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Sample records for automated radiometric technic

  1. Impact of Automation on Technical Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooks, Dana C.; Thompson, Linda L.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the impact of automation on library technical services, and the need for library managers to be aware of the issues involved and to plan for future developments. The discussion focuses on the areas of job related concerns of technical staff, organizational structures, recruitment and training, and ergonomic considerations. (CLB)

  2. Automated network at Railroad Valley, Nevada, for providing radiometric calibrations of OCO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruegge, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Traditional vicarious calibration experiments are used to provide radiometric calibrations for visible/ near-infrared sensors. Here a field team makes measurements of surface reflectance and atmospheric parameters co-incident with the flyby of an on-orbit sensor. These experiments are labor-intensive, and are often delayed waiting for clear-sky conditions. In June 2011 an automated test site was established at Railroad Valley, Nevada. Surface and atmospheric data from the test site are now downloaded automatically, and allow on-going calibrations for all overpass opportunities. This poster will describe the facility, and discuss early results in comparing top-of-atmosphere radiances to AVIRIS, MODIS, and GOSAT sensors.

  3. Reflectance-based radiometric calibration of multispectral Earth-observation sensors using an automated test site at Railroad Valley, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, J.; Leisso, N. P.

    2011-12-01

    Ground-based vicarious radiometric calibration is used as an independent source to monitor the temporal changes in Earth-observing sensors. The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona uses the reflectance-based approach, which requires in-situ measurements of surface reflectance and atmospheric properties during a sensor overpass. The group has expanded its capabilities by developing the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS), which operates in the absence of ground personnel at Railroad Valley, Nevada. It is comprised of ground-viewing radiometers, which are used to determine the surface reflectance, and a Cimel Sun photometer, which is used to make atmospheric measurements. The radiative transfer code MODTRAN5 is used to determine the top-of-atmosphere spectral radiance for a given overpass. This work presents radiometric calibration results for MODIS, MISR, ASTER, and Landsat 7 ETM+, which were obtained using RadCaTS. The automated results are also compared to those obtained using in-situ techniques.

  4. Comparison of diffuse sky irradiance calculation methods and effect on surface reflectance retrieval from an automated radiometric calibration test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisso, Nathan; Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey

    2011-10-01

    The Remote Sensing Group (RSG) at the University of Arizona is currently refining an automated system for the absolute radiometric calibration of earth-observing sensors. The Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) relies on semi-permanent instrumentation at the Railroad Valley (RRV) test site to collect data from which surface reflectance and an atmospheric characterization is determined. Multispectral surface reflectance is determined from calibrated ground viewing radiometers and assimilated to determine the hyperspectral reflectance used in radiative transfer calculations. The reflectance retrieval algorithm relies on an accurate determination of the diffuse sky irradiance for the time of interest. Currently, diffuse sky irradiance is modeled using the atmospheric characterization as input into MODTRAN5. This work investigates the accuracy of the diffuse sky modeling by comparing modeled results to measurements made at the test site. Diffuse sky irradiance from several alternative methods are also presented. Surface reflectance is computed and compared to in-situ measurements taken with a portable spectoradiometer.

  5. Ground-based vicarious radiometric calibration of Landsat 7 ETM+ and Terra MODIS using an automated test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, J.; Leisso, N.

    2010-12-01

    The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona has operated the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) at Railroad Valley, Nevada, since 2004. It is an approach to ground-based vicarious calibration that does not require on-site personnel to make surface and atmospheric measurements during a satellite overpass. It was originally developed in 2002 in an attempt to increase the amount of data collected throughout the year while maintaining the accuracy of in-situ measurements. RadCaTS currently consists of four ground-viewing radiometers to measure surface reflectance, a Cimel sun photometer to make atmospheric measurements, and a weather station to measure ambient conditions. The data from these instruments are used in MODTRAN 5 to determine the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) spectral radiance for a given overpass time, and the results are compared to the sensor under test. The work presented here describes the RadCaTS instrumentation suite and automated processing scheme used to determine the surface reflectance and TOA spectral radiance. The instruments used to measure surface and atmospheric properties are presented, followed by a discussion of their spatial layout and their radiometric calibration. The RadCaTS ground-based results are compared to those from Aqua and Terra MODIS overpasses in 2008, and Landsat 7 ETM+ overpasses in 2009.

  6. An Automated Curriculum Development Process for Navy Technical Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Jeffrey A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a microcomputer-based program created for the U.S. Navy that automates curriculum development for technical training. Highlights include training program components; analysis and design of instructional materials; systematic support and management of the curriculum development process; software automation; and time and cost savings. (LRW)

  7. TurboTech Technical Evaluation Automated System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiffany, Dorothy J.

    2009-01-01

    TurboTech software is a Web-based process that simplifies and semiautomates technical evaluation of NASA proposals for Contracting Officer's Technical Representatives (COTRs). At the time of this reporting, there have been no set standards or systems for training new COTRs in technical evaluations. This new process provides boilerplate text in response to interview style questions. This text is collected into a Microsoft Word document that can then be further edited to conform to specific cases. By providing technical language and a structured format, TurboTech allows the COTRs to concentrate more on the actual evaluation, and less on deciding what language would be most appropriate. Since the actual word choice is one of the more time-consuming parts of a COTRs job, this process should allow for an increase in quantity of proposals evaluated. TurboTech is applicable to composing technical evaluations of contractor proposals, task and delivery orders, change order modifications, requests for proposals, new work modifications, task assignments, as well as any changes to existing contracts.

  8. Automating the Production of Interactive Technical Documentation and EPSS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmott, Lyle C.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how the production of IETM (interactive electronic technical manuals) and EPSS (electronic performance support systems) has been automated to give subject-matter experts the ability to mass-produce electronic documents, training, and training-support materials. Describes four projects involving object-relational database architecture.…

  9. Space station automation study: automation requirements derived from space manufacturing concepts. Volume II: final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-27

    The purpose of the Space Station Automation Study is to develop informed technical guidance to NASA in the use of autonomy and autonomous systems to implement space station functions. Some topics discussed include mission selection, GaAs electroepitaxial crystal production, and the GaAs microelectronics chip facility.

  10. Architecture Concepts and Technical Issues for an Open,Interoperable Automated Demand Response Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Ed; Piette, Mary Ann

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents the technical and architectural issues associated with automating Demand Response (DR) programs. The paper focuses on a description of the Demand Response Automation Server (DRAS), which is the main component used to automate the interactions between the Utilities and their customers for DR programs. Use cases are presented that show the role of the DRAS in automating various aspects of DR programs. This paper also describes the various technical aspects of the DRAS including its interfaces and major modes of operation. This includes how the DRAS supports automating such Utility/Customer interactions as automated DR bidding, automated DR event handling, and finally real-time pricing.

  11. Automated radioanalytical system incorporating microwave-assisted sample preparation, chemical separation, and online radiometric detection for the monitoring of total 99Tc in nuclear waste processing streams.

    PubMed

    Egorov, Oleg B; O'Hara, Matthew J; Grate, Jay W

    2012-04-01

    An automated fluidic instrument is described that rapidly determines the total (99)Tc content of aged nuclear waste samples, where the matrix is chemically and radiologically complex and the existing speciation of the (99)Tc is variable. The monitor links microwave-assisted sample preparation with an automated anion exchange column separation and detection using a flow-through solid scintillator detector. The sample preparation steps acidify the sample, decompose organics, and convert all Tc species to the pertechnetate anion. The column-based anion exchange procedure separates the pertechnetate from the complex sample matrix, so that radiometric detection can provide accurate measurement of (99)Tc. We developed a preprogrammed spike addition procedure to automatically determine matrix-matched calibration. The overall measurement efficiency that is determined simultaneously provides a self-diagnostic parameter for the radiochemical separation and overall instrument function. Continuous, automated operation was demonstrated over the course of 54 h, which resulted in the analysis of 215 samples plus 54 hly spike-addition samples, with consistent overall measurement efficiency for the operation of the monitor. A sample can be processed and measured automatically in just 12.5 min with a detection limit of 23.5 Bq/mL of (99)Tc in low activity waste (0.495 mL sample volume), with better than 10% RSD precision at concentrations above the quantification limit. This rapid automated analysis method was developed to support nuclear waste processing operations planned for the Hanford nuclear site. PMID:22440010

  12. Automated Radioanalytical System Incorporating Microwave-Assisted Sample Preparation, Chemical Separation, and Online Radiometric Detection for the Monitoring of Total 99Tc in Nuclear Waste Processing Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, Oleg; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Grate, Jay W.

    2012-04-03

    An automated fluidic instrument is described that rapidly determines the total 99Tc content of aged nuclear waste samples, where the matrix is chemically and radiologically complex and the existing speciation of the 99Tc is variable. The monitor links microwave-assisted sample preparation with an automated anion exchange column separation and detection using a flow-through solid scintillator detector. The sample preparation steps acidify the sample, decompose organics, and convert all Tc species to the pertechnetate anion. The column-based anion exchange procedure separates the pertechnetate from the complex sample matrix, so that radiometric detection can provide accurate measurement of 99Tc. We developed a preprogrammed spike addition procedure to automatically determine matrix-matched calibration. The overall measurement efficiency that is determined simultaneously provides a self-diagnostic parameter for the radiochemical separation and overall instrument function. Continuous, automated operation was demonstrated over the course of 54 h, which resulted in the analysis of 215 samples plus 54 hly spike-addition samples, with consistent overall measurement efficiency for the operation of the monitor. A sample can be processed and measured automatically in just 12.5 min with a detection limit of 23.5 Bq/mL of 99Tc in low activity waste (0.495 mL sample volume), with better than 10% RSD precision at concentrations above the quantification limit. This rapid automated analysis method was developed to support nuclear waste processing operations planned for the Hanford nuclear site.

  13. Aquarius's Instrument Science Data System (ISDS) Automated to Acquire, Process, Trend Data and Produce Radiometric System Assessment Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Aquarius Radiometer, a subsystem of the Aquarius Instrument required a data acquisition ground system to support calibration and radiometer performance assessment. To support calibration and compose performance assessments, we developed an automated system which uploaded raw data to a ftp server and saved raw and processed data to a database. This paper details the overall functionalities of the Aquarius Instrument Science Data System (ISDS) and the individual electrical ground support equipment (EGSE) which produced data files that were infused into the ISDS. Real time EGSEs include an ICDS Simulator, Calibration GSE, Labview controlled power supply, and a chamber data acquisition system. ICDS Simulator serves as a test conductor primary workstation, collecting radiometer housekeeping (HK) and science data and passing commands and HK telemetry collection request to the radiometer. Calibration GSE (Radiometer Active Test Source) provides source choice from multiple targets for the radiometer external calibration. Power Supply GSE, controlled by labview, provides real time voltage and current monitoring of the radiometer. And finally the chamber data acquisition system produces data reflecting chamber vacuum pressure, thermistor temperatures, AVG and watts. Each GSE system produce text based data files every two to six minutes and automatically copies the data files to the Central Archiver PC. The Archiver PC stores the data files, schedules automated uploads of these files to an external FTP server, and accepts request to copy all data files to the ISDS for offline data processing and analysis. Aquarius Radiometer ISDS contains PHP and MATLab programs to parse, process and save all data to a MySQL database. Analysis tools (MATLab programs) in the ISDS system are capable of displaying radiometer science, telemetry and auxiliary data in near real time as well as performing data analysis and producing automated performance assessment reports of the Aquarius

  14. Space station automation study: satellite servicing. Volume II. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Meissinger, H.F.

    1984-12-20

    This study was conducted by TRW over the six month time frame from early June through November 1984. Three major tasks were completed: Servicing Requirements (Satellite and Space Station Elements) and the Role of Automation; Assessment of Automation Technology; and Conceptual Design of Servicing Facilities on the Space Station. It was found that many servicing functions could benefit from automation support; that certain research and development activities on automation technologies for servicing should start as soon as possible; and some advanced automation developments for orbital servicing could be effectively applied to US industrial ground based operations. 42 refs., 49 figs., 20 tabs.

  15. Automation of the Technical Services Department in the Community College Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bial, Raymond; Strickler, Ken

    1987-01-01

    Describes Parkland College Library's efforts to review technical service activities and make recommendations concerning the automation of cataloging, acquisitions, and the public catalog. Traces the steps that have been taken in the development of a "paperless office." (DMM)

  16. [Laser-based radiometric calibration].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-gang; Zheng, Yu-quan

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly higher demands are put forward to spectral radiometric calibration accuracy and the development of new tunable laser based spectral radiometric calibration technology is promoted, along with the development of studies of terrestrial remote sensing, aeronautical and astronautical remote sensing, plasma physics, quantitative spectroscopy, etc. Internationally a number of national metrology scientific research institutes have built tunable laser based spectral radiometric calibration facilities in succession, which are traceable to cryogenic radiometers and have low uncertainties for spectral responsivity calibration and characterization of detectors and remote sensing instruments in the UK, the USA, Germany, etc. Among them, the facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations using uniform sources (SIRCCUS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the USA and the Tunable Lasers in Photometry (TULIP) facility at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany have more representatives. Compared with lamp-monochromator systems, laser based spectral radiometric calibrations have many advantages, such as narrow spectral bandwidth, high wavelength accuracy, low calibration uncertainty and so on for radiometric calibration applications. In this paper, the development of laser-based spectral radiometric calibration and structures and performances of laser-based radiometric calibration facilities represented by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the UK, NIST and PTB are presented, technical advantages of laser-based spectral radiometric calibration are analyzed, and applications of this technology are further discussed. Laser-based spectral radiometric calibration facilities can be widely used in important system-level radiometric calibration measurements with high accuracy, including radiance temperature, radiance and irradiance calibrations for space remote sensing instruments, and promote the

  17. An Automated Circulation System for a Small Technical Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culnan, Mary J.

    The traditional manually-controlled circulation records of the Burroughs Corporation Library in Goleta, California, presented problems of inaccuracies, time time-consuming searches, and lack of use statistics. An automated system with the capacity to do file maintenance and statistical record-keeping was implemented on a Burroughts B1700 computer.…

  18. SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series. Volume 4; The 1997 Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration of SeaWiFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Johnson, B. Carol; Early, Edward E.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Barnes, Robert A.; Caffrey, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) was originally calibrated by the instrument's manufacturer, Santa Barbara Research Center (SBRC), in November 1993. In preparation for an August 1997 launch, the SeaWiFS Project and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) undertook a second calibration of SeaWiFS in January and April 1997 at the facility of the spacecraft integrator, Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). This calibration occurred in two phases, the first after the final thermal vacuum test, and the second after the final vibration test of the spacecraft. For the calibration, SeaWiFS observed an integrating sphere from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) at four radiance levels. The spectral radiance of the sphere at these radiance levels was also measured by the SeaWiFS Transfer Radiometer (SXR). In addition, during the calibration, SeaWiFS and the SXR observed the sphere at 16 radiance levels to determine the linearity of the SeaWiFS response. As part of the calibration analysis, the GSFC sphere was also characterized using a GSFC spectroradiometer. The 1997 calibration agrees with the initial 1993 calibration to within +/- 4%. The new calibration coefficients, computed before and after the vibration test, agree to within 0.5%. The response of the SeaWiFS channels in each band is linear to better than 1%. In order to compare to previous and current methods, the SeaWiFS radiometric responses are presented in two ways: using the nominal center wave-lengths for the eight bands; and using band-averaged spectral radiances. The band-averaged values are used in the flight calibration table. An uncertainty analysis for the calibration coefficients is also presented.

  19. SeaWiFS technical report series. Volume 23: SeaWiFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Robert A.; Holmes, Alan W.; Barnes, William L.; Esaias, Wayne E.; Mcclain, Charles R.; Svitek, Tomas; Hooker, Stanford B.; Firestone, Elaine R.; Acker, James G.

    1994-01-01

    Based on the operating characteristics of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), calibration equations have been developed that allow conversion of the counts from the radiometer into Earth-existing radiances. These radiances are the geophysical properties the instrument has been designed to measure. SeaWiFS uses bilinear gains to allow high sensitivity measurements of ocean-leaving radiances and low sensitivity measurements of radiances from clouds, which are much brighter than the ocean. The calculation of these bilinear gains is central to the calibration equations. Several other factors within these equations are also included. Among these are the spectral responses of the eight SeaWiFS bands. A band's spectral response includes the ability of the band to isolate a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum and the amount of light that lies outside of that region. The latter is termed out-of-band response. In the calibration procedure, some of the counts from the instrument are produced by radiance in the out-of-band region. The number of those counts for each band is a function of the spectral shape of the source. For the SeaWiFS calibration equations, the out-of-band responses are converted from those for the laboratory source into those for a source with the spectral shape of solar flux. The solar flux, unlike the laboratory calibration, approximates the spectral shape of the Earth-existing radiance from the oceans. This conversion modifies the results from the laboratory radiometric calibration by 1-4 percent, depending on the band. These and other factors in the SeaWiFS calibration equations are presented here, both for users of the SeaWiFS data set and for researchers making ground-based radiance measurements in support of Sea WiFS.

  20. Automated Technical Operations: Unified Ordering/Cataloging Systems at the Libraries of the Claremont Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teare, Robert F., Ed.

    Since 1966 the libraries of the Associated Claremont Colleges have developed an automated central acquisition and cataloging system. This system differs from most other technical service organizations and operations in three ways: (1) ordering and cataloging operations are integrated and blended to avoid duplicate and uncoordinated performance,…

  1. Automation and the Workplace. Selected Labor, Education, and Training Issues. A Technical Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This technical memorandum discusses procedures for evaluating potential employment change associated with automation and outlines associated problems. It also describes the nature and modes of delivery of education, training, and retraining for persons holding or seeking employment in manufacturing industries. An introduction provides a brief…

  2. Development Trends in Federal Library and Information Center Automation. Guides for Administrative and Technical Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Dynamics Corp., Bethesda, MD.

    These two guides for interviews on trends in library automation in federal libraries and information centers cover administrative and technical interviews. The guide for administrative interviews is divided into five steps: (1) determining the details of the agency's mission and organizational structure, (2) establishing the administrative…

  3. Automated Technologies Noncommercial/Nonprofit Curriculum Guides and Resources Available for Community Colleges and Technical Institutes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doty, Charles R.

    This annotated bibliography is intended to provide community college and technical institute personnel with a listing of available curriculum guides dealing with automated technologies. Described in the handbook are a total of 31 curriculum guides that were selected because they met the following criteria: availability in the ERIC system or…

  4. Technical Innovation: The Automated Residency Match Rank List.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Colin; Rubinstein, David

    2016-01-01

    The creation of the final rank list for the National Residency Matching Program every year is a laborious task requiring the time and input of numerous faculty members and residents. This article describes the creation of an automated visual rank list to efficiently organize and guide discussion at the yearly rank meeting so that the task may be efficiently and fairly completed. The rank list was created using a PowerPoint (Microsoft) macro that can pull information directly from a spreadsheet to generate a visual rank list that can be modified on-the-fly during the final rank list meeting. An automatically created visual rank list helps facilitate an efficient meeting and creates an open and transparent process leading to the final ranking. PMID:26778579

  5. Radiometric sounding system

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Anderson, G.A.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Shaw, W.J.

    1995-04-01

    Vertical profiles of solar and terrestrial radiative fluxes are key research needs for global climate change research. These fluxes are expected to change as radiatively active trace gases are emitted to the earth`s atmosphere as a consequence of energy production and industrial and other human activities. Models suggest that changes in the concentration of such gases will lead to radiative flux divergences that will produce global warming of the earth`s atmosphere. Direct measurements of the vertical variation of solar and terrestrial radiative fluxes that lead to these flux divergences have been largely unavailable because of the expense of making such measurements from airplanes. These measurements are needed to improve existing atmospheric radiative transfer models, especially under the cloudy conditions where the models have not been adequately tested. A tethered-balloon-borne Radiometric Sounding System has been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide an inexpensive means of making routine vertical soundings of radiative fluxes in the earth`s atmospheric boundary layer to altitudes up to 1500 m above ground level. Such vertical soundings would supplement measurements being made from aircraft and towers. The key technical challenge in the design of the Radiometric Sounding System is to develop a means of keeping the radiometers horizontal while the balloon ascends and descends in a turbulent atmospheric environment. This problem has been addressed by stabilizing a triangular radiometer-carrying platform that is carried on the tetherline of a balloon sounding system. The platform, carried 30 m or more below the balloon to reduce the balloon`s effect on the radiometric measurements, is leveled by two automatic control loops that activate motors, gears and pulleys when the platform is off-level. The sensitivity of the automatic control loops to oscillatory motions of various frequencies and amplitudes can be adjusted using filters.

  6. TES radiometric assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worden, H.; Sarkissian, E.; Bowman, K.; Fisher, B.; Rider, D.; Aumann, H. H.; Apolinski, M.; Debaca, R. C.; Gluck, S.; Madatyan, M.; McDuffie, J.; Tremblay, D.; Shephard, M.; Cady-Pereira, K.; Tobin, D.; Revercomb, H.

    2005-01-01

    TES is an infrared Fourier transform spectrometer on board the EOS-Aura spacecraft launched July 15, 2004. Improvements to the radiometric calibration and consequent assessment of radiometric accuracy have been on-going since launch.

  7. Transportable educational programs for scientific and technical professionals: More effective utilization of automated scientific and technical data base systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D.

    1987-01-01

    This grant final report executive summary documents a major, long-term program addressing innovative educational issues associated with the development, administration, evaluation, and widespread distribution of transportable educational programs for scientists and engineers to increase their knowledge of, and facilitate their utilization of automated scientific and technical information storage and retrieval systems. This educational program is of very broad scope, being targeted at Colleges of Engineering and Colleges of Physical sciences at a large number of colleges and universities throughout the United States. The educational program is designed to incorporate extensive hands-on, interactive usage of the NASA RECON system and is supported by a number of microcomputer-based software systems to facilitate the delivery and usage of the educational course materials developed as part of the program.

  8. NASA IKONOS Radiometric Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Frisbee, Troy; Zanoni, Vicki; Blonski, Slawek; Daehler, Erik; Grant, Brennan; Holekamp, Kara; Ryan, Robert; Sellers, Richard; Smith, Charles

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this program: Perform radiometric vicarious calibrations of IKQNOS imagery and compare with Space Imaging calibration coefficients The approach taken: utilize multiple well-characterized sites which are widely used by the NASA science community for radiometric characterization of airborne and spaceborne sensors; and to Perform independent characterizations with independent teams. Each team has slightly different measurement techniques and data processing methods.

  9. Radiometric correction procedure study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colby, C.; Sands, R.; Murphrey, S.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison of MSS radiometric processing techniques identified as a preferred radiometric processing technique a procedure which equalizes the mean and standard deviation of detector-specific histograms of uncalibrated scene data. Evaluation of MSS calibration data demonstrated that the relationship between detector responses is essentially linear over the range of intensities typically observed in MSS data, and that the calibration wedge data possess a high degree of temporal stability. An analysis of the preferred radiometric processing technique showed that it could be incorporated into the MDP-MSS system without a major redesign of the system, and with minimal impact on system throughput.

  10. Radiometric instrumentation and measurements guide for photovoltaic performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.

    1997-04-01

    The Photovoltaic Module and Systems Performance and Engineering Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory performs indoor and outdoor standardization, testing, and monitoring of the performance of a wide range of photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion devices and systems. The PV Radiometric Measurements and Evaluation Team (PVSRME) within that project is responsible for measurement and characterization of natural and artificial optical radiation which stimulates the PV effect. The PV manufacturing and research and development community often approaches project members for technical information and guidance. A great area of interest is radiometric instrumentation, measurement techniques, and data analysis applied to understanding and improving PV cell, module, and system performance. At the Photovoltaic Radiometric Measurements Workshop conducted by the PVSRME team in July 1995, the need to communicate knowledge of solar and optical radiometric measurements and instrumentation, gained as a result of NREL`s long-term experiences, was identified as an activity that would promote improved measurement processes and measurement quality in the PV research and manufacturing community. The purpose of this document is to address the practical and engineering need to understand optical and solar radiometric instrument performance, selection, calibration, installation, and maintenance applicable to indoor and outdoor radiometric measurements for PV calibration, performance, and testing applications. An introductory section addresses radiometric concepts and definitions. Next, concepts essential to spectral radiometric measurements are discussed. Broadband radiometric instrumentation and measurement concepts are then discussed. Each type of measurement serves as an important component of the PV cell, module, and system performance measurement and characterization process.

  11. Microwave radiometric systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barath, F. T.

    1972-01-01

    Microwave radiometers measure thermal electromagnetic radiation at frequencies ranging over the entire radio spectrum, from audio to infrared. The temperatures of black-body radiators can be measured with sensitivities better than 0.01 K, and with absolute accuracies better than 0.5 K. Radiometric systems have been built with as many as 400 independent spectral channels. Frequency resolutions range from hertz to gigahertz; and integration times range from microseconds to hours. Radiometric systems have operated reliably on the ground, and in balloons, aircraft, and spacecraft, including the 1962 Mariner 2 planetary probe to Venus.

  12. Evaluation of the Fully Automated BACTEC MGIT 960 System for Testing Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Pyrazinamide, Streptomycin, Isoniazid, Rifampin, and Ethambutol and Comparison with the Radiometric BACTEC 460TB Method

    PubMed Central

    Scarparo, Claudio; Ricordi, Paolo; Ruggiero, Giuliana; Piccoli, Paola

    2004-01-01

    The performance of the fully automated BACTEC MGIT 960 (M960) system for the testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis susceptibility to streptomycin (SM), isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RMP), ethambutol (EMB), and pyrazinamide (PZA) was evaluated with 100 clinical isolates and compared to that of the radiometric BACTEC 460TB (B460) system. The agar proportion method and the B460 system were used as reference methods to resolve the discordant results for SM, INH, RMP, and EMB (a combination known as SIRE) and PZA, respectively. The overall agreements were 96.3% for SIRE and 92% for PZA. For SIRE, a total of 26 discrepancies were found and were resolved in favor of the M960 system in 8 cases and in favor of the B460 system in 18 cases. The M960 system produced 8 very major errors (VME) and 10 major errors (ME), while the B460 system showed 4 VME and 4 ME. No statistically significant differences were found. Both systems exhibited excellent performance, but a higher number of VME was observed with the M960 system at the critical concentrations of EMB and SM. For PZA, a total of eight discrepancies were observed and were resolved in favor of the M960 system in one case and in favor of the B460 system in seven cases; no statistically significant differences were found. The M960 system showed four VME and three ME. The mean times to report overall PZA results and resistant results were 8.2 and 9.8 days, respectively, for the M960 system and 7.4 and 8.1 days, respectively, for the B460 system. Statistically significant differences were found. The mean times to report SIRE results were 8.3 days for the M960 system and 8.2 days for the B460 system. No statistically significant differences were found. Twelve strains tested for SIRE susceptibility and seven strains tested for PZA susceptibility had been reprocessed because of contamination. In conclusion, the M960 system can represent a valid alternative to the B460 for M. tuberculosis susceptibility testing; however, the frequent

  13. Photovoltaics radiometric issues and needs

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.R.

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents a summary of issues discussed at the photovoltaic radiometric measurements workshop. Topics included radiometric measurements guides, the need for well-defined goals, documentation, calibration checks, accreditation of testing laboratories and methods, the need for less expensive radiometric instrumentation, data correlations, and quality assurance.

  14. The Candela and Photometric and Radiometric Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Albert C.

    2001-01-01

    The national measurement system for photometric and radiometric quantities is presently based upon techniques that make these quantities traceable to a high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer. The redefinition of the candela in 1979 provided the opportunity for national measurement laboratories to base their photometric measurements on optical detector technology rather than on the emission from high-temperature blackbody optical sources. The ensuing technical developments of the past 20 years, including the significant improvements in cryogenic radiometer performance, have provided the opportunity to place the fundamental maintenance of photometric quantities upon absolute detector based technology as was allowed by the 1979 redefinition. Additionally, the development of improved photodetectors has had a significant impact on the methodology in most of the radiometric measurement areas. This paper will review the status of the NIST implementation of the technical changes mandated by the 1979 redefinition of the candela and its effect upon the maintenance and dissemination of optical radiation measurements. PMID:27500020

  15. Small satellite radiometric measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    A critical need for the Mission to Planet Earth is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for the radiation budget. This paper describes a new, compact, flexible radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated data and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on small satellites, aircraft, or remotely piloted vehicles (RPVs). 12 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Radiometric Dating Does Work!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalrymple, G. Brent

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the accuracy of dating methods and creationist arguments that radiometric dating does not work. Explains the Manson meteorite impact and the Pierre shale, the ages of meteorites, the K-T tektites, and dating the Mount Vesuvius eruption. (Author/YDS)

  17. Advanced radiometric complex for detection of radioactive release from Siberian chemical combine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolotkov, Gennady A.; Penin, Sergei T.

    2015-11-01

    The paper states limited availability of the use of the automated radiation situation monitoring system and proposes radiometric complex as more reliable system in the case of an accidental release of the Siberian Chemical Enterprises.

  18. Advancing automation and robotics technology for the space station and for the US economy. Volume II: technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    In response to Public Law 98-371, dated July 18, 1984, the NASA Advanced Technology Advisory Committee has studied automation and robotics for use in the Space Station and prepared this report to the congressional Committees on Appropriations. The study has included work by groups both within NASA and outside NASA, in the academic and industrial communities. The report is divided into two volumes. The Policy Report, Volume I, summaizes the major findings of the study and establishes NASA policy for advancing automation and robotics technologies to use them in the Space Station and to benefit the US economy. The Technical Report, Volume II (this document), provides background information on automation and robotics technologies and their potential and documents the following: the relevant aspects of Space Station design; representative examples of automation and robotics applications; the state of the technology and advances needed; and considerations for technology transfer to US industry and for space commercialization. Volume II provides guidance for prospective Space Station contractors to direct their efforts toward a planned advance in these technologies.

  19. Simplified Vicarious Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Thomas; Ryan, Robert; Holekamp, Kara; Pagnutti, Mary

    2010-01-01

    A measurement-based radiance estimation approach for vicarious radiometric calibration of spaceborne multispectral remote sensing systems has been developed. This simplified process eliminates the use of radiative transfer codes and reduces the number of atmospheric assumptions required to perform sensor calibrations. Like prior approaches, the simplified method involves the collection of ground truth data coincident with the overpass of the remote sensing system being calibrated, but this approach differs from the prior techniques in both the nature of the data collected and the manner in which the data are processed. In traditional vicarious radiometric calibration, ground truth data are gathered using ground-viewing spectroradiometers and one or more sun photometer( s), among other instruments, located at a ground target area. The measured data from the ground-based instruments are used in radiative transfer models to estimate the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) target radiances at the time of satellite overpass. These TOA radiances are compared with the satellite sensor readings to radiometrically calibrate the sensor. Traditional vicarious radiometric calibration methods require that an atmospheric model be defined such that the ground-based observations of solar transmission and diffuse-to-global ratios are in close agreement with the radiative transfer code estimation of these parameters. This process is labor-intensive and complex, and can be prone to errors. The errors can be compounded because of approximations in the model and inaccurate assumptions about the radiative coupling between the atmosphere and the terrain. The errors can increase the uncertainty of the TOA radiance estimates used to perform the radiometric calibration. In comparison, the simplified approach does not use atmospheric radiative transfer models and involves fewer assumptions concerning the radiative transfer properties of the atmosphere. This new technique uses two neighboring uniform

  20. Automated space processing payloads study. Volume 2, book 1: Technical report. [instrument packages and space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The extent was investigated to which experiment hardware and operational requirements can be met by automatic control and material handling devices; payload and system concepts that make extensive use of automation technology are defined. Hardware requirements for each experiment were established and tabulated, and investigations of applicable existing hardware were documented. The capabilities and characteristics of industrial automation equipment, controls, and techniques are presented in the form of a summary of applicable equipment characteristics in three basic mutually-supporting formats. Facilities for performing groups of experiments are defined along with four levitation groups and three furnace groups; major hardware elements required to implement them were identified. A conceptual design definition of ten different automated processing facilities is presented along with the specific equipment to implement each facility and the design layouts of the different units. Constraints and packaging, weight, and power requirements for six payloads postulated for shuttle missions in the 1979 to 1982 time period were examined.

  1. Automated Item Banking and Test Development. Final Technical Paper for Period October 1987-April 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, William M.; And Others

    Projects to develop an automated item banking and test development system have been undertaken on several occasions at the Air Force Human Resources Laboratory (AFHRL) throughout the past 10 years. Such a system permits the construction of tests in far less time and with a higher degree of accuracy than earlier test construction procedures. This…

  2. COMPATIBLE AUTOMATED LIBRARY CIRCULATION CONTROL SYSTEMS. ARMY TECHNICAL LIBRARY IMPROVEMENT STUDIES (ATLIS), REPORT NO. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UMSTEAD, CHARLES R.; CROXTON, FRED E.

    CONVERSION AND COMPATIBILITY CONSTITUTE TWO MAJOR CONCERNS IN THE INSTITUTION OF AUTOMATED SYSTEMS IN LIBRARIES. AS A CONSEQUENCE OF THESE TWO FACTS, THIS REPORT DESCRIBES IN DETAIL FIVE MORE OR LESS STANDARD AND HIGHLY COMPATIBLE CIRCULATION SYSTEMS WHICH INCORPORATE A COMMON FORM OF INPUT AND WHICH REQUIRE A MINIMUM OF CONVERSION FROM…

  3. Scientific and technical services directed toward the development of planetary quarantine measures for automated spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Planetary quarantine requirements and parameters are evaluated for their effects upon automated spacecraft flights data describing the heat resistance of naturally occuring microorganisms and sterilization requirements are analyzed and a possible method for assessment of these data is developed. Pertinent data from planetary mission microbial contamination logs are compiled and maintained in the quarantine document system.

  4. Nondestructive and automated testing for soil and rock properties. ASTM special technical publication 1350

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, W.A.; Fairhurst, C.E.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of the symposium was to highlight recent developments in nondestructive and automated testing for soil and rock properties. Speakers present results of recent research in these areas that have practical application for the rapid and economical testing of soil and rock. Authors were encouraged to identify which testing equipment and methods have sufficient practical application to warrant standards development.

  5. Scientific and technical services in the development of planetary quarantine measures for automated spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Primary goals of the Planetary Quarantine Program are defined and used to provide a basis for planning and source allocation toward the development of planetary quarantine measures for the following automated spacecrafts: Viking 1975, Pioneer F and G, and Mariner Venus-Mercury 1973.

  6. Space station automation study. Volume 2: Technical report. Autonomous systems and assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The application of automation to space station functions is discussed. A summary is given of the evolutionary functions associated with long range missions and objectives. Mission tasks and requirements are defined. Space station sub-systems, mission models, assembly, and construction are discussed.

  7. Automated water monitor system field demonstration test report. Volume 2: Technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. L.; Jeffers, E. L.; Perreira, J.; Poel, J. D.; Nibley, D.; Nuss, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA Automatic Water Monitor System was installed in a water reclamation facility to evaluate the technical and cost feasibility of producing high quality reclaimed water. Data gathered during this field demonstration test are reported.

  8. Automated sample mounting and technical advance alignment system for biological crystallography at a synchrotron source

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Gyorgy; Cork, Carl; Nordmeyer, Robert; Cornell, Earl; Meigs, George; Yegian, Derek; Jaklevic, Joseph; Jin, Jian; Stevens, Raymond C.; Earnest, Thomas

    2004-01-07

    High-throughput data collection for macromolecular crystallography requires an automated sample mounting system for cryo-protected crystals that functions reliably when integrated into protein-crystallography beamlines at synchrotrons. Rapid mounting and dismounting of the samples increases the efficiency of the crystal screening and data collection processes, where many crystals can be tested for the quality of diffraction. The sample-mounting subsystem has random access to 112 samples, stored under liquid nitrogen. Results of extensive tests regarding the performance and reliability of the system are presented. To further increase throughput, we have also developed a sample transport/storage system based on ''puck-shaped'' cassettes, which can hold sixteen samples each. Seven cassettes fit into a standard dry shipping Dewar. The capabilities of a robotic crystal mounting and alignment system with instrumentation control software and a relational database allows for automated screening and data collection to be developed.

  9. New York City Police Department Automated Fuel Monitoring system. Volume II. Documentation report. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, W.J.; McNamara, M.M.

    1981-11-16

    The New York City Police Department (NYCPD) Automated Fuel Monitoring system is briefly described from the original study, through system design, to implementation. The system provides complete control of fuel usage for an agency with 4,000 motor vehicles and 25,000 vehicle operators. As far as is known, it is the largest system of its kind installed to date. The system can be scaled up or down to meet the needs of other governmental units. Estimated annual cost savings to NYCPD are $2,000,000.

  10. The Design and Production of a Procedure Training Aid Using the Procedure Learning Format and the Computer Automated Page Layout (PLA) Routine. Technical Note 12-83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, William R.; And Others

    This report describes a field application of the Computer Automated Page Layout (PLA) system to the development of a procedure training aid for the SH-3D/H Helicopter, as part of the Training Analysis and Evaluation Group's (TAEG) ongoing development effort to provide tools for the design and publication of technical training aids in a format…

  11. Automated cyclers used in peritoneal dialysis: technical aspects for the clinician

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Rafia I; Golper, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a widely accepted and increasingly popular form of dialysis. The invention and technological advancement of the PD cycler further makes PD a convenient option. Prescription-specific parameters are entered into the cycler, which then automatically carries out the steps involved in continuous cycling PD. We review the basics, technical aspects, challenges, and advancements of the cycler. PMID:25653566

  12. Uncooled radiometric camera performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Bill; Hoelter, T.

    1998-07-01

    Thermal imaging equipment utilizing microbolometer detectors operating at room temperature has found widespread acceptance in both military and commercial applications. Uncooled camera products are becoming effective solutions to applications currently using traditional, photonic infrared sensors. The reduced power consumption and decreased mechanical complexity offered by uncooled cameras have realized highly reliable, low-cost, hand-held instruments. Initially these instruments displayed only relative temperature differences which limited their usefulness in applications such as Thermography. Radiometrically calibrated microbolometer instruments are now available. The ExplorIR Thermography camera leverages the technology developed for Raytheon Systems Company's first production microbolometer imaging camera, the Sentinel. The ExplorIR camera has a demonstrated temperature measurement accuracy of 4 degrees Celsius or 4% of the measured value (whichever is greater) over scene temperatures ranges of minus 20 degrees Celsius to 300 degrees Celsius (minus 20 degrees Celsius to 900 degrees Celsius for extended range models) and camera environmental temperatures of minus 10 degrees Celsius to 40 degrees Celsius. Direct temperature measurement with high resolution video imaging creates some unique challenges when using uncooled detectors. A temperature controlled, field-of-view limiting aperture (cold shield) is not typically included in the small volume dewars used for uncooled detector packages. The lack of a field-of-view shield allows a significant amount of extraneous radiation from the dewar walls and lens body to affect the sensor operation. In addition, the transmission of the Germanium lens elements is a function of ambient temperature. The ExplorIR camera design compensates for these environmental effects while maintaining the accuracy and dynamic range required by today's predictive maintenance and condition monitoring markets.

  13. Grid-Competitive Residential and Commercial Fully Automated PV Systems Technology: Final technical Report, August 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Katie E.; Cousins, Peter; Culligan, Matt; Jonathan Botkin; DeGraaff, David; Bunea, Gabriella; Rose, Douglas; Bourne, Ben; Koehler, Oliver

    2011-08-26

    Under DOE's Technology Pathway Partnership program, SunPower Corporation developed turn-key, high-efficiency residential and commercial systems that are cost effective. Key program objectives include a reduction in LCOE values to 9-12 cents/kWh and 13-18 cents/kWh respectively for the commercial and residential markets. Target LCOE values for the commercial ground, commercial roof, and residential markets are 10, 11, and 13 cents/kWh. For this effort, SunPower collaborated with a variety of suppliers and partners to complete the tasks below. Subcontractors included: Solaicx, SiGen, Ribbon Technology, Dow Corning, Xantrex, Tigo Energy, and Solar Bridge. SunPower's TPP addressed nearly the complete PV value chain: from ingot growth through system deployment. Throughout the award period of performance, SunPower has made progress toward achieving these reduced costs through the development of 20%+ efficient modules, increased cell efficiency through the understanding of loss mechanisms and improved manufacturing technologies, novel module development, automated design tools and techniques, and reduced system development and installation time. Based on an LCOE assessment using NREL's Solar Advisor Model, SunPower achieved the 2010 target range, as well as progress toward 2015 targets.

  14. Evaluation of an Automated Reflectance Microscope system for coal characterization. Technical report 18

    SciTech Connect

    Liscinsky, D. S.; Vastola, F.

    1980-01-01

    The potential of an Automated Reflectance Microscope (ARM) system to determine the petrographic composition of a coal has been examined. The analysis involves the automatic scanning of a polished coal surface with a reflectance microscope. The reflectivity of consecutive 4-square-micrometer spots on the surface is measured by a photomultiplier tube and recorded by a microcomputer. This study was aimed at making the interpretation of a reflectogram more straightforward, that is, increasing the ability to discriminate among species. Although hardware improvements to decrease the spot size and the error associated with each reading would allow some increase in the ability to discriminate among species, the heterogeneous nature of the surface still limits the qualitative and quantitative information that can be derived from a reflectogram. Therefore a real-time data processing algorithm was implemented during data acquisition to study the effects that processing can have on a reflectogram. By measuring connectivity, it was found that edge readings could be indirectly eliminated. This greatly improved the ability to discriminate among species. Further investigation led to the conclusion that physical particle size has a major effect on a reflectogram. The concentration of coal in a pellet also has an effect on the ability to discriminate among species. A bonus of using processing to enhance the data was the ability to simultaneously gather information on particle size distributions. Based on the results the potential of an ARM system is improved by algorithm enhancement. The processing of the data allows some of the inherent limitations to be reduced.

  15. A Multichannel Wide FOV Infrared Radiometric System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, S.; Lissak, Z.; Yoav, Y.; Komet, Y.; Davidson, R.

    1990-01-01

    A radiometric system which consists of five IR radiometers with a mutual data acquisition system is described. The system was designed, developed and built at IAI to conduct simultaneous IR signature measurements of a high intensity source at different aspect angles. The requirement to provide a wide FOV radiometric capability led to a technical solution based on the combination of refractive and reflective optics. Each radiometer is equipped with a ZnSe lens, elliptical mirror, mechanical chopper and a thermoelectrically cooled PbSe detector. The chopper is positioned before the entrance aperture and its blades serve as an ambient temperature reference Black Body. The reference temperature is monitored by a temperature transducer. The optical layout of the radiometers and relevant ray tracing examples are demonstrated. The radiometer sensitivity and field of view response data are presented. The data acquisition as well as software capabilities are described. The system is remotely operated. Data on source intensity, at different aspect angles, may be obtained immediately after the test.

  16. A multichannel wide FOV infrared radiometric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, S.; Lissak, Z.; Yoav, Y.; Komet, Y.; Davidson, R.

    1989-07-01

    A radiometric system which consists of five IR radiometers with a mutual data acquisition system is described. The system was designed, developed and built at IAI to conduct simultaneous IR signature measurements of a high intensity source at different aspect angles. The requirement to provide a wide FOV radiometric capability led to a technical solution based on the combination of refractive and reflective optics. Each radiometer is equipped with a ZnSe lens, elliptical mirror, mechanical chopper and a thermoelectrically cooled PbSe detector. The chopper is positioned before the entrance aperture and its blades serve as an ambient temperature reference Black Body. The reference temperature is monitored by a temperature transducer. The optical layout of the radiometers and relevant ray tracing examples are demonstrated. The radiometer sensitivity and field of view response data are presented. The data acquisition as well as software capabilities are described. The system is remotely operated. Data on source intensity, at different aspect angles, may be obtained immediately after the test.

  17. A configuration space toolkit for automated spatial reasoning: Technical results and LDRD project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, P.G.; LaFarge, R.A.

    1997-02-01

    A robot`s configuration space (c-space) is the space of its kinematic degrees of freedom, e.g., the joint-space of an arm. Sets in c-space can be defined that characterize a variety of spatial relationships, such as contact between the robot and its environment. C-space techniques have been fundamental to research progress in areas such as motion planning and physically-based reasoning. However, practical progress has been slowed by the difficulty of implementing the c-space abstraction inside each application. For this reason, we proposed a Configuration Space Toolkit of high-performance algorithms and data structures meeting these needs. Our intent was to develop this robotics software to provide enabling technology to emerging applications that apply the c-space abstraction, such as advanced motion planning, teleoperation supervision, mechanism functional analysis, and design tools. This final report presents the research results and technical achievements of this LDRD project. Key results and achievements included (1) a hybrid Common LISP/C prototype that implements the basic C-Space abstraction, (2) a new, generic, algorithm for constructing hierarchical geometric representations, and (3) a C++ implementation of an algorithm for fast distance computation, interference detection, and c-space point-classification. Since the project conclusion, motion planning researchers in Sandia`s Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center have been using the CSTk libcstk.so C++ library. The code continues to be used, supported, and improved by projects in the ISRC.

  18. Automation pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    An important concept of the Action Information Management System (AIMS) approach is to evaluate office automation technology in the context of hands on use by technical program managers in the conduct of human acceptance difficulties which may accompany the transition to a significantly changing work environment. The improved productivity and communications which result from application of office automation technology are already well established for general office environments, but benefits unique to NASA are anticipated and these will be explored in detail.

  19. The Joint African Radiometric Propagation Measurement Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbesser-Rastburg, B.; Zaks, C.; Rogers, D. V.; McCarthy, D. K.; Allnutt, J. E.

    1990-06-01

    This paper summarizes the principal aspects of a major cooperative radiowave propagation experiment that was designed to collect data for improving rain attenuation prediction models for tropical Africa. A pressing need for such data had previously been identified by Resolution 79 of the CCIR. In a unique joint arrangement with three African governments, Intelsat, Comsat, the U.S. Agency for International Development, the U.S. National Telecommunications and Information Administration and the U.S. Telecommunications Training Institute (USTTI) collaborated in setting up a Ku-band radiometric measurement campaign in Cameroon, Kenya and Nigeria. A brief historical overview is given, together with the major technical parameters of the sites and the equipment installed there. The anticipated characteristics of the three locations are outlined with regard to meteorological and propagation conditions, and some preliminary indications of the results are presented based on an inspection of the early event data.

  20. Detection of coliform organisms in drinking water by radiometric method.

    PubMed

    Khurshid, S J; Bibi, S

    1991-07-01

    The radiometric method has been used for detection of coliform bacteria in water. The method is based on measuring the released metabolic 14CO2 from 14C-lactose in growth media containing coliform organisms incubated at 37 degrees C under continuous shaking. This rapid and sensitive radiometric method permits the detection of even single coliform organisms within 6 hours of incubation. Using this automated method, a total of 102 samples (in duplicate) collected from different areas in and around Rawalpindi and Islamabad were assessed for coliform bacteria. Of these 102 samples, 50 were tap water samples, 40 from wells and 6 each were from Rawal and Simly dams. About 47% and 67% tap water samples, while 62% and 74% well water samples were found unsatisfactory from around Islamabad and Rawalpindi areas, respectively. About 83% and 66% water samples from Rawal dam and Simly dam respectively were found to be unsatisfactory. PMID:1920760

  1. Study of Spectral/Radiometric Characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for Land Use Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A. (Principal Investigator); Metzler, M. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    An investigation conducted in support of the LANDSAT 4/5 Image Data Quality Analysis (LIDQA) Program is discussed. Results of engineering analyses of radiometric, spatial, spectral, and geometric properties of the Thematic Mapper systems are summarized; major emphasis is placed on the radiometric analysis. Details of the analyses are presented in appendices, which contain three of the eight technical papers produced during this investigation; these three, together, describe the major activities and results of the investigation.

  2. Statistical synthesis of multiantenna ultrawideband radiometric complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volosyuk, V. K.; Kravchenko, V. F.; Pavlikov, V. V.; Pustovoit, V. I.

    2016-04-01

    An optimum signal processing algorithm of radiometric imaging has been synthesized for the first time using multiantenna ultrawideband (UWB) radiometric complexes (RMCs). Radiometric images (RMI) are interpreted physically as intensity depending on the angular coordinates or the spectral radio brightness averaged in the operation frequency band. In accordance with the synthesized algorithm, a structural scheme of ultrawideband radiometric complexes has been developed. An analytical expression for the ambiguity function of radiometric complexes has been obtained. The ambiguity function is modeled in the case of processing narrowband and ultrawideband radiometric signals. As follows from the analysis of the results, new elements of the theory of optimum processing of UWB radiometric signals with the involvement of multielement antenna systems are an important tool in creating highly accurate, biologically and ecologically safe complexes for studying various media and objects.

  3. OrbView-3 Technical Performance Evaluation 2005: Modulation Transfer Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    The Technical performance evaluation of OrbView-3 using the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) is presented. The contents include: 1) MTF Results and Methodology; 2) Radiometric Calibration Methodology; and 3) Relative Radiometric Assessment Results

  4. Works carried out by ZAO NPK Del'fin-Informatika on developing distributed and hybrid structures of technical means for automated control systems of process equipment at thermal power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, V. I.; Chausov, Yu. N.; Borisova, E. V.; Pshenichnikova, O. A.; Tolmachev, A. L.

    2011-10-01

    The field for applying distributed structures of technical means is identified on the basis of experience gained with development of information-computation systems and fully functional automated process control systems. Functions of automated process control systems are pointed out for which centralized processing of data is preferable or necessary in order to support their speed of response and reliability. Experience gained from development of hybrid systems with centralized and distributed processing of information is presented and advisability of constructing them is shown.

  5. Automated space processing payloads study. Volume 2, book 2: Technical report, appendices A through E. [instrument packages and space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Experiment hardware and operational requirements for space shuttle experiments are discussed along with payload and system concepts. Appendixes are included in which experiment data sheets, chamber environmental control and monitoring, method for collection and storage of electrophoretically-separated samples, preliminary thermal evaluation of electromagnetic levitation facilities L1, L2, and L3, and applicable industrial automation equipment are discussed.

  6. Small satellite radiometric measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for the earth`s radiation budget. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on small satellites, aircraft, or remotely piloted aircraft (RPAs). An example of the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite is given. Significant benefits derive from simultaneous measurements of specific narrow (in wavelength) spectral features; such data may be obtained by combining LARI with a compact spectrometer on the same platform. Well-chosen satellite orbits allow one to use data from other satellites (e.g. DMSP) to enhance the data product, or to provide superior coverage of specific locations. 23 refs.

  7. Microwave radiometric observations of snowpacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Stiles, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    Models for the microwave emission from snowpacks were generated on the basis of radiometric observations made at 10.7 GHz, 37 HGz, and 94 GHz at a test site near Steamboat Springs, Colorado. In addition to conducting measurements on an approximately daily basis over a six week observation period, measurements were made over several diurnal cycles during which the change in snow wetness was tracked by the microwave radiometers. Also, the variation in emissivity with snow water equivalent was examined, as was the sensitivity to changes in snow surface geometry. The microwave emissivity was observed to (1) decrease exponentially with snow water equivalent and (2) increase with snow wetness. Thus, the emission behavior is the reverse of the backscattering behavior observed by the radar. By fitting the models to the measured data, the variation of the optical depth with snow wetness was estimated.

  8. Survey of emissivity measurement by radiometric methods.

    PubMed

    Honner, M; Honnerová, P

    2015-02-01

    A survey of the state of the art in the field of spectral directional emissivity measurements by using radiometric methods is presented. Individual quantity types such as spectral, band, or total emissivity are defined. Principles of emissivity measurement by various methods (direct and indirect, and calorimetric and radiometric) are discussed. The paper is focused on direct radiometric methods. An overview of experimental setups is provided, including the design of individual parts such as the applied reference sources of radiation, systems of sample clamping and heating, detection systems, methods for the determination of surface temperature, and procedures for emissivity evaluation. PMID:25967774

  9. Functional magnetic resonance imaging for cranial neuronavigation: methods for automated and standardized data processing and management. A technical note.

    PubMed

    Nennig, E; Heiland, S; Rasche, D; Sartor, K; Stippich, C

    2007-04-30

    Preoperative fMRI is one of the best established clinical fMRI applications. Due to the difficulties in recording and coregistration of functional image data, we present methods to standardize and automate these procedures. We used a self-made interactive software package (AFI - Automated Functional Imaging) to automate the time consuming and complex analysis of fMRI data. AFI controls the BrainVoyager program, a postprocessing software package, and furthermore facilitates data management, anonymization of patient data, storage, documentation, data export to neuronavigation systems and the opportunity of spatial transformation of image data for use in group studies. By the end of 2006 we have used this method on 123 patients with brain tumors and 47 patients with trigeminal neuralgia. The fundamental basis of multimodal neuronavigation is precise coregistration. EPI images contain spatial distortions of 5-15 mm. We were able to reduce the misregistration of EPI and FLASH images in a selectable region of interest to 1-2 mm. Furthermore AFI reduces the average evaluation time for a standard clinical fMRI study (four functional measurements, one anatomical data set) by approx. 50% from 140 minutes to about 70 minutes in comparison to manual evaluation by an expert. More importantly, the personal attendance time required for the evaluation decreases by 84% to 23 minutes as the remainder of the program runs automatically. In comparison to currently available online postprocessing software tools which are more limited in use, BrainVoyager can be used for coregistration, data export to neuronavigation systems and spatial transformation. PMID:24299636

  10. Technical note: Validation of a commercial system for the continuous and automated monitoring of dairy cow activity.

    PubMed

    Tullo, E; Fontana, I; Gottardo, D; Sloth, K H; Guarino, M

    2016-09-01

    Current farm sizes do not allow the precise identification and tracking of individual cows and their health and behavioral records. Currently, the application of information technology within intensive dairy farming takes a key role in proper routine management to improve animal welfare and to enhance the comfort of dairy cows. An existing application based on information technology is represented by the GEA CowView system (GEA Farm Technologies, Bönen, Germany). This system is able to detect and monitor animal behavioral activities based on positioning, through the creation of a virtual map of the barn that outlines all the areas where cows have access. The aim of this study was to validate the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of data provided by the CowView system. The validation was performed by comparing data automatically obtained from the CowView system with those obtained by a manual labeling procedure performed on video recordings. Data used for the comparisons were represented by the zone-related activities performed by the selected dairy cows and were classified into 2 categories: activity and localization. The duration in seconds of each of the activities/localizations detected both with the manual labeling and with the automated system were used to evaluate the correlation coefficients among data; and subsequently the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the automated monitoring system were calculated. The results of this validation study showed that the CowView automated monitoring system is able to identify the cow localization/position (alley, trough, cubicles) with high reliability in relation to the zone-related activities performed by dairy cows (accuracy higher than 95%). The results obtained support the CowView system as an innovative potential solution for the easier management of dairy cows. PMID:27344390

  11. Big innovations in a small instrument: technical challenges in a new CCD system design for the Automated Patrol Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miziarski, Stan; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Smith, Greg; Barden, Sam; Dawson, John; Horton, Anthony; Saunders, Will; Brzeski, Jurek; Churilov, Vladimir; Klauser, Urs; Waller, Lew; Mayfield, Don; Correll, David; Phillips, Andre; Whittard, Denis

    2008-07-01

    We describe the design of a new CCD system delivered to the Automated Patrol Telescope at Siding Springs NSW Australia operated by UNSW. A very fast beam (f/1) with a mosaic of two MITLL CCID-34 detectors placed only 1 mm behind the field flattener which also serves as the dewar window, have called for innovative engineering solutions. This paper describes the design and procedure of the field-flattener mounting, differential screw adjustable detector mount and dewar suspension on the external ring providing tip/tilt and focus adjustment.

