Myers, Martin G; Godwin, Marshall
Manual blood pressure (BP) is gradually disappearing from clinical practice with the mercury sphygmomanometer now considered to be an environmental hazard. Manual BP is also subject to measurement error on the part of the physician/nurse and patient-related anxiety which can result in poor quality BP measurements and office-induced (white coat) hypertension. Automated office (AO) BP with devices such as the BpTRU (BpTRU Medical Devices, Coquitlam, BC) has already replaced conventional manual BP in many primary care practices in Canada and has also attracted interest in other countries where research studies using AOBP have been undertaken. The basic principles of AOBP include multiple readings taken with a fully automated recorder with the patient resting alone in a quiet room. When these principles are followed, office-induced hypertension is eliminated and AOBP exhibits a much stronger correlation with the awake ambulatory BP as compared with routine manual BP measurements. Unlike routine manual BP, AOBP correlates as well with left ventricular mass as does the awake ambulatory BP. AOBP also simplifies the definition of hypertension in that the cut point for a normal AOBP (< 135/85 mm Hg) is the same as for the awake ambulatory BP and home BP. This article summarizes the currently available evidence supporting the use of AOBP in routine clinical practice and proposes an algorithm in which AOBP replaces manual BP for the diagnosis and management of hypertension. PMID:22265230
The Vital-2 unit pictured is a semi-automatic device that permits highly accurate blood pressure measurement, even by untrained personnel. Developed by Meditron Instrument Corporation, Milford, New Hampshire, it is based in part on NASA technology found in a similar system designed for automatic monitoring of astronauts' blood pressure. Vital-2 is an advancement over the familiar arm cuff, dial and bulb apparatus customarily used for blood pressure checks. In that method, the physician squeezes the bulb to inflate the arm cuff, which restricts the flow of blood through the arteries. As he eases the pressure on the arm, he listens, through a stethoscope, to the sounds of resumed blood flow as the arteries expand and contract. Taking dial readings related to sound changes, he gets the systolic (contracting) and diastolic (expanding) blood pressure measurements. The accuracy of the method depends on the physician's skill in interpreting the sounds. Hospitals sometimes employ a more accurate procedure, but it is "invasive," involving insertion of a catheter in the artery.
Application and feasibility of automated ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM) in the elderly are comparable to younger age groups. Major side-effects are sleep disturbances and pain during cuff-inflation. The main indications for ABPM are diagnosis and control of treatment in hypertensive patients. Further indications are the diagnosis of syncope or hypotensive disorders and the diagnostic work-up of symptoms like vertigo, dizziness and dyspnea. In hypertensives, ABPM can easily assess the "white coat" effect and cases of "white coat" hypertension (prevalence in the elderly 15-25%). The prognostic implications of "white coat" hypertensions remain to be determined. Recording of the total 24-h blood pressure profile with analysis of circadian blood pressure changes, the day-night difference and the early morning surge raises the possibility to assess age-specific patterns. The drop in blood pressure at night (during sleep) is usually decreased and less frequently observed in elderly hypertensives. Possible explanations include decreased daytime activity, an altered sleep pattern in the elderly and secondary forms of hypertension. So-called "non-dippers", with no adequate drop in night-time blood pressure, show a significant increase in cardiovascular complications. Control of treatment via ABPM can assess non-responders and cases of overtreatment, and permits a fairly objective analysis of side-effects. Episodes of transient myocardial ischemia and possible trigger mechanisms can be assessed by simultaneous application of ABPM and Holter monitoring. The insufficient control of hypertension in the majority of elderly patients and the current lower target blood pressures in the elderly call for new methods to improve the level and quality of antihypertensive treatment. Although ABPM provides a closer correlation to target organ damage than measurement of office (casual) blood pressure, and ABPM frequently improves or at least facilitates the care of elderly
Filipovský, Jan; Seidlerová, Jitka; Kratochvíl, Zdeněk; Karnosová, Petra; Hronová, Markéta; Mayer, Otto
We studied the relationships of automated blood pressure (BP), measured in the healthcare centre, with manual office BP and home BP. Stable outpatients treated for hypertension were measured automatically, seated alone in a quiet room, six times after a 5 min rest with the BpTRU device, and immediately afterwards using the auscultatory method. Home BP was measured in a subgroup during 7 days preceding the visit. The automated, office and home BP values were 131.2 ± 21.8/77.8 ± 12.1 mmHg, 146.9 ± 20.8/85.8 ± 12.4 mmHg and 137.7 ± 17.7/79.4 ± 8.2 mmHg, respectively. Limits of agreement between office and automated BP (2 SDs in Bland-Altman plots) were +42.6 to -12.6/+22.6 to -6.6 mmHg for systolic/diastolic BP; for home and automated BP they were +45.8 to -25.8/+20.8 to -12.6 mmHg. For patients with two visits, intraclass correlation coefficients of BP values measured during the first and second visits were 0.66/0.72 for systolic/diastolic automated BP and 0.68/0.74 for systolic/diastolic office BP. Automated BP was lower than home BP and no more closely related to home BP than to office BP. It did not show better repeatability than office BP. Whether automated BP and the "white-coat effect", calculated cas the office BP-automated BP difference, have clinical and prognostic importance deserves further studies. PMID:26852625
Andreadis, Emmanuel A; Angelopoulos, Epameinondas T; Agaliotis, Gerasimos D; Tsakanikas, Athanasios P; Mousoulis, George P
Automated office blood pressure (AOBP) measurement with the patient resting alone in a quiet examining room can eliminate the white-coat effect associated with conventional readings taken by manual sphygmomanometer. The key to reducing the white-coat response appears to be multiple blood pressure (BP) readings taken in a non-observer office setting, thus eliminating any interaction that could provoke an office-induced increase in BP. Furthermore, AOBP readings have shown a higher correlation with the mean awake ambulatory BP compared with BP readings recorded in routine clinical practice. Although there is a paucity of studies connecting AOBP with organ damage, AOBP values were recently found to be equally associated with left ventricular mass index as those of ambulatory BP. This concludes that in contrast to routine manual office BP, AOBP readings compare favourably with 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements in the appraisal of cardiac remodelling and, as such, could be complementary to ambulatory readings in a way similar to home BP measurements. PMID:21950780
Golden, D. P.; Hoffler, G. W.; Wolthuis, R. A.
Automatic system for noninvasive measurements of arterial blood pressure is described. System uses Korotkov sound processor logic ratios to identify Korotkov sounds. Schematic diagram of system is provided to show components and method of operation.
Myers, Martin G; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Paterson, J Michael; Dolovich, Lisa; Tu, Karen
The risk of cardiovascular events in relation to blood pressure is largely based on readings taken with a mercury sphygmomanometer in populations which differ from those of today in terms of hypertension severity and drug therapy. Given replacement of the mercury sphygmomanometer with electronic devices, we sought to determine the blood pressure threshold for a significant increase in cardiovascular risk using a fully automated device, which takes multiple readings with the subject resting quietly alone. Participants were 3627 community-dwelling residents aged >65 years untreated for hypertension. Automated office blood pressure readings were obtained in a community pharmacy with subjects seated and undisturbed. This method for recording blood pressure produces similar readings in different settings, including a pharmacy and family doctor's office providing the above procedures are followed. Subjects were followed for a mean (SD) of 4.9 (1.0) years for fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. Adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were computed for 10 mm Hg increments in blood pressure (mm Hg) using Cox proportional hazards regression and the blood pressure category with the lowest event rate as the reference category. A total of 271 subjects experienced a cardiovascular event. There was a significant (P=0.02) increase in the hazard ratio of 1.66 (1.09, 2.54) at a systolic blood pressure of 135 to 144 and 1.72 (1.21, 2.45; P=0.003) at a diastolic blood pressure of 80 to 89. A significant (P=0.03) increase in hazard ratio of 1.73 (1.04, 2.86) occurred with a pulse pressure of 80 to 89. These findings are consistent with a threshold of 135/85 for diagnosing hypertension in older subjects using automated office blood pressure. PMID:26269653
Padwal, Raj S; Townsend, Raymond R; Trudeau, Luc; Hamilton, Peter G; Gelfer, Mark
The objective of this study was to compare serial readings from an in-pharmacy automated blood pressure (BP) kiosk to mean daytime ambulatory BP. A total of 100 community-dwelling adults with hypertension underwent (1) three baseline automated office readings; (2) three in-pharmacy readings on each of four visits (12 total) using the PharmaSmart PS-2000 kiosk; and (3) 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring between in-pharmacy visits two and three. Paired t-tests, Bland-Altman plots, and Pearson correlation coefficients were used for analysis. Mean BPs were 137.8 ± 13.7/81.9 ± 12.2 mm Hg for in-pharmacy and 135.5 ± 11.7/79.7 ± 10.0 mm Hg for daytime ambulatory (difference of 2.3 ± 9.5/2.2 ± 6.9 mm Hg [P ≤ .05]). Bland-Altman plots depicted a high degree of BP variability but did not show clinically important systematic BP differences. With ambulatory BP as the reference standard, in-pharmacy device results were similar to automated office results. The PharmaSmart PS-2000 closely approximated mean daytime ambulatory BP, supporting the use of serial readings from this device in the assessment of BP. PMID:25600420
Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body’s organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both ...
Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body’s organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...
Riedel, W.; Mieke, S.; Seemann, R.; Ittermann, B.
A device was developed allowing to generate simulated human blood pressure signals for the purpose of testing the performance of automated noninvasive sphygmomanometers. The apparatus reproducibly generates blood-pressure oscillations synthesized from prerecorded measurements on human subjects. These real-life data allow for a much better evaluation of the accuracy of blood-pressure measurements than the existing simulators using artificial and thus less realistic waveforms. To assess the performance of a given sphygmomanometer under both stable and varying conditions, generated signals can be repeated in their original shape or distorted by well-defined artifacts. In comparison to clinical tests, the procedural influences on the performance testing of sphygmomanometers are largely reduced when the simulator is used.
Kollias, Anastasios; Stergiou, George S
1. Hypertension and atrial fibrillation (AF) often coexist and are strong risk factors for stroke. Current guidelines for blood pressure (BP) measurement in AF recommend repeated measurements using the auscultatory method, whereas the accuracy of the automated devices is regarded as questionable. This review presents the current evidence on the feasibility and accuracy of automated BP measurement in the presence of AF and the potential for automated detection of undiagnosed AF during such measurements. 2. Studies evaluating the use of automated BP monitors in AF are limited and have significant heterogeneity in methodology and protocols. Overall, the oscillometric method is feasible for static (office or home) and ambulatory use and appears to be more accurate for systolic than diastolic BP measurement. 3. Given that systolic hypertension is particularly common and important in the elderly, the automated BP measurement method may be acceptable for self-home and ambulatory monitoring, but not for professional office or clinic measurement. 4. An embedded algorithm for the detection of asymptomatic AF during routine automated BP measurement with high diagnostic accuracy has been developed and appears to be a useful screening tool for elderly hypertensives. PMID:23647092
Myers, Martin G
1. Conventional manual measurement of blood pressure (BP) in clinical practice is no longer considered to be the best method for evaluating a patient's BP status. Home BP and 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring are now recommended for the diagnosis and management of hypertension. 2. Recent studies provide an alternative to conventional office BP, namely automated office (AO) BP, which involves multiple BP readings taken with a fully automated device with the patient resting quietly alone. Automated office BP is preferable to routine manual office BP in that it exhibits improved accuracy and a stronger relationship to both ambulatory BP and target organ damage. 3. Having the patient alone eliminates conversation between the patient and the observer, a cause of 'white coat hypertension'. The use of an automated device improves accuracy, reduces digit preference, minimizes observer bias and facilitates the recording of multiple BP readings. 4. Comparative BP data obtained in clinical studies in both research settings and routine community practice support the use of a cut-off point of 135/85 mmHg for defining hypertension using AOBP, which is the same cut-off point currently recommended for awake ambulatory BP and home BP. 5. Reduction of the white coat response using AOBP should reduce the need to monitor patients with ambulatory BP and home BP after initiation of antihypertensive therapy. There is now sufficient evidence to consider replacing manual office BP with AOBP in routine clinical practice. PMID:23819734
Harrison, Teresa N; Ho, Timothy S; Handler, Joel; Kanter, Michael H; Goldberg, Ruthie A; Reynolds, Kristi
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a telephonic outreach program to improve blood pressure (BP) control among patients with hypertension. The authors identified adults 18 years and older with uncontrolled BP within the previous 12 months. Patients received either an automated telephone call advising them to have a walk-in BP check (n=31,619) or usual care (n=33,154). The primary outcome was BP control at 4 weeks. Significantly more patients who received the intervention achieved BP control compared with the usual care group (32.5% vs 23.7%; P<.0001). Patients in the intervention arm with cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, or diabetes mellitus achieved better BP control. Older age, female sex, and having a household income above the median were associated with BP control. When designing quality-improvement interventions to increase BP control rates, health care organizations should consider utilizing an automated telephone outreach campaign. PMID:24034658
Verberk, Willem J; Omboni, Stefano; Kollias, Anastasios; Stergiou, George S
Several guidelines recommend opportunistic screening for atrial fibrillation (AF) in subjects aged ≥ 65 years using pulse palpation during routine blood pressure (BP) measurement. However, this method has limited diagnostic accuracy. A specific algorithm for AF detection during automated BP measurement was developed and implemented in a novel oscillometric device (Microlife WatchBP Home-A). In 2013, the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommended this device for AF screening during routine office BP measurement in primary care in subjects ≥ 65 years. A review and meta-analysis of the evidence on the diagnostic accuracy of this algorithm were performed. Six studies (n=2332) investigated the accuracy of AF detection using the Microlife BP monitor and estimated a pooled sensitivity at 0.98 (95% CI 0.95, 1.00) and specificity 0.92 (0.88, 0.96). Analysis of 4 studies (n=1126) showed more readings to improve specificity (from 0.86 to 0.91) and sensitivity (from 0.97 to 0.99). Taking 3 sequential readings with at least 2 detecting AF gave the highest diagnostic accuracy. A single study (n=139) of paroxysmal AF screening with home BP monitoring (3316 days) showed sensitivity 99% and specificity 93%. Another study (n=46) of AF screening with 24h ambulatory BP monitoring showed that AF detected in >15% of all readings has high probability of AF diagnosis requiring confirmation by 24h electrocardiography. AF detection with routine automated BP measurement is a reliable screening tool in the elderly, which requires confirmation by electrocardiography. Paroxysmal AF might also be detected by routine automated home or ambulatory BP monitoring. PMID:26547741
... version High Blood Pressure Overview What is blood pressure? Blood pressure is the amount of force that your ... called your blood pressure. What is high blood pressure? High blood pressure (also called hypertension) occurs when your blood ...
Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The lower ...
Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The ...
... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Aug 17,2016 Blood pressure is typically ... Your doctor should evaluate unusually low blood pressure readings. How is high blood pressure diagnosed? Your healthcare ...
... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Low Blood Pressure Updated:Aug 30,2016 To know if you ... to learn more about blood pressure . If my blood pressure stays around 85/55, do I have a ...
Hypertension - medicines ... blood vessel diseases. You may need to take medicines to lower your blood pressure if lifestyle changes ... blood pressure to the target level. WHEN ARE MEDICINES FOR HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE USED Most of the ...
Hypertension - infants ... and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or ... Bronchopulmonary dysplasia Renal artery stenosis In newborn babies, high blood pressure is often caused by a blood clot in ...
National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics . ...
... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has high ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000468.htm High blood pressure To use the sharing features on ... body. Hypertension is the term used to describe high blood pressure. Blood pressure readings are given as ...
... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...
... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Description of High Blood Pressure Español High blood pressure is a common disease ... defines high blood pressure severity levels. Stages of High Blood Pressure in Adults Stages Systolic (top number) Diastolic (bottom ...
... reducing sodium in your diet, you may need medicines. Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to lower blood pressure. ... and widen blood vessels. Often, two or more medicines work better than one. NIH: National Heart, Lung, ...
... The Health Information Center High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy What Is High Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is ... Are the Effects of High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy? Although many pregnant women with high blood pressure ...
Hypotension; Blood pressure - low; Postprandial hypotension; Orthostatic hypotension; Neurally mediated hypotension; NMH ... Blood pressure varies from one person to another. A drop as little as 20 mmHg, can cause problems for ...
High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, heart failure, ... failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight and ...
... pressure to live. Without it, blood can't flow through our bodies and carry oxygen to our vital organs. But when blood pressure gets too high — a condition called hypertension — it can lead to ...
Hypotension; Blood pressure - low; Postprandial hypotension; Orthostatic hypotension; Neurally mediated hypotension; NMH ... Blood pressure varies from one person to another. A drop as little as 20 mmHg, can cause ...
... blood pressure with the development of a practical method to measure it. Physicians began to note associations between hypertension and risk of heart failure, stroke, and kidney failure. Although scientists had yet to prove that lowering blood pressure ...
... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... En Español Who is at risk? How is high blood pressure treated? Understanding your blood pressure: What do the ...
... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate Updated:Aug 30,2016 Blood ... last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...
