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Sample records for automated nuclear chemistry

  1. Radioanalytical Chemistry for Automated Nuclear Waste Process Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Oleg B. Egorov; Jay W. Grate; Timothy A. DeVol

    2004-06-01

    This research program is directed toward rapid, sensitive, and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclides such as 99Tc, 90Sr, and trans-uranium (TRU) elements in low-activity waste (LAW) processing streams. The overall technical approach is based on automated radiochemical measurement principles, which entails integration of sample treatment and separation chemistries and radiometric detection within a single functional analytical instrument. Nuclear waste process streams are particularly challenging for rapid analytical methods due to the complex, high-ionic-strength, caustic brine sample matrix, the presence of interfering radionuclides, and the variable and uncertain speciation of the radionuclides of interest. As a result, matrix modification, speciation control, and separation chemistries are required for use in automated process analyzers. Significant knowledge gaps exist relative to the design of chemistries for such analyzers so that radionuclides can be quantitatively and rapidly separated and analyzed in solutions derived from low-activity waste processing operations. This research is addressing these knowledge gaps in the area of separation science, nuclear detection, and analytical chemistry and instrumentation.

  2. Radioanalytical Chemistry for Automated Nuclear Waste Process Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Jay W. Grate; Timothy A. DeVol

    2006-07-20

    The objectives of our research were to develop the first automated radiochemical process analyzer including sample pretreatment methodoology, and to initiate work on new detection approaches, especially using modified diode detectors.

  3. RADIOANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY FOR AUTOMATED NUCLEAR WASTE PROCESS MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research is directed toward rapid, sensitive, and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclides such as 99Tc, 90Sr, and transuranium (TRU) elements in low-activity waste LAW) processing streams. The overall technical approach is based on automated radioch...

  4. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  5. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  6. Nuclear chemistry progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Viola, V.E.; Kwiatkowski, K.

    1993-08-01

    This is the annual progress report for the Indiana University nuclear chemistry program for the 1992/1993 year. Accomplishments include the construction, testing, and initial experimental runs of the Indiana Silicon Sphere (ISiS) 4{pi} charged particle detector. ISiS is designed to study energy dissipation and multifragmentation phenomena in light-ion-induced nuclear reactions at medium-to-high energies. Its second test run was to examine 3.6 GeV {sup 3}He beam reactions at Laboratoire National Saturne (LNS) in Saclay. The development and deployment of this system has occupied a great deal of the groups effort this reporting period. Additional work includes: calculations of isotopic IMF yields in the {sup 4}He + {sup 116,124}Sn reaction; cross sections for A = 6 - 30 fragments from the {sup 4}He + {sup 28}Si reaction at 117 and 198 MeV; charging effects of passivated silicon detectors; neck emission of intermediate-mass fragments in the fission of hot heavy nuclei.

  7. Automated Combinatorial Chemistry in the Organic Chemistry Majors Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Christopher J.; Hanne, Larry F.

    2010-01-01

    A multidisciplinary experiment has been developed in which students each synthesize a combinatorial library of 48 hydrazones with the aid of a liquid-handling robot. Each product is then subjected to a Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay to assess its antibacterial activity. Students gain experience working with automation and at the…

  8. Intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, G.W.; Giesler, G.C.; Liu, L.C.; Dropesky, B.J.; Knight, J.D.; Lucero, F.; Orth, C.J.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Chemistry Workshop held in Los Alamos, New Mexico, June 23-27, 1980. The first two days of the Workshop were devoted to invited review talks highlighting current experimental and theoretical research activities in intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry and physics. Working panels representing major topic areas carried out indepth appraisals of present research and formulated recommendations for future research directions. The major topic areas were Pion-Nucleus Reactions, Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions and Nuclei Far from Stability, Mesonic Atoms, Exotic Interactions, New Theoretical Approaches, and New Experimental Techniques and New Nuclear Chemistry Facilities.

  9. Nuclear Chemistry: Include It in Your Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwood, Charles H.; Sheline, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the topics that might be included in a nuclear chemistry section are explored. Offers radioactivity, closed shells in nuclei, energy of nuclear processes, nuclear reactions, and fission and fusion as topics of interest. Provided are ideas and examples for each. (MVL)

  10. Intelligent Automated Nuclear Fuel Pellet Inspection System

    SciTech Connect

    S. Keyvan

    1999-11-01

    At the present time, nuclear pellet inspection is performed manually using naked eyes for judgment and decisionmaking on accepting or rejecting pellets. This current practice of pellet inspection is tedious and subject to inconsistencies and error. Furthermore, unnecessary re-fabrication of pellets is costly and the presence of low quality pellets in a fuel assembly is unacceptable. To improve the quality control in nuclear fuel fabrication plants, an automated pellet inspection system based on advanced techniques is needed. Such a system addresses the following concerns of the current manual inspection method: (1) the reliability of inspection due to typical human errors, (2) radiation exposure to the workers, and (3) speed of inspection and its economical impact. The goal of this research is to develop an automated nuclear fuel pellet inspection system which is based on pellet video (photographic) images and uses artificial intelligence techniques.

  11. Nuclear Chemistry, Science (Experimental): 5316.62.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Russell R.

    This nuclear chemistry module includes topics on atomic structure, instability of the nucleus, detection strengths and the uses of radioactive particles. Laboratory work stresses proper use of equipment and safe handling of radioactive materials. Students with a strong mathematics background may consider this course as advanced work in chemistry.…

  12. Chemistry-nuclear chemistry division. Progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, R.R.

    1981-05-01

    This report presents the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, element migration and fixation, inorganic chemistry, isotope separation and analysis, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, muonic x rays, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research.

  13. Vitrification chemistry and nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Plodinec, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The vitrification of nuclear waste offers unique challenges to the glass technologist. The waste contains 50 or 60 elements, and often varies widely in composition. Most of these elements are seldom encountered in processing commercial glasses. The melter to vitrify the waste must be able to tolerate these variations in composition, while producing a durable glass. This glass must be produced without releasing hazardous radionuclides to the environment during any step of the vitrification process. Construction of a facility to convert the nearly 30 million gallons of high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Plant into borosilicate glass began in late 1983. In developing the vitrification process, the Savannah River Laboratory has had to overcome all of these challenges to the glass technologist. Advances in understanding in three areas have been crucial to our success: oxidation-reduction phenomena during glass melting; the reaction between glass and natural wastes; and the causes of foaming during glass melting.

  14. Automated chemical monitoring in new projects of nuclear power plant units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanok, O. I.; Fedoseev, M. V.

    2013-07-01

    The development of automated chemical monitoring systems in nuclear power plant units for the past 30 years is briefly described. The modern level of facilities used to support the operation of automated chemical monitoring systems in Russia and abroad is shown. Hardware solutions suggested by the All-Russia Institute for Nuclear Power Plant Operation (which is the General Designer of automated process control systems for power units used in the AES-2006 and VVER-TOI Projects) are presented, including the structure of additional equipment for monitoring water chemistry (taking the Novovoronezh 2 nuclear power plant as an example). It is shown that the solutions proposed with respect to receiving and processing of input measurement signals and subsequent construction of standard control loops are unified in nature. Simultaneous receipt of information from different sources for ensuring that water chemistry is monitored in sufficient scope and with required promptness is one of the problems that have been solved successfully. It is pointed out that improved quality of automated chemical monitoring can be supported by organizing full engineering follow-up of the automated chemical monitoring system's equipment throughout its entire service life.

  15. Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division. Progress report, October 1980-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, R.R.

    1982-05-01

    This report describes major progress in the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY 1981. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, medical radioisotopes research, element migration and fixation, nuclear waste isolation research, inorganic and structural chemistry, isotope separation, analysis and applications, the newly established Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Center, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, pion charge exchange, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research.

  16. Radiation chemistry for modern nuclear energy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Szołucha, Monika M.

    2016-07-01

    Radiation chemistry plays a significant role in modern nuclear energy development. Pioneering research in nuclear science, for example the development of generation IV nuclear reactors, cannot be pursued without chemical solutions. Present issues related to light water reactors concern radiolysis of water in the primary circuit; long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel; radiation effects on cables and wire insulation, and on ion exchangers used for water purification; as well as the procedures of radioactive waste reprocessing and storage. Radiation effects on materials and enhanced corrosion are crucial in current (II/III/III+) and future (IV) generation reactors, and in waste management, deep geological disposal and spent fuel reprocessing. The new generation of reactors (III+ and IV) impose new challenges for radiation chemists due to their new conditions of operation and the usage of new types of coolant. In the case of the supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), water chemistry control may be the key factor in preventing corrosion of reactor structural materials. This paper mainly focuses on radiation effects on long-term performance and safety in the development of nuclear power plants.

  17. Automated Water Chemistry Control at University of Virginia Pools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krone, Dan

    1997-01-01

    Describes the technologically advanced aquatic and fitness center at the University of Virginia. Discusses the imprecise water chemistry control at the former facility and its intensive monitoring requirements. Details the new chemistry control standards initiated in the new center, which ensure constant chlorine and pH levels. (RJM)

  18. Automated method of tracing proton tracks in nuclear emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Jin-lu; Li, Hong-yun; Song, Ji-wen; Zhang, Jian-fu; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Zhong-bing; Liu, Jin-liang; Liu, Lin-yue

    2015-07-01

    The low performance of the manual recognition of proton-recoil tracks in nuclear emulsions has limited its application to energy spectrum measurement of a pulsed neutron source. We developed an automated microscope system to trace proton-recoil tracks in nuclear emulsions. Given a start point on the proton track of interest, the microscope system can automatically trace and record the entire track using an image processing algorithm. Tests indicate that no interaction of the operator is needed in tracing the entire track. This automated microscope greatly reduces the labor of the operator and increases the efficiency of track data collection in nuclear emulsion.

  19. A sensor-based automation system for handling nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.; Kimberly, H.; Wapman, W.; Darras, D.

    1997-03-01

    An automated system is being developed for handling large payloads of radioactive nuclear materials in an analytical laboratory. The automation system performs unpacking and repacking of payloads from shipping and storage containers, and delivery of the payloads to the stations in the laboratory. The system uses machine vision and force/torque sensing to provide sensor-based control of the automation system in order to enhance system safety, flexibility, and robustness, and achieve easy remote operation. The automation system also controls the operation of the laboratory measurement systems and the coordination of them with the robotic system. Particular attention has been given to system design features and analytical methods that provide an enhanced level of operational safety. Independent mechanical gripper interlock and tool release mechanisms were designed to prevent payload mishandling. An extensive Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the automation system was developed as a safety design analysis tool.

  20. Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Automation in the 21st Century - Amat Victoria curam (Victory loves careful preparation)

    PubMed Central

    Armbruster, David A; Overcash, David R; Reyes, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The era of automation arrived with the introduction of the AutoAnalyzer using continuous flow analysis and the Robot Chemist that automated the traditional manual analytical steps. Successive generations of stand-alone analysers increased analytical speed, offered the ability to test high volumes of patient specimens, and provided large assay menus. A dichotomy developed, with a group of analysers devoted to performing routine clinical chemistry tests and another group dedicated to performing immunoassays using a variety of methodologies. Development of integrated systems greatly improved the analytical phase of clinical laboratory testing and further automation was developed for pre-analytical procedures, such as sample identification, sorting, and centrifugation, and post-analytical procedures, such as specimen storage and archiving. All phases of testing were ultimately combined in total laboratory automation (TLA) through which all modules involved are physically linked by some kind of track system, moving samples through the process from beginning-to-end. A newer and very powerful, analytical methodology is liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LC-MS/MS has been automated but a future automation challenge will be to incorporate LC-MS/MS into TLA configurations. Another important facet of automation is informatics, including middleware, which interfaces the analyser software to a laboratory information systems (LIS) and/or hospital information systems (HIS). This software includes control of the overall operation of a TLA configuration and combines analytical results with patient demographic information to provide additional clinically useful information. This review describes automation relevant to clinical chemistry, but it must be recognised that automation applies to other specialties in the laboratory, e.g. haematology, urinalysis, microbiology. It is a given that automation will continue to evolve in the clinical laboratory

  1. Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Automation in the 21st Century - Amat Victoria curam (Victory loves careful preparation).

    PubMed

    Armbruster, David A; Overcash, David R; Reyes, Jaime

    2014-08-01

    The era of automation arrived with the introduction of the AutoAnalyzer using continuous flow analysis and the Robot Chemist that automated the traditional manual analytical steps. Successive generations of stand-alone analysers increased analytical speed, offered the ability to test high volumes of patient specimens, and provided large assay menus. A dichotomy developed, with a group of analysers devoted to performing routine clinical chemistry tests and another group dedicated to performing immunoassays using a variety of methodologies. Development of integrated systems greatly improved the analytical phase of clinical laboratory testing and further automation was developed for pre-analytical procedures, such as sample identification, sorting, and centrifugation, and post-analytical procedures, such as specimen storage and archiving. All phases of testing were ultimately combined in total laboratory automation (TLA) through which all modules involved are physically linked by some kind of track system, moving samples through the process from beginning-to-end. A newer and very powerful, analytical methodology is liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LC-MS/MS has been automated but a future automation challenge will be to incorporate LC-MS/MS into TLA configurations. Another important facet of automation is informatics, including middleware, which interfaces the analyser software to a laboratory information systems (LIS) and/or hospital information systems (HIS). This software includes control of the overall operation of a TLA configuration and combines analytical results with patient demographic information to provide additional clinically useful information. This review describes automation relevant to clinical chemistry, but it must be recognised that automation applies to other specialties in the laboratory, e.g. haematology, urinalysis, microbiology. It is a given that automation will continue to evolve in the clinical laboratory

  2. Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report FY83

    SciTech Connect

    Struble, G.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the annual reports of the Nuclear Chemistry Division is to provide a timely summary of research activities pursued by members of the Division during the preceding year. Throughout, details are kept to a minimum; readers desiring additional information are encouraged to read the referenced documents or contact the authors. The Introduction presents an overview of the Division's scientific and technical programs. Next is a section of short articles describing recent upgrades of the Division's major facilities, followed by sections highlighting scientific and technical advances. These are grouped under the following sections: nuclear explosives diagnostics; geochemistry and environmental sciences; safeguards technology and radiation effect; and supporting fundamental science. A brief overview introduces each section. Reports on research supported by a particular program are generally grouped together in the same section. The last section lists the scientific, administrative, and technical staff in the Division, along with visitors, consultants, and postdoctoral fellows. It also contains a list of recent publications and presentations. Some contributions to the annual report are classified and only their abstracts are included in this unclassified portion of the report (UCAR-10062-83/1); the full article appears in the classified portion (UCAR-10062-83/2).

  3. Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report, FY 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, J.H.; Lindberg, H.A.

    1984-05-01

    This report describes progress in the major research and development programs carried out in FY 1983 by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division. It covers radiochemical diagnostics of weapons tests; weapons radiochemical diagnostics research and development; other unclassified weapons research; stable and radioactive isotope production, separation, and applications (including biomedical applications); element and isotope transport and fixation; actinide and transition metal chemistry; structural chemistry, spectroscopy, and applications; nuclear structure and reactions; irradiation facilities; advanced analytical techniques; development and applications; atmospheric chemistry and transport; and earth and planetary processes.

  4. Automating Nuclear-Safety-Related SQA Procedures with Custom Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Freels, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear safety-related procedures are rigorous for good reason. Small design mistakes can quickly turn into unwanted failures. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory worked with COMSOL to define a simulation app that automates the software quality assurance (SQA) verification process and provides results in less than 24 hours.

  5. The Heart of Matter: A Nuclear Chemistry Module. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viola, Vic; Hearle, Robert

    This teacher's guide is designed to provide science teachers with the necessary guidance and suggestions for teaching nuclear chemistry. In this book, the fundamental concepts of nuclear science and the applications of nuclear energy are discussed. The material in this book can be integrated with the other modules in a sequence that helps students…

  6. Uranium to Electricity: The Chemistry of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settle, Frank A.

    2009-03-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of a series of industrial processes that produce fuel for the production of electricity in nuclear reactors, use the fuel to generate electricity, and subsequently manage the spent reactor fuel. While the physics and engineering of controlled fission are central to the generation of nuclear power, chemistry dominates all other aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. An understanding of this chemistry is necessary to address the economic, environmental, safety, and proliferation issues that are essential to any substantive evaluation of nuclear power's contribution to the global energy portfolio. This article describes the role of chemistry in each component of the cycle from the metallurgy of uranium to the disposition of spent reactor fuel. It also addresses the economics of the components of the cycle and the costs of nuclear power relative to other sources of energy.

  7. UNESCO Chemistry Teaching Project in Asia: Experiments on Nuclear Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhabanandana, Salag

    This teacher's guide on nuclear science is divided into two parts. The first part is a discussion of some of the concepts in nuclear chemistry including radioactivity, types of disintegration, radioactive decay and growth, and tracer techniques. The relevant experiments involving the use of radioisotopes are presented in the second part. The…

  8. Robotic control architecture development for automated nuclear material handling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, R.D.; Hurd, R.; Couture, S.; Wilhelmsen, K.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is engaged in developing automated systems for handling materials for mixed waste treatment, nuclear pyrochemical processing, and weapon components disassembly. In support of these application areas there is an extensive robotic development program. This paper will describe the portion of this effort at LLNL devoted to control system architecture development, and review two applications currently being implemented which incorporate these technologies.

  9. Automations influence on nuclear power plants: a look at three accidents and how automation played a role.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power is one of the ways that we can design an efficient sustainable future. Automation is the primary system used to assist operators in the task of monitoring and controlling nuclear power plants (NPP). Automation performs tasks such as assessing the status of the plant's operations as well as making real time life critical situational specific decisions. While the advantages and disadvantages of automation are well studied in variety of domains, accidents remind us that there is still vulnerability to unknown variables. This paper will look at the effects of automation within three NPP accidents and incidents and will consider why automation failed in preventing these accidents from occurring. It will also review the accidents at the Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima Daiichi NPP's in order to determine where better use of automation could have resulted in a more desirable outcome. PMID:22317420

  10. Operator-based metric for nuclear operations automation assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharias, G.L.; Miao, A.X.; Kalkan, A.

    1995-04-01

    Continuing advances in real-time computational capabilities will support enhanced levels of smart automation and AI-based decision-aiding systems in the nuclear power plant (NPP) control room of the future. To support development of these aids, we describe in this paper a research tool, and more specifically, a quantitative metric, to assess the impact of proposed automation/aiding concepts in a manner that can account for a number of interlinked factors in the control room environment. In particular, we describe a cognitive operator/plant model that serves as a framework for integrating the operator`s information-processing capabilities with his procedural knowledge, to provide insight as to how situations are assessed by the operator, decisions made, procedures executed, and communications conducted. Our focus is on the situation assessment (SA) behavior of the operator, the development of a quantitative metric reflecting overall operator awareness, and the use of this metric in evaluating automation/aiding options. We describe the results of a model-based simulation of a selected emergency scenario, and metric-based evaluation of a range of contemplated NPP control room automation/aiding options. The results demonstrate the feasibility of model-based analysis of contemplated control room enhancements, and highlight the need for empirical validation.

  11. Superheavy Element Nuclear Chemistry at RIKEN

    SciTech Connect

    Haba, Hiromitsu; Kaji, Daiya; Kasamatsu, Yoshitaka; Kudou, Yuki; Morimoto, Kouji; Morita, Kosuke; Ozeki, Kazutaka; Yoneda, Akira; Kikunaga, Hidetoshi; Komori, Yukiko; Ooe, Kazuhiro; Shinohara, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Takashi; Sato, Nozomi; Toyoshima, Atsushi; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    2010-05-12

    A gas-jet transport system has been coupled to the RIKEN gas-filled recoil ion separator GARIS to startup superheavy element (SHE) chemistry at RIKEN. The performance of the system was appraised using an isotope of element 104, {sup 261}Rf, produced in the {sup 248}Cm({sup 18}O,5n){sup 261}Rf reaction. Alpha-particles of {sup 261}Rf separated with GARIS and extracted to a chemistry laboratory were successfully identified with a rotating wheel apparatus for alpha spectrometry. The setting parameters such as the magnetic field of the separator and the gas-jet conditions were optimized. The present results suggest that the GARIS/gas-jet system is a promising approach for exploring new frontiers in SHE chemistry: (i) the background radioactivities of unwanted reaction products are strongly suppressed, (ii) the intense beam is absent in the gas-jet chamber and hence high gas-jet efficiency is achieved, and (iii) the beam-free condition also allows for investigations of new chemical systems.

  12. The Living Textbook of Nuclear Chemistry: A Peer-Reviewed, Web-Based, Education Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveland, W.; Gallant, A.; Joiner, C.

    2004-01-01

    The recent developments in nuclear chemistry education are presented and an attempt is made to collect supplemental materials relating to the study and practice of nuclear chemistry. The Living Textbook of Nuclear Chemistry functions as an authoritative Web site with supplemental material for teaching nuclear and radiochemistry.

  13. Automated separation process for radioanalytical purposes at nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Nagy, L G; Vajda, N; Vodicska, M; Zagyvai, P; Solymosi, J

    1987-10-01

    Chemical separation processes have been developed to remove the matrix components and thus to determine fission products, especially radioiodine nuclides, in the primary coolant of WWER-type nuclear reactors. Special procedures have been elaborated to enrich long-lived nuclides in waste waters to be released and to separate and enrich caesium isotopes in the environment. All processes are based mainly on ion-exchange separations using amorphous zirconium phosphate. Automated equipment was constructed to meet the demands of the plant personnel for serial analysis. PMID:3680447

  14. Radioanalytical Chemistry for Automated Nuclear Waste Process Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Devol, Timothy A.

    2005-06-01

    Comparison of different pulse shape discrimination methods was performed under two different experimental conditions and the best method was identified. Beta/gamma discrimination of 90Sr/90Y and 137Cs was performed using a phoswich detector made of BC400 (2.5 cm OD x 1.2 cm) and BGO (2.5 cm O.D. x 2.5 cm ) scintillators. Alpha/gamma discrimination of 210Po and 137Cs was performed using a CsI:Tl (2.8 x 1.4 x 1.4 cm3) scintillation crystal. The pulse waveforms were digitized with a DGF-4c (X-Ray Instrumentation Associates) and analyzed offline with IGOR Pro software (Wavemetrics, Inc.). The four pulse shape discrimination methods that were compared include: rise time discrimination, digital constant fraction discrimination, charge ratio, and constant time discrimination (CTD) methods. The CTD method is the ratio of the pulse height at a particular time after the beginning of the pulse to the time at the maximum pulse height. The charge comparison method resulted in a Figure of Merit (FoM) of 3.3 (9.9 % spillover) and 3.7 (0.033 % spillover) for the phoswich and the CsI:Tl scintillator setups, respectively. The CTD method resulted in a FoM of 3.9 (9.2 % spillover) and 3.2 (0.25 % spillover), respectively. Inverting the pulse shape data typically resulted in a significantly higher FoM than conventional methods, but there was no reduction in % spillover values. This outcome illustrates that the FoM may not be a good scheme for the quantification of a system to perform pulse shape discrimination. Comparison of several pulse shape discrimination (PSD) methods was performed as a means to compare traditional analog and digital PSD methods on the same scintillation pulses. The X-ray Instrumentation Associates DGF-4C (40 Msps, 14-bit) was used to digitize waveforms from a CsI:Tl crystal and BC400/BGO phoswich detector.

  15. Automated quantification of nuclear immunohistochemical markers with different complexity.

    PubMed

    López, Carlos; Lejeune, Marylène; Salvadó, María Teresa; Escrivà, Patricia; Bosch, Ramón; Pons, Lluis E; Alvaro, Tomás; Roig, Jordi; Cugat, Xavier; Baucells, Jordi; Jaén, Joaquín

    2008-03-01

    Manual quantification of immunohistochemically stained nuclear markers is still laborious and subjective and the use of computerized systems for digital image analysis have not yet resolved the problems of nuclear clustering. In this study, we designed a new automatic procedure for quantifying various immunohistochemical nuclear markers with variable clustering complexity. This procedure consisted of two combined macros. The first, developed with a commercial software, enabled the analysis of the digital images using color and morphological segmentation including a masking process. All information extracted with this first macro was automatically exported to an Excel datasheet, where a second macro composed of four different algorithms analyzed all the information and calculated the definitive number of positive nuclei for each image. One hundred and eighteen images with different levels of clustering complexity was analyzed and compared with the manual quantification obtained by a trained observer. Statistical analysis indicated a great reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient > 0.950) and no significant differences between the two methods. Bland-Altman plot and Kaplan-Meier curves indicated that the results of both methods were concordant around 90% of analyzed images. In conclusion, this new automated procedure is an objective, faster and reproducible method that has an excellent level of accuracy, even with digital images with a high complexity. PMID:18172664

  16. Automated Track Recognition and Event Reconstruction in Nuclear Emulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deines-Jones, P.; Cherry, M. L.; Dabrowska, A.; Holynski, R.; Jones, W. V.; Kolganova, E. D.; Kudzia, D.; Nilsen, B. S.; Olszewski, A.; Pozharova, E. A.; Sengupta, K.; Szarska, M.; Trzupek, A.; Waddington, C, J.; Wefel, J. P.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.