  12. Radiometric assays for glycerol, glucose, and glycogen.

    PubMed

    Bradley, D C; Kaslow, H R

    1989-07-01

    We have developed radiometric assays for small quantities of glycerol, glucose and glycogen, based on a technique described by Thorner and Paulus (1971, J. Biol. Chem. 246, 3885-3894) for the measurement of glycerokinase activity. In the glycerol assay, glycerol is phosphorylated with [32P]ATP and glycerokinase, residual [32P]ATP is hydrolyzed by heating in acid, and free [32P]phosphate is removed by precipitation with ammonium molybdate and triethylamine. Standard dose-response curves were linear from 50 to 3000 pmol glycerol with less than 3% SD in triplicate measurements. Of the substances tested for interference, only dihydroxyacetone gave a slight false positive signal at high concentration. When used to measure glycerol concentrations in serum and in media from incubated adipose tissue, the radiometric glycerol assay correlated well with a commonly used spectrophotometric assay. The radiometric glucose assay is similar to the glycerol assay, except that glucokinase is used instead of glycerokinase. Dose response was linear from 5 to 3000 pmol glucose with less than 3% SD in triplicate measurements. Glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine gave false positive signals when equimolar to glucose. When glucose concentrations in serum were measured, the radiometric glucose assay agreed well with hexokinase/glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H/GDH)-based and glucose oxidase/H2O2-based glucose assays. The radiometric method for glycogen measurement incorporates previously described isolation and digestion techniques, followed by the radiometric assay of free glucose. When used to measure glycogen in mouse epididymal fat pads, the radiometric glycogen assay correlated well with the H/GDH-based glycogen assay. All three radiometric assays offer several practical advantages over spectral assays. PMID:2817333

  13. Radiometric assays for glycerol, glucose, and glycogen

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.C.; Kaslow, H.R. )

    1989-07-01

    We have developed radiometric assays for small quantities of glycerol, glucose and glycogen, based on a technique described by Thorner and Paulus for the measurement of glycerokinase activity. In the glycerol assay, glycerol is phosphorylated with (32P)ATP and glycerokinase, residual (32P)ATP is hydrolyzed by heating in acid, and free (32P)phosphate is removed by precipitation with ammonium molybdate and triethylamine. Standard dose-response curves were linear from 50 to 3000 pmol glycerol with less than 3% SD in triplicate measurements. Of the substances tested for interference, only dihydroxyacetone gave a slight false positive signal at high concentration. When used to measure glycerol concentrations in serum and in media from incubated adipose tissue, the radiometric glycerol assay correlated well with a commonly used spectrophotometric assay. The radiometric glucose assay is similar to the glycerol assay, except that glucokinase is used instead of glycerokinase. Dose response was linear from 5 to 3000 pmol glucose with less than 3% SD in triplicate measurements. Glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine gave false positive signals when equimolar to glucose. When glucose concentrations in serum were measured, the radiometric glucose assay agreed well with hexokinase/glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H/GDH)-based and glucose oxidase/H2O2-based glucose assays. The radiometric method for glycogen measurement incorporates previously described isolation and digestion techniques, followed by the radiometric assay of free glucose. When used to measure glycogen in mouse epididymal fat pads, the radiometric glycogen assay correlated well with the H/GDH-based glycogen assay. All three radiometric assays offer several practical advantages over spectral assays.

  14. Radiometric Characterization of Hyperspectral Imagers using Multispectral Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCorkel, Joel; Kurt, Thome; Leisso, Nathan; Anderson, Nikolaus; Czapla-Myers, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The Remote Sensing Group (RSG) at the University of Arizona has a long history of using ground-based test sites for the calibration of airborne and satellite based sensors. Often, ground-truth measurements at these test sites are not always successful due to weather and funding availability. Therefore, RSG has also automated ground instrument approaches and cross-calibration methods to verify the radiometric calibration of a sensor. The goal in the cross-calibration method is to transfer the calibration of a well-known sensor to that of a different sensor, This work studies the feasibility of determining the radiometric calibration of a hyperspectral imager using multispectral a imagery. The work relies on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (M0DIS) as a reference for the hyperspectral sensor Hyperion. Test sites used for comparisons are Railroad Valley in Nevada and a portion of the Libyan Desert in North Africa. Hyperion bands are compared to MODIS by band averaging Hyperion's high spectral resolution data with the relative spectral response of M0DlS. The results compare cross-calibration scenarios that differ in image acquisition coincidence, test site used for the calibration, and reference sensor. Cross-calibration results are presented that show agreement between the use of coincident and non-coincident image pairs within 2% in most brands as well as similar agreement between results that employ the different MODIS sensors as a reference.

  15. Radiometric characterization of hyperspectral imagers using multispectral sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCorkel, Joel; Thome, Kurt; Leisso, Nathan; Anderson, Nikolaus; Czapla-Myers, Jeff

    2009-08-01

    The Remote Sensing Group (RSG) at the University of Arizona has a long history of using ground-based test sites for the calibration of airborne and satellite based sensors. Often, ground-truth measurements at these tests sites are not always successful due to weather and funding availability. Therefore, RSG has also employed automated ground instrument approaches and cross-calibration methods to verify the radiometric calibration of a sensor. The goal in the cross-calibration method is to transfer the calibration of a well-known sensor to that of a different sensor. This work studies the feasibility of determining the radiometric calibration of a hyperspectral imager using multispectral imagery. The work relies on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) as a reference for the hyperspectral sensor Hyperion. Test sites used for comparisons are Railroad Valley in Nevada and a portion of the Libyan Desert in North Africa. Hyperion bands are compared to MODIS by band averaging Hyperion's high spectral resolution data with the relative spectral response of MODIS. The results compare cross-calibration scenarios that differ in image acquisition coincidence, test site used for the calibration, and reference sensor. Cross-calibration results are presented that show agreement between the use of coincident and non-coincident image pairs within 2% in most bands as well as similar agreement between results that employ the different MODIS sensors as a reference.

  16. Radiometric measurement of differential metabolism of fatty acid by mycobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Camargo, E.E.; Kertcher, J.A.; Larson, S.M.; Tepper, B.S.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1982-06-01

    An assay system has been developed based on automated radiometric quantification of /sup 14/CO2 produced through oxidation of (1-/sup 14/C) fatty acids by mycobacteria. Two stains of M. tuberculosis (H37Rv and Erdman) and one of M. bovis (BCG) in 7H9 medium (ADC) with 1.0 microCi of one of the fatty acids (butyric, hexanoic, octanoic, decanoic, lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic) were studied. Results previously published on M. lepraemurium (Hawaiian) were also included for comparison. Both strains of M. tuberculosis had maximum /sup 14/CO2 production from hexanoic acid. Oxidation of butyric and avid oxidation of lauric acids were also found with the H37Rv strain but not with Erdman. In contrast, /sup 14/CO2 production by M. bovis was greatest from lauric and somewhat less from decanoic acid. M. lepraemurium showed increasing oxidation rates from myristic, decanoic and lauric acids. Assimilation studies of M. tuberculosis H37Rv confirmed that most of the oxidized substrates were converted into by-products with no change in those from which no oxidation was found. These data suggest that the radiometric measurement of differential fatty acid metabolism may provide a basis of strain identification of the genus Mycobacterium.

  17. Automation of the Comprehensive Science Library: Promotion of Scientific and Technological Information Service, Republic of Korea. [Restricted Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, A. Graham

    This technical report presents recommendations and plans which are the result of a mission undertaken as part of a project to promote a scientific and technological information service and establish a popular science resource center in Korea. The mission's main emphasis was to help Korean authorities and the United Nations Development Programme…

  18. Development of Automated Production Line Processes for Solar Brightfield Modules: Annual Technical Progress Report, 1 January 2003 -- 30 June 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Nowlan, M. J.; Murach, J. M.; Sutherland, S. F.; Miller, D. C.; Moore, S. B.; Hogan, S. J.

    2005-06-01

    This report describes how Spire Corporation is addressing the PV Manufacturing R&D project goals of improving photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing processes and products while reducing costs and providing a technology foundation that supports significant manufacturing scale-up. To accomplish this, we are focusing our efforts on the design of a large-area utility-scale module and the development of the necessary manufacturing techniques and equipment to manufacture such a module in a high-volume production environment. A three-phase program is under way for developing and demonstrating new automated systems for fabricating very large PV modules ideal for use in multi-megawatt grid-connected applications. We designed a large-area 800 W module and we are developing associated module production equipment that will minimize the total installed system cost for utility-scale PV arrays. Unique features of the module design include a cantilevered glass superstrate to reduce the glass thickness a nd internally laminated bypass diodes that simplify internal busing and junction-box designs. Other program activities include the development of automation for solar cell string inspections, string busing, materials lay-up, and lamination; enhancements to the lamination process; and performance testing of large-area modules.

  19. Radiometric surveys in underground environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochiolo, Massimo; Chiozzi, Paolo; Verdoya, Massimo; Pasquale, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Due to their ability to travel through the air for several metres, gamma-rays emitted from natural radioactive elements can be successfully used in surveys carried out both with airborne and ground equipments. Besides the concentration of the radio-elements contained in rocks and soils and the intrinsic characteristics of the gamma-ray detector, the detected count rate depends on the solid angle around the spectrometer. On a flat outcrop, ground spectrometry detects the radiation ideally produced by a cylindrical mass of rock of about two metres in diameter and thickness of about half a meter. Under these geometrical conditions, the natural radioactivity can be easily evaluated. With operating conditions different from the standard ones, such as at the edge of an escarpment, the count rate halves because of the missing material, whereas in the vicinity of a rock wall the count rate will increase. In underground environment, the recorded count rate may even double and the in situ assessment of the concentration of radio-elements may be rather difficult, even if the ratios between the different radio-elements may not be affected. We tested the applicability of gamma-ray spectrometry for rapid assessment of the potential hazard levels related to radon and radiation dose rate in underground environment. A mine shaft, located in a zone of uranium enrichment in Liguria (Italy), has been investigated. A preliminary ground radiometric survey was carried out to define the extent of the ore deposit. Then, the radiometric investigation was focussed on the mine shaft. Due to rock mass above the shaft vault, the background gamma radiation can be considered of negligible influence on measurements. In underground surveys, besides deviations from a flat geometry, factors controlling radon exhalation, emanation and stagnation, such as fractures, water leakage and the presence of ventilation, should be carefully examined. We attempted to evaluate these control factors and collected

  20. Technical Note: Semi-automated classification of time-lapse RGB imagery for a remote Greenlandic river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, C. J.; Smith, L. C.; Finnegan, D. C.; LeWinter, A. L.; Pitcher, L. H.; Chu, V. W.

    2015-01-01

    River systems in remote environments are often challenging to monitor and understand where traditional gauging apparatus are difficult to install or where safety concerns prohibit field measurements. In such cases, remote sensing, especially terrestrial time lapse imaging platforms, offer a means to better understand these fluvial systems. One such environment is found at the proglacial Isortoq River in southwest Greenland, a river with a constantly shifting floodplain and remote Arctic location that make gauging and in situ measurements all but impossible. In order to derive relevant hydraulic parameters for this river, two RGB cameras were installed in July of 2011, and these cameras collected over 10 000 half hourly time-lapse images of the river by September of 2012. Existing approaches for extracting hydraulic parameters from RGB imagery require manual or supervised classification of images into water and non-water areas, a task that was impractical for the volume of data in this study. As such, automated image filters were developed that removed images with environmental obstacles (e.g. shadows, sun glint, snow) from the processing stream. Further image filtering was accomplished via a novel automated histogram similarity filtering process. This similarity filtering allowed successful (mean accuracy 79.6%) supervised classification of filtered images from training data collected from just 10% of those images. Effective width, a hydraulic parameter highly correlated with discharge in braided rivers, was extracted from these classified images, producing a hydrograph proxy for the Isortoq River between 2011 and 2012. This hydrograph proxy shows agreement with historic flooding observed in other parts of Greenland in July 2012 and offers promise that the imaging platform and processing methodology presented here will be useful for future monitoring studies of remote rivers.

  1. Technical Note: Semi-automated effective width extraction from time-lapse RGB imagery of a remote, braided Greenlandic river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, C. J.; Smith, L. C.; Finnegan, D. C.; LeWinter, A. L.; Pitcher, L. H.; Chu, V. W.

    2015-06-01

    River systems in remote environments are often challenging to monitor and understand where traditional gauging apparatus are difficult to install or where safety concerns prohibit field measurements. In such cases, remote sensing, especially terrestrial time-lapse imaging platforms, offer a means to better understand these fluvial systems. One such environment is found at the proglacial Isortoq River in southwestern Greenland, a river with a constantly shifting floodplain and remote Arctic location that make gauging and in situ measurements all but impossible. In order to derive relevant hydraulic parameters for this river, two true color (RGB) cameras were installed in July 2011, and these cameras collected over 10 000 half hourly time-lapse images of the river by September of 2012. Existing approaches for extracting hydraulic parameters from RGB imagery require manual or supervised classification of images into water and non-water areas, a task that was impractical for the volume of data in this study. As such, automated image filters were developed that removed images with environmental obstacles (e.g., shadows, sun glint, snow) from the processing stream. Further image filtering was accomplished via a novel automated histogram similarity filtering process. This similarity filtering allowed successful (mean accuracy 79.6 %) supervised classification of filtered images from training data collected from just 10 % of those images. Effective width, a hydraulic parameter highly correlated with discharge in braided rivers, was extracted from these classified images, producing a hydrograph proxy for the Isortoq River between 2011 and 2012. This hydrograph proxy shows agreement with historic flooding observed in other parts of Greenland in July 2012 and offers promise that the imaging platform and processing methodology presented here will be useful for future monitoring studies of remote rivers.

  2. Wafer-level radiometric performance testing of uncooled microbolometer arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, Denis G.; Topart, Patrice; Tremblay, Bruno; Julien, Christian; Martin, Louis; Vachon, Carl

    2014-03-01

    A turn-key semi-automated test system was constructed to perform on-wafer testing of microbolometer arrays. The system allows for testing of several performance characteristics of ROIC-fabricated microbolometer arrays including NETD, SiTF, ROIC functionality, noise and matrix operability, both before and after microbolometer fabrication. The system accepts wafers up to 8 inches in diameter and performs automated wafer die mapping using a microscope camera. Once wafer mapping is completed, a custom-designed quick insertion 8-12 μm AR-coated Germanium viewport is placed and the chamber is pumped down to below 10-5 Torr, allowing for the evaluation of package-level focal plane array (FPA) performance. The probe card is electrically connected to an INO IRXCAM camera core, a versatile system that can be adapted to many types of ROICs using custom-built interface printed circuit boards (PCBs). We currently have the capability for testing 384x288, 35 μm pixel size and 160x120, 52 μm pixel size FPAs. For accurate NETD measurements, the system is designed to provide an F/1 view of two rail-mounted blackbodies seen through the Germanium window by the die under test. A master control computer automates the alignment of the probe card to the dies, the positioning of the blackbodies, FPA image frame acquisition using IRXCAM, as well as data analysis and storage. Radiometric measurement precision has been validated by packaging dies measured by the automated probing system and re-measuring the SiTF and Noise using INO's pre-existing benchtop system.

  3. Automating the Coupling of ORIGEN with GADRAS via the Fallout Analysis Tool for National Technical Nuclear Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Monterial, Mateusz; Jodoin, Vincent J; Lefebvre, Jordan P; Peplow, Douglas E.; Hooper, David A

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear forensic teams will be deployed to collect and evaluate fallout samples on the ground in the scenario of a low-yield nuclear detonation in a heavily populated area. Quick non-destructive methods of predicting the quality of the sample before it is analyzed in detail are essential for efficient post-event collections. In this work, the process of exporting Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC) results into Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) has been automated within the Fallout Analysis Tool. This coupling allows for the simulation of detector responses to fallout samples with varying degrees of fractionation. The degree to which the samples are fractionated depends on the location of the samples in the fallout field. In the following study, this phenomenon is examined, as its understanding is important to the investigation of debris distribution. The simulated detector spectra from GADRAS can be used to compare peak ratios of volatile-refractory isotope pairs in order to determine the degree of fractionation. Simulated fractionated fallout samples from DELFIC for a 10 kt, pure 235U fission surface burst were modeled for distances ranging to 256 km out from ground zero, and for times up to 1 week from detonation. The fractionation ratios, also known as r values, from isotope concentrations, photon lines and peak areas of four volatile-refractory pairs were calculated and compared. Fractionation prediction via the peak areas method was evaluated for each pair by comparing the results with the simulated radionuclide inventory.

  4. Azimuthal radiometric temperature measurements of wheat canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, D. S.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of azimuthal view angle on the radiometric temperature of wheat canopies at various stages of development are investigated. Measurements of plant height, total leaf area index, green leaf area index and Feeks growth stage together with infrared radiometric temperature measurements at 12 azimuth intervals with respect to solar azimuth and at different solar zenith angles were obtained for four wheat canopies at various heights. Results reveal a difference on the order of 2 C between the temperatures measured at azimuths of 0 and 180 deg under calm wind conditions, which is attributed to the time-dependent transfer of heat between canopy component surfaces. The azimuthal dependence must thus be taken into account in the determination of radiometric temperatures.

  5. AIRS radiometric calibration validation for climate research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Pagano, Thomas S.; Elliott, Denis; Gaiser, Steve; Gregorich, Dave; Broberg, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Climate research using data from satellite based radiometers makes extreme demands on the traceability and stability of the radiometric calibration. The selection of a cooled grating array spectrometer for the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, AIRS, is key, but does not ensured that AIRS data will be of climate quality. Additional design features, plus additional pre-launch testing, and extensive on-orbit calibration subsystem monitoring beyond what would suffice for application of the data to weather forecasting were required to ensure the radiometric data quality required for climate research. Validation that climate data quality are being generated makes use of the sea surface skin temperatures (SST and (obs-calc).

  6. Based on Narcissus of radiometric calibration technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Libing; Tang, Shaofan; Liu, Jianfeng; Peng, Honggang

    2015-08-01

    Thermal radiation is an inherent property of all objects. Generally, it is believed that the body, which temperature is above absolute zero, can keep generating infrared radiation. Infrared remote sensing, using of satellite-borne or airborne sensors, collects infrared information to identify the surface feature and inversion of surface parameters, temperature, etc. In order to get more accurately feature information, quantitative measurement is required. Infrared radiometric calibration is one of the key technologies of quantitative infrared remote sensing. Most high-resolution thermal imaging systems are cooling. For the infrared optical system which is having a cooled detector, there are some special phenomenons. Since the temperature of the detector's photosensitive surface is generally low, which is very different from system temperature, it is a very strong cold radiation source. Narcissus refers to the case that the cooled detector can "see" its own reflecting image, which may affect the image quality of infrared system seriously. But for radiometric calibration of satellite-borne infrared camera, it can sometimes take advantage of the narcissus instead of cold cryogenic radiometric calibration. In this paper, the use of narcissus to carry out radiometric calibration is summarized, and simulation results show the feasibility.

  7. Kernel MAD Algorithm for Relative Radiometric Normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yang; Tang, Ping; Hu, Changmiao

    2016-06-01

    The multivariate alteration detection (MAD) algorithm is commonly used in relative radiometric normalization. This algorithm is based on linear canonical correlation analysis (CCA) which can analyze only linear relationships among bands. Therefore, we first introduce a new version of MAD in this study based on the established method known as kernel canonical correlation analysis (KCCA). The proposed method effectively extracts the non-linear and complex relationships among variables. We then conduct relative radiometric normalization experiments on both the linear CCA and KCCA version of the MAD algorithm with the use of Landsat-8 data of Beijing, China, and Gaofen-1(GF-1) data derived from South China. Finally, we analyze the difference between the two methods. Results show that the KCCA-based MAD can be satisfactorily applied to relative radiometric normalization, this algorithm can well describe the nonlinear relationship between multi-temporal images. This work is the first attempt to apply a KCCA-based MAD algorithm to relative radiometric normalization.

  8. Radiometric considerations for ocean color remote sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Howard R.

    1990-01-01

    A methodology for determination of the effects of radiometric noise on the performance of ocean color sensors is developed and applied to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner on Nimbus 7 and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer planned for the Earth Observing System.

  9. Radiometric Characterization of IKONOS Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Ryan, Robert E.; Kelly, Michelle; Holekamp, Kara; Zanoni, Vicki; Thome, Kurtis; Schiller, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    A radiometric characterization of Space Imaging's IKONOS 4-m multispectral imagery has been performed by a NASA funded team from the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC), the University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group (UARSG), and South Dakota State University (SDSU). Both intrinsic radiometry and the effects of Space Imaging processing on radiometry were investigated. Relative radiometry was examined with uniform Antarctic and Saharan sites. Absolute radiometric calibration was performed using reflectance-based vicarious calibration methods on several uniform sites imaged by IKONOS, coincident with ground-based surface and atmospheric measurements. Ground-based data and the IKONOS spectral response function served as input to radiative transfer codes to generate a Top-of-Atmosphere radiance estimate. Calibration coefficients derived from each vicarious calibration were combined to generate an IKONOS radiometric gain coefficient for each multispectral band assuming a linear response over the full dynamic range of the instrument. These calibration coefficients were made available to Space Imaging, which subsequently adopted them by updating its initial set of calibration coefficients. IKONOS imagery procured through the NASA Scientific Data Purchase program is processed with or without a Modulation Transfer Function Compensation kernel. The radiometric effects of this kernel on various scene types was also investigated. All imagery characterized was procured through the NASA Scientific Data Purchase program.

  10. Radiometric surface temperature components for row crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land surface temperature is a boundary condition often used in assessing soil moisture status and energy exchange from the soil-vegetation-atmosphere interface. For row crops having incomplete canopy cover, the radiometric surface temperature is a composite of sunlit and shaded vegetation and substr...

  11. Radiometric terrain correction of SPOT5 image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiuli; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Ke

    2007-06-01

    Remote sensing SPOT5 images have been widely applied to the surveying of agriculture and forest resources and to the monitoring of ecology environment of mountain areas. However, the accuracy of land-cover classification of mountain areas is often influenced by the topographical shadow effect. Radiometric terrain correction is important for this kind of application. In this study, a radiometric terrain correction model which based on the rationale of moment matching was made in ERDAS IMAGINE by using the Spatial Modeler Language. Lanxi city in China as the study area, a SPOT5 multispectral image with the spatial resolution of 10 m of that mountain area was corrected by the model. Furthermore, in order to present the advantage of this new model in radiometric terrain correction of remote sensing SPOT5 image, the traditional C correction approach was also applied to the same area to see its difference with the result of the radiometric terrain correction model. The results show that the C correction approach keeps the overall statistical characteristics of spectral bands. The mean and the standard deviation value of the corrected image are the same as original ones. However, the standard deviation value became smaller by using the radiometric terrain correction model and the mean value changed accordingly. The reason of these changes is that before the correction, the histogram of the original image is represented as the 'plus-skewness distribution' due to the relief-caused shade effect, after the correction of the model, the histogram of the image is represented as the normal distribution and the shade effect of the relief has been removed. But as for the result of the traditional C approach, the skewness of the histogram remains the same after the correction. Besides, some portions of the mountain area have been over-corrected. So in my study area, the C correction approach can't remove the shade effect of the relief ideally. The results show that the radiometric

  12. Radioanalytical Chemistry for Automated Nuclear Waste Process Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Oleg B. Egorov; Jay W. Grate; Timothy A. DeVol

    2004-06-01

    This research program is directed toward rapid, sensitive, and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclides such as 99Tc, 90Sr, and trans-uranium (TRU) elements in low-activity waste (LAW) processing streams. The overall technical approach is based on automated radiochemical measurement principles, which entails integration of sample treatment and separation chemistries and radiometric detection within a single functional analytical instrument. Nuclear waste process streams are particularly challenging for rapid analytical methods due to the complex, high-ionic-strength, caustic brine sample matrix, the presence of interfering radionuclides, and the variable and uncertain speciation of the radionuclides of interest. As a result, matrix modification, speciation control, and separation chemistries are required for use in automated process analyzers. Significant knowledge gaps exist relative to the design of chemistries for such analyzers so that radionuclides can be quantitatively and rapidly separated and analyzed in solutions derived from low-activity waste processing operations. This research is addressing these knowledge gaps in the area of separation science, nuclear detection, and analytical chemistry and instrumentation.

  13. A radiometric Bode's Law: Predictions for Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetospheres of three planets, Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn, are known to be sources of intense, nonthermal radio bursts. The emissions from these sources undergo pronounced long term intensity fluctuations that are caused by the solar wind interaction with the magnetosphere of each planet. Determinations by spacecraft of the low frequency radio spectra and radiation beam geometry now permit a reliable assessment of the overall efficiency of the solar wind in stimulating these emissions. Earlier estimates of how magnetospheric radio output scales with the solar wind energy input must be revised greatly, with the result that, while the efficiency is much lower than previously thought, it is remarkably uniform from planet to planet. The formulation of a radiometric Bode's Law from which a planet's magnetic moment is estimated from its radio emission output is presented. Applying the radiometric scaling law to Uranus, the low-frequency radio power is likely to be measured by the Voyager 2 spacecraft as it approaches this planet.

  14. Climate Change and Sounder Radiometric Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Manning, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Satellite instrument radiometric stability is critical for climate studies. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) radiances are of sufficient stability and accuracy to serve as a climate data record as evidenced by comparisons with the global network of buoys. In this paper we examine the sensitivity of derived geophysical products to potential instrument radiometric stability issues due to diurnal, orbital and seasonal variations. Our method is to perturb the AIRS radiances and examine the impact to retrieved parameters. Results show that instability in retrieved temperature products will be on the same order of the brightness temperature error in the radiances and follow the same time dependences. AIRS excellent stability makes it ideal for examining impacts of instabilities of future systems on geophysical parameter performance.

  15. Infrared radiometric technique in temperature measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glazer, S.; Madding, R.

    1988-01-01

    One class of commercially available imaging infrared radiometers using cooled detectors is sensitive to radiation over the 3 to 12 micron wavelength band. Spectral filters can tailor instrument sensitivity to specific regions where the target exhibits optimum radiance. The broadband spectral response coupled with real time two-dimensional imaging and emittance/background temperature corrections make the instruments useful for remote measurement of surface temperatures from -20 C to +1500 C. Commonly used radiometric techniques and assumptions are discussed, and performance specifications for a typical modern commercial instrument are presented. The potential usefulness of an imaging infrared radiometer in space laboratories is highlighted through examples of research, nondestructive evaluation, safety, and routine maintenance applications. Future improvements in instrument design and application of the radiometric technique are discussed.

  16. Geometric and Radiometric Evaluation of Rasat Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cam, Ali; Topan, Hüseyin; Oruç, Murat; Özendi, Mustafa; Bayık, Çağlar

    2016-06-01

    RASAT, the second remote sensing satellite of Turkey, was designed and assembled, and also is being operated by TÜBİTAK Uzay (Space) Technologies Research Institute (Ankara). RASAT images in various levels are available free-of-charge via Gezgin portal for Turkish citizens. In this paper, the images in panchromatic (7.5 m GSD) and RGB (15 m GSD) bands in various levels were investigated with respect to its geometric and radiometric characteristics. The first geometric analysis is the estimation of the effective GSD as less than 1 pixel for radiometrically processed level (L1R) of both panchromatic and RGB images. Secondly, 2D georeferencing accuracy is estimated by various non-physical transformation models (similarity, 2D affine, polynomial, affine projection, projective, DLT and GCP based RFM) reaching sub-pixel accuracy using minimum 39 and maximum 52 GCPs. The radiometric characteristics are also investigated for 8 bits, estimating SNR between 21.8-42.2, and noise 0.0-3.5 for panchromatic and MS images for L1R when the sea is masked to obtain the results for land areas. The analysis show that RASAT images satisfies requirements for various applications. The research is carried out in Zonguldak test site which is mountainous and partly covered by dense forest and urban areas.

  17. Revised landsat-5 thematic mapper radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Barsi, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Effective April 2, 2007, the radiometric calibration of Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) data that are processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) will be updated. The lifetime gain model that was implemented on May 5, 2003, for the reflective bands (1-5, 7) will be replaced by a new lifetime radiometric-calibration curve that is derived from the instrument's response to pseudoinvariant desert sites and from cross calibration with the Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced TM Plus (ETM+). Although this calibration update applies to all archived and future L5 TM data, the principal improvements in the calibration are for the data acquired during the first eight years of the mission (1984-1991), where the changes in the instrument-gain values are as much as 15%. The radiometric scaling coefficients for bands 1 and 2 for approximately the first eight years of the mission have also been changed. Users will need to apply these new coefficients to convert the calibrated data product digital numbers to radiance. The scaling coefficients for the other bands have not changed. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  18. Robotics/Automated Systems Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doty, Charles R.

    Major resources exist that can be used to develop or upgrade programs in community colleges and technical institutes that educate robotics/automated systems technicians. The first category of resources is Economic, Social, and Education Issues. The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) report, "Automation and the Workplace," presents analyses of…

  19. A comparison of four relative radiometric normalization (RRN) techniques for mosaicing H-res multi-temporal thermal infrared (TIR) flight-lines of a complex urban scene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. M.; Hay, G. J.; Couloigner, I.; Hemachandran, B.; Bailin, J.

    2015-08-01

    High-spatial and -radiometric resolution (H-res) thermal infrared (TIR) airborne imagery, such as the TABI-1800 (Thermal Airborne Broadband Imager) provide unique surface temperature information that can be used for urban heat loss mapping, heat island analysis, and landcover classifications. For mapping large urban areas at a high-spatial resolution (i.e., sub-meter), airborne thermal imagery needs to be acquired over a number of flight-lines and mosaiced together. However, due to radiometric variations between flight-lines the similar objects tend to have different temperature characteristics on the mosaicked image, resulting in reduced visual and radiometric agreement between the flight-lines composing the final mosaiced output. To reduce radiometric variability between airborne TIR flight-lines, with a view to produce a visually seamless TIR image mosaic, we evaluate four relative radiometric normalization techniques including: (i) Histogram Matching, (ii) Pseudo Invariant Feature (PIF) Based Linear Regression, (iii) PIF-Based Theil-Sen Regression, and (iv) No-Change Stratified Random Samples (NCSRS) Based Linear Regression. The techniques are evaluated on two adjacent TABI-1800 airborne flight-lines (each ∼30 km × 0.9 km) collected ∼25 min apart over a portion of The City of Calgary (with ∼30% overlap between them). The performances of these techniques are compared based on four criteria: (i) speed of computation, (ii) ability to automate, (iii) visual assessment, and (iv) statistical analysis. Results show that NCSRS-Based Linear Regression produces the best overall results closely followed by Histogram Matching. Specifically, these two radiometric normalization techniques: (i) increase the visual and statistical agreement between the tested TIR airborne flight-lines (NCSRS Based Linear Regression increases radiometric agreement between flight-lines by 53.3% and Histogram Matching by 52.4%), (ii) produce a visually seamless image mosaic, and (iii) can

  20. INTRABAND RADIOMETRIC PERFORMANCE OF THE LANDSAT 4 THEMATIC MAPPER.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, Hugh H.; Eliason, Eric M.; Chavez, Pat S., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    This preliminary report examines those radiometric characteristics of the Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) that can be established without absolute calibration of spectral data. Analysis is based largely on radiometrically raw (B type) data of three daytime and two nighttime scenes; in most scenes, a set of 512 lines were examined on an individual-detector basis. Subscenes selected for uniform-radiance were used to characterize subtle radiometric differences and noise problems.

  1. Automated Management Of Documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy

    1995-01-01

    Report presents main technical issues involved in computer-integrated documentation. Problems associated with automation of management and maintenance of documents analyzed from perspectives of artificial intelligence and human factors. Technologies that may prove useful in computer-integrated documentation reviewed: these include conventional approaches to indexing and retrieval of information, use of hypertext, and knowledge-based artificial-intelligence systems.

  2. Optical Imaging and Radiometric Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, Kong Q.; Fitzmaurice, Michael W.; Moiser, Gary E.; Howard, Joseph M.; Le, Chi M.

    2010-01-01

    OPTOOL software is a general-purpose optical systems analysis tool that was developed to offer a solution to problems associated with computational programs written for the James Webb Space Telescope optical system. It integrates existing routines into coherent processes, and provides a structure with reusable capabilities that allow additional processes to be quickly developed and integrated. It has an extensive graphical user interface, which makes the tool more intuitive and friendly. OPTOOL is implemented using MATLAB with a Fourier optics-based approach for point spread function (PSF) calculations. It features parametric and Monte Carlo simulation capabilities, and uses a direct integration calculation to permit high spatial sampling of the PSF. Exit pupil optical path difference (OPD) maps can be generated using combinations of Zernike polynomials or shaped power spectral densities. The graphical user interface allows rapid creation of arbitrary pupil geometries, and entry of all other modeling parameters to support basic imaging and radiometric analyses. OPTOOL provides the capability to generate wavefront-error (WFE) maps for arbitrary grid sizes. These maps are 2D arrays containing digital sampled versions of functions ranging from Zernike polynomials to combination of sinusoidal wave functions in 2D, to functions generated from a spatial frequency power spectral distribution (PSD). It also can generate optical transfer functions (OTFs), which are incorporated into the PSF calculation. The user can specify radiometrics for the target and sky background, and key performance parameters for the instrument s focal plane array (FPA). This radiometric and detector model setup is fairly extensive, and includes parameters such as zodiacal background, thermal emission noise, read noise, and dark current. The setup also includes target spectral energy distribution as a function of wavelength for polychromatic sources, detector pixel size, and the FPA s charge

  3. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  4. An extended area blackbody for radiometric calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaVeigne, Joe; Franks, Greg; Singer, Jake; Arenas, D. J.; McHugh, Steve

    2013-06-01

    SBIR is developing an enhanced blackbody for improved radiometric testing. The main feature of the blackbody is an improved coating with higher emissivity than the standard coating used. Comparative measurements of the standard and improved coatings are reported, including reflectance. The coatings were also tested with infrared imagers and a broadband emissivity estimate derived from the imagery data. In addition, a control algorithm for constant slew rate has been implemented, primarily for use in minimum resolvable temperature measurements. The system was tested over a range of slew rates from 0.05 K/min to 10 K/min and its performance reported.

  5. Radiometric stability of Phase 3 WISP arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, David S.; Marlow, Steven A.; Bergin, Thomas P.; Murrer, Robert Lee

    2000-07-01

    Phase 3 WISP arrays and BRITE arrays are currently being used extensively in many projection systems in many different facilities. These arrays have not been annealed at the factory, and previous tests with the arrays have revealed instabilities in the radiometric output when the arrays are driven at higher voltages. In some applications, the instabilities can be avoided by operating the arrays at lower voltages. In many KHILS applications, it is desirable to drive the arrays with the highest possible voltages to simulate hot missile targets. In one KHILS application (the KHILS VAcuum Cold Chamber, KVACC), the arrays are cooled to near cryogenic temperatures and then driven to high voltages. At lower substrate temperatures, the characteristic responses of the emitters change. Thus, it is important that the response and the stability of the radiometric output of the arrays be well understood for various substrate temperatures, and that the arrays either be annealed or operated below the voltage where the emitters begin to anneal. KHILS has investigated annealing procedures in the past, but there was concern that the annealing procedures themselves -- driving the arrays at high voltages for long times -- would damage the arrays. In order to understand the performance of the arrays better, and to reduce risks associated with driving the arrays at high voltages and operating the arrays at low substrate temperatures, a systematic measurement program was initiated. The radiometric output of new Phase 3 WISP arrays was accurately measured as a function of voltage and time. Arrays designated for testing were driven to the higher voltages and the radiometric output was measured for as long as two hours. Curves indicative of the annealing were observed, and it was determined that the maximum stable output without annealing was about 500 K (MWIR apparent temperature). Blocks of emitters were annealed and tested again. It was determined that stable output of as much as 680 K

  6. Radiometric Quality Evaluation of INSAT-3D Imager Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, S.; Jindal, D.; Badal, N.; Kartikeyan, B.; Gopala Krishna, B.

    2014-11-01

    INSAT-3D is an advanced meteorological satellite of ISRO which acquires imagery in optical and infra-red (IR) channels for study of weather dynamics in Indian sub-continent region. In this paper, methodology of radiometric quality evaluation for Level-1 products of Imager, one of the payloads onboard INSAT-3D, is described. Firstly, overall visual quality of scene in terms of dynamic range, edge sharpness or modulation transfer function (MTF), presence of striping and other image artefacts is computed. Uniform targets in Desert and Sea region are identified for which detailed radiometric performance evaluation for IR channels is carried out. Mean brightness temperature (BT) of targets is computed and validated with independently generated radiometric references. Further, diurnal/seasonal trends in target BT values and radiometric uncertainty or sensor noise are studied. Results of radiometric quality evaluation over duration of eight months (January to August 2014) and comparison of radiometric consistency pre/post yaw flip of satellite are presented. Radiometric Analysis indicates that INSAT-3D images have high contrast (MTF > 0.2) and low striping effects. A bias of <4K is observed in the brightness temperature values of TIR-1 channel measured during January-August 2014 indicating consistent radiometric calibration. Diurnal and seasonal analysis shows that Noise equivalent differential temperature (NEdT) for IR channels is consistent and well within specifications.

  7. Validation of Landsat 7 ETM+ band 6 radiometric performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palluconi, Frank; Hook, Simon; Abtahi, Ali; Alley, Ron

    2005-01-01

    Since shortly after launch the radiometric performance of band 6 of the ETM+ instrument on Landsat 7 has been evaluated using vicarious calbiration techniques for both land and water targets. This evaluation indicates the radiometric performance of band 6 has been both highly stable and accurate.

  8. Digital correction of geometric and radiometric errors in ERTS data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakis, R.; Wesley, M. A.; Will, P. M.

    1971-01-01

    The sensor systems of the ERTS-A satellite are discussed and sources of geometric and radiometric errors in the received images are identified. Digital algorithms are presented for detection of reseau and ground control points, for rapid implementation of geometric corrections, and for radiometric correction of errors caused by shading, image motion, modulation transfer function, and quantum and systematic noise.

  9. Relative radiometric calibration of LANDSAT TM reflective bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    A common scientific methodology and terminology is outlined for characterizing the radiometry of both TM sensors. The magnitude of the most significant sources of radiometric variability are discussed and methods are recommended for achieving the exceptional potential inherent in the radiometric precision and accuracy of the TM sensors.

  10. Visible/infrared radiometric calibration station

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, D.A.; Maier, W.B. II; Bender, S.C.; Holland, R.F.; Michaud, F.D.; Luettgen, A.L.; Christensen, R.W.; O`Brian, T.R.

    1994-07-01

    We have begun construction of a visible/infrared radiometric calibration station that will allow for absolute calibration of optical and IR remote sensing instruments with clear apertures less than 16 inches in diameter in a vacuum environment. The calibration station broadband sources will be calibrated at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and allow for traceable absolute radiometric calibration to within {plus_minus}3% in the visible and near IR (0.4--2.5 {mu}m), and less than {plus_minus}1% in the infrared, up to 12 {mu}m. Capabilities for placing diffraction limited images or for sensor full-field flooding will exist. The facility will also include the calibration of polarization and spectral effects, spatial resolution, field of view performance, and wavefront characterization. The configuration of the vacuum calibration station consists of an off-axis 21 inch, f/3.2, parabolic collimator with a scanning fold flat in collimated space. The sources are placed, via mechanisms to be described, at the focal plane of the off-axis parabola. Vacuum system pressure will be in the 10{sup {minus}6} Torr range. The broadband white-light source is a custom design by LANL with guidance from Labsphere Inc. The continuous operating radiance of the integrating sphere will be from 0.0--0.006 W/cm{sup 2}/Sr/{mu}m (upper level quoted for {approximately}500 nm wavelength). The blackbody source is also custom designed at LANL with guidance from NIST. The blackbody temperature will be controllable between 250--350{degrees}K. Both of the above sources have 4.1 inch apertures with estimated radiometric instability at less than 1%. The designs of each of these units will be described. The monochromator and interferometer light sources are outside the vacuum, but all optical relay and beam shaping optics are enclosed within the vacuum calibration station. These sources are described, as well as the methodology for alignment and characterization.

  11. Recent results from the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) at Railroad Valley, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey S.; Leisso, Nathan P.

    2010-09-01

    The Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) is an automated approach to ground-based vicarious calibration that does not require on-site personnel during the overpass of an airborne or spaceborne sensor. The concept originates as an attempt to increase the amount of ground-based data that are collected throughout the year. All-weather instruments are used to measure atmospheric and surface conditions. The data are used in an automated processing scheme to produce top-of-atmosphere spectral radiance, which are then compared to the sensor under test. RadCaTS has been located at Railroad Valley, Nevada, since 2004, but the concept is applicable to any site that is suitable for vicarious calibration. Railroad Valley was chosen to test the RadCaTS concept because it has been used by the Remote Sensing Group (RSG) for over 15 years and is well understood. This work describes the RadCaTS automated concept, and outlines the automated processing scheme that is used to determine the surface reflectance. A description of the instrumentation used to measure the surface reflectance and atmosphere is presented, followed by a discussion of their placement on the site, and also their calibration. Finally, the RadCaTS ground-based results are compared to those from Aqua and Terra MODIS in 2008, and Landsat 7 ETM+ in 2009.

  12. Third comparison of the World Radiometric Reference and the SI radiometric scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finsterle, W.; Blattner, P.; Moebus, S.; Rüedi, I.; Wehrli, C.; White, M.; Schmutz, W.

    2008-08-01

    Ten years after the last comparison of the World Radiometric Reference (WRR) to the Système International (SI) radiometric scale and in respect of the recent introduction of a quality management system for the maintenance and dissemination of WRR, the need for a third comparison became apparent. In this third comparison, the two scales are related through two separate radiometers representing WRR and two independent realizations of SI by cryogenic radiometers at the Bundesamt für Metrologie (METAS) in Wabern, Switzerland, and at the National Physical Laboratory in Teddington, UK. The final results have confirmed the previously stated agreement between WRR and SI scales to better than 0.03% ± 0.14%.

  13. Technical Note: A fully automated purge and trap GC-MS system for quantification of volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes between the ocean and atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, S. J.; Hackenberg, S. C.; Carpenter, L. J.

    2015-04-01

    The oceans are a key source of a number of atmospherically important volatile gases. The accurate and robust determination of trace gases in seawater is a significant analytical challenge, requiring reproducible and ideally automated sample handling, a high efficiency of seawater-air transfer, removal of water vapour from the sample stream, and high sensitivity and selectivity of the analysis. Here we describe a system that was developed for the fully automated analysis of dissolved very short-lived halogenated species (VSLS) sampled from an under-way seawater supply. The system can also be used for semi-automated batch sampling from Niskin bottles filled during CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth) profiles. The essential components comprise a bespoke, automated purge and trap (AutoP & T) unit coupled to a commercial thermal desorption and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (TD-GC-MS). The AutoP & T system has completed five research cruises, from the tropics to the poles, and collected over 2500 oceanic samples to date. It is able to quantify >25 species over a boiling point range of 34-180 °C with Henry's law coefficients of 0.018 and greater (CH22l, kHcc dimensionless gas/aqueous) and has been used to measure organic sulfurs, hydrocarbons, halocarbons and terpenes. In the eastern tropical Pacific, the high sensitivity and sampling frequency provided new information regarding the distribution of VSLS, including novel measurements of a photolytically driven diurnal cycle of CH22l within the surface ocean water.

  14. Radiometric consistency assessment of hyperspectral infrared sounders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Han, Y.; Jin, X.; Chen, Y.; Tremblay, D. A.

    2015-07-01

    The radiometric and spectral consistency among the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) is fundamental for the creation of long-term infrared (IR) hyperspectral radiance benchmark datasets for both inter-calibration and climate-related studies. In this study, the CrIS radiance measurements on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite are directly compared with IASI on MetOp-A and -B at the finest spectral scale and with AIRS on Aqua in 25 selected spectral regions through one year of simultaneous nadir overpass (SNO) observations to evaluate radiometric consistency of these four hyperspectral IR sounders. The spectra from different sounders are paired together through strict spatial and temporal collocation. The uniform scenes are selected by examining the collocated Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) pixels. Their brightness temperature (BT) differences are then calculated by converting the spectra onto common spectral grids. The results indicate that CrIS agrees well with IASI on MetOp-A and IASI on MetOp-B at the longwave IR (LWIR) and middle-wave IR (MWIR) bands with 0.1-0.2 K differences. There are no apparent scene-dependent patterns for BT differences between CrIS and IASI for individual spectral channels. CrIS and AIRS are compared at the 25 spectral regions for both Polar and Tropical SNOs. The combined global SNO datasets indicate that, the CrIS-AIRS BT differences are less than or around 0.1 K among 21 of 25 comparison spectral regions and they range from 0.15 to 0.21 K in the remaining 4 spectral regions. CrIS-AIRS BT differences in some comparison spectral regions show weak scene-dependent features.

  15. Radiometric consistency assessment of hyperspectral infrared sounders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Han, Y.; Jin, X.; Chen, Y.; Tremblay, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    The radiometric and spectral consistency among the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) is fundamental for the creation of long-term infrared (IR) hyperspectral radiance benchmark data sets for both intercalibration and climate-related studies. In this study, the CrIS radiance measurements on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite are directly compared with IASI on MetOp-A and MetOp-B at the finest spectral scale and with AIRS on Aqua in 25 selected spectral regions through simultaneous nadir overpass (SNO) observations in 2013, to evaluate radiometric consistency of these four hyperspectral IR sounders. The spectra from different sounders are paired together through strict spatial and temporal collocation. The uniform scenes are selected by examining the collocated Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) pixels. Their brightness temperature (BT) differences are then calculated by converting the spectra onto common spectral grids. The results indicate that CrIS agrees well with IASI on MetOp-A and IASI on MetOp-B at the long-wave IR (LWIR) and middle-wave IR (MWIR) bands with 0.1-0.2 K differences. There are no apparent scene-dependent patterns for BT differences between CrIS and IASI for individual spectral channels. CrIS and AIRS are compared at the 25 spectral regions for both polar and tropical SNOs. The combined global SNO data sets indicate that the CrIS-AIRS BT differences are less than or around 0.1 K among 21 of 25 spectral regions and they range from 0.15 to 0.21 K in the remaining four spectral regions. CrIS-AIRS BT differences in some comparison spectral regions show weak scene-dependent features.

  16. Laboratory Measurement of Bidirectional Reflectance of Radiometric Tarps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowlton, Kelly

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: a) To determine the magnitude of radiometric tarp BRDF; b) To determine whether an ASD FieldSpec Pro spectroradiometer can be used to perform the experiment. Radiometric tarps with nominal reflectance values of 52%, 35%, and 3.5%, deployed for IKONOS. QuickBird, and OrbView-3 overpasses Ground-based spectroradiometric measurements of tarp and Spectralon@ panel taken during overpass using ASD FieldSpec Pro spectroradiometer, and tarp reflectance calculated. Reflectance data used in atmospheric radiative transfer model (MODTRAN) to predict satellite at-sensor radiance for radiometric calibration. Reflectance data also used to validate atmospheric correction of high-spatial-resolution multispectral image products

  17. Intraband radiometric performance of the Landsat Thematic Mappers.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, H.H.; Cook, D.A.; Eliason, E.M.; Eliason, P.T.

    1985-01-01

    Radiometric characteristics have been examined of the Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mappers (TMs) that can be established without absolute calibration of spectral data. This analysis is based on radiometrically and geometrically raw (B-type) data of both uniform (flat-field) and high-contrast scenes. Subscenes selected for uniform radiance were used to characterized subtle radiometric differences and noise problems. Although the general performance of the Thematic Mappers is excellent, various anomalies that have a magnitude of a few digital levels (DN) or less are quantified. -from Authors

  18. Radiometric cloud imaging with an uncooled microbolometer thermal infrared camera.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Joseph; Nugent, Paul; Pust, Nathan; Thurairajah, Brentha; Mizutani, Kohei

    2005-07-25

    An uncooled microbolometer-array thermal infrared camera has been incorporated into a remote sensing system for radiometric sky imaging. The radiometric calibration is validated and improved through direct comparison with spectrally integrated data from the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). With the improved calibration, the Infrared Cloud Imager (ICI) system routinely obtains sky images with radiometric uncertainty less than 0.5 W/(m(2 )sr) for extended deployments in challenging field environments. We demonstrate the infrared cloud imaging technique with still and time-lapse imagery of clear and cloudy skies, including stratus, cirrus, and wave clouds. PMID:19498585

  19. Technical Note: A fully automated purge and trap-GC-MS system for quantification of volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes between the ocean and atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, S. J.; Hackenberg, S. C.; Carpenter, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    The oceans are a key source of a number of atmospherically important volatile gases. The accurate and robust determination of trace gases in seawater is a significant analytical challenge, requiring reproducible and ideally automated sample handling, a high efficiency of seawater-air transfer, removal of water vapour from the sample stream, and high sensitivity and selectivity of the analysis. Here we describe a system that was developed for the fully automated analysis of dissolved very short-lived halogenated species (VSLS) sampled from an under-way seawater supply. The system can also be used for semi-automated batch sampling from Niskin bottles filled during CTD (Conductivity, Temperature, Depth) profiles. The essential components comprise of a bespoke, automated purge and trap (AutoP & T) unit coupled to a commercial thermal desorption and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (TD-GC-MS). The AutoP & T system has completed five research cruises, from the tropics to the poles, and collected over 2500 oceanic samples to date. It is able to quantify >25 species over a boiling point range of 34-180 °C with Henry's Law coefficients of 0.018 and greater (CH2I2, kHcc dimensionless gas/aqueous) and has been used to measure organic sulfurs, hydrocarbons, halocarbons and terpenes. In the east tropical Pacific, the high sensitivity and sampling frequency provided new information regarding the distribution of VSLS, including novel measurements of a photolytically driven diurnal cycle of CH2I2 within the surface ocean water.

  20. The absolute radiometric calibration of Terra imaging sensors: MODIS, MISR, and ASTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey; Thome, Kurtis; Anderson, Nikolaus; Biggar, Stuart

    2014-10-01

    The Terra spacecraft contains five Earth-observation instruments, three of which are multispectral imaging sensors that complement each other in spectral and spatial coverage. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has 36 channels ranging from 0.4-14.4 μm, with spatial resolutions of 250, 500, and 1000 m. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) uses individual imaging sensors to view the earth at nine discreet angles. Each radiometer has four channels in the visible and near infrared (VNIR), and the nadir-viewing camera has a spatial resolution of 275 m. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) was designed with fourteen bands ranging from 0.5-11.6 μm. It is the high-resolution sensor on Terra, with a spatial resolution of 15 m in the VNIR, and 30 m in the shortwave infrared (SWIR). This work describes the vicarious techniques used to perform the absolute radiometric calibration of MODIS, MISR, and ASTER in the solar-reflective region (0.4-2.5 μm). It includes the reflectance-based approach, which uses ground-based personnel to make in situ measurements during the time of overpass. It also includes more recent results that were obtained using the University of Arizona's automated Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) at Railroad Valley, Nevada. In addition to the absolute radiometric calibration of Terra sensors, RadCaTS is used to perform the cross comparison of MODIS, MISR, and ASTER with Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI.

  1. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4: Automated array assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A process sequence which can be used in conjunction with automated equipment for the mass production of solar cell modules for terrestrial use was developed. The process sequence was then critically analyzed from a technical and economic standpoint to determine the technological readiness of certain process steps for implementation. The steps receiving analysis were: back contact metallization, automated cell array layup/interconnect, and module edge sealing. For automated layup/interconnect, both hard automation and programmable automation (using an industrial robot) were studied. The programmable automation system was then selected for actual hardware development.

  2. Radiometric detection of yeasts in blood cultures of cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Hopfer, R.L.; Orengo, A.; Chesnut, S.; Wenglar, M.

    1980-09-01

    During a 12-month period, 19,457 blood cultures were collected. Yeasts were isolated from 193 cultures derived from 76 cancer patients. Candida albicans or Candida tropicalis accounted for 79% of isolates. Of the three methods compared, the radiometric method required 2.9 days to become positive, blind subculture required 2.6 days, and Gram stains required 1 day. However, the radiometric method was clearly superior in detecting positive cultures, since 73% of all cultures were first detected radiometrically, 22% were detected by subculture, and only 5% were detected by Gram stain. Although 93% of the isolates were detected by aerobic culture, five (7%) isolates were obtained only from anaerobic cultures. Seven days of incubation appear to be sufficient for the radiometric detection of yeasts.