Stevens, C M; Swaine, D; Butler, C; Carr, A H; Weightman, A; Catchpole, C R; Healing, D E; Elliott, T S
o.a.s.i.s. (Unipath Ltd., Basingstoke, United Kingdom) is a new automated blood culture system. The metabolism of microorganisms is detected by measuring changes in the pressure of the headspace of blood culture bottles. These changes are measured by monitoring the position of a flexible sealing septum, every 5 min, with a scanning laser sensor. This noninvasive system can detect both gas absorption and production and does not rely solely on measuring increasing carbon dioxide levels. A research prototype instrument was used to carry out an evaluation of the media, the detection system, and its associated detection algorithm. In simulated blood cultures, o.a.s.i.s. supported growth and detected a range of clinical isolates. Times to positivity were significantly shorter in o.a.s.i.s. than in the BACTEC 460 system. Results of a clinical feasibility study, with a manual blood culture system as a control, confirmed that o.a.s.i.s. was able to support the growth and detection of a variety of clinically significant organisms. On the basis of these findings, full-scale comparative clinical trials of o.a.s.i.s. with other automated blood culture systems are warranted. PMID:7929769
Rabbia, F; Del Colle, S; Testa, E; Naso, D; Veglio, F
Blood pressure measurement is the cornerstone for the diagnosis, the treatment and the research on arterial hypertension, and all of the decisions about one of these single aspects may be dramatically influenced by the accuracy of the measurement. Over the past 20 years or so, the accuracy of the conventional Riva-Rocci/Korotkoff technique of blood pressure measurement has been questioned and efforts have been made to improve the technique with automated devices. In the same period, recognition of the phenomenon of white coat hypertension, whereby some individuals with an apparent increase in blood pressure have normal, or reduced, blood pressures when measurement is repeated away from the medical environment, has focused attention on methods of measurement that provide profiles of blood pressure behavior rather than relying on isolated measurements under circumstances that may in themselves influence the level of blood pressure recorded. These methodologies have included repeated measurements of blood pressure using the traditional technique, self-measurement of blood pressure in the home or work place, and ambulatory blood pressure measurement using innovative automated devices. The purpose of this review to serve as a source of practical information about the commonly used methods for blood pressure measurement: the traditional Riva-Rocci method and the automated methods. PMID:17016412
... more often referred to as a blood pressure cuff. The cuff is wrapped around your upper arm and inflated ... flow of blood in your artery. As the cuff is slowly deflated, your doctor uses a stethoscope ...
Engineering Development Laboratory developed a system for the cardiovascular study of weightless astronauts. This was designed to aid people with congestive heart failure and diabetes. While in space, astronauts' blood pressure rises, heart rate becomes unstable, and there are sometimes postflight lightheadedness or blackouts. The Baro-Cuff studies the resetting of blood pressure. When a silicone rubber chamber is strapped to the neck, the Baro-Cuff stimulates the carotid arteries by electronically controlled pressure application. Blood pressure controls in patients may be studied.
Cuce, Antonino; Di Guardo, Mario; Sicurella, Gaetano
In this paper, an intelligent system for blood pressure measurement is posed together with a possible implementation using an eight bit fuzzy processor. The system can automatically determine the ideal cuff inflation level eliminating the discomfort and misreading caused by incorrect cuff inflation. Using statistics distribution of the systolic and diastolic blood pressure, in the inflation phase, a fuzzy rule system determine the pressure levels at which checking the presence of heart beat in order to exceed the systolic pressure with the minimum gap. The heart beats, characterized through pressure variations, are recognized by a fuzzy classifier.
An estimated 30 million people in the United States have high blood pressure, or hypertension. But a great many of them are unaware of it because hypertension, in its initial stages, displays no symptoms. Thus, the simply-operated blood pressure checking devices now widely located in public places are useful health aids. The one pictured above, called -Medimax 30, is a direct spinoff from NASA technology developed to monitor astronauts in space. For manned space flights, NASA wanted a compact, highly-reliable, extremely accurate method of checking astronauts' blood pressure without the need for a physician's interpretive skill. NASA's Johnson Space Center and Technology, Inc., a contractor, developed an electronic sound processor that automatically analyzes blood flow sounds to get both systolic (contracting arteries) and diastolic (expanding arteries) blood pressure measurements. NASA granted a patent license for this technology to Advanced Life Sciences, Inc., New York City, manufacturers of Medimax 30.
... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More What is High Blood Pressure? Updated:Aug 26,2016 High blood pressure, also ... content was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...
... Division of Geriatrics and Clinical Gerontology Division of Neuroscience FAQs Funding Opportunities Intramural Research Program Office of ... to major health problems. Make a point of learning what blood pressure should be. And, remember: High ...
... health of you and your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ... Some pregnant women with high blood pressure develop preeclampsia. It's a sudden increase in blood pressure after ...
... on its own. The screen will show a digital readout of your systolic and diastolic blood pressure. After showing your blood pressure, the cuff will deflate on its own. ... again. A digital blood pressure monitor will not be as accurate ...
... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... prevent high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...
... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With High Blood Pressure If you have high blood pressure, the best thing to do is to talk ... help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for mother and baby. High ...
... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Stroke and High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 6,2015 Stroke is a leading ... to heart disease and stroke. Start exploring today ! High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...
... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Causes of High Blood Pressure Changes, either from genes or the environment, in ... and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study how various changes in ...
McGrath, Barry P
Summary Home blood pressure monitoring is the self-measurement of blood pressure by patients. In the diagnosis and management of high blood pressure it is complementary to 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and clinic blood pressure measurements. Home monitoring can also help to identify white-coat and masked hypertension. Home monitoring has good reproducibility, is well tolerated and relatively inexpensive. It is superior to blood pressure taken in the clinic in predicting cardiovascular events and mortality. Twice-daily measurements are recommended, usually in the morning and evening for a minimum of five days. The threshold for defining hypertension is an average home blood pressure of 135/85 mmHg or above. Patients are engaged with their management when they monitor their own blood pressure. This results in increased adherence to therapy and lower blood pressure. PMID:26648605
Engineering Development Lab., Inc.'s E-2000 Neck Baro Reflex System was developed for cardiovascular studies of astronauts. It is regularly used on Space Shuttle Missions, and a parallel version has been developed as a research tool to facilitate studies of blood pressure reflex controls in patients with congestive heart failure, diabetes, etc. An advanced version, the PPC-1000, was developed in 1991, and the technology has been refined substantially. The PPC provides an accurate means of generating pressure for a broad array of laboratory applications. An improved version, the E2010 Barosystem, is anticipated.
Hasan, Md. Mahmud-Ul; Islam, Md. Kafiul; Shawon, Mehedi Azad; Nowrin, Tasnuva Faruk
A more efficient newer algorithm of detecting systolic and diastolic pressure of human body along with a complete package of an effective user-friendly embedded programmable blood pressure monitoring system has been proposed in this paper to reduce the overall workload of medical personals as well as to monitor patient's condition more conveniently and accurately. Available devices for measuring blood pressure have some problems and limitations in case of both analog and digital devices. The sphygmomanometer, being analog device, is still being used widely because of its reliability and accuracy over digital ones. But it requires a skilled person to measure the blood pressure and obviously not being automated as well as time consuming. Our proposed system being a microcontroller based embedded system has the advantages of the available digital blood pressure machines along with a much improved form and has higher accuracy at the same time. This system can also be interfaced with computer through serial port/USB to publish the measured blood pressure data on the LAN or internet. The device can be programmed to determine the patient's blood pressure after each certain interval of time in a graphical form. To sense the pressure of human body, a pressure to voltage transducer is used along with a cuff in our system. During the blood pressure measurement cycle, the output voltage of the transducer is taken by the built-in ADC of microcontroller after an amplifier stage. The recorded data are then processed and analyzed using the effective software routine to determine the blood pressure of the person under test. Our proposed system is thus expected to certainly enhance the existing blood pressure monitoring system by providing accuracy, time efficiency, user-friendliness and at last but not the least the 'better way of monitoring patient's blood pressure under critical care' all together at the same time.
... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... Prevent and Control Chronic Diseases Million HeartsÂ® WISEWOMAN Web Sites with More Information About High Blood Pressure ...
Your blood pressure can be measured at many places, including: Home Your doctor's office Your local fire station Some pharmacies Your doctor may ask you to keep track of your blood pressure at home. Make ...
... above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ... provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for ...
... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated blood cell separator. 864.9245 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9245 Automated blood cell separator. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell separator is a device that uses a centrifugal or filtration separation principle...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automated blood cell separator. 864.9245 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9245 Automated blood cell separator. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell separator is a device that uses a centrifugal or filtration separation principle...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated blood cell separator. 864.9245 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9245 Automated blood cell separator. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell separator is a device that uses a centrifugal or filtration separation principle...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood cell separator. 864.9245 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9245 Automated blood cell separator. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell separator is a device that uses a centrifugal or filtration separation principle...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated blood cell separator. 864.9245 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9245 Automated blood cell separator. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell separator is a device that uses a centrifugal or filtration separation principle...
Both monotherapy and combination therapy options are appropriate for antihypertensive therapy according to the 2013 European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. Most patients require more than one agent to achieve blood pressure (BP) control, and adding a second agent is more effective than doubling the dose of existing therapy. The addition of a third agent may be required to achieve adequate BP reductions in some patients. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) allow multiple-drug regimens to be delivered without any negative impact on patient compliance or persistence with therapy. FDCs also have documented beneficial clinical effects and use of FDCs containing two or three agents is recommended by the 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines. PMID:26002423
... the NHLBI on Twitter. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, age, ... can increase your risk for developing high blood pressure. Age Blood pressure tends to rise with age. About 65 ...
Hypertension - diet ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ... DIET The low-salt Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is proven to help lower blood ...
... MANUAL BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORS Manual devices include a cuff that wraps around your arm, a rubber squeeze ... needle moves around and the pressure in the cuff rises or falls. When used correctly, manual devices ...
Chamontin, B; Amar, J; Chollet, F; Rouge, P; Bonetti-d'Esteve, L; Guittard, J; Salvador, M
Blood pressure (BP) elevations may correspond to different clinical situations. Hypertensives emergencies are situations that require immediate reduction in BP because of acute or rapidly progressing target organ damage: accelerated malignant hypertension, hypertensive encephalopathy, acute myocardial infarction, acute aortic dissection, acute left ventricular failure, and eclampsia. Hypertensive urgencies are those with marked elevated BP in which it is desirable to reduce BP progressively within few hours, such as severe hypertension, progressive target organ damage, perioperative hypertension. Cerebrovascular accidents have to be individualized. In most patients in the immediate post-stroke period, BP should not be lowered. Caution is advised in lowering BP in these patients because excessive falls may precipitate cerebral ischemia. In situations without symptoms or progressive target organ it is necessary to exclude proximate causes of elevated BP such as pain and elevated BP alone rarely requires antihypertensive treatment. Among parenteral antihypertensive (AH) drugs labetalol, nicardipine, urapidil, and nitroprussiate are generally used, and the choice of AH drug depends on the clinical situation. It is not required to normalize BP immediately but to reduce mean BP no more than 25%, then toward 160/100 mmHg as recommended by JNC VI, in order to avoid an impairment of renal, cerebral or coronary ischemia. Oral long-acting dihydropyridines are often subsequently administrated, except in myocardial ischemia. Therapeutic attitudes vary considerably according to the clinical situation: abstention, immediate decrease or progressive decrease in BP have to be decided. PMID:11190294
Morrison, Shaun F.; Davis, Robert Patrick; Barman, Susan M.
5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) was discovered more than 60 years ago as a substance isolated from blood. The neural effects of 5-HT have been well investigated and understood, thanks in part to the pharmacological tools available to dissect the serotonergic system and the development of the frequently prescribed selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors. By contrast, our understanding of the role of 5-HT in the control and modification of blood pressure pales in comparison. Here we focus on the role of 5-HT in systemic blood pressure control. This review provides an in-depth study of the function and pharmacology of 5-HT in those tissues that can modify blood pressure (blood, vasculature, heart, adrenal gland, kidney, brain), with a focus on the autonomic nervous system that includes mechanisms of action and pharmacology of 5-HT within each system. We compare the change in blood pressure produced in different species by short- and long-term administration of 5-HT or selective serotonin receptor agonists. To further our understanding of the mechanisms through which 5-HT modifies blood pressure, we also describe the blood pressure effects of commonly used drugs that modify the actions of 5-HT. The pharmacology and physiological actions of 5-HT in modifying blood pressure are important, given its involvement in circulatory shock, orthostatic hypotension, serotonin syndrome and hypertension. PMID:22407614
People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ... People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ...
Mather, C M
One percent of children have appreciably and consistently raised arterial blood pressure. A 7-year-old girl admitted for routine tonsillectomy, had unrecognised hypertension which put her at increased risk. Should anaesthetic practice take more note of paediatric blood pressures? PMID:2035786
Controlling hypertension ... when you wake up. For people with very high blood pressure, this is when they are most at risk ... 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed ...
Hypertensive retinopathy is damage to the retina from high blood pressure. The retina is the layer of tissue at ... High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina. The higher the blood pressure and the longer it ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section 864.5240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section 864.5240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section 864.5240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section 864.5240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section 864.5240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell...
... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Medications for High Blood Pressure Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Hypertension tends to worsen with age and you cannot ...
... in blood pressure to certain patterns of food consumption. For example, the D.A.S.H. (Dietary Approaches ... are good natural sources of potassium. Potassium-rich foods include: Sweet ... Levels Mean * ...
... inhibitors These medications reduce blood pressure by blocking neurotransmitters in the brain. This blocks the smooth muscles ... Monitoring of HBP • Prevention & Treatment of HBP Introduction Diet - Shaking the Salt Habit - Potassium - Alcohol Physical Activity ...
... than 230 researchers across 6 continents scanned the genomes of over 200,000 European people to identify ... blood pressure. They followed up by analyzing the genomes of 70,000 people of East Indian, South ...
Hum, L.; Cole, C. E.
Design and performance of a blood pressure recording device for pediatric use are reported. A strain gage transducer with a copper-beryllium strip as force sensing element is used to monitor skin movements and to convert them into electrical signals proportional to those displacements. Experimental tests with this device in recording of force developed above the left femoral artery of a dog accurately produced a blood pressure curve.
... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... you have high blood pressure. How can I control or prevent high blood pressure? High blood pressure ...
... blood pressure and maintain normal blood pressure readings. Healthy Eating To help treat high blood pressure, health care ... Read more about the DASH eating plan. Heart-Healthy Eating Your health care provider also may recommend heart- ...
... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... Click here for the Color Version (PDF 533KB) High blood pressure is a serious illness. High blood pressure is ...
... Tools & Resources Stroke More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Jun 19,2014 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...
... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158958.html Elderly Benefit From Intensive Blood Pressure Treatment No greater risk ... may suffer complications of high blood pressure can benefit from intensive blood pressure lowering and it is ...
... Pressure (Hypertension) (Food and Drug Administration) Also in Spanish High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Questions and Answers about High Blood ...
Central aortic blood pressure (CBP) is increasingly considered a better cardiovascular prognostic marker than conventional cuff brachial blood pressure. Because CBP cannot be directly measured noninvasively, it has to be estimated from peripheral pressure pulses. To assess estimated CBP appropriately, the accuracy and features of the estimation method should be considered. The aim of this review is to provide basic knowledge and information useful for interpreting and assessing estimated CBP from a methodological point of view. Precise peripheral pressure pulse recording has been enabled by the introduction of arterial applanation tonometry, for which the radial artery may be the optimal site. An automated tonometry device utilizing a sensor array is preferable in terms of reproducibility and objectivity. Calibration of a peripheral pressure waveform has unresolved problems for any estimation method, due to imperfect brachial sphygmomanometry. However, if central and peripheral pressure calibrations are equivalent, two major methods to estimate CBP—those based on generalized pressure transfer function or radial late systolic pressure—may be comparable in their accuracy of CBP parameter estimation. PMID:22866025
Eriksson, L.; Holte, S.; Bohm, C.; Kesselberg, M.; Hovander, B.
An automated blood sampling system has been constructed and evaluated. Two different detector units in the blood sampling system are compared. Results from studies of blood-brain barrier transfer of a C-11 labelled receptor antagonist will be discussed.
... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More High Blood Pressure and Metabolic Syndrome Updated:Aug 12,2014 Metabolic ... content was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...
Nolte, R. W.
The Blood Pressure Measuring System is described. It measures blood pressure by the noninvasive Korotkoff sound technique on a continual basis as physical stress is imposed during experiment M092, Lower Body Negative Pressure, and experiment M171, Metabolic Activity.
Biach, W.L.; Hill, R.; Hung, K. )
The adoption of hydraulic tensioner technology as the standard for bolting and unbolting the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) head 35 yr ago represented an incredible commitment to new technology, but the existing technology was so primitive as to be clearly unacceptable. Today, a variety of approaches for improvement make the decision more difficult. Automation in existing installations must meet complex physical, logistic, and financial parameters while addressing the demands of reduced exposure, reduced critical path, and extended plant life. There are two generic approaches to providing automated RPV stud engagement and disengagement: the multiple stud tensioner and automated individual tools. A variation of the latter would include the handling system. Each has its benefits and liabilities.
