Science.gov

Sample records for automated production line

  1. Automated solar panel assembly line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somberg, H.

    1981-01-01

    The initial stage of the automated solar panel assembly line program was devoted to concept development and proof of approach through simple experimental verification. In this phase, laboratory bench models were built to demonstrate and verify concepts. Following this phase was machine design and integration of the various machine elements. The third phase was machine assembly and debugging. In this phase, the various elements were operated as a unit and modifications were made as required. The final stage of development was the demonstration of the equipment in a pilot production operation.

  2. Automated applications of the infrared imagers in the automotive assembly lines: products and process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, M. A.; Zhou, Y.; Liu, J.

    2007-04-01

    This work discusses the automated application of the micro-bolometric and the photonic cooled infrared arrays, in the context of the automotive assembly operations. Such usages comprise: static thermographic applications as in evaluating the protective coating coverage over steel-fuel tanks. Furthermore, this discussion includes a variety of processing algorithms dedicated for handling the acquired infrared sequences or scans; addressing challenges in emissivity variations, sensor saturation, and surrounding contribution, while introducing possible solution schemes. The physics and detection methodology are presented through modeling and simulation work.

  3. El Paso automates main line compressor stations

    SciTech Connect

    Kind, R.H. )

    1989-12-01

    This paper reports how an El Paso natural gas company has automated 27 compressor stations on its main line gas-transmission system, ahead of its 5-year schedule begun in 1984. The project involved the total automation (unmanned operation) of one reciprocating engine-driven compressor station and 21 turbine-driven compressor facilities; the semi-automation (computer-assisted operation) of six reciprocating engine-driven compressor stations; and the addition of a central control facility located in El Paso.

  4. Development of Automated Production Line Processes for Solar Brightfield Modules: Annual Technical Progress Report, 1 January 2003 -- 30 June 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Nowlan, M. J.; Murach, J. M.; Sutherland, S. F.; Miller, D. C.; Moore, S. B.; Hogan, S. J.

    2005-06-01

    This report describes how Spire Corporation is addressing the PV Manufacturing R&D project goals of improving photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing processes and products while reducing costs and providing a technology foundation that supports significant manufacturing scale-up. To accomplish this, we are focusing our efforts on the design of a large-area utility-scale module and the development of the necessary manufacturing techniques and equipment to manufacture such a module in a high-volume production environment. A three-phase program is under way for developing and demonstrating new automated systems for fabricating very large PV modules ideal for use in multi-megawatt grid-connected applications. We designed a large-area 800 W module and we are developing associated module production equipment that will minimize the total installed system cost for utility-scale PV arrays. Unique features of the module design include a cantilevered glass superstrate to reduce the glass thickness a nd internally laminated bypass diodes that simplify internal busing and junction-box designs. Other program activities include the development of automation for solar cell string inspections, string busing, materials lay-up, and lamination; enhancements to the lamination process; and performance testing of large-area modules.

  5. SAF line pellet gaging. [Secure Automated Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Jedlovec, D.R.; Bowen W.W.; Brown, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    Automated and remotely controlled pellet inspection operations will be utilized in the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line. A prototypic pellet gage was designed and tested to verify conformance to the functions and requirements for measurement of diameter, surface flaws and weight-per-unit length.

  6. ALFA: Automated Line Fitting Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesson, R.

    2015-12-01

    ALFA fits emission line spectra of arbitrary wavelength coverage and resolution, fully automatically. It uses a catalog of lines which may be present to construct synthetic spectra, the parameters of which are then optimized by means of a genetic algorithm. Uncertainties are estimated using the noise structure of the residuals. An emission line spectrum containing several hundred lines can be fitted in a few seconds using a single processor of a typical contemporary desktop or laptop PC. Data cubes in FITS format can be analysed using multiple processors, and an analysis of tens of thousands of deep spectra obtained with instruments such as MUSE will take a few hours.

  7. Office Automation Boosts University's Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The University of Pittsburgh has a 2-year agreement designating the Xerox Corporation as the primary supplier of word processing and related office automation equipment in order to increase productivity and more efficient use of campus resources. (MLF)

  8. Start up testing for the secure automated fabrication line

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, E.W.; Benson, E.M.; Dahl, R.E.

    1986-10-21

    The Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) Line has been designed and built by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the Department of Energy at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The SAF Line will provide the capability for remote manufacture of fuel for Liquid Metal Reactors, and will supply fuel for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The SAF process is highly automated and represents a major advancement in nuclear fuel manufacturing, offering significant improvements in product quality, productivity, safety, and accountability of Special Nuclear Materials. The construction phase of the project is complete, and testing has been initiated to accomplish start up of the plant for manufacture of FFTF fuel. This paper describes the test methodology used for SAF Line start up.

  9. ALFA: an automated line fitting algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesson, R.

    2016-03-01

    I present the automated line fitting algorithm, ALFA, a new code which can fit emission line spectra of arbitrary wavelength coverage and resolution, fully automatically. In contrast to traditional emission line fitting methods which require the identification of spectral features suspected to be emission lines, ALFA instead uses a list of lines which are expected to be present to construct a synthetic spectrum. The parameters used to construct the synthetic spectrum are optimized by means of a genetic algorithm. Uncertainties are estimated using the noise structure of the residuals. An emission line spectrum containing several hundred lines can be fitted in a few seconds using a single processor of a typical contemporary desktop or laptop PC. I show that the results are in excellent agreement with those measured manually for a number of spectra. Where discrepancies exist, the manually measured fluxes are found to be less accurate than those returned by ALFA. Together with the code NEAT, ALFA provides a powerful way to rapidly extract physical information from observations, an increasingly vital function in the era of highly multiplexed spectroscopy. The two codes can deliver a reliable and comprehensive analysis of very large data sets in a few hours with little or no user interaction.

  10. Productivity goals drive office automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, A. P.; Kurzhals, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Office automation (OA) steps being taken by NASA to improve efficiency in communications between centers and personnel are outlined. NASA centers are currently linked by satellite for electronic mail and scheduling through dumb and intelligent terminals. The implementation of teleconferencing with interactive graphics transmitted between dial-up terminals is being examined in a pilot program, and interactive data bases are already in operation, with an on-line summary data base being planned for NASA headquarters. The NASA Recon on-line service is operating with citations of over 2,200,000 aeronautics and astronautics research documents and 300,000 scientific books accessed by over 250 terminals around the U.S. The emphasis for all the OA systems is on user-friendly design and minimizing the required input for entry and access.

  11. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Annual Report-Innovative Approaches to Automating QA/QC of Fuel Particle Production Using On-Line Nondestructive Methods for Higher Reliability.

    SciTech Connect

    Hockey, Ronald L.; Bond, Leonard J.; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Sandness, Gerald A.; Gray, Joseph N.; Batishko, Charles R.; Flake, Matthew; Panetta, Paul D.; Saurwein, John J.; Lowden, Richard A.; Good, Morris S.

    2004-04-20

    This document summarizes the activities performed and progress made in FY-03. Various approaches for automating the particle fuel production QC process using on-line nondestructive methods for higher reliability were evaluated. In this first-year of a three-year project, surrogate fuel particles made available for testing included leftovers from initial coater development runs. These particles had a high defect fraction and the particle properties spanned a wide range, providing the opportunity to examine worst-case conditions before refining the inspection methods to detect more subtle coating features. Particles specifically designed to evaluate the NDE methods being investigated under this project will be specified and fabricated at ORNL early next reporting period. The literature was reviewed for existing inspection technology and to identify many of the fuel particle conditions thought to degrade its performance. A modeling study, including the electromagnetic and techniques, showed that the in-line electromagnetic methods should provide measurable responses to missing layers, kernel diameter, and changes in coating layer thickness, with reasonable assumptions made for material conductivities. The modeling study for the ultrasonic methods provided the resonant frequencies that should be measured using the resonant ultrasound technique, and the results from these calculations were published in the proceedings for two conferences. The notion of a particle quality index to relate coating properties to fabrication process parameters was explored. Progress was made in understanding the fabrication process. GA identified key literature in this area and Saurwein (2003a) provided a literature review/summary. This literature has been reviewed. An approach previously applied to flexible manufacturing was adopted and the modification and development of the concepts to meet TRISO particle fuel manufacturing and QA/QC needs initiated. This approach establishes

  12. Development of Automated Production Line Processes for Solar Brightfield Modules: Final Annual Technical Progress Report, 1 July 2004 -- 15 October 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Nowlan, M. J.; Murach, J. M.; Sutherland, S. F.; Miller, D. C.; Moore S. B.; Hogan, S. J.

    2006-08-01

    Spire Corporation is addressing the Photovoltaic Manufacturing R&D project goals of improving photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing processes and products while reducing costs and providing a technology foundation that supports significant manufacturing scale-up. To accomplish this, we are focusing our efforts on the design of a large-area utility-scale module and the development of the necessary manufacturing techniques and equipment to manufacture such a module in a high-volume production environment. A three-phase program is under way for developing and demonstrating new automated systems for fabricating very large PV modules ideal for use in multi-megawatt grid-connected applications. We designed a large-area (1.57 m x 3.68 m) 800-W module, and we are developing associated module production equipment that will minimize the total installed system cost for utility-scale PV arrays. Activities in Phase 2 focused on the development of automation for module materials lay-up, cell string busing, and module lamination; enhancements to the cell stringing and lamination processes; and performance testing of large-area modules.

  13. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Project No. 02 103 Innovative Low Cost Approaches to Automating QA/QC of Fuel Particle Production Using On Line Nondestructive Methods for Higher Reliability Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Salahuddin; Batishko, Charles R.; Flake, Matthew; Good, Morris S.; Mathews, Royce; Morra, Marino; Panetta, Paul D.; Pardini, Allan F.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Tucker, Brian J.; Weier, Dennis R.; Hockey, Ronald L.; Gray, Joseph N.; Saurwein, John J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Lowden, Richard A.; Miller, James H.

    2006-02-28

    This Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project was tasked with exploring, adapting, developing and demonstrating innovative nondestructive test methods to automate nuclear coated particle fuel inspection so as to provide the United States (US) with necessary improved and economical Quality Assurance and Control (QA/QC) that is needed for the fuels for several reactor concepts being proposed for both near term deployment [DOE NE & NERAC, 2001] and Generation IV nuclear systems. Replacing present day QA/QC methods, done manually and in many cases destructively, with higher speed automated nondestructive methods will make fuel production for advanced reactors economically feasible. For successful deployment of next generation reactors that employ particle fuels, or fuels in the form of pebbles based on particles, extremely large numbers of fuel particles will require inspection at throughput rates that do not significantly impact the proposed manufacturing processes. The focus of the project is nondestructive examination (NDE) technologies that can be automated for production speeds and make either: (I) On Process Measurements or (II) In Line Measurements. The inspection technologies selected will enable particle “quality” qualification as a particle or group of particles passes a sensor. A multiple attribute dependent signature will be measured and used for qualification or process control decisions. A primary task for achieving this objective is to establish standard signatures for both good/acceptable particles and the most problematic types of defects using several nondestructive methods.

  14. Multiresidue trace analysis of pharmaceuticals, their human metabolites and transformation products by fully automated on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    García-Galán, María Jesús; Petrovic, Mira; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià

    2016-09-01

    A novel, fully automated analytical methodology based on dual column liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-LC-MS(2)) has been developed and validated for the analysis of 12 pharmaceuticals and 20 metabolites and transformation products in different types of water (influent and effluent wastewaters and surface water). Two LC columns were used - one for pre-concentration of the sample and the second for separation and analysis - so that water samples were injected directly in the chromatographic system. Besides the many advantages of the methodology, such as minimization of the sample volume required and its manipulation, both compounds ionized in positive and negative mode could be analyzed simultaneously without compromising the sensitivity. A comparative study of different mobile phases, gradients and LC pre-concentration columns was carried out to obtain the best analytical performance. Limits of detection (MLODs) achieved were in the low ngL(-1) range for all the compounds. The method was successfully applied to study the presence of the target analytes in different wastewater and surface water samples collected near the city of Girona (Catalonia, Spain). Data on the environmental presence and fate of pharmaceutical metabolites and TPs is still scarce, highlighting the relevance of the developed methodology. PMID:27343613

  15. Towards an automated intelligence product generation capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Alison M.; Hawes, Timothy W.; Nolan, James J.

    2015-05-01

    Creating intelligence information products is a time consuming and difficult process for analysts faced with identifying key pieces of information relevant to a complex set of information requirements. Complicating matters, these key pieces of information exist in multiple modalities scattered across data stores, buried in huge volumes of data. This results in the current predicament analysts find themselves; information retrieval and management consumes huge amounts of time that could be better spent performing analysis. The persistent growth in data accumulation rates will only increase the amount of time spent on these tasks without a significant advance in automated solutions for information product generation. We present a product generation tool, Automated PrOduct Generation and Enrichment (APOGEE), which aims to automate the information product creation process in order to shift the bulk of the analysts' effort from data discovery and management to analysis. APOGEE discovers relevant text, imagery, video, and audio for inclusion in information products using semantic and statistical models of unstructured content. APOGEEs mixed-initiative interface, supported by highly responsive backend mechanisms, allows analysts to dynamically control the product generation process ensuring a maximally relevant result. The combination of these capabilities results in significant reductions in the time it takes analysts to produce information products while helping to increase the overall coverage. Through evaluation with a domain expert, APOGEE has been shown the potential to cut down the time for product generation by 20x. The result is a flexible end-to-end system that can be rapidly deployed in new operational settings.

  16. An automated Genomes-to-Natural Products platform (GNP) for the discovery of modular natural products

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Chad W.; Skinnider, Michael A.; Wyatt, Morgan A.; Li, Xiang; Ranieri, Michael R. M.; Yang, Lian; Zechel, David L.; Ma, Bin; Magarvey, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial natural products are a diverse and valuable group of small molecules, and genome sequencing indicates that the vast majority remain undiscovered. The prediction of natural product structures from biosynthetic assembly lines can facilitate their discovery, but highly automated, accurate, and integrated systems are required to mine the broad spectrum of sequenced bacterial genomes. Here we present a genome-guided natural products discovery tool to automatically predict, combinatorialize and identify polyketides and nonribosomal peptides from biosynthetic assembly lines using LC–MS/MS data of crude extracts in a high-throughput manner. We detail the directed identification and isolation of six genetically predicted polyketides and nonribosomal peptides using our Genome-to-Natural Products platform. This highly automated, user-friendly programme provides a means of realizing the potential of genetically encoded natural products. PMID:26412281

  17. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4: Automated array assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A process sequence which can be used in conjunction with automated equipment for the mass production of solar cell modules for terrestrial use was developed. The process sequence was then critically analyzed from a technical and economic standpoint to determine the technological readiness of certain process steps for implementation. The steps receiving analysis were: back contact metallization, automated cell array layup/interconnect, and module edge sealing. For automated layup/interconnect, both hard automation and programmable automation (using an industrial robot) were studied. The programmable automation system was then selected for actual hardware development.

  18. Product lines in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Weber, J R

    1986-01-01

    The findings presented in the case study demonstrate that financial analysis is only as valid as the assumptions it is based upon. The single most important task is the definition of the clinical product. All other associated data is suspect and can lead to serious errors in business decisions if the product is poorly defined. A comprehensive case mix system, integrated with other financial systems with flexible reporting capabilities is required. The hospital and physicians must be willing to invest the time and expense necessary to ensure that the data is reliable. The hospital must be prudent in determining what cost finding approach they will elect to use. Although the RCC method has some fundamental problems, care must be taken not to develop a cost system that will require a significant amount of effort to maintain. PMID:10311387

  19. Off-Line Catalog Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc., Dublin, OH.

    The Ohio College Library Center's off-line catalog system is a limited technique for production of card catalogs. Unlike the on-line system, it cannotmake the resources of a region available to users in an individual institution, and it does not have the potential for significantly reducing rate of rise of library per-unit costs. In short, it is…

  20. Automation and control of off-planet oxygen production processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marner, W. J.; Suitor, J. W.; Schooley, L. S.; Cellier, F. E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses several aspects of the automation and control of off-planet production processes. First, a general approach to process automation and control is discussed from the viewpoint of translating human process control procedures into automated procedures. Second, the control issues for the automation and control of off-planet oxygen processes are discussed. Sensors, instruments, and components are defined and discussed in the context of off-planet applications, and the need for 'smart' components is clearly established.

  1. Weld line detection and process control for welding automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sang-Min; Cho, Man-Ho; Lee, Ho-Young; Cho, Taik-Dong

    2007-03-01

    Welding has been widely used as a process to join metallic parts. But because of hazardous working conditions, workers tend to avoid this task. Techniques to achieve the automation are the recognition of joint line and process control. A CCD (charge coupled device) camera with a laser stripe was applied to enhance the automatic weld seam tracking in GMAW (gas metal arc welding). The adaptive Hough transformation having an on-line processing ability was used to extract laser stripes and to obtain specific weld points. The three-dimensional information obtained from the vision system made it possible to generate the weld torch path and to obtain information such as the width and depth of the weld line. In this study, a neural network based on the generalized delta rule algorithm was adapted to control the process of GMAW, such as welding speed, arc voltage and wire feeding speed. The width and depth of the weld joint have been selected as neurons in the input layer of the neural-network algorithm. The input variables, the width and depth of the weld joint, are determined by image information. The voltage, weld speed and wire feed rate are represented as the neurons in the output layer. The results of the neural-network learning applied to the welding are as follows: learning ratio 0.5, momentum ratio 0.7, the number of hidden layers 2 and the number of hidden units 8. They have significant influence on the weld quality.

  2. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4: automated array assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Hagerty, J.J.

    1980-06-30

    The scope of work under this contract involves specifying a process sequence which can be used in conjunction with automated equipment for the mass production of solar cell modules for terrestrial use. This process sequence is then critically analyzed from a technical and economic standpoint to determine the technological readiness of each process step for implementation. The process steps are ranked according to the degree of development effort required and according to their significance to the overall process. Under this contract the steps receiving analysis were: back contact metallization, automated cell array layup/interconnect, and module edge sealing. For automated layup/interconnect both hard automation and programmable automation (using an industrial robot) were studied. The programmable automation system was then selected for actual hardware development. Economic analysis using the SAMICS system has been performed during these studies to assure that development efforts have been directed towards the ultimate goal of price reduction. Details are given. (WHK)

  3. Automated yield forecasting in a high product mix ASIC facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, Duane; Giewont, Mark; Hanson, Jeff; Shen, Jun

    2005-05-01

    Yield forecasting is a key component in running a successful semiconductor fab. It is also a significant challenge for facilities such as ASIC houses, which fabricate a wide range of devices using multiple technologies. Yield forecasting takes on increased significance in these environments, with new products introduced frequently and many products running only in small numbers. An accurate yield prediction system can greatly accelerate the process of identifying design bugs, test program issues and process integration problems. To this end, we have constructed a forecasting model geared for our ASIC manufacturing line. The model will accommodate an arbitrary number of design and/or process elements, each with an associated defectivity term. In addition, we have automated the generation of the yield forecast through passively linking to the already existing EDA design tools and scripts used by LSI Logic. Once the model is constructed, an automated query engine can extract the design and process parameters for any requested device, insert the data into the forecasting model, and deliver the resulting yield prediction. The actual yield for any lot or group of lots may thus be compared to the forecast, greatly assisting yield enhancement activities. This is especially useful for prototype lots and low-volume devices, for which it eliminates a great deal of manual computation and searching of design files. Using the model in conjunction with the query engine, any deviations from expected yield performance are generated automatically, quickly and efficiently highlighting opportunities for improvement.

  4. On-line Automated Performance Diagnosis on Thousands of Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, Philip C

    2006-01-01

    Performance analysis tools are critical for the effective use of large parallel computing resources, but existing tools have failed to address three problems that limit their scalability: (1) management and processing of the volume of performance data generated when monitoring a large number of application processes, (2) communication between a large number of tool components, and (3) presentation of performance data and analysis results for applications with a large number of processes. In this paper, we present a novel approach for finding performance problems in applications with a large number of processes that leverages our multicast and data aggregation infrastructure to address these three performance tool scalability barriers.First, we show how to design a scalable, distributed performance diagnosis facility. We demonstrate this design with an on-line, automated strategy for finding performance bottlenecks. Our strategy uses distributed, independent bottleneck search agents located in the tool agent processes that monitor running application processes. Second, we present a technique for constructing compact displays of the results of our bottleneck detection strategy. This technique, called the Sub-Graph Folding Algorithm, presents bottleneck search results using dynamic graphs that record the refinement of a bottleneck search. The complexity of the results graph is controlled by combining sub-graphs showing similar local application behavior into a composite sub-graph.Using an approach that combines these two synergistic parts, we performed bottleneck searches on programs with up to 1024 processes with no sign of tool resource saturation. With 1024 application processes, our visualization technique reduced a search results graph containing over 30,000 nodes to a single composite 44-node graph sub-graph showing the same qualitative performance information as the original graph.

  5. Automation Framework for Flight Dynamics Products Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, Robert E.; Esposito, Timothy C.; Watson, John S.; Jun, Linda; Shoan, Wendy; Matusow, Carla

    2010-01-01

    XFDS provides an easily adaptable automation platform. To date it has been used to support flight dynamics operations. It coordinates the execution of other applications such as Satellite TookKit, FreeFlyer, MATLAB, and Perl code. It provides a mechanism for passing messages among a collection of XFDS processes, and allows sending and receiving of GMSEC messages. A unified and consistent graphical user interface (GUI) is used for the various tools. Its automation configuration is stored in text files, and can be edited either directly or using the GUI.

  6. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4: Automated array assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagerty, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Progress in the development of automated solar cell and module production is reported. The unimate robot is programmed for the final 35 cell pattern to be used in the fabrication of the deliverable modules. The mechanical construction of the automated lamination station and final assembly station phases are completed and the first operational testing is underway. The final controlling program is written and optimized. The glass reinforced concrete (GRC) panels to be used for testing and deliverables are in production. Test routines are grouped together and defined to produce the final control program.

  7. PHOENIX: the production line for science data products at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuschik, Reinhard

    2015-12-01

    In the past two years ESO has installed a production line for level 2 science data products. Focussing on spectroscopic observations, these in-house generated data products are complementary to the externally provided data products from the imaging surveys. The production line combines mass production (more than one million spectra have been generated so far), previews, and quality control.

  8. Can machines see fecal contaminants? - Automated on-line poultry safety inspection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Automated food processing improves productivity with high quality control and benefits both producers and consumers. The poultry industry is one of the food industries that require automated processing for high throughput considering both safety and quality. Current poultry safety inspection is be...

  9. Automated Analysis of Child Phonetic Production Using Naturalistic Recordings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Dongxin; Richards, Jeffrey A.; Gilkerson, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Conventional resource-intensive methods for child phonetic development studies are often impractical for sampling and analyzing child vocalizations in sufficient quantity. The purpose of this study was to provide new information on early language development by an automated analysis of child phonetic production using naturalistic…

  10. Automating the Production of Interactive Technical Documentation and EPSS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmott, Lyle C.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how the production of IETM (interactive electronic technical manuals) and EPSS (electronic performance support systems) has been automated to give subject-matter experts the ability to mass-produce electronic documents, training, and training-support materials. Describes four projects involving object-relational database architecture.…

  11. Aspect-Oriented Model-Driven Software Product Line Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groher, Iris; Voelter, Markus

    Software product line engineering aims to reduce development time, effort, cost, and complexity by taking advantage of the commonality within a portfolio of similar products. The effectiveness of a software product line approach directly depends on how well feature variability within the portfolio is implemented and managed throughout the development lifecycle, from early analysis through maintenance and evolution. This article presents an approach that facilitates variability implementation, management, and tracing by integrating model-driven and aspect-oriented software development. Features are separated in models and composed of aspect-oriented composition techniques on model level. Model transformations support the transition from problem to solution space models. Aspect-oriented techniques enable the explicit expression and modularization of variability on model, template, and code level. The presented concepts are illustrated with a case study of a home automation system.

  12. Unique automation system monitors south Florida production operations

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, E.G.; Hildebrand, S.M.

    1982-06-01

    A stand-alone local automation system and company-wide design remote terminal units (RTU's) are combined into one system by employing a microprocessor-based control unit. The local system provides operational personnel with alarms, accumulators, analogs, and controls for daily real-time operations. These operational data points, through specialized software, are reformated and interfaced to pseudo-RTU's within the microprocessor memory. From the pseudo-RTU's, the information is transmitted to the company-wide computer production control (CPC) system. A description is given of this unique automation system, its equipment, functions, and operation. 2 refs.

  13. Application of distributive control in production automation

    SciTech Connect

    White, W.W.; Lockerd, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    When selecting an automatic well test system, Cities Service Co. realized it must meet the requirements defined by engineers and production personnel to document their present requirements and needs for future expansion. The concept of the system should be flexible enough to allow its implementation at any Cities Service production facility. The primary function of the Cities Service South Welch system was for automatic well test and CO/sub 2/ injection plant monitoring. The ability to implement features such as pump-off control, dynamometer cards, submersible pump control, waterflood plant control, and transmission of data to head office must be inherent in the system.

  14. Automation or De-automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorlach, Igor; Wessel, Oliver

    2008-09-01

    In the global automotive industry, for decades, vehicle manufacturers have continually increased the level of automation of production systems in order to be competitive. However, there is a new trend to decrease the level of automation, especially in final car assembly, for reasons of economy and flexibility. In this research, the final car assembly lines at three production sites of Volkswagen are analysed in order to determine the best level of automation for each, in terms of manufacturing costs, productivity, quality and flexibility. The case study is based on the methodology proposed by the Fraunhofer Institute. The results of the analysis indicate that fully automated assembly systems are not necessarily the best option in terms of cost, productivity and quality combined, which is attributed to high complexity of final car assembly systems; some de-automation is therefore recommended. On the other hand, the analysis shows that low automation can result in poor product quality due to reasons related to plant location, such as inadequate workers' skills, motivation, etc. Hence, the automation strategy should be formulated on the basis of analysis of all relevant aspects of the manufacturing process, such as costs, quality, productivity and flexibility in relation to the local context. A more balanced combination of automated and manual assembly operations provides better utilisation of equipment, reduces production costs and improves throughput.

  15. An introduction to product line management.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    Management by product line has been used successfully in the manufacturing industry for decades. As the healthcare industry evolves, implementation of Product Line Management is emerging as one strategy to increase efficiency, effectiveness, and profitability. Product Line Management is an organizational scheme and alternative management system for focusing on the programmatic scope of operations in order to achieve particular objectives. Product Line Management in a hospital setting requires deviation from linear functional management paradigms to a reorganization in thinking that focuses on end-result objectives. This management structure recognizes the need to integrate operational and clinical management in response to market-driven forces from both the standpoint of packaging products for the marketplace and appropriate management of those products to improve organizational effectiveness and profitability. However, a "test of time" is necessary to evaluate whether Product Line Management has a positive impact on clinical intervention and outcome. Although Product Line Management seems to be a method to increase profitability, its effect on the quality of client care remains unclear. Speech-language pathologists and audiologists need to be well informed about Product Line Management in the healthcare industry, and should prepare for the possibility of participating within such a framework. Finally, speech-language pathologists and audiologists need to examine and consider their particular qualifications for assuming leadership within such a structure. PMID:2001266

  16. Automation in Animal Housing and Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive, controlled environment animal production began modestly in the mid-20th century as poultry were brought indoors. While mankind had utilized structures to provide shelter for their animals for centuries, the availability of relatively inexpensive energy and the electrification of rural are...

  17. Development of a Production Ready Automated Wire Delivery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The current development effort is a Phase 3 research study entitled "A Production Ready Automated Wire Delivery System", contract number NAS8-39933, awarded to Nichols Research Corporation (NRC). The goals of this research study were to production harden the existing Automated Wire Delivery (AWDS) motion and sensor hardware and test the modified AWDS in a range of welding applications. In addition, the prototype AWDS controller would be moved to the VME bus platform by designing, fabricating and testing a single board VME bus AWDS controller. This effort was to provide an AWDS that could transition from the laboratory environment to production operations. The project was performed in two development steps. Step 1 modified and tested an improved MWG. Step 2 developed and tested the AWDS single board VME bus controller. Step 3 installed the Wire Pilot in a Weld Controller with the imbedded VME bus controller.

  18. Performance evaluation of the croissant production line with reparable machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarouhas, Panagiotis H.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the analytical probability models for an automated serial production system, bufferless that consists of n-machines in series with common transfer mechanism and control system was developed. Both time to failure and time to repair a failure are assumed to follow exponential distribution. Applying those models, the effect of system parameters on system performance in actual croissant production line was studied. The production line consists of six workstations with different numbers of reparable machines in series. Mathematical models of the croissant production line have been developed using Markov process. The strength of this study is in the classification of the whole system in states, representing failures of different machines. Failure and repair data from the actual production environment have been used to estimate reliability and maintainability for each machine, workstation, and the entire line is based on analytical models. The analysis provides a useful insight into the system's behaviour, helps to find design inherent faults and suggests optimal modifications to upgrade the system and improve its performance.

  19. Performance evaluation of the croissant production line with reparable machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarouhas, Panagiotis H.

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the analytical probability models for an automated serial production system, bufferless that consists of n-machines in series with common transfer mechanism and control system was developed. Both time to failure and time to repair a failure are assumed to follow exponential distribution. Applying those models, the effect of system parameters on system performance in actual croissant production line was studied. The production line consists of six workstations with different numbers of reparable machines in series. Mathematical models of the croissant production line have been developed using Markov process. The strength of this study is in the classification of the whole system in states, representing failures of different machines. Failure and repair data from the actual production environment have been used to estimate reliability and maintainability for each machine, workstation, and the entire line is based on analytical models. The analysis provides a useful insight into the system's behaviour, helps to find design inherent faults and suggests optimal modifications to upgrade the system and improve its performance.

  20. Automated Sample Exchange Robots for the Structural Biology Beam Lines at the Photon Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraki, Masahiko; Watanabe, Shokei; Yamada, Yusuke; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Igarashi, Noriyuki; Gaponov, Yurii; Wakatsuki, Soichi

    2007-01-19

    We are now developing automated sample exchange robots for high-throughput protein crystallographic experiments for onsite use at synchrotron beam lines. It is part of the fully automated robotics systems being developed at the Photon Factory, for the purposes of protein crystallization, monitoring crystal growth, harvesting and freezing crystals, mounting the crystals inside a hutch and for data collection. We have already installed the sample exchange robots based on the SSRL automated mounting system at our insertion device beam lines BL-5A and AR-NW12A at the Photon Factory. In order to reduce the time required for sample exchange further, a prototype of a double-tonged system was developed. As a result of preliminary experiments with double-tonged robots, the sample exchange time was successfully reduced from 70 seconds to 10 seconds with the exception of the time required for pre-cooling and warming up the tongs.

  1. Human Communication Needs and Organizational Productivity: The Potential Impact of Office Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culnan, Mary J.; Bair, James H.

    1983-01-01

    This survey of potential impacts of office automation on organizational communication and productivity covers the following--(1) the relationship between office automation and organizational communication; (2) communication variables relevant to office automation; (3) benefits and caveats related to implementation of office automation. Thirty-four…

  2. Automated Single-Kernel Sorting to Select for Quality Traits in Wheat Breeding Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An automated single kernel near-infrared system was used to select kernels to enhance the end-use quality of hard red wheat breeder samples. Twenty breeding populations and advanced lines were sorted for hardness index, protein content, and kernel color. To determine if the phenotypic sorting was b...

  3. ON-LINE MEASUREMENT OF NITROUS OXIDE FROM COMBUSTION SOURCES BY AUTOMATED GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses on-line measurement of nitrous oxide (N2O) from combustion sources by automated gas chromatography. ossil fuel combustion is suspected of contributing to measured increases in the ambient concentrations of N2O. haracterization of N2O emissions from fossil fuel...

  4. Automation of production of semiconductor power devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyuts, R. V.; Toomsoo, G. K.

    1984-10-01

    An informational consultative automatic system for control of technological processes is being developed. Then automatic control systems for groups of technological processes are being developed, essentially with a computer base. Its accounting functions include tracking of parts, statistical analysis of product lots, inspection and correction for excessive reject rate. Its control functions include adaptive simulation of technological processes, with stabilization and correction, and predicting characteristics. The software consists of general and special programs. The hardware consists of modular computers with expanded memory on three magnetic disks and four magnetic tapes, workshop terminals with teletypes, and testers. The data processing part consists of minicomputer with peripheral equipment. The testing part includes means of transporting as well as heating and cooling the test samples, and inserting them into the test circuit adequate electrical contact.

  5. Automated ocean color product validation for the Southern California Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Curtiss O.; Tufillaro, Nicholas; Jones, Burt; Arnone, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Automated match ups allow us to maintain and improve the products of current satellite ocean color sensors (MODIS, MERIS), and new sensors (VIIRS). As part of the VIIRS mission preparation, we have created a web based automated match up tool that provides access to searchable fields for date, site, and products, and creates match-ups between satellite (MODIS, MERIS, VIIRS), and in-situ measurements (HyperPRO and SeaPRISM). The back end of the system is a 'mySQL' database, and the front end is a `php' web portal with pull down menus for searchable fields. Based on selections, graphics are generated showing match-ups and statistics, and ascii files are created for downloads for the matchup data. Examples are shown for matching the satellite data with the data from Platform Eureka SeaPRISM off L.A. Harbor in the Southern California Bight.

  6. Automated Production of Movies on a Cluster of Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nail, Jasper; Le, Duong; Nail, William L.; Nail, William

    2008-01-01

    A method of accelerating and facilitating production of video and film motion-picture products, and software and generic designs of computer hardware to implement the method, are undergoing development. The method provides for automation of most of the tedious and repetitive tasks involved in editing and otherwise processing raw digitized imagery into final motion-picture products. The method was conceived to satisfy requirements, in industrial and scientific testing, for rapid processing of multiple streams of simultaneously captured raw video imagery into documentation in the form of edited video imagery and video derived data products for technical review and analysis. In the production of such video technical documentation, unlike in production of motion-picture products for entertainment, (1) it is often necessary to produce multiple video derived data products, (2) there are usually no second chances to repeat acquisition of raw imagery, (3) it is often desired to produce final products within minutes rather than hours, days, or months, and (4) consistency and quality, rather than aesthetics, are the primary criteria for judging the products. In the present method, the workflow has both serial and parallel aspects: processing can begin before all the raw imagery has been acquired, each video stream can be subjected to different stages of processing simultaneously on different computers that may be grouped into one or more cluster(s), and the final product may consist of multiple video streams. Results of processing on different computers are shared, so that workers can collaborate effectively.

  7. Soliton production with nonlinear homogeneous lines

    SciTech Connect

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.; Coleman, Phillip D.; Moorman, Matthew W.; Petney, Sharon Joy Victor; Dudley, Evan C.; Youngman, Kevin; Penner, Tim Dwight; Fang, Lu; Myers, Katherine M.

    2015-11-24

    Low- and high-voltage Soliton waves were produced and used to demonstrate collision and compression using diode-based nonlinear transmission lines. Experiments demonstrate soliton addition and compression using homogeneous nonlinear lines. We built the nonlinear lines using commercially available diodes. These diodes are chosen after their capacitance versus voltage dependence is used in a model and the line design characteristics are calculated and simulated. Nonlinear ceramic capacitors are then used to demonstrate high-voltage pulse amplification and compression. The line is designed such that a simple capacitor discharge, input signal, develops soliton trains in as few as 12 stages. We also demonstrated output voltages in excess of 40 kV using Y5V-based commercial capacitors. The results show some key features that determine efficient production of trains of solitons in the kilovolt range.

  8. Soliton production with nonlinear homogeneous lines

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.; Coleman, Phillip D.; Moorman, Matthew W.; Petney, Sharon Joy Victor; Dudley, Evan C.; Youngman, Kevin; Penner, Tim Dwight; Fang, Lu; Myers, Katherine M.

    2015-11-24

    Low- and high-voltage Soliton waves were produced and used to demonstrate collision and compression using diode-based nonlinear transmission lines. Experiments demonstrate soliton addition and compression using homogeneous nonlinear lines. We built the nonlinear lines using commercially available diodes. These diodes are chosen after their capacitance versus voltage dependence is used in a model and the line design characteristics are calculated and simulated. Nonlinear ceramic capacitors are then used to demonstrate high-voltage pulse amplification and compression. The line is designed such that a simple capacitor discharge, input signal, develops soliton trains in as few as 12 stages. We also demonstrated outputmore » voltages in excess of 40 kV using Y5V-based commercial capacitors. The results show some key features that determine efficient production of trains of solitons in the kilovolt range.« less

  9. Flight flutter testing technology at Grumman. [automated telemetry station for on line data reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perangelo, H. J.; Milordi, F. W.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis techniques used in the automated telemetry station (ATS) for on line data reduction are encompassed in a broad range of software programs. Concepts that form the basis for the algorithms used are mathematically described. The control the user has in interfacing with various on line programs is discussed. The various programs are applied to an analysis of flight data which includes unimodal and bimodal response signals excited via a swept frequency shaker and/or random aerodynamic forces. A nonlinear response error modeling analysis approach is described. Preliminary results in the analysis of a hard spring nonlinear resonant system are also included.

  10. Automation and robotics - Key to productivity. [in industry and space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, A.

    1985-01-01

    The automated and robotic systems requirements of the NASA Space Station are prompted by maintenance, repair, servicing and assembly requirements. Trend analyses, fault diagnoses, and subsystem status assessments for the Station's electrical power, guidance, navigation, control, data management and environmental control subsystems will be undertaken by cybernetic expert systems; this will reduce or eliminate on-board or ground facility activities that would otherwise be essential, enhancing system productivity. Additional capabilities may also be obtained through the incorporation of even a limited amount of artificial intelligence in the controllers of the various Space Station systems.

  11. Reference line extraction for automated data-entry system using wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitwong, Sakreya; Phonsri, Seksan; Thitimajshima, Punya

    1999-12-01

    It is common that most document forms opt for the use of straight line as a reference position for filled information. The automated data-entry systems of such documents require an ability to search these reference lines so that the location of information in the forms can be known. This paper proposes a wavelet-based algorithm for extracting these reference lines in business forms. Stationary wavelet transform is used to transform a gray-level document image into different frequency-band images. The horizontal detail subband is then selected and passed through a post-processing to produce a binary bitmap of reference lines. The experimental results on synthetic and real document images will be given to illustrate the usefulness of such an algorithm.

  12. The Future of Product Line Development at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's software production in the light of a product line similar to a commercial product line. The authors propose to identify, investigate, evaluate and apply product-line engineering techniques to NASA's product lines in order to improve the timeliness, robustness and effectiveness of these future systems.

  13. On the Automated and Objective Detection of Emission Lines in Faint-Object Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sungryong; Dey, Arjun; Prescott, Moire K. M.

    2014-11-01

    Modern spectroscopic surveys produce large spectroscopic databases, generally with sizes well beyond the scope of manual investigation. The need arises, therefore, for an automated line detection method with objective indicators for detection significance. In this paper, we present an automated and objective method for emission line detection in spectroscopic surveys and apply this technique to observed spectra from a Lyα emitter survey at z ~ 2.7, obtained with the Hectospec spectrograph on the MMT Observatory (MMTO). The basic idea is to generate on-source (signal plus noise) and off-source (noise only) mock observations using Monte Carlo simulations, and calculate completeness and reliability values, (C,R), for each simulated signal. By comparing the detections from real data with the Monte Carlo results, we assign the completeness and reliability values to each real detection. From 1574 spectra, we obtain 881 raw detections and, by removing low reliability detections, we finalize 652 detections from an automated pipeline. Most of high completeness and reliability detections, (C,R) ≈ (1.0,1.0), are robust detections when visually inspected; the low C and R detections are also marginal on visual inspection. This method of detecting faint sources is dependent on the accuracy of the sky subtraction.

  14. A power line data communication interface using spread spectrum technology in home automation

    SciTech Connect

    Shwehdi, M.H.; Khan, A.Z.

    1996-07-01

    Building automation technology is rapidly developing towards more reliable communication systems, devices that control electronic equipments. These equipment if controlled leads to efficient energy management, and savings on the monthly electricity bill. Power Line communication (PLC) has been one of the dreams of the electronics industry for decades, especially for building automation. It is the purpose of this paper to demonstrate communication methods among electronic control devices through an AC power line carrier within the buildings for more efficient energy control. The paper outlines methods of communication over a powerline, namely the X-10 and CE bus. It also introduces the spread spectrum technology as to increase speed to 100--150 times faster than the X-10 system. The powerline carrier has tremendous applications in the field of building automation. The paper presents an attempt to realize a smart house concept, so called, in which all home electronic devices from a coffee maker to a water heater microwave to chaos robots will be utilized by an intelligent network whenever one wishes to do so. The designed system may be applied very profitably to help in energy management for both customer and utility.

  15. Lutetium-177 DOTATATE Production with an Automated Radiopharmaceutical Synthesis System

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Alireza; Snowdon, Graeme M; Bailey, Dale L; Schembri, Geoffrey P; Bailey, Elizabeth A; Pavlakis, Nick; Roach, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT) with yttrium-90 (90Y) and lutetium-177 (177Lu)-labelled SST analogues are now therapy option for patients who have failed to respond to conventional medical therapy. In-house production with automated PRRT synthesis systems have clear advantages over manual methods resulting in increasing use in hospital-based radiopharmacies. We report on our one year experience with an automated radiopharmaceutical synthesis system. Methods: All syntheses were carried out using the Eckert & Ziegler Eurotope’s Modular-Lab Pharm Tracer® automated synthesis system. All materials and methods used were followed as instructed by the manufacturer of the system (Eckert & Ziegler Eurotope, Berlin, Germany). Sterile, GMP-certified, no-carrier added (NCA) 177Lu was used with GMP-certified peptide. An audit trail was also produced and saved by the system. The quality of the final product was assessed after each synthesis by ITLC-SG and HPLC methods. Results: A total of 17 [177Lu]-DOTATATE syntheses were performed between August 2013 and December 2014. The amount of radioactive [177Lu]-DOTATATE produced by each synthesis varied between 10-40 GBq and was dependant on the number of patients being treated on a given day. Thirteen individuals received a total of 37 individual treatment administrations in this period. There were no issues and failures with the system or the synthesis cassettes. The average radiochemical purity as determined by ITLC was above 99% (99.8 ± 0.05%) and the average radiochemical purity as determined by HPLC technique was above 97% (97.3 ± 1.5%) for this period. Conclusions: The automated synthesis of [177Lu]-DOTATATE using Eckert & Ziegler Eurotope’s Modular-Lab Pharm Tracer® system is a robust, convenient and high yield approach to the radiolabelling of DOTATATE peptide benefiting from the use of NCA 177Lu and almost negligible radiation exposure of the operators. PMID:27408890

  16. Automated decomposition algorithm for Raman spectra based on a Voigt line profile model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunliang; Dai, Liankui

    2016-05-20

    Raman spectra measured by spectrometers usually suffer from band overlap and random noise. In this paper, an automated decomposition algorithm based on a Voigt line profile model for Raman spectra is proposed to solve this problem. To decompose a measured Raman spectrum, a Voigt line profile model is introduced to parameterize the measured spectrum, and a Gaussian function is used as the instrumental broadening function. Hence, the issue of spectral decomposition is transformed into a multiparameter optimization problem of the Voigt line profile model parameters. The algorithm can eliminate instrumental broadening, obtain a recovered Raman spectrum, resolve overlapping bands, and suppress random noise simultaneously. Moreover, the recovered spectrum can be decomposed to a group of Lorentzian functions. Experimental results on simulated Raman spectra show that the performance of this algorithm is much better than a commonly used blind deconvolution method. The algorithm has also been tested on the industrial Raman spectra of ortho-xylene and proved to be effective. PMID:27411136

  17. SCOUSE: Semi-automated multi-COmponent Universal Spectral-line fitting Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henshaw, J. D.; Longmore, S. N.; Kruijssen, J. M. D.; Davies, B.; Bally, J.; Barnes, A.; Battersby, C.; Burton, M.; Cunningham, M. R.; Dale, J. E.; Ginsburg, A.; Immer, K.; Jones, P. A.; Kendrew, S.; Mills, E. A. C.; Molinari, S.; Moore, T. J. T.; Ott, J.; Pillai, T.; Rathborne, J.; Schilke, P.; Schmiedeke, A.; Testi, L.; Walker, D.; Walsh, A.; Zhang, Q.

    2016-01-01

    The Semi-automated multi-COmponent Universal Spectral-line fitting Engine (SCOUSE) is a spectral line fitting algorithm that fits Gaussian files to spectral line emission. It identifies the spatial area over which to fit the data and generates a grid of spectral averaging areas (SAAs). The spatially averaged spectra are fitted according to user-provided tolerance levels, and the best fit is selected using the Akaike Information Criterion, which weights the chisq of a best-fitting solution according to the number of free-parameters. A more detailed inspection of the spectra can be performed to improve the fit through an iterative process, after which SCOUSE integrates the new solutions into the solution file.

  18. Design of Control System for Flexible Packaging Bags Palletizing Production Line Based on PLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Huiping; Chen, Lin; Zhao, Xiaoming; Liu, Zhanyang

    Flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is to put the bags in the required area according to particular order and size, in order to finish handling, storage, loading and unloading, transportation and other logistics work of goods. Flexible packaging bags palletizing line is composed of turning bags mechanism, shaping mechanism, indexing mechanism, marshalling mechanism, pushing bags mechanism, pressing bags mechanism, laminating mechanism, elevator, tray warehouse, tray conveyor and loaded tray conveyor. Whether the whole production line can smoothly run depends on each of the above equipment and precision control among them. In this paper the technological process and the control logic of flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is introduced. Palletizing process of the production line realized automation by means of a control system based on programmable logic controller (PLC). It has the advantages of simple structure, reliable and easy maintenance etc.

  19. An automated system for measuring the mass flowrate of powders in transport lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Howard; Morgan, Morris B., III; Prapas, Demetrios K.; Rubel, Glen O.

    1990-08-01

    A new automated particle transport (APT) system has been developed for studying the dissemination of bulk powders into deagglomerated aerosols. It consists of a 1.12-inch ID transport line with a spout-fluidized bed feeder. The particles are transported from an aerated annulus into the transport line and collected in a closed can or bag filter. Two separate feed lines supply the air necessary to operate the transport line and aerate the particles in order that they flow smoothly into the transport line. An IBM PC AT computer clone equipped with a data translation DT 2806 multifunction input-output board and A to D and D to A modules (DTX 311 and 328) is used for both control and data acquisition. A fluid mechanical model of the flow has been developed and the APT system will be used to verify it. Experiments will be conducted to measure the choking velocity, drag coefficient, fluid and particle flowrates, and pressure distribution in the line.

  20. Towards more reliable automated multi-dose dispensing: retrospective follow-up study on medication dose errors and product defects.

    PubMed

    Palttala, Iida; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Honkanen, Outi; Suominen, Risto; Antikainen, Osmo; Hirvonen, Jouni; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2013-03-01

    To date, little is known on applicability of different types of pharmaceutical dosage forms in an automated high-speed multi-dose dispensing process. The purpose of the present study was to identify and further investigate various process-induced and/or product-related limitations associated with multi-dose dispensing process. The rates of product defects and dose dispensing errors in automated multi-dose dispensing were retrospectively investigated during a 6-months follow-up period. The study was based on the analysis of process data of totally nine automated high-speed multi-dose dispensing systems. Special attention was paid to the dependence of multi-dose dispensing errors/product defects and pharmaceutical tablet properties (such as shape, dimensions, weight, scored lines, coatings, etc.) to profile the most suitable forms of tablets for automated dose dispensing systems. The relationship between the risk of errors in dose dispensing and tablet characteristics were visualized by creating a principal component analysis (PCA) model for the outcome of dispensed tablets. The two most common process-induced failures identified in the multi-dose dispensing are predisposal of tablet defects and unexpected product transitions in the medication cassette (dose dispensing error). The tablet defects are product-dependent failures, while the tablet transitions are dependent on automated multi-dose dispensing systems used. The occurrence of tablet defects is approximately twice as common as tablet transitions. Optimal tablet preparation for the high-speed multi-dose dispensing would be a round-shaped, relatively small/middle-sized, film-coated tablet without any scored line. Commercial tablet products can be profiled and classified based on their suitability to a high-speed multi-dose dispensing process. PMID:22458299

  1. Automated genome mining of ribosomal peptide natural products

    SciTech Connect

    Mohimani, Hosein; Kersten, Roland; Liu, Wei; Wang, Mingxun; Purvine, Samuel O.; Wu, Si; Brewer, Heather M.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Bandeira, Nuno; Moore, Bradley S.; Pevzner, Pavel A.; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2014-07-31

    Ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs), especially from microbial sources, are a large group of bioactive natural products that are a promising source of new (bio)chemistry and bioactivity (1). In light of exponentially increasing microbial genome databases and improved mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomic platforms, there is a need for computational tools that connect natural product genotypes predicted from microbial genome sequences with their corresponding chemotypes from metabolomic datasets. Here, we introduce RiPPquest, a tandem mass spectrometry database search tool for identification of microbial RiPPs and apply it for lanthipeptide discovery. RiPPquest uses genomics to limit search space to the vicinity of RiPP biosynthetic genes and proteomics to analyze extensive peptide modifications and compute p-values of peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs). We highlight RiPPquest by connection of multiple RiPPs from extracts of Streptomyces to their gene clusters and by the discovery of a new class III lanthipeptide, informatipeptin, from Streptomyces viridochromogenes DSM 40736 as the first natural product to be identified in an automated fashion by genome mining. The presented tool is available at cy-clo.ucsd.edu.

  2. Automation of beam based alignment for the PAL-XFEL undulator line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parc, Yong Woon; Hwang, Ilmoon; Han, Jang-Hui; Ko, In Soo

    2015-05-01

    An automated method of quadrupole beam based alignment in an X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) undulator line is proposed. To realize the automatic beam based alignment (BBA) independently of operator's skill and efforts, the procedure is simplified. Simulation results on the BBA technique using two alignment stages for the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory XFEL's (PAL-XFEL) undulator line is carried out. After a standard mechanical alignment the quadrupoles are expected to be aligned to 100 μm rms from our previous experience. A rough alignment method in this study is able to align the quadrupoles to about 40 μm rms without any pre-handling of electron beam orbit or quadrupoles position. At the second stage, the singular value decomposition (SVD) method is applied to perform a fine alignment in which the trajectory of an electron beam is controlled within 5 μm rms to the ideal orbit. All procedures are programmable to perform the BBA automatically.

  3. WARP (workflow for automated and rapid production): a framework for end-to-end automated digital print workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Parag

    2006-02-01

    Publishing industry is experiencing a major paradigm shift with the advent of digital publishing technologies. A large number of components in the publishing and print production workflow are transformed in this shift. However, the process as a whole requires a great deal of human intervention for decision making and for resolving exceptions during job execution. Furthermore, a majority of the best-of-breed applications for publishing and print production are intrinsically designed and developed to be driven by humans. Thus, the human-intensive nature of the current prepress process accounts for a very significant amount of the overhead costs in fulfillment of jobs on press. It is a challenge to automate the functionality of applications built with the model of human driven exectution. Another challenge is to orchestrate various components in the publishing and print production pipeline such that they work in a seamless manner to enable the system to perform automatic detection of potential failures and take corrective actions in a proactive manner. Thus, there is a great need for a coherent and unifying workflow architecture that streamlines the process and automates it as a whole in order to create an end-to-end digital automated print production workflow that does not involve any human intervention. This paper describes an architecture and building blocks that lay the foundation for a plurality of automated print production workflows.

  4. Process Development for Automated Solar Cell and Module Production. Task 4: Automated Array Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagerty, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    The Automated Lamination Station is mechanically complete and is currently undergoing final wiring. The high current driver and isolator boards have been completed and installed, and the main interface board is under construction. The automated vacuum chamber has had a minor redesign to increase stiffness and improve the cover open/close mechanism. Design of the Final Assembly Station has been completed and construction is underway.

  5. Automating Mapping Production for the Enterprise: from Contract to Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uebbing, R.; Xie, C.; Beshah, B.; Welter, J.

    2012-07-01

    The ever increasing volume and quality of geospatial data has created new challenges for mapping companies. Due to increased image resolution, fusion of different data sources and more frequent data update requirements, mapping production is forced to streamline the work flow to meet client deadlines. But the data volume alone is not the only barrier for an efficient production work flow. Processing geospatial information traditionally uses domain and vendor specific applications that do not interface with each other, often leading to data duplication and therefore creating sources for error. Also, it creates isolation between different departments within a mapping company resulting in additional communication barriers. North West Geomatics has designed and implemented a data centric enterprise solution for the flight acquisition and production work flow to combat the above challenges. A central data repository containing not only geospatial data in the strictest sense such as images, vector layers and 3D point clouds, but also other information such as product specifications, client requirements, flight acquisition data, production resource usage and much more has been deployed at the company. As there is only one instance of the database shared throughout the whole organization it allows all employees, given they have been granted the appropriate permission, to view the current status of any project with a graphical and table based interface through its life cycle from sales, through flight acquisition, production and product delivery. Not only can users track progress and status of various work flow steps, but the system also allows users and applications to actively schedule or start specific production steps such as data ingestion and triangulation with many other steps (orthorectification, mosaicing, accounting, etc.) in the planning stages. While the complete system is exposed to the users through a web interface and therefore allowing outside customers to

  6. Environmental friendly automated line for recovering the cabinet of waste refrigerator.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Jujun; Xu, Zhenming

    2011-11-01

    A large amount of hazardous trichloromonofluoromethane (CFC-11) is contained in the polyurethane (PUR) foam of refrigerator cabinet. How to recover the cabinet of waste refrigerator with environmental awareness has been the pressing problem in the treatment of waste refrigerator. The published literature of waste refrigerator cabinets recovering mainly focuses on policy making and conceptual design. Little information relates to the production line of waste refrigerator cabinet recovering and its detailed operation, which is the urgent needed literature. In this paper, an environmental friendly production line for recovering the cabinet of waste refrigerators was reported for helping enterprise or government to construct line to recover the obsolete refrigerators. It included closed shearing process, activated carbon fiber absorption (ACFA) process, air current separation, and magnetic/eddy current separation. The optimized operating parameters of every process were obtained from the experiments. Then, experiment of recovering 50 waste refrigerator cabinets by the production line was performed in factory. Mass balances of the recovered materials were carried out. The result shown the recovery rate of waste refrigerator cabinet could reach 97.6%. Finally, comparison between the production line and other recovery technologies was made. The results indicated that the proposed line provided environment-friendly recovery of waste refrigerator cabinets while achieving low cost of production. PMID:21782408

  7. Special steel production on common carbon steel production line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Huachun; Han, Jingtao; Hu, Haiping; Bian, Ruisheng; Kang, Jianjun; Xu, Manlin

    2004-06-01

    The equipment and technology of small bar tandem rolling line of Shijiazhuang Iron & Steel Co. in China has reached the 90's international advanced level in the 20th century, but products on the line are mostly of common carbon steel. Currently there are few steel plants in China to produce 45 steel bars for cold drawing, which is a kind of shortage product. Development of 45 steel for cold drawing has a wide market outlook in China. In this paper, continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curve of 45 steel for cold drawing used for rolling was set out first. According to the CCT curve, we determined some key temperature points such as Ac3 temperature and Ac1 temperature during the cooling procedure and discussed the precipitation microstructure at different cooling rate. Then by studying thermal treatment process of 45 steel bars for cold drawing, the influence of cooling time on microstructure was analyzed and the optimum cooling speed has been found. All results concluded from the above studies are the basis of regulating controlled cooling process of 45 steel bars for cold drawing. Finally, the feasible production process of 45 steel bars for cold drawing on common carbon steel production line combined with the field condition was recommended.