    1998-01-01

    The major advantages of nuclear emulsion for detecting charged particles are its submicron position resolution and sensitivity to minimum ionizing particles. These must be balanced, however, against the difficult manual microscope measurement by skilled observers required for the analysis. We have developed an automated system to acquire and analyze the microscope images from emulsion chambers. Each emulsion plate is analyzed independently, allowing coincidence techniques to be used in order to reject back- ground and estimate error rates. The system has been used to analyze a sample of high-multiplicity Pb-Pb interactions (charged particle multiplicities approx. 1100) produced by the 158 GeV/c per nucleon Pb-208 beam at CERN. Automatically reconstructed track lists agree with our best manual measurements to 3%. We describe the image analysis and track reconstruction techniques, and discuss the measurement and reconstruction uncertainties.

  17. High speed automated microtomography of nuclear emulsions and recent application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tioukov, V.; Aleksandrov, A.; Consiglio, L.; De Lellis, G.; Vladymyrov, M.

    2015-12-01

    The development of high-speed automatic scanning systems was the key-factor for massive and successful emulsions application for big neutrino experiments like OPERA. The emulsion detector simplicity, the unprecedented sub-micron spatial resolution and the unique ability to provide intrinsically 3-dimensional spatial information make it a perfect device for short-living particles study, where the event topology should be precisely reconstructed in a 10-100 um scale vertex region. Recently the exceptional technological progress in image processing and automation together with intensive R&D done by Italian and Japanese microscopy groups permit to increase the scanning speed to unbelievable few years ago m2/day scale and so greatly extend the range of the possible applications for emulsion-based detectors to other fields like: medical imaging, directional dark matter search, nuclear physics, geological and industrial applications.

  18. High speed automated microtomography of nuclear emulsions and recent application

    SciTech Connect

    Tioukov, V.; Aleksandrov, A.; Consiglio, L.; De Lellis, G.; Vladymyrov, M.

    2015-12-31

    The development of high-speed automatic scanning systems was the key-factor for massive and successful emulsions application for big neutrino experiments like OPERA. The emulsion detector simplicity, the unprecedented sub-micron spatial resolution and the unique ability to provide intrinsically 3-dimensional spatial information make it a perfect device for short-living particles study, where the event topology should be precisely reconstructed in a 10-100 um scale vertex region. Recently the exceptional technological progress in image processing and automation together with intensive R&D done by Italian and Japanese microscopy groups permit to increase the scanning speed to unbelievable few years ago m{sup 2}/day scale and so greatly extend the range of the possible applications for emulsion-based detectors to other fields like: medical imaging, directional dark matter search, nuclear physics, geological and industrial applications.

  19. The 40th AAAS Gordon Conference on nuclear chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1991-06-27

    I am pleased to speak at the Fortieth Gordon Conference on Nuclear Chemistry. I served as Chairman of the first Gordon Conference on Nuclear Chemistry held June 23--27, 1952, at New Hampton, New Hampshire. In my remarks, during which I shall quote from my journal, I shall describe some of the background leading up to the first Gordon Conference on Nuclear Chemistry and my attendance at the first seven Gordon Conferences during the period 1952 through 1958. I shall also quote my description of my appearance as the featured speaker at the Silver Anniversary of the Gordon Research Conferences on December 27, 1956 held at the Commodore Hotel in New York City. I shall begin with reference to my participation in the predecessor to the Gordon Conferences, the Gibson Island Research Conferences 45 years ago, on Thursday, June 20, 1946, as a speaker. This was 15 years after the start of these conferences in 1931. Neil Gordon played a leading role in these conferences, which were named (in 1948) in his honor -- the Gordon Research Conferences -- soon after they were moved to Colby Junior College, New London, New Hampshire in 1947. W. George Parks became Director in 1947, Alexander Cruickshank became Assistant Director in 1947 and Director in 1968.

  20. Automated Microwave Frequency Control in Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Ethan; Johnson, Ian; Keller, Dustin; Solid Polarized Target Group Team

    2016-03-01

    To achieve highest polarization levels in dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments, target materials must be subjected to microwave irradiation at a particular frequency determined by the difference in the nuclear Larmor and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) frequencies. However, this resonant frequency is variable; it drifts as a result of radiation damage. Manually adjusting the frequency to accommodate for this fluctuation can be difficult, and improper adjustments negatively impact the polarization. In response to this problem, a controller has been developed which automates the process of seeking and maintaining optimal frequency. The creation of such a controller has necessitated research into the correlation between microwave frequency and corresponding polarization growth or decay rates in DNP experiments. Knowledge gained from the research of this unique relationship has additionally lead to the development of a Monte-Carlo simulation which accurately models polarization as a function of frequency and a number of other parameters. The simulation and controller continue to be refined, however, recent DNP experimentation has confirmed the controller's effectiveness.

  1. Climate and chemistry effects of a regional scale nuclear conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenke, A.; Hoyle, C. R.; Luo, B.; Rozanov, E.; Gröbner, J.; Maag, L.; Brönnimann, S.; Peter, T.

    2013-05-01

    Previous studies have highlighted the severity of detrimental effects for life on Earth after an assumed regionally limited nuclear war. These effects are caused by climatic, chemical and radiative changes persisting for up to one decade. However, so far only a very limited number of climate model simulations have been performed, giving rise to the question how realistic previous computations have been. This study uses the coupled chemistry climate model (CCM) SOCOL, which belongs to a different family of CCMs than previously used, to investigate the consequences of such a hypothetical nuclear conflict. In accordance with previous studies, the present work assumes a scenario of a nuclear conflict between India and Pakistan, each applying 50 warheads with an individual blasting power of 15 kt ("Hiroshima size") against the major population centers, resulting in the emission of tiny soot particles, which are generated in the firestorms expected in the aftermath of the detonations. Substantial uncertainties related to the calculation of likely soot emissions, particularly concerning assumptions of target fuel loading and targeting of weapons, have been addressed by simulating several scenarios, with soot emissions ranging from 1 to 12 Tg. Their high absorptivity with respect to solar radiation leads to a tremendous self-lofting of the soot particles into the strato- and mesosphere, where they remain for several years. Consequently, the model suggests Earth's surface temperatures to drop by several degrees Celsius due to the shielding of solar irradiance by the soot, indicating a major global cooling. In addition, there is a substantial reduction of precipitation lasting 5 to 10 yr after the conflict, depending on the magnitude of the initial soot release. Extreme cold spells associated with massive sea ice formation are found during Northern Hemisphere winter, which expose the continental land masses of Northern America and Eurasia to chilling coldness. In the

  2. A Unique Master's Program in Combined Nuclear Technology and Nuclear Chemistry at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarnemark, Gunnar; Allard, Stefan; Ekberg, Christian; Nordlund, Anders

    2009-08-01

    The need for engineers and scientists who can ensure safe and secure use of nuclear energy is large in Sweden and internationally. Chalmers University of Technology is therefore launching a new 2-year master's program in Nuclear Engineering, with start from the autumn of 2009. The program is open to Swedish and foreign students. The program starts with compulsory courses dealing with the basics of nuclear chemistry and physics, radiation protection, nuclear power and reactors, nuclear fuel supply, nuclear waste management and nuclear safety and security. There are also compulsory courses in nuclear industry applications and sustainable energy futures. The subsequent elective courses can be chosen freely but there is also a possibility to choose informal tracks that concentrate on nuclear chemistry or reactor technology and physics. The nuclear chemistry track comprises courses in e.g. chemistry of lanthanides, actinides and transactinides, solvent extraction, radioecology and radioanalytical chemistry and radiopharmaceuticals. The program is finished with a one semester thesis project. This is probably a unique master program in the sense of its combination of deep courses in both nuclear technology and nuclear chemistry.

  3. Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report FY 1986, October 1985-September 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, J.H.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes progress in the major research and development programs carried out in FY 1986 by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division. The report includes articles on radiochemical diagnostics and weapons tests; weapons radiochemical diagnostics research and development; other unclassified weapons research; stable and radioactive isotope production and separation; chemical biology and nuclear medicine; element and isotope transport and fixation; actinide and transition metal chemistry; structural chemistry, spectroscopy, and applications; nuclear structure and reactions; irradiation facilities; advanced concepts and technology; and atmospheric chemistry.

  4. Climate and chemistry effects of a regional scale nuclear conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenke, A.; Hoyle, C. R.; Luo, B.; Rozanov, E.; Gröbner, J.; Maag, L.; Brönnimann, S.; Peter, T.

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have highlighted the severity of detrimental effects for life on earth after an assumed regionally limited nuclear war. These effects are caused by climatic, chemical and radiative changes persisting for up to one decade. However, so far only a very limited number of climate model simulations have been performed, giving rise to the question how realistic previous computations have been. This study uses the coupled chemistry climate model (CCM) SOCOL, which belongs to a different family of CCMs than previously used, to investigate the consequences of such a hypothetical nuclear conflict. In accordance with previous studies, the present work assumes a scenario of a nuclear conflict between India and Pakistan, each applying 50 warheads with an individual blasting power of 15 kt ("Hiroshima size") against the major population centers, resulting in the emission of tiny soot particles, which are generated in the firestorms expected in the aftermath of the detonations. Substantial uncertainties related to the calculation of likely soot emissions, particularly concerning assumptions of target fuel loading and targeting of weapons, have been addressed by simulating several scenarios, with soot emissions ranging from 1 to 12 Tg. Their high absorptivity with respect to solar radiation leads to a rapid self-lofting of the soot particles into the strato- and mesosphere within a few days after emission, where they remain for several years. Consequently, the model suggests earth's surface temperatures to drop by several degrees Celsius due to the shielding of solar irradiance by the soot, indicating a major global cooling. In addition, there is a substantial reduction of precipitation lasting 5 to 10 yr after the conflict, depending on the magnitude of the initial soot release. Extreme cold spells associated with an increase in sea ice formation are found during Northern Hemisphere winter, which expose the continental land masses of North America and Eurasia to a

  5. Groundwater chemistry of a nuclear waste reposoitory in granite bedrock

    SciTech Connect

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    This report concerns the prediction of the maximum dissolution rate for nuclear waste stored in the ground. That information is essential in judging the safety of a nuclear waste repository. With a limited groundwater flow, the maximum dissolution rate coincides with the maximum solubility. After considering the formation and composition of deep granite bedrock groundwater, the report discusses the maximum solubility in such groundwater of canister materials, matrix materials and waste elements. The parameters considered are pH, Eh and complex formation. The use of potential-pH (Pourbaix) diagrams is stressed; several appendixes are included to help in analyzing such diagrams. It is repeatedly found that desirable basic information on solution chemistry is lacking, and an international cooperative research effort is recommended. The report particularly stresses the lack of reliable data about complex formation and hydrolysis of the actinides. The Swedish Nuclear Fuel Safety (KBS) study has been used as a reference model. Notwithstanding the lack of reliable chemical data, particularly for the actinides and some fission products, a number of essential conclusions can be drawn about the waste handling model chosen by KBS. (1) Copper seems to be highly resistant to groundwater corrosion. (2) Lead and titanium are also resistant to groundwater, but inferior to copper. (3) Iron is not a suitable canister material. (4) Alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) is not a suitable canister material if groundwater pH goes up to or above 10. Alumina is superior to copper at pH < 9, if there is a risk of the groundwater becoming oxidizing. (5) The addition of vivianite (ferrous phosphate) to the clay backfill around the waste canisters improves the corrosion resistance of the metal canisters, and reduces the solubility of many important waste elements. This report does not treat the migration of dissolved species through the rock.

  6. The Heart of Matter: A Nuclear Chemistry Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viola, Vic

    This book is one in a series of Interdisciplinary Approaches to Chemistry (IAC) designed to help students discover that chemistry is a lively science and actively used to pursue solutions to the important problems of today. It is expected for students to see how chemistry takes place continuously all around and to readily understand the daily…

  7. Using Structure-Based Organic Chemistry Online Tutorials with Automated Correction for Student Practice and Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Timothy P.; Hargaden, Gra´inne C.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development and implementation of an open-access organic chemistry question bank for online tutorials and assessments at University College Cork and Dublin Institute of Technology. SOCOT (structure-based organic chemistry online tutorials) may be used to supplement traditional small-group tutorials, thereby allowing…

  8. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 13: Power Plant Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  9. Completely automated nuclear reactors for long-term operation

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E.; Ishikawa, M.; Wood, L.

    1996-01-01

    The authors discuss new types of nuclear fission reactors optimized for the generation of high-temperature heat for exceedingly safe, economic, and long-duration electricity production in large, long-lived central power stations. These reactors are quite different in design, implementation and operation from conventional light-water-cooled and -moderated reactors (LWRs) currently in widespread use, which were scaled-up from submarine nuclear propulsion reactors. They feature an inexpensive initial fuel loading which lasts the entire 30-year design life of the power-plant. The reactor contains a core comprised of a nuclear ignitor and a nuclear burn-wave propagating region comprised of natural thorium or uranium, a pressure shell for coolant transport purposes, and automatic emergency heat-dumping means to obviate concerns regarding loss-of-coolant accidents during the plant`s operational and post-operational life. These reactors are proposed to be situated in suitable environments at {approximately}100 meter depths underground, and their operation is completely automatic, with no moving parts and no human access during or after its operational lifetime, in order to avoid both error and misuse. The power plant`s heat engine and electrical generator subsystems are located above-ground.

  10. Automated Variance Reduction Applied to Nuclear Well-Logging Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, John C; Peplow, Douglas E.; Evans, Thomas M

    2009-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method enables detailed, explicit geometric, energy and angular representations, and hence is considered to be the most accurate method available for solving complex radiation transport problems. Because of its associated accuracy, the Monte Carlo method is widely used in the petroleum exploration industry to design, benchmark, and simulate nuclear well-logging tools. Nuclear well-logging tools, which contain neutron and/or gamma sources and two or more detectors, are placed in boreholes that contain water (and possibly other fluids) and that are typically surrounded by a formation (e.g., limestone, sandstone, calcites, or a combination). The response of the detectors to radiation returning from the surrounding formation is used to infer information about the material porosity, density, composition, and associated characteristics. Accurate computer simulation is a key aspect of this exploratory technique. However, because this technique involves calculating highly precise responses (at two or more detectors) based on radiation that has interacted with the surrounding formation, the transport simulations are computationally intensive, requiring significant use of variance reduction techniques, parallel computing, or both. Because of the challenging nature of these problems, nuclear well-logging problems have frequently been used to evaluate the effectiveness of variance reduction techniques (e.g., Refs. 1-4). The primary focus of these works has been on improving the computational efficiency associated with calculating the response at the most challenging detector location, which is typically the detector furthest from the source. Although the objective of nuclear well-logging simulations is to calculate the response at multiple detector locations, until recently none of the numerous variance reduction methods/techniques has been well-suited to simultaneous optimization of multiple detector (tally) regions. Therefore, a separate calculation is

  11. Automated Variance Reduction Applied to Nuclear Well-Logging Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, John C; Peplow, Douglas E.; Evans, Thomas M

    2008-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method enables detailed, explicit geometric, energy and angular representations, and hence is considered to be the most accurate method available for solving complex radiation transport problems. Because of its associated accuracy, the Monte Carlo method is widely used in the petroleum exploration industry to design, benchmark, and simulate nuclear well-logging tools. Nuclear well-logging tools, which contain neutron and/or gamma sources and two or more detectors, are placed in boreholes that contain water (and possibly other fluids) and that are typically surrounded by a formation (e.g., limestone, sandstone, calcites, or a combination). The response of the detectors to radiation returning from the surrounding formation is used to infer information about the material porosity, density, composition, and associated characteristics. Accurate computer simulation is a key aspect of this exploratory technique. However, because this technique involves calculating highly precise responses (at two or more detectors) based on radiation that has interacted with the surrounding formation, the transport simulations are computationally intensive, requiring significant use of variance reduction techniques, parallel computing, or both. Because of the challenging nature of these problems, nuclear well-logging problems have frequently been used to evaluate the effectiveness of variance reduction techniques (e.g., Refs. 1-4). The primary focus of these works has been on improving the computational efficiency associated with calculating the response at the most challenging detector location, which is typically the detector furthest from the source. Although the objective of nuclear well-logging simulations is to calculate the response at multiple detector locations, until recently none of the numerous variance reduction methods/techniques has been well-suited to simultaneous optimization of multiple detector (tally) regions. Therefore, a separate calculation is

  12. Uranium to Electricity: The Chemistry of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settle, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of a series of industrial processes that produce fuel for the production of electricity in nuclear reactors, use the fuel to generate electricity, and subsequently manage the spent reactor fuel. While the physics and engineering of controlled fission are central to the generation of nuclear power, chemistry…

  13. Politics, Chemistry, and the Discovery of Nuclear Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesner, Emilie; Settle, Frank A., Jr.

    2001-07-01

    The discovery of fission is an interesting scientific saga involving the fundamentals of chemistry and physics. It is played out in the late 1930s on a European stage. Lise Meitner and Otto Hahn head a cast of characters that include scientific notables Fritz Strassmann, Otto Frisch, James Chadwick, Enrico Fermi, Ida Noddack, Irene Curie, and Neils Bohr. The plot includes the scientific method, the interdependence of chemistry and physics, the influence of external politics, and human frailty. The events surrounding this discovery did not allow the scientists involved to receive equal recognition. Fortunately, the passage of time and extensive historical research are restoring equality.

  14. Object-oriented data handling system for an automated chemistry laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Medvick, P.A.; Mniszewski, S.M.; Beugelsdijk, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    The environmental-remediation efforts at DOE complexes require characterizing problems at each site before cleanup action. Characterization will require the chemical analysis of millions of samples at a significant cost. Automation of the required chemical analyses methods provides a cost-effective solution. An object-oriented approach was deemed necessary to allow for modularization, maintainability, reusability, and flexibility of the software and hardware. Each chemical analysis method is implemented as a Standard Analysis Method or SAM. A SAM is, in essence, a black box'' into which a sample enters at one end and chemical or physical information exits'' at the other. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Toward an Automated Analysis of Slow Ions in Nuclear Track Emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamatkulov, K. Z.; Kattabekov, R. R.; Ambrozova, I.; Artemenkov, D. A.; Bradnova, V.; Kamanin, D. V.; Majling, L.; Marey, A.; Ploc, O.; Rusakova, V. V.; Stanoeva, R.; Turek, K.; Zaitsev, A. A.; Zarubin, P. I.; Zarubina, I. G.

    Application of the nuclear track emulsion technique (NTE) in radioactivity and nuclear fission studies is discussed. It is suggested to use a HSP-1000 automated microscope for searching for a collinear cluster tri-partition of heavy nuclei implanted in NTE. Calibrations of α-particles and ion ranges in a novel NTE are carried out. Surface exposures of NTE samples to a 252Cf source started. Planar events containing fragments and long-range α-particles as well as fragment triples only are studied. NTE samples are calibrated by ions Kr and Xe of energy of 1.2 and 3 A MeV.

  16. Optimization of the water chemistry of the primary coolant at nuclear power plants with VVER

    SciTech Connect

    Barmin, L. F.; Kruglova, T. K.; Sinitsyn, V. P.

    2005-01-15

    Results of the use of automatic hydrogen-content meter for controlling the parameter of 'hydrogen' in the primary coolant circuit of the Kola nuclear power plant are presented. It is shown that the correlation between the 'hydrogen' parameter in the coolant and the 'hydrazine' parameter in the makeup water can be used for controlling the water chemistry of the primary coolant system, which should make it possible to optimize the water chemistry at different power levels.

  17. Experimental study of quantum simulation for quantum chemistry with a nuclear magnetic resonance simulator.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dawei; Xu, Nanyang; Xu, Boruo; Li, Zhaokai; Chen, Hongwei; Peng, Xinhua; Xu, Ruixue; Du, Jiangfeng

    2012-10-13

    Quantum computers have been proved to be able to mimic quantum systems efficiently in polynomial time. Quantum chemistry problems, such as static molecular energy calculations and dynamical chemical reaction simulations, become very intractable on classical computers with scaling up of the system. Therefore, quantum simulation is a feasible and effective approach to tackle quantum chemistry problems. Proof-of-principle experiments have been implemented on the calculation of the hydrogen molecular energies and one-dimensional chemical isomerization reaction dynamics using nuclear magnetic resonance systems. We conclude that quantum simulation will surpass classical computers for quantum chemistry in the near future. PMID:22946038

  18. molSimplify: A toolkit for automating discovery in inorganic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Efthymios I; Gani, Terry Z H; Kulik, Heather J

    2016-08-15

    We present an automated, open source toolkit for the first-principles screening and discovery of new inorganic molecules and intermolecular complexes. Challenges remain in the automatic generation of candidate inorganic molecule structures due to the high variability in coordination and bonding, which we overcome through a divide-and-conquer tactic that flexibly combines force-field preoptimization of organic fragments with alignment to first-principles-trained metal-ligand distances. Exploration of chemical space is enabled through random generation of ligands and intermolecular complexes from large chemical databases. We validate the generated structures with the root mean squared (RMS) gradients evaluated from density functional theory (DFT), which are around 0.02 Ha/au across a large 150 molecule test set. Comparison of molSimplify results to full optimization with the universal force field reveals that RMS DFT gradients are improved by 40%. Seamless generation of input files, preparation and execution of electronic structure calculations, and post-processing for each generated structure aids interpretation of underlying chemical and energetic trends. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27364957

  19. Automated nuclear material recovery and decontamination of large steel dynamic experiment containers

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, D.K.; Gallant, D.A.; Nelson, D.C.; Stovall, L.A.; Wedman, D.E.

    1999-03-01

    A key mission of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is to reduce the global nuclear danger through stockpile stewardship efforts that ensure the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons. In support of this mission LANL performs dynamic experiments on special nuclear materials (SNM) within large steel containers. Once these experiments are complete, these containers must be processed to recover residual SNM and to decontaminate the containers to below low level waste (LLW) disposal limits which are much less restrictive for disposal purposes than transuranic (TRU) waste limits. The purpose of this paper is to describe automation efforts being developed by LANL for improving the efficiency, increasing worker safety, and reducing worker exposure during the material cleanout and recovery activities performed on these containers.

  20. Learning Nuclear Chemistry through Practice: A High School Student Project Using PET in a Clinical Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liguori, Lucia; Adamsen, Tom Christian Holm

    2013-01-01

    Practical experience is vital for promoting interest in science. Several aspects of chemistry are rarely taught in the secondary school curriculum, especially nuclear and radiochemistry. Therefore, we introduced radiochemistry to secondary school students through positron emission tomography (PET) associated with computer tomography (CT). PET-CT…

  1. Identifying Students' Misconceptions about Nuclear Chemistry: A Study of Turkish High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakiboglu, Canan; Tekin, Berna Bulbul

    2006-01-01

    This study represents the first attempt to elucidate and detail the types of misconceptions high school students hold relating to basic concepts and topics of nuclear chemistry. A diagnostic multiple-choice test was administered to 157 tenth-grade students (15-16 years old) and the data were analyzed. The results show that high school students…

  2. Automated local bright feature image analysis of nuclear proteindistribution identifies changes in tissue phenotype

    SciTech Connect

    Knowles, David; Sudar, Damir; Bator, Carol; Bissell, Mina

    2006-02-01

    The organization of nuclear proteins is linked to cell and tissue phenotypes. When cells arrest proliferation, undergo apoptosis, or differentiate, the distribution of nuclear proteins changes. Conversely, forced alteration of the distribution of nuclear proteins modifies cell phenotype. Immunostaining and fluorescence microscopy have been critical for such findings. However, there is an increasing need for quantitative analysis of nuclear protein distribution to decipher epigenetic relationships between nuclear structure and cell phenotype, and to unravel the mechanisms linking nuclear structure and function. We have developed imaging methods to quantify the distribution of fluorescently-stained nuclear protein NuMA in different mammary phenotypes obtained using three-dimensional cell culture. Automated image segmentation of DAPI-stained nuclei was generated to isolate thousands of nuclei from three-dimensional confocal images. Prominent features of fluorescently-stained NuMA were detected using a novel local bright feature analysis technique, and their normalized spatial density calculated as a function of the distance from the nuclear perimeter to its center. The results revealed marked changes in the distribution of the density of NuMA bright features as non-neoplastic cells underwent phenotypically normal acinar morphogenesis. In contrast, we did not detect any reorganization of NuMA during the formation of tumor nodules by malignant cells. Importantly, the analysis also discriminated proliferating non-neoplastic cells from proliferating malignant cells, suggesting that these imaging methods are capable of identifying alterations linked not only to the proliferation status but also to the malignant character of cells. We believe that this quantitative analysis will have additional applications for classifying normal and pathological tissues.