Cornélissen, G.; Halberg, F.; Bakken, E. E.; Wang, Z.; Tarquini, R.; Perfetto, F.; Laffi, G.; Maggioni, C.; Kumagai, Y.; Homolka, P.; Havelková, A.; Dušek, J.; Svačinová, H.; Siegelová, J.; Fišer, B.
BIOCOS, the project aimed at studying BIOlogical systems in their COSmos, has obtained a great deal of expertise in the fields of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) monitoring and of marker rhythmometry for the purposes of screening, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Prolonging the monitoring reduces the uncertainty in the estimation of circadian parameters; the current recommendation of BIOCOS requires monitoring for at least 7 days. The BIOCOS approach consists of a parametric and a non-parametric analysis of the data, in which the results from the individual subject are being compared with gender- and age-specified reference values in health. Chronobiological designs can offer important new information regarding the optimization of treatment by timing its administration as a function of circadian and other rhythms. New technological developments are needed to close the loop between the monitoring of blood pressure and the administration of antihypertensive drugs. PMID:19122770
... below to read more. High Blood Pressure and Edema : You may notice swelling in some parts of ... blood pressure. This buildup of fluids, called peripheral edema, usually occurs in your ankles, feet, lower legs, ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features ... Hypertensive retinopathy is damage to the retina from high blood pressure. The retina is the layer of tissue at ...
... fullstory_158958.html Elderly Benefit From Intensive Blood Pressure Treatment No greater risk of complications such as ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Intensive treatment of high blood pressure reduces older adults' risk of heart disease without ...
... news/fullstory_159115.html Smog Can Make Blood Pressure Soar: Studies Pay attention to air quality, researchers ... with increased risk of developing dangerous high blood pressure. The findings stem from a review of 17 ...
Duke-Novakovski, Tanya; Carr, Anthony
Blood pressure monitoring and management is a vital part of the perianesthetic period. Disturbances in blood pressure, especially hypotension, can have significant impacts on the well-being of small animal patients. There are a variety of mechanisms present to control blood pressure, including ultra-short-, short-, and long-term mechanisms. Several conditions can contribute to decreased blood pressure, including anesthetics, tension pneumothorax, intermittent positive pressure ventilation, hypoxemia, hypercapnia, surgical positioning, and abdominal distension. If hypotension is encountered, the initial response is to provide appropriate fluid therapy. If this is inadequate, other interventions can be used to increase blood pressure and thereby increase perfusion. PMID:26076581
Pressure within blood vessel is measured by new cufflike device without penetration of vessel. Device continuously monitors blood pressure for up to 6 months or longer without harming vessel. Is especially useful for vessels smaller than 4 or 5 millimeters in diameter. Invasive methods damage vessel wall, disturb blood flow, and cause clotting. They do not always give reliable pressure measurements over prolonged periods.
Vick, H. A.
Blood pressure reprogramming adapter separates the two components of a blood pressure signal, a dc pressure signal and an ac Korotkoff sounds signal, so that the Korotkoff sounds are recorded on one channel as received while the dc pressure signal is converted to FM and recorded on a second channel.
Jacob, G.; Biaggioni, I.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.; Robertson, R. M.; Robertson, D.
A complex but crucial relationship exists between blood volume and blood pressure in human subjects; it has been recognized that in essential hypertension, renovascular hypertension, and pheochromocytoma, the relationship between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure is an inverse one. This phenomenon has not been studied in individuals with low normal and reduced blood pressures. Orthostatic intolerance is a commonly encountered abnormality in blood pressure regulation often associated with tachycardia in the standing position. Most of these patients have varying degrees of reduced blood volume. We tested the hypothesis that the relationship previously found between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure in pressor states would also hold in orthostatic intolerance. We studied 16 patients with a history of symptomatic orthostatic intolerance associated with an elevation in plasma norepinephrine in the upright posture and hypovolemia in 9 patients and normovolemia in 7 patients. Our studies demonstrate an inverse relationship between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure in patients with orthostatic intolerance. This finding also holds for the change in diastolic blood pressure in response to upright posture. In this relationship, patients with orthostatic intolerance with high plasma norepinephrine resemble those with essential hypertension, renovascular hypertension, and pheochromocytoma. We conclude that in a variety of conditions at both ends of the blood pressure spectrum, the seemingly paradoxical association of hypovolemia and diastolic blood pressure is preserved.
Ohno, Yoichi; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Takenaka, Tsuneo
In this review, we focused on the relationship between central blood pressure and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Wave reflection is a major mechanism that determines central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Recent medical technology advances have enabled non-invasive central blood pressure measurements. Clinical trials have demonstrated that compared with brachial blood pressure, central blood pressure is a stronger risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and renal diseases. CKD is characterized by a diminished renal autoregulatory ability, an augmented direct transmission of systemic blood pressure to glomeruli, and an increase in proteinuria. Any elevation in central blood pressure accelerates CKD progression. In the kidney, interstitial inflammation induces oxidative stress to handle proteinuria. Oxidative stress facilitates atherogenesis, increases arterial stiffness and central blood pressure, and worsens the CV prognosis in patients with CKD. A vicious cycle exists between CKD and central blood pressure. To stop this cycle, vasodilator antihypertensive drugs and statins can reduce central blood pressure and oxidative stress. Even in early-stage CKD, mineral and bone disorders (MBD) may develop. MBD promotes oxidative stress, arteriosclerosis, and elevated central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Early intervention or prevention seems necessary to maintain vascular health in patients with CKD. PMID:26788468
Lopez, Guillaume; Shuzo, Masaki; Ushida, Hiroyuki; Hidaka, Keita; Yanagimoto, Shintaro; Imai, Yasushi; Kosaka, Akio; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques; Yamada, Ichiro
Continuous monitoring of blood pressure in daily life could improve early detection of cardiovascular disorders, as well as promoting healthcare. Conventional ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) equipment can measure blood pressure at regular intervals for 24 hours, but is limited by long measuring time, low sampling rate, and constrained measuring posture. In this paper, we demonstrate a new method for continuous real-time measurement of blood pressure during daily activities. Our method is based on blood pressure estimation from pulse wave velocity (PWV) calculation, which formula we improved to take into account changes in the inner diameter of blood vessels. Blood pressure estimation results using our new method showed a greater precision of measured data during exercise, and a better accuracy than the conventional PWV method.
Poghosyan, Armen; Mouradian, Vahram; Hovhannisyan, Levon
We are presenting a novel photoplethysmographic (PPG) optical sensor and device with ambient optical, electrical and electromagnetic noises cancellation, thus allowing only the useful optical signals to be received by the health monitoring device. We are also presenting a new processing technique for canceling the ambient noises contributed by optical, electrical and electromagnetic artifacts in the measured PPG signals. Such a device and method allow the enhancement of the performance of the PPG sensors compared to conventional apparatus and methods. The presented sensor and methodology have been integrated into a prototype standalone device for noninvasive, continuous, wearable, remote and mobile monitoring of blood pressure and other human vital signs, such as heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiration rate, etc This small device allows the user to read, store, process and transmit all the measurements made using the PPG optical sensor and the electronic unit to a remote location.
Pierin, Angela M. G.; Ignez, Edna C.; Filho, Wilson Jacob; Barbato, Alfonso Júlio Guedes; Mion, Décio
OBJECTIVE To compare blood pressure measurements taken at home by physicians, nurses, and patients with office blood pressure measurement , ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and home blood pressure measurement. METHODS A total of 44 patients seen by a home care program were studied. Protocol 1 a) blood pressure was measured by the patient, a physician and a nurse during a regular home visit (Home1); b) home blood pressure measurement was measured for 4 days (HBPM1); c) office blood pressure measurement was measured by a physician, a nurse, and the patient; and by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Protocol 2 blood pressure was measured by the patient, a physician, and a nurse during a special home visit in the presence of a physician and a nurse only (Home2); and b) home blood pressure measurement was taken for the second time (HBPM2). Echocardiography, guided by a two-dimensional echocardiograph, was performed. RESULTS Protocol 1: a) office blood pressure measurement and Home1 were significantly higher than ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, except for systolic and diastolic office blood pressure measurement taken by the patient or a family member, systolic blood pressure taken by a nurse, and diastolic blood pressure taken by a physician. b) ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and HBPM1 were similar. Protocol 2: a) HBPM2 and Home2 were similar. b) Home2 was significantly lower than Home1, except for diastolic blood pressure taken by a nurse or the patient. There were significant relationships between: a) diastolic blood pressure measured by the patient and the thickness of the interventricular septum, posterior wall, and left ventricular mass; and b) ambulatory and HBPM2 diastolic and systolic blood pressure taken by a physician (home2) and left ventricular mass. Therefore, the data indicate that home blood pressure measurement and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring had good prognostic values relative to “office measurement.” CONCLUSION
Rothman, Neil S.
Device measures time-averaged component of absolute blood pressure in artery. Includes compliant cuff around artery and external monitoring unit. Ceramic construction in monitoring unit suppresses ebb and flow of pressure-transmitting fluid in sensor chamber. Transducer measures only static component of blood pressure.
... Tools & Resources Stroke More Let's Talk About High Blood Pressure and Stroke Updated:Dec 9,2015 What is ... Blood Pressure? How Can I Reduce High Blood Pressure? High Blood Pressure and Stroke What Is Diabetes and How ...
... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Managing Blood Pressure with a Heart-Healthy Diet Updated:Apr 8, ... last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...
Joshi, Vinayak; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Abramoff, Michael D.
Abnormalities in the vascular pattern of the retina are associated with retinal diseases and are also risk factors for systemic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. The three-dimensional retinal vascular pattern is mostly formed congenitally, but is then modified over life, in response to aging, vessel wall dystrophies and long term changes in blood flow and pressure. A characteristic of the vascular pattern that is appreciated by clinicians is vascular tortuosity, i.e. how curved or kinked a blood vessel, either vein or artery, appears along its course. We developed a new quantitative metric for vascular tortuosity, based on the vessel's angle of curvature, length of the curved vessel over its chord length (arc to chord ratio), number of curvature sign changes, and combined these into a unidimensional metric, Tortuosity Index (TI). In comparison to other published methods this method can estimate appropriate TI for vessels with constant curvature sign and vessels with equal arc to chord ratios, as well. We applied this method to a dataset of 15 digital fundus images of 8 patients with Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), and to the other publically available dataset of 60 fundus images of normal cases and patients with hypertensive retinopathy, of which the arterial and venous tortuosities have also been graded by masked experts (ophthalmologists). The method produced exactly the same rank-ordered list of vessel tortuosity (TI) values as obtained by averaging the tortuosity grading given by 3 ophthalmologists for FSHD dataset and a list of TI values with high ranking correlation with the ophthalmologist's grading for the other dataset. Our results show that TI has potential to detect and evaluate abnormal retinal vascular structure in early diagnosis and prognosis of retinopathies.
... Early diagnosis and simple, healthy changes can keep high blood pressure from seriously damaging your health. Normal blood flow delivers nutrients and oxygen to all parts of your body, including important ...
... thrombophilia , or lupus • are obese •had in vitro fertilization What are the risks for my baby if ... blood cells. Hypertension: High blood pressure. In Vitro Fertilization: A procedure in which an egg is removed ...
Rischell, Robert E.
Additional uses found for equipment described in "Implanted Blood-Pressure-Measuring Device" (GSC-13042). Implanted with device electronic circuitry that measures, interprets, and transmits data via inductive link through patient's skin to external receiver. Receiver includes audible alarm generator activated when patient's blood pressure exceeds predetermined threshold. Also included in receiver a blood-pressure display, recorder, or both, for use by patient or physician.
Ivy, Jessica R; Bailey, Matthew A
The regulation of extracellular fluid volume by renal sodium excretion lies at the centre of blood pressure homeostasis. Renal perfusion pressure can directly regulate sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule. This acute pressure natriuresis response is a uniquely powerful means of stabilizing long-term blood pressure around a set point. By logical extension, deviation from the set point can only be sustained if the pressure natriuresis mechanism is impaired, suggesting that hypertension is caused or sustained by a defect in the relationship between renal perfusion pressure and sodium excretion. Here we describe the role of pressure natriuresis in blood pressure control and outline the cascade of biophysical and paracrine events in the renal medulla that integrate the vascular and tubular response to altered perfusion pressure. Pressure natriuresis is impaired in hypertension and mechanistic insight into dysfunction comes from genetic analysis of blood pressure disorders. Transplantation studies in rats show that blood pressure is determined by the genotype of the kidney and Mendelian hypertension indicates that the distal nephron influences the overall natriuretic efficiency. These approaches and the outcomes of genome-wide-association studies broaden our view of blood pressure control, suggesting that renal sympathetic nerve activity and local inflammation can impair pressure natriuresis to cause hypertension. Understanding how these systems interact is necessary to tackle the global burden of hypertension. PMID:25107929
Sharp, D.S.; Osterloh, J.; Becker, C.E.; Bernard, B.; Smith, A.H.; Fisher, J.M.; Syme, S.L.; Holman, B.L.; Johnston, T.
San Francisco bus drivers have an increased prevalence of hypertension. This study examined relationships between blood lead concentration and blood pressure in 342 drivers. The analysis reported in this study was limited to subjects not on treatment for hypertension (n = 288). Systolic and diastolic pressure varied from 102 to 173 mm Hg and from 61 to 105 mm Hg, respectively. The blood lead concentration varied from 2 to 15 ..mu..g/dL. The relationship between blood pressure and the logarithm of blood lead concentration was examined using multiple regression analysis. Covariates included age, body mass index, sex, race, and caffeine intake. The largest regression coefficient relating systolic blood pressure and blood lead concentration was 1.8 mm Hg/ln (..mu..g/dL). The coefficient for diastolic blood pressure was 2.5 mm Hg/ln (..mu..g/dL). These findings suggest effects of lead exposure at lower blood lead concentrations than those concentrations that have previously been linked with increases in blood pressure.
Fixler, D E; Wallace, J M; Thornton, W E; Dimmitt, P
The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to identify youths with chronic blood pressure elevation. Nineteen adolescent boys were studied, ten had 5-year average systolic or diastolic pressures above the 95th percentile, nine had normal pressure. A Del Mar Avionics Pressurometer III system recorded an average of 121 readings on each subject. The coefficients of variation for pressure were similar for hypertensive and normotensive individuals. During classes, eight of the ten hypertensive youths had elevated pressures in over half of the measurements. Also during these classes eight of ten hypertensive boys had average systolic or diastolic pressure above the 95th percentile, whereas only one of nine normotensive boys had average pressures above this level. We suggest that schooltime ambulatory pressures may be most useful in classifying the blood pressure trend in a youth. PMID:2346634
Sirtori, Cesare R; Arnoldi, Anna; Cicero, Arrigo F G
Significant effects on blood pressure (BP) have been reported from large nutritional interventions, particularly the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and the Mediterranean diet. In more recent years, numerous studies have investigated the possible BP-lowering effect of different nutraceuticals; these range from specific foods to minerals, lipids, whole proteins, peptides, amino acids, probiotics, and vitamins. While a very large body of evidence supports the use of potassium, L-arginine, vitamins C and D, cocoa flavonoids, beetroot juice, some probiotics, coenzyme Q10, controlled-release melatonin, aged garlic extract, and coffee, the use of other nutraceuticals, such as green tea, flaxseed, and resveratrol, has not as yet been supported by adequate evidence. In some cases, e.g. proteins/peptides, the responsible component needs also to be fully uncovered. Finally, while for most of the products only short-term studies are available, with no specific end-points, an ongoing very large prospective study on chocolate flavanols will answer the question whether this may reduce cardiovascular risk. Thus, in addition to data on long-term safety, further clinical research is advisable in order to identify, among active nutraceuticals, those with the best cost-effectiveness and risk-benefit ratio for a wide use in the general population with a raised cardiovascular risk consequent to uncomplicated hypertension. PMID:26362125
Bachmann, K; Wortmann, A; Engels, G
Indirect arterial blood pressure measurement has not changed substantially since its introduction by Riva-Rocci in 1986, Korotkoff in 1905 and Recklinghausen in 1906. Random measurements in the clinic or practice reflect only incompletely the dynamic nature of the blood pressure. Blood pressure recordings by patients themselves have provided more information through better temporal resolution, however, exact characterization of the pressure response throughout the entire day and, in particular, during physical exertion are not enabled; the latter are especially important with regard to diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. In 1966, therefore, radiotelemetric transmission of direct, continuously-measured arterial blood pressure was developed which enabled beat-to-beat registration of blood pressure, outside the laboratory, during normal daily life and sport activities. The initial results showed a marked variability of the blood pressure during the course of the day (Figure 1). Excessive blood pressure increases were observed during exposure to cold, static and dynamic exercise and to a lesser degree during automobile driving and exposure to heat (Figure 3). Recording of the pressure curves via transmission by radiotelemetry shows a high degree of accuracy and temporal resolution, spatial and situational freedom but is invasive and costly in terms of personnel. The same holds true for direct continuous blood pressure registration and storage on a portable tape recorder. Portable, automatic blood pressure measuring units for ambulatory monitoring employ indirect auscultatory or oscillometric recording with a cuff. As compared with the radiotelemetric direct continuous blood pressure measuring method, the indirect method has subordinate temporal resolution, that is, the measurements are only intermittent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2676813
Coulehan, John L.; And Others
Among 580 Navajo adolescents, 11.1 percent of males and 1.6 percent of females had high blood pressure. Blood pressure was related to age in males and to body mass index in females but was not related to level of acculturation or traditionality. Contains 17 references. (SV)
... Pressure "Keep the Beat": Healthy Blood Pressure Helps Prevent Heart Disease Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of ... Articles "Keep the Beat": Healthy Blood Pressure Helps Prevent Heart Disease / Women and Heart Disease / Blood Pressure ...