  3. [VMTBB-Based Spectral Radiometric Calibration of NIR Fiber Coupled Spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Feng; Liu, Li-ying; Liu, Xiao-xi; Li, Ye; Shi, Xiao-guang; Zhang, Guo-yu; Huan, Ke-wei

    2015-09-01

    The medium temperature black body (MTBB) is conventional high precision equipment used as spectral radiometric scale in infrared spectral region. However, in near-infrared (NIR) spectral region, there are few papers about spectral radiometric calibration by using MTBB, that is because NIR spectral region is the borderland of its effective spectral region. The main research of this paper is spectral radiometric calibration method by using MTBB in NIR spectral region. Accordingly, this paper is devoted mostly to a discussion of how the calibration precision could be affected by selecting different structural parameters of calibration model. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research and provide technical reference for improving the traceability in NIR spectral radiometric calibration. In this paper, a NIR fiber coupled spectrometer, whose wavelength range covers from 950 to 1700 nm, has been calibrated by a MTBB with adjustable temperature range from 50 to 1050 °C. Concentrating on calibration process, two key points have been discussed. For one thing, the geometric factors of radiation transfer model of the calibration systems have been compared between traditional structure and fiber direct-coupled structure. Because the fiber direct-coupled model is simple and effective, it has been selected instead of traditional model based on the radiation transfer between two coaxial discs. So, it is an advantaged radiation transfer model for radiometric calibration of fiber coupled spectrometer. For another thing, the relation between calibration accuracy and structural parameters of calibration model has been analyzed intensively. The root cause is scale feature of attribute of calibration data itself, which is the nonlinear structure in scales of spectral data. So, the high precision calibration needs nonlinear calibration model, and the uniform sampling for scale feature is also very important. Selecting sample is an inevitable problem when the

  4. Laboratory radiometric calibration for the convex grating imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiankang; Chen, Xinhua; Chen, Yuheng; Ji, Yiqun; Shen, Weimin

    2014-09-01

    The radiometric calibration of imaging spectrometer plays an import role for scientific application of spectral data. The radiometric calibration accuracy is influenced by many factors, such as the stability and uniformity of light source, the transfer precision of radiation standard and so on. But the deviation from the linear response mode and the polarization effect of the imaging spectrometer are always neglected. In this paper, the linear radiometric calibration model is constructed and the radiometric linear response capacity is test by adjusting electric gain, exposure time and radiance level. The linear polarizer and the sine function fitting algorithm are utilized to measure polarization effect. The integrating sphere calibration system is constructed in our Lab and its spectral radiance is calibrated by a well-characterized and extremely stable NIST traceable transfer spectroradiometer. Our manufactured convex grating imaging spectrometer is relative and absolute calibrated based on the integrating sphere calibration system. The relative radiometric calibration data is used to remove or reduce the radiometric response non-uniformity every pixel of imaging spectrometer while the absolute radiometric calibration is used to construct the relationship between the physical radiant of the scene and the digital number of the image. The calibration coefficients are acquired at ten radiance levels. The diffraction noise in the images can be corrected by the calibration coefficients and the uniform radiance image can be got. The calibration result shows that our manufactured imaging spectrometer with convex grating has 3.0% degree of polarization and the uncertainties of the relative and absolute radiometric calibrations are 2.4% and 5.6% respectively.

  5. Radiometric ash monitor with iron compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Bachmann, C.; Erken, M.; Fauth, G.; Kern, H.

    1996-12-31

    The recent development of special devices for the measurement of the coal preparation product`s quality makes it possible to design feed forward and feed back quality control systems. For the determination of the ash content in coal very reliable radiometric measuring devices using the dual energy transmission method are available and well tested since several years. While the devices of the fire generation, where the probes were mounted in the center of the belt, determine the composition of only a part of the material, multi channel systems were developed and installed in preparation plants of different German and foreign mines. These analyzers work with three to five pairs of detectors which are placed across the belt to overcome representativity problems at inhomogeneously loaded belts. Another attempt to overcome those problems is the measurement behind an automatic sampler in a bypass. Dual energy ash meters are well developed and available from different companies round the world. Different examples show that some applications give excellent results while other applications show only poor accuracies due to variations in the composition. A new development using radiation with lower energies to determine important ingredients of coal shows an improvement of the ash measurement. Installed behind a sampler, the system offers a representative measurement which is less dependent on variations of the composition. First results will be presented.

  6. A radiometric assay for HIV-1 protease

    SciTech Connect

    Hyland, L.J.; Dayton, B.D.; Moore, M.L.; Shu, A.Y.; Heys, J.R.; Meek, T.D. )

    1990-08-01

    A rapid, high-throughput radiometric assay for HIV-1 protease has been developed using ion-exchange chromatography performed in 96-well filtration plates. The assay monitors the activity of the HIV-1 protease on the radiolabeled form of a heptapeptide substrate, (tyrosyl-3,5-3H)Ac-Ser-Gln-Asn-Tyr-Pro-Val-Val-NH2, which is based on the p17-p24 cleavage site found in the viral polyprotein substrate Pr55gag. Specific cleavage of this uncharged heptapeptide substrate by HIV-1 protease releases the anionic product (tyrosyl-3,5-3H)Ac-Ser-Gln-Asn-Tyr, which is retained upon minicolumns of the anion-exchange resin AG1-X8. Protease activity is determined from the recovery of this radiolabeled product following elution with formic acid. This facile and highly sensitive assay may be utilized for steady-state kinetic analysis of the protease, for measurements of enzyme activity during its purification, and as a routine assay for the evaluation of protease inhibitors from natural product or synthetic sources.

  7. Radiometric Meteorology: radon progeny as tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenfield, Mark; Iwata, Atsushi; Ito, Nahoko; Kubo, Kenya; Komura, Kazu; Ishizaki, Miho

    2008-10-01

    In-situ measurement of atmospheric γ radiation from radon progeny determine rain and snow rates to better accuracy than standard rain gauges and gives a handle on how droplets are formed. The measured γ ray rates (GRR) have been shown to be proportional to a power of radiometric precipitation rates (RPR)^α, α giving a handle on the extent to which radon progeny are surface adsorbed or volume absorbed.ootnotetextM. B. Greenfield et al., J. Appl. Phys. 93, (2003) pp 5733-5741. More recently time dependent ratios of GRR from ^214Pb and ^214Bi, concentrated from collected rainwater, have been used to determine the elapsed time since activity from RPR, adhered to rain droplets, was removed from secular equilibrium. Ion exchange resins precipitate out the ^214Pb and ^214Bi ions, which are then filtered from 10s of liters of rainwater or snowmelt. A portable Ge detector is used to integrate the resulting activity over 5-10 min intervals. The measured evolution of these two activities from secular equilibrium to transient equilibrium has meteorological applications enabling both the determination of average elapsed times between the formation of raindrops and the time they reach the ground, as well as an estimate of the initial activity at the source of droplet formation.

  8. Lessons Learned from the AIRS Pre-Flight Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Weiler, Margie

    2013-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument flies on the NASA Aqua satellite and measures the upwelling hyperspectral earth radiance in the spectral range of 3.7-15.4 micron with a nominal ground resolution at nadir of 13.5 km. The AIRS spectra are achieved using a temperature controlled grating spectrometer and HgCdTe infrared linear arrays providing 2378 channels with a nominal spectral resolution of approximately 1200. The AIRS pre-flight tests that impact the radiometric calibration include a full system radiometric response (linearity), polarization response, and response vs scan angle (RVS). We re-derive the AIRS instrument radiometric calibration coefficients from the pre-flight polarization measurements, the response vs scan (RVS) angle tests as well as the linearity tests, and a recent lunar roll test that allowed the AIRS to view the moon. The data and method for deriving the coefficients is discussed in detail and the resulting values compared amongst the different tests. Finally, we examine the residual errors in the reconstruction of the external calibrator blackbody radiances and the efficacy of a new radiometric uncertainty model. Results show the radiometric calibration of AIRS to be excellent and the radiometric uncertainty model does a reasonable job of characterizing the errors.

  9. Radiometric calibration of the EO-1 Advanced Land Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendenhall, Jeffrey A.; Lencioni, Donald E.; Parker, Alexander C.

    1999-09-01

    The radiometric calibration of the Earth Observation 1 Advanced Land Imager (EO-1 ALI) was completed in the Spring of 1999 at Lincoln Laboratory. This calibration was conducted with the ALI as a fully assembled instrument in a thermal vacuum chamber at operation temperatures. The ALI was calibrated radiometrically at the system level from 0 to > 100 percent Earth-equivalent albedo using a combination of internal and external halogen and Xenon lamps attached to a large integrating sphere. Absolute radiometric calibration was achieved by measuring the output of the integrating sphere at each radiance level prior to ALI illumination using a NIST-traceable spectroradiometer. Additional radiometric characterization of this instrument was obtained from data collected using a collimator designed for the spectral calibration of the ALI. In this paper we review the techniques employed during radiometric calibration and present the measured gain, linearity, offset, signal-to- noise ratio and polarization sensitivity of each pixel. The testing result of a novel, in-flight solar calibration technique are also discussed. Finally, the results from a Lincoln Laboratory/Goddard Space Flight Center Landsat transfer radiometric study are presented.

  10. A Radiometric All-Sky Infrared Camera (RASICAM) for DES/CTIO

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Peter M.; Rogers, Howard; Schindler, Rafe H.; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    A novel radiometric all-sky infrared camera [RASICAM] has been constructed to allow automated real-time quantitative assessment of night sky conditions for the Dark Energy Camera [DECam] located on the Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. The camera is optimized to detect the position, motion and optical depth of thin, high (8-10km) cirrus clouds and contrails by measuring their apparent temperature above the night sky background. The camera system utilizes a novel wide-field equiresolution catadioptic mirror system that provides sky coverage of 2{pi} azimuth and 14-90{sup o} from zenith. Several new technological and design innovations allow the RASICAM system to provide unprecedented cloud detection and IR-based photometricity quantification. The design of the RASICAM system is presented.

  11. Development of Automated Production Line Processes for Solar Brightfield Modules: Final Annual Technical Progress Report, 1 July 2004 -- 15 October 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Nowlan, M. J.; Murach, J. M.; Sutherland, S. F.; Miller, D. C.; Moore S. B.; Hogan, S. J.

    2006-08-01

    Spire Corporation is addressing the Photovoltaic Manufacturing R&D project goals of improving photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing processes and products while reducing costs and providing a technology foundation that supports significant manufacturing scale-up. To accomplish this, we are focusing our efforts on the design of a large-area utility-scale module and the development of the necessary manufacturing techniques and equipment to manufacture such a module in a high-volume production environment. A three-phase program is under way for developing and demonstrating new automated systems for fabricating very large PV modules ideal for use in multi-megawatt grid-connected applications. We designed a large-area (1.57 m x 3.68 m) 800-W module, and we are developing associated module production equipment that will minimize the total installed system cost for utility-scale PV arrays. Activities in Phase 2 focused on the development of automation for module materials lay-up, cell string busing, and module lamination; enhancements to the cell stringing and lamination processes; and performance testing of large-area modules.

  12. Radiometric Characteristics of Cassini RADAR Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiles, B. W.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G. A.; Johnson, W. T.; Shimada, J. G.; West, R. D.

    2004-12-01

    The Cassini RADAR instrument on-board the Cassini Orbiter is currently being employed to obtain SAR imagery of the surface of Saturn's largest moon, Titan. The viewing geometry of Cassini RADAR is different from most imaging radars because the Cassini Orbiter flies by Titan rather than entering into orbit about it. This unusual viewing geometry leads to variable noise characteristics throughout the SAR swath. Due to large changes in range to target and number of looks, noise characteristics and effective resolution vary widely throughout the swath. A good understanding of these parameters is important in order to draw scientific conclusions from the SAR images. Changes in noise bias could be misinterpreted as changes in reflectivity from the surface. Changes in resolution or noise variance could be misinterpreted as changes in the heterogeneity of the surface. The purpose of this paper is to quantify noise variance, bias, and effective radiometric resolution throughout the SAR swath in order to aid scientists in interpreting the data. Of the three parameters, the easiest to model is noise bias which increases with the range to the target. Noise variance is more complicated. The thermal noise (SNR) contribution to the overall variance increases with range, but the fading (speckle) noise contribution varies inversely with number of looks and thus with range. Effective resolution becomes coarser as range increases, but cross track and along track resolution vary differently. Along track resolution varies continuously, but cross track resolution has a discontinuity at 1600 km altitude, due to a change in commanded bandwidth. This paper presents the equations governing the noise characteristics and effective resolution as well as providing pseudo-color images of each quantity in SAR image coordinates for the October 2004 Cassini RADAR observation of Titan. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract with

  13. Automation or De-automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorlach, Igor; Wessel, Oliver

    2008-09-01

    In the global automotive industry, for decades, vehicle manufacturers have continually increased the level of automation of production systems in order to be competitive. However, there is a new trend to decrease the level of automation, especially in final car assembly, for reasons of economy and flexibility. In this research, the final car assembly lines at three production sites of Volkswagen are analysed in order to determine the best level of automation for each, in terms of manufacturing costs, productivity, quality and flexibility. The case study is based on the methodology proposed by the Fraunhofer Institute. The results of the analysis indicate that fully automated assembly systems are not necessarily the best option in terms of cost, productivity and quality combined, which is attributed to high complexity of final car assembly systems; some de-automation is therefore recommended. On the other hand, the analysis shows that low automation can result in poor product quality due to reasons related to plant location, such as inadequate workers' skills, motivation, etc. Hence, the automation strategy should be formulated on the basis of analysis of all relevant aspects of the manufacturing process, such as costs, quality, productivity and flexibility in relation to the local context. A more balanced combination of automated and manual assembly operations provides better utilisation of equipment, reduces production costs and improves throughput.

  14. [Substantiation of the choice of technical means in reduction of implementation costs of the project "Full automation of a central municipal hospital"].

    PubMed

    Nikitin, Iu D; Ovchinnikov, A V

    1998-01-01

    A way of reducing the cost price of hospital automation is proposed. It is not necessary for it to update the whole equipment, but only a small part--the workstations used by programmers for their work, which support the stability of hospital automation; the working places of operators should be kept without modifications, but to allot them properties to inherit a potency and modernity of the purchased equipment; for this purpose they should be equipped with virtual machines copying properties of workstations being arrange in accordance with the pyramidal structure. A UNIX which represents a multi-user, multitask operational operative system providing an access on several pseudoterminals is simultaneously installed on the PENTIUM 100/133 workstation. A graphic terminal of the AMR "UnTerminal" firm (USA) is proposed for use as working places. Their advantage is that they have a special adapter connected directly to the bus of PC extension. Each user is allotted a video adapter, a keyboard controller, sequential and parallel interfaces for connection of the printer and manipulator. Each working place supports multitasking and it can be equipped with a printer, a "mouse" or modem. The image is transmitted on work places with a very high velocity-77 mehabits/sec that supports not only a text mode, but also VGA or SVGA graphics. Certainly, graphic terminals are more expensive than text terminals, but their capacities are similar to those of the main computer, here, the workstation. They may be located from the main computer at a distance of up to 75 meters or more and do not require adjustment during their installation. PMID:9949988

  15. Process automation

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Process automation technology has been pursued in the chemical processing industries and to a very limited extent in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Its effective use has been restricted in the past by the lack of diverse and reliable process instrumentation and the unavailability of sophisticated software designed for process control. The Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in part to demonstrate new concepts for control of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A demonstration of fuel reprocessing equipment automation using advanced instrumentation and a modern, microprocessor-based control system is nearing completion in the facility. This facility provides for the synergistic testing of all chemical process features of a prototypical fuel reprocessing plant that can be attained with unirradiated uranium-bearing feed materials. The unique equipment and mission of the IET facility make it an ideal test bed for automation studies. This effort will provide for the demonstration of the plant automation concept and for the development of techniques for similar applications in a full-scale plant. A set of preliminary recommendations for implementing process automation has been compiled. Some of these concepts are not generally recognized or accepted. The automation work now under way in the IET facility should be useful to others in helping avoid costly mistakes because of the underutilization or misapplication of process automation. 6 figs.

  16. Automated Training Evaluation (ATE). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John P.; Johnson, Robert M.

    The automation of weapons system training presents the potential for significant savings in training costs in terms of manpower, time, and money. The demonstration of the technical feasibility of automated training through the application of advanced digital computer techniques and advanced training techniques is essential before the application…

  17. Multi-point radiometric calibration method based on complex spectrum of Fourier transform spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qian; Wang, Guangping; Wu, Jingli; Li, Junwei

    2014-11-01

    As the impact of the instrument internal error, external interference and other factors, the interferogram measured by Fourier transform spectrometer is asymmetric, result in the complex outcome after Fourier transform. Currently, most radiometric calibration method used for Fourier transform spectrometer is usually based on real spectrums, which is converted from the above complex spectrum by calculating magnitude value or make the phase correction first. Proceed from error sources and mechanisms of the Fourier transform spectrometer, we propose a multi-point radiometric calibration method based on complex spectral data to improve the processing efficiency and accuracy, which is obtained by the original interferogram via Fourier transform. We solving the instrument response function include linear gain and offset by complex spectrum above to calculate complex spectral radiance. Compared with the traditional method based on real spectrum, the present efficient method does not limited to real spectrum and the phase correction is not required. In this paper, we use BOMEM's MR304 Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and the DCN1000N3 blackbody made by HGH Infrared Systems to carry out the radiation calibration experiment in laboratory. The results show that, the amplitude of complex radiance spectrum obtained by this method has a high consistency with the theoretical value, while the extra imaginary spectrum is similar with the difference between results and theoretical value in absolute value and trends. It proved that, this multi-point radiometric calibration method by using the amplitude of complex spectral data is highly reliable; meanwhile, the imaginary spectrum can reflect the calibration error very well and offer a new technical approach for accuracy evaluation research.

  18. Assessment of VIIRS radiometric performance using vicarious calibration sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uprety, Sirish; Cao, Changyong; Blonski, Slawomir; Wang, Wenhui

    2014-09-01

    Radiometric performance of satellite instruments needs to be regularly monitored to determine if there is any drift in the instrument response over time despite the calibration with the best effort. If a drift occurs, it needs to be characterized in order to keep the radiometric accuracy and stability well within the specification. Instrument gain change over time can be validated independently using many techniques such as using stable earth targets (desert, ocean, snow sites etc), inter-comparison with other well calibrated radiometers (using SNO, SNO-x), deep convective clouds (DCC), lunar observations or other methods. This study focus on using vicarious calibration sites for the assessment of radiometric performance of Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) reflective solar bands. The calibration stability is primarily analyzed by developing the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance time series over these sites. In addition, the radiometric bias relative to AQUA MODIS is estimated over these calibration sites and analyzed. The radiometric bias is quantified in terms of observed and spectral bias. The spectral characterization and bias analysis will be performed using hyperspectral measurements and radiative transfer models such as MODTRAN.

  19. Fundus image change analysis: geometric and radiometric normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, David S.; Kaiser, Richard S.; Lee, Michael S.; Berger, Jeffrey W.

    1999-06-01

    Image change analysis will potentiate fundus feature quantitation in natural history and intervention studies for major blinding diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Geometric and radiometric normalization of fundus images acquired at two points in time are required for accurate change detection, but existing methods are unsatisfactory for change analysis. We have developed and explored algorithms for correction of image misalignment (geometric) and inter- and intra-image brightness variation (radiometric) in order to facilitate highly accurate change detection. Thirty-five millimeter color fundus photographs were digitized at 500 to 1000 dpi. Custom-developed registration algorithms correcting for translation only; translation and rotation; translation, rotation, and scale; and polynomial based image-warping algorithms allowed for exploration of registration accuracy required for change detection. Registration accuracy beyond that offered by rigid body transformation is required for accurate change detection. Radiometric correction required shade-correction and normalization of inter-image statistical parameters. Precise geometric and radiometric normalization allows for highly accurate change detection. To our knowledge, these results are the first demonstration of the combination of geometric and radiometric normalization offering sufficient accuracy to allow for accurate fundus image change detection potentiating longitudinal study of retinal disease.

  20. Radiometric Study of Soil Profiles in the Infrared Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomareva, T. V.; Ponomarev, E. I.

    2016-02-01

    The applicability of radiometric survey of soil profiles in the infrared range for the analysis of soil physical properties was studied. Radiometric data were obtained for different dates of the growing season for a number of soil profiles. The specificity of temperature profiles of texture-differentiated soils (Luvisols and Retisols) as related to weather conditions of the growing season was examined. The correlation analysis showed a close relationship between the air and surface soil temperatures and between the radiometric and thermodynamic soil temperatures in the upper 10 cm. In the studied profiles, the gradient of radiometric temperatures reached 0.5-0.8°C/cm in the humus horizons and sharply decreased at the depth of more than 15-20 cm. The gradient analysis of radiometric images made it possible to outline the boundaries of soil horizons. For the texture-differentiated soils, the most distinct boundaries were established between the gray-humus AY horizon and the underlying eluvial EL horizon in podzolic soils and between the AY horizon and the underlying humus-eluvial AEL horizon in gray soils.

  1. Deep Space Network Radiometric Remote Sensing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft are viewed through a troposphere that absorbs and delays radio signals propagating through it. Tropospheric water, in the form of vapor, cloud liquid, and precipitation, emits radio noise which limits satellite telemetry communication link performance. Even at X-band, rain storms have severely affected several satellite experiments including a planetary encounter. The problem will worsen with DSN implementation of Ka-band because communication link budgets will be dominated by tropospheric conditions. Troposphere-induced propagation delays currently limit VLBI accuracy and are significant sources of error for Doppler tracking. Additionally, the success of radio science programs such as satellite gravity wave experiments and atmospheric occultation experiments depends on minimizing the effect of water vapor-induced propagation delays. In order to overcome limitations imposed by the troposphere, the Deep Space Network has supported a program of radiometric remote sensing. Currently, water vapor radiometers (WVRs) and microwave temperature profilers (MTPs) support many aspects of the Deep Space Network operations and research and development programs. Their capability to sense atmospheric water, microwave sky brightness, and atmospheric temperature is critical to development of Ka-band telemetry systems, communication link models, VLBI, satellite gravity wave experiments, and radio science missions. During 1993, WVRs provided data for propagation model development, supported planetary missions, and demonstrated advanced tracking capability. Collection of atmospheric statistics is necessary to model and predict performance of Ka-band telemetry links, antenna arrays, and radio science experiments. Since the spectrum of weather variations has power at very long time scales, atmospheric measurements have been requested for periods ranging from one year to a decade at each DSN site. The resulting database would provide reliable statistics on daily

  2. Automated Urinalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Information from NASA Tech Briefs assisted DiaSys Corporation in the development of the R/S 2000 which automates urinalysis, eliminating most manual procedures. An automatic aspirator is inserted into a standard specimen tube, the "Sample" button is pressed, and within three seconds a consistent amount of urine sediment is transferred to a microscope. The instrument speeds up, standardizes, automates and makes urine analysis safer. Additional products based on the same technology are anticipated.

  3. Technical note: Comparison of automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to assess bacterial diversity in the rumen of sheep.

    PubMed

    Saro, C; Ranilla, M J; Cifuentes, A; Rosselló-Mora, R; Carro, M D

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques to assess bacterial diversity in the rumen of sheep. Sheep were fed 2 diets with 70% of either alfalfa hay or grass hay, and the solid (SOL) and liquid (LIQ) phases of the rumen were sampled immediately before feeding (0 h) and at 4 and 8 h postfeeding. Both techniques detected similar differences between forages, with alfalfa hay promoting greater (P < 0.05) bacterial diversity than grass hay. In contrast, whereas ARISA analysis showed a decrease (P < 0.05) of bacterial diversity in SOL at 4 h postfeeding compared with 0 and 8 h samplings, no variations (P > 0.05) over the postfeeding period were detected by DGGE. The ARISA technique showed lower (P < 0.05) bacterial diversity in SOL than in LIQ samples at 4 h postfeeding, but no differences (P > 0.05) in bacterial diversity between both rumen phases were detected by DGGE. Under the conditions of this study, the DGGE was not sensitive enough to detect some changes in ruminal bacterial communities, and therefore ARISA was considered more accurate for assessing bacterial diversity of ruminal samples. The results highlight the influence of the fingerprinting technique used to draw conclusions on factors affecting ruminal bacterial diversity. PMID:24492564

  4. Library Automation and Library Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabenstott, Jon, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Several consultants address the issue of competencies required of professional librarians for the effective management of the automation process. Highlights include formal and professional ongoing education and the need for technical training and problem solving skills to enable librarians to evaluate and develop library systems effectively.…

  5. In-flight Absolute Radiometric Calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    The Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral scanner system was placed into Earth orbit on July 16, 1982, as part of NASA's LANDSAT 4 payload. To determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire system in flight, spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere are made simultaneously with TM image acquisitions over the White Sands, New Mexico area. By entering the measured values into an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels at the entrance pupil of the TM in four of the TM spectral bands are determined. These levels are compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors. By reference to an adjacent, larger uniform area, the calibration is extended to all 16 detectors in each of the three bands.

  6. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system in flight spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM image collections over the White Sands, New Mexico area. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined, band 1:0.45 to 0.52 micrometers, band 2:0.53 to 0.61 micrometers band 3:0.62 to 0.70 micrometers and 4:0.78 to 0.91 micrometers. These levels were compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors.

  7. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system in flight spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM image collections over the White Sands, NM area. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined, band 1: 0.45 to 0.52 micrometers, band 2: 0.53 to 0.61 micrometers, band 3: 0.62 to 0.70 micrometers, and 4: 0.78 to 0.91 micrometers. These levels were compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors. Previously announced in STAR as N84-15633

  8. Landsat-5 TM reflective-band absolute radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Helder, D.L.; Markham, B.L.; Dewald, J.D.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Micijevic, E.; Ruggles, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provides the longest running continuous dataset of moderate spatial resolution remote sensing imagery, dating back to its launch in March 1984. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for this imagery used the instrument's response to the Internal Calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset of each detector. Due to observed degradations in the IC, a new procedure was implemented for U.S.-processed data in May 2003. This new calibration procedure is based on a lifetime radiometric calibration model for the instrument's reflective bands (1-5 and 7) and is derived, in part, from the IC response without the related degradation effects and is tied to the cross calibration with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus. Reflective-band absolute radiometric accuracy of the instrument tends to be on the order of 7% to 10%, based on a variety of calibration methods.

  9. The two faces of Iapetus. [photometric and radiometric albedo observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.; Jones, T. J.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Murphy, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    Radiometric and photometric observations of Iapetus are described, and a model is developed for the albedo distribution consistent with the visual light curves, color variations, and radiometric flux curve. The 20-micron infrared observations show that the radiometric variation differs by about 180 deg in phase from the visual light curve and has a peak-to-peak amplitude of about a factor of two, while the linear phase coefficient of the light curve varies, as the satellite rotates, from 0.028 to 0.068 mag/deg. Determination of the albedo distribution is described, and it is found to be characterized by a dark area covering most of the leading hemisphere, a bright trailing hemisphere, and a bright south polar cap. The radius is approximated as 800 to 850 km, and the mean geometric albedos for the light and dark faces are estimated as 0.35 and 0.07, respectively.

  10. Radiometric correction of SAR images of varying terrain heights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, A.; Moghaddam, M.; Zink, M.; Zebker, H.

    1992-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of three different approaches to solving the problem of the radiometric correction of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of varying terrain heights are presented. The first approach involves registration of a digital elevation model (DEM) of the terrain to the image, determination of the local elevation and incidence angles, and appropriate radiometric correction. The second approach uses a DEM generated from interferometric SAR data to derive the elevation and incidence angle maps. In the third approach, a monopulse technique is employed to determine the elevation angle only. The relative errors in radiometric correction between these approaches are assessed. Calibration errors are estimated using corner reflectors deployed within some of the scenes imaged by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne SAR (JPL AIRSAR).

  11. Spectral, spatial and radiometric factors in cover type discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, D.; Buis, J.; Acevedo, W.; Wrigley, R.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolutions on the utilization of Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data is assessed quantitatively using a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design experiment. Eight possible factor combinations were examined for agricultural, urban, forestry, range, and water types of land covers for three levels of information. Spectral bandwidths were configured to simulate all four Landsat MSS channels and Landsat TM channels 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7. By means of bar charts and tables it is shown that the 8-bit radiometric and 75-meter spatial resolutions provide a higher overall accuracy than the 6-bit radiometric and 25-meter spatial resolutions. Spectrally, the difference between the four MSS channels and five TM channel configurations is noted to be insignificant.

  12. On-orbit radiometric calibration of Earth-observing sensors using the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey S.; Leisso, Nathan P.; Anderson, Nikolaus J.; Biggar, Stuart F.

    2012-06-01

    Vicarious techniques are used to provide supplemental radiometric calibration data for sensors with onboard calibration systems, and are increasingly important for sensors without onboard calibration systems. The Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) is located at Railroad Valley, Nevada. It is a facility that was developed with the goal of increasing the amount of ground-based radiometric calibration data that are collected annually while maintaining the current level of radiometric accuracy produced by traditional manned field campaigns. RadCaTS is based on the reflectance-based approach, and currently consists of a Cimel sun photometer to measure the atmosphere, a weather station to monitor meteorological conditions, and ground-viewing radiometers (GVRs) that are used the determine the surface reflectance throughout the 1 × 1-km area. The data from these instruments are used in MODTRAN5 to determine the at-sensor spectral radiance at the time of overpass. This work describes the RadCaTS concept, the instruments used to obtain the data, and the processing method used to determine the surface reflectance and top-of-atmosphere spectral radiance. A discussion on the design and calibration of three new eight-channel GVRs is introduced, and the surface reflectance retrievals are compared to in situ measurements. Radiometric calibration results determined using RadCaTS are compared to Landsat 7 ETM+, MODIS, and MISR.

  13. Sensor Correction and Radiometric Calibration of a 6-BAND Multispectral Imaging Sensor for Uav Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelcey, J.; Lucieer, A.

    2012-07-01

    The increased availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has resulted in their frequent adoption for a growing range of remote sensing tasks which include precision agriculture, vegetation surveying and fine-scale topographic mapping. The development and utilisation of UAV platforms requires broad technical skills covering the three major facets of remote sensing: data acquisition, data post-processing, and image analysis. In this study, UAV image data acquired by a miniature 6-band multispectral imaging sensor was corrected and calibrated using practical image-based data post-processing techniques. Data correction techniques included dark offset subtraction to reduce sensor noise, flat-field derived per-pixel look-up-tables to correct vignetting, and implementation of the Brown- Conrady model to correct lens distortion. Radiometric calibration was conducted with an image-based empirical line model using pseudo-invariant features (PIFs). Sensor corrections and radiometric calibration improve the quality of the data, aiding quantitative analysis and generating consistency with other calibrated datasets.

  14. 5 CFR 293.107 - Special safeguards for automated records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special safeguards for automated records... for automated records. (a) In addition to following the security requirements of § 293.106 of this part, managers of automated personnel records shall establish administrative, technical, physical,...

  15. 5 CFR 293.107 - Special safeguards for automated records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special safeguards for automated records... for automated records. (a) In addition to following the security requirements of § 293.106 of this part, managers of automated personnel records shall establish administrative, technical, physical,...

  16. 5 CFR 293.107 - Special safeguards for automated records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special safeguards for automated records... for automated records. (a) In addition to following the security requirements of § 293.106 of this part, managers of automated personnel records shall establish administrative, technical, physical,...

  17. 5 CFR 293.107 - Special safeguards for automated records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special safeguards for automated records... for automated records. (a) In addition to following the security requirements of § 293.106 of this part, managers of automated personnel records shall establish administrative, technical, physical,...

  18. 5 CFR 293.107 - Special safeguards for automated records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special safeguards for automated records... for automated records. (a) In addition to following the security requirements of § 293.106 of this part, managers of automated personnel records shall establish administrative, technical, physical,...

  19. JACIE Radiometric Assessment of QuickBird Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Carver, David; Holekamp, Kara; Knowlton, Kelly; Ryan, Robert; Zanoni, Vicki; Thome, Kurtis; Aaron, David

    2004-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of commercial imaging satellite products is required to ensure that science and application communities can place confidence in the imagery they use and can fully understand its properties. Inaccurate radiometric calibrations can lead to erroneous decisions and invalid conclusions and can limit intercomparisons with other systems. To address this calibration need, the NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) Earth Science Applications (ESA) directorate,through the Joint Agency for Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) framework, established a commercial imaging satellite radiometric calibration team consisting of two groups: 1) NASA SSC ESA, supported by South Dakota State University, and 2) the University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group. The two groups determined the absolute radiometric calibration coefficients of the Digital Globe 4-band, 2.4-m QuickBird multispectral product covering the visible through near-infrared spectral region. For a 2-year period beginning in 2002, both groups employed some variant of a reflectance-based vicarious calibration approach, which required ground-based measurements coincident with QuickBird image acquisitions and radiative transfer calculations. The groups chose several study sites throughout the United States that covered nearly the entire dynamic range of the QuickBird sensor. QuickBird at-sensor radiance values were compared with those estimated by the two independent groups to determine the QuickBird sensor's radiometric accuracy. Approximately 20 at-sensor radiance estimates were vicariously determined each year. The estimates were combined to provide a high-precision radiometric gain calibration coefficient. The results of this evaluation provide the user community with an independent assessment of the QuickBird sensor's absolute calibration and stability over the 2-year period. While the techniques and method described reflect those developed at the NASA SSC, the results of both JACIE team groups are

  20. Calibration of the radiometric asteroid scale using occultation diameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telesco, C. M.; Brunk, W. E.; Brown, R. H.; Morrison, D.

    1982-01-01

    The paper describes a new approach to the calibration of the radiometric asteroid scale, which relies on recent accurate occultation measurements of the diameters of 2 Pallas (Wasserman et al., 1979) and 3 Juno (Millis et al., 1981), and the Voyager diameter of J4 Callisto, as well as IR photometry of these objects obtained with the NASA 3-m Infrared Telescope Facility. It is shown that this calibration is internally consistent to better than 5%, and probably has an absolute accuracy of + or - 5%. It is noted that a revision of the TRIAD radiometric diameters downward is required to bring them into agreement with the new calibration.

  1. Sentinel-3 OLCI Radiometric and Spectral Performance Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourg, L.; Blanot, L.; Lamquin, N.; Bruniquel, V.; Meskini, N.; Nieke, J.; Bouvet, M.; Fougnie, B.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the activities to be undertaken by ACRI-ST under ESA/ESTEC coordination for the assessment of OLCI Radiometric and Spectral Performances during the SENTINEL-3 Commissioning Phase. As an introduction, it briefly describes the instrument concept and available on-board calibration hardware, the context and main objective of the work. Insisting on the fact that radiometric calibration of OLCI is based on in-flight measurements, as was for MERIS, it then describes the methodology and tools to be used during Commissioning. Finally, as in-flight based radiometry implies the need for independent validation, it describes the corresponding methods and tools.

  2. Prelaunch absolute radiometric calibration of LANDSAT-4 protoflight Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Ball, D. L.; Leung, K. C.; Walker, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Results are summarized and analyzed from several prelaunch tests with a 122 cm integrating sphere used as part of the absolute radiometric calibration experiments for the protoflight TM sensor carried on the LANDSAT-4 satellite. The calibration procedure is presented and the radiometric sensitivity of the TM is assessed. The internal calibrator and dynamic range after calibration are considered. Tables show dynamic range after ground processing, spectral radiance to digital number and digital number to spectral radiance values for TM bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and for channel 4 of band 6.

  3. Research radiometric calibration quantitative transfer methods between internal and external

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ju Guang; Ma, Yong hui; Zhang, Guang; Yang, Zhi hui

    2015-10-01

    This paper puts forward a method by realizing the internal and external radiation calibration transfer for infrared radiation characteristics quantitative measuring system. Through technological innovation and innovation application to establish a theoretical model of the corresponding radiated transfer method. This method can be well in engineering application for technology conversion process of radiometric calibration that with relatively simple and effective calibration in the half light path radiation instead of complex difficult whole optical path radiometric calibration. At the same time, it also will provide the basis of effective support to further carry out the target radiated characteristics quantitative measurement and application for ground type infrared radiated quantitative measuring system.

  4. Space station automation study: Autonomous systems and assembly, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, K. Z.

    1984-01-01

    This final report, prepared by Martin Marietta Denver Aerospace, provides the technical results of their input to the Space Station Automation Study, the purpose of which is to develop informed technical guidance in the use of autonomous systems to implement space station functions, many of which can be programmed in advance and are well suited for automated systems.

  5. Technology modernization assessment flexible automation

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D.W.; Boyd, D.R.; Hansen, N.H.; Hansen, M.A.; Yount, J.A.

    1990-12-01

    The objectives of this report are: to present technology assessment guidelines to be considered in conjunction with defense regulations before an automation project is developed to give examples showing how assessment guidelines may be applied to a current project to present several potential areas where automation might be applied successfully in the depot system. Depots perform primarily repair and remanufacturing operations, with limited small batch manufacturing runs. While certain activities (such as Management Information Systems and warehousing) are directly applicable to either environment, the majority of applications will require combining existing and emerging technologies in different ways, with the special needs of depot remanufacturing environment. Industry generally enjoys the ability to make revisions to its product lines seasonally, followed by batch runs of thousands or more. Depot batch runs are in the tens, at best the hundreds, of parts with a potential for large variation in product mix; reconfiguration may be required on a week-to-week basis. This need for a higher degree of flexibility suggests a higher level of operator interaction, and, in turn, control systems that go beyond the state of the art for less flexible automation and industry in general. This report investigates the benefits and barriers to automation and concludes that, while significant benefits do exist for automation, depots must be prepared to carefully investigate the technical feasibility of each opportunity and the life-cycle costs associated with implementation. Implementation is suggested in two ways: (1) develop an implementation plan for automation technologies based on results of small demonstration automation projects; (2) use phased implementation for both these and later stage automation projects to allow major technical and administrative risk issues to be addressed. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs. (JF)

  6. Habitat automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swab, Rodney E.

    1992-01-01

    A habitat, on either the surface of the Moon or Mars, will be designed and built with the proven technologies of that day. These technologies will be mature and readily available to the habitat designer. We believe an acceleration of the normal pace of automation would allow a habitat to be safer and more easily maintained than would be the case otherwise. This document examines the operation of a habitat and describes elements of that operation which may benefit from an increased use of automation. Research topics within the automation realm are then defined and discussed with respect to the role they can have in the design of the habitat. Problems associated with the integration of advanced technologies into real-world projects at NASA are also addressed.

  7. Evaluation of an automated karyotyping system for chromosome aberration analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prichard, Howard M.

    1987-01-01

    Chromosome aberration analysis is a promising complement to conventional radiation dosimetry, particularly in the complex radiation fields encountered in the space environment. The capabilities of a recently developed automated karyotyping system were evaluated both to determine current capabilities and limitations and to suggest areas where future development should be emphasized. Cells exposed to radiometric chemicals and to photon and particulate radiation were evaluated by manual inspection and by automated karyotyping. It was demonstrated that the evaluated programs were appropriate for image digitization, storage, and transmission. However, automated and semi-automated scoring techniques must be advanced significantly if in-flight chromosome aberration analysis is to be practical. A degree of artificial intelligence may be necessary to realize this goal.

  8. Pleiades-Hr Innovative Techniques for Radiometric Image Quality Commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, G.; Lebeque, L.; Fourest, S.; Latry, C.; Porez-Nadal, F.; Lacherade, S.; Thiebaut, C.

    2012-07-01

    The first Pleiades-HR satellite, part of a constellation of two, has been launched on December 17, 2011. This satellite produces high resolution optical images. In order to achieve good image quality, Pleiades-HR should first undergo an important 6 month commissioning phase period. This phase consists in calibrating and assessing the radiometric and geometric image quality to offer the best images to end users. This new satellite has benefited from technology improvements in various fields which make it stand out from other Earth observation satellites. In particular, its best-in-class agility performance enables new calibration and assessment techniques. This paper is dedicated to presenting these innovative techniques that have been tested for the first time for the Pleiades- HR radiometric commissioning. Radiometric activities concern compression, absolute calibration, detector normalization, and refocusing operations, MTF (Modulation Transfer Function) assessment, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) estimation, and tuning of the ground processing parameters. The radiometric performances of each activity are summarized in this paper.

  9. Radiometric Calibration of Osmi Imagery Using Solar Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Han; Kim, Yong-Seung

    2000-12-01

    OSMI (Ocean Scanning Multi-Spectral Imager) raw image data (Level 0) were acquired and radiometrically corrected. We have applied two methods, using solar & dark calibration data from OSMI sensor and comparing with the SeaWiFS data, to the radiometric correction of OSMI raw image data. First, we could get the values of the gain and the offset for each pixel and each band from comparing the solar & dark calibration data with the solar input radiance values, calculated from the transmittance, BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) and the solar incidence angle (¥â,¥è) of OSMI sensor. Applying this calibration data to OSMI raw image data, we got the two odd results, the lower value of the radiometric corrected image data than the expected value, and the Venetian Blind Effect in the radiometric corrected image data. Second, we could get the reasonable results from comparing OSMI raw image data with the SeaWiFS data, and get a new problem of OSMI sensor.

  10. A preliminary study of a very large space radiometric antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, P. K.

    1979-01-01

    An approach used to compute the size of a special radiometric reflector antenna is presented. Operating at 1 GHz, this reflector is required to produce 200 simultaneous contiguous beams, each with a 3 dB footprint of 1 km from an assumed satellite height of 650 km. The overall beam efficiency for each beam is required to be more than 90%.

  11. Ground-based radiometric calibration of the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) using in situ techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, J.

    2013-12-01

    Landsat 8 was successfully launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California on 11 February 2013, and was placed into the orbit previously occupied by Landsat 5. Landsat 8 is the latest platform in the 40-year history of the Landsat series of satellites, and it contains two instruments that operate in the solar-reflective and the thermal infrared regimes. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is a pushbroom sensor that contains eight multispectral bands ranging from 400-2300 nm, and one panchromatic band. The spatial resolution of the multispectral bands is 30 m, which is similar to previous Landsat sensors, and the panchromatic band has a 15-m spatial resolution, which is also similar to previous Landsat sensors. The 12-bit radiometric resolution of OLI improves upon the 8-bit resolution of the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) onboard Landsat 7. An important requirement for the Landsat program is the long-term radiometric continuity of its sensors. Ground-based vicarious techniques have been used for over 20 years to determine the absolute radiometric calibration of sensors that encompass a wide variety of spectral and spatial characteristics. This work presents the early radiometric calibration results of Landsat 8 OLI that were obtained using the traditional reflectance-based approach. University of Arizona personnel used five sites in Arizona, California, and Nevada to collect ground-based data. In addition, a unique set of in situ data were collected in March 2013, when Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 were observing the same site within minutes of each other. The tandem overfly schedule occurred while Landsat 8 was shifting to the WRS-2 orbital grid, and lasted only a few days. The ground-based data also include results obtained using the University of Arizona's Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS), which is an automated suite of instruments located at Railroad Valley, Nevada. The results presented in this work include a comparison to the L1T at

  12. A Review of LIDAR Radiometric Processing: From Ad Hoc Intensity Correction to Rigorous Radiometric Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Kashani, Alireza G.; Olsen, Michael J.; Parrish, Christopher E.; Wilson, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    In addition to precise 3D coordinates, most light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems also record “intensity”, loosely defined as the strength of the backscattered echo for each measured point. To date, LIDAR intensity data have proven beneficial in a wide range of applications because they are related to surface parameters, such as reflectance. While numerous procedures have been introduced in the scientific literature, and even commercial software, to enhance the utility of intensity data through a variety of “normalization”, “correction”, or “calibration” techniques, the current situation is complicated by a lack of standardization, as well as confusing, inconsistent use of terminology. In this paper, we first provide an overview of basic principles of LIDAR intensity measurements and applications utilizing intensity information from terrestrial, airborne topographic, and airborne bathymetric LIDAR. Next, we review effective parameters on intensity measurements, basic theory, and current intensity processing methods. We define terminology adopted from the most commonly-used conventions based on a review of current literature. Finally, we identify topics in need of further research. Ultimately, the presented information helps lay the foundation for future standards and specifications for LIDAR radiometric calibration. PMID:26561813

  13. A Review of LIDAR Radiometric Processing: From Ad Hoc Intensity Correction to Rigorous Radiometric Calibration.

    PubMed

    Kashani, Alireza G; Olsen, Michael J; Parrish, Christopher E; Wilson, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    In addition to precise 3D coordinates, most light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems also record "intensity", loosely defined as the strength of the backscattered echo for each measured point. To date, LIDAR intensity data have proven beneficial in a wide range of applications because they are related to surface parameters, such as reflectance. While numerous procedures have been introduced in the scientific literature, and even commercial software, to enhance the utility of intensity data through a variety of "normalization", "correction", or "calibration" techniques, the current situation is complicated by a lack of standardization, as well as confusing, inconsistent use of terminology. In this paper, we first provide an overview of basic principles of LIDAR intensity measurements and applications utilizing intensity information from terrestrial, airborne topographic, and airborne bathymetric LIDAR. Next, we review effective parameters on intensity measurements, basic theory, and current intensity processing methods. We define terminology adopted from the most commonly-used conventions based on a review of current literature. Finally, we identify topics in need of further research. Ultimately, the presented information helps lay the foundation for future standards and specifications for LIDAR radiometric calibration. PMID:26561813

  14. The Importance of Post-Launch, On-Orbit Absolute Radiometric Calibration for Remote Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuester, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing is a powerful tool for monitoring changes on the surface of the Earth at a local or global scale. The use of data sets from different sensors across many platforms, or even a single sensor over time, can bring a wealth of information when exploring anthropogenic changes to the environment. For example, variations in crop yield and health for a specific region can be detected by observing changes in the spectral signature of the particular species under study. However, changes in the atmosphere, sun illumination and viewing geometries during image capture can result in inconsistent image data, hindering automated information extraction. Additionally, an incorrect spectral radiometric calibration will lead to false or misleading results. It is therefore critical that the data being used are normalized and calibrated on a regular basis to ensure that physically derived variables are as close to truth as is possible. Although most earth observing sensors are well-calibrated in a laboratory prior to launch, a change in the radiometric response of the system is inevitable due to thermal, mechanical or electrical effects caused during the rigors of launch or by the space environment itself. Outgassing and exposure to ultra-violet radiation will also have an effect on the sensor's filter responses. Pre-launch lamps and other laboratory calibration systems can also fall short in representing the actual output of the Sun. A presentation of the differences in the results of some example cases (e.g. geology, agriculture) derived for science variables using pre- and post-launch calibration will be presented using DigitalGlobe's WorldView-3 super spectral sensor, with bands in the visible and near infrared, as well as in the shortwave infrared. Important defects caused by an incomplete (i.e. pre-launch only) calibration will be discussed using validation data where available. In addition, the benefits of using a well-validated surface reflectance product will be

  15. Automating Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John

    2007-01-01

    In past years, higher education's financial management side has been riddled with manual processes and aging mainframe applications. This article discusses schools which had taken advantage of an array of technologies that automate billing, payment processing, and refund processing in the case of overpayment. The investments are well worth it:…

  16. Automated dispenser

    SciTech Connect

    Hollen, R.M.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1989-04-06

    An automated dispenser having a conventional pipette attached to an actuating cylinder through a flexible cable for delivering precise quantities of a liquid through commands from remotely located computer software. The travel of the flexible cable is controlled by adjustable stops and a locking shaft. The pipette can be positioned manually or by the hands of a robot. 1 fig.

  17. Radiometric Calibration of Earth-Observing Sensors Using the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, J.; Anderson, N. J.; Thome, K. J.; Biggar, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Remote Sensing Group (RSG) of the College of Optical Sciences at the University of Arizona uses the reflectance-based approach to perform the absolute radiometric calibration of such sensors as Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM+, Landsat 8 OLI, Terra and Aqua MODIS, ASTER, RapidEye, and others. The reflectance-based approach requires that personnel be present at a test site during the sensor overpass, so the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) was developed in order to capture data during every possible overpass, which assists in the temporal trending of the radiometric calibration of earth-observing sensors. The number of earth-observing sensors is rapidly increasing in recent years, and RadCaTS provides the ability to radiometrically calibrate them without the requirement of frequent field campaigns. The 2013 launch of Landsat 8 provides a unique opportunity for RadCaTS in that it is being used to supplement the in situ measurements by RSG ground personnel, and it will be used throughout the lifetime of the Landsat 8 mission. This allows more data to be collected throughout the year, and it also allows the accuracy and uncertainty of RadCaTS to be analyzed. The current top-of-atmosphere (TOA) spectral radiance uncertainty of the reflectance-based approach is ~2.6% in the mid-visible region of the spectrum, and current work indicates that the uncertainty of RadCaTS in TOA spectral radiance is ~3-4%. This work presents the radiometric calibration results of RadCaTS for a variety of sensors such as Landsat 7 ETM+, Landsat 8 OLI, Terra and Aqua MODIS, MISR, ASTER, and Suomi NPP VIIRS.

  18. Automated turbulences jitters correction with a dual ports imaging Fourier-transform spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prel, Florent; Lantagne, Stéphane; Moreau, Louis; Roy, Claude

    2015-05-01

    When the scene observed by an imaging Fourier-Transform Spectrometer is not stable in amplitude or in position during the time it takes to acquire to spectrum, spectro-radiometric artifacts are generated. These artifacts reduce the radiometric accuracy and may also damage the spectral line shape. The displacements of the scene in the field of view can be due to air turbulence, platform jitters or scene jitters. We describe an automated correction process based on the information provided by the second output port of a two-port imaging FTS. Corrected and uncorrected data will be compared.

  19. The 90 GHz radiometric imaging. [for terrain analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, H. E.; White, J. D.; Wilson, W. J.; Mori, T. T.; Hollinger, J. P.; Troy, B. E.; Kenney, J. E.; Mcgoogan, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    A 90-GHz (3 mm wavelength) radiometer with a noise output fluctuation of 0.22 K (RMS), with a scanning antenna beam mirror, and the data processing system are described. Real-time radiometric imaging of terrain and man-made objects are shown. Flying at an altitude of 1500 ft a radiometer antenna with a 2 degrees halfpower beamwidth can distinguish landforms, waterways, roads, runways, bridges, ships at sea and their wakes, aircraft on runways, and athletic fields. A flight taken at an altitude of 3000 ft with approximately 2000 ft of clouds below the radiometer demonstrates the ability to distinguish bridges, rivers, marshland and other landforms even though the clouds are optically opaque. The radiometric images of a few representative scenes along with photographs of the corresponding scenes are presented to demonstrate the resolution of the imager system.

  20. Radiometric and Spatial Characterization of High-Spatial Resolution Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; Zanoni, Vicki (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The development and improvement of commercial hyperspatial sensors in recent years has increased the breadth of information that can be retrieved from spaceborne and airborne imagery. NASA, through it's Scientific Data Purchases, has successfully provided such data sets to its user community. A key element to the usefulness of these data are an understanding of the radiometric and spatial response quality of the imagery. This proposal seeks funding to examine the absolute radiometric calibration of the Ikonos sensor operated by Space Imaging and the recently-launched Quickbird sensor from DigitalGlobe. In addition, we propose to evaluate the spatial response of the two sensors. The proposed methods rely on well-understood, ground-based targets that have been used by the University of Arizona for more than a decade.

  1. Radiometric calibration procedures for a wideband infrared scene projector (WISP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, David S.; Marlow, Steven A.; Bergin, Thomas P.; Kircher, James R.

    1999-07-01

    The Wideband Infrared Scene Projector (WISP) has been undergoing development for the Kinetic-Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator facility at Eglin AFB, Florida. In order to perform realistic tests of an infrared seeker, the radiometric output of the WISP system must produce the same response in the seeker as the real scene. In order to ensure this radiometric realism, calibration procedures must be established and followed. This paper describes calibration procedures that have been used in recent tests. The procedures require knowledge of the camera spectral response in the seeker under test. The camera is set up to operate over the desired range of observable radiances. The camera is then nonuniformity corrected (NUCed) and calibrated with an extended blackbody. The camera drift rates are characterized, and as necessary, the camera is reNUCed and recalibrated. The camera is then set up to observe the WISP system, and calibration measurements are made of the camera/WISP system.

  2. Development and calibration of UV/VUV radiometric sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    A program exists at NIST to calibrate radiometric sources for the spectral range from 118-350 nm. These include deuterium lamps, hollow-cathode lamps, RF-excited dimer lamps, and wall-stabilized argon arcs. Sources have been calibrated for and used by researchers in solar physics, astrophysics, atmospheric physics (ozone measurements), magnetically controlled fusion, and photobiology. The argon arcs were developed in our laboratory, and provide intense sources of both radiance and irradiance. Calibrations are performed relative to two primary sources, a wall-stabilized hydrogen arc and a 12,000 K black-body line arc, both developed in our laboratory. Also we recently have begun periodic calibrations on the NIST storage ring, SURF II, to insure consistency between our respective radiometric bases. Various sources have been calibrated for space' applications, including several which are flyable. Also, some development and testing of radiometers for semiconductor lithography were recently carried out with an intense argon arc source.

  3. Characterization of radiometric calibration of LANDSAT-4 TM reflective bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Abrams, R. B.; Ball, D. L.; Leung, K. C.

    1984-01-01

    Prelaunch and postlaunch internal calibrator, image, and background data is to characterize the radiometric performance of the LANDSAT-4 TM and to recommend improved procedures for radiometric calibration. All but two channels (band 2, channel 4; band 5, channel 3) behave normally. Gain changes relative to a postlaunch reference for channels within a band vary within 0.5 percent as a group. Instrument gain for channels in the cold focal plane oscillates. Noise in background and image data ranges from 0.5 to 1.7 counts. Average differences in forward and reverse image data indicate a need for separate calibration processing of forward and reverse scans. Precision is improved by increasing the pulse integration width from 31 to 41 minor frames, depending on the band.