  3. Chemistry of fission product iodine under nuclear reactor accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Malinauskas, A.P.; Bell, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    The radioisotopes of iodine are generally acknowledged to be the species whose release into the biosphere as a result of a nuclear reactor accident is of the greatest concern. In the course of its release, the fission product is subjected to differing chemical environments; these can alter the physicochemical form of the fission product and thus modify the manner and extent to which release occurs. Both the chemical environments which are characteristic of reactor accidents and their effect in determining physical and chemical form of fission product iodine have been studied extensively, and are reviewed in this report. 76 refs.

  4. Microwave-Assisted Sample Treatment in a Fully Automated Flow-Based Instrument: Oxidation of Reduced Technetium Species in the Analysis of Total Technetium-99 in Caustic Aged Nuclear Waste Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, Oleg B.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Grate, Jay W.

    2004-07-15

    An automated flow-based instrument for microwave-assisted treatment of liquid samples has been developed and characterized. The instrument utilizes a flow-through reaction vessel design that facilitates the addition of multiple reagents during sample treatment, removal of the gaseous reaction products, and enables quantitative removal of liquids from the reaction vessel for carryover-free operations. Matrix modification and speciation control chemistries that are required for the radiochemical determination of total 99Tc in caustic aged nuclear waste samples have been investigated. A rapid and quantitative oxidation procedure using peroxydisulfate in acidic solution was developed to convert reduced technetium species to pertechnetate in samples with high content of reducing organics. The effectiveness of the automated sample treatment procedures has been validated in the radiochemical analysis of total 99Tc in caustic aged nuclear waste matrixes from the Hanford site.

  5. Research in nuclear chemistry. Progress report. [Bio Rex-70

    SciTech Connect

    Choppin, Gregory R.

    1980-01-01

    The research is concerned primarily with complexes in aqueous solution of actinide elements. Actinides in the trivalent oxidation state have been studied more than species in other valence states. Similar systems have also been investigated for the trivalent lanthanides. Since 15 lanthanides can be studied using a wider variety of techniques than feasible with the actinides (e.g., NMR), comparison of these closely related families of elements using the greater amount and variety of lanthanide data provides better understanding of actinide behavior. The studies have included measurements of the thermodynamic parameters of complexation for both inorganic and organic ligands, of the kinetics of complexation, of the spectroscopic properties of complex species using f reverse arrow f electronic transitions, of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the complexed ligands and of binding to natural polyelectrolytes such as humic acid.

  6. SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL STORAGE BASIN WATER CHEMISTRY: ELECTROCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF ALUMINUM CORROSION

    SciTech Connect

    Hathcock, D

    2007-10-30

    The factors affecting the optimal water chemistry of the Savannah River Site spent fuel storage basin must be determines in order to optimize facility efficiency, minimize fuel corrosion, and reduce overall environmental impact from long term spent nuclear fuel storage at the Savannah River Site. The Savannah River National Laboratory is using statistically designed experiments to study the effects of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and Cl{sup -} concentrations on alloys commonly used not only as fuel cladding, but also as rack construction materials The results of cyclic polarization pitting and corrosion experiments on samples of Al 6061 and 1100 alloys will be used to construct a predictive model of the basin corrosion and its dependence on the species in the basin. The basin chemistry model and corrosion will be discussed in terms of optimized water chemistry envelope and minimization of cladding corrosion.

  7. Underscoring the Influence of Inorganic Chemistry on Nuclear Imaging with Radiometals

    PubMed Central

    Zeglis, Brian M.; Houghton, Jacob L.; Evans, Michael J.; Viola-Villegas, Nerissa; Lewis, Jason S.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past several decades, radionuclides have matured from largely esoteric and experimental technologies to indispensible components of medical diagnostics. Driving this transition, in part, have been mutually necessary advances in biomedical engineering, nuclear medicine, and cancer biology. Somewhat unsung has been the seminal role of inorganic chemistry in fostering the development of new radiotracers. In this regard, the purpose of this Forum Article is to more visibly highlight the significant contributions of inorganic chemistry to nuclear imaging by detailing the development of five metal-based imaging agents: 64Cu-ATSM, 68Ga-DOTATOC, 89Zr-transferrin, 99mTc-sestamibi, and 99mTc-colloids. In a concluding section, several unmet needs both in and out of the laboratory will be discussed to stimulate conversation between inorganic chemists and the imaging community. PMID:24313747

  8. Oregon State University nuclear chemistry progress report, August 1, 1992--July 1, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Loveland, W.

    1993-07-01

    This report discusses the following topics related to nuclear chemistry: Element 110; synthesis of heavy nuclei with complete fusion reactions involving radioactive nuclear beams; the interaction of 21--44 MeV/nucleon Xe with Au; MeV/nucleon {sup 86}Kr with {sup 197}Au; intermediate energy Ar-Th collisions; target-like fragments from the interaction of 29 MeV/nucleon {sup 208}Pb with {sup 197}Au; the intermediate of 22 and 32 MeV/nucleon {sup 16}O with {sup 197}Au; Au projectile fragmentation at 20 MeV/nucleon; relativistic heavy ion research; and pulse height defect measurements for very heavy ions.

  9. A Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS) for accountability monitoring of stored nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, C.A.; Barham, M.A.; Gafford, T.A.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Jordan, J.K.; Maxey, L.C.; Moran, B.W.; Muhs, J.; Nodine, R.; Simpson, M.L.

    1994-12-08

    Nearly all facilities that store hazardous (radioactive or non-radioactive) materials must comply with prevailing federal, state, and local laws. These laws usually have components that require periodic physical inspections to insure that all materials remain safely and securely stored. The inspections are generally labor intensive, slow, put personnel at risk, and only find anomalies after they have occurred. The system described in this paper was developed for monitoring stored nuclear materials resulting from weapons dismantlement, but its applications extend to any storage facility that meets the above criteria. The traditional special nuclear material (SNM) accountability programs, that are currently used within most of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, require the physical entry of highly trained personnel into SNM storage vaults. This imposes the need for additional security measures, which typically mandate that extra security personnel be present while SNM inventories are performed. These requirements increase labor costs and put additional personnel at risk to radiation exposure. In some cases, individuals have received radiation exposure equivalent to the annual maximum during just one inventory verification. With increasing overhead costs, the current system is rapidly becoming too expensive to operate, the need for an automated method of inventory verification is evident. The Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS) described in this paper was designed and prototyped as a low cost, highly reliable, and user friendly system that is capable of providing, real-time weight, gamma. and neutron energy confirmation from each item stored in a SNM vault. This paper describes the sensor technologies, the CAVIS prototype system (built at Y- 12 for highly enriched uranium storage), the technical requirements that must be achieved to assure successful implementation, and descriptions of sensor technologies needed for a plutonium facility.

  10. Advanced Experiments in Nuclear Science, Volume I: Advanced Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Jerome L.; And Others

    The experiments in this manual represent state-of-the-art techniques which should be within the budgetary constraints of a college physics or chemistry department. There are fourteen experiments divided into five modules. The modules are on X-ray fluorescence, charged particle detection, neutron activation analysis, X-ray attenuation, and…

  11. Inorganic chemistry in nuclear imaging and radiotherapy: current and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Valerie; Demoin, Dustin W.; Hoffman, Timothy J; Jurisson, Silvia S

    2013-01-01

    Summary Radiometals play an important role in diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. This field of radiochemistry is multidisciplinary, involving radiometal production, separation of the radiometal from its target, chelate design for complexing the radiometal in a biologically stable environment, specific targeting of the radiometal to its in vivo site, and nuclear imaging and/or radiotherapy applications of the resultant radiopharmaceutical. The critical importance of inorganic chemistry in the design and application of radiometal-containing imaging and therapy agents is described from a historical perspective to future directions. PMID:25382874

  12. Application of Radiation Chemistry to Some Selected Technological Issues Related to the Development of Nuclear Energy.

    PubMed

    Bobrowski, Krzysztof; Skotnicki, Konrad; Szreder, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    The most important contributions of radiation chemistry to some selected technological issues related to water-cooled reactors, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes, and fuel evolution during final radioactive waste disposal are highlighted. Chemical reactions occurring at the operating temperatures and pressures of reactors and involving primary transients and stable products from water radiolysis are presented and discussed in terms of the kinetic parameters and radiation chemical yields. The knowledge of these parameters is essential since they serve as input data to the models of water radiolysis in the primary loop of light water reactors and super critical water reactors. Selected features of water radiolysis in heterogeneous systems, such as aqueous nanoparticle suspensions and slurries, ceramic oxides surfaces, nanoporous, and cement-based materials, are discussed. They are of particular concern in the primary cooling loops in nuclear reactors and long-term storage of nuclear waste in geological repositories. This also includes radiation-induced processes related to corrosion of cladding materials and copper-coated iron canisters, dissolution of spent nuclear fuel, and changes of bentonite clays properties. Radiation-induced processes affecting stability of solvents and solvent extraction ligands as well oxidation states of actinide metal ions during recycling of the spent nuclear fuel are also briefly summarized. PMID:27573502

  13. Use of standards in nuclear analytical chemistry at ORNL - a historical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, F.F.

    1994-12-31

    Standards, the glue that holds empirical science together, have long been recognized as important in nuclear analytical chemistry at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). From the earliest days of the nuclear analytical program at ORNL, personnel have been vigorously involved with the evaluation of decay schemes and half-lives to improve radioactive standards. One of the more interesting uses of standards at ORNL was in the Apollo program, where radionuclides were determined in moon rocks by measuring samples containing known amounts of radionuclides that simulated the actual samples in size and shape. This paper briefly reviews some of the early uses of standards at ORNL and contrasts the application of standards in some current work in multielement neutron activation analysis (NAA) that uses germanium gamma-ray detectors with similar work that was performed in the 1960s that made use of NaI(Tl) detectors.

  14. Dose reduction through automation of nuclear weapons dismantlement and storage procedures at the Department of Energy`s Pantex Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.A.; Poston, J.W.

    1996-06-01

    With the end of the Cold War and the subsequent break up of the Soviet Union, the number of weapons in the nuclear stockpile now greatly exceeds any foreseeable future need. To compensate for this excess an estimated 20,000 nuclear warheads have been earmarked for dismantlement and storage at the Department of Energy`s Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. It is anticipated that the majority of these warheads will arrive at the Pantex facility by the year 2000. At that time, it is estimated that current dismantlement and inventory procedures will not be adequate to control worker radiation exposure within administrative and federal dose limits. To control these exposures alternate approaches to dismantlement and inventory must be developed. One attractive approach is to automate as many activities as possible, thus reducing worker exposure. To facilitate automation of dismantlement and storage procedures, current procedures were investigated in terms of collective dose to workers, time to completion, ease of completion, and cost of automation for each task. A cost-benefit comparison was then performed in order to determine which procedures would be most cost-effective to automate.

  15. Exploring hypothetical learning progressions for the chemistry of nitrogen and nuclear processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Deborah McKern

    Chemistry is a bridge that connects a number of scientific disciplines. High school students should be able to determine whether scientific information is accurate, how chemistry applies to daily life, and the mechanism by which systems operate (NRC, 2012). This research focuses on describing hypothetical learning progressions for student understanding of the chemical reactions of nitrogen and nuclear processes and examines whether there is consistency in scientific reasoning between these two distinct conceptual areas. The constant comparative method was used to analyze the written products of students including homework, formative and summative tests, laboratory notebooks, reflective journals, written presentations, and discussion board contributions via Edmodo (an online program). The ten participants were 15 and 16 year old students enrolled in a general high school chemistry course. Instruction took place over a ten week period. The learning progression levels ranged from 0 to 4 and were described as missing, novice, intermediate, proficient, and expert. The results were compared to the standards set by the NRC with a lower anchor (expectations for grade 8) and upper anchor (expectations for grade 12). The results indicate that, on average, students were able to reach an intermediate level of understanding for these concepts.

  16. NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY OF WATER-COOLED FUSION REACTORS: ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, Andrei Y; Flanagan, George F

    2010-01-01

    ITER is an experimental Tokamak fusion energy reactor that is being built in Cadarache, France, in collaboration with seven agencies representing China, the European Union, India, Japan, Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, and the United States. The main objective of ITER is to demonstrate the scientific and technical feasibility of a controlled fusion reaction An important U.S. contribution is the design, fabrication, and delivery of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS). This paper describes the main sources of radioactivity in TCWS water, which are the nitrogen isotopes 16N and 17N, tritium, activated corrosion products, and the carbon isotope 14C; the relative contribution of each of these sources to the total radioactive contamination of water; issues related to excess accumulation of these species; and methods to control TCWS radioactivity within acceptable limits. Among these methods are: (1) water purification to minimize corrosion of materials in contact with TCWS water; (2) monitoring of vital chemistry parameters and control of water chemistry; (3) design of proper building structure and/or TCWS loop/geometry configuration; and (4) design of an ITER liquid radwaste facility tailored to TCWS operational requirements. Design of TCWS nuclear chemistry control is crucial to ensuring that the inventory of radioactive species is consistent with the principle of 'As Low as Reasonably Achievable.'

  17. Development of an automated multisample scanning system for nuclear track etched detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawara, H.; Eda, K.; Takahashi, K.; Doke, T.; Hasebe, N.; Kodaira, S.; Ota, S.; Kurano, M.; Yasuda, N.

    2008-08-01

    We have developed an automated scanning system for handling a large number of nuclear track etched detectors (NTEDs). The system consists of a magazine station for sample storage, a robotic sample loader, a high-speed wide-area digital imaging microscope device (modified HSP-1000) and PitFit software for analyzing etch pits. We investigated the performance of the system using CR-39 plastic NTED samples exposed to high-energy heavy ions and fast neutrons. When applying the system to fast neutron dosimetry, the typical scanning speed was about 100 samples/day with a scan area of 4 cm 2/sample. The neutron doses obtained from a fully automatic measurement agreed closely with those from a semi-automatic measurement. These results indicate the feasibility of fully automatic scanning of CR-39 personal neutron dosimeters. The system is also expected to be applicable to future large-scale experiments using CR-39 plastic and BP-1 glass NTEDs for observing ultraheavy galactic cosmic rays with high mass resolution.

  18. Automated system for controlling authorization, identification, and entry into nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    An automated access control system developed at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant is described. This system enables the facility management to control who has access to sensitive areas at specific times, control the authority to grant access to individuals with cross-checks and verification, and provide positive identification of personnel obtaining entry, as well as an auditable record of all entry events. The individual seeking access enters his memorized identification number into a key pad in the entry booth. Positive verification of the identity claimed is obtained by a voice verification system which compares the sample response obtained at the time of entry with the individual's voice print reference file. The identified user is then issued a temporary proximity card key which will activate the door entry controls into authorized areas. The computerized system provides real-time entry inventory of personnel and controls individual area and personnel authorizations on a need-to-enter basis. The system was installed in 1979 and has been operated on a developmental basis since that time. The system controls access to an industrial area which has a total of fourteen separate and individually controlled subareas containing a combined total of twenty-four doors. Approximately five-hundred people are currently enrolled and using the system. Extended tests requiring 100% participation by employees are currently in progress.

  19. Introduction of water chemistry conditions of the secondary coolant circuit with metering organic amines at nuclear power stations equipped with VVER-1000 reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyapkov, V. F.; Erpyleva, S. F.; Bykova, V. V.

    2009-05-01

    Results from introduction of new water chemistry conditions involving metering of organic amines (morpholine and ethanolamine) at nuclear power stations equipped with VVER-1000 reactors are presented.

  20. Technetium chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, C.; Bryan, J.; Cotton, F.; Ott, K.; Kubas, G.; Haefner, S.; Barrera, J.; Hall, K.; Burrell, A.

    1996-04-01

    Technetium chemistry is a young and developing field. Despite the limited knowledge of its chemistry, technetium is the workhorse for nuclear medicine. Technetium is also a significant environmental concern because it is formed as a byproduct of nuclear weapons production and fission-power generators. Development of new technetium radio-pharmaceuticals and effective environmental control depends strongly upon knowledge of basic technetium chemistry. The authors performed research into the basic coordination and organometallic chemistry of technetium and used this knowledge to address nuclear medicine and environmental applications. This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  1. What Are They Thinking? Automated Analysis of Student Writing about Acid-Base Chemistry in Introductory Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna B.; Moscarella, Rosa A.; Merrill, John; Urban-Lurain, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Students' writing can provide better insight into their thinking than can multiple-choice questions. However, resource constraints often prevent faculty from using writing assessments in large undergraduate science courses. We investigated the use of computer software to analyze student writing and to uncover student ideas about chemistry in an…

  2. Process automation

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Process automation technology has been pursued in the chemical processing industries and to a very limited extent in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Its effective use has been restricted in the past by the lack of diverse and reliable process instrumentation and the unavailability of sophisticated software designed for process control. The Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in part to demonstrate new concepts for control of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A demonstration of fuel reprocessing equipment automation using advanced instrumentation and a modern, microprocessor-based control system is nearing completion in the facility. This facility provides for the synergistic testing of all chemical process features of a prototypical fuel reprocessing plant that can be attained with unirradiated uranium-bearing feed materials. The unique equipment and mission of the IET facility make it an ideal test bed for automation studies. This effort will provide for the demonstration of the plant automation concept and for the development of techniques for similar applications in a full-scale plant. A set of preliminary recommendations for implementing process automation has been compiled. Some of these concepts are not generally recognized or accepted. The automation work now under way in the IET facility should be useful to others in helping avoid costly mistakes because of the underutilization or misapplication of process automation. 6 figs.

  3. An expert system assistant to support the secondary side chemistry control of a nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Roberge, P.R.; Price, B.; Daniel, C.M.; Dymarski, M.J.

    1992-12-31

    The dynamic control of the water chemistry of the secondary side normally relies on sophisticated trend analysis of the various control and diagnostic parameters performed by a specialized technical person. In order to introduce into the control loop some elements of intelligence that escape traditional algorithms, a methodology had to be developed to care for the unforgivingness of computerized reasoning. The vast amount of information produced at nuclear power generating stations by the current addition of on-line analyzers can be managed by the implementation of what knowledge engineers call expert systems (ES). In order to make use of the numerous advantages ES offer over other methods which have traditionally been applied to perform preventive maintenance diagnosis the operational expertise had to be circumscribed and formatted the fit into the symbolic ES architecture.

  4. SPATIALLY RESOLVED CHEMISTRY IN NEARBY GALAXIES. II. THE NUCLEAR BAR IN MAFFEI 2

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, David S.; Turner, Jean L. E-mail: turner@astro.ucla.edu

    2012-08-20

    We present 2''-10'' imaging of 11 transitions from 9 molecular species across the nuclear bar in Maffei 2. The data were obtained with the BIMA and OVRO interferometers. The 10 detected transitions are compared with existing CO isotopologues, HCN, CS, and millimeter continuum data. Dramatic spatial variations among the mapped species are observed across the nuclear bar. A principal component analysis is performed to characterize correlations between the transitions, star formation, and molecular column density. The analysis reveals that HCN, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and 3 mm continuum are tightly correlated, indicating a direct connection to massive star formation. We find two main morphologically distinct chemical groups, CH{sub 3}OH, SiO, and HNCO comprising the grain chemistry molecules, versus HCN, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and C{sub 2}H, molecules strong in the presence of star formation. The grain chemistry molecules, HNCO, CH{sub 3}OH, and SiO, trace hydrodynamical bar shocks. The near constancy of the HNCO/CH{sub 3}OH, SiO/CH{sub 3}OH, and SiO/HNCO ratios argues that shock properties are uniform across the nucleus. HCN/HCO{sup +}, HCN/HNC, HCN/CS, and HCN/CO ratios are explained primarily by variations in density. High HCO{sup +}/N{sub 2}H{sup +} ratios are correlated with the C{sub 2}H line, suggesting that this ratio may be a powerful new dense photon-dominated region probe in external galaxies. C{sub 2}H reveals a molecular outflow along the minor axis. The morphology and kinematics of the outflow are consistent with an outflow age of 6-7 Myr.

  5. Nuclear Spin Dependent Chemistry of the Trihydrogen Cation in Diffuse Interstellar Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, Kyle

    2015-05-01

    The trihydrogen cation, H3+,long thought to be the species responsible for initiating ion-molecule chemistry in the interstellar medium, was first observed in interstellar clouds twenty years ago. Since its detection, this cation has been used to infer temperatures, densities, cloud sizes, and the local cosmic ray ionization rate. However, in diffuse molecular clouds the excitation temperature of its two nuclear spin modifications, ortho (I = 3 / 2) and para-H3+(I = 1 / 2) is found to differ markedly from the cloud kinetic temperature inferred from the spin modifications of molecular hydrogen (H2) in the same environment. A steady state analysis of the chemical kinetics of ortho and para-H3+suggests that the interplay of thermalizing collisions with H2 and nuclear spin dependent dissociative recombination with electrons may result in a nonthermal excitation temperature. Each of these processes is complex. Collisions between H3+and H2 must obey selection rules based on conservation of nuclear spin angular momentum, and the allowed spin conversion reactions, which proceed through the fluxional (H5+)* intermediate, each have different statistical weights and energetic requirements. Meanwhile, theoretical and experimental studies of H3+electron recombination carried out over the past 40 years have yielded rates that span 4 orders of magnitude in range. We will present experimental measurements of the nuclear spin dependence of the reactions of H3+with H2 and with electrons, as well as astronomical observations of H3+in diffuse molecular clouds and time-dependent chemical modeling of these environments. Astrochemical models incorporating the latest experimental data still do not satisfactorily explain the observed excitation temperature in diffuse molecular clouds, and point to the need for state-selective measurements of the H3+electron recombination rate.

  6. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with an automated control feedback system for investigating nitrate radical surface chemistry reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flemmer, Michael M.; Ham, Jason E.

    2012-08-01

    Nitrate radical (NO3•) surface chemistry of indoor environments has not been well studied due to the difficulty in generating and maintaining NO3• at low concentrations for long term exposures. This article presents the Surface Chemistry Reactant Air Delivery and Experiment System (SCRADES), a novel feedback controlled system developed to deliver nitrate radicals at specified concentrations (50-500 ppt, ±30 ppt) and flow rates (500-2000 ml min-1) to a variety of indoor surfaces to initiate reaction chemistry for periods of up to 72 h. The system uses a cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS), with a detection limit of 1.7 ppt, to measure the concentration of NO3• supplied to a 24 l experiment chamber. Nitrate radicals are introduced via thermal decomposition of N2O5 and diluted with clean dry air until the desired concentration is achieved. Additionally, this article addresses details concerning NO3• loss through the system, consistency of the NO3• concentration delivered, and stability of the CRDS cavity over long exposure durations (72 h).

  7. The Chemistry os Spent Nuclear Fuel From X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    F.A. Fortner; A.J. Kropf; J.C. Cunnane

    2006-09-21

    Present and future nuclear fuel cycles will require an understanding of the complex chemistry of trace fission products and transuranium actinides in spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Because of the unique analytical challenges presented by SNF to the materials scientist, many of its fundamental physical and chemical properties remain poorly understood, especially on the microscopic scale. Such an understanding of the chemical states of radionuclides in SNF would benefit development of technologies for fuel monitoring, fuel performance improvement and modeling, fuel reprocessing, and spent fuel storage and disposal. We have recently demonstrated the use of synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to examine crystal chemical properties of actinides and fission products in extracted specimens of SNF. Information obtained includes oxidation state, chemical bond coordination, and quantitative elemental concentration and distribution. We have also used XAS in a scanning mode to obtain x-ray spectral micrographs with resolution approaching 1 micron. A brief overview of the technique will be presented, along with findings on uranium, plutonium, neptunium, technetium, and molybdenum in commercial PWR SNF specimens.