  8. Automated flow for site definition and CD measurement with a SEM for use in mask production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotsch, Christian; Haffner, Henning; Ruebekohl, Christian; Buechner, Bettine

    2002-12-01

    The continuous tightening of CD and registration specifications demands most advanced metrology equipment and highly sophisticated logistics and measurement strategies. Not only the smallness of structures but also the increasing number of measurement sites is a challenge. Until recently, CD measurements in mask mass production were done at a handful of different positions using mainly optical microscopy. The measurement locations were usually picked randomly according to the visual image and some general rules that were agreed upon between lithographers and the mask shop. In this paper we describe a flow for SEM based CD measurement in automated production. A new type of instances is introduced solely to provide a simple and effective way for transferring the desired measurement locations from design to a mask shop. Therefore, we use the new CATS features that allow highly automated and flexible off-line preparation of measurement jobs. On the KLA-Tencor 8250-R CD-SEM we furthermore utilize its capability of converting CATS output files into fully functional SEM measurement jobs with large numbers of sites and multiple steps of pattern recognition. A comparison of results obtained with the CATS jobs with those of native SEM jobs proves the consistency of data.

  9. Study of the impact of automation on productivity in bus-maintenance facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sumanth, D.J.; Weiss, H.J.; Adya, B.

    1988-12-01

    Whether or not the various types of automation and new technologies introduced in a bus-transit system really have an impact on productivity is the question addressed in the study. The report describes a new procedure of productivity measurement and evaluation for a county-transit system and provides an objective perspective on the impact of automation on productivity in bus maintenance facilities. The research objectives were: to study the impact of automation on total productivity in transit maintenance facilities; to develop and apply a methodology for measuring the total productivity of a Floridian transit maintenance facility (Bradenton-Manatee County bus maintenance facility which has been introducing automation since 1983); and to develop a practical step-by-step implementation scheme for the total productivity-based productivity measurement system that any bus manager can use. All 3 objectives were successfully accomplished.

  10. Automated production of plant-based vaccines and pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Wirz, Holger; Sauer-Budge, Alexis F; Briggs, John; Sharpe, Aaron; Shu, Sudong; Sharon, Andre

    2012-12-01

    A fully automated "factory" was developed that uses tobacco plants to produce large quantities of vaccines and other therapeutic biologics within weeks. This first-of-a-kind factory takes advantage of a plant viral vector technology to produce specific proteins within the leaves of rapidly growing plant biomass. The factory's custom-designed robotic machines plant seeds, nurture the growing plants, introduce a viral vector that directs the plant to produce a target protein, and harvest the biomass once the target protein has accumulated in the plants-all in compliance with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines (e.g., current Good Manufacturing Practices). The factory was designed to be time, cost, and space efficient. The plants are grown in custom multiplant trays. Robots ride up and down a track, servicing the plants and delivering the trays from the lighted, irrigated growth modules to each processing station as needed. Using preprogrammed robots and processing equipment eliminates the need for human contact, preventing potential contamination of the process and economizing the operation. To quickly produce large quantities of protein-based medicines, we transformed a laboratory-based biological process and scaled it into an industrial process. This enables quick, safe, and cost-effective vaccine production that would be required in case of a pandemic. PMID:23015521

  11. Comparison of Automated Treponemal and Nontreponemal Test Algorithms as First-Line Syphilis Screening Assays

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae-Woo; Park, Seong Yeon; Chae, Seok Lae

    2016-01-01

    Background Automated Mediace Treponema pallidum latex agglutination (TPLA) and Mediace rapid plasma reagin (RPR) assays are used by many laboratories for syphilis diagnosis. This study compared the results of the traditional syphilis screening algorithm and a reverse algorithm using automated Mediace RPR or Mediace TPLA as first-line screening assays in subjects undergoing a health checkup. Methods Samples from 24,681 persons were included in this study. We routinely performed Mediace RPR and Mediace TPLA simultaneously. Results were analyzed according to both the traditional algorithm and reverse algorithm. Samples with discordant results on the reverse algorithm (e.g., positive Mediace TPLA, negative Mediace RPR) were tested with Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA). Results Among the 24,681 samples, 30 (0.1%) were found positive by traditional screening, and 190 (0.8%) by reverse screening. The identified syphilis rate and overall false-positive rate according to the traditional algorithm were lower than those according to the reverse algorithm (0.07% and 0.05% vs. 0.64% and 0.13%, respectively). A total of 173 discordant samples were tested with TPPA by using the reverse algorithm, of which 140 (80.9%) were TPPA positive. Conclusions Despite the increased false-positive results in populations with a low prevalence of syphilis, the reverse algorithm detected 140 samples with treponemal antibody that went undetected by the traditional algorithm. The reverse algorithm using Mediace TPLA as a screening test is more sensitive for the detection of syphilis. PMID:26522755

  12. Production and quality assurance automation in the Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, K. B.; Cox, C. M.; Thomas, C. W.; Cuevas, O. O.; Beckman, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) generates numerous products for NASA-supported spacecraft, including the Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS's), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), and the space shuttle. These products include orbit determination data, acquisition data, event scheduling data, and attitude data. In most cases, product generation involves repetitive execution of many programs. The increasing number of missions supported by the FDF has necessitated the use of automated systems to schedule, execute, and quality assure these products. This automation allows the delivery of accurate products in a timely and cost-efficient manner. To be effective, these systems must automate as many repetitive operations as possible and must be flexible enough to meet changing support requirements. The FDF Orbit Determination Task (ODT) has implemented several systems that automate product generation and quality assurance (QA). These systems include the Orbit Production Automation System (OPAS), the New Enhanced Operations Log (NEOLOG), and the Quality Assurance Automation Software (QA Tool). Implementation of these systems has resulted in a significant reduction in required manpower, elimination of shift work and most weekend support, and improved support quality, while incurring minimal development cost. This paper will present an overview of the concepts used and experiences gained from the implementation of these automation systems.

  13. On-line tritium production monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mihalczo, John T.

    1993-01-01

    A scintillation optical fiber system for the on-line monitoring of nuclear reactions in an event-by-event manner is described. In the measurement of tritium production one or more optical fibers are coated with enriched .sup.6 Li and connected to standard scintillation counter circuitry. A neutron generated .sup.6 Li(n )T reaction occurs in the coated surface of .sup.6 Li-coated fiber to produce energetic alpha and triton particles one of which enters the optical fiber and scintillates light through the fiber to the counting circuit. The coated optical fibers can be provided with position sensitivity by placing a mirror at the free end of the fibers or by using pulse counting circuits at both ends of the fibers.

  14. On-line tritium production monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mihalczo, J.T.

    1993-11-23

    A scintillation optical fiber system for the on-line monitoring of nuclear reactions in an event-by-event manner is described. In the measurement of tritium production one or more optical fibers are coated with enriched {sup 6}Li and connected to standard scintillation counter circuitry. A neutron generated {sup 6}Li(n)T reaction occurs in the coated surface of {sup 6}Li-coated fiber to produce energetic alpha and triton particles one of which enters the optical fiber and scintillates light through the fiber to the counting circuit. The coated optical fibers can be provided with position sensitivity by placing a mirror at the free end of the fibers or by using pulse counting circuits at both ends of the fibers. 5 figures.

  15. “Development of an Automated On-line Electrochemical Chlorite Ion Sensor”

    PubMed Central

    Myers, John N.; Steinecker, William H.; Sandlin, Zechariah D.; Cox, James A.; Gordon, Gilbert; Pacey, Gilbert E.

    2012-01-01

    A sensor system for the automatic, in-line, determination of chlorite ion is reported. Electroanalytical measurements were performed in electrolyte-free liquids by using an electrochemical probe (EC), which enables in-line detection in high-resistance media such as disinfected water. Cyclic voltammetry scan rate studies suggest that the current arising from the oxidation of chlorite ion at an EC probe is mass-transfer limited. By coupling FIA with an EC probe amperometric cell, automated analysis was achieved. This sensor is intended to fulfill the daily monitoring requirements of the EPA DBP regulations for chlorite ion. Detection limits of 0.02-0.13 mg/L were attained, which is about one order of magnitude below the MRDL. The sensor showed no faradaic signal for perchlorate, chlorate, or nitrate. The lifetime and stability of the sensor were investigated by measuring calibration curves over time under constant-flow conditions. Detection limits of <0.1 mg/L were repeatedly achieved over a period of three weeks. PMID:22608440

  16. SkyLine and SkyGas: Novel automated technologies for automatic GHG flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ineson, Philip; Stockdale, James

    2014-05-01

    1. Concerns for the future of the Earth's climate centre around the anthropogenically-driven continuing increases in atmospheric concentrations of the major 'greenhouse gases' (GHGs) which include CO2, CH4 and N2O. A major component of the global budgets for all three of these gases is the flux between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems. 2. Currently, these fluxes are poorly quantified, largely due to technical limitations associated with making these flux measurements. Whilst eddy covariance systems have greatly improved such measurements at the ecosystem scale, flux measurements at the plot scale are commonly made using labour intensive traditional 'cover box' approaches; technical limitations have frequently been a bottle-neck in producing adequate and appropriate GHG flux data necessary for making land management decisions. For example, there are almost no night time flux data for N2O fluxes, and frequently such data are only measured over bare soil patches. 3. We have been addressing the design of novel field equipment for the automation of GHG flux measurements at the chamber and plot scale and will present here some of the technical solutions we have developed. These solutions include the development of the SkyLine and SkyGas approaches which resolve many of the common problems associated with making high frequency, sufficiently replicated GHG flux measurements under field conditions. 4. Unlike most other automated systems, these technologies 'fly' a single chamber to the measurement site, rather than have multiple replicated chambers and analysers. We will present data showing how such systems can deliver high time and spatial resolution flux data, with a minimum of operator intervention and, potentially, at relatively low per plot cost. We will also show how such measurements can be extended to monitoring fluxes from freshwater features in the landscape.

  17. CERES AuTomAted job Loading SYSTem (CATALYST): An automated workflow manager for satellite data production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, J. L.; Hillyer, T. N.; Wilkins, J.

    2012-12-01

    The CERES Science Team integrates data from 5 CERES instruments onboard the Terra, Aqua and NPP missions. The processing chain fuses CERES observations with data from 19 other unique sources. The addition of CERES Flight Model 5 (FM5) onboard NPP, coupled with ground processing system upgrades further emphasizes the need for an automated job-submission utility to manage multiple processing streams concurrently. The operator-driven, legacy-processing approach relied on manually staging data from magnetic tape to limited spinning disk attached to a shared memory architecture system. The migration of CERES production code to a distributed, cluster computing environment with approximately one petabyte of spinning disk containing all precursor input data products facilitates the development of a CERES-specific, automated workflow manager. In the cluster environment, I/O is the primary system resource in contention across jobs. Therefore, system load can be maximized with a throttling workload manager. This poster discusses a Java and Perl implementation of an automated job management tool tailored for CERES processing.

  18. Line Pilots' Attitudes about and Experience with Flight Deck Automation: Results of an International Survey and Proposed Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudisill, Marianne

    1995-01-01

    A survey of line pilots' attitudes about flight deck automation was conducted by the Royal Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine (RAF IAM, Farnborough, UK) under the sponsorship of the United Kingdom s Civil Aviation Authority and in cooperation with IATA (the International Air Transport Association). Survey freehand comments given by pilots operating 13 types of commercial transports across five manufacturers (Airbus, Boeing, British Aerospace, Lockheed, and McDonnell-Douglas) and 57 air carriers/organizations were analyzed by NASA. These data provide a "lessons learned" knowledge base which may be used for the definition of guidelines for flight deck automation and its associated crew interface within the High Speed Research Program. The aircraft chosen for analysis represented a progression of levels of automation sophistication and complexity, from "Basic" types (e.g., B727, DC9), through "Transition" types (e.g., A300, Concorde), to two levels of glass cockpits (e.g., Glass 1: e.g., A310; Glass 2: e.g., B747-400). This paper reports the results of analyses of comments from pilots flying commercial transport types having the highest level of automation sophistication (B757/B767, B747-400, and A320). Comments were decomposed into five categories relating to: (1) general observations with regard to flight deck automation; comments concerning the (2) design and (3) crew understanding of automation and the crew interface; (4) crew operations with automation; and (5) personal factors affecting crew/automation interaction. The goal of these analyses is to contribute to the definition of guidelines which may be used during design of future aircraft flight decks.

  19. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4: Automated array assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagerty, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    The Unimate robot was programmed for the final 35 cell pattern to be used in the fabrication of the deliverable modules. Mechanical construction of the Automated Lamination Station and Final Assembly Station were completed on schedule. All final wiring and interconnect cables were also completed and the first operational testing began. The final controlling program was written. A local fabricator was contracted to produce the glass reinforced concrete panels to be used for testing and deliverables. A video tape showing all three stations in operation was produced.

  20. Harnessing natural product assembly lines: structure, promiscuity, and engineering.

    PubMed

    Ladner, Christopher C; Williams, Gavin J

    2016-03-01

    Many therapeutically relevant natural products are biosynthesized by the action of giant mega-enzyme assembly lines. By leveraging the specificity, promiscuity, and modularity of assembly lines, a variety of strategies has been developed that enables the biosynthesis of modified natural products. This review briefly summarizes recent structural advances related to natural product assembly lines, discusses chemical approaches to probing assembly line structures in the absence of traditional biophysical data, and surveys efforts that harness the inherent or engineered promiscuity of assembly lines for the synthesis of non-natural polyketides and non-ribosomal peptide analogues. PMID:26527577

  1. Microsoft Business Solutions-Axapta as a basis for automated monitoring of high technology products competitiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashchiyan, G. O.; Sushko, A. V.; Grichin, S. V.

    2015-09-01

    One of the conditions of normal performance of the Russian economy is the problem of high technology products competitiveness. Different tools of these products estimation are used nowadays, one of them is automated monitoring of the high technology products in mechanical engineering. This system is developed on the basis of “Innovator" software integrated in Microsoft Business Solutions-Axapta.

  2. An Automated HIV-1 Env-Pseudotyped Virus Production for Global HIV Vaccine Trials

    PubMed Central

    Fuss, Martina; Mazzotta, Angela S.; Sarzotti-Kelsoe, Marcella; Ozaki, Daniel A.; Montefiori, David C.; von Briesen, Hagen; Zimmermann, Heiko; Meyerhans, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Background Infections with HIV still represent a major human health problem worldwide and a vaccine is the only long-term option to fight efficiently against this virus. Standardized assessments of HIV-specific immune responses in vaccine trials are essential for prioritizing vaccine candidates in preclinical and clinical stages of development. With respect to neutralizing antibodies, assays with HIV-1 Env-pseudotyped viruses are a high priority. To cover the increasing demands of HIV pseudoviruses, a complete cell culture and transfection automation system has been developed. Methodology/Principal Findings The automation system for HIV pseudovirus production comprises a modified Tecan-based Cellerity system. It covers an area of 5×3 meters and includes a robot platform, a cell counting machine, a CO2 incubator for cell cultivation and a media refrigerator. The processes for cell handling, transfection and pseudovirus production have been implemented according to manual standard operating procedures and are controlled and scheduled autonomously by the system. The system is housed in a biosafety level II cabinet that guarantees protection of personnel, environment and the product. HIV pseudovirus stocks in a scale from 140 ml to 1000 ml have been produced on the automated system. Parallel manual production of HIV pseudoviruses and comparisons (bridging assays) confirmed that the automated produced pseudoviruses were of equivalent quality as those produced manually. In addition, the automated method was fully validated according to Good Clinical Laboratory Practice (GCLP) guidelines, including the validation parameters accuracy, precision, robustness and specificity. Conclusions An automated HIV pseudovirus production system has been successfully established. It allows the high quality production of HIV pseudoviruses under GCLP conditions. In its present form, the installed module enables the production of 1000 ml of virus-containing cell culture supernatant per

  3. Automation and integration of multiplexed on-line sample preparation with capillary electrophoresis for DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, H.

    1999-03-31

    The purpose of this research is to develop a multiplexed sample processing system in conjunction with multiplexed capillary electrophoresis for high-throughput DNA sequencing. The concept from DNA template to called bases was first demonstrated with a manually operated single capillary system. Later, an automated microfluidic system with 8 channels based on the same principle was successfully constructed. The instrument automatically processes 8 templates through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in a parallel fashion. A multiplexed freeze/thaw switching principle and a distribution network were implemented to manage flow direction and sample transportation. Dye-labeled terminator cycle-sequencing reactions are performed in an 8-capillary array in a hot air thermal cycler. Subsequently, the sequencing ladders are directly loaded into a corresponding size-exclusion chromatographic column operated at {approximately} 60 C for purification. On-line denaturation and stacking injection for capillary electrophoresis is simultaneously accomplished at a cross assembly set at {approximately} 70 C. Not only the separation capillary array but also the reaction capillary array and purification columns can be regenerated after every run. DNA sequencing data from this system allow base calling up to 460 bases with accuracy of 98%.

  4. A sensor skid for precise 3D modeling of production lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elseberg, J.; Borrmann, D.; Schauer, J.; Nüchter, A.; Koriath, D.; Rautenberg, U.

    2014-05-01

    Motivated by the increasing need of rapid characterization of environments in 3D, we designed and built a sensor skid that automates the work of an operator of terrestrial laser scanners. The system combines terrestrial laser scanning with kinematic laser scanning and uses a novel semi-rigid SLAMmethod. It enables us to digitize factory environments without the need to stop production. The acquired 3D point clouds are precise and suitable to detect objects that collide with items moved along the production line.

  5. Production system chunking in SOAR: Case studies in automated learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Robert

    1989-01-01

    A preliminary study of SOAR, a general intelligent architecture for automated problem solving and learning, is presented. The underlying principles of universal subgoaling and chunking were applied to a simple, yet representative, problem in artificial intelligence. A number of problem space representations were examined and compared. It is concluded that learning is an inherent and beneficial aspect of problem solving. Additional studies are suggested in domains relevant to mission planning and to SOAR itself.

  6. Survey of Product-line Verification and Validation Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results from the first task of the SARP Center Initiative, 'Product Line Verification of Safety-Critical Software.' Task 1 is a literature survey of available techniques for product line verification and validation. Section 1 of the report provides an introduction to product lines and motivates the survey of verification techniques. It describes what is reused in product-line engineering and explains the goal of verifiable conformance of the developed system to its product-line specifications. Section 2 of the report describes six lifecycle steps in product-line verification and validation. This description is based on, and refers to, the best practices extracted from the readings. It ends with a list of verification challenges for NASA product lines (2.7) and verification enablers for NASA product lines (2.8) derived from the survey. Section 3 provides resource lists of related conferences, workshops, industrial and defense industry experiences and case studies of product lines, and academic/industrial consortiums. Section 4 is a bibliography of papers and tutorials with annotated entries for relevant papers not previously discussed in sections 2 or 3.

  7. Technology Management within Product Lines in High Technology Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarangee, Kumar R.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the nuances of product line management has been of great interest to business scholars and practitioners. This assumes greater significance for firms conducting business in technologically dynamic industries, where they face certain challenges regarding the management of multiple, overlapping technologies within their product lines.…

  8. Automated Performance Tracking and Productivity Improvement Project. Annual Report: Innovations in Protective Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis-Small, Lucretia

    Findings are reported of a process evaluation of the Automated Performance Tracking and Productivity Improvement Project, a project developed to enhance the productivity and efficiency of child protective services (CPS) staff and to enable Region 10 of the Texas Department of Human Services to better meet federal and state performance guidelines.…

  9. Informational needs for a product line management system.

    PubMed

    Alfirevic, J; Kroman, B; Ruflin, P

    1987-03-01

    Changing to a product line management structure requires a total dedicated effort from hospital management. The information systems support requirements are diverse and often call for both the further integration of existing capabilities as well as the development of new ones. The reporting structure must address the profit and quality management objectives assigned to both product line and functional managers. A thorough planning and evaluation process that recognizes the institution's unique objectives is the key to successful implementation. This article is the final in a series on product line management in health care. The previous two articles examined the concepts and evolution of product line management and the alternative product line organizational models. PMID:10280835

  10. Automation in sludge dewatering by novel on-line characterisation of flocculation.

    PubMed

    Sievers, M; Schroeder, C; Bormann, H; Onyeche, T I; Schlaefer, O; Schaefer, S

    2003-01-01

    A novel on-line method and system for characterisation of sludge flocs in view of improving sludge dewatering has been developed. The characterisation of sludge flocs was carried out after the conditioning or the flocculation process. The system uses a conventional CCD-line scan camera providing an on-line monitoring of the relative floc size distribution by image processing procedures. The image processing procedure has been re-evaluated and adapted to the practical dewatering results, obtained from a chamber filter press of 250 x 250 mm size. A good correlation between the calculated sensor signal and the sludge dewaterability of digested sludge in terms of the up-concentration factor was found. Although different sludge compositions and flocculation systems have been tested within the whole experimental period of six months, a good reproducibility of this correlation was also found. A well balanced floc size distribution is necessary showing that not too many but still some fine flocs and also not too large but compact flocs lead to improved dewaterability. This has been illustrated by an extended range of floc size measurements ranging between 50 microm and 29 mm. The conditioning monitoring system would be suitable for the control of production of good size-balanced flocs to compensate fluctuations in sludge characteristics of the sludge to be conditioned. PMID:12636075

  11. A Physics-based Automated Technique for the Detection of Field Line Resonance Frequency in Ground Magnetometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudouridis, A.; Zesta, E.; Moldwin, M.

    2015-12-01

    The accurate determination of the Field Line Resonance (FLR) frequency of a resonating geomagnetic field line is necessary for the remote monitoring of the plasmaspheric mass density during geomagnetic storms and quiet times alike. Under certain assumptions the plasmaspheric mass density at the equator is inversely proportional to the square of the FLR frequency. The most common techniques to determine the FLR frequency from ground magnetometer measurements are the amplitude ratio and phase difference techniques, both based on geomagnetic field measurements at two latitudinally separated ground stations. Previously developed automated techniques have used statistical methods to pinpoint the FLR frequency using the amplitude ratio and phase difference calculations. We now introduce a physics-based automated technique that can reproduce the resonant wave characteristics from the two ground station data, and from those determine the FLR frequency. The advantage of the new technique, besides moving away from ambiguous statistical manipulations of the ground data, is the estimation of physically determined errors of the FLR frequency, which can yield physically determined errors of the equatorial plasmaspheric mass density. We present preliminary results of the new technique calculations, and test it using data from the new Inner-Magnetospheric Array for Geospace Science (iMAGS) ground magnetometer chain along the coast of Chile and the east coast of the United States. We compare the results with the results of previously published statistical automated techniques.

  12. Reliability and maintainability analysis of bread production line.

    PubMed

    Tsarouhas, Panagiotis H; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S

    2010-04-01

    The statistical analysis of the bread production line of the failure and repair data at machine and line levels was displayed. The experiment covers a period of twenty-five months. The best fit of the failure data between the common theoretical distributions was found and its parameters were computed. The reliability and hazard rate modes for all machines and the entire production line were calculated as well. The models could prove to be a useful tool to assess the current conditions, and to predict the reliability for upgrading the maintenance policy of the production line. It was pointed out that (a) the availability of the bread production line is 90.74% and went down to 86.76% because the equipment's failures cause an additional production gap in the line, (b) the 53.5% of all failures occurred at the bread machine, cooling tower machine, and volumetric-divider machine, and (c) the machines of the bread production line that displayed increasing hazard rate functions were identified. This analysis will be very useful in terms of identifying the occurring and latent problems in manufacturing process of bread and improve it. PMID:20301018

  13. Capillary electrophoresis for automated on-line monitoring of suspension cultures: Correlating cell density, nutrients and metabolites in near real-time.

    PubMed

    Alhusban, Ala A; Breadmore, Michael C; Gueven, Nuri; Guijt, Rosanne M

    2016-05-12

    Increasingly stringent demands on the production of biopharmaceuticals demand monitoring of process parameters that impact on their quality. We developed an automated platform for on-line, near real-time monitoring of suspension cultures by integrating microfluidic components for cell counting and filtration with a high-resolution separation technique. This enabled the correlation of the growth of a human lymphocyte cell line with changes in the essential metabolic markers, glucose, glutamine, leucine/isoleucine and lactate, determined by Sequential Injection-Capillary Electrophoresis (SI-CE). Using 8.1 mL of media (41 μL per run), the metabolic status and cell density were recorded every 30 min over 4 days. The presented platform is flexible, simple and automated and allows for fast, robust and sensitive analysis with low sample consumption and high sample throughput. It is compatible with up- and out-scaling, and as such provides a promising new solution to meet the future demands in process monitoring in the biopharmaceutical industry. PMID:27114228

  14. Research on flexible automation and robotics for plant production at Rutgers University.

    PubMed

    Ting, K C; Ling, P P; Giacomelli, G A

    1996-01-01

    This is an overview of research activities in the areas of flexible automation and robotics (FAR) within controlled environment plant production systems (CEPPS) in the Department of Bioresource Engineering, Rutgers University. In the past thirty years, our CEPPS research has dealt with the topics including structures and energy, environmental monitoring and control, plant growing systems, operations research and decision support systems, flexible automation and robotics, and impact to natural (i.e. surrounding) environment. Computer and modeling/simulation techniques have been utilized extensively. Mechanized systems have been developed to substitute human's physical labor and maintain uniformity in production. Automation research has been directed towards adding, to the mechanized systems, the capabilities of perception, reasoning, communication, and task planning. Computers, because of their programmability, provide flexibility to automated systems, when incorporated with generic hardware devices. Robots are ideal hardware tools to be employed in flexible automation systems. Some technologies developed in our CEPPS research may be readily adaptable to Closed Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (CBLSS). PMID:11538960

  15. Production of an Automated Lesson for Use on the Audio Visual Response System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowse, Nancy

    The development, production, and evaluation of an automated lesson for use on the Audio Visual Response System (AVR System 400) is described in this paper. Establishment of learning objectives was the central focus of the lesson development process, followed by script development and the planning and design of illustrative materials. These…

  16. Tempest gas turbine extends EGT product line

    SciTech Connect

    Chellini, R.

    1995-07-01

    With the introduction of the 7.8 MW (mechanical output) Tempest gas turbine, ECT has extended the company`s line of its small industrial turbines. The new Tempest machine, featuring a 7.5 MW electric output and a 33% thermal efficiency, ranks above the company`s single-shaft Typhoon gas turbine, rated 3.2 and 4.9 MW, and the 6.3 MW Tornado gas turbine. All three machines are well-suited for use in combined heat and power (CHP) plants, as demonstrated by the fact that close to 50% of the 150 Typhoon units sold are for CHP applications. This experience has induced EGT, of Lincoln, England, to announce the introduction of the new gas turbine prior to completion of the testing program. The present single-shaft machine is expected to be used mainly for industrial trial cogeneration. This market segment, covering the needs of paper mills, hospitals, chemical plants, ceramic industry, etc., is a typical local market. Cogeneration plants are engineered according to local needs and have to be assisted by local organizations. For this reason, to efficiently cover the world market, EGT has selected a number of associates that will receive from Lincoln completely engineered machine packages and will engineer the cogeneration system according to custom requirements. These partners will also assist the customer and dispose locally of the spares required for maintenance operations.

  17. Evaluation of different lactation curve models fitted for milk viscosity recorded by an automated on-line California Mastitis Test.

    PubMed

    Neitzel, Anne-Christin; Stamer, Eckhard; Junge, Wolfgang; Thaller, Georg

    2015-05-01

    Laboratory somatic cell count (LSCC) records are usually recorded monthly and provide an important information source for breeding and herd management. Daily milk viscosity detection in composite milking (expressed as drain time) with an automated on-line California Mastitis Test (CMT) could serve immediately as an early predictor of udder diseases and might be used as a selection criterion to improve udder health. The aim of the present study was to clarify the relationship between the well-established LSCS and the new trait,'drain time', and to estimate their correlations to important production traits. Data were recorded on the dairy research farm Karkendamm in Germany. Viscosity sensors were installed on every fourth milking stall in the rotary parlour to measure daily drain time records. Weekly LSCC and milk composition data were available. Two data sets were created containing records of 187,692 milkings from 320 cows (D1) and 25,887 drain time records from 311 cows (D2). Different fixed effect models, describing the log-transformed drain time (logDT), were fitted to achieve applicable models for further analysis. Lactation curves were modelled with standard parametric functions (Ali and Schaeffer, Legendre polynomials of second and third degree) of days in milk (DIM). Random regression models were further applied to estimate the correlations between cow effects between logDT and LSCS with further important production traits. LogDT and LSCS were strongest correlated in mid-lactation (r = 0.78). Correlations between logDT and production traits were low to medium. Highest correlations were reached in late lactation between logDT and milk yield (r = -0.31), between logDT and protein content (r = 0.30) and in early as well as in late lactation between logDT and lactose content (r = -0.28). The results of the present study show that the drain time could be used as a new trait for daily mastitis control. PMID:25731191

  18. Implementation of automated macro after develop inspection in a production lithography process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanof, Arnold W.; Plachecki, Vincent E.; Fischer, Frank W.; Cusacovich, Marcelo; Nelson, Chris; Merrill, Mark A.

    2000-06-01

    impossibility of accurate classification and recording of defect types, locations, and layer of occurrence. In this paper, we discuss a pilot implementation of an automated macro inspection system at Motorola, Inc., which has enabled the early detection and containment of significant photolithography defects. We show a variety of different types of defects that have been effectively detected and identified by this system during production usage. We introduce a methodology for determining the automated tool's ability to discriminate between the defect signal and process noise. We indicate the potential for defect database analysis, and identification of maverick product. Based upon the pilot experience, we discuss the parameters of a cost/benefit analysis of full implementation. The costs involve tool cost, additional wafer dispositions, and the engineering costs of recipe management. The most tangible measurable benefit is the saved revenue of scrapped wafers. An analysis of risk also shows a major reduction due to improved detection, as well as reduced occurrence because of better containment. This reduction of risk extends both to the customer -- in terms of field failures, OTD, maverick product -- as well as to the production facility -- in terms of major scrap incidents, forced inking at probe, redo, and containment.

  19. Automated Production of High Rep Rate Foam Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, F.; Spindloe, C.; Haddock, D.; Tolley, M.; Nazarov, W.

    2016-04-01

    Manufacturing low density targets in the numbers needed for high rep rate experiments is highly challenging. This report summarises advances from manual production to semiautomated and the improvements that follow both in terms of production time and target uniformity. The production process is described and shown to be improved by the integration of an xyz robot with dispensing capabilities. Results are obtained from manual and semiautomated production runs and compared. The variance in the foam thickness is reduced significantly which should decrease experimental variation due to target parameters and could allow for whole batches to be characterised by the measurement of a few samples. The work applies to both foil backed and free standing foam targets.

  20. Automation and quality assurance of the production cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdu, L.; Didenko, L.; Lauret, J.

    2010-04-01

    Processing datasets on the order of tens of terabytes is an onerous task, faced by production coordinators everywhere. Users solicit data productions and, especially for simulation data, the vast amount of parameters (and sometime incomplete requests) point at the need for a tracking, control and archiving all requests made so a coordinated handling could be made by the production team. With the advent of grid computing the parallel processing power has increased but traceability has also become increasing problematic due to the heterogeneous nature of Grids. Any one of a number of components may fail invalidating the job or execution flow in various stages of completion and re-submission of a few of the multitude of jobs (keeping the entire dataset production consistency) a difficult and tedious process. From the definition of the workflow to its execution, there is a strong need for validation, tracking, monitoring and reporting of problems. To ease the process of requesting production workflow, STAR has implemented several components addressing the full workflow consistency. A Web based online submission request module, implemented using Drupal's Content Management System API, enforces ahead that all parameters are described in advance in a uniform fashion. Upon submission, all jobs are independently tracked and (sometime experiment-specific) discrepancies are detected and recorded providing detailed information on where/how/when the job failed. Aggregate information on success and failure are also provided in near real-time.

  1. Automated tuning of a CO{sub 2} laser to a required oscillation line without a spectral instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Petukhov, V O; Gorobets, V A

    2005-02-28

    The method is proposed for tuning CO{sub 2} laser to a required oscillation line without a spectral instrument based on the coincidence of transition frequencies belonging to different vibrational-rotational bands of the CO{sub 2} molecule. This coincidence leads to the anomaly in the gain distribution over rotational sublevels, thereby affecting the laser output parameters. The method was successfully applied to a completely automated low-pressure, longitudinal-discharge cw CO{sub 2} laser and a pulsed TEA CO{sub 2} laser. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  2. Vaccine production: upstream processing with adherent or suspension cell lines.

    PubMed

    Genzel, Yvonne; Rödig, Jana; Rapp, Erdmann; Reichl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    The production of viral vaccines in cell culture can be accomplished with primary, diploid, or continuous (transformed) cell lines. Each cell line, each virus type, and each vaccine preparation require the specific design of upstream and downstream processing. Media have to be selected as well as production vessels, cultivation conditions, and modes of operation. Many viruses only replicate to high titers in adherently growing cells, but similar to processes established for recombinant protein production, an increasing number of suspension cell lines is being evaluated for future use. Here, we describe key issues to be considered for the establishment of large-scale virus production in bioreactors. As an example upstream processing of cell culture-derived influenza virus production is described in more detail for adherently growing and for suspension cells. In particular, use of serum-containing, serum-free, and chemically defined media as well as choice of cultivation vessel are considered. PMID:24297427

  3. Automated segmentation and feature extraction of product inspection items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukder, Ashit; Casasent, David P.

    1997-03-01

    X-ray film and linescan images of pistachio nuts on conveyor trays for product inspection are considered. The final objective is the categorization of pistachios into good, blemished and infested nuts. A crucial step before classification is the separation of touching products and the extraction of features essential for classification. This paper addresses new detection and segmentation algorithms to isolate touching or overlapping items. These algorithms employ a new filter, a new watershed algorithm, and morphological processing to produce nutmeat-only images. Tests on a large database of x-ray film and real-time x-ray linescan images of around 2900 small, medium and large nuts showed excellent segmentation results. A new technique to detect and segment dark regions in nutmeat images is also presented and tested on approximately 300 x-ray film and approximately 300 real-time linescan x-ray images with 95-97 percent detection and correct segmentation. New algorithms are described that determine nutmeat fill ratio and locate splits in nutmeat. The techniques formulated in this paper are of general use in many different product inspection and computer vision problems.

  4. Automated breeder fuel fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Goldmann, L.H.; Frederickson, J.R.

    1983-09-01

    The objective of the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) Project is to develop remotely operated equipment for the processing and manufacturing of breeder reactor fuel pins. The SAF line will be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The FMEF is presently under construction at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site near Richland, Washington, and is operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The fabrication and support systems of the SAF line are designed for computer-controlled operation from a centralized control room. Remote and automated fuel fabriction operations will result in: reduced radiation exposure to workers; enhanced safeguards; improved product quality; near real-time accountability, and increased productivity. The present schedule calls for installation of SAF line equipment in the FMEF beginning in 1984, with qualifying runs starting in 1986 and production commencing in 1987. 5 figures.

  5. A fully automated system for analysis of pesticides in water: on-line extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem photodiode array/postcolumn derivatization/fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Patsias, J; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, E

    1999-01-01

    A fully automated system for on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with tandem detection with a photodiode array detector and a fluorescence detector (after postcolumn derivatization) was developed for analysis of many chemical classes of pesticides and their major conversion products in aquatic systems. An automated on-line-SPE system (Prospekt) operated with reversed-phase cartridges (PRP-1) extracts analytes from 100 mL acidified (pH = 3) filtered water sample. On-line HPLC analysis is performed with a 15 cm C18 analytical column eluted with a mobile phase of phosphate (pH = 3)-acetonitrile in 25 min linear gradient mode. Solutes are detected by tandem diode array/derivatization/fluorescence detection. The system is controlled and monitored by a single computer operated with Millenium software. Recoveries of most analytes in samples fortified at 1 microgram/L are > 90%, with relative standard deviation values of < 5%. For a few very polar analytes, mostly N-methylcarbamoyloximes (i.e., aldicarb sulfone, methomyl, and oxamyl), recoveries are < 20%. However, for these compounds, as well as for the rest of the N-methylcarbamates except for aldicarb sulfoxide and butoxycarboxim, the limits of detection (LODs) are 0.005-0.05 microgram/L. LODs for aldicarb sulfoxide and butoxycarboxim are 0.2 and 0.1 microgram, respectively. LODs for the rest of the analytes except 4-nitrophenol, bentazone, captan, decamethrin, and MCPA are 0.05-0.1 microgram/L. LODs for the latter compounds are 0.2-1.0 microgram/L. The system can be operated unattended. PMID:10444834

  6. Automated two-step chromatography using an ÄKTA equipped with in-line dilution capability.

    PubMed

    Winters, Dwight; Chu, Carolyn; Walker, Kenneth

    2015-12-11

    There has been a great emphasis on developing higher-throughput protein purification techniques to screen potential human therapeutics faster and more efficiently. Not only is it desirable to have high-throughput purification for initial screens but it is also desirable to efficiently purify selected protein therapeutics in the amounts and purity required for definitive assays. Current automated tandem technologies involve size exclusion as a second step that often fails to generate the required purity, is not robust and can only be operated at a limited scale. We have modified an ÄKTA to enable in-line dilution, assuring that the automated loading of a second column from a first column elution can be modified to a pH and ionic strength which is suitable for binding to the second column. For example, Protein A can be employed as a first step followed by direct loading on to a cation exchange column by conditioning the Protein A elution using the in-line diluter. Using this method as described, up to six samples of 1L each can be purified through two columns without human intervention per day per machine, and the system produces good yields of purified protein over a wide range of loading levels (12-300mg). In addition, the system employs guanidine HCl regeneration, followed by a sodium hydroxide wash between purification runs, minimizing the possibility of carryover contamination. The system is described at the 5mL and the 10mL column sizes; however, it could readily be programed for 100mL columns to enable larger-scale purifications. Using this system to automate two-column purifications minimizes human intervention, increases efficiency and minimizes the risk of human error. PMID:26596873

  7. A gradient-based approach for automated crest-line detection and analysis of sand dune patterns on planetary surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, N.; LeBlanc, D.; Bebis, G.; Nicolescu, M.

    2015-12-01

    Dune-field patterns are believed to behave as self-organizing systems, but what causes the patterns to form is still poorly understood. The most obvious (and in many cases the most significant) aspect of a dune system is the pattern of dune crest lines. Extracting meaningful features such as crest length, orientation, spacing, bifurcations, and merging of crests from image data can reveal important information about the specific dune-field morphological properties, development, and response to changes in boundary conditions, but manual methods are labor-intensive and time-consuming. We are developing the capability to recognize and characterize patterns of sand dunes on planetary surfaces. Our goal is to develop a robust methodology and the necessary algorithms for automated or semi-automated extraction of dune morphometric information from image data. Our main approach uses image processing methods to extract gradient information from satellite images of dune fields. Typically, the gradients have a dominant magnitude and orientation. In many cases, the images have two major dominant gradient orientations, for the sunny and shaded side of the dunes. A histogram of the gradient orientations is used to determine the dominant orientation. A threshold is applied to the image based on gradient orientations which agree with the dominant orientation. The contours of the binary image can then be used to determine the dune crest-lines, based on pixel intensity values. Once the crest-lines have been extracted, the morphological properties can be computed. We have tested our approach on a variety of images of linear and crescentic (transverse) dunes and compared dune detection algorithms with manually-digitized dune crest lines, achieving true positive values of 0.57-0.99; and false positives values of 0.30-0.67, indicating that out approach is generally robust.

  8. Recombinant protein production from stable mammalian cell lines and pools.

    PubMed

    Hacker, David L; Balasubramanian, Sowmya

    2016-06-01

    We highlight recent developments for the production of recombinant proteins from suspension-adapted mammalian cell lines. We discuss the generation of stable cell lines using transposons and lentivirus vectors (non-targeted transgene integration) and site-specific recombinases (targeted transgene integration). Each of these methods results in the generation of cell lines with protein yields that are generally superior to those achievable through classical plasmid transfection that depends on the integration of the transfected DNA by non-homologous DNA end-joining. This is the main reason why these techniques can also be used for the generation of stable cell pools, heterogenous populations of recombinant cells generated by gene delivery and genetic selection without resorting to single cell cloning. This allows the time line from gene transfer to protein production to be reduced. PMID:27322762

  9. Software Product Line Engineering Approach for Enhancing Agile Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Jabier; Diaz, Jessica; Perez, Jennifer; Garbajosa, Juan

    One of the main principles of Agile methodologies consists in the early and continuous delivery of valuable software by short time-framed iterations. After each iteration, a working product is delivered according to the requirements defined at the beginning of the iteration. Testing tools facilitate the task of checking if the system provides the expected behavior according to the specified requirements. However, since testing tools need to be adapted in order to test new working products in each iteration, a significant effort has to be invested. This work presents a Software Product Line Engineering (SPLE) approach that allows flexibility in the adaption of testing tools with the working products in an iterative way. A case study is also presented using PLUM (Product Line Unified Modeller) as the tool suite for SPL implementation and management.

  10. Verifying Architectural Design Rules of the Flight Software Product Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganesan, Dharmalingam; Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Chris; McComas, David; Bartholomew, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents experiences of verifying architectural design rules of the NASA Core Flight Software (CFS) product line implementation. The goal of the verification is to check whether the implementation is consistent with the CFS architectural rules derived from the developer's guide. The results indicate that consistency checking helps a) identifying architecturally significant deviations that were eluded during code reviews, b) clarifying the design rules to the team, and c) assessing the overall implementation quality. Furthermore, it helps connecting business goals to architectural principles, and to the implementation. This paper is the first step in the definition of a method for analyzing and evaluating product line implementations from an architecture-centric perspective.

  11. SAGA: A project to automate the management of software production systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. H.; Badger, W.; Beckman, C. S.; Beshers, G.; Hammerslag, D.; Kimball, J.; Kirslis, P. A.; Render, H.; Richards, P.; Terwilliger, R.

    1984-01-01

    The project to automate the management of software production systems is described. The SAGA system is a software environment that is designed to support most of the software development activities that occur in a software lifecycle. The system can be configured to support specific software development applications using given programming languages, tools, and methodologies. Meta-tools are provided to ease configuration. Several major components of the SAGA system are completed to prototype form. The construction methods are described.

  12. Interdisciplinary development of manual and automated product usability assessments for older adults with dementia: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Boger, Jennifer; Taati, Babak; Mihailidis, Alex

    2016-10-01

    The changes in cognitive abilities that accompany dementia can make it difficult to use everyday products that are required to complete activities of daily living. Products that are inherently more usable for people with dementia could facilitate independent activity completion, thus reducing the need for caregiver assistance. The objectives of this research were to: (1) gain an understanding of how water tap design impacted tap usability and (2) create an automated computerized tool that could assess tap usability. 27 older adults, who ranged from cognitively intact to advanced dementia, completed 1309 trials on five tap designs. Data were manually analyzed to investigate tap usability as well as used to develop an automated usability analysis tool. Researchers collaborated to modify existing techniques and to create novel ones to accomplish both goals. This paper presents lessons learned through the course of this research, which could be applicable in the development of other usability studies, automated vision-based assessments and the development of assistive technologies for cognitively impaired older adults. Collaborative interdisciplinary teamwork, which included older adult with dementia participants, was key to enabling innovative advances that achieved the projects' research goals. Implications for Rehabilitation Products that are implicitly familiar and usable by older adults could foster independent activity completion, potentially reducing reliance on a caregiver. The computer-based automated tool can significantly reduce the time and effort required to perform product usability analysis, making this type of analysis more feasible. Interdisciplinary collaboration can result in a more holistic understanding of assistive technology research challenges and enable innovative solutions. PMID:26135222

  13. TOPS On-Line: Automating the Construction and Maintenance of HTML Pages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.

    1994-01-01

    After the Technology Opportunities Showcase (TOPS), in October, 1993, Langley Research Center's (LaRC) Information Systems Division (ISD) accepted the challenge to preserve the investment in information assembled in the TOPS exhibits by establishing a data base. Following the lead of several people at LaRC and others around the world, the HyperText Transport Protocol (HTTP) server and Mosaic were the obvious tools of choice for implementation. Initially, some TOPS exhibitors began the conventional approach of constructing HyperText Markup Language (HTML) pages of their exhibits as input to Mosaic. Considering the number of pages to construct, a better approach was conceived that would automate the construction of pages. This approach allowed completion of the data base construction in a shorter period of time using fewer resources than would have been possible with the conventional approach. It also provided flexibility for the maintenance and enhancement of the data base. Since that time, this approach has been used to automate construction of other HTML data bases. Through these experiences, it is concluded that the most effective use of the HTTP/Mosaic technology will require better tools and techniques for creating, maintaining and managing the HTML pages. The development and use of these tools and techniques are the subject of this document.

  14. Increasing inspection equipment productivity by utilizing factory automation SW on TeraScan 5XX systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubski, Thomas; Piechoncinski, Michal; Moses, Raphael; Bugata, Bharathi; Schmalfuss, Heiko; Köhler, Ines; Lisowski, Jan; Klobes, Jens; Fenske, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Especially for advanced masks the reticle inspection operation is a very significant cost factor, since it is a time consuming process and inspection tools are becoming disproportionately expensive. Analyzing and categorizing historical equipment utilization times of the reticle inspection tools however showed a significant amount of time which can be classified as non productive. In order to reduce the inspection costs the equipment utilization needed to be improved. The main contributors to non productive time were analyzed and several use cases identified, where automation utilizing a SECS1 equipment interface was expected to help to reduce these non productive times. The paper demonstrates how real time access to equipment utilization data can be applied to better control manufacturing resources. Scenarios are presented where remote monitoring and control of the inspection equipment can be used to avoid setup errors or save inspection time by faster response to problem situations. Additionally a solution to the second important need, the maximization of tool utilization in cases where not all of the intended functions are available, is explained. Both the models and the software implementation are briefly explained. For automation of the so called inspection strategy a new approach which allows separation of the business rules from the automation infrastructure was chosen. Initial results of inspection equipment performance data tracked through the SECS interface are shown. Furthermore a system integration overview is presented and examples of how the inspection strategy rules are implemented and managed are given.

  15. Sex differences on a measure of conformity in automated teller machine lines.

    PubMed

    Reysen, Stephen; Reysen, Matthew B

    2004-10-01

    Sex differences in conformity were examined as participants approached two ATMs, one of which was occupied by three confederates and the other immediately available. The number of men and women in the line in front of one of the ATMs was manipulated (3 men or 3 women), and an unobtrusive observer recorded the sex of each participant. The results indicated that women were more likely than men to wait in line to use the ATM regardless of the makeup of the line. Thus, the present study provides evidence in favor of the idea that sex differences in conformity are evident on a common task performed in a natural setting. PMID:15587205

  16. Process development for automated solar-cell and module production. Task 4. Automated array assembly. Quarterly report No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Hagerty, J. J.; Gifford, M.

    1981-04-15

    The Automated Lamination Station is mechanically complete and is currently undergoing final wiring. The high current driver and isolator boards have been completed and installed, and the main interface board is under construction. The automated vacuum chamber has had a minor redesign to increase stiffness and improve the cover open/close mechanism. Design of the Final Assembly Station has been completed and construction is underway.

  17. Automated Optical Extraction from Line Arrays of the Alignment Between Microfabricated Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieneweg, Udo

    1997-01-01

    Machine reading of layer alignment from line arrays in fully fabricated wafers is demonstrated. Misalignment is calculated from the correlation funcation of optical intensity scans through arrays in the two layers.

  18. [A new automated method to identify emission line star from massive spectra].

    PubMed

    Pan, Jing-Chang; Zhang, Cai-Ming; Wei, Peng; Luo, A-Li; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2012-06-01

    Stellar spectra are characterized by obvious absorption lines or absorption bands, while those with emission lines are usually special stars such as cataclysmic variable stars (CVs), HerbigAe/Be etc. The further study of this kind of spectra is meaningful. The present paper proposed a new method to identify emission line stars (ELS) spectra automatically. After the continuum normalization is done for the original spectral flux, line detection is made by comparing the normalized flux with the mean and standard deviation of the flux in its neighbor region The results of the experiment on massive spectra from SDSS DR8 indicate that the method can identify ELS spectra completely and accurately. Since no complex transformation and computation are involved in this method, the identifying process is fast and it is ideal for the ELS detection in large sky survey projects like LAMOST and SDSS. PMID:22870668

  19. How a heart network can influence a cardiovascular product line.

    PubMed

    Cotham, P; Gilmer, C

    1993-01-01

    The authors believe that a viable heart network program can give tertiary centers the competitive edge in cardiology marketing, can provide the opportunity to fine-tune cardiovascular product lines and can position hospitals to meet the challenges of the next decade in healthcare. However, success will be determined by an institution's ability to carefully balance cost and quality issues. PMID:10126710

  20. Space Station Freedom automation and robotics: An assessment of the potential for increased productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, David J.; Zimmerman, Wayne F.; Swietek, Gregory E.; Reid, David H.; Hoffman, Ronald B.; Stammerjohn, Lambert W., Jr.; Stoney, William; Ghovanlou, Ali H.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study performed in support of the Space Station Freedom Advanced Development Program, under the sponsorship of the Space Station Engineering (Code MT), Office of Space Flight. The study consisted of the collection, compilation, and analysis of lessons learned, crew time requirements, and other factors influencing the application of advanced automation and robotics, with emphasis on potential improvements in productivity. The lessons learned data collected were based primarily on Skylab, Spacelab, and other Space Shuttle experiences, consisting principally of interviews with current and former crew members and other NASA personnel with relevant experience. The objectives of this report are to present a summary of this data and its analysis, and to present conclusions regarding promising areas for the application of advanced automation and robotics technology to the Space Station Freedom and the potential benefits in terms of increased productivity. In this study, primary emphasis was placed on advanced automation technology because of its fairly extensive utilization within private industry including the aerospace sector. In contrast, other than the Remote Manipulator System (RMS), there has been relatively limited experience with advanced robotics technology applicable to the Space Station. This report should be used as a guide and is not intended to be used as a substitute for official Astronaut Office crew positions on specific issues.

  1. Automated pipeline for rapid production and screening of HIV-specific monoclonal antibodies using pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kartik A; Clark, John J; Goods, Brittany A; Politano, Timothy J; Mozdzierz, Nicholas J; Zimnisky, Ross M; Leeson, Rachel L; Love, J Christopher; Love, Kerry R

    2015-12-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind and neutralize human pathogens have great therapeutic potential. Advances in automated screening and liquid handling have resulted in the ability to discover antigen-specific antibodies either directly from human blood or from various combinatorial libraries (phage, bacteria, or yeast). There remain, however, bottlenecks in the cloning, expression and evaluation of such lead antibodies identified in primary screens that hinder high-throughput screening. As such, "hit-to-lead identification" remains both expensive and time-consuming. By combining the advantages of overlap extension PCR (OE-PCR) and a genetically stable yet easily manipulatable microbial expression host Pichia pastoris, we have developed an automated pipeline for the rapid production and screening of full-length antigen-specific mAbs. Here, we demonstrate the speed, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of our approach by generating several broadly neutralizing antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). PMID:26032261

  2. Automated IR determination of petroleum products in water based on sequential injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Falkova, Marina; Vakh, Christina; Shishov, Andrey; Zubakina, Ekaterina; Moskvin, Aleksey; Moskvin, Leonid; Bulatov, Andrey

    2016-02-01

    The simple and easy performed automated method for the IR determination of petroleum products (PP) in water using extraction-chromatographic cartridges has been developed. The method assumes two stages: on-site extraction of PP during a sampling by using extraction-chromatographic cartridges and subsequent determination of the extracted PP using sequential injection analysis (SIA) with IR detection. The appropriate experimental conditions for extraction of the dissolved in water PP and for automated SIA procedure were investigated. The calibration plot constructed using the developed procedure was linear in the range of 3-200 μg L(-1). The limit of detection (LOD), calculated from a blank test based on 3σ was 1 µg L(-1). The sample volume was 1L. The system throughput was found to be 12 h(-1). PMID:26653498

  3. Cell line profiling to improve monoclonal antibody production.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sohye; Ren, Da; Xiao, Gang; Daris, Kristi; Buck, Lynette; Enyenihi, Atim A; Zubarev, Roman; Bondarenko, Pavel V; Deshpande, Rohini

    2014-04-01

    Mammalian cell culture performance is influenced by both intrinsic (genetic) and extrinsic (media and process) factors. In this study, intrinsic capacity of various monoclonal antibody-producing Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines was compared by exposing them to the same culture condition. Microarray-based transcriptomics and LC-MS/MS shotgun proteomics technologies were utilized to obtain expression landscape of different cell lines. Specific transcripts and proteins correlating with productivity, growth rate and cell size have been identified. The proteomics analysis results showed a strong correlation between the intracellular protein expression levels of the recombinant DHFR and productivity. In contrast, neither the light chain nor the heavy chain of the recombinant monoclonal antibody showed correlation to productivity. Other top ranked proteins which demonstrated positive correlation to productivity included the adaptor protein complex subunits AP3D1and AP2B2, DNA repair protein DDB1 and the ER translocation complex component, SRPR. The subunits of molecular chaperone T-complex protein 1 and the regulator of mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism MTHFD2 showed negative correlation to productivity. The transcriptomics analysis has identified the regulators of calcium signaling, Tmem20 and Rcan1, as the top ranked genes displaying positive and negative correlation to productivity, respectively. For the second part of the study, the principal component analysis (PCA) was generated to view the underlying global structure of the expression data. A clear division and expression polarity was observed between the two distinct clusters of cell lines, independent of link to productivity or any other traits examined. The primary component of the PCA generated from either transcriptomics or proteomics data displayed a strong correlation to cell size and doubling time, while none of the main principal components showed correlation to productivity. Our findings suggest

  4. Verification of Software Product Lines with Delta-Oriented Slicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruns, Daniel; Klebanov, Vladimir; Schaefer, Ina

    Software product line (SPL) engineering is a well-known approach to develop industry-size adaptable software systems. SPL are often used in domains where high-quality software is desirable; the overwhelming product diversity, however, remains a challenge for assuring correctness. In this paper, we present delta-oriented slicing, an approach to reduce the deductive verification effort across an SPL where individual products are Java programs and their relations are described by deltas. On the specification side, we extend the delta language to deal with formal specifications. On the verification side, we combine proof slicing and similarity-guided proof reuse to ease the verification process.

  5. Targeted genetic modification of cell lines for recombinant protein production

    PubMed Central

    Piskareva, Olga; Muniyappa, Mohan

    2007-01-01

    Considerable increases in productivity have been achieved in biopharmaceutical production processes over the last two decades. Much of this has been a result of improvements in media formulation and process development. Though advances have been made in cell line development, there remains considerable opportunity for improvement in this area. The wealth of transcriptional and proteomic data being generated currently hold the promise of specific molecular interventions to improve the performance of production cell lines in the bioreactor. Achieving this—particularly for multi-gene modification—will require specific, targeted and controlled genetic manipulation of these cells. This review considers some of the current and potential future techniques that might be employed to realise this goal. PMID:19003191

  6. Evaluating space station applications of automation and robotics technologies from a human productivity point of view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bard, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    The role that automation, robotics, and artificial intelligence will play in Space Station operations is now beginning to take shape. Although there is only limited data on the precise nature of the payoffs that these technologies are likely to afford there is a general consensus that, at a minimum, the following benefits will be realized: increased responsiveness to innovation, lower operating costs, and reduction of exposure to hazards. Nevertheless, the question arises as to how much automation can be justified with the technical and economic constraints of the program? The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology which can be used to evaluate and rank different approaches to automating the functions and tasks planned for the Space Station. Special attention is given to the impact of advanced automation on human productivity. The methodology employed is based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process. This permits the introduction of individual judgements to resolve the confict that normally arises when incomparable criteria underly the selection process. Because of the large number of factors involved in the model, the overall problem is decomposed into four subproblems individually focusing on human productivity, economics, design, and operations, respectively. The results from each are then combined to yield the final rankings. To demonstrate the methodology, an example is developed based on the selection of an on-orbit assembly system. Five alternatives for performing this task are identified, ranging from an astronaut working in space, to a dexterous manipulator with sensory feedback. Computational results are presented along with their implications. A final parametric analysis shows that the outcome is locally insensitive to all but complete reversals in preference.