  4. The OLI Radiometric Scale Realization Round Robin Measurement Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutlip, Hansford; Cole,Jerold; Johnson, B. Carol; Maxwell, Stephen; Markham, Brian; Ong, Lawrence; Hom, Milton; Biggar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    A round robin radiometric scale realization was performed at the Ball Aerospace Radiometric Calibration Laboratory in January/February 2011 in support of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) Program. Participants included Ball Aerospace, NIST, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and the University of Arizona. The eight day campaign included multiple observations of three integrating sphere sources by nine radiometers. The objective of the campaign was to validate the radiance calibration uncertainty ascribed to the integrating sphere used to calibrate the OLI instrument. The instrument level calibration source uncertainty was validated by quatnifying: (1) the long term stability of the NIST calibrated radiance artifact, (2) the responsivity scale of the Ball Aerospace transfer radiometer and (3) the operational characteristics of the large integrating sphere.

  5. Radiometric Compensation and Calibration for Radarsat ScanSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Michael Y.

    1993-01-01

    Due to lack of a standard for modeling the radar echo signal in terms of signal unit and coordinates as well as lack of a standard in designing the gain factors in each stage of a processor, absolute radiometric calibration of a SAR system is usually performed by treating the sensor and processor as one inseparable unit. This often makes the calibration procedure complicated and requiring the involvement of both radar system engineers and processor engineers in the whole process. This paper introduces a standard for modeling the radar echo signal and a standard in designing the gain factor of a ScanSAR processor. In this paper, the radar equation is derived based on the amount of energy instead of the power received from a backscatterer. These efforts lead to simple and easy-to-understand equations for radiometric compensation and calibration.

  6. Metrological support for climatic time series of satellite radiometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapritsky, Victor I.; Burdakin, Andrey A.; Khlevnoy, Boris B.; Morozova, Svetlana P.; Ogarev, Sergey A.; Panfilov, Alexander S.; Krutikov, Vladimir N.; Bingham, Gail E.; Humpherys, Thomas; Tansock, Joseph J.; Thurgood, Alan V.; Privalsky, Victor E.

    2009-02-01

    A necessary condition for accumulating fundamental climate data records is the use of observation instruments whose stability and accuracy are sufficiently high for climate monitoring purposes; the number of instruments and their distribution in space should be sufficient for measurements with no spatial or temporal gaps. The continuous acquirement of data over time intervals of several decades can only be possible under the condition of simultaneous application of instruments produced by different manufacturers and installed on different platforms belonging to one or several countries. The design of standard sources for pre-flight calibrations and in-flight monitoring of instruments has to meet the most stringent requirements for the accuracy of absolute radiometric measurements and stability of all instruments. This means that the radiometric scales should be stable, accurate, and uniform. Current technologies cannot ensure the high requirements for stability and compatibility of radiometric scales: 0.1% per decade within the 0.3 - 3 μm band and 0.01 K per decade within the 3 - 25 μm band. It is suggested that these tasks can be aided through the use of the pure metals or eutectic alloy phase transition phenomenon that always occur under the same temperature. Such devices can be used for pre-flight calibrations and for on-board monitoring of the stability of radiometric instruments. Results of previous studies of blackbody models based upon the phase transition phenomenon are quite promising. A study of the phase transition of some materials in small cells was conducted for future application in onboard monitoring devices and its results are positive and allow us to begin preparations for similar experiments in space.

  7. LANDSAT-4 multispectral scanner (MSS) subsystem radiometric characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, W. (Editor); Barker, J. (Editor); Clark, B. P.; Dasgupta, R.

    1983-01-01

    The multispectral band scanner (mass) and its spectral characteristics are described and methods are given for relating video digital levels on computer compatible tapes to radiance into the sensor. Topics covered include prelaunch calibration procedures and postlaunch radiometric processng. Examples of current data resident on the MSS image processing system are included. The MSS on LANDSAT 4 is compared with the scanners on earlier LANDSAT satellites.

  8. Changes in the Radiometric Sensitivity of SeaWiFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClain, Charles R.; Barnes, Robert A.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Patt, Frederick S.

    1998-01-01

    We report on the lunar and solar measurements used to determine the changes in the radiometric sensitivity of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). Radiometric sensitivity is defined as the output from the instrument (or from one of the instrument bands) per unit spectral radiance at the instrument's input aperture. Knowledge of the long-term repeatability of the SeaWiFS measurements is crucial to maintaining the quality of the ocean scenes derived from measurements by the instrument. For SeaWiFS bands 1 through 6 (412 nm through 670 rim), the change in radiometric sensitivity is less than 0.2% for the period from November 1997 through November 1998. For band 7 (765 nm), the change is about 1.5%, and for band 8 (865 nm) about 5%. The rates of change of bands 7 and 8, which were linear with time for the first eight months of lunar measurements, are now slowing. The scatter in the data points about the trend lines in this analysis is less than 0.3% for all eight SeaWiFS bands. These results are based on monthly measurements of the moon. Daily solar measurements using an onboard diffuser show that the radiometric sensitivities of the SeaWiFS bands have changed smoothly during the time intervals between lunar measurements. Since SeaWiFS measurements have continued past November 1998, the results presented here are considered as a snapshot of the instrument performance as of that date.

  9. Sentinel-2 radiometric image quality commissioning: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachérade, S.; Lonjou, V.; Farges, M.; Gamet, P.; Marcq, S.; Raynaud, J.-L.; Trémas, T.

    2015-10-01

    In partnership with the European Commission and in the frame of the Copernicus program, the European Space Agency (ESA) is developing the Sentinel-2 optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a satellites constellation deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit. Sentinel-2 offers a unique combination of global coverage with a wide field of view (290km), a high revisit (5 days with two satellites), a high spatial resolution (10m, 20m and 60m) and multi-spectral imagery (13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infrared domains). The first satellite, Sentinel-2A, has been launched in June 2015. The Sentinel-2A Commissioning Phase starts immediately after the Launch and Early Orbit Phase and continues until the In-Orbit Commissioning Review which is planned three months after the launch. The Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) supports ESA/ESTEC to insure the Calibration/Validation commissioning phase during the first three months in flight. This paper provides first an overview of the Sentinel-2 system and a description of the products delivered by the ground segment associated to the main radiometric specifications to achieve. Then the paper focuses on the preliminary radiometric results obtained during the in-flight commissioning phase. The radiometric methods and calibration sites used in the CNES image quality center to reach the specifications of the sensor are described. A status of the Sentinel-2A radiometric performances at the end of the first three months after the launch is presented. We will particularly address in this paper the results in term of absolute calibration, pixel to pixel relative sensitivity and MTF estimation.

  10. High speed radiometric measurements of IED detonation fireballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spidell, Matthew T.; Gordon, J. Motos; Pitz, Jeremey; Gross, Kevin C.; Perram, Glen P.

    2010-04-01

    Continuum emission is predominant in fireball spectral phenomena and in some demonstrated cases, fine detail in the temporal evolution of infrared spectral emissions can be used to estimate size and chemical composition of the device. Recent work indicates that a few narrow radiometric bands may reveal forensic information needed for the explosive discrimination and classification problem, representing an essential step in moving from "laboratory" measurements to a rugged, fieldable system. To explore phenomena not observable in previous experiments, a high speed (10μs resolution) radiometer with four channels spanning the infrared spectrum observed the detonation of nine home made explosive (HME) devices in the < 100lb class. Radiometric measurements indicate that the detonation fireball is well approximated as a single temperature blackbody at early time (0 < t <~ 3ms). The effective radius obtained from absolute intensity indicates fireball growth at supersonic velocity during this time. Peak fireball temperatures during this initial detonation range between 3000.3500K. The initial temperature decay with time (t <~ 10ms) can be described by a simple phenomenological model based on radiative cooling. After this rapid decay, temperature exhibits a small, steady increase with time (10 <~ t <~ 50ms) and peaking somewhere between 1000.1500K-likely the result of post-detonation combustion-before subsequent cooling back to ambient conditions . Radius derived from radiometric measurements can be described well (R2 > 0.98) using blast model functional forms, suggesting that energy release could be estimated from single-pixel radiometric detectors. Comparison of radiometer-derived fireball size with FLIR infrared imagery indicate the Planckian intensity size estimates are about a factor of two smaller than the physical extent of the fireball.

  11. BOREAS TE-18, 60-m, Radiometrically Rectified Landsat TM Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-18 team used a radiometric rectification process to produce standardized DN values for a series of Landsat TM images of the BOREAS SSA and NSA in order to compare images that were collected under different atmospheric conditions. The images for each study area were referenced to an image that had very clear atmospheric qualities. The reference image for the SSA was collected on 02-Sep-1994, while the reference image for the NSA was collected on 2 1 Jun-1995. The 23 rectified images cover the period of 07-Jul-1985 to 18-Sep-1994 in the SSA and 22-Jun-1984 to 09-Jun-1994 in the NSA. Each of the reference scenes had coincident atmospheric optical thickness measurements made by RSS-11. The radiometric rectification process is described in more detail by Hall et al. (1991). The original Landsat TM data were received from CCRS for use in the BOREAS project. Due to the nature of the radiometric rectification process and copyright issues, the full-resolution (30-m) images may not be publicly distributed. However, this spatially degraded 60-m resolution version of the images may be openly distributed and is available on the BOREAS CD-ROM series. After the radiometric rectification processing, the original data were degraded to a 60-m pixel size from the original 30-m pixel size by averaging the data over a 2- by 2-pixel window. The data are stored in binary image-format files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  12. Transmittance Measurement of a Heliostat Facility used in the Preflight Radiometric Calibration of Earth-Observing Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czapla-Myers, J.; Thome, K.; Anderson, N.; McCorkel, J.; Leisso, N.; Good, W.; Collins, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation in Boulder, Colorado, has developed a heliostat facility that will be used to determine the preflight radiometric calibration of Earth-observing sensors that operate in the solar-reflective regime. While automatically tracking the Sun, the heliostat directs the solar beam inside a thermal vacuum chamber, where the sensor under test resides. The main advantage to using the Sun as the illumination source for preflight radiometric calibration is because it will also be the source of illumination when the sensor is in flight. This minimizes errors in the pre- and post-launch calibration due to spectral mismatches. It also allows the instrument under test to operate at irradiance values similar to those on orbit. The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona measured the transmittance of the heliostat facility using three methods, the first of which is a relative measurement made using a hyperspectral portable spectroradiometer and well-calibrated reference panel. The second method is also a relative measurement, and uses a 12-channel automated solar radiometer. The final method is an absolute measurement using a hyperspectral spectroradiometer and reference panel combination, where the spectroradiometer is calibrated on site using a solar-radiation-based calibration.

  13. Airborne UV and visible spectrometer for DOAS and radiometric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petritoli, Andrea; Giovanelli, Giorgio; Bonafe, U.; Bortoli, Daniele; Kostadinov, Ivan; Ravegnani, Fabrizio

    1999-10-01

    A UV/Vis spectrometer (named GASCOD) for Differentiated Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) has been developed at ISAO Institute and deployed for ground based measurements of stratospheric trace gases for several years at mid-latitudes and the Antarctic region. An airborne version, called GASCOD/A has been installed on board a M55-Geophysica airplane, a stratospheric research platform, capable of flying at an altitude of up to 20 Km. After a test campaign in Italy, the GASCOD/A performed successfully during the Airborne Polar Experiment in the winter 95/96. More recently, the instrument was upgraded to achieve higher sensitivity and reliability. Two additional radiometric channels were added. The input optics can turn in order to collect solar radiation from five different channels: one for detection of the zenith scattered radiation through the roof window (for DOAS measurement), two for direct and diffused radiation through two lateral windows and two for radiometric measurements through two 2(pi) optical heads mounted on the upper and bottom part of the aircraft and linked to the instrument by means of optical guides. The radiometric channels give us the possibility of calculating the photodissociation rate coefficients (J-values) of photochemical reactions involving ozone and nitrogen dioxides. The mechanical and optical layout of the instrument are presented and discussed, as well as laboratory tests and preliminary results obtained during flights onboard the M55- Geophysica.

  14. A Preliminary Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Radiometric Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, C.; Fusco, L.; Mehl, W.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA raw (BT) product, the radiometrically corrected (AT) product, and the radiometrically and geometrically corrected (PT) product of a TM scene were analyzed examine the frequency distribution of the digital data; the statistical correlation between the bands; and the variability between the detectors within a band. The analyses were performed on a series of image subsets from the full scence. Results are presented from one 1024 c 1024 pixel subset of Realfoot Lake, Tennessee which displayed a representative range of ground conditions and cover types occurring within the full frame image. From this cursory examination of one of the first seven channel TM data sets, it would appear that the radiometric performance of the system is most satisfactory and largely meets pre-launch specifications. Problems were noted with Band 5 Detector 3 and Band 2 Detector 4. Differences were observed between forward and reverse scan detector responses both for the BT and AT products. No systematic variations were observed between odd and even detectors.

  15. Preliminary radiometric calibration assessment of ALOS AVNIR-2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouvet, M.; Goryl, P.; Chander, G.; Santer, R.; Saunier, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities carried out in the frame of the data quality activities of the Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2) sensor onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS). Assessment of the radiometric calibration of the AVNIR-2 multi-spectral imager is achieved via three intercomparisons to currently flying sensors over the Libyan desert, during the first year of operation. AU three methodologies indicate a slight underestimation of AVNIR-2 in band 1 by 4 to 7% with respect to other sensors radiometric scale. Band 2 does not show any obvious bias. Results for band 3 are affected by saturation due to inappropriate gain setting. Two methodologies indicate no significant bias in band 4. Preliminary results indicate possible degradations of the AVNIR-2 channels, which, when modeled as an exponentially decreasing functions, have time constants of respectively 13.2 %.year-1, 8.8%.year-1 and 0.1%.year-1 in band 1, 2 and 4 (with respect to the radiometric scale of the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, MERIS). Longer time series of AVNIR-2 data are needed to draw final conclusions. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  16. Laboratory-Based BRDF Calibration of Radiometric Tarps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Butler, James J.

    2007-01-01

    The current study provides the remote sensing community with important high accuracy laboratory-based BRDF calibration of radiometric tarps. The results illustrate the dependence of tarps' weft and warp threads orientation on BRDF. The study was done at incident angles of 0deg, 10deg, and 30deg; scatter zenith angles from 0deg to 60deg, and scatter azimuth angles of 0deg, 45deg, 90deg, 135deg, and 180deg. The wavelengths were 485nm, 550nm, 633nm and 800nm. The dependence is well defined at all measurement geometries and wavelengths. It can be as high as 8% at 0deg incident angle and 2% at 30deg incident angle. The fitted BRDF data show a very small discrepancy from the measured ones. New data on the forward and backscatter properties of radiometric tarps is reported. The backward scatter is well pronounced for the white samples. The black sample has well pronounced forward scatter. The BRDF characterization of radiometric tarps can be successfully extended to other structured surface fabric samples. The results are NIST traceable.

  17. Results of magnetic HGI and radiometric surveys in W. Canada

    SciTech Connect

    LeSchack, L.A.

    1997-05-19

    This article presents four case histories in which ground-based magnetic horizontal gradient intensity (HGI) and radiometric surveys were used in Western Canada for cost-effective geochemical exploration for hydrocarbons. The authors has developed these two surface exploration techniques from published studies and adapted them for use on the prairies the past 7 years. These surveys are used in conjunction with the usual geologic and seismic studies for: (1) evaluating prospects and land; (2) verifying seismic anomalies and inexpensively locating areas for conducting expensive 3D seismic surveys. Occasionally, as in two of the case histories discussed, these surveys were used successfully as stand-alone exploration methods where seismic exploration is not effective. The HGI and radiometric surveys measure, by geophysical methods, those effects associated with geochemical alterations due to vertical microseepage of hydrocarbons. The total cost, including permitting, data acquisition, data processing, and interpretation of the combination HGI and radiometric surveys is about 15% the total cost of a 3D seismic survey. Because of this, the author finds them an attractive and rapid survey adjunct to traditional exploration. They substantially reduce finding costs and significantly raise the probability of financial success.

  18. Fully automated urban traffic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrotin, B. M.; Hansen, G. R.; Peng, T. K. C.; Rennels, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    The replacement of the driver with an automatic system which could perform the functions of guiding and routing a vehicle with a human's capability of responding to changing traffic demands was discussed. The problem was divided into four technological areas; guidance, routing, computing, and communications. It was determined that the latter three areas being developed independent of any need for fully automated urban traffic. A guidance system that would meet system requirements was not being developed but was technically feasible.

  19. Radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment of ALOS AVNIR-2 and PRISM sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saunier, S.; Goryl, P.; Chander, G.; Santer, R.; Bouvet, M.; Collet, B.; Mambimba, A.; Kocaman, Aksakal S.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was launched on January 24, 2006, by a Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) H-IIA launcher. It carries three remote-sensing sensors: 1) the Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2); 2) the Panchromatic Remote-Sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM); and 3) the Phased-Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR). Within the framework of ALOS Data European Node, as part of the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Space Research Institute worked alongside JAXA to provide contributions to the ALOS commissioning phase plan. This paper summarizes the strategy that was adopted by ESA to define and implement a data verification plan for missions operated by external agencies; these missions are classified by the ESA as third-party missions. The ESA was supported in the design and execution of this plan by GAEL Consultant. The verification of ALOS optical data from PRISM and AVNIR-2 sensors was initiated 4 months after satellite launch, and a team of principal investigators assembled to provide technical expertise. This paper includes a description of the verification plan and summarizes the methodologies that were used for radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment. The successful completion of the commissioning phase has led to the sensors being declared fit for operations. The consolidated measurements indicate that the radiometric calibration of the AVNIR-2 sensor is stable and agrees with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus and the Envisat MEdium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer calibration. The geometrical accuracy of PRISM and AVNIR-2 products improved significantly and remains under control. The PRISM modulation transfer function is monitored for improved characterization. ?? 2006 IEEE.

  20. Automated lithocell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englisch, Andreas; Deuter, Armin

    1990-06-01

    Integration and automation have gained more and more ground in modern IC-manufacturing. It is difficult to make a direct calculation of the profit these investments yield. On the other hand, the demands to man, machine and technology have increased enormously of late; it is not difficult to see that only by means of integration and automation can these demands be coped with. Here are some salient points: U the complexity and costs incurred by the equipment and processes have got significantly higher . owing to the reduction of all dimensions, the tolerances within which the various process steps have to be carried out have got smaller and smaller and the adherence to these tolerances more and more difficult U the cycle time has become more and more important both for the development and control of new processes and, to a great extent, for a rapid and reliable supply to the customer. In order that the products be competitive under these conditions, all sort of costs have to be reduced and the yield has to be maximized. Therefore, the computer-aided control of the equipment and the process combined with an automatic data collection and a real-time SPC (statistical process control) has become absolutely necessary for successful IC-manufacturing. Human errors must be eliminated from the execution of the various process steps by automation. The work time set free in this way makes it possible for the human creativity to be employed on a larger scale in stabilizing the processes. Besides, a computer-aided equipment control can ensure the optimal utilization of the equipment round the clock.

  1. Critical comparison of radiometric and mass spectrometric methods for the determination of radionuclides in environmental, biological and nuclear waste samples.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2008-02-11

    The radiometric methods, alpha (alpha)-, beta (beta)-, gamma (gamma)-spectrometry, and mass spectrometric methods, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, accelerator mass spectrometry, thermal ionization mass spectrometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and glow discharge mass spectrometry are reviewed for the determination of radionuclides. These methods are critically compared for the determination of long-lived radionuclides important for radiation protection, decommissioning of nuclear facilities, repository of nuclear waste, tracer application in the environmental and biological researches, these radionuclides include (3)H, (14)C, (36)Cl, (41)Ca, (59,63)Ni, (89,90)Sr, (99)Tc, (129)I, (135,137)Cs, (210)Pb, (226,228)Ra, (237)Np, (241)Am, and isotopes of thorium, uranium and plutonium. The application of on-line methods (flow injection/sequential injection) for separation of radionuclides and automated determination of radionuclides is also discussed. PMID:18215644

  2. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4: automated array assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Hagerty, J.J.

    1980-06-30

    The scope of work under this contract involves specifying a process sequence which can be used in conjunction with automated equipment for the mass production of solar cell modules for terrestrial use. This process sequence is then critically analyzed from a technical and economic standpoint to determine the technological readiness of each process step for implementation. The process steps are ranked according to the degree of development effort required and according to their significance to the overall process. Under this contract the steps receiving analysis were: back contact metallization, automated cell array layup/interconnect, and module edge sealing. For automated layup/interconnect both hard automation and programmable automation (using an industrial robot) were studied. The programmable automation system was then selected for actual hardware development. Economic analysis using the SAMICS system has been performed during these studies to assure that development efforts have been directed towards the ultimate goal of price reduction. Details are given. (WHK)

  3. Atmospheric measurement analysis for the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    The Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) was developed by the University of Arizona in the early 2000s to collect ground-based data in support of the calibration and validation of Earth-observing sensors. It uses the reflectance-based approach, which requires measurements of the atmosphere and surface reflectance. The measurements are used in MODTRAN to determine the at-sensor radiance for a given time and date. In the traditional reflectance-based approach, on-site personnel use an automated solar radiometer (ASR) to measure the atmospheric attenuation, but in the case of RadCaTS, an AERONET Cimel sun photometer is used to make atmospheric measurements. This work presents a comparison between the Cimel-derived atmospheric characteristics such as aerosol optical depth, the Angstrom exponent, and the columnar water vapor, to those derived using a traditional solar radiometer. The top-of-atmosphere radiance derived using the Cimel and ASR measurements are compared using Landsat 8 OLI bands as a test case for the period 2012-2014 to determine if any biases exist between the two methodologies.

  4. High-throughput radiometric CYP2C19 inhibition assay using tritiated (S)-mephenytoin.

    PubMed

    Di Marco, Annalise; Cellucci, Antonella; Chaudhary, Ashok; Fonsi, Massimiliano; Laufer, Ralph

    2007-10-01

    A rapid and sensitive radiometric assay for assessing the potential of drugs to inhibit cytochrome P450 (P450) 2C19 in human liver microsomes is described. The new assay, which does not require high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation or mass spectrometric detection, is based on the release of tritium as tritiated water that occurs upon CYP2C19-mediated 4'-hydroxylation of (S)-mephenytoin labeled with tritium in the 4' position. Because this reaction is subject to an NIH shift, tritium was also introduced into the 3'- and 5'-positions of the tracer to enhance formation of a tritiated water product. Tritiated water was separated from the substrate using 96-well solid-phase extraction plates. The reaction is NADPH-dependent and sensitive to CYP2C19 inhibitors. IC(50) values for 15 diverse drugs differed less than 2.5-fold from those determined by quantification of the unlabeled 4'-hydroxy-(S)-mephenytoin product, using HPLC coupled to mass spectrometric detection. All of the steps of the new assay, namely incubation, product separation, and radioactivity counting, are performed in a 96-well format and can be automated. This assay represents a non-HPLC, high-throughput version of the classic (S)-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation assay, which is the most widely used method to assess the potential for CYP2C19 inhibition of new chemical entities. PMID:17600081

  5. Advanced automation for space missions: Technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Several representative missions which would require extensive applications of machine intelligence were identified and analyzed. The technologies which must be developed to accomplish these types of missions are discussed. These technologies include man-machine communication, space manufacturing, teleoperators, and robot systems.

  6. Aviation Safety/Automation Program Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Aviation Safety/Automation Program Conference - 1989 was sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center on 11 to 12 October 1989. The conference, held at the Sheraton Beach Inn and Conference Center, Virginia Beach, Virginia, was chaired by Samuel A. Morello. The primary objective of the conference was to ensure effective communication and technology transfer by providing a forum for technical interchange of current operational problems and program results to date. The Aviation Safety/Automation Program has as its primary goal to improve the safety of the national airspace system through the development and integration of human-centered automation technologies for aircraft crews and air traffic controllers.

  7. Radiometric packaging of uncooled microbolometer FPA arrays for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Blanco, S.; Cote, P.; Leclerc, M.; Blanchard, N.; Desroches, Y.; Caron, J.-S.; Ngo Phong, L.; Chateauneuf, F.; Pope, T.

    2009-02-01

    INO has extensive experience in the design and fabrication of focal plane arrays (FPAs) of uncooled microbolometers. In particular, the FPA of 512×3 microbolometers, developed in collaboration with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), has been selected for use in the NIRST (New Infrared Sensor Technology) radiometer of the SAC-D Aquarius mission. The FPA has been designed for pushbroom scanning of the Earth to provide radiometric data in the mid- and long-wave infrared for the monitoring of fires as well as thermal mapping of ocean temperature. Uncooled microbolometer detectors are suited for space applications due to their low power consumption while still exhibiting adequate performance. Furthermore, the spectral range of their response could be tuned from the mid- to the far-infrared to meet different mission requirements. In order to ensure that the detector receives only the thermal contribution from the desired target and to minimize radiometric error due to variation of the temperature of the surrounding during the measurements, a radiometric package is required. In a radiometric package the detector environment is thermally stabilized by means of a temperature controlled radiation shield. The radiation shield should also be designed to prevent stray radiation from reaching the detector. Under the Space Technology Development Program of the CSA, INO has designed, assembled and tested a radiometric package in order to characterize its performance and compatibility with the space environment. The operating spectral band is defined by the spectral characteristics of a bandpass filter placed in front of the FPA. For typical space missions, the package must pass standard environmental tests without degradation of its performance (thermal cycling from -55 to +85 °C according to MIL-STD-810, random acceleration up to 14 G RMS from 20-2000 Hz and shock up to 75 G). In order to ensure reliability in those conditions while maintaining optimum performance, an adequate

  8. Radiometric calibration of the Landsat MSS sensor series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helder, Dennis L.; Karki, Sadhana; Bhatt, Rajendra; Micijevik, Esad; Aaron, David; Jasinski, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Multispectral remote sensing of the Earth using Landsat sensors was ushered on July 23, 1972, with the launch of Landsat-1. Following that success, four more Landsat satellites were launched, and each of these carried the Multispectral Scanner System (MSS). These five sensors provided the only consistent multispectral space-based imagery of the Earth's surface from 1972 to 1982. This work focuses on developing both a consistent and absolute radiometric calibration of this sensor system. Cross-calibration of the MSS was performed through the use of pseudoinvariant calibration sites (PICSs). Since these sites have been shown to be stable for long periods of time, changes in MSS observations of these sites were attributed to changes in the sensors themselves. In addition, simultaneous data collections were available for some MSS sensor pairs, and these were also used for cross-calibration. Results indicated substantial differences existed between instruments, up to 16%, and these were reduced to 5% or less across all MSS sensors and bands. Lastly, this paper takes the calibration through the final step and places the MSS sensors on an absolute radiometric scale. The methodology used to achieve this was based on simultaneous data collections by the Landsat-5 MSS and Thematic Mapper (TM) instruments. Through analysis of image data from a PICS location and through compensating for the spectral differences between the two instruments, the Landsat-5 MSS sensor was placed on an absolute radiometric scale based on the Landsat-5 TM sensor. Uncertainties associated with this calibration are considered to be less than 5%.

  9. Site characterization for calibration of radiometric sensors using vicarious method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parihar, Shailesh; Rathore, L. S.; Mohapatra, M.; Sharma, A. K.; Mitra, A. K.; Bhatla, R.; Singh, R. S.; Desai, Yogdeep; Srivastava, Shailendra S.

    2016-05-01

    Radiometric performances of earth observation satellite/sensors vary from ground pre-launch calibration campaign to post launch period extended to lifetime of the satellite due to launching vibrations. Therefore calibration is carried out worldwide through various methods throughout satellite lifetime. In India Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) calibrates the sensor of Resourcesat-2 satellite by vicarious method. One of these vicarious calibration methods is the reflectance-based approach that is applied in this study for radiometric calibration of sensors on-board Resouresat-2 satellite. The results of ground-based measurement of atmospheric conditions and surface reflectance are made at Bap, Rajasthan Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val) site. Cal/Val observations at site were carried out with hyper-spectral Spectroradiometer covering spectral range of 350nm- 2500nm for radiometric characterization of the site. The Sunphotometer/Ozonometer for measuring the atmospheric parameters has also been used. The calibrated radiance is converted to absolute at-sensor spectral reflectance and Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) radiance. TOA radiance was computed using radiative transfer model `Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum' (6S), which can accurately simulate the problems introduced by the presence of the atmosphere along the path from Sun to target (surface) to Sensor. The methodology for band averaged reflectance retrieval and spectral reflectance fitting process are described. Then the spectral reflectance and atmospheric parameters are put into 6S code to predict TOA radiance which compare with Resourcesat-2 radiance. Spectral signature and its reflectance ratio indicate the uniformity of the site. Thus the study proves that the selected site is suitable for vicarious calibration of sensor of Resourcesat-2. Further the study demonstrates the procedure for similar exercise for site selection for Cal/Val analysis of other satellite over India

  10. BOREAS TE-18, 30-m, Radiometrically Rectified Landsat TM Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-18 team used a radiometric rectification process to produce standardized DN values for a series of Landsat TM images of the BOREAS SSA and NSA in order to compare images that were collected under different atmospheric conditions. The images for each study area were referenced to an image that had very clear atmospheric qualities. The reference image for the SSA was collected on 02-Sep-1994, while the reference image for the NSA was collected on 21-Jun-1995. the 23 rectified images cover the period of 07-Jul-1985 to 18 Sep-1994 in the SSA and from 22-Jun-1984 to 09-Jun-1994 in the NSA. Each of the reference scenes had coincident atmospheric optical thickness measurements made by RSS-11. The radiometric rectification process is described in more detail by Hall et al. (199 1). The original Landsat TM data were received from CCRS for use in the BOREAS project. The data are stored in binary image-format files. Due to the nature of the radiometric rectification process and copyright issues, these full-resolution images may not be publicly distributed. However, a spatially degraded 60-m resolution version of the images is available on the BOREAS CD-ROM series. See Sections 15 and 16 for information about how to possibly acquire the full resolution data. Information about the full-resolution images is provided in an inventory listing on the CD-ROMs. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  11. Radiometric calibration of digital cameras using Gaussian processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schall, Martin; Grunwald, Michael; Umlauf, Georg; Franz, Matthias O.

    2015-05-01

    Digital cameras are subject to physical, electronic and optic effects that result in errors and noise in the image. These effects include for example a temperature dependent dark current, read noise, optical vignetting or different sensitivities of individual pixels. The task of a radiometric calibration is to reduce these errors in the image and thus improve the quality of the overall application. In this work we present an algorithm for radiometric calibration based on Gaussian processes. Gaussian processes are a regression method widely used in machine learning that is particularly useful in our context. Then Gaussian process regression is used to learn a temperature and exposure time dependent mapping from observed gray-scale values to true light intensities for each pixel. Regression models based on the characteristics of single pixels suffer from excessively high runtime and thus are unsuitable for many practical applications. In contrast, a single regression model for an entire image with high spatial resolution leads to a low quality radiometric calibration, which also limits its practical use. The proposed algorithm is predicated on a partitioning of the pixels such that each pixel partition can be represented by one single regression model without quality loss. Partitioning is done by extracting features from the characteristic of each pixel and using them for lexicographic sorting. Splitting the sorted data into partitions with equal size yields the final partitions, each of which is represented by the partition centers. An individual Gaussian process regression and model selection is done for each partition. Calibration is performed by interpolating the gray-scale value of each pixel with the regression model of the respective partition. The experimental comparison of the proposed approach to classical flat field calibration shows a consistently higher reconstruction quality for the same overall number of calibration frames.

  12. Cropland measurement using Thematic Mapper data and radiometric model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, John G.; Khuwaiter, I. H. S.

    1989-01-01

    To halt erosion and desertification, it is necessary to quantify resources that are affected. Necessary information includes inventory of croplands and desert areas as they change over time. Several studies indicate the value of remote sensor data as input to inventories. In this study, the radiometric modeling of spectral characteristics of soil and vegetation provides the theoretical basis for the remote sensing approach. Use of Landsat Thematic Mapper images allows measurement of croplands in Saudi Arabia, demonstrating the capability of the approach. The inventory techniques and remote sensing approach presented are potentially useful in developing countries.

  13. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

    1983-01-01

    The TM multispectral scanner system was calibrated in an absolute manner before launch. To determine the temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire system, spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM collections over White Sands, New Mexico. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels of the in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined. Tables show values for the reflectance of snow at White Sands measured by a modular 8 channel radiometer, and values for exoatmospheric irradiance within the TM passbands, calculated for the Earth-Sun distance using a solar radiometer.

  14. Radiometric calibration to consider in quantitative clinical fluorescence imaging measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litorja, M.; Urbas, A.; Zong, Y.

    2015-03-01

    The fluorescent light detected by a clinical imager is assumed to be proportional only to the amount of fluorescent substance present in the sample and the level of excitation. Unfortunately, there are many factors that can add or subtract to the light signal directly attributable to the desired fluorescence emission, especially with fluorescence from inside the body imaged remotely. The quantification of fluorescence emission is feasible by calibrating the imager using international system of units (SI)-traceable physical and material calibration artifacts such that the detector's digital numbers (DN) can be converted to radiometric units. Here we discuss three calibration methods for quantitative clinical fluorescence imaging systems.

  15. Spectrally and Radiometrically Stable, Wideband, Onboard Calibration Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, James B.; Richardson, Brandon S.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Sarture, Charles M.; Quetin, Gregory R.; Porter, Michael D.; Green, Robert O.; Nolte, Scott H.; Hernandez, Marco A.; Knoll, Linley A.

    2013-01-01

    The Onboard Calibration (OBC) source incorporates a medical/scientific-grade halogen source with a precisely designed fiber coupling system, and a fiber-based intensity-monitoring feedback loop that results in radiometric and spectral stabilities to within less than 0.3 percent over a 15-hour period. The airborne imaging spectrometer systems developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory incorporate OBC sources to provide auxiliary in-use system calibration data. The use of the OBC source will provide a significant increase in the quantitative accuracy, reliability, and resulting utility of the spectral data collected from current and future imaging spectrometer instruments.

  16. A radiometric interpretive legend for Landsat digital thematic maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, Charles J.

    1977-01-01

    A legend is suggested for use with computer-generated thematic maps made from Landsat digital data that designates some of the radiometric characteristics of each thematic map unit as well as the described terrain attributes of each map unit. The relationship between spectral band and radiance for each map unit is shown by a two-dimensional polygon with the four Landsat multispectral scanner bands plotted on the ordinate and radiance levels on the abscissa. The resulting shape is colored to correspond with the map unit color, thus facilitating the recognition and understanding of the computer-generated map units.

  17. Radiometric calibration of Landsat Thematic Mapper multispectral images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chavez, P.S., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A main problem encountered in radiometric calibration of satellite image data is correcting for atmospheric effects. Without this correction, an image digital number (DN) cannot be converted to a surface reflectance value. In this paper the accuracy of a calibration procedure, which includes a correction for atmospheric scattering, is tested. Two simple methods, a stand-alone and an in situ sky radiance measurement technique, were used to derive the HAZE DN values for each of the six reflectance Thematic Mapper (TM) bands. The DNs of two Landsat TM images of Phoenix, Arizona were converted to surface reflectances. -from Author

  18. Calibration method for radiometric and wavelength calibration of a spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granger, Edward M.

    1998-12-01

    A new calibration target or Certified Reference Material (CRM) has been designed that uses violet, orange, green and cyan dyes ont cotton paper. This paper type was chosen because it has a relatively flat spectral response from 400 nm to 700 nm and good keeping properties. These specific dyes were chosen because the difference signal between the orange, cyan, green and purple dyes have certain characteristics that then a low the calibration of an instrument. The ratio between the difference readings is a direct function of the center wavelength of a given spectral band. Therefore, the radiometric and spectral calibration can be determined simultaneously from the physical properties of the reference materials.

  19. Earth Observing-1 Advanced Land Imager: Radiometric Response Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, J. A.; Lencioni, D. E.; Evans, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) is one of three instruments to be flown on the first Earth Observing mission (EO-1) under NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). ALI contains a number of innovative features, including a wide field of view optical design, compact multispectral focal plane arrays, non-cryogenic HgCdTe detectors for the short wave infrared bands, and silicon carbide optics. This document outlines the techniques adopted during ground calibration of the radiometric response of the Advanced Land Imager. Results from system level measurements of the instrument response, signal-to-noise ratio, saturation radiance, and dynamic range for all detectors of every spectral band are also presented.

  20. Radiometric method for the rapid detection of Leptospira organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Manca, N.; Verardi, R.; Colombrita, D.; Ravizzola, G.; Savoldi, E.; Turano, A.

    1986-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive radiometric method for detection of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona and Leptospira interrogans serovar copenhageni is described. Stuart's medium and Middlebrook TB (12A) medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin, catalase, and casein hydrolysate and labeled with /sup 14/C-fatty acids were used. The radioactivity was measured in a BACTEC 460. With this system, Leptospira organisms were detected in human blood in 2 to 5 days, a notably shorter time period than that required for the majority of detection techniques.

  1. A review of some radiometric calibration problems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1984-01-01

    The in-flight radiometric calibration instrumentation and procedures of the Landsat Thematic Mapper and the high-resolution visible-range instruments of SPOT are illustrated with drawings and diagrams, characterized, and compared. Problems encountered in the laboratory calibration process, minimizing the temporal instability of the systems, identifying anomalies in the electronics in flight, and rechecking the calibration are examined, and it is pointed out that the stability of the calibration systems is less than that of the instruments themselves. The use of carefully measured ground-site data and atmospheric parameters in combination with radiative-transfer models for periodic calibration is recommended.

  2. Regression models for vegetation radar-backscattering and radiometric emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eom, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    Simple regression estimation of radar backscatter and radiometric emission from vegetative terrain is proposed, based on the exact radiative transfer models. A vegetative canopy is modeled as a Rayleigh scattering layer above an irregular Kirchhoff surface. The rms errors between the exact and the estimated ones are found to be less than 5 percent for emission, and 1 dB for the backscattering case, in most practical uses. The proposed formulas are useful in quickly estimating backscattering and emission from the vegetative terrain.

  3. AUTOMATION OF EXPERIMENTS WITH A HAND-HELD PROGRAMMABLE CALCULATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technological developments have dramatically reduced the cost of data collection, experimental control and computation. Products are now available which allow automation of experiments both in the laboratory and in the field at substantially lower cost and with less technical exp...

  4. Making SAR Data Accessible - ASF's ALOS PALSAR Radiometric Terrain Correction Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, F. J.; Arko, S. A.; Gens, R.

    2015-12-01

    While SAR data have proven valuable for a wide range of geophysical research questions, so far, largely only the SAR-educated science communities have been able to fully exploit the information content of internationally available SAR archives. The main issues that have been preventing a more widespread utilization of SAR are related to (1) the diversity and complexity of SAR data formats, (2) the complexity of the processing flows needed to extract geophysical information from SAR, (3) the lack of standardization and automation of these processing flows, and (4) the often ignored geocoding procedures, leaving the data in image coordinate space. In order to improve upon this situation, ASF's radiometric terrain-correction (RTC) project is generating uniformly formatted and easily accessible value-added products from the ASF Distributed Active Archive Center's (DAAC) five-year archive of JAXA's ALOS PALSAR sensor. Specifically, the project applies geometric and radiometric corrections to SAR data to allow for an easy and direct combination of obliquely acquired SAR data with remote sensing imagery acquired in nadir observation geometries. Finally, the value-added data is provided to the user in the broadly accepted Geotiff format, in order to support the easy integration of SAR data into GIS environments. The goal of ASF's RTC project is to make SAR data more accessible and more attractive to the broader SAR applications community, especially to those users that currently have limited SAR expertise. Production of RTC products commenced October 2014 and will conclude late in 2015. As of July 2015, processing of 71% of ASF's ALOS PALSAR archive was completed. Adding to the utility of this dataset are recent changes to the data access policy that allow the full-resolution RTC products to be provided to the public, without restriction. In this paper we will introduce the processing flow that was developed for the RTC project and summarize the calibration and validation

  5. Automated characterization of Z-technology sensor modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilcrest, Andrew S.

    1991-11-01

    Detailed radiometric characterization data must be reviewed at the module level (2048 IR detectors) prior to integrating the hardware into higher level assemblies. Software has been developed that highly automates the process of reducing test data for noise, responsivity, uniformity, output offset, saturation, linearity, filter pole location, and crosstalk. Output consists of both text and graphics at different levels of detail in order to accommodate the needs of engineering, test, manufacturing, quality assurance, and program management. All the results are placed on a LAN so that the necessary reviews can occur in essentially a paperless environment.

  6. Both Automation and Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Royal

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the concept of a paperless society and the current situation in library automation. Various applications of automation and telecommunications are addressed, and future library automation is considered. Automation at the Monroe County Public Library in Bloomington, Indiana, is described as an example. (MES)

  7. Radiometric and Geometric Accuracy Analysis of Rasat Pan Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocaman, S.; Yalcin, I.; Guler, M.

    2016-06-01

    RASAT is the second Turkish Earth Observation satellite which was launched in 2011. It operates with pushbroom principle and acquires panchromatic and MS images with 7.5 m and 15 m resolutions, respectively. The swath width of the sensor is 30 km. The main aim of this study is to analyse the radiometric and geometric quality of RASAT images. A systematic validation approach for the RASAT imagery and its products is being applied. RASAT image pair acquired over Kesan city in Edirne province of Turkey are used for the investigations. The raw RASAT data (L0) are processed by Turkish Space Agency (TUBITAK-UZAY) to produce higher level image products. The image products include radiometrically processed (L1), georeferenced (L2) and orthorectified (L3) data, as well as pansharpened images. The image quality assessments include visual inspections, noise, MTF and histogram analyses. The geometric accuracy assessment results are only preliminary and the assessment is performed using the raw images. The geometric accuracy potential is investigated using 3D ground control points extracted from road intersections, which were measured manually in stereo from aerial images with 20 cm resolution and accuracy. The initial results of the study, which were performed using one RASAT panchromatic image pair, are presented in this paper.

  8. A Preliminary Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Radiometric Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, C.; Fusco, L.; Mehl, W.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis was performed to characterize the radiometry of three Thematic Mapper (TM) digital products of a scene of Arkansas. The three digital products examined were the NASA raw (BT) product, the radiometrically corrected (AT) product and the radiometrically and geometrically corrected (PT) product. The frequency distribution of the digital data; the statistical correlation between the bands; and the variability between the detectors within a band were examined on a series of image subsets from the full scene. The results are presented from one 1024 x 1024 pixel subset of Realfoot Lake, Tennessee which displayed a representative range of ground conditions and cover types occurring within the full frame image. Bands 1, 2 and 5 of the sample area are presented. The subsets were extracted from the three digital data products to cover the same geographic area. This analysis provides the first step towards a full appraisal of the TM radiometry being performed as part of the ESA/CEC contribution to the NASA/LIDQA program.

  9. Microwave radiometric signatures of temperature anomalies in tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Patrick; Sobers, Tamara; St. Peter, Benjamin; Siqueira, Paul; Capraro, Geoffrey

    2012-03-01

    Because of its ability to measure the temperature-dependent power of electromagnetic radiation emitted from tissue down to several centimeters beneath the skin, microwave radiometry has long been of interest as a means for identifying the internal tissue temperature anomalies that arise from abnormalities in physiological parameters such as metabolic and blood perfusion rates. However, the inherent lack of specificity and resolution in microwave radiometer measurements has limited the clinical usefulness of the technique. The idea underlying this work is to make use of information (assumed to be available from some other modality) about the tissue configuration in the volume of interest to study and improve the accuracy of anomaly detection and estimation from radiometric data. In particular, knowledge of the specific anatomy and the properties of the overall measurement system enable determination of the signatures of localized physiological abnormalities in the radiometry data. These signatures are used to investigate the accuracy with which the location of an anomaly can be determined from radiometric measurements. Algorithms based on matches to entries in a signature dictionary are developed for anomaly detection and estimation. The accuracy of anomaly identification is improved when the coupling of power from the body to the sensor is optimized. We describe the design of a radiometer waveguide having dielectric properties appropriate for biomedical applications.

  10. a Comparison of LIDAR Reflectance and Radiometrically Calibrated Hyperspectral Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roncat, A.; Briese, C.; Pfeifer, N.

    2016-06-01

    In order to retrieve results comparable under different flight parameters and among different flight campaigns, passive remote sensing data such as hyperspectral imagery need to undergo a radiometric calibration. While this calibration, aiming at the derivation of physically meaningful surface attributes such as a reflectance value, is quite cumbersome for passively sensed data and relies on a number of external parameters, the situation is by far less complicated for active remote sensing techniques such as lidar. This fact motivates the investigation of the suitability of full-waveform lidar as a "single-wavelength reflectometer" to support radiometric calibration of hyperspectral imagery. In this paper, this suitability was investigated by means of an airborne hyperspectral imagery campaign and an airborne lidar campaign recorded over the same area. Criteria are given to assess diffuse reflectance behaviour; the distribution of reflectance derived by the two techniques were found comparable in four test areas where these criteria were met. This is a promising result especially in the context of current developments of multi-spectral lidar systems.

  11. Reduction of radiometric miscalibration--applications to pushbroom sensors.

    PubMed

    Rogass, Christian; Spengler, Daniel; Bochow, Mathias; Segl, Karl; Lausch, Angela; Doktor, Daniel; Roessner, Sigrid; Behling, Robert; Wetzel, Hans-Ulrich; Kaufmann, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of hyperspectral images is an important task in Remote Sensing. Foregoing radiometric calibration results in the assignment of incident electromagnetic radiation to digital numbers and reduces the striping caused by slightly different responses of the pixel detectors. However, due to uncertainties in the calibration some striping remains. This publication presents a new reduction framework that efficiently reduces linear and nonlinear miscalibrations by an image-driven, radiometric recalibration and rescaling. The proposed framework-Reduction Of Miscalibration Effects (ROME)-considering spectral and spatial probability distributions, is constrained by specific minimisation and maximisation principles and incorporates image processing techniques such as Minkowski metrics and convolution. To objectively evaluate the performance of the new approach, the technique was applied to a variety of commonly used image examples and to one simulated and miscalibrated EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program) scene. Other examples consist of miscalibrated AISA/Eagle VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared) and Hawk SWIR (Short Wave Infrared) scenes of rural areas of the region Fichtwald in Germany and Hyperion scenes of the Jalal-Abad district in Southern Kyrgyzstan. Recovery rates of approximately 97% for linear and approximately 94% for nonlinear miscalibrated data were achieved, clearly demonstrating the benefits of the new approach and its potential for broad applicability to miscalibrated pushbroom sensor data. PMID:22163960

  12. In-flight radiometric calibration of AVIRIS in 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Conel, James E.; Helmlinger, Mark; Vandenbosch, Jeannette; Hajek, Pavel

    1995-01-01

    The AVIRIS sensor must be calibrated at the time it measures spectra from the ER-2 airborne platform in order to achieve research and application objectives that are both quantitative and physically based. However, the operational environment inside the Q-bay of the ER-2 at 20 km altitude differs from that in the AVIRIS laboratory with respect to temperature, pressure, vibration, and high-frequency electromagnetic fields. Experiments at surface calibration targets are used in each flight season to confirm the accuracy of AVIRIS in-flight radiometric calibrations. For these experiments, the MODTRAN radiative transfer code is constrained by using in situ measurements to independently predict the upwelling spectral radiance arriving at AVIRIS for a specific calibration target. AVIRIS calibration is validated in flight by comparing the MODTRAN-predicted radiance to the laboratory-calibrated radiance measured by the AVIRIS sensor for the same time over the calibration target. We present radiometric calibration results for the AVIRIS in-flight calibration experiment held at the beginning of the 1994 flight season.

  13. Principal Component Noise Filtering for NAST-I Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L., Sr.

    2011-01-01

    The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Airborne Sounder Testbed- Interferometer (NAST-I) instrument is a high-resolution scanning interferometer that measures emitted thermal radiation between 3.3 and 18 microns. The NAST-I radiometric calibration is achieved using internal blackbody calibration references at ambient and hot temperatures. In this paper, we introduce a refined calibration technique that utilizes a principal component (PC) noise filter to compensate for instrument distortions and artifacts, therefore, further improve the absolute radiometric calibration accuracy. To test the procedure and estimate the PC filter noise performance, we form dependent and independent test samples using odd and even sets of blackbody spectra. To determine the optimal number of eigenvectors, the PC filter algorithm is applied to both dependent and independent blackbody spectra with a varying number of eigenvectors. The optimal number of PCs is selected so that the total root-mean-square (RMS) error is minimized. To estimate the filter noise performance, we examine four different scenarios: apply PC filtering to both dependent and independent datasets, apply PC filtering to dependent calibration data only, apply PC filtering to independent data only, and no PC filters. The independent blackbody radiances are predicted for each case and comparisons are made. The results show significant reduction in noise in the final calibrated radiances with the implementation of the PC filtering algorithm.

  14. Reduction of Radiometric Miscalibration—Applications to Pushbroom Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Rogaß, Christian; Spengler, Daniel; Bochow, Mathias; Segl, Karl; Lausch, Angela; Doktor, Daniel; Roessner, Sigrid; Behling, Robert; Wetzel, Hans-Ulrich; Kaufmann, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of hyperspectral images is an important task in Remote Sensing. Foregoing radiometric calibration results in the assignment of incident electromagnetic radiation to digital numbers and reduces the striping caused by slightly different responses of the pixel detectors. However, due to uncertainties in the calibration some striping remains. This publication presents a new reduction framework that efficiently reduces linear and nonlinear miscalibrations by an image-driven, radiometric recalibration and rescaling. The proposed framework—Reduction Of Miscalibration Effects (ROME)—considering spectral and spatial probability distributions, is constrained by specific minimisation and maximisation principles and incorporates image processing techniques such as Minkowski metrics and convolution. To objectively evaluate the performance of the new approach, the technique was applied to a variety of commonly used image examples and to one simulated and miscalibrated EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program) scene. Other examples consist of miscalibrated AISA/Eagle VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared) and Hawk SWIR (Short Wave Infrared) scenes of rural areas of the region Fichtwald in Germany and Hyperion scenes of the Jalal-Abad district in Southern Kyrgyzstan. Recovery rates of approximately 97% for linear and approximately 94% for nonlinear miscalibrated data were achieved, clearly demonstrating the benefits of the new approach and its potential for broad applicability to miscalibrated pushbroom sensor data. PMID:22163960

  15. Radiometric calibration of Landsat Thematic Mapper Thermal Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wukelic, G. E.; Gibbons, D. E.; Martucci, L. M.; Foote, H. P.

    1989-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of satellite-acquired data is essential for quantitative scientific studies, as well as for a variety of image-processing applications. This paper describes a multiyear, on-orbit radiometric calibration of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Band 6 conducted at DOE's Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Numerous Landsat TM scenes acquired and analyzed included day and night coverages at several geographical locations over several seasons. Concurrent with Landsat overpasses, thermal field and local meteorological (surface and radiosonde) measurements were collected. At-satellite (uncorrected) radiances and temperatures for water and nonwater land cover were compared to ground truth (GT) measurements after making adjustments for atmospheric (using LOWTRAN), mixed-pixel, and emissivity effects. Results indicate that, for both water and nonwater features, TM Band 6 average corrected temperature determinations using local radiosonde data to adjust for atmospheric effects, and using appropriate emissivities, are within 1.0 C of GT temperature values. Temperatures of water pixels derived from uncorrected TM Band 6 data varied roughly between 1 and 3 C of ground truth values for water temperatures ranging between 4 and 24 C. Moreover, corrections using nonlocal and noncoincident radiosonde data resulted in errors as large as 12 C. Corrections using the U.S. Standard Atmosphere gave temperature values within 1 to 2 C of GT. The average uncertainty for field instruments was + or - 0.2 C; average uncertainty for Landsat TM corrected temperature determinations was + or - 0.4 C.

  16. Investigation of radiometric properties of the LANDSAT-4 multispectral scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A. (Principal Investigator); Rice, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    The radiometric data quality of the LANDSAT 4 multispectral scanner (MSS) was examined using several LANDSAT 4 frames. It was found that LANDSAT 4 MSS produces high-quality data of the caliber experienced with previous LANDSATS. For example, the detector equalization procedure worked well, leaving a residual banding effect of about 0.3 digital counts RMS, close to the theoretical minimum value of quantization error. Nevertheless, artifacts of the data were found, two of which were not experienced in previous MSS data. A low-level coherent noise effect was observed in all bands, with a magnitude of about 0.5 digital counts and a frequency of approximately 28 KHz (representing a wavelength of about 3.6 pixels); a substantial increase in processing complexity would be required to reduce this artifact in the data. Also, a substantial scan-length variation (of up to six pixels) was noted in MSS data when the TM sensor was operating; the LANDSAT 4 correction algorithms being applied routinely by the EROS Data Center to produce a p-type data should remove most of this variation. Between-satellite calibrations were examined in paired LANDSAT 3 and LANDSAT 4 MSS data sets, which were closely matched in acquisition time and place. Radiometric comparisons showed that all bands were highly linear in digital counts, and a well-determined linear transformation between the MSS's was established.

  17. On the observability of Mars entry navigation using radiometric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhengshi; Cui, Pingyuan; Zhu, Shengying

    2014-10-01

    A thorough observability analysis of the Mars entry navigation using radiometric measurements from ground based beacons is performed. This analysis involves the evaluation of the Fisher information matrix which is derived from the maximum likelihood estimation. A series of navigation cases with multiple beacons are investigated, and both range and range-rate measurements are considered. The determinant of Fisher information matrix is used to quantify the observability of navigation system, while the trace of Fisher information matrix is used to determine the lower-bound of estimation errors. For one and two beacon cases, the navigation system is unobservable. However, the eigenvectors of Fisher information matrix give the observable and unobservable component. When three or more beacon measurements are employed, the states of entry vehicle become observable. Some valuable analytic conclusions on the relationship between the geometric configuration of beacons and observability are obtained consequently. Finally, simulation results from two navigation examples indicate that our effort is useful for understanding and assessing the observability of the Mars entry navigation using radiometric measurements.