Egger, M; Bianchetti, M G; Gnädinger, M; Kobelt, R; Oetliker, O
Blood pressure and heart rate were measured every 30 minutes during the day and every hour during the night in 43 children (20 girls and 23 boys, aged 10 to 16) with a portable automated monitor. The apparatus was better accepted in girls than in boys, and the failure rate was lower during the day. The overall failure rate was 22%, which corresponds with comparable studies in adults. During the night blood pressure and heart rate fell by 10% and 14% of the daytime values, respectively. Mean (SD) blood pressure was significantly higher in boys than in girls (126/72 (17/8) v 109/64 (9/5) mm Hg) and measurements correlated positively with age, body weight, and height of the subjects. Heart rate was not significantly influenced by gender or age. A positive correlation between heart rate and blood pressure was found when expressed as standard normal deviations or hourly variations. In children intermittent monitoring of ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate is a suitable method for measuring individual diurnal patterns. PMID:3688917
Pu, Jia; Chewning, Betty A; Johnson, Heather M; Vanness, David J; Young, Henry N; Kreling, David H
Better understanding is needed for antihypertensive medication initiation and lifestyle modification among younger populations with elevated blood pressure. This study aimed to assess health behavior change after receiving a report of elevated blood pressure among African Americans and Caucasians younger than 50 years old. We used the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) repository dataset. By examination year twenty, 424 out of 2,478 Caucasian and 2,637 African American participants had received feedback from the CARDIA study due to elevated blood pressure readings. Blood pressure was measured by trained CARDIA researchers at the participant's home and was repeatedly recorded at seven examinations over twenty years. A feedback/referral letter was sent to participants with an elevated blood pressure reading. On average, participants first had an elevated blood pressure reading at the age of 34. After receiving the feedback letter, 44% of the previously undiagnosed participants received a formal diagnosis. In addition, 23% initiated the use of antihypertensive medication if they had not received medication treatment before. Among the participants with at-risk lifestyle behaviors, 40% reduced alcohol consumption, 14% increased exercise level, 11% stopped smoking, and 8% reached normal weight. While none of the studied patient factors were associated with lifestyle modification, age had a positive impact on antihypertensive medication initiation (p<0.05). We found no evidence of differences in health behavior change between African American and Caucasian participants after receiving the feedback letter. This research is one of the first to study what followed after receiving a feedback letter about elevated blood pressure outside of healthcare settings. Although additional referral care and behavior interventions are needed to facilitate medication initiation and lifestyle modification, our observations suggest that providing blood pressure
Lee, Yong Jin
This device provides non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements and can be worn over the upper arm for prolonged durations. Phase and waveform analyses are performed on filtered proximal and distal photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveforms obtained from the brachial artery. The phase analysis is used primarily for the computation of the mean arterial pressure, while the waveform analysis is used primarily to obtain the pulse pressure. Real-time compliance estimate is used to refine both the mean arterial and pulse pressures to provide the beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement. This wearable physiological monitor can be used to continuously observe the beat-to-beat blood pressure (B3P). It can be used to monitor the effect of prolonged exposures to reduced gravitational environments and the effectiveness of various countermeasures. A number of researchers have used pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood in the arteries to infer the beat-to-beat blood pressure. There has been documentation of relative success, but a device that is able to provide the required accuracy and repeatability has not yet been developed. It has been demonstrated that an accurate and repeatable blood pressure measurement can be obtained by measuring the phase change (e.g., phase velocity), amplitude change, and distortion of the PPG waveforms along the brachial artery. The approach is based on comparing the full PPG waveform between two points along the artery rather than measuring the time-of-flight. Minimizing the measurement separation and confining the measurement area to a single, well-defined artery allows the waveform to retain the general shape between the two measurement points. This allows signal processing of waveforms to determine the phase and amplitude changes. Photoplethysmography, which measures changes in arterial blood volume, is commonly used to obtain heart rate and blood oxygen saturation. The digitized PPG signals are used as inputs into the beat-to-beat blood
Blood pressure measurement in the diagnosis and management of hypertension, including the technique required for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and home blood pressure monitoring, will be reviewed in this article. Home and ambulatory measurements are widely used, both to confirm the diagnosis and to improve adherence to therapy. The major advantage of out-of-office blood pressure monitoring is that it provides a large number of blood pressure measurements away from the medical environment, which represents a more reliable assessment of actual blood pressure than office blood pressure. The advantage of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is its unique ability to measure nocturnal blood pressure. Although not fully validated in large-scale clinical trials, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring appears to correlate best with prognosis. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and home blood pressure monitoring provide somewhat different information on the subject's blood pressure status, and the two methods should thus be regarded as complementary, rather than competitive or alternative. PMID:25019016
The Leg Volume Measuring System is used to measure leg calf girth changes that occur during exposure to lower body negative pressure as a result of pooling of blood and other fluids in the lower extremities.
Aleixandre, A; Miguel, M
In the past few years, new strategies to control blood pressure levels are emerging by developing new bioactive components of foods. Fiber has been linked to the prevention of a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders. β-Glucan, the main soluble fiber component in oat grains, was initially linked to a reduction in plasma cholesterol. Several studies have shown afterward that dietary fiber may also improve glycaemia, insulin resistance and weight loss. The effect of dietary fiber on arterial blood pressure has been the subject of far fewer studies than its effect on the above-mentioned variables, but research has already shown that fiber intake can decrease arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Moreover, certain fibers can improve arterial blood pressure when administered to hypertensive and pre-hypertensive subjects. The present review summarizes all those studies which attempt to establish the antihypertensive effects of dietary fiber, as well as its effect on other cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:26923351
... Information Center National Kidney Foundation Smokefree.gov MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Alternate Language URL Español High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease Page Content On this page: What is ...
... in New York City. Until published in a peer-reviewed medical journal, the results should be considered preliminary. One-third of U.S. adults have high blood pressure, also called hypertension. It contributes to more than ...
Edvardsson, Vidar O; Steinthorsdottir, Sandra D; Eliasdottir, Sigridur B; Indridason, Olafur S; Palsson, Runolfur
A large body of literature suggests an inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in children, adolescents and adults. The most persistent findings have been observed in children with a history of low birth weight or intrauterine growth restriction, while a large number of studies carried out in populations with normally distributed birth weight have shown conflicting results. A recently reported strong direct association between high birth weight and blood pressure, and the significant positive effect of postnatal growth on blood pressure suggests that the fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis should be expanded to include the role of excessive fetal and postnatal growth. In this paper, we review recent studies on the relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in childhood, with a focus on confounding variables that may explain the conflicting results of published work in this field. PMID:23054892
... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... when the sounds disappear. When a blood pressure reading is taken, the higher number represents the systolic ...
... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158828.html Booze, High Blood Pressure a Dangerous Mix Study links moderate drinking to heart damage in people with hypertension To use the sharing features on this page, ...
Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Pickering, Thomas
Although the mercury sphygmomanometer is widely regarded as the “gold standard” for office blood pressure measurement, the ban on use of mercury devices continues to diminish their role in office and hospital settings. To date, mercury devices have largely been phased out in US hospitals. This has led to the proliferation of non-mercury devices and has changed (probably for ever) the preferable modality of blood pressure measurement in clinic and hospital settings. In this article, the basic techniques of blood pressure measurement and the technical issues associated with measurements in clinical practice are discussed. The devices currently available for hospital and clinic measurements and their important sources of error are presented. Practical advice is given on how the different devices and measurement techniques should be used. Blood pressure measurements in different circumstances and in special populations such as infants, children, pregnant women, elderly persons, and obese subjects are discussed. PMID:20937442
Melby, Christopher L.; And Others
This cross-sectional study determined which anthropometric, dietary, and physical fitness variables were the best predictors of blood pressure in 323 white elementary school children. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)
... fullstory_158731.html Blood Pressure Patterns May Predict Stroke Risk Odds increase with rapid rise in middle ... overall pattern to predict a patient's risk of stroke or early death, new research suggests. "Our study ...
... at Erasmus University Medical Center in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. High blood pressure is the number one risk ... of epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Andrew Rogove, M.D., Ph.D., medical director, ...
Sharman, James E.; Blizzard, Leigh; Kosmala, Wojciech; Nelson, Mark R.
PURPOSE Twenty-four–hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) is the reference standard of blood pressure control. Home blood pressure (HBP) is superior to clinic blood pressure for assessing control, but a barrier to its use is the need for physicians to calculate average blood pressure from patient diaries. We sought to develop a quick and pragmatic method to assess blood pressure control from patients’ HBP diaries. METHODS Seven-day HBP and 24-hour ABP were measured in 286 patients with uncomplicated treated hypertension (aged 64 ± 8 years; 53% female). We determined the optimal ratio of home systolic blood pressure readings above threshold (≥135 mm Hg) for the last 10 recorded that would best predict elevated 24-hour ABP. Uncontrolled blood pressure was defined as 24-hour ABP systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg or 24-hour ABP daytime systolic blood pressure ≥135 mm Hg. Validation by corroborative evidence was tested by association with markers of end-organ disease. RESULTS The best predictor of 24-hour ABP systolic blood pressure above treatment/target threshold was having 3 or more (≥30%) of the last 10 home systolic blood pressure readings ≥135 mm Hg (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.71). Importantly, patients meeting this criterion had evidence of target organ disease, with significantly higher aortic stiffness, left ventricular relative wall thickness, and left atrial area, and lower left ventricular ejection fraction, compared with those who did not meet this criterion. CONCLUSIONS To facilitate uptake of HBP monitoring, we propose that physicians can determine the percentage of the last 10 home systolic blood pressure values ≥135 mm Hg for a patient and tailor management accordingly. PMID:26755785
ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...
... fullstory_158860.html Wearable Monitor Helps Spot 'Masked' High Blood Pressure Black people with undetected problem twice as likely ... doctors spot black people with "masked," or undetected, high blood pressure, a new study suggests. "Masked" high blood pressure ...
Palatini, P; Mormino, P; Martina, S; Businaro, R; Penzo, M; Racioppa, A; Guzzardi, G; Anaclerio, M; Pessina, A C
Purpose of the study was to investigate whether and to what extent blood pressure variability and average night-time blood pressure are related to cardiovascular complications in hypertension. To this aim 60 normotensive and 462 hypertensive subjects were studied by means of non-invasive 24 hour blood pressure monitoring, using either the Avionics, or the ICR Spacelabs, or the Takeda system. Each subject was attributed a target organ damage score on the basis of 12-lead electrocardiogram, chest X-ray and fundoscopy, starting from 0 (no damage) up to 5 (maximum degree of damage). The 522 subjects were subsequently subdivided into 5 classes of increasing average daytime diastolic blood pressure. In each class a higher degree of cardiovascular complications was present in the subjects with the higher blood pressure variability and the higher average night-time blood pressure. From these results it may be inferred that both blood pressure variability and night-time blood pressure are related to the degree of target organ damage in hypertension. This stresses the importance of recording blood pressure throughout the 24 hours. PMID:2147124
Lee, Yong Jin
This device provides non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements and can be worn over the upper arm for prolonged durations. Phase and waveform analyses are performed on filtered proximal and distal photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveforms obtained from the brachial artery. The phase analysis is used primarily for the computation of the mean arterial pressure, while the waveform analysis is used primarily to obtain the pulse pressure. Real-time compliance estimate is used to refine both the mean arterial and pulse pressures to provide the beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement. This wearable physiological monitor can be used to continuously observe the beat-to-beat blood pressure (B3P). It can be used to monitor the effect of prolonged exposures to reduced gravitational environments and the effectiveness of various countermeasures. A number of researchers have used pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood in the arteries to infer the beat-to-beat blood pressure. There has been documentation of relative success, but a device that is able to provide the required accuracy and repeatability has not yet been developed. It has been demonstrated that an accurate and repeatable blood pressure measurement can be obtained by measuring the phase change (e.g., phase velocity), amplitude change, and distortion of the PPG waveforms along the brachial artery. The approach is based on comparing the full PPG waveform between two points along the artery rather than measuring the time-of-flight. Minimizing the measurement separation and confining the measurement area to a single, well-defined artery allows the waveform to retain the general shape between the two measurement points. This allows signal processing of waveforms to determine the phase and amplitude changes.
... mean? Blood pressure is measured by two numbers. systolic pressure 120 80 diastolic pressure Your provider will ... 120 over 80” The first (or top) number—“systolic”—is the pressure in your blood vessels when ...
Alstrøm, Preben; Eguíluz, Victor M.; Gustafsson, Finn; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik
A new Rayleigh-type instability is proposed to explain the `sausage-string' pattern of alternating constrictions and dialtations formed in blood vessels at high blood pressure conditions. Our theory involves the nonlinear stress-strain characteristics of the vessel wall, and provides predictions for the conditions under which the normal cylindrical geometry of a blood vessel becomes unstable. The theory explains key features observed experimentally, e.g. the limited occurrence of the sausage-string pattern to small arteries and large arterioles, and only in those with small wall-to-lumen ratios.
Parkinson, D K; Hodgson, M J; Bromet, E J; Dew, M A; Connell, M M
Recent community studies have suggested that low level lead exposure is significantly associated with blood pressure in the general population. This finding is inconsistent with the results of recent occupational studies of lead exposed workers, although the occupational studies contained serious methodological weaknesses. The present study examined the relation between occupational lead exposure and diastolic and systolic blood pressure in randomly selected samples of 270 exposed and 158 non-exposed workers. Four exposure indicators were examined: employment at a lead battery plant nu a control plant, current blood lead value, current zinc protoporphyrin value, and time weighted average blood lead value. After controlling for other known risk factors such as age, education, income, cigarette usage, alcohol consumption, and exercise, the associations between exposure and blood pressure were small and non-significant. In the absence of a biologically feasible hypothesis regarding the mechanism by which low level lead exposure would influence blood pressure the present findings challenge the validity of the general population association. PMID:3689706
Banach, Maciej; Aronow, Wilbert S; Serban, Maria-Corina; Rysz, Jacek; Voroneanu, Luminita; Covic, Adrian
The most important studies and guidelines in the topics of lipid, blood pressure and kidney published in 2015 were reviewed. In lipid research, the IMProved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial (IMPROVE-IT) trial revalidated the concept "lower is better" for low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol as a target for therapy, increasing the necessity of treatment the high-risk patients to achieve LDL-C goals. After these results, ezetimibe might become the preferred additional drug in the combination therapy of lipid disorders because of oral dosage form and lower acquisition cost. However, for the statin-intolerant patients and those patients requiring essential reductions in LDL-C to achieve their goals, new therapies, including PCSK9 inhibitors remain promising drugs. In blood pressure research, American Heart Association (AHA)/American College of Cardiology (ACC) 2015 guidelines recommended a target for blood pressure below 140/90 mmHg in stable or unstable coronary artery disease patients and below 150/90 mmHg in patients older than 80 years of age, however the recent results of the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) trial have suggested that there might be significant benefits, taking into account cardiovascular risk, for hypertensive patients over 50 without diabetes and blood pressure levels <120/80. In kidney research, reducing the progression of chronic kidney disease and related complications such as anemia, metabolic acidosis, bone and mineral diseases, acute kidney injury and cardiovascular disease is still a goal for clinicians. PMID:26718096
Lim, Wai-Yee; Lee, Yung-Seng; Yap, Fabian Kok-Peng; Aris, Izzudin Mohd; Ngee, Lek; Meaney, Michael; Gluckman, Peter D.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Saw, Seang-Mei; Pan, An
Abstract Although epidemiological studies suggest that offspring of women with preeclampsia are at increased risk to higher blood pressures and cardiovascular disease, little is known about the nature of blood pressures between the mother and her offspring. As blood pressures comprise of both pulsatile (systolic blood pressure [SBP] and pulse pressure [PP]) and stable (diastolic blood pressure [DBP]) components, and they differ between central and peripheral sites, we sought to examine maternal peripheral and central blood pressure components in relation to offspring early childhood blood pressures. A prospective birth cohort of 567 Chinese, Malay, and Indian mother–offspring with complete blood pressure information were studied. Maternal brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 26 to 28 weeks gestation; and central SBP and PP were estimated from radial artery waveforms. Offspring brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 3 years of age. Associations between continuous variables of maternal blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, PP, central SBP, and PP) and offspring blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, and PP) were examined using multiple linear regression with adjustment for maternal characteristics (age, education level, parity, smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity during pregnancy, and pre-pregnancy BMI) and offspring characteristics (sex, ethnicity, BMI, and height at 3 years of age). In the multivariate models, offspring peripheral SBP increased by 0.08 (95% confidence interval 0.00–0.17, P = 0.06) mmHg with every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central SBP, and offspring peripheral PP increased by 0.10 (0.01–0.18, P = 0.03) mmHg for every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central PP. The relations of maternal-offspring peripheral blood pressures (SBP, DBP, and PP) were positive but not statistically significant, and the corresponding values were 0.05 (−0.03 to 0.13; P = 0.21), 0.03 (−0.04 to 0.10; P = 0
Mosen, David M.; Feldstein, Adrianne C.; Perrin, Nancy; Rosales, A. Gabriela; Smith, David H.; Liles, Elizabeth G.; Schneider, Jennifer L.; Lafata, Jennifer E.; Myers, Ronald E.; Kositch, Michael; Hickey, Thomas; Glasgow, Russell E.