  7. Automated poultry carcass inspection by hyperspectral-multispectral line-scan imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visible/near-infrared spectroscopy methods first developed by ARS scientists were demonstrated capable of over 90 percent accuracies on high-speed processing lines in differentiating wholesome chickens from unwholesome birds exhibiting systemic conditions; however, given the lack of spatial informat...

  8. Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Production by Immortalized Human Chondrocyte Lines

    PubMed Central

    Malemud, Charles J.; Meszaros, Evan C.; Wylie, Meredith A.; Dahoud, Wissam; Skomorovska-Prokvolit, Yelenna; Mesiano, Sam

    2016-01-01

    We reported at the Keynote Forum of Immunology Summit-2015 that recombinant human (rh) TNF-α or rhIL-6 stimulated production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in the T/C28a2 and C-28/I2 human immortalized chondrocyte cell lines. Furthermore, we reported that tocilizumab (TCZ), a fully humanized monoclonal antibody which neutralizes IL-6-mediated signaling, inhibited the rhIL-6-mediated increase in the production of MMP-9. IL-6 is also a known activator of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. In that regard, we evaluated the effect of rhIL-6 on total and phosphorylated Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription by these chondrocyte lines which showed that whereas STAT3 was constitutively phosphorylated in T/C28a2 chondrocytes, rhIL-6 activated STAT3 in C-28/I2 chondrocytes. The finding that rhIL-6 increased the production of MMP-9 by human immortalized chondrocyte cell lines may have important implications with respect to the destruction of articular cartilage in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Thus, the markedly elevated level of IL-6 in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis sera and synovial fluid would be expected to generate significant MMP-9 to cause the degradation of articular cartilage extracellular matrix proteins. The finding that TCZ suppressed rhIL-6-mediated MMP-9 production suggests that TCZ, currently employed in the medical therapy of rheumatoid arthritis, could be considered as a drug for osteoarthritis.

  9. Automated fiber placement composite manufacturing: The mission at MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John H.; Pelham, Larry I.

    1993-01-01

    Automated fiber placement is a manufacturing process used for producing complex composite structures. It is a notable leap to the state-of-the-art in technology for automated composite manufacturing. The fiber placement capability was established at the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Productivity Enhancement Complex in 1992 in collaboration with Thiokol Corporation to provide materials and processes research and development, and to fabricate components for many of the Center's Programs. The Fiber Placement System (FPX) was developed as a distinct solution to problems inherent to other automated composite manufacturing systems. This equipment provides unique capabilities to build composite parts in complex 3-D shapes with concave and other asymmetrical configurations. Components with complex geometries and localized reinforcements usually require labor intensive efforts resulting in expensive, less reproducible components; the fiber placement system has the features necessary to overcome these conditions. The mechanical systems of the equipment have the motion characteristics of a filament winder and the fiber lay-up attributes of a tape laying machine, with the additional capabilities of differential tow payout speeds, compaction and cut-restart to selectively place the correct number of fibers where the design dictates. This capability will produce a repeatable process resulting in lower cost and improved quality and reliability.

  10. Data fusion of extremely high resolution aerial imagery and LiDAR data for automated railroad centre line reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beger, Reinhard; Gedrange, Claudia; Hecht, Robert; Neubert, Marco

    2011-12-01

    The quality of remotely sensed data in regards of accuracy and resolution has considerably improved in recent years. Very small objects are detectable by means of imaging and laser scanning, yet there are only few studies to use such data for large scale mapping of railroad infrastructure.In this paper, an approach is presented that integrates extremely high resolution ortho-imagery and dense airborne laser scanning point clouds. These data sets are used to reconstruct railroad track centre lines. A feature level data fusion is carried out in order to combine the advantages of both data sets and to achieve a maximum of accuracy and completeness.The workflow consists of three successive processing steps. First, object-based image analysis is used to derive a railroad track mask from ortho-imagery. This spatial location information is then combined with the height information to classify the laser points. Lastly, the location of railroad track centre lines from these classified points were approximated using a feature extraction method based on an adapted random sample consensus algorithm. This workflow is tested on two railroad sections and was found to deliver very accurate results in a quickly and highly automated manner.

  11. Automated DNA extraction platforms offer solutions to challenges of assessing microbial biofouling in oil production facilities.

    PubMed

    Oldham, Athenia L; Drilling, Heather S; Stamps, Blake W; Stevenson, Bradley S; Duncan, Kathleen E

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of microbial assemblages in industrial, marine, and medical systems can inform decisions regarding quality control or mitigation. Modern molecular approaches to detect, characterize, and quantify microorganisms provide rapid and thorough measures unbiased by the need for cultivation. The requirement of timely extraction of high quality nucleic acids for molecular analysis is faced with specific challenges when used to study the influence of microorganisms on oil production. Production facilities are often ill equipped for nucleic acid extraction techniques, making the preservation and transportation of samples off-site a priority. As a potential solution, the possibility of extracting nucleic acids on-site using automated platforms was tested. The performance of two such platforms, the Fujifilm QuickGene-Mini80™ and Promega Maxwell®16 was compared to a widely used manual extraction kit, MOBIO PowerBiofilm™ DNA Isolation Kit, in terms of ease of operation, DNA quality, and microbial community composition. Three pipeline biofilm samples were chosen for these comparisons; two contained crude oil and corrosion products and the third transported seawater. Overall, the two more automated extraction platforms produced higher DNA yields than the manual approach. DNA quality was evaluated for amplification by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and end-point PCR to generate 454 pyrosequencing libraries for 16S rRNA microbial community analysis. Microbial community structure, as assessed by DGGE analysis and pyrosequencing, was comparable among the three extraction methods. Therefore, the use of automated extraction platforms should enhance the feasibility of rapidly evaluating microbial biofouling at remote locations or those with limited resources. PMID:23168231

  12. Automated DNA extraction platforms offer solutions to challenges of assessing microbial biofouling in oil production facilities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of microbial assemblages in industrial, marine, and medical systems can inform decisions regarding quality control or mitigation. Modern molecular approaches to detect, characterize, and quantify microorganisms provide rapid and thorough measures unbiased by the need for cultivation. The requirement of timely extraction of high quality nucleic acids for molecular analysis is faced with specific challenges when used to study the influence of microorganisms on oil production. Production facilities are often ill equipped for nucleic acid extraction techniques, making the preservation and transportation of samples off-site a priority. As a potential solution, the possibility of extracting nucleic acids on-site using automated platforms was tested. The performance of two such platforms, the Fujifilm QuickGene-Mini80™ and Promega Maxwell®16 was compared to a widely used manual extraction kit, MOBIO PowerBiofilm™ DNA Isolation Kit, in terms of ease of operation, DNA quality, and microbial community composition. Three pipeline biofilm samples were chosen for these comparisons; two contained crude oil and corrosion products and the third transported seawater. Overall, the two more automated extraction platforms produced higher DNA yields than the manual approach. DNA quality was evaluated for amplification by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and end-point PCR to generate 454 pyrosequencing libraries for 16S rRNA microbial community analysis. Microbial community structure, as assessed by DGGE analysis and pyrosequencing, was comparable among the three extraction methods. Therefore, the use of automated extraction platforms should enhance the feasibility of rapidly evaluating microbial biofouling at remote locations or those with limited resources. PMID:23168231

  13. Gallium-68 DOTATATE Production with Automated PET Radiopharmaceutical Synthesis System: A Three Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Alireza; Snowdon, Graeme M; Bailey, Dale L; Schembri, Geoffrey P; Bailey, Elizabeth A; Roach, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Gallium-68 (Ga-68) is an ideal research and hospital-based PET radioisotope. Currently, the main form of Ga-68 radiopharmaceutical that is being synthesised in-house is Ga-68 conjugated with DOTA based derivatives. The development of automated synthesis systems has increased the reliability, reproducibility and safety of radiopharmaceutical productions. Here we report on our three year, 500 syntheses experience with an automated system for Ga-68 DOTATATE. Methods: The automated synthesis system we use is divided into three parts of a) servomotor modules, b) single use sterile synthesis cassettes and, c) a computerised system that runs the modules. An audit trail is produced by the system as a requirement for GMP production. The required reagents and chemicals are made in-. The Germanium breakthrough is determined on a weekly basis. Production yields for each synthesis are calculated to monitor the performance and efficiency of the synthesis. The quality of the final product is assessed after each synthesis by ITLC-SG and HPLC methods. Results: A total of 500 Ga-68 DOTATATE syntheses (>800 patient doses) were performed between March 2011 and February 2014. The average generator yield was 81.3±0.2% for 2011, 76.7±0.4% for 2012 and 75.0±0.3% for 2013. Ga-68 DOTATATE yields for 2011, 2012, and 2013 were 81.8±0.4%, 82.2±0.4% and 87.9±0.4%, respectively. These exceed the manufacturer's expected value of approximately 70%. Germanium breakthrough averaged 8.6×10-6% of total activity which is well below the recommended level of 0.001%. The average ITLC-measured radiochemical purity was above 98.5% and the average HPLC-measured radiochemical purity was above 99.5%. Although there were some system failures during synthesis, there were only eight occasions where the patient scans needed to be rescheduled. Conclusion: In our experience the automated synthesis system performs reliably with a relatively low incident of failures. Our system had a consistent

  14. Automated generation of image products for Mars Exploration Rover Mission tactical operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Doug; Zamani, Payam; Deen, Robert; Andres, Paul; Mortensen, Helen

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss, from design to implementation, the methodologies applied to MIPL's automated pipeline processing as a 'system of systems' integrated with the MER GDS. Overviews of the interconnected product generating systems will also be provided with emphasis on interdependencies, including those for a) geometric rectificationn of camera lens distortions, b) generation of stereo disparity, c) derivation of 3-dimensional coordinates in XYZ space, d) generation of unified terrain meshes, e) camera-to-target ranging (distance) and f) multi-image mosaicking.

  15. Automated apparatus for solvent separation of a coal liquefaction product stream

    DOEpatents

    Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1985-01-01

    An automated apparatus for the solvent separation of a coal liquefaction product stream that operates continuously and unattended and eliminates potential errors resulting from subjectivity and the aging of the sample during analysis. In use of the apparatus, metered amounts of one or more solvents are passed sequentially through a filter containing the sample under the direction of a microprocessor control means. The mixture in the filter is agitated by means of ultrasonic cavitation for a timed period and the filtrate is collected. The filtrate of each solvent extraction is collected individually and the residue on the filter element is collected to complete the extraction process.

  16. SAGA: A project to automate the management of software production systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Roy H.; Beckman-Davies, C. S.; Benzinger, L.; Beshers, G.; Laliberte, D.; Render, H.; Sum, R.; Smith, W.; Terwilliger, R.

    1986-01-01

    Research into software development is required to reduce its production cost and to improve its quality. Modern software systems, such as the embedded software required for NASA's space station initiative, stretch current software engineering techniques. The requirements to build large, reliable, and maintainable software systems increases with time. Much theoretical and practical research is in progress to improve software engineering techniques. One such technique is to build a software system or environment which directly supports the software engineering process, i.e., the SAGA project, comprising the research necessary to design and build a software development which automates the software engineering process. Progress under SAGA is described.

  17. Automated 2D-3D registration of a radiograph and a cone beam CT using line-segment enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Munbodh, Reshma; Jaffray, David A.; Moseley, Douglas J.; Chen Zhe; Knisely, Jonathan P.S.; Cathier, Pascal; Duncan, James S.

    2006-05-15

    The objective of this study was to develop a fully automated two-dimensional (2D)-three-dimensional (3D) registration framework to quantify setup deviations in prostate radiation therapy from cone beam CT (CBCT) data and a single AP radiograph. A kilovoltage CBCT image and kilovoltage AP radiograph of an anthropomorphic phantom of the pelvis were acquired at 14 accurately known positions. The shifts in the phantom position were subsequently estimated by registering digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) from the 3D CBCT scan to the AP radiographs through the correlation of enhanced linear image features mainly representing bony ridges. Linear features were enhanced by filtering the images with ''sticks,'' short line segments which are varied in orientation to achieve the maximum projection value at every pixel in the image. The mean (and standard deviations) of the absolute errors in estimating translations along the three orthogonal axes in millimeters were 0.134 (0.096) AP(out-of-plane), 0.021 (0.023) ML and 0.020 (0.020) SI. The corresponding errors for rotations in degrees were 0.011 (0.009) AP, 0.029 (0.016) ML (out-of-plane), and 0.030 (0.028) SI (out-of-plane). Preliminary results with megavoltage patient data have also been reported. The results suggest that it may be possible to enhance anatomic features that are common to DRRs from a CBCT image and a single AP radiography of the pelvis for use in a completely automated and accurate 2D-3D registration framework for setup verification in prostate radiotherapy. This technique is theoretically applicable to other rigid bony structures such as the cranial vault or skull base and piecewise rigid structures such as the spine.

  18. Automating data analysis during the inspection of boiler tubes using line scanning thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley, Obdulia; Momeni, Sepand; Ostroff, Jason; Godinez, Valery

    2012-05-01

    Failures in boiler waterwalls can occur when a relatively small amount of corrosion and loss of metal have been experienced. This study presents our efforts towards the application of Line Scanning Thermography (LST) for the analysis of thinning in boiler waterwall tubing. LST utilizes a line heat source to thermally excite the surface to be inspected and an infrared detector to record the transient surface temperature increase observed due to the presence of voids, thinning or other defects. In waterwall boiler tubes the defects that can be detected using LST correspond to corrosion pitting, hydrogen damage and wall thinning produced by inadequate burner heating or problems with the water chemistry. In this paper we discuss how the LST technique is implemented to determine thickness from the surface temperature data, and we describe our efforts towards developing a semiautomatic analysis tool to speed up the time between scanning, reporting and implementing repairs. We compare the density of data produced by the common techniques used to assess wall thickness and the data produced by LST.

  19. 40 CFR 1054.310 - How must I select engines for production-line testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... production-line testing? 1054.310 Section 1054.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.310 How must I select engines for production-line testing? (a) Test... each test period, randomly select and test an engine from the end of the assembly line for each...

  20. Automated kidney detection for 3D ultrasound using scan line searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, Matthias; Nadolny, Anne; Wesarg, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound (U/S) is a fast and non-expensive imaging modality that is used for the examination of various anatomical structures, e.g. the kidneys. One important task for automatic organ tracking or computer-aided diagnosis is the identification of the organ region. During this process the exact information about the transducer location and orientation is usually unavailable. This renders the implementation of such automatic methods exceedingly challenging. In this work we like to introduce a new automatic method for the detection of the kidney in 3D U/S images. This novel technique analyses the U/S image data along virtual scan lines. Here, characteristic texture changes when entering and leaving the symmetric tissue regions of the renal cortex are searched for. A subsequent feature accumulation along a second scan direction produces a 2D heat map of renal cortex candidates, from which the kidney location is extracted in two steps. First, the strongest candidate as well as its counterpart are extracted by heat map intensity ranking and renal cortex size analysis. This process exploits the heat map gap caused by the renal pelvis region. Substituting the renal pelvis detection with this combined cortex tissue feature increases the detection robustness. In contrast to model based methods that generate characteristic pattern matches, our method is simpler and therefore faster. An evaluation performed on 61 3D U/S data sets showed, that in 55 cases showing none or minor shadowing the kidney location could be correctly identified.

  1. Development of an automated high temperature valveless injection system for on-line gas chromatography

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kreisberg, N. M.; Worton, D. R.; Zhao, Y.; Isaacman, G.; Goldstein, A. H.; Hering, S. V.

    2014-07-23

    A reliable method of sample introduction is presented for on-line gas chromatography with a special application to in-situ field portable atmospheric sampling instruments. A traditional multi-port valve is replaced with a controlled pressure switching device that offers the advantage of long term reliability and stable sample transfer efficiency. An engineering design model is presented and tested that allows customizing the interface for other applications. Flow model accuracy is within measurement accuracy (1%) when parameters are tuned for an ambient detector and 15% accurate when applied to a vacuum based detector. Laboratory comparisons made between the two methods of sample introductionmore » using a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (TAG) show approximately three times greater reproducibility maintained over the equivalent of a week of continuous sampling. Field performance results for two versions of the valveless interface used in the in-situ instrument demonstrate minimal trending and a zero failure rate during field deployments ranging up to four weeks of continuous sampling. Extension of the VLI to dual collection cells is presented with less than 3% cell-to-cell carry-over.« less

  2. Development of an automated high temperature valveless injection system for on-line gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreisberg, N. M.; Worton, D. R.; Zhao, Y.; Isaacman, G.; Goldstein, A. H.; Hering, S. V.

    2014-07-01

    A reliable method of sample introduction is presented for on-line gas chromatography with a special application to in-situ field portable atmospheric sampling instruments. A traditional multi-port valve is replaced with a controlled pressure switching device that offers the advantage of long term reliability and stable sample transfer efficiency. An engineering design model is presented and tested that allows customizing the interface for other applications. Flow model accuracy is within measurement accuracy (1%) when parameters are tuned for an ambient detector and 15% accurate when applied to a vacuum based detector. Laboratory comparisons made between the two methods of sample introduction using a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (TAG) show approximately three times greater reproducibility maintained over the equivalent of a week of continuous sampling. Field performance results for two versions of the valveless interface used in the in-situ instrument demonstrate minimal trending and a zero failure rate during field deployments ranging up to four weeks of continuous sampling. Extension of the VLI to dual collection cells is presented with less than 3% cell-to-cell carry-over.

  3. Automated Flight Dynamics Product Generation for the EOS AM-1 Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matusow, Carla

    1999-01-01

    As part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM-1 spacecraft is designed to monitor long-term, global, environmental changes. Because of the complexity of the AM-1 spacecraft, the mission operations center requires more than 80 distinct flight dynamics products (reports). To create these products, the AM-1 Flight Dynamics Team (FDT) will use a combination of modified commercial software packages (e.g., Analytical Graphic's Satellite ToolKit) and NASA-developed software applications. While providing the most cost-effective solution to meeting the mission requirements, the integration of these software applications raises several operational concerns: (1) Routine product generation requires knowledge of multiple applications executing on variety of hardware platforms. (2) Generating products is a highly interactive process requiring a user to interact with each application multiple times to generate each product. (3) Routine product generation requires several hours to complete. (4) User interaction with each application introduces the potential for errors, since users are required to manually enter filenames and input parameters as well as run applications in the correct sequence. Generating products requires some level of flight dynamics expertise to determine the appropriate inputs and sequencing. To address these issues, the FDT developed an automation software tool called AutoProducts, which runs on a single hardware platform and provides all necessary coordination and communication among the various flight dynamics software applications. AutoProducts, autonomously retrieves necessary files, sequences and executes applications with correct input parameters, and deliver the final flight dynamics products to the appropriate customers. Although AutoProducts will normally generate pre-programmed sets of routine products, its graphical interface allows for easy configuration of customized and one-of-a-kind products. Additionally, AutoProducts

  4. Automated system for generation of soil moisture products for agricultural drought assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja Shekhar, S. S.; Chandrasekar, K.; Sesha Sai, M. V. R.; Diwakar, P. G.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    Drought is a frequently occurring disaster affecting lives of millions of people across the world every year. Several parameters, indices and models are being used globally to forecast / early warning of drought and monitoring drought for its prevalence, persistence and severity. Since drought is a complex phenomenon, large number of parameter/index need to be evaluated to sufficiently address the problem. It is a challenge to generate input parameters from different sources like space based data, ground data and collateral data in short intervals of time, where there may be limitation in terms of processing power, availability of domain expertise, specialized models & tools. In this study, effort has been made to automate the derivation of one of the important parameter in the drought studies viz Soil Moisture. Soil water balance bucket model is in vogue to arrive at soil moisture products, which is widely popular for its sensitivity to soil conditions and rainfall parameters. This model has been encoded into "Fish-Bone" architecture using COM technologies and Open Source libraries for best possible automation to fulfill the needs for a standard procedure of preparing input parameters and processing routines. The main aim of the system is to provide operational environment for generation of soil moisture products by facilitating users to concentrate on further enhancements and implementation of these parameters in related areas of research, without re-discovering the established models. Emphasis of the architecture is mainly based on available open source libraries for GIS and Raster IO operations for different file formats to ensure that the products can be widely distributed without the burden of any commercial dependencies. Further the system is automated to the extent of user free operations if required with inbuilt chain processing for every day generation of products at specified intervals. Operational software has inbuilt capabilities to automatically

  5. Human cell lines: A promising alternative for recombinant FIX production.

    PubMed

    de Sousa Bomfim, Aline; Cristina Corrêa de Freitas, Marcela; Picanço-Castro, Virgínia; de Abreu Soares Neto, Mário; Swiech, Kamilla; Tadeu Covas, Dimas; Maria de Sousa Russo, Elisa

    2016-05-01

    Factor IX (FIX) is a vitamin K-dependent protein, and it has become a valuable pharmaceutical in the Hemophilia B treatment. We evaluated the potential of recombinant human FIX (rhFIX) expression in 293T and SK-Hep-1 human cell lines. SK-Hep-1-FIX cells produced higher levels of biologically active protein. The growth profile of 293T-FIX cells was not influenced by lentiviral integration number into the cellular genome. SK-Hep-1-FIX cells showed a significantly lower growth rate than SK-Hep-1 cells. γ-carboxylation process is significant to FIX biological activity, thus we performed a expression analysis of genes involved in this process. The 293T gene expression suggests that this cell line could efficiently carboxylate FIX, however only 28% of the total secreted protein is active. SK-Hep-1 cells did not express high amounts of VKORC1 and carboxylase, but this cell line secreted large amounts of active protein. Enrichment of culture medium with Ca(+2) and Mg(+2) ions did not affect positively rhFIX expression in SK-Hep-1 cells. In 293T cells, the addition of 0.5 mM Ca(+2) and 1 mM Mg(+2) resulted in higher rhFIX concentration. SK-Hep-1 cell line proved to be very effective in rhFIX production, and it can be used as a novel biotechnological platform for the production of recombinant proteins. PMID:26802680

  6. High performance liquid chromatography for quantification of gatifloxacin in rat plasma following automated on-line solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Tasso, Leandro; Dalla Costa, Teresa

    2007-05-01

    An automated system using on-line solid phase extraction and HPLC with fluorimetric detection was developed and validated for quantification of gatifloxacin in rat plasma. The extraction was carried out using C(18) cartridges (BondElut), with a high extraction yield. After washing, gatifloxacin was eluted from the cartridge with mobile phase onto a C(18) HPLC column. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of phosphoric acid (2.5mM), methanol, acetonitrile and triethylamine (64.8:15:20:0.2, v/v/v/v, apparent pH(app.) 2.8). All samples and standard solutions were chromatographed at 28 degrees C. The method developed was selective and linear for drug concentrations ranging between 20 and 600 ng/ml. Gatifloxacin recovery ranged from 95.6 to 99.7%, and the limit of quantification was 20 ng/ml. The intra and inter-assay accuracy were up to 94.3%. The precision determined not exceed 5.8% of the CV. High extraction yield up to 95% was obtained. Drug stability in plasma was shown in freezer at -20 degrees C up to 1 month, after three freeze-thaw cycles and for 24h in the autosampler after processing. The assay has been successfully applied to measure gatifloxacin plasma concentrations in pharmacokinetic study in rats. PMID:17403594

  7. A prototype for automation of land-cover products from Landsat Surface Reflectance Data Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rover, J.; Goldhaber, M. B.; Steinwand, D.; Nelson, K.; Coan, M.; Wylie, B. K.; Dahal, D.; Wika, S.; Quenzer, R.

    2014-12-01

    Landsat data records of surface reflectance provide a three-decade history of land surface processes. Due to the vast number of these archived records, development of innovative approaches for automated data mining and information retrieval were necessary. Recently, we created a prototype utilizing open source software libraries for automatically generating annual Anderson Level 1 land cover maps and information products from data acquired by the Landsat Mission for the years 1984 to 2013. The automated prototype was applied to two target areas in northwestern and east-central North Dakota, USA. The approach required the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) and two user-input target acquisition year-days. The Landsat archive was mined for scenes acquired within a 100-day window surrounding these target dates, and then cloud-free pixels where chosen closest to the specified target acquisition dates. The selected pixels were then composited before completing an unsupervised classification using the NLCD. Pixels unchanged in pairs of the NLCD were used for training decision tree models in an iterative process refined with model confidence measures. The decision tree models were applied to the Landsat composites to generate a yearly land cover map and related information products. Results for the target areas captured changes associated with the recent expansion of oil shale production and agriculture driven by economics and policy, such as the increase in biofuel production and reduction in Conservation Reserve Program. Changes in agriculture, grasslands, and surface water reflect the local hydrological conditions that occurred during the 29-year span. Future enhancements considered for this prototype include a web-based client, ancillary spatial datasets, trends and clustering algorithms, and the forecasting of future land cover.

  8. Product-line performance reporting: a key to cost management.

    PubMed

    Nackel, J G; Fenaroli, P J; Kis, G M

    1987-11-01

    For many hospitals, performance reporting is the most important and valuable function of a cost management system. Performance reporting provides hospitals--or any organization, for that matter--with an enhanced ability to reduce and control costs and monitor profitability. By periodically comparing strategic and operational plans with actual results, managers are provided with measurements of their performance for the aspects of the organization they control. The following is an excerpt from the book, Cost Management for Hospitals. This section deals with product-line performance reporting and the variances that measure the effects different factors have on performance. PMID:10284490

  9. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4. Automated array assembly. Quarterly report No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hagerty, J. J.

    1980-10-15

    Work has been divided into five phases. The first phase is to modify existing hardware and controlling computer software to: (1) improve cell-to-cell placement accuracy, (2) improve the solder joint while reducing the amount of solder and flux smear on the cell's surface, and (3) reduce the system cycle time to 10 seconds. The second phase involves expanding the existing system's capabilities to be able to reject broken cells and make post-solder electrical tests. Phase 3 involves developing new hardware to allow for the automated encapsulation of solar modules. This involves three discrete pieces of hardware: (1) a vacuum platen end effector for the robot which allows it to pick up the 1' x 4' array of 35 inter-connected cells. With this, it can also pick up the cover glass and completed module, (2) a lamination preparation station which cuts the various encapsulation components from roll storage and positions them for encapsulation, and (3) an automated encapsulation chamber which interfaces with the above two and applies the heat and vacuum to cure the encapsulants. Phase 4 involves the final assembly of the encapsulated array into a framed, edge-sealed module completed for installation. For this we are using MBA's Glass Reinforced Concrete (GRC) in panels such as those developed by MBA for JPL under contract No. 955281. The GRC panel plays the multiple role of edge frame, substrate and mounting structure. An automated method of applying the edge seal will also be developed. The final phase (5) is the fabrication of six 1' x 4' electrically active solar modules using the above developed equipment. Progress is reported. (WHK)

  10. Flow injection analysis-based methodology for automatic on-line monitoring and quality control for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Pinzi, S; Priego Capote, F; Ruiz Jiménez, J; Dorado, M P; Luque de Castro, M D

    2009-01-01

    An automated on-line approach based on determination of free and bound glycerol was here proposed to monitor biodiesel production. The method was based on liquid-liquid extraction of glycerol from the biodiesel to an aqueous ethanolic phase in which glycerol is oxidized to formaldehyde with meta periodate with subsequent reaction with acetylacetone. The reaction product was photometrically measured at 410 nm. Free and bound glycerol were differentiated by glycerides hydrolysis with potassium ethylate. The experimental set-up consisted of a flow-injection manifold for liquid-liquid extraction without phase separation and iterative change of the flow direction that enabled: (a) filling the flow manifold with a meta periodate-acetylacetone acceptor phase; (b) sampling of small amounts (microl) from the reactor; (c) determination of free glycerol by extraction from biodiesel to the aqueous phase with simultaneous oxidation-reaction with acetylacetone in the acceptor phase; (d) continuous monitoring of the aqueous phase by passage through a photometric detector; (e) filling the flow manifold with a potassium ethylate-meta periodate-acetylacetone new acceptor phase; (d) repetition of steps b-to-d to determine total glycerol after saponification of the bound glycerol by potassium ethylate; and (f) determination of bound glycerol by difference between the second and first analyses. The results showed that the proposed automated on-line method is a suitable option in routine analysis during biodiesel production. PMID:18614358

  11. Heparanase augments inflammatory chemokine production from colorectal carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tsunekawa, Naoki; Higashi, Nobuaki; Kogane, Yusuke; Waki, Michihiko; Shida, Hiroaki; Nishimura, Yoshio; Adachi, Hayamitsu; Nakajima, Motowo; Irimura, Tatsuro

    2016-01-22

    To explore possible roles of heparanase in cancer-host crosstalk, we examined whether heparanase influences expression of inflammatory chemokines in colorectal cancer cells. Murine colorectal carcinoma cells incubated with heparanase upregulated MCP-1, KC, and RANTES genes and released MCP-1 and KC proteins. Heparanase-dependent production of IL-8 was detected in two human colorectal carcinoma cell lines. Addition of a heparanase inhibitor Heparastatin (SF4) did not influence MCP-1 production, while both latent and mature forms of heparanase augmented MCP-1 release, suggesting that heparanase catalytic activity was dispensable for MCP-1 production. In contrast, addition of heparin to the medium suppressed MCP-1 release in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, targeted suppression of Ext1 by RNAi significantly suppressed cell surface expression of heparan sulfate and MCP-1 production in colon 26 cells. Taken together, it is concluded that colon 26 cells transduce the heparanase-mediated signal through heparan sulfate binding. We propose a novel function for heparanase independent of its endoglycosidase activity, namely as a stimulant for chemokine production. PMID:26713365

  12. An automated perfusion bioreactor for the streamlined production of engineered osteogenic grafts.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ming; Henriksen, Susan S; Wendt, David; Overgaard, Søren

    2016-04-01

    A computer-controlled perfusion bioreactor was developed for the streamlined production of engineered osteogenic grafts. This system automated the required bioprocesses, from the initial filling of the system through the phases of cell seeding and prolonged cell/tissue culture. Flow through chemo-optic micro-sensors allowed to non-invasively monitor the levels of oxygen and pH in the perfused culture medium throughout the culture period. To validate its performance, freshly isolated ovine bone marrow stromal cells were directly seeded on porous scaffold granules (hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium-phosphate/poly-lactic acid), bypassing the phase of monolayer cell expansion in flasks. Either 10 or 20 days after culture, engineered cell-granule grafts were implanted in an ectopic mouse model to quantify new bone formation. After four weeks of implantation, histomorphometry showed more bone in bioreactor-generated grafts than cell-free granule controls, while bone formation did not show significant differences between 10 days and 20 days of incubation. The implanted granules without cells had no bone formation. This novel perfusion bioreactor has revealed the capability of activation larger viable bone graft material, even after shorter incubation time of graft material. This study has demonstrated the feasibility of engineering osteogenic grafts in an automated bioreactor system, laying the foundation for a safe, regulatory-compliant, and cost-effective manufacturing process. PMID:25952142

  13. Automated Planning of Science Products Based on Nadir Overflights and Alerts for Onboard and Ground Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve A.; McLaren, David A.; Rabideau, Gregg R.; Mandl, Daniel; Hengemihle, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    A set of automated planning algorithms is the current operations baseline approach for the Intelligent Payload Module (IPM) of the proposed Hyper spectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) mission. For this operations concept, there are only local (e.g. non-depletable) operations constraints, such as real-time downlink and onboard memory, and the forward sweeping algorithm is optimal for determining which science products should be generated onboard and on ground based on geographical overflights, science priorities, alerts, requests, and onboard and ground processing constraints. This automated planning approach was developed for the HyspIRI IPM concept. The HyspIRI IPM is proposed to use an X-band Direct Broadcast (DB) capability that would enable data to be delivered to ground stations virtually as it is acquired. However, the HyspIRI VSWIR and TIR instruments will produce approximately 1 Gbps data, while the DB capability is 15 Mbps for a approx. =60X oversubscription. In order to address this mismatch, this innovation determines which data to downlink based on both the type of surface the spacecraft is overflying, and the onboard processing of data to detect events. For example, when the spacecraft is overflying Polar Regions, it might downlink a snow/ice product. Additionally, the onboard software will search for thermal signatures indicative of a volcanic event or wild fire and downlink summary information (extent, spectra) when detected, thereby reducing data volume. The planning system described above automatically generated the IPM mission plan based on requested products, the overflight regions, and available resources.

  14. Automated microextraction sample preparation coupled on-line to FT-ICR-MS: application to desalting and concentration of river and marine dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Morales-Cid, Gabriel; Gebefugi, Istvan; Kanawati, Basem; Harir, Mourad; Hertkorn, Norbert; Rosselló-Mora, Ramón; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2009-10-01

    Sample preparation procedures are in most cases sample- and time-consuming and commonly require the use of a large amount of solvents. Automation in this regard can optimize the minimal-needed injection volume and the solvent consumption will be efficiently reduced. A new fully automated sample desalting and pre-concentration technique employing microextraction by packed sorbents (MEPS) cartridges is implemented and coupled to an ion cyclotron resonance Fourier-transform mass spectrometer (ICR-FT/MS). The performance of non-target mass spectrometric analysis is compared for the automated versus off-line sample preparation for several samples of aqueous natural organic matter. This approach can be generalized for any metabolite profiling or metabolome analysis of biological materials but was optimized herein using a well characterized but highly complex organic mixture: a surface water and its well-characterized natural organic matter and a marine sample having a highly salt charge and enabling to validate the presented automatic system for salty samples. The analysis of Suwannee River water showed selective C18-MEPS enrichment of chemical signatures with average H/C and O/C elemental ratios and loss of both highly polar and highly aromatic structures from the original sample. Automated on-line application to marine samples showed desalting and different chemical signatures from surface to bottom water. Relative comparison of structural footprints with the C18-concentration/desalting procedure however enabled to demonstrate that the surface water film was more concentrated in surface-active components of natural (fatty acids) and anthropogenic origin (sulfur-containing surfactants). Overall, the relative standard deviation distribution in terms of peak intensity was improved by automating the proposed on-line method. PMID:19685041

  15. Fully Automated One-Step Production of Functional 3D Tumor Spheroids for High-Content Screening.

    PubMed

    Monjaret, François; Fernandes, Mathieu; Duchemin-Pelletier, Eve; Argento, Amelie; Degot, Sébastien; Young, Joanne

    2016-04-01

    Adoption of spheroids within high-content screening (HCS) has lagged behind high-throughput screening (HTS) due to issues with running complex assays on large three-dimensional (3D) structures.To enable multiplexed imaging and analysis of spheroids, different cancer cell lines were grown in 3D on micropatterned 96-well plates with automated production of nine uniform spheroids per well. Spheroids achieve diameters of up to 600 µm, and reproducibility was experimentally validated (interwell and interplate CV(diameter) <5%). Biphoton imaging confirmed that micropatterned spheroids exhibit characteristic cell heterogeneity with distinct microregions. Furthermore, central necrosis appears at a consistent spheroid size, suggesting standardized growth.Using three reference compounds (fluorouracil, irinotecan, and staurosporine), we validated HT-29 micropatterned spheroids on an HCS platform, benchmarking against hanging-drop spheroids. Spheroid formation and imaging in a single plate accelerate assay workflow, and fixed positioning prevents structures from overlapping or sticking to the well wall, augmenting image processing reliability. Furthermore, multiple spheroids per well increase the statistical confidence sufficiently to discriminate compound mechanisms of action and generate EC50 values for endpoints of cell death, architectural change, and size within a single-pass read. Higher quality data and a more efficient HCS work chain should encourage integration of micropatterned spheroid models within fundamental research and drug discovery applications. PMID:26385905

  16. Decreasing costs of ground data processing system development using a software product line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaffin, Brian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, I describe software product lines and why a Ground Data Processing System should use one. I also describe how to develop a software product line, using examples from an imaginary Ground Data Processing System.

  17. Horizon: The Portable, Scalable, and Reusable Framework for Developing Automated Data Management and Product Generation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Alarcon, C.; Quach, N. T.

    2014-12-01

    Capture, curate, and analysis are the typical activities performed at any given Earth Science data center. Modern data management systems must be adaptable to heterogeneous science data formats, scalable to meet the mission's quality of service requirements, and able to manage the life-cycle of any given science data product. Designing a scalable data management doesn't happen overnight. It takes countless hours of refining, refactoring, retesting, and re-architecting. The Horizon data management and workflow framework, developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is a portable, scalable, and reusable framework for developing high-performance data management and product generation workflow systems to automate data capturing, data curation, and data analysis activities. The NASA's Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC)'s Data Management and Archive System (DMAS) is its core data infrastructure that handles capturing and distribution of hundreds of thousands of satellite observations each day around the clock. DMAS is an application of the Horizon framework. The NASA Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) is NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)'s solution for making high-resolution global imageries available to the science communities. The Imagery Exchange (TIE), an application of the Horizon framework, is a core subsystem for GIBS responsible for data capturing and imagery generation automation to support the EOSDIS' 12 distributed active archive centers and 17 Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS). This presentation discusses our ongoing effort in refining, refactoring, retesting, and re-architecting the Horizon framework to enable data-intensive science and its applications.

  18. Automated High-Content Assay for Compounds Selectively Toxic to Trypanosoma cruzi in a Myoblastic Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Padilla, Julio; Cotillo, Ignacio; Presa, Jesús L.; Cantizani, Juan; Peña, Imanol; Bardera, Ana I.; Martín, Jose J.; Rodriguez, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Background Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, represents a very important public health problem in Latin America where it is endemic. Although mostly asymptomatic at its initial stage, after the disease becomes chronic, about a third of the infected patients progress to a potentially fatal outcome due to severe damage of heart and gut tissues. There is an urgent need for new drugs against Chagas disease since there are only two drugs available, benznidazole and nifurtimox, and both show toxic side effects and variable efficacy against the chronic stage of the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Genetically engineered parasitic strains are used for high throughput screening (HTS) of large chemical collections in the search for new anti-parasitic compounds. These assays, although successful, are limited to reporter transgenic parasites and do not cover the wide T. cruzi genetic background. With the aim to contribute to the early drug discovery process against Chagas disease we have developed an automated image-based 384-well plate HTS assay for T. cruzi amastigote replication in a rat myoblast host cell line. An image analysis script was designed to inform on three outputs: total number of host cells, ratio of T. cruzi amastigotes per cell and percentage of infected cells, which respectively provides one host cell toxicity and two T. cruzi toxicity readouts. The assay was statistically robust (Z´ values >0.6) and was validated against a series of known anti-trypanosomatid drugs. Conclusions/Significance We have established a highly reproducible, high content HTS assay for screening of chemical compounds against T. cruzi infection of myoblasts that is amenable for use with any T. cruzi strain capable of in vitro infection. Our visual assay informs on both anti-parasitic and host cell toxicity readouts in a single experiment, allowing the direct identification of compounds selectively targeted to the parasite. PMID:25615687

  19. 16 CFR 303.22 - Products containing linings, interlinings, fillings, and paddings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION... required information as to textile fiber products, the fiber content of any linings, interlinings,...

  20. Laser light-section sensor automating the production of textile-reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, R.; Niggemann, C.; Mersmann, C.

    2009-05-01

    Due to their advanced weight-specific mechanical properties, the application of fibre-reinforced plastics (FRP) has been established as a key technology in several engineering areas. Textile-based reinforcement structures (Preform) in particular achieve a high structural integrity due to the multi-dimensional build-up of dry-fibre layers combined with 3D-sewing and further textile processes. The final composite parts provide enhanced damage tolerances through excellent crash-energy absorbing characteristics. For these reasons, structural parts (e.g. frame) will be integrated in next generation airplanes. However, many manufacturing processes for FRP are still involving manual production steps without integrated quality control. The non-automated production implies considerable process dispersion and a high rework rate. Before the final inspection there is no reliable information about the production status. This work sets metrology as the key to automation and thus an economically feasible production, applying a laser light-section sensor system (LLSS) to measure process quality and feed back the results to close control loops of the production system. The developed method derives 3D-measurements from height profiles acquired by the LLSS. To assure the textile's quality a full surface scan is conducted, detecting defects or misalignment by comparing the measurement results with a CAD model of the lay-up. The method focuses on signal processing of the height profiles to ensure a sub-pixel accuracy using a novel algorithm based on a non-linear least-square fitting to a set of sigmoid functions. To compare the measured surface points to the CAD model, material characteristics are incorporated into the method. This ensures that only the fibre layer of the textile's surface is included and gaps between the fibres or overlaying seams are neglected. Finally, determining the uncertainty in measurement according to the GUM-standard proofed the sensor system's accuracy

  1. 40 CFR 1042.305 - Preparing and testing production-line engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of hours you operated your emission-data engine for certifying the engine family (see 40 CFR part... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preparing and testing production-line... AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1042.305 Preparing and testing production-line...

  2. Product lines in a complex marketplace: matching organizational strategy to buyer behavior.

    PubMed

    Zelman, W N; McLaughlin, C P

    1990-01-01

    Product-line strategy should be developed in relation to markets. This article focuses on designing product-line strategy in relation to four purchaser types: (1) traditional purchasers, (2) motivated purchasers, (3) HMO-type purchasers, and (4) PPO-type purchasers. In many cases, product-line strategy may have to adopt various combinations of the above. PMID:2351546

  3. Production-line assembly of 150+ VIRUS spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. L.; Vattiat, Brian; DePoy, D. L.; Hill, Gary J.; Collins, Amanda D.; Lee, Hanshin; Allen, Richard D.; Kelz, Andreas; Bauer, Svend M.; Popow, Emil

    2010-07-01

    The Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is being built to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) project. The instrument consists of 150+ identical fiber-fed integral field optical spectrographs. This instrument provides a unique challenge in astronomical instrumentation: each of the 150+ instruments must be identical and each component must be interchangeable amongst every other spectrograph in order to ease assembly and maintenance of the instrument. In this paper we describe plans for the production-line assembly of the spectrographs. In particular, we discuss the assembly procedures and design choices that will ensure uniformity of the spectrographs and support the project schedule.

  4. Automation pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    An important concept of the Action Information Management System (AIMS) approach is to evaluate office automation technology in the context of hands on use by technical program managers in the conduct of human acceptance difficulties which may accompany the transition to a significantly changing work environment. The improved productivity and communications which result from application of office automation technology are already well established for general office environments, but benefits unique to NASA are anticipated and these will be explored in detail.

  5. Automated Urinalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Information from NASA Tech Briefs assisted DiaSys Corporation in the development of the R/S 2000 which automates urinalysis, eliminating most manual procedures. An automatic aspirator is inserted into a standard specimen tube, the "Sample" button is pressed, and within three seconds a consistent amount of urine sediment is transferred to a microscope. The instrument speeds up, standardizes, automates and makes urine analysis safer. Additional products based on the same technology are anticipated.

  6. AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF AQUEOUS SAMPLES CONTAINING PESTICIDES, ACIDIC/BASIC/NEUTRAL SEMIVOLATILES AND VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION COUPLED IN-LINE TO LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GC/MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data is presented on the development of a new automated system combining solid phase extraction (SPE) with GC/MS spectrometry for the single-run analysis of water samples containing a broad range of organic compounds. The system uses commercially available automated in-line 10-m...

  7. What Automated Vocal Analysis Reveals about the Vocal Production and Language Learning Environment of Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Steven F.; Gilkerson, Jill; Richards, Jeffrey A.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Xu, Dongxin; Yapanel, Umit; Gray, Sharmistha

    2010-01-01

    The study compared the vocal production and language learning environments of 26 young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to 78 typically developing children using measures derived from automated vocal analysis. A digital language processor and audio-processing algorithms measured the amount of adult words to children and the amount of…

  8. Evaluation of an automated hydrolysis and extraction method for quantification of total fat and lipid classess in cereal products.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The utility of an automated acid hydrolysis-extraction (AHE) system was evaluated for extraction of fat for the quantification of total, saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and trans fat in cereal products. Oil extracted by the AHE system was assessed for total fat gravimetrically and by c...

  9. Improving GPR Surveys Productivity by Array Technology and Fully Automated Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morello, Marco; Ercoli, Emanuele; Mazzucchelli, Paolo; Cottino, Edoardo

    2016-04-01

    The realization of network infrastructures with lower environmental impact and the tendency to use digging technologies less invasive in terms of time and space of road occupation and restoration play a key-role in the development of communication networks. However, pre-existing buried utilities must be detected and located in the subsurface, to exploit the high productivity of modern digging apparatus. According to SUE quality level B+ both position and depth of subsurface utilities must be accurately estimated, demanding for 3D GPR surveys. In fact, the advantages of 3D GPR acquisitions (obtained either by multiple 2D recordings or by an antenna array) versus 2D acquisitions are well-known. Nonetheless, the amount of acquired data for such 3D acquisitions does not usually allow to complete processing and interpretation directly in field and in real-time, thus limiting the overall efficiency of the GPR acquisition. As an example, the "low impact mini-trench "technique (addressed in ITU - International Telecommunication Union - L.83 recommendation) requires that non-destructive mapping of buried services enhances its productivity to match the improvements of new digging equipment. Nowadays multi-antenna and multi-pass GPR acquisitions demand for new processing techniques that can obtain high quality subsurface images, taking full advantage of 3D data: the development of a fully automated and real-time 3D GPR processing system plays a key-role in overall optical network deployment profitability. Furthermore, currently available computing power suggests the feasibility of processing schemes that incorporate better focusing algorithms. A novel processing scheme, whose goal is the automated processing and detection of buried targets that can be applied in real-time to 3D GPR array systems, has been developed and fruitfully tested with two different GPR arrays (16 antennas, 900 MHz central frequency, and 34 antennas, 600 MHz central frequency). The proposed processing

  10. Systems, methods and apparatus for developing and maintaining evolving systems with software product lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Rash, James L. (Inventor); Pena, Joaquin (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which an evolutionary system is managed and viewed as a software product line. In some embodiments, the core architecture is a relatively unchanging part of the system, and each version of the system is viewed as a product from the product line. Each software product is generated from the core architecture with some agent-based additions. The result may be a multi-agent system software product line.

  11. Progress in DRS production line for uncooled focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chien J.; Howard, Christopher G.; Howard, Philip E.; Ionescu, Adrian C.; Li, Chuan C.; Monson, John C.; Naranjo, Robert L.; Scholten, Myron J.; Sweeney, R. Michael; Strong, Roger L.; Sullivan, William; Teherani, Towfik H.

    2004-08-01

    To improve its capacity to meet customer needs, DRS Infrared Technologies began technology transfer of the VOx uncooled FPA process from its Anaheim facility to its Dallas facility in the Fall of 2002. The new facility delivered its first U3000 arrays (320x240, 51μm pitch) three months after the VOx deposition system was installed, and produced over 300 units of U3000 per month just twelve months after beginning the transfer. Process enhancements and tool upgrades have enabled excellent control of the microbolometer process. Today, this line selectively fabricates arrays with NETD varying from 30mK to 80mK in 15mK bins with less than 30 ms time constant. The same arrays also have low defect density of less than 2% dead pixels and no more than one row and one column out. The arrays are packaged in imager or radiometer (F/1.4) packages. DRS also transferred small and large format arrays with 25μm pitch under the PEO-Soldier Sensor Producibility to the Dallas facility. Production of the 25μm pitch devices is currently more that 100 units per month and is ramping up to meet customer demand. This paper reports on production progress on the U3000s and the status of U3500 and U6000 25μm pitch array.

  12. Automated Data Production for a Novel Airborne Multiangle Spectropolarimetric Imager (airmspi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, V. M.; Bull, M.; Diner, D. J.; Geier, S.; Rheingans, B.

    2012-07-01

    A novel polarimetric imaging technique making use of rapid retardance modulation has been developed by JPL as a part of NASA's Instrument Incubator Program. It has been built into the Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) under NASA's Airborne Instrument Technology Transition Program, and is aimed primarily at remote sensing of the amounts and microphysical properties of aerosols and clouds. AirMSPI includes an 8-band (355, 380, 445, 470, 555, 660, 865, 935 nm) pushbroom camera that measures polarization in a subset of the bands (470, 660, and 865 nm). The camera is mounted on a gimbal and acquires imagery in a configurable set of along-track viewing angles ranging between +67° and -67° relative to nadir. As a result, near simultaneous multi-angle, multi-spectral, and polarimetric measurements of the targeted areas at a spatial resolution ranging from 7 m to 20 m (depending on the viewing angle) can be derived. An automated data production system is being built to support high data acquisition rate in concert with co-registration and orthorectified mapping requirements. To date, a number of successful engineering checkout flights were conducted in October 2010, August-September 2011, and January 2012. Data products resulting from these flights will be presented.

  13. Automated Data Production For A Novel Airborne Multiangle Spectropolarimetric Imager (AIRMSPI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jovanovic, V .M.; Bull, M.; Diner, D. J.; Geier, S.; Rheingans, B.

    2012-01-01

    A novel polarimetric imaging technique making use of rapid retardance modulation has been developed by JPL as a part of NASA's Instrument Incubator Program. It has been built into the Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) under NASA's Airborne Instrument Technology Transition Program, and is aimed primarily at remote sensing of the amounts and microphysical properties of aerosols and clouds. AirMSPI includes an 8-band (355, 380, 445, 470, 555, 660, 865, 935 nm) pushbroom camera that measures polarization in a subset of the bands (470, 660, and 865 nm). The camera is mounted on a gimbal and acquires imagery in a configurable set of along-track viewing angles ranging between +67 deg and -67 deg relative to nadir. As a result, near simultaneous multi-angle, multi-spectral, and polarimetric measurements of the targeted areas at a spatial resolution ranging from 7 m to 20 m (depending on the viewing angle) can be derived. An automated data production system is being built to support high data acquisition rate in concert with co-registration and orthorectified mapping requirements. To date, a number of successful engineering checkout flights were conducted in October 2010, August-September 2011, and January 2012. Data products resulting from these flights will be presented.

  14. Managing the Evolution of an Enterprise Architecture using a MAS-Product-Line Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pena, Joaquin; Hinchey, Michael G.; Resinas, manuel; Sterritt, Roy; Rash, James L.

    2006-01-01

    We view an evolutionary system ns being n software product line. The core architecture is the unchanging part of the system, and each version of the system may be viewed as a product from the product line. Each "product" may be described as the core architecture with sonre agent-based additions. The result is a multiagent system software product line. We describe an approach to such n Software Product Line-based approach using the MaCMAS Agent-Oriented nzethoclology. The approach scales to enterprise nrchitectures as a multiagent system is an approprinre means of representing a changing enterprise nrchitectclre nnd the inferaction between components in it.

  15. Neural networks are paying off on the production line

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, B.

    1997-10-01

    One very small company is working overtime on a technology called neural networks and is bringing this technology onto the production lines of some of the largest manufacturers in the world. The innovator here is Native American Technologies Co., Golden, Colo. Jerry Jones, the company`s chief scientist, explained the reason for this great interest in neural networks. A former member of the faculty at Colorado School of Mines, Jones said the large manufacturers want robust operating conditions. They want to be able to understand their processes well enough so that they don`t have to have fixtures on their shop floors. Fixtures are expensive to buy and to maintain and they have been known to die on the shop floor. Industry wants software capable of searching for those most robust operating conditions. N.A. Technologies is working closely with the Colorado School of Mines and with AMET, Inc., Rexford, Idaho, on projects in arc welding, friction stir welding, resistance welding, laser beam welding and electron beam welding. All of these projects are using exactly the same architecture and the same software, so the cost of development is spread out over a wide number of projects and a large number of potential applications. The end result is that the cost for any one given process is significantly less than it would be by any other approach.

  16. Automation of the longwall mining system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W.; Aster, R. W.; Harris, J.; High, J.

    1982-01-01

    Cost effective, safe, and technologically sound applications of automation technology to underground coal mining were identified. The longwall analysis commenced with a general search for government and industry experience of mining automation technology. A brief industry survey was conducted to identify longwall operational, safety, and design problems. The prime automation candidates resulting from the industry experience and survey were: (1) the shearer operation, (2) shield and conveyor pan line advance, (3) a management information system to allow improved mine logistics support, and (4) component fault isolation and diagnostics to reduce untimely maintenance delays. A system network analysis indicated that a 40% improvement in productivity was feasible if system delays associated with all of the above four areas were removed. A technology assessment and conceptual system design of each of the four automation candidate areas showed that state of the art digital computer, servomechanism, and actuator technologies could be applied to automate the longwall system.

  17. A first-generation software product line for data acquisition systems in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Ruiz, J. C.; Heradio, Rubén; Cerrada Somolinos, José Antonio; Coz Fernandez, José Ramón; López Ramos, Pablo

    2008-07-01

    This article presents a case study on developing a software product line for data acquisition systems in astronomy based on the Exemplar Driven Development methodology and the Exemplar Flexibilization Language tool. The main strategies to build the software product line are based on the domain commonality and variability, the incremental scope and the use of existing artifacts. It consists on a lean methodology with little impact on the organization, suitable for small projects, which reduces product line start-up time. Software Product Lines focuses on creating a family of products instead of individual products. This approach has spectacular benefits on reducing the time to market, maintaining the know-how, reducing the development costs and increasing the quality of new products. The maintenance of the products is also enhanced since all the data acquisition systems share the same product line architecture.

  18. Characterization of available automated external defibrillators in the market based on the product manuals in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Chik Leung; Cheng, Ka Wai; Ma, Tze Hang; Wong, Yau Hang; Cheng, Ka Lok; Kam, Chak Wah

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To popularize the wide-spread use of automated external defibrillator (AED) to save life in sudden cardiac arrest, we compared the strength and weakness of different types of AEDs to enable a sound selection based on regional requirement. METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study. Different types of AEDs were compared according to the information of AEDs from manuals and brochures provided by the manufacturers. Fifteen types of AEDs were divided into 3 groups, basic, intermediate and advanced. RESULTS: Lifeline™ AUTO AED had the best performance in price, portability and user-friendly among AEDs of basic level. It required less time for shock charging. Samaritan PAD defibrillator was superior in price, portability, durability and characteristic among AEDs of intermediate level. It had the longest warranty and highest protection against water and dust. Lifeline™ PRO AED had the best performance in most of the criteria among AEDs of advanced level and offered CPR video and manual mode for laypersons and clinicians respectively. CONCLUSION: Lifeline™ AUTO AED, Samaritan PAD defibrillator, Lifeline™ PRO AED are superior in AEDs of basic, intermediate and advanced levels, respectively. A feasible AED may be chosen by users according to the regional requirement and the current information about the best available products. PMID:27313810

  19. Technology modernization assessment flexible automation

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D.W.; Boyd, D.R.; Hansen, N.H.; Hansen, M.A.; Yount, J.A.