  18. Radiometric versus geometric, linear, and nonlinear vignetting coefficient.

    PubMed

    Duma, Virgil-Florin

    2009-11-10

    We analyze the vignetting phenomenon both for optical systems with objects placed at finite distances and for systems with objects at infinity. Four of the possible definitions of the vignetting coefficient k, only two of them existing in the literature, are discussed. We propose two new definitions, i.e., a nonlinear geometric coefficient that is, in part, an analytical model of the vignetting characterization using optical software and a radiometric vignetting coefficient. The object space of each type of optical systems is studied first, defining its characteristic light circles and cones. Several simplifying assumptions are made for each of the two cases considered to derive analytical equations of the vignetting coefficient and thus to determine the best definition to be used. A geometric vignetting coefficient with two expressions, a linear classical and easy-to-use one and a nonlinear, that we propose for both types of systems is obtained. This nonlinear geometric vignetting coefficient proves to be more adequate in modeling the phenomenon, but it does not entirely fit the physical reality. We finally demonstrate that the radiometric vignetting coefficient we define and derive as a view factor for both types of optical systems is the most appropriate one. The half vignetting level, necessary in most optical design procedures to obtain a satisfactory illumination level in the image plane, is also discussed. PMID:19904336

  19. Radiometric infrared focal plane array imaging system for thermographic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, B. J.; Mccafferty, N.; Brown, R.; Tower, J. R.; Kosonocky, W. F.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes research performed under the Radiometric Infrared Focal Plane Array Imaging System for Thermographic Applications contract. This research investigated the feasibility of using platinum silicide (PtSi) Schottky-barrier infrared focal plane arrays (IR FPAs) for NASA Langley's specific radiometric thermal imaging requirements. The initial goal of this design was to develop a high spatial resolution radiometer with an NETD of 1 percent of the temperature reading over the range of 0 to 250 C. The proposed camera design developed during this study and described in this report provides: (1) high spatial resolution (full-TV resolution); (2) high thermal dynamic range (0 to 250 C); (3) the ability to image rapid, large thermal transients utilizing electronic exposure control (commandable dynamic range of 2,500,000:1 with exposure control latency of 33 ms); (4) high uniformity (0.5 percent nonuniformity after correction); and (5) high thermal resolution (0.1 C at 25 C background and 0.5 C at 250 C background).

  20. Radiometric tests on wet and dry antenna reflector surface panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoshi, T. Y.; Franco, M. M.

    1990-01-01

    The results of X-band noise temperature tests on two types of antenna surface panels are presented. The first type tested was a solid antenna panel, while the second type was a perforated panel with 3/16-in.-diameter holes. Measurements were made at 8.45 GHz using an X-band radiometric system. Included in this article are measured noise temperature contributions from: (1) thermal diffusive white paint on solid and perforated panels, and (2) water sprayed on both painted and unpainted perforated panels. Experiments on perforated panels were restricted to the 3/16-in.-diameter hole panels formerly used on Deep Space Network 64-m antennas. Rigorous calibration equations, applicable to a variety of antenna panel and dichroic plate test configurations, are presented. It was demonstrated that an accurate, stable radiometric measurement system of the type used for the results of this research makes it possible to obtain information that would be much more difficult to obtain using other techniques.

  1. Calculated sensitivities of several optical radiometric indices for vegetation canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shultis, J. K.

    1991-01-01

    The present study employs a radiative transfer model for a vegetation canopy to compute several quantities used in remote sensing applications and to determine the sensitivity of these radiometric quantities to several of the important problem parameters. Attention is given to the ratio of near IR to visible reflected intensities in the nadir direction, the ratio of the fraction of incident energy reflected in the near IR to that in the visible, the normalized difference between the near IR and visible nadir-reflected intensities, and the visible intensity transmitted in a given downward direction. A realistic radiative transfer model is proposed for calculating these radiometric quantities. With these models, the sensitivity of the reflected and transmitted quantities to various canopy and illumination conditions are then determined. The sensitivity of the calculated quantities are presented as a function of the leaf area index of the canopy, and, for the reflected quantities, also as a function of the fraction of visible light absorbed in the canopy.

  2. Branching Ratios for The Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daw, Adrian N.; Bhatia, A. K.; Rabin, Douglas M.

    2012-01-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS) sounding rocket instrument is a two-channel imaging spectrograph that observes the solar corona and transition region with high spectral resolution and a rapid cadence made possible by unprecedented sensitivity. The upcoming flight will incorporate a new wavelength channel covering the range 524-630 Angstroms, the previously-flown 300-370 Angstroms channel, and the first flight demonstration of cooled active pixel sensor (APS) arrays. The new 524-630 Angstrom channel incorporates a Toroidal Varied Line Space (TVLS) grating coated with B4C/Ir, providing broad spectral coverage and a wide temperature range of 0.025 to 10 MK. Absolute radiometric calibration of the two channels is being performed using a hollow cathode discharge lamp and NIST-calibrated AXUV-100G photodiode. Laboratory observations of He I 584 Angstroms and He II 304 Angstroms provide absolute radiometric calibrations of the two channels at those two respective wavelengths by using the AXUV photodiode as a transfer standard. The spectral responsivity is being determined by observing line pairs with a common upper state in the spectra of Ne I-III and Ar II-III. Calculations of A-values for the observed branching ratios are in progress.

  3. Evaluating Radiometric Measurements Using a Fixed 45 Degrees Responsivity and Zenith Angle Dependent Responsivities (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Dooraghi, M.; Habte, A.; Reda, I.; Sengupta, M.; Gotseff, P.; Andreas, A.; Anderberg, M.

    2014-03-01

    This poster seeks to demonstrate the importance and application of an existing but unused approach that ultimately reduces the uncertainty of radiometric measurements. Current radiometric data is based on a single responsivity value that introduces significant uncertainty to the data, however, through using responsivity as a function of solar zenith angle, the uncertainty could be decreased by 50%.

  4. Galileo SSI/Gaspra Radiometrically Calibrated Images V1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingue, D. L.

    2015-05-01

    This data set includes Galileo Orbiter SSI radiometrically calibrated images of the asteroid 951 Gaspra, created using ISIS software and assuming nadir pointing. This is an original delivery of radiometrically calibrated files, not an update to existing files. All images archived include the the asteroid within the image frame. Calibration was performed in 2013-2014.

  5. Application of radiometric surface temperature for surface energy balance estimation: John Monteith's contributions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 25 years ago, Huband and Monteith paper’s investigating the radiative surface temperature and the surface energy balance of a wheat canopy, highlighted the key issues in computing fluxes with radiometric surface temperature. These included the relationship between radiometric and aerodynamic s...

  6. Team-Centered Perspective for Adaptive Automation Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2003-01-01

    Automation represents a very active area of human factors research. The journal, Human Factors, published a special issue on automation in 1985. Since then, hundreds of scientific studies have been published examining the nature of automation and its interaction with human performance. However, despite a dramatic increase in research investigating human factors issues in aviation automation, there remain areas that need further exploration. This NASA Technical Memorandum describes a new area of automation design and research, called adaptive automation. It discusses the concepts and outlines the human factors issues associated with the new method of adaptive function allocation. The primary focus is on human-centered design, and specifically on ensuring that adaptive automation is from a team-centered perspective. The document shows that adaptive automation has many human factors issues common to traditional automation design. Much like the introduction of other new technologies and paradigm shifts, adaptive automation presents an opportunity to remediate current problems but poses new ones for human-automation interaction in aerospace operations. The review here is intended to communicate the philosophical perspective and direction of adaptive automation research conducted under the Aerospace Operations Systems (AOS), Physiological and Psychological Stressors and Factors (PPSF) project.

  7. Automation in a Special Library in Kuwait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalid, Farooq A.

    1983-01-01

    Traces introduction of automation in National Scientific and Technical Information Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, highlighting online applications in English and Arabic. Systems developed (bibliographic control, union lists, circulation control, indexes) and use of STAIRS storage and retrieval system for integrated databases are…

  8. Space station automation study. Volume 1: Executive summary. Autonomous systems and assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The space station automation study (SSAS) was to develop informed technical guidance for NASA personnel in the use of autonomy and autonomous systems to implement space station functions. The initial step taken by NASA in organizing the SSAS was to form and convene a panel of recognized expert technologists in automation, space sciences and aerospace engineering to produce a space station automation plan.

  9. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager (OLI) Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Dabney, Philip W.; Murphy-Morris, Jeanine E.; Knight, Edward J.; Kvaran, Geir; Barsi, Julia A.

    2010-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) has a comprehensive radiometric characterization and calibration program beginning with the instrument design, and extending through integration and test, on-orbit operations and science data processing. Key instrument design features for radiometric calibration include dual solar diffusers and multi-lamped on-board calibrators. The radiometric calibration transfer procedure from NIST standards has multiple checks on the radiometric scale throughout the process and uses a heliostat as part of the transfer to orbit of the radiometric calibration. On-orbit lunar imaging will be used to track the instruments stability and side slither maneuvers will be used in addition to the solar diffuser to flat field across the thousands of detectors per band. A Calibration Validation Team is continuously involved in the process from design to operations. This team uses an Image Assessment System (IAS), part of the ground system to characterize and calibrate the on-orbit data.

  10. An overview of in-orbit radiometric calibration of typical satellite sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, G. Q.; Li, C. Y.; Yue, T.; Jiang, L. J.; Liu, N.; Sun, Y.; Li, M. Y.

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews the development of in-orbit radiometric calibration methods in the past 40 years. It summarizes the development of in-orbit radiometric calibration technology of typical satellite sensors in the visible/near-infrared bands and the thermal infrared band. Focuses on the visible/near-infrared bands radiometric calibration method including: Lamp calibration and solar radiationbased calibration. Summarizes the calibration technology of Landsat series satellite sensors including MSS, TM, ETM+, OLI, TIRS; SPOT series satellite sensors including HRV, HRS. In addition to the above sensors, there are also summarizing ALI which was equipped on EO-1, IRMSS which was equipped on CBERS series satellite. Comparing the in-orbit radiometric calibration technology of different periods but the same type satellite sensors analyzes the similarities and differences of calibration technology. Meanwhile summarizes the in-orbit radiometric calibration technology in the same periods but different country satellite sensors advantages and disadvantages of calibration technology.

  11. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Juan Camilo Serrano

    2011-12-16

    New and novel material and process technologies applied in wind blade designs and production are critical to increasing the competitiveness of wind power generation against traditional sources of energy. In this project, through collaboration between PPG Industries and MAG Industrial Automation Systems, the potential of using automated manufacturing for the production of fiber glass composite wind blades was evaluated from both technical and economic points of view. Further, it was demonstrated that by modifying the standard blade raw material forms through the use of cost effective pre-impregnated rovings coupled with using an automated fiber placement machine to lay up the parts, it is possible to produce state of the art composite laminates with significantly improved mechanical performance and with higher processing rates than standard blade production technology allows for today, thereby lowering the cost of energy over turbine blades made using traditional processes and materials. In conformity with the scope of work of the submitted proposal, the project team completed each task and documented and reported its findings on the appropriate quarterly report submitted to the DOE project team. The activities and this report are divided into 5 subtasks: (1) Material Investigation - Reviews traditional materials and key specifications and testing methods; (2) Manufacturing and Automation - Identifies new candidate material forms and automated layup processes; (3) Process Development - Performs trials of candidate materials and processes; (4) Predictive Analysis - Assesses impact of new material forms and automated processes on a model blade design; and (5) Feasibility Assessment - Compares traditional manufacturing processes and materials to new candidate material forms and automated processes.

  12. Automation tools for flexible aircraft maintenance.

    SciTech Connect

    Prentice, William J.; Drotning, William D.; Watterberg, Peter A.; Loucks, Clifford S.; Kozlowski, David M.

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project 26546 at Sandia, during the period FY01 through FY03. The project team visited four DoD depots that support extensive aircraft maintenance in order to understand critical needs for automation, and to identify maintenance processes for potential automation or integration opportunities. From the visits, the team identified technology needs and application issues, as well as non-technical drivers that influence the application of automation in depot maintenance of aircraft. Software tools for automation facility design analysis were developed, improved, extended, and integrated to encompass greater breadth for eventual application as a generalized design tool. The design tools for automated path planning and path generation have been enhanced to incorporate those complex robot systems with redundant joint configurations, which are likely candidate designs for a complex aircraft maintenance facility. A prototype force-controlled actively compliant end-effector was designed and developed based on a parallel kinematic mechanism design. This device was developed for demonstration of surface finishing, one of many in-contact operations performed during aircraft maintenance. This end-effector tool was positioned along the workpiece by a robot manipulator, programmed for operation by the automated planning tools integrated for this project. Together, the hardware and software tools demonstrate many of the technologies required for flexible automation in a maintenance facility.

  13. Automated endoscope reprocessors.

    PubMed

    Desilets, David; Kaul, Vivek; Tierney, William M; Banerjee, Subhas; Diehl, David L; Farraye, Francis A; Kethu, Sripathi R; Kwon, Richard S; Mamula, Petar; Pedrosa, Marcos C; Rodriguez, Sarah A; Wong Kee Song, Louis-Michel

    2010-10-01

    The ASGE Technology Committee provides reviews of existing, new, or emerging endoscopic technologies that have an impact on the practice of GI endoscopy. Evidence-based methodology is used, with a MEDLINE literature search to identify pertinent clinical studies on the topic and a MAUDE (U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health) database search to identify the reported complications of a given technology. Both are supplemented by accessing the "related articles" feature of PubMed and by scrutinizing pertinent references cited by the identified studies. Controlled clinical trials are emphasized, but in many cases data from randomized, controlled trials are lacking. In such cases, large case series, preliminary clinical studies, and expert opinions are used. Technical data are gathered from traditional and Web-based publications, proprietary publications, and informal communications with pertinent vendors. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are drafted by 1 or 2 members of the ASGE Technology Committee, reviewed and edited by the committee as a whole, and approved by the Governing Board of the ASGE. When financial guidance is indicated, the most recent coding data and list prices at the time of publication are provided. For this review, the MEDLINE database was searched through February 2010 for articles related to automated endoscope reprocessors, using the words endoscope reprocessing, endoscope cleaning, automated endoscope reprocessors, and high-level disinfection. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are scientific reviews provided solely for educational and informational purposes. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are not rules and should not be construed as establishing a legal standard of care or as encouraging, advocating, requiring, or discouraging any particular treatment or payment for such treatment. PMID:20883843

  14. Radiometric resolution for monitoring vegetation: How many bits are needed?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    The significance of the various number of radiometric quantizing levels required for satellite monitoring of vegetation resources was evaluated by using in situ collected spectral reflectance data, an atmospheric radiative transfer simulation model, and a satellite sensor simulation model. Reflectance data were converted to radiance data; passed through a model atmosphere to an altitude of 706 km; and subsequently quantized at 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, and 512 digital count levels for Thematic Mapper bands TM3(0.63 - 0.69 microns) and TM4(0.76 - 0.90 microns). The simulated digital count data were regressed against the in situ biological data to quantify the relationship between quantizing levels.

  15. Laboratory Measurement of Bidirectional Reflectance of Radiometric Tarps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowlton, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    This experiment measured the reflectance of tarps with ground instruments in order to check radiometric calibration, validate atmospheric correction, and predict at-sensor radiance for satellite instruments. The procedure of this experiment is as follows: 1) Assemble laboratory apparatus to duplicate ground reference measurement geometry and satellite measurement geometry; 2) Measure spectral radiance with Optronics OL 750 double monochromator/spectroradiometer; 3) Measure radiance of NIST-calibrated Spectralon panel irradiated by collimated light at incidence angle of calibrated reflectance (20 deg, 30 deg, 40 deg, or 50 deg), viewing normal to panel surface; 4) Measure radiance of Spectralon panel irradiated at incidence angle equal to solar zenith angle at time of overpass; 5) Calculate reflectance of Spectralon panel irradiated at solar zenith angle, viewing normal to panel surface (ground geometry).

  16. Active radiometric calorimeter for absolute calibration of radioactive sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stump, K. E.; DeWerd, L. A.; Rudman, D. A.; Schima, S. A.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes the design and initial noise floor measurements of a radiometric calorimeter designed to measure therapeutic medical radioactive sources. The instrument demonstrates a noise floor of approximately 2 nW. This low noise floor is achieved by using high temperature superconducting (HTS) transition edge sensor (TES) thermometers in a temperature-control feedback loop. This feedback loop will be used to provide absolute source calibrations based upon the electrical substitution method. Other unique features of the calorimeter are (a) its ability to change sources for calibration without disrupting the vacuum of the instrument, and (b) the ability to measure the emitted power of a source in addition to the total contained source power.

  17. Development of a portable ambient temperature radiometric assaying instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Lavietes, A.D.; McQuaid, J.H.; Ruhter, W.D.

    1994-10-01

    There is a strong need for portable radiometric instrumentation that can accurately confirm the presence of nuclear materials and allow isotopic analysis of radionuclides in the field. To fulfill this need we are developing a hand-held, non-cryogenic, low-power gamma- and x-ray measurement and analysis instrument that can both search and then accurately verify the presence of nuclear materials. We report on the use of cadmium zinc telluride detectors, signal processing electronics, and the new field-portable instrument based on the MicroNOMAD Multichannel Analyzer from EG&G ORTBC. We also describe the isotopic analysis that allows uranium enrichment measurements to be made accurately in the field.

  18. Advanced radiometric millimeter-wave scene simulation: ARMSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauss, Bruce I.; Agravante, Hiroshi H.; Chaiken, Steven

    1997-06-01

    In order to predict the performance of a passive millimeter wave sensor under a variety of weather, terrain and sensor operational conditions, TRW has developed the Advanced Radiometric Millimeter-Wave Scene Simulation (ARMSS) code. This code provides a comprehensive, end-to-end scene simulation capability based on rigorous, `first-principle' physics models of the passive millimeter wave phenomenology and sensor characteristics. The ARMSS code has been extensively benchmarked against both data in the literature and a wide array of millimeter-wave-field-imaging data. The code has been used in support of numerous passive millimeter wave technology programs for interpreting millimeter wave data, establishing scene signatures, performing mission analyses, and developing system requirements for the design of millimeter wave sensor systems. In this paper, we will present details of the ARMSS code and describe its current use in defining system requirements for the passive millimeter wave camera being developed under the Passive Millimeter Wave Camera Consortium led by TRW.

  19. New Sentinel-2 radiometric validation approaches (SEOM program)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruniquel, Véronique; Lamquin, Nicolas; Ferron, Stéphane; Govaerts, Yves; Woolliams, Emma; Dilo, Arta; Gascon, Ferran

    2016-04-01

    SEOM is an ESA program element whose one of the objectives aims at launching state-of-the-art studies for the scientific exploitation of operational missions. In the frame of this program, ESA awarded ACRI-ST and its partners Rayference and National Physical Laboratory (NPL) early 2016 for a R&D study on the development and intercomparison of algorithms for validating the Sentinel-2 radiometric L1 data products beyond the baseline algorithms used operationally in the frame of the S2 Mission Performance Centre. In this context, several algorithms have been proposed and are currently in development: The first one is based on the exploitation of Deep Convective Cloud (DCC) observations over ocean. This method allows an inter-band radiometry validation from the blue to the NIR (typically from B1 to B8a) from a reference band already validated for example with the well-known Rayleigh method. Due to their physical properties, DCCs appear from the remote sensing point of view to have bright and cold tops and they can be used as invariant targets to monitor the radiometric response degradation of reflective solar bands. The DCC approach is statistical i.e. the method shall be applied on a large number of measurements to derive reliable statistics and decrease the impact of the perturbing contributors. The second radiometric validation method is based on the exploitation of matchups combining both concomitant in-situ measurements and Sentinel-2 observations. The in-situ measurements which are used here correspond to measurements acquired in the frame of the RadCalNet networks. The validation is performed for the Sentinel-2 bands similar to the bands of the instruments equipping the validation site. The measurements from the Cimel CE 318 12-filters BRDF Sun Photometer installed recently in the Gobabeb site near the Namib desert are used for this method. A comprehensive verification of the calibration requires an analysis of MSI radiances over the full dynamic range

  20. Airborne Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Observations of Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Racette, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports the first radiometric measurements of cirrus clouds in the frequency range of 89-325 GHz from a high-altitude aircraft flight. The measurements are conducted with a Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (MIR) on board the NASA ER-2 aircraft over a region in northern Oklahoma. Aboard the same aircraft are a cloud lidar system and a multichannel radiometer operating at the visible and infrared wavelengths. The instrument ensemble is well suited for identifying cirrus clouds. It is shown that the depressions in brightness temperatures associated with a few intense cirrus clouds occur at all frequency channels of the MIR. Estimates of total ice water path of the cirrus clouds are derived from comparisons of radiative transfer calculations and observed brightness depressions.

  1. ASTER VNIR and SWIR Radiometric Calibration and Atmospheric Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Kohei; Thome, Kurtis; Iwasaki, Akira; Biggar, Stuart

    As described in the previous chapter, ASTER relies on three separate subsystems to cover the full spectral range from the visible and near infrared (VNIR), short-wave infrared (SWIR), to the thermal infrared (TIR). Establishing the accuracy of data from all three subsystems requires both sensor-related calibration and atmospheric correction. The dominance of reflected solar energy in the VNIR and SWIR, and emitted terrestrial radiation in the TIR allows separate treatment of the two spectral regions. TIR calibration and correction are covered in a separate chapter. This chapter has two main goals: (1) to allow the user to understand ASTER's radiometric calibration and atmospheric correction processes that enable conversion of VNIR and SWIR digital numbers (DN) to at-sensor reflectance and spectral radiance, and (2) to provide a succinct analysis of the SWIR crosstalk problem and its solutions.

  2. Determination of precipitation profiles from airborne passive microwave radiometric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kummerow, Christian; Hakkarinen, Ida M.; Pierce, Harold F.; Weinman, James A.

    1991-01-01

    This study presents the first quantitative retrievals of vertical profiles of precipitation derived from multispectral passive microwave radiometry. Measurements of microwave brightness temperature (Tb) obtained by a NASA high-altitude research aircraft are related to profiles of rainfall rate through a multichannel piecewise-linear statistical regression procedure. Statistics for Tb are obtained from a set of cloud radiative models representing a wide variety of convective, stratiform, and anvil structures. The retrieval scheme itself determines which cloud model best fits the observed meteorological conditions. Retrieved rainfall rate profiles are converted to equivalent radar reflectivity for comparison with observed reflectivities from a ground-based research radar. Results for two case studies, a stratiform rain situation and an intense convective thunderstorm, show that the radiometrically derived profiles capture the major features of the observed vertical structure of hydrometer density.

  3. Radiometric Ages of Martian Meteorites compared to Martian Surfaces Ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.

    1999-01-01

    The surprisingly young Rb-Sr age of the Shergotty meteorite contributed to early suggestions that it might be of martian origin. their redox state and oxygen isotopic compositions linked the shergottites to the clino-pyroxenite nakhlites and the dunite Chassigny, causing them to be grouped as SNC meteorites. These characteristics, but especially the similarity of the elemental and isotopic compositions of gases trapped in shergottites to those of the martian atmosphere, have caused the martian origin of the SNC and related meteorites to be widely accepted. Although the young ages were one of the early hints of a martian origin for the SNC meteorites, their interpretation has remained somewhat ambiguous. We will review the radiometric ages of the martian meteorites and attempt to place them into the context of martian surface ages.

  4. [In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of UAV multispectral sensor].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Yan, Lei; Gou, Zhi-Yang; Zhao, Hong-Ying; Liu, Da-Ping; Duan, Yi-Ni

    2012-12-01

    Based on the data of the scientific experiment in Urad Front Banner for UAV Remote Sensing Load Calibration Field project, with the help of 6 hyperspectral radiometric targets with good Lambertian property, the wide-view multispectral camera in UAV was calibrated adopting reflectance-based method. The result reveals that for green, red and infrared channel, whose images were successfully captured, the linear correlation coefficients between the DN and radiance are all larger than 99%. In final analysis, the comprehensive error is no more than 6%. The calibration results demonstrate that the hyperspectral targets equipped by the calibration field are well suitable for air-borne multispectral load in-flight calibration. The calibration result is reliable and could be used in the retrieval of geophysical parameters. PMID:23427528

  5. Calculation of atmospheric loss from microwave radiometric noise temperature measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelzried, C.; Slobin, S. D.

    1981-01-01

    Microwave propagation loss in the atmosphere can be inferred from microwave radiometric noise temperature measurements. The relevant equations are given and a derivation and calculation is made assuming various physical models. Comparison is made with the commonly used lumped element atmospheric model (isothermal and uniform loss) and the model with linear temperature and exponential loss distributions. The results are useful for estimating the integral inversion differences due to the model selection. This indicates that the commonly used lumped element atmospheric model is a very good approximation with judicious choice of the effective physical temperature. For the worst case comparison, the lumped element model agrees with the variable parameter model within 0.2 dB up to a propagation loss of 3 dB.

  6. Radiometric calibration and SNR calculation of a SWIR imaging telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, Ozgur; Turk, Fethi; Selimoglu, Ozgur

    2012-09-06

    Radiometric calibration of an imaging telescope is usually made using a uniform illumination sphere in a laboratory. In this study, we used the open-sky images taken during bright day conditions to calibrate our telescope. We found a dark signal offset value and a linear response coefficient value for each pixel by using three different algorithms. Then we applied these coefficients to the taken images, and considerably lowered the image non-uniformity. Calibration can be repeated during the operation of telescope with an object that has better uniformity than open-sky. Also SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) of each pixel was calculated from the open-sky images using the temporal mean and standard deviations. It is found that SNR is greater than 80 for all pixels even at low light levels.

  7. Mixing geometric and radiometric features for change classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Alexandre; Descombes, Xavier; Zerubia, Josiane

    2008-02-01

    Most basic change detection algorithms use a pixel-based approach. Whereas such approach is quite well defined for monitoring important area changes (such as urban growth monitoring) in low resolution images, an object based approach seems more relevant when the change detection is specifically aimed toward targets (such as small buildings and vehicles). In this paper, we present an approach that mixes radiometric and geometric features to qualify the changed zones. The goal is to establish bounds (appearance, disappearance, substitution ...) between the detected changes and the underlying objects. We proceed by first clustering the change map (containing each pixel bitemporal radiosity) in different classes using the entropy-kmeans algorithm. Assuming that most man-made objects have a polygonal shape, a polygonal approximation algorithm is then used in order to characterize the resulting zone shapes. Hence allowing us to refine the primary rough classification, by integrating the polygon orientations in the state space. Tests are currently conducted on Quickbird data.

  8. Within-Scene Radiometric Correction Of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) Data In Canadian Production Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Jennifer M.

    1986-11-01

    The Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) has been using the scene-statistics approach, originally implemented in 19751 for destriping LANDSAT MSS data, for the routine correction of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) reflective band data. The 0.8% within-scene radiometric accuracy specified for Canadian production systems has been achieved for all but a small percentage of requested scenes2. A significant functionality of the processing methodology includes the correction for dark signal (DC) level shifts as a function of both detector and scan line number, by utilizing background reference level measurements available during the calibration period of each mirror scanning sequence. Additionally, forward and reverse mirror scans are treated independently. The effect of extended, bright targets such as snow, ice or clouds, is to cause a lowering of the background level by as much as 4 digital numbers (DN), with recovery times equivalent to approximately 2000 pixels. Hence, in the vicinity of the target itself, localized banding in phase with forward and reverse mirror sweeps is evident. A two-fold impact to the CCRS processing system occurs when the bright targets are at the edge of the scene, since the background reference level measured during the calibration period does not represent the offset for the imaging period of the sequence. The effects are, firstly, a more pronounced banding in those scan lines which image the bright target, and secondly, a forward/reverse banding superimposed over the entire scene, causing these scenes to fail the accuracy criterion. An automated procedure has therefore been adopted to detect when the forward/reverse banding would be outside specifications using the standard techniques. In such cases, forward and reverse mirror sweeps are then corrected with identical gain and offset correction parameters and the DC level shift corrections are applied.

  9. Experimental study of radiometric forces with comparison to computational results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selden, Nathaniel P.

    A study of the radiometric forces on heated plates has been conducted both experimentally and computationally. The experiments were carried out at USC in two vacuum chambers up to a maximum pressure of 6 Pa for various carrier gases. The computations were performed with both the DSMC and ES-BGK methods for a 2-D gas flow over a comparable range of pressures. It is shown that the radiometric devices provide maximum force at a Knudsen number approximating 0.1. Of the various gases tested, helium provides the largest peak force. Qualitatively, the experimental data and computational results are similar. A lack of experimental data on gas-surface accommodation and flow three-dimensionality yields up to a 40% difference in the magnitude of the measured and computed forces, but it is shown that this discrepancy can be used to predict accommodation values. Comparison of four geometric configurations has shown that the effect of the area is significant at pressures up to where the force is maximum. It is also demonstrated that the size of the chamber in which the radiometer resides is of primary importance, where the chamber dimensions are inversely related to the generated force. Finally, simulation of multi-vane configurations have shown that the optimal spacing of vanes can be tailored for specific uses; for maximum force production a tight spacing should be used, while maximum efficiency requires spacing on the order of a vane dimension. While the results so far are encouraging, they are far from complete. Further improvements would include: a new experimental setup to reduce uncertainty with highly accurate temperature control and measurement, an in situ way to prepare the surface as well as measure its cleanliness, and an in depth iterative computational study observing the impact of multiple radiometer vanes at numerous seperations.

  10. IRCM spectral signature measurements instrumentation featuring enhanced radiometric accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantagne, Stéphane; Prel, Florent; Moreau, Louis; Roy, Claude; Willers, Cornelius J.

    2015-10-01

    Hyperspectral Infrared (IR) signature measurements are performed in military applications including aircraft- and -naval vessel stealth characterization, detection/lock-on ranges, and flares efficiency characterization. Numerous military applications require high precision measurement of infrared signature characterization. For instance, Infrared Countermeasure (IRCM) systems and Infrared Counter-Countermeasure (IRCCM) system are continuously evolving. Infrared flares defeated IR guided seekers, IR flares became defeated by intelligent IR guided seekers and Jammers defeated the intelligent IR guided seekers [7]. A precise knowledge of the target infrared signature phenomenology is crucial for the development and improvement of countermeasure and counter-countermeasure systems and so precise quantification of the infrared energy emitted from the targets requires accurate spectral signature measurements. Errors in infrared characterization measurements can lead to weakness in the safety of the countermeasure system and errors in the determination of detection/lock-on range of an aircraft. The infrared signatures are analyzed, modeled, and simulated to provide a good understanding of the signature phenomenology to improve the IRCM and IRCCM technologies efficiency [7,8,9]. There is a growing need for infrared spectral signature measurement technology in order to further improve and validate infrared-based models and simulations. The addition of imagery to Spectroradiometers is improving the measurement capability of complex targets and scenes because all elements in the scene can now be measured simultaneously. However, the limited dynamic range of the Focal Plane Array (FPA) sensors used in these instruments confines the ranges of measurable radiance intensities. This ultimately affects the radiometric accuracy of these complex signatures. We will describe and demonstrate how the ABB hyperspectral imaging spectroradiometer features enhanced the radiometric accuracy

  11. JPSS-1 VIIRS pre-launch radiometric performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudrari, Hassan; McIntire, Jeff; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, James; Efremova, Boryana; Ji, Qiang; Lee, Shihyan; Schwarting, Tom

    2015-09-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on-board the first Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) completed its sensor level testing on December 2014. The JPSS-1 (J1) mission is scheduled to launch in December 2016, and will be very similar to the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) mission. VIIRS instrument was designed to provide measurements of the globe twice daily. It is a wide-swath (3,040 km) cross-track scanning radiometer with spatial resolutions of 370 and 740 m at nadir for imaging and moderate bands, respectively. It covers the wavelength spectrum from reflective to long-wave infrared through 22 spectral bands [0.412 μm to 12.01 μm]. VIIRS observations are used to generate 22 environmental data products (EDRs). This paper will briefly describe J1 VIIRS characterization and calibration performance and methodologies executed during the pre-launch testing phases by the independent government team, to generate the at-launch baseline radiometric performance, and the metrics needed to populate the sensor data record (SDR) Look-Up-Tables (LUTs). This paper will also provide an assessment of the sensor pre-launch radiometric performance, such as the sensor signal to noise ratios (SNRs), dynamic range, reflective and emissive bands calibration performance, polarization sensitivity, bands spectral performance, response-vs-scan (RVS), near field and stray light responses. A set of performance metrics generated during the pre-launch testing program will be compared to the SNPP VIIRS pre-launch performance.

  12. Ground-based vicarious radiometric calibration of Terra MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, J.; Thome, K.

    2009-12-01

    Accurate radiometric calibration is required by Earth-observing systems to ensure that the derived data products are of the highest quality. Preflight calibration is used as a baseline to understand the system before it is launched on orbit, while post-launch calibration is used to understand changes that may have occurred due to the nature of launching an instrument into space. On-orbit radiometric calibration ensures that changes in the system, including any onboard calibration sources, can be monitored. The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona has been directly involved in the ground-based vicarious calibration of both Terra and Aqua MODIS since their respective launches in 1999 and 2002. RSG personnel are present at a test site during sensor overpass, and surface reflectance and atmospheric attenuation measurements are used as inputs to a radiative transfer code to determine the top-of-atmosphere radiance for the sensor under test. In the case of Terra MODIS, a 1-km2 site at Railroad Valley, Nevada, is used as a test site. This work presents results obtained using the reflectance-based approach at RSG’s Railroad Valley test site. Results from 10 years of in situ data collection at Railroad Valley show a percent difference in the seven land spectral channels between RSG and Terra MODIS ranging from 1.6 % in channel 6 (1632 nm), to 5.1% in channel 4 (553 nm). The average percent difference for Terra MODIS’s seven land channels and RSG is 3.5%. The uncertainty is within the 3-5% predicted for ground-based vicarious calibration.

  13. Automated mass spectrometer grows up

    SciTech Connect

    McInteer, B.B.; Montoya, J.G.; Stark, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980 we reported the development of an automated mass spectrometer for large scale batches of samples enriched in nitrogen-15 as ammonium salts. Since that time significant technical progress has been made in the instrument. Perhaps more significantly, administrative and institutional changes have permitted the entire effort to be transferred to the private sector from its original base at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This has ensured the continuance of a needed service to the international scientific community as revealed by a development project at a national laboratory, and is an excellent example of beneficial technology transfer to private industry.

  14. Laboratory automation in clinical bacteriology: what system to choose?

    PubMed

    Croxatto, A; Prod'hom, G; Faverjon, F; Rochais, Y; Greub, G

    2016-03-01

    Automation was introduced many years ago in several diagnostic disciplines such as chemistry, haematology and molecular biology. The first laboratory automation system for clinical bacteriology was released in 2006, and it rapidly proved its value by increasing productivity, allowing a continuous increase in sample volumes despite limited budgets and personnel shortages. Today, two major manufacturers, BD Kiestra and Copan, are commercializing partial or complete laboratory automation systems for bacteriology. The laboratory automation systems are rapidly evolving to provide improved hardware and software solutions to optimize laboratory efficiency. However, the complex parameters of the laboratory and automation systems must be considered to determine the best system for each given laboratory. We address several topics on laboratory automation that may help clinical bacteriologists to understand the particularities and operative modalities of the different systems. We present (a) a comparison of the engineering and technical features of the various elements composing the two different automated systems currently available, (b) the system workflows of partial and complete laboratory automation, which define the basis for laboratory reorganization required to optimize system efficiency, (c) the concept of digital imaging and telebacteriology, (d) the connectivity of laboratory automation to the laboratory information system, (e) the general advantages and disadvantages as well as the expected impacts provided by laboratory automation and (f) the laboratory data required to conduct a workflow assessment to determine the best configuration of an automated system for the laboratory activities and specificities. PMID:26806135

  15. Automated Access to Multilingual Information: A Brazilian Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Roseane R. Velho

    1989-01-01

    Identifies some of the problems the foreign language barrier creates in the handling of scientific and technical texts in Brazil and suggests the creation of some automated tools to overcome these problems. It is suggested that international efforts to maximize access to technical and scientific information will improve multilingual communication…

  16. Mechanisation and Automation of Information Library Procedures in the USSR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batenko, A. I.

    Scientific and technical libraries represent a fundamental link in a complex information storage and retrieval system. The handling of a large volume of scientific and technical data and provision of information library services requires the utilization of computing facilities and automation equipment, and was started in the Soviet Union on a…

  17. Analysis and modeling of radiometric error caused by imaging blur in optical remote sensing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xufen; Zhang, Yuncui; Wang, Hongyuan; Zhang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Imaging blur changes the digital output values of imaging systems. It leads to radiometric errors when the system is used for measurement. In this paper, we focus on the radiometric error due to imaging blur in remote sensing imaging systems. First, in accordance with the radiometric response calibration of imaging systems, we provide a theoretical analysis on the evaluation standard of radiometric errors caused by imaging blur. Then, we build a radiometric error model for imaging blur based on the natural stochastic fractal characteristics of remote sensing images. Finally, we verify the model by simulations and physical defocus experiments. The simulation results show that the modeling estimation result approaches to the simulation computation. The maximum difference of relative MSE (Mean Squared Error) between simulation computation and modeling estimation can achieve 1.6%. The physical experimental results show that the maximum difference of relative MSE between experimental results and modeling estimation is only 1.29% under experimental conditions. Simulations and experiments demonstrate that the proposed model is correct, which can be used to estimate the radiometric error caused by imaging blur in remote sensing images. This research is of great importance for radiometric measurement system evaluation and application.

  18. RapidEye constellation relative radiometric accuracy measurement using lunar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steyn, Joe; Tyc, George; Beckett, Keith; Hashida, Yoshi

    2009-09-01

    The RapidEye constellation includes five identical satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Each satellite has a 5-band (blue, green, red, red-edge and near infrared (NIR)) multispectral imager at 6.5m GSD. A three-axes attitude control system allows pointing the imager of each satellite at the Moon during lunations. It is therefore possible to image the Moon from near identical viewing geometry within a span of 80 minutes with each one of the imagers. Comparing the radiometrically corrected images obtained from each band and each satellite allows a near instantaneous relative radiometric accuracy measurement and determination of relative gain changes between the five imagers. A more traditional terrestrial vicarious radiometric calibration program has also been completed by MDA on RapidEye. The two components of this program provide for spatial radiometric calibration ensuring that detector-to-detector response remains flat, while a temporal radiometric calibration approach has accumulated images of specific dry dessert calibration sites. These images are used to measure the constellation relative radiometric response and make on-ground gain and offset adjustments in order to maintain the relative accuracy of the constellation within +/-2.5%. A quantitative comparison between the gain changes measured by the lunar method and the terrestrial temporal radiometric calibration method is performed and will be presented.

  19. Radiometric Normalization of Large Airborne Image Data Sets Acquired by Different Sensor Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrke, S.; Beshah, B. T.

    2016-06-01

    Generating seamless mosaics of aerial images is a particularly challenging task when the mosaic comprises a large number of im-ages, collected over longer periods of time and with different sensors under varying imaging conditions. Such large mosaics typically consist of very heterogeneous image data, both spatially (different terrain types and atmosphere) and temporally (unstable atmo-spheric properties and even changes in land coverage). We present a new radiometric normalization or, respectively, radiometric aerial triangulation approach that takes advantage of our knowledge about each sensor's properties. The current implementation supports medium and large format airborne imaging sensors of the Leica Geosystems family, namely the ADS line-scanner as well as DMC and RCD frame sensors. A hierarchical modelling - with parameters for the overall mosaic, the sensor type, different flight sessions, strips and individual images - allows for adaptation to each sensor's geometric and radiometric properties. Additional parameters at different hierarchy levels can compensate radiome-tric differences of various origins to compensate for shortcomings of the preceding radiometric sensor calibration as well as BRDF and atmospheric corrections. The final, relative normalization is based on radiometric tie points in overlapping images, absolute radiometric control points and image statistics. It is computed in a global least squares adjustment for the entire mosaic by altering each image's histogram using a location-dependent mathematical model. This model involves contrast and brightness corrections at radiometric fix points with bilinear interpolation for corrections in-between. The distribution of the radiometry fixes is adaptive to each image and generally increases with image size, hence enabling optimal local adaptation even for very long image strips as typi-cally captured by a line-scanner sensor. The normalization approach is implemented in HxMap software. It has been

  20. Automated External Defibrillator

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is an Automated External Defibrillator? An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a portable device that ... Institutes of Health Department of Health and Human Services USA.gov

  1. Technical Services Workstations. SPEC Kit 213.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brugger, Judith M., Comp.; And Others

    Technical services workstations (TSWs) are personal computers that have been customized for use in technical services departments. To gather information on their use and prevalence in research libraries, the Program for Cooperative Cataloging Standing Committee on Automation surveyed the 119 members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL)…

  2. Radiometric Calibration Assessment of Commercial High Spatial Resolution Multispectral Image Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holekamp, Kara; Aaron, David; Thome, Kurtis

    2006-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of commercial imaging satellite products is required to ensure that science and application communities can better understand their properties. Inaccurate radiometric calibrations can lead to erroneous decisions and invalid conclusions and can limit intercomparisons with other systems. To address this calibration need, satellite at-sensor radiance values were compared to those estimated by each independent team member to determine the sensor's radiometric accuracy. The combined results of this evaluation provide the user community with an independent assessment of these commercially available high spatial resolution sensors' absolute calibration values.

  3. Improved Radiometric Based Method for Suppressing Impulse Noise from Corrupted Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Changcheng; Zhao, Chunyu; Chen, Dayue

    A novel filter is introduced in this paper to improve the ability of radiometric based method on suppressing impulse noise. Firstly, a new method is introduced to design the impulsive weight by measuring how impulsive a pixel is. Then, the impulsive weight is combined with the radiometric weight to obtain the evaluated values on each pixel in the whole corrupted image. The impulsive weight is mainly designed to suppress the impulse noise, while the radiometric weight is mainly designed to protect the noise-free pixel. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can perform much better than other filters in terms of the quantitative and qualitative aspects.

  4. Workflow automation architecture standard

    SciTech Connect

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T.

    1994-11-14

    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  5. Automation in Clinical Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the trend toward automation in clinical pathology laboratories has largely bypassed the clinical microbiology laboratory. In this article, we review the historical impediments to automation in the microbiology laboratory and offer insight into the reasons why we believe that we are on the cusp of a dramatic change that will sweep a wave of automation into clinical microbiology laboratories. We review the currently available specimen-processing instruments as well as the total laboratory automation solutions. Lastly, we outline the types of studies that will need to be performed to fully assess the benefits of automation in microbiology laboratories. PMID:23515547

  6. Automation of industrial bioprocesses.

    PubMed

    Beyeler, W; DaPra, E; Schneider, K

    2000-01-01

    The dramatic development of new electronic devices within the last 25 years has had a substantial influence on the control and automation of industrial bioprocesses. Within this short period of time the method of controlling industrial bioprocesses has changed completely. In this paper, the authors will use a practical approach focusing on the industrial applications of automation systems. From the early attempts to use computers for the automation of biotechnological processes up to the modern process automation systems some milestones are highlighted. Special attention is given to the influence of Standards and Guidelines on the development of automation systems. PMID:11092132

  7. Landsat-7 ETM+ radiometric stability and absolute calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, B.L.; Barker, J.L.; Barsi, J.A.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Helder, D.L.; Palluconi, Frank Don; Schott, J.R.; Scaramuzza, P.

    2002-01-01

    Launched in April 1999, the Landsat-7 ETM+ instrument is in its fourth year of operation. The quality of the acquired calibrated imagery continues to be high, especially with respect to its three most important radiometric performance parameters: reflective band instrument stability to better than ??1%, reflective band absolute calibration to better than ??5%, and thermal band absolute calibration to better than ??0.6 K. The ETM+ instrument has been the most stable of any of the Landsat instruments, in both the reflective and thermal channels. To date, the best on-board calibration source for the reflective bands has been the Full Aperture Solar Calibrator, which has indicated changes of at most -1.8% to -2.0% (95% C.I.) change per year in the ETM+ gain (band 4). However, this change is believed to be caused by changes in the solar diffuser panel, as opposed to a change in the instrument's gain. This belief is based partially on ground observations, which bound the changes in gain in band 4 at -0.7% to +1.5%. Also, ETM+ stability is indicated by the monitoring of desert targets. These image-based results for four Saharan and Arabian sites, for a collection of 35 scenes over the three years since launch, bound the gain change at -0.7% to +0.5% in band 4. Thermal calibration from ground observations revealed an offset error of +0.31 W/m 2 sr um soon after launch. This offset was corrected within the U. S. ground processing system at EROS Data Center on 21-Dec-00, and since then, the band 6 on-board calibration has indicated changes of at most +0.02% to +0.04% (95% C.I.) per year. The latest ground observations have detected no remaining offset error with an RMS error of ??0.6 K. The stability and absolute calibration of the Landsat-7 ETM+ sensor make it an ideal candidate to be used as a reference source for radiometric cross-calibrating to other land remote sensing satellite systems.

  8. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager: Radiometric Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian; Dabney, Philip; Pedelty, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is one of two instruments to fly on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), which is scheduled to launch in December 2012 to become the 8th in the series of Landsat satellites. The OLI images in the solar reflective part of the spectrum, with bands similar to bands 1-5, 7 and the panchromatic band on the Landsat-7 ETM+ instrument. In addition, it has a 20 nm bandpass spectral band at 443 nm for coastal and aerosol studies and a 30 nm band at 1375 nm to aid in cirrus cloud detection. Like ETM+, spatial resolution is 30 m in the all but the panchromatic band, which is 15 meters. OLI is a pushbroom radiometer with approximately 6000 detectors per 30 meter band as opposed to the 16 detectors per band on the whiskbroom ETM+. Data are quantized to 12 bits on OLI as opposed to 8 bits on ETM+ to take advantage of the improved signal to noise ratio provided by the pushbroom design. The saturation radiances are higher on OLI than ETM+ to effectively eliminate saturation issues over bright Earth targets. OLI includes dual solar diffusers for on-orbit absolute and relative (detector to detector) radiometric calibration. Additionally, OLI has 3 sets of on-board lamps that illuminate the OLI focal plane through the full optical system, providing additional checks on the OLI's response[l]. OLI has been designed and built by Ball Aerospace & Technology Corp. (BATC) and is currently undergoing testing and calibration in preparation for delivery in Spring 2011. Final pre-launch performance results should be available in time for presentation at the conference. Preliminary results will be presented below. These results are based on the performance of the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) that was radiometrically tested at the integrated instrument level in 2010 and assembly level measurements made on the flight unit. Signal-to-Noise (SNR) performance: One of the advantages of a pushbroom system is the increased dwell time of the detectors

  9. Radiometric-microbiologic assay fo vitamin B-6: analysis of plasma samples

    SciTech Connect

    Guilarte, T.R.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1981-11-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay for the analysis of vitamin B-6 in plasma was developed. The method is based on the measurement of 14CO2 generated from the metabolism of DL-l-14C-valine (L-l-14C-valine) by Kloeckera brevis. The assay is specific for the biologically active forms of the vitamin, that is, pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine, and their respective phosphorylated forms. The biologically inert vitamin B-6 metabolite (4-pyridoxic acid) did not generate a response at concentrations tested. The radiometric technique was shown to be sensitive to the 1 nanogram level. Reproducibility and recovery studies gave good results. Fifteen plasma samples were assayed using the radiometric and turbidimetric techniques. The correlation coefficient was r . 0.98. Turbid material or precipitated debris did not interfere with the radiometric microbiologic assay, thus allowing for simplification of assay procedure.

  10. Susceptibility testing of filamentous fungi to amphotericin B by a rapid radiometric method

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, W.G.; Fay, D.; Thumar, B.; Dixon, D.

    1984-01-01

    A rapid, radiometric method was developed to determine the susceptibility of filamentous fungi to amphotericin B. The rapid, radiometric method depended on measurement of the inhibition of /sup 24/CO/sub 2/ production in the presence of amphotericin B. Thirty isolates of filamentous fungi were tested by the rapid, radiometric method and a reference agar dilution method. There was 93% agreement between the two methods when an 80% or greater decrease in CO/sub 2/ production was used to calculate the minimal inhibitory concentration with the rapid, radiometric method. Minimal inhibitory concentrations, based on 80% decrease of CO/sub 2/ production, were achieved within 24 h of incubation with all of the fungi tested.

  11. Flight Technology Improvement. [spaceborne optical radiometric instruments, attitude control, and electromechanical and power subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Shortcomings in spaceborne instrumentation technology are analyzed and recommendations are given for corrections and technology development. The technologies discussed are optical radiometric instruments and calibration, attitude control and determination, and electromechanical and power subsystems.

  12. Intra-annual NDVI validation of the Landsat 5 TM radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Groeneveld, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    Multispectral data from the Landsat 5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provide the backbone of the extensive archive of moderate-resolution Earth imagery. Even after more than 24 years of service, the L5 TM is still operational. Given the longevity of the satellite, the detectors have aged and the sensor's radiometric characteristics have changed since launch. The calibration procedures and parameters in the National Land Archive Production System (NLAPS) have also changed with time. Revised radiometric calibrations in 2003 and 2007 have improved the radiometric accuracy of recently processed data. This letter uses the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as a metric to evaluate the radiometric calibration. The calibration change has improved absolute calibration accuracy, consistency over time, and consistency with Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic radiometry and will provide the basis for continued long-term studies of the Earth's land surfaces.

  13. Radiometric absolute noise-temperature measurement system features improved accuracy and calibration ease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W.; Ewen, H.; Haroules, G.

    1970-01-01

    Radiometric receiver system, which measures noise temperatures in degrees Kelvin, does not require cryogenic noise sources for routine operation. It eliminates radiometer calibration errors associated with RF attenuation measurements. Calibrated noise source is required only for laboratory adjustment and calibration.

  14. Experimental Research on Passive Millimeter Wave Radiometric Stealth Technology of Metal Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guangfeng; Lou, Guowei; Li, Xingguo

    2012-12-01

    Working all day and all weather, a passive millimeter wave radiometer (PMMW) can be widely used in civil and military affairs. It can get some specific information about the material characteristics different from radar and infrared detectors. On basis of the radiometric operating range equation, the radiation cross section and stealth effect of metal objects are presented for the PMMW near-sensing application. The measurement experiments of metal solid models adopts 3 mm band Dicke radiometer with the outdoor calibration system. The sky temperature and other different surface metal objects are also measured as the contrastive experiments. The results show the radiometric temperature contrasts of solid models have remarkable difference in the bare and coated conditions, and the radiometric operating range can decrease to 60.8 %. In addition, the PMMW stealth methods through different surface treatment respectively reduce the radiometric antenna temperature contrast in some degree.

  15. [A new, automatic, non-radiometric system for culturing MB/BACT bacilli and its value in the microbiologic diagnosis of tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Zofia, Z; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, E; Klatt, M

    1998-01-01

    The MB/BacT is a fully automated, rapid, non-radiometric system, for the culture of Mycobacteria for clinical samples other than blood. CO2 production is measured and reported as reflective units from the MB/BacT Process Bottle colorimetric sensor. We are evaluating the MB/BacT system in comparison to our routine culture method--culture on egg media (glycerol and puruvate), in the Bactec 460-Tb radiometric machine and in MB Redox. A total of 286 clinical samples from respiratory tract were inoculated into three or four culture systems and incubated at 37 degrees C. There was only little difference in mean time to detection between the MB/BacT and Bactec system (for M.tuberculosis 11 days versus 9 days), but both systems were faster than egg media (16 days). Contamination rates for MB/BacT system was 8.4%, and for Bactec 6.9%. The colorimetric technology used in the MB/BacT is a rapid and sensitive for the measurement of mycobacterial growth. PMID:9658878

  16. Phoretic and Radiometric Force Measurements on Microparticles in Microgravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, E. James

    1996-01-01

    Thermophoretic, diffusiophoretic and radiometric forces on microparticles are being measured over a wide range of gas phase and particle conditions using electrodynamic levitation of single particles to simulate microgravity conditions. The thermophoretic force, which arises when a particle exists in a gas having a temperature gradient, is measured by levitating an electrically charged particle between heated and cooled plates mounted in a vacuum chamber. The diffusiophoretic force arising from a concentration gradient in the gas phase is measured in a similar manner except that the heat exchangers are coated with liquids to establish a vapor concentration gradient. These phoretic forces and the radiation pressure force acting on a particle are measured directly in terms of the change in the dc field required to levitate the particle with and without the force applied. The apparatus developed for the research and the experimental techniques are discussed, and results obtained by thermophoresis experiments are presented. The determination of the momentum and energy accommodation coefficients associated with molecular collisions between gases molecules and particles and the measurement of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and small particles are of particular interest.

  17. JPSS-1 VIIRS pre-launch radiometric performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudrari, Hassan; McIntire, Jeff; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, James; Ji, Qiang; Schwarting, Tom; Zeng, Jinan

    2016-05-01

    The first Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS-1 or J1) mission is scheduled to launch in January 2017, and will be very similar to the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) mission. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on board the J1 spacecraft completed its sensor level performance testing in December 2014. VIIRS instrument is expected to provide valuable information about the Earth environment and properties on a daily basis, using a wide-swath (3,040 km) cross-track scanning radiometer. The design covers the wavelength spectrum from reflective to long-wave infrared through 22 spectral bands, from 0.412 μm to 12.01 μm, and has spatial resolutions of 370 m and 740 m at nadir for imaging and moderate bands, respectively. This paper will provide an overview of pre-launch J1 VIIRS performance testing and methodologies, describing the at-launch baseline radiometric performance as well as the metrics needed to calibrate the instrument once on orbit. Key sensor performance metrics include the sensor signal to noise ratios (SNRs), dynamic range, reflective and emissive bands calibration performance, polarization sensitivity, bands spectral performance, response-vs-scan (RVS), near field response, and stray light rejection. A set of performance metrics generated during the pre-launch testing program will be compared to the sensor requirements and to SNPP VIIRS pre-launch performance.

