatment joints/areas (both studies). In the single-arm trial, range of motion (ROM) and related ROM-associated pain was also evaluated. The primary treatment response endpoints were at seven and 30 days. Both clinical assessments were performed on the intent-to-treat (ITT) population within each study. Results: Single-arm trial: Supplementation with NEM® produced a significant treatment response at seven days for flexibility (27.8% increase; P = 0.038) and at 30 days for general pain (72.5% reduction; P = 0.007), flexibility (43.7% increase; P = 0.006), and ROM-associated pain (75.9% reduction; P = 0.021). Double-arm trial: Supplementation with NEM® produced a significant treatment response for pain at seven days for both treatment arms (X: 18.4% reduction; P = 0.021. Y: 31.3% reduction; P = 0.014). There was no clinically meaningful difference between treatment arms at seven days, so the Y arm crossed over to the X formulation for the remainder of the study. The significant treatment response continued through 30 days for pain (30.2% reduction; P = 0.0001). There were no adverse events reported during either study and the treatment was reported to be well tolerated by study participants. Conclusions: Natural Eggshell Membrane (NEM®) is a possible new effective and safe therapeutic option for the treatment of pain and inflexibility associated with joint and connective tissue (JCT) disorders. Supplementation with NEM®, 500 mg taken once daily, significantly reduced pain, both rapidly (seven days) and continuously (30 days). It also showed clinically meaningful results from a brief responder analysis, demonstrating that significant proportions of treated patients may be helped considerably from NEM® supplementation. The Clinical Trial Registration numbers for these trials are: NCT00750230 and NCT00750854. PMID:19554094

Ruff, Kevin J; DeVore, Dale P; Leu, Michael D; Robinson, Mark A

2009-01-01

355

Autoimmune Liver Diseases in Canterbury, New Zealand.  

E-print Network

??Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) are progressive autoimmune liver diseases (AiLD) that can lead to liver cirrhosis, hepatic… (more)

Ngu, Jing Hieng

2013-01-01

356

Immunologic derangement preceding clinical autoimmunity.  

PubMed

Autoantibodies are valuable markers for the recognition of autoimmune diseases. Over the last 25 years, several investigators have consistently shown that autoantibodies precede the clinical onset of cognate diseases by years or decades. This phenomenon, regularly observed in the natural history of autoimmune diseases, indicates that autoimmunity develops through successive stages across a variable period of time until the characteristic manifestations of disease are clinically apparent. Recent evidence indicates that the pre-clinical stages of autoimmune diseases involve a series of immunologic derangements and that this process is dynamic and progressive. During the years preceding clinical disease onset, there is progressive intensification in the humoral autoimmune response, characterized by increases in autoantibody titer, avidity, number of immunoglobulin isotypes, and spread of epitopes and of autoantigens targeted. This scenario is reminiscent of cancer processes that develop slowly by means of progressive stages, and may be interrupted by early detection and therapeutic intervention. Therefore, it might be reasoned that early intervention may be more effective in reverting the less firmly established autoimmune abnormalities at the pre-clinical stage of autoimmunity. With the continuous progress in novel immunologic therapeutic strategies, one can envision the possibility that early intervention at pre-clinical stages may lead to prevention of overt disease development and even cure of the autoimmune disorder. PMID:25228734

Dellavance, A; Coelho Andrade, L E

2014-10-01

357

Immunoregulatory T cells in autoimmunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to discuss the current knowledge concerning regulatory T cells in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. CD4+ T cells that constitutively express CD25 exhibit powerful suppressive properties. Such cells have been denominated regulatory T cells (TR). Alterations in TR cells are known to cause organ-specific autoimmune disease in animal models. These cells are anergic when

Jose C Crispin; Maria Ines Vargas; Jorge Alcocer-Varela

2004-01-01

358

Environmental Triggers of Autoimmune Thyroiditis  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune thyroiditis is among the most prevalent of all the autoimmunities. Autoimmune thyroiditis is multifactorial with contributions from genetic and environmental factors. Much information has been published about the genetic predisposition to autoimmune thyroiditis both in experimental animals and humans. There is, in contrast, very little data on environmental agents that can serve as the trigger or autoimmunity in a genetically predisposed host. The best-established environmental factor is excess dietary iodine. Increased iodine consumption is strongly implicated as a trigger for thyroiditis, but only in genetically susceptible individuals. However, excess iodine is not the only environmental agent implicated as a trigger leading to autoimmune thyroiditis. There are a wide variety of other synthetic chemicals that affect the thyroid gland or have the ability to promote immune dysfunction in the host. These chemicals are released into the environment by design, such as in pesticides, or as a by-product of industry. Candidate pollutants include polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated biphenols, and polychlorinated biphenols, among others. Infections are also reputed to trigger autoimmunity and may act alone or in concert with environmental chemicals. We have utilized a unique animal model, the NOD.H2h4 mouse to explore the influence of iodine and other environmental factors on autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:19818584

Burek, C. Lynne; Talor, Monica V.

2009-01-01

359

Cytokines in Autoimmune Uveitis  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune uveitis is a complex group of sight-threatening diseases that arise without a known infectious trigger. The disorder is often associated with immunological responses to retinal proteins. Experimental models of autoimmune uveitis targeting retinal proteins have led to a better understanding of the basic immunological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of uveitis and have provided a template for the development of novel therapies. The disease in humans is believed to be T cell-dependent, as clinical uveitis is ameliorated by T cell-targeting therapies. The roles of T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 cells have been major topics of interest in the past decade. Studies in uveitis patients and experiments in animal models have revealed that Th1 and Th17 cells can both be pathogenic effectors, although, paradoxically, some cytokines produced by these subsets can also be protective, depending on when and where they are produced. The major proinflammatory as well as regulatory cytokines in uveitis, the therapeutic approaches, and benefits of targeting these cytokines will be discussed in this review. PMID:21787221

Horai, Reiko

2011-01-01

360

The thyroid and autoimmunity.  