    1990-12-01

    The objectives of this report are: to present technology assessment guidelines to be considered in conjunction with defense regulations before an automation project is developed to give examples showing how assessment guidelines may be applied to a current project to present several potential areas where automation might be applied successfully in the depot system. Depots perform primarily repair and remanufacturing operations, with limited small batch manufacturing runs. While certain activities (such as Management Information Systems and warehousing) are directly applicable to either environment, the majority of applications will require combining existing and emerging technologies in different ways, with the special needs of depot remanufacturing environment. Industry generally enjoys the ability to make revisions to its product lines seasonally, followed by batch runs of thousands or more. Depot batch runs are in the tens, at best the hundreds, of parts with a potential for large variation in product mix; reconfiguration may be required on a week-to-week basis. This need for a higher degree of flexibility suggests a higher level of operator interaction, and, in turn, control systems that go beyond the state of the art for less flexible automation and industry in general. This report investigates the benefits and barriers to automation and concludes that, while significant benefits do exist for automation, depots must be prepared to carefully investigate the technical feasibility of each opportunity and the life-cycle costs associated with implementation. Implementation is suggested in two ways: (1) develop an implementation plan for automation technologies based on results of small demonstration automation projects; (2) use phased implementation for both these and later stage automation projects to allow major technical and administrative risk issues to be addressed. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs. (JF)

  20. One Year of ICTP Diploma Courses On-Line Using the Automated EyA Recording System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canessa, Enrique; Fonda, Carlo; Zennaro, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The 12-month pre-Ph.D. ICTP Diploma Courses in the fields of Condensed Matter Physics, High Energy Physics, Mathematics, Earth System Physics and Basics Physics have been recorded using the automated, low cost recording system called EyA developed in-house. We discuss the technical details on how these recordings were implemented, together with…

  1. Pep2Path: automated mass spectrometry-guided genome mining of peptidic natural products.

    PubMed

    Medema, Marnix H; Paalvast, Yared; Nguyen, Don D; Melnik, Alexey; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Takano, Eriko; Breitling, Rainer

    2014-09-01

    Nonribosomally and ribosomally synthesized bioactive peptides constitute a source of molecules of great biomedical importance, including antibiotics such as penicillin, immunosuppressants such as cyclosporine, and cytostatics such as bleomycin. Recently, an innovative mass-spectrometry-based strategy, peptidogenomics, has been pioneered to effectively mine microbial strains for novel peptidic metabolites. Even though mass-spectrometric peptide detection can be performed quite fast, true high-throughput natural product discovery approaches have still been limited by the inability to rapidly match the identified tandem mass spectra to the gene clusters responsible for the biosynthesis of the corresponding compounds. With Pep2Path, we introduce a software package to fully automate the peptidogenomics approach through the rapid Bayesian probabilistic matching of mass spectra to their corresponding biosynthetic gene clusters. Detailed benchmarking of the method shows that the approach is powerful enough to correctly identify gene clusters even in data sets that consist of hundreds of genomes, which also makes it possible to match compounds from unsequenced organisms to closely related biosynthetic gene clusters in other genomes. Applying Pep2Path to a data set of compounds without known biosynthesis routes, we were able to identify candidate gene clusters for the biosynthesis of five important compounds. Notably, one of these clusters was detected in a genome from a different subphylum of Proteobacteria than that in which the molecule had first been identified. All in all, our approach paves the way towards high-throughput discovery of novel peptidic natural products. Pep2Path is freely available from http://pep2path.sourceforge.net/, implemented in Python, licensed under the GNU General Public License v3 and supported on MS Windows, Linux and Mac OS X. PMID:25188327

  2. 76 FR 62343 - Certain Lined Paper Products From India: Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... FR 66349 (October 28, 2010. (Initiation Notice).\\2\\ \\1\\ Abhinav Paper Products Pvt. Ltd.; American... Critical Circumstances Determination: Certain Lined Paper Products from India, 71 FR 45034, 45035 (August 8... Countervailing Duty Orders: Certain Lined Paper Products from India and Indonesia, 71 FR 56949 (September...

  3. Automated system for the on-line monitoring of powder blending processes using near-infrared spectroscopy. Part I. System development and control.

    PubMed

    Hailey, P A; Doherty, P; Tapsell, P; Oliver, T; Aldridge, P K

    1996-03-01

    An automated system for the on-line monitoring of powder blending processes is described. The system employs near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy using fibre-optics and a graphical user interface (GUI) developed in the LabVIEW environment. The complete supervisory control and data analysis (SCADA) software controls blender and spectrophotometer operation and performs statistical spectral data analysis in real time. A data analysis routine using standard deviation is described to demonstrate an approach to the real-time determination of blend homogeneity. PMID:8738184

  4. Integrated configurable equipment selection and line balancing for mass production with serial-parallel machining systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaïa, Olga; Dolgui, Alexandre; Guschinsky, Nikolai; Levin, Genrikh

    2014-10-01

    Solving equipment selection and line balancing problems together allows better line configurations to be reached and avoids local optimal solutions. This article considers jointly these two decision problems for mass production lines with serial-parallel workplaces. This study was motivated by the design of production lines based on machines with rotary or mobile tables. Nevertheless, the results are more general and can be applied to assembly and production lines with similar structures. The designers' objectives and the constraints are studied in order to suggest a relevant mathematical model and an efficient optimization approach to solve it. A real case study is used to validate the model and the developed approach.

  5. Gamma ray line production from cosmic ray spallation reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.; Letaw, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The gamma ray line intensities due to cosmic ray spallation reactions in clouds, the galactic disk and accreting binary pulsars are calculated. With the most favorable plausible assumptions, only a few lines may be detectable to the level of 0.0000001 per sq. cm per sec. The intensities are compared with those generated in nuclear excitation reactions.

  6. Automated on-line renewable solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography exploiting multisyringe flow injection-bead injection lab-on-valve analysis.

    PubMed

    Quintana, José Benito; Miró, Manuel; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor

    2006-04-15

    In this paper, the third generation of flow injection analysis, also named the lab-on-valve (LOV) approach, is proposed for the first time as a front end to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) sample processing by exploiting the bead injection (BI) concept. The proposed microanalytical system based on discontinuous programmable flow features automated packing (and withdrawal after single use) of a small amount of sorbent (<5 mg) into the microconduits of the flow network and quantitative elution of sorbed species into a narrow band (150 microL of 95% MeOH). The hyphenation of multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA) with BI-LOV prior to HPLC analysis is utilized for on-line postextraction treatment to ensure chemical compatibility between the eluate medium and the initial HPLC gradient conditions. This circumvents the band-broadening effect commonly observed in conventional on-line SPE-based sample processors due to the low eluting strength of the mobile phase. The potential of the novel MSFI-BI-LOV hyphenation for on-line handling of complex environmental and biological samples prior to reversed-phase chromatographic separations was assessed for the expeditious determination of five acidic pharmaceutical residues (viz., ketoprofen, naproxen, bezafibrate, diclofenac, and ibuprofen) and one metabolite (viz., salicylic acid) in surface water, urban wastewater, and urine. To this end, the copolymeric divinylbenzene-co-n-vinylpyrrolidone beads (Oasis HLB) were utilized as renewable sorptive entities in the micromachined unit. The automated analytical method features relative recovery percentages of >88%, limits of detection within the range 0.02-0.67 ng mL(-1), and coefficients of variation <11% for the column renewable mode and gives rise to a drastic reduction in operation costs ( approximately 25-fold) as compared to on-line column switching systems. PMID:16615800

  7. SAGA: A project to automate the management of software production systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Roy H.; Laliberte, D.; Render, H.; Sum, R.; Smith, W.; Terwilliger, R.

    1987-01-01

    The Software Automation, Generation and Administration (SAGA) project is investigating the design and construction of practical software engineering environments for developing and maintaining aerospace systems and applications software. The research includes the practical organization of the software lifecycle, configuration management, software requirements specifications, executable specifications, design methodologies, programming, verification, validation and testing, version control, maintenance, the reuse of software, software libraries, documentation, and automated management.

  8. Alicyclobacillus Contamination in the Production Line of Kiwi Products in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiangbo; Yue, Tianli; Yuan, Yahong

    2013-01-01

    Alicyclobacillus are spoilage microbes of many juice products, but contamination of kiwi products by Alicyclobacillus is seldom reported. This study aims to investigate the whole production line of kiwi products in China to assess the potential risk of their contamination. A total of 401 samples from 18 commercial products, 1 processing plant and 16 raw material orchards were tested, and 76 samples were positive, from which 76 strains of microbes were isolated and identified as 4 species of Alicyclobacillus, including Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Alicyclobacillus contaminans, Alicyclobacillus herbarius and Alicyclobacillus cycloheptanicus, and another 9 strains as 3 species of Bacillus by sequencing of their 16S rDNA. Through phylogenetic tree construction and RAPD-PCR amplification, it was found that there exist genotypic diversities to some extent among these isolates. Four test strains (each from one species of the 4 Alicyclobacillus species isolated in this study) could spoil pH adjusted kiwi fruit juice and some commercial kiwi fruit products with producing guaiacol (11–34 ppb). PMID:23844069

  9. An automated system to mount cryo-cooled protein crystals on a synchrotron beam line, using compact sample cassettes and a small-scale robot

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Aina E.; Ellis, Paul J.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Deacon, Ashley M.; Phizackerley, R. Paul

    2014-01-01

    An automated system for mounting and dismounting pre-frozen crystals has been implemented at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). It is based on a small industrial robot and compact cylindrical cassettes, each holding up to 96 crystals mounted on Hampton Research sample pins. For easy shipping and storage, the cassette fits inside several popular dry-shippers and long-term storage Dewars. A dispensing Dewar holds up to three cassettes in liquid nitrogen adjacent to the beam line goniometer. The robot uses a permanent magnet tool to extract samples from, and insert samples into a cassette, and a cryo-tong tool to transfer them to and from the beam line goniometer. The system is simple, with few moving parts, reliable in operation and convenient to use. PMID:24899734

  10. Automation in photogrammetry: Recent developments and applications (1972-1976)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, M.M.; Mikhail, E.M.

    1976-01-01

    An overview of recent developments in the automation of photogrammetry in various countries is presented. Conclusions regarding automated photogrammetry reached at the 1972 Congress in Ottawa are reviewed first as a background for examining the developments of 1972-1976. Applications are described for each country reporting significant developments. Among fifteen conclusions listed are statements concerning: the widespread practice of equipping existing stereoplotters with simple digitizers; the growing tendency to use minicomputers on-line with stereoplotters; the optimization of production of digital terrain models by progressive sampling in stereomodels; the potential of digitization of a photogrammetric model by density correlation on epipolar lines; the capabilities and economic aspects of advanced systems which permit simultaneous production of orthophotos, contours, and digital terrain models; the economy of off-line orthophoto systems; applications of digital image processing; automation by optical techniques; applications of sensors other than photographic imagery, and the role of photogrammetric phases in a completely automated cartographic system. ?? 1976.

  11. Automated power management and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolce, James L.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive automation design is being developed for Space Station Freedom's electric power system. A joint effort between NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Exploration Technology and NASA's Office of Space Station Freedom, it strives to increase station productivity by applying expert systems and conventional algorithms to automate power system operation. The initial station operation will use ground-based dispatches to perform the necessary command and control tasks. These tasks constitute planning and decision-making activities that strive to eliminate unplanned outages. We perceive an opportunity to help these dispatchers make fast and consistent on-line decisions by automating three key tasks: failure detection and diagnosis, resource scheduling, and security analysis. Expert systems will be used for the diagnostics and for the security analysis; conventional algorithms will be used for the resource scheduling.

  12. Quantitative determination of opioids in whole blood using fully automated dried blood spot desorption coupled to on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Verplaetse, Ruth; Henion, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Opioids are well known, widely used painkillers. Increased stability of opioids in the dried blood spot (DBS) matrix compared to blood/plasma has been described. Other benefits provided by DBS techniques include point-of-care collection, less invasive micro sampling, more economical shipment, and convenient storage. Current methodology for analysis of micro whole blood samples for opioids is limited to the classical DBS workflow, including tedious manual punching of the DBS cards followed by extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) bioanalysis. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a fully automated on-line sample preparation procedure for the analysis of DBS micro samples relevant to the detection of opioids in finger prick blood. To this end, automated flow-through elution of DBS cards was followed by on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analysis by LC-MS/MS. Selective, sensitive, accurate, and reproducible quantitation of five representative opioids in human blood at sub-therapeutic, therapeutic, and toxic levels was achieved. The range of reliable response (R(2)  ≥0.997) was 1 to 500 ng/mL whole blood for morphine, codeine, oxycodone, hydrocodone; and 0.1 to 50 ng/mL for fentanyl. Inter-day, intra-day, and matrix inter-lot accuracy and precision was less than 15% (even at lower limits of quantitation (LLOQ) level). The method was successfully used to measure hydrocodone and its major metabolite norhydrocodone in incurred human samples. Our data support the enormous potential of DBS sampling and automated analysis for monitoring opioids as well as other pharmaceuticals in both anti-doping and pain management regimens. PMID:26607771

  13. Automated extraction method for the center line of spinal canal and its application to the spinal curvature quantification in torso X-ray CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Tatsuro; Zhou, Xiangrong; Chen, Huayue; Hara, Takeshi; Miyamoto, Kei; Kobayashi, Tatsunori; Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    X-ray CT images have been widely used in clinical routine in recent years. CT images scanned by a modern CT scanner can show the details of various organs and tissues. This means various organs and tissues can be simultaneously interpreted on CT images. However, CT image interpretation requires a lot of time and energy. Therefore, support for interpreting CT images based on image-processing techniques is expected. The interpretation of the spinal curvature is important for clinicians because spinal curvature is associated with various spinal disorders. We propose a quantification scheme of the spinal curvature based on the center line of spinal canal on CT images. The proposed scheme consists of four steps: (1) Automated extraction of the skeletal region based on CT number thresholding. (2) Automated extraction of the center line of spinal canal. (3) Generation of the median plane image of spine, which is reformatted based on the spinal canal. (4) Quantification of the spinal curvature. The proposed scheme was applied to 10 cases, and compared with the Cobb angle that is commonly used by clinicians. We found that a high-correlation (for the 95% confidence interval, lumbar lordosis: 0.81-0.99) between values obtained by the proposed (vector) method and Cobb angle. Also, the proposed method can provide the reproducible result (inter- and intra-observer variability: within 2°). These experimental results suggested a possibility that the proposed method was efficient for quantifying the spinal curvature on CT images.

  14. Automation of the longwall mining system

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, W.; Aster, R.; Harris, J.; High, J.

    1982-11-01

    The longwall automation study presented is the first phase of a study to evaluate mining automation opportunities. The objective was to identify cost-effective, safe, and technologically sound applications of automation technology to understand coal mining. The prime automation candidates resulting from the industry experience and survey were: (1) the shearer operation, (2) shield and conveyor pan-line advance, (3) a management information system to allow improved mine logistics support, and (4) component fault isolation and diagnostics to reduce untimely maintenance delays. A system network analysis indicated that a 40% improvement in productivity was feasible if system delays associated with all of the above four areas were removed. A technology assessment and conceptual system design of each of the four automation candidate areas showed that state-of-the-art digital computer, servomechanism, and actuator technologies could be applied to automate the longwall system. The final cost benefit analysis of all of the automation areas indicated a total net national benefit (profit) of roughly $200 million to the longwall mining industry if all automation candidates were installed. This cost benefit represented an approximate order of magnitude payback on the research and development (R and D) investment. In conclusion, it is recommended that the shearer operation be automated first because it provides a large number of other sensor inputs required for face alignment (i.e., shields and conveyor). Automation of the shield and conveyor pan-line advance is suggested as the next step since both the shearer and face alignment operations contributed the greatest time delays to the overall system downtime.

  15. Automated production of 124I and 64Cu using IBA Terimo and Pinctada metal electroplating and processing modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poniger, S. S.; Tochon-Danguy, H. J.; Panopoulos, H. P.; O'Keefe, G. J.; Peake, D.; Rasool, R.; Scott, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    There is worldwide growing interest for the production of long-lived positron emitters for molecular imaging and the development of novel immuno-PET techniques for drugs discovery. The desire to produce solid target isotopes in Australia has significantly increased over the years and several research projects for labelling of peptides, proteins and biomolecules, including labelling of recombinant antibodies has been limited due to the availability of suitable isotopes. This has led to the recent installation and commissioning of a new lab dedicated to fully automated solid target isotope production, including 124I, 64Cu, 89Zr and 86Y.

  16. Large-scale cell production of stem cells for clinical application using the automated cell processing machine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cell-based regeneration therapies have great potential for application in new areas in clinical medicine, although some obstacles still remain to be overcome for a wide range of clinical applications. One major impediment is the difficulty in large-scale production of cells of interest with reproducibility. Current protocols of cell therapy require a time-consuming and laborious manual process. To solve this problem, we focused on the robotics of an automated and high-throughput cell culture system. Automated robotic cultivation of stem or progenitor cells in clinical trials has not been reported till date. The system AutoCulture® used in this study can automatically replace the culture medium, centrifuge cells, split cells, and take photographs for morphological assessment. We examined the feasibility of this system in a clinical setting. Results We observed similar characteristics by both the culture methods in terms of the growth rate, gene expression profile, cell surface profile by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, surface glycan profile, and genomic DNA stability. These results indicate that AutoCulture® is a feasible method for the cultivation of human cells for regenerative medicine. Conclusions An automated cell-processing machine will play important roles in cell therapy and have widespread use from application in multicenter trials to provision of off-the-shelf cell products. PMID:24228851

  17. Investigation Of In-Line Monitoring Options At H Canyon/HB Line For Plutonium Oxide Production

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, L.

    2015-10-14

    H Canyon and HB Line have a production goal of 1 MT per year of plutonium oxide feedstock for the MOX facility by FY17 (AFS-2 mission). In order to meet this goal, steps will need to be taken to improve processing efficiency. One concept for achieving this goal is to implement in-line process monitoring at key measurement points within the facilities. In-line monitoring during operations has the potential to increase throughput and efficiency while reducing costs associated with laboratory sample analysis. In the work reported here, we mapped the plutonium oxide process, identified key measurement points, investigated alternate technologies that could be used for in-line analysis, and initiated a throughput benefit analysis.

  18. 40 CFR 1045.301 - When must I test my production-line engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... require you to test production-line engines under this subpart, or under 40 CFR part 1068, subpart E, even... described in 40 CFR part 1068. Individual engines in families that pass these production-line testing requirements must also conform to all applicable regulations of this part and 40 CFR part 1068. (d) You may...

  19. 40 CFR 1045.301 - When must I test my production-line engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... require you to test production-line engines under this subpart, or under 40 CFR part 1068, subpart E, even... described in 40 CFR part 1068. Individual engines in families that pass these production-line testing requirements must also conform to all applicable regulations of this part and 40 CFR part 1068. (d) You may...

  20. A Role-Playing Game for a Software Engineering Lab: Developing a Product Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuppiroli, Sara; Ciancarini, Paolo; Gabbrielli, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Software product line development refers to software engineering practices and techniques for creating families of similar software systems from a basic set of reusable components, called shared assets. Teaching how to deal with software product lines in a university lab course is a challenging task, because there are several practical issues that…

  1. Intelligent Production Monitoring and Control based on Three Main Modules for Automated Manufacturing Cells in the Automotive Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Ulrich; Kretzschmann, Ralf; Algebra, A. Vargas Veronica

    2008-06-01

    The automotive industry is distinguished by regionalization and customization of products. As consequence, the diversity of products will increase while the lot sizes will decrease. Thus, more product types will be handled along the process chain and common production paradigms will fail. Although Rapid Manufacturing (RM) methodology will be used for producing small individual lot sizes, new solution for joining and assembling these components are needed. On the other hand, the non-availability of existing operational knowledge and the absence of dynamic and explicit knowledge retrieval minimize the achievement of on-demand capabilities. Thus, in this paper, an approach for an Intelligent Production System will be introduced. The concept is based on three interlinked main modules: a Technology Data Catalogue (TDC) based on an ontology system, an Automated Scheduling Processor (ASP) based on graph theory and a central Programmable Automation Controller (PAC) for real-time sensor/actor communication. The concept is being implemented in a laboratory set-up with several assembly and joining processes and will be experimentally validated in some research and development projects.

  2. Intelligent Production Monitoring and Control based on Three Main Modules for Automated Manufacturing Cells in the Automotive Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Ulrich; Kretzschmann, Ralf; Algebra, A. Vargas Veronica

    2008-06-12

    The automotive industry is distinguished by regionalization and customization of products. As consequence, the diversity of products will increase while the lot sizes will decrease. Thus, more product types will be handled along the process chain and common production paradigms will fail. Although Rapid Manufacturing (RM) methodology will be used for producing small individual lot sizes, new solution for joining and assembling these components are needed. On the other hand, the non-availability of existing operational knowledge and the absence of dynamic and explicit knowledge retrieval minimize the achievement of on-demand capabilities. Thus, in this paper, an approach for an Intelligent Production System will be introduced. The concept is based on three interlinked main modules: a Technology Data Catalogue (TDC) based on an ontology system, an Automated Scheduling Processor (ASP) based on graph theory and a central Programmable Automation Controller (PAC) for real-time sensor/actor communication. The concept is being implemented in a laboratory set-up with several assembly and joining processes and will be experimentally validated in some research and development projects.

  3. HYPERSPECTRAL/MULTISPECTRAL LINE-SCAN IMAGING SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATED POULTRY CARCASS INSPECTION APPLICATIONS FOR FOOD SAFETY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A hyperspectral/multispectral line-scan imaging system was developed for differentiation of wholesome and systemically diseased chickens. In-plant testing was conducted for chickens on a commercial evisceration line moving at a speed of 70 birds per minute. Hyperspectral image data was acquired fo...

  4. Automated synthesis of transmission lines loaded with complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs) and open complementary split ring resonators (OCSRRs) through aggressive space mapping (ASM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selga, Jordi; Rodríguez, Ana; Orellana, Marco; Boria, Vicente; Martín, Ferran

    2014-09-01

    This paper is focused on the application of space mapping optimization to the automated synthesis of transmission lines loaded with complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs) and open complementary split ring resonators (OCSRRs). These structures are of interest for the implementation of resonant-type metamaterial transmission lines and for the design of planar microwave circuits based on such complementary resonators. The paper presents a method to generate the layouts of CSRR- and OCSRR-loaded microstrip lines from the elements of their equivalent circuit models. Using the so-called aggressive space mapping, a specific implementation that uses quasi-Newton type iteration, we have developed synthesis algorithms that are able to provide the topology of these CSRR- and OCSRR-loaded lines in few steps. The most relevant aspect, however, is that this synthesis process is completely automatic, i.e., it does not require any action from the designers, other than initiating the algorithm. Moreover, this technique can be translated to other electrically small planar elements described by lumped element equivalent circuit models.

  5. Validation and calibration of a TDLAS oxygen sensor for in-line measurement on flow-packed products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocola, L.; Fedel, M.; Allermann, H.; Landa, S.; Tondello, G.; Bardenstein, A.; Poletto, L.

    2016-05-01

    A device based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy has been developed for non-invasive evaluation of gaseous oxygen concentration inside packed food containers. This work has been done in the context of the SAFETYPACK European project in order to enable full, automated product testing on a production line. The chosen samples at the end of the manufacturing process are modified atmosphere bags of processed mozzarella, in which the target oxygen concentration is required to be below 5%. The spectrometer allows in-line measurement of moving samples which are passing on a conveyor belt, with an optical layout optimized for bags made of a flexible scattering material, and works by sensing the gas phase in the headspace at the top of the package. A field applicable method for the calibration of this device has been identified and validated against traditional, industry standard, invasive measurement techniques. This allows some degrees of freedom for the end-user regarding packaging dimensions and shape. After deployment and setup of the instrument at the end-user manufacturing site, performance has been evaluated on a different range of samples in order to validate the choice of electro optical and geometrical parameters regarding sample handling and measurement timing at the actual measurement conditions.

  6. 9 CFR 113.52 - Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics. 113.52 Section 113.52 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS...

  7. 9 CFR 113.52 - Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... production of biologics. 113.52 Section 113.52 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Ingredient Requirements § 113.52 Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics. When prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in a filed Outline of Production...

  8. The length of the glaciers in the world - a straightforward method for the automated calculation of glacier center lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machguth, H.; Huss, M.

    2014-05-01

    Glacier length is an important measure of glacier geometry but global glacier inventories are mostly lacking length data. Only recently semi-automated approaches to measure glacier length have been developed and applied regionally. Here we present a first global assessment of glacier length using a fully automated method based on glacier surface slope, distance to the glacier margins and a set of trade-off functions. The method is developed for East Greenland, evaluated for the same area as well as for Alaska, and eventually applied to all ∼200 000 glaciers around the globe. The evaluation highlights accurately calculated glacier length where DEM quality is good (East Greenland) and limited precision on low quality DEMs (parts of Alaska). Measured length of very small glaciers is subject to a certain level of ambiguity. The global calculation shows that only about 1.5% of all glaciers are longer than 10 km with Bering Glacier (Alaska/Canada) being the longest glacier in the world at a length of 196 km. Based on model output we derive global and regional area-length scaling laws. Differences among regional scaling parameters appear to be related to characteristics of topography and glacier mass balance. The present study adds glacier length as a central parameter to global glacier inventories. Global and regional scaling laws might proof beneficial in conceptual glacier models.

  9. A model for simulating the grinding and classification cyclic system of waste PCBs recycling production line.

    PubMed

    Yang, Deming; Xu, Zhenming

    2011-09-15

    Crushing and separating technology is widely used in waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) recycling process. A set of automatic line without negative impact to environment for recycling waste PCBs was applied in industry scale. Crushed waste PCBs particles grinding and classification cyclic system is the most important part of the automatic production line, and it decides the efficiency of the whole production line. In this paper, a model for computing the process of the system was established, and matrix analysis method was adopted. The result showed that good agreement can be achieved between the simulation model and the actual production line, and the system is anti-jamming. This model possibly provides a basis for the automatic process control of waste PCBs production line. With this model, many engineering problems can be reduced, such as metals and nonmetals insufficient dissociation, particles over-pulverizing, incomplete comminuting, material plugging and equipment fever. PMID:21764511

  10. Automation in biological crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Shaw Stewart, Patrick; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given. PMID:24915074

  11. Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

    2003-03-27

    The production of nuclear weapons materials has generated large quantities of nuclear waste and significant environmental contamination. We have developed new, rapid, automated methods for determination of radionuclides using sequential injection methodologies to automate extraction chromatographic separations, with on-line flow-through scintillation counting for real time detection. This work has progressed in two main areas: radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and automated radiochemical analyzers for monitoring nuclear waste processing operations. Radionuclide sensors have been developed that collect and concentrate radionuclides in preconcentrating minicolumns with dual functionality: chemical selectivity for radionuclide capture and scintillation for signal output. These sensors can detect pertechnetate to below regulatory levels and have been engineered into a prototype for field testing. A fully automated process monitor has been developed for total technetium in nuclear waste streams. This instrument performs sample acidification, speciation adjustment, separation and detection in fifteen minutes or less.

  12. An automated high-content screening image analysis pipeline for the identification of selective autophagic inducers in human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kriston-Vizi, Janos; Lim, Ching Aeng; Condron, Peter; Chua, Kelvin; Wasser, Martin; Flotow, Horst

    2010-08-01

    Automated image processing is a critical and often rate-limiting step in high-content screening (HCS) workflows. The authors describe an open-source imaging-statistical framework with emphasis on segmentation to identify novel selective pharmacological inducers of autophagy. They screened a human alveolar cancer cell line and evaluated images by both local adaptive and global segmentation. At an individual cell level, region-growing segmentation was compared with histogram-derived segmentation. The histogram approach allowed segmentation of a sporadic-pattern foreground and hence the attainment of pixel-level precision. Single-cell phenotypic features were measured and reduced after assessing assay quality control. Hit compounds selected by machine learning corresponded well to the subjective threshold-based hits determined by expert analysis. Histogram-derived segmentation displayed robustness against image noise, a factor adversely affecting region growing segmentation. PMID:20547532

  13. ELIXYS - a fully automated, three-reactor high-pressure radiosynthesizer for development and routine production of diverse PET tracers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Automated radiosynthesizers are vital for routine production of positron-emission tomography tracers to minimize radiation exposure to operators and to ensure reproducible synthesis yields. The recent trend in the synthesizer industry towards the use of disposable kits aims to simplify setup and operation for the user, but often introduces several limitations related to temperature and chemical compatibility, thus requiring reoptimization of protocols developed on non-cassette-based systems. Radiochemists would benefit from a single hybrid system that provides tremendous flexibility for development and optimization of reaction conditions while also providing a pathway to simple, cassette-based production of diverse tracers. Methods We have designed, built, and tested an automated three-reactor radiosynthesizer (ELIXYS) to provide a flexible radiosynthesis platform suitable for both tracer development and routine production. The synthesizer is capable of performing high-pressure and high-temperature reactions by eliminating permanent tubing and valve connections to the reaction vessel. Each of the three movable reactors can seal against different locations on disposable cassettes to carry out different functions such as sealed reactions, evaporations, and reagent addition. A reagent and gas handling robot moves sealed reagent vials from storage locations in the cassette to addition positions and also dynamically provides vacuum and inert gas to ports on the cassette. The software integrates these automated features into chemistry unit operations (e.g., React, Evaporate, Add) to intuitively create synthesis protocols. 2-Deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-5-methyl-β-l-arabinofuranosyluracil (l-[18F]FMAU) and 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-β-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine (d-[18F]FAC) were synthesized to validate the system. Results l-[18F]FMAU and d-[18F]FAC were successfully synthesized in 165 and 170 min, respectively, with decay-corrected radiochemical yields of 46% ± 1% (n = 6

  14. Investigation of Freeze-Linings in Aluminum Production Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallah-Mehrjardi, Ata; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni

    2014-08-01

    The molten cryolite bath creates chemically a very aggressive environment in the Hall-Héroult cell, and thus, the formation of a protective solid layer (freeze-lining) on the cell wall is essential for the operation of the present cell designs. To provide further information on the formation of the freeze-lining deposit in this system, laboratory-based studies were undertaken using an air-cooled probe technique The effects of process conditions, i.e., time, bath agitation, and superheat on the microstructures, morphologies of the phases, and the phase assemblages adjacent to the deposit/bath interface were investigated. A detailed microstructural analysis of the steady-state deposits shows that a dense sealing primary-phase layer of cryolite solid solution was formed at the interface of the bath deposit for the process conditions examined. The formation of sealing primary-phase layer at the bath/deposit interface explicitly indicates that the deposit/liquid bath interface temperature is equal to that of the liquidus of the bulk bath. The experimentally investigated liquidus temperature and subliquidus equilibria differ significantly from those previously reported.

  15. Automated production of [¹⁸F]VAT suitable for clinical PET study of vesicular acetylcholine transporter.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xuyi; Bognar, Christopher; Zhang, Xiang; Gaehle, Gregory G; Moerlein, Stephen M; Perlmutter, Joel S; Tu, Zhude

    2016-01-01

    Automated production of a promising radiopharmaceutical (-)-(1-(8-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethoxy)-3-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)-piperidin-4-yl)(4-fluorophenyl)methanone ([(18)F]VAT) for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter(VAChT) was achieved using a two-step procedure in a current Good Manufacturing Practices fashion. The production of [(18)F]VAT was accomplished in approximately 140 min, with radiochemical yield of ~15.0% (decay corrected), specific activity>111 GBq/µmol, radiochemical purity>99% and mass of VAT ~3.4 μg/batch (n>10). The radiopharmaceutical product meets all quality control criteria for human use, and is suitable for clinical PET studies of VAChT. PMID:26408913

  16. Radiolytic hydrogen production from process vessels in HB line - production rates compared to evolution rates and discussion of LASL reviews

    SciTech Connect

    Bibler, N.E.

    1992-11-12

    Hydrogen production from radiolysis of aqueous solutions can create a safety hazard since hydrogen is flammable. At times this production can be significant, especially in HB line where nitric acid solutions containing high concentrations of Pu-238, an intense alpha emitter, are processed. The hydrogen production rates from these solutions are necessary for safety analyses of these process systems. The methods and conclusions of hydrogen production rate tests are provided in this report.

  17. New Claus and FCC catalyst production capacity on line

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    Two new, major catalyst manufacturing plants have recently gone into commercial operation in the U.S. In Louisiana, Aluminum Co. of America (Alcoa) last month put an activated alumina plant in production at Vidalia, La., on the Mississippi River near Natchez, Miss. Activated alumina after processing serves as, among other things, the catalyst in Claus sulfur recovery plants. In Georgia, Katalistiks International Inc. put its fluid catalytic cracking catalyst plant on stream in June, with an expected output of 60,000/80,000 tons/year of FFC catalyst. Alcoa says its Vidalia plant will have the capacity to make 20 million lb/year of either Claus catalyst or adsorbants, catalyst substrates, or combinations of such products. Management says it hopes to develop the catalyst plant's processing flexibility to make products for special and new applications. For the moment, the Vidalia plant will not make zeolites for fluid catalytic catalyst manufacturing though it has that capability. However, production of combinations of mixtures of alumina and zeolites is planned.

  18. 9 CFR 113.52 - Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... production of biologics. 113.52 Section 113.52 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) upon request for performing the tests prescribed in this section... line, such as, but not limited to, microscopic appearance, growth rate, acid production, or...

  19. A semi-automated large-scale process for the production of recombinant tagged proteins in the Baculovirus expression system.

    PubMed

    Schlaeppi, Jean-Marc; Henke, Mario; Mahnke, Marion; Hartmann, Steffen; Schmitz, Rita; Pouliquen, Yann; Kerins, Brendan; Weber, Eric; Kolbinger, Frank; Kocher, Hans P

    2006-12-01

    The efficient preparation of recombinant proteins at the lab-scale level is essential for drug discovery, in particular for structural biology, protein interaction studies and drug screening. The Baculovirus insect-cell expression system is one of the most widely applied and highly successful systems for production of recombinant functional proteins. However, the use of eukaryotic cells as host organisms and the multi-step protocol required for the generation of sufficient virus and protein has limited its adaptation to industrialized high-throughput operation. We have developed an integrated large-scale process for continuous and partially automated protein production in the Baculovirus system. The instrumental platform includes parallel insect-cell fermentation in 10L BioWave reactors, cell harvesting and lysis by tangential flow filtration (TFF) using two custom-made filtration units and automated purification by multi-dimensional chromatography. The use of disposable materials (bags, filters and tubing), automated cleaning cycles and column regeneration, prevent any cross-contamination between runs. The preparation of the clear cell lysate by sequential TFF takes less than 2 h and represents considerable time saving compared to standard cell harvesting and lysis by sonication and ultra-centrifugation. The process has been validated with 41 His-tagged proteins with molecular weights ranging from 20 to 160 kDa. These proteins represented several families, and included 23 members of the deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) family. Each down-stream unit can process four proteins in less than 24 h with final yields between 1 and 100 mg, and purities between 50 and 95%. PMID:16904904

  20. Information logistics: A production-line approach to information services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Dennis; Lee, Chee-Seng

    1991-01-01

    Logistics can be defined as the process of strategically managing the acquisition, movement, and storage of materials, parts, and finished inventory (and the related information flow) through the organization and its marketing channels in a cost effective manner. It is concerned with delivering the right product to the right customer in the right place at the right time. The logistics function is composed of inventory management, facilities management, communications unitization, transportation, materials management, and production scheduling. The relationship between logistics and information systems is clear. Systems such as Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), Point of Sale (POS) systems, and Just in Time (JIT) inventory management systems are important elements in the management of product development and delivery. With improved access to market demand figures, logisticians can decrease inventory sizes and better service customer demand. However, without accurate, timely information, little, if any, of this would be feasible in today's global markets. Information systems specialists can learn from logisticians. In a manner similar to logistics management, information logistics is concerned with the delivery of the right data, to the ring customer, at the right time. As such, information systems are integral components of the information logistics system charged with providing customers with accurate, timely, cost-effective, and useful information. Information logistics is a management style and is composed of elements similar to those associated with the traditional logistics activity: inventory management (data resource management), facilities management (distributed, centralized and decentralized information systems), communications (participative design and joint application development methodologies), unitization (input/output system design, i.e., packaging or formatting of the information), transportations (voice, data, image, and video communication systems

  1. Early attempts at production of prawn cell lines.

    PubMed

    Owens, L; Smith, J

    1999-01-01

    This report describes some unsuccessful attempts to produce continuous cell lines from penaeid prawn tissues in the late 1980s. This information is presented so that others might save time by not repeating the unsuccessful measures that were attempted. The osmolarity of Penaeus monodon haemolymph was measured at 687 mOsmol/kg (N = 10). Of the media tested, the best medium for cell growth and maintenance was shown to be double strength L-15, supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum, and 10% prawn muscle extract at 28 degrees C ( approximately 675.5 mOsmol/kg). Prawn muscle extract was made by homogenizing 30 g of prawn muscle in 50/50 ratio of distilled water/autoclaved seawater, clarified stepwise by centrifugation at 2k, 14k, 14k xg for 30 minutes each. The resultant supernatant was heat-inactivated on occasions with no improvement in growth. Preconditioned medium, cholesterol, galactose and trehalose supplements and the use of Cell-Tak did not improve growth conditions, and haemolymph extracts were detrimental to the cells. In addition it was shown that Nunc 25 cm(2) plastic culture flasks were better than Linbro and both were better than glass as substrates. The fate of 101 individual primary cell cultures, established from penaeid prawns, was as follows. Fifteen of the cultures succumbed to bacterial contamination, five became contaminated with fungi, four with thauastrochytrids, four succumbed to presumptive viral autocultures and two to ciliate contamination. Cell cultures derived from heart tissue could be maintained for a mean of 12.7 days (sd 9.7d), those derived from the epidermis 15.6 days (sd 9.0d), ovarian tissue 10 days (sd 2d), lymphoid organ 6.8 days (sd 0.4d), nerve cord and hepatopancreas 2 days. The most persistent cell cultures -- those derived from the heart explants -- contained dividing cells at 40 days, and epidermis cells were still dividing at 30 days. The longest lasting, non- proliferating, but viable, cell cultures were those of

  2. 75 FR 7563 - Certain Lined Paper Products from India: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ...: Certain Lined Paper Products from India and Indonesia, 71 FR 56949 (September 28, 2006) (Lined Paper... Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 51558 (October 7, 2009) (Preliminary.... See Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR...

  3. 77 FR 53174 - Certain Lined Paper Products From Indonesia: Revocation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ..., 76 FR 45778 (August 1, 2011) and Certain Lined Paper School Supplies From China, India, and Indonesia... Republic of China, 76 FR 76123 (December 6, 2011) and Certain Lined Paper Products From Indonesia: Final... Paper School Supplies From China, India, and Indonesia, 77 FR 51570 (August 24, 2012). See also...

  4. Automated flow-through amperometric immunosensor for highly sensitive and on-line detection of okadaic acid in mussel sample.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Rocio B; Hayat, Akhtar; Sassolas, Audrey; Alonso, Gustavo A; Munoz, Roberto; Marty, Jean-Louis

    2012-09-15

    An electrochemical immunosensor for okadaic acid (OA) detection has been developed, and used in an indirect competitive immunoassay format under automated flow conditions. The biosensor was fabricated by injecting OA modified magnetic beads onto screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) in the flow system. The OA present in the sample competed with the immobilized OA to bind with anti-okadaic acid monoclonal antibody (anti-OA-MAb). The secondary alkaline phosphatase labeled antibody was used to perform electrochemical detection. The current response obtained from the labeled alkaline phosphatase to 1-naphthyl phosphate decreased proportionally to the concentration of free OA in the sample. The calculated limit of detection (LOD) was 0.15 μg/L with a linear range of 0.19-25 μg/L. The good recoveries percentages validated the immunosensor application for real mussel samples. The developed system automatically controlled the incubation, washing and current measurement steps, showing its potential use for OA determination in field analysis. PMID:22967546

  5. 40 CFR 1054.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Clean Air Act. Our production-line testing conformed completely with the requirements of 40 CFR part... type of engine. (8) Provide the CumSum analysis required in § 1054.315 and the sample-size...

  6. 40 CFR 1051.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Air Act. Our production-line testing conformed completely with the requirements of 40 CFR part 1051...) Provide the CumSum analysis required in § 1051.315 and the sample-size calculation required in §...

  7. 40 CFR 1054.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Clean Air Act. Our production-line testing conformed completely with the requirements of 40 CFR part... type of engine. (8) Provide the CumSum analysis required in § 1054.315 and the sample-size...

  8. 40 CFR 1051.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Air Act. Our production-line testing conformed completely with the requirements of 40 CFR part 1051...) Provide the CumSum analysis required in § 1051.315 and the sample-size calculation required in §...

  9. 40 CFR 1054.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Clean Air Act. Our production-line testing conformed completely with the requirements of 40 CFR part... type of engine. (8) Provide the CumSum analysis required in § 1054.315 and the sample-size...

  10. 40 CFR 1051.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Air Act. Our production-line testing conformed completely with the requirements of 40 CFR part 1051...) Provide the CumSum analysis required in § 1051.315 and the sample-size calculation required in §...

  11. Opitmizing a Beef Production System Using Specialized Sire and Dam Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crossbreeding is an effective method for improving efficiency of production in commercial cow-calf operations. It exploits available heterosis (hybrid vigor) and complementarity between different breeds or populations (lines). Before adopting a crossbreeding system, commercial cattle producers shou...

  12. Architecture-Based Unit Testing of the Flight Software Product Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganesan, Dharmalingam; Lindvall, Mikael; McComas, David; Bartholomew, Maureen; Slegel, Steve; Medina, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the unit testing approach developed and used by the Core Flight Software (CFS) product line team at the NASA GSFC. The goal of the analysis is to understand, review, and reconunend strategies for improving the existing unit testing infrastructure as well as to capture lessons learned and best practices that can be used by other product line teams for their unit testing. The CFS unit testing framework is designed and implemented as a set of variation points, and thus testing support is built into the product line architecture. The analysis found that the CFS unit testing approach has many practical and good solutions that are worth considering when deciding how to design the testing architecture for a product line, which are documented in this paper along with some suggested innprovennents.

  13. 77 FR 61742 - Certain Lined Paper Products From India: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ...-Free Import of Capital Goods and Raw Materials 5. Market Development Assistance (MDA) 6. Market Access... Duty Orders: Certain Lined Paper Products from India and Indonesia, 71 FR 56949 (September 28,...

  14. 78 FR 62584 - Certain Lined Paper Products From India: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Goods and Raw Materials for Export Oriented Units (EOUs) VI. Conclusion BILLING CODE 3510-DS-P ... Duty Orders: Certain Lined Paper Products from India and Indonesia, 71 FR 56949 (September 28,...

  15. Comparison of antibody molecules produced from two cell lines with contrasting productivities and aggregate contents.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yoichi; Imamoto, Yasufumi; Yamamoto, Rie; Tsukahara, Masayoshi; Wakamatsu, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    Cell culture processes that produce therapeutic antibodies with high productivity (titer) and low aggregate content reduce the risk of adverse effects and expense to patients. To elucidate the mechanism of aggregate formation, we compared trastuzumab samples produced from two contrasting cell lines: cell line A, which exhibits high titer and low aggregate content, and cell line B, which exhibits low titer and high aggregate content. Cell line B produced significantly fewer (approximately 1/3) antibodies compared with cell line A and contained higher (approximately 3-fold) percentages of aggregates. The aggregates of antibodies found in the protein A-purified samples of cell line B were associated mostly with noncovalent interactions. Cell line B exhibited a low content of monomers/dimers of light chains in the medium and within cells. Because light chains are essential for the correct folding of heavy chains and secretion of mature antibodies, the characteristics of cell line B may be attributed to low levels of light chain production. In addition, protein A-purified antibodies from cell line B (but not those from cell line A) contained fragments that are expected to expose the hydrophobic CH3 domain, which may serve as nuclei for aggregation. PMID:25501618

  16. Increasing Student Interest and Comprehension of Production Planning and Control and Operations Performance Measurement Concepts Using a Production Line Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, James F., III; Walker, Edward D., II

    2005-01-01

    Production planning and control (PPC) systems and operations performance measures are topics that students generally find both boring and difficult to understand. In the article, the authors present a production line game that they have found to be an effective tool to increase student interest in the topics as well as student comprehension. The…

  17. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  18. Lithography line productivity impact using Cymer GLX technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Kevin; Dunstan, Wayne; Jacques, Robert; Brown, Daniel

    2009-03-01

    Leading-edge scanners in fabs worldwide have particularly high system utilization and require peak levels of system throughput and availability. Laser gas exchanges typically occur daily on these systems (or every 100M pulses or less), with each exchange lasting up to 20 minutes. This downtime has a direct negative effect on availability, and if it is reduced, the productivity of the litho cell increases. This paper will outline the immediate success fabs have experienced after equipping scanners with Cymer's Gas Lifetime eXtension (GLXTM) technology, which increases scanner availability by extending the time between excimer laser gas exchanges by a factor of more than 10. To date, more than 100 leading-edge scanners feature Cymer's GLX technology, which has improved light source availability by more than 1.5 percent. Moreover, multiple chipmakers report more than 2 percent improvement in litho cell productivity due to GLX, corresponding to 2000 wafers/month increase for a 100,000 wafers/month fab. The increase in measured productivity is the leveraged benefit of reducing process interruptions around the refill cycle GLX technology extends the shot-based interval between gas refills to 1 billion pulses for Cymer's XLA light sources, and provides excellent stability in key optical performance parameters, such as bandwidth and dose stability over the entire gas life. This paper will provide extensive performance data during extended light source operation on litho cells equipped with GLX technology, and multiple use scenarios will be examined, including usage at memory and logic fabs. The paper will also discuss the performance of GLX2TM technology which further extends the maximum time between light source gas exchanges from 1B pulses to 2B pulses, and reduces downtime associated with gas refills by a factor of 20. The stability and productivity benefits of this new technology can be realized under all light source utilization scenarios. With GLX2, the refill

  19. Designing of robotic production lines using CAx software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, A.; Langer, P.

    2015-11-01

    Present market conditions causes that modern control systems of robotized manufacturing cells should be characterized by the much greater degree of flexibility, selforganization and, above all, adaptability to emerging outer excitations. The phenomenon of information distribution is one of the most important features of modern control systems. In the paper is presented the approach, based on application of multi-agent systems, for supporting the operation of robotized manufacturing cells. The aim of this approach is to obtain the flexible response to outer excitations and preventing situations that might cause the delay of the production process. The presented paper includes description of the concept of an informatics system designed for controlling the work of production systems, including work cells. Such systems could operate independently if it would be equipped with the selforganization mechanism. It is possible in the case of the proposed multi-agent system. The implementation of the presented concept will follow the present analysis of the described concept. The advantage of the proposed concept is its hierarchical depiction that allows integrating different utilized informatics tools in one complex system. It allows preparing the final computer program.

  20. Product-line selection and pricing with remanufacturing under availability constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aras, Necati; Esenduran, G.÷k.‡e.; Altinel, I. Kuban

    2004-12-01

    Product line selection and pricing are two crucial decisions for the profitability of a manufacturing firm. Remanufacturing, on the other hand, may be a profitable strategy that captures the remaining value in used products. In this paper we develop a mixed-integer nonlinear programming model form the perspective of an original equipment manufacturer (OEM). The objective of the OEM is to select products to manufacture and remanufacture among a set of given alternatives and simultaneously determine their prices so as to maximize its profit. It is assumed that the probability a customer selects a product is proportional to its utility and inversely proportional to its price. The utility of a product is an increasing function of its perceived quality. In our base model, products are discriminated by their unit production costs and utilities. We also analyze a case where remanufacturing is limited by the available quantity of collected remanufacturable products. We show that the resulting problem is decomposed into the pricing and product line selection subproblems. Pricing problem is solved by a variant of the simplex search procedure which can also handle constraints, while complete enumeration and a genetic algorithm are used for the solution of the product line selection problem. A number of experiments are carried out to identify conditions under which it is economically viable for the firm to sell remanufactured products. We also determine the optimal utility and unit production cost values of a remanufactured product, which maximizes the total profit of the OEM.

  1. Towards automated on-line adaptation of 2-Step IMRT plans: QUASIMODO phantom and prostate cancer cases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    ) 2-Step generation for the geometry of the day using the relocated isocenter, MU transfer from the planning geometry; 2) Adaptation of the widths of S2 segments to the geometry of the day; 3) Imitation of DMPO fine-tuning for the geometry of the day. Results and conclusion We have performed automated 2-Step IMRT adaptation for ten prostate adaptation cases. The adapted plans show statistically significant improvement of the target coverage and of the rectum sparing compared to those plans in which only the isocenter is relocated. The 2-Step IMRT method may become a core of the automated adaptive radiation therapy system at our department. PMID:24207129

  2. Automated DNA Sequencing System

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.; Ekkebus, C.P.; Hauser, L.J.; Kress, R.L.; Mural, R.J.

    1999-04-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a core DNA sequencing facility to support biological research endeavors at ORNL and to conduct basic sequencing automation research. This facility is novel because its development is based on existing standard biology laboratory equipment; thus, the development process is of interest to the many small laboratories trying to use automation to control costs and increase throughput. Before automation, biology Laboratory personnel purified DNA, completed cycle sequencing, and prepared 96-well sample plates with commercially available hardware designed specifically for each step in the process. Following purification and thermal cycling, an automated sequencing machine was used for the sequencing. A technician handled all movement of the 96-well sample plates between machines. To automate the process, ORNL is adding a CRS Robotics A- 465 arm, ABI 377 sequencing machine, automated centrifuge, automated refrigerator, and possibly an automated SpeedVac. The entire system will be integrated with one central controller that will direct each machine and the robot. The goal of this system is to completely automate the sequencing procedure from bacterial cell samples through ready-to-be-sequenced DNA and ultimately to completed sequence. The system will be flexible and will accommodate different chemistries than existing automated sequencing lines. The system will be expanded in the future to include colony picking and/or actual sequencing. This discrete event, DNA sequencing system will demonstrate that smaller sequencing labs can achieve cost-effective the laboratory grow.

  3. Automated on-line liquid-liquid extraction system for temporal mass spectrometric analysis of dynamic samples.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Kai-Ta; Liu, Pei-Han; Urban, Pawel L

    2015-09-24

    Most real samples cannot directly be infused to mass spectrometers because they could contaminate delicate parts of ion source and guides, or cause ion suppression. Conventional sample preparation procedures limit temporal resolution of analysis. We have developed an automated liquid-liquid extraction system that enables unsupervised repetitive treatment of dynamic samples and instantaneous analysis by mass spectrometry (MS). It incorporates inexpensive open-source microcontroller boards (Arduino and Netduino) to guide the extraction and analysis process. Duration of every extraction cycle is 17 min. The system enables monitoring of dynamic processes over many hours. The extracts are automatically transferred to the ion source incorporating a Venturi pump. Operation of the device has been characterized (repeatability, RSD = 15%, n = 20; concentration range for ibuprofen, 0.053-2.000 mM; LOD for ibuprofen, ∼0.005 mM; including extraction and detection). To exemplify its usefulness in real-world applications, we implemented this device in chemical profiling of pharmaceutical formulation dissolution process. Temporal dissolution profiles of commercial ibuprofen and acetaminophen tablets were recorded during 10 h. The extraction-MS datasets were fitted with exponential functions to characterize the rates of release of the main and auxiliary ingredients (e.g. ibuprofen, k = 0.43 ± 0.01 h(-1)). The electronic control unit of this system interacts with the operator via touch screen, internet, voice, and short text messages sent to the mobile phone, which is helpful when launching long-term (e.g. overnight) measurements. Due to these interactive features, the platform brings the concept of the Internet-of-Things (IoT) to the chemistry laboratory environment. PMID:26423626

  4. An automated flow injection system for metal determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry involving on-line fabric disk sorptive extraction technique.

    PubMed

    Anthemidis, A; Kazantzi, V; Samanidou, V; Kabir, A; Furton, K G

    2016-08-15

    A novel flow injection-fabric disk sorptive extraction (FI-FDSE) system was developed for automated determination of trace metals. The platform was based on a minicolumn packed with sol-gel coated fabric media in the form of disks, incorporated into an on-line solid-phase extraction system, coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). This configuration provides minor backpressure, resulting in high loading flow rates and shorter analytical cycles. The potentials of this technique were demonstrated for trace lead and cadmium determination in environmental water samples. The applicability of different sol-gel coated FPSE media was investigated. The on-line formed complex of metal with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) was retained onto the fabric surface and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) was used to elute the analytes prior to atomization. For 90s preconcentration time, enrichment factors of 140 and 38 and detection limits (3σ) of 1.8 and 0.4μgL(-1) were achieved for lead and cadmium determination, respectively, with a sampling frequency of 30h(-1). The accuracy of the proposed method was estimated by analyzing standard reference materials and spiked water samples. PMID:27260436

  5. Active Data Archive Product Tracking and Automated SPASE Metadata Generation in Support of the Heliophysics Data Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2013-12-01

    The understanding of Solar interaction with the Earth and other bodies in the solar system is a primary goal of Heliophysics as outlined in the NASA Science Mission Directive Science Plan. Heliophysics researchers need access to a vast collection of satellite and ground-based observations coupled with numerical simulation data to study complex processes some of which, as in the case of space weather, pose danger to physical elements of modern society. The infrastructure of the Heliophysics data environment plays a vital role in furthering the understanding of space physics processes by providing researchers with means for data discovery and access. The Heliophysics data environment is highly dynamic with thousands of data products involved. Access to data is facilitated via the Heliophysics Virtual Observatories (VxO) but routine access is possible only if the VxO SPASE metadata repositories contain accurate and up to date information. The Heliophysics Data Consortium has the stated goal of providing routine access to all relevant data products inclusively. Currently, only a small fraction of the data products relevant to Heliophysics studies have been described and registered in a VxO repository. And, for those products that have been described in SPASE, there is a significant time lag from when new data becomes available to when VxO metadata are updated to provide access. It is possible to utilize automated tools to shorten the response time of VxO data product registration via active data archive product tracking. Such a systematic approach is designed to address data access reliability by embracing the highly dynamic nature of the Heliophysics data environment. For example, the CDAWEB data repository located at the NASA Space Science Physics Data facility maintains logs of the data products served to the community. These files include two that pertain to full directory list information, updated daily, and a set of SHA1SUM hash value files, one for each of more

  6. The modular design of robotic workcells in a flexible production line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banas, W.; Sekala, A.; Gwiazda, A.; Foit, K.; Hryniewicz, P.; Kost, G.

    2015-11-01

    In the case of large-scale and mass production lines often the same model of an industrial robot is used in various places of the line and is intended to various task. However, the replacement of one industrial robot to another is a long lasting and arduous process. It requires stopping all the production line and sometimes even dismantling the whole workcell. Such situations are not frequent in production lines that are not flexible. They are related the most often with the failure on an industrial robot. However, during the designing of a flexible production line the ability to replace any robot, which is unrestricted, fast and trouble-free, greatly increase the flexibility level of such line. It could be realized by modular design of the proposed production line. In this way it could be possible to change any elements of such production system. But this approach needs to apply the specialized informatics system. This paper presents the obtained design of several versions of the same production workcell. Each, succeeding version of the designed production workcell contains more and more modular elements. Thereby it would be presented the evolution of a workcell design beginning from the typical design and ending with the fully modular one. One of tools needed to realize this task is the elaboration of a base of modules and typical joint and mounting elements that could be utilised in the described designing process. It is also presented the guidance information about the designing and programming processes useful at each stage of analysed process.

  7. 40 CFR 1051.310 - How must I select vehicles or engines for production-line testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for production-line testing? 1051.310 Section 1051.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.310 How must I select vehicles or engines for production-line testing? (a) Test engines from each engine family as described in this section based on...

  8. 40 CFR 1051.325 - What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the production-line testing requirements? 1051.325 Section 1051.325 Protection of Environment... ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.325 What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements? (a) We may suspend your certificate of...

  9. 40 CFR 1054.325 - What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the production-line testing requirements? 1054.325 Section 1054.325 Protection of Environment... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.325 What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements? (a) We may suspend your certificate of conformity for...

  10. 40 CFR 1042.325 - What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the production-line testing requirements? 1042.325 Section 1042.325 Protection of Environment... MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1042.325 What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements? (a) We may suspend...