  18. Radiometric STFT Analysis of PDV recordings and detectivity limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozier, Olivier; Prudhomme, Gabriel; Mercier, Patrick; Berthe, Laurent

    2015-06-01

    Photonic Doppler Velocimetry is a plug-and-play and versatile diagnostic used in dynamic physic experiments to measure velocities. When signals are analyzed using a Short-Time Fourier Transform, multiple velocities can be distinguished: by example, the velocities of moving particle-cloud appear on spectrograms. In order to estimate the back-scattering fluxes of target, we propose an original approach ``PDV Radiometric analysis'' resulting in an expression of time-velocity spectrograms coded in power units. Experiments involving micron-sized particles raise the issue of detection limit; particle-size limit is very difficult to evaluate. From the quantification of noise sources, we derivate an estimation of the spectrogram noise leading to a detectivity limit. It may be compared to back-scattering and collected power from a particle, which is increasing with its size. At least, some results from laser-shock accelerated particles using two different PDV systems are compared: it may show the improvement of sensitivity.

  19. A hyperspectral imager for high radiometric accuracy Earth climate studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espejo, Joey; Drake, Ginger; Heuerman, Karl; Kopp, Greg; Lieber, Alex; Smith, Paul; Vermeer, Bill

    2011-10-01

    We demonstrate a visible and near-infrared prototype pushbroom hyperspectral imager for Earth climate studies that is capable of using direct solar viewing for on-orbit cross calibration and degradation tracking. Direct calibration to solar spectral irradiances allow the Earth-viewing instrument to achieve required climate-driven absolute radiometric accuracies of <0.2% (1σ). A solar calibration requires viewing scenes having radiances 105 higher than typical Earth scenes. To facilitate this calibration, the instrument features an attenuation system that uses an optimized combination of different precision aperture sizes, neutral density filters, and variable integration timing for Earth and solar viewing. The optical system consists of a three-mirror anastigmat telescope and an Offner spectrometer. The as-built system has a 12.2° cross track field of view with 3 arcmin spatial resolution and covers a 350-1050 nm spectral range with 10 nm resolution. A polarization compensated configuration using the Offner in an out of plane alignment is demonstrated as a viable approach to minimizing polarization sensitivity. The mechanical design takes advantage of relaxed tolerances in the optical design by using rigid, non-adjustable diamond-turned tabs for optical mount locating surfaces. We show that this approach achieves the required optical performance. A prototype spaceflight unit is also demonstrated to prove the applicability of these solar cross calibration methods to on-orbit environments. This unit is evaluated for optical performance prior to and after GEVS shake, thermal vacuum, and lifecycle tests.

  20. History of Solar Radiometry and the World Radiometric Reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich, C.

    1991-01-01

    The history of solar radiometry since the first pyrheliometer of Pouillet is presented. After the invention of the Ångström and the Smithsonian pyrheliometers around the turn of this century two different "scales" were in use. Comparisons with absolute cavity radiometers developed in America and Europe have been performed since about 1910 which show remarkably accurate measurements in terms of the SI units. However, these results have never been accepted and several rules have been established to reference radiation measurements in the meteorological community and to remedy the unsatisfactory fact of having different "scales". Unfortunately none of these rules led to a reference close to the SI units of irradiance, confusing the issue even more. With the advent of modern absolute radiometers in the late 1960s the situation improved and led to the definition of the World Radiometric Reference in use by the meteorological community since 1981. This reference has an estimated accuracy of 0,3% and guarantees the worldwide homogeneity of radiation measurements within 0,1% precision.

  1. Laser photothermal radiometric instrument for industrial steel hardness inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X.; Sivagurunathan, K.; Pawlak, M.; Garcia, J.; Mandelis, A.; Giunta, S.; Milletari, S.; Bawa, S.

    2010-03-01

    To meet the industrial demand for on-line steel hardness inspection and quality control, a non-contact, non-destructive laser photothermal radiometric instrument (HD-PTR) was developed. The instrument is equipped with a non-liquid-nitrogen-cooled HgCdZnTe (MCZT) detector, a National Instruments data acquisition card with a Dynamic System Analysis (DSA) module, and control software. A series of industrial steel samples which included automotive screws and aircraft gears (flat or curvilinear) were examined. The effective hardness case depths of these samples ranged from 0.21 mm to 1.78 mm. The results demonstrated that three measurement parameters (metrics) can be extracted when using a fast swept-sine photothermal method. These parameters include the phase minimum (or peak) frequency, fmin, the half width, W, and the area, S. It was found that they are complementary for evaluating widely different ranges of hardness case depths. fminis most suitable for large case depths, and W and S for shallower case depths.

  2. Understanding Satellite Characterization Knowledge Gained from Radiometric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, A.; Hamada, K.; Wetterer, C.; Luu, K.; Sabol, C.; Alfriend, K.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a framework for determining satellite characterization knowledge, in the form of estimated parameter uncertainties, from radiometric observation type, quantity, quality, and in combinations. The approach combines complex forward modeling capability with an Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) to map observation uncertainties into satellite characterization parameter space. These parameters can include size, shape, orientation, material properties, etc., and the observations can include broadband or narrowband spectral radiometry, spatially resolved or non-resolved imagery, and passive or active optical data. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique, the example of using photometric light curve observations to estimate the orientation of a cube is presented. This example is chosen since the orientation uncertainty can be analytically traced from basic radiometry equations and compared to the results of the UKF. The uncertainties can also be tested through Monte Carlo analysis in which simulations are performed 10 times in order to compare observed estimation error sample statistics to the uncertainty predicted by the UKF. There are many optical sensors available and proposed to provide satellite characterization information. Understanding the information content in these data, which this approach provides, allows users to predict the amount and type of data required to obtain desired satellite characterization knowledge as well as provides direction for high pay-off future sensor development efforts.

  3. Early detection of RFI in SMOS radiometric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anterrieu, Eric

    2011-10-01

    The SMOS mission is a European Space Agency (ESA) project aimed at global monitoring of surface Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity from radiometric L-band observations. The single payload of the mission is MIRAS, the very first Microwave Imaging Radiometer using Aperture Synthesis ever launched into space. This work is concerned with the contamination of the data collected by MIRAS by radio frequency interferences (RFI) which degrade the performance of the mission. RFI events are evidenced and it is explained why well-known standard RFI detection methods cannot be used. Accounting for specificities of MIRAS, an early detection method tailored to SMOS measurements is presented and illustrated with data acquired with the reference radiometers during the first year of the mission. The aim of this method is not to localize nor to quantify the RFI sources but only to detect, to quantify and possibly to mitigate the corresponding RFI effects in the signals measured by these radiometers. This is done as soon as possible in the processing pipeline so that the propagation of such undesirable effects is known and under control from measurements to final products.

  4. Advanced radiometric and interferometric milimeter-wave scene simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauss, B. I.; Moffa, P. J.; Steele, W. G.; Agravante, H.; Davidheiser, R.; Samec, T.; Young, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    Smart munitions and weapons utilize various imaging sensors (including passive IR, active and passive millimeter-wave, and visible wavebands) to detect/identify targets at short standoff ranges and in varied terrain backgrounds. In order to design and evaluate these sensors under a variety of conditions, a high-fidelity scene simulation capability is necessary. Such a capability for passive millimeter-wave scene simulation exists at TRW. TRW's Advanced Radiometric Millimeter-Wave Scene Simulation (ARMSS) code is a rigorous, benchmarked, end-to-end passive millimeter-wave scene simulation code for interpreting millimeter-wave data, establishing scene signatures and evaluating sensor performance. In passive millimeter-wave imaging, resolution is limited due to wavelength and aperture size. Where high resolution is required, the utility of passive millimeter-wave imaging is confined to short ranges. Recent developments in interferometry have made possible high resolution applications on military platforms. Interferometry or synthetic aperture radiometry allows the creation of a high resolution image with a sparsely filled aperture. Borrowing from research work in radio astronomy, we have developed and tested at TRW scene reconstruction algorithms that allow the recovery of the scene from a relatively small number of spatial frequency components. In this paper, the TRW modeling capability is described and numerical results are presented.

  5. Advanced radiometric and interferometric milimeter-wave scene simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauss, B. I.; Moffa, P. J.; Steele, W. G.; Agravante, H.; Davidheiser, R.; Samec, T.; Young, S. K.

    1993-12-01

    Smart munitions and weapons utilize various imaging sensors (including passive IR, active and passive millimeter-wave, and visible wavebands) to detect/identify targets at short standoff ranges and in varied terrain backgrounds. In order to design and evaluate these sensors under a variety of conditions, a high-fidelity scene simulation capability is necessary. Such a capability for passive millimeter-wave scene simulation exists at TRW. TRW's Advanced Radiometric Millimeter-Wave Scene Simulation (ARMSS) code is a rigorous, benchmarked, end-to-end passive millimeter-wave scene simulation code for interpreting millimeter-wave data, establishing scene signatures and evaluating sensor performance. In passive millimeter-wave imaging, resolution is limited due to wavelength and aperture size. Where high resolution is required, the utility of passive millimeter-wave imaging is confined to short ranges. Recent developments in interferometry have made possible high resolution applications on military platforms. Interferometry or synthetic aperture radiometry allows the creation of a high resolution image with a sparsely filled aperture. Borrowing from research work in radio astronomy, we have developed and tested at TRW scene reconstruction algorithms that allow the recovery of the scene from a relatively small number of spatial frequency components. In this paper, the TRW modeling capability is described and numerical results are presented.

  6. Robust Multiscale Stereo Matching from Fundus Images with Radiometric Differences

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Li; Garvin, Mona K.; Lee, Kyungmoo; Alward, Wallace L.M.; Kwon, Young H.; Abràmoff, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    A robust multiscale stereo matching algorithm is proposed to find reliable correspondences between low contrast and weakly textured retinal image pairs with radiometric differences. Existing algorithms designed to deal with piecewise planar surfaces with distinct features and Lambertian reflectance do not apply in applications such as 3D reconstruction of medical images including stereo retinal images. In this paper, robust pixel feature vectors are formulated to extract discriminative features in the presence of noise in scale space, through which the response of low-frequency mechanisms alter and interact with the response of high-frequency mechanisms. The deep structures of the scene are represented with the evolution of disparity estimates in scale space, which distributes the matching ambiguity along the scale dimension to obtain globally coherent reconstructions. The performance is verified both qualitatively by face validity and quantitatively on our collection of stereo fundus image sets with ground truth, which have been made publicly available as an extension of standard test images for performance evaluation. PMID:21464502

  7. Radiometric sensitivity contrast metrics for hyperspectral remote sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silny, John F.; Zellinger, Lou

    2014-09-01

    This paper discusses the calculation, interpretation, and implications of various radiometric sensitivity metrics for Earth-observing hyperspectral imaging (HSI) sensors. The most commonly used sensor performance metric is signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), from which additional noise equivalent quantities can be computed, including: noise equivalent spectral radiance (NESR), noise equivalent delta reflectance (NEΔρ), noise equivalent delta emittance (NEΔƐ), and noise equivalent delta temperature (NEΔT). For hyperspectral sensors, these metrics are typically calculated from an at-aperture radiance (typically generated by MODTRAN) that includes both target radiance and non-target (atmosphere and background) radiance. Unfortunately, these calculations treat the entire at-aperture radiance as the desired signal, even when the target radiance is only a fraction of the total (such as when sensing through a long or optically dense atmospheric path). To overcome this limitation, an augmented set of metrics based on contrast signal-to-noise ratio (CNSR) is developed, including their noise equivalent counterparts (CNESR, CNEΔρ, CNEΔƐ, and CNEΔT). These contrast metrics better quantify sensor performance in an operational environment that includes remote sensing through the atmosphere.

  8. Radiometric oil well assay for glucokinase in microscopic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bedoya, F.J.; Meglasson, M.D.; Wilson, J.M.; Matschinsky, F.M.

    1985-02-01

    Glucokinase plays a pivotal role in hepatic glucose metabolism and serves as the glucose sensor in pancreatic islet beta-cells. Biochemical studies of this enzyme are complicated by the cellular heterogeneity of the liver and the pancreas and because the presence of hexokinases seriously interferes with currently available analytical procedures. A radiometric assay was designed to deal with these problems. It is based on the liberation of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O from D-(2-/sup 3/H(N))glucose 6-phosphate, the product of the glucokinase reaction, using exogenous phosphoglucose isomerase. Interference by hexokinases was largely eliminated by using glucose 6-phosphate as inhibitor and the sensitivity of the assay was greatly increased by using small volumes with the oil well procedure. The assay was sufficiently sensitive to detect about 1 pg of glucokinase. It thus allowed the application of quantitative histochemical procedures to the study of intralobular hepatic glucokinase profiles and the pancreatic beta-cell glucose sensor. The quantitative histochemical procedures were sufficiently sensitive and reliable for measuring important kinetic constants of glucokinase in microscopic samples of tissue.

  9. NERO: General concept of a NEO radiometric observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellino, A.; Somma, R.; Tommasi, L.; Paolinetti, R.; Muinonen, K.; Virtanen, J.; Tedesco, E. F.

    NERO (Near-Earth Objects Radiometric Observatory) is one of the six studies for possible missions dedicated to near-Earth objects, that were funded by the ESA in 2002-2003. NERO is a further development of previous studies already submitted to ESA (Sysiphos,Spaceguard-1). The general concept is that a small satellite equipped with both a CCD for visible wavelengths and an array for thermal IR measurements around 10 microns would be an ideal platform for simultaneously obtaining two of the major objectives of current NEO science, namely the physical characterization of the objects and the discovery of NEOs which are difficult to detect because they have orbits entirely or partly interior to the Earth's orbit. The NERO study included a comprehensive analysis of the advantages and drawbacks of different orbital options for the satellite (including L2 of Earth and L2 of Venus) and a preliminary simulation of the effectiveness in deriving reliable orbits of the newly detected objects. The main results of this study, including also a preliminary design of the payload (optics, detectors, cooling system, etc.) are briefly summarized.

  10. Investigation of Aerodynamic and Aerodynamic and Radiometric Land Surface Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crago, Richard D.; Friedl, Mark; Kustas, William; Wang, Ye-Qiao

    2003-01-01

    The overall goal of the project was to reconcile the difference between T(sub s,r) and T(sub aero), while maintaining consistency within models and with theory and data. The project involved collaboration between researchers at Bucknell University, Boston University, University of mode Island, and the USDNARS Hydrology Laboratory. This report focuses on the work done at Bucknell, which used an analytical continuous-source flux model developed by Crago (1998), based on work by Brutsaert and Sugita (1996) to generate fluxes at all levels of the canopy. Named ALARM [Analytical Land- Atmosphere-Radiometer Model] by Suleiman and Crago (2002), the model assumes the foliage has an exponential vertical temperature profile. The same profile is felt by the within-canopy turbulence and 'seen" by a radiometer viewing the surface from any zenith view angle. ALARM converts radiometric surface temperatures taken from any view angle into a clearly-defined version of Taero called the equivalent isothermal surface temperature T(sub s,j), and then calculates the sensible heat flux H using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. This allows remotely sensed Ts,r measurements to be used to produce high quality sensible and latent heat flux estimates, or to validate or update the surface temperature produced by SVATs in climate or mesoscale models.

  11. Design, manufacture, and calibration of infrared radiometric blackbody sources

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, D.A.; Michaud, F.D.; Bender, S.C.

    1996-04-01

    A Radiometric Calibration Station (RCS) is being assembled at the Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) which will allow for calibration of sensors with detector arrays having spectral capability from about 0.4-15 {mu}m. The configuration of the LANL RCS. Two blackbody sources have been designed to cover the spectral range from about 3-15 {mu}m, operating at temperatures ranging from about 180-350 K within a vacuum environment. The sources are designed to present a uniform spectral radiance over a large area to the sensor unit under test. The thermal uniformity requirement of the blackbody cavities has been one of the key factors of the design, requiring less than 50 mK variation over the entire blackbody surface to attain effective emissivity values of about 0.999. Once the two units are built and verified to the level of about 100 mK at LANL, they will be sent to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), where at least a factor of two improvement will be calibrated into the blackbody control system. The physical size of these assemblies will require modifications of the existing NIST Low Background Infrared (LBIR) Facility. LANL has constructed a bolt-on addition to the LBIR facility that will allow calibration of our large aperture sources. Methodology for attaining the two blackbody sources at calibrated levels of performance equivalent to present state of the art will be explained in the following.

  12. A multi-channel radiometric profiler of temperature, humidity and cloud liquid.

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, R.; Carpenter, R.; Guldner, J.; Liljegren, J.; Nehrkorn, T.; Solheim, F.; Vandenberghe, F.; Environmental Research; Radiometrics Corp.; Univ. Corp. for Atmospheric Research; Weather Decision Technologies Inc.; Atmospheric and Environmental Research Inc.; National Center for Atmospheric Research

    2003-07-31

    A microwave radiometer is described that provides continuous thermodynamic (temperature, water vapor, and moisture) soundings during clear and cloudy conditions. The radiometric profiler observes radiation intensity at 12 microwave frequencies, along with zenith infrared and surface meteorological measurements. Historical radiosonde and neural network or regression methods are used for profile retrieval. We compare radiometric, radiosonde, and forecast soundings and evaluate the accuracy of radiometric temperature and water vapor soundings on the basis of statistical comparison with radiosonde soundings. We find that radiometric soundings are equivalent in accuracy to radiosonde soundings when used in numerical weather forecasting. A case study is described that demonstrates improved fog forecasting on the basis of variational assimilation of radiometric soundings. The accuracy of radiometric cloud liquid soundings is evaluated by comparison with cloud liquid sensors carried by radiosondes. Accurate high-resolution three-dimensional water vapor and wind analysis is described on the basis of assimilation of simulated thermodynamic and wind soundings along with GPS slant delays. Examples of mobile thermodynamic and wind profilers are shown. Thermodynamic profiling, particularly when combined with wind profiling and slant GPS, provides continuous atmospheric soundings for improved weather and dispersion forecasting.

  13. Proceedings of the LLNL Technical Women`s Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    von Holtz, E.

    1993-12-31

    This report documents events of the LLNL Technical Women`s Symposium. Topics include; future of computer systems, environmental technology, defense and space, Nova Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Physics, technical communication, tools and techniques for biology in the 1990s, automation and robotics, software applications, materials science, atomic vapor laser isotope separation, technical communication, technology transfer, and professional development workshops.

  14. Automated DNA Sequencing System

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.; Ekkebus, C.P.; Hauser, L.J.; Kress, R.L.; Mural, R.J.

    1999-04-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a core DNA sequencing facility to support biological research endeavors at ORNL and to conduct basic sequencing automation research. This facility is novel because its development is based on existing standard biology laboratory equipment; thus, the development process is of interest to the many small laboratories trying to use automation to control costs and increase throughput. Before automation, biology Laboratory personnel purified DNA, completed cycle sequencing, and prepared 96-well sample plates with commercially available hardware designed specifically for each step in the process. Following purification and thermal cycling, an automated sequencing machine was used for the sequencing. A technician handled all movement of the 96-well sample plates between machines. To automate the process, ORNL is adding a CRS Robotics A- 465 arm, ABI 377 sequencing machine, automated centrifuge, automated refrigerator, and possibly an automated SpeedVac. The entire system will be integrated with one central controller that will direct each machine and the robot. The goal of this system is to completely automate the sequencing procedure from bacterial cell samples through ready-to-be-sequenced DNA and ultimately to completed sequence. The system will be flexible and will accommodate different chemistries than existing automated sequencing lines. The system will be expanded in the future to include colony picking and/or actual sequencing. This discrete event, DNA sequencing system will demonstrate that smaller sequencing labs can achieve cost-effective the laboratory grow.

  15. Automation of Hubble Space Telescope Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard; Goulet, Gregory; Slater, Mark; Huey, William; Bassford, Lynn; Dunham, Larry

    2012-01-01

    On June 13, 2011, after more than 21 years, 115 thousand orbits, and nearly 1 million exposures taken, the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope successfully transitioned from 24x7x365 staffing to 815 staffing. This required the automation of routine mission operations including telemetry and forward link acquisition, data dumping and solid-state recorder management, stored command loading, and health and safety monitoring of both the observatory and the HST Ground System. These changes were driven by budget reductions, and required ground system and onboard spacecraft enhancements across the entire operations spectrum, from planning and scheduling systems to payload flight software. Changes in personnel and staffing were required in order to adapt to the new roles and responsibilities required in the new automated operations era. This paper will provide a high level overview of the obstacles to automating nominal HST mission operations, both technical and cultural, and how those obstacles were overcome.

  16. Gel pad application for automated breast sonography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Ju; Kim, Sung Hun; Jeh, Su Kyung; Choi, Jae Jeong; Kang, Bong Joo; Song, Byung Joo

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the technical aspects of gel pad application for automated breast sonography and to show its effects on pain relief, scan coverage, and image quality. Twenty patients underwent 2 sets of automated breast sonography with and without gel pad application and were then asked to provide feedback on the examination-related pain. Scan coverage and image quality were compared quantitatively and qualitatively. The degree of pain was significantly decreased after gel pad application (P < .0001). The scan coverage was expanded particularly at the mid-portion of the breast. Image quality was satisfactory without significant differences between the sets. Gel pad application for automated breast sonography is easy and provides significant pain relief. The scan coverage was expanded, while the image quality was maintained. PMID:25792588

  17. Technical writing versus technical writing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillingham, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Two terms, two job categories, 'technical writer' and 'technical author' are discussed in terms of industrial and business requirements and standards. A distinction between 'technical writing' and technical 'writing' is made. The term 'technical editor' is also considered. Problems inherent in the design of programs to prepare and train students for these jobs are discussed. A closer alliance between industry and academia is suggested as a means of preparing students with competent technical communication skills (especially writing and editing skills) and good technical skills.

  18. Technicalities of endoscopic biopsy.

    PubMed

    Tytgat, G N; Ignacio, J G

    1995-11-01

    Despite the wealth of biopsy forceps currently available, it is obvious that there are sufficient drawbacks and shortcomings to reconsider the overall design of the endoscopic biopsy depth, the short lifespan of reusable forceps, damage to the working channel, excessive time consumption, cleaning and disinfection difficulties, etc. Improvements should be possible that approach the same degree of sophistication as is currently available in endoscopic equipment. Fully-automated, repetitive, quickly targeted biopsy sampling should be possible, but it will require the utmost technical ingenuity and expertise to achieve. PMID:8903983

  19. Airborne electronics for automated flight systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, G. B., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The increasing importance of airborne electronics for use in automated flight systems is briefly reviewed with attention to both basic aircraft control functions and flight management systems for operational use. The requirements for high levels of systems reliability are recognized. Design techniques are discussed and the areas of control systems, computing and communications are considered in terms of key technical problems and trends for their solution.

  20. MARC: A Thought Experiment in the Morality of Automated Marking of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Automated essay scoring programs are becoming more common and more technically advanced. They provoke strong reactions from both their advocates and their detractors. Arguments tend to fall into two categories: technical and principled. This paper argues that since technical difficulties will be overcome with time, the debate ought to be held in…

  1. Radiometric Calibration of the Earth Observing System's Imaging Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, Philip N. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The work on the grant was mainly directed towards developing new, accurate, redundant methods for the in-flight, absolute radiometric calibration of satellite multispectral imaging systems and refining the accuracy of methods already in use. Initially the work was in preparation for the calibration of MODIS and HIRIS (before the development of that sensor was canceled), with the realization it would be applicable to most imaging multi- or hyper-spectral sensors provided their spatial or spectral resolutions were not too coarse. The work on the grant involved three different ground-based, in-flight calibration methods reflectance-based radiance-based and diffuse-to-global irradiance ratio used with the reflectance-based method. This continuing research had the dual advantage of: (1) developing several independent methods to create the redundancy that is essential for the identification and hopefully the elimination of systematic errors; and (2) refining the measurement techniques and algorithms that can be used not only for improving calibration accuracy but also for the reverse process of retrieving ground reflectances from calibrated remote-sensing data. The grant also provided the support necessary for us to embark on other projects such as the ratioing radiometer approach to on-board calibration (this has been further developed by SBRS as the 'solar diffuser stability monitor' and is incorporated into the most important on-board calibration system for MODIS)- another example of the work, which was a spin-off from the grant funding, was a study of solar diffuser materials. Journal citations, titles and abstracts of publications authored by faculty, staff, and students are also attached.

  2. Reintroducing radiometric surface temperature into the Penman-Monteith formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, Kaniska; Boegh, Eva; Trebs, Ivonne; Alfieri, Joseph G.; Kustas, William P.; Prueger, John H.; Niyogi, Dev; Das, Narendra; Drewry, Darren T.; Hoffmann, Lucien; Jarvis, Andrew J.

    2015-08-01

    Here we demonstrate a novel method to physically integrate radiometric surface temperature (TR) into the Penman-Monteith (PM) formulation for estimating the terrestrial sensible and latent heat fluxes (H and λE) in the framework of a modified Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC). It combines TR data with standard energy balance closure models for deriving a hybrid scheme that does not require parameterization of the surface (or stomatal) and aerodynamic conductances (gS and gB). STIC is formed by the simultaneous solution of four state equations and it uses TR as an additional data source for retrieving the "near surface" moisture availability (M) and the Priestley-Taylor coefficient (α). The performance of STIC is tested using high-temporal resolution TR observations collected from different international surface energy flux experiments in conjunction with corresponding net radiation (RN), ground heat flux (G), air temperature (TA), and relative humidity (RH) measurements. A comparison of the STIC outputs with the eddy covariance measurements of λE and H revealed RMSDs of 7-16% and 40-74% in half-hourly λE and H estimates. These statistics were 5-13% and 10-44% in daily λE and H. The errors and uncertainties in both surface fluxes are comparable to the models that typically use land surface parameterizations for determining the unobserved components (gS and gB) of the surface energy balance models. However, the scheme is simpler, has the capabilities for generating spatially explicit surface energy fluxes and independent of submodels for boundary layer developments. This article was corrected on 27 AUG 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  3. Radiometric Calibration Techniques for Signal-of-Opportunity Reflectometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Shah, Rashmi; Deshpande, Manohar; Johnson, Carey

    2014-01-01

    Bi-static reflection measurements utilizing global navigation satellite service (GNSS) or other signals of opportunity (SoOp) can be used to sense ocean and terrestrial surface properties. End-to-end calibration of GNSS-R has been performed using well-characterized reflection surface (e.g., water), direct path antenna, and receiver gain characterization. We propose an augmented approach using on-board receiver electronics for radiometric calibration of SoOp reflectometers utilizing direct and reflected signal receiving antennas. The method calibrates receiver and correlator gains and offsets utilizing a reference switch and common noise source. On-board electronic calibration sources, such as reference switches, noise diodes and loop-back circuits, have shown great utility in stabilizing total power and correlation microwave radiometer and scatterometer receiver electronics in L-band spaceborne instruments. Application to SoOp instruments is likely to bring several benefits. For example, application to provide short and long time scale calibration stability of the direct path channel, especially in low signal-to-noise ratio configurations, is directly analogous to the microwave radiometer problem. The direct path channel is analogous to the loopback path in a scatterometer to provide a reference of the transmitted power, although the receiver is independent from the reflected path channel. Thus, a common noise source can be used to measure the gain ratio of the two paths. Using these techniques long-term (days to weeks) calibration stability of spaceborne L-band scatterometer and radiometer has been achieved better than 0.1. Similar long-term stability would likely be needed for a spaceborne reflectometer mission to measure terrestrial properties such as soil moisture.

  4. Landsat-7 EMT+ On-Orbit Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Barker, J. L.; Kaita, E.; Seiferth, J.; Morfitt, Ron

    1999-01-01

    Landsat-7 was launched on April 15, 1999 and completed its on orbit initialization and verification period on June 28, 1999. The ETM+ payload is similar to the TM sensors on previous Landsat satellites and incorporates two new devices to improve its absolute radiometric calibration. The Full Aperture Solar Calibrator (FASC) is a deployable diffuser panel. This device has been deployed 9 times to date, with a normal deployment schedule of once per month. The initial analysis of the FASC data has given absolute calibration results within 5% of the prelaunch integrating sphere calibrations and a range of variation of 2% between dates. The Partial Aperture Solar Calibrator (PASC), is a set of auxiliary optics that allows the ETM+ to view the sun through a reduced aperture. Data have normally been acquired on a daily basis with the PASC. Initial results with the PASC were encouraging, despite some unexpected saturation in the shortest wavelength band. The response of the ETM+ short wavelength (silicon) bands to the PASC increased initially and has begun to decrease in some of these bands. The longer wavelength (InSb) bands have shown up to 30% oscillations that vary between detectors within the band. Studies are ongoing to better characterize the response to the PASC. The ETM+ also incorporates an internal calibrator (IC), a shutter that oscillates in front of the focal plane that directs light from the internal calibrator lamps to the focal plane. The responses to this device are also varying, though differently than the PASC results. Both the IC and PASC results are attributable to the calibration devices as opposed to the ETM+ itself.

  5. Automated ship image acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, T. R.

    2008-04-01

    The experimental Automated Ship Image Acquisition System (ASIA) collects high-resolution ship photographs at a shore-based laboratory, with minimal human intervention. The system uses Automatic Identification System (AIS) data to direct a high-resolution SLR digital camera to ship targets and to identify the ships in the resulting photographs. The photo database is then searchable using the rich data fields from AIS, which include the name, type, call sign and various vessel identification numbers. The high-resolution images from ASIA are intended to provide information that can corroborate AIS reports (e.g., extract identification from the name on the hull) or provide information that has been omitted from the AIS reports (e.g., missing or incorrect hull dimensions, cargo, etc). Once assembled into a searchable image database, the images can be used for a wide variety of marine safety and security applications. This paper documents the author's experience with the practicality of composing photographs based on AIS reports alone, describing a number of ways in which this can go wrong, from errors in the AIS reports, to fixed and mobile obstructions and multiple ships in the shot. The frequency with which various errors occurred in automatically-composed photographs collected in Halifax harbour in winter time were determined by manual examination of the images. 45% of the images examined were considered of a quality sufficient to read identification markings, numbers and text off the entire ship. One of the main technical challenges for ASIA lies in automatically differentiating good and bad photographs, so that few bad ones would be shown to human users. Initial attempts at automatic photo rating showed 75% agreement with manual assessments.

  6. Laboratory Automation and Middleware.

    PubMed

    Riben, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The practice of surgical pathology is under constant pressure to deliver the highest quality of service, reduce errors, increase throughput, and decrease turnaround time while at the same time dealing with an aging workforce, increasing financial constraints, and economic uncertainty. Although not able to implement total laboratory automation, great progress continues to be made in workstation automation in all areas of the pathology laboratory. This report highlights the benefits and challenges of pathology automation, reviews middleware and its use to facilitate automation, and reviews the progress so far in the anatomic pathology laboratory. PMID:26065792

  7. Automated construction of lightweight, simple, field-erected structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of automation of construction processes which could result in mobile construction robots is examined. The construction of a large photovoltaic power plant with a peak power output of 100 MW is demonstrated. The reasons to automate the construction process, a conventional construction scenario as the reference for evaluation, and a list of potential cost benefits using robots are presented. The technical feasibility of using robots to construct SPS ground stations is addressed.

  8. Management Planning for Workplace Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDole, Thomas L.

    Several factors must be considered when implementing office automation. Included among these are whether or not to automate at all, the effects of automation on employees, requirements imposed by automation on the physical environment, effects of automation on the total organization, and effects on clientele. The reasons behind the success or…

  9. Experimental methods of indoor millimeter-wave radiometric imaging for personnel concealed contraband detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Taiyang; Xiao, Zelong; Li, Hao; Lv, Rongchuan; Lu, Xuan

    2014-11-01

    The increasingly emerging terrorism attacks and violence crimes around the world have posed severe threats to public security, so carrying out relevant research on advanced experimental methods of personnel concealed contraband detection is crucial and meaningful. All of the advantages of imaging covertly, avoidance of interference with other systems, intrinsic property of being safe to persons under screening , and the superior ability of imaging through natural or manmade obscurants, have significantly combined to enable millimeter-wave (MMW) radiometric imaging to offer great potential in personnel concealed contraband detection. Based upon the current research status of MMW radiometric imaging and urgent demands of personnel security screening, this paper mainly focuses on the experimental methods of indoor MMW radiometric imaging. The reverse radiation noise resulting from super-heterodyne receivers seriously affects the image experiments carried out at short range, so both the generation mechanism and reducing methods of this noise are investigated. Then, the benefit of sky illumination no longer exists for the indoor radiometric imaging, and this leads to the decrease in radiometric temperature contrast between target and background. In order to enhance the radiometric temperature contrast for improving indoor imaging performance, the noise illumination technique is adopted in the indoor imaging scenario. In addition, the speed and accuracy of concealed contraband detection from acquired MMW radiometric images are usually restricted to the deficiencies in traditional artificial interpretation by security inspectors, thus an automatic recognition and location algorithm by integrating improved Fuzzy C-means clustering with moment invariants is put forward. A series of original results are also presented to demonstrate the significance and validity of these methods.

  10. Improved Thermal-Vacuum Compatible Flat Plate Radiometric Souce for System-Level Testing of Optical Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the development of an improved vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source used for characterizing and calibrating remote optical sensors, in situ, throughout their testing period. The original flat plate radiometric source was developed for use by the VIIRS instrument during the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP). Following this effort, the FPI has had significant upgrades in order to improve both the radiometric throughput and uniformity. Results of the VIIRS testing with the reconfigured FPI are reported and discussed.

  11. Approaches to automated protein crystal harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Deller, Marc C.; Rupp, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    The harvesting of protein crystals is almost always a necessary step in the determination of a protein structure using X-ray crystallographic techniques. However, protein crystals are usually fragile and susceptible to damage during the harvesting process. For this reason, protein crystal harvesting is the single step that remains entirely dependent on skilled human intervention. Automation has been implemented in the majority of other stages of the structure-determination pipeline, including cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and data collection. The gap in automation between crystallization and data collection results in a bottleneck in throughput and presents unfortunate opportunities for crystal damage. Several automated protein crystal harvesting systems have been developed, including systems utilizing microcapillaries, microtools, microgrippers, acoustic droplet ejection and optical traps. However, these systems have yet to be commonly deployed in the majority of crystallography laboratories owing to a variety of technical and cost-related issues. Automation of protein crystal harvesting remains essential for harnessing the full benefits of fourth-generation synchrotrons, free-electron lasers and microfocus beamlines. Furthermore, automation of protein crystal harvesting offers several benefits when compared with traditional manual approaches, including the ability to harvest microcrystals, improved flash-cooling procedures and increased throughput. PMID:24637746

  12. Approaches to automated protein crystal harvesting.

    PubMed

    Deller, Marc C; Rupp, Bernhard

    2014-02-01

    The harvesting of protein crystals is almost always a necessary step in the determination of a protein structure using X-ray crystallographic techniques. However, protein crystals are usually fragile and susceptible to damage during the harvesting process. For this reason, protein crystal harvesting is the single step that remains entirely dependent on skilled human intervention. Automation has been implemented in the majority of other stages of the structure-determination pipeline, including cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and data collection. The gap in automation between crystallization and data collection results in a bottleneck in throughput and presents unfortunate opportunities for crystal damage. Several automated protein crystal harvesting systems have been developed, including systems utilizing microcapillaries, microtools, microgrippers, acoustic droplet ejection and optical traps. However, these systems have yet to be commonly deployed in the majority of crystallography laboratories owing to a variety of technical and cost-related issues. Automation of protein crystal harvesting remains essential for harnessing the full benefits of fourth-generation synchrotrons, free-electron lasers and microfocus beamlines. Furthermore, automation of protein crystal harvesting offers several benefits when compared with traditional manual approaches, including the ability to harvest microcrystals, improved flash-cooling procedures and increased throughput. PMID:24637746

  13. Application of multispectral LiDAR to automated virtual outcrop geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartzell, Preston; Glennie, Craig; Biber, Kivanc; Khan, Shuhab

    2014-02-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is a valuable tool for creating virtual 3D models of geological outcrops to enable enhanced modeling and analysis of geologic strata. Application of TLS data is typically limited to the geometric point cloud that is used to create the 3D structure of the outcrop model. Digital photography can then be draped onto the 3D model, allowing visual identification and manual spatial delineation of different rock layers. Automation of the rock type identification and delineation is desirable, and recent work has investigated the use of terrestrial hyperspectral photography for this purpose. However, passive photography, whether visible or hyperspectral, presents several complexities, including accurate spatial registration with the TLS point cloud data, reliance on sunlight for illumination, and radiometric calibration to properly extract spectral signatures of the different rock types. As an active remote sensing method, a radiometrically calibrated TLS system offers the potential to directly provide spectral information for each recorded 3D point, independent of solar illumination. Therefore, the practical application of three radiometrically calibrated TLS systems with differing laser wavelengths, thereby achieving a multispectral dataset in conjunction with 3D point cloud data, is investigated using commercially available hardware and software. The radiometric calibration of the TLS intensity values is investigated and the classification performance of the multispectral TLS intensity and calibrated reflectance datasets evaluated and compared to classification performed with passive visible wavelength imagery. Results indicate that rock types can be successfully identified with radiometrically calibrated multispectral TLS data, with enhanced classification performance when fused with passive visible imagery.

  14. Demonstration of the feasibility of automated silicon solar cell fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, W. E.; Schwartz, F. M.

    1975-01-01

    A study effort was undertaken to determine the process, steps and design requirements of an automated silicon solar cell production facility. Identification of the key process steps was made and a laboratory model was conceptually designed to demonstrate the feasibility of automating the silicon solar cell fabrication process. A detailed laboratory model was designed to demonstrate those functions most critical to the question of solar cell fabrication process automating feasibility. The study and conceptual design have established the technical feasibility of automating the solar cell manufacturing process to produce low cost solar cells with improved performance. Estimates predict an automated process throughput of 21,973 kilograms of silicon a year on a three shift 49-week basis, producing 4,747,000 hexagonal cells (38mm/side), a total of 3,373 kilowatts at an estimated manufacturing cost of $0.866 per cell or $1.22 per watt.

  15. Technical Shibboleths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, John S.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technical sub-languages to reveal sociological functions of language that transcend mere transfer of substantive information. Finds one sociological feature, the shibboleth, acting widely throughout technical fields. (PA)

  16. Machining automation: Doing it right the first time

    SciTech Connect

    Setter, D.L.

    1990-08-01

    The implementation of a machining automation program and of the Allied-Signal efforts to Do it Right the First Time'' is presented. The automation program is a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) for the machining and on-line inspection of a family of aluminum and stainless steel prismatic parts. The critical management and technical aspects found necessary to assure success in implementing large and risky automation programs are presented. The process being used is team based and has concentrated on involving the end users from the beginning.

  17. Computer automated design and computer automated manufacture.

    PubMed

    Brncick, M

    2000-08-01

    The introduction of computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing into the field of prosthetics and orthotics did not arrive without concern. Many prosthetists feared that the computer would provide other allied health practitioners who had little or no experience in prosthetics the ability to fit and manage amputees. Technicians in the field felt their jobs may be jeopardized by automated fabrication techniques. This has not turned out to be the case. Prosthetists who use CAD-CAM techniques are finding they have more time for patient care and clinical assessment. CAD-CAM is another tool for them to provide better care for the patients/clients they serve. One of the factors that deterred the acceptance of CAD-CAM techniques in its early stages was that of cost. It took a significant investment in software and hardware for the prosthetists to begin to use the new systems. This new technique was not reimbursed by insurance coverage. Practitioners did not have enough information about this new technique to make a sound decision on their investment of time and money. Ironically, it is the need to hold health care costs down that may prove to be the catalyst for the increased use of CAD-CAM in the field. Providing orthoses and prostheses to patients who require them is a very labor intensive process. Practitioners are looking for better, faster, and more economical ways in which to provide their services under the pressure of managed care. CAD-CAM may be the answer. The author foresees shape sensing departments in hospitals where patients would be sent to be digitized, similar to someone going for radiograph or ultrasound. Afterwards, an orthosis or prosthesis could be provided from a central fabrication facility at a remote site, most likely on the same day. Not long ago, highly skilled practitioners with extensive technical ability would custom make almost every orthosis. One now practices in an atmosphere where off-the-shelf orthoses are the standard. This

  18. Radiometric calibration and noise estimation of acousto-optic tunable filter hyperspectral imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Katrašnik, Jaka; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2013-05-20

    The accuracy of the radiometric response of acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) hyperspectral imaging systems is crucial for obtaining reliable measurements. It is therefore important to know the radiometric response and noise characteristics of the hyperspectral imaging system used. A radiometric model of an AOTF hyperspectral imaging system composed of an imaging sensor radiometric model (CCD, CMOS, and sCMOS) and an AOTF light transmission model is proposed. Using the radiometric model, a method for obtaining the fixed pattern noise (FPN) of the imaging system by displacing and imaging an illuminated reference target is developed. Methods for estimating the temporal noise of the imaging system, using the photon transfer method, and for correcting FPN are also presented. Noise estimation and image restoration methods were tested on an AOTF hyperspectral imaging system. The results indicate that the developed methods can accurately calculate temporal and FPN, and can effectively correct the acquired images. After correction, the signal-to-noise ratio of the acquired images was shown to increase by 26%. PMID:23736239

  19. The Eurosdr Project "RADIOMETRIC Aspects of Digital Photogrammetric IMAGES" - Results of the Empirical Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honkavaara, E.; Arbiol, R.; Markelin, L.; Martínez, L.; Bovet, S.; Bredif, M.; Chandelier, L.; Heikkinen, V.; Korpela, I.; Lelegard, L.; Pérez, F.; Schläpfer, D.; Tokola, T.

    2011-09-01

    This article presents the empirical research carried out in the context of the multi-site EuroSDR project "Radiometric aspects of digital photogrammetric images" and provides highlights of the results. The investigations have considered the vicarious radiometric and spatial resolution validation and calibration of the sensor system, radiometric processing of the image blocks either by performing relative radiometric block equalization or into absolutely reflectance calibrated products, and finally aspects of practical applications on NDVI layer generation and tree species classification. The data sets were provided by Leica Geosystems ADS40 and Intergraph DMC and the participants represented stakeholders in National Mapping Authorities, software development and research. The investigations proved the stability and quality of evaluated imaging systems with respect to radiometry and optical system. The first new-generation methods for reflectance calibration and equalization of photogrammetric image block data provided promising accuracy and were also functional from the productivity and usability points of view. The reflectance calibration methods provided up to 5% accuracy without any ground reference. Application oriented results indicated that automatic interpretation methods will benefit from the optimal use of radiometrically accurate multi-view photogrammetric imagery.

  20. Automated drilling draws interest

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    Interest in subsea technology includes recent purchase of both a British yard and Subsea Technology, a Houston-based BOP manufacturer. In France, key personnel from the former Comex Industries have been acquired and a base reinstalled in Marseille. ACB is also investing heavily, with the Norwegians, in automated drilling programs. These automated drilling programs are discussed.

  1. Library Automation Style Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord Bros., Liverpool, NY.

    This library automation style guide lists specific terms and names often used in the library automation industry. The terms and/or acronyms are listed alphabetically and each is followed by a brief definition. The guide refers to the "Chicago Manual of Style" for general rules, and a notes section is included for the convenience of individual…

  2. Automation and Cataloging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furuta, Kenneth; And Others

    1990-01-01

    These three articles address issues in library cataloging that are affected by automation: (1) the impact of automation and bibliographic utilities on professional catalogers; (2) the effect of the LASS microcomputer software on the cost of authority work in cataloging at the University of Arizona; and (3) online subject heading and classification…

  3. Planning for Office Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherron, Gene T.

    1982-01-01

    The steps taken toward office automation by the University of Maryland are described. Office automation is defined and some types of word processing systems are described. Policies developed in the writing of a campus plan are listed, followed by a section on procedures adopted to implement the plan. (Author/MLW)

  4. The Automated Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naclerio, Nick

    1979-01-01

    Clerical personnel may be able to climb career ladders as a result of office automation and expanded job opportunities in the word processing area. Suggests opportunities in an automated office system and lists books and periodicals on word processing for counselors and teachers. (MF)

  5. Work and Programmable Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVore, Paul W.

    A new industrial era based on electronics and the microprocessor has arrived, an era that is being called intelligent automation. Intelligent automation, in the form of robots, replaces workers, and the new products, using microelectronic devices, require significantly less labor to produce than the goods they replace. The microprocessor thus…

  6. Automation, Manpower, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Jerry M.

    Each group in our population will be affected by automation and other forms of technological advancement. This book seeks to identify the needs of these various groups, and to present ways in which educators can best meet them. The author corrects certain prevalent misconceptions concerning manpower utilization and automation. Based on the…

  7. Automation in Immunohematology

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Meenu; Kaur, Ravneet; Gupta, Ekta

    2012-01-01

    There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process. PMID:22988378

  8. Advances in inspection automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Walter H.; Mair, H. Douglas; Jansen, Dion; Lombardi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    This new session at QNDE reflects the growing interest in inspection automation. Our paper describes a newly developed platform that makes the complex NDE automation possible without the need for software programmers. Inspection tasks that are tedious, error-prone or impossible for humans to perform can now be automated using a form of drag and drop visual scripting. Our work attempts to rectify the problem that NDE is not keeping pace with the rest of factory automation. Outside of NDE, robots routinely and autonomously machine parts, assemble components, weld structures and report progress to corporate databases. By contrast, components arriving in the NDT department typically require manual part handling, calibrations and analysis. The automation examples in this paper cover the development of robotic thickness gauging and the use of adaptive contour following on the NRU reactor inspection at Chalk River.

  9. (abstract) Deep Space Network Radiometric Remote Sensing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft are viewed through a troposphere that absorbs and delays radio signals propagating through it. Tropospheric water, in the form of vapor, cloud liquid,and precipitation , emits radio noise which limits satellite telemetry communication link performance. Even at X-band, rain storms have severely affected several satellite experiments including a planetary encounter. The problem will worsen with DSN implementation of Ka-band becausecommunication link budgets will be dominated by tropospheric conditions. Troposphere-induced propagation delays currently limit VLBI accuracy and are significant sources of error for Doppler tracking. Additionally, the success of radio science programs such as satellite gravity wave experiments and atmospheric occultation experiments depends on minimizing the effect of watervapor-induced prop agation delays. In order to overcome limitations imposed by the troposphere, the Deep Space Network has supported a program of radiometric remote sensing. Currently, water vapor radiometers (WVRs) and microwave temperature profilers (MTPs) support many aspects of the Deep Space Network operations and research and development programs. Their capability to sense atmospheric water, microwave sky brightness, and atmospheric temperature is critical to development of Ka-band telemetry systems, communication link models, VLBI, satellite gravity waveexperiments, and r adio science missions. During 1993, WVRs provided data for propagation mode development, supp orted planetary missions, and demonstrated advanced tracking capability. Collection of atmospheric statistics is necessary to model and predict performance of Ka-band telemetry links, antenna arrays, and radio science experiments. Since the spectrum of weather variations has power at very long time scales, atmospheric measurements have been requested for periods ranging from one year to a decade at each DSN site. The resulting database would provide reliable statistics on daily

  10. Bibliographic Networks and Microcomputer Applications for Aerospace and Defense Scientific and Technical Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartt, Richard W.

    This report discusses the characteristics, operations, and automation requirements of technical libraries providing services to organizations involved in aerospace and defense scientific and technical work, and describes the Local Automation Model project. This on-going project is designed to demonstrate the concept of a fully integrated library…

  11. Geometric and radiometric characterization of LANDSAT-D thematic mapper and multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, H. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    A geometrically raw image of Washington, D.C. was acquired and radiometrically corrected. The data show little of the detector stripping common in earlier MSS images. The radiometrically corrected data have uniform means and standard deviations for the detectors in each band; however, the data for different detectors utilize a different pattern of DN levels, resulting in ubiquitous stripping of 1 DN amplitude. Band-to-band registration was assessed using color composites and small area correlation techniques. The spectral equivalency of the first four bands of the thematic mapper with the four bands of the MSS is being examined. Geometric analysis of the Washington, D.C. scene have started and a generalized routine for examining the contents of the label files and nonvideo data files was implemented. Several discrepancies from the documentation are described. Night scenes and daytime ocean scenes required for radiometric purposes were identified and the data ordered.

  12. Artifact correction and absolute radiometric calibration techniques employed in the Landsat 7 image assessment system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boncyk, Wayne C.; Markham, Brian L.; Barker, John L.; Helder, Dennis

    1996-01-01

    The Landsat-7 Image Assessment System (IAS), part of the Landsat-7 Ground System, will calibrate and evaluate the radiometric and geometric performance of the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM +) instrument. The IAS incorporates new instrument radiometric artifact correction and absolute radiometric calibration techniques which overcome some limitations to calibration accuracy inherent in historical calibration methods. Knowledge of ETM + instrument characteristics gleaned from analysis of archival Thematic Mapper in-flight data and from ETM + prelaunch tests allow the determination and quantification of the sources of instrument artifacts. This a priori knowledge will be utilized in IAS algorithms designed to minimize the effects of the noise sources before calibration, in both ETM + image and calibration data.

  13. Absolute radiometric calibration of Als intensity data: effects on accuracy and target classification.

    PubMed

    Kaasalainen, Sanna; Pyysalo, Ulla; Krooks, Anssi; Vain, Ants; Kukko, Antero; Hyyppä, Juha; Kaasalainen, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of airborne laser scanning (ALS) intensity data aims at retrieving a value related to the target scattering properties, which is independent on the instrument or flight parameters. The aim of a calibration procedure is also to be able to compare results from different flights and instruments, but practical applications are sparsely available, and the performance of calibration methods for this purpose needs to be further assessed. We have studied the radiometric calibration with data from three separate flights and two different instruments using external calibration targets. We find that the intensity data from different flights and instruments can be compared to each other only after a radiometric calibration process using separate calibration targets carefully selected for each flight. The calibration is also necessary for target classification purposes, such as separating vegetation from sand using intensity data from different flights. The classification results are meaningful only for calibrated intensity data. PMID:22346660

  14. Radiometric calibration and processing procedure for reflective bands on LANDSAT-4 protoflight Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Abrams, R. B.; Ball, D. L.; Leung, K. C.

    1984-01-01

    The radiometric subsystem of NASA's LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor is described. Special emphasis is placed on the internal calibrator (IC) pulse shapes and timing cycle. The procedures for the absolute radiometric calibration of the TM channels with a 122-centimeter integrating sphere and the transfer of radiometric calibration from the channels to the IC are reviewed. The use of the IC to calibrate TM data in the ground processing system consists of pulse integration, pulse averaging, IC state identification, linear regression analysis, and histogram equalization. An overview of the SCROUNGE-era (before August 1983) method is presented. Procedural differences between SCROUNGE and the TIPS-era (after July 1983) and the implications of these differences are discussed.

  15. Radiometric Calibration of Mars HiRISE High Resolution Imagery Based on Fpga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yifan; Geng, Xun; Xing, Shuai; Tang, Yonghe; Xu, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Due to the large data amount of HiRISE imagery, traditional radiometric calibration method is not able to meet the fast processing requirements. To solve this problem, a radiometric calibration system of HiRISE imagery based on field program gate array (FPGA) is designed. The montage gap between two channels caused by gray inconsistency is removed through histogram matching. The calibration system is composed of FPGA and DSP, which makes full use of the parallel processing ability of FPGA and fast computation as well as flexible control characteristic of DSP. Experimental results show that the designed system consumes less hardware resources and the real-time processing ability of radiometric calibration of HiRISE imagery is improved.

  16. Preparation of a new autonomous instrumented radiometric calibration site: Gobabeb, Namib Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwell, Claire; Bialek, Agnieszka; Marks, Amelia; Woolliams, Emma; Berthelot, Béatrice; Meygret, Aimé; Marcq, Sébastien; Bouvet, Marc; Fox, Nigel

    2015-10-01

    A new permanently instrumented radiometric calibration site for high/medium resolution imaging satellite sensors is currently under development, focussing on the visible and near infra-red parts of the spectrum. The site will become a European contribution to the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) initiative RadCalNet (Radiometric Calibration Network). The exact location of the permanent monitoring instrumentation will be defined following the initial site characterisation. The new ESA/CNES RadCalNet site will have a robust uncertainty budget and its data fully SI traceable through detailed characterisation and calibration by NPL of the instruments and artefacts to be used on the site. This includes a CIMEL sun photometer (the permanent instrumentation) an ASD FieldSpec spectroradiometer, Gonio Radiometric Spectrometer System (GRASS), and reference reflectance standards.

  17. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of ALS Intensity Data: Effects on Accuracy and Target Classification

    PubMed Central

    Kaasalainen, Sanna; Pyysalo, Ulla; Krooks, Anssi; Vain, Ants; Kukko, Antero; Hyyppä, Juha; Kaasalainen, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of airborne laser scanning (ALS) intensity data aims at retrieving a value related to the target scattering properties, which is independent on the instrument or flight parameters. The aim of a calibration procedure is also to be able to compare results from different flights and instruments, but practical applications are sparsely available, and the performance of calibration methods for this purpose needs to be further assessed. We have studied the radiometric calibration with data from three separate flights and two different instruments using external calibration targets. We find that the intensity data from different flights and instruments can be compared to each other only after a radiometric calibration process using separate calibration targets carefully selected for each flight. The calibration is also necessary for target classification purposes, such as separating vegetation from sand using intensity data from different flights. The classification results are meaningful only for calibrated intensity data. PMID:22346660

  18. Human-system Interfaces to Automatic Systems: Review Guidance and Technical Basis

    SciTech Connect

    OHara, J.M.; Higgins, J.C.

    2010-01-31

    Automation has become ubiquitous in modern complex systems and commercial nuclear power plants are no exception. Beyond the control of plant functions and systems, automation is applied to a wide range of additional functions including monitoring and detection, situation assessment, response planning, response implementation, and interface management. Automation has become a 'team player' supporting plant personnel in nearly all aspects of plant operation. In light of the increasing use and importance of automation in new and future plants, guidance is needed to enable the NRC staff to conduct safety reviews of the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of modern automation. The objective of the research described in this report was to develop guidance for reviewing the operator's interface with automation. We first developed a characterization of the important HFE aspects of automation based on how it is implemented in current systems. The characterization included five dimensions: Level of automation, function of automation, modes of automation, flexibility of allocation, and reliability of automation. Next, we reviewed literature pertaining to the effects of these aspects of automation on human performance and the design of human-system interfaces (HSIs) for automation. Then, we used the technical basis established by the literature to develop design review guidance. The guidance is divided into the following seven topics: Automation displays, interaction and control, automation modes, automation levels, adaptive automation, error tolerance and failure management, and HSI integration. In addition, we identified insights into the automaton design process, operator training, and operations.