PubMed

Autoimmune thyroid diseases (Hashimoto thyroiditis, Graves' disease, postpartum thyroiditis, atrophic thyroiditis and drug induced thyroiditis) are prevalent disorders worldwide, especially in women (related to the millieu of sex steroids and X chromosome effects on the thyroid and the immune system). Disruption of thyroid self tolerance, usually induced by an infection, generates abnormal thyroid--immune interactions, implicating an array of cytokines and their receptors. Thyrocytes achieve antigen presenting cell properties which stimulate effector immune cells (Th1, Th2, Th17), in the context of defective immunomodulatory T regulatory cells, resulting in thyroid lymphocytic infiltration and activation of B cells, with production of antibodies against thyroid antigens, thyroid destruction or stimulation, depending on the Th1-Th2 balance. During pregnancy there is a Th2 predominance sustained by the increased glucocorticoid, estrogen and progesteron levels, which allows tolerance versus the histoincompatible fetoplacental unit. In the postpartum period, the return shift Th2 to Th1 favors the occurrence of postpartum thyroiditis. Altered thyroid hormone levels can influence the immune system, and, on the other side, some immune cells secrete TSH, which exerts endocrine and paracrine, cytokine-like effects. Understanding the complex pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disorders is crucial for prevention and management. PMID:20446435

Lichiardopol, Corina; Mo?a, Maria

2009-01-01

361

Immune Checkpoints in CNS Autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

Summary A number of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, are mediated by self-reactive T cells that have escaped the deletional mechanisms of central tolerance. Usually, these T cells are kept at bay through peripheral tolerance mechanisms including regulation through coinhibitory receptors and suppression by regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, if these mechanisms fail, self-reactive T cells are activated and autoimmune responses ensue. This review outlines how the coinhibitory receptors CTLA-4, PD-1, Tim-3 and TIGIT act at different checkpoints to inhibit autoreactive T cells and suppress the development of CNS autoimmunity. Loss of each of these receptors predisposes to autoimmunity, indicating a non-redundant role in maintaining peripheral tolerance. At the same time, their functional patterns seem to overlap to a large degree. We therefore propose that only the concerted action of a combination of inhibitory receptors is able to maintain peripheral tolerance and prevent autoimmunity. PMID:22725958

Joller, Nicole; Peters, Anneli; Anderson, Ana C.; Kuchroo, Vijay K.

2013-01-01

362

Effects of integrin ???3 on differentiation and collagen synthesis induced by connective tissue growth factor in human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts.  

PubMed

CCN2 is a matricellular protein that appears to be important in scar formation. CCN2 mediates the pro-fibrotic effects in hypertrophic scars (HTSs) through an unknown mechanism. However, many activities of CCN2 protein are known to be mediated by direct binding to integrin receptors. In this study, we investigated the role of integrin ???3 in the differentiation of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HTSFs) induced by CCN2. The levels of integrin ???3 between normal skin and hypertrophic scar (HTS) tissues were compared, and integrin ???3 was found to be upregulated in HTS. CCN2 was shown to induce HTSF differentiation and collagen (COL) synthesis at the mRNA and protein levels. Based on these results, the expression of integrin ???3 was upregulated by CCN2 stimulation during HTSF differentiation. Blockade of integrin ???3 prevented CCN2-induced HTSF differentiation and COL synthesis. Furthermore, the CCN2-induced increase in contractility of the HTSF in COL lattices was inhibited by integrin ???3 blocking antibodies. HTSs were established in a rabbit ear model, and the inhibitor of integrin ???3 signi?cantly improved the architecture of the rabbit ear scar. Results of the present study showed that integrin ???3 contributes to pro-fibrotic CCN2 signaling. Blocking this pathway may therefore be beneficial for the treatment of HTS. PMID:25174803

Hu, Xiaolong; Li, Na; Tao, Ke; Fang, Xiaobing; Liu, Jiaqi; Wang, Yaojun; Wang, Hongtao; Shi, Jihong; Wang, Yunchuan; Ji, Peng; Cai, Weixia; Bai, Xiaozhi; Zhu, Xiongxiang; Han, Juntao; Hu, Dahai

2014-11-01

363

Acquired Generalized Lipodystrophy Associated with Autoimmune Hepatitis and Low Serum C4 Level  

E-print Network

Lipodystrophies are a group of diseases characterized by loss of fat tissue and are associated with insulin resistance. A six-year- old girl followed with the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis showed a severe

J Clin Res Ped Endo; Erdal Eren; Tanju Baflar›r Özkan; Esra D. Papatya Çak›r

364

Defective Initiation of Glycosaminoglycan Synthesis due to B3GALT6 Mutations Causes a Pleiotropic Ehlers-Danlos-Syndrome-like Connective Tissue Disorder  