  8. Neutron and nuclear data revised for the 1997/98 handbook of chemistry and physics

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1997-07-01

    The 1997/98 Handbook of Chemistry and Physics will contain revised nuclear data information dealing with scattering and absorption properties of neutrons. All of these nuclear data were recently reevaluated. The 2,200 meter per second neutron cross sections and the neutron resonance integrals evaluation was performed in conjunction with the 1997 KAPL Wall-Chart of the Nuclides to insure consistency in the recommended values in the Handbook and on the Chart. The 2,200 meters per second neutron cross sections presented in the Handbook correspond to room temperature neutrons, 20.43 C, or a thermal neutron energy of 0.0253 electron volts, (eV). Neutron resonance integrals are defined over the energy range from 0.5 eV up to 0.1 {times} 10{sup 6} eV. They are averaged over a flux spectrum with a 1/E shape. Evaluated experimental data are derived from either a direct measurement or from 1/E spectrum averaged resonance parameter information. Resonance integrals are presented for neutron capture, charged particle or neutron fission reactions. Thermal neutron scattering is used for the investigation of the static and dynamic properties of condensed matter and it requires a knowledge of neutron scattering lengths. The Handbook presents bound atom neutron coherent scattering lengths in units of fentometers. Stellar slow neutron capture processes occur in a thermal neutron spectrum with temperatures approximately 30 keV. 30 keV Maxwellian averaged neutron cross sections for astrophysical applications are a new parameter presented in the 78th edition of the Handbook. No new parameters will be added to the Table of Isotopes` nuclear information but revised values will be provided for parameters of all known nuclides of the 112 chemical elements.

  9. Nuclear chemistry research and spectroscopy with radioactive sources. Twenty-first annual progress report, February 1, 1985-January 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, R.W.

    1985-08-31

    The nuclear chemistry group in the School of Chemistry continues investigating the radioactive decay of nuclei far from stability under this DOE contract. These nuclei are produced with heavy ions from the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) and studied on-line with the University Isotope Separator at Oak Ridge (UNISOR). Radioactive decay represents a unique method for the population of low-energy, low-spin structures in nuclei, and new phenomena which do not occur near stability can be explored. Our research encompasses three aspects of nuclear structure: (1) nuclear spectroscopy with detailed elelt, e elt, Xelt, etc., multiparameter coincidence spectrometry; (2) on-line laser hyperfine structure (hfs) and isotope shift measurements for the determination of nuclear quadrupole moments, nuclear spins, and changes in mean nuclear charge radii as a means of revealing systematic shape changes in nuclei; and (3) theoretical calculations of predictions of nuclear models for comparison with experimental level structures in nuclei studied at UNISOR. 20 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Miniaturizing and automation of free acidity measurements for uranium (VI)-HNO3 solutions: Development of a new sequential injection analysis for a sustainable radio-analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Néri-Quiroz, José; Canto, Fabrice; Guillerme, Laurent; Couston, Laurent; Magnaldo, Alastair; Dugas, Vincent

    2016-10-01

    A miniaturized and automated approach for the determination of free acidity in solutions containing uranium (VI) is presented. The measurement technique is based on the concept of sequential injection analysis with on-line spectroscopic detection. The proposed methodology relies on the complexation and alkalimetric titration of nitric acid using a pH 5.6 sodium oxalate solution. The titration process is followed by UV/VIS detection at 650nm thanks to addition of Congo red as universal pH indicator. Mixing sequence as well as method validity was investigated by numerical simulation. This new analytical design allows fast (2.3min), reliable and accurate free acidity determination of low volume samples (10µL) containing uranium/[H(+)] moles ratio of 1:3 with relative standard deviation of <7.0% (n=11). The linearity range of the free nitric acid measurement is excellent up to 2.77molL(-1) with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.995. The method is specific, presence of actinide ions up to 0.54molL(-1) does not interfere on the determination of free nitric acid. In addition to automation, the developed sequential injection analysis method greatly improves the standard off-line oxalate complexation and alkalimetric titration method by reducing thousand fold the required sample volume, forty times the nuclear waste per analysis as well as the analysis time by eight fold. These analytical parameters are important especially in nuclear-related applications to improve laboratory safety, personnel exposure to radioactive samples and to drastically reduce environmental impacts or analytical radioactive waste. PMID:27474315

  11. Chemistry of diagenetically altered tuffs at a potential nuclear waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Broxton, D.E.; Warren, R.G.; Hagan, R.C.; Luedemann, G.

    1986-10-01

    The chemistry of diagenetically altered tuffs at a potential nuclear waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nevada is described. These tuffs contain substantial amounts of zeolites that are highly sorptive of certain radionuclides. Because of their widespread distribution, the zeolitic tuffs could provide important barriers to radionuclide migration. Physical properties of these tuffs and of their constituent zeolites are influenced by their chemical compositions. This study defines the amount of chemical variability within diagenetically altered tuffs and within diagenetic minerals at Yucca Mountain. Zeolitic tuffs at Yucca Mountain formed by diagenetic alteration of rhyolitic vitric tuffs. Despite their similar starting compositions, these tuffs developed compositions that vary both vertically and laterally. Widespread chemical variations were the result of open-system chemical diagenesis in which chemical components of the tuffs were mobilized and redistributed by groundwaters. Alkalies, alkaline earths, and silica were the most mobile elements during diagenesis. The zeolitic tuffs can be divided into three compositional groups: (1) calcium- and magnesium-rich tuffs associated with relatively thin zones of alteration in the unsaturated zone; (2) tuffs in thick zones of alteration at and below the water table that grade laterally from sodic compositions on the western side of Yucca Mountain to calcic compositions on the eastern side; and (3) potassic tuffs at the north end of Yucca Mountain. Physical properties of tuffs and their consistuent zeolites at Yucca Mountain may be affected by variations in compositions. Properties important for assessment of repository performance include behavior and ion exchange.

  12. Automated Targeting of Cells to Electrochemical Electrodes Using a Surface Chemistry Approach for the Measurement of Quantal Exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Here, we describe a method to fabricate a multichannel high-throughput microchip device for the measurement of quantal transmitter release from individual cells. Instead of bringing carbon-fiber electrodes to cells, the device uses a surface chemistry approach to bring cells to an array of electrochemical microelectrodes. The microelectrodes are small and cytophilic in order to promote adhesion of a single cell, whereas all other areas of the chip are covered with a thin cytophobic film to block cell attachement and facilitate the movement of cells to electrodes. This cytophobic film also insulates unused areas of the conductive film; thus, the alignment of cell docking sites to working electrodes is automatic. Amperometric spikes resulting from single-granule fusion events were recorded on the device and had amplitudes and kinetics similar to those measured using carbon-fiber microelectrodes. Use of this device will increase the pace of basic neuroscience research and may also find applications in drug discovery or validation. PMID:21113333

  13. Exposing Exposure: Enhancing Patient Safety through Automated Data Mining of Nuclear Medicine Reports for Quality Assurance and Organ Dose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Ikuta, Ichiro; Wasser, Elliot J.; Warden, Graham I.; Gerbaudo, Victor H.; Khorasani, Ramin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and validate an open-source informatics toolkit capable of creating a radiation exposure data repository from existing nuclear medicine report archives and to demonstrate potential applications of such data for quality assurance and longitudinal patient-specific radiation dose monitoring. Materials and Methods: This study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Informed consent was waived. An open-source toolkit designed to automate the extraction of data on radiopharmaceuticals and administered activities from nuclear medicine reports was developed. After iterative code training, manual validation was performed on 2359 nuclear medicine reports randomly selected from September 17, 1985, to February 28, 2011. Recall (sensitivity) and precision (positive predictive value) were calculated with 95% binomial confidence intervals. From the resultant institutional data repository, examples of usage in quality assurance efforts and patient-specific longitudinal radiation dose monitoring obtained by calculating organ doses from the administered activity and radiopharmaceutical of each examination were provided. Results: Validation statistics yielded a combined recall of 97.6% ± 0.7 (95% confidence interval) and precision of 98.7% ± 0.5. Histograms of administered activity for fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose and iodine 131 sodium iodide were generated. An organ dose heatmap which displays a sample patient’s dose accumulation from multiple nuclear medicine examinations was created. Conclusion: Large-scale repositories of radiation exposure data can be extracted from institutional nuclear medicine report archives with high recall and precision. Such repositories enable new approaches in radiation exposure patient safety initiatives and patient-specific radiation dose monitoring. © RSNA, 2012 PMID:22627599

  14. Sample registration software for process automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia nuclear agency

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd Yussup, Nolida; Ibrahim, Maslina Bt. Mohd; Mokhtar, Mukhlis B.; Soh Shaari, Syirrazie Bin Che; Azman, Azraf B.; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Bt. Abdullah; Ismail, Nadiah Binti

    2015-04-29

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) had been established in Nuclear Malaysia since 1980s. Most of the procedures established were done manually including sample registration. The samples were recorded manually in a logbook and given ID number. Then all samples, standards, SRM and blank were recorded on the irradiation vial and several forms prior to irradiation. These manual procedures carried out by the NAA laboratory personnel were time consuming and not efficient. Sample registration software is developed as part of IAEA/CRP project on ‘Development of Process Automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia Nuclear Agency (RC17399)’. The objective of the project is to create a pc-based data entry software during sample preparation stage. This is an effective method to replace redundant manual data entries that needs to be completed by laboratory personnel. The software developed will automatically generate sample code for each sample in one batch, create printable registration forms for administration purpose, and store selected parameters that will be passed to sample analysis program. The software is developed by using National Instruments Labview 8.6.

  15. Sample registration software for process automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia nuclear agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Yussup, Nolida; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Bt. Abdullah; Ibrahim, Maslina Bt. Mohd; Mokhtar, Mukhlis B.; Soh@Shaari, Syirrazie Bin Che; Azman, Azraf B.; Ismail, Nadiah Binti

    2015-04-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) had been established in Nuclear Malaysia since 1980s. Most of the procedures established were done manually including sample registration. The samples were recorded manually in a logbook and given ID number. Then all samples, standards, SRM and blank were recorded on the irradiation vial and several forms prior to irradiation. These manual procedures carried out by the NAA laboratory personnel were time consuming and not efficient. Sample registration software is developed as part of IAEA/CRP project on `Development of Process Automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia Nuclear Agency (RC17399)'. The objective of the project is to create a pc-based data entry software during sample preparation stage. This is an effective method to replace redundant manual data entries that needs to be completed by laboratory personnel. The software developed will automatically generate sample code for each sample in one batch, create printable registration forms for administration purpose, and store selected parameters that will be passed to sample analysis program. The software is developed by using National Instruments Labview 8.6.

  16. Automating the Coupling of ORIGEN with GADRAS via the Fallout Analysis Tool for National Technical Nuclear Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Monterial, Mateusz; Jodoin, Vincent J; Lefebvre, Jordan P; Peplow, Douglas E.; Hooper, David A

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear forensic teams will be deployed to collect and evaluate fallout samples on the ground in the scenario of a low-yield nuclear detonation in a heavily populated area. Quick non-destructive methods of predicting the quality of the sample before it is analyzed in detail are essential for efficient post-event collections. In this work, the process of exporting Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC) results into Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) has been automated within the Fallout Analysis Tool. This coupling allows for the simulation of detector responses to fallout samples with varying degrees of fractionation. The degree to which the samples are fractionated depends on the location of the samples in the fallout field. In the following study, this phenomenon is examined, as its understanding is important to the investigation of debris distribution. The simulated detector spectra from GADRAS can be used to compare peak ratios of volatile-refractory isotope pairs in order to determine the degree of fractionation. Simulated fractionated fallout samples from DELFIC for a 10 kt, pure 235U fission surface burst were modeled for distances ranging to 256 km out from ground zero, and for times up to 1 week from detonation. The fractionation ratios, also known as r values, from isotope concentrations, photon lines and peak areas of four volatile-refractory pairs were calculated and compared. Fractionation prediction via the peak areas method was evaluated for each pair by comparing the results with the simulated radionuclide inventory.

  17. Automated radioanalytical system incorporating microwave-assisted sample preparation, chemical separation, and online radiometric detection for the monitoring of total 99Tc in nuclear waste processing streams.

    PubMed

    Egorov, Oleg B; O'Hara, Matthew J; Grate, Jay W

    2012-04-01

    An automated fluidic instrument is described that rapidly determines the total (99)Tc content of aged nuclear waste samples, where the matrix is chemically and radiologically complex and the existing speciation of the (99)Tc is variable. The monitor links microwave-assisted sample preparation with an automated anion exchange column separation and detection using a flow-through solid scintillator detector. The sample preparation steps acidify the sample, decompose organics, and convert all Tc species to the pertechnetate anion. The column-based anion exchange procedure separates the pertechnetate from the complex sample matrix, so that radiometric detection can provide accurate measurement of (99)Tc. We developed a preprogrammed spike addition procedure to automatically determine matrix-matched calibration. The overall measurement efficiency that is determined simultaneously provides a self-diagnostic parameter for the radiochemical separation and overall instrument function. Continuous, automated operation was demonstrated over the course of 54 h, which resulted in the analysis of 215 samples plus 54 hly spike-addition samples, with consistent overall measurement efficiency for the operation of the monitor. A sample can be processed and measured automatically in just 12.5 min with a detection limit of 23.5 Bq/mL of (99)Tc in low activity waste (0.495 mL sample volume), with better than 10% RSD precision at concentrations above the quantification limit. This rapid automated analysis method was developed to support nuclear waste processing operations planned for the Hanford nuclear site. PMID:22440010

  18. Automated Radioanalytical System Incorporating Microwave-Assisted Sample Preparation, Chemical Separation, and Online Radiometric Detection for the Monitoring of Total 99Tc in Nuclear Waste Processing Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, Oleg; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Grate, Jay W.

    2012-04-03

    An automated fluidic instrument is described that rapidly determines the total 99Tc content of aged nuclear waste samples, where the matrix is chemically and radiologically complex and the existing speciation of the 99Tc is variable. The monitor links microwave-assisted sample preparation with an automated anion exchange column separation and detection using a flow-through solid scintillator detector. The sample preparation steps acidify the sample, decompose organics, and convert all Tc species to the pertechnetate anion. The column-based anion exchange procedure separates the pertechnetate from the complex sample matrix, so that radiometric detection can provide accurate measurement of 99Tc. We developed a preprogrammed spike addition procedure to automatically determine matrix-matched calibration. The overall measurement efficiency that is determined simultaneously provides a self-diagnostic parameter for the radiochemical separation and overall instrument function. Continuous, automated operation was demonstrated over the course of 54 h, which resulted in the analysis of 215 samples plus 54 hly spike-addition samples, with consistent overall measurement efficiency for the operation of the monitor. A sample can be processed and measured automatically in just 12.5 min with a detection limit of 23.5 Bq/mL of 99Tc in low activity waste (0.495 mL sample volume), with better than 10% RSD precision at concentrations above the quantification limit. This rapid automated analysis method was developed to support nuclear waste processing operations planned for the Hanford nuclear site.

  19. Heat Transfer Salts for Nuclear Reactor Systems - Chemistry Control, Corrosion Mitigation, and Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Mark; Sridharan, Kumar; Morgan, Dane; Peterson, Per; Calderoni, Pattrick; Scheele, Randall; Casekka, Andrew; McNamara, Bruce

    2015-01-22

    -evaluate thermophysical properties of flibe and flinak. Pacific Northwest National Laboratories has focused on evaluating the fluorinating gas nitrogen trifluoride as a potential salt purification agent. Work there was performed on removing hydroxides and oxides from flinak salt under controlled conditions. Lastly, the University of California Berkeley has spent considerable time designing and simulating reactor components with fluoride salts at high temperatures. Despite the hurdles presented by the innate chemical hazards, considerable progress has been made. The stage has been set to perform new research on salt chemical control which could advance the fluoride salt cooled reactor concept towards commercialization. What were previously thought of as chemical undesirable, but nuclear certified, alloys have been shown to be theoretically compatible with fluoride salts at high temperatures. This preliminary report has been prepared to communicate the construction of the basic infrastructure required for flibe, as well as suggest original research to performed at the University of Wisconsin. Simultaneously, the contents of this report can serve as a detailed, but introductory guide to allow anyone to learn the fundamentals of chemistry, engineering, and safety required to work with flibe salt.

  20. The Fourier Transform in Chemistry. Part 1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Roy W.; Williams, Kathryn R.

    1989-01-01

    Using fourier transformation methods in nuclear magnetic resonance has made possible increased sensitivity in chemical analysis. This article describes these methods as they relate to magnetization, the RF magnetic field, nuclear relaxation, the RF pulse, and free induction decay. (CW)

  1. Automated detection of the left ventricular region in gated nuclear cardiac imaging.

    PubMed

    Boudraa, A E; Arzi, M; Sau, J; Champier, J; Hadj-Moussa, S; Besson, J E; Sappey-Marinier, D; Itti, R; Mallet, J J

    1996-04-01

    An approach to automated outlining the left ventricular contour and its bounded area in gated isotopic ventriculography is proposed. Its purpose is to determine the ejection fraction (EF), an important parameter for measuring cardiac function. The method uses a modified version of the fuzzy C-means (MFCM) algorithm and a labeling technique. The MFCM algorithm is applied to the end diastolic (ED) frame and then the (FCM) is applied to the remaining images in a "box" of interest. The MFCM generates a number of fuzzy clusters. Each cluster is a substructure of the heart (left ventricle,...). A cluster validity index to estimate the optimum clusters number present in image data point is used. This index takes account of the homogeneity in each cluster and is connected to the geometrical property of data set. The labeling is only performed to achieve the detection process in the ED frame. Since the left ventricle (LV) cluster has the greatest area of the cardiac images sequence in ED phase, a framing operation is performed to obtain, automatically, the "box" enclosing the LV cluster. THe EF assessed in 50 patients by the proposed method and a semi-automatic one, routinely used, are presented. A good correlation between the two methods EF values is obtained (R = 0.93). The LV contour found has been judged very satisfactory by a team of trained clinicians. PMID:8626193

  2. Automated DNA Sequencing System

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.; Ekkebus, C.P.; Hauser, L.J.; Kress, R.L.; Mural, R.J.

    1999-04-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a core DNA sequencing facility to support biological research endeavors at ORNL and to conduct basic sequencing automation research. This facility is novel because its development is based on existing standard biology laboratory equipment; thus, the development process is of interest to the many small laboratories trying to use automation to control costs and increase throughput. Before automation, biology Laboratory personnel purified DNA, completed cycle sequencing, and prepared 96-well sample plates with commercially available hardware designed specifically for each step in the process. Following purification and thermal cycling, an automated sequencing machine was used for the sequencing. A technician handled all movement of the 96-well sample plates between machines. To automate the process, ORNL is adding a CRS Robotics A- 465 arm, ABI 377 sequencing machine, automated centrifuge, automated refrigerator, and possibly an automated SpeedVac. The entire system will be integrated with one central controller that will direct each machine and the robot. The goal of this system is to completely automate the sequencing procedure from bacterial cell samples through ready-to-be-sequenced DNA and ultimately to completed sequence. The system will be flexible and will accommodate different chemistries than existing automated sequencing lines. The system will be expanded in the future to include colony picking and/or actual sequencing. This discrete event, DNA sequencing system will demonstrate that smaller sequencing labs can achieve cost-effective the laboratory grow.

  3. Development of an automated platform for the verification, testing, processing and benchmarking of Evaluated Nuclear Data at the NEA Data Bank. Status of the NDEC system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel-Sendis, F.; Díez, C. J.; Cabellos, O.

    2016-03-01

    Modern nuclear data Quality Assurance (QA) is, in practice, a multistage process that aims at establishing a thorough assessment of the validity of the physical information contained in an evaluated nuclear data file as compared to our best knowledge of available experimental data and theoretical models. It should systematically address the performance of the evaluated file against available pertinent integral experiments, with proper and prior verification that the information encoded in the evaluation is accurately processed and reconstructed for the application conditions. The aim of the NDEC (Nuclear Data Evaluation Cycle) platform currently being developed by the Data Bank is to provide a correct and automated handling of these diverse QA steps in order to facilitate the expert human assessment of evaluated nuclear data files, both by the evaluators and by the end users of nuclear data.

  4. Automated Quantification of DNA Demethylation Effects in Cells via 3D Mapping of Nuclear Signatures and Population Homogeneity Assessment1

    PubMed Central

    Gertych, Arkadiusz; Wawrowsky, Kolja A.; Lindsley, Erik; Vishnevsky, Eugene; Farkas, Daniel L.; Tajbakhsh, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Background Today’s advanced microscopic imaging applies to the preclinical stages of drug discovery that employ high-throughput and high-content three-dimensional (3D) analysis of cells to more efficiently screen candidate compounds. Drug efficacy can be assessed by measuring response homogeneity to treatment within a cell population. In this study topologically quantified nuclear patterns of methylated cytosine and global nuclear DNA are utilized as signatures of cellular response to the treatment of cultured cells with the demethylating anti-cancer agents: 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) and octreotide (OCT). Methods Mouse pituitary folliculostellate TtT-GF cells treated with 5-AZA and OCT for 48 hours, and untreated populations, were studied by immunofluorescence with a specific antibody against 5-methylcytosine (MeC), and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) for delineation of methylated sites and global DNA in nuclei (n=163). Cell images were processed utilizing an automated 3D analysis software that we developed by combining seeded watershed segmentation to extract nuclear shells with measurements of Kullback-Leibler’s (K-L) divergence to analyze cell population homogeneity in the relative nuclear distribution patterns of MeC versus DAPI stained sites. Each cell was assigned to one of the four classes: similar, likely similar, unlikely similar and dissimilar. Results Evaluation of the different cell groups revealed a significantly higher number of cells with similar or likely similar MeC/DAPI patterns among untreated cells (~100%), 5-AZA-treated cells (90%), and a lower degree of same type of cells (64%) in the OCT-treated population. The latter group contained (28%) of unlikely similar or dissimilar (7%) cells. Conclusion Our approach was successful in the assessment of cellular behavior relevant to the biological impact of the applied drugs, i.e. the reorganization of MeC/DAPI distribution by demethylation. In a comparison with other metrics, K-L divergence has

  5. Automated motion correction based on target tracking for dynamic nuclear medicine studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xinhua; Tetrault, Tracy; Fahey, Fred; Treves, Ted

    2008-03-01

    Nuclear medicine dynamic studies of kidneys, bladder and stomach are important diagnostic tools. Accurate generation of time-activity curves from regions of interest (ROIs) requires that the patient remains motionless for the duration of the study. This is not always possible since some dynamic studies may last from several minutes to one hour. Several motion correction solutions have been explored. Motion correction using external point sources is inconvenient and not accurate especially when motion results from breathing, organ motion or feeding rather than from body motion alone. Centroid-based motion correction assumes that activity distribution is only inside the single organ (without background) and uniform, but this approach is impractical in most clinical studies. In this paper, we present a novel technique of motion correction that first tracks the organ of interest in a dynamic series then aligns the organ. The implementation algorithm for target tracking-based motion correction consists of image preprocessing, target detection, target positioning, motion estimation and prediction, tracking (new search region generation) and target alignment. The targeted organ is tracked from the first frame to the last one in the dynamic series to generate a moving trajectory of the organ. Motion correction is implemented by aligning the organ ROIs in the image series to the location of the organ in the first image. The proposed method of motion correction has been applied to several dynamic nuclear medicine studies including radionuclide cystography, dynamic renal scintigraphy, diuretic renography and gastric emptying scintigraphy.

  6. Evaluation Of Automated Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Relaxometry For Analysis Of Silicone Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    M. H. Wilson

    2009-10-02

    Screening studies and Design of Experiments (DoE) were performed to evaluate measurement variation of a new, non-destructive Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) test system designed to assess age-induced degradation of Outer Pressure Pads (OPP). The test method and results from 54,275 measurements are described. A reduction in measurement error was obtained after metal support struts were replaced with plastic support struts adjacent to the front position of the test chamber. However, remaining interference and a lack of detecting any age-related degradation prevent the use of the NMR system as a non-destructive surveillance test for OPPs. A cursory evaluation of the system with cellular silicone samples obtained more uniform results with increased error as measurements approached the sample’s edge.