BACKGROUND Although colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis is improved by early diagnosis, screening rates remain low. OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of an automated telephone intervention on completion of fecal occult blood testing (FOBT). RESEARCH DESIGN Subjects In this randomized controlled trial conducted at Kaiser Permanente Northwest, a not-for-profit health maintenance organization, 5,905 eligible patients aged 51–80, at average risk for CRC and due for CRC screening, were randomly assigned to an automated telephone intervention (n=2,943) or usual care (UC; n=2,962). The intervention group received up to 3 one-minute automated telephone calls that provided a description and health benefits of FOBT. During the call, patients could request that an FOBT kit be mailed to their home. Those who requested but did not return the cards received an automated reminder call. Measures Cox proportional hazard method was used to determine the independent effect of automated telephone calls on completion of an FOBT, after adjusting for age, gender, and prior CRC screening. RESULTS By 6 months post call initiation, 22.5% in the intervention and 16.0% in UC had completed an FOBT. Those in the intervention group were significantly more likely to complete an FOBT (HR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.10–1.56) compared to UC. Older patients (aged 71–80 vs. aged 51–60) were also more likely to complete FOBT (HR = 1.48, 95% CI=1.07–2.04). CONCLUSIONS Automated telephone calls increased completion of FOBT. Further research is needed to evaluate automated telephone interventions among diverse populations and in other clinical settings. PMID:20508529
Aithala, Manjunatha; Das, Kusal Kanti
Introduction Under normal conditions, parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems interact to regulate the heart rate of about 70 beats per minute. Activation of sympathetic nervous system by emotional or physical stress increases heart rate and the force of heart beat. There are many factors which alter the heart rate. The chemical and mechanical stimulation of receptors can also cause change in blood pressure through autonomic nervous system. Exposure to dust also causes alteration in blood cell counts. This can be due to allergic reactions and inflammation which in turn evoked by dust entering the lungs. Objectives Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of occupational exposure on haematological and cardiovascular parameters of rice mill workers by analysing Blood Cell Counts, ECG and Blood Pressure. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was carried on 134 rice mill workers and an equal number of age and sex matched healthy individual. The blood cell counts were determined by automated cell counter machine, ECG was recorded by using ECG machine and Blood Pressure was measured by using mercurial sphygmomanometer. Results Neurtrophil, Eosinophil and Lymphocyte count among haematological parameters were significantly increased in exposed individuals. Marked variation was seen in ECG and Blood pressure among cardiovascular parameters of exposed individuals compared with control group. Conclusion The findings of our study clearly indicate that the rice mill workers are under high level of dust exposure which has deleterious effects on their blood and tissues. It is due to high oxidative stress. There are abnormalities seen in cardiovascular system. PMID:26674852
Alpert, Bruce S; Quinn, David; Gallick, David
Oscillometric devices for the non-invasive estimation of blood pressure (BP) have become the "clinical standard" because of training requirements for determination of BP by auscultation, cost, and the phasing-out/banning of mercury in many states and countries. Analysis of recent publications reveals a lack of understanding of the "meaning" of oscillometric blood pressure (OBP) measurements by authors, journal editors, and clinicians. We were invited to submit a review of OBP methodology written for clinicians. We hope that the material contained herein will clarify how clinicians should interpret OBP values for their patients. PMID:25492837
Mitchell, Patrick; Gregson, Barbara A; Piper, Ian; Citerio, Giuseppe; Mendelow, A David; Chambers, Iain R
Objective To determine the statistical characteristics of blood pressure (BP) readings from a large number of head‐injured patients. Methods The BrainIT group has collected high time‐resolution physiological and clinical data from head‐injured patients who require intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring. The statistical features of this dataset of BP measurements with time resolution of 1 min from 200 patients is examined. The distributions of BP measurements and their relationship with simultaneous ICP measurements are described. Results The distributions of mean, systolic and diastolic readings are close to normal with modest skewing towards higher values. There is a trend towards an increase in blood pressure with advancing age, but this is not significant. Simultaneous blood pressure and ICP values suggest a triphasic relationship with a BP rising at 0.28 mm Hg/mm Hg of ICP, for ICP up to 32 mm Hg, and 0.9 mm Hg/mm Hg of ICP for ICP from 33 to 55 mm Hg, and falling sharply with rising ICP for ICP >55 mm Hg. Conclusions Patients with head injury appear to have a near normal distribution of blood pressure readings that are skewed towards higher values. The relationship between BP and ICP may be triphasic. PMID:17138594
Rader, R. D.; Meehan, J. P.; Henriksen, J. K. C.
A miniature totally implantable FM/FM telemetry system has been developed to simultaneously measure blood pressure and blood flow, thus providing an appreciation of the hemodynamics of the circulation to the entire body or to a particular organ. Developed for work with animal subjects, the telemetry system's transmission time is controlled by an RF signal that permits an operating life of several months. Pressure is detected by a miniature intravascular transducer and flow is detected by an extravascular interferometric ultrasonic technique. Both pressure and flow are calibrated prior to implanting. The pressure calibration can be checked after the implanting by cannulation; flow calibration can be verified only at the end of the experiment by determining the voltage output from the implanted sensing system as a function of several measured flow rates. The utility of this device has been established by its use in investigating canine renal circulation during exercise, emotional encounters, administration of drugs, and application of accelerative forces.
Sukor, J Abdul; Redmond, S J; Chan, G S H; Lovell, N H
Accurate systolic and diastolic pressure estimation, using automated blood pressure measurement, is difficult to achieve when the transduced signals are contaminated with noise or interference, such as movement artifact. This study presents an algorithm for automated signal quality assessment in blood pressure measurement by determining the feasibility of accurately detecting systolic and diastolic pressures when corrupted with various levels of movement artifact. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared to a manually annotated reference scoring (RS). Based on visual representations and audible playback of Korotkoff sounds, the creation of the RS involved two experts identifying sections of the recorded sounds and annotating sections of noise contamination. The experts determined the systolic and diastolic pressure in 100 recorded Korotkoff sound recordings, using a simultaneous electrocardiograph as a reference signal. The recorded Korotkoff sounds were acquired from 25 healthy subjects (16 men and 9 women) with a total of four measurements per subject. Two of these measurements contained purposely induced noise artifact caused by subject movement. Morphological changes in the cuff pressure signal and the width of the Korotkoff pulse were extracted features which were believed to be correlated with the noise presence in the recorded Korotkoff sounds. Verification of reliable Korotkoff pulses was also performed using extracted features from the oscillometric waveform as recorded from the inflatable cuff. The time between an identified noise section and a verified Korotkoff pulse was the key feature used to determine the validity of possible systolic and diastolic pressures in noise contaminated Korotkoff sounds. The performance of the algorithm was assessed based on the ability to: verify if a signal was contaminated with any noise; the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of this noise classification, and the systolic and diastolic pressure
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Extravascular blood pressure transducer. 870.2850... blood pressure transducer. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood pressure transducer is a device used to measure blood pressure by changes in the mechanical or electrical properties of the device....
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Extravascular blood pressure transducer. 870.2850... blood pressure transducer. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood pressure transducer is a device used to measure blood pressure by changes in the mechanical or electrical properties of the device....
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Extravascular blood pressure transducer. 870.2850... blood pressure transducer. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood pressure transducer is a device used to measure blood pressure by changes in the mechanical or electrical properties of the device....
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extravascular blood pressure transducer. 870.2850... blood pressure transducer. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood pressure transducer is a device used to measure blood pressure by changes in the mechanical or electrical properties of the device....
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Extravascular blood pressure transducer. 870.2850... blood pressure transducer. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood pressure transducer is a device used to measure blood pressure by changes in the mechanical or electrical properties of the device....
Moss, Arthur J.
In infants the flush and Doppler methods of blood pressure measurement are usually used. The flush method measures mean pressure; the Doppler method, systolic and diastolic pressures. Normal flush values from 1 to 12 months of age do not exceed 100 mm of mercury; Doppler systolic levels do not exceed 113 mm of mercury. Data concerning normal limits for children and adolescents are conflicting. For practical purposes, a persistent pressure of 140 mm of mercury systolic or 90 mm of mercury diastolic in patients more than 10 years of age is indicative of hypertension. In those younger than 10 years, systolic pressure does not normally exceed 130 mm of mercury and diastolic pressure does not normally exceed 85 mm of mercury. Primary hypertension is relatively infrequent in pediatric patients and diagnosis should be made with deliberation and caution. Antihypertensive drug therapy is indicated only for severe hypertension and in selected cases of moderate hypertension. PMID:7245735
...) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes (red blood cells) and to detect antibodies to blood group antigens. (b) Classification. Class II (performance... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system....
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system....
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system....
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system....
Gladczak, A K; Shires, P K; Stevens, K A; Clymer, J W
The gold standard for blood pressure measurement in pigs is direct monitoring of arterial pressure, but this is an invasive technique adding complexity to surgical procedures. We sought to compare direct measurements obtained via catheterization to more easily-obtained indirect measurements using a sphygmomanometer with an automated cuff. Simultaneous measurements via an arterial pressure transducer and a child-size cuff were performed in pigs undergoing abdominal surgical procedures under normotensive conditions. Correlation between direct and indirect measurements was good (r=0.881). Systolic blood pressures for the cuff were higher than those for arterial measurements, while diastolic pressures were lower for the cuff than arterial. A Bland-Altman analysis confirmed this bias at the extremes of the normotensive range. For highly accurate readings, especially under stressed conditions, direct arterial catheterization remains the preferred method of measuring blood pressure. When monitoring surgical procedures, the more convenient blood pressure cuff can provide reliable measurements. PMID:23790711
Jerez, S J; Coviello, A
The purpose of this study was to evaluate alcohol consumption among adolescents from Tucuman, Argentina, and to determine its possible relationship with increased levels of blood pressure. Three hundred fifty-six students aged 13-18 included in the study were asked to answer questionnaires anonymously. Two blood pressures measures were then taken. Differences between both sexes were found in quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption. Enjoyment was determined to be the main reason for drinking. There was an association between frequency and alcohol-related problems, and smoking habits. There were also differences in blood pressure among males and females. A weak, but significant, relationship between quantity/frequency index and diastolic blood pressure was found. A greater prevalence of hypertension in male heavy drinkers was noted as well. Because this addiction implies multiple social problems and it also accounts for a hypertension risk factor, the importance of aiming at developing prevention strategies for alcohol abuse among adolescents is stressed. PMID:9650629
Farkas, A. J.
System is described that employs solid state circuitry to transmit visual display of patient's blood pressure. Response of sphygmomanometer cuff and microphone provide input signals. Signals and their amplitudes, from turn-on time to turn-off time, are continuously fed to data transmitter which transmits to display device.
Cathorall, Michelle L.; Xin, Huaibo; Peachey, Andrew; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Schulz, Mark; Aronson, Robert
Purpose: To examine the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage accounts for variation in blood pressure. Methods: Demographic, biometric, and self-reported data from 19,261 health screenings were used. Addresses of participants were geocoded and located within census block groups (n = 14,510, 75.3%). Three hierarchical linear models were…
... Karanja N, Lin PH; DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)diet. DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med . 2001 Jan 4;344( ...
... Español You Are Here: Home → Latest Health News → Article URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158878.html Could Spuds Be Bad for Blood Pressure? Eating potatoes 4 or more ...
Hodgkinson, James A; Tucker, Katherine L; Martin, Una; Beesley, Louise; McManus, Richard J
Measurement of ambulatory blood pressure is recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines to confirm the diagnosis of hypertension in the UK. This article describes the use of ambulatory devices, and discusses the benefits and disadvantages of their use in clinical practice. PMID:26551492
Zhu, Yongjian; Bo, Yacong; Wang, Xi; Lu, Wenjie; Wang, Xule; Han, Zhanying; Qiu, Chunguang
Abstract The findings of clinical studies concerning the association between anthocyanins supplementation and blood pressure (BP) are inconsistent. In order to provide a more precise estimate of the overall effect of anthocyanins on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), we conducted a meta-analysis of clinical trials about anthocyanins supplementation and BP. PubMed, Web of Science, Wanfang Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (until October 2015) were searched to identify potential studies with information on anthocyanins extract supplementation and arterial BP. The weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used as a summary statistic. Net changes in SBP and DBP between anthocyanins supplementation and placebo groups were calculated by subtracting the values at end of follow-up from those at baseline. Meta regression was used to explore the potential moderators of effect size. The publication bias was assessed using Begger's Funnel plots and Egger's tests; P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Finally, 6 clinical studies with 472 participants for the effect of anthocyanins consumption on BP were included in the present meta-analysis. There is no significant effect on either SBP (WMD: 1.15 mm Hg, 95% CI: −3.17 to 5.47, I2 = 56%) or DBP (WMD: 1.06 mm Hg, 95% CI: −0.71 to 2.83, I2 = 0%) following supplementation with anthocyanins. In summary, results from this meta-analysis do not favor any clinical efficacy of supplementation with anthocyanins in improving blood pressure. Further well-designed large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with long follow-up period are needed to verify the association of anthocyanins supplementation and blood pressure. PMID:27082604
Barbé, K.; Van Moer, W.; Lauwers, L.
In this paper, the oscillometric waveform measured by automatic non-invasive blood pressure meters (NIBP) is analyzed by transforming the data from the time domain to the frequency domain. The signal's spectrum of the oscillometric waveform is in current literature badly understood or explored. The only known link between the oscillometric waveform and the blood pressure is the maximum of the oscillometry's envelope equalling the mean arterial pressure (MAP). This link is established under the assumption that the oscillometry is an AM-signal. Unfortunately, computing the MAP is difficult in practice due to the non-sinusoidal nature of the actual measured signals. In this paper, we construct the best AM-signal approximation of the oscillometry and explore its use to compute the MAP.
Barnett, G O; Winickoff, R N; Morgan, M M; Zielstorff, R D
An automated surveillance system utilizing a computer-based medical record system (COSTAR) was designed to improve the follow-up of patients with newly identified elevated diastolic blood pressure. A population of patients was selected where, in the 6-month period following the initial measurement of an elevated diastolic blood pressure, there were fewer than two visits during which blood pressure was recorded. In a randomized controlled clinical trial, this poor follow-up population was divided into two groups, with computer-generated reminders being automatically generated for only patients in the experimental group. Follow-up was significantly improved in the group receiving the reminders, both in terms of rate of follow-up attempted or achieved by the responsible physician and in the repeated recording of blood pressure. We conclude that a computer-based reminder system improves follow-up of newly discovered elevation in diastolic blood pressure. PMID:6341724
He, Zheng; Nguyen, Christine T. O.; Armitage, James A.; Vingrys, Algis J.; Bui, Bang V.