PubMed Central

Proteoglycans are important components of cell plasma membranes and extracellular matrices of connective tissues. They consist of glycosaminoglycan chains attached to a core protein via a tetrasaccharide linkage, whereby the addition of the third residue is catalyzed by galactosyltransferase II (?3GalT6), encoded by B3GALT6. Homozygosity mapping and candidate gene sequence analysis in three independent families, presenting a severe autosomal-recessive connective tissue disorder characterized by skin fragility, delayed wound healing, joint hyperlaxity and contractures, muscle hypotonia, intellectual disability, and a spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with bone fragility and severe kyphoscoliosis, identified biallelic B3GALT6 mutations, including homozygous missense mutations in family 1 (c.619G>C [p.Asp207His]) and family 3 (c.649G>A [p.Gly217Ser]) and compound heterozygous mutations in family 2 (c.323_344del [p.Ala108Glyfs?163], c.619G>C [p.Asp207His]). The phenotype overlaps with several recessive Ehlers-Danlos variants and spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint hyperlaxity. Affected individuals’ fibroblasts exhibited a large decrease in ability to prime glycosaminoglycan synthesis together with impaired glycanation of the small chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan decorin, confirming ?3GalT6 loss of function. Dermal electron microcopy disclosed abnormalities in collagen fibril organization, in line with the important regulatory role of decorin in this process. A strong reduction in heparan sulfate level was also observed, indicating that ?3GalT6 deficiency alters synthesis of both main types of glycosaminoglycans. In vitro wound healing assay revealed a significant delay in fibroblasts from two index individuals, pointing to a role for glycosaminoglycan defect in impaired wound repair in vivo. Our study emphasizes a crucial role for ?3GalT6 in multiple major developmental and pathophysiological processes. PMID:23664118

Malfait, Fransiska; Kariminejad, Ariana; Van Damme, Tim; Gauche, Caroline; Syx, Delfien; Merhi-Soussi, Faten; Gulberti, Sandrine; Symoens, Sofie; Vanhauwaert, Suzanne; Willaert, Andy; Bozorgmehr, Bita; Kariminejad, Mohamad Hasan; Ebrahimiadib, Nazanin; Hausser, Ingrid; Huysseune, Ann; Fournel-Gigleux, Sylvie; De Paepe, Anne

2013-01-01

365

Fluctuations in anti-nRNP levels in patients with mixed connective tissue disease are related to disease activity as part of a polyclonal B cell response.  

PubMed Central

In a follow up study of 11 patients with mixed connective tissue disease the levels of antibodies to nuclear ribonucleoprotein (nRNP) as measured by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were related to clinical activity of disease. To assess the relation between anti-nRNP levels and disease activity the levels of total immunoglobulin G, IgM rheumatoid factor (IgM RF), and antibodies to an unrelated antigen (tetanus toxoid) were determined simultaneously. No significant changes in anti-nRNP levels were noted in four patients with minor activity of disease. Major flares of disease were observed in seven patients. Clinical symptoms were preceded by a rise in anti-nRNP level in these patients unless they received immunosuppressive agents before the exacerbation. Conversely, when a rise in anti-nRNP level occurred a major flare of disease was followed in all but one case. Anti-nRNP levels fell during clinical improvement whether or not immunosuppressive treatment was given. All patients showed parallel fluctuations in anti-nRNP, IgM RF, and total immunoglobulin G levels. Furthermore, parallel fluctuations were seen in the levels of anti-nRNP and antibodies to tetanus toxoid except in one patient. We conclude that measurement of anti-nRNP by ELISA may be a guide for disease activity in connective tissue disease. Fluctuations of anti-nRNP are not restricted to this antibody, however, but are part of a more polyclonal activity of the B lymphocyte system. PMID:3491585

Houtman, P M; Kallenberg, C G; Limburg, P C; van Leeuwen, M A; van Rijswijk, M H; The, T H

1986-01-01

366

Probing the mystery of Chinese medicine meridian channels with special emphasis on the connective tissue interstitial fluid system, mechanotransduction, cells durotaxis and mast cell degranulation  

PubMed Central

This article hypothesizes that the Chinese medicine meridian system is a special channel network comprising of skin with abundant nerves and nociceptive receptors of various types, and deeper connective tissues inside the body with the flowing interstitial fluid system. These meridian channels provide efficient migratory tracks mainly due to durotaxis (also including chemotaxis) for mast cells, fibroblasts and other cells to migrate and carry out a number of physiological functions. Acupuncture acting on meridian channel causes cytoskeletal remodeling through mechanotransduction, leading to regulation of gene expression and the subsequent production of related proteins. Also, stimulation on cell surface can trigger Ca2+ activities, resulting in a cascade of intra- and inter-cellular signaling. Moreover, nerve endings in the meridian channels interact with mast cells and induce the degranulation of these cells, leading to the release of many specific biomolecules needed for homeostasis, immune surveillance, wound healing and tissue repair. Acupoint along a meridian channel is a functional site to trigger the above functions with specificity and high efficiency. PMID:19480699

Fung, Peter Chin Wan

2009-01-01

367

Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue type, non-phosphaturic variant: report of a case and review of 32 cases from the Japanese published work.  