  7. Modeling Nuclear Decay: A Point of Integration between Chemistry and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent J.; Curtright, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    Describes four activities that use graphing calculators to model nuclear-decay phenomena. Students ultimately develop a notion about the radioactive waste produced by nuclear fission. These activities are in line with national educational standards and allow for the integration of science and mathematics. Contains 13 references. (Author/WRM)

  8. Shielded cells transfer automation

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J J

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear waste from shielded cells is removed, packaged, and transferred manually in many nuclear facilities. Radiation exposure is absorbed by operators during these operations and limited only through procedural controls. Technological advances in automation using robotics have allowed a production waste removal operation to be automated to reduce radiation exposure. The robotic system bags waste containers out of glove box and transfers them to a shielded container. Operators control the system outside the system work area via television cameras. 9 figures.

  9. Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles. [Dept. of Chemistry, Washington Univ. , St. Louis, Mo

    SciTech Connect

    Sarantites, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    The research program described touches five areas of nuclear physics: nuclear structure studies at high spin (hyperdeformation in the mass A [approx equal] 182 region, structure of [sup 182]Hg and [sup 182]Au at high spin, a highly deformed band in [sup 136]Pm and the anomalous h[sub 11/2] proton crossing in the A[approximately]135 superdeformed region), studies at the interface between structure and reactions (population of entry states in heavy-ion fusion reactions, nuclear structure effects in proton evaporation spectra, nuclear structure- dependent entry state population by total spectroscopy, entrance channel effects in fusion near the barrier, lifetimes of subbarrier [alpha] particles by the atomic clock method), production and study of hot nuclei (the statistical model evaporation code EVAP, statistical emission of deuterons and tritons from highly excited compound nuclei, heavy-fragment emission as a probe of the thermal properties of highly excited compound nuclei, use of incoming-wave boundary condition transmission coefficients in the statistical model: implications in the particle evaporation spectra, study of transparency in the optical model), reaction mechanism studies (binary character of highly dissipative [sup 209]Bi + [sup 136]Xe collisions at E/A=28.2 MeV), and development and use of novel techniques and instrumentation in these areas of research (including a 4[pi] channel selection device, a novel x-ray detector, and a simple channel-selecting detector).

  10. AUTOMATED LEAK DETECTION OF BURIED TANKS USING GEOPHYSICAL METHODS AT THE HANFORD NUCLEAR SITE

    SciTech Connect

    CALENDINE S; SCHOFIELD JS; LEVITT MT; FINK JB; RUCKER DF

    2011-03-30

    At the Hanford Nuclear Site in Washington State, the Department of Energy oversees the containment, treatment, and retrieval of liquid high-level radioactive waste. Much of the waste is stored in single-shelled tanks (SSTs) built between 1943 and 1964. Currently, the waste is being retrieved from the SSTs and transferred into newer double-shelled tanks (DSTs) for temporary storage before final treatment. Monitoring the tanks during the retrieval process is critical to identifying leaks. An electrically-based geophysics monitoring program for leak detection and monitoring (LDM) has been successfully deployed on several SSTs at the Hanford site since 2004. The monitoring program takes advantage of changes in contact resistance that will occur when conductive tank liquid leaks into the soil. During monitoring, electrical current is transmitted on a number of different electrode types (e.g., steel cased wells and surface electrodes) while voltages are measured on all other electrodes, including the tanks. Data acquisition hardware and software allow for continuous real-time monitoring of the received voltages and the leak assessment is conducted through a time-series data analysis. The specific hardware and software combination creates a highly sensitive method of leak detection, complementing existing drywell logging as a means to detect and quantify leaks. Working in an industrial environment such as the Hanford site presents many challenges for electrical monitoring: cathodic protection, grounded electrical infrastructure, lightning strikes, diurnal and seasonal temperature trends, and precipitation, all of which create a complex environment for leak detection. In this discussion we present examples of challenges and solutions to working in the tank farms of the Hanford site.

  11. Chemistry of zirconium related to the behavior of nuclear fuel cladding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cubicciotti, D.

    1980-03-26

    Studies of the chemistry of the zirconium-iodine and zirconium-oxygen systems were undertaken to elucidate their thermodynamics and kinetics. It is anticipated that the results obtained will lead to an improved understanding of the chemical processes involved in chemically assisted fuel rod failures. This project not only has classified the thermodynamics of both the gas phase and the solids in the zirconium-iodine system, it has also provided valuable information on the chemisorption of iodine and of oxygen on zirconium surfaces at high temperatures. In addition, the kinetics of reactions on zirconium surfaces were studied. These results have already been helpful in understanding the stress corrosion cracking of Zircaloy.

  12. A modular approach for automated sample preparation and chemical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Michael L.; Turner, Terry D.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Pacetti, Randolph

    1994-01-01

    Changes in international relations, especially within the past several years, have dramatically affected the programmatic thrusts of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The DOE now is addressing the environmental cleanup required as a result of 50 years of nuclear arms research and production. One major obstacle in the remediation of these areas is the chemical determination of potentially contaminated material using currently acceptable practices. Process bottlenecks and exposure to hazardous conditions pose problems for the DOE. One proposed solution is the application of modular automated chemistry using Standard Laboratory Modules (SLM) to perform Standard Analysis Methods (SAM). The Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA) Program has developed standards and prototype equipment that will accelerate the development of modular chemistry technology and is transferring this technology to private industry.

  13. Chem I Supplement. Chemistry Related to Isolation of High-Level Nuclear Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Darleane C.; Choppin, Gregory R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses some of the problems associated with the safe disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. Describes several waste disposal plans developed by various nations. Outlines the multiple-barrier concept of isolation in deep geological questions associated with the implementation of such a method. (TW)

  14. Structural Isomer Identification via NMR: A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Experiment for Organic, Analytical, or Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szafran, Zvi

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided for an experiment that examines the ability of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to distinguish between structural isomers via resonance multiplicities and chemical shifts. Reasons for incorporating the experiment into organic, analytical, or physical chemistry…

  15. Progesterone and testosterone studies by neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance methods and quantum chemistry calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szyczewski, A.; Hołderna-Natkaniec, K.; Natkaniec, I.

    2004-05-01

    Inelastic incoherent neutron scattering spectra of progesterone and testosterone measured at 20 and 290 K were compared with the IR spectra measured at 290 K. The Phonon Density of States spectra display well resolved peaks of low frequency internal vibration modes up to 1200 cm -1. The quantum chemistry calculations were performed by semiempirical PM3 method and by the density functional theory method with different basic sets for isolated molecule, as well as for the dimer system of testosterone. The proposed assignment of internal vibrations of normal modes enable us to conclude about the sequence of the onset of the torsion movements of the CH 3 groups. These conclusions were correlated with the results of proton molecular dynamics studies performed by NMR method. The GAUSSIAN program had been used for calculations.

  16. Chemistry on Stamps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreck, James O.

    1986-01-01

    Suggests how postage stamps can be incorporated into chemistry teaching. Categories considered include emergence of chemistry as a science, metric system, atoms (and molecules and ions), stoichiometry, energy relationships in chemical systems, chemical bonding, nuclear chemistry, biochemistry, geochemistry, matter (gases, liquids, and solids),…

  17. [The automated analysis of anti-nuclear antibodies using technique of indirect reaction of immunofluorescence with application of HEP-2-cells].

    PubMed

    Aleksandrova, E N; Verijnikova, J G; Novikov, A A; Baranov, A A; Abaitova, N E; Lapkina, N A; Roggenbuk, D; Nasonov, E L

    2015-03-01

    , +, ++; more than 1:1280--+++, ++++. In common practice the automated system "AKLIDES" permits identifying positive/negative results of detection of content of antinuclear antibodies comparably with "classic" visual technique of interpretation of IRIF HEp-2 and prognosticate maximal finite titer of antinuclear antibodies in serums in patients with rheumatic diseases according intensity of fluorescence. To confirm results of automated evaluation of types of nuclear fluorescence and to specify titers of antinuclear antibodies it is recommended to apply additional expert visual analysis of positive samples of fluorescence. PMID:26031162

  18. Conducting water chemistry of the secondary coolant circuit of VVER-based nuclear power plant units constructed without using copper containing alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyapkov, V. F.

    2014-07-01

    The secondary coolant circuit water chemistry with metering amines began to be put in use in Russia in 2005, and all nuclear power plant units equipped with VVER-1000 reactors have been shifted to operate with this water chemistry for the past seven years. Owing to the use of water chemistry with metering amines, the amount of products from corrosion of structural materials entering into the volume of steam generators has been reduced, and the flow-accelerated corrosion rate of pipelines and equipment has been slowed down. The article presents data on conducting water chemistry in nuclear power plant units with VVER-1000 reactors for the secondary coolant system equipment made without using copper-containing alloys. Statistical data are presented on conducting ammonia-morpholine and ammonia-ethanolamine water chemistries in new-generation operating power units with VVER-1000 reactors with an increased level of pH. The values of cooling water leaks in turbine condensers the tube system of which is made of stainless steel or titanium alloy are given.

  19. Implementing New Methods of Laser Marking of Items in the Nuclear Material Control and Accountability System at SSC RF-IPPE: An Automated Laser Marking System

    SciTech Connect

    Regoushevsky, V I; Tambovtsev, S D; Dvukhsherstnov, V G; Efimenko, V F; Ilyantsev, A I; Russ III, G P

    2009-05-18

    For over ten years SSC RF-IPPE, together with the US DOE National Laboratories, has been working on implementing automated control and accountability methods for nuclear materials and other items. Initial efforts to use adhesive bar codes or ones printed (painted) onto metal revealed that these methods were inconvenient and lacked durability under operational conditions. For NM disk applications in critical stands, there is the additional requirement that labels not affect the neutron characteristics of the critical assembly. This is particularly true for the many stainless-steel clad disks containing highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium that are used at SSC RF-IPPE for modeling nuclear power reactors. In search of an alternate method for labeling these disks, we tested several technological options, including laser marking and two-dimensional codes. As a result, the method of laser coloring was chosen in combination with Data Matrix ECC200 symbology. To implement laser marking procedures for the HEU disks and meet all the nuclear material (NM) handling standards and rules, IPPE staff, with U.S. technical and financial support, implemented an automated laser marking system; there are also specially developed procedures for NM movements during laser marking. For the laser marking station, a Zenith 10F system by Telesis Technologies (10 watt Ytterbium Fiber Laser and Merlin software) is used. The presentation includes a flowchart for the automated system and a list of specially developed procedures with comments. Among other things, approaches are discussed for human-factor considerations. To date, markings have been applied to numerous steel-clad HEU disks, and the work continues. In the future this method is expected to be applied to other MC&A items.

  20. Chemistry and biochemistry of 13C hyperpolarized magnetic resonance using dynamic nuclear polarization

    PubMed Central

    Keshari, Kayvan R.; Wilson, David M.

    2014-01-01

    The study of transient chemical phenomena by conventional NMR has proved elusive, particularly for non-1H nuclei. For 13C, hyperpolarization using the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) technique has emerged as a powerful means to improve SNR. The recent development of rapid dissolution DNP methods has facilitated previously impossible in vitro and in vivo study of small molecules. This review presents the basics of the DNP technique, identification of appropriate DNP substrates, and approaches to increase hyperpolarized signal lifetimes. Also addressed are the biochemical events to which DNP-NMR has been applied, with descriptions of several probes that have met with in vivo success. PMID:24363044

  1. Chemistry and biochemistry of 13C hyperpolarized magnetic resonance using dynamic nuclear polarization.

    PubMed

    Keshari, Kayvan R; Wilson, David M

    2014-03-01

    The study of transient chemical phenomena by conventional NMR has proved elusive, particularly for non-(1)H nuclei. For (13)C, hyperpolarization using the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) technique has emerged as a powerful means to improve SNR. The recent development of rapid dissolution DNP methods has facilitated previously impossible in vitro and in vivo study of small molecules. This review presents the basics of the DNP technique, identification of appropriate DNP substrates, and approaches to increase hyperpolarized signal lifetimes. Also addressed are the biochemical events to which DNP-NMR has been applied, with descriptions of several probes that have met with in vivo success. PMID:24363044

  2. Experience gained at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant with development and introduction of a unified automated system for accounting and control of radioactive substances and radioactive wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulka, S. K.; Rosnovskii, S. V.

    2014-02-01

    A unified automated system for accounting and control of radioactive substances and radioactive wastes was developed at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant. The system consists of several interconnected subsystems, which can be developed and put in operation in a stage-wise manner. As of the first quarter of 2013, the subsystems for accounting liquid and solid radioactive wastes, very low-active wastes, and tracers have been developed. The experience gained from the development and putting in use of these systems showed that this is an efficient, timely, and much needed software product.

  3. Nuclear chemistry progress report, Oregon State University. August 1, 1995--August 1, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Loveland, W.

    1996-12-31

    In this report, the authors summarize the highlights of the work done between August 1, 1995, and August 1, 1996. The work reported herein is the result of a collaborative effort between the nuclear chemists at Oregon State University and many other individuals and research groups. Each project discussed was the result of a joint effort of the groups, interchanging roles in data acquisition and analysis. The work described is part of a project involving the study of low energy (< 10 MeV/nucleon), and intermediate energy (10--100 MeV/nucleon) heavy ion reactions. Their work in the low energy regime included: the first US studies of fusion utilizing radioactive beams. Half of their effort was spent in the study of intermediate energy nuclear collisions. Among the accomplishments were: the establishment of a systematics of angular momentum transfer in peripheral collisions; completion of the first portion of high resolution studies of heavy residue formation in reactions induced by 20 MeV/nucleon {sup 197}Au utilizing the MSU A1200 separator; synthesis of several new neutron-deficient nuclides in reactions of 20 MeV/nucleon {sup 197}Au with heavy targets (Ti, Zr and Au); their participation in exclusive studies of heavy residue formation in the reaction of 35 MeV/nucleon {sup 86}Kr with {sup 197}Au in which it was found that the residues had large associated particle multiplicities indicating their formation in highly dissipative collisions, and that particle emission leading to residue formation relative to fission was favored as the dissipated energy increased.

  4. Radiation Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnárovits, L.

    Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.

  5. Reactivity of CHI3 with OH radicals: X-abstraction reaction pathways (X = H, I), atmospheric chemistry, and nuclear safety.

    PubMed

    Sudolská, Mária; Louis, Florent; Cernušák, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    The X-abstraction (X = H, I) pathways in the reaction of CHI3 with OH radical, a possible iodoform removal process relevant to the Earth's atmosphere and conditions prevailing in the case of a nuclear accident, have been studied applying highly correlated ab initio quantum chemistry methods and canonical transition-state theory to obtain reaction energy profiles and rate constants. Geometry optimizations of reactants, products, molecular complexes, and transition states determined at the MP2/cc-pVTZ level of theory have been followed by DK-CCSD(T)/ANO-RCC single-point energy calculations. Further improvement of electronic energies has been achieved by applying spin-orbit coupling, corrections toward full configuration interaction, vibration contributions, and tunneling corrections. Calculated reaction enthalpies at 0 K are -108.2 and -5.1 kJ mol(-1) for the H- and I-abstraction pathways, respectively; the strongly exothermic H-abstraction pathway is energetically favored over the modestly exothermic I-abstraction one. The overall rate constant at 298 K based on our ab initio calculations is 4.90 × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), with the I-abstraction pathway being the major channel over the temperature range of 250-2000 K. The CHI3 atmospheric lifetime with respect to the removal reaction with OH radical is predicted to be about 6 h, very short compared to that of other halomethanes. PMID:25207959

  6. An Exhibition on Everyday Chemistry. Communicating Chemistry to the Public.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ucko, David A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses a recent addition to the Museum of Science and Industry (Chicago) known as "Everyday Chemistry." This permanent exhibit on modern chemistry incorporates demonstrations of chemical reactions in ways intended to enhance public understanding. Describes the six cases in the exhibit and the automated aspects of their demonstrations. (TW)

  7. The influence of EI-21 redox ion-exchange resins on the secondary-coolant circuit water chemistry of vehicular nuclear power installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskvin, L. N.; Rakov, V. T.

    2015-06-01

    The results obtained from testing the secondary-coolant circuit water chemistry of full-scale land-based prototype bench models of vehicular nuclear power installations equipped with water-cooled water-moderated and liquid-metal reactor plants are presented. The influence of copper-containing redox ionexchange resins intended for chemically deoxygenating steam condensate on the working fluid circulation loop's water chemistry is determined. The influence of redox ion-exchange resins on the water chemistry is evaluated by generalizing an array of data obtained in the course of extended monitoring using the methods relating to physicochemical analysis of the quality of condensate-feedwater path media and the methods relating to metallographic analysis of the state of a faulty steam generator's tube system surfaces. The deoxygenating effectiveness of the normal state turbine condensate vacuum deaeration system is experimentally determined. The refusal from applying redox ion-exchange resins in the condensate polishing ion-exchange filters is formulated based on the obtained data on the adverse effect of copper-containing redox ionexchange resins on the condensate-feedwater path water chemistry and based on the data testifying a sufficient effect from using the normal state turbine condensate vacuum deaeration system. Data on long-term operation of the prototype bench model of a vehicular nuclear power installation without subjecting the turbine condensate to chemical deoxygenation are presented.

  8. Toward mechanistic understanding of nuclear reprocessing chemistries by quantifying lanthanide solvent extraction kinetics via microfluidics with constant interfacial area and rapid mixing.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Kevin P; Pompano, Rebecca R; Li, Liang; Gelis, Artem V; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2011-10-01

    The closing of the nuclear fuel cycle is an unsolved problem of great importance. Separating radionuclides produced in a nuclear reactor is useful both for the storage of nuclear waste and for recycling of nuclear fuel. These separations can be performed by designing appropriate chelation chemistries and liquid-liquid extraction schemes, such as in the TALSPEAK process (Trivalent Actinide-Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorus reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes). However, there are no approved methods for the industrial scale reprocessing of civilian nuclear fuel in the United States. One bottleneck in the design of next-generation solvent extraction-based nuclear fuel reprocessing schemes is a lack of interfacial mass transfer rate constants obtained under well-controlled conditions for lanthanide and actinide ligand complexes; such rate constants are a prerequisite for mechanistic understanding of the extraction chemistries involved and are of great assistance in the design of new chemistries. In addition, rate constants obtained under conditions of known interfacial area have immediate, practical utility in models required for the scaling-up of laboratory-scale demonstrations to industrial-scale solutions. Existing experimental techniques for determining these rate constants suffer from two key drawbacks: either slow mixing or unknown interfacial area. The volume of waste produced by traditional methods is an additional, practical concern in experiments involving radioactive elements, both from disposal cost and experimenter safety standpoints. In this paper, we test a plug-based microfluidic system that uses flowing plugs (droplets) in microfluidic channels to determine absolute interfacial mass transfer rate constants under conditions of both rapid mixing and controlled interfacial area. We utilize this system to determine, for the first time, the rate constants for interfacial transfer of all lanthanides, minus promethium, plus yttrium, under TALSPEAK

  9. Automation and quality in analytical laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Valcarcel, M.; Rios, A.

    1994-05-01

    After a brief introduction to the generic aspects of automation in analytical laboratories, the different approaches to quality in analytical chemistry are presented and discussed to establish the following different facets emerging from the combination of quality and automation: automated analytical control of quality of products and systems; quality control of automated chemical analysis; and improvement of capital (accuracy and representativeness), basic (sensitivity, precision, and selectivity), and complementary (rapidity, cost, and personnel factors) analytical features. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of this marriage of convenience in present and future analytical chemistry. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Mineralogy and isotope chemistry of FUN (fractionation and nuclear isotope effects) and F (fractionation) CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, Alexander

    To understand the origin and formation conditions of FUN (Fractionation and Unidentified Nuclear isotope effects) and F (fractionation) Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs), and their significance for constraining the origin of 26Al and O-isotopic compositions of the primordial dust and gas in the early Solar System, we propose to study mineralogy, petrology, oxidation state of Ti, trace element abundances, and O-, Mg-, Si-, Ca-, and Ti- isotope compositions of FUN and F CAIs previously identified in CV and CR chondrites. Twelve out of ~20 FUN and F CAIs known will be available for mineralogical study and isotope measurements; these include 1623-5, C1, EK1-4-1, CG-14, BG82DH8, B7F6, B7H10, BG82HB1, KT-1, AXCAI-2771, TE, and Gao-Guenie (b) #3. We will also search for additional FUN and F inclusions among Allende and Efremovka CAIs with large mass-dependent fractionation effects in Mg. This interdisciplinary research will be done in collaboration with I. Hutcheon (NanoSIMS), G. Huss (SIMS), S. Sutton (XANES), R. Mendybaev and A. Davis (evaporation experiments), F. Ciesla (modeling of evolution of O-isotope reservoirs in the solar nebula), and B. Meyer (modeling of Galactic chemical evolution of O-isotope compositions of dust and gas in the protosolar molecular cloud, and of stellar origin of short-lived radionuclides). The research proposed here is highly relevant to the Science Goals and Objectives of NASA and the Origins of Solar Systems Program, specifically ascertain the content, origin, and history of the solar system, and the potential for life elsewhere and increase the understanding of the chemical origin of the Solar System and the processes by which its planets and small bodies have evolved to their present states¿. Our interdisciplinary research (mineralogical and isotopic studies of the earliest solar-system solids, and astrophysical modeling) is designed to understand the origin of 26Al-poor CAIs with large mass-dependent isotope fractionation effects, and

  11. Mineralogy and isotope chemistry of FUN (fractionation and nuclear isotope effects) and F (fractionation) CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, Alexander

    To understand the origin and formation conditions of FUN (Fractionation and Unidentified Nuclear isotope effects) and F (fractionation) Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs), and their significance for constraining the origin of 26Al and O-isotopic compositions of the primordial dust and gas in the early Solar System, we propose to study mineralogy, petrology, oxidation state of Ti, trace element abundances, and O-, Mg-, Si-, Ca-, and Ti- isotope compositions of FUN and F CAIs previously identified in CV and CR chondrites. Twelve out of ~20 FUN and F CAIs known will be available for mineralogical study and isotope measurements; these include 1623-5, C1, EK1-4-1, CG-14, BG82DH8, B7F6, B7H10, BG82HB1, KT-1, AXCAI-2771, TE, and Gao-Guenie (b) #3. We will also search for additional FUN and F inclusions among Allende and Efremovka CAIs with large mass-dependent fractionation effects in Mg. This interdisciplinary research will be done in collaboration with I. Hutcheon (NanoSIMS), G. Huss (SIMS), S. Sutton (XANES), R. Mendybaev and A. Davis (evaporation experiments), F. Ciesla (modeling of evolution of O-isotope reservoirs in the solar nebula), and B. Meyer (modeling of Galactic chemical evolution of O-isotope compositions of dust and gas in the protosolar molecular cloud, and of stellar origin of short-lived radionuclides). The research proposed here is highly relevant to the Science Goals and Objectives of NASA and the Origins of Solar Systems Program, specifically ascertain the content, origin, and history of the solar system, and the potential for life elsewhere and increase the understanding of the chemical origin of the Solar System and the processes by which its planets and small bodies have evolved to their present states. Our interdisciplinary research (mineralogical and isotopic studies of the earliest solar-system solids, and astrophysical modeling) is designed to understand the origin of 26Al-poor CAIs with large mass-dependent isotope fractionation effects, and

  12. Special Report: Chemistry of Comets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    A'Hearn, Michael F.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the chemistry of comets. How comets provide clues to the birth of the solar system, photolytic reactions on comets involving water, chemical modeling, nuclear chemistry, and research findings are among the areas considered. (JN)

  13. SU-C-9A-02: Structured Noise Index as An Automated Quality Control for Nuclear Medicine: A Two Year Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J; Christianson, O; Samei, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Flood-field uniformity evaluation is an essential element in the assessment of nuclear medicine (NM) gamma cameras. It serves as the central element of the quality control (QC) program, acquired and analyzed on a daily basis prior to clinical imaging. Uniformity images are traditionally analyzed using pixel value-based metrics which often fail to capture subtle structure and patterns caused by changes in gamma camera performance requiring additional visual inspection which is subjective and time demanding. The goal of this project was to develop and implement a robust QC metrology for NM that is effective in identifying non-uniformity issues, reporting issues in a timely manner for efficient correction prior to clinical involvement, all incorporated into an automated effortless workflow, and to characterize the program over a two year period. Methods: A new quantitative uniformity analysis metric was developed based on 2D noise power spectrum metrology and confirmed based on expert observer visual analysis. The metric, termed Structured Noise Index (SNI) was then integrated into an automated program to analyze, archive, and report on daily NM QC uniformity images. The effectiveness of the program was evaluated over a period of 2 years. Results: The SNI metric successfully identified visually apparent non-uniformities overlooked by the pixel valuebased analysis methods. Implementation of the program has resulted in nonuniformity identification in about 12% of daily flood images. In addition, due to the vigilance of staff response, the percentage of days exceeding trigger value shows a decline over time. Conclusion: The SNI provides a robust quantification of the NM performance of gamma camera uniformity. It operates seamlessly across a fleet of multiple camera models. The automated process provides effective workflow within the NM spectra between physicist, technologist, and clinical engineer. The reliability of this process has made it the preferred

  14. Nuclear chemistry progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Viola, V.E. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    The following were studied: charge and mass variances in /sup 56/Fe-induced reactions; /sup 40/Ca + /sup 37/Cl and /sup 209/Bi + /sup 37/Cl reactions at 270 MeV; production of exotic nuclei in /sup 56/Fe-induced reactions; the /sup 165/Ho + /sup 56/Fe reaction at 462 MeV; pre-equilibrium emission of light ions in the reaction /sup 16/O + /sup 238/U at 20 MeV/u; prompt light-ion emission in the /sup 235/U + /sup 4/He reaction at 20- and 40-MeV/u; studies of the total reaction cross section in bombardments at /sup 27/Al with 30 to 50 MeV/u /sup 4/He ions; reaction mechanisms of alpha-particle-induced reactions on /sup 12/C, /sup 14/N and /sup 16/O at 60 to 160 MeV; production of /sup 6/He, /sup 6/Li, /sup 7/Li, and /sup 7/Be in the ..cap alpha.. + ..cap alpha.. reaction between 60 to 160 MeV; search for asymmetric mass division in light fissioning systems; systematics of fission total kinetic energy release; and nucleosynthesis of the light elements Li, Be, and B.