  19. NASA IKONOS Multispectral Radiometric Calibration and 3-Year Temporal Stability Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Carver, David; Holekamp, Kara; Ryan, Robert; Zanoni, Vicki; Thome, Kurtis; Schiller, Stephen; Aaran, David

    2003-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of commercial imaging satellite products is required to ensure that science and application communities can place confidence in the imagery they use and can fully understand its properties. Inaccurate radiometric calibrations can lead to erroneous decisions and invalid conclusions and can limit intercomparisons with other system. In addition, the user community has little or no insight into the design and operation of commercial sensors or into the methods involved in generating commercial products. To address this calibration need, the NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) Earth Science Applications (ESA) Directorate established a commercial satellite imaging radiometric calibration team consisting of three independent groups: NASA, SSC,ESA, the University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group, and South Dacota State University. Each group determined the absolute radiometric calibration coefficients of the Space Imaging IKONOS 4-band, 4 m multispectral product covering the visible through near-infrared spectral region. For a three year period beginning in 2000, each team employed some variant of a reflectance-based vicarious calibration approach, requiring ground-based measurements coincident with IKONOS image acquisitions and radiative transfer calculations. Several study sites throughout the United States were employed that covered nearly the entire dynamic range of the IKONOS sensor. IKONOS at-sensor radiance values were compared to those estimated by each independent group to determine the IKONOS sensor's radiometric accuracy and stability. Over 10 individual vicariously determined at-sensor radiance estimates were used each year. When combined, these estimates provided a high-precision radiometric gain calibration coefficient. No significant calibration offset was observed. The results of this evaluation provide the scientific community with an independent assessment of the IKONOS sensor's absolute calibration and temporal stability over the 3

  20. Enhanced radiometric detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by using filter-concentrated bovine fecal specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, M T; Kenefick, K B; Sockett, D C; Lambrecht, R S; McDonald, J; Jorgensen, J B

    1990-01-01

    A commercial radiometric medium, BACTEC 12B, was modified by addition of mycobactin, egg yolk suspension, and antibiotics (vancomycin, amphotericin B, and nalidixic acid). Decontaminated bovine fecal specimens were filter concentrated by using 3-microns-pore-size, 13-mm-diameter polycarbonate filters, and the entire filter was placed into the radiometric broth. Comparison of the radiometric technique with conventional methods on 603 cattle from 9 Mycobacterium paratuberculosis-infected herds found that of 75 positive specimens, the radiometric technique detected 92% while conventional methods detected 60% (P less than 0.0005). Only 3.9% of radiometric cultures were contaminated. To measure the effect of filter concentration of specimens on the detection rate, 5 cattle with minimal and 5 with moderate ileum histopathology were sampled weekly for 3 weeks. M. paratuberculosis was detected in 33.3% of nonfiltered specimens and 76.7% of filtered specimens (P less than 0.005). Detection rates were directly correlated with the severity of disease, and the advantage of specimen concentration was greatest on fecal specimens from cattle with low-grade infections. Detection times were also correlated with infection severity: 13.4 +/- 5.9 days with smear-positive specimens, 27.9 +/- 8.7 days with feces from cows with typical subclinical infections, and 38.7 +/- 3.8 days with fecal specimens from cows with low-grade infections. Use of a cocktail of vancomycin, amphotericin B, and nalidixic acid for selective suppression of nonmycobacterial contaminants was better than the commercial product PANTA (Becton Dickinson Microbiologic Systems, Towson, Md.) only when specimens contained very low numbers of M. paratuberculosis. Radiometric culture of filter-concentrated specimens generally doubled the number of positive fecal specimens detected over conventional methods, making it a useful tool for diagnosis and control of bovine paratuberculosis. PMID:2254428

  1. Systematic review automation technologies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  2. Space station automation study. Volume I. Executive summary. Autonomous systems and assembly. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    The purpose of the Space Station Automation Study (SSAS) was to develop informed technical guidance for NASA personnel in the use of autonomy and autonomous systems to implement Space Station functions.

  3. Space station automation study. Volume 1: Executive summary. Autonomous systems and assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the Space Station Automation Study (SSAS) was to develop informed technical guidance for NASA personnel in the use of autonomy and autonomous systems to implement space station functions.

  4. Advancing automation and robotics technology for the Space Station and for the US economy, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    In response to Public Law 98-371, dated July 18, 1984, the NASA Advanced Technology Advisory Committee has studied automation and robotics for use in the Space Station. The Technical Report, Volume 2, provides background information on automation and robotics technologies and their potential and documents: the relevant aspects of Space Station design; representative examples of automation and robotics; applications; the state of the technology and advances needed; and considerations for technology transfer to U.S. industry and for space commercialization.

  5. Fourth World Radiometric Reference to SI radiometric scale comparison and implications for on-orbit measurements of the total solar irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehlmann, A.; Kopp, G.; Schmutz, W.; Winkler, R.; Finsterle, W.; Fox, N.

    2012-04-01

    We report the fourth World Radiometric Reference (WRR)-to-SI comparison. At the National Physical Laboratory we compared three transfer pyrheliometer instruments in power mode with the SI radiometric scale. Compared with the three previous comparisons, we improved the experiment by operating the transfer instruments in vacuum. At the Total solar irradiance Radiometer Facility (TRF) located at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) in Boulder, we repeated the power comparison of one of the transfer instruments. The TRF also allowed the comparison and characterization of this instrument in irradiance mode. Using the WRR comparisons performed in Davos, we find that the WRR is 0.34% higher than the SI scale. Comparing irradiance mode calibrations with power mode calibrations reveals that previous estimates of stray light of PMO6-type radiometers were very low. The instrument calibrated at TRF was integrated in the space experiment PREMOS on the French satellite PICARD and carries the first vacuum irradiance calibration to space.

  6. Evaluation of the radiometric quality of the TM data using clustering and multispectral distance measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolucci, L. A.; Dean, M. E.; Anuta, P. E.

    1983-01-01

    Radiometrically and geometrically corrected TM data from three different geographic locations were examined. Histograms were inspected for each band to determine the dynamic range of the data, the shape of the distributions, and to verify whether empty bins were introduced by the radiometric correction process. The effect of geometric correction on the radiometry of the resampled pixels was determined. The information content between TM and MSS data sets were compared and the TM data were used to map the thermal effluent discharge into a river ecosystem from a nuclear thermal power plant, and application only possible previously only possible through the acquisition of thermal infrared scanner data from aircraft altitudes.

  7. Overview of current technology in MMW radiometric sensors for law enforcement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, David D., Jr.; Currie, Nicholas C.

    2000-07-01

    This paper discusses the current state-of-the-art in millimeter-wave radiometric imagers being developed for law enforcement use within the United States. The most prevalent application at present is the detection of concealed weapons (guns, knives, etc.) with a secondary application involving the detection of drugs and explosives. Three main topics will be addressed: the phenomenology of concealed weapon detection at millimeter wavelengths, the promise and short comings of first generation radiometric imagers, and the characteristics of second generation systems currently under development.

  8. An algorithm for the radiometric and atmospheric correction of AVHRR data in the solar reflective channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teillet, P. M.

    1992-09-01

    Radiometric and atmospheric corrections are formulated with a view to computing vegetation indices such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from surface reflectances rather than the digital signal levels recorded at the sensor. In particular, look-up table (LUT) results from an atmospheric radiative transfer code are used to save time and avoid the complexities of running and maintaining such a code in a production environment. The data flow for radiometric image correction is very similar to commonly used geometric correction data flows. The role of terrain elevation in the atmospheric correction process is discussed and the effect of topography on NDVI is highlighted.

  9. Advancements in the calibration and validation of Earth-observation satellite sensors using automated ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, J.; Anderson, N. J.; Thome, K.; McCorkel, J.; Wenny, B. N.

    2015-12-01

    Vicarious radiometric calibration is an independent process that is used to monitor the health of Earth-observing systems. This includes both the sensor itself, as well as any onboard radiometric calibration systems. Typical methods include ground-based in situ measurements, cross calibration, lunar observations, and pseudo-invariant sites. The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona has traditionally used the reflectance-based approach for the in-flight calibration of Earth-observing sensors. This requires personnel to be at a test site for a given overpass, and the increasing number of satellites on orbit make it difficult and expensive to deploy teams to collect field data. In response to this, an automated site has been developed to collect data during all clear-sky conditions. The Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) is located at Railroad Valley, Nevada, and it is currently being used to calibrate and validate the surface reflectance products of such sensors as Landsat 7 ETM+, Landsat 8 OLI, Terra and Aqua MODIS, Suomi NPP VIIRS, the RapidEye constellation of satellites, and more recently, Sentinel-2A MSI. An effort is also underway to create a network of instrumented test sites, and RadCaTS is currently one of four sites used in the Radiometric Calibration Network (RadCalNet) working group. This work presents the evolution of RadCaTS, current vicarious calibration results, and insight into the efforts to create a global network of instrumented sites.

  10. BacT/Alert: an automated colorimetric microbial detection system.

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, T C; Wilson, M L; Turner, J E; DiGuiseppi, J L; Willert, M; Mirrett, S; Reller, L B

    1990-01-01

    BacT/Alert (Organon Teknika Corp., Durham, N.C.) is an automated microbial detection system based on the colorimetric detection of CO2 produced by growing microorganisms. Results of an evaluation of the media, sensor, detection system, and detection algorithm indicate that the system reliably grows and detects a wide variety of bacteria and fungi. Results of a limited pilot clinical trial with a prototype research instrument indicate that the system is comparable to the radiometric BACTEC 460 system in its ability to grow and detect microorganisms in blood. On the basis of these initial findings, large-scale clinical trials comparing BacT/Alert with other commercial microbial detection systems appear warranted. PMID:2116451

  11. Comparison of diverse methods for the correction of atmospheric effects on LANDSAT and SKYLAB images. [radiometric correction in Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Camara, G.; Dias, L. A. V.; Mascarenhas, N. D. D.; Desouza, R. C. M.; Pereira, A. E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Earth's atmosphere reduces a sensors ability in currently discriminating targets. Using radiometric correction to reduce the atmospheric effects may improve considerably the performance of an automatic image interpreter. Several methods for radiometric correction from the open literature are compared leading to the development of an atmospheric correction system.

  12. Airborne lidar and radiometric observations of PBL- and low clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamant, P. H.; Valentin, R.; Pelon, J.

    1992-01-01

    lidar and narrowbeam IR radiometer is conducted to study the scale integration problem. A good agreement within less than 100 m relies on spatial uniformity and an optically thick layer. In the presence of holes, a discrepancy is observed. This is illustrated in figure 2, displaying as a function of time (1) the lidar signals; (2) the target temperature (either clouds or sea surface) retreived from a narrowbeam IR radiometer, 17 C is the sea surface temperature on that day; and (3) the visible flux, linked to cloud albedo, measured by a pyranometer. In preparation of ASTEX, down- and up-looking measurements where conducted on stratocumulus clouds over the Atlantic Ocean near Quimper in Brittany. Depending on the flight pattern orientation with respect to the wind, the top and bottom cloud morphologies are different. Preliminary results are given on cloud morphology, cloud top PDFs, optical porosity, fractional cloudiness, and comparison of lidar and radiometric measurements.

  13. Planning for Office Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Colin K.

    1983-01-01

    Outlines a practical approach to planning for office automation termed the "Focused Process Approach" (the "what" phase, "how" phase, "doing" phase) which is a synthesis of the problem-solving and participatory planning approaches. Thirteen references are provided. (EJS)

  14. Space station automation II

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of a conference on space station automation. Topics include the following: distributed artificial intelligence for space station energy management systems and computer architecture for tolerobots in earth orbit.

  15. Automated data analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuber, D.

    Automated data analysis assists the astronomer in the decision making processes applied for extracting astronomical information from data. Automated data analysis is the step between image processing and model interpretation. Tools developed in AI are applied (classification, expert system). Programming languages and computers are chosen to fulfil the increasing requirements. Expert systems have begun in astronomy. Data banks permit the astronomical community to share the large body of resulting information.

  16. Automated Status Notification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Automated Status Notification System (ASNS) was born out of need. To prevent "hacker attacks," Lewis' telephone system needed to monitor communications activities 24 hr a day, 7 days a week. With decreasing staff resources, this continuous monitoring had to be automated. By utilizing existing communications hardware, a UNIX workstation, and NAWK (a pattern scanning and processing language), we implemented a continuous monitoring system.

  17. Automated Pilot Advisory System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, J. L., Jr.; Haidt, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    An Automated Pilot Advisory System (APAS) was developed and operationally tested to demonstrate the concept that low cost automated systems can provide air traffic and aviation weather advisory information at high density uncontrolled airports. The system was designed to enhance the see and be seen rule of flight, and pilots who used the system preferred it over the self announcement system presently used at uncontrolled airports.

  18. Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Monahan, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

  19. Shielded cells transfer automation

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J J

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear waste from shielded cells is removed, packaged, and transferred manually in many nuclear facilities. Radiation exposure is absorbed by operators during these operations and limited only through procedural controls. Technological advances in automation using robotics have allowed a production waste removal operation to be automated to reduce radiation exposure. The robotic system bags waste containers out of glove box and transfers them to a shielded container. Operators control the system outside the system work area via television cameras. 9 figures.

  20. Approach to plant automation with evolving technology

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has provided support to Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to pursue research leading to advanced, automated control of new innovative liquid-metal-cooled nuclear power plants. The purpose of this effort is to conduct research that will help to ensure improved operability, reliability, and safety for advanced LMRs. The plan adopted to achieve these program goals in an efficient and timely manner consists of utilizing, and advancing where required, state-of-the-art controls technology through close interaction with other national laboratories, universities, industry and utilities. A broad range of applications for the control systems strategies and the design environment developed in the course of this program is likely. A natural evolution of automated control in nuclear power plants is envisioned by ORNL to be a phased transition from today's situation of some analog control at the subsystem level with significant operator interaction to the future capability for completely automated digital control with operator supervision. The technical accomplishments provided by this program will assist the industry to accelerate this transition and provide greater economy and safety. The development of this transition to advanced, automated control system designs is expected to have extensive benefits in reduced operating costs, fewer outages, enhanced safety, improved licensability, and improved public acceptance for commercial nuclear power plants. 24 refs.

  1. Automated imagery orthorectification pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Johnson, Brad; McMahon, Joe

    2009-10-01

    Automated orthorectification of raw image products is now possible based on the comprehensive metadata collected by Global Positioning Systems and Inertial Measurement Unit technology aboard aircraft and satellite digital imaging systems, and based on emerging pattern-matching and automated image-to-image and control point selection capabilities in many advanced image processing systems. Automated orthorectification of standard aerial photography is also possible if a camera calibration report and sufficient metadata is available. Orthorectification of historical imagery, for which only limited metadata was available, was also attempted and found to require some user input, creating a semi-automated process that still has significant potential to reduce processing time and expense for the conversion of archival historical imagery into geospatially enabled, digital formats, facilitating preservation and utilization of a vast archive of historical imagery. Over 90 percent of the frames of historical aerial photos used in this experiment were successfully orthorectified to the accuracy of the USGS 100K base map series utilized for the geospatial reference of the archive. The accuracy standard for the 100K series maps is approximately 167 feet (51 meters). The main problems associated with orthorectification failure were cloud cover, shadow and historical landscape change which confused automated image-to-image matching processes. Further research is recommended to optimize automated orthorectification methods and enable broad operational use, especially as related to historical imagery archives.

  2. Automated Groundwater Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Glenn A.; Collard, Leonard, B.

    2005-10-31

    The Automated Intruder Analysis has been extended to include an Automated Ground Water Screening option. This option screens 825 radionuclides while rigorously applying the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) methodology. An extension to that methodology is presented to give a more realistic screening factor for those radionuclides which have significant daughters. The extension has the promise of reducing the number of radionuclides which must be tracked by the customer. By combining the Automated Intruder Analysis with the Automated Groundwater Screening a consistent set of assumptions and databases is used. A method is proposed to eliminate trigger values by performing rigorous calculation of the screening factor thereby reducing the number of radionuclides sent to further analysis. Using the same problem definitions as in previous groundwater screenings, the automated groundwater screening found one additional nuclide, Ge-68, which failed the screening. It also found that 18 of the 57 radionuclides contained in NCRP Table 3.1 failed the screening. This report describes the automated groundwater screening computer application.

  3. The Evolution of Automated Reference Services at UTC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Athena A.; Whitson, Randolph L.

    This review of the evolution of reference services in the library of the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga begins with background information on the university and a brief description of the library's holdings and services. The mission of the library is stated, and it is noted that automation began with internal technical operations in 1983.…

  4. RADIOANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY FOR AUTOMATED NUCLEAR WASTE PROCESS MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research is directed toward rapid, sensitive, and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclides such as 99Tc, 90Sr, and transuranium (TRU) elements in low-activity waste LAW) processing streams. The overall technical approach is based on automated radioch...

  5. AUTOMATION--SOME CLASSIFICATION AND MEASUREMENT PROBLEMS. REPRINT NO. 149.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SULTAN, P.E.; PRASOW, P.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS PAPER WAS TO REVIEW HOW "AUTOMATION" IS DEFINED, GIVING CONSIDERATION TO CONVENTIONAL USAGE OF THE TERM AND TO THOSE CONSIDERATIONS WHICH DETERMINE THE CONVENIENCE OR SUITABILITY FOR RESEARCH PURPOSES OF PARTICULAR CATEGORIES OF TECHNICAL CHANGE. AN UNDERLYING ASSUMPTION IS THAT THE ADJUSTMENT DEMANDS IMPOSED BY TECHNOLOGY…

  6. Radiometric performance assessment of Suomi NPP VIIRS SWIR Band (2.25 μm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uprety, Sirish; Cao, Changyong

    2015-09-01

    Suomi NPP VIIRS SWIR band M11 (2.25 μm) has larger radiometric uncertainty compared to the rest of the reflective solar bands. This is due to a number of reasons including prelaunch calibration uncertainties. One of the most commonly used technique to verify the radiometric stability and accuracy of VIIRS is by intercomparing it with other well calibrated radiometers such as MODIS. However one of the limitations of using MODIS is that VIIRS band M11 RSR doesn't overlap with MODIS bands at all. Thus the accuracy of intercomparison relies completely on how well the spectral differences are analyzed over the given target. Since desert sites have higher reflectance and more flat spectra, this study uses desert sites to analyze M11 radiometric performance. In order to better match the RSR between instruments, we have chosen Landsat 8 OLI SWIR band 2 (2.20 μm) to perform intercomparison. This is mainly because OLI SWIR band 2 fully covers the VIIRS band M11 even though OLI has much wider RSR compared to VIIRS. The study suggests that there exists large radiometric inconsistency between VIIRS M11 and OLI, on the order of 5%. The impact due to spectral differences is estimated and accounted for using EO-1 Hyperion observations and MODTRAN.

  7. Texture analysis of radiometric signatures of new sea ice forming in Arctic leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Duane T.; Farmer, L. Dennis

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of 33.6-GHz, high-resolution, passive microwave images suggests that new sea ice accumulating in open leads is characterized by a unique textural signature which can be used to discriminate new ice forming in this environment from adjacent surfaces of similar radiometric temperature. Ten training areas were selected from the data set, three of which consisted entirely of first-year ice, four entirely of multilayer ice, and three of new ice in open leads in the process of freezing. A simple gradient operator was used to characterize the radiometric texture in each training region in terms of the degree to which radiometric gradients are oriented. New ice in leads has a sufficiently high proportion of well-oriented features to distinguish it uniquely from first-year ice and multiyear ice. The predominance of well-oriented features probably reflects physical processes by which new ice accumulates in open leads. Banded structures, which are evident in aerial photographs of new ice, apparently give rise to the radiometric signature observed, in which the trend of brightness temperature gradients is aligned parallel to lead trends. First-year ice and multiyear ice, which have been subjected to a more random growth and process history, lack this banded structure and therefore are characterized by signatures in which well-aligned elements are less dominant.

  8. Spectral and radiometric calibration of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg; Chrien, Thomas G.; Miller, Edward A.; Reimer, John H.

    1987-01-01

    The laboratory spectral and radiometric calibration of the AVIRIS science data collected since 1987 is described. The instrumentation and procedures used in the calibration are discussed and the accuracy achieved in the laboratory as determined by measurement and calculation is compared with the requirements. Instrument performance factors affecting radiometry are described. The paper concludes with a discussion of future plans.

  9. Lifetime radiometric calibration of HJ-1A/B CCD sensor using Dunhuang Gobi site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qijin; Zhang, Xuewen; Liu, Li; Wang, Aichun

    2014-11-01

    Dunhuang Gobi site, a pseudo-invariant ground target, has been extensively used to calibrate the remote sensing instruments because of its high spatial and spectral uniformity and good temporal stability. Four Charge Coupled Device (CCD) sensors onboard HUANGJING-A/B (HJ-1A/B) satellites have been running 5-years since launched in 2008, and provided important remote sensing data for land surface reflectance retrieval, bio/geophysical variables estimation and environment pollution /disaster monitoring. The radiometric performance of HJ-1A/B CCD may change after launched because of many factors, thus, we have carried out many ground measurement campaigns at a pseudo-invariant test site-Dunhuang gobi to perform radiometric calibration of these sensors. This article describes the characteristics of Dunhuang gobi site and lifetime radiometric calibration monitoring results obtained for four CCD sensors. The results indicate that the long-term changes in calibration coefficients trending exceeding the dark-noise changes are primarily due to the drifts in the CCD radiometric responsivity, and the degradations of HJ-1A/B CCD are from -2.3%/year to -9.5%/year.

  10. ESTIMATING SUBPIXEL SURFACE TEMPERATURES AND ENERGY FLUXES FROM THE VEGETATION INDEX-RADIOMETRIC TEMPERATURE RELATIONSHIP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Routine (i.e., daily to weekly) monitoring of surface energy fluxes, particularly evapotranspiration (ET), using satellite observations of radiometric surface temperature has not been feasible at high pixel resolution because of the low frequency in satellite coverage over the region of interest (i...

  11. MODIS Cloud Optical Property Retrieval Uncertainties Derived from Pixel-Level VNIR/SWIR Radiometric Uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platnick, S.; Wind, G.; Xiong, X.

    2011-01-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals of optical thickness and effective particle radius for liquid water and ice phase clouds employ a well-known VNIR/ SWIR solar reflectance technique. For this type of algorithm, we evaluate the quantitative uncertainty in simultaneous retrievals of these two cloud parameters to pixel-level radiometric calibration estimates and other fundamental (and tractable) error sources.

  12. Adjustments to the MODIS Terra Radiometric Calibration and Polarization Sensitivity in the 2010 Reprocessing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, Gerhard; Franz, Bryan A.

    2011-01-01

    The Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite Terra provides global coverage of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances that have been successfully used for terrestrial and atmospheric research. The MODIS Terra ocean color products, however, have been compromised by an inadequate radiometric calibration at the short wavelengths. The Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) at NASA has derived radiometric corrections using ocean color products from the SeaWiFS sensor as truth fields. In the R2010.0 reprocessing, these corrections have been applied to the whole mission life span of 10 years. This paper presents the corrections to the radiometric gains and to the instrument polarization sensitivity, demonstrates the improvement to the Terra ocean color products, and discusses issues that need further investigation. Although the global averages of MODIS Terra ocean color products are now in excellent agreement with those of SeaWiFS and MODIS Aqua, and image quality has been significantly improved, the large corrections applied to the radiometric calibration and polarization sensitivity require additional caution when using the data.

  13. MODIS Cloud Optical Property Retrieval Uncertainties Derived from Pixel-Level Radiometric Error Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platnick, Steven; Wind, Galina; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2011-01-01

    MODIS retrievals of cloud optical thickness and effective particle radius employ a well-known VNIR/SWIR solar reflectance technique. For this type of algorithm, we evaluate the uncertainty in simultaneous retrievals of these two parameters to pixel-level (scene-dependent) radiometric error estimates as well as other tractable error sources.

  14. Initial Radiometric Calibration of the AWiFS Using Vicarious Calibration Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary

    2007-01-01

    The NASA team of University of Arizona, South Dakota State University, and NASA SSC produce consistent results. The AWiFS calibration coefficients agree reasonably well with the NASA team estimate. The NASA team will continue to assess AWiFS radiometric accuracy.

  15. Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) radiometric performance on-orbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morfitt, Ron; Barsi, Julia A.; Levy, Raviv; Markham, Brian L.; Micijevic, Esad; Ong, Lawrence; Scaramuzza, Pat; Vanderwerff, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Expectations of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) radiometric performance onboard Landsat-8 have been met or exceeded. The calibration activities that occurred prior to launch provided calibration parameters that enabled ground processing to produce imagery that met most requirements when data were transmitted to the ground. Since launch, calibration updates have improved the image quality even more, so that all requirements are met. These updates range from detector gain coefficients to reduce striping and banding to alignment parameters to improve the geometric accuracy. This paper concentrates on the on-orbit radiometric performance of the OLI, excepting the radiometric calibration performance. Topics discussed in this paper include: signal-to-noise ratios that are an order of magnitude higher than previous Landsat missions; radiometric uniformity that shows little residual banding and striping, and continues to improve; a dynamic range that limits saturation to extremely high radiance levels; extremely stable detectors; slight nonlinearity that is corrected in ground processing; detectors that are stable and 100% operable; and few image artifacts.

  16. Investigation of Pre- and Post-Flight Radiometric Calibration Uncertainties from Surface Based Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, D.F.; Wei, Z.Y.; Ahman, Z.

    1997-06-01

    A new technique has been developed for inferring column ozone amounts and aerosol optical depths from zenith sky observations. A new radiometric calibration technique for large aperture remote sensing instruments observing the earth through space has been validated which subsequently increased the accuracy of remote sensing measurements of ozone and vertical profiles using measurements of back-scattered ultraviolet solar radiation.

  17. Radiometric modelling of a space optical instrument: an example of application to PHEBUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corso, Alain J.; Zuppella, Paola; Mariscal, Jean Francois; Rouanet, Nicolas; Quémerais, Eric; Nardello, Marco; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio; Tessarolo, Enrico; Bacco, Davide; Gerlin, Francesca; Zuccon, Sara; Pelizzo, Maria G.

    2015-05-01

    Probing of Hermean Exosphere By Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (PHEBUS) is a dual channels spectrometer working in the Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) and Far UltraViolet (FUV) range. It will be on board of ESA BepiColombo cornerstone mission and it will be devoted to investigate the composition, the dynamic, the formation and the feeding mechanisms of Mercury's exosphere system. A consistent interpretation of the observational data collected by PHEBUS requires a deeply knowledge of its radiometric behavior. The Mueller's matrix formalism can be adopted to derive an accurate radiometric model able to takes into account also the polarization state of the source observed by PHEBUS. Moreover, this theoretical model can be further verified and refined during an experimental ground calibration campaign. In this work we present the radiometric model derived for PHEBUS spectrometer together with some results obtained during the Flight Model (FM) ground calibration which is still ongoing. In particular, the obtained results employing this approach show that this is a complete and versatile method to perform the radiometric calibration of a generic space instrument.

  18. Development of a five-hour radiometric serum antibacterial assay for gram-positive cocci

    SciTech Connect

    Beckwith, D.G.; Guidon, P.T. Jr.

    1981-03-01

    A preliminary report on a 5-hr radiometric serum antibacterial assay (ABA) for Gram-positive cocci is presented. The method agreed within +- one twofold dilution with static ABA endpoints in 24/26 (92%) of the assays and with cidal ABA end-points in 23/26 (88%) of the assays performed.

  19. Preliminary Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Oxstrand, Johanna Helene; Le Blanc, Katya Lee; Spielman, Zachary Alexander

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s Advanced Reactor Technologies Program sponsors research, development and deployment activities through its Next Generation Nuclear Plant, Advanced Reactor Concepts, and Advanced Small Modular Reactor (aSMR) Programs to promote safety, technical, economical, and environmental advancements of innovative Generation IV nuclear energy technologies. The Human Automation Collaboration (HAC) Research Project is located under the aSMR Program, which identifies developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces as one of four key research areas. It is expected that the new nuclear power plant designs will employ technology significantly more advanced than the analog systems in the existing reactor fleet as well as utilizing automation to a greater extent. Moving towards more advanced technology and more automation does not necessary imply more efficient and safer operation of the plant. Instead, a number of concerns about how these technologies will affect human performance and the overall safety of the plant need to be addressed. More specifically, it is important to investigate how the operator and the automation work as a team to ensure effective and safe plant operation, also known as the human-automation collaboration (HAC). The focus of the HAC research is to understand how various characteristics of automation (such as its reliability, processes, and modes) effect an operator’s use and awareness of plant conditions. In other words, the research team investigates how to best design the collaboration between the operators and the automated systems in a manner that has the greatest positive impact on overall plant performance and reliability. This report addresses the Department of Energy milestone M4AT-15IN2302054, Complete Preliminary Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration, by discussing the two phased development of a preliminary HAC framework. The framework developed in the first phase was used as the

  20. Enhanced radiometric detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by using filter-concentrated bovine fecal specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, M.T.; Kenefick, K.B.; Sockett, D.C.; Lambrecht, R.S.; McDonald, J.; Jorgensen, J.B. )

    1990-11-01

    A commercial radiometric medium, BACTEC 12B, was modified by addition of mycobactin, egg yolk suspension, and antibiotics (vancomycin, amphotericin B, and nalidixic acid). Decontaminated bovine fecal specimens were filter concentrated by using 3-microns-pore-size, 13-mm-diameter polycarbonate filters, and the entire filter was placed into the radiometric broth. Comparison of the radiometric technique with conventional methods on 603 cattle from 9 Mycobacterium paratuberculosis-infected herds found that of 75 positive specimens, the radiometric technique detected 92% while conventional methods detected 60% (P less than 0.0005). Only 3.9% of radiometric cultures were contaminated. To measure the effect of filter concentration of specimens on the detection rate, 5 cattle with minimal and 5 with moderate ileum histopathology were sampled weekly for 3 weeks. M. paratuberculosis was detected in 33.3% of nonfiltered specimens and 76.7% of filtered specimens (P less than 0.005). Detection rates were directly correlated with the severity of disease, and the advantage of specimen concentration was greatest on fecal specimens from cattle with low-grade infections. Detection times were also correlated with infection severity: 13.4 +/- 5.9 days with smear-positive specimens, 27.9 +/- 8.7 days with feces from cows with typical subclinical infections, and 38.7 +/- 3.8 days with fecal specimens from cows with low-grade infections. Use of a cocktail of vancomycin, amphotericin B, and nalidixic acid for selective suppression of nonmycobacterial contaminants was better than the commercial product PANTA (Becton Dickinson Microbiologic Systems, Towson, Md.) only when specimens contained very low numbers of M. paratuberculosis.

  1. Dynamic noise corrected hyperspectral radiometric calibration in the SWIR range using a supercontinuum laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keresztes, Janos C.; Aernouts, Ben; Koshel, R. J.; Saeys, Wouter

    2015-09-01

    As line scanning short wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a growing field in the food industry, it is important to select efficient illumination designs to image contaminants with high contrast and low noise. Illumination systems can efficiently be compared and optimized through the use of ray tracing simulations. However, these simulations provide illumination patterns in absolute radiometric units while HSI systems typically provide relative measurements. To bridge this gap, a supercontinuum laser and monochromator setup was used in this study to calibrate a SWIR HSI imager in spectral radiometric units. For the radiometric calibration, an integrating sphere (IS) was illuminated with the monochromatic laser light, while both a high sensitivity photodiode and the hyperspectral camera were positioned at different ports of the IS to measure the diffuse light synchronously. For each spectral band, the radiance observed by the imager corresponding to a line was detected using image analysis, while the remainder of the image was used to sample the noise of the sensor. Laser power fluctuations were monitored using a power meter coupled with a thermal sensor, allowing for their correction. As these measurements were time consuming, while InGaAs based sensors are very sensitive to thermal drift, the dark current was sampled frequently to avoid noise time drifts. This approach allowed correcting for 6% of temporal noise fluctuations. A per-pixel linear radiometric model was fitted with an R2 of 0:94+/-0:3 and used to transfer the measured light distribution of a halogen spot with and without a diffuser into absolute radiometric units. This allowed comparing measurements with the results of ray tracing.

  2. Analyzing Spectral Characteristics of Shadow Area from ADS-40 High Radiometric Resolution Aerial Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Yi-Ta; Wu, Shou-Tsung; Chen, Chaur-Tzuhn; Chen, Jan-Chang

    2016-06-01

    The shadows in optical remote sensing images are regarded as image nuisances in numerous applications. The classification and interpretation of shadow area in a remote sensing image are a challenge, because of the reduction or total loss of spectral information in those areas. In recent years, airborne multispectral aerial image devices have been developed 12-bit or higher radiometric resolution data, including Leica ADS-40, Intergraph DMC. The increased radiometric resolution of digital imagery provides more radiometric details of potential use in classification or interpretation of land cover of shadow areas. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to analyze the spectral properties of the land cover in the shadow areas by ADS-40 high radiometric resolution aerial images, and to investigate the spectral and vegetation index differences between the various shadow and non-shadow land covers. According to research findings of spectral analysis of ADS-40 image: (i) The DN values in shadow area are much lower than in nonshadow area; (ii) DN values received from shadowed areas that will also be affected by different land cover, and it shows the possibility of land cover property retrieval as in nonshadow area; (iii) The DN values received from shadowed regions decrease in the visible band from short to long wavelengths due to scattering; (iv) The shadow area NIR of vegetation category also shows a strong reflection; (v) Generally, vegetation indexes (NDVI) still have utility to classify the vegetation and non-vegetation in shadow area. The spectral data of high radiometric resolution images (ADS-40) is potential for the extract land cover information of shadow areas.

  3. Rapid radiometric methods to detect and differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis/M. bovis from other mycobacterial species

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqi, S.H.; Hwangbo, C.C.; Silcox, V.; Good, R.C.; Snider, D.E. Jr.; Middlebrook, G.

    1984-10-01

    Rapid methods for the differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis/M. bovis (TB complex) from other mycobacteria (MOTT bacilli) were developed and evaluated in a three-phase study. In the first phase, techniques for identification of Mycobacterium species were developed by using radiometric technology and BACTEC Middlebrook 7H12 liquid medium. Based on /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ evolution, characteristic growth patterns were established for 13 commonly encountered mycobacterial species. Mycobacteria belonging to the TB complex were differentiated from other mycobacteria by cellular morphology and rate of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ evolution. For further differentiation, radiometric tests for niacin production and inhibition by Q-nitro-alpha-acetyl amino-beta-hydroxy-propiophenone (NAP) were developed. In the second phase, 100 coded specimens on Lowenstein-Jensen medium were identified as members of the TB complex, MOTT bacilli, bacteria other than mycobacteria, or ''no viable organisms'' within 3 to 12 (average 6.4) days of receipt from the Centers for Disease Control. Isolation and identification of mycobacteria from 20 simulated sputum specimens were carried out in phase III. Out of 20 sputum specimens, 16 contained culturable mycobacteria, and all of the positives were detected by the BACTEC method in an average of 7.3 days. The positive mycobacterial cultures were isolated and identified as TB complex or MOTT bacilli in an average of 12.8 days. The radiometric NAP test was found to be highly sensitive and specific for a rapid identification of TB complex, whereas the radiometric niacin test was found to have some inherent problems. Radiometric BACTEC and conventional methodologies were in complete agreement in Phase II as well as in Phase III.

  4. Using the Dunhuang test site to monitor the radiometric stability of the ZY-3 multispectral sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuewen; Han, Qijin; Liu, Li

    2014-11-01

    The ZY-3 satellite plays an important role in agriculture, forestry, water conservancy, ecological environment, and so on since its successfully running. In order to achieve continuity, stability and reliability of the remote sensing data, and improve quantitative application level of the ZY-3 satellite data, an accurate sensor radiometric calibration is essential. Because ZY-3 satellite doesn't have onboard calibration system, in-fight filed absolute radiometric calibration as a means to effective monitor the radiometric stability.This paper uses multi-day, multi-field at the Dunhuang test site to calibrate the ZY-3 multispectral sensor. The experiment obtained a synchronization measurement data on the August 18, 23 and 28, respectively. The two of ground surface were selected for measuring reflectance, which middling reflectance field (20%) and high reflectance field (40%). At the time of the ZY-3 overpass on the site, synchronous measure surface reflectance of ground targets, atmospheric optical characteristics parameters, such as atmospheric aerosol optical depth, atmospheric columnar water vapor content. Then use the radiative transfer model to estimate the top of atmosphere (TOA) radiance for MSS band. Radiometric calibration coefficient of MSS band was estimated by comparing the TOA radiance with average digital number of the MSS image. Based on multi-day, multi-field, and the real-time measurement at the Dunhuang site, radiometric calibration for ZY-3 MSS was successfully performed using reflectance-based method and calibration coefficients for MSS bands were obtained as well. According to contrast between in-fight calibration and the prelaunch, it was shown that the response of MSS changed at some extent after launch, especially band 1 and band 4. As a result, it was quite essential to update calibration coefficient timely and periodically in order to monitor the change of ZY-3 MSS better and to improve the quantitative application of MSS data as well.

  5. A linear approach for radiometric calibration of full-waveform Lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roncat, Andreas; Pfeifer, Norbert; Briese, Christian

    2012-11-01

    During the past decade, small-footprint full-waveform lidar systems have become increasingly available, especially airborne. The primary output of these systems is high-resolution topographic information in the form of three-dimensional point clouds over large areas. Recording the temporal profile of the transmitted laser pulse and of its echoes enables to detect more echoes per pulse than in the case of discrete-return lidar systems, resulting in a higher point density over complex terrain. Furthermore, full-waveform instruments also allow for retrieving radiometric information of the scanned surfaces, commonly as an amplitude value and an echo width stored together with the 3D coordinates of the single points. However, the radiometric information needs to be calibrated in order to merge datasets acquired at different altitudes and/or with different instruments, so that the radiometric information becomes an object property independent of the flight mission and instrument parameters. State-of-the-art radiometric calibration techniques for full-waveform lidar data are based on Gaussian Decomposition to overcome the ill-posedness of the inherent inversion problem, i.e. deconvolution. However, these approaches make strong assumptions on the temporal profile of the transmitted laser pulse and the physical properties of the scanned surfaces, represented by the differential backscatter cross-section. In this paper, we present a novel approach for radiometric calibration using uniform B-splines. This kind of functions allows for linear inversion without constraining the temporal shape of the modeled signals. The theoretical derivation is illustrated by examples recorded with a Riegl LMS-Q560 and an Optech ALTM 3100 system, respectively.

  6. Identifying Needed Technical Standards: The LITA TESLA Committee at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ruth C.

    1984-01-01

    Efforts of the Technical Standards for Library Automation Committee (TESLA), a division-wide committee of the Library Information and Technology Association (LITA) of the American Library Association, are described. The current status of suggested technical standards and recommended action are detailed. Five sources are given. (Author/EJS)

  7. Automated Critical Peak Pricing Field Tests: Program Descriptionand Results

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Xu, Peng

    2006-04-06

    California utilities have been exploring the use of critical peak prices (CPP) to help reduce needle peaks in customer end-use loads. CPP is a form of price-responsive demand response (DR). Recent experience has shown that customers have limited knowledge of how to operate their facilities in order to reduce their electricity costs under CPP (Quantum 2004). While the lack of knowledge about how to develop and implement DR control strategies is a barrier to participation in DR programs like CPP, another barrier is the lack of automation of DR systems. During 2003 and 2004, the PIER Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) conducted a series of tests of fully automated electric demand response (Auto-DR) at 18 facilities. Overall, the average of the site-specific average coincident demand reductions was 8% from a variety of building types and facilities. Many electricity customers have suggested that automation will help them institutionalize their electric demand savings and improve their overall response and DR repeatability. This report focuses on and discusses the specific results of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing (Auto-CPP, a specific type of Auto-DR) tests that took place during 2005, which build on the automated demand response (Auto-DR) research conducted through PIER and the DRRC in 2003 and 2004. The long-term goal of this project is to understand the technical opportunities of automating demand response and to remove technical and market impediments to large-scale implementation of automated demand response (Auto-DR) in buildings and industry. A second goal of this research is to understand and identify best practices for DR strategies and opportunities. The specific objectives of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing test were as follows: (1) Demonstrate how an automated notification system for critical peak pricing can be used in large commercial facilities for demand response (DR). (2) Evaluate effectiveness of such a system. (3) Determine how customers

  8. Automated Camera Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Siqi; Cheng, Yang; Willson, Reg

    2006-01-01

    Automated Camera Calibration (ACAL) is a computer program that automates the generation of calibration data for camera models used in machine vision systems. Machine vision camera models describe the mapping between points in three-dimensional (3D) space in front of the camera and the corresponding points in two-dimensional (2D) space in the camera s image. Calibrating a camera model requires a set of calibration data containing known 3D-to-2D point correspondences for the given camera system. Generating calibration data typically involves taking images of a calibration target where the 3D locations of the target s fiducial marks are known, and then measuring the 2D locations of the fiducial marks in the images. ACAL automates the analysis of calibration target images and greatly speeds the overall calibration process.

  9. Automated telescope scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  10. Automated telescope scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-08-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  11. Power subsystem automation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imamura, M. S.; Moser, R. L.; Veatch, M.

    1983-01-01

    Generic power-system elements and their potential faults are identified. Automation functions and their resulting benefits are defined and automation functions between power subsystem, central spacecraft computer, and ground flight-support personnel are partitioned. All automation activities were categorized as data handling, monitoring, routine control, fault handling, planning and operations, or anomaly handling. Incorporation of all these classes of tasks, except for anomaly handling, in power subsystem hardware and software was concluded to be mandatory to meet the design and operational requirements of the space station. The key drivers are long mission lifetime, modular growth, high-performance flexibility, a need to accommodate different electrical user-load equipment, onorbit assembly/maintenance/servicing, and potentially large number of power subsystem components. A significant effort in algorithm development and validation is essential in meeting the 1987 technology readiness date for the space station.

  12. Automated Factor Slice Sampling.

    PubMed

    Tibbits, Matthew M; Groendyke, Chris; Haran, Murali; Liechty, John C

    2014-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms offer a very general approach for sampling from arbitrary distributions. However, designing and tuning MCMC algorithms for each new distribution, can be challenging and time consuming. It is particularly difficult to create an efficient sampler when there is strong dependence among the variables in a multivariate distribution. We describe a two-pronged approach for constructing efficient, automated MCMC algorithms: (1) we propose the "factor slice sampler", a generalization of the univariate slice sampler where we treat the selection of a coordinate basis (factors) as an additional tuning parameter, and (2) we develop an approach for automatically selecting tuning parameters in order to construct an efficient factor slice sampler. In addition to automating the factor slice sampler, our tuning approach also applies to the standard univariate slice samplers. We demonstrate the efficiency and general applicability of our automated MCMC algorithm with a number of illustrative examples. PMID:24955002

  13. Automated Factor Slice Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Tibbits, Matthew M.; Groendyke, Chris; Haran, Murali; Liechty, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms offer a very general approach for sampling from arbitrary distributions. However, designing and tuning MCMC algorithms for each new distribution, can be challenging and time consuming. It is particularly difficult to create an efficient sampler when there is strong dependence among the variables in a multivariate distribution. We describe a two-pronged approach for constructing efficient, automated MCMC algorithms: (1) we propose the “factor slice sampler”, a generalization of the univariate slice sampler where we treat the selection of a coordinate basis (factors) as an additional tuning parameter, and (2) we develop an approach for automatically selecting tuning parameters in order to construct an efficient factor slice sampler. In addition to automating the factor slice sampler, our tuning approach also applies to the standard univariate slice samplers. We demonstrate the efficiency and general applicability of our automated MCMC algorithm with a number of illustrative examples. PMID:24955002

  14. Technical Guid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanasescu, F. T.; Stanciu, V.; Nitu, V.; Nitu, C.

    The book contains the most important informations from Physics,Mechanics,Heat,Electromagnetism, Nuclear Physics as well as tables with values for physical and technical Quantities. The book is designed especially for engineers, but could be useful for physicists

  15. Automating Shallow Seismic Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Steeples, Don W.

    2004-12-09

    This seven-year, shallow-seismic reflection research project had the aim of improving geophysical imaging of possible contaminant flow paths. Thousands of chemically contaminated sites exist in the United States, including at least 3,700 at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Imaging technologies such as shallow seismic reflection (SSR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) sometimes are capable of identifying geologic conditions that might indicate preferential contaminant-flow paths. Historically, SSR has been used very little at depths shallower than 30 m, and even more rarely at depths of 10 m or less. Conversely, GPR is rarely useful at depths greater than 10 m, especially in areas where clay or other electrically conductive materials are present near the surface. Efforts to image the cone of depression around a pumping well using seismic methods were only partially successful (for complete references of all research results, see the full Final Technical Report, DOE/ER/14826-F), but peripheral results included development of SSR methods for depths shallower than one meter, a depth range that had not been achieved before. Imaging at such shallow depths, however, requires geophone intervals of the order of 10 cm or less, which makes such surveys very expensive in terms of human time and effort. We also showed that SSR and GPR could be used in a complementary fashion to image the same volume of earth at very shallow depths. The primary research focus of the second three-year period of funding was to develop and demonstrate an automated method of conducting two-dimensional (2D) shallow-seismic surveys with the goal of saving time, effort, and money. Tests involving the second generation of the hydraulic geophone-planting device dubbed the ''Autojuggie'' showed that large numbers of geophones can be placed quickly and automatically and can acquire high-quality data, although not under rough topographic conditions. In some easy-access environments, this device could

  16. Automated knowledge generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myler, Harley R.; Gonzalez, Avelino J.

    1988-01-01

    The general objectives of the NASA/UCF Automated Knowledge Generation Project were the development of an intelligent software system that could access CAD design data bases, interpret them, and generate a diagnostic knowledge base in the form of a system model. The initial area of concentration is in the diagnosis of the process control system using the Knowledge-based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) diagnostic system. A secondary objective was the study of general problems of automated knowledge generation. A prototype was developed, based on object-oriented language (Flavors).

  17. Automation of analytical isotachophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thormann, Wolfgang

    1985-01-01

    The basic features of automation of analytical isotachophoresis (ITP) are reviewed. Experimental setups consisting of narrow bore tubes which are self-stabilized against thermal convection are considered. Sample detection in free solution is discussed, listing the detector systems presently used or expected to be of potential use in the near future. The combination of a universal detector measuring the evolution of ITP zone structures with detector systems specific to desired components is proposed as a concept of an automated chemical analyzer based on ITP. Possible miniaturization of such an instrument by means of microlithographic techniques is discussed.

  18. Automating the CMS DAQ

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, G.; et al.

    2014-01-01

    We present the automation mechanisms that have been added to the Data Acquisition and Run Control systems of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment during Run 1 of the LHC, ranging from the automation of routine tasks to automatic error recovery and context-sensitive guidance to the operator. These mechanisms helped CMS to maintain a data taking efficiency above 90% and to even improve it to 95% towards the end of Run 1, despite an increase in the occurrence of single-event upsets in sub-detector electronics at high LHC luminosity.

  19. Automated gas chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Mowry, Curtis D.; Blair, Dianna S.; Rodacy, Philip J.; Reber, Stephen D.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and process for the continuous, near real-time monitoring of low-level concentrations of organic compounds in a liquid, and, more particularly, a water stream. A small liquid volume of flow from a liquid process stream containing organic compounds is diverted by an automated process to a heated vaporization capillary where the liquid volume is vaporized to a gas that flows to an automated gas chromatograph separation column to chromatographically separate the organic compounds. Organic compounds are detected and the information transmitted to a control system for use in process control. Concentrations of organic compounds less than one part per million are detected in less than one minute.

  20. Automated software development workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Engineering software development was automated using an expert system (rule-based) approach. The use of this technology offers benefits not available from current software development and maintenance methodologies. A workstation was built with a library or program data base with methods for browsing the designs stored; a system for graphical specification of designs including a capability for hierarchical refinement and definition in a graphical design system; and an automated code generation capability in FORTRAN. The workstation was then used in a demonstration with examples from an attitude control subsystem design for the space station. Documentation and recommendations are presented.

  1. NREL Research and Thoughts on Connected and Automated Vehicle Energy Impacts; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, Jeff; Wood, Eric; Lammert, Michael

    2014-12-09

    Jeff was invited to brief the EPA Mobile Sources Technical Review Subcommittee on considerations regarding potential energy and environmental considerations for connected and automated vehicles. For more information about the MSTRS see http://www2.epa.gov/caaac/mobile-sources-technical-review-subcommittee-mstrs-caaac.

  2. AUTOMATION IN LIBRARIES, ATLIS WORKSHOP (1ST, NOVEMBER 15-17, 1966).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redstone Scientific Information Center, Redstone Arsenal, AL.

    THIS REPORT CONTAINS THE MINUTES OF A WORKSHOP ON AUTOMATION IN LIBRARIES, HELD TO IMPROVE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ARMY TECHNICAL LIBRARIES AND SPONSORED BY ARMY TECHNICAL LIBRARY IMPROVEMENT STUDIES (ATLIS). THE PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED IN FOUR AREAS, EACH ILLUSTRATED WITH PRESENTATIONS BY PEOPLE ACTUALLY INVOLVED IN THESE SYSTEMS. THE FIRST SESSION…

  3. Human Factors In Aircraft Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Report presents survey of state of art in human factors in automation of aircraft operation. Presents examination of aircraft automation and effects on flight crews in relation to human error and aircraft accidents.

  4. ATC automation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    1990-01-01

    Information on the design of human-centered tools for terminal area air traffic control (ATC) is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on payoffs and products, guidelines, ATC as a team process, automation tools for ATF, and the traffic management advisor.

  5. Building Automation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    A number of different automation systems for use in monitoring and controlling building equipment are described in this brochure. The system functions include--(1) collection of information, (2) processing and display of data at a central panel, and (3) taking corrective action by sounding alarms, making adjustments, or automatically starting and…

  6. Automated Student Model Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koedinger, Kenneth R.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth A.; Stamper, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Student modeling plays a critical role in developing and improving instruction and instructional technologies. We present a technique for automated improvement of student models that leverages the DataShop repository, crowd sourcing, and a version of the Learning Factors Analysis algorithm. We demonstrate this method on eleven educational…

  7. Automating Small Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, James

    1996-01-01

    Presents a four-phase plan for small libraries strategizing for automation: inventory and weeding, data conversion, implementation, and enhancements. Other topics include selecting a system, MARC records, compatibility, ease of use, industry standards, searching capabilities, support services, system security, screen displays, circulation modules,…

  8. Automated solvent concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, J. S.; Stuart, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    Designed for automated drug identification system (AUDRI), device increases concentration by 100. Sample is first filtered, removing particulate contaminants and reducing water content of sample. Sample is extracted from filtered residue by specific solvent. Concentrator provides input material to analysis subsystem.

  9. Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikli, Semire

    2006-01-01

    The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES) has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali,…

  10. Automation in haemostasis.

    PubMed

    Huber, A R; Méndez, A; Brunner-Agten, S

    2013-01-01

    Automatia, an ancient Greece goddess of luck who makes things happen by themselves and on her own will without human engagement, is present in our daily life in the medical laboratory. Automation has been introduced and perfected by clinical chemistry and since then expanded into other fields such as haematology, immunology, molecular biology and also coagulation testing. The initial small and relatively simple standalone instruments have been replaced by more complex systems that allow for multitasking. Integration of automated coagulation testing into total laboratory automation has become possible in the most recent years. Automation has many strengths and opportunities if weaknesses and threats are respected. On the positive side, standardization, reduction of errors, reduction of cost and increase of throughput are clearly beneficial. Dependence on manufacturers, high initiation cost and somewhat expensive maintenance are less favourable factors. The modern lab and especially the todays lab technicians and academic personnel in the laboratory do not add value for the doctor and his patients by spending lots of time behind the machines. In the future the lab needs to contribute at the bedside suggesting laboratory testing and providing support and interpretation of the obtained results. The human factor will continue to play an important role in testing in haemostasis yet under different circumstances. PMID:23460141

  11. Automated conflict resolution issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion is presented of how conflicts for Space Network resources should be resolved in the ATDRSS era. The following topics are presented: a description of how resource conflicts are currently resolved; a description of issues associated with automated conflict resolution; present conflict resolution strategies; and topics for further discussion.

  12. Mining Your Automated System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Patricia M., Ed.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Four articles address issues of collecting, compiling, reporting, and interpreting statistics generated by automated library systems for administrative decision making. Topics include using a management information system to forecast growth and assess areas for downsizing; statistics for collection development and analysis; and online system…

  13. Automated galaxy recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappaport, Barry; Anderson, Kurt

    Previous approaches to automated image processing have used both deterministic and nondeterministic techniques. These have not used any form of conceptual learning nor have they employed artificial intelligence techniques. Addition of such techniques to the task of image processing may significantly enhance the efficiencies and accuracies of the recognition and classification processes. In our application, the objects to be recognized and classified are galaxies.

  14. Automated Administrative Data Bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrie, M. D.; Jarrett, J. R.; Reising, S. A.; Hodge, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Improved productivity and more effective response to information requirements for internal management, NASA Centers, and Headquarters resulted from using automated techniques. Modules developed to provide information on manpower, RTOPS, full time equivalency, and physical space reduced duplication, increased communication, and saved time. There is potential for greater savings by sharing and integrating with those who have the same requirements.

  15. Automating Food Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavulla, Timothy A.

    1986-01-01

    The Wichita, Kansas, Public Schools' Food Service Department Project Reduction in Paperwork (RIP) is designed to automate certain paperwork functions, thus reducing cost and flow of paper. This article addresses how RIP manages free/reduced meal applications and meets the objectives of reducing paper and increasing accuracy, timeliness, and…

  16. Program automated documentation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzano, B. C.

    1970-01-01

    The mission analysis and trajectory simulation program is summarized; it provides an understanding of the size and complexity of one simulation for which documentation is mandatory. Programs for automating documentation of subroutines, flow charts, and internal cross reference information are also included.