PubMed

Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue type (PMTMCT) is a rare neoplasm that can cause tumor-induced osteomalacia due to overproduction of a phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). We report here a case of subcutaneous PMTMCT, non-phosphaturic variant, in the sole. We also review 32 Japanese cases of PMTMCT reported in detail. They occurred in 16 men and 15 women (one was unknown), with ages ranging 20-73 years (median, 48). Tumors were found in soft tissue, bone and sinuses in 17, 11 and four, respectively. A history of long-standing osteomalacia was noted in all cases except two non-phosphaturic variant cases. Serum FGF23 level was elevated in 11 of 12 cases examined. In terms of follow-up information, metastases were found in four patients, and two patients died of disease. In conclusion, PMTMCT is histologically a benign lesion; however, there may be rare metastatic and malignant cases. Wider recognition of the histological features of this unique neoplasm would aid its distinction from the large number of mesenchymal tumors for which it may be mistaken and should enable correct diagnosis of tumors with osteomalacia. PMID:25182295

Honda, Rie; Kawabata, Yuka; Ito, Shusaku; Kikuchi, Fumihito

2014-09-01

368

Autoimmune Encephalitis in Children  

PubMed Central

The causes of encephalitis are numerous, and extensive investigations for infectious agents and other etiologies are often negative. The discovery that many of these encephalitis are immune mediated has changed the approach to the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. Moreover, the broad spectrum of symptoms including, psychosis, catatonia, alterations of behavior and memory, seizures, abnormal movements, and autonomic dysregulation usually requires a multidisciplinary treatment approach. This review focuses in several forms of encephalitis that occur in children, and for which an autoimmune etiology has been demonstrated (eg, anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis) or is strongly suspected (eg, Rasmussen encephalitis, limbic encephalitis, opsoclonus-myoclonus). The authors also review several disorders that may be immune mediated, such as the rapid onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) syndrome and some encephalopathies with fever and status epilepticus. Recognition of novel immune-mediated encephalitis is important because some of these disorders are highly responsive to immunotherapy. PMID:22935553

Armangue, Thais; Petit-Pedrol, Mar; Dalmau, Josep

2013-01-01

369

Adult autoimmune enteropathy  

PubMed Central

Recent reports have suggested that autoimmune enteropathy involving the small bowel may occur in adults as well as in children. Apparently, the endoscopic and histological changes are similar to celiac disease before treatment, but these are not altered by any form of dietary restriction, including a gluten-free diet. As in celiac disease, histologic changes in gastric and colonic biopsies have also been recorded. Anti-enterocyte antibodies detected with immunofluorescent methods have been reported by a few laboratories, but these antibodies appear not to be specific and may simply represent epiphenomena. A widely available, reproducible and quantitative anti-enterocyte antibody assay is needed that could be applied in small bowel disorders that have the histological appearance of celiac disease, but fail to respond to a gluten-free diet. PMID:18300339

Freeman, Hugh James

2008-01-01

370

Neurobehavioral alterations in autoimmune mice.  

PubMed

Inbred MRL, NZB and BXSB strains of mice spontaneously develop a systemic, lupus-like autoimmune disease. The progress of autoimmunity is accompanied with a cascade of behavioral changes, most consistently observed in tasks reflective of emotional reactivity and the two-way avoidance learning task. Given the possibility that behavioral alterations may reflect a detrimental consequence of autoimmune-inflammatory processes and/or an adaptive response to chronic malaise, they are tentatively labeled as autoimmunity-associated behavioral syndrome (AABS). It is hypothesized that neuroactive immune factors (pro-inflammatory cytokines, brain-reactive antibodies) together with endocrine mediators (corticotropin-releasing factor, glucocorticoids) participate in the etiology of AABS. Since AABS develops natively, and has a considerable face and predictive validity, and since the principal pathway to autoimmunity is known, AABS may be a useful model for the study of CNS involvement in human autoimmune diseases and by extension, for testing autoimmune hypotheses of several mental disorders (major depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, autism and AIDS-related dementia). PMID:9168268

Saki?, B; Szechtman, H; Denburg, J A

1997-05-01

371

Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression in the brain is a downstream effector of insulin resistance- associated promotion of Alzheimer's disease beta-amyloid neuropathology.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to further explore potential mechanisms through which diabetogenic dietary conditions that result in promotion of insulin resistance (IR), a feature of non-insulin dependant diabetes mellitus (type-2 diabetes), may influence Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using genome-wide array technology, we found that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a gene product described previously for its involvement in diabetic fibrosis, is elevated in brain tissue in an established mouse model of diet-induced IR. With this evidence we continued to explore the regulation of CTGF in postmortem AD brain tissue and found that CTGF expression correlated with the progression of AD clinical dementia and amyloid neuritic plaque (NP) neuropathology, but not neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) deposition. Consistent with this evidence, we also found that exposure of Tg2576 mice (a model AD-type amyloid neuropathology) to a diabetogenic diet that promotes IR results in a ~2-fold elevation in CTGF steady-state levels in the brain, coincident with a commensurate promotion of AD-type amyloid plaque burden. Finally, using in vitro cellular models of amyloid precursor protein (APP)-processing and Abeta generation/clearance, we confirmed that human recombinant (hr)CTGF may increase Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 peptide steady-state levels, possibly through a mechanism that involves gamma-secretase activation and decreased insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) steady-state levels in a MAP kinase (MAPK)/ phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)/protein kinase-B (AKT)1-dependent manner. The findings in this study tentatively suggest that increased CTGF expression in the brain might be a novel biological predicative factor of AD clinical progression and neuropathology in response to dietary regimens promoting IR conditions. PMID:16186174

Zhao, Zhong; Ho, Lap; Wang, Jun; Qin, Weiping; Festa, Eugene D; Mobbs, Charles; Hof, Patrick; Rocher, Anne; Masur, Sandra; Haroutunian, Vahram; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

2005-12-01

372

Autoimmunity in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of autoantibodies in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) was investigated. A lower prevalence of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia than that found in other series was found: large numbers of non-progressive stage A disease cases were included, in which the prevalence of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia is low. Non-haematological autoantibodies were no commoner than in age matched controls. Whatever explanation is offered for autoimmune phenomena in B-CLL it must take account of the fact that those phenomena are virtually confined to autoantibodies against the formed elements of the blood. PMID:3488334