  11. Supporting Development of Satellite's Guidance Navigation and Control Software: A Product Line Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, David; Stark, Michael; Leake, Stephen; White, Michael; Morisio, Maurizio; Travassos, Guilherme H.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Software Branch (FSB) is developing a Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) Flight Software (FSW) product line. The demand for increasingly more complex flight software in less time while maintaining the same level of quality has motivated us to look for better FSW development strategies. The GNC FSW product line has been planned to address the core GNC FSW functionality very similar on many recent low/near Earth missions in the last ten years. Unfortunately these missions have not accomplished significant drops in development cost since a systematic approach towards reuse has not been adopted. In addition, new demands are continually being placed upon the FSW which means the FSB must become more adept at providing GNC FSW functionality's core so it can accommodate additional requirements. These domain features together with engineering concepts are influencing the specification, description and evaluation of FSW product line. Domain engineering is the foundation for emerging product line software development approaches. A product line is 'A family of products designed to take advantage of their common aspects and predicted variabilities'. In our product line approach, domain engineering includes the engineering activities needed to produce reusable artifacts for a domain. Application engineering refers to developing an application in the domain starting from reusable artifacts. The focus of this paper is regarding the software process, lessons learned and on how the GNC FSW product line manages variability. Existing domain engineering approaches do not enforce any specific notation for domain analysis or commonality and variability analysis. Usually, natural language text is the preferred tool. The advantage is the flexibility and adapt ability of natural language. However, one has to be ready to accept also its well-known drawbacks, such as ambiguity, inconsistency, and contradictions. While most domain analysis

  12. Development of automated online gel permeation chromatography-gas chromatograph mass spectrometry for measuring multiresidual pesticides in agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Bin; Hashi, Yuki; Qin, Ya-Ping; Zhou, Hai-Xia; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2007-01-01

    An automated online gel permeation chromatography-gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GPC-GC/MS) was developed for the rapid determination of residual pesticides in agricultural products. Pesticides were extracted from homogenized food samples with acetonitrile and decontaminated via the matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) technique, using a primary secondary amine as sorbent prior to GPC-GC/MS analysis. A slightly modified preparation method and automated GPC step proved useful in minimizing matrix interference. To evaluate the performance of the system, 97 target pesticides were spiked at a concentration of 0.1mg/kg into a range of food types, including potato, cabbage, carrot, apple, orange, cucumber, and rice. A low flow rate of 0.1 mL/min in GPC resulted in a 40-fold reduction in solvent consumption compared with conventional GPC column applications. The combination of MSPD technique and GPC-GC/MS for the analysis of the 97 pesticides can be accomplished within 90 min. Most pesticides were recovered in the range of 70-120%, with relative standard deviation generally less than 10%. The results demonstrate that the method can be successfully applied with acceptable recoveries to a broad range of target pesticides within a diverse range of food types. PMID:16931180

  13. Transferring automation for large-scale development and production of Invader SNP assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, Bruce P.; Ganske, R.; Isaczyszyn, W.; Beaty, Edward L.

    2000-03-01

    The Human Genome Project has led to the discovery of hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). SNPs can act as genetic markers to create high- density maps of the human genome for large-scale genetic analysis for evaluating links between genetic mutations and human diseases and for performing association studies. To create those maps, assays capable of detecting many different SNPs must be developed rapidly, as additional SNPs are discovered. When both the design of and the technology used in the assays can be partially or fully automated, the development process and the time to results can be accomplished quickly and efficiently. InvaderTM technology offers a highly sensitive signal amplification system that detects and quantifies mutations and SNPs from unamplified human genomic DNA in two sequential steps.

  14. Automated small scale oil seed processing plant for production of fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.C.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    University of Idaho seed processing research is centered about a CeCoCo oil expeller. A seed preheater-auger, seed bin, meal auger, and oil pump have been constructed to complete the system, which is automated and instrumented. The press, preheater, cake removal auger, and oil transfer pump are tied into a central panel where energy use is measured and the process controlled. Extracted oil weight, meal weight, process temperature, and input energy are all recorded during operation. The oil is transferred to tanks where it settles for 48 hours or more. It is then pumped through a filtering system and stored ready to be used as an engine fuel. The plant has processed over 11,000 kg of seed with an average extraction efficiency of 78 percent. 5 tables.

  15. Design and automated production of 11C-alpha-methyl-l-tryptophan (11C-AMT).

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuan; Xiao, Xia; Gillies, Robert J; Tian, Haibin

    2016-05-01

    (11)C-alpha-methyl-l-tryptophan ([(11)C]AMT), a tryptophan metabolism PET tracer, has successfully been employed for brain serotonin pathway and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) pathway related tumor imaging. We here report a reliable, automated procedure for routine synthesis of [(11)C]AMT based on an Eckert and Ziegler Modular-Lab system. The semi-preparative HPLC was incorporated into the system to improve chemical purity and specific activity. The 6-step radiosynthesis followed by HPLC-purification provided [(11)C]AMT in 5.3±1.2% (n=6, non-decay-corrected) overall radiochemical yield with radiochemical purity >99% and specific activity of 35-116GBq/μmol. Usually, 2.95±0.65GBq (n=6, EOS) patient ready dose was produced from about 55.5GBq [(11)C]CO2 in 50min. PMID:27150033

  16. Product-line administration: a framework for redefining medical record department services.

    PubMed

    Postal, S N

    1990-06-01

    Product-line administration is a viable approach for managing medical records services in an environment that demands high quantity and quality service levels. Product-line administration directs medical record department team members to look outside of the department and seek input from the customers it is intended to serve. The feedback received may be alarming at first, as the current state of products usually reveals a true lack of customer input. As the planning, defining, managing, and marketing phases are implemented, the road will not be easy and rewards will be slow to come. Product-line administration does not provide quick fixes, but it does provide long-term problem resolution as products are refined and new products developed to meet customer needs and expectations. In addition to better meeting the needs of the department's external customers, the department's internal customers' needs and expectations will be addressed. The participative management approach will help nurture each team member's creativity. The team members will have the opportunity to reach their full potential while reaping the rewards and benefits of providing products and services that meet the needs and expectations of all department customers. The future of the health care industry promises more changes as the country moves toward some form of prospective payment in the ambulatory setting. Reactive management and the constant struggle to catch up can no longer be accepted as a management approach. It is imperative that the medical record department be viewed as a business with product lines composed of quality products. The planning, defining, managing, and marketing components of product-line administration afford responsiveness to the current situation and the development of quality products that will ensure that medical record departments are prepared for the future. PMID:10106655

  17. 40 CFR 1054.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... information to your written report so we can determine whether your new engines conform with the requirements... Clean Air Act. Our production-line testing conformed completely with the requirements of 40 CFR part 1054. We have not changed production processes or quality-control procedures for test engines in a...

  18. 40 CFR 1051.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... your written report, so we can determine whether your new vehicles conform with the requirements of... Air Act. Our production-line testing conformed completely with the requirements of 40 CFR part 1051. We have not changed production processes or quality-control procedures for test engines (or...

  19. Integrating Theory and Practice: Applying the Quality Improvement Paradigm to Product Line Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, Michael; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    My assertion is that not only are product lines a relevant research topic, but that the tools used by empirical software engineering researchers can address observed practical problems. Our experience at NASA has been there are often externally proposed solutions available, but that we have had difficulties applying them in our particular context. We have also focused on return on investment issues when evaluating product lines, and while these are important, one can not attain objective data on success or failure until several applications from a product family have been deployed. The use of the Quality Improvement Paradigm (QIP) can address these issues: (1) Planning an adoption path from an organization's current state to a product line approach; (2) Constructing a development process to fit the organization's adoption path; (3) Evaluation of product line development processes as the project is being developed. The QIP consists of the following six steps: (1) Characterize the project and its environment; (2) Set quantifiable goals for successful project performance; (3) Choose the appropriate process models, supporting methods, and tools for the project; (4) Execute the process, analyze interim results, and provide real-time feedback for corrective action; (5) Analyze the results of completed projects and recommend improvements; and (6) Package the lessons learned as updated and refined process models. A figure shows the QIP in detail. The iterative nature of the QIP supports an incremental development approach to product lines, and the project learning and feedback provide the necessary early evaluations.

  20. Advances in Mammalian Cell Line Development Technologies for Recombinant Protein Production

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tingfeng; Yang, Yuansheng; Ng, Say Kong

    2013-01-01

    From 2006 to 2011, an average of 15 novel recombinant protein therapeutics have been approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) annually. In addition, the expiration of blockbuster biologics has also spurred the emergence of biosimilars. The increasing numbers of innovator biologic products and biosimilars have thus fuelled the demand of production cell lines with high productivity. Currently, mammalian cell line development technologies used by most biopharmaceutical companies are based on either the methotrexate (MTX) amplification technology or the glutamine synthetase (GS) system. With both systems, the cell clones obtained are highly heterogeneous, as a result of random genome integration by the gene of interest and the gene amplification process. Consequently, large numbers of cell clones have to be screened to identify rare stable high producer cell clones. As such, the cell line development process typically requires 6 to 12 months and is a time, capital and labour intensive process. This article reviews established advances in protein expression and clone screening which are the core technologies in mammalian cell line development. Advancements in these component technologies are vital to improve the speed and efficiency of generating robust and highly productive cell line for large scale production of protein therapeutics. PMID:24276168

  1. Optimizing lighting, thermal performance, and energy production of building facades by using automated blinds and PV cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzoubi, Hussain Hendi

    Energy consumption in buildings has recently become a major concern for environmental designers. Within this field, daylighting and solar energy design are attractive strategies for saving energy. This study seeks the integrity and the optimality of building envelopes' performance. It focuses on the transparent parts of building facades, specifically, the windows and their shading devices. It suggests a new automated method of utilizing solar energy while keeping optimal solutions for indoor daylighting. The method utilizes a statistical approach to produce mathematical equations based on physical experimentation. A full-scale mock-up representing an actual office was built. Heat gain and lighting levels were measured empirically and correlated with blind angles. Computational methods were used to estimate the power production from photovoltaic cells. Mathematical formulas were derived from the results of the experiments; these formulas were utilized to construct curves as well as mathematical equations for the purpose of optimization. The mathematical equations resulting from the optimization process were coded using Java programming language to enable future users to deal with generic locations of buildings with a broader context of various climatic conditions. For the purpose of optimization by automation under different climatic conditions, a blind control system was developed based on the findings of this study. This system calibrates the blind angles instantaneously based upon the sun position, the indoor daylight, and the power production from the photovoltaic cells. The functions of this system guarantee full control of the projected solar energy on buildings' facades for indoor lighting and heat gain. In winter, the system automatically blows heat into the space, whereas it expels heat from the space during the summer season. The study showed that the optimality of building facades' performance is achievable for integrated thermal, energy, and lighting

  2. Work and Programmable Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVore, Paul W.

    A new industrial era based on electronics and the microprocessor has arrived, an era that is being called intelligent automation. Intelligent automation, in the form of robots, replaces workers, and the new products, using microelectronic devices, require significantly less labor to produce than the goods they replace. The microprocessor thus…

  3. Flexible production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudakov, A. D.; Shchetinin, D. D.

    1986-03-01

    Flexible production systems are a technological tool design to automate multiple product line manufacturing. Flexible production systems provide an efficient means of organizing combined equipment operations and bring the production organization nearer to an unmanned arrangement or one requiring a limited number of workers. This is achieved by intensifying and automating manufacturing processes; coordinating the automated processes involved in warehousing and materials transport to maintain a tight production path; and using computers to automate production preparation and production control. The prerequisites for a change to these new production structures include numerical control NC tools and machining centers, power connection points for robots, automated conveying and warehousing systems controlled by microelectronic devices and control computer complexes consisting primarily of microprocessor-based units capable of controlling equipment via a direct connection and on a real-time basis. The types of flexible production systems in operation are divided into three groups: (1) flexible automated lines (GAL), (2) flexible production modules (GPM); and (3) flexible production complexes (GPK).

  4. Towards automated firearm identification based on high resolution 3D data: rotation-invariant features for multiple line-profile-measurement of firing pin shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Robert; Vielhauer, Claus

    2015-03-01

    Understanding and evaluation of potential evidence, as well as evaluation of automated systems for forensic examinations currently play an important role within the domain of digital crime scene analysis. The application of 3D sensing and pattern recognition systems for automatic extraction and comparison of firearm related tool marks is an evolving field of research within this domain. In this context, the design and evaluation of rotation-invariant features for use on topography data play a particular important role. In this work, we propose and evaluate a 3D imaging system along with two novel features based on topography data and multiple profile-measurement-lines for automatic matching of firing pin shapes. Our test set contains 72 cartridges of three manufactures shot by six different 9mm guns. The entire pattern recognition workflow is addressed. This includes the application of confocal microscopy for data acquisition, preprocessing covers outlier handling, data normalization, as well as necessary segmentation and registration. Feature extraction involves the two introduced features for automatic comparison and matching of 3D firing pin shapes. The introduced features are called `Multiple-Circle-Path' (MCP) and `Multiple-Angle-Path' (MAP). Basically both features are compositions of freely configurable amounts of circular or straight path-lines combined with statistical evaluations. During the first part of evaluation (E1), we examine how well it is possible to differentiate between two 9mm weapons of the same mark and model. During second part (E2), we evaluate the discrimination accuracy regarding the set of six different 9mm guns. During the third part (E3), we evaluate the performance of the features in consideration of different rotation angles. In terms of E1, the best correct classification rate is 100% and in terms of E2 the best result is 86%. The preliminary results for E3 indicate robustness of both features regarding rotation. However, in future

  5. Automation of Presentation Record Production Based on Rich-Media Technology Using SNT Petri Nets Theory

    PubMed Central

    Martiník, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Rich-media describes a broad range of digital interactive media that is increasingly used in the Internet and also in the support of education. Last year, a special pilot audiovisual lecture room was built as a part of the MERLINGO (MEdia-rich Repository of LearnING Objects) project solution. It contains all the elements of the modern lecture room determined for the implementation of presentation recordings based on the rich-media technologies and their publication online or on-demand featuring the access of all its elements in the automated mode including automatic editing. Property-preserving Petri net process algebras (PPPA) were designed for the specification and verification of the Petri net processes. PPPA does not need to verify the composition of the Petri net processes because all their algebraic operators preserve the specified set of the properties. These original PPPA are significantly generalized for the newly introduced class of the SNT Petri process and agent nets in this paper. The PLACE-SUBST and ASYNC-PROC algebraic operators are defined for this class of Petri nets and their chosen properties are proved. The SNT Petri process and agent nets theory were significantly applied at the design, verification, and implementation of the programming system ensuring the pilot audiovisual lecture room functionality. PMID:26258164

  6. Secure automated fabrication: remote fabrication of breeder-reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, E.W.; Rice, L.H.; Horgos, R.M.; Nagamoto, T.T.; Graham, R.A.

    1981-05-01

    The Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) Program was initiated at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) to develop and demonstrate an advanced manufacturing line (SAF line) for plutonium oxide breeder reactor fuel pins. The SAF line is to be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) at Hanford and will utilize technology that focuses on improved safety features for plant operating personnel, the public, and the environment. Equipment and process improvements incorporated by the SAF line will yield significant gains in nuclear materials safeguards, product quality and productivity.

  7. A Control System for Tobacco Shred Production Line Based on Industrial Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Zheng, Guang; Zhang, Xinfeng; Liu, Lei; Xi, Lei

    The Industrial Ethernet based on IP realizes interconnection of industrial network and information network, and it is the most potential technology in the new industrial net products. In this paper, the defects of the original control system for tobacco shred production line are analyzed, and the new design plan of control system based on EtherNet/IP is presented. The control net adopts redundant 1000M fiber optic ring network that consists of six managed Industrial Ethernet Switches, and they are distributed to the central control room, leaf processing line, shred processing line, mixed stem shred processing line, online mositure regain processing line and cut tobacco dryer control cabinet. The switch in the central control room works in the pattern of redundancy management, which can switch the link in the event of the failure in link of ring net, the recovery time of link line is less than 500ms, and each main PLC of control section has dual Network Adapters. The plan has been applied for reform of 5000kg/h Tobacco Primary Processing Line in Nanyang Cigarette Factory of China Tobacco Henan Industrial Corporation, and the configurable software and Industry Ethernet network which has been used promots the capability of automatic control system fundamentally, showing much better transmission efficiency and reliability, realizing the goal of high cost performance and making equipment's ability of handling grow fast.

  8. Thermonuclear breakup reactions of light nuclei. II - Gamma-ray line production and other applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guessoum, Nidhal

    1989-01-01

    The main consequence of nuclear breakup reactions in high-temperature plasmas is shown to be to reduce the production of the gamma-ray lines, due to the breakup of these species at high temperature. Results of the emissivities of all the relevant gamma-ray lines are discussed. It is shown that the magnitude of the breakup effect on the line emissivities depends strongly on temperature, but more importantly on the plasma density and on the available time for the ion processes. Other effects considered include the production of neutrons (from the breakup of helium) and its consequences (such as the production of gamma rays from n-capture reactions and dynamical effects in accretion disk plasmas).

  9. Automated Coal-Mining System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangal, M. D.; Isenberg, L.; Lewis, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed system offers safety and large return on investment. System, operating by year 2000, employs machines and processes based on proven principles. According to concept, line of parallel machines, connected in groups of four to service modules, attacks face of coal seam. High-pressure water jets and central auger on each machine break face. Jaws scoop up coal chunks, and auger grinds them and forces fragments into slurry-transport system. Slurry pumped through pipeline to point of use. Concept for highly automated coal-mining system increases productivity, makes mining safer, and protects health of mine workers.

  10. Designing cell lines for viral vaccine production: Where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Genzel, Yvonne

    2015-05-01

    Established animal cells, such as Vero, Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) or chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs), are still the main cell lines used for viral vaccine production, although new "designer cells" have been available for some years. These designer cell lines were specifically developed as a cell substrate for one application and are well characterized. Later screening for other possible applications widened the product range. These cells grow in suspension in chemically defined media under controlled conditions and can be used for up to 100 passages. Scale-up is easier and current process options allow cultivation in disposable bioreactors at cell concentrations higher than 1 × 10(7) cells/mL. This review covers the limitations of established cell lines and discusses the requirements and screening options for new host cells. Currently available designer cells for viral vaccine production (PER.C6, CAP, AGE1.CR, EB66 cells), together with other new cell lines (PBS-1, QOR/2E11, SogE, MFF-8C1 cells) that were recently described as possible cell substrates are presented. Using current process knowledge and cell line development tools, future upstream processing could resemble today's Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell processes for monoclonal antibody production: small scale bioreactors (disposable) in perfusion or fed-batch mode with cell concentrations above 1 × 10(8) cells/mL. PMID:25903999

  11. 76 FR 20954 - Certain Lined Paper Products From India: Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... Lined Paper Products from India, 71 FR 45012 (August 8, 2006) (``Final Determination''). \\3\\ Notice of... Administrative Review, 74 FR 17149 (April 14, 2009); Certain Lined Paper Products from India: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 7563 (February 22, 2010); Certain Lined...

  12. The contribution of dissociative processes to the production of atomic lines in hydrogen plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunc, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    The contribution of molecular dissociative processes to the production of atomic lines is considered for a steady-state hydrogen plasma. If the contribution of dissociative processes is dominant, a substantial simplification in plasma diagnostics can be achieved. Numerical calculations have been performed for the production of Balmer alpha, beta, and gamma lines in hydrogen plasmas with medium and large degrees of ionization (x greater than about 0.0001) and for electron temperatures of 5000-45,000 K and electron densities of 10 to the 10th to 10 to the 16th/cu cm.

  13. On-line gas chromatographic analysis of higher alcohol synthesis products from syngas.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Robert; Boutonnet, Magali; Järås, Sven

    2012-07-20

    An on-line gas chromatographic (GC) system has been developed for rapid and accurate product analysis in catalytic conversion of syngas (a mixture of H₂ and CO) to alcohols, so called "higher alcohol synthesis (HAS)". Conversion of syngas to higher alcohols is an interesting second step in the route of converting coal, natural gas and possibly biomass to liquid alcohol fuel and chemicals. The presented GC system and method are developed for analysis of the products formed from syngas using alkali promoted MoS₂ catalysts, however it is not limited to these types of catalysts. During higher alcohol synthesis not only the wanted short alcohols (∼C₂-C₅) are produced, but also a great number of other products in smaller or greater amounts, they are mainly short hydrocarbons (olefins, paraffins, branched, non-branched), aldehydes, esters and ketones as well as CO₂, H₂O. Trace amounts of sulfur-containing compounds can also be found in the product effluent when sulfur-containing catalysts are used and/or sulfur-containing syngas is feed. In the presented GC system, most of them can be separated and analyzed within 60 min without the use of cryogenic cooling. Previously, product analysis in "higher alcohol synthesis" has in most cases been carried out partly on-line and partly off-line, where the light gases (gases at room temp) are analyzed on-line and liquid products (liquid at room temp) are collected in a trap for later analysis off-line. This method suffers from many drawbacks compared to a complete on-line GC system. In this paper an on-line system using an Agilent 7890 gas chromatograph equipped with two flame ionization detectors (FID) and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD), together with an Agilent 6890 with sulfur chemiluminescence dual plasma detector (SCD) is presented. A two-dimensional GC system with Deans switch (heart-cut) and two capillary columns (HP-FFAP and HP-Al₂O₃) was used for analysis of the organic products on the FIDs. Light

  14. Holton automates its longwall

    SciTech Connect

    Brezovec, D.

    1987-07-01

    Westmoreland Coal Co.'s underground mines in Virginia are putting automated longwalls to work, and have in the process boosted productivity from 16 to 20 clean tons per man-day in the last five years. The longwall face that was installed at Westmoreland's Holton mine on Aug.28, 1985, theoretically could operate with only three workers at the face, the shearer operator, a mechanic and the headgate operator. Advancing the shields and the face conveyor, a job that now occupies four workers on most longwall faces, would be accomplished entirely by remote control. The automated roof support advance system relies on a microprocessor located next to the stageloader. The microprocessor is programmed to coordinate the movement of the shields and face conveyor as the shearer passes. The article describes that a sensor-activated disc located at the end of the shearer's haulage motor shaft counts the rotations of the shearer and relays information on how far the shearer has moved and in what direction to the microprocessor through the trailing cable. The computer defines the location of the shearer and issues commands through a data transmission line that connects the microprocessor to control units located on the shields. The shields and face conveyor move in a sequence programmed into the microprocessor.

  15. Verhulst and stochastic models for comparing mechanisms of MAb productivity in six CHO cell lines.

    PubMed

    Shirsat, Nishikant; Avesh, Mohd; English, Niall J; Glennon, Brian; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    The present study validates previously published methodologies-stochastic and Verhulst-for modelling the growth and MAb productivity of six CHO cell lines grown in batch cultures. Cytometric and biochemical data were used to model growth and productivity. The stochastic explanatory models were developed to improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of growth and productivity, whereas the Verhulst mechanistic models were developed for their predictability. The parameters of the two sets of models were compared for their biological significance. The stochastic models, based on the cytometric data, indicated that the productivity mechanism is cell specific. However, as shown before, the modelling results indicated that G2 + ER indicate high productivity, while G1 + ER indicate low productivity, where G1 and G2 are the cell cycle phases and ER is Endoplasmic Reticulum. In all cell lines, growth proved to be inversely proportional to the cumulative G1 time (CG1T) for the G1 phase, whereas productivity was directly proportional to ER. Verhulst's rule, "the lower the intrinsic growth factor (r), the higher the growth (K)," did not hold for growth across all cell lines but held good for the cell lines with the same growth mechanism-i.e., r is cell specific. However, the Verhulst productivity rule, that productivity is inversely proportional to the intrinsic productivity factor (r x ), held well across all cell lines in spite of differences in their mechanisms for productivity-that is, r x is not cell specific. The productivity profile, as described by Verhulst's logistic model, is very similar to the Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetic equation, suggesting that productivity is more likely enzymatic in nature. Comparison of the stochastic and Verhulst models indicated that CG1T in the cytometric data has the same significance as r, the intrinsic growth factor in the Verhulst models. The stochastic explanatory and the Verhulst logistic models can explain the

  16. Automated on-line determination of PPB levels of sodium and potassium in low-Btu coal gas and fluidized bed combustor exhaust by atomic emission spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, W.J. Jr.; Eckels, D.E.; Kniseley, R.N.; Fassel, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), US Department of Energy, is involved in the development of processes and equipment for production of low-Btu gas from coal and for fluidized bed combustion of coal. The ultimate objective is large scale production of electricity using high temperature gas turbines. Such turbines, however, are susceptible to accelerated corrosion and self-destruction when relatively low concentrations of sodium and potassium are present in the driving gas streams. Knowledge and control of the concentrations of those elements, at part per billion levels, are critical to the success of both the gas cleanup procedures that are being investigated and the overall energy conversion processes. This presentation describes instrumentation and procedures developed at the Ames Laboratory for application to the problems outlined above and results that have been obtained so far at METC. The first Ames instruments, which feature an automated, dual channel flame atomic emission spectrometer, perform the sodium and potassium determinations simultaneously, repetitively, and automatically every two to three minutes by atomizing and exciting a fraction of the subject gas sample stream in either an oxyhydrogen flame or a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. The analytical results are printed and can be transmitted simultaneously to a process control center.

  17. Mars Observer data production, transfer, and archival: The data production assembly line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, David B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the data production, transfer, and archival process designed for the Mars Observer Flight Project. It addresses the developmental and operational aspects of the archive collection production process. The developmental aspects cover the design and packaging of data products for archival and distribution to the planetary community. Also discussed is the design and development of a data transfer and volume production process capable of handling the large throughput and complexity of the Mars Observer data products. The operational aspects cover the main functions of the process: creating data and engineering products, collecting the data products and ancillary products in a central repository, producing archive volumes, validating volumes, archiving, and distributing the data to the planetary community.

  18. New Product Marketing Blurs the Line Between Nicotine Replacement Therapy and Smokeless Tobacco Products.

    PubMed

    Kostygina, Ganna; England, Lucinda; Ling, Pamela

    2016-07-01

    Tobacco companies have begun to acquire pharmaceutical subsidiaries and recently started to market nicotine replacement therapies, such as Zonnic nicotine gum, in convenience stores. Conversely, tobacco companies are producing tobacco products such as tobacco chewing gum and lozenges that resemble pharmaceutical nicotine replacement products, including a nicotine pouch product that resembles snus pouches. This convergence of nicotine and tobacco product marketing has implications for regulation and tobacco cessation. PMID:27077338

  19. Development of at-line assay to monitor charge variants of MAbs during production.

    PubMed

    St Amand, M M; Ogunnaike, B A; Robinson, A S

    2014-01-01

    One major challenge currently facing the biopharmaceutical industry is to understand how MAb microheterogeneity affects therapeutic efficacy, potency, immunogenicity, and clearance. MAb micro-heterogeneity can result from post-translational modifications such as sialylation, galactosylation, C-terminal lysine cleavage, glycine amidation, and tryptophan oxidation, each of which can generate MAb charge variants; such heterogeneity can affect pharmacokinetics (PK) considerably. Implementation of appropriate on-line quality control strategies may help to regulate bioprocesses, thus enabling more homogenous material with desired post-translational modifications and PK behavior. However, one major restriction to implementation of quality control strategies is the availability of techniques for obtaining on-line or at-line measurements of these attributes. In this work, we describe the development of an at-line assay to separate MAb charge variants in near real-time, which could ultimately be used to implement on-line quality control strategies for MAb production. The assay consists of a 2D-HPLC method with sequential in-line Protein A and WCX-10 HPLC column steps. To perform the 2D-HPLC assay at-line, the two columns steps were integrated into a single method using a novel system configuration that allowed parallel flow over column 1 or column 2 or sequential flow from column 1 to column 2. A bioreactor system was also developed such that media samples could be removed automatically from bioreactor vessels during production and delivered to the 2D-HPLC for analysis. With this at-line HPLC assay, we have demonstrated that MAb microheterogeneity occurs throughout the cell cycle whether the host cell line is grown under different or the same nominal culture conditions. PMID:24382831

  20. LINE: a code which simulates spectral line shapes for fusion reaction products generated by various speed distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Slaughter, D.

    1985-03-01

    A computer code is described which estimates the energy spectrum or ''line-shape'' for the charged particles and ..gamma..-rays produced by the fusion of low-z ions in a hot plasma. The simulation has several ''built-in'' ion velocity distributions characteristic of heated plasmas and it also accepts arbitrary speed and angular distributions although they must all be symmetric about the z-axis. An energy spectrum of one of the reaction products (ion, neutron, or ..gamma..-ray) is calculated at one angle with respect to the symmetry axis. The results are shown in tabular form, they are plotted graphically, and the moments of the spectrum to order ten are calculated both with respect to the origin and with respect to the mean.

  1. Multihormonal regulation of thyroglobulin production by the OVNIS 6H thyroid cell line.

    PubMed

    Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S; Fayet, G

    1988-02-01

    The hormonal regulation of thyroglobulin production has been studied using a clone of the ovine thyroid cell line: OVNIS 6H. 3 among the 6 hormones proposed for serum replacement are required for an optimal thyroglobulin production; insulin, hydrocortisone and thyrotropin. Insulin alone stimulates thyroglobulin production. The presence of insulin is also required to observe hydrocortisone and TSH stimulations. Newborn calf serum inhibits thyroglobulin production. The best conditions for optimal thyroglobulin expression and TSH responsiveness are obtained in serum-free medium supplemented with 5 micrograms/ml insulin, 100 nM hydrocortisone and 1 mU/ml TSH. PMID:3286455

  2. Base Stock Policy in a Join-Type Production Line with Advanced Demand Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraiwa, Mikihiko; Tsubouchi, Satoshi; Nakade, Koichi

    Production control such as the base stock policy, the kanban policy and the constant work-in-process policy in a serial production line has been studied by many researchers. Production lines, however, usually have fork-type, join-type or network-type figures. In addition, in most previous studies on production control, a finished product is required at the same time as arrival of demand at the system. Demand information is, however, informed before due date in practice. In this paper a join-type (assembly) production line under base stock control with advanced demand information in discrete time is analyzed. The recursive equations for the work-in-process are derived. The heuristic algorithm for finding appropriate base stock levels of all machines at short time is proposed and the effect of advanced demand information is examined by simulation with the proposed algorithm. It is shown that the inventory cost can decreases with little backlogs by using the appropriate amount of demand information and setting appropriate base stock levels.

  3. An On-Line Integrated Control System for Reducing Coal Costs and Coal-Related Emissions: Coal Blend Automation System (CBAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Maxson, J. Andrew; Sehgal, Randhir; Shea, Suzanne

    1997-12-31

    In 1995, TransAlta Utilities and Dairyland Power agreed to participate in a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to demonstrate a power plant optimization software product developed by Praxis Engineers, Inc. The product, the Plant Environmental and Cost Optimization System (PECOS{trademark}), considers the power plant in its entirety from coal receipts and yard management to solid by-products and emissions. Its basic goal is to minimize the controllable costs of power generation. PECOS does so by performing an on-line analysis of all operations and their co-optimization to achieve a minimum generation cost. The software acts as an advisor to the plant operators and computes settings that achieve this goal. A general schematic of PECOS is given.

  4. 40 CFR 1042.305 - Preparing and testing production-line engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of hours you operated your emission-data engine for certifying the engine family (see 40 CFR part... Category 1 and Category 2 engines, but you need not do additional testing to show that production-line...) You document the need for doing so in your procedures for assembling and inspecting all...

  5. 40 CFR 1045.310 - How must I select engines for production-line testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must I select engines for production-line testing? 1045.310 Section 1045.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES...

  6. 40 CFR 1048.310 - How must I select engines for production-line testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must I select engines for production-line testing? 1048.310 Section 1048.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION...

  7. 40 CFR 1048.301 - When must I test my production-line engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... nonconformity, we may require you to test production-line engines under this subpart, or under 40 CFR part 1068... meet the field-testing requirements of 40 CFR part 1065, subpart J, but not the otherwise applicable requirements in 40 CFR part 1065 for laboratory testing, to demonstrate compliance with duty-cycle...

  8. 78 FR 34640 - Certain Lined Paper Products From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... Lined Paper Products from India and Indonesia, 71 FR 56949 (September 28, 2006) (``CLPP Order''). \\2\\ Id... Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 76 FR 65694 (October 24, 2011) and the ``Assessment... Review, 71 FR 26,455, 26,457 (May 5, 2006) (unchanged in Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars...

  9. 40 CFR 1048.301 - When must I test my production-line engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... nonconformity, we may require you to test production-line engines under this subpart, or under 40 CFR part 1068... meet the field-testing requirements of 40 CFR part 1065, subpart J, but not the otherwise applicable requirements in 40 CFR part 1065 for laboratory testing, to demonstrate compliance with duty-cycle...

  10. 40 CFR 1051.301 - When must I test my production-line vehicles or engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... nonconformity, we may require you to test production-line engines under this subpart, or under 40 CFR part 1068... may use analyzers and sampling systems that meet the field-testing requirements of 40 CFR part 1065, subpart J, but not the otherwise applicable requirements in 40 CFR part 1065 for laboratory testing,...

  11. 40 CFR 1051.301 - When must I test my production-line vehicles or engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... nonconformity, we may require you to test production-line engines under this subpart, or under 40 CFR part 1068... may use analyzers and sampling systems that meet the field-testing requirements of 40 CFR part 1065, subpart J, but not the otherwise applicable requirements in 40 CFR part 1065 for laboratory testing,...

  12. 78 FR 22845 - Certain Lined Paper Products From India: Final Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    .... Export Oriented Units Duty-Free Import of Capital Goods and Raw Materials 5. Market Development... Administrative Review; Calendar Year 2010, 77 FR 61742 (October 11, 2012) (Preliminary Results). \\2\\ See Issues... Countervailing Duty Orders: Certain Lined Paper Products from India and Indonesia, 71 FR 56949 (September...

  13. 77 FR 61381 - Certain Lined Paper Products From India: Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2010-2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ...: Certain Lined Paper Products from India and Indonesia, 71 FR 56949 (September 28, 2006). Notification to..., Indonesia and the People's Republic of China, 71 FR 56949 (September 28, 2006), remains dispositive... Margin and Assessment Rate in Certain Antidumping Proceedings: Final Modification, 77 FR 8101...

  14. 78 FR 22232 - Certain Lined Paper Products From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... of Countervailing Duty Orders: Certain Lined Paper Products from India and Indonesia, 71 FR 56949... Duty Administrative Review; 2010-2011, 77 FR 61381 (October 9, 2012) (Preliminary Results), and... Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 67133 (October 31, 2011) (Initiation Notice). For...

  15. 75 FR 64988 - Certain Lined Paper Products From India: Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ...The Department of Commerce (the Department) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain lined paper products (CLPP) from India. For the period September 1, 2008, through August 31, 2009, we have preliminarily determined that Navneet Publications (India) Limited (Navneet) did not make sales of subject merchandise at less than normal value (NV) (i.e., sales......

  16. CONSTRAINING JET PRODUCTION SCENARIOS BY STUDIES OF NARROW-LINE RADIO GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Sikora, Marek; Stasinska, Grazyna; Koziel-Wierzbowska, Dorota; Madejski, Greg M.; Asari, Natalia V.

    2013-03-01

    We study a large sample of narrow-line radio galaxies (NLRGs) with extended radio structures. Using 1.4 GHz radio luminosities L {sub 1.4}, narrow optical emission line luminosities L {sub [OIII]} and L{sub H{sub {alpha}}}, as well as black hole masses M {sub BH} derived from stellar velocity dispersions measured from the optical spectra obtained with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we find that (1) NLRGs cover about four decades of the Eddington ratio, {lambda} {identical_to} L {sub bol}/L {sub Edd}{proportional_to}L {sub line}/M {sub BH}; (2) L {sub 1.4}/M {sub BH} strongly correlates with {lambda}; and (3) radio loudness, R{identical_to}L{sub 1.4}/L{sub line}, strongly anti-correlates with {lambda}. A very broad range of the Eddington ratio indicates that the parent population of NLRGs includes both radio-loud quasars (RLQs) and broad-line radio galaxies (BLRGs). The correlations they obey and their high jet production efficiencies favor a jet production model which involves the so-called magnetically choked accretion scenario. In this model, production of the jet is dominated by the Blandford-Znajek mechanism, and the magnetic fields in the vicinity of the central black hole are confined by the ram pressure of the accretion flow. Since large net magnetic flux accumulated in central regions of the accretion flow required by the model can take place only via geometrically thick accretion, we speculate that the massive, 'cold' accretion events associated with luminous emission-line active galactic nucleus can be accompanied by an efficient jet production only if preceded by a hot, very sub-Eddington accretion phase.

  17. Automated lithocell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englisch, Andreas; Deuter, Armin

    1990-06-01

    Integration and automation have gained more and more ground in modern IC-manufacturing. It is difficult to make a direct calculation of the profit these investments yield. On the other hand, the demands to man, machine and technology have increased enormously of late; it is not difficult to see that only by means of integration and automation can these demands be coped with. Here are some salient points: U the complexity and costs incurred by the equipment and processes have got significantly higher . owing to the reduction of all dimensions, the tolerances within which the various process steps have to be carried out have got smaller and smaller and the adherence to these tolerances more and more difficult U the cycle time has become more and more important both for the development and control of new processes and, to a great extent, for a rapid and reliable supply to the customer. In order that the products be competitive under these conditions, all sort of costs have to be reduced and the yield has to be maximized. Therefore, the computer-aided control of the equipment and the process combined with an automatic data collection and a real-time SPC (statistical process control) has become absolutely necessary for successful IC-manufacturing. Human errors must be eliminated from the execution of the various process steps by automation. The work time set free in this way makes it possible for the human creativity to be employed on a larger scale in stabilizing the processes. Besides, a computer-aided equipment control can ensure the optimal utilization of the equipment round the clock.

  18. Determination of talinolol in human plasma using automated on-line solid phase extraction combined with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bourgogne, Emmanuel; Grivet, Chantal; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2005-06-01

    A specific LC-MS/MS assay was developed for the automated determination of talinolol in human plasma, using on-line solid phase extraction system (prospekt 2) combined with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) tandem mass spectrometry. The method involved simple precipitation of plasma proteins with perchloric acid (contained propranolol) as the internal standard (IS) and injection of the supernatant onto a C8 End Capped (10 mmx2 mm) cartridge without any evaporation step. Using the back-flush mode, the analytes were transferred onto an analytical column (XTerra C18, 50 mmx4.6 mm) for chromatographic separation and mass spectrometry detection. One of the particularities of the assay is that the SPE cartridge is used as a column switching device and not as an SPE cartridge. Therefore, the same SPE cartridge could be used more than 28 times, significantly reducing the analysis cost. APCI ionization was selected to overcome any potential matrix suppression effects because the analyte and IS co-eluted. The mean precision and accuracy in the concentration range 2.5-200 ng/mL was found to be 103% and 7.4%, respectively. The data was assessed from QC samples during the validation phase of the assay. The lower limit of quantification was 2.5 ng/mL, using a 250 microL plasma aliquot. The LC-MS/MS method provided the requisite selectivity, sensitivity, robustness accuracy and precision to assess pharmacokinetics of the compound in several hundred human plasma samples. PMID:15866498

  19. The relationship between mTOR signalling pathway and recombinant antibody productivity in CHO cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High recombinant protein productivity in mammalian cell lines is often associated with phenotypic changes in protein content, energy metabolism, and cell growth, but the key determinants that regulate productivity are still not clearly understood. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway has emerged as a central regulator for many cellular processes including cell growth, apoptosis, metabolism, and protein synthesis. This role of this pathway changes in response to diverse environmental cues and allows the upstream proteins that respond directly to extracellular signals (such as nutrient availability, energy status, and physical stresses) to communicate with downstream effectors which, in turn, regulate various essential cellular processes. Results In this study, we have performed a transcriptomic analysis using a pathway-focused polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array to compare the expression of 84 target genes related to the mTOR signalling in two recombinant CHO cell lines with a 17.4-fold difference in specific monoclonal antibody productivity (q p ). Eight differentially expressed genes that exhibited more than a 1.5-fold change were identified. Pik3cd (encoding the Class 1A catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [PI3K]) was the most differentially expressed gene having a 71.3-fold higher level of expression in the high producer cell line than in the low producer. The difference in the gene’s transcription levels was confirmed at the protein level by examining expression of p110δ. Conclusion Expression of p110δ correlated with specific productivity (q p ) across six different CHO cell lines, with a range of expression levels from 3 to 51 pg/cell/day, suggesting that p110δ may be a key factor in regulating productivity in recombinant cell lines. PMID:24533650

  20. Expert systems for automated maintenance of a Mars oxygen production system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, Robert L.; Huang, Jen-Kuang; Ho, Ming-Tsang

    1989-01-01

    A prototype expert system was developed for maintaining autonomous operation of a Mars oxygen production system. Normal operation conditions and failure modes according to certain desired criteria are tested and identified. Several schemes for failure detection and isolation using forward chaining, backward chaining, knowledge-based and rule-based are devised to perform several housekeeping functions. These functions include self-health checkout, an emergency shut down program, fault detection and conventional control activities. An effort was made to derive the dynamic model of the system using Bond-Graph technique in order to develop the model-based failure detection and isolation scheme by estimation method. Finally, computer simulations and experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the expert system and a preliminary reliability analysis for the oxygen production system is also provided.

  1. An Automated Patient Classification System for Staffing, Billing and Productivity Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Budd, Marjorie; Blaufuss, Judy; Propotnik, Toni; Maynard, Jan; Klingle, Connie; Pryor, Allan

    1988-01-01

    Nursing administrators across the country are developing methods to identify nursing department costs and revenue. A patient classification system driven by computerized nurses notes was developed at LDS Hospital as part of the hospital information system. This system is used to determine appropriates staffing on all nursing units and to bill patients directly for nursing care. The data is also used to measure nursing department productivity.

  2. Automated Job Controller for Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Production Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, J. L.; Hillyer, T. N.

    2011-12-01

    Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is one of NASA's highest priority Earth Observing System (EOS) scientific instruments. The CERES science team will integrate data from the CERES Flight Model 5 (FM5) on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) in addition to the four CERES scanning instrument on Terra and Aqua. The CERES production system consists of over 75 Product Generation Executives (PGEs) maintained by twelve subsystem groups. The processing chain fuses CERES instrument observations with data from 19 other unique sources. The addition of FM5 to over 22 instrument years of data to be reprocessed from flight models 1-4 creates a need for an optimized production processing approach. This poster discusses a new approach, using JBoss and Perl to manage job scheduling and interdependencies between PGEs and external data sources. The new optimized approach uses JBoss to serve handler servlets which regulate PGE-level job interdependencies and job completion notifications. Additional servlets are used to regulate all job submissions from the handlers and to interact with the operator. Perl submission scripts are used to build Process Control Files and to interact directly with the operating system and cluster scheduler. The result is a reduced burden on the operator by algorithmically enforcing a set of rules that determine the optimal time to produce data products with the highest integrity. These rules are designed on a per PGE basis and periodically change. This design provides the means to dynamically update PGE rules at run time and increases the processing throughput by using an event driven controller. The immediate notification of a PGE's completion (an event) allows successor PGEs to launch at the proper time with minimal start up latency, thereby increasing computer system utilization.

  3. Automated product recovery in a Hg-196 photochemical isotope separation process

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.

    1992-07-21

    A method of removing deposited product from a photochemical reactor used in the enrichment of [sup 196]Hg has been developed and shown to be effective for rapid re-cycling of the reactor system. Unlike previous methods relatively low temperatures are used in a gas and vapor phase process of removal. Importantly, the recovery process is understood in a quantitative manner so that scaling design to larger capacity systems can be easily carried out. 2 figs.

  4. Automated product recovery in a HG-196 photochemical isotope separation process

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; Speer, Richard

    1992-01-01

    A method of removing deposited product from a photochemical reactor used in the enrichment of .sup.196 Hg has been developed and shown to be effective for rapid re-cycling of the reactor system. Unlike previous methods relatively low temperatures are used in a gas and vapor phase process of removal. Importantly, the recovery process is understood in a quantitative manner so that scaling design to larger capacity systems can be easily carried out.

  5. Automated solar module assembly line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bycer, M.

    1980-01-01

    The solar module assembly machine which Kulicke and Soffa delivered under this contract is a cell tabbing and stringing machine, and capable of handling a variety of cells and assembling strings up to 4 feet long which then can be placed into a module array up to 2 feet by 4 feet in a series of parallel arrangement, and in a straight or interdigitated array format. The machine cycle is 5 seconds per solar cell. This machine is primarily adapted to 3 inch diameter round cells with two tabs between cells. Pulsed heat is used as the bond technique for solar cell interconnects. The solar module assembly machine unloads solar cells from a cassette, automatically orients them, applies flux and solders interconnect ribbons onto the cells. It then inverts the tabbed cells, connects them into cell strings, and delivers them into a module array format using a track mounted vacuum lance, from which they are taken to test and cleaning benches prior to final encapsulation into finished solar modules. Throughout the machine the solar cell is handled very carefully, and any contact with the collector side of the cell is avoided or minimized.

  6. Automated Solar Module Assembly Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bycer, M.

    1979-01-01

    The gathering of information that led to the design approach of the machine, and a summary of the findings in the areas of study along with a description of each station of the machine are discussed. The machine is a cell stringing and string applique machine which is flexible in design, capable of handling a variety of cells and assembling strings of cells which can then be placed in a matrix up to 4 ft x 2 ft. in series or parallel arrangement. The target machine cycle is to be 5 seconds per cell. This machine is primarily adapted to 100 MM round cells with one or two tabs between cells. It places finished strings of up to twelve cells in a matrix of up to six such strings arranged in series or in parallel.

  7. An Automated Software Package for the KISS Objective-Prism Survey for Emission-Line Galaxies. II. Recent Additions and Project Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frattare, L. M.; Salzer, J. J.

    1996-05-01

    We present an update on the KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey (KISS) project. KISS is a wide-field survey for extragalactic emission-line objects being carried out with the Burrell Schmidt at Kitt Peak. While we are utilizing the classical objective-prism technique to find strong-lined star-forming galaxies and AGNs, the use of CCD detectors and automated reduction software promise to make KISS a powerful tool for the study of activity in galaxies. We are currently completing our first survey strip (100 square degrees). The data consist of deep (to B = 20) objective-prism images, deep direct images in both B and V, and small-format photometric calibration images of each field. The KISS reduction package was designed to run under the IRAF image processing environment, and will eventually grow to be a complete IRAF package. Tasks added to the package over the past year include precise astrometry and photometry modules. The astrometry routines utilize the HST Guide Star Catalog to perform a full plate solution on the direct image of each Schmidt field, and then assign accurate equatorial coordinates to each object in the field. The photometry module performs aperture photometry on the direct images for all objects in the KISS database catalog, and provides routines to transfer the photometry calibration from the small-format images taken under photometric conditions to the large-format survey images. Extensive tests and modifications have also been carried out on the pre-existing software described by Herrero & Salzer (1995) in order to better fine-tune the reduction procedures and parameter settings. In addition to presenting a complete description of the new software, we describe the current status of the survey and present some preliminary characteristics of the sample. Other members of the KISS project include V. Lipovetsky & A. Kniazev (S.A.O.), T. Boroson (NOAO/USGP), T. Thuan (U. Virginia), J. Moody (BYU), Y. Izotov (Ukrainian Acad. Sci.), and J. Herrero

  8. Relationship between in-line viscosity and Bostwick measurement during ketchup production.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Kathryn L; McCarthy, Michael J

    2009-08-01

    The Bostwick consistometer remains an integral part of assessing the consistency of tomato products in the factory. This work addresses the blending of tomato pastes, packed at different Bostwick readings, for use in tomato ketchup production. The objective of this study was to correlate in-line viscosity measurements of 12 degrees Bx tomato concentrates to final product quality. Five blends of tomato concentrate were prepared by blending 2 pastes and diluting the mixture to a soluble solids level of 12 degrees Bx. In-line viscometry measurements at process temperature were made using magnetic resonance viscometry. The resulting Herschel-Bulkley parameters were used to evaluate an apparent viscosity at a characteristic shear rate. The apparent viscosity and Bostwick measurement for the blends were correlated based on a gravity current flow analysis, yielding a coefficient of determination of over 0.99. Ketchup was made from the tomato concentrate blends at 3 levels of natural tomato soluble solids (NTSS). The ketchup Bostwick measurement was then correlated to the ratio of (eta/rho)(-1/5) of the 12 degrees Bx tomato concentrate yielding coefficients of determination of 0.97, 0.97, and 0.91 for NTSS levels of 6%, 7%, and 7.8%, respectively. This study demonstrates that final product quality can be predicted from in-line viscosity measurements of an intermediate product. PMID:19723191

  9. Production of higher quality bio-oils by in-line esterification of pyrolysis vapor

    DOEpatents

    Hilten, Roger Norris; Das, Keshav; Kastner, James R; Bibens, Brian P

    2014-12-02

    The disclosure encompasses in-line reactive condensation processes via vapor phase esterification of bio-oil to decease reactive species concentration and water content in the oily phase of a two-phase oil, thereby increasing storage stability and heating value. Esterification of the bio-oil vapor occurs via the vapor phase contact and subsequent reaction of organic acids with ethanol during condensation results in the production of water and esters. The pyrolysis oil product can have an increased ester content and an increased stability when compared to a condensed pyrolysis oil product not treated with an atomized alcohol.

  10. Automation in Immunohematology

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Meenu; Kaur, Ravneet; Gupta, Ekta

    2012-01-01

    There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process. PMID:22988378

  11. Automated classification of Plasmodium sporozoite movement patterns reveals a shift towards productive motility during salivary gland infection.

    PubMed

    Hegge, Stephan; Kudryashev, Mikhail; Smith, Ashley; Frischknecht, Friedrich

    2009-06-01

    The invasive stages of malaria and other apicomplexan parasites use a unique motility machinery based on actin, myosin and a number of parasite-specific proteins to invade host cells and tissues. The crucial importance of this motility machinery at several stages of the life cycle of these parasites makes the individual components potential drug targets. The different stages of the malaria parasite exhibit strikingly diverse movement patterns, likely reflecting the varied needs to achieve successful invasion. Here, we describe a Tool for Automated Sporozoite Tracking (ToAST) that allows the rapid simultaneous analysis of several hundred motile Plasmodium sporozoites, the stage of the malaria parasite transmitted by the mosquito. ToAST reliably categorizes different modes of sporozoite movement and can be used for both tracking changes in movement patterns and comparing overall movement parameters, such as average speed or the persistence of sporozoites undergoing a certain type of movement. This allows the comparison of potentially small differences between distinct parasite populations and will enable screening of drug libraries to find inhibitors of sporozoite motility. Using ToAST, we find that isolated sporozoites change their movement patterns towards productive motility during the first week after infection of mosquito salivary glands. PMID:19455538

  12. Productivity and fishing pressure drive variability in fish parasite assemblages of the Line Islands, equatorial Pacific.

    PubMed

    Wood, Chelsea L; Baum, Julia K; Reddy, Sheila M W; Trebilco, Rowan; Sandin, Stuart A; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Briggs, Amy A; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2015-05-01

    Variability in primary productivity and fishing pressure can shape the abundance, species composition, and diversity of marine life. Though parasites comprise nearly half of marine species, their responses to these important forces remain little explored. We quantified parasite assemblages at two spatial scales, across a gradient in productivity and fishing pressure that spans six coral islands of the Line Islands archipelago and within the largest Line Island, Kiritimati, which experiences a west-to-east gradient in fishing pressure and upwelling-driven productivity. In the across-islands data set, we found that increasing productivity was correlated with increased parasite abundance overall, but that the effects of productivity differed among parasite groups. Trophically transmitted parasites increased in abundance with increasing productivity, but directly transmitted parasites did not exhibit significant changes. This probably arises because productivity has stronger effects on the abundance of the planktonic crustaceans and herbivorous snails that serve as the intermediate hosts of trophically transmitted parasites than on the higher-trophic level fishes that are the sole hosts of directly transmitted parasites. We also found that specialist parasites increased in response to increasing productivity, while generalists did not, possibly because specialist parasites tend to be more strongly limited by host availability than are generalist parasites. After the effect of productivity was controlled for, fishing was correlated with decreases in the abundance of trophically transmitted parasites, while directly transmitted parasites appeared to track host density; we observed increases in the abundance of parasites using hosts that experienced fishing-driven compensatory increases in abundance. The within-island data set confirmed these patterns for the combined effects of productivity and fishing on parasite abundance, suggesting that our conclusions are robust

  13. Powder handling for automated fuel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Frederickson, J.R.; Eschenbaum, R.C.; Goldmann, L.H.

    1989-04-09

    Installation of the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line has been completed. It is located in the Fuel Cycle Plant (FCP) at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site near Richland, Washington. The SAF line was designed to fabricate advanced reactor fuel pellets and assemble fuel pins by automated, remote operation. This paper describes powder handling equipment and techniques utilized for automated powder processing and powder conditioning systems in this line. 9 figs.

  14. Semen production and fertility issues related to differences in genetic lines of boars.

    PubMed

    Sonderman, J P; Luebbe, J J

    2008-11-01

    Boars have been reported to differ in various characteristics important to productivity of AI units. These aspects include sensitivity to seasonal infertility, ejaculate volume x age interactions, optimum collection frequency, discard (trash) rate of ejaculates, age of puberty, libido and trainability, and semen shelf life. In addition to differences among individual boars, there were also identifiable differences among breeds, between purebreds and crossbreds, and between lines. The percentage of ejaculates discarded varied among seasons and among breeds within season, with maternal purebred lines being the most sensitive to warmer temperatures. These same lines were also slower to mature and produced fewer sperm per ejaculate. Breeds differed in the sustainability of motility in stored extended semen, and in farrowing rates. Boar centers need to factor breed differences into their decision-making processes to ensure adequate boar power and customer satisfaction. PMID:18783820

  15. Design study on the beam line for radioisotope production at KOMAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyeok-Jung

    2015-10-01

    A beam line for radioisotope (RI) production was designed for the 100-MeV proton linear accelerator at Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC). The specifications of the beam line are such that the energy is 100 MeV and the average current is 0.6 mA for a target size of 100 mm in diameter. The system consists of a beam transport system including a magnet, a vacuum system, beam diagnostics, power supplies and a control system. The key components of the system are the high-field 45 bending magnet, the beam scanning system and beam window. In this paper, the design of the beam line and its key components are presented.

  16. Automated damage test facilities for materials development and production optic quality assurance at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Battersby, C; Dickson, R; Jennings, R; Kimmons, J; Kozlowski, M R; Maricle, S; Mouser, R; Runkel, M; Schwartz, S; Sheehan, L M; Weinzapfel, C

    1998-12-22

    The Laser Program at LLNL has developed automated facilities for damage testing optics up to 1 meter in diameter. The systems were developed to characterize the statistical distribution of localized damage performance across large-aperture National Ignition Facility optics. Full aperture testing is a key component of the quality assurance program for several of the optical components. The primary damage testing methods used are R:1 mapping and raster scanning. Automation of these test methods was required to meet the optics manufacturing schedule. The automated activities include control and diagnosis of the damage-test laser beam as well as detection and characterization of damage events.