  17. Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool is a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) interface jointly developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service, and the University of Arizona to a...

  18. Microcontroller for automation application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    The description of a microcontroller currently being developed for automation application was given. It is basically an 8-bit microcomputer with a 40K byte random access memory/read only memory, and can control a maximum of 12 devices through standard 15-line interface ports.

  19. Automated CCTV Tester

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-09-13

    The purpose of an automated CCTV tester is to automatically and continuously monitor multiple perimeter security cameras for changes in a camera's measured resolution and alignment (camera looking at the proper area). It shall track and record the image quality and position of each camera and produce an alarm when a camera is out of specification.

  20. Validating Automated Speaking Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Jared; Van Moere, Alistair; Cheng, Jian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents evidence that supports the valid use of scores from fully automatic tests of spoken language ability to indicate a person's effectiveness in spoken communication. The paper reviews the constructs, scoring, and the concurrent validity evidence of "facility-in-L2" tests, a family of automated spoken language tests in Spanish,…

  1. Automated EEG acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.; Hillman, C. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Automated self-contained portable device can be used by technicians with minimal training. Data acquired from patient at remote site are transmitted to centralized interpretation center using conventional telephone equipment. There, diagnostic information is analyzed, and results are relayed back to remote site.

  2. Automation in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Library Association, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The fourth Canadian Association of College and University Libraries (CACUL) Conference on Library Automation was held in Hamilton, June 20-21, 1970, as a pre-conference workshop of the Canadian Library Association (CLA). The purpose of the conference was to present papers on current projects and to discuss the continuing need for this type of…

  3. Staff Reactions to Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winstead, Elizabeth B.

    1994-01-01

    Describes two surveys of three libraries on a university campus, one conducted in 1987 and one in 1993, that investigated how library staff reacted to the library automation process. The hypotheses that were tested are discussed, and results are compared to a similar survey conducted in 1985. (LRW)

  4. Improved Thermal-Vacuum Compatible Flat Plate Radiometric Source For System-Level Testing Of Optical Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we describe an improved thermal-vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source which has been developed and utilized for the characterization and calibration of remote optical sensors. This source is unique in that it can be used in situ, in both ambient and thermal-vacuum environments, allowing it to follow the sensor throughout its testing cycle. The performance of the original flat plate radiometric source was presented at the 2009 SPIE1. Following the original efforts, design upgrades were incorporated into the source to improve both radiometric throughput and uniformity. The pre-thermal-vacuum (pre-TVAC) testing results of a spacecraft-level optical sensor with the improved flat plate illumination source, both in ambient and vacuum environments, are presented. We also briefly discuss potential FPI configuration changes in order to improve its radiometric performance.

  5. Improving Ocean Color Data Products using a Purely Empirical Approach: Reducing the Requirement for Radiometric Calibration Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson

    2008-01-01

    Radiometric calibration is the foundation upon which ocean color remote sensing is built. Quality derived geophysical products, such as chlorophyll, are assumed to be critically dependent upon the quality of the radiometric calibration. Unfortunately, the goals of radiometric calibration are not typically met in global and large-scale regional analyses, and are especially deficient in coastal regions. The consequences of the uncertainty in calibration are very large in terms of global and regional ocean chlorophyll estimates. In fact, stability in global chlorophyll requires calibration uncertainty much greater than the goals, and outside of modern capabilities. Using a purely empirical approach, we show that stable and consistent global chlorophyll values can be achieved over very wide ranges of uncertainty. Furthermore, the approach yields statistically improved comparisons with in situ data, suggesting improved quality. The results suggest that accuracy requirements for radiometric calibration cab be reduced if alternative empirical approaches are used.

  6. An information theory characterization of radar images and a new definition for radiometric resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, V. S.; Shanmugan, K. S.; Holtzman, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The noise properties of the radar image formation process are used in the present modeling of a communication channel in which the desired target properties are the information transmitted, and the final image represents the received signal. The average information rate over this communication channel is calculated together with appropriate bounds and approximations, and is found to be small on a per-sample basis. As a result, many samples must be averaged to allow for the discrimination, or classification, of several levels of target reflectivity. These information rate properties are consistent with known results concerning target detection and image quality in speckle, and the rate is applicable to the definition of radar image radiometric resolution. Radiometric resolution is functionally related to the degree of noncoherent averaging performed by the sensor.

  7. Errors in radiometric remote sensing of sea-surface temperature and salinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, C. L., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for remote measurement of sea-surface physical temperature and salinity using radiometric measurements from aircraft or satellite are reviewed. Studies have been conducted to determine the sensitivity of the errors in surface temperature and salinity to errors in the measured brightness temperatures using combinations of UHF, L, S, and C-band measurements. These investigations were made using values of conductivity, static dielectric constant, and relaxation time derived from the regression equations of Klein and Swift (1977). Results of the error sensitivity study are presented in the form of error contour plots which permit the calculation of errors in the estimation of the physical parameters for given errors in the raw radiometric measurements.

  8. Bandwidth and spectral stray light effects in the NASA GSFC Radiometric Calibration Facility primary transfer radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Robert A.; Cooper, John W.; Marketon, John E.; Brown, Steven W.; Johnson, B. Carol; Butler, James J.

    2006-08-01

    As part of an effort to reduce uncertainties in the radiometric calibrations of integrating sphere sources and standard lamp irradiance sources, the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Radiometric Calibration Facility's (RCF) primary radiometer was characterized at the NIST facility for Spectral Irradiance and Radiance Calibrations with Uniform Sources (SIRCUS). Based on those measurements, a nominal slit scattering function was developed for the radiometer. This allowed calculations of band averaged spectral radiances and irradiances for the radiometer's measurements of sphere and standard lamp sources, respectively. From these calculations the effects of bandwidth and spectral stray light were isolated for measurements in the blue spectral region. These effects, which depend on the spectral distribution of the source being measured, can be as large as 8% for measurements at 400 nm. The characterization results and a correction algorithm for these effects are presented here.

  9. A liquid-helium-cooled absolute reference cold load for long-wavelength radiometric calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bensadoun, Marc; Witebsky, Chris; Smoot, George; De Amici, Giovanni; Kogut, AL; Levin, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Design, radiometric and thermal performance, and operation of a large diameter (78 cm) liquid-helium-cooled blackbody absolute reference cold load (CL) for the calibration of microwave radiometers is described. CL provides an absolute calibration near the liquid-helium (LHe) boiling point, with total uncertainty in the radiometric temperature of less than 30 mK over the 2.5-23 cm wavelength operating range. CL was used at several wavelengths at the South Pole, Antarctica and the White Mountain Research Center, California. Results show that, for the instruments operated at 20-, 12-, 7.9-, and 4.0 cm wavelength at the South Pole, the total corrections to the LHe boiling-point temperature (about 3.8 K) were 48 +/-23, 18 +/-10, 10 +/-18, and 15 +/-mK.

  10. Improved ground calibration results from Southwest Research Institute Ultraviolet Radiometric Calibration Facility (UV-RCF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Michael W.; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Retherford, Kurt D.; Slater, David C.; Stern, S. Alan; Versteeg, Maarten H.

    2014-07-01

    Four compact planetary ultraviolet spectrographs have been built by Southwest Research Institute and successfully operated on different planetary missions. These spectrographs underwent a series of ground radiometric calibrations before delivery to their respective spacecraft. In three of the four cases, the in-flight measured sensitivity was approximately 50% lower than the ground measurement. Recent tests in the Southwest Research Institute Ultraviolet Radiometric Calibration Facility (UV-RCF) explain the discrepancy between ground and flight results. Revised ground calibration results are presented for the Rosetta-Alice, New Horizons-Alice, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lyman- Alpha Mapping Project, and Juno-Ultraviolet Spectrograph (UVS) and are then compared to the original ground and flight calibrations. The improved understanding of the calibration system reported here will result in improved ground calibration of the upcoming Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE)-UVS.

  11. Mississippi exploration field trials using microbial, radiometrics, free soil gas, and other techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, J.S.; Brown, L.R.; Thieling, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    The Mississippi Office of Geology has conducted field trials using the surface exploration techniques of geomicrobial, radiometrics, and free soil gas. The objective of these trials is to determine if Mississippi oil and gas fields have surface hydrocarbon expression resulting from vertical microseepage migration. Six fields have been surveyed ranging in depth from 3,330 ft to 18,500 ft. The fields differ in trapping styles and hydrocarbon type. The results so far indicate that these fields do have a surface expression and that geomicrobial analysis as well as radiometrics and free soil gas can detect hydrocarbon microseepage from pressurized reservoirs. All three exploration techniques located the reservoirs independent of depth, hydrocarbon type, or trapping style.

  12. Radiometric calibration of frame transfer CCD camera with uniform source system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiankang; Shi, Rongbao; Chen, Yuheng; Zhou, Yuying; Shen, Weimin

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents a radiometric calibration method based on visibility function and uniform source system. The uniform system is mainly comprised of an integrating sphere and a monitoring silicon detector. The current of the silicon detector with a visibility function filter corresponds to the luminance at the exit port of integrating sphere through standard luminance meter transfer. The radiance at the camera entrance pupil is calculated for different solar zenith angles and Earth surface albedos by the MODTRAN atmospheric code. To simplify the calibration process, the radiance at its entrance pupil is integrated by visibility function. The shift smear of the frame transfer CCD is removed by the radiometric calibration and the amending ratio factor is introduced in the retrieving methods. The imaging experiment verifies the reliability of the calibration method and retrieves good quality image.

  13. Radiometric performance results of the New Horizons' ALICE UV imaging spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, David C.; Davis, Michael W.; Olkin, Catherine B.; Scherrer, John; Stern, S. Alan

    2005-09-01

    We describe the radiometric performance and calibration results of the New Horizons' ALICE flight model. This ALICE is a lightweight (4.4 kg), low-power (4.4 W), ultraviolet spectrograph based on the ALICE instrument now in flight aboard the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft. Its primary job will be to detect a variety of important atomic and molecular species in Pluto's atmosphere, and to determine their relative abundances so that a complete picture of Pluto's atmospheric composition can be determined for the first time. ALICE will also be used to search for an atmosphere around Pluto's moon, Charon, as well as the Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) New Horizons hopes to fly by after Pluto-Charon. Detailed radiometric performance results of the ALICE flight model are presented and discussed.

  14. Radiometric responsivity determination for Feature Identification and Location Experiment (FILE) flown on space shuttle mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. G.; Davis, R. E.; Wright, R. E., Jr.; Sivertson, W. E., Jr.; Bullock, G. F.

    1986-01-01

    A procedure was developed to obtain the radiometric (radiance) responsivity of the Feature Identification and Local Experiment (FILE) instrument in preparation for its flight on Space Shuttle Mission 41-G (November 1984). This instrument was designed to obtain Earth feature radiance data in spectral bands centered at 0.65 and 0.85 microns, along with corroborative color and color-infrared photographs, and to collect data to evaluate a technique for in-orbit autonomous classification of the Earth's primary features. The calibration process incorporated both solar radiance measurements and radiative transfer model predictions in estimating expected radiance inputs to the FILE on the Shuttle. The measured data are compared with the model predictions, and the differences observed are discussed. Application of the calibration procedure to the FILE over an 18-month period indicated a constant responsivity characteristic. This report documents the calibration procedure and the associated radiometric measurements and predictions that were part of the instrument preparation for flight.

  15. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS): Radiometric Calibrations and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hock, R. A.; Woods, T. N.; Crotser, D.; Eparvier, F. G.; Woodraska, D. L.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Woods, E. C.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), scheduled for launch in early 2010, incorporates a suite of instruments including the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE). EVE has multiple instruments including the Multiple Extreme ultraviolet Grating Spectrographs (MEGS) A, B, and P instruments, the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), and the Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP). The radiometric calibration of EVE, necessary to convert the instrument counts to physical units, was performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF III) located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This paper presents the results and derived accuracy of this radiometric calibration for the MEGS A, B, P, and SAM instruments, while the calibration of the ESP instrument is addressed by Didkovsky et al. . In addition, solar measurements that were taken on 14 April 2008, during the NASA 36.240 sounding-rocket flight, are shown for the prototype EVE instruments.

  16. Determination of cloud ice water content and geometrical thickness using microwave and infrared radiometric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Man-Li C.

    1987-01-01

    Cloud ice water content and cloud geometrical thickness have been determined using a combination of near-infrared, thermal infrared and thermal microwave radiometric measurements. The radiometric measurements are from a Multispectral Cloud Radiometer, which has seven channels ranging from visible to thermal infrared, and an Advanced Microwave Moisture Sounder, which has four channels ranging from 90 to 183 GHz. Studies indicate that the microwave brightness temperatures depend not only on the amount of ice water content but also on the vertical distribution of ice water content. Studies also show that the low brightness temperature at 92 GHz for large ice water content is due to cloud reflection which reflects most of the irradiance incident at the cloud base downward. Therefore the 92 GHz channel detects a low brightness temperature at the cloud top.

  17. Results of a thermoluminescence radiometric survey in Takala area of China's Tarim basin

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, F.R. ); Vaz, J.E. ); Su, J. )

    1993-01-11

    This paper reports on a thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) radiometric study of the near-surface radiation flux which was done as an adjunct to oil exploration research in the Takala area, Tarim basin, western China. About 80 sq km of the basin were evaluated using lithium fluoride (LiF) TLDs buried at about 0.5 m; Rn and [Delta]C (anomalous carbonate) measurements were made in this region as well. Small target areas were defined in the region by low value TL radiometric signals. Comparative measurements of Rn and [Delta]C were not as effective as TL in defining small areas for follow-up seismic work or in revealing the structural trends. The structural nature of the area was mimicked by the near-surface radiometries distribution pattern determined by TLDs and suggested the possibility of fault-influenced traps in the subsurface.

  18. Initial on-orbit radiometric calibration of the Suomi NPP VIIRS reflective solar bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Ning; Wang, Zhipeng; Fulbright, Jon; Lee, Shihyan; McIntire, Jeff; Chiang, Kwofu; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2012-09-01

    The on-orbit radiometric response calibration of the VISible/Near InfraRed (VISNIR) and the Short-Wave InfraRed (SWIR) bands of the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite is carried out through a Solar Diffuser (SD). The transmittance of the SD screen and the SD's Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) are measured before launch and tabulated, allowing the VIIRS sensor aperture spectral radiance to be accurately determined. The radiometric response of a detector is described by a quadratic polynomial of the detector's digital number (dn). The coefficients were determined before launch. Once on orbit, the coefficients are assumed to change by a common factor: the F-factor. The radiance scattered from the SD allows the determination of the F-factor. In this Proceeding, we describe the methodology and the associated algorithms in the determination of the F-factors and discuss the results.

  19. Radiometric calibration and atmospheric correction of satellite and aircraft data for FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Scott J.; Markham, Brian L.; Newcomer, Jeffery A.

    1992-01-01

    The satellite and aircraft radiometric calibration and atmospheric correction work carried out as part of the first International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) are summarized. A large volume (120 Gbytes) of radiometric data were acquired and derived from a number of different instruments on a variety of platforms. The same basic procedure was applied to each instrument: derive the most recent calibration coefficients for converting sensor counts to reflective spectral radiances; correct the radiances for earth-sun distance variations and incident solar spectral irradiance within the bandpass of each respective instrument channel at the top of the atmosphere; characterize the atmosphere for aerosols and absorbing gases; and derive apparent surface reflectance by correcting the exoatmospheric values for atmospheric attenuation. The same basic approach was used for surface temperature derivation. The results of this processing were verified by surface measurements, and corroborated by sensor intercomparisons.

  20. Radiometric--microbiologic assay of vitamin B-6: application to food analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Guilarte, T.R.; Shane, B.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1981-11-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay for vitamin B-6 was applied to food analysis. The method was shown to be specific, reproducible and simpler than the standard turbidimetric microbiologic technique. The analysis of seven commercially available breakfast cereals was compared to a high performance liquid chromatography method. Three out of the seven cereals agreed when assayed with both methods (P greater than 0.1). Four cereals, however, differed in value considerably (P less than 0.05). Further studies are required to determine whether these differences were due to different extraction procedures used. The study showed that the new radiometric-microbiologic method can be used to measure total vitamin B-6 or, combined with a column separation procedure, to analyze for specific forms of the vitamin.

  1. Effects of point-spread function on calibration and radiometric accuracy of CCD camera.

    PubMed

    Du, Hong; Voss, Kenneth J

    2004-01-20

    The point-spread function (PSF) of a camera can seriously affect the accuracy of radiometric calibration and measurement. We found that the PSF can produce a 3.7% difference between the apparent measured radiance of two plaques of different sizes with the same illumination. This difference can be removed by deconvolution with the measured PSF. To determine the PSF, many images of a collimated beam from a He-Ne laser are averaged. Since our optical system is focused at infinity, it should focus this source to a single pixel. Although the measured PSF is very sharp, dropping 4 and 6 orders of magnitude and 8 and 100 pixels away from the point source, respectively, we show that the effect of the PSF as far as 100 pixels away cannot be ignored without introducing an appreciable error to the calibration. We believe that the PSF should be taken into account in all optical systems to obtain accurate radiometric measurements. PMID:14765928

  2. Determination of in vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to cephalosporins by radiometric and conventional methods

    SciTech Connect

    Heifets, L.B.; Iseman, M.D.; Cook, J.L.; Lindholm-Levy, P.J.; Drupa, I.

    1985-01-01

    Among eight cephalosporins and cephamycins tested in preliminary in vitro screening against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the most promising for further study was found to be ceforanide, followed by ceftizoxime, cephapirin, and cefotaxime. Moxalactam, cefoxitin, cefamandole, and cephalothin were found to be not active enough against M. tuberculosis to be considered for further in vitro studies. The antibacterial activity of various ceforanide concentrations was investigated by three methods: (i) the dynamics of radiometric readings (growth index) in 7H12 broth; (ii) the number of CFU in the same medium; and (iii) the proportion method on 7H11 agar plates. There was a good correlation among the results obtained with these methods. The MIC for most strains ranged from 6.0 to 25.0 micrograms/ml. The BACTEC radiometric method is a reliable, rapid, and convenient method for preliminary screening and determination of the level of antibacterial activity of drugs not commonly used against M. tuberculosis.

  3. Automating spectral measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Fred T.

    2008-09-01

    This paper discusses the architecture of software utilized in spectroscopic measurements. As optical coatings become more sophisticated, there is mounting need to automate data acquisition (DAQ) from spectrophotometers. Such need is exacerbated when 100% inspection is required, ancillary devices are utilized, cost reduction is crucial, or security is vital. While instrument manufacturers normally provide point-and-click DAQ software, an application programming interface (API) may be missing. In such cases automation is impossible or expensive. An API is typically provided in libraries (*.dll, *.ocx) which may be embedded in user-developed applications. Users can thereby implement DAQ automation in several Windows languages. Another possibility, developed by FTG as an alternative to instrument manufacturers' software, is the ActiveX application (*.exe). ActiveX, a component of many Windows applications, provides means for programming and interoperability. This architecture permits a point-and-click program to act as automation client and server. Excel, for example, can control and be controlled by DAQ applications. Most importantly, ActiveX permits ancillary devices such as barcode readers and XY-stages to be easily and economically integrated into scanning procedures. Since an ActiveX application has its own user-interface, it can be independently tested. The ActiveX application then runs (visibly or invisibly) under DAQ software control. Automation capabilities are accessed via a built-in spectro-BASIC language with industry-standard (VBA-compatible) syntax. Supplementing ActiveX, spectro-BASIC also includes auxiliary serial port commands for interfacing programmable logic controllers (PLC). A typical application is automatic filter handling.

  4. Automation for System Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land; Throop, David; Thronesbery, Carroll; Flores, Joshua; Bennett, Ted; Wennberg, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This presentation describes work to integrate a set of tools to support early model-based analysis of failures and hazards due to system-software interactions. The tools perform and assist analysts in the following tasks: 1) extract model parts from text for architecture and safety/hazard models; 2) combine the parts with library information to develop the models for visualization and analysis; 3) perform graph analysis and simulation to identify and evaluate possible paths from hazard sources to vulnerable entities and functions, in nominal and anomalous system-software configurations and scenarios; and 4) identify resulting candidate scenarios for software integration testing. There has been significant technical progress in model extraction from Orion program text sources, architecture model derivation (components and connections) and documentation of extraction sources. Models have been derived from Internal Interface Requirements Documents (IIRDs) and FMEA documents. Linguistic text processing is used to extract model parts and relationships, and the Aerospace Ontology also aids automated model development from the extracted information. Visualizations of these models assist analysts in requirements overview and in checking consistency and completeness.

  5. Reduction of Striping Noise in Overlapping LIDAR Intensity Data by Radiometric Normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wai Yeung; Shaker, Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    To serve seamless mapping, airborne LiDAR data are usually collected with multiple parallel strips with one or two cross strip(s). Nevertheless, the overlapping regions of LiDAR data strips are usually found with unbalanced intensity values, resulting in the appearance of stripping noise. Despite that physical intensity correction methods are recently proposed, some of the system and environmental parameters are assumed as constant or not disclosed, leading to such an intensity discrepancy. This paper presents a new normalization technique to adjust the radiometric misalignment found in the overlapping LiDAR data strips. The normalization technique is built upon a second-order polynomial function fitted on the joint histogram plot, which is generated with a set of pairwise closest data points identified within the overlapping region. The method was tested on Teledyne Optech's Gemini dataset (at 1064 nm wavelength), where the LiDAR intensity data were first radiometrically corrected based on the radar (range) equation. Five land cover features were selected to evaluate the coefficient of variation (cv) of the intensity values before and after implementing the proposed method. Reduction of cv was found by 19% to 59% in the Gemini dataset, where the striping noise was significantly reduced in the radiometrically corrected and normalized intensity data. The Gemini dataset was also used to conduct land cover classification, and the overall accuracy yielded a notable improvement of 9% to 18%. As a result, LiDAR intensity data should be pre-processed with radiometric correction and normalization prior to any data manipulation.

  6. The absolute radiometric calibration of the advanced very high resolution radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Teillet, P. M.; Ding, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The need for independent, redundant absolute radiometric calibration methods is discussed with reference to the Thematic Mapper. Uncertainty requirements for absolute calibration of between 0.5 and 4 percent are defined based on the accuracy of reflectance retrievals at an agricultural site. It is shown that even very approximate atmospheric corrections can reduce the error in reflectance retrieval to 0.02 over the reflectance range 0 to 0.4.

  7. Photothermal radiometric time-domain inspection of solid specimen by moving line heat source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshimiya, T.; Suzuki, M.; Takatsu, T.; Doi, N.; Endoh, H.

    2010-03-01

    The time-domain response of the temperature of solid specimen surface illuminated by a linearly-focused laser beam scanning over a solid specimen surface was theoretically formulated. The waveform is composed of surface diffusion and reflection components, both of which are represented by incomplete Gamma functions. Experimental results show photothermal radiometric signal increase caused by the reflection of heat flow at the internal defect boundary and agreed with calculated data qualitatively.

  8. Radiometric Characterization of the IKONOS, QuickBird, and OrbView-3 Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holekamp, Kara

    2007-01-01

    The NASA team of University of Arizona, South Dakota State University, and NASA SSC produce consistent results. The OrbView calibration coefficients do not appear to agree well with the NASA team estimate (approx. 20% difference). Discussions with GeoEye (TradeMark) (formerly ORBIMAGE(Registered TradeMark)) personnel are ongoing to update the calibration coefficients. The NASA team will continue to assess OrbView radiometric accuracy.

  9. Impact of the cameras radiometric resolution on the accuracy of determining spectral reflectance coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orych, A.; Walczykowski, P.; Jenerowicz, A.; Zdunek, Z.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays remote sensing plays a very important role in many different study fields, i.e. environmental studies, hydrology, mineralogy, ecosystem studies, etc. One of the key areas of remote sensing applications is water quality monitoring. Understanding and monitoring of the water quality parameters and detecting different water contaminants is an important issue in water management and protection of whole environment and especially the water ecosystem. There are many remote sensing methods to monitor water quality and detect water pollutants. One of the most widely used method for substance detection with remote sensing techniques is based on usage of spectral reflectance coefficients. They are usually acquired using discrete methods such as spectrometric measurements. These however can be very time consuming, therefore image-based methods are used more and more often. In order to work out the proper methodology of obtaining spectral reflectance coefficients from hyperspectral and multispectral images, it is necessary to verify the impact of cameras radiometric resolution on the accuracy of determination of them. This paper presents laboratory experiments that were conducted using two monochromatic XEVA video sensors (400-1700 nm spectral data registration) with two different radiometric resolutions (12 and 14 bits). In view of determining spectral characteristics from images, the research team used set of interferometric filters. All data collected with multispectral digital video cameras were compared with spectral reflectance coefficients obtained with spectroradiometer. The objective of this research is to find the impact of cameras radiometric resolution on reflectance values in chosen wavelength. The main topic of this study is the analysis of accuracy of spectral coefficients from sensors with different radiometric resolution. By comparing values collected from images acquired with XEVA sensors and with the curves obtained with spectroradiometer it

  10. Radiometric calibration of DMSP-OLS sensor using VIIRS day/night band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xi; Cao, Changyong; Zhang, Bin; Qiu, Shi; Elvidge, Christopher; Von Hendy, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) has been collecting global night light imaging data for more than 40 years. With the launch of Suomi-NPP satellite in 2011, the Day/Night Band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) represents a major advancement in night time imaging capabilities because it surpasses DMSP-OLS in having broader radiometric measurement range, more accurate radiometric calibration, finer spatial resolution, and better geometric quality. DMSP-OLS sensor does not have on-board calibration and data is recorded as digital number (DN). Therefore, VIIRS-DNB provides opportunities to perform quantitative radiometric calibration of DMSP-OLS sensor. In this paper, vicarious radiometric calibration of DMSP-OLS at night under lunar illumination is performed. Events were selected when satellite flies above Dome C in Antarctic at night and the moon illuminates the site with lunar phase being more than quarter moon. Additional event selection criteria to limit solar and lunar zenith angle range have been applied to ensure no influence of stray light effects and adequate lunar illumination. The data from DMSP-OLS and VIIRS-DNB were analyzed to derive the characteristic radiance or DN for the region of interest. The scaling coefficient for converting DMSP-OLS DN values into radiance is determined to optimally merge the observation of DMSP-OLS into VIIRS-DNB radiance data as a function of lunar phases. Calibrating the nighttime light data collected by the DMSP-OLS sensors into radiance unit can enable applications of using both sensor data and advance the applications of night time imagery data.

  11. A New Automatic System for Angular Measurement and Calibration in Radiometric Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Jose Manuel Andujar; Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel Martínez; Garcia, Jonathan Medina; Nieto, Francisco Jose Aguilar

    2010-01-01

    This paper puts forward the design, construction and testing of a new automatic system for angular-response measurement and calibration in radiometric instruments. Its main characteristics include precision, speed, resolution, noise immunity, easy programming and operation. The developed system calculates the cosine error of the radiometer under test by means of a virtual instrument, from the measures it takes and through a mathematical procedure, thus allowing correcting the radiometer with the aim of preventing cosine error in its measurements. PMID:22319320

  12. A procedure for radiometric recalibration of Landsat 5 TM reflective-band data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Haque, M.O.; Micijevic, E.; Barsi, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    From the Landsat program's inception in 1972 to the present, the Earth science user community has been benefiting from a historical record of remotely sensed data. The multispectral data from the Landsat 5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provide the backbone for this extensive archive. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for the L5 TM imagery used the detectors' response to the internal calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset for each detector. The IC system degraded with time, causing radiometric calibration errors up to 20%. In May 2003, the L5 TM data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science Center through the National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS) were updated to use a lifetime lookup-table (LUT) gain model to radiometrically calibrate TM data instead of using scene-specific IC gains. Further modification of the gain model was performed in 2007. The L5 TM data processed using IC prior to the calibration update do not benefit from the recent calibration revisions. A procedure has been developed to give users the ability to recalibrate their existing level-1 products. The best recalibration results are obtained if the work-order report that was included in the original standard data product delivery is available. However, if users do not have the original work-order report, the IC trends can be used for recalibration. The IC trends were generated using the radiometric gain trends recorded in the NLAPS database. This paper provides the details of the recalibration procedure for the following: 1) data processed using IC where users have the work-order file; 2) data processed using IC where users do not have the work-order file; 3) data processed using prelaunch calibration parameters; and 4) data processed using the previous version of the LUT (e.g., LUT03) that was released before April 2, 2007.

  13. Prime candidate earth targets for the post-launch radiometric calibration of space-based optical imaging instruments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teillet, P.M.; Barsi, J.A.; Chander, G.; Thome, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive list of prime candidate terrestrial targets for consideration as benchmark sites for the post-launch radiometric calibration of space-based instruments. The key characteristics of suitable sites are outlined primarily with respect to selection criteria, spatial uniformity, and temporal stability. The establishment and utilization of such benchmark sites is considered an important element of the radiometric traceability of satellite image data products for use in the accurate monitoring of environmental change.

  14. Radiometric Calibration of a Dual-Wavelength, Full-Waveform Terrestrial Lidar.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhan; Jupp, David L B; Strahler, Alan H; Schaaf, Crystal B; Howe, Glenn; Hewawasam, Kuravi; Douglas, Ewan S; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy A; Paynter, Ian; Saenz, Edward J; Schaefer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of the Dual-Wavelength Echidna(®) Lidar (DWEL), a full-waveform terrestrial laser scanner with two simultaneously-pulsing infrared lasers at 1064 nm and 1548 nm, provides accurate dual-wavelength apparent reflectance (ρ(app)), a physically-defined value that is related to the radiative and structural characteristics of scanned targets and independent of range and instrument optics and electronics. The errors of ρ(app) are 8.1% for 1064 nm and 6.4% for 1548 nm. A sensitivity analysis shows that ρ(app) error is dominated by range errors at near ranges, but by lidar intensity errors at far ranges. Our semi-empirical model for radiometric calibration combines a generalized logistic function to explicitly model telescopic effects due to defocusing of return signals at near range with a negative exponential function to model the fall-off of return intensity with range. Accurate values of ρ(app) from the radiometric calibration improve the quantification of vegetation structure, facilitate the comparison and coupling of lidar datasets from different instruments, campaigns or wavelengths and advance the utilization of bi- and multi-spectral information added to 3D scans by novel spectral lidars. PMID:26950126

  15. Designing an in-flight airborne calibration site using experience from vicarious radiometric satellite calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livens, Stefan; Debruyn, Walter; Sterckx, Sindy; Reusen, Ils

    2011-11-01

    Laboratory calibration of electro-optical sensors is preferably complemented by regular in-flight verification. This checks whether the lab calibration parameters remain valid or recalibration is necessary. In-flight verification can be achieved by vicarious calibration using in-flight measurements of calibration targets. We intend to identify and design a set of suitable radiometric calibration targets. For this, we borrow from expertise gained with the PROBA-V satellite calibration system, which uses multiple vicarious methods relying on diverse natural on-ground targets. Besides reflectance based calibration using ground measurements, the PROBA-V calibration methods are unproven for use in airborne calibration. The selected targets should be suitable for the calibration of both multispectral and hyperspectral imagers. We start from general requirements for radiometric targets and investigate their applicability to airborne calibration. From this we identify two possible sets of natural calibration sites in Belgium. One set, located in the Campine region, contains small water bodies and sandy lakesides. Another set is located in the Westhoek region near the Belgian coast. It offers better suitable water bodies, as well as sandy areas, grass fields and dark targets. Airborne calibration lends itself to the use of smaller artifical targets. We propose to complement the natural targets with a portable target consisting of agricultural nets with different densities. The definition of sets of calibration targets, both natural and artificial can facilitate the investigation of the usability of vicarious targets and method for inflight radiometric verification.

  16. Radiometric 81Kr dating identifies 120,000-year-old ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Buizert, Christo; Baggenstos, Daniel; Jiang, Wei; Purtschert, Roland; Petrenko, Vasilii V; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Müller, Peter; Kuhl, Tanner; Lee, James; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P; Brook, Edward J

    2014-05-13

    We present successful (81)Kr-Kr radiometric dating of ancient polar ice. Krypton was extracted from the air bubbles in four ∼350-kg polar ice samples from Taylor Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and dated using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA). The (81)Kr radiometric ages agree with independent age estimates obtained from stratigraphic dating techniques with a mean absolute age offset of 6 ± 2.5 ka. Our experimental methods and sampling strategy are validated by (i) (85)Kr and (39)Ar analyses that show the samples to be free of modern air contamination and (ii) air content measurements that show the ice did not experience gas loss. We estimate the error in the (81)Kr ages due to past geomagnetic variability to be below 3 ka. We show that ice from the previous interglacial period (Marine Isotope Stage 5e, 130-115 ka before present) can be found in abundance near the surface of Taylor Glacier. Our study paves the way for reliable radiometric dating of ancient ice in blue ice areas and margin sites where large samples are available, greatly enhancing their scientific value as archives of old ice and meteorites. At present, ATTA (81)Kr analysis requires a 40-80-kg ice sample; as sample requirements continue to decrease, (81)Kr dating of ice cores is a future possibility. PMID:24753606

  17. Radiometric Calibration of the AWiFS Using Vicarious Calibration Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Holekamp, Kara

    2007-01-01

    A radiometric calibration assessment of the AWiFS (Advanced Wide Field Sensor) on the Indian Remote Sensing Resourcesat-1 satellite was performed by the NASA Applied Research & Technology Project Office (formerly the Applied Sciences Directorate) at the John C. Stennis Space Center. A reflectance-based vicarious calibration approach, requiring ground-based measurements coincident with satellite acquisitions and radiative transfer calculations, was used to estimate at-sensor radiance. The AWiFS is a 4-band, multispectral, moderate-resolution (60 m) imaging sensor that operates in the visible through short-wave infrared spectrum and is currently being considered as a Landsat-like alternative. Several study sites near the Stennis Space Center that attempted to span the dynamic range of the sensor were employed. Satellite at-sensor radiance values were compared to those estimated to determine the sensor's radiometric accuracy. The results of this evaluation provide the user community with an independent assessment of the radiometric accuracy of AWiFS image products, which are commercially available through GeoEye. These results are an extension of an independent assessment made by the University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group, the South Dakota State University Satellite Calibration Group & Image Processing Lab, and the NASA Applied Sciences Directorate at the John C. Stennis Space Center the previous year.

  18. Simultaneous observations of aerosols, clouds, and radiometric fluxes using light-weight autonomous UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, G.; Ramanathan, V.; Corrigan, C.; Ramana, M.; Nguyen, H.

    2006-12-01

    The Maldives Air Campaign (MAC) demonstrated a novel application of stacked autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (AUAVs) for atmospheric science research; see abstract by Ramanathan et al. in this session. Simultaneous observations from three AUAVs of aerosols, clouds and radiometric fluxes provide insight into aerosol-cloud interactions and subsequent effects on cloud radiative properties. Ground-based measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) also quantify the cloud-nucleating ability of the boundary layer aerosols. During the experiment, long-range transport of aerosols from the Arabian Peninsula and India was observed and its impact of cloud physical and radiometric properties has been detected. To accomplish this campaign, aerosol, cloud, radiometric instruments, and an integrated data acquisition system have been miniaturized with a total payload weight and power less than 5 kg and 50 W, respectively. The AUAV payloads are mission-specific and outfitted to perform a defined set of measurements depending on the scientific goals. These measurements include aerosol concentration, aerosol size distribution, aerosol absorption, cloud drop concentration and size distribution, solar radiation fluxes (visible and broadband), atmospheric turbulence, temperature, pressure, and relative humidity. The data collected during the MAC campaign has been validated using standard calibration routines in conjunction with comparisons to ground- based instruments in both laboratory and in situ (in aircraft) settings. All instruments have been thoroughly tested and calibrated prior to deployment.

  19. Radiometric 81Kr dating identifies 120,000-year-old ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Buizert, Christo; Baggenstos, Daniel; Jiang, Wei; Purtschert, Roland; Petrenko, Vasilii V.; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Müller, Peter; Kuhl, Tanner; Lee, James; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Brook, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    We present successful 81Kr-Kr radiometric dating of ancient polar ice. Krypton was extracted from the air bubbles in four ∼350-kg polar ice samples from Taylor Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and dated using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA). The 81Kr radiometric ages agree with independent age estimates obtained from stratigraphic dating techniques with a mean absolute age offset of 6 ± 2.5 ka. Our experimental methods and sampling strategy are validated by (i) 85Kr and 39Ar analyses that show the samples to be free of modern air contamination and (ii) air content measurements that show the ice did not experience gas loss. We estimate the error in the 81Kr ages due to past geomagnetic variability to be below 3 ka. We show that ice from the previous interglacial period (Marine Isotope Stage 5e, 130–115 ka before present) can be found in abundance near the surface of Taylor Glacier. Our study paves the way for reliable radiometric dating of ancient ice in blue ice areas and margin sites where large samples are available, greatly enhancing their scientific value as archives of old ice and meteorites. At present, ATTA 81Kr analysis requires a 40–80-kg ice sample; as sample requirements continue to decrease, 81Kr dating of ice cores is a future possibility. PMID:24753606

  20. Relative Radiometric Normalization and Atmospheric Correction of a SPOT 5 Time Series

    PubMed Central

    Hajj, Mahmoud El; Bégué, Agnès; Lafrance, Bruno; Hagolle, Olivier; Dedieu, Gérard; Rumeau, Matthieu

    2008-01-01

    Multi-temporal images acquired at high spatial and temporal resolution are an important tool for detecting change and analyzing trends, especially in agricultural applications. However, to insure a reliable use of this kind of data, a rigorous radiometric normalization step is required. Normalization can be addressed by performing an atmospheric correction of each image in the time series. The main problem is the difficulty of obtaining an atmospheric characterization at a given acquisition date. In this paper, we investigate whether relative radiometric normalization can substitute for atmospheric correction. We develop an automatic method for relative radiometric normalization based on calculating linear regressions between unnormalized and reference images. Regressions are obtained using the reflectances of automatically selected invariant targets. We compare this method with an atmospheric correction method that uses the 6S model. The performances of both methods are compared using 18 images from of a SPOT 5 time series acquired over Reunion Island. Results obtained for a set of manually selected invariant targets show excellent agreement between the two methods in all spectral bands: values of the coefficient of determination (r2 exceed 0.960, and bias magnitude values are less than 2.65. There is also a strong correlation between normalized NDVI values of sugarcane fields (r2 = 0.959). Despite a relative error of 12.66% between values, very comparable NDVI patterns are observed.

  1. Radiometric Calibration of a Dual-Wavelength, Full-Waveform Terrestrial Lidar

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhan; Jupp, David L. B.; Strahler, Alan H.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Howe, Glenn; Hewawasam, Kuravi; Douglas, Ewan S.; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy A.; Paynter, Ian; Saenz, Edward J.; Schaefer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of the Dual-Wavelength Echidna® Lidar (DWEL), a full-waveform terrestrial laser scanner with two simultaneously-pulsing infrared lasers at 1064 nm and 1548 nm, provides accurate dual-wavelength apparent reflectance (ρapp), a physically-defined value that is related to the radiative and structural characteristics of scanned targets and independent of range and instrument optics and electronics. The errors of ρapp are 8.1% for 1064 nm and 6.4% for 1548 nm. A sensitivity analysis shows that ρapp error is dominated by range errors at near ranges, but by lidar intensity errors at far ranges. Our semi-empirical model for radiometric calibration combines a generalized logistic function to explicitly model telescopic effects due to defocusing of return signals at near range with a negative exponential function to model the fall-off of return intensity with range. Accurate values of ρapp from the radiometric calibration improve the quantification of vegetation structure, facilitate the comparison and coupling of lidar datasets from different instruments, campaigns or wavelengths and advance the utilization of bi- and multi-spectral information added to 3D scans by novel spectral lidars. PMID:26950126

  2. Radiometric calibration of Advanced Land Imager using reflectance-based results between 2001 and 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCorkel, J.; Thome, K.; Biggar, S.; Kuester, M.

    2006-08-01

    The Landsat series of sensors have supplied the remote sensing community with a continuous data set dating to the early 1970s. An important aspect of retaining the continuity of these data is that a Landsat follow-on as well as current Landsat instruments must be understood radiometrically throughout their mission. The Advanced Land Imager (ALI), for example, was developed as a prototype for the next generation of Landsat Instruments, and as such there was a significant effort to understand its radiometric characteristics as well as how it compares with previous Landsat sensors. The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona has been part of this effort since the late 2000 launch of ALI through the use of the reflectance-based method of vicarious calibration. The reflectance-based approach consists of ground-based measurements of atmospheric conditions and surface reflectance at the time of satellite overpass to predict the at-sensor radiance seen by the sensor under study. The work compares results from the reflectance-based approach obtained from well-characterized test sites such as Railroad Valley Playa in Nevada and Ivanpah Playa in California as applied to ALI, Landsat-5 TM, and Landsat-7 EMT+. The results from the comparison use a total of 14 ALI dates spanning in time from 2001 to late 2005 and show that ALI agrees with the current radiometric results from TM and ETM+ to within 5%.

  3. Calibrating Late Quaternary terrestrial climate signals: radiometrically dated pollen evidence from the southern Sierra Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Litwin, Ronald J.; Smoot, Joseph P.; Durika, Nancy J.; Smith, George I.

    1999-01-01

    We constructed a radiometrically calibrated proxy record of Late Pleistocene and Holocene climate change exceeding 230,000 yr duration, using pollen profiles from two cores taken through age-equivalent dry lakes - one core having greater age control (via 230Th alpha mass-spectrometry) and the other having greater stratigraphic completeness. The better dated of these two serial pollen records (Searles Lake) served as a reference section for improving the effective radiometric age control in a nearby and more complete pollen record (Owens Lake) because they: (1) are situated ~90 km apart in the same drainage system (on, and immediately leeward of, the eastern flank of the Sierra Nevada), and (2) preserved strikingly similar pollen profiles and concordant sequences of sedimentological changes. Pollen assemblages from both lakes are well preserved and diverse, and document serial changes in Late Pleistocene and Holocene plant zone distribution and composition in the westernmost Great Basin; they consist of taxa now inhabiting montane forest, woodland, steppe, and desert-scrub environments. The studied core intervals are interpreted here to be the terrestrial equivalent of marine δ18O stages 1 through 9; these pollen profiles now appear to be among the best radiometrically dated Late Pleistocene records of terrestrial climate change known.

  4. An approach for a comprehensive automation of electro-optical (EO) sensor characterization setups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, Amit; Sharma, Jitendra; Sukheja, Anil; Kumar, Sumit; Mishra, Ashish; Goswami, D. R.

    2016-05-01

    Space Applications Centre develops various electro-optical (EO) sensors for space borne platforms and inter-planetary missions. Sensor complexities vary for different applications and therefore performance evaluation and characterization pose different challenges. Performance optimization tasks demand repeated measurements and characterization needs to be done under different phases of testing. It is difficult to meet such requirements in case of short sensor development lifecycles or tight schedules. Activities which are amenable to automation are identified and targeted to reduce the manual intervention and to avoid delays due to errors and to speed up the overall activity. Laboratory instruments, either in-house developed or COTS, play an important role in automating the test setup as they have different types of interfaces and have their own complications. In order to make an automated test setup, software intelligence need to be built based on the instrument feedback and the other check points based on the test sequence. A complete automation needs machine intelligence and sufficient amount of traceability, so that the process can be easily verified for confidence. Overall software architecture should be such that it allows connecting various types of instruments, decision making based on output of the device under test, complete traceability and fault tolerance. In this paper authors have identified the activities that can be automated for various EO sensor categories and approaches are discussed for automation with radiometric calibration, spectral response measurement and focusing as test cases. Also, software architecture is presented which allows uniform access to instruments, back-end database and macro level automation process.

  5. Trending of Suomi-NPP VIIRS radiometric performance with lunar band ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xi; Choi, Taeyoung; Cao, Changyong; Blonski, Slawomir; Wang, Wenhui; Ban, Yan

    2014-11-01

    Radiometric stability of the lunar surface and its smooth reflectance spectrum makes the moon an ideal target for calibrating satellite-based hyper/multi-band visible imagers, as demonstrated in several lunar calibration studies of satellite radiometers. Most of the lunar calibrations rely on using lunar irradiance models to calibrate satellite radiometers, which require the lunar irradiance model to be highly accurate. In this paper, we use Lunar Band Ratio (LBR) to trend satellite radiometer performance so that the usage of lunar irradiance model is not required. The LBR method is applied to monitor long term radiometric performance of VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) onboard Suomi-NPP. VIIRS observes moon at nearly the same lunar phase angle through Earth view during scheduled spacecraft maneuver. Total lunar digital number are calculated for each VIIRS reflective solar bands (RSBs) from lunar observations and one of the most stable bands of VIIRS such as M4 band is chosen as the reference band for calculating the band ratio. LBRs are compared with the degradation factors derived from VIIRS operational radiometric calibration of RSBs using onboard solar diffuser. The LBR analysis reveals that M6 and M7 degrade the fastest and agree well with the trending independently determined from onboard solar diffuser. For stable bands such as M3-M4 of VIIRS, the variation range of band ratios of M2/M4 and M3/M4 are all within 0.6%, indicating the LBR can be used to reveal the sub percent band to band stability. For M11 band of VIIRS, there have been large uncertainties in verifying its radiometric performance using vicarious ground targets. LBR of M11 provides an independent and useful radiometric stability monitoring tool for verifying the relative stability of M11 band. The LBR analysis also shows that band-to-band variability in the spectrally similar band pairs such as I2 vs. M7 and I3 vs. M10 of VIIRS are consistent within 0.2%. It is demonstrated

  6. Technical Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Carol A.

    This manuscript provides information and problems for teaching mathematics to vocational education students. Problems reflect applications of mathematical concepts to specific technical areas. The materials are organized into six chapters. Chapter 1 covers basic arithmetic, including fractions, decimals, ratio and proportions, percentages, and…

  7. Chlordane (Technical)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlordane ( Technical ) ; CASRN 12789 - 03 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  8. Automated Pollution Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Patterned after the Cassini Resource Exchange (CRE), Sholtz and Associates established the Automated Credit Exchange (ACE), an Internet-based concept that automates the auctioning of "pollution credits" in Southern California. An early challenge of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Cassini mission was allocating the spacecraft's resources. To support the decision-making process, the CRE was developed. The system removes the need for the science instrument manager to know the individual instruments' requirements for the spacecraft resources. Instead, by utilizing principles of exchange, the CRE induces the instrument teams to reveal their requirements. In doing so, they arrive at an efficient allocation of spacecraft resources by trading among themselves. A Southern California RECLAIM air pollution credit trading market has been set up using same bartering methods utilized in the Cassini mission in order to help companies keep pollution and costs down.

  9. Automated macromolecular crystallization screening

    DOEpatents

    Segelke, Brent W.; Rupp, Bernhard; Krupka, Heike I.

    2005-03-01

    An automated macromolecular crystallization screening system wherein a multiplicity of reagent mixes are produced. A multiplicity of analysis plates is produced utilizing the reagent mixes combined with a sample. The analysis plates are incubated to promote growth of crystals. Images of the crystals are made. The images are analyzed with regard to suitability of the crystals for analysis by x-ray crystallography. A design of reagent mixes is produced based upon the expected suitability of the crystals for analysis by x-ray crystallography. A second multiplicity of mixes of the reagent components is produced utilizing the design and a second multiplicity of reagent mixes is used for a second round of automated macromolecular crystallization screening. In one embodiment the multiplicity of reagent mixes are produced by a random selection of reagent components.

  10. Automated Assembly Center (AAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this project are as follows: to integrate advanced assembly and assembly support technology under a comprehensive architecture; to implement automated assembly technologies in the production of high-visibility DOD weapon systems; and to document the improved cost, quality, and lead time. This will enhance the production of DOD weapon systems by utilizing the latest commercially available technologies combined into a flexible system that will be able to readily incorporate new technologies as they emerge. Automated assembly encompasses the following areas: product data, process planning, information management policies and framework, three schema architecture, open systems communications, intelligent robots, flexible multi-ability end effectors, knowledge-based/expert systems, intelligent workstations, intelligent sensor systems, and PDES/PDDI data standards.

  11. Automated breeder fuel fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Goldmann, L.H.; Frederickson, J.R.

    1983-09-01

    The objective of the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) Project is to develop remotely operated equipment for the processing and manufacturing of breeder reactor fuel pins. The SAF line will be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The FMEF is presently under construction at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site near Richland, Washington, and is operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The fabrication and support systems of the SAF line are designed for computer-controlled operation from a centralized control room. Remote and automated fuel fabriction operations will result in: reduced radiation exposure to workers; enhanced safeguards; improved product quality; near real-time accountability, and increased productivity. The present schedule calls for installation of SAF line equipment in the FMEF beginning in 1984, with qualifying runs starting in 1986 and production commencing in 1987. 5 figures.

  12. Automated assembly in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Sandanand; Dwivedi, Suren N.; Soon, Toh Teck; Bandi, Reddy; Banerjee, Soumen; Hughes, Cecilia

    1989-01-01

    The installation of robots and their use of assembly in space will create an exciting and promising future for the U.S. Space Program. The concept of assembly in space is very complicated and error prone and it is not possible unless the various parts and modules are suitably designed for automation. Certain guidelines are developed for part designing and for an easy precision assembly. Major design problems associated with automated assembly are considered and solutions to resolve these problems are evaluated in the guidelines format. Methods for gripping and methods for part feeding are developed with regard to the absence of gravity in space. The guidelines for part orientation, adjustments, compliances and various assembly construction are discussed. Design modifications of various fasteners and fastening methods are also investigated.

  13. Terminal automation system maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Coffelt, D.; Hewitt, J.

    1997-01-01

    Nothing has improved petroleum product loading in recent years more than terminal automation systems. The presence of terminal automation systems (TAS) at loading racks has increased operational efficiency and safety and enhanced their accounting and management capabilities. However, like all finite systems, they occasionally malfunction or fail. Proper servicing and maintenance can minimize this. And in the unlikely event a TAS breakdown does occur, prompt and effective troubleshooting can reduce its impact on terminal productivity. To accommodate around-the-clock loading at racks, increasingly unattended by terminal personnel, TAS maintenance, servicing and troubleshooting has become increasingly demanding. It has also become increasingly important. After 15 years of trial and error at petroleum and petrochemical storage and transfer terminals, a number of successful troubleshooting programs have been developed. These include 24-hour {open_quotes}help hotlines,{close_quotes} internal (terminal company) and external (supplier) support staff, and {open_quotes}layered{close_quotes} support. These programs are described.

  14. Automated gas chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Mowry, C.D.; Blair, D.S.; Rodacy, P.J.; Reber, S.D.

    1999-07-13

    An apparatus and process for the continuous, near real-time monitoring of low-level concentrations of organic compounds in a liquid, and, more particularly, a water stream. A small liquid volume of flow from a liquid process stream containing organic compounds is diverted by an automated process to a heated vaporization capillary where the liquid volume is vaporized to a gas that flows to an automated gas chromatograph separation column to chromatographically separate the organic compounds. Organic compounds are detected and the information transmitted to a control system for use in process control. Concentrations of organic compounds less than one part per million are detected in less than one minute. 7 figs.

  15. Automated campaign system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondran, Gary; Chao, Hui; Lin, Xiaofan; Beyer, Dirk; Joshi, Parag; Atkins, Brian; Obrador, Pere

    2006-02-01

    To run a targeted campaign involves coordination and management across numerous organizations and complex process flows. Everything from market analytics on customer databases, acquiring content and images, composing the materials, meeting the sponsoring enterprise brand standards, driving through production and fulfillment, and evaluating results; all processes are currently performed by experienced highly trained staff. Presented is a developed solution that not only brings together technologies that automate each process, but also automates the entire flow so that a novice user could easily run a successful campaign from their desktop. This paper presents the technologies, structure, and process flows used to bring this system together. Highlighted will be how the complexity of running a targeted campaign is hidden from the user through technologies, all while providing the benefits of a professionally managed campaign.

  16. Automated Microbial Metabolism Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Development of the automated microbial metabolism laboratory (AMML) concept is reported. The focus of effort of AMML was on the advanced labeled release experiment. Labeled substrates, inhibitors, and temperatures were investigated to establish a comparative biochemical profile. Profiles at three time intervals on soil and pure cultures of bacteria isolated from soil were prepared to establish a complete library. The development of a strategy for the return of a soil sample from Mars is also reported.

  17. Automated Cooperative Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt; Pahle, Joseph; Brown, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. An introduction to the phenomena of wake vortices is given, along with a summary of past research into the possibility of extracting energy from the wake by flying close parallel trajectories. Challenges and barriers to adoption of civilian automatic wake surfing technology are identified. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is described that will support future research. Finally, a roadmap for future research and technology transition is proposed.

  18. Automated RTOP Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, P.

    1984-01-01

    The structure of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology electronic information system network from 1983 to 1985 is illustrated. The RTOP automated system takes advantage of existing hardware, software, and expertise, and provides: (1) computerized cover sheet and resources forms; (2) electronic signature and transmission; (3) a data-based information system; (4) graphics; (5) intercenter communications; (6) management information; and (7) text editing. The system is coordinated with Headquarters efforts in codes R,E, and T.

  19. Components for automated microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Determann, H.; Hartmann, H.; Schade, K. H.; Stankewitz, H. W.

    1980-12-01

    A number of devices, aiming at automated analysis of microscopic objects as regards their morphometrical parameters or their photometrical values, were developed. These comprise: (1) a device for automatic focusing tuned on maximum contrast; (2) a feedback system for automatic optimization of microscope illumination; and (3) microscope lenses with adjustable pupil distances for usage in the two previous devices. An extensive test program on histological and zytological applications proves the wide application possibilities of the autofocusing device.

  20. Power subsystem automation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tietz, J. C.; Sewy, D.; Pickering, C.; Sauers, R.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the phase 2 of the power subsystem automation study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using computer software to manage an aspect of the electrical power subsystem on a space station. The state of the art in expert systems software was investigated in this study. This effort resulted in the demonstration of prototype expert system software for managing one aspect of a simulated space station power subsystem.