Primary open angle glaucoma affects more than 67 million people. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a risk factor for glaucoma and may reduce nutrient availability by decreasing ocular perfusion pressure (OPP). An interaction between arterial blood pressure and IOP determines OPP; but the exact contribution that these factors have for retinal function is not fully understood. Here we sought to determine how acute modifications of arterial pressure will affect the susceptibility of neuronal function and blood flow to IOP challenge. Anaesthetized (ketamine:xylazine) Long-Evan rats with low (∼60 mmHg, sodium nitroprusside infusion), moderate (∼100 mmHg, saline), or high levels (∼160 mmHg, angiotensin II) of mean arterial pressure (MAP, n = 5–10 per group) were subjected to IOP challenge (10–120 mmHg, 5 mmHg steps every 3 minutes). Electroretinograms were measured at each IOP step to assess bipolar cell (b-wave) and inner retinal function (scotopic threshold response or STR). Ocular blood flow was measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry in groups with similar MAP level and the same IOP challenge protocol. Both b-wave and STR amplitudes decreased with IOP elevation. Retinal function was less susceptible to IOP challenge when MAP was high, whereas the converse was true for low MAP. Consistent with the effects on retinal function, higher IOP was needed to attenuated ocular blood flow in animals with higher MAP. The susceptibility of retinal function to IOP challenge can be ameliorated by acute high BP, and exacerbated by low BP. This is partially mediated by modifications in ocular blood flow. PMID:22359566
Kiers, H D; Hofstra, J M; Wetzels, J F M
Mean arterial pressure (MAP) is often used as an index of overall blood pressure. In recent years, the use of automated oscillometric blood pressure measurement devices is increasing. These devices directly measure and display MAP; however, MAP is often calculated from systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) as displayed by the device. In this study we have analysed measured and calculated MAP, obtained by two different oscillometric BP measurement devices in two different patient cohorts. The first cohort included 242 healthy subjects (male 40.5%, 50+/-13 years). BP measurements were performed with a Welch Allyn 5300P device. We found a small but significant difference between measured MAP and calculated MAP (MAP(m-c:) -1.8 mmHg, range -5.7 to 12.9 mmHg, p < 0.001). MAP(m-c) showed a significant, but weak correlation with DBP and SBP. The second cohort included included 134 patients with glomerular diseases (male 63%, 50+/14 years). BP measurements were performed with a Dinamap 487210 device. In this group we also observed a small difference between measured MAP and calculated MAP (+1.7 mmHg, range -15.3 to 28.2 mmHg, p<0.001). MAP (m-c) correlated with age, all blood pressure indices and heart rate. An overall analysis showed that age, SBP, DBP, and type of device are all independently related to MAP (m-c). There is a significant difference between measured and calculated MAP. The difference is small on average; however, this MAP(m-c) can be large in the individual patient. Moreover, there are differences of reported MAP between devices. Our data suggest that calculated and measured MAP cannot be used interchangeably. PMID:19075313
Orchard, T J; Rodgers, M; Hedley, A J; Mitchell, J R
A total of 625 adolescents from three general practices participated in a cross-sectional study of cardiovascular disease risk factors. The girls had higher serum total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations than the boys, while the boys had higher serum triglyceride concentrations. Smoking (equally prevalent in both sexes) was associated with lower HDL cholesterol concentrations, particularly in boys, while in girls use of oral contraceptives was associated with higher total cholesterol and lower HDL cholesterol concentrations showed striking associations with age, height, and sexual maturation in boys, but not in girls. Triglyceride concentrations were associated with age in boys. Systolic blood pressure and serum urate concentrations were higher in boys and rose steeply with age, but no age association was seen for urate concentrations or systolic blood pressure in girls or for diastolic pressures in either sex. Girls, however, had higher diastolic pressures. There was a strong association between urate concentration and the other cardiovascular disease risk factors, especially HDL cholesterol. Adolescence is associated with considerable changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors, and there are striking sex differences in these changes. PMID:6968612
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...
Kalliokoski, Otto; Sørensen, Dorte B; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas S P
Facial vein (cheek blood) and caudal vein (tail blood) phlebotomy are two commonly used techniques for obtaining blood samples from laboratory mice, while automated blood sampling through a permanent catheter is a relatively new technique in mice. The present study compared physiological parameters, glucocorticoid dynamics as well as the behavior of mice sampled repeatedly for 24 h by cheek blood, tail blood or automated blood sampling from the carotid artery. Mice subjected to cheek blood sampling lost significantly more body weight, had elevated levels of plasma corticosterone, excreted more fecal corticosterone metabolites, and expressed more anxious behavior than did the mice of the other groups. Plasma corticosterone levels of mice subjected to tail blood sampling were also elevated, although less significantly. Mice subjected to automated blood sampling were less affected with regard to the parameters measured, and expressed less anxious behavior. We conclude that repeated blood sampling by automated blood sampling and from the tail vein is less stressful than cheek blood sampling. The choice between automated blood sampling and tail blood sampling should be based on the study requirements, the resources of the laboratory and skills of the staff. PMID:24958546
Royal-Thomas, Tamika; McGee, Daniel; Sinha, Debajyoti; Osmond, Clive; Forrester, Terrence
This article looks at the association of maternal blood pressure with the blood pressure of the offspring from birth to childhood. The Barker hypothesis states that maternal and "in utero" attributes during pregnancy affect a child's cardiovascular health throughout life. We present an analysis of a unique dataset that consists of three distinct developmental processes: maternal cardiovascular health during pregnancy; fetal development; and child's cardiovascular health from birth to 14 years. This study explored whether a mother's blood pressure reading in pregnancy predicts fetal development and determines if this in turn is related to the future cardiovascular health of the child. This article uses data that have been collected prospectively from a Jamaican cohort which involves the following three developmental processes: (1) maternal cardiovascular health during pregnancy which is the blood pressure and anthropometric measurements at seven time-points on the mother during pregnancy; (2) fetal development which consists of ultrasound measurements of the fetus taken at six time-points during pregnancy; and (3) child's cardiovascular health which consists of the child's blood pressure measurements at 24 time-points from birth to 14 years. The inter-relationship of these three processes was examined using linear mixed effects models. Our analyses indicated that attributes later in childhood development, such as child's weight, child's baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP), age and sex, predict the future cardiovascular health of children. The results also indicated that maternal attributes in pregnancy, such as mother's baseline SBP and SBP change, predicted significantly child's SBP over time. PMID:25178900
Postprandial hypotension, defined as a fall in systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 20 mmHg or greater within 2 hours after a meal, is a risk factor for stroke, coronary events and mortality. The clinical suspicion is typically raised by episodes of postprandial syncope or falls, whereas asymptomatic postprandial hypotension is mostly neglected. The magnitude of the postprandial fall in SBP, as detected by 24-hour recording in apparently healthy middle-aged to elderly subjects, was proportional to the severity of the silent cerebrovascular damage. Postprandial hypotension can also be detected by self-measured blood pressure before and within 2 hours after meals using automatic devices. The review highlights the value of home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) as a screening test for asymptomatic postprandial hypotension in hypertensive patients. Using a HBPM protocol that included duplicated blood pressure measurements before and after three consecutive lunches, we detected unsuspected postprandial hypotension in 27.4% of the 230 hypertensive patients screened. The prevalence of postprandial hypotension was 13.2% in controlled and 42.2% in uncontrolled hypertensive patients (p < 0.001), raising the dilemma of further lowering blood pressure in the setting of postprandial hypotension. The inclusion of preprandial and postprandial measurements in the protocol of HBPM is useful to identify hypertensive patients with postprandial hypotension and may guide adjustments in antihypertensive treatment according to postprandial blood pressure. PMID:26187907
Lancaster, Carolyn; And Others
Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these four learning modules to teach dental hygiene students, nursing students, and the general public how to measure blood pressure. The first module, "Can You Take a Blood Pressure?" by Carolyn Lancaster, defines blood pressure, distinguishes between systolic and diastolic pressure and lists the…
Hayashi, Satoru; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Shirai, Atsushi; Maruyama, Masaru
In this paper, a simulation model based on the partially pressurized collapsible tube model for reproducing noninvasive blood pressure measurement is presented. The model consists of a collapsible tube, which models the pressurized part of the artery, rigid pipes connected to the collapsible tube, which model proximal and distal region far from the pressurized part, and the Windkessel model, which represents the capacitance and the resistance of the distal part of the circulation. The blood flow is simplified to a one-dimensional system. Collapse and expansion of the tube is represented by the change in the cross-sectional area of the tube considering the force balance acting on the tube membrane in the direction normal to the tube axis. They are solved using the Runge-Kutta method. This simple model can easily reproduce the oscillation of inner fluid and corresponding tube collapse typical for the Korotkoff sounds generated by the cuff pressure. The numerical result is compared with the experiment and shows good agreement. PMID:16995754
Zoppi, M; Hoigné, R; Keller, M F; Streit, F; Hess, T
A fall in systolic blood pressure without other symptoms of anaphylactic shock has been described following the administration of drugs containing dipyrone. This adverse reaction was first observed in 4 patients by the same team in 1972-1973. Ten further cases with a fall in systolic blood pressure by at least 20 mm Hg occurring within minutes to 6 hours after intravenous administration of dipyrone are presented in this paper. In each of them this adverse reaction was considered to be probable or even definite. During the years 1976-1981 drug exposure was registered for all 15 678 patients of the two medical divisions of Comprehensive Hospital Drug Monitoring Berne. This adverse reaction was found in 7, representing 0.34% of the 2053 patients who received intravenous treatment with a dipyrone preparation. PMID:6658424
Banach, Maciej; Aronow, Wilbert S; Serban, Corina; Sahabkar, Amirhossein; Rysz, Jacek; Voroneanu, Luminita; Covic, Adrian
This paper is an effort to review all the most important studies and guidelines in the topics of lipid, blood pressure and kidney published in 2014. Irrespective of advances, the options for improving simultaneous hypercholesterolemia and hypertension management (as well as its complication - chronic kidney disease) remain a problem. Recommending hypolidemic, hypotensive and kidney disease drugs to obtain therapy targets in cardiovascular, diabetic, elderly and kidney disease (=high risk) patients might strengthen risk factor control, improve compliance and the therapy efficacy, and in the consequence reduce the risk of cardiovascular events and mortality rate. That is why the authors have decided to summary and discuss the recent scientific achievements in the field of lipid, blood pressure and kidney. PMID:25819754
Case of diabetes mellitus associated with essential hypertension are mostly type 2 diabetes mellitus(NIDDM) in elderly patients. In the JNC VI and JSH 2004, it is recommended that the therapeutic target blood pressure level should be lower then 130/80 mmHg in hypertension complicated with diabetes mellitus, and this target has recently obtained wide acceptance. On the other hand, the target blood pressure in elderly is recommended below 140/90 mmHg. Accordingly, diabetes mellitus in elderly hypertensives should be treated similarly as in the young and middle-aged. Because ACE inhibitors/ARBs or Ca blockers increase insulin sensitivity, these drugs should be used as the first choice in cases of elderly hypertensive patients complicated with diabetes mellitus. PMID:16408451
Lonjaret, Laurent; Lairez, Olivier; Minville, Vincent; Geeraerts, Thomas
Perioperative blood pressure management is a key factor of patient care for anesthetists, as perioperative hemodynamic instability is associated with cardiovascular complications. Hypertension is an independent predictive factor of cardiac adverse events in noncardiac surgery. Intraoperative hypotension is one of the most encountered factors associated with death related to anesthesia. In the preoperative setting, the majority of antihypertensive medications should be continued until surgery. Only renin-angiotensin system antagonists may be stopped. Hypertension, especially in the case of mild to moderate hypertension, is not a cause for delaying surgery. During the intraoperative period, anesthesia leads to hypotension. Hypotension episodes should be promptly treated by intravenous vasopressors, and according to their etiology. In the postoperative setting, hypertension predominates. Continuation of antihypertensive medications and postoperative care may be insufficient. In these cases, intravenous antihypertensive treatments are used to control blood pressure elevation. PMID:25278775
Drawz, Paul E.; Abdalla, Mohamed; Rahman, Mahboob
Blood pressure has traditionally been measured in the clinic setting using the auscultory method and a mercury sphygmomanometer. Technological advances have led to improvements in measuring clinic blood pressure and allowed for measuring blood pressures outside the clinic. This review outlines various methods for evaluating blood pressure and the clinical utility of each type of measurement. Home blood pressures and 24 hour ambulatory blood pressures have improved our ability to evaluate risk for target organ damage and hypertension related morbidity and mortality. Measuring home blood pressures may lead to more active participation in health care by patients and has the potential to improve blood pressure control. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring enables the measuring nighttime blood pressures and diurnal changes, which may be the most accurate predictors of risk associated with elevated blood pressure. Additionally, reducing nighttime blood pressure is feasible and may be an important component of effective antihypertensive therapy. Finally, estimating central aortic pressures and pulse wave velocity are two of the newer methods for assessing blood pressure and hypertension related target organ damage. PMID:22521624
McNett, Molly; Koren, Jay
Blood pressure (BP) management is essential in neurocritical care settings to ensure adequate cerebral perfusion and prevent secondary brain injury. Despite consensus on the importance of BP monitoring, significant practice variations persist regarding optimal methods for monitoring and treatment of BP values among patients with neurologic injuries. This article provides a summary of research investigating various approaches for BP management in neurocritical care. Evidence-based recommendations, areas for future research, and current technological advancements for BP management are discussed. PMID:26873756
Marrone, A.; Polosa, A. D.; Scioscia, G.; Stramaglia, S.; Zenzola, A.
We describe the multiresolution wavelet analysis of blood pressure waves in vasovagal syncope-affected patients compared with those in healthy people, using Haar and Gaussian bases. A comparison between scale-dependent and scale-independent measures discriminating the two classes of subjects is made. What emerges is a sort of equivalence between these two methodological approaches, that is, both methods reach the same statistical significance of separation between the two classes.
Savica, Vincenzo; Bellinghieri, Guido; Kopple, Joel D
The incidence and severity of hypertension are affected by nutritional status and intake of many nutrients. Excessive energy intake and obesity are major causes of hypertension. Obesity is associated with increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems, possibly other mineralcorticoid activity, insulin resistance, salt-sensitive hypertension and excess salt intake, and reduced kidney function. High sodium chloride intake strongly predisposes to hypertension. Increased alcohol consumption may acutely elevate blood pressure. High intakes of potassium, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and protein, along with exercise and possibly vitamin D, may reduce blood pressure. Less-conclusive studies suggest that amino acids, tea, green coffee bean extract, dark chocolate, and foods high in nitrates may reduce blood pressure. Short-term studies indicate that specialized diets may prevent or ameliorate mild hypertension; most notable are the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, which is high in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products, and the DASH low-sodium diet. Long-term compliance to these diets remains a major concern. PMID:20645853
Hatton, D.C.; Edgar, S.; McCarron, D.A. )
Epidemiologists have identified alcohol as a risk factor in hypertension. Attempts to increase blood pressure in rats with chronic alcohol ingestion have met with mixed results. Some investigators have reported increases in blood pressure while others have reported decreases. Most investigators have given alcohol in the drinking water which produced differences in food intake across groups. To control for food intake, Wister rats were simultaneously pair fed a liquid diet with either ethanol as 35% of calories or a control diet using ARF/Israel pair-feeding devices. At 5 weeks of age, animals on ethanol diets had lower systolic blood pressure than control animals (145 (n-19) vs. 121 (n-19) mmHg). There was no difference in weight between ethanol and control animals. The same pattern of results was apparent at 7 weeks (143 (n-13) vs. 119 (n-13) mmHg) and 9 weeks (147 (n-7) vs. 124 (n-7)). The data indicate that ethanol produces hypotension in rats when food intake is controlled.
Do, Diana V; Wang, Xue; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Marrone, Michael; Sleilati, Gina; Hawkins, Barbara S; Frank, Robert N
Background Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes and a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness. Research has established the importance of blood glucose control to prevent development and progression of the ocular complications of diabetes. Simultaneous blood pressure control has been advocated for the same purpose, but findings reported from individual studies have supported varying conclusions regarding the ocular benefit of interventions on blood pressure. Objectives The primary aim of this review was to summarize the existing evidence regarding the effect of interventions to control or reduce blood pressure levels among diabetics on incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy, preservation of visual acuity, adverse events, quality of life, and costs. A secondary aim was to compare classes of anti-hypertensive medications with respect to the same outcomes. Search methods We searched a number of electronic databases including CENTRAL as well as ongoing trial registries. We last searched the electronic databases on 25 April 2014. We also reviewed reference lists of review articles and trial reports selected for inclusion. In addition, we contacted investigators of trials with potentially pertinent data. Selection criteria We included in this review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which either type 1 or type 2 diabetic participants, with or without hypertension, were assigned randomly to intense versus less intense blood pressure control, to blood pressure control versus usual care or no intervention on blood pressure, or to different classes of anti-hypertensive agents versus placebo. Data collection and analysis Pairs of review authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts from electronic and manual searches and the full text of any document that appeared to be relevant. We assessed included trials independently for risk of bias with respect to outcomes reported in this review. We extracted data regarding trial
Viera, Anthony J.; Shimbo, Daichi
Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring offers the ability to collect blood pressure readings several times an hour across a 24-hour period. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring facilitates the identification of white-coat hypertension, the phenomenon whereby certain individuals who are not on antihypertensive medication show elevated blood pressure in a clinical setting but show non-elevated blood pressure averages when assessed by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Additionally, readings can be segmented into time windows of particular interest, e.g., mean daytime and nighttime values. During sleep, blood pressure typically decreases, or dips, such that mean sleep blood pressure is lower than mean awake blood pressure. A non-dipping pattern and nocturnal hypertension are strongly associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Approximately 70% of individuals dip ≥10% at night, while 30% have non-dipping patterns, when blood pressure remains similar to daytime average, or occasionally rises above daytime average. The various blood pressure categorizations afforded by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring are valuable for clinical management of high blood pressure since they increase accuracy for diagnosis and the prediction of cardiovascular risk. PMID:25107387
Eisner, Alvin; Samples, John R.