  15. Automation of the quantitative determination of elemental content in samples using neutron activation analysis on the IBR-2 reactor at the frank laboratory for neutron physics, joint institute for nuclear research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, A. Yu.; Pavlov, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    Software for the automated quantitative determination of element concentrations in samples is described. This software is used in neutron activation analysis (NAA) at the IBR-2 reactor of the Frank Laboratory for Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (FLNP JINR).

  16. Automated error-tolerant macromolecular structure determination from multidimensional nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectra and chemical shift assignments

    PubMed Central

    Kuszewski, John J.; Thottungal, Robin Augustine; Schwieters, Charles D.; Clore, G. Marius

    2008-01-01

    We report substantial improvements to the previously introduced automated NOE assignment and structure determination protocol known as PASD. The improved protocol includes extensive analysis of input spectral data to create a low-resolution contact map of residues expected to be close in space. This map is used to obtain reasonable initial guesses of NOE assignment likelihoods which are refined during subsequent structure calculations. Information in the contact map about which residues are predicted to not be close in space is applied via conservative repulsive distance restraints which are used in early phases of the structure calculations. In comparison with the previous protocol, the new protocol requires significantly less computation time. We show results of running the new PASD protocol on six proteins and demonstrate that useful assignment and structural information is extracted on proteins of more than 220 residues. We show that useful assignment information can be obtained even in the case in which a unique structure cannot be determined. PMID:18668206

  17. Automated Radiochemical Separation, Analysis, and Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

    2003-08-27

    Chapter 14 for the 2nd edition of the Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis. The techniques and examples described in this chapter demonstrate that modern fluidic techniques and instrumentation can be used to develop automated radiochemical separation workstations. In many applications, these can be mechanically simple and key parameters can be controlled from software. If desired, many of the fluidic components and solution can be located remotely from the radioactive samples and other hot sample processing zones. There are many issues to address in developing automated radiochemical separation that perform reliably time after time in unattended operation. These are associated primarily with the separation and analytical chemistry aspects of the process. The relevant issues include the selectivity of the separation, decontamination factors, matrix effects, and recoveries from the separation column. In addition, flow rate effects, column lifetimes, carryover from one sample to another, and sample throughput must be considered. Nevertheless, successful approaches for addressing these issues have been developed. Radiochemical analysis is required not only for processing nuclear waste samples in the laboratory, but also for at-site or in situ applications. Monitors for nuclear waste processing operations represent an at-site application where continuous unattended monitoring is required to assure effective process radiochemical separations that produce waste streams that qualify for conversion to stable waste forms. Radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and long term stewardship represent an application where at-site or in situ measurements will be most effective. Automated radiochemical analyzers and sensors have been developed that demonstrate that radiochemical analysis beyond the analytical laboratory is both possible and practical.

  18. Minatom of Russia Situation and Crisis Center and the Automated Federal Information System for Nuclear Material Control and Accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Berchik,V P; Kasumova,L A; Babcock,R A; Heinberg,C L; Tynan,D M

    2001-06-25

    Under the Situation and Crisis Center (SCC) management, the Information Analytical Center (IAC) of the Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom) of Russia was created to oversee the operation of the Federal Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Information System (FIS). During 2000, the FIS achieved an important milestone in its development: the basic functions of the information system were implemented. This includes placing into operation the collecting and processing of nuclear material control and accounting (MC&A) information from the enterprises reporting to the FIS. The FIS began working with 14 Russian enterprises to develop and implement full-function reporting (i.e., reporting inventory and inventory changes including closeout and reconciliation between the FIS and enterprises). In 2001, the system will expand to include enterprise-level inventory information for all enterprises using nuclear materials in Russia. For this reason, at the end of 2000 through the beginning of 2001, five separate training sessions were held for over 100 enterprise personnel responsible for preparation and transfer of the reports to the FIS. Through the assistance of the Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) program, information systems for the accounting of nuclear materials are being installed at Russia enterprises. In creating the program for modernization of the Russian Federation State System of Accounting and Control (SSAC) of nuclear material, the SCC conducted a survey of the enterprises to determine the readiness of their internal MC&A systems for reporting to the FIS. Based on the information from the survey and the results of the projects on creation of local information systems at Russian enterprises, the analysis of information and the technical aspects of MC&A systems identified deficiencies that were analyzed and recommendations for eliminating these deficiencies were proposed. The concentration of analytical and administrative functions at the

  19. The influence of operational and water chemistry parameters on the deposits of corrosion products on fuel assemblies at nuclear power plants with VVER reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kritskii, V. G.; Berezina, I. G.; Rodionov, Yu. A.; Gavrilov, A. V.

    2011-07-01

    The phenomenon involving a growth of pressure drop in the reactor core and redistribution of deposits in the reactor core and primary coolant circuit of a nuclear power station equipped with VVER-440 reactors is considered. A model is developed, the physicochemical foundation of which is based on the dependence of corrosion product transfer on the temperature and pH t value of coolant and on the correlation between the formation rate of corrosion products (Fe) (after subjecting the steam generators to decontamination) and rate with which they are removed from the circuit. The purpose of the simulation carried on the model is to predict the growth of pressure drop on the basis of field data obtained from nuclear power installations and correct the water chemistry (by adjusting the concentrations of KOH, H2, and NH3) so as to keep the pressure drop in the reactor at a stable level.

  20. Automation in haemostasis.

    PubMed

    Huber, A R; Méndez, A; Brunner-Agten, S

    2013-01-01

    Automatia, an ancient Greece goddess of luck who makes things happen by themselves and on her own will without human engagement, is present in our daily life in the medical laboratory. Automation has been introduced and perfected by clinical chemistry and since then expanded into other fields such as haematology, immunology, molecular biology and also coagulation testing. The initial small and relatively simple standalone instruments have been replaced by more complex systems that allow for multitasking. Integration of automated coagulation testing into total laboratory automation has become possible in the most recent years. Automation has many strengths and opportunities if weaknesses and threats are respected. On the positive side, standardization, reduction of errors, reduction of cost and increase of throughput are clearly beneficial. Dependence on manufacturers, high initiation cost and somewhat expensive maintenance are less favourable factors. The modern lab and especially the todays lab technicians and academic personnel in the laboratory do not add value for the doctor and his patients by spending lots of time behind the machines. In the future the lab needs to contribute at the bedside suggesting laboratory testing and providing support and interpretation of the obtained results. The human factor will continue to play an important role in testing in haemostasis yet under different circumstances. PMID:23460141

  1. Introduction of water chemistry regimes with ethanolamine metering at nuclear power plants equipped with VVER-type reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shutikov, A. V.; Ivanov, V. N.; Tyapkov, V. F.; Yerpylyova, S. F.; Bykova, V. V.

    2008-05-01

    The results of introduction of water chemistry with ethanolamine metering in the feedwater at unit No. 2 of the Balakovo NPP are presented. Along with the data obtained in the course of operational monitoring of the working medium of the secondary coolant circuit, the results of studying of contamination of the tube system of steam generators are presented and analyzed.

  2. Automation or De-automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorlach, Igor; Wessel, Oliver

    2008-09-01

    In the global automotive industry, for decades, vehicle manufacturers have continually increased the level of automation of production systems in order to be competitive. However, there is a new trend to decrease the level of automation, especially in final car assembly, for reasons of economy and flexibility. In this research, the final car assembly lines at three production sites of Volkswagen are analysed in order to determine the best level of automation for each, in terms of manufacturing costs, productivity, quality and flexibility. The case study is based on the methodology proposed by the Fraunhofer Institute. The results of the analysis indicate that fully automated assembly systems are not necessarily the best option in terms of cost, productivity and quality combined, which is attributed to high complexity of final car assembly systems; some de-automation is therefore recommended. On the other hand, the analysis shows that low automation can result in poor product quality due to reasons related to plant location, such as inadequate workers' skills, motivation, etc. Hence, the automation strategy should be formulated on the basis of analysis of all relevant aspects of the manufacturing process, such as costs, quality, productivity and flexibility in relation to the local context. A more balanced combination of automated and manual assembly operations provides better utilisation of equipment, reduces production costs and improves throughput.

  3. Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending January 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    Progress is reported in the following fields: coal chemistry, aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures, geochemistry, high-temperature chemistry and thermodynamics of structural materials, chemistry of transuranium elements and compounds, separations chemistry, elecrochemistry, catalysis, chemical physics, theoretical chemistry, nuclear waste chemistry, chemistry of hazardous chemicals, and thermal energy storage.

  4. Automated Systems for Safeguarding and Accountancy of Stored Nuclear Material (for proceedings of ESARDA 21st Annual Meeting, Sevilla, Spain May 4-6, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    baldwin,k.m.; bell, z.w.; dunigan, j.j.; gaby, j.e.; hickerson, t.w.; lawson, r.l.; miller, m.a.; mooney, l.r.; pickett, c.a.; seiber, l.e.; younkin, j.r.

    1999-05-01

    Oak Ridge has developed several sensor systems that are capable of providing unattended monitoring of the physical and/or assigned attributes associated with stored nuclear materials. These systems include the Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVISTM), SmartShelfTM, and the ReflectoActive Seal System TM. Each of these systems can be implemented independently or may be integrated with existing systems through the Graphical Facility Information Center or GraFICTM software package. GraFICTM is a versatile software package designed to operate in a distributed computing environment. GraFICTM can monitor and report all item and facility activity from the various sensors and systems to an unlimited number of authorized remote clients through a common interface. The software also contains an Intelligent Facility Management (lFM) package that helps storage facility managers with space planning, records management, item location, and variety of other facility specific needs. Results and details from several system deployments will be described, along with the specific features and possible uses of each system.

  5. Automation pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    An important concept of the Action Information Management System (AIMS) approach is to evaluate office automation technology in the context of hands on use by technical program managers in the conduct of human acceptance difficulties which may accompany the transition to a significantly changing work environment. The improved productivity and communications which result from application of office automation technology are already well established for general office environments, but benefits unique to NASA are anticipated and these will be explored in detail.

  6. Automated Urinalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Information from NASA Tech Briefs assisted DiaSys Corporation in the development of the R/S 2000 which automates urinalysis, eliminating most manual procedures. An automatic aspirator is inserted into a standard specimen tube, the "Sample" button is pressed, and within three seconds a consistent amount of urine sediment is transferred to a microscope. The instrument speeds up, standardizes, automates and makes urine analysis safer. Additional products based on the same technology are anticipated.

  7. Automating the analytical laboratory via the Chemical Analysis Automation paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Hollen, R.; Rzeszutko, C.

    1997-10-01

    To address the need for standardization within the analytical chemistry laboratories of the nation, the Chemical Analysis Automation (CAA) program within the US Department of Energy, Office of Science and Technology`s Robotic Technology Development Program is developing laboratory sample analysis systems that will automate the environmental chemical laboratories. The current laboratory automation paradigm consists of islands-of-automation that do not integrate into a system architecture. Thus, today the chemist must perform most aspects of environmental analysis manually using instrumentation that generally cannot communicate with other devices in the laboratory. CAA is working towards a standardized and modular approach to laboratory automation based upon the Standard Analysis Method (SAM) architecture. Each SAM system automates a complete chemical method. The building block of a SAM is known as the Standard Laboratory Module (SLM). The SLM, either hardware or software, automates a subprotocol of an analysis method and can operate as a standalone or as a unit within a SAM. The CAA concept allows the chemist to easily assemble an automated analysis system, from sample extraction through data interpretation, using standardized SLMs without the worry of hardware or software incompatibility or the necessity of generating complicated control programs. A Task Sequence Controller (TSC) software program schedules and monitors the individual tasks to be performed by each SLM configured within a SAM. The chemist interfaces with the operation of the TSC through the Human Computer Interface (HCI), a logical, icon-driven graphical user interface. The CAA paradigm has successfully been applied in automating EPA SW-846 Methods 3541/3620/8081 for the analysis of PCBs in a soil matrix utilizing commercially available equipment in tandem with SLMs constructed by CAA.

  8. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Project No. 02 103 Innovative Low Cost Approaches to Automating QA/QC of Fuel Particle Production Using On Line Nondestructive Methods for Higher Reliability Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Salahuddin; Batishko, Charles R.; Flake, Matthew; Good, Morris S.; Mathews, Royce; Morra, Marino; Panetta, Paul D.; Pardini, Allan F.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Tucker, Brian J.; Weier, Dennis R.; Hockey, Ronald L.; Gray, Joseph N.; Saurwein, John J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Lowden, Richard A.; Miller, James H.

    2006-02-28

    This Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project was tasked with exploring, adapting, developing and demonstrating innovative nondestructive test methods to automate nuclear coated particle fuel inspection so as to provide the United States (US) with necessary improved and economical Quality Assurance and Control (QA/QC) that is needed for the fuels for several reactor concepts being proposed for both near term deployment [DOE NE & NERAC, 2001] and Generation IV nuclear systems. Replacing present day QA/QC methods, done manually and in many cases destructively, with higher speed automated nondestructive methods will make fuel production for advanced reactors economically feasible. For successful deployment of next generation reactors that employ particle fuels, or fuels in the form of pebbles based on particles, extremely large numbers of fuel particles will require inspection at throughput rates that do not significantly impact the proposed manufacturing processes. The focus of the project is nondestructive examination (NDE) technologies that can be automated for production speeds and make either: (I) On Process Measurements or (II) In Line Measurements. The inspection technologies selected will enable particle “quality” qualification as a particle or group of particles passes a sensor. A multiple attribute dependent signature will be measured and used for qualification or process control decisions. A primary task for achieving this objective is to establish standard signatures for both good/acceptable particles and the most problematic types of defects using several nondestructive methods.

  9. Completely automated, highly error-tolerant macromolecular structure determination from multidimensional nuclear overhauser enhancement spectra and chemical shift assignments.

    PubMed

    Kuszewski, John; Schwieters, Charles D; Garrett, Daniel S; Byrd, R Andrew; Tjandra, Nico; Clore, G Marius

    2004-05-26

    The major rate-limiting step in high-throughput NMR protein structure determination involves the calculation of a reliable initial fold, the elimination of incorrect nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) assignments, and the resolution of NOE assignment ambiguities. We present a robust approach to automatically calculate structures with a backbone coordinate accuracy of 1.0-1.5 A from datasets in which as much as 80% of the long-range NOE information (i.e., between residues separated by more than five positions in the sequence) is incorrect. The current algorithm differs from previously published methods in that it has been expressly designed to ensure that the results from successive cycles are not biased by the global fold of structures generated in preceding cycles. Consequently, the method is highly error tolerant and is not easily funnelled down an incorrect path in either three-dimensional structure or NOE assignment space. The algorithm incorporates three main features: a linear energy function representation of the NOE restraints to allow maximization of the number of simultaneously satisfied restraints during the course of simulated annealing; a method for handling the presence of multiple possible assignments for each NOE cross-peak which avoids local minima by treating each possible assignment as if it were an independent restraint; and a probabilistic method to permit both inactivation and reactivation of all NOE restraints on the fly during the course of simulated annealing. NOE restraints are never removed permanently, thereby significantly reducing the likelihood of becoming trapped in a false minimum of NOE assignment space. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated using completely automatically peak-picked experimental NOE data from two proteins: interleukin-4 (136 residues) and cyanovirin-N (101 residues). The limits of the method are explored using simulated data on the 56-residue B1 domain of Streptococcal protein G. PMID:15149223

  10. Environmental Chemistry in the High School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stearns, Carole

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the incorporation of environmental chemistry topics into the traditional high school chemistry curriculum. Describes and provides lesson plans for the sulfur cycle and acid rain, and radioactivity and nuclear energy. Considers possible laboratory experiments. (CW)

  11. Habitat automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swab, Rodney E.

    1992-01-01

    A habitat, on either the surface of the Moon or Mars, will be designed and built with the proven technologies of that day. These technologies will be mature and readily available to the habitat designer. We believe an acceleration of the normal pace of automation would allow a habitat to be safer and more easily maintained than would be the case otherwise. This document examines the operation of a habitat and describes elements of that operation which may benefit from an increased use of automation. Research topics within the automation realm are then defined and discussed with respect to the role they can have in the design of the habitat. Problems associated with the integration of advanced technologies into real-world projects at NASA are also addressed.

  12. The Use and Evaluation of Scaffolding, Student Centered-Learning, Behaviorism, and Constructivism to Teach Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and IR Spectroscopy in a Two-Semester Organic Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livengood, Kimberly; Lewallen, Denver W.; Leatherman, Jennifer; Maxwell, Janet L.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2002, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry have been introduced at the beginning of the first-semester organic chemistry lab course at this university. Starting in 2008, each individual student was given 20 unique homework problems that consisted of multiple-choice [superscript 1]H NMR and IR problems…

  13. Automated detection of dual p16/Ki67 nuclear immunoreactivity in liquid-based Pap tests for improved cervical cancer risk stratification

    PubMed Central

    Gertych, Arkadiusz; Joseph, Anika O.; Walts, Ann E.; Bose, Shikha

    2012-01-01

    The Papanicolau (Pap) test is a routine cytological procedure for early detection of dysplastic lesions in cervical epithelium. A reliable screening method is crucial for triage of women at risk; however manual screening and interpretation are associated with relatively low sensitivity and substantial interobserver diagnostic variability. P16 and Ki67 biomarkers have been recently proposed as adjunctive tools in the diagnosis of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) associated dysplasias to supplement the morphological characteristics of cells by additional colorimetric features. In this study, an automated technique for the evaluation of dual p16/Ki67 immunoreactivity in cervical cell nuclei is introduced. Smears stained with p16 and Ki67 antibodies were digitized, and analyzed by algorithms we developed. Gradient-based radial symmetry operator and adaptive processing of symmetry image were employed to obtain the nuclear mask. This step was followed by the extraction of features including pixel data and immunoreactivity signature from each nucleus. The features were analyzed by two support vector machine classifiers to assign a nucleus into one of four types of immunoreactivity: p16 positive (p16+/Ki67-), Ki67 positive (p16-/Ki67+), dual p16/Ki67 positive (p16+/Ki67+) and negative (p16-/Ki67-) respectively. Results obtained by our method correlated well with readings by two cytopathologists (n=18068 cells); p16+/Ki67+ nuclei were classified with respective precisions of 77.1% and 82.6%. Specificity in identification of p16-/Ki67- nuclei was better than 99.5%, and the sensitivity in detection of all immunopositive nuclei was 86.3% and 89.4% respectively. We found that the quantitative characterization of immunoreactivity provided by the additional highlighting of classified nuclei can positively impact the efficacy and screening outcome of the Pap test. PMID:22215277

  14. Automating Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John

    2007-01-01

    In past years, higher education's financial management side has been riddled with manual processes and aging mainframe applications. This article discusses schools which had taken advantage of an array of technologies that automate billing, payment processing, and refund processing in the case of overpayment. The investments are well worth it:…

  15. Automated dispenser

    SciTech Connect

    Hollen, R.M.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1989-04-06

    An automated dispenser having a conventional pipette attached to an actuating cylinder through a flexible cable for delivering precise quantities of a liquid through commands from remotely located computer software. The travel of the flexible cable is controlled by adjustable stops and a locking shaft. The pipette can be positioned manually or by the hands of a robot. 1 fig.

  16. Quantitative x-ray diffraction analyses of samples used for sorption studies by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Chipera, S.J.; Bish, D.L.

    1989-09-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is currently being investigated to determine its suitability to host our nation`s first geologic high-level nuclear waste repository. As part of an effort to determine how radionuclides will interact with rocks at Yucca Mountain, the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry (INC) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory has conducted numerous batch sorption experiments using core samples from Yucca Mountain. In order to understand better the interaction between the rocks and radionuclides, we have analyzed the samples used by INC with quantitative x-ray diffraction methods. Our analytical methods accurately determine the presence or absence of major phases, but we have not identified phases present below {approximately}1 wt %. These results should aid in understanding and predicting the potential interactions between radionuclides and the rocks at Yucca Mountain, although the mineralogic complexity of the samples and the lack of information on trace phases suggest that pure mineral studies may be necessary for a more complete understanding. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Detection of O-propargyl-puromycin with SUMO and ubiquitin by click chemistry at PML-nuclear bodies during abortive proteasome activities.

    PubMed

    Uozumi, Naoki; Matsumoto, Hotaru; Saitoh, Hisato

    2016-05-27

    The amino-nucleoside antibiotic, puromycin, acts by covalently linking to elongating polypeptide chains on ribosomes to generate prematurely terminated immature polypeptides. The trafficking of puromycin-conjugated (puromycylated) immature polypeptides within cell has, however, remained elusive. In this study, using O-propargyl-puromycin (OP-Puro), the distribution of puromycylated polypeptides was assessed in HeLa cells by click chemistry. Under standard culture conditions, OP-Puro signals were detected in the cytoplasm and nucleus with the highest concentrations in the nucleolus. Intriguingly, when proteasome activities were aborted using MG132, OP-Puro signals began to accumulate at promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) in addition to the nucleolus. We also found promiscuous association of OP-Puro signals with SUMO-2/3 and ubiquitin at PML-NBs, but not at the nucleolus, during abortive proteasome activities. This study reveals a previously unknown distribution of OP-Puro that argues for a nuclear function in regulating immature protein homeostasis. PMID:27125456

  18. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  19. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and chemistry experiments. Topics include sublimation, electronegativity, electrolysis, experimental aspects of strontianite, halide test, evaluation of present and future computer programs in chemistry, formula building, care of glass/saturated calomel…

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental chemistry is applied to estimating the exposure of ecosystems and humans to various chemical environmental stressors. Among the stressors of concern are mercury, pesticides, and arsenic. Advanced analytical chemistry techniques are used to measure these stressors ...

  1. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Thirteen ideas are presented that may be of use to chemistry teachers. Topics covered include vitamin C, industrial chemistry, electrical conductivity, electrolysis, alkali metals, vibration modes infra-red, dynamic equilibrium, and some new demonstrations in gaseous combinations. (PS)

  2. Fundamental Science Tools for Geologic Carbon Sequestration and Mineral Carbonation Chemistry: In Situ Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyt, D. W.; Turcu, R. V.; Sears, J. A.; Rosso, K. M.; Burton, S. D.; Kwak, J.; Felmy, A. R.; Hu, J.