Hamblin, T J; Oscier, D G; Young, B J

1986-01-01

373

Ionizing radiation and autoimmunity: Induction of autoimmune disease in mice by high dose fractionated total lymphoid irradiation and its prevention by inoculating normal T cells  

SciTech Connect

Ionizing radiation can functionally alter the immune system and break self-tolerance. High dose (42.5 Gy), fractionated (2.5 Gy 17 times) total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on mice caused various organ-specific autoimmune diseases, such as gastritis, thyroiditis, and orchitis, depending on the radiation dosages, the extent of lymphoid irradiation, and the genetic background of the mouse strains. Radiation-induced tissue damage is not the primary cause of the autoimmune disease because irradiation of the target organs alone failed to elicit the autoimmunity and shielding of the organs from irradiation was unable to prevent it. In contrast, irradiation of both the thymus and the peripheral lymphoid organs/tissues was required for efficient induction of autoimmune disease by TLI. TLI eliminated the majority of mature thymocytes and the peripheral T cells for 1 mo, and inoculation of spleen cell, thymocyte, or bone marrow cell suspensions (prepared from syngeneic nonirradiated mice) within 2 wk after TLI effectively prevented the autoimmune development. Depletion of T cells from the inocula abrogated the preventive activity. CD4[sup +] T cells mediated the autoimmune prevention but CD8[sup +] T cells did not. CD4[sup +] T cells also appeared to mediate the TLI-induced autoimmune disease because CD4[sup +] T cells from disease-bearing TLI mice adoptively transferred the autoimmune disease to syngeneic naive mice. Taken together, these results indicate that high dose, fractionated ionizing radiation on the lymphoid organs/tissues can cause autoimmune disease by affecting the T cell immune system, rather than the target self-Ags, presumably by altering T cell-dependent control of self-reactive T cells. 62 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Sakaguchi, N.; Sakaguchi, S. (Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (United States) Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States) PRESTO, JRDC, Institute of Phical and Chemical Research, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)); Miyai, K. (Univ. of California, San Diego, LA Jolla, CA (United States))

1992-11-01

374

Induction of hsp70-Mediated Th17 Autoimmunity Can Be Exploited as Immunotherapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A close connectivity between autoimmune and tumor rejec- tion responses is known to exist in the case of melanoma immunotherapy. However, relatively little is known about self- antigens on other types of normal cells, their relation to the development of autoimmune disease, and their possible co- existence as potential tumor rejection antigens on associated tumors. In the current study, we

Timothy Kottke; Luis Sanchez-Perez; Rosa Maria Diaz; Jill Thompson; Kevin Harrington; Stuart K. Calderwood; Jose Pulido; Nick Georgopoulos; Peter Selby; Alan Melcher

2007-01-01

375

Sex differences in autoimmune diseases  

PubMed Central

Women are more susceptible to a variety of autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), multiple sclerosis (MS), primary biliary cirrhosis, rheumatoid arthritis and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This increased susceptibility in females compared to males is also present in animal models of autoimmune diseases such as spontaneous SLE in (NZBxNZW)F1 and NZM.2328 mice, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in SJL mice, thyroiditis, Sjogren's syndrome in MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr mice and diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice. Indeed, being female confers a greater risk of developing these diseases than any single genetic or environmental risk factor discovered to date. Understanding how the state of being female so profoundly affects autoimmune disease susceptibility would accomplish two major goals. First, it would lead to an insight into the major pathways of disease pathogenesis and, secondly, it would likely lead to novel treatments which would disrupt such pathways. PMID:21208397

2011-01-01

376

Associated Autoimmunity in Addison's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the last extensive series of patients with Addison's disease and coincident autoimmune phenomena were published approximately two decades ago, we studied the cause of the disease, the prevalence of autoimmune disorders and the frequency of occurrence of autoantibodies in 91 patients (31 men and 60 women, mean age 45.3-years-old, range 12–77) with Addison's disease.The cause of Addison's disease in

Pierre M. J. Zelissen; Egbert J. E. G. Bast; Ronald J. M. Croughs

1995-01-01

377

Neurobehavioral alterations in autoimmune mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inbred MRL, NZB and BXSB strains of mice spontaneously develop a systemic, lupus-like autoimmune disease. The progress of autoirnmunity is accompanied with a cascade of behavioral changes, most consistently observed in tasks reflective of emotional reactivity and the two-way avoidance learning task. Given the possibility that behavioral alterations may reflect a detrimental consequence of autoimmune-inflammatory processes and\\/or an adaptive response

Boris Šaki?; Henry Szechtivian; Judah A Denburg

1997-01-01

378

Autoimmunity in Common Variable Immunodeficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Autoimmunity has been increasingly recognized as a major issue in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the\\u000a most common symptomatic primary immunodeficiency in adulthood. Different authors report high prevalences of autoimmune diseases\\u000a in CVID, and several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this apparent paradox. Genetic predisposition, under current\\u000a surveillance, innate and adaptive immunity deficiencies leading to persistent\\/recurrent infections, variable