  17. Visual Perception-Based Statistical Modeling of Complex Grain Image for Product Quality Monitoring and Supervision on Assembly Production Line.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinping; Tang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Qing; Xu, Pengfei; Liu, Wenzhong

    2016-01-01

    Computer vision as a fast, low-cost, noncontact, and online monitoring technology has been an important tool to inspect product quality, particularly on a large-scale assembly production line. However, the current industrial vision system is far from satisfactory in the intelligent perception of complex grain images, comprising a large number of local homogeneous fragmentations or patches without distinct foreground and background. We attempt to solve this problem based on the statistical modeling of spatial structures of grain images. We present a physical explanation in advance to indicate that the spatial structures of the complex grain images are subject to a representative Weibull distribution according to the theory of sequential fragmentation, which is well known in the continued comminution of ore grinding. To delineate the spatial structure of the grain image, we present a method of multiscale and omnidirectional Gaussian derivative filtering. Then, a product quality classifier based on sparse multikernel-least squares support vector machine is proposed to solve the low-confidence classification problem of imbalanced data distribution. The proposed method is applied on the assembly line of a food-processing enterprise to classify (or identify) automatically the production quality of rice. The experiments on the real application case, compared with the commonly used methods, illustrate the validity of our method. PMID:26986726

  18. Visual Perception-Based Statistical Modeling of Complex Grain Image for Product Quality Monitoring and Supervision on Assembly Production Line

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qing; Xu, Pengfei; Liu, Wenzhong

    2016-01-01

    Computer vision as a fast, low-cost, noncontact, and online monitoring technology has been an important tool to inspect product quality, particularly on a large-scale assembly production line. However, the current industrial vision system is far from satisfactory in the intelligent perception of complex grain images, comprising a large number of local homogeneous fragmentations or patches without distinct foreground and background. We attempt to solve this problem based on the statistical modeling of spatial structures of grain images. We present a physical explanation in advance to indicate that the spatial structures of the complex grain images are subject to a representative Weibull distribution according to the theory of sequential fragmentation, which is well known in the continued comminution of ore grinding. To delineate the spatial structure of the grain image, we present a method of multiscale and omnidirectional Gaussian derivative filtering. Then, a product quality classifier based on sparse multikernel–least squares support vector machine is proposed to solve the low-confidence classification problem of imbalanced data distribution. The proposed method is applied on the assembly line of a food-processing enterprise to classify (or identify) automatically the production quality of rice. The experiments on the real application case, compared with the commonly used methods, illustrate the validity of our method. PMID:26986726

  19. Control of automated behavior: insights from the discrete sequence production task

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamse, Elger L.; Ruitenberg, Marit F. L.; de Kleine, Elian; Verwey, Willem B.

    2013-01-01

    Work with the discrete sequence production (DSP) task has provided a substantial literature on discrete sequencing skill over the last decades. The purpose of the current article is to provide a comprehensive overview of this literature and of the theoretical progress that it has prompted. We start with a description of the DSP task and the phenomena that are typically observed with it. Then we propose a cognitive model, the dual processor model (DPM), which explains performance of (skilled) discrete key-press sequences. Key features of this model are the distinction between a cognitive processor and a motor system (i.e., motor buffer and motor processor), the interplay between these two processing systems, and the possibility to execute familiar sequences in two different execution modes. We further discuss how this model relates to several related sequence skill research paradigms and models, and we outline outstanding questions for future research throughout the paper. We conclude by sketching a tentative neural implementation of the DPM. PMID:23515430

  20. A semi-automated process for the production of custom-made shoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Franklin H.

    1991-01-01

    A more efficient, cost-effective and timely way of designing and manufacturing custom footware is needed. A potential solution to this problem lies in the use of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques in the production of custom shoes. A prototype computer-based system was developed, and the system is primarily a software entity which directs and controls a 3-D scanner, a lathe or milling machine, and a pattern-cutting machine to produce the shoe last and the components to be assembled into a shoe. The steps in this process are: (1) scan the surface of the foot to obtain a 3-D image; (2) thin the foot surface data and create a tiled wire model of the foot; (3) interactively modify the wire model of the foot to produce a model of the shoe last; (4) machine the last; (5) scan the surface of the last and verify that it correctly represents the last model; (6) design cutting patterns for shoe uppers; (7) cut uppers; (8) machine an inverse mold for the shoe innersole/sole combination; (9) mold the innersole/sole; and (10) assemble the shoe. For all its capabilities, this system still requires the direction and assistance of skilled operators, and shoemakers to assemble the shoes. Currently, the system is running on a SUN3/260 workstation with TAAC application accelerator. The software elements of the system are written in either Fortran or C and run under a UNIX operator system.

  1. High-end aerial digital cameras and their impact on the automation and quality of the production workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paparoditis, Nicolas; Souchon, Jean-Philippe; Martinoty, Gilles; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Marc

    The IGN digital camera project was established in the early 1990s. The first research surveys were carried out in 1996 and the digital camera was first used in production in 2000. In 2004 approximately 10 French departments (accounting for 10% of the territory) were covered with a four-head camera system and since summer 2005 all IGN imagery has been acquired digitally. Nevertheless the camera system is still evolving, with tests on new geometric configurations being continuously undertaken. The progressive integration of the system in IGN production workflows has allowed IGN to keep the system evolving in accordance with production needs. Remaining problems are due to specific camera characteristics such as CCD format, the optical quality of off-the-shelf lenses, and because some production tools are ill-adapted to digital images with a large dynamic range. However, when considering the pros and cons of integrating these images into production lines, the disadvantages are largely balanced by the numerous benefits this technology offers.

  2. Molecular breeding of tomato lines for mass production of miraculin in a plant factory.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kazuhisa; Yoshida, Riichiro; Kikuzaki, Ayako; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Kuroda, Hirofumi; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Takane, Kenichi; Ezura, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Tsuyoshi

    2010-09-01

    A transgenic tomato line (56B, "Moneymaker") that expresses the miraculin gene driven by the CaMV 35S promoter was crossed with a dwarf tomato ("Micro-Tom") for the molecular breeding of cultivars that are suitable for miraculin production in a closed cultivation system. Plant size, miraculin accumulation, and self-pruning growth were used as selection indicators for F2 plants. Two lines were chosen for further analysis, bred to the F6 or F7 generation and cultivated in a closed cultivation system. In 56B and the two crossed lines, the concentrations of miraculin in the pericarp were 140, 367, and 343 microg/g FW, respectively. We also estimated that 26.2, 73.6, and 45.9 kg FW/m2 of tomatoes and 2.2, 16.6, and 9.8 mg/m2 of miraculin in the pericarp, respectively, could be harvested per year. These two crossed lines will be useful for the mass production of miraculin, especially in a closed cultivation system. PMID:20695489

  3. Inspection logistics planning for multi-stage production systems with applications to semiconductor fabrication lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kyle Dakai

    Since the market for semiconductor products has become more lucrative and competitive, research into improving yields for semiconductor fabrication lines has lately received a tremendous amount of attention. One of the most critical tasks in achieving such yield improvements is to plan the in-line inspection sampling efficiently so that any potential yield problems can be detected early and eliminated quickly. We formulate a multi-stage inspection planning model based on configurations in actual semiconductor fabrication lines, specifically taking into account both the capacity constraint and the congestion effects at the inspection station. We propose a new mixed First-Come-First-Serve (FCFS) and Last-Come-First-Serve (LCFS) discipline for serving the inspection samples to expedite the detection of potential yield problems. Employing this mixed FCFS and LCFS discipline, we derive approximate expressions for the queueing delays in yield problem detection time and develop near-optimal algorithms to obtain the inspection logistics planning policies. We also investigate the queueing performance with this mixed type of service discipline under different assumptions and configurations. In addition, we conduct numerical tests and generate managerial insights based on input data from actual semiconductor fabrication lines. To the best of our knowledge, this research is novel in developing, for the first time in the literature, near-optimal results for inspection logistics planning in multi-stage production systems with congestion effects explicitly considered.

  4. X-ray and gamma-ray line production by nonthermal ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bussard, R. W.; Omidvar, K.; Ramaty, R.

    1977-01-01

    X-ray production was calculated at approximately 6.8 keV by the 2p to 1s transition in fast hydrogen- and helium-like iron ions, following both electron capture to excited levels and collisional excitation. A refinement of the OBK approximation was used to obtain an improved charge exchange cross section. This, and the corresponding ionization cross section were used to determine equilibrium charge fractions for iron ions as functions of their energy. The effective X-ray line production cross section was found to be sharply peaked in energy at about 8 to 12 MeV/amu. Because fast ions of similar energies can also excite nuclear levels, the ratio of selected strong gamma ray line emissivities to the X-ray line emissivity was also calculated. Limits set by this method on the intensity of gamma ray line emission from the galactic center and the radio galaxy Centaurus A are generally lower than those reported in the literature.

  5. Climate Services for Adaptation Support: Sectors, Regions, and Product Lines (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, T.; Shea, E. E.

    2009-12-01

    Environmental information for decision support must be user-focused, accurate, and actionable. As the deleterious impacts of a non-stationary climate system manifest themselves through loss of civil infrastructure, cultural, and natural resources, NOAA and other science agencies are restructuring their approach to decision support, moving from a climate perspectives-centric model to one that offers more nimble, granular, and timely product lines supporting a breadth of sectoral- and regionally-focused decisions. This talk outlines NOAA’s efforts to this end, including its framing of sectors and regions, its development of emerging product lines, and its reliance on technological advances to better disseminate information. Through its climate services efforts, NOAA’s climate data resources can be leveraged to support sound adaptation decision making for societal infrastructure development and in the stewardship of marine, ocean, coastal, and terrestrial natural resources.

  6. Temperature-dependence of Threshold Current Density-Length Product in Metallization Lines: A Revisit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saptono Duryat, Rahmat; Kim, Choong-Un

    2016-04-01

    One of the important phenomena in Electromigration (EM) is Blech Effect. The existence of Threshold Current Density-Length Product or EM Threshold has such fundamental and technological consequences in the design, manufacture, and testing of electronics. Temperature-dependence of Blech Product had been thermodynamically established and the real behavior of such interconnect materials have been extensively studied. The present paper reviewed the temperature-dependence of EM threshold in metallization lines of different materials and structure as found in relevant published articles. It is expected that the reader can see a big picture from the compiled data, which might be overlooked when it was examined in pieces.

  7. 78 FR 63162 - Certain Lined Paper Products From India: Notice of Partial Rescission and Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ...; and Notice of Countervailing Duty Orders: Certain Lined Paper Products from India and Indonesia, 71 FR... Review, 73 FR 49170 (August 20, 2008); see also, Certain Lined Paper Products from India: Notice of... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 77 FR 65858 (October 31, 2012) (Initiation Notice)....

  8. 76 FR 28213 - Certain Lined Paper Products From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... Administrative Review of Certain Lined Paper Products from the People's Republic of China, 74 FR 68036 (December... Review, 74 FR 17160 (April 14, 2009) (``Final Results''). On December 22, 2009, the Department published... International Trade Administration Certain Lined Paper Products From the People's Republic of China: Notice...

  9. 76 FR 53116 - Certain Lined Paper Products From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... Administrative Review of Certain Lined Paper Products From the People's Republic of China, 74 FR 68036 (December... Administrative Review, 74 FR 17160 (April 14, 2009) (``Final Results''). On December 22, 2009, the Department... International Trade Administration Certain Lined Paper Products From the People's Republic of China: Notice...

  10. Development of drying-induced stresses in pharmaceutical granules prepared in continuous production line.

    PubMed

    Mezhericher, Maksim

    2014-11-01

    The phenomenon of development of drying-induced stresses has been given a through consideration in the literature on drying of many products. At the same time, to the best of our knowledge, the open published sources contain no information on drying stresses in pharmaceutical granules prepared by continuous manufacturing methods. To study the appearance and evolution of drying-induced stresses in pharmaceutical granules during their production, in this work a theoretical model of drying of single wet pharmaceutical granule has been developed and successively validated by published experimental data obtained on ConsiGma™ continuous from-powder-to-tablet production line (GEA Pharma Systems). The results demonstrate that elevated temperatures of drying air result in faster drying process (which reduces the specific cost of the final product), but, on the other hand, quick drying leads to substantial drying-induced stresses which may damage the granule microstructure, resulting in cracking or even breakage of granules. The drying-induced stresses increase with drying temperature, porosity and size of dense non-hollow granules. The negative effects promoted by the drying-induced stresses should be taken into consideration when choosing operating conditions of continuous production lines including drying of pharmaceutical granules. PMID:25152956

  11. Microcontroller for automation application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    The description of a microcontroller currently being developed for automation application was given. It is basically an 8-bit microcomputer with a 40K byte random access memory/read only memory, and can control a maximum of 12 devices through standard 15-line interface ports.

  12. Shielded cells transfer automation

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J J

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear waste from shielded cells is removed, packaged, and transferred manually in many nuclear facilities. Radiation exposure is absorbed by operators during these operations and limited only through procedural controls. Technological advances in automation using robotics have allowed a production waste removal operation to be automated to reduce radiation exposure. The robotic system bags waste containers out of glove box and transfers them to a shielded container. Operators control the system outside the system work area via television cameras. 9 figures.

  13. Algal productivity and nitrate assimilation in an effluent dominated concrete lined stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, R.; Belitz, K.; Burton, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined algal productivity and nitrate assimilation in a 2.85 km reach of Cucamonga Creek, California, a concrete lined channel receiving treated municipal wastewater. Stream nitrate concentrations observed at two stations indicated nearly continuous loss throughout the diel study. Nitrate loss in the reach was approximately 11 mg/L/d or 1.0 g/m2/d as N, most of which occurred during daylight. The peak rate of nitrate loss (1.13 mg/l/hr) occurred just prior to an afternoon total CO2 depletion. Gross primary productivity, as estimated by a model using the observed differences in dissolved oxygen between the two stations, was 228 mg/L/d, or 21 g/m2/d as O2. The observed diel variations in productivity, nitrate loss, pH, dissolved oxygen, and CO2 indicate that nitrate loss was primarily due to algal assimilation. The observed levels of productivity and nitrate assimilation were exceptionally high on a mass per volume basis compared to studies on other streams; these rates occurred because of the shallow stream depth. This study suggests that concrete-lined channels can provide an important environmental service: lowering of nitrate concentrations similar to rates observed in biological treatment systems.

  14. Using the Deming quality improvement method to manage medical record department product lines.

    PubMed

    Postal, S N

    1990-06-01

    The above application of the quality improvement cycle provides insight into the use of the Deming method to address one of several identified customer needs and expectations obtained during the managing phase of product-line administration. Implementation of the quality improvement method requires a major commitment from all team members. Process improvement requires a willingness to be detail oriented. Gathering of statistics--such as analysis turn-around time--and evaluation are critical. This objective view of processes requires accountability and a commitment to change. Improvements focus on long-term problem resolution, not the quick fixes that result from addressing symptoms of problems. True problem resolution occurs by solving the root causes of variations. Medical record departments must move from being outcome oriented to being process focused. It is no longer feasible to be constantly putting out fires in an environment that demands well-planned and well-designed products that meet customers' expectations. The long-term management of product lines requires a systematic method of planning, doing, checking, and acting. The Deming quality improvement method provides a framework for positive change that focuses on quality processes resulting in a quality product that meets consumers' needs. PMID:10106656

  15. Production of drip-line nuclei at RIKEN RI Beam Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Atsumi

    2014-09-01

    Production cross-sections and secondary-beam yields of very neutron rich nuclei near neutron drip-line at 200--250 MeV/u have been investigated at RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF). RIBF is the next generation RI beam facility, which can produce a variety of exotic nuclei with high intensity. The measurement of production yields of 19B, 22C, which are located on the neutron drip-line, and neighboring isotopes was made on the occasion of the Coulomb and nuclear breakup experiments of these halo nuclei at SAMURAI (Superconducting Analyzer for MUlti-particle from RAdioIsotope beams) facility at RIBF. We used 345 MeV/u 48Ca beam as primary beam, which impinged on 30 mm-thick Be target, to obtain secondary beams by projectile fragmentation. The projectile fragments were then separated through Superconducting RI beam separator BigRIPS, and were identified by measuring time of flight (TOF), energy loss (ΔE), and magnetic rigidity (Bρ) by the standard detectors at 2nd stage of BigRIPS. We thus obtained production cross-sections and yields of carbon and boron isotopes. The production cross-sections and yields extracted were compared with the simulation code LISE using EPAX. We discuss these results and comparisons in this poster presentation.

  16. More similar than different: Host cell protein production using three null CHO cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yuk, Inn H; Nishihara, Julie; Walker, Donald; Huang, Eric; Gunawan, Feny; Subramanian, Jayashree; Pynn, Abigail F J; Yu, X Christopher; Zhu-Shimoni, Judith; Vanderlaan, Martin; Krawitz, Denise C

    2015-10-01

    To understand the diversity in the cell culture harvest (i.e., feedstock) provided for downstream processing, we compared host cell protein (HCP) profiles using three Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines in null runs which did not generate any recombinant product. Despite differences in CHO lineage, upstream process, and culture performance, the cell lines yielded similar cell-specific productivities for immunogenic HCPs. To compare the dynamics of HCP production, we searched for correlations between the time-course profiles of HCP (as measured by multi-analyte ELISA) and those of two intracellular HCP species, phospholipase B-like 2 (PLBL2) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Across the cell lines, proteins in the day 14 supernatants analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) showed different spot patterns. However, subsequent analysis by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) indicated otherwise: the total number of peptides and proteins identified were comparable, and 80% of the top 1,000 proteins identified were common to all three lines. Finally, to assess the impact of culture viability on extracellular HCP profiles, we analyzed supernatants from a cell line whose viability dropped after day 10. The amounts of HCP and PLBL2 (quantified by their respective ELISAs) as well as the numbers and major populations of HCPs (identified by LC-MS/MS) were similar across days 10, 14, and 17, during which viabilities declined from ∼80% to <20% and extracellular LDH levels increased several-fold. Our findings indicate that the CHO-derived HCPs in the feedstock for downstream processing may not be as diverse across cell lines and upstream processes, or change as dramatically upon viability decline as originally expected. In addition, our findings show that high density CHO cultures (>10(7) cells/mL)-operated in fed-batch mode and exhibiting high viabilities (>70%) throughout the culture duration-can accumulate a

  17. Expression, localization, and regulation of NOS in human mast cell lines: effects on leukotriene production.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Mark; McCauley, Scott D; Befus, A Dean

    2004-07-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent radical produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and has pleiotrophic activities in health and disease. As mast cells (MCs) play a central role in both homeostasis and pathology, we investigated NOS expression and NO production in human MC populations. Endothelial NOS (eNOS) was ubiquitously expressed in both human MC lines and skin-derived MCs, while neuronal NOS (nNOS) was variably expressed in the MC populations studied. The inducible (iNOS) isoform was not detected in human MCs. Both growth factor-independent (HMC-1) and -dependent (LAD 2) MC lines showed predominant nuclear eNOS protein localization, with weaker cytoplasmic expression. nNOS showed exclusive cytoplasmic localization in HMC-1. Activation with Ca(2+) ionophore (A23187) or IgE-anti-IgE induced eNOS phosphorylation and translocation to the nucleus and nuclear and cytoplasmic NO formation. eNOS colocalizes with the leukotriene (LT)-initiating enzyme 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) in the MC nucleus. The NO donor, S-nitrosoglutathione (SNOG), inhibited, whereas the NOS inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), potentiated LT release in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, human MC lines produce NO in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments, and endogenously produced NO can regulate LT production by MCs. PMID:15044250

  18. Systematic review automation technologies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  19. Stable and high-level production of recombinant Factor IX in human hepatic cell line.

    PubMed

    de Castilho Fernandes, Andrielle; Fontes, Aparecida; Gonsales, Nathalia; Swiech, Kamilla; Picanco-Castro, Virginia; Faca, Sandra; Covas, Dimas

    2011-01-01

    Hemophilia B is a genetic disease of the coagulation system that affects one in 30,000 males worldwide. Recombinant human Factor IX (rhFIX) has been used for hemophilia B treatment, but the amount of active protein generated by these systems is inefficient, resulting in a high-cost production of rhFIX. In this study, we developed an alternative for rhFIX production. We used a retrovirus system to obtain two recombinant cell lines. We first tested rhFIX production in the human embryonic kidney 293 cells (293). Next, we tested a hepatic cell line (HepG2) because FIX is primarily expressed in the liver. Our results reveal that intracellular rhFIX expression was more efficient in HepG2/rhFIX (46%) than in 293/rhFIX (21%). The activated partial thromboplastin time test showed that HepG2/rhFIX expressed biologically active rhFIX 1.5 times higher than 293/rhFIX (P = 0.016). Recovery of rhFIX from the HepG2 by reversed-phase chromatography was straightforward. We found that rhFIX has a pharmacokinetic profile similar to that of FIX purified from human plasma when tested in hemophilic B model. HepG2/rhFIX cell line produced the highest levels of rhFIX, representing an efficient in vitro expression system. This work opens up the possibility of significantly reducing the costs of rhFIX production, with implications for expanding hemophilia B treatment in developing countries. PMID:21838798

  20. Virtual director: automating a webcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machnicki, Erik; Rowe, Lawrence A.

    2001-12-01

    This paper presents a system designed to automate the production of webcasts, the Virtual Director. It automates simple tasks such as control of recording equipment, stream broadcasting, and camera control. It also automates content decisions, such as which camera view to broadcast. Directors can specify the content decisions using an automation specification language. The Virtual Director also uses a question monitor service to automatically identify questions and move the cameras to show the audience member asking the question. We discuss the implementation of the Virtual Director and present the results of its use in the production of a university seminar series.

  1. Human-centered aircraft automation: A concept and guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Charles E.

    1991-01-01

    Aircraft automation is examined and its effects on flight crews. Generic guidelines are proposed for the design and use of automation in transport aircraft, in the hope of stimulating increased and more effective dialogue among designers of automated cockpits, purchasers of automated aircraft, and the pilots who must fly those aircraft in line operations. The goal is to explore the means whereby automation may be a maximally effective tool or resource for pilots without compromising human authority and with an increase in system safety. After definition of the domain of the aircraft pilot and brief discussion of the history of aircraft automation, a concept of human centered automation is presented and discussed. Automated devices are categorized as a control automation, information automation, and management automation. The environment and context of aircraft automation are then considered, followed by thoughts on the likely future of automation of that category.

  2. Production Process for Stem Cell Based Therapeutic Implants: Expansion of the Production Cell Line and Cultivation of Encapsulated Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, C.; Pohl, S.; Poertner, R.; Pino-Grace, Pablo; Freimark, D.; Wallrapp, C.; Geigle, P.; Czermak, P.

    Cell based therapy promises the treatment of many diseases like diabetes mellitus, Parkinson disease or stroke. Microencapsulation of the cells protects them against host-vs-graft reactions and thus enables the usage of allogenic cell lines for the manufacturing of cell therapeutic implants. The production process of such implants consists mainly of the three steps expansion of the cells, encapsulation of the cells, and cultivation of the encapsulated cells in order to increase their vitality and thus quality. This chapter deals with the development of fixed-bed bioreactor-based cultivation procedures used in the first and third step of production. The bioreactor system for the expansion of the stem cell line (hMSC-TERT) is based on non-porous glass spheres, which support cell growth and harvesting with high yield and vitality. The cultivation process for the spherical cell based implants leads to an increase of vitality and additionally enables the application of a medium-based differentiation protocol.

  3. A new optical axle measuring instrument for wheel alignment in assembly-line production

    SciTech Connect

    Bruhn, H.; Felske, A.

    1985-01-01

    The newly developed optical measuring system allows adjustment of front and rear wheel angularities - toe, camber, caster - in assembly-line production. There is no need to align the car, since the measuring base for the angle alignment is formed by the car itself. Defined spring compression values and direct caster angle determination lead to higher accuracy. Adjustment is carried out directly on the assembly line. Measuring pits are not required. The working time for each car and the working area required, which are important cost factors, are markedly lower than with conventional instruments. The axle measuring system was developed for the VW Vanagon, but can also be used for passenger car chassis. The measuring principle, the optical and mechanical design of the device, and a statistical analysis of over 100 cars aligned by means of this system are described in comparison with conventional measuring instruments.

  4. The PiggyBac transposon enhances the frequency of CHO stable cell line generation and yields recombinant lines with superior productivity and stability.

    PubMed

    Matasci, Mattia; Baldi, Lucia; Hacker, David L; Wurm, Florian M

    2011-09-01

    Generating stable, high-producing mammalian cell lines is a major bottleneck in the manufacture of recombinant therapeutic proteins. Conventional gene transfer methods for cell line generation rely on random plasmid integration, resulting in unpredictable and highly variable levels of transgene expression. As a consequence, a large number of stably transfected cells must be analyzed to recover a few high-producing clones. Here we present an alternative gene transfer method for cell line generation based on transgene integration mediated by the piggyBac (PB) transposon. Recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines expressing a tumor necrosis factor receptor:Fc fusion protein were generated either by PB transposition or by conventional transfection. Polyclonal populations and isolated clonal cell lines were characterized for the level and stability of transgene expression for up to 3 months in serum-free suspension culture. Pools of transposed cells produced up to fourfold more recombinant protein than did the pools generated by standard transfection. For clonal cell lines, the frequency of high-producers was greater following transposition as compared to standard transfection, and these clones had a higher volumetric productivity and a greater number of integrated transgenes than did those generated by standard transfection. In general, the volumetric productivity of the cell pools and individual cell lines generated by transposition was stable for up to 3 months in the absence of selection. Our results indicate that the PB transposon supports the generation of cell lines with high and stable transgene expression at an elevated frequency relative to conventional transfection. Thus, PB-mediated gene delivery is expected to reduce the extent of recombinant cell line screening. PMID:21495018

  5. Performance of 300-mm lithography tools in a pilot production line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltabes, John G.; Charles, Alain B.; Hornig, Steffen R.; Schedel, Thorsten; Ganz, Dietmar; Schmidt, Sebastian

    1999-07-01

    Semiconductor 300 is the first pilot manufacturing facility for 300mm wafers in the world. This company is a joint venture between Siemens and Motorola, formed for the purpose of developing a 300mm manufacturing tool set. The pilot line contains a full compliment of tools for DRAM manufacturing. This paper discusses the performance of the initial 300mm lithography tool set installed in our pilot line in Dresden, Germany. The product used for evaluating and debugging the tool set is a 0.25-micron ground rule 64 Meg DRAM. This was chosen for the ability to easily benchmark against 200mm DRAM manufacturing data. We have produced several lots of wafers with measurable yield. These lots have produced data on overlay, CD and run to run performance of the lithography tools on actual product. We have data on resist coating, and develop uniformity. With several lithography tools installed we have generated a large amount of mix and match data. In addition several challenges for successful lithography have surfaced related entirely to the increase in wafer size. Film, etch, polish and thermal non-uniformity have impacted the throughput and performance of the lithography tools. The installation of the first integrated 300mm pilot line has also produced data on the impact larger wafer size has on tool logistics, for example fab layout, installation schedules and wafer and lot transport. While technical data is always important, the main reason for converting to 300mm is economic. We now have preliminary data on the comparison of 200 tools to 300mm tools in terms of footprint, throughput, and productivity gains for equivalent square centimeters of silicon. With this data we can start to make preliminary recommendations for 300mm manufacturing tools.

  6. On-line optimal control for fed-batch culture of baker's yeast production

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, W.T.; Chen, K.C.; Chiou, H.W.

    1985-05-01

    A method of on-line optimal control for fed-batch culture of bakers yeast production is proposed. The feed rate is taken as the control variable. The specific growth rate of the yeast is the output variable and is determined from the balance equation of oxygen. A moving model is obtained by using the data from the feed rate and the specific growth rate. Based on the moving model, an optimal feed rate for fed-batch culture is then achieved. 11 references.

  7. Modeling a distributed environment for a petroleum reservoir engineering application with software product line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Faria Scheidt, Rafael; Vilain, Patrícia; Dantas, M. A. R.

    2014-10-01

    Petroleum reservoir engineering is a complex and interesting field that requires large amount of computational facilities to achieve successful results. Usually, software environments for this field are developed without taking care out of possible interactions and extensibilities required by reservoir engineers. In this paper, we present a research work which it is characterized by the design and implementation based on a software product line model for a real distributed reservoir engineering environment. Experimental results indicate successfully the utilization of this approach for the design of distributed software architecture. In addition, all components from the proposal provided greater visibility of the organization and processes for the reservoir engineers.

  8. TSH-induced cyclic AMP production in an ovine thyroid cell line: OVNIS 5H.

    PubMed

    Fayet, G; Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S

    1986-01-01

    The TSH-induced cyclic AMP response was studied using a 3-year-old ovine thyroid cell line TSH-independent for growth: OVNIS 5H. The kinetics of cyclic AMP production was followed both in cell layers and in cell culture media, with or without phosphodiesterase inhibitor. It is noteworthy that following the first wave in cyclic AMP obtained within minutes, we observed later a sustained exponential increase in cyclic AMP during the 5 days following TSH stimulation. A bioassay of TSH was derived allowing measurement of 1 microU/ml TSH from a crude bTSH preparation. PMID:3000830

  9. Automation of surface observations program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, Steve E.

    1988-01-01

    At present, surface weather observing methods are still largely manual and labor intensive. Through the nationwide implementation of Automated Surface Observing Systems (ASOS), this situation can be improved. Two ASOS capability levels are planned. The first is a basic-level system which will automatically observe the weather parameters essential for aviation operations and will operate either with or without supplemental contributions by an observer. The second is a more fully automated, stand-alone system which will observe and report the full range of weather parameters and will operate primarily in the unattended mode. Approximately 250 systems are planned by the end of the decade. When deployed, these systems will generate the standard hourly and special long-line transmitted weather observations, as well as provide continuous weather information direct to airport users. Specific ASOS configurations will vary depending upon whether the operation is unattended, minimally attended, or fully attended. The major functions of ASOS are data collection, data processing, product distribution, and system control. The program phases of development, demonstration, production system acquisition, and operational implementation are described.

  10. Estimation of genetic associations between reproduction and production traits based on a sire and dam line with common ancestry.

    PubMed

    Kapell, D N R G; Ashworth, C J; Walling, G A; Lawrence, A B; Edwards, S A; Roehe, R

    2009-10-01

    Genetic parameters for survival, reproduction and production traits were estimated for a sire and dam line, originating from one Large White breed separated more than 25 years ago. The change in parameters due to different selection pressure on reproduction and production traits in both lines was also examined. Data collected between 1990 and 2007 were available for the analysis of reproduction traits in 4713 litters (sire line) and 14836 litters (dam line) and for the production traits in 58329 pigs (sire line) and 108912 pigs (dam line). Genetic parameters were estimated using a Bayesian approach. Average phenotypic differences between lines were substantial with 1.5 more piglets born in the dam line and 1.7 mm less backfat thickness (BF) in the sire line. Based on a multiple trait analysis which included both reproduction and production traits, heritabilities for survival and litter size traits in the sire (or dam) line were estimated at 0.03 ± 0.01 (0.06 ± 0.01) for percentage of stillborn piglets (SB), 0.10 ± 0.03 (0.11 ± 0.01) for total number of piglets born (NBT) and 0.09 ± 0.03 (0.09 ± 0.01) for number of piglets born alive. Heritabilities for production traits were estimated at 0.29 ± 0.01 (0.29 ± 0.01) for average daily gain, 0.50 ± 0.01 (0.42 ± 0.01) for BF and 0.41 ± 0.01 for muscle depth. Selection pressure on litter size in the dam line resulted in a slightly unfavourable correlation for SB-NBT (0.21 ± 0.11), which was only marginally unfavourable in the sire line (0.06 ± 0.24). Selection pressure on BF in the sire line may have resulted in the moderately undesirable correlation with SB (-0.46 ± 0.15), which was not significant in the dam line (-0.08 ± 0.06). Changing the base population in the dam line to animals born since the year 2000 indicated that selection pressure on different traits has altered the heritabilities and correlations of the traits within the line. The undesirable correlations between survival at birth and

  11. A prototype on-line work procedure system for radioisotope thermoelectric generator production

    SciTech Connect

    Kiebel, G.R.

    1991-09-01

    An on-line system to manage work procedures is being developed to support radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) assembly and testing in a new production facility. This system implements production work procedures as interactive electronic documents executed at the work site with no intermediate printed form. It provides good control of the creation and application of work procedures and provides active assistance to the worker in performing them and in documenting the results. An extensive prototype of this system is being evaluated to ensure that it will have all the necessary features and that it will fit the user's needs and expectations. This effort has involved the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) operations organization and technology transfer between Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and EG G Mound Applied Technologies Inc. (Mound) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Mound Site. 1 ref.

  12. Lipogenesis and glucose production in dwarf carrier and normal lines of chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Rosebrough, R.W.; McMurtry, J.P.; Steele, N.C.

    1986-03-01

    Diets containing 13, 16, 19, or 23% protein and 70% carbohydrate calories were fed to dwarf heterozygote (dw) and normal (Dw) chickens to determine the effects of age (weeks) and protein on intermediary metabolism. In vitro lipogenesis (IVL) was determined by the incorporation of acetate (10 and 20 mM 2/sup 14/C-Acet/2hr) into hepatic fatty acids. Net glucose production (NGP) was determined as the difference in media glucose in the presence or absence of 10 mM pyruvate. Values were expressed per unit of relative liver size (..mu..moles/100 g BWt). Serum insulin (INS; ng/ml) was determined by homologous radioimmunoassay. Results indicate that although INS was greater in Dw than in dw, this difference was not reflected in a decreased rate of glucose production to accompany the difference in IVL between the two lines. Moreover, an increase in dietary protein resulted in a decrease in IVL but an increase in INS.

  13. Analysis of cell line variation in biochemical production of protoporphyrin IX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Summer L.; Chen, Bin; O'Hara, Julia A.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2006-02-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is produced via the heme synthesis pathway by the cell following administration of aminolevulinic acid (ALA). ALA synthase, the enzyme that produces ALA in the cell from glycine and succinyl-coenzyme A, is inhibited in a feedback mechanism by heme and thus is the rate limiting enzyme in the heme synthesis pathway. Since ALA is administered systemically, the rate limiting step that naturally exists in the cells is bypassed, however it is currently unclear why cells have different rate limiting steps in the ALA-PpIX synthesis pathway, and more specifically which types of cancer cells are most productive. It has been determined that when the same amount of ALA is administered to a wide panel of cancer cells in vitro that vastly differing amounts of PpIX are produced. The steps for the ALA-PpIX pathway occur in and around the mitochondria of the cell, but interestingly no correlation is seen between PpIX production and mitochondrial content of the cell, following ALA administration. However, total cell area shows positive correlation with PpIX production. Administration of the iron chelator, 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-4-pyridone (L1) in combination with ALA allows the final step in the heme synthesis pathway, conversion of PpIX to heme, to be delayed and thus increases the detectable amount of PpIX in each cell line. The cell lines that have the lowest PpIX production following administration of ALA alone show the largest increase in production following the combined administration of ALA and L1. PpIX fluorescence is thought to be a measure of cellular activity and the goal of the current study was to determine which cell lines would be the most promising targets for fluorescence detection or monitoring response to therapy. The results indicate that the cells with larger size and larger numbers of mitochondria may be good potential targets for this therapy. While this conclusion may appear obvious, it is not universally true, and cellular specific

  14. Toward a production-line classification of metallic satin-finished surfaces using coherent light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez de Meneses, Yuri; Meylan, Gregoire; Monay, Florent; Jacot, Jacques

    2002-10-01

    Some manufacturing processes, such as satin finish on stainless steel parts for the watchmaking and biomedical industries, apply purely aesthetic, global criteria for their quality control. This control is currently performed by human operators, and is found to be subjective, due to variability in operator judgement. This project aims to develop a device for automatic, production-line classification of satin finish according to the aesthetic criteria currently applied in the watchmaking industry. We exploit two coherent light phenomena to produce features to classify the parts into the same classes indicated by human operators. The analysis of the optical Fourier transform and the scattering pattern are used to generate high-dimensional feature vectors for their subsequent classification. The vectors, corresponding to different regions of the part surface, are classified using Principal Component Analysis and Kohonen networks. Experimental results show that both optical phenomena provide features capable of discriminating between conforming and nonconforming parts. Classification is simple enough to afford an inspection in under 1 s and its robustness has also been verified. We have thus completed a first step towards a simple, production-line device capable of providing an automatic, objective evaluation based on aesthetic quality criteria.

  15. Process automation

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Process automation technology has been pursued in the chemical processing industries and to a very limited extent in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Its effective use has been restricted in the past by the lack of diverse and reliable process instrumentation and the unavailability of sophisticated software designed for process control. The Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in part to demonstrate new concepts for control of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A demonstration of fuel reprocessing equipment automation using advanced instrumentation and a modern, microprocessor-based control system is nearing completion in the facility. This facility provides for the synergistic testing of all chemical process features of a prototypical fuel reprocessing plant that can be attained with unirradiated uranium-bearing feed materials. The unique equipment and mission of the IET facility make it an ideal test bed for automation studies. This effort will provide for the demonstration of the plant automation concept and for the development of techniques for similar applications in a full-scale plant. A set of preliminary recommendations for implementing process automation has been compiled. Some of these concepts are not generally recognized or accepted. The automation work now under way in the IET facility should be useful to others in helping avoid costly mistakes because of the underutilization or misapplication of process automation. 6 figs.

  16. Automated Generalisation Within NMAs in 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoter, Jantien; van Altena, Vincent; Post, Marc; Burghardt, Dirk; Duchêne, Cecile

    2016-06-01

    Producing maps and geo-data at different scales is traditionally one of the main tasks of National (and regional) Mapping Agencies (NMAs). The derivation of low-scale maps (i.e. with less detail) from large-scale maps (with more detail), i.e. generalisation, used to be a manual task of cartographers. With the need for more up-to-date data as well as the development of automated generalisation solutions in both research and industry, NMAs are implementing automated generalisation production lines. To exchange experiences and identify remaining issues, a workshop was organised end 2015 by the Commission on Generalisation and Multirepresentation of the International Cartographic Association and the Commission on Modelling and Processing of the European Spatial Data Research. This paper reports about the workshop outcomes. It shows that, most NMAs have implemented a certain form of automation in their workflows, varying from generalisation of certain features while still maintaining a manual workflow; semiautomated editing and generalisation to a fully automated procedure.

  17. Common display performance requirements for military and commercial aircraft product lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoener, Steven J.; Behrens, Arthur J.; Flint, John R.; Jacobsen, Alan R.

    2001-09-01

    Obtaining high quality Active Matrix Liquid Crystal (AMLCD) glass to meet the needs of the commercial and military aerospace business is a major challenge, at best. With the demise of all domestic sources of AMLCD substrate glass, the industry is now focused on overseas sources, which are primarily producing glass for consumer electronics. Previous experience with ruggedizing commercial glass leads to the expectation that the aerospace industry can leverage off the commercial market. The problem remains, while the commercial industry is continually changing and improving its products, the commercial and military aerospace industries require stable and affordable supplies of AMLCD glass for upwards of 20 years to support production and maintenance operations. The Boeing Engineering and Supplier Management Process Councils have chartered a group of displays experts from multiple aircraft product divisions within the Boeing Company, the Displays Process Action Team (DPAT), to address this situation from an overall corporate perspective. The DPAT has formulated a set of Common Displays Performance Requirements for use across the corporate line of commercial and military aircraft products. Though focused on the AMLCD problem, the proposed common requirements are largely independent of display technology. This paper describes the strategy being pursued within the Boeing Company to address the AMLCD supply problem and details the proposed implementation process, centered on common requirements for both commercial and military aircraft displays. Highlighted in this paper are proposed common, or standard, display sizes and the other major requirements established by the DPAT, along with the rationale for these requirements.

  18. Production of infectious duck hepatitis B virus in a human hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Galle, P R; Schlicht, H J; Fischer, M; Schaller, H

    1988-01-01

    The differentiated human hepatoma cell line Hep-G2 was transfected with cloned duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) DNA. Introduction of closed circular DNA into the human liver cells resulted in the production of viral proteins: core antigen was detected in the cytoplasm, and e antigen, a related product, was secreted into the medium. Moreover, viral particles were released into the tissue culture medium which were indistinguishable from authentic DHBV by density, antigenicity, DNA polymerase activity, and morphology. Intravenous injection of tissue culture-derived DHBV particles into Pekin ducks established DHBV infection. In conclusion, transfection of human hepatoma cells with cloned DHBV DNA results in the production of infectious virus, as occurs with cloned human hepatitis B virus DNA. Human liver cells are therefore competent to support production of the avian and mammalian hepadnaviruses, indicating that liver-specific viral gene expression is controlled by evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. This new DHBV transfection system offers the opportunity to rapidly produce mutated DHBV which then can be further investigated in Pekin ducks. Images PMID:2833623

  19. Automated imagery orthorectification pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Johnson, Brad; McMahon, Joe

    2009-10-01

    Automated orthorectification of raw image products is now possible based on the comprehensive metadata collected by Global Positioning Systems and Inertial Measurement Unit technology aboard aircraft and satellite digital imaging systems, and based on emerging pattern-matching and automated image-to-image and control point selection capabilities in many advanced image processing systems. Automated orthorectification of standard aerial photography is also possible if a camera calibration report and sufficient metadata is available. Orthorectification of historical imagery, for which only limited metadata was available, was also attempted and found to require some user input, creating a semi-automated process that still has significant potential to reduce processing time and expense for the conversion of archival historical imagery into geospatially enabled, digital formats, facilitating preservation and utilization of a vast archive of historical imagery. Over 90 percent of the frames of historical aerial photos used in this experiment were successfully orthorectified to the accuracy of the USGS 100K base map series utilized for the geospatial reference of the archive. The accuracy standard for the 100K series maps is approximately 167 feet (51 meters). The main problems associated with orthorectification failure were cloud cover, shadow and historical landscape change which confused automated image-to-image matching processes. Further research is recommended to optimize automated orthorectification methods and enable broad operational use, especially as related to historical imagery archives.

  20. Automated two-column purification of iminobiotin and BrdU-labeled PCR products for rapid cloning: application to genes synthesized by polymerase chain assembly.

    PubMed

    TerMaat, Joel R; Mamedov, Tarlan G; Pienaar, Elsje; Whitney, Scott E; Subramanian, Anuradha

    2010-02-01

    Polymerase chain assembly (PCA) is a powerful tool for basic biological research and biotechnology applications. During the last several years, major advances have been made in de novo gene synthesis. However, there is still a need for fast and reproducible methods to automatically purify the synthesized genes. Upon completion of PCA, the subsequent PCR-amplified product mixture still contains undesired shorter DNA fragments that hinder cloning efforts. To avoid tedious gel purification, an automated two-column purification has been developed and used in conjunction with rapid PCA. The system enables fast synthesis and isolation of the full-length DNA of interest, important for facile cloning of desired DNA fragments. During the PCR amplification step, forward and reverse primers tagged with iminobiotin and bromodeoxyuridine labels, respectively, were used. The automated purification was then performed on the PCR mixture using two affinity/immunocapture columns in series to isolate only the desired full-length product. The procedure has been applied to the pUC19 beta-lactamase gene (929 bp). Follow-up PCR of the purified product, cloning, and sequencing demonstrated the technique's effectiveness in obtaining the pure full-length gene. The purification has also been performed on other synthesized genes, indicating its utility as a general approach. PMID:20109289

  1. Deletion of a telomeric region on chromosome 8 correlates with higher productivity and stability of CHO cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Anett; Voedisch, Bernd; Wienberg, Johannes; Wilms, Burkhard; Geisse, Sabine; Jostock, Thomas; Laux, Holger

    2016-05-01

    Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells are widely used for large scale production of recombinant biopharmaceuticals. Although these cells have been extensively used, a demand to further increase the performance, for example, to facilitate the process of clone selection to isolate the highest producing cell lines that maintain stability of production over time is still existing. We compared gene expression profiles of high versus low producing CHO clones to identify regulated genes which can be used as biomarkers during clone selection or for cell line engineering. We present evidence that increased production rates and cell line stability are correlated with the loss of the telomeric region of the chromosome 8. A new parental CHO cell line lacking this region was generated and its capability for protein production was assessed. The average volumetric productivity of cells after gene transfer and selection was found to be several fold improved, facilitating the supply of early drug substance material to determine for example, quality. In addition, significantly more cell clones with a higher average productivity and higher protein production stability were obtained with the new host cell line after single cell cloning. This allows reduced efforts in single cell sorting, screening of fewer clones and raises the opportunity to circumvent time and labor-intensive stability studies. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1084-1093. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26523402

  2. Microcarrier culture of lepidopteran cell lines: implications for growth and recombinant protein production.

    PubMed

    Ikonomou, Laertis; Drugmand, Jean-Christophe; Bastin, Georges; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Agathos, Spiros N

    2002-01-01

    Several microcarrier systems were screened with Sf-9 and High-Five cell lines as to their ability to support cell growth and recombinant (beta-galactosidase) protein production. Growth of both cell lines on compact microcarriers, such as Cytodex-1 and glass beads, was minimal, as cells detached easily from the microcarrier surface and grew as single cells in the medium. Cell growth was also problematic on Cytopore-1 and -2 porous microcarriers. Cells remained attached for several days inside the microcarrier pores, but no cell division and proliferation were observed. On the contrary, insect cells grew well in the interior of Fibra-Cel disks mainly as aggregates at points of fiber intersection, reaching final (plateau) densities of about 4 x 10(6) (Sf-9) and 2.7 x 10(6) (High-Five) cells mL(-1) (8 x 10(6) and 5.5 x 10(6) cells per cm(2) of projected disk area, respectively). Their growth was described well by the logistic equation, which takes into account possible inhibition effects. Beta-Galactosidase (beta-gal) production of Sf-9 cells on Fibra-Cel disks (infected at 3.3 x 10(6) cells mL(-1)) was prolonged (192 h), and specific protein production was similar to that of high-density free cell infection. Cultispher-S microcarriers were found to be a very efficient system for the growth of High-Five cells, whereas no growth of Sf-9 cells took place for the same system. Concentrations of about 9 x 10(6) cells mL(-1) were reached within 120 h, with cell growth in both microcarriers and aggregates, appearance of cellular bridges between microcarriers and aggregates, and eventual formation of macroaggregates incorporating several microcarriers. Specific protein productions after beta-gal baculovirus infection at increasing cell concentrations were almost constant, thus leading to elevated volumetric protein production: final beta-gal titers of 946, 1728, and 1484 U mL(-1) were obtained for infection densities of 3.4, 7.2, and 8.9 x 10(6) cells mL(-1), respectively

  3. Determination of benzalkonium chloride in eye care products by high-performance liquid chromatography and solid-phase extraction or on-line column switching.

    PubMed

    Elrod, L; Golich, T G; Morley, J A

    1992-11-20

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is a mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chlorides, which is commonly used as a bacteriostat. In this work, the three major homologues of BAK are quantitated in the over-the-counter eye care products Murine and Murine Plus using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The analytes are separated from various product excipients and concentrated by either solid-phase extraction onto Sep-Pak C18 cartridges or by an on-line column-switching technique using 1-cm reversed-phase precolumns. Absolute recoveries of BAK homologues by the solid-phase extraction technique ranged from 97.2 to 98.7% for standards and from 98.0 to 98.4% for samples. Absolute recovery of the BAK homologues by the column-switching technique was 101.3% for standards and ranged from 99.9 to 103.7% for samples. Relative recoveries were quantitative by both techniques. Assay precision (R.S.D. values) were +/- 2.2% to +/- 2.6% and +/- 0.4% to +/- 0.8% by solid-phase extraction and column-switching techniques, respectively. The method provides advantages of high sample throughput, excellent column life and automation. PMID:1474126

  4. Mercury transformation and distribution across a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) production line in China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wen; Duan, Lei; Zhu, Zhenwu; Du, Wen; An, Zhongyi; Xu, Lingjun; Zhang, Chi; Zhuo, Yuqun; Chen, Changhe

    2014-02-18

    The production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) via the calcium carbide process utilizes a catalyst containing large amounts of mercury (Hg) and is therefore one of the most important sources of anthropogenic Hg in China. To measure the emission of Hg from PVC production, we established a flowchart for the calcium carbide process, for which we quantified the Hg content of the material/product at each step. Results indicated that 71.5% of the total Hg (Hg(T)) was lost from the catalyst, most of which was recovered by the Hg remover, accounting for 46.0% of the total Hg (Hg(T)). We determined that 3.7% of the Hg(T) was released into the environment, mostly in solid wastes and byproducts such as hydrochloric acid. Furthermore, no Hg has been detected in the PVC end product. However, we were only able to account for 78.1% of the Hg across the whole system, leaving 21.7% unaccounted for in the mass balance. A rough estimation indicates that most of the "missing" Hg had accumulated in deposits on the inner surface of converters and downstream pipelines; however, the emission to the atmosphere was ≤ 1% of the Hg(T). For a PVC production line equipped with a Hg remover, emissions of Hg to the atmosphere have been estimated to be 4.9 g per tonne PVC. Currently, almost all calcium carbide facilities have been equipped with a Hg remover, which may reduce the release of Hg in China by ∼ 500 t/year. PMID:24428761

  5. Interleukin-8 production by the human colon epithelial cell line HT-29: modulation by interleukin-13.

    PubMed Central

    Kolios, G.; Robertson, D. A.; Jordan, N. J.; Minty, A.; Caput, D.; Ferrara, P.; Westwick, J.

    1996-01-01

    1. We have determined which cytokines induce and modulate the production of the chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) by the human colonic epithelial cell line HT-29. 2. Growth arrested cell cultures were stimulated with the human recombinant cytokines interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-13 (IL-13), interleukin-10 (IL-10) or vehicle added alone or in combination. The production of IL-8 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and IL-8 messenger RNA expression by Northern blot analysis. 3. The production of IL-8 in unstimulated cells was undetectable by both ELISA and Northern blot analysis. 4. HT-29 cells produced IL-8 following stimulation with IL-1 alpha or TNF-alpha in a time- and a concentration-dependent manner, while IFN-gamma, IL-10 and IL-13 did not induce IL-8 production by HT-29 cells. 5. IL-13 was found to up-regulate significantly (P < 0.01) the IL-1 alpha but not the TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 generation by HT-29 cells. In contrast, IL-10 had no effect on either IL-1 alpha or TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 production. 6. Experiments using cycloheximide demonstrated that this synergistic effect of IL-13 and IL-1 alpha on IL-8 secretion was not through de novo protein synthesis. Using actinomycin-D, we demonstrated that the IL-13 up-regulation was at the level of transcription rather than messenger RNA stability. 7. These findings suggest that colonic epithelial cells have a functional IL-13 receptor, which is coupled to an up-regulation of IL-1 alpha, but not TNF-alpha induced IL-8 generation. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:8886420

  6. Exponentiation for products of Wilson lines within the generating function approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, A. A.

    2015-06-01

    We present the generating function approach to the perturbative exponentiation of correlators of a product of Wilson lines and loops. The exponentiated expression is presented in closed form as an algebraic function of correlators of known operators, which can be seen as a generating function for web diagrams. The expression is naturally split onto two parts: the exponentiation kernel, which accumulates all non-trivial information about web diagrams, and the defect of exponentiation, which reconstructs the matrix exponent and is a function of the exponentiation kernel. The detailed comparison of the presented approach with existing approaches to exponentiation is presented as well. We also give examples of calculations within the generating function exponentiation, namely, we consider different configurations of light-like Wilson lines in the multi-gluon-exchange-webs (MGEW) approximation. Within this approximation the corresponding correlators can be calculated exactly at any order of perturbative expansion by only algebraic manipulations. The MGEW approximation shows violation of the dipole formula for infrared singularities at three-loop order.

  7. Marine Mammal Train Oil Production Methods: Experimental Reconstructions of Norwegian Iron Age Slab-Lined Pits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Gørill

    2016-08-01

    Seal hunting and whaling have played an important part of people's livelihoods throughout prehistory as evidenced by rock carvings, remains of bones, artifacts from aquatic animals and hunting tools. This paper focuses on one of the more elusive resources relating to such activities: marine mammal blubber. Although marine blubber easily decomposes, the organic material has been documented from the Mesolithic Period onwards. Of particular interest in this article are the many structures in Northern Norway from the Iron Age and in Finland on Kökar, Åland, from both the Bronze and Early Iron Ages in which these periods exhibited traits interpreted as being related to oil rendering from marine mammal blubber. The article discusses methods used in this oil production activity based on historical sources, archaeological investigations and experimental reconstruction of Iron Age slab-lined pits from Northern Norway.

  8. Industrial Production of Therapeutic Proteins: Cell Lines, Cell Culture, and Purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Marie M.; Mollet, Michael; Hubert, Rene S.

    The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries have seen a recent surge in the development of biological drug products manufactured from engineered mammalian cell lines. Since the hugely successful launch of human tissue plasminogen activator in 1987 and erythropoietin in 1988, the biopharmaceutical market has grown immensely. Global sales in 2003 exceeded US 30 billion.1 Currently, a total of 108 biotherapeutics are approved and available to patients (Table 32.1). In addition, 324 medically related, biotechnology-derived medicines for nearly 150 diseases are in clinical trials or under review by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.2 These biopharmaceutical candidates promise to bring more and better treatments to patients. Compared to small molecule drugs, biotherapeutics show exquisite specificity with fewer off-target interactions and improved safety profiles.

  9. Marine Mammal Train Oil Production Methods: Experimental Reconstructions of Norwegian Iron Age Slab-Lined Pits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Gørill

    2016-02-01

    Seal hunting and whaling have played an important part of people's livelihoods throughout prehistory as evidenced by rock carvings, remains of bones, artifacts from aquatic animals and hunting tools. This paper focuses on one of the more elusive resources relating to such activities: marine mammal blubber. Although marine blubber easily decomposes, the organic material has been documented from the Mesolithic Period onwards. Of particular interest in this article are the many structures in Northern Norway from the Iron Age and in Finland on Kökar, Åland, from both the Bronze and Early Iron Ages in which these periods exhibited traits interpreted as being related to oil rendering from marine mammal blubber. The article discusses methods used in this oil production activity based on historical sources, archaeological investigations and experimental reconstruction of Iron Age slab-lined pits from Northern Norway.

  10. Automated Quality Assurance and Quality Control (QA/QC) in Developing Decadal Global Lake Dynamics Products using Landsat-7 and 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Y.; Song, C.; Wang, J.; Garibay, D.; Woods, J.; Lyons, E. A.; Smith, L. C.

    2015-12-01

    Inland lakes, important water resources, play a crucial role in the global water cycle and are sensitive to climate change and human activities. There clearly is a pressing need to understand temporal and spatial variations of lakes at global and continental scales. To inventory dynamics of global lakes is rather challenging due to their high abundance and low accessibility. With its broad spatial coverage and monitoring capability, satellite remote sensing is the only feasible approach to inventory global lake dynamics, but requires tens of thousands of high-resolution satellite images, automated mapping algorithms, and more importantly tedious yet essential quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) procedures. Millions of lakes have been mapped out using over 20 thousands Landsat images acquired at lake-stable seasons. Even though a set of highly replicable and automated lake mapping algorithms and tools have been developed, commission and omission errors still exist and some lake boundaries may not be adequately delineated. These errors need to be identified and fixed through intensive QA/QC processes. However, QA/QC of such a huge quantity of lakes remains a great challenge, and the currently available lake datasets from remote sensing were not produced through a rigorous QA/QC process. We have developed two QA/QC strategies with automation. Automated QA requires mapping the Earth twice in the same seasons for lakes and identifies "inconsistent" lakes for further QA/QC. Other lakes without significant changes are considered quality assured, and labor-intensive QA/QC is only limited to those "inconsistent" lakes. We have also developed semi-automated QC tools to further reduce the workload for manpower, and have produced a high-resolution systematically-generated circa-2000 global lake database with adequate QA/QC using Landsat-7. The recent operation of Landsat 8 extends the unprecedented Landsat record to over 40 years, allowing long-term, large-scale lake

  11. ATC automation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    1990-01-01

    Information on the design of human-centered tools for terminal area air traffic control (ATC) is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on payoffs and products, guidelines, ATC as a team process, automation tools for ATF, and the traffic management advisor.