    2010-12-01

    GCS is one of the most promising ways of mitigating atmospheric greenhouse gases. Mineral carbonation reactions are potentially important to the long-term sealing effectiveness of caprock but remain poorly predictable, particularly reactions occurring in low-water supercritical CO2(scCO2)-dominated environments where the chemistry has not been adequately explored. In situ probes that provide molecular-level information is desirable for investigating mechanisms and rates of GCS mineral carbonation reactions. MAS-NMR is a powerful tool for obtaining detailed molecular structure and dynamics information of a system regardless whether the system is in a solid, a liquid, a gaseous, or a supercritical state, or a mixture thereof. However, MAS NMR under scCO2 conditions has never been realized due to the tremendous technical difficulties of achieving and maintaining high pressure within a fast spinning MAS rotor. In this work, we report development of a unique high pressure MAS NMR capability, and its application to mineral carbonation chemistry in scCO2 under geologically relevant temperatures and pressures. Our high pressure MAS rotor has successfully maintained scCO2 conditions with minimal leakage over a period of 72 hours. Mineral carbonation reactions of a model magnesium silicate (forsterite) reacted with 96 bars scCO2 containing varying amounts of H2O (both below and above saturation of the scCO2) were investigated at 50○C. Figure 1 shows typical in situ 13C MAS NMR spectra demonstrating that the peaks corresponding to the reactants, intermediates, and the magnesium carbonation products are all observed in a single spectrum. For example, the scCO2 peak is located at 126.1 ppm. Reaction intermediates include the aqueous species HCO3-(160 ppm), partially hydrated/hydroxylated magnesium carbonates(166-168 ppm), and can easily be distinguished from final product magnesite(170 ppm). The new capability and this model mineral carbonation process will be overviewed in

  3. Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending July 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Research is reported on: chemistry of coal liquefaction, aqueous chemistry at high temperatures, geosciences, high-temperature chemistry and thermodynamics of structural materials, chemistry of TRU elements and compounds, separations chemistry, electrochemistry, nuclear waste chemistry, chemical physics, theoretical chemistry, inorganic chemistry of hydrogen cycles, molten salt systems, and enhanced oil recovery. Separate abstracts were prepared for the sections dealing with coal liquefaction, TRU elements and compounds, separations, nuclear wastes, and enhanced oil recovery. (DLC)

  4. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and experiments for chemistry. Topics include superheavy elements, polarizing power and chemistry of alkali metals, particulate carbon from combustion, tips for the chemistry laboratory, interesting/colorful experiments, behavior of bismuth (III) iodine, and…

  5. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation: CII. Automated Anodic Stripping Voltammetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, John T.; Ewing, Galen W., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presents details of anodic stripping analysis (ASV) in college chemistry laboratory experiments. Provides block diagrams of the analyzer system, circuitry and power supplies of the automated stripping analyzer, and instructions for implementing microcomputer control of the ASV. (CS)

  6. Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

    2003-03-27

    The production of nuclear weapons materials has generated large quantities of nuclear waste and significant environmental contamination. We have developed new, rapid, automated methods for determination of radionuclides using sequential injection methodologies to automate extraction chromatographic separations, with on-line flow-through scintillation counting for real time detection. This work has progressed in two main areas: radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and automated radiochemical analyzers for monitoring nuclear waste processing operations. Radionuclide sensors have been developed that collect and concentrate radionuclides in preconcentrating minicolumns with dual functionality: chemical selectivity for radionuclide capture and scintillation for signal output. These sensors can detect pertechnetate to below regulatory levels and have been engineered into a prototype for field testing. A fully automated process monitor has been developed for total technetium in nuclear waste streams. This instrument performs sample acidification, speciation adjustment, separation and detection in fifteen minutes or less.

  7. CLUSTER CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Muetterties, Earl L.

    1980-05-01

    Metal cluster chemistry is one of the most rapidly developing areas of inorganic and organometallic chemistry. Prior to 1960 only a few metal clusters were well characterized. However, shortly after the early development of boron cluster chemistry, the field of metal cluster chemistry began to grow at a very rapid rate and a structural and a qualitative theoretical understanding of clusters came quickly. Analyzed here is the chemistry and the general significance of clusters with particular emphasis on the cluster research within my group. The importance of coordinately unsaturated, very reactive metal clusters is the major subject of discussion.

  8. Forensic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-07-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  9. Automated Nuclear Data Test Suite

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-01-09

    Provides python routines to create a database of test problems in a user-defined directory tree, to query the database using user-defined parameters, to generate a list of test urns, to automatically run with user-defined particle transport codes. Includes natural isotope abundance data, and a table of benchmark effective for fast critical assemblies. Does not include input decks, cross-section libraries, or particle transport codes.

  10. Engineering Design and Automation in the Applied Engineering Technologies (AET) Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    SciTech Connect

    Wantuck, P. J.; Hollen, R. M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of some design and automation-related projects ongoing within the Applied Engineering Technologies (AET) Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory. AET uses a diverse set of technical capabilities to develop and apply processes and technologies to applications for a variety of customers both internal and external to the Laboratory. The Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) represents a new paradigm for the processing of nuclear material from retired weapon systems in an environment that seeks to minimize the radiation dose to workers. To achieve this goal, ARIES relies upon automation-based features to handle and process the nuclear material. Our Chemical Process Development Team specializes in fuzzy logic and intelligent control systems. Neural network technology has been utilized in some advanced control systems developed by team members. Genetic algorithms and neural networks have often been applied for data analysis. Enterprise modeling, or discrete event simulation, as well as chemical process simulation has been employed for chemical process plant design. Fuel cell research and development has historically been an active effort within the AET organization. Under the principal sponsorship of the Department of Energy, the Fuel Cell Team is now focusing on technologies required to produce fuel cell compatible feed gas from reformation of a variety of conventional fuels (e.g., gasoline, natural gas), principally for automotive applications. This effort involves chemical reactor design and analysis, process modeling, catalyst analysis, as well as full scale system characterization and testing. The group's Automation and Robotics team has at its foundation many years of experience delivering automated and robotic systems for nuclear, analytical chemistry, and bioengineering applications. As an integrator of commercial systems and a developer of unique custom-made systems, the team currently supports the automation

  11. Automated lithocell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englisch, Andreas; Deuter, Armin

    1990-06-01

    Integration and automation have gained more and more ground in modern IC-manufacturing. It is difficult to make a direct calculation of the profit these investments yield. On the other hand, the demands to man, machine and technology have increased enormously of late; it is not difficult to see that only by means of integration and automation can these demands be coped with. Here are some salient points: U the complexity and costs incurred by the equipment and processes have got significantly higher . owing to the reduction of all dimensions, the tolerances within which the various process steps have to be carried out have got smaller and smaller and the adherence to these tolerances more and more difficult U the cycle time has become more and more important both for the development and control of new processes and, to a great extent, for a rapid and reliable supply to the customer. In order that the products be competitive under these conditions, all sort of costs have to be reduced and the yield has to be maximized. Therefore, the computer-aided control of the equipment and the process combined with an automatic data collection and a real-time SPC (statistical process control) has become absolutely necessary for successful IC-manufacturing. Human errors must be eliminated from the execution of the various process steps by automation. The work time set free in this way makes it possible for the human creativity to be employed on a larger scale in stabilizing the processes. Besides, a computer-aided equipment control can ensure the optimal utilization of the equipment round the clock.

  12. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Twelve new chemistry expermiments are described. Broad areas covered include atomic structure, solubility, gaseous diffusion, endothermic reactions, alcohols, equilibrium, atomic volumes, and some improvised apparatus. (PS)

  13. Hot atom chemistry and radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Krohn, Kenneth A.; Moerlein, Stephen M.; Link, Jeanne M.; Welch, Michael J.

    2012-12-19

    The chemical products made in a cyclotron target are a combined result of the chemical effects of the nuclear transformation that made the radioactive atom and the bulk radiolysis in the target. This review uses some well-known examples to understand how hot atom chemistry explains the primary products from a nuclear reaction and then how radiation chemistry is exploited to set up the optimal product for radiosynthesis. It also addresses the chemical effects of nuclear decay. There are important principles that are common to hot atom chemistry and radiopharmaceutical chemistry. Both emphasize short-lived radionuclides and manipulation of high specific activity nuclides. Furthermore, they both rely on radiochromatographic separation for identification of no-carrieradded products.

  14. The Automated Planetary Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivie, C. V.; Friedman, L. D.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for a study on mission definition and design to determine broad technology directions and needs for advanced planetary spacecraft and future planetary missions. The discussion covers mission selection, system design, and technology assessment and review for a multicomponent spacecraft exploration facility provided with nuclear power propulsion. As an example, the Automated Planetary Space Station at Jupiter is examined as a generic concept which has the capability of conducting in-depth investigations of different aspects of the entire Jovian system. Mission planning is discussed relative to low-thrust trajectory control, automatic target identification and landing, roving vehicle operation, and automated sample analysis.

  15. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and content information related to chemistry. Topics include polarizing power; calorimetry and momentum; microcomputers in school chemistry; a constant-volume dispenser for liquids, floating magnets, and crystal lattices; preparation of chromium; and solvent polarity and…

  16. Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending January 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    This report has been indexed by 11 separate chapters. The subjects covered are: coal chemistry, aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures, geochemistry, materials chemistry, chemistry of transuranium elements and compounds, separations chemistry, catalysis, electron spectroscopy, nuclear waste chemistry, heuristic modeling, and special topics. (PLG)

  17. Uranium triamidoamine chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Benedict M; Liddle, Stephen T

    2015-07-01

    Triamidoamine (Tren) complexes of the p- and d-block elements have been well-studied, and they display a diverse array of chemistry of academic, industrial and biological significance. Such in-depth investigations are not as widespread for Tren complexes of uranium, despite the general drive to better understand the chemical behaviour of uranium by virtue of its fundamental position within the nuclear sector. However, the chemistry of Tren-uranium complexes is characterised by the ability to stabilise otherwise reactive, multiply bonded main group donor atom ligands, construct uranium-metal bonds, promote small molecule activation, and support single molecule magnetism, all of which exploit the steric, electronic, thermodynamic and kinetic features of the Tren ligand system. This Feature Article presents a current account of the chemistry of Tren-uranium complexes. PMID:26035690

  18. Circumstellar chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassgold, Alfred E.; Huggins, Patrick J.

    1987-01-01

    The study of the outer envelopes of cool evolved stars has become an active area of research. The physical properties of CS envelopes are presented. Observations of many wavelengths bands are relevant. A summary of observations and a discussion of theoretical considerations concerning the chemistry are summarized. Recent theoretical considerations show that the thermal equilibrium model is of limited use for understanding the chemistry of the outer CS envelopes. The theoretical modeling of the chemistry of CS envelopes provides a quantitive test of chemical concepts which have a broader interest than the envelopes themselves.

  19. Application of neural network and pattern recognition software to the automated analysis of continuous nuclear monitoring of on-load reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.A.; Eccleston, G.W.; Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Larson, T.W.

    1993-08-01

    Automated analysis using pattern recognition and neural network software can help interpret data, call attention to potential anomalies, and improve safeguards effectiveness. Automated software analysis, based on pattern recognition and neural networks, was applied to data collected from a radiation core discharge monitor system located adjacent to an on-load reactor core. Unattended radiation sensors continuously collect data to monitor on-line refueling operations in the reactor. The huge volume of data collected from a number of radiation channels makes it difficult for a safeguards inspector to review it all, check for consistency among the measurement channels, and find anomalies. Pattern recognition and neural network software can analyze large volumes of data from continuous, unattended measurements, thereby improving and automating the detection of anomalies. The authors developed a prototype pattern recognition program that determines the reactor power level and identifies the times when fuel bundles are pushed through the core during on-line refueling. Neural network models were also developed to predict fuel bundle burnup to calculate the region on the on-load reactor face from which fuel bundles were discharged based on the radiation signals. In the preliminary data set, which was limited and consisted of four distinct burnup regions, the neural network model correctly predicted the burnup region with an accuracy of 92%.

  20. Summary of astronaut inputs concerning automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, David J.

    1990-01-01

    An assessment of the potential for increased productivity on Space Station Freedom through advanced automation and robotics was recently completed. Sponsored by the Office of Space Station, the study involved reviews of on-orbit operations experience documentation, interviews with 23 current and former astronauts/payload specialists as well as other NASA and contractor personnel, and a survey of 32 astronauts and payload specialists. Assessed areas of related on-orbit experience included Skylab, space shuttle, Spacelab, and the Soviet space program, as well as the U.S. nuclear submarine program and Antarctic research stations analogs. The survey questionnaire asked the respondents to rate the desirability of advanced automation, EVA robotics, and IVA robotics. They were also asked to rate safety impacts of automated fault diagnosis, isolation, and recovery (FDIR); automated exception reporting and alarm filtering; and an EVA retriever. The respondents were also asked to evaluate 26 specific applications of advanced automation and robotics related to perceived impact on productivity.

  1. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes equipment, activities, and experiments useful in chemistry instruction, including among others, a rapid method to determine available chlorine in bleach, simple flame testing apparatus, and a simple apparatus demonstrating the technique of flash photolysis. (SK)

  2. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Several ideas are proposed for chemistry teachers to try in their classrooms. Subjects included are polymerization of acrylate, polymerization of styrene, conductivity, pollution, preparation of chlorine, redox equations, chemiluminescence, and molecular sieves. (PS)

  3. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes 13 activities, experiments and demonstrations, including the preparation of iron (III) chloride, simple alpha-helix model, investigating camping gas, redox reactions of some organic compounds, a liquid crystal thermometer, and the oxidation number concept in organic chemistry. (JN)

  4. Catalytic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borer, Londa; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes an approach for making chemistry relevant to everyday life. Involves the study of kinetics using the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by vegetable juices. Allows students to design and carry out experiments and then draw conclusions from their results. (JRH)

  5. Precolumbian Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Janet Bond

    1995-01-01

    Describes the content and development of a curriculum that provides an approach to descriptive chemistry and the history of technology through consideration of the pottery, metallurgy, pigments, dyes, agriculture, and medicine of pre-Columbian people. (DDR)

  6. Both Automation and Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Royal

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the concept of a paperless society and the current situation in library automation. Various applications of automation and telecommunications are addressed, and future library automation is considered. Automation at the Monroe County Public Library in Bloomington, Indiana, is described as an example. (MES)

  7. Stratospheric chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, W.H. )

    1991-01-01

    Advances in stratospheric chemistry made by investigators in the United States from 1987 to 1990 are reviewed. Subject areas under consideration include photochemistry of the polar stratosphere, photochemistry of the global stratosphere, and assessments of inadvertent modification of the stratosphere by anthropogenic activity. Particular attention is given to early observations and theories, gas phase chemistry, Antarctic observations, Arctic observations, odd-oxygen, odd-hydrogen, odd-nitrogen, halogens, aerosols, modeling of stratospheric ozone, and reactive nitrogen effects.

  8. Radiation chemistry research using PULAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaikwad, Parimal; Priyadarsini, K. I.; Rao, B. S. M.

    2008-10-01

    The details of the recently installed 7 MeV Pune University LINAC Facility (PULAF) coupled with the optical absorption technique for pulse radiolysis studies at the National Centre for Free Radical Research, Department of Chemistry, University of Pune, Pune, India are described. The facility has a selection of electron pulse widths in the range 10 ns-3 μs with corresponding doses of about 5-144 Gy per pulse. The operation of the machine and the detection system are fully automated. Several researchers from various Indian universities and national laboratories use the PULAF and some of the projects that are currently undertaken by our group and others include the radiation chemistry of indole and chalcone derivatives, herbal antioxidants, structure-reactivity studies in cinnamates, redox chemistry of inorganic metal complexes, studies on oxidation of pyrimidine analogues and aromatic sulphur compounds. Some of them are briefly discussed here.

  9. Robotic automation of the environmental chemical laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hollen, R.M.; Erkkila, T.H.

    1994-04-01

    To date, automation of the environmental chemical laboratory has been a slow and tedious affair. In many, of our domestic analytical laboratories, automation consists of no more than analytical instrumentation coupled to an autosampling device. When we look into the future environmental needs of our nation, and indeed the world, it is apparent that we will not be able to keep up with the drastically increasing sample load without automated analyses. Stricter regulatory requirements on the horizon will potentially mandate staggering changes in sampling and characterization requirements. The Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA) Program was initiated in 1990 by the US government`s Department of Energy (DOE) to address these issues. By application of a new robotics paradigm, based on an integrated production chemistry foundation applied to analytical chemistry, the CAA will use standardized modular instruments called Standard Laboratory Modules (SLM) to provide flexible and standardized automation systems. By promoting the commercialization of this technology, CAA will provide the integrated robotics systems necessary to meet the coming remediation demands. This multilaboratory program is within the Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) of the Office of Technology Development (OTD).

  10. Laboratory automation in clinical bacteriology: what system to choose?

    PubMed

    Croxatto, A; Prod'hom, G; Faverjon, F; Rochais, Y; Greub, G

    2016-03-01

    Automation was introduced many years ago in several diagnostic disciplines such as chemistry, haematology and molecular biology. The first laboratory automation system for clinical bacteriology was released in 2006, and it rapidly proved its value by increasing productivity, allowing a continuous increase in sample volumes despite limited budgets and personnel shortages. Today, two major manufacturers, BD Kiestra and Copan, are commercializing partial or complete laboratory automation systems for bacteriology. The laboratory automation systems are rapidly evolving to provide improved hardware and software solutions to optimize laboratory efficiency. However, the complex parameters of the laboratory and automation systems must be considered to determine the best system for each given laboratory. We address several topics on laboratory automation that may help clinical bacteriologists to understand the particularities and operative modalities of the different systems. We present (a) a comparison of the engineering and technical features of the various elements composing the two different automated systems currently available, (b) the system workflows of partial and complete laboratory automation, which define the basis for laboratory reorganization required to optimize system efficiency, (c) the concept of digital imaging and telebacteriology, (d) the connectivity of laboratory automation to the laboratory information system, (e) the general advantages and disadvantages as well as the expected impacts provided by laboratory automation and (f) the laboratory data required to conduct a workflow assessment to determine the best configuration of an automated system for the laboratory activities and specificities. PMID:26806135

  11. The time series analysis of the radionuclide emissions from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant by online global chemistry transport model and inverse model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maki, Takashi; Tanaka, Taichu; Kajino, Mizuo; Sekiyama, Tsuyoshi; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Mikami, Masao

    2013-04-01

    The accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant that occurred in March 2011 emitted a large amount of radionuclide. The important feature of this accident was that the source position was evidently clear, however, time and vertical emission variations were unknown (in this case, it was known that the height of emission was not so high in altitude). In such a case, the technique of inverse model was a powerful tool to gain answers to questions; high resolution and more precise analysis by using prior emission information with relatively low computational cost are expected to be obtainable. Tagged simulation results by global aerosol model named MASINGAR (Tanaka et al., 2005) were used; the horizontal resolution was TL319 (about 60 km). Tagged tracers (Cs137) from lowest model layer (surface to 100m) were released every three hours with 1Tg/hr which accumulated daily mean. 50 sites' daily observation data in the world (CTBTO, Ro5, Berkeley, Hoffmann and Taiwan) were collected. The analysis period was 40 days, from 11 March to 19 April. We tested two prior emission information. The first information was JAEA posterior emission (Chino et al., 2011) and the second was NILU prior emission (not posterior) (Stohl et al.,2011) as our observation data were almost similar to their study. Due to consideration for observation error and space representation error, the observation error was set as 20%. Several sensitivity tests were examined by changing prior emission flux uncertainties. As a result, Cs137 estimated the total emission amount from 11 March to 19 April as 18.5PBq with the uncertainty of 3.6PBq. Moreover, the maximum radio nuclei emission occurred during 15 March, which was larger than prior information. The precision of the analysis was highly dependent on observation data (quantity and quality) and precision of transport model. Possibility to obtain robust result by using multi-model ensemble results with inverse model was also considered. The results of

  12. Water chemistry used in the secondary coolant circuit of unit 3 at the rovno nuclear power station involving correction treatment of working medium with lithium hydroxide and ethanolamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, V. Ya.; Vlasenko, N. I.; Kozlova, T. Yu.

    2011-03-01

    The all-volatile water chemistry used in the secondary coolant circuit involving correction treatment of the steam generator's boiler water with lithium hydroxide and the ethanolamine water chemistry are analyzed from the viewpoint of their effect on the erosion-corrosion wear of equipment used in the secondary coolant system and damageability of heat-transfer tubes used in PGV-1000M steam generators.

  13. Tropospheric chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohnen, V. A.; Chameides, W.; Demerjian, K. L.; Lenschow, D. H.; Logan, J. A.; Mcneal, R. J.; Penkett, S. A.; Platt, U.; Schurath, U.; Dias, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    The chemistry of the background troposphere, the source region, and the transition regions are discussed. The troposphere is governed by heterogeneous chemistry far more so than the stratosphere. Heterogeneous processes of interest involve scavenging of trace gases by aerosols, cloud and precipitation elements leading to aqueous phase chemical reactions and to temporary and permanent removal of material from the gas phase. Dry deposition is a major removal process for ozone, as well as for other gases of importance in tropospheric photochemistry. These processes are also discussed.

  14. Chemistry Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasseur, Guy; Remsberg, Ellis; Purcell, Patrick; Bhatt, Praful; Sage, Karen H.; Brown, Donald E.; Scott, Courtney J.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Tie, Xue-Xi; Huang, Theresa

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the chemistry component of the model comparison is to assess to what extent differences in the formulation of chemical processes explain the variance between model results. Observed concentrations of chemical compounds are used to estimate to what degree the various models represent realistic situations. For readability, the materials for the chemistry experiment are reported in three separate sections. This section discussed the data used to evaluate the models in their simulation of the source gases and the Nitrogen compounds (NO(y)) and Chlorine compounds (Cl(y)) species.

  15. Polymer Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  16. Data interpretation in the Automated Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Klatt, L.N.; Elling, J.W.; Mniszewski, S.

    1995-12-01

    The Contaminant Analysis Automation project envisions the analytical chemistry laboratory of the future being assembled from automation submodules that can be integrated into complete analysis system through a plug-and-play strategy. In this automated system the reduction of instrumental data to knowledge required by the laboratory customer must also be accomplished in an automated way. This paper presents the concept of an automated Data Interpretation Module (DIM) within the context of the plug-and-play automation strategy. The DIM is an expert system driven software module. The DIM functions as a standard laboratory module controlled by the system task sequence controller. The DIM consists of knowledge base(s) that accomplish the data assessment, quality control, and data analysis tasks. The expert system knowledge base(s) encapsulate the training and experience of the analytical chemist. Analysis of instrumental data by the DIM requires the use of pattern recognition techniques. Laboratory data from the analysis of PCBs will be used to illustrate the DIM.

  17. A two-year automated dripwater chemistry study in a remote cave in the tropical south Pacific: Using [Cl-] as a conservative tracer for seasalt contribution of major cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremaine, Darrel M.; Sinclair, Daniel J.; Stoll, Heather M.; Lagerström, Maria; Carvajal, Carlos P.; Sherrell, Robert M.

    2016-07-01

    Stalagmite Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios are commonly interpreted as proxies for past hydrologic conditions and are often used to supplement carbon and oxygen stable isotope records. While the processes that control these element ratios, including water-rock interaction, dripwater residence time, and upstream precipitation of calcite, are well understood in continental caves, there have been few investigations of dripwater Element/Ca (X/Ca) evolution in coastal marine caves where seasalt can have a strong influence on the incoming Mg/Ca ratio. We instrumented a marine cave on the remote South Pacific island of Niue to record daily cave microclimate, as well as weekly-integrated drip rates, dripwater oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, and dripwater chemistry over a period of twenty-two months. Using chloride as a conservative tracer for sea-spray, we calculate that seasalt input accounts for a large portion of dripwater Na, SO4, and Mg (89%, 93%, and 85% respectively) and a smaller portion of the Ca and Sr (19% and 17%). During the second year of this study a gradual decrease (by ∼18%) in dripwater chlorinity was observed, suggesting that an epikarst-hosted seasalt aerosol inventory was being diluted over time. Minor element to calcium ratios for B, K, Cl, SO4, Mg, Na, Sr, and Fe all strongly covary over the observation period, suggesting that although sea-spray plays a significant role in modulating incoming drip chemistry, prior calcite precipitation (PCP) dominates chemical evolution within the epikarst. During a prolonged drought episode, evaporative enrichments in dripwater δD and δ18O (+4‰ and 0.5‰, respectively) were observed to coincide with increased cation and anion concentrations, strong Ca removal via PCP, and increases in Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios (28% and 34%, respectively), suggesting that concomitant enrichment in speleothem δ18O and X/Ca ratios may be interpreted as multi-proxy evidence for dry climate conditions. We use modern dripwater chemistry and

  18. The introduction of automated dispensing and injection during PET procedures: a step in the optimisation of extremity doses and whole-body doses of nuclear medicine staff.