Susana Lopes-da-Silva; Luiz Vicente Rizzo

2008-01-01

379

SOCS, Inflammation, and Autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

Cytokines play essential roles in innate and adaptive immunity. However, excess cytokines or dysregulation of cytokine signaling will cause a variety of diseases, including allergies, autoimmune diseases, inflammation, and cancer. Most cytokines utilize the so-called Janus kinase–signal transducers and activators of transcription pathway. This pathway is negatively regulated by various mechanisms including suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins. SOCS proteins bind to JAK or cytokine receptors, thereby suppressing further signaling events. Especially, suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS1) and SOCS3 are strong inhibitors of JAKs, because these two contain kinase inhibitory region at the N-terminus. Studies using conditional knockout mice have shown that SOCS proteins are key physiological as well as pathological regulators of immune homeostasis. Recent studies have also demonstrated that SOCS1 and SOCS3 are important regulators of helper T cell differentiation and functions. This review focuses on the roles of SOCS1 and SOCS3 in T cell mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:22566904

Yoshimura, Akihiko; Suzuki, Mayu; Sakaguchi, Ryota; Hanada, Toshikatsu; Yasukawa, Hideo

2011-01-01

380

Somatic Mutagenesis in Autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

Our laboratory investigates systemic autoimmune disease in the context of mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE is associated with high titers of serum autoantibodies of the IgG class that are predominantly directed against nuclear antigens, with pathological manifestations that are considered by many to be characteristic of an immune-complex mediated disease. In this review, we focus on the known and potential roles of somatic mutagenesis in SLE. We will argue that antinuclear antibodies (ANA) arise predominantly from nonautoreactive B cells that are transformed into autoreactive cells by the process of somatic hypermutation (SHM), which is normally associated with affinity maturation during the germinal center reaction. We will also discuss the role of SHM in creating antigenic peptides in the V region of the B cell receptor (BCR) and its potential to open an avenue of unregulated T cell help to autoreactive B cells. Finally, we will end this review with new experimental evidence suggesting that spontaneous somatic mutagenesis of genes that regulate B cell survival and activation is a rate-limiting causative factor in the development of ANA. PMID:23249093

Detanico, Thiago; St Clair, James B.; Aviszus, Katja; Kirchenbaum, Greg; Guo, Wenzhong; Wysocki, Lawrence J

2013-01-01

381

Heparanase and Autoimmune Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Heparanase (Hpse) is the only known mammalian endo-?-d-glucuronidase that degrades the glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate (HS), found attached to the core proteins of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Hpse plays a homeostatic role in regulating the turnover of cell-associated HS and also degrades extracellular HS in basement membranes (BMs) and the extracellular matrix (ECM), where HSPGs function as a barrier to cell migration. Secreted Hpse is harnessed by leukocytes to facilitate their migration from the blood to sites of inflammation. In the non-obese diabetic (NOD) model of autoimmune Type 1 diabetes (T1D), Hpse is also used by insulitis leukocytes to solubilize the islet BM to enable intra-islet entry of leukocytes and to degrade intracellular HS, an essential component for the survival of insulin-producing islet beta cells. Treatment of pre-diabetic adult NOD mice with the Hpse inhibitor PI-88 significantly reduced the incidence of T1D by ~50% and preserved islet HS. Hpse therefore acts as a novel immune effector mechanism in T1D. Our studies have identified T1D as a Hpse-dependent disease and Hpse inhibitors as novel therapeutics for preventing T1D progression and possibly the development of T1D vascular complications. PMID:24421779

Simeonovic, Charmaine J.; Ziolkowski, Andrew F.; Wu, Zuopeng; Choong, Fui Jiun; Freeman, Craig; Parish, Christopher R.

2013-01-01

382

Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue  

MedlinePLUS

... of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and whether there is protrusion of the spine into the base of the ... fibroblast growth factor receptor 2). Beta-blockers. A class of medications also known as beta-adrenergic blockers ...

383

Skin connective tissue and ageing.  

PubMed

Collagen atrophy is a major factor in skin ageing. A strong correlation exists between skin collagen loss and oestrogen deficiency caused by the menopause. Skin ageing is associated with a progressive increase in extensibility and a reduction in elasticity. With increasing age, the skin also becomes more fragile and susceptible to trauma, leading to more lacerations and bruising. Furthermore, wound healing is impaired in older women. Oestrogen use after the menopause increases collagen content, dermal thickness and elasticity, and it decreases the likelihood of senile dry skin. Large-scale clinical trials are necessary to help make informed recommendations about postmenopausal oestrogen use and its role in preventing skin ageing. PMID:23850161

Calleja-Agius, Jean; Brincat, Mark; Borg, Marika

2013-10-01

384

Autoimmune neutropenia preceding Helicobacter pylori-negative MALT lymphoma with nodal dissemination  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune neutropenia (AIN), resulting from granulocyte-specific autoantibodies, is much less frequent than other autoimmune hematologic disorders including autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). These autoimmune disorders may precede, synchronize, or follow collagen disorders, viral infections, and lymphoid neoplasms. Herein we present the first case of AIN in association with Helicobacter pylori-negative mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with nodal dissemination. In our case, AIN, accompanied by ITP, occurred prior to the clinical manifestation of lymphoma. AIN and ITP were well managed afterwards, but they relapsed in accordance with the recurrence of lymphoma. The administration of prednisolone at 0.5 mg/kg daily alleviated the cytopenias within a week. In general, combination chemotherapy is performed for the treatment of lymphoma-associated autoimmune hematologic disorders and indeed seems to be effective. Our case indicates that corticosteroid monotherapy may be effective for lymphoma-associated AIN especially when AIN precedes the onset of lymphoma. PMID:25337296

Harada, Saori; Yamazaki, Sho; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Morita, Ken; Yoshimi, Akihide; Shinozaki-Ushiku, Aya; Fukayama, Masashi; Kurokawa, Mineo