  12. Automated Administrative Data Bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrie, M. D.; Jarrett, J. R.; Reising, S. A.; Hodge, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Improved productivity and more effective response to information requirements for internal management, NASA Centers, and Headquarters resulted from using automated techniques. Modules developed to provide information on manpower, RTOPS, full time equivalency, and physical space reduced duplication, increased communication, and saved time. There is potential for greater savings by sharing and integrating with those who have the same requirements.

  13. Metal mirror TMA, telescopes of the JSS product line: design and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschstein, Steffen; Koch, Amelia; Schöneich, Jürgen; Döngi, Frank

    2005-09-01

    For the increasing market of low-cost multispectral pushbroom scanners for spaceborne Earth remote sensing the Jena-Optronik GmbH have developed the JSS product line. They are typically operated on micro-satellites with strong resources constraints. This leads to instrument designs optimised with respect to minimum size and mass, power consumption, and cost. From various customer requirements, Jena-Optronik has derived the JSS product line of low-cost optical spaceborne scanners in the visible wavelength range. Three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) telescope designs have become a widespread design solution for fields of view from 2 to 12 deg. The design solution chosen by Jena-Optronik is based on all-aluminium telescopes. Novel ultra-precision milling and polishing techniques now give the opportunity to achieve the necessary optical surface quality for applications in the visible range. The TMA telescope optics design of the JSS-56 imager will be accommodated onboard the RapidEye spacecraft. The JSS-56 TMA with a F-number of 4.3 realised a swath width of 78km with a Ground pixel resolution of 6.5m × 6.5m. The aluminium mirrors are Ni coated to achieve a suitable surface polish quality. This paper discusses typical requirements for the thermal design the bimetallic effects of the mirrors. To achieve a nearly diffracted limited imaging the typical surface irregularities due to the turning process have to be addressed in the ray tracing models. Analysis and integration of real mirror data in the ZEMAX design software are demonstrated here and compared with build-in standard tolerance concepts.

  14. Automation of cutting and drilling of composite components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Charles W.

    1991-01-01

    The task was to develop a preliminary plan for an automated system for the cutting and drilling of advanced aerospace composite components. The goal was to automate the production of these components, but the technology developed can be readily extended to other systems. There is an excellent opportunity for developing a state of the art automated system for the cutting and drilling of large composite components at NASA-Marshall. Most of the major system components are in place: the robot, the water jet pump, and the off-line programming system. The drilling system and the part location system are the only major components that need to be developed. Also, another water jet nozzle and a small amount of high pressure plumbing need to be purchased from, and installed.

  15. Production characteristics of Hy-Line W36 laying hens hatched from white and tinted eggs.

    PubMed

    Kim, E J; Purswell, J L; Evans, J D; Branton, S L

    2014-08-01

    Eggshell color can greatly influence visual appeal of table eggs, and within the United States, table eggs are normally sorted and marked according to eggshell color to maximize consumer appeal. Recently, table egg producers have noted increased incidence of "off-color" or tinted (TT) eggs derived from white egg laying breeder hens. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the production characteristics and resultant eggshell color of laying hens hatched from different colored eggs. Hy-Line W36 eggs were obtained from a commercial breeder operation and eggshell color was assessed with a colorimeter to separate eggs into groups of tinted (TT) and nontinted (NT) eggs before incubation. Treatment groups were placed into separate hatching trays. At hatching, chicks from each treatment group were individually wing-banded. Pullets were randomly allocated into cages according to treatment groups at 18 wk. Birds were placed into individual cages, with 5 consecutive cages representing a treatment replicate. Each treatment was replicated 24 times for a total of 120 birds per treatment and fed a nutritionally complete layer diet. Production performance was evaluated from 18 to 34 wk of age. Average weekly egg production was calculated. Feed intake, egg weights, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, and egg color were analyzed every 2 wk. Birds were weighed every 4 wk until completion of the study. Birds hatched from TT eggs had significantly increased BW throughout the experimental period. Hen-day egg production was significantly different when compared with the NT treatment at 19 and 20 wk of age. Eggshell color was also found to be significantly different for the NT and TT groups with TT eggs being significantly further from true white. Selection of progeny based on eggshell color may be a criterion for selecting white egg layers as layers hatched from TT eggs resulted in more off-color eggs, which may affect consumer acceptance for buying white table eggs

  16. Nitric Oxide Oxidation Products are Increased in the Epithelial Lining Fluid of Children with Persistent Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Anne M.; Brown, Lou Ann S.; Holguin, Fernando; Teague, W. Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Background Children with severe allergic asthma have persistent airway inflammation and oxidant stress. Objectives We hypothesized that children with severe allergic asthma would have increased concentrations of the NO oxidation products nitrite, nitrate, and nitrotyrosine in the proximal and distal airway epithelial lining fluid (ELF). We further hypothesized that NO oxidation products would be associated with higher exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), greater allergic sensitization, and lower pulmonary function. Methods Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was obtained from 15 children with mild-to-moderate asthma, 30 children with severe allergic asthma, 5 non-asthmatic children and 20 non-smoking adults. The BAL was divided into proximal and distal portions and nitrite, nitrate, and nitrotyrosine were quantified. Results Children with mild-to-moderate and severe allergic asthma had increased concentrations of nitrite (adult control: 15 ± 3; pediatric control: 23 ± 4; mild-to-moderate asthma: 56 ± 26; severe asthma: 74 ± 18 µM), nitrate (37 ± 13 vs. 145 ± 38 vs. 711 ± 155 vs. 870 ± 168 µM) and nitrotyrosine (2 ± 1 vs. 3 ± 1 vs. 9 ± 3 vs. 10 ± 4 µM) in the proximal ELF. Similar results were seen in the distal ELF although the concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.05 for each). Although univariate analyses revealed no associations between NO oxidation products and clinical features, multivariate analyses revealed FENO to be a significant predictor of NO oxidation in asthmatic children. Conclusions NO oxidation products are increased in the ELF of asthmatic children. The relationship between FENO and airway nitrosative stress is complicated and requires further study. PMID:19895987

  17. A Streamlined, Automated Protocol for the Production of Milligram Quantities of Untagged Recombinant Rat Lactate Dehydrogenase A Using ÄKTAxpressTM

    PubMed Central

    Nowicki, Matthew W.; Blackburn, Elizabeth A.; McNae, Iain W.; Wear, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    We developed an efficient, automated 2-step purification protocol for the production of milligram quantities of untagged recombinant rat lactate dehydrogenase A (rLDHA) from E. coli, using the ÄKTAxpress™ chromatography system. Cation exchange followed by size exclusion results in average final purity in excess of 93% and yields ~ 14 milligrams per 50 ml of original cell culture in EnPresso B media, in under 8 hrs, including all primary sample processing and column equilibration steps. The protein is highly active and coherent biophysically and a viable alternative to the more problematic human homolog for structural and ligand-binding studies; an apo structure of untagged rLDHA was solved to a resolution 2.29 Å (PDB ID 5ES3). Our automated methodology uses generic commercially available pre-packed columns and simple buffers, and represents a robust standard method for the production of milligram amounts of untagged rLDHA, facilitating a novel fragment screening approach for new inhibitors. PMID:26717415

  18. Automated Engineering Design (AED); An approach to automated documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclure, C. W.

    1970-01-01

    The automated engineering design (AED) is reviewed, consisting of a high level systems programming language, a series of modular precoded subroutines, and a set of powerful software machine tools that effectively automate the production and design of new languages. AED is used primarily for development of problem and user-oriented languages. Software production phases are diagramed, and factors which inhibit effective documentation are evaluated.

  19. Automated next-to-leading order predictions for new physics at the LHC: The case of colored scalar pair production

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Degrande, Céline; Fuks, Benjamin; Hirschi, Valentin; Proudom, Josselin; Shao, Hua -Sheng

    2015-05-05

    We present for the first time the full automation of collider predictions matched with parton showers at the next-to-leading accuracy in QCD within nontrivial extensions of the standard model. The sole inputs required from the user are the model Lagrangian and the process of interest. As an application of the above, we explore scenarios beyond the standard model where new colored scalar particles can be pair produced in hadron collisions. Using simplified models to describe the new field interactions with the standard model, we present precision predictions for the LHC within the MadGraph5_aMC@NLO framework.

  20. Wax deposition scale-up modeling for waxy crude production lines

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.J.C.; Brubaker, J.P.

    1995-12-01

    A wax deposition scale-up model has been developed to scale-up laboratory wax deposition results for waxy crude production lines. The wax deposition model allows users to predict wax deposition profile along a cold pipeline and predict potential wax problems and pigging frequency. Consideration of the flow turbulence effect significantly increases prediction accuracy. Accurate wax deposition prediction should save capital and operation investments for waxy crude production systems. Many wax deposition models only apply a molecular diffusion mechanism in modeling and neglect shear effect. However, the flow turbulence effect has significant impact on wax deposition and can not be neglected in wax deposition modeling. Wax deposition scale-up parameters including shear rate, shear stress, and Reynolds number have been studied. None of these parameters can be used as a scaler. Critical wax tension concept has been proposed as a scaler. A technique to scale up shear effect and then wax deposition is described. For a given oil and oil temperature, the laboratory wax deposition data can be scaled up by heat flux and flow velocity. The scale-up techniques could be applied to multiphase flow conditions. Examples are presented in this paper to describe profiles of wax deposition and effective inside diameter along North Sea and West Africa subsea pipelines. The difference of wax deposition profiles from stock tank oil and live oil is also presented.

  1. Engineering Protocells: Prospects for Self-Assembly and Nanoscale Production-Lines

    PubMed Central

    Miller, David M.; Gulbis, Jacqueline M.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing ease of producing nucleic acids and proteins to specification offers potential for design and fabrication of artificial synthetic “organisms” with a myriad of possible capabilities. The prospects for these synthetic organisms are significant, with potential applications in diverse fields including synthesis of pharmaceuticals, sources of renewable fuel and environmental cleanup. Until now, artificial cell technology has been largely restricted to the modification and metabolic engineering of living unicellular organisms. This review discusses emerging possibilities for developing synthetic protocell “machines” assembled entirely from individual biological components. We describe a host of recent technological advances that could potentially be harnessed in design and construction of synthetic protocells, some of which have already been utilized toward these ends. More elaborate designs include options for building self-assembling machines by incorporating cellular transport and assembly machinery. We also discuss production in miniature, using microfluidic production lines. While there are still many unknowns in the design, engineering and optimization of protocells, current technologies are now tantalizingly close to the capabilities required to build the first prototype protocells with potential real-world applications. PMID:25815781

  2. Engineering protocells: prospects for self-assembly and nanoscale production-lines.

    PubMed

    Miller, David M; Gulbis, Jacqueline M

    2015-01-01

    The increasing ease of producing nucleic acids and proteins to specification offers potential for design and fabrication of artificial synthetic "organisms" with a myriad of possible capabilities. The prospects for these synthetic organisms are significant, with potential applications in diverse fields including synthesis of pharmaceuticals, sources of renewable fuel and environmental cleanup. Until now, artificial cell technology has been largely restricted to the modification and metabolic engineering of living unicellular organisms. This review discusses emerging possibilities for developing synthetic protocell "machines" assembled entirely from individual biological components. We describe a host of recent technological advances that could potentially be harnessed in design and construction of synthetic protocells, some of which have already been utilized toward these ends. More elaborate designs include options for building self-assembling machines by incorporating cellular transport and assembly machinery. We also discuss production in miniature, using microfluidic production lines. While there are still many unknowns in the design, engineering and optimization of protocells, current technologies are now tantalizingly close to the capabilities required to build the first prototype protocells with potential real-world applications. PMID:25815781

  3. Habitat automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swab, Rodney E.

    1992-01-01

    A habitat, on either the surface of the Moon or Mars, will be designed and built with the proven technologies of that day. These technologies will be mature and readily available to the habitat designer. We believe an acceleration of the normal pace of automation would allow a habitat to be safer and more easily maintained than would be the case otherwise. This document examines the operation of a habitat and describes elements of that operation which may benefit from an increased use of automation. Research topics within the automation realm are then defined and discussed with respect to the role they can have in the design of the habitat. Problems associated with the integration of advanced technologies into real-world projects at NASA are also addressed.

  4. Design and implementation of an automated liquid-phase microextraction-chip system coupled on-line with high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Petersen, Nickolaj Jacob; Payán, María D Ramos; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2014-03-01

    An automated liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) device in a chip format has been developed and coupled directly to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A 10-port 2-position switching valve was used to hyphenate the LPME-chip with the HPLC autosampler, and to collect the extracted analytes, which then were delivered to the HPLC column. The LPME-chip-HPLC system was completely automated and controlled by the software of the HPLC instrument. The performance of this system was demonstrated with five alkaloids i.e. morphine, codeine, thebaine, papaverine, and noscapine as model analytes. The composition of the supported liquid membrane (SLM) and carrier was optimized in order to achieve reasonable extraction performance of all the five alkaloids. With 1-octanol as SLM solvent and with 25 mM sodium octanoate as anionic carrier, extraction recoveries for the different opium alkaloids ranged between 17% and 45%. The extraction provided high selectivity, and no interfering peaks in the chromatograms were observed when applied to human urine samples spiked with alkaloids. The detection limits using UV-detection were in the range of 1-21 ng/mL for the five opium alkaloids presented in water samples. The repeatability was within 5.0-10.8% (RSD). The membrane liquid in the LPME-chip was regenerated automatically between every third injection. With this procedure the liquid membrane in the LPME-chip was stable in 3-7 days depending on the complexity of sample solutions with continuous operation. With this LPME-chip-HPLC system, series of samples were automatically injected, extracted, separated, and detected without any operator interaction. PMID:24468363

  5. Benchmarks on automated system and software generation higher flexibility increased productivity and shorter time-to-market by ScaPable software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlich, Rainer

    2002-07-01

    "ScaPable" is an acronym derived from "scalable" and "portable". The attribute "scalable" indicates that specific application software can automatically be built from scratch and verified without writing any statement in a programming language like C, thereby covering a large variety of embedded and/or distributed applications. The term "portable" addresses the capability to automatically port parts of such an application from one physical node to another one - the processor and operating system type may change - only requiring the names of the nodes, their processor type and operating system. This way the infrastructure of an embedded / distributed system can be built just by provision of literals and figures which define the system interaction, communication, topology and performance. Moreover, dedicated application software like needed for on-board command handling, data acquisition and processing, and telemetry handling can be built from generic templates. The generation time range from less than one second up to about twenty minutes on a PC/Linux platform (800 MHz). By this extremely short generation time risks can be identified early because the executable application is immediately available for validation. A rough estimation shows that one hour of automated system and software generation is equivalent to about 5 .. 50 man years. Currently, about 50% of a typical space embedded system can be covered by the available automated approach. However, the more it is applied, the more can be covered by automation. A system is constructed by applying a formal transformation to the few information as delivered by the user. This approach is not limited to the space domain, although the first industrial application was a space project. Quite different domains can take advantage of such principles of system construction. This paper explains the approach, compares it with other approaches, and provides figures on productivity, duration of system generation and reliability.

  6. Induction heat treatment as a means of increasing production

    SciTech Connect

    Golovin, G.F.; Shamov, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    The economic effectiveness of induction heat treatment was determined by a number of factors, including: saving energy and resources by substituting surface hardening for bulk or casehardening, improving labor productivity by process automation and including induction heat treatment equipment in the production line. Induction heating was found to be quick, does not require protection from oxidation, makes it possible to mechanize and automate the production process, and improves stabilization properties after annealing.

  7. DESIGN OF SMALL AUTOMATION WORK CELL SYSTEM DEMONSTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    C. TURNER; J. PEHL; ET AL

    2000-12-01

    The introduction of automation systems into many of the facilities dealing with the production, use and disposition of nuclear materials has been an ongoing objective. Many previous attempts have been made, using a variety of monolithic and, in some cases, modular technologies. Many of these attempts were less than successful, owing to the difficulty of the problem, the lack of maturity of the technology, and over optimism about the capabilities of a particular system. Consequently, it is not surprising that suggestions that automation can reduce worker Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) levels are often met with skepticism and caution. The development of effective demonstrations of these technologies is of vital importance if automation is to become an acceptable option for nuclear material processing environments. The University of Texas Robotics Research Group (UTRRG) has been pursuing the development of technologies to support modular small automation systems (each of less than 5 degrees-of-freedom) and the design of those systems for more than two decades. Properly designed and implemented, these technologies have a potential to reduce the worker ORE associated with work in nuclear materials processing facilities. Successful development of systems for these applications requires the development of technologies that meet the requirements of the applications. These application requirements form a general set of rules that applicable technologies and approaches need to adhere to, but in and of themselves are generally insufficient for the design of a specific automation system. For the design of an appropriate system, the associated task specifications and relationships need to be defined. These task specifications also provide a means by which appropriate technology demonstrations can be defined. Based on the requirements and specifications of the operations of the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) pilot line at Los Alamos National

  8. Growth, productivity and protein glycosylation in a CHO EpoFc producer cell line adapted to glutamine-free growth.

    PubMed

    Taschwer, Michael; Hackl, Matthias; Hernández Bort, Juan A; Leitner, Christian; Kumar, Niraj; Puc, Urszula; Grass, Josephine; Papst, Martin; Kunert, Renate; Altmann, Friedrich; Borth, Nicole

    2012-01-20

    A primary objective of cell line development and process optimisation in animal cell culture is the improvement of culture performance as indicated by desirable properties such as high cell concentration, viability, productivity and product quality. The inefficient energy metabolism of mammalian cells in culture is still a major limiting factor for improvements in process performance. It results in high uptake rates of glucose and glutamine and the concomitant accumulation of waste products which in turn limits final cell concentrations and growth. To avoid these negative side effects, a CHO host cell line was established recently which is able to grow in completely glutamine free medium (Hernandez Bort et al., 2010). To determine the influence of this adaptation on productivity and product quality, the same procedure was repeated with a recombinant CHO cell line producing an erythropoietin-Fc fusion protein (CHO-EpoFc) for this publication. After adaptation to higher cell densities and glutamine free medium, culture performance was monitored in batch bioprocesses and revealed comparable growth properties and EpoFc product formation in both cell lines. The level of reactive oxygen species was elevated in the adapted cells, reflecting a higher level of oxidative stress, however, at the same time the level of the oxido-protective glutathione was also higher, so that cells seem adequately protected against cellular damage. Analysis of nucleotides and nucleotide sugars revealed elevated UDP-sugars in cells grown in the absence of glutamine. Furthermore, the antennarity of N-glycans was moderately higher on the Epo part of the protein produced by the adapted cell line compared to the parental cell line. Except for this, the glycosylation, with respect to site occupancy, degree of sialylation and glycoform structure, was highly comparable, both for the Epo and the Fc part of the protein. PMID:22178781

  9. Automated Assembly Center (AAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this project are as follows: to integrate advanced assembly and assembly support technology under a comprehensive architecture; to implement automated assembly technologies in the production of high-visibility DOD weapon systems; and to document the improved cost, quality, and lead time. This will enhance the production of DOD weapon systems by utilizing the latest commercially available technologies combined into a flexible system that will be able to readily incorporate new technologies as they emerge. Automated assembly encompasses the following areas: product data, process planning, information management policies and framework, three schema architecture, open systems communications, intelligent robots, flexible multi-ability end effectors, knowledge-based/expert systems, intelligent workstations, intelligent sensor systems, and PDES/PDDI data standards.

  10. Automating Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John

    2007-01-01

    In past years, higher education's financial management side has been riddled with manual processes and aging mainframe applications. This article discusses schools which had taken advantage of an array of technologies that automate billing, payment processing, and refund processing in the case of overpayment. The investments are well worth it:…

  11. Automated dispenser

    SciTech Connect

    Hollen, R.M.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1989-04-06

    An automated dispenser having a conventional pipette attached to an actuating cylinder through a flexible cable for delivering precise quantities of a liquid through commands from remotely located computer software. The travel of the flexible cable is controlled by adjustable stops and a locking shaft. The pipette can be positioned manually or by the hands of a robot. 1 fig.

  12. An automated, open-source pipeline for mass production of digital elevation models (DEMs) from very-high-resolution commercial stereo satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shean, David E.; Alexandrov, Oleg; Moratto, Zachary M.; Smith, Benjamin E.; Joughin, Ian R.; Porter, Claire; Morin, Paul

    2016-06-01

    We adapted the automated, open source NASA Ames Stereo Pipeline (ASP) to generate digital elevation models (DEMs) and orthoimages from very-high-resolution (VHR) commercial imagery of the Earth. These modifications include support for rigorous and rational polynomial coefficient (RPC) sensor models, sensor geometry correction, bundle adjustment, point cloud co-registration, and significant improvements to the ASP code base. We outline a processing workflow for ∼0.5 m ground sample distance (GSD) DigitalGlobe WorldView-1 and WorldView-2 along-track stereo image data, with an overview of ASP capabilities, an evaluation of ASP correlator options, benchmark test results, and two case studies of DEM accuracy. Output DEM products are posted at ∼2 m with direct geolocation accuracy of <5.0 m CE90/LE90. An automated iterative closest-point (ICP) co-registration tool reduces absolute vertical and horizontal error to <0.5 m where appropriate ground-control data are available, with observed standard deviation of ∼0.1-0.5 m for overlapping, co-registered DEMs (n = 14, 17). While ASP can be used to process individual stereo pairs on a local workstation, the methods presented here were developed for large-scale batch processing in a high-performance computing environment. We are leveraging these resources to produce dense time series and regional mosaics for the Earth's polar regions.

  13. Space station automation and autonomy

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, R.F.

    1984-08-01

    Mission definition and technology assessment studies support the necessity of incorporating increasing degrees of automation in a space station. As presently envisioned, a space station will evolve over 10-20 years. As the complexity of the space station grows, decision-making must be transferred from the crew to an on-board computer system in order to increase the productivity of the man/machine system. Thus, growth considerations require that provision be made for increasing degrees of automation as the space station evolves. Awareness by the planners and technologists of automated system interactions, of the functional role of automation and autonomy, and of design concepts that permit growth will significantly affect technology and system choices. The power system is an excellent case study for examining its possible evolution from manual to automated and continued evolution towards autonomous control. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the requirements for this evolution from the systems perspective.

  14. A Software Product Line Process to Develop Agents for the IoT.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Inmaculada; Amor, Mercedes; Fuentes, Lidia; Troya, José M

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important challenges of this decade is the Internet of Things (IoT), which aims to enable things to be connected anytime, anyplace, with anything and anyone, ideally using any path/network and any service. IoT systems are usually composed of heterogeneous and interconnected lightweight devices that support applications that are subject to change in their external environment and in the functioning of these devices. The management of the variability of these changes, autonomously, is a challenge in the development of these systems. Agents are a good option for developing self-managed IoT systems due to their distributed nature, context-awareness and self-adaptation. Our goal is to enhance the development of IoT applications using agents and software product lines (SPL). Specifically, we propose to use Self-StarMASMAS, multi-agent system) agents and to define an SPL process using the Common Variability Language. In this contribution, we propose an SPL process for Self-StarMAS, paying particular attention to agents embedded in sensor motes. PMID:26140350

  15. A Software Product Line Process to Develop Agents for the IoT

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Inmaculada; Amor, Mercedes; Fuentes, Lidia; Troya, José M.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important challenges of this decade is the Internet of Things (IoT), which aims to enable things to be connected anytime, anyplace, with anything and anyone, ideally using any path/network and any service. IoT systems are usually composed of heterogeneous and interconnected lightweight devices that support applications that are subject to change in their external environment and in the functioning of these devices. The management of the variability of these changes, autonomously, is a challenge in the development of these systems. Agents are a good option for developing self-managed IoT systems due to their distributed nature, context-awareness and self-adaptation. Our goal is to enhance the development of IoT applications using agents and software product lines (SPL). Specifically, we propose to use Self-StarMASMAS, multi-agent system) agents and to define an SPL process using the Common Variability Language. In this contribution, we propose an SPL process for Self-StarMAS, paying particular attention to agents embedded in sensor motes. PMID:26140350

  16. Continuous on-line steam quality monitoring system of the Bacman Geothermal Production Field, Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Solis, R.P.; Chavez, F.C.; Garcia, S.E.

    1997-12-31

    In any operating geothermal power plant, steam quality is one of the most important parameters being monitored. In the Bacon-Manito Geothermal Production Field (BGPF), an online steam quality monitoring system have been installed in two operating power plants which provides an accurate, efficient and continuous real-time data which is more responsive to the various requirements of the field operation. The system utilizes sodium as an indicator of steam purity. Sodium concentration is read by the flame photometer located at the interface after aspirating a sample of the condensed steam through a continuous condensate sampler. The condensate has been degassed through a condensate-NCG separator. The flame photometer analog signal is then converted by a voltage-to-current converter/transmitter and relayed to the processor which is located at the control center through electrical cable to give a digital sodium concentration read-out at the control panel. The system features a high and high-high sodium level alarm, a continuous strip-chart recorder and a central computer for data capture, retrieval, and processing for further interpretation. Safety devices, such as the flame-off indicator at the control center and the automatic fuel cut-off device along the fuel line, are incorporated in the system.

  17. Automated trace determination of earthy-musty odorous compounds in water samples by on-line purge-and-trap-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Salemi, Amir; Lacorte, Sílvia; Bagheri, Habib; Barceló, Damià

    2006-12-15

    An automated technique based on purge-and-trap coupled to gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection has been developed and optimized for the trace determination of five of the most important water odorants; 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2-methylisoborneol, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole and geosmin. The extraction method was absolutely solvent-free. Analytes were purged from 20 ml of water sample containing sodium chloride at room temperature by a flow of He and trapped on a Tenax sorbent. The desorption step was performed with helium and temperature programming and desorbed analytes were directly transferred to a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer for separation and determination. The method was reproducible (RSD<8%) and linear over the calibration range (10-200 ngl(-1)). The relative recoveries of the analytes from ground water sample were calculated and were between 80 and 103% and limits of detection (LOD) below odor thresholds were achieved for most of the compounds. PMID:17055519

  18. Water consumption and biomass production of protoplast fusion lines of poplar hybrids under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Anne; Kleinschmit, Jörg R G; Schoneberg, Sebastian; Löffler, Sonja; Janßen, Alwin; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Woody crops such as poplars (Populus) can contribute to meet the increasing energy demand of a growing human population and can therefore enhance the security of energy supply. Using energy from biomass increases ecological sustainability as biomass is considered to play a pivotal role in abating climate change. Because areas for establishing poplar plantations are often confined to marginal sites drought tolerance is one important trait for poplar genotypes cultivated in short rotation coppice. We tested 9-month-old plants of four tetraploid Populus tremula (L.) × P. tremuloides (Michx.) lines that were generated by protoplast fusion and their diploid counterpart for water consumption and drought stress responses in a greenhouse experiment. The fusion lines showed equivalent or decreased height growth, stem biomass and total leaf area compared to the diploid line. The relative height increment of the fusion lines was not reduced compared to the diploid line when the plants were exposed to drought. The fusion lines were distinguished from the diploid counterpart by stomatal characteristics such as increased size and lower density. The changes in the stomatal apparatus did not affect the stomatal conductance. When exposed to drought the carbohydrate concentrations increased more strongly in the fusion lines than in the diploid line. Two fusion lines consumed significantly less water with regard to height growth, producing equivalent or increased relative stem biomass under drought compared to their diploid relative. Therefore, these tetraploid fusion lines are interesting candidates for short rotation biomass plantation on dry sites. PMID:26042130

  19. Water consumption and biomass production of protoplast fusion lines of poplar hybrids under drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Anne; Kleinschmit, Jörg R. G.; Schoneberg, Sebastian; Löffler, Sonja; Janßen, Alwin; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Woody crops such as poplars (Populus) can contribute to meet the increasing energy demand of a growing human population and can therefore enhance the security of energy supply. Using energy from biomass increases ecological sustainability as biomass is considered to play a pivotal role in abating climate change. Because areas for establishing poplar plantations are often confined to marginal sites drought tolerance is one important trait for poplar genotypes cultivated in short rotation coppice. We tested 9-month-old plants of four tetraploid Populus tremula (L.) × P. tremuloides (Michx.) lines that were generated by protoplast fusion and their diploid counterpart for water consumption and drought stress responses in a greenhouse experiment. The fusion lines showed equivalent or decreased height growth, stem biomass and total leaf area compared to the diploid line. The relative height increment of the fusion lines was not reduced compared to the diploid line when the plants were exposed to drought. The fusion lines were distinguished from the diploid counterpart by stomatal characteristics such as increased size and lower density. The changes in the stomatal apparatus did not affect the stomatal conductance. When exposed to drought the carbohydrate concentrations increased more strongly in the fusion lines than in the diploid line. Two fusion lines consumed significantly less water with regard to height growth, producing equivalent or increased relative stem biomass under drought compared to their diploid relative. Therefore, these tetraploid fusion lines are interesting candidates for short rotation biomass plantation on dry sites. PMID:26042130

  20. Modular automation in PET tracer manufacturing: application of an autosynthesizer to the production of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose.

    PubMed

    Alexoff, D L; Russell, J A; Shiue, C Y; Wolf, A P; Fowler, J S; MacGregor, R R

    1986-01-01

    A compact autosynthesizer was developed and used successfully for the production of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose [18FDG] from gaseous acetyl hypo[18F]fluorite. The autosynthesizer performs a sequence of general purpose synthesis procedures named Synthesis Unit Operations (SUO's). Each SUO is controlled through execution of a digital control algorithm with a BASIC language subroutine. This automatic synthesis system is based on two industry standard microcomputer architectures, the IBM PC and STD Bus, and it becomes a component of an evolving distributed microprocessor network of task-dedicated subsystems suitable for automated manufacturing of several useful radiotracers. The yield of 18FDG product using the autosynthesizer and remote manually controlled purification procedures is approximately 20% EOB. Radiochemical purity of this product as measured by thin layer chromatography was 96-99%. Chemical purity of the product was measured to be approximately 96%. 2-Deoxy-2-fluoro-D-mannose impurity from this method was determined to be approximately 4%. PMID:3027001

  1. Production of proinflammatory mediators by indoor air bacteria and fungal spores in mouse and human cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Huttunen, Kati; Hyvärinen, Anne; Nevalainen, Aino; Komulainen, Hannu; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2003-01-01

    We compared the inflammatory and cytotoxic responses caused by household mold and bacteria in human and mouse cell lines. We studied the fungi Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium spinulosum, and Stachybotrys chartarum and the bacteria Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Streptomyces californicus for their cytotoxicity and ability to stimulate the production of inflammatory mediators in mouse RAW264.7 and human 28SC macrophage cell lines and in the human A549 lung epithelial cell line in 24-hr exposure to 10(5), 10(6), and 10(7) microbes/mL. We studied time dependency by terminating the exposure to 10(6) microbes/mL after 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hr. We analyzed production of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukins 6 and 1ss (TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-1ss, respectively) and measured nitric oxide production using the Griess method, expression of inducible NO-synthase with Western Blot analysis, and cytotoxicity with the MTT-test. All bacteria strongly induced the production of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and, to a lesser extent, the formation of IL-1ss in mouse macrophages. Only the spores of Str. californicus induced the production of NO and IL-6 in both human and mouse cells. In contrast, exposure to fungal strains did not markedly increase the production of NO or any cytokine in the studied cell lines except for Sta. chartarum, which increased IL-6 production somewhat in human lung epithelial cells. These microbes were less cytotoxic to human cells than to mouse cells. On the basis of equivalent numbers of bacteria and spores of fungi added to cell cultures, the overall potency to stimulate the production of proinflammatory mediators decreased in the order Ps. fluorescens > Str. californicus > B. cereus > Sta. chartarum > A. versicolor > P. spinulosum. These data suggest that bacteria in water-damaged buildings should also be considered as causative agents of adverse inflammatory effects. PMID:12515684

  2. Experimental and In Silico Modelling Analyses of the Gene Expression Pathway for Recombinant Antibody and By-Product Production in NS0 Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Emma J.; Chiverton, Lesley M.; Spurgeon, Sarah K.; Martin, Elaine B.; Montague, Gary A.; Smales, C. Mark; von der Haar, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are commercially important, high value biotherapeutic drugs used in the treatment of a variety of diseases. These complex molecules consist of two heavy chain and two light chain polypeptides covalently linked by disulphide bonds. They are usually expressed as recombinant proteins from cultured mammalian cells, which are capable of correctly modifying, folding and assembling the polypeptide chains into the native quaternary structure. Such recombinant cell lines often vary in the amounts of product produced and in the heterogeneity of the secreted products. The biological mechanisms of this variation are not fully defined. Here we have utilised experimental and modelling strategies to characterise and define the biology underpinning product heterogeneity in cell lines exhibiting varying antibody expression levels, and then experimentally validated these models. In undertaking these studies we applied and validated biochemical (rate-constant based) and engineering (nonlinear) models of antibody expression to experimental data from four NS0 cell lines with different IgG4 secretion rates. The models predict that export of the full antibody and its fragments are intrinsically linked, and cannot therefore be manipulated individually at the level of the secretory machinery. Instead, the models highlight strategies for the manipulation at the precursor species level to increase recombinant protein yields in both high and low producing cell lines. The models also highlight cell line specific limitations in the antibody expression pathway. PMID:23071804

  3. Experimental and in silico modelling analyses of the gene expression pathway for recombinant antibody and by-product production in NS0 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Mead, Emma J; Chiverton, Lesley M; Spurgeon, Sarah K; Martin, Elaine B; Montague, Gary A; Smales, C Mark; von der Haar, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are commercially important, high value biotherapeutic drugs used in the treatment of a variety of diseases. These complex molecules consist of two heavy chain and two light chain polypeptides covalently linked by disulphide bonds. They are usually expressed as recombinant proteins from cultured mammalian cells, which are capable of correctly modifying, folding and assembling the polypeptide chains into the native quaternary structure. Such recombinant cell lines often vary in the amounts of product produced and in the heterogeneity of the secreted products. The biological mechanisms of this variation are not fully defined. Here we have utilised experimental and modelling strategies to characterise and define the biology underpinning product heterogeneity in cell lines exhibiting varying antibody expression levels, and then experimentally validated these models. In undertaking these studies we applied and validated biochemical (rate-constant based) and engineering (nonlinear) models of antibody expression to experimental data from four NS0 cell lines with different IgG4 secretion rates. The models predict that export of the full antibody and its fragments are intrinsically linked, and cannot therefore be manipulated individually at the level of the secretory machinery. Instead, the models highlight strategies for the manipulation at the precursor species level to increase recombinant protein yields in both high and low producing cell lines. The models also highlight cell line specific limitations in the antibody expression pathway. PMID:23071804

  4. Determination of nine benzotriazole UV stabilizers in environmental water samples by automated on-line solid phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Runzeng; Ruan, Ting; Wang, Thanh; Song, Shanjun; Guo, Feng; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-03-01

    A method using automated on-line solid phase extraction coupled with a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system was developed for the determination of emerging benzotriazole UV stabilizers (BZTs) in different environmental water matrices including river water, sewage influent and effluent. Water sample was injected directly and the analytes were preconcentrated on a Polar Advantage II on-line SPE cartridge. After cleanup step the target BZTs were eluted in back flush mode and then separated on a liquid chromatography column. Experimental parameters such as sample loading flow rate, SPE cartridge, pH value and methanol ratio in the sample were optimized in detail. The method detection limits ranged from 0.21 to 2.17 ng/L. Recoveries of the target BZTs at 50 ng/L spiking level ranged from 76% to 114% and the inter-day RSDs ranged from 1% to 15%. The optimized method was successfully applied to analyze twelve water samples collected from different wastewater treatment plants and rivers, and five BZTs (UV-P, UV-329, UV-350, UV-234 and UV-328) were detected with concentrations up to 37.1 ng/L. The proposed method is simple, sensitive and suitable for simultaneous analysis and monitoring of BZTs in water samples. PMID:24468355

  5. 78 FR 65274 - Certain Lined Paper Products From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Final Results and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... Notice of Countervailing Duty Orders: Certain Lined Paper Products from India and Indonesia, 71 FR 56949... Results and Rescission in Part of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012, 78 FR 34640 (June 10... Administrative Review, 76 FR 62343 (October 7, 2011) at footnote 3 for the latest update of the HTS numbers...

  6. 76 FR 60803 - Certain Lined Paper Products From People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Review, and Intent to Revoke Order in Part, 76 FR 50998 (August 17, 2011) (``Intent to Revoke''). DATES...; and Notice of Countervailing Duty Orders: Certain Lined Paper Products from India and Indonesia, 71 FR... or glued note paper, with papers that are printed with infrared reflective inks and readable only...

  7. 40 CFR 1045.325 - What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements? 1045.325 Section 1045.325 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM...

  8. 40 CFR 1045.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards? 1045.320 Section 1045.320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM...

  9. 40 CFR 1045.315 - How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements? 1045.315 Section 1045.315 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM...

  10. 75 FR 27706 - Certain Lined Paper Products from India and People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limits...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 74 FR 54956... International Trade Administration Certain Lined Paper Products from India and People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limits for the Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Reviews...

  11. Sustainable production of bioenergy and bio-char from the straw of high biomass soybean lines via fast pyrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The straws of two high-biomass soybean lines developed at ARS for bioenergy were subjected to thermochemical conversion by fast pyrolysis. The objective was to evaluate the potential use of the straw for the production of liquid fuel intermediates that can be burned “as is” and/or potentially upgra...

  12. 76 FR 30908 - Certain Lined Paper Products From India: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ..., or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 53635, (September 1... Duty Administrative Reviews, 75 FR 66349 (October 28, 2010). The preliminary results of review are... International Trade Administration Certain Lined Paper Products From India: Extension of Time Limit for...

  13. 40 CFR 1054.315 - How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... results for each engine. If you do several tests on an engine, calculate the initial results for each test... this section (see § 1054.315(a)). (d) After each new test, recalculate the CumSum statistic. (e) If you... § 1054.320 for the requirements that apply to individual engines that fail a production-line test....

  14. 40 CFR 1045.315 - How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... results for each engine. If you do several tests on an engine, calculate the initial results for each test... this section (see § 1045.315(a)). (d) After each new test, recalculate the CumSum statistic. (e) If you... § 1045.320 for the requirements that apply to individual engines that fail a production-line test....

  15. 40 CFR 1051.315 - How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... results for each vehicle or engine. If you do several tests on a vehicle or engine, calculate the initial... new test, recalculate the CumSum statistic. (e) If you test more than the required number of vehicles....320 for the requirements that apply to individual vehicles or engines that fail a production-line...

  16. 40 CFR 1048.315 - How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I know when my engine family... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.315 How do I know when my engine family... each engine. If you do several tests on an engine, calculate the initial results for each test,...

  17. 40 CFR 1051.315 - How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I know when my engine family... ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.315 How do I know when my engine... results for each vehicle or engine. If you do several tests on a vehicle or engine, calculate the...

  18. Production and On-Line Comprehension of Definiteness in English and Dutch by Monolingual and Sequential Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chondrogianni, Vasiliki; Vasic, Nada; Marinis, Theodoros; Blom, Elma

    2015-01-01

    The present article examines production and on-line processing of definite articles in Turkish-speaking sequential bilingual children acquiring English and Dutch as second languages (L2) in the UK and in the Netherlands, respectively. Thirty-nine 6-8-year-old L2 children and 48 monolingual (L1) age-matched children participated in two separate…

  19. Temperature automation for a propellant mixer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, T. L.; Wilson, R. G.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis and installation of an automatic temperature controller on a propellant mixer is presented. Ultimately, the entire mixing process will come under automation, but since precise adherence to the temperature profile is very difficult to sustain manually, this was the first component to be automated. Automation is not only important for producing a uniform product, but it is necessary for envisioned space-based propellant production.

  20. Terminal automation system maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Coffelt, D.; Hewitt, J.

    1997-01-01

    Nothing has improved petroleum product loading in recent years more than terminal automation systems. The presence of terminal automation systems (TAS) at loading racks has increased operational efficiency and safety and enhanced their accounting and management capabilities. However, like all finite systems, they occasionally malfunction or fail. Proper servicing and maintenance can minimize this. And in the unlikely event a TAS breakdown does occur, prompt and effective troubleshooting can reduce its impact on terminal productivity. To accommodate around-the-clock loading at racks, increasingly unattended by terminal personnel, TAS maintenance, servicing and troubleshooting has become increasingly demanding. It has also become increasingly important. After 15 years of trial and error at petroleum and petrochemical storage and transfer terminals, a number of successful troubleshooting programs have been developed. These include 24-hour {open_quotes}help hotlines,{close_quotes} internal (terminal company) and external (supplier) support staff, and {open_quotes}layered{close_quotes} support. These programs are described.

  1. Evaluation of public sweet sorghum A-lines for use in hybrid production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fundamental need for commercialization of sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] as a bioenergy crop is an adequate seed supply, which will require development of hybrid varieties using dwarf seed-parent lines. A set of 6 public sweet sorghum A-lines (Dwarf Kansas Sourless, KS9, N36, N38, N39...

  2. Evaluation of the Agronomic Performance of Atrazine-Tolerant Transgenic japonica Rice Parental Lines for Utilization in Hybrid Seed Production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanlan; Li, Yanan; Wang, Shengjun; Su, Jinping; Liu, Xuejun; Chen, Defu; Chen, Xiwen

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the purity of hybrid seed is a crucial limiting factor when developing hybrid japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.). To chemically control hybrid seed purity, we transferred an improved atrazine chlorohydrolase gene (atzA) from Pseudomonas ADP into hybrid japonica parental lines (two maintainers, one restorer), and Nipponbare, by using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We subsequently selected several transgenic lines from each genotype by using PCR, RT-PCR, and germination analysis. In the presence of the investigated atrazine concentrations, particularly 150 µM atrazine, almost all of the transgenic lines produced significantly larger seedlings, with similar or higher germination percentages, than did the respective controls. Although the seedlings of transgenic lines were taller and gained more root biomass compared to the respective control plants, their growth was nevertheless inhibited by atrazine treatment compared to that without treatment. When grown in soil containing 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg atrazine, the transgenic lines were taller, and had higher total chlorophyll contents than did the respective controls; moreover, three of the strongest transgenic lines completely recovered after 45 days of growth. After treatment with 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg of atrazine, the atrazine residue remaining in the soil was 2.9–7.0% or 0.8–8.7% respectively, for transgenic lines, and 44.0–59.2% or 28.1–30.8%, respectively, for control plants. Spraying plants at the vegetative growth stage with 0.15% atrazine effectively killed control plants, but not transgenic lines. Our results indicate that transgenic atzA rice plants show tolerance to atrazine, and may be used as parental lines in future hybrid seed production. PMID:25275554

  3. Automated High Throughput GMAX-L Strains of Saccharomyces Cereviciae for Profitable Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Industrial Hydrosylates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current ethanol dry grind and wet mill processes for fuel ethanol production from starch, yield substantial amounts of corn oil as one of the byproducts. This crude corn oil is a suitable feedstock for the production of fatty acid ethyl esters for use as biodiesel, which could be produced on-site. ...

  4. Determination of aflatoxins in food samples by automated on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Y; Saito, K; Hanioka, N; Narimatsu, S; Kataoka, H

    2009-05-15

    A simple and sensitive automated method for determination of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2) in nuts, cereals, dried fruits, and spices was developed consisting of in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Aflatoxins were separated within 8 min by high-performance liquid chromatography using a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8 column with methanol/acetonitrile (60/40, v/v): 5mM ammonium formate (45:55) as the mobile phase. Electrospray ionization conditions in the positive ion mode were optimized for MS detection of aflatoxins. The pseudo-molecular ions [M+H](+) were used to detect aflatoxins in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The optimum in-tube SPME conditions were 25draw/eject cycles of 40 microL of sample using a Supel-Q PLOT capillary column as an extraction device. The extracted aflatoxins were readily desorbed from the capillary by passage of the mobile phase, and no carryover was observed. Using the in-tube SPME LC-MS with SIM method, good linearity of the calibration curve (r>0.9994) was obtained in the concentration range of 0.05-2.0 ng/mL using aflatoxin M1 as an internal standard, and the detection limits (S/N=3) of aflatoxins were 2.1-2.8 pg/mL. The in-tube SPME method showed >23-fold higher sensitivity than the direct injection method (10 microL injection volume). The within-day and between-day precision (relative standard deviations) at the concentration of 1 ng/mL aflatoxin mixture were below 3.3% and 7.7% (n=5), respectively. This method was applied successfully to analysis of food samples without interference peaks. The recoveries of aflatoxins spiked into nuts and cereals were >80%, and the relative standard deviations were <11.2%. Aflatoxins were detected at <10 ng/g in several commercial food samples. PMID:19328492

  5. Automated Water Analyser Computer Supported System (AWACSS) Part II: Intelligent, remote-controlled, cost-effective, on-line, water-monitoring measurement system.

    PubMed

    Tschmelak, Jens; Proll, Guenther; Riedt, Johannes; Kaiser, Joachim; Kraemmer, Peter; Bárzaga, Luis; Wilkinson, James S; Hua, Ping; Hole, J Patrick; Nudd, Richard; Jackson, Michael; Abuknesha, Ram; Barceló, Damià; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; de Alda, Maria J López; Sacher, Frank; Stien, Jan; Slobodník, Jaroslav; Oswald, Peter; Kozmenko, Helena; Korenková, Eva; Tóthová, Lívia; Krascsenits, Zoltan; Gauglitz, Guenter

    2005-02-15

    A novel analytical system AWACSS (Automated Water Analyser Computer Supported System) based on immunochemical technology has been evaluated that can measure several organic pollutants at low nanogram per litre level in a single few-minutes analysis without any prior sample pre-concentration or pre-treatment steps. Having in mind actual needs of water-sector managers related to the implementation of the Drinking Water Directive (DWD) [98/83/EC, 1998. Council Directive (98/83/EC) of 3 November 1998 relating to the quality of water intended for human consumption. Off. J. Eur. Commun. L330, 32-54] and Water Framework Directive (WFD) [2000/60/EC, 2000. Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy. Off. J. Eur. Commun. L327, 1-72], drinking, ground, surface, and waste waters were major media used for the evaluation of the system performance. The first part article gave the reader an overview of the aims and scope of the AWACSS project as well as details about basic technology, immunoassays, software, and networking developed and utilised within the research project. The second part reports on the system performance, first real sample measurements, and an international collaborative trial (inter-laboratory tests) to compare the biosensor with conventional anayltical methods. The systems' capability for analysing a wide range of environmental organic micro-pollutants, such as modern pesticides, endocrine disrupting compounds and pharmaceuticals in surface, ground, drinking and waste water is shown. In addition, a protocol using reconstitution of extracts of solid samples, developed and applied for analysis of river sediments and food samples, is presented. Finally, the overall performance of the AWACSS system in comparison to the conventional analytical techniques, which included liquid and gas chromatographic systems with diode-array UV and mass

  6. Automate small refinery blending operations

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, D.E.; Mellott, M.T.

    1981-11-01

    More than ever, small refiners must become more efficient to remain competitive. Increased automation can contribute significantly to improving operations and reducing costs. Presented is a method of automating the blending operation which incorporates unique features and equipment. The system has proven successful in reducing costs and manpower, and improved product quality. The discussion is presented under headings - basic blending system; digital blender; knock engines and octave computer; programmable logic controller; flowmeters; lead additive systems.

  7. Using microwave Doppler radar in automated manufacturing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gregory C.

    Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, manufacturers worldwide have used automation to improve productivity, gain market share, and meet growing or changing consumer demand for manufactured products. To stimulate further industrial productivity, manufacturers need more advanced automation technologies: "smart" part handling systems, automated assembly machines, CNC machine tools, and industrial robots that use new sensor technologies, advanced control systems, and intelligent decision-making algorithms to "see," "hear," "feel," and "think" at the levels needed to handle complex manufacturing tasks without human intervention. The investigator's dissertation offers three methods that could help make "smart" CNC machine tools and industrial robots possible: (1) A method for detecting acoustic emission using a microwave Doppler radar detector, (2) A method for detecting tool wear on a CNC lathe using a Doppler radar detector, and (3) An online non-contact method for detecting industrial robot position errors using a microwave Doppler radar motion detector. The dissertation studies indicate that microwave Doppler radar could be quite useful in automated manufacturing applications. In particular, the methods developed may help solve two difficult problems that hinder further progress in automating manufacturing processes: (1) Automating metal-cutting operations on CNC machine tools by providing a reliable non-contact method for detecting tool wear, and (2) Fully automating robotic manufacturing tasks by providing a reliable low-cost non-contact method for detecting on-line position errors. In addition, the studies offer a general non-contact method for detecting acoustic emission that may be useful in many other manufacturing and non-manufacturing areas, as well (e.g., monitoring and nondestructively testing structures, materials, manufacturing processes, and devices). By advancing the state of the art in manufacturing automation, the studies may help

  8. Automated Classification of Land Cover Using Landsat 8 Oli Surface Reflectance Product and Spectral Pattern Analysis Concept - Case Study in Hanoi, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen Dinh, Duong

    2016-06-01

    Recently USGS released provisional Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance product, which allows conducting land cover mapping over large composed of number of image scenes without necessity of atmospheric correction. In this study, the authors present a new concept for automated classification of land cover. This concept is based on spectral patterns analysis of reflected bands and can be automated using predefined classification rule set constituted of spectral pattern shape, total reflected radiance index (TRRI) and ratios of spectral bands. Given a pixel vector B6 = {b1,b2,b3,b4,b5,b6} where b1, b2,...,b6 denote bands 2, 3, ...,7 of OLI sensor respectively. By using the pixel vector B6 we can construct spectral reflectance curve. Each spectral curve is featured by a shape, which can be described in simplified form of an analogue pattern, which is consisted of 15 digits of 0, 1 and 2 showing mutual relative position of spectral vertices. Value of comparison between band i and j is 2 if bj > bi, 1 if bj = bi and 0 if bj < bi. Simplified spectral pattern is defined by 15 digits as m1,2m1,3m1,4m1,5m1,6m2,3m2,4m2,5m2,6m3,4m3,5m3,6m4,5m4,6m5,6 where mi,j is result of comparison of reflectance between bi and bj and has values of 0, 1 and 2. After construction of SSP for each pixel in the input image, the original image will be decomposed to component images, which contain pixels with the same SRCS pattern. The decomposition can be written analytically by equation A = Σnk=1Ck where A stands for original image with 6 spectral bands, n is number of component images decomposed from A and Ck is component image. For this study, we use Landsat 8 OLI reflectance image LC81270452013352LGN00 and LC81270452015182LGN00. For the decomposition, we use only six reflective bands. Each land cover class is defined by SSP code, threshold values for TRRI and band ratios. Automated classification of land cover was realized with 8 classes: forest, shrub, grass, water, wetland, develop land, barren

  9. Comparison of three transposons for the generation of highly productive recombinant CHO cell pools and cell lines.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Sowmya; Rajendra, Yashas; Baldi, Lucia; Hacker, David L; Wurm, Florian M

    2016-06-01

    Several naturally occurring vertebrate transposable elements have been genetically modified to enable the transposition of recombinant genes in mammalian cells. We compared three transposons-piggyBac, Tol2, and Sleeping Beauty-for their ability to generate cell pools (polyclonal cultures of recombinant cells) and clonal cell lines for the large-scale production of recombinant proteins using Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-DG44) as the host. Transfection with each of the dual-vector transposon systems resulted in cell pools with volumetric yields of tumor necrosis factor receptor-Fc fusion protein (TNFR:Fc) that were about ninefold higher than those from cell pools generated by conventional plasmid transfection. On average, the cell pools had 10-12 integrated copies of the transgene per cell. In the absence of selection, the volumetric productivity of the cell pools decreased by 50% over a 2-month cultivation period and then remained constant. The average volumetric TNFR:Fc productivity of clonal cell lines recovered from cell pools was about 25 times higher than that of cell lines generated by conventional transfection. In 14-day fed-batch cultures, TNFR:Fc levels up to 900 mg/L were obtained from polyclonal cell pools and up to 1.5 g/L from clonal cell lines using any of the three transposons. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1234-1243. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26616356

  10. Automated tracking of quantitative parameters from single line scanning of vocal folds: a case study of the 'messa di voce' exercise.

    PubMed

    Dejonckere, Philippe H; Lebacq, Jean; Bocchi, Leonardo; Orlandi, Silvia; Manfredi, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    This article presents a novel application of the 'single line scanning' of the vocal fold vibrations (kymography) in singing pedagogy, particularly in a specific technical voice exercise: the 'messa di voce'. It aims at giving the singer relevant and valid short-term feedback. A user-friendly automatic analysis program makes possible a precise, immediate quantification of the essential physiological parameters characterizing the changes in glottal impedance, concomitant with the progressive increase and decrease of the lung pressure. The data provided by the program show a strong correlation with the hand-made measurements. Additional measurements such as subglottic pressure and flow glottography by inverse filtering can be meaningfully correlated with the data obtained from the kymographic images. PMID:24456119

  11. Automated Yeast Mating Protocol Using Open Reading Frames from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Genome to Improve Yeast Strains for Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Engineering the industrial ethanologen Saccharomyces cerevisiae to utilize pentose sugars from lignocellulosic biomass is critical for commercializing cellulosic fuel ethanol production. Approaches to engineer pentose-fermenting yeasts have required expression of additional genes. We implemented a...

  12. Monoclonal antibodies to human glycophorin a and cell lines for the production thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderlaan, M.; Bigbee, W.L.; Jensen, R.H.; Fong, S.S.N.; Langlois, R.G.

    1988-06-21

    Cloned mouse hybridoma cell lines have been established which continuously produce antibodies that are highly specific to and exhibit high affinity for glycophorin A/sup N/ and differentiate between the M and N forms of human glycophorin A.

  13. Monoclonal antibodies to human glycophorin A and cell lines for the production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Vanderlaan, Martin; Bigbee, William L.; Jensen, Ronald H.; Fong, Stella S. N.; Langlois, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    Cloned mouse hybridoma cell lines have been established which continuously produce antibodies that are highly specific to and exhibit high affinity for glycophorin A.sup.N and differentiate between the M and N forms of human glycophorin A.