    PubMed

    Covens, P; Berus, D; Vanhavere, F; Caveliers, V

    2010-08-01

    Significant staff exposure is generally expected during PET-and PET/CT applications. Whole-body doses as well as extremity doses are usually higher per procedure compared with SPECT applications. Dispensing individual patient doses and manual injection involves high extremity doses even when heavy weighted syringe shields are used. In some cases the external radiation causes an exposure to the fingertips of more than 500 mSv y(-1), which is the yearly limit. Whole-body doses per procedure are relatively lower compared with extremity doses and are generally spread over the entire procedure (Guillet, B., Quentin, P., Waultier, S., Bourrelly, M., Pisano, P. and Mundler, O. Technologist radiation exposure in routine clinical practice with 18F-FDG PET. J. Nucl. Med. Technol. 33, 175-179 (2005). Optimisation of the individual workload is often used to restrict staff doses, but many PET centres face the need for further optimisation to reduce the staff doses to an acceptable level. During this study the effect of the use of an automated dispensing and injection system for (18)FDG on whole-body doses and extremity doses was evaluated. Detailed dosimetric studies using thermoluminescent and direct ion storage dosimetry were carried out before and after the introduction of this system. The results show that the extremity doses can be reduced by more than 95 % up to a mean level of 10 muSv per handled GBq. At the same time, whole-body doses can be halved during injection of the tracer. This results in a dose reduction of 20 % during the entire procedure of injection, escorting and positioning. In this way, the study shows that with the use of automated dispensing and injection a considerable staff dose reduction can be obtained. PMID:20335185

  19. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom materials/activities. These include: experiments on colloids, processing of uranium ore, action of heat on carbonates; color test for phenols and aromatic amines; solvent properties of non-electrolytes; stereoscopic applications/methods; a valency balance;…

  20. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes some laboratory apparatus, chemistry experiments and demonstrations, such as a Kofler block melting point apparatus, chromatographic investigation of the phosphoric acid, x-ray diffraction, the fountain experiment, endothermic sherbet, the measurement of viscosity, ionization energies and electronic configurations. (GA)

  1. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, experiments, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and information on a variety of chemistry topics including, for example, inert gases, light-induced reactions, calculators, identification of substituted acetophenones, the elements, analysis of copper minerals, extraction of metallic strontium, equilibrium, halogens, and…

  2. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the kinetics of the hydrogen peroxide-iodide ion reaction, simulation of fluidization catalysis, the use of Newman projection diagrams to represent steric relationships in organic chemistry, the use of synthetic substrates for proteolytic enzyme reactions, and two simple clock reactions"--hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes and…

  3. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and classroom materials/activities. These include: game for teaching ionic formulas; method for balancing equations; description of useful redox series; computer programs (with listings) for water electrolysis simulation and for determining chemical…

  4. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the alkylation of aniline, the preparation and properties of perbromate, using scrap copper in chemistry instruction, a safe method of burning hydrogen, and the use of an ion-charge model as an alternative to the mole concept in secondary school instruction. (AL)

  5. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes several chemistry projects, including solubility, formula for magnesium oxide, dissociation of dinitrogen tetroxide, use of 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene, migration of ions, heats of neutralizations, use of pocket calculators, sonic cleaning, oxidation states of manganese, and cell potentials. Includes an extract from Chemical Age on…

  6. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents 12 chemistry notes for British secondary school teachers. Some of these notes are: (1) a simple device for testing pH-meters; (2) portable fume cupboard safety screen; and (3) Mass spectroscopy-analysis of a mass peak. (HM)

  7. Automated External Defibrillator

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is an Automated External Defibrillator? An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a portable device that ... Institutes of Health Department of Health and Human Services USA.gov

  8. Workflow automation architecture standard

    SciTech Connect

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T.

    1994-11-14

    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  9. A Chemistry Lesson at Three Mile Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammano, Nicholas J.

    1980-01-01

    Details the procedures used in utilizing the hydrogen bubble incident at Three Mile Island to relate these basic chemical principles to nuclear chemistry: gas laws, Le Chatelier's principle and equilibrium, and stoichiometry. (CS)

  10. Automation of industrial bioprocesses.

    PubMed

    Beyeler, W; DaPra, E; Schneider, K

    2000-01-01

    The dramatic development of new electronic devices within the last 25 years has had a substantial influence on the control and automation of industrial bioprocesses. Within this short period of time the method of controlling industrial bioprocesses has changed completely. In this paper, the authors will use a practical approach focusing on the industrial applications of automation systems. From the early attempts to use computers for the automation of biotechnological processes up to the modern process automation systems some milestones are highlighted. Special attention is given to the influence of Standards and Guidelines on the development of automation systems. PMID:11092132

  11. Automation in Clinical Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the trend toward automation in clinical pathology laboratories has largely bypassed the clinical microbiology laboratory. In this article, we review the historical impediments to automation in the microbiology laboratory and offer insight into the reasons why we believe that we are on the cusp of a dramatic change that will sweep a wave of automation into clinical microbiology laboratories. We review the currently available specimen-processing instruments as well as the total laboratory automation solutions. Lastly, we outline the types of studies that will need to be performed to fully assess the benefits of automation in microbiology laboratories. PMID:23515547

  12. Computational chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. O.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.

  13. Automated error-tolerant macromolecular structure determination from multidimensional nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectra and chemical shift assignments: improved robustness and performance of the PASD algorithm.

    PubMed

    Kuszewski, John J; Thottungal, Robin Augustine; Clore, G Marius; Schwieters, Charles D

    2008-08-01

    We report substantial improvements to the previously introduced automated NOE assignment and structure determination protocol known as PASD (Kuszewski et al. (2004) J Am Chem Soc 26:6258-6273). The improved protocol includes extensive analysis of input spectral data to create a low-resolution contact map of residues expected to be close in space. This map is used to obtain reasonable initial guesses of NOE assignment likelihoods which are refined during subsequent structure calculations. Information in the contact map about which residues are predicted to not be close in space is applied via conservative repulsive distance restraints which are used in early phases of the structure calculations. In comparison with the previous protocol, the new protocol requires significantly less computation time. We show results of running the new PASD protocol on six proteins and demonstrate that useful assignment and structural information is extracted on proteins of more than 220 residues. We show that useful assignment information can be obtained even in the case in which a unique structure cannot be determined. PMID:18668206

  14. Does bacteriology laboratory automation reduce time to results and increase quality management?

    PubMed

    Dauwalder, O; Landrieve, L; Laurent, F; de Montclos, M; Vandenesch, F; Lina, G

    2016-03-01

    Due to reductions in financial and human resources, many microbiological laboratories have merged to build very large clinical microbiology laboratories, which allow the use of fully automated laboratory instruments. For clinical chemistry and haematology, automation has reduced the time to results and improved the management of laboratory quality. The aim of this review was to examine whether fully automated laboratory instruments for microbiology can reduce time to results and impact quality management. This study focused on solutions that are currently available, including the BD Kiestra™ Work Cell Automation and Total Lab Automation and the Copan WASPLab(®). PMID:26577142

  15. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated... Circular No. A-130, Revised, Transmittal No. 4, Appendix III, “Security of Federal Automated...

  16. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated... Circular No. A-130, Revised, Transmittal No. 4, Appendix III, “Security of Federal Automated...

  17. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated... Circular No. A-130, Revised, Transmittal No. 4, Appendix III, “Security of Federal Automated...

  18. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated... Circular No. A-130, Revised, Transmittal No. 4, Appendix III, “Security of Federal Automated...

  19. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated... Circular No. A-130, Revised, Transmittal No. 4, Appendix III, “Security of Federal Automated...

  20. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.; Steffen, J.M.

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inerted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  1. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Brown, William F.; Steffen, Jim M.

    1985-01-01

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inserted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  2. (Pesticide chemistry)

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1990-09-04

    This report summarizes a trip by L. W. Barnthouse of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), to Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), where he participated in the 7th International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry. He chaired a workshop on experimental systems for determining effects of pesticides on nontarget organisms and gave an oral presentation at a symposium on pesticide risk assessment. Before returning to the United States, Dr. Barnthouse visited the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research in Texel, the Netherlands.

  3. ChemCom Has Students Hooked on Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Betsy

    1997-01-01

    Discusses a year-long course of study called Chemistry in the Community, or ChemCom, developed by the American Chemical Society (ACS) to improve chemistry studies in high schools and to relate chemistry to the real world of students. Students spend half the time in the laboratory with more discussion on nuclear, organic, and biochemistry than that…

  4. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, L.M.; Del Cul, G.D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D.H.

    1994-09-01

    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Fission product behavior is described along with processing experience. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior, processing and recycle of the fuel components is a necessary factor if future systems are to be established.

  5. Laboratory Automation and Middleware.

    PubMed

    Riben, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The practice of surgical pathology is under constant pressure to deliver the highest quality of service, reduce errors, increase throughput, and decrease turnaround time while at the same time dealing with an aging workforce, increasing financial constraints, and economic uncertainty. Although not able to implement total laboratory automation, great progress continues to be made in workstation automation in all areas of the pathology laboratory. This report highlights the benefits and challenges of pathology automation, reviews middleware and its use to facilitate automation, and reviews the progress so far in the anatomic pathology laboratory. PMID:26065792

  6. Management Planning for Workplace Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDole, Thomas L.

    Several factors must be considered when implementing office automation. Included among these are whether or not to automate at all, the effects of automation on employees, requirements imposed by automation on the physical environment, effects of automation on the total organization, and effects on clientele. The reasons behind the success or…

  7. Archaeological Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurer, Pamela S.

    1983-01-01

    Research projects and methodology in archeochemistry are discussed. Topics include radiocarbon dating, thermoluminescence, amino acid dating, obsidian hydration dating, bone studies, metals/metallurgy, pottery, stone/glass, and future directions. Includes reports on funding, insights into nuclear waste/environmental problems provided by…

  8. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Annual Report-Innovative Approaches to Automating QA/QC of Fuel Particle Production Using On-Line Nondestructive Methods for Higher Reliability.

    SciTech Connect

    Hockey, Ronald L.; Bond, Leonard J.; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Sandness, Gerald A.; Gray, Joseph N.; Batishko, Charles R.; Flake, Matthew; Panetta, Paul D.; Saurwein, John J.; Lowden, Richard A.; Good, Morris S.

    2004-04-20

    This document summarizes the activities performed and progress made in FY-03. Various approaches for automating the particle fuel production QC process using on-line nondestructive methods for higher reliability were evaluated. In this first-year of a three-year project, surrogate fuel particles made available for testing included leftovers from initial coater development runs. These particles had a high defect fraction and the particle properties spanned a wide range, providing the opportunity to examine worst-case conditions before refining the inspection methods to detect more subtle coating features. Particles specifically designed to evaluate the NDE methods being investigated under this project will be specified and fabricated at ORNL early next reporting period. The literature was reviewed for existing inspection technology and to identify many of the fuel particle conditions thought to degrade its performance. A modeling study, including the electromagnetic and techniques, showed that the in-line electromagnetic methods should provide measurable responses to missing layers, kernel diameter, and changes in coating layer thickness, with reasonable assumptions made for material conductivities. The modeling study for the ultrasonic methods provided the resonant frequencies that should be measured using the resonant ultrasound technique, and the results from these calculations were published in the proceedings for two conferences. The notion of a particle quality index to relate coating properties to fabrication process parameters was explored. Progress was made in understanding the fabrication process. GA identified key literature in this area and Saurwein (2003a) provided a literature review/summary. This literature has been reviewed. An approach previously applied to flexible manufacturing was adopted and the modification and development of the concepts to meet TRISO particle fuel manufacturing and QA/QC needs initiated. This approach establishes

  9. Limitations of automated remnant lipoprotein cholesterol assay for diagnostic use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    I wish to comment on the limitations of automated remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RemL-C) assay reported in Clinical Chemistry. Remnants are lipoprotein particles produced after newly formed triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) of either hepatic or intestinal origin enter the plasma space and unde...

  10. Approach to plant automation with evolving technology

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has provided support to Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to pursue research leading to advanced, automated control of new innovative liquid-metal-cooled nuclear power plants. The purpose of this effort is to conduct research that will help to ensure improved operability, reliability, and safety for advanced LMRs. The plan adopted to achieve these program goals in an efficient and timely manner consists of utilizing, and advancing where required, state-of-the-art controls technology through close interaction with other national laboratories, universities, industry and utilities. A broad range of applications for the control systems strategies and the design environment developed in the course of this program is likely. A natural evolution of automated control in nuclear power plants is envisioned by ORNL to be a phased transition from today's situation of some analog control at the subsystem level with significant operator interaction to the future capability for completely automated digital control with operator supervision. The technical accomplishments provided by this program will assist the industry to accelerate this transition and provide greater economy and safety. The development of this transition to advanced, automated control system designs is expected to have extensive benefits in reduced operating costs, fewer outages, enhanced safety, improved licensability, and improved public acceptance for commercial nuclear power plants. 24 refs.

  11. The problem of optimizing the water chemistry used in the primary coolant circuit of a nuclear power station equipped with VVER reactors under the conditions of longer fuel cycle campaigns and increased capacity of power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharafutdinov, R. B.; Kharitonova, N. L.

    2011-05-01

    It is shown that the optimal water chemistry of the primary coolant circuit must be substantiated while introducing measures aimed at increasing the power output in operating power units and for the project called AES-2006/AES TOI (a typical optimized project of a nuclear power station with enhanced information support). The experience gained from operation of PWR reactors with an elongated fuel cycle at an increased level of power is analyzed. Conditions under which boron compounds are locally concentrated on the fuel rod surfaces (the hideout phenomenon) and axial offset anomaly occurs are enlisted, and the influence of lithium on the hideout in the pores of deposits on the surfaces of fuel assemblies is shown.

  12. Combustion chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  13. Tropospheric Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohnen, V.

    1984-01-01

    The fundamental processes that control the chemical composition and cycles of the global troposphere and how these processes and properties affect the physical behavior of the atmosphere are examined. The long-term information needs for tropospheric chemistry are: to be able to predict tropospheric responses to perturbations, both natural and anthropogenic, of these cycles, and to provide the information required for the maintenance and effective future management of the atmospheric component of our global life support system. The processes controlling global tropospheric biogeochemical cycles include: the input of trace species into the troposphere, their long-range transport and distribution as affected by the mean wind and vertical venting, their chemical transformations, including gas to particle conversion, leading to the appearance of aerosols or aqueous phase reactions inside cloud droplets, and their removal from the troposphere via wet (precipitation) and dry deposition.

  14. Automated chemical mass balance receptor modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, P.L.; Core, J.E.

    1986-09-01

    Chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor modeling provides alternative or complementary methods to dispersion models for apportioning particulate source impacts. This method estimates particulate source contributions at a receptor by comparing the chemistry of the ambient aerosol to the chemistry of the emissions from the various sources. To minimize demands on the analyst and facilitate the processing of large volumes of data, an initial version of an automated CMB model has been developed and is operational on an IBM personal computer as well as on a Harris mini-mainframe computer. Although it currently does not have all the features of the more interactive manual model, it does show promise for reducing man-power demands. The automated model is based on an early version of the EPA CMB model, which has been converted to run on an IBM-PC or compatible microcomputer. It uses the effective variance method. The interactive manual model is also undergoing modifications under an EPA contract. Some of these new features of the EPA model have been included in one version of the automated model.

  15. Integrated Microreactors for Reaction Automation: New Approaches to Reaction Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullen, Jonathan P.; Jensen, Klavs F.

    2010-07-01

    Applications of microsystems (microreactors) in continuous-flow chemistry have expanded rapidly over the past two decades, with numerous reports of higher conversions and yields compared to conventional batch benchtop equipment. Synthesis applications are enhanced by chemical information gained from integrating microreactor components with sensors, actuators, and automated fluid handling. Moreover, miniaturized systems allow experiments on well-defined samples at conditions not easily accessed by conventional means, such as reactions at high pressure and temperatures. The wealth of synthesis information that could potentially be acquired through use of microreactors integrated with physical sensors and analytical chemistry techniques for online reaction monitoring has not yet been well explored. The increased efficiency resulting from use of continuous-flow microreactor platforms to automate reaction screening and optimization encourages a shift from current batchwise chemical reaction development to this new approach. We review advances in this new area and provide application examples of online monitoring and automation.

  16. Chemistry Division: Annual progress report for period ending March 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This report is divided into the following sections: coal chemistry; aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures; geochemistry of crustal processes to high temperatures and pressures; chemistry of advanced inorganic materials; structure and dynamics of advanced polymeric materials; chemistry of transuranium elements and compounds; separations chemistry; reactions and catalysis in molten salts; surface science related to heterogeneous catalysis; electron spectroscopy; chemistry related to nuclear waste disposal; computational modeling of security document printing; and special topics. (DLC)

  17. AttoPhotoChemistry. Probing ultrafast electron dynamics by the induced nuclear motion: The prompt and delayed predissociation of N2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muskatel, B. H.; Remacle, F.; Levine, R. D.

    2014-05-01

    Quantum mechanical wavepacket dynamics simulation that includes the nuclear motion exhibit a prompt, few fs, dissociation of electronically attosecond excited N2 in addition to the slow dissociation evident from spectral line broadening in well resolved spectra. The simulations show that nuclear motion can probe early times electron dynamics. The separation of time scales is mimicked by a model study fashioned like chemical kinetics of unimolecular dissociation. The physical origin of the separation into prompt and delayed decay is argued to be the same in the vibrational and the present case, namely that there are more bound than dissociative channels.

  18. Enhancing Seismic Calibration Research Through Software Automation

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, S; Dodge, D; Elliott, A; Ganzberger, M; Hauk, T; Matzel, E; Ryall, F

    2004-07-09

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (GNEM R&E) Program has made significant progress enhancing the process of deriving seismic calibrations and performing scientific integration with automation tools. We present an overview of our software automation efforts and framework to address the problematic issues of very large datasets and varied formats utilized during seismic calibration research. The software and scientific automation initiatives directly support the rapid collection of raw and contextual seismic data used in research, provide efficient interfaces for researchers to measure/analyze data, and provide a framework for research dataset integration. The automation also improves the researcher's ability to assemble quality controlled research products for delivery into the NNSA Knowledge Base (KB). The software and scientific automation tasks provide the robust foundation upon which synergistic and efficient development of, GNEM R&E Program, seismic calibration research may be built. The task of constructing many seismic calibration products is labor intensive and complex, hence expensive. However, aspects of calibration product construction are susceptible to automation and future economies. We are applying software and scientific automation to problems within two distinct phases or 'tiers' of the seismic calibration process. The first tier involves initial collection of waveform and parameter (bulletin) data that comprise the 'raw materials' from which signal travel-time and amplitude correction surfaces are derived and is highly suited for software automation. The second tier in seismic research content development activities include development of correction surfaces and other calibrations. This second tier is less susceptible to complete automation, as these activities require the judgment of scientists skilled in the interpretation of often highly unpredictable event

  19. Automation, Manpower, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Jerry M.

    Each group in our population will be affected by automation and other forms of technological advancement. This book seeks to identify the needs of these various groups, and to present ways in which educators can best meet them. The author corrects certain prevalent misconceptions concerning manpower utilization and automation. Based on the…

  20. Planning for Office Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherron, Gene T.

    1982-01-01

    The steps taken toward office automation by the University of Maryland are described. Office automation is defined and some types of word processing systems are described. Policies developed in the writing of a campus plan are listed, followed by a section on procedures adopted to implement the plan. (Author/MLW)

  1. The Automated Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naclerio, Nick

    1979-01-01

    Clerical personnel may be able to climb career ladders as a result of office automation and expanded job opportunities in the word processing area. Suggests opportunities in an automated office system and lists books and periodicals on word processing for counselors and teachers. (MF)

  2. Work and Programmable Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVore, Paul W.

    A new industrial era based on electronics and the microprocessor has arrived, an era that is being called intelligent automation. Intelligent automation, in the form of robots, replaces workers, and the new products, using microelectronic devices, require significantly less labor to produce than the goods they replace. The microprocessor thus…

  3. Automated drilling draws interest

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    Interest in subsea technology includes recent purchase of both a British yard and Subsea Technology, a Houston-based BOP manufacturer. In France, key personnel from the former Comex Industries have been acquired and a base reinstalled in Marseille. ACB is also investing heavily, with the Norwegians, in automated drilling programs. These automated drilling programs are discussed.

  4. Library Automation Style Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord Bros., Liverpool, NY.

    This library automation style guide lists specific terms and names often used in the library automation industry. The terms and/or acronyms are listed alphabetically and each is followed by a brief definition. The guide refers to the "Chicago Manual of Style" for general rules, and a notes section is included for the convenience of individual…

  5. Automation and Cataloging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furuta, Kenneth; And Others

    1990-01-01

    These three articles address issues in library cataloging that are affected by automation: (1) the impact of automation and bibliographic utilities on professional catalogers; (2) the effect of the LASS microcomputer software on the cost of authority work in cataloging at the University of Arizona; and (3) online subject heading and classification…

  6. Why Teach Environmental Chemistry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Marjorie H.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the importance of teaching environmental chemistry in secondary school science classes, and outlines five examples of environmental chemistry problems that focus on major concepts of chemistry and have critical implications for human survival and well-being. (JR)

  7. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1978-01-01

    This first in a series of articles describing the state of the art of various branches of chemistry reviews inorganic chemistry, including bioinorganic, photochemistry, organometallic, and solid state chemistries. (SL)

  8. Automation in Immunohematology

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Meenu; Kaur, Ravneet; Gupta, Ekta

    2012-01-01

    There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process. PMID:22988378

  9. Advances in inspection automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Walter H.; Mair, H. Douglas; Jansen, Dion; Lombardi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    This new session at QNDE reflects the growing interest in inspection automation. Our paper describes a newly developed platform that makes the complex NDE automation possible without the need for software programmers. Inspection tasks that are tedious, error-prone or impossible for humans to perform can now be automated using a form of drag and drop visual scripting. Our work attempts to rectify the problem that NDE is not keeping pace with the rest of factory automation. Outside of NDE, robots routinely and autonomously machine parts, assemble components, weld structures and report progress to corporate databases. By contrast, components arriving in the NDT department typically require manual part handling, calibrations and analysis. The automation examples in this paper cover the development of robotic thickness gauging and the use of adaptive contour following on the NRU reactor inspection at Chalk River.

  10. Automation of Extraction Chromatograhic and Ion Exchange Separations for Radiochemical Analysis and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Egorov, Oleg

    2009-08-19

    Radiochemical analysis, complete with the separation of radionuclides of interest from the sample matrix and from other interfering radionuclides, is often an essential step in the determination of the radiochemical composition of a nuclear sample or process stream. Although some radionuclides can be determined nondestructively by gamma spectroscopy, where the gamma rays penetrate significant distances in condensed media and the gamma ray energies are diagnostic for specific radionuclides, other radionuclides that may be of interest emit only alpha or beta particles. For these, samples must be taken for destructive analysis and radiochemical separations are required. For process monitoring purposes, the radiochemical separation and detection methods must be rapid so that the results will be timely. These results could be obtained by laboratory analysis or by radiochemical process analyzers operating on-line or at-site. In either case, there is a need for automated radiochemical analysis methods to provide speed, throughput, safety, and consistent analytical protocols. Classical methods of separation used during the development of nuclear technologies, namely manual precipitations, solvent extractions, and ion exchange, are slow and labor intensive. Fortunately, the convergence of digital instrumentation for preprogrammed fluid manipulation and the development of new separation materials for column-based isolation of radionuclides has enabled the development of automated radiochemical analysis methodology. The primary means for separating radionuclides in solution are liquid-liquid extraction and ion exchange. These processes are well known and have been reviewed in the past.1 Ion exchange is readily employed in column formats. Liquid-liquid extraction can also be implemented on column formats using solvent-impregnated resins as extraction chromatographic materials. The organic liquid extractant is immobilized in the pores of a microporous polymer material. Under