2014-01-01

385

Connective Tissue Growth Factor in Regulation of RhoA Mediated Cytoskeletal Tension Associated Osteogenesis of Mouse Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Cytoskeletal tension is an intracellular mechanism through which cells convert a mechanical signal into a biochemical response, including production of cytokines and activation of various signaling pathways. Methods/Principal Findings Adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) were allowed to spread into large cells by seeding them at a low-density (1,250 cells/cm2), which was observed to induce osteogenesis. Conversely, ASCs seeded at a high-density (25,000 cells/cm2) featured small cells that promoted adipogenesis. RhoA and actin filaments were altered by changes in cell size. Blocking actin polymerization by Cytochalasin D influenced cytoskeletal tension and differentiation of ASCs. To understand the potential regulatory mechanisms leading to actin cytoskeletal tension, cDNA microarray was performed on large and small ASCs. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was identified as a major regulator of osteogenesis associated with RhoA mediated cytoskeletal tension. Subsequently, knock-down of CTGF by siRNA in ASCs inhibited this osteogenesis. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that CTGF is important in the regulation of cytoskeletal tension mediated ASC osteogenic differentiation. PMID:20585662

Xu, Yue; Wagner, Diane R.; Bekerman, Elena; Chiou, Michael; James, Aaron W.; Carter, Dennis; Longaker, Michael T.

2010-01-01

386

A Case of Subacute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus in a Patient with Mixed Connective Tissue Disease: Successful Treatment with Plasmapheresis and Rituximab  

PubMed Central

A 30-year-old woman affected by Mixed Connective Tissue Disease with scleroderma spectrum developed a facial eruption, a clinical and histological characteristic of subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE). Speckled anti-nuclear antibodies, high-titer anti-ribonucleoprotein1, anti-Sm, anti-Cardiolipin (aCL) IgG/IgM, and anti-Ro/SSA antibodies were positive. SCLE was resistant to Azathioprine, Hydroxychloroquine, and Methotrexate while Mycophenolate Mofetil was suspended due to side effects. Subsequently, the patient was treated with three cycles of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) followed, one month after the last TPE, by the anti-CD20 antibody Rituximab (RTX) (375?mg/m2 weekly for 4 weeks). Eight and 16 months later the patient received other two TPE and RTX cycles, respectively. This therapeutic approach has allowed to obtain a complete skin healing persistent even after 8-month follow-up. Moreover, mitigation of Raynaud's phenomenon, resolution of alopecia, and a decline of aCL IgG/IgM and anti-Ro/SSA antibodies were observed. PMID:23984162

Fanto, M.; Salemi, S.; Socciarelli, F.; Bartolazzi, A.; Natale, G. A.; Casorelli, I.; Pavan, A.; Vaglio, S.; Di Rosa, R.; D'Amelio, R.

2013-01-01

387

Comparative morphological study on the stereo-structure of the lingual papillae and their connective tissue cores of the American beaver (Castor canadensis).  

PubMed

The lingual papillae and the connective tissue cores (CTC) of the American beaver were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. The tongue of American beaver was about 9 cm in length, 3.5 cm in width, and has a lingual prominence. Four types of papillae (filiform, fungiform, vallate and foliate papillae) were observed. The filiform papillae can be classified into three types (filiform, large filiform and dorm-like papillae). Filiform papillae distributed on the anterior tongue and posterior of the lingual prominence consisted of a posterior thick main process and several small accessory processes. After removal of the epithelium, the CTCs of the filiform papillae had U-shaped, horseshoe-like primary cores with 10-15 rod-shaped small accessory cores. Large filiform papillae were distributed at the anterior margin of the lingual prominence. Dome-like papillae were distributed at the top of lingual prominence. Fungiform papillae were observed two types. Fungiform papillae, which were distributed at the anterior tongue, were round shaped. Fungiform papillae of the posterior of the lingual prominence were large and surrounded with a papillary groove. At the posterior of the tongue, three vallate papillae were arranged in a triangular pattern. Foliate papillae were on 22 to 25 parallel ridges and grooves. PMID:16526571

Shindo, Junji; Yoshimura, Ken; Kobayashi, Kan

2006-02-01

388

Development of Clinical Trial Assessments for the Study of Interstitial Lung Disease in Patients who have Connective Tissue Diseases--Methodological Considerations  

PubMed Central

This review article discusses the proposed methodology that will be utilized to develop core set items for connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD). CTD-ILD remain an important enigma in clinical medicine. No consensus exists on measurement of disease activity or what constitutes a significant response to therapeutic interventions. Lack of appropriate measures inhibit effective drug development and hamper regulatory evaluation of candidate therapies. An interdisciplinary and international Steering Committee (SC) will oversee the execution of a 3-tier Delphi exercise involving experts in CTD and ILD. In parallel to the Delphi, qualitative information will be gathered from patients with ILD using focus groups. These data will subsequently be used to construct surveys to collect quantitative response from patients with ILD. The final Delphi and Patient Perspective results are to be scrutinized by SC and specialty sub-groups (including patient advocates) for truth, discrimination and feasibility – the OMERACT filters. Through application of Nominal Group technique, a core set of outcome measures will be proposed. Subsequent exercises will evaluate the applicability of a proposed core set to the unique issues posed by individual CTDs in addition to guidelines on screening, prognostication and damage scoring. PMID:20676224

Huscher, Dorte; Saketkoo, Lesley Ann; Pittrow, David; Khanna, Dinesh

2010-01-01

389

Modulation by Melatonin of the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Autoimmune Diseases  