  14. Characterization of Endogenous Sodium Channels in the ND7-23 Neuroblastoma Cell Line: Implications for Use as a Heterologous Ion Channel Expression System Suitable for Automated Patch Clamp Screening

    PubMed Central

    Zidar, Nace; Kikelj, Danijel; Kirby, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The rodent neuroblastoma cell line, ND7-23, is used to express voltage-dependent sodium (Nav) and other neuronal ion channels resistant to heterologous expression in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) or human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. Their advantage is that they provide endogenous factors and signaling pathways to promote ion channel peptide folding, expression, and function at the cell surface and are also amenable to automated patch clamping. However, ND7-23 cells exhibit endogenous tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive Nav currents, and molecular profiling has revealed the presence of Nav1.2, Nav1.3, Nav1.6, and Nav1.7 transcripts, but no study has determined which subtypes contribute to functional channels at the cell surface. We profiled the repertoire of functional Nav channels endogenously expressed in ND7-23 cells using the QPatch automated patch clamp platform and selective toxins and small molecules. The potency and subtype selectivity of the ligands (Icagen compound 68 from patent US-20060025415-A1-20060202, 4,9 anhydro TTX, and Protoxin-II) were established in human Nav1.3, Nav1.6, and Nav1.7 channel cell lines before application of selective concentrations to ND7-23 cells. Our data confirm previous studies that >97% of macroscopic Nav current in ND7-23 cells is carried by TTX-sensitive channels (300 nM TTX) and that Nav1.7 is the predominant channel contributing to this response (65% of peak inward current), followed by Nav1.6 (∼20%) and negligible Nav1.3 currents (∼2%). In addition, our data are the first to assess the Nav1.6 potency (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] of 33 nM) and selectivity (50-fold over Nav1.7) of 4,9 anhydro TTX in human Nav channels expressed in mammalian cells, confirming previous studies of rodent Nav channels expressed in oocytes and HEK cells. PMID:26991361

  15. In vitro cytotoxicity of Indonesian stingless bee products against human cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Kustiawan, Paula M.; Puthong, Songchan; Arung, Enos T.; Chanchao, Chanpen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To screen crude extracts of propolis, bee pollen and honey from four stingless bee species [Trigona incisa (T. incisa)], Timia apicalis, Trigona fusco-balteata and Trigona fuscibasis) native to East Kalimantan, Indonesia for cytotoxic activity against five human cancer cell lines (HepG2, SW620, ChaGo-I, KATO-III and BT474). Methods All samples were extracted with methanol, and then subpartitioned with n-hexane and ethyl acetate. Each crude extract was screened at 20 µg/mL for in vitro cytotoxicity against the cell lines using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In addition, four previously shown bioactive components from propolis (apigenin, caffeic acid phenyl ester, kaempferol and naringenin) and two chemotherapeutic drugs (doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil) were used to evaluate the sensitivity of the cell lines. Results Overall, crude extracts from propolis and honey had higher cytotoxic activities than bee pollen, but the activity was dependent upon the extraction solvent, bee species and cell line. Propolis extracts from T. incisa and Timia apicalis showed the highest and lowest cytotoxic activity, respectively. Only the HepG2 cell line was broadly sensitive to the honey extracts. For pure compounds, doxorubicin was the most cytotoxic, the four propolis compounds the least, but the ChaGo-I cell line was sensitive to kaempferol at 10 µg/mL and KATO-III was sensitive to kaempferol and apigenin at 10 µg/mL. All pure compounds were effective against the BT474 cell line. Conclusions Propolis from T. incisa and Trigona fusco-balteata contain an in vitro cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines. Further study is required, including the isolation and characterization of the active antiproliferative agent(s). PMID:25183275

  16. Improving Paper Machine Efficiency/Productivity through On-line Control

    SciTech Connect

    Cyrus K Aidun

    2007-08-31

    This project involves implementing a new technology, microforming, in a headbox to produce an isotropic sheet with significant reductions in the MD/CD stiffness ratio (increasing CD specific STFI) and improved sheet uniformity. Microforming involves generating axial vorticity (i.e., swirl) prior to the converging nozzle of the headbox by retrofitting an existing tube block with swirl generation devices referred to as Vortigen system. The Vortigen system developed in this project is a retrofit technology to a hydraulic headbox tube block. The tubes in the tube block are re-designed to generate axial vorticity (or swirl) in the tubes. This type of flow results in higher intensity small-scale turbulence in the forming jet at the slice. The net effect, as demonstrated in pilot and commercial trials, is improvement in formation and surface smoothness, lower MD/CD tensile ratio, and consequently, higher CD strength properties such as CD STFI, Ring Crush and tensile or breaking length. The objective of this project is to implement microforming by developing the retrofit technology for generation and on-line control of axial vorticity in the tubes to optimize turbulent scale and intensity, and consequently, fiber network structure properties in the sheet. This technology results in significant improvements in the performance and capital effectiveness of the paper machine (PM) for a fraction of the cost to replace a headbox. In this project we have developed and demonstrated the concept of generating axial vorticity to control the fiber orientation in the converging zone of the headbox, and to produce a sheet with isotropic fiber orientation. The technology developed here has been demonstrated in static form on several pilot trials and two series of commercial trials. The economic feasibility of this technology is based primarily on fiber savings in cases where a more isotropic fiber orientation can be used to reduce the basis weight of the product. Even a 5% decrease in

  17. Increasing productivity for the analysis of trace contaminants in food by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using automated liner exchange, backflushing and heart-cutting.

    PubMed

    David, Frank; Tienpont, Bart; Devos, Christophe; Lerch, Oliver; Sandra, Pat

    2013-10-25

    Laboratories focusing on residue analysis in food are continuously seeking to increase sample throughput by minimizing sample preparation. Generic sample extraction methods such as QuEChERS lack selectivity and consequently extracts are not free from non-volatile material that contaminates the analytical system. Co-extracted matrix constituents interfere with target analytes, even if highly sensitive and selective GC-MS/MS is used. A number of GC approaches are described that can be used to increase laboratory productivity. These techniques include automated inlet liner exchange and column backflushing for preservation of the performance of the analytical system and heart-cutting two-dimensional GC for increasing sensitivity and selectivity. The application of these tools is illustrated by the analysis of pesticides in vegetables and fruits, PCBs in milk powder and coplanar PCBs in fish. It is demonstrated that considerable increase in productivity can be achieved by decreasing instrument down-time, while analytical performance is equal or better compared to conventional trace contaminant analysis. PMID:23891373

  18. Determination of benzoylureas in ground water samples by fully automated on-line pre-concentration and liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Gil García, M D; Martínez Galera, M; Barranco Martínez, D; Gisbert Gallego, J

    2006-01-27

    An on-line pre-concentration method for the analysis of five benzoylureas (diflubenzuron, triflumuron, hexaflumuron, lufenuron and flufenoxuron) in ground water samples was evaluated using two C(18) columns, and fluorescence detection after photochemical induced fluorescence (PIF) post-column derivatization. The trace enrichment was carried out with 35 mL of ground water modified with 15 mL of MeOH on a 50 mm x 4.6 mm I.D. first enrichment column (C-1) packed with 5 microm Hypersil Elite C(18). Retention properties of pesticides and humic acids usually contained in ground water were studied on C-1 at concentration levels ranging between 0.04 and 14.00 microg/L in water samples. The results obtained in this study show that the pesticides are pre-concentrated in the first short column while the humic acids contained in the ground water samples are eluted to waste. Pesticides recoveries ranged between 92.3 and 109.5%. The methodology proposed was used to determine benzoylureas in ground water samples at levels lower than 0.1 microg/L (maximum levels established by the European Union). PMID:16337641

  19. Automated Propellant Blending

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohmann, Carl W. (Inventor); Harrington, Douglas W. (Inventor); Dutton, Maureen L. (Inventor); Tipton, Billy Charles, Jr. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Salazar, Frank (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An automated propellant blending apparatus and method that uses closely metered addition of countersolvent to a binder solution with propellant particles dispersed therein to precisely control binder precipitation and particle aggregation is discussed. A profile of binder precipitation versus countersolvent-solvent ratio is established empirically and used in a computer algorithm to establish countersolvent addition parameters near the cloud point for controlling the transition of properties of the binder during agglomeration and finishing of the propellant composition particles. The system is remotely operated by computer for safety, reliability and improved product properties, and also increases product output.

  20. Automated Propellant Blending

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohmann, Carl W. (Inventor); Harrington, Douglas W. (Inventor); Dutton, Maureen L. (Inventor); Tipton, Billy Charles, Jr. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Salazar, Frank (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An automated propellant blending apparatus and method uses closely metered addition of countersolvent to a binder solution with propellant particles dispersed therein to precisely control binder precipitation and particle aggregation. A profile of binder precipitation versus countersolvent-solvent ratio is established empirically and used in a computer algorithm to establish countersolvent addition parameters near the cloud point for controlling the transition of properties of the binder during agglomeration and finishing of the propellant composition particles. The system is remotely operated by computer for safety, reliability and improved product properties, and also increases product output.

  1. Mobile measurement of methane and hydrogen sulfide at natural gas production site fence lines in the Texas Barnett Shale.

    PubMed

    Eapi, Gautam R; Sabnis, Madhu S; Sattler, Melanie L

    2014-08-01

    Production of natural gas from shale formations is bringing drilling and production operations to regions of the United States that have seen little or no similar activity in the past, which has generated considerable interest in potential environmental impacts. This study focused on the Barnett Shale Fort Worth Basin in Texas, which saw the number of gas-producing wells grow from 726 in 2001 to 15,870 in 2011. This study aimed to measure fence line concentrations of methane and hydrogen sulfide at natural gas production sites (wells, liquid storage tanks, and associated equipment) in the four core counties of the Barnett Shale (Denton, Johnson, Tarrant, and Wise). A mobile measurement survey was conducted in the vicinity of 4788 wells near 401 lease sites, representing 35% of gas production volume, 31% of wells, and 38% of condensate production volume in the four-county core area. Methane and hydrogen sulfide concentrations were measured using a Picarro G2204 cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS). Since the research team did not have access to lease site interiors, measurements were made by driving on roads on the exterior of the lease sites. Over 150 hr of data were collected from March to July 2012. During two sets of drive-by measurements, it was found that 66 sites (16.5%) had methane concentrations > 3 parts per million (ppm) just beyond the fence line. Thirty-two lease sites (8.0%) had hydrogen sulfide concentrations > 4.7 parts per billion (ppb) (odor recognition threshold) just beyond the fence line. Measured concentrations generally did not correlate well with site characteristics (natural gas production volume, number of wells, or condensate production). t tests showed that for two counties, methane concentrations for dry sites were higher than those for wet sites. Follow-up study is recommended to provide more information at sites identified with high levels of methane and hydrogen sulfide. Implications: Information regarding air emissions from shale gas

  2. Automated campaign system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondran, Gary; Chao, Hui; Lin, Xiaofan; Beyer, Dirk; Joshi, Parag; Atkins, Brian; Obrador, Pere

    2006-02-01

    To run a targeted campaign involves coordination and management across numerous organizations and complex process flows. Everything from market analytics on customer databases, acquiring content and images, composing the materials, meeting the sponsoring enterprise brand standards, driving through production and fulfillment, and evaluating results; all processes are currently performed by experienced highly trained staff. Presented is a developed solution that not only brings together technologies that automate each process, but also automates the entire flow so that a novice user could easily run a successful campaign from their desktop. This paper presents the technologies, structure, and process flows used to bring this system together. Highlighted will be how the complexity of running a targeted campaign is hidden from the user through technologies, all while providing the benefits of a professionally managed campaign.

  3. Effect of components of resilient denture-lining materials on the growth, acid production and colonization of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Nikawa, H; Yamamoto, T; Hamada, T

    1995-11-01

    Variation in the components of soft lining materials, i.e. the size of polymer particles, the ethyl alcohol content of the liquids and the type of plasticizer, were investigated with respect to their effects on the growth and colonization of Candida albicans. Inhibitory effects on fungal growth and/or acid production were found to vary depending upon the components of soft lining materials. In particular, two plasticizers, benzyl benzoate (BB) and benzyl salicylate (BS), significantly decreased the growth rate, whereas the size of polymer particle had little effect on fungal growth. Ethyl alcohol content of liquid significantly affected the fungal growth and/or acid production depending upon the plasticizer used. For instance, in the case of BS, the antifungal effect was related to ethyl alcohol contents, whereas a reverse effect was observed with benzyl n-butyl phthalate (BBP). Further examination using scanning electron microscopy revealed that Candida blastospores colonized lining materials in the following two ways depending on the plasticizers used. On the BS and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) specimen, the blastospore of this yeast associated loosely, whereas, in the case of BB, BBP and butyl phthalyl butyl glycorate (BPBG), fungal blastospore tightly and invasively colonized onto the specimens. These results clearly demonstrated a relationship between components of soft lining materials and fungal growth and colonization. PMID:8558354

  4. Automation in Microforms: An Academic Microform Publisher's Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Linda K.

    1984-01-01

    Summarizes current status of and concerns about automation in the academic microform publishing industry in two areas: automation of film production (computer-aided design, computer-assisted retrieval, computer-output microfilm) and automation of bibliographic control information (order-management systems, production of printed indexes,…

  5. The gas-phase on-line production of vanadium oxytrihalides, VOX 3 and their identification by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zidan, Mohammed D.; Allaf, Abdul W.

    2000-12-01

    A new route has been devised, leading to the production of VOX 3 molecules where XF, Br and I by an on-line process using vanadium oxytrichloride, VOCl 3 as a starting compound passed over the following heated salts NaF, KBr and KI at 375, 700 and 550°C, respectively. The products have been characterized by the IR spectra of their vapors. The low resolution gas phase on-line Fourier transform infrared spectra reported for the first time show strong bands with PQR type structure, centered at 1058, 1035, 1030 and 1025 cm -1 assigned to the ν1( a1), the OV stretching fundamental mode of VOF 3, VOCl 3, VOBr 3 and VOI 3, respectively.

  6. Electron-positron pair production near the Galactic Centre and the 511 keV emission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Man Ho

    2016-02-01

    Recent observations indicate that a high production rate of positrons (strong 511 keV line) and a significant amount of excess GeV gamma-ray exist in our Galactic bulge. The latter issue can be explained by ˜40 GeV dark matter annihilation through b bar{b} channel while the former one remains a mystery. On the other hand, recent studies reveal that a large amount of high-density gas might exist near the Galactic Centre million years ago to account for the young, massive stars extending from 0.04-7 pc. In this Letter, I propose a new scenario and show that the 40 GeV dark matter annihilation model can also explain the required positron production rate (511 keV line) in the bulge due to the existence of the high-density gas cloud near the supermassive black hole long time ago.

  7. Production of fat-1 transgenic rats using a post-natal female germline stem cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Lei; Kang, Jing X; Xie, Wenhai; Li, Xiaoyong; Wu, Changqing; Xu, Bo; Wu, Ji

    2014-03-01

    Germline stem cell lines possess the abilities of self-renewal and differentiation, and have been established from both mouse and human ovaries. Here, we established a new female germline stem cell (FGSC) line from post-natal rats by immunomagnetic sorting for Fragilis, which showed a normal karyotype, high telomerase activity, and a consistent gene expression pattern of primordial germ cells after 1 year of culture. Using an in vitro differentiation system, the FGSC line could differentiate into oocytes. After liposome-based transfection with green fluorescent protein (GFP) or fat-1 vectors, the FGSCs were transplanted into the ovaries of infertile rats. The transplanted FGSCs underwent oogenesis, and the rats produced offspring carrying the GFP or fat-1 transgene after mating with wild-type male rats. The efficiency of gene transfer was 27.86-28.00%, and 2 months was needed to produce transgenic rats. These findings have implications in biomedical research and potential applications in biotechnology. PMID:24258451

  8. Comparison of terpenoid indole alkaloid production and degradation in two cell lines of Tabernaemontana divaricata.

    PubMed

    Dagnino, D; Schripsema, J; Verpoorte, R

    1993-12-01

    Two cell lines of Tabernaemontana divaricata derived from the same suspension culture accumulate different amounts of the terpenoid indole alkaloids O-acetylvallesamine and voaphylline. [(15)N]O-acetylvallesamine and [(15)N]voaphylline were added to the suspension cultures to investigate whether the lack of accumulating capacity of one of the cell lines was due to a low biosynthetic ability or to high turnover rates. The difference was shown to be due to the inability of the cell culture to biosynthesize both alkaloids. Both cell lines were able to metabolize O-acetylvallesamine. This metabolisation occurred mainly during the stationary phase. The alkaloids added were chemically unstable under culture conditions. Under normal batch cell culture conditions chemical breakdown is thought to play a minor role in the total amount of compound transformed. PMID:24196295

  9. Production and Identification of Wheat-Agropyron cristatum 2P Translocation Lines.

    PubMed

    Li, Huanhuan; Lv, Mingjie; Song, Liqiang; Zhang, Jinpeng; Gao, Ainong; Li, Lihui; Liu, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2n = 28, PPPP), a wild relative of common wheat, possesses many potentially valuable traits that can be transferred to common wheat through breeding programs. The wheat-A. cristatum disomic addition and translocation lines can be used as bridge materials to introduce alien chromosomal segments to wheat. Wheat-A. cristatum 2P disomic addition line II-9-3 was highly resistant to powdery mildew and leaf rust, which was reported in our previous study. However, some translocation lines induced from II-9-3 have not been reported. In this study, some translocation lines were induced from II-9-3 by 60Co-γ irradiation and gametocidal chromosome 2C and then identified by cytological methods. Forty-nine wheat-A. cristatum translocation lines were obtained and various translcoation types were identified by GISH (genomic in situ hybridization), such as whole-arm, segmental and intercalary translocations. Dual-color FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) was applied to identify the wheat chromosomes involved in the translocations, and the results showed that A. cristatum 2P chromosome segments were translocated to the different wheat chromosomes, including 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 3B, 5B, 7B, 1D, 4D and 6D. Many different types of wheat-A. cristatum alien translocation lines would be valuable for not only identifying and cloning A. cristatum 2P-related genes and understanding the genetics and breeding effects of the translocation between A. cristatum chromosome 2P and wheat chromosomes, but also providing new germplasm resources for the wheat genetic improvement. PMID:26731742

  10. Production and identification of wheat - Agropyron cristatum (1.4P) alien translocation lines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Hua; Luan, Yang; Wang, Jing-Chang; Wang, Xiao-Guang; Su, Jun-Ji; Zhang, Jin-Peng; Yang, Xin-Ming; Gao, Ai-Nong; Li, Li-Hui

    2010-06-01

    The P genome of Agropyron Gaertn., a wild relative of wheat, contains an abundance of desirable genes that can be utilized as genetic resources to improve wheat. In this study, wheat - Aegilops cylindrica Host gametocidal chromosome 2C addition lines were crossed with wheat - Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. disomic addition line accession II-21 with alien recombinant chromosome (1.4)P. We successfully induced wheat - A. cristatum alien chromosomal translocations for the first time. The frequency of translocation in the progeny was 3.75%, which was detected by molecular markers and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). The translocation chromosomes were identified by dual-color GISH /fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The P genomic DNA was used as probe to detect the (1.4)P chromosome fragment, and pHvG39, pAs1, or pSc119.2 repeated sequences were used as probes to identify wheat translocated chromosomes. The results showed that six types of translocations were identified in the three wheat - A. cristatum alien translocation lines, including the whole arm or terminal portion of a (1.4)P chromosome. The (1.4)P chromosome fragments were translocated to wheat chromosomes 1B, 2B, 5B, and 3D. The breakpoints were located at the centromeres of 1B and 2B, the pericentric locations of 5BS, and the terminals of 5BL and 3DS. In addition, we obtained 12 addition-deletion lines that contained alien A. cristatum chromosome (1.4)P in wheat background. All of these wheat - A. cristatum alien translocation lines and addition-deletion lines would be valuable for identifying A. cristatum chromosome (1.4)P-related genes and providing genetic resources and new germplasm accessions for the genetic improvement of wheat. The specific molecular markers of A. cristatum (1.4)P chromosome have been developed and used to track the (1.4)P chromatin. PMID:20555436

  11. Production and Identification of Wheat-Agropyron cristatum 2P Translocation Lines

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huanhuan; Lv, Mingjie; Song, Liqiang; Zhang, Jinpeng; Gao, Ainong; Li, Lihui; Liu, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2n = 28, PPPP), a wild relative of common wheat, possesses many potentially valuable traits that can be transferred to common wheat through breeding programs. The wheat-A. cristatum disomic addition and translocation lines can be used as bridge materials to introduce alien chromosomal segments to wheat. Wheat-A. cristatum 2P disomic addition line II-9-3 was highly resistant to powdery mildew and leaf rust, which was reported in our previous study. However, some translocation lines induced from II-9-3 have not been reported. In this study, some translocation lines were induced from II-9-3 by 60Co-γ irradiation and gametocidal chromosome 2C and then identified by cytological methods. Forty-nine wheat-A. cristatum translocation lines were obtained and various translcoation types were identified by GISH (genomic in situ hybridization), such as whole-arm, segmental and intercalary translocations. Dual-color FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) was applied to identify the wheat chromosomes involved in the translocations, and the results showed that A. cristatum 2P chromosome segments were translocated to the different wheat chromosomes, including 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 3B, 5B, 7B, 1D, 4D and 6D. Many different types of wheat-A. cristatum alien translocation lines would be valuable for not only identifying and cloning A. cristatum 2P-related genes and understanding the genetics and breeding effects of the translocation between A. cristatum chromosome 2P and wheat chromosomes, but also providing new germplasm resources for the wheat genetic improvement. PMID:26731742

  12. Efficient duck hepatitis B virus production by an avian liver tumor cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Condreay, L D; Aldrich, C E; Coates, L; Mason, W S; Wu, T T

    1990-01-01

    Duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) is produced in small amounts following transfection of human hepatoma or hepatoblastoma cell lines with cloned viral DNA. In a search for better hosts for DHBV replication, two avian liver cell lines were investigated. One of these cell lines, LMH, produced 5 to 10 times more DNA replicative intermediates and 10 to 20 times more infectious DHBV than did either of the two human cell lines, HuH-7 and Hep G2. Utilization of cell lines in genetic analyses of virus replication is often dependent upon obtaining efficient complementation between cotransfected viral genomes. We assayed transcomplementation of a viral polymerase (pol) gene mutant, which is rather inefficient in transfected human cells, and found that viral DNA synthesis was at least 20 times more efficient following cotransfection of LMH cells than in similarly transfected HuH-7 cells. Recombination, a potential interpretation problem in complementation assays, occurred at low levels in the cotransfected cultures but was substantially reduced or eliminated by creation of an LMH subline stably expressing the viral polymerase. This cell line, pol-7, supported the replication of DHBV pol mutants at ca. 10 to 15% of the level of virus replication obtained following transfection with wild-type viral DNA. By transcomplementation of a pol gene mutant in LMH cells, we were able to produce sufficient virus with the mutant genome to investigate the role of polymerase in covalently closed circular DNA amplification. Our results substantiate the hypothesis that covalently closed circular DNA is synthesized by the viral reverse transcriptase. Images PMID:2352324

  13. Marginally trapped submanifolds in Lorentzian space forms and in the Lorentzian product of a space form by the real line

    SciTech Connect

    Anciaux, Henri; Godoy, Yamile

    2015-02-15

    We give local, explicit representation formulas for n-dimensional spacelike submanifolds which are marginally trapped in the Minkowski space ℝ{sub 1}{sup n+2}, the de Sitter space dS{sup n+2}, the anti-de Sitter space AdS{sup n+2} and the Lorentzian products S{sup n+1} × ℝ and ℍ{sup n+1} × ℝ of the sphere and the hyperbolic space by the real line.

  14. The charge breeder beam line for the selective production of exotic species project at INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galatà, A.; Comunian, M.; Maggiore, M.; Manzolaro, M.; Angot, J.; Lamy, T.

    2014-02-01

    SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) is an INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) project with the aim at producing and post-accelerating exotic beams to perform forefront research in nuclear physics. To allow post-acceleration of the radioactive ions, an ECR-based Charge Breeder (CB) developed on the basis of the Phoenix booster was chosen. The design of the complete beam line for the SPES-CB will be described: a system for stable 1+ beams production was included; special attention was paid to the medium resolution mass spectrometer after the CB to limit possible superposition of the exotic beams with the impurities present in the ECR plasma.

  15. A Robot Laser As A Flexible Tool For Cutting Openings In The Car-Body On The Production Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felske, A.; Lunzmann, F.

    1986-11-01

    A flexible laser robot system is described which has been selected for the purpose of cutting additional openings in entire bodies in white on the conveyor. The lightweight CO2 400-W-laser generator is carried and moved computer-controlled by the VOLKSWAGEN robotic system with a fixed 3-mirror robot arm for minimizing losses of energy and for increasing quality and reliability. In a pilot project this technique is integrated in the production line at a final stage of production and can be started with the designation of the vehicle's body.

  16. Unattended Monitoring of HEU Production in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants using Automated Aerosol Collection and Laser-based Enrichment Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

    2010-08-11

    Nuclear power is enjoying rapid growth as government energy policies and public demand shift toward low carbon energy production. Pivotal to the global nuclear power renaissance is the development and deployment of robust safeguards instrumentation that allows the limited resources of the IAEA to keep pace with the expansion of the nuclear fuel cycle. Undeclared production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) remains a primary proliferation concern for modern gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs), due to their massive separative work unit (SWU) processing power and comparably short cascade equilibrium timescale. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing an unattended safeguards instrument, combining continuous aerosol particulate collection with uranium isotope assay, to provide timely detection of HEU production within a GCEP. This approach is based on laser vaporization of aerosol particulates, followed by laser spectroscopy to characterize the uranium enrichment level. Our prior investigation demonstrated single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range and relative isotope ratio uncertainty better than 10% using gadolinium as a surrogate for uranium. In this paper we present measurement results on standard samples containing traces of depleted, natural, and low enriched uranium, as well as measurements on aerodynamic size uranium particles mixed in background materials (e.g., dust, minerals, soils). Improvements and optimizations in the detection electronics, signal timing, calibration, and laser alignment have lead to significant improvements in detection sensitivity and enrichment accuracy, contributing to an overall reduction in the false alarm probability. The sample substrate media was also found to play a significant role in facilitating laser-induced vaporization and the production of energetic plasma conditions, resulting in ablation optimization and further improvements in the isotope abundance sensitivity.

  17. Generation and functional analysis of T cell lines and clones specific for schistosomula released products (SRP-A).

    PubMed

    Damonneville, M; Velge, F; Verwaerde, C; Pestel, J; Auriault, C; Capron, A

    1987-08-01

    Antigens present in the products released by the larval stage of schistosome (SRP-A) were shown to induce a strong cytotoxic and protective IgE response both in the rat and the monkey. T cell lines and clones specific for SRP-A or 26 kD antigens which are the main target of the cytotoxic IgE have been derived. The passive transfer of SRP-A specific T lymphocytes into infected rats led to an increase of the IgE response, conferring a significant level of protection to the rats. In coculture assays in vitro, these cell lines significantly enhanced the production of IgE by SRP-A sensitized rat spleen cells. This helper effect on the IgE response was confirmed with 26 kD T cell clone supernatants. Moreover, supernatants obtained after stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate were able to enhance the IgE production of a hybridoma B cell line (B48-14) producing a monoclonal IgE antibody, cytotoxic for the schistosomula. PMID:3498590

  18. Continuous cell lines from the Muscovy duck as potential replacement for primary cells in the production of avian vaccines.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Ingo; John, Katrin; Höwing, Kristin; Lohr, Verena; Penzes, Zoltán; Gubucz-Sombor, Erzsébet; Fu, Yan; Gao, Peng; Harder, Timm; Zádori, Zoltán; Sandig, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Veterinary vaccines contribute to food security, interrupt zoonotic transmissions, and help to maintain overall health in livestock. Although vaccines are usually cost-effective, their adoption depends on a multitude of factors. Because poultry vaccines are usually given to birds with a short life span, very low production cost per dose is one important challenge. Other hurdles are to ensure a consistent and reliable supply of very large number of doses, and to have flexible production processes to accommodate a range of different pathogens and dosage requirements. Most poultry vaccines are currently being produced on primary avian cells derived from chicken or waterfowl embryos. This production system is associated with high costs, logistic complexities, rigid intervals between harvest and production, and supply limitations. We investigated whether the continuous cell lines Cairina retina and CR.pIX may provide a substrate independent of primary cell cultures or embryonated eggs. Viruses examined for replication in these cell lines are strains associated with, or contained in vaccines against egg drop syndrome, Marek's disease, Newcastle disease, avian influenza, infectious bursal disease and Derzsy's disease. Each of the tested viruses required the development of unique conditions for replication that are described here and can be used to generate material for in vivo efficacy studies and to accelerate transfer of the processes to larger production volumes. PMID:26814192

  19. Qualification of Automated Low-Field NMR Relaxometry for Quality Control of Polymers in a Production Setting

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, S; Cook-Tendulkar, A; Maxwell, R; Wheeler, H; Wilson, M; Xie, Z

    2007-05-11

    Implementation of a low field time-domain NMR scanner as a diagnostic tool in the production of new polymer components is described in the context of qualification of a new QA/QC device. A study to determine the optimal experimental parameters was performed and a robotic autosampler was built to enable scanning of multiple pads. Relationships between T{sub 2} values and physical properties of DC745 slabs were investigated, and the appropriate sampling parameters for the production setting were determined. Two versions of a robotic autosampler were built, and for the component described here a fourth radial axis was required in addition to traditional X, Y, and Z movement to eliminate the large variability in T{sub 2} due to inconsistent sample coverage caused by complex rib geometry of the component. Data show that with appropriate choice of experimental conditions of the NMR detector and the detection geometry of the robotic autosampler, sufficient resolution of variations in crosslink density on the millimeter scale could be determined. All data to date demonstrates that low-field NMR devices are a feasible tool for use in production settings for non-destructive quality control of polymer components.

  20. Cell lines for the production of monoclonal antibodies to human glycophorin A

    SciTech Connect

    Bigbee, W.L.; Fong, S.S.N.; Jensen, R.H.; Vanderlaan, M.; Langlois, R.G.

    1988-08-30

    Cloned mouse hybridoma cell lines have been established which continuously produce antibodies that differentiate between the M and N forms of human glycophorin A. These antibodies have potential application as human blood group reagents, as markers for terminally differentiated erythroid cells and as immunofluorescent labels of somatically variant human erythrocytes.

  1. Responses of rice cultivars and elite lines to diseases in conventional production system, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experiment was established in a field of League-type soil (3% sand, 32% silt, and 64% clay) under organic management for many years at the Texas A&M University System's Agrilife Research and Extension Center, Beaumont. Twenty rice cultivars and lines were arranged in a randomized complete block ...

  2. Method and cell lines for the production of monoclonal antibodies to human glycophorin A

    DOEpatents

    Bigbee, W.L.; Fong, S.S.N.; Jensen, R.H.; Vanderlaan, M.

    Cloned mouse hybridoma cell lines have been established which continuously produce antibodies that differentiate between the M and N forms of human glycophorin A. These antibodies have potential application as human blood group reagents, as markers for terminally differentiated erythroid cells and as immunofluorescent labels of somatically variant human erythrocytes.

  3. Cell lines for the production of monoclonal antibodies to human glycophorin A

    DOEpatents

    Bigbee, William L.; Fong, Stella S. N.; Jensen, Ronald H.; Vanderlaan, Martin; Langlois, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    Cloned mouse hybridoma cell lines have been established which continuously produce antibodies that differentiate between the M and N forms of human glycophorin A. These antibodies have potential application as human blood group reagents, as markers for terminally differentiated erythroid cells and as immunofluorescent labels of somatically variant human erythrocytes.

  4. Production Line Materials. Youth Training Scheme. Core Exemplar Work Based Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Staff Coll., Blagdon (England).

    This trainer's guide is intended to assist supervisors of work-based career training projects in helping students understand the operation of an assembly line, including safe working procedures. The guide is one in a series of core curriculum modules that is intended for use in combination on- and off-the-job programs to familiarize youth with the…

  5. Reproducible culture and differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells using an automated microwell platform☆

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Waqar; Moens, Nathalie; Veraitch, Farlan S.; Hernandez, Diana; Mason, Chris; Lye, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    The use of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and their progeny in high throughput drug discovery and regenerative medicine will require production at scale of well characterized cells at an appropriate level of purity. The adoption of automated bioprocessing techniques offers the possibility to overcome the lack of consistency and high failure rates seen with current manual protocols. To build the case for increased use of automation this work addresses the key question: “can an automated system match the quality of a highly skilled and experienced person working manually?” To answer this we first describe an integrated automation platform designed for the ‘hands-free’ culture and differentiation of ESCs in microwell formats. Next we outline a framework for the systematic investigation and optimization of key bioprocess variables for the rapid establishment of validatable Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). Finally the experimental comparison between manual and automated bioprocessing is exemplified by expansion of the murine Oct-4-GiP ESC line over eight sequential passages with their subsequent directed differentiation into neural precursors. Our results show that ESCs can be effectively maintained and differentiated in a highly reproducible manner by the automated system described. Statistical analysis of the results for cell growth over single and multiple passages shows up to a 3-fold improvement in the consistency of cell growth kinetics with automated passaging. The quality of the cells produced was evaluated using a panel of biological markers including cell growth rate and viability, nutrient and metabolite profiles, changes in gene expression and immunocytochemistry. Automated processing of the ESCs had no measurable negative effect on either their pluripotency or their ability to differentiate into the three embryonic germ layers. Equally important is that over a 6-month period of culture without antibiotics in the medium, we have not had any cases

  6. ExoMol: Large-scale production of line lists for molecules important for modelling of planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, S.; Tennyson, J.

    2013-09-01

    The spectral characterization of astrophysical objects cool enough to form polyatomic molecules (the atmospheres of planets, brown dwarfs, planetary discs etc.) requires a huge amount of fundamental molecular data. With a few exceptions the existing molecular line lists are not sufficiently accurate and complete. The aim of ExoMol [1] is to generate comprehensive line lists for all molecules likely to be observable in exoplanet atmospheres in the foreseeable future (see www.exomol.com for more details). We identified the following 40 species that are important sources of opacity in (exo)planets and brown dwarfs and where there is currently a lack of fundamental data on wavelength and temperature-dependent absorption: • Diatomics: AlO, AlH, BeH, CaH, C2, CrH, FeH, HF, HCl, KCl, MgH, MgO, NaH, NaCl, NiH, O2,SiO, SiH, S2, SH, TiH, TiO, VO, YO • Triatomics: C3, H2S, SO2 • Tetratomics: H2CO, H2CS, HCCH, HOOH, PH3,SO3 • Pentatomics: CH4, HNO3 • Larger molecules: C2H4, C2H6, C3H8, P2H2, P2H4 The production of comprehensive and very large rotation-vibration and rotation-vibration-electronic line lists requires a mixture of first principles quantum mechanical methods and empirical tuning based on laboratory spectroscopic data and makes extensive use of state-of-the-art computing. These and other aspects of molecular line lists, their production and astrophysical applications will be discussed. The contribution will make specific reference to molecules for which line lists have recently been completed or are nearing completion: phosphine, hydrogen sulphide, hydrogen peroxide, methane, formaldehyde, nitric acid as well as to a number of diatomic molecules of astrophysical importance, see Fig. 1.

  7. Agile automated vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fandrich, Juergen; Schmitt, Lorenz A.

    1994-11-01

    The microelectronic industry is a protagonist in driving automated vision to new paradigms. Today semiconductor manufacturers use vision systems quite frequently in their fabs in the front-end process. In fact, the process depends on reliable image processing systems. In the back-end process, where ICs are assembled and packaged, today vision systems are only partly used. But in the next years automated vision will become compulsory for the back-end process as well. Vision will be fully integrated into every IC package production machine to increase yields and reduce costs. Modem high-speed material processing requires dedicated and efficient concepts in image processing. But the integration of various equipment in a production plant leads to unifying handling of data flow and interfaces. Only agile vision systems can act with these contradictions: fast, reliable, adaptable, scalable and comprehensive. A powerful hardware platform is a unneglectable requirement for the use of advanced and reliable, but unfortunately computing intensive image processing algorithms. The massively parallel SIMD hardware product LANTERN/VME supplies a powerful platform for existing and new functionality. LANTERN/VME is used with a new optical sensor for IC package lead inspection. This is done in 3D, including horizontal and coplanarity inspection. The appropriate software is designed for lead inspection, alignment and control tasks in IC package production and handling equipment, like Trim&Form, Tape&Reel and Pick&Place machines.

  8. Robust automation in machine vision for homeland security applications: second generation application products for human object recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramblet, John W.

    2005-05-01

    The problem of Tailgating/Piggybacking through secure portals is a long standing potential breach in virtually all controlled access portals. Absent a human guard, the access control system is totally dependant on honesty by the authorized users to prevent unauthorized passage when the portal is open for authorized passages. Newton Security has developed a system using stereo machine vision technology to defeat such unauthorized passages. While systems with very high rates of detection coupled with low false alarms have been developed and are currently deployed, further research is necessary to bring the cost of deployment down to facilitate the use of this technology in all doors protected with access control, not just the areas of high sensitivity where the product is currently utilized.

  9. A new optical design for the BNL isotope production transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.G.; Raparia, D.; Mapes, M.; Tsoupas, N.

    1996-10-01

    The 200 MeV linac at BNL has recently been upgraded. As a result, 2.5 times more average beam current can be delivered to the Brookhaven Isotope Resource Center (BIRC), formerly called BLIP, a facility which produces radionuclides and radiopharmaceutical for the medical community, and also supports a research program seeking more effective diagnostic and therapeutic agents. The optics of the beam transport line to BIRC was redesigned to (a) reduce transverse fluctuations of the beam at the target due to any linac energy fluctuations, (b) produce a flat beam distribution at the target, in order to avoid melting certain target materials, and (c) handle the higher beam intensity while keeping radiation levels low. A profile monitor was also modified to monitor the flatness of the beam using the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART). The above improvements will be described, and results of the commissioning of the line during the 1996 running period will be discussed.

  10. Resonant Compton cooling and annihilation line production in gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preece, R. D.; Harding, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to a synchrotron self-Compton emission model for gamma-ray bursts which produces narrow annihilation features for a variety of field strengths, primary electron injection energies, and injection rates. In this model, primary electrons are injected and cooled by synchrotron emission in a strong, homogeneous magnetic field, resulting in a pair cascade. Multiple resonant scattering with cyclotron photons efficiently traps and cools pairs in the ground state to an average energy where the Compton energy loss rate is zero, which is in agreement with previous estimates of a Compton temperature. The particle distributions in the ground state are determined by numerically solving the Fokker-Planck equation in the steady state. In the case of isotropic injection of primary electrons, a significant narrow-line feature appears in the overall emission. In the case of beamed injection, the annihilation line is broadened to the extent that it would not be observable.

  11. Field screening of sweet sorghum inbred lines for pest resistance and biomass production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is one of the favorable biofuel feedstocks for ethanol production. Fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] is one of the most serious foliar-feeding insect pests in sorghum production in the southeastern US states. Sev...

  12. 9 CFR 113.52 - Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... completed product for each serial of such product shall be tested for bacteria and fungi as prescribed in § 113.26 or § 113.27 (whichever is applicable). If bacteria or fungi are found in the MCS, the MCS shall not be used. If bacteria or fungi are found in a subculture, the subculture shall not be used. (e)...

  13. 9 CFR 113.52 - Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... completed product for each serial of such product shall be tested for bacteria and fungi as prescribed in § 113.26 or § 113.27 (whichever is applicable). If bacteria or fungi are found in the MCS, the MCS shall not be used. If bacteria or fungi are found in a subculture, the subculture shall not be used. (e)...

  14. Quantifying the influence of the tobacco industry on EU governance: automated content analysis of the EU Tobacco Products Directive

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Hélia; Gilmore, Anna B; Peeters, Silvy; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective The tobacco industry spends large sums lobbying the European Union (EU) institutions, yet whether such lobbying significantly affects tobacco policy is not well understood. We used novel quantitative text mining techniques to evaluate the impact of industry pressure on the contested EU Tobacco Products Directive revision. Design Policy positions of 18 stakeholders including the tobacco industry, health NGOs and tobacco retailers were evaluated using their text submissions to EU consultations and impact assessments. Using Wordscores to calculate word frequencies, we developed a scale ranging from 0–tobacco industry to 1–public health organisations, which was then used to track changes in the policy position of the European Commission's 2010 consultation document, its 2012 final proposal and the European Parliament and Council's approved legislation in March 2014. Results Several stakeholders’ positions were closer to the tobacco industry than that of health NGOs, including retailers (ω=0.35), trade unions (ω=0.34) and publishers (ω=0.33 and ω=0.40). Over time the European Commission's position shifted towards the tobacco industry from ω=0.52 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.54) to ω=0.40 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.42). This transition reflected an increasing use of words pertaining to business and the economy in the Commission's document. Our findings were robust to alternative methods of scoring policy positions in EU documents. Conclusions Using quantitative text mining techniques, we observed that tobacco industry lobbying activity at the EU was associated with significant policy shifts in the EU Tobacco Products Directive legislation towards the tobacco industry's submissions. In the light of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, additional governance strategies are needed to prevent undue influence of the tobacco industry on EU policy making. PMID:25124165

  15. Feasibility evaluations for the integration of laser butt welding of tubes in industrial pipe coil production lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penasa, Mauro; Colombo, Enrico; Giolfo, Mauro

    1994-09-01

    Due to the good performance shown by laser welded joints, to the quality and repeatability achievable by this welding technique and to its high process productivity, a feature inherent to the laser technology which, together with its high flexibility, allows different operations to be performed by a single source, consistent savings in a production line may be obtained. Therefore laser welding techniques may be of high relevance for industrial applications, provided that a sufficient attention is paid to avoiding a low utilization time to the operating laser source. The paper describes a feasibility study for the integration of a laser source as an automatic unit for circumferential butt welding of tubes in production lines of pipe coils, just before the cold bending station. Using a 6 kW CO2 source, thickness ranging from 3.5 to 11.2 mm in carbon, low alloyed Cr-Mo and austenitic stainless steels, have been successfully welded. Cr-Mo steels require on line preheating treatment, which however can be achieved by laser defocused passes just before welding. The results of the preliminary qualification performed on laser welded joints of the involved topologies of product (materials, diameters and thicknesses) are described together with technological tests required for approval: laser circumferential butt welding of tubes has proven to be effective, with satisfactory and repeatable results and good joint performances. An exhaustive comparison with current welding techniques (TIG, MIG) is then carried out, along with a detailed analysis of the potential advantages and benefits which may be expected by using the laser welding technique, as well as with a first estimation of the investments and running costs. Since laser productivity is saturated only at a rough 35% during the year, an accurate analysis of other possible applications and of a possible lay out of a laser working cell integrated in the factory production lines is performed. Usually little attention is

  16. Chromosome elimination and in vivo haploid production induced by Stock 6-derived inducer line in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zili; Qiu, Fazhan; Liu, Yongzhong; Ma, Kejun; Li, Zaiyun; Xu, Shangzhong

    2008-12-01

    In vivo haploid production induced by inducer lines derived from Stock 6 is widely used in breeding program of maize (Zea mays L.), but the mechanisms behind have not yet been fully understood. In this study, average frequency of haploid induction in four inbred lines by Stock 6-derived inducer line HZI1 was above 10%. About 0.2% kernels from the cross Hua24 x HZI1 had mosaic endosperm showing yellow shrunken parts from Hua24 to normal parts with purple aleurone from HZI1. Individual lagged chromosomes and micronuclei were observed in mitotic cells of ovules pollinated by HZI1. Above 56.4% of the radicles from the kernels with purple aleurone and colorless embryos were mixoploid (2n = 9-21), and more than 45.22% cells were haploid cells (2n = 10) in three crosses. More than 62.5% of the radicles from the kernels with purple aleurone and purple embryos were mixoploid (2n = 9-21) having 54.27% cells with 2n = 20. SSR analysis showed that all haploids from the cross Hua24 x HZI1 shared the same genomic compositions as Hua24 except for plants Nos. 862 and 857 with some polymorphic DNA bands. The results revealed that chromosome elimination after fertilization caused the haploid production in maize. PMID:18807046

  17. Quantitative analysis of investment allocation over various resources of health care systems by using views of product lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Guangfu; Williams, Peter

    2013-11-01

    Hospitals can be viewed as service enterprises, of which the primary function is to provide specific sets of diagnostic and therapeutic medical services to individual patients. Each patient has certain diagnosis and therapeutic attributes in common with some other patients. Thus, patients with similar medical attributes could be 'processed' in one 'product line' of medical services, and individual treatments for patients within one 'product line' can be regarded as incurring identical consumption of health care resources. This article presents a theoretical framing for resource planning and investment allocation of various resources from a macro perspective of costs that demonstrates the need to plan capacity at the disaggregated resource level. The result of a balanced line ('optimal') is compared with an alternative scheme of 'the same ratio composing of resources' under the same monetary constraints. Thus, it is demonstrated that planning at the disaggregated level affords much better use of resources than achieved in common practice of budget control by simple percentage increase/decrease in distributing a financial vote.

  18. Automation and quality in analytical laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Valcarcel, M.; Rios, A.

    1994-05-01

    After a brief introduction to the generic aspects of automation in analytical laboratories, the different approaches to quality in analytical chemistry are presented and discussed to establish the following different facets emerging from the combination of quality and automation: automated analytical control of quality of products and systems; quality control of automated chemical analysis; and improvement of capital (accuracy and representativeness), basic (sensitivity, precision, and selectivity), and complementary (rapidity, cost, and personnel factors) analytical features. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of this marriage of convenience in present and future analytical chemistry. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Automated Science Processing for GLAST LAT Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, James

    2007-07-12

    Automated Science Processing (ASP) will be performed by the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) Instrument Science Operations Center (ISOC) on data from the satellite as soon as the Level 1 data are available in the ground processing pipeline. ASP will consist of time-critical science analyses that will facilitate follow-up and multi-wavelength observations of transient sources. These analyses include refinement of gamma-ray burst (GRB) positions, timing, flux and spectral properties, off-line searches for untriggered GRBs and gamma-ray afterglows, longer time scale monitoring of a standard set of sources (AGNs, X-ray binaries), and searches for previously unknown flaring sources in the LAT band. We describe the design of ASP and its scientific products; and we show results of a prototype implementation, driven by the standard LAT data processing pipeline, as applied to simulated LAT and GBM data.

  20. Automated Science Processing for GLAST LAT Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, James; Carson, Jennifer; Focke, Warren; /SLAC

    2007-10-15

    Automated Science Processing (ASP) will be performed by the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) Instrument Science Operations Center (ISOC) on data from the satellite as soon as the Level 1 data are available in the ground processing pipeline. ASP will consist of time-critical science analyses that will facilitate follow-up and multi-wavelength observations of transient sources. These analyses include refinement of gamma-ray burst (GRB) positions, timing, flux and spectral properties, off-line searches for untriggered GRBs and gamma-ray afterglows, longer time scale monitoring of a standard set of sources (AGNs, X-ray binaries), and searches for previously unknown flaring sources in the LAT band. We describe the design of ASP and its scientific products; and we show results of a prototype implementation, driven by the standard LAT data processing pipeline, as applied to simulated LAT and GBM data.

  1. Investing in the Future: Automation Marketplace 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    In a year where the general economy presented enormous challenges, libraries continued to make investments in automation, especially in products that help improve what and how they deliver to their end users. Access to electronic content remains a key driver. In response to anticipated needs for new approaches to library automation, many companies…

  2. 40 CFR 1048.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the requirements of 40 CFR part 1048. We have not changed production processes or quality-control..., regardless of the procedure or type of equipment. (8) Provide the CumSum analysis required in § 1048.315...

  3. 40 CFR 1045.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements of 40 CFR part 1045. We have not changed production processes or quality-control procedures for..., regardless of the procedure or type of engine. (8) Provide the CumSum analysis required in § 1045.315 and...

  4. 40 CFR 1045.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements of 40 CFR part 1045. We have not changed production processes or quality-control procedures for..., regardless of the procedure or type of engine. (8) Provide the CumSum analysis required in § 1045.315 and...

  5. 40 CFR 1048.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the requirements of 40 CFR part 1048. We have not changed production processes or quality-control..., regardless of the procedure or type of equipment. (8) Provide the CumSum analysis required in § 1048.315...

  6. 40 CFR 1045.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements of 40 CFR part 1045. We have not changed production processes or quality-control procedures for..., regardless of the procedure or type of engine. (8) Provide the CumSum analysis required in § 1045.315 and...

  7. 40 CFR 1048.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the requirements of 40 CFR part 1048. We have not changed production processes or quality-control..., regardless of the procedure or type of equipment. (8) Provide the CumSum analysis required in § 1048.315...

  8. 40 CFR 1048.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the requirements of 40 CFR part 1048. We have not changed production processes or quality-control... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION...

  9. 40 CFR 1045.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements of 40 CFR part 1045. We have not changed production processes or quality-control procedures for... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES...

  10. Detection and quantification of sulfur in oil products by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for on-line analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trichard, F.; Forquet, V.; Gilon, N.; Lienemann, C.-P.; Baco-Antoniali, F.

    2016-04-01

    Determination of sulfur in petroleum products is described using Laser Induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). A study of buffer gases employed to improve sulfur IR line detection is presented. Optimisation of the flow rate led to a 1.4 L/min optimal helium flow rate. An adaptation between a typical laboratory setup to a compact system allowed to obtain detection limits in the 0.2% w/w range. Calibration is made under the process conditions (70 °C) and at room temperature. Normalization with a helium emission line compensates for liquid level variations and for the temperature variations. The analysis of a sample over the course of 2 days under the conditions of the industrial process was tested and gave a good repeatability.

  11. Both Automation and Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Royal

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the concept of a paperless society and the current situation in library automation. Various applications of automation and telecommunications are addressed, and future library automation is considered. Automation at the Monroe County Public Library in Bloomington, Indiana, is described as an example. (MES)

  12. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, Oliver T.; Lowry, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectonic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems.

  13. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, O.T.; Lowry, M.E.

    1999-01-05

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectronic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems. 26 figs.

  14. Automated production GMAX-L strains of Saccharomyces cereviciae for profitable sustainable cellulosic ethanol production combined with valuable coproduct isolation in mixed biorefinery settings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Second generation cellulosic ethanol production is beginning in a variety of formats and using various ethanologenic microbes. The best possibility would be to produce cellulosic ethanol using a Saccharomyces cereviciae that has been engineered to produce ethanol from pentose as well as hexose suga...

  15. Production of Truncated Candida antarctica Lipase B Gene Using Automated PCR Gene Assembly Protocol and Expression in Yeast for use in Ethanol and Biodiesel Production.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An improved column-based process for production of biodiesel was developed using a column containing a strongly basic anion-exchange resin in sequence with a column containing a resin to which a lipase biocatalyst is bound. Currently most biodiesel is produced by transesterification of triglyceride...

  16. Proof-of-concept automation of propellant processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Schallhorn, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    For space-based propellant production, automation of the process is needed. Currently, all phases of terrestrial production have some form of human interaction. A mixer was acquired to help perform the tasks of automation. A heating system to be used with the mixer was designed, built, and installed. Tests performed on the heating system verify design criteria. An IBM PS/2 personal computer was acquired for the future automation work. It is hoped that some the mixing process itself will be automated. This is a concept demonstration task; proving that propellant production can be automated reliably.

  17. Chemical inhibition of autophagy: Examining its potential to increase the specific productivity of recombinant CHO cell lines.

    PubMed

    Baek, Eric; Kim, Che Lin; Kim, Mi Gyeom; Lee, Jae Seong; Lee, Gyun Min

    2016-09-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells activate and undergo apoptosis and autophagy for various environmental stresses. Unlike apoptosis, studies on increasing the production of therapeutic proteins in CHO cells by targeting the autophagy pathway are limited. In order to identify the effects of chemical autophagy inhibitors on the specific productivity (qp ), nine chemical inhibitors that had been reported to target three different phases of autophagy (metformin, dorsomorphin, resveratrol, and SP600125 against initiation and nucleation; 3-MA, wortmannin, and LY294002 against elongation, and chloroquine and bafilomycin A1 against autophagosome fusion) were used to treat three recombinant CHO (rCHO) cell lines: the Fc-fusion protein-producing DG44 (DG44-Fc) and DUKX-B11 (DUKX-Fc) and antibody-producing DG44 (DG44-Ab) cell lines. Among the nine chemical inhibitors tested, 3-MA, dorsomorphin, and SP600125 significantly increased the qp of DG44-Fc and DUKX-Fc. In contrast, for DG44-Ab, only 3-MA significantly increased the qp . The autophagy-inhibiting activity of the nine chemical inhibitors on the rCHO cell lines was evaluated through Western blot analysis and flow cytometry. Unexpectedly, some chemical inhibitors did not exhibit any apparent inhibition activity on autophagy. The chemical inhibitors that enhanced the qp , 3-MA, dorsomorphin, and SP600125, exhibited instead an increased autophagic flux. Taken all together, the chemical inhibition of autophagy was not effective in increasing the qp in rCHO cell lines and the positive effect of 3-MA, dorsomorphin, and SP600125 on the qp was not due to the inhibition of autophagy. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1953-1961. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26914152

  18. The On Line Validation Exercise (OLIVE) Tool: a CEOS/LPV initiative for validation of global land products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, M.; Baret, F.; Block, T.; Koetz, B.; Burini, A.; Fernandes, R. A.; Nightingale, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    The OLIVE (On Line Interactive Validation Exercise) system enables transparent and traceable validation and inter-comparison of EO land products (LAI, FAPAR, FCOVER). The ultimate objective of OLIVE is to provide consistent and reliable information on the accuracy and associated uncertainty of EO products. The validation exercise follows the guidelines proposed by CEOS/LPV and allows for regular updates when new versions or products are available. OLIVE is accessible to the whole EO community which can run validation exercises, including existing or new products. The validation process involves several criterions listed hereafter: (i) continuity of products, i.e. evaluation of the spatial and temporal distribution of missing values,(ii) accuracy assessment achieved by comparing the product value derived from satellite observations to ground measurements of the corresponding biophysical variable (i.e. direct validation) (iii) precision assessment, mainly regarding the temporal and spatial consistency, including the long term temporal stability mandatory for several applications, and (iv) intercomparison between currently existing products. OLIVE is a web platform and provides three main functionalities: 1. Easy and transparent access to validation exercise results, including product definition, description of the validation process and associated data. 2. Evaluate new EO products/versions developed by any producer. Formats required for the candidate input product are described in details. The validation can be run in two modes: (i) the 'private' mode for which the validation results are only visible to this user. This mode is dedicated to perform tests when the product may not be mature enough for public scrutiny; (ii) the 'public' mode, for more mature products, where the results are published on the system and accessible to the community. In the latter case, the data used for the validation are stored on the system and available to the community for inter

  19. The role of evolutionarily conserved germ-line DH sequence in B-1 cell development and natural antibody production.

    PubMed

    Vale, Andre M; Nobrega, Alberto; Schroeder, Harry W

    2015-12-01

    Because of N addition and variation in the site of VDJ joining, the third complementarity-determining region of the heavy chain (CDR-H3) is the most diverse component of the initial immunoglobulin antigen-binding site repertoire. A large component of the peritoneal cavity B-1 cell component is the product of fetal and perinatal B cell production. The CDR-H3 repertoire is thus depleted of N addition, which increases dependency on germ-line sequence. Cross-species comparisons have shown that DH gene sequence demonstrates conservation of amino acid preferences by reading frame. Preference for reading frame 1, which is enriched for tyrosine and glycine, is created both by rearrangement patterns and by pre-BCR and BCR selection. In previous studies, we have assessed the role of conserved DH sequence by examining peritoneal cavity B-1 cell numbers and antibody production in BALB/c mice with altered DH loci. Here, we review our finding that changes in the constraints normally imposed by germ-line-encoded amino acids within the CDR-H3 repertoire profoundly affect B-1 cell development, especially B-1a cells, and thus natural antibody immunity. Our studies suggest that both natural and somatic selection operate to create a restricted B-1 cell CDR-H3 repertoire. PMID:26104486

  20. Canopy Photosynthesis and Its Relationship to Plant Productivity in Near-Isogenic Cotton Lines Differing in Leaf Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Randy; Meredith, William R.; Williford, J. Ray

    1986-01-01

    A 2-year study was conducted to determine the relationships between plant canopy photosynthesis, canopy light interception, and plant productivity of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) exhibiting differing leaf morphologies. The near-isogenic lines were from a single background (MD 65-11) and represented the leaf shapes Normal (small leaf lobing), Sub-Okra (intermediate leaf lobing), Okra (large leaf lobing), and Super Okra (severe leaf lobing). The F1 of a cross Normal × Okra (intermediate leaf lobing) and the F2 (segregating 1:2:1 for Normal Sub-Okra, and Okra, respectively) were also grown. Reduced plant canopies were produced by Okra and Super Okra lines, which translated into increased light penetration to the ground, and hence, in reduced canopy photosynthesis. Integrated canopy photosynthesis (ICAP) was significantly associated with light interception by the plant canopy. Part of the remaining variability in ICAP was associated with confounding factors associated with plant maturity and other unmeasured genotypic factors. Intermediate (F1 and Sub-Okra) and normal leaf types displayed the largest ICAP values in both years. Lint production was positively related to ICAP (R2 = 0.53). The combination of high ICAP values and competitive lint yields indicate that intermediate lobed leaf morphologies offer promise as productive sources of physiological variation for cotton germplasm development. PMID:16665085