The study had two main purposes: (1) to determine whether the foveal visual sensitivities of people treated for high blood pressure (vascular hypertension) differ from the sensitivities of people who have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure and (2) to understand how visual adaptation is related to standard measures of systemic cardiovascular function. Two groups of middle-aged subjects-hypertensive and normotensive-were examined with a series of test/background stimulus combinations. All subjects met rigorous inclusion criteria for excellent ocular health. Although the visual sensitivities of the two subject groups overlapped extensively, the age-related rate of sensitivity loss was, for some measures, greater for the hypertensive subjects, possibly because of adaptation differences between the two groups. Overall, the degree of steady-state sensitivity loss resulting from an increase of background illuminance (for 580-nm backgrounds) was slightly less for the hypertensive subjects. Among normotensive subjects, the ability of a bright (3.8-log-td), long-wavelength (640-nm) adapting background to selectively suppress the flicker response of long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones was related inversely to the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure to heart rate. The degree of selective suppression was also related to heart rate alone, and there was evidence that short-term changes of cardiovascular response were important. The results suggest that (1) vascular hypertension, or possibly its treatment, subtly affects visual function even in the absence of eye disease and (2) changes in blood flow affect retinal light-adaptation processes involved in the selective suppression of the flicker response from LWS cones caused by bright, long-wavelength backgrounds.
Toddenroth, Dennis; Ganslandt, Thomas; Drescher, Caroline; Weith, Thomas; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Schuettler, Juergen; Muenster, Tino
Automated perioperative measurements such as cardiovascular monitoring data are commonly compared to established upper and lower thresholds, but could also allow for more complex interpretations. Analyzing such time series in extensive electronic medical records for research purposes may itself require customized automation, so we developed a set of algorithms for quantifying different aspects of temporal fluctuations. We implemented conventional measures of dispersion, summaries of absolute gradients between successive values, and Poincaré plots. We aggregated the severity and duration of hypotensive episodes by calculating the average area under different mean arterial pressure (MAP) thresholds. We applied these methods to 30,452 de-identified MAP series, and analyzed the similarity between alternative indices via hierarchical clustering. To explore the potential utility of these propositional metrics, we computed their statistical association with presumed complications due to cardiovascular instability. We observed that hierarchical clustering reliably segregated features that had been designed to quantify dissimilar aspects. Summaries of temporary hypotension turned out to be significantly increased among patient subgroups with subsequent signs of a complicated recovery. These associations were even stronger for measures that were specifically geared to capturing short-term MAP variability. These observations suggest the potential capability of our proposed algorithms for quantifying heterogeneous aspects of short-term MAP fluctuations. Future research might also target a wider selection of outcomes and other attributes that may be subject to intraoperative variability. PMID:27577440
... html Wearable Monitor Helps Spot 'Masked' High Blood Pressure Black people with undetected problem twice as likely ... MONDAY, May 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Constant blood pressure monitoring could help doctors spot black people with " ...
What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... problems? What medicines am I taking to treat high blood pressure? Do they have any side effects? What should ...
... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Home Blood Pressure: Make Control Your Goal Infographic Recommend on Facebook ... Copy the code below to use the Blood Pressure Infographic on your web page or social media ...
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159580.html Blood Pressure Problems During Pregnancy, Heart Trouble Later? Spotting risk ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women who have blood pressure in the high-normal range may have an ...
... Order Free Materials Today Orthostatic Hypotension (Low Blood Pressure) Callers to the Parkinson’s Disease Foundation (PDF) National ... known as orthostatic hypotension (OH), or low blood pressure. If you have experienced it, you may already ...
Podell, Richard N.
Some physicians wonder if high blood pressure can be controlled without the use of drugs and their potential side effects. Current findings concerning nutrition and high blood pressure are presented. (RM)
Lehman, Li-wei H.; Saeed, Mohammed; Talmor, Daniel; Mark, Roger; Malhotra, Atul
Objective Minimal clinical research has investigated the significance of different blood pressure monitoring techniques in the ICU and whether systolic vs. mean blood pressures should be targeted in therapeutic protocols and in defining clinical study cohorts. The objectives of this study are to compare real-world invasive arterial blood pressure with noninvasive blood pressure, and to determine if differences between the two techniques have clinical implications. Design We conducted a retrospective study comparing invasive arterial blood pressure and noninvasive blood pressure measurements using a large ICU database. We performed pairwise comparison between concurrent measures of invasive arterial blood pressure and noninvasive blood pressure. We studied the association of systolic and mean invasive arterial blood pressure and noninvasive blood pressure with acute kidney injury, and with ICU mortality. Setting Adult intensive care units at a tertiary care hospital. Patients Adult patients admitted to intensive care units between 2001 and 2007. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Pairwise analysis of 27,022 simultaneously measured invasive arterial blood pressure/noninvasive blood pressure pairs indicated that noninvasive blood pressure overestimated systolic invasive arterial blood pressure during hypotension. Analysis of acute kidney injury and ICU mortality involved 1,633 and 4,957 patients, respectively. Our results indicated that hypotensive systolic noninvasive blood pressure readings were associated with a higher acute kidney injury prevalence (p = 0.008) and ICU mortality (p < 0.001) than systolic invasive arterial blood pressure in the same range (≤70 mm Hg). Noninvasive blood pressure and invasive arterial blood pressure mean arterial pressures showed better agreement; acute kidney injury prevalence (p = 0.28) and ICU mortality (p = 0.76) associated with hypotensive mean arterial pressure readings (≤60 mm Hg) were independent of
Banach, Maciej; Serban, Corina; Aronow, Wilbert S; Rysz, Jacek; Dragan, Simona; Lerma, Edgar V; Apetrii, Mugurel; Covic, Adrian
The year 2013 proved to be very exciting as far as landmark trials and new guidelines in the field of lipid disorders, blood pressure and kidney diseases. Among these are the International Atherosclerosis Society Global Recommendations for the Management of Dyslipidemia, European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension, American Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Recommendations, the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes Clinical Practice Guidelines for Managing Dyslipidemias in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Patients, the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults, the Joint National Committee Expert Panel (JNC 8) Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults, the American Society of Hypertension/International Society of Hypertension Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension in the Community, the American College of Physicians Clinical Practice Guideline on Screening, Monitoring, and Treatment of Stage 1-3 CKD and many important trials presented among others during the ESC Annual Congress in Amsterdam and the American Society of Nephrology Annual Meeting--Kidney Week in Atlanta, GA. The paper is an attempt to summarize the most important events and reports in the mentioned areas in the passing year. PMID:24573394
Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Assumpta; Sobrino, Javier; Coca, Antonio; Riera, Antoni; Pujol, Ramón
The objective of the study is to investigate ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in a sample of Spanish nonagenarians. We also analyzed the misdiagnosis of hypertension and investigated blood pressure (BP) control in treated hypertensive nonagenarians. Twenty-four-hour ABPM was undertaken in a group of 42 nonagenarians. The 24-h mean, daytime BP, nighttime BP and heart rate (HR) were extracted from the ABPM. Sociodemographic data, the ability to perform basic daily activities, measured by the Barthel index (BI) or instrumental activities revealed by the Lawton and Brody index (LI), cognition, and comorbidity were evaluated. Thirty-one subjects were receiving antihypertensive drug treatment. Twenty-four hour, daytime and sleeping pressures averaged 130/65, 131/68 and 128/63mmHg, respectively. Seventeen (40.5%) of the 42 patients had a daytime BP of 135/85 or higher. In terms of the BP pattern, 8 (19%) subjects were dippers, 19 (45%) non-dippers, and 15 (36%) were risers. Five (45.46%) out of 11 patients with no evidence of hypertension (normotensive patients) had a daytime BP of 135/85 or higher. The mean daytime BP was 135/85 or higher in 12 (38.7%) out of 31 nonagenarians who had previously received therapy for hypertension. In, conclusion a high prevalence of hypertension, misdiagnosis and inadequate BP control was found in nonagenarians treated for hypertension. PMID:18423650
Elias, Merrill F; Dore, Gregory A; Davey, Adam; Robbins, Michael A; Elias, Penelope K
We examined the hypothesis that lowered cognitive performance plays a role in the relation between elevated blood pressure and physical disability in performing basic physical tasks. A community-based sample (N=1025) free from stroke and dementia (mean age: 61.1 years; SD: 13.0 years; 59.8% women) was used. Using path analysis, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (predictor variable) measured over multiple longitudinal examinations were averaged and related to multiple measures of cognition (intermediate variable) and physical ability (PA; outcome variable) measured at wave 6 of the Maine-Syracuse Study. PA was indexed by time required to execute standing, walking, and turning tests. A best-fit path model including blood pressure and multiple demographic and cardiovascular disease covariates was used. Paths from systolic blood pressure to global performance, verbal memory, and abstract reasoning (Similarities test) were significant (P<0.05), as were paths from diastolic blood pressure to global performance, executive functioning, visual spatial organization/memory, verbal memory, working memory, and abstract reasoning. Regardless of the blood pressure predictor, lower cognitive performance (intermediate variable) was related to lower PA (outcome) in the path from blood pressure to PA. The direct path from blood pressure to PA was significant only for systolic blood pressure. Cognitive performance mediates between blood pressure and PA. As compared with systolic blood pressure, more domains of cognitive functioning intervene between diastolic blood pressure and PA. PMID:20404216
... Resources Stroke More Heart and Artery Damage and High Blood Pressure Updated:Oct 22,2015 There are several harmful ... content was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. 870.1130 Section 870.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. (a) Identification. A noninvasive blood pressure...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a...
Hahn, William K.; And Others
This report presents blood pressure norms for 18- to 24-year-old White college students, as well as data on the prevalence of high blood pressure for this group. Results were obtained from voluntary blood pressure screening of 1,660 men and 953 women. (IAH)
Odutayo, Ayodele; Rahimi, Kazem; Hsiao, Allan J; Emdin, Connor A
In the Eighth Joint National Committee guideline on hypertension, the threshold for the initiation of blood pressure-lowering treatment for elderly adults (≥60 years) without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus was raised from 140/90 mm Hg to 150/90 mm Hg. However, the committee was not unanimous in this decision, particularly because a large proportion of adults ≥60 years may be at high cardiovascular risk. On the basis of Eighth Joint National Committee guideline, we sought to determine the absolute 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease among these adults through analyzing the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2012). The primary outcome measure was the proportion of adults who were at ≥20% predicted absolute cardiovascular risk and above goals for the Seventh Joint National Committee guideline but reclassified as at target under the Eighth Joint National Committee guideline (reclassified). The Framingham General Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score was used. From 2005 to 2012, the surveys included 12 963 adults aged 30 to 74 years with blood pressure measurements, of which 914 were reclassified based on the guideline. Among individuals reclassified as not in need of additional treatment, the proportion of adults 60 to 74 years without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus at ≥20% absolute risk was 44.8%. This corresponds to 0.8 million adults. The proportion at high cardiovascular risk remained sizable among adults who were not receiving blood pressure-lowering treatment. Taken together, a sizable proportion of reclassified adults 60 to 74 years without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus was at ≥20% absolute cardiovascular risk. PMID:26056340
Weiss, S.T.; Munoz, A.; Stein, A.; Sparrow, D.; Speizer, F.E.
The relationship of lead exposure to blood pressure has been examined in a longitudinal study of a cohort of 89 Boston, Massachusetts, policemen. At the baseline examination, subjects had a blood lead determination and three consecutive blood pressure measurements. Triplicate blood pressure measurements were also taken at years 3, 4, and 5. Multivariate analysis revealed that, after correction for previous systolic blood pressure, body mass index, age, and smoking, a high level of blood lead was a significant predictor of subsequent elevation of systolic pressure. Bootstrap simulations of these models provided supporting evidence for the observed associations. These data suggest that lead exposure can significantly affect systolic pressure.
Weiss, S T; Muñoz, A; Stein, A; Sparrow, D; Speizer, F E
The relationship of lead exposure to blood pressure has been examined in a longitudinal study of a cohort of 89 Boston, Massachusetts, policemen. At the baseline examination, subjects had a blood lead determination and three consecutive blood pressure measurements. Triplicate blood pressure measurements were also taken at years 3, 4, and 5. Multivariate analysis revealed that, after correction for previous systolic blood pressure, body mass index, age, and smoking, a high level of blood lead was a significant predictor of subsequent elevation of systolic pressure. Bootstrap simulations of these models provided supporting evidence for the observed associations. These data suggest that lead exposure can significantly affect systolic pressure. PMID:3485920
Durable mechanical support has become widely available for end stage heart failure as destination therapy and as bridge to transplantation. The accurate measurement of blood pressure (BP) as well as the recognition and management of hypertension in patients with continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-VADs) is an essential component of optimal clinical care. Strategies for the control of BP in CF-VAD patients are increasingly important as there is an evolving understanding of the connection between hypertension, pump output, and adverse outcomes. As clinical experience grows, optimal BP targets, as well as methods to measure BP in CF-VAD patients have been further defined. PMID:26793332
Levine, H.; Halberg, F.
Self-measurements made by a 55-year-old physician with mild to moderate hypertension of ten years' duration are considered. The physician had been in excellent health until age 45 when sustained elevation of blood pressure up to 180/100 mmHg and a slight aortic diastolic murmur were noted. On the basis of the investigation it is suggested that physical and mental performance measures provide an objective basis for assessing the desirability of a given physiological change. Such studies will have to be complemented by a search for long-term effects.
Mamo, H.L.; Meric, P.C.; Ponsin, J.C.; Rey, A.C.; Luft, A.G.; Seylaz, J.A.
A xenon-133 method was used to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) removal in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Preliminary results suggested that shunting should be performed on patients whose CBF increased after CSF removal. There was a significant increase in CBF in patients with NPH, which was confirmed by the favorable outcome of 88% of patients shunted. The majority of patients with senile and presenile dementia showed a decrease or no change in CBF after CSF removal. It is suggested that although changes in CBF and clinical symptoms of NPH may have the same cause, i.e., changes in the cerebral intraparenchymal pressure, there is no simple direct relation between these two events. The mechanism underlying the loss of autoregulation observed in NPH is also discussed.
Weaver, Charles S.
Microprocessor circuits and a computer algorithm for automatically measuring blood pressure during ambulatory monitoring and exercise stress testing have been under development at SRI International. A system that records ECG, Korotkov sound, and arm cuff pressure for off-line calculation of blood pressure has been delivered to NASA, and an LSLE physiological monitoring system that performs the algorithm calculations in real-time is being constructed. The algorithm measures the time between the R-wave peaks and the corresponding Korotkov sound on-set (RK-interval). Since the curve of RK-interval versus cuff pressure during deflation is predictable and slowly varying, windows can be set around the curve to eliminate false Korotkov sound detections that result from noise. The slope of this curve, which will generally decrease during exercise, is the inverse of the systolic slope of the brachial artery pulse. In measurements taken during treadmill stress testing, the changes in slopes of subjects with coronary artery disease were markedly different from the changes in slopes of healthy subjects. Measurements of slope and O2 consumption were also made before and after ten days of bed rest during NASA/Ames Research Center bed rest studies. Typically, the maximum rate of O2 consumption during the post-bed rest test is less than the maximum rate during the pre-bed rest test. The post-bed rest slope changes differ from the pre-bed rest slope changes, and the differences are highly correlated with the drop in the maximum rate of O2 consumption. We speculate that the differences between pre- and post-bed rest slopes are due to a drop in heart contractility.
Brady, Tammy M.
Question Among pediatric outpatient care centers, what is the rate of elevated blood pressure recognition? Design Retrospective single cohort study. Setting Single tertiary-care pediatric outpatient center. Participants 20 000 patients (2–17 years old). Intervention Blood pressure measurement. Outcomes Recognition rate of elevated blood pressures. Main Results Among those with ≥3 elevated blood pressure measurements, the median frequency of identification by division/service was 17%. Conclusions The identification of patients with elevated blood pressure measurements was low. PMID:26319926
Ahern, David K; Stinson, Lynda J; Uebelacker, Lisa A; Wroblewski, Joseph P; McMurray, Jerome H; Eaton, Charles B
Both technological and human factors design requirements for integration of home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) into a patient centered medical home (PCMH) model primary care practice are described. Patients with uncontrolled hypertension were given home blood pressure (BP) monitors, and after a three-month run-in period introduced to either a high-tech only (HBPM connectivity to personal health record and tailored Web portal access) or a high-tech/"high-touch" (high-tech solution plus patient navigator [PN]) solution. Features of the Web portal included: BP graphing function, traffic-light feedback system of BP goal attainment, economic incentives for self-monitoring, and dual patient-facing and care-team-facing dashboard functions. The e-health BP control system with PN support was well received by patients, providers, and the healthcare team. Current e-health technology and limited technological literacy of many patients suggest that a PN or some other personnel resource may be required for the adoption of patient-facing technology in primary care. PMID:23167022
Magalhães, Marina Gabriella Pereira de Andrada; Farah, Breno Quintella; de Barros, Mauro Virgilio Gomes; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes
Objective To identify prevalence of previous blood pressure measurement and analyze some associated factors in adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study included 6,077 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years. Demographic characteristics included (sex, age, period of study, region of residence, work, skin color, and economic) status, history of blood pressure measurement within last 12 months, local of blood pressure measurement, and reading obtained. To assess associations between previous blood pressure measurement with demographic characteristics and high blood pressure we used descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Results Out of the adolescents, 56.8% reported no blood pressure measurement within the last 12 months. The health centers and the physician’s office were most mentioned places for blood pressure measurement (28.3% and 36.9%, respectively). Boys (odds ratio of 1.64 95%CI: 1.46-1.84) aged 14 to 16 years (odds ratio of 1.12; 95%CI: 1.01-1.25), whose economic status was unfavorable (odds ratio of 1.48; 95%CI: 1.32-1.67) were significantly associated with no blood pressure measurement. Working was a protective factor for was not blood pressure measurement (odds ratio of 0.84; 95%CI: 0.73-0.97). Conclusion Most of adolescents did not have their blood pressure measured within the last 12 months. Boys aged 14 to 16 years and those with unfavorable economic status had higher chance of not having their blood pressure measured. PMID:26466061
Sato, Hironori; Koshimizu, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Shingo; Ogura, Toshihiko
Accurate measurement of blood pressure at wrist requires the heart and wrist to be kept at the same level to avoid the effects of hydrostatic pressure. Although a blood pressure monitor with a position sensor that guides appropriate forearm angle without use of a chair and desk has already been proposed, a similar functioning device for measuring upper arm blood pressure with a chair and desk is needed. In this study, a calculation model was first used to explore design of such a system. The findings were then implemented into design of a new blood pressure monitor. Results of various methods were compared. The calculation model of the wrist level from arthrosis angles and interarticulars lengths was developed and considered using published anthropometric dimensions. It is compared with 33 volunteer persons' experimental results. The calculated difference of level was -4.1 to 7.9 (cm) with a fixed chair and desk. The experimental result was -3.0 to 5.5 (cm) at left wrist and -2.1 to 6.3(cm) at right wrist. The absolute difference level equals ±4.8 (mmHg) of blood pressure readings according to the calculated result. This meets the AAMI requirements for a blood pressure monitor. In the conclusion, the calculation model is able to effectively evaluate the difference between the heart and wrist level. Improving the method for maintaining wrist to heart level will improve wrist blood pressure measurement accuracy when also sitting in the chair at a desk. The leading angle of user's forearm using a position sensor is shown to work for this purpose. PMID:24110067
Weiss, S.T.; Munoz, A.; Stein, A.; Sparrow, D.; Speizer, F.E.