PubMed Central

Melatonin is the major secretory product of the pineal gland during the night and has multiple activities including the regulation of circadian and seasonal rhythms, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. It also possesses the ability to modulate immune responses by regulation of the T helper 1/2 balance and cytokine production. Autoimmune diseases, which result from the activation of immune cells by autoantigens released from normal tissues, affect around 5% of the population. Activation of autoantigen-specific immune cells leads to subsequent damage of target tissues by these activated cells. Melatonin therapy has been investigated in several animal models of autoimmune disease, where it has a beneficial effect in a number of models excepting rheumatoid arthritis, and has been evaluated in clinical autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and ulcerative colitis. This review summarizes and highlights the role and the modulatory effects of melatonin in several inflammatory autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:23727938

Lin, Gu-Jiun; Huang, Shing-Hwa; Chen, Shyi-Jou; Wang, Chih-Hung; Chang, Deh-Ming; Sytwu, Huey-Kang

2013-01-01

390

Type 1 Diabetes and Autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

Abstract. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease caused by the autoimmune response against pancreatic ? cells. T1D is often complicated with other autoimmune diseases, and anti-islet autoantibodies precede the clinical onset of disease. The most common coexisting organ-specific autoimmune disease in patients with T1D is autoimmune thyroid disease, and its frequency is estimated at > 90% among patients with T1D and autoimmune diseases. The prevalence of anti-thyroid antibodies in children with T1D at disease onset is about 20% and is particularly common in girls. Furthermore, patients with anti-thyroid antibodies are 18 times more likely to develop thyroid disease than patients without anti-thyroid antibodies. Therefore, for early detection of autoimmune thyroid disease in children with T1D, measurement of anti-thyroid antibodies and TSH at T1D onset and in yearly intervals after the age of 12 yr is recommended. Anti-islet autoantibodies are predictive and diagnostic markers for T1D. The most frequently detected autoantibodies in Japanese patients are GAD autoantibodies (~80%) followed by IA-2 autoantibodies (~60%), insulin autoantibodies (~55%) and ZnT8 autoantibodies (~50%). In a combined analysis, 94% of Japanese patients with T1D can be defined as having type 1A diabetes. Furthermore, autoantibodies to ZnT8 and IA-2 are associated with childhood-onset and acute-onset patients. Thus, it is important to develop a diagnostic strategy for patients with type 1A diabetes in consideration of the age or mode of disease onset. PMID:25374439

Kawasaki, Eiji

2014-01-01

391

Cloning of a mRNA Preferentially Expressed in Chondrocytes by Differential Display-PCR from a Human Chondrocytic Cell Line That Is Identical with Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) mRNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chondrocyte- or chondrosarcoma cell line (HCS)-specific DNA fragments were obtained using differential display-PCR. Nucleotide sequences of 32 species derived from HCS cells were determined. One of the sequence tags (tag no. 24) corresponded to the nucleotide sequence of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Northern blot analysis showed that CTGF was highly expressed in HCS cells and rabbit growth cartilage cells

Tohru Nakanishi; Yusuke Kimura; Tomoo Tamura; Hiroyuki Ichikawa; Yu-ichiro Yamaai; Tomosada Sugimoto; Masaharu Takigawa

1997-01-01

392

Celiac sprue: a unique autoimmune disorder  

PubMed Central

Celiac sprue (CS) is a gluten-sensitive enteropathy with many autoimmune features. CS involves multiple organs through immune and nonimmune processes, and is frequently associated with other autoimmune disorders. This article reviews the co-occurrence of CS with autoimmune disorders of the cutaneous, nervous, endocrine, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. The types of autoimmune disorders associated with CS and the prevalence of CS in other autoimmune disorders are also discussed. A brief review of the literature on the potential mechanisms behind these associations and the therapeutic effects of a gluten-free diet for autoimmune comorbidities in CS is also provided. PMID:20477645

Rashtak, Shadi; Marietta, Eric V; Murray, Joseph A

2011-01-01

393

Targeting apoptosis in autoimmune hepatitis.  

PubMed

Apoptosis is the predominant mechanism of liver cell death in autoimmune hepatitis, and interventions that can modulate this activity are emerging. The aim of this review was to describe the apoptotic mechanisms, possible aberrations, and opportunities for intervention in autoimmune hepatitis. Studies cited in PubMed from 1972 to 2014 for autoimmune hepatitis, apoptosis in liver disease, apoptosis mechanisms, and apoptosis treatment were examined. Apoptosis is overactive in autoimmune hepatitis, and the principal pathway of cell death is receptor mediated. Surface death receptors are activated by extrinsic factors including liver-infiltrating cytotoxic T cells and the cytokine milieu. The executioner caspases 3 and 7 cleave nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid, and the release of apoptotic bodies can stimulate inflammatory, immune, and fibrotic responses. Changes in mitochondrial membrane permeability can be initiated by caspase 8, and an intrinsic pathway of apoptosis can complement the extrinsic pathway. Defects in the apoptosis of activated effector cells can prolong their survival and sustain the immune response. Caspase inhibitors have been used in diverse experimental and human diseases to retard apoptosis. Oligonucleotides that inhibit the signaling of toll-like receptors can limit the presentation of auto-antigens, and inhibitors of apoptosis that extend the survival of effector cells can be blocked by antisense oligonucleotides. Mechanisms that enhance the clearance of apoptotic bodies and affect key signaling pathways are also feasible. Interventions that influence the survival of liver and effector cells by altering their apoptosis are candidates for study in autoimmune hepatitis. PMID:25038736

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