We examined the relationship of blood lead level to systolic and diastolic blood pressure in a longitudinal study of 89 Boston, MA, policemen. At the second examination blood lead level and blood pressure were measured in triplicate. Blood pressure measurements were taken in a similar fashion in years 3, 4, and 5. Multivariate analysis using a first-order autoregressive model revealed that after adjusting for previous systolic blood pressure, body mass index, age, and cigarette smoking, an elevated blood lead level was a significant predictor of subsequent systolic blood pressure. Bootstrap simulations of these models provided supporting evidence for the observed association. These data suggest that blood lead level can influence systolic blood pressure even within the normal range.
Zheng, Dingchang; Di Marco, Luigi Yuri; Murray, Alan
Blood pressure (BP) measurement accuracy depends on consistent changes in Korotkoff sounds (KorS) for manual measurement and oscillometric pulses for automated measurement, yet little is known about the direct effect of respiration on these physiological signals. The aim of this research was to quantitatively assess the modulation effect of respiration on Korotkoff sounds and oscillometric pulses. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured manually from 30 healthy subjects (age 41 ± 12 years). Three static cuff pressure conditions were studied for two respiratory rates. Cuff pressure [with oscillometric pulses (OscP)], ECG, chest motion respiration [respiration signal (Resp), from magnetometer] and Korotkoff sounds (KorS, from digital stethoscope) were recorded twice for 20 s. The physiological data were evenly resampled. Respiratory frequency was calculated from Resp (fR), OscP (fO) and KorS (fK) from peak spectral frequency. There was no statistically significant difference between fR and fO or fK. Respiratory modulation was observed in all subjects. OscP amplitude modulation changed significantly between the two respiratory rates (p < 0.05) and between the three cuff pressures (p < 0.0001), and decreased significantly with decreasing cuff pressure (p < 0.05). The phase shift between Resp and modulation of OscP was statistically significant with respiratory rates (p < 0.05), but not with cuff pressures. It is accepted that BP in individuals is variable and that this relates to respiration; we now show that this respiration modulates oscillometric pulse and Korotkoff sound amplitudes from which BP is measured. PMID:24668326
It appears that the normal penile systolic blood pressure, as measured by a spectroscopic method, is equal to or greater than the calculated brachial mean blood pressure. A pressure definitely lower than this in impotent patients indicates obstruction to blood flow in the main vessels supplying the penis. On this basis, obstruction to blood flow was identified as a cause of impotence in patients with little other evidence of peripheral vascular disease. PMID:5150208
Lee, Beom Seok; Lee, Jung-Nam; Park, Jong-Myeon; Lee, Jeong-Gun; Kim, Suhyeon; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung; Ko, Christopher
A portable, disc-based, and fully automated enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) system is developed to test infectious diseases from whole blood. The innovative laser irradiated ferrowax microvalves and centrifugal microfluidics were utilized for the full integration of microbead-based suspension ELISA assays on a disc starting from whole blood. The concentrations of the antigen and the antibody of Hepatitis B virus (HBV), HBsAg and Anti-HBs respectively, were measured using the lab-on-a-disc (LOD). All the necessary reagents are preloaded on the disc and the total process of the plasma separation, incubation with target specific antigen or antibody coated microbeads, multiple steps of washing, enzyme reaction with substrates, and the absorbance detection could be finished within 30 minutes. Compared to the conventional ELISA, the operation time was dramatically reduced from over 2 hours to less than 30 minutes while the limit of detection was kept similar; e.g. the limit of detection of Anti-HBs tests were 8.6 mIU mL(-1) and 10 mIU mL(-1) for the disc-based and the conventional ELISA respectively. PMID:19458861
Crews, D E; Mancilha-Carvalho, J J
We determined associations of measures of body habitus with blood pressure for 100 adult Yanomami Indians (61 men, 39 women) examined during February and March 1990. Measurements included body weight and height, four skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, abdomen), four circumferences (wrist, upper arm, abdomen, hip), systolic and diastolic blood pressures, pulse rate, and estimated age. Various indices of fat distribution were determined from the measurements of skinfolds, circumferences, weight, and height. Estimated age averaged 35.0 years in men and 33.4 years in women (range: 15 to 63 years). Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were low in both men (104.8/70.4 mm Hg) and women (94.8/63.5 mm Hg), as was body mass index (men: 20.7; women: 21.4 kg/m2). In Yanomami women, all four skinfolds, wrist circumference, and the indices of hip and abdominal fat were significant correlates of systolic blood pressure, while the abdominal skinfold and wrist and hip circumferences correlated significantly with diastolic blood pressure. Among men, there was a negative correlation between estimated age and systolic blood pressure and a positive correlation between BMI and upper arm and hip circumferences and systolic blood pressure. There was a significant positive correlation between wrist, upper arm, and hip circumferences and diastolic blood pressure among Yanomami men. We used stepwise regression to generate sex-specific predictive equations for blood pressure. For men, estimated age and hip circumference, and for women, abdominal skinfold measurement and age were included in the model for systolic blood pressure. Among men, wrist circumference and height, and among women, wrist circumference alone entered the model for diastolic blood pressure. On the basis of these results, we suggest that even in a low-blood pressure, low-body fat, no-salt setting, systolic blood pressure is associated with the amount and placement of adipose tissue. However, diastolic blood
Merhi, Bassem Abou; Al-Hajj, Fatima; Al-Tannir, Mohamad; Ziade, Fouad; El-Rajab, Mariam
Background: Blood pressure varies between populations due to ethnic and environmental factors. Therefore, normal blood pressure values should be determined for different populations. Aims: The aim of this survey was to produce blood pressure nomograms for Lebanese children in order to establish distribution curves of blood pressure by age and sex. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a survey of blood pressure in 5710 Lebanese schoolchildren aged 5 to 15 years (2918 boys and 2792 girls), and studied the distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in these children and adolescents. Blood pressure was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer using a standardized technique. Results: Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure had a positive correlation with weight, height, age, and body mass index (r= 0.648, 0.643, 0.582, and 0.44, respectively) (P < .001). There was no significant difference in the systolic and diastolic blood pressure in boys compared to girls of corresponding ages. However, the average annual increase in systolic blood pressure was 2.86 mm Hg in boys and 2.63 mm Hg in girls, whereas the annual increase in diastolic blood pressure was 1.72 mm Hg in boys and 1.48 mm Hg in girls. The prevalence of high and high-normal blood pressure at the upper limit of normal (between the 90th and 95th percentile, at risk of future hypertension if not managed adequately), was 10.5% in boys and 6.9% in girls, with similar distributions among the two sexes. Conclusions: We present the first age-specific reference values for blood pressure of Lebanese children aged 5 to 15 years based on a good representative sample. The use of these reference values should help pediatricians identify children with normal, high-normal and high blood pressure. PMID:22540059
van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P
Scipione Riva-Rocci (1863-1937) was educated in Turin as a physician and later as a doctor of internal medicine. In 1896 and 1897 he published a series of four articles (in Italian) on a new method for measuring blood pressure. Previous non-invasive methods were all based on compression of the radial pulse, in keeping with centuries of medical tradition, but they were cumbersome and unreliable. Riva-Rocci's innovation consisted in compressing the brachial artery instead, at the level of the upper arm. For this purpose he devised an inflatable rubber tube, which was rigid on the outside. Disappearance of the radial pulse on palpation indicated the systolic arterial pressure, as Riva-Rocci confirmed by calibration experiments in animals and with human cadavers. His instrument was introduced world-wide after a chance visit by the American neurosurgeon Harvey Cushing (1869-1939). The Russian surgeon Nikolai Korotkoff (1874-1920) was the first to apply auscultation of the artery below the cuff (in 1905), a method that allowed determination of diastolic arterial pressure. Riva-Rocci was Chief of Medicine at the municipal hospital in Varese from 1900 to 1928, where he developed a special interest in paediatrics. PMID:23328024
The vapor pressures of dog's blood and blood plasma were determined at 37.5 degrees by the dynamic method and the osmotic pressures calculated from the experimental data. The vapor pressures calculated from experimentally determined freezing point data agreed, within the experimental error, with the values obtained from direct measurement. The vapor pressure lowering produced by the colloid constituents of the blood was also determined and found to be minimal compared to that of the other constituents. PMID:19872415
Brooks, Nicholas J.; Gauthe, Beatrice L. L. E.; Templer, Richard H.; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M.; Terrill, Nick J.; Rogers, Sarah E.
A high pressure cell for small and wide-angle x-ray diffraction measurements of soft condensed matter samples has been developed, incorporating a fully automated pressure generating network. The system allows both static and pressure jump measurements in the range of 0.1-500 MPa. Pressure jumps can be performed as quickly as 5 ms, both with increasing and decreasing pressures. Pressure is generated by a motorized high pressure pump, and the system is controlled remotely via a graphical user interface to allow operation by a broad user base, many of whom may have little previous experience of high pressure technology. Samples are loaded through a dedicated port allowing the x-ray windows to remain in place throughout an experiment; this facilitates accurate subtraction of background scattering. The system has been designed specifically for use at beamline I22 at the Diamond Light Source, United Kingdom, and has been fully integrated with the I22 beamline control systems.
Stevens, Richard; Gill, Paramjit; Martin, Una; Godwin, Marshall; Hanley, Janet; Heneghan, Carl; Hobbs, F.D. Richard; Mant, Jonathan; McKinstry, Brian; Myers, Martin; Nunan, David; Ward, Alison; Williams, Bryan; McManus, Richard J.
Patients often have lower (white coat effect) or higher (masked effect) ambulatory/home blood pressure readings compared with clinic measurements, resulting in misdiagnosis of hypertension. The present study assessed whether blood pressure and patient characteristics from a single clinic visit can accurately predict the difference between ambulatory/home and clinic blood pressure readings (the home–clinic difference). A linear regression model predicting the home–clinic blood pressure difference was derived in 2 data sets measuring automated clinic and ambulatory/home blood pressure (n=991) using candidate predictors identified from a literature review. The model was validated in 4 further data sets (n=1172) using area under the receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. A masked effect was associated with male sex, a positive clinic blood pressure change (difference between consecutive measurements during a single visit), and a diagnosis of hypertension. Increasing age, clinic blood pressure level, and pulse pressure were associated with a white coat effect. The model showed good calibration across data sets (Pearson correlation, 0.48–0.80) and performed well-predicting ambulatory hypertension (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.72–0.79 [systolic]; 0.87; 0.85–0.89 [diastolic]). Used as a triaging tool for ambulatory monitoring, the model improved classification of a patient’s blood pressure status compared with other guideline recommended approaches (93% [92% to 95%] classified correctly; United States, 73% [70% to 75%]; Canada, 74% [71% to 77%]; United Kingdom, 78% [76% to 81%]). This study demonstrates that patient characteristics from a single clinic visit can accurately predict a patient’s ambulatory blood pressure. Usage of this prediction tool for triaging of ambulatory monitoring could result in more accurate diagnosis of hypertension and hence more appropriate treatment. PMID:27001299
Hebert, T.J. |; Moore, W.H.; Dhekne, R.D.; Ford, P.V.; Wendt, J.A.; Murphy, P.H.; Ting, Y.
The design of an automated computer algorithm for labeling the cardiac blood pool within gated 3-D reconstructions of the radiolabeled red blood cells is investigated. Due to patient functional abnormalities, limited resolution, and noise, certain spatial and temporal features of the cardiac blood pool that one would anticipate finding in every study are not present in certain frames or with certain patients. The labeling of the cardiac blood pool requires an algorithm that only relies upon features present in all patients. The authors investigate the design of a fully-automated region growing algorithm for this purpose.
Trudel-Fitzgerald, Claudia; Gilsanz, Paola; Mittleman, Murray A; Kubzansky, Laura D
Despite having identified key physiological and behavioral risk factors, the prevalence of hypertension continues to rise, affecting two thirds of American adults 60 years or older. An important condition in its own right, hypertension is also a leading risk factor for cardiovascular diseases; thus, identifying additional modifiable determinants remains a public health priority. Psychological states and negative emotions more specifically have been proposed as risk factors, but the research findings are inconsistent. Additional prospective studies have recently been published increasing the availability of longitudinal data. The aim of this literature review is to evaluate these findings focusing on those from the last 3 years. We synthesize current research on whether negative (e.g., depression, anxiety) or positive (e.g., optimism) emotion-related factors are associated with high blood pressure onset. We discuss discrepant findings and propose considering emotion regulation as a novel approach to explain inconsistencies. Finally, we provide thoughts on future research directions. PMID:26520446
Rushton, Melanie; Smith, Joyce
Rationale and key points This article aims to help nurses to measure blood pressure (BP) manually using an aneroid sphygmomanometer. ▶ BP measurement is an essential clinical skill, and nurses must be competent in performing this procedure and taking accurate readings. ▶ Nurses should be aware of manual BP measurement techniques and understand the patient and environmental factors that may result in inaccurate readings that could compromise patient care. ▶ Nurses should regularly undertake manual BP measurement to ensure they remain competent to perform the procedure. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How reading this article will change your practice. 2. Further learning needs to extend your professional development. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26786460
Hanevold, Coral D
Elevation of blood pressure (BP) and the risk for progression to hypertension (HTN) is of increasing concern in children and adolescents. Indeed, it is increasingly recognized that target organ injury may begin with even low levels of BP elevation. Sodium intake has long been recognized as a modifiable risk factor for HTN. While it seems clear that sodium impacts BP in children, its effects may be enhanced by other factors including obesity and increasing age. Evidence from animal and human studies indicates that sodium may have adverse consequences on the cardiovascular system independent of HTN. Thus, moderation of sodium intake over a lifetime may reduce risk for cardiovascular morbidity in adulthood. An appetite for salt is acquired, and intake beyond our need is almost universal. Considering that eating habits in childhood have been shown to track into adulthood, modest sodium intake should be advocated as part of a healthy lifestyle. PMID:23949320
Al-Karkhi, Isam; Al-Rubaiy, Raad; Rosenqvist, Ulf; Falk, Magnus
Objective We aimed to compare blood pressure (BP) levels recorded using the semiautomatic oscillometric Omron i-C10 BP device in patients with or without hypertension in three different settings: (a) when used by a doctor or a nurse at the office (OBP); (b) when used for self-measurement by the patient at the office (SMOBP); and (c) when used for 7 consecutive days at home (HBP). Materials and methods A total of 247 individuals were invited to participate, but 78 of these individuals declined and a further seven were excluded, leaving a final cohort of 162 participants. Results The mean OBP was higher than HBP (difference 8.1±14/3.1±8.8 mmHg, P<0.0001) and so was SMOBP compared with HBP (difference 7.0±13/4.2±7.3 mmHg, P<0.0001). Sixteen participants (9.9%) had at least 10 mmHg higher systolic SMOBP than OBP and 28 (17%) participants had at least 10 mmHg lower systolic SMOBP than OBP. Participants who were current smokers had a larger mean difference between systolic OBP and SMOBP than nonsmokers (OBP−SMOBP in smokers: 6.6±9.4 mmHg, OBP−SMOBP in nonsmokers: 0.5±9.2 mmHg, P=0.011 between groups). Conclusion Self-measurement of BP in the office does not preclude an increase in BP when levels in the individual patients are compared with HBP using the same equipment. Thus, SMOBP with a semiautomatic device does not lead to a reduction in the white-coat effect in the same manner as fully automatic devices. PMID